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Full text of "Domed oblong brooches of Vendel Period Scandinavia"

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Domed oblong brooches of 
Vendel Period Scandinavia 

Orsnes types N & O and similar brooches, including 
transitional types surviving into the Early Viking Period 

Martin Rundkvist 
Abstract 

Jliis is a study of domed oblong brooches of Vendel Period Scandinavia, i.e. 0rsnes types N dr O and similar 
brooches, including transitional types surviving into the Early Viking Period. A database of ^p^ brooches from 
all of Scandinavia, most studied first-hand by the author, is the material base of the investigation. The brooches' 
typology, chronology, function, social significance, technological characteristics, production sites, interregional 
variation and ideological connotations are studied and interpreted. Unique brooches are also described and 
discussed. Finally, the brooches from Uppakra are discussed against the background of the new residts. Two new 
seriation chronologies for Vendel Period female graves on Bornholm and in mainland Sweden are appended. 

Martin Rundkvist, Vantvagen 9, SE— 133 44, Saltsjobaden, Sweden, arador@algonet.se 



Introduction and delimitation 

This is a study of the domed oblong brooches of 
Vendel Period Scandinavia and the transitional 
types that survived into the earliest Viking Peri- 
od. It treats brooches of 0rsnes' (1966) south 
Scandinavian types N (oval bowl brooches) 
and O (animal-shaped bowl brooches) as well 
as similarly shaped brooches found in more 
northerly parts of Scandinavia, including fea- 
tureless and punch decorated ones. 

The study excludes Scandinavian brooch 
types that are generally accepted as part of the 
Viking Period's typological definition, from 
theP25/R650, P27/R648andBerdalPii-24 



types onward (Petersen 1928; Brinch Mad- 
sen 1984; Jansson 1985). Petersen (1928:24) 
considered P25 to be the earliest type of the 
Viking Period. The study likewise excludes 
similar brooch types of the later Viking Period 
indigenous to Finland and the Baltic States (cf. 
Ailio 1922; Spirgis 2007). 

The brooches under study exhibit bewilder- 
ing variation that has stimulated 130 years of 
research. The most substantial contributions 
have been made by Montelius (1873;, 1877), 
Vedel (1890:45—65; 1897:84—93), Stjerna 
(1905:147-154, 194-199), Petersen (1928), 



DOMED OBLONG BROOCHES OF VENDEL PERIOD SCANDINAVIA 



127 



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Arbman (1932), Gjessing (1934:143—163), designs indicate a common world of ideas and 

Arwidsson (1942), Bertil Almgren (1955:81— close contacts among artisans across the distri- 

87), Ambrosiani (Ms. 1956— 1960), 0rsnes bution area from Troms to Fehmarn. In fact, 

(1966:148—160), Bakka (1972), Vinsrygg the variability of the brooches seems mainly to 

(1979) and H0ilund Nielsen (1999:164—167). be due neither to chronology nor to regional 

New perspectives offered in this paper are variation, but to the intentional manufacture 
mainly due to a) a significantly enlarged mate- of unique jewellery. This would in turn appear 
rial base including the abundant metal detector to have something to do with the prevalence 
finds of recent decades from south Scandinavia, of animal art on the brooches. We are dealing 
and b) a widened geographic scope covering with a period in which animal art was still a 
all of Scandinavia. The study is based on 379 controlled symbolic medium and a preroga- 
brooches that I have studied and photographed tive of the aristocracy. Only with the appear- 
first-hand, 115 ones of which I have photo- ance of serial produced and uniform jewellery 
graphs or good illustrations, and 99 ones of types in the Early Viking Period (from types 
which I know only the find locations and more P25 and P27 onward) did animal art enter 
or less specific type determinations. the mainstream. 

A particular problem in establishing a typo- 
logical classification scheme for these brooches 

■'^ ^■' is that their total variability is unevenly dis- 

The basic decorative design of most brooches tributed across the population. In other words, 

under study here is a flattened quadruped seen any classification system with a low and work- 

from above whose two sides are often detached able number of types for these brooches must 

from one another along the spine. The brooches include some counter-intuitive types. These 

were clearly thought of as representing animals will contain sub-clusters and will thus be dif- 

throughout the Late Vendel Period and into ficult to visualise. They cannot be illustrated 

the Early Viking Period, where the flattened with a picture of a single "type specimen", 
quadruped motif survives on certain Berdal I have attempted to solve this problem by a 

brooches (e.g. Petersen 1928 fig. 16). two-level binomial classification scheme. Apart 

All previous typological work on these from a few truly idiosyncratic uniques (pp. 

brooches has focused on size and decoration, 172—174), all well-preserved brooches can be 

demonstrating that the brooches were gradu- assigned to one of 20 types. Some members of 

ally made larger and larger through the Ven- a type are similar enough to each other that I 

del Period and onward, while their decoration have assigned them to a variant, usually named 

became more and more abstract. Regional after a find locality. Note that most brooches 

variation has also been demonstrated. are not assigned to any variant, simply because 

The great variability of the brooches invites they have no close kin on the sub-type level, 

taxonomic oversplitting, i.e. the definition of a When discussing the most intricately deco- 

large number of types with only a few members rated brooches, I also operate with a concept 

(or even a single member) each. This tempta- oi groups on the level above the type. Thus, 

tion should be resisted for two reasons: a) the each variant is a subset of a type, and each type 

use-period of the studied brooches seems to among the intricately decorated brooches is a 

have lasted for less than i 50 years, and b) the subset of a group. 

128 MARTIN RUNDKVI5T 



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Table 1. Overview of the typological classification system. 



Decoration: plain 


Length <60 mm — 


type SPL 


Length >58 mm — 


type R640 


Decoration: punched 


Length <55 mm — 


type SPU 


Decoration: intricate 


Outline: oval 


Pin fastening: cast — 


group N (7 types) 


Pin fastening: soldered — 


group R643 (5 types) 


Outline: irregular 


Pin fastening: cast — 


group (4 types) 


Pin fastening: soldered — 


type Stor-Skomo 



In the following I will present a pan-Scan- 
dinavian typological scheme (summarised in 
table i) developed on the basis of previously 
published regional schemes. It is devised to 
map chronological and regional variation. The 
first classificatory step is a tripartition on the 
basis of decoration: 

I. Plain surface, may only have simple lines 
or grooves as decoration. 



2. Punch decorated surface (dot circles), may 
also have lines or grooves. 

3. Intricate cast or incised decoration. 

Following the examples of 0rsnes (1966) and 
Hoilund Nielsen (1999), I have studied the 
length of the brooches (fig. i). The distribu- 
tion is bimodal with the main discontinuity at 
78 mm. The two peaks in the histogram cor- 
respond to two ideal sizes envisioned for these 



03 
"in 




P* 




^ 


















'I A 




1 


1 


— 


■ 


1 


















— 












n 








^h- 



DTT 

no2 

■ N1 

nSPL & SPU 



r^ 4> tx'^' <^ ^ <b* '^ Ri^ Qt- ^^ ^^3 



il- ^Q^ ^O* ^N^ 



Fig. I. Length histogram. Types before c. AD 750 are short, <yS mm. Longer types appear after that date, 
though some short brooches are still made with characteristic late type TT decoration. 



DOMED OBLONG BROOCHES OF VENDEL PERIOD SCANDINAVIA 



129 



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Table 2. Plain surface brooches. 



Population description 


Small Plain / SPL (n=59) 


Re40 (n=38) 


Outline shape 


91 % elliptical, 7% truncated elliptical, 
1 % egg-shaped (n=58) 


Elliptical 


Transversal profile 


78% semicircular, 22% trapezoid w 
curved sides (n=53) 


Squat, evenly rounded, steep sides 


Pin fastening 


89% cast lug & catch, 1 1 % both solde- 
red singly (n=38) 


90% soldered metal strip, 10% lug & 
catch soldered singly (n=30) 


Number of lugs 


Single 


? 


Cast textile impressions 


7% (n=43) 


None 


Matched pairs 


None: rarely found in pairs, always 
dissimilar 


Yes, commonly 


Length (mean ± std dev.) 


40.4 ±6.0 mm(n=47) 


88.1 ±9.5mm(n=15) 


Width (mean ± std dev.) 


18.1 ±3.9mm(n=48) 


67.8±9.0mm(n=13) 


Height (mean ± std dev.) 


8.4 ± 1.8mm(n=43) 


18.9±5.6mm(n=17) 


Edge thickness (mean ± std dev) 


1.1 ±0.3 mm(n=43) 


0.8 ±0.6 mm(n=24) 


W/L (mean ± std dev.) 


0.45 ± 0.07 (n=45) 


0.75 ± 0.07 (n=12) 


H/W (mean ± std dev.) 


0.47 ±0.11 (n=44) 


0.28 ± 0.05 (n=12) 



brooches. Find combination studies show that 
the peaks have chronological significance: in 
the early 8th century the fashionable length 
of a brooch was c. 40 mm, in the late 8th cen- 
tury it was c. 84 mm. The distinction between 
small early brooches and large late ones will 
be important in the following. 

Plain surface brooches 

These brooches have a plain surface and can- 
not have any more intricate decoration than 
simple lines and/or grooves. They are divided 
into two clearly separate main types with dis- 
tinct chronological and geographical habitats. 
The Small Plain type (SPL) is equivalent to 
H0ilund Nielsen's (1999) type la. The type 
name R640, used by Petersen (1928:5—7) and 
later scholars, refers to fig. 640 in Rygh 1885 
(depicting the brooch T 2374). 

Type definitions 

SPL Small (L<6o mm) plain brooches usu- 
ally with cast fastening arrangements 
for the pin (cf Fig. 2). 



R640 Large (L>68 mm) plain thin-shelled 
brooches with the pin's fastening 
arrangements soldered onto the inside 
of the brooch, usually placed at the 
ends of a separate curved metal strip (cf. 

Fig- 3)- 

Small Plain brooches -type SPL 

Of the 53 type SPL brooches that I have stu- 
died or seen good illustrations of, 36% have 
simple lines or grooves. Eleven have a trape- 
zoid profile, which means that the surface is 
divided into three longitudinal facets. Ten have 
a single thin line along the edge. Seven have 
a wide spinal groove. One (stray find, SHM 
2076:18) has two edge lines and a spinal field 
covered with transversal line hatching. One 
has two parallel spinal grooves (Finland, Hel- 
sinki 9365:394). 

Only one brooch combines an edge line with 
a spinal groove (Table 3). Only two brooches 
combine an edge line with a trapezoid profile. 
Spinal groove and trapezoid profile are never 
combined. As seen in table 3, these combina- 



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MARTIN RUNDKVI5T 



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Table 3. Decorated SPL brooches. 



Inv no 


Reg 


Provenance 


Trapezoid 
profile 


1 edge 
line 


1 spinal 
groove 


Variant 


Fig. 


SHM 02076:18 


? 


Storck's collection, Kalmar 








SPL (with hat- 
ching etc.) 




SHM 17906:10 


go 


Og, Skedevi, Ruda, Smed- 
jebacken 








SPL Billby 


Arbman 1932 
fig. 9 


SHM 02724 


go 


Vg, Friggeraker, Backabo 








SPL Billby 




SHM 32577:51 c 


sv 


So, Aspo, Stenby, Raa 
141, gr. 51 








SPL Billby 




SHM 15174:11a 


sv 


Up, S:t Per, Billby, gr. 1 1 








SPL Billby 




SHM 26042:180/121 


sv 


Up, Norrsunda, Brista 








SPL Billby 




Raa F67022 


sv 


Up, Adelso, Bjorko, Svarta 
Jorden 1994, R6704 








SPL Billby 




SSM 


sv 


Up, Spanga, Arvinge, Raa 
162,gr47 








SPL Billby 


Biuw 1992:90 


SHM 23304:17 


sv 


Up, Ska, Ska-Edeby, gr 17 








SPL Billby 




SHM 14723:a 


sv 


Up, S:t Per, Erikssund, 
Bjorkbacken 








SPL Billby/As- 
husby 


Arwidsson 1942 
textfig. 16; Aberg 
1953 fig. 132-137 


SHM 31461:06 


sv 


Up, Vallentuna, Nasby 
1:1, Raa 21, gr 06 


1 






SPL Billby/As- 
husby 




Aland 094:60b 


al 


Saltvik, Odkarby Backas/ 
Ostergarden, gr 10 








SPL Ashusby 




SHM 26042:173/125 


sv 


Up, Norrsunda, Brista 








SPL Ashusby 




SHM 08800:28 


sv 


Up, Norrsunda, Ashusby, 
gr, 28 








SPL Ashusby 


Salin 1890 fig. 28; 
Stjerna 1905 fig. 
132 


SSM 


sv 


Up, Spanga, An/inge, Raa 
162,gr 15 








SPL Ashusby 


Biuw 1992:89 


SHM 17059:2 


sv 


Up, Tolfta, Ersta 








SPL Ashusby 




SHM 25849:10 


sv 


Up, Taby, Roslags-Nasby 
Raa 140 








SPL Ashusby 




SHM 30621:36 


sv 


So, Botkyrka, Tomtberga, 
Raa 10, gr 36 








SPL Ashusby 




Raa dnr 3035/92 F858 


sv 


So, Harad, Harads Kumla 
2:9, Raa 15, gr 85 








SPL Ashusby/ 
Hulterstad 




SHM 27258:7171 


sv 


Up, Ekero, Helgo, BGl 








SPL Hulterstad 


Reisborg 1994 
fig. 18 


SHM 31461:34 


sv 


Up, Vallentuna, Nasby 
1:1, Raa 21, gr 34 








SPL Hulterstad 




Raa dnr 4751/92, 
5834/92 


sv 


So, Huddinge, Lissma, 
gr 53 








SPL Hulterstad 


Aija & Ahman 
1997 fig. 18 


SHM 16470 


ol? 


01? 








SPL Hulterstad 




SHM 01304:1836:35 


ol 


01, Hulterstad k:a 








SPL Hulterstad 


Montelius 1873 
fig. 55; Stjerna 
1905 fig. 133 



tions of traits form a small seriation that cor- or E. It may also have to do with chronology, 

relates with geography, each variant connect- i.e. contacts varying through time. 

ing Uppland with an area either to the SW, S I have distinguished three variants within 



DOMED OBLONG BROOCHES OF VENDEL PERIOD SCANDINAVIA 



131 



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Fig. 3. Type R640, Large Plain. NO-N Vigtelen. L 79 & 80 mm. Troms0 3803. Photo MR. 



Fig. 2. Type SPL, 
Small Plain. SK 
Uppakra. L 3 3 
mm. U 4917. 
Photo BA. 




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34 mm 



type SPL (cf. Ambrosiani Ms. 19 56-1960 types 
Ai, A2, A3, Bi). Together they account for 
41% of the total studied population. 

SPL variants 

SPL Billby Trapezoid profile, no other 

decoration. n=8. 

SPL Hulterstad Spinal groove, no other dec- 
oration. n=5. 

SPLAshusby Single edge line, no other 

decoration. n=7. 



Unadorned SPL brooches belonging to none 
of the above-mentioned variants are wide- 
ly distributed. Published pictures of such 
brooches are Arbman 1932 fig. 8a; Aspelin 
1877-84 fig. 1234; Bellander 1939—44 fig- 
41; Bennett Lagerlof 1989 fig. loa; Enqvist 
1923 fig. I 5—20; Holmquist et al. 1970 fig. i 8; 
Johansen & LercheTroUe 1994:25; Kivikoski 
1973 ?ig. ^^y, KVHAA:s mdnadsblad 1^0^ fig. 
378; Petersen 1928 fig. 1—2; Petre 1984a fig. 
340:1; Ramskou 1976 fig. 321A; Rydh 1936 



132 



MARTIN RUNDKVI5T 



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Table 4. Punch decorated brooches. 



Population description 


Small Punched / SPU (n=23) 


Outline shape 


Elliptical 


Transversal profile 


Squat, evenly rounded, steep sides 


Pin fastening 


Cast lug & catch 


Number of lugs 


Single 


Cast textile innpressions 


8%(n=12) 


Matched pairs 


None, never found in pairs 


Length (mean ± std dev.) 


43.6 ±7.1 mm(n=15) 


Width (mean ± std dev.) 


20.B±4.8mm(n=16) 


Height (mean ± std dev.) 


8.5 ±2.7 mm(n=14) 


Edge thickness (mean ± std dev.) 


1.1 ±0.3 mm(n=11) 


W/L (mean ± std dev) 


0.45 ± 0.07 (n=14) 


H/W(mean ± std dev) 


0.41 ±0.10(n=13) 



fig. 267; Serning 1966 fig. i:j,o; Suomen Museo 
1925 P- 35 fig- 25- 

Large Plain brooches - type R640 

Among the 28 type R640 brooches that I have 
studied, 54% are decorated along the edge, 
in most cases simply with i, 2 or 4 incised 
parallel lines or grooves. Two matched pairs 
of brooches each have unique decoration. A 
pair from M0re & Romsdal (Bergen 8256) 
has tiny notches along the edge, a few mil- 
limetres apart. A pair from S0r-Tr0ndelag (T 
17739) has four sets of three incised arches at 
the edge. These features look like schematised 
paws and are indeed placed the same way as 
the paws of flattened quadruped brooches (see 
pp. 1 3 5—1 5 5). They thus allude to the idea of 
domed oblong brooches as animals. 

Published pictures of R640 brooches are 
Antiquaries Journal Xll p. 440; Bergens Muse- 
umsAarbok 1924/25 p. 25; 1932:5 p. 17; Hel- 
gen 1982 fig. 32; Petersen 1928 fig. 4; Rygh 
1885 fig. 640; Trondheim, K. Norske Viden- 
skabers Selskabs Skrifter, Tilvekst 1905 p. 26; 
Trondheims Museums Arbok 1956—57 p. 148— 
I 50 fig. 2-4. 



Punch decorated brooches - SPU 

These brooches have a punch decorated surface 
(usually dot-circles) and may also have simple 
lines or grooves. The brooches vary consider- 
ably in details and none are similar enough 
to warrant the definition of a variant. Many 
have a poorly preserved surface where details 
are obscure. The Small Punched (SPU) type is 
equivalent to Ambrosiani's (Ms. 1956— 1960) 
type B2 and to Hoilund Nielsen's (1999) types 
lb and 2b. 

Type definition 

SPU Small (L<56 mm) punch decorated 
brooches with cast fastening arrange- 
ments for the pin. May have simple 
lines and/or grooves (cf. Fig. 4). 

The decorative elements visible on the SPU 
brooches that I have studied or seen good 
illustrations of are: rows, grids and scatters 
of punched dot-circles, some of them 2-con- 
centric; spinal groove, sometimes flanked by 
thin lines; spinal line, single, double or triple; 
edge-lines, single, double or quadruple; thin 
line cross-hatching; punched triangles with 
three raised pellets inside. 



DOMED OBLONG BROOCHES OF VENDEL PERIOD SCANDINAVIA 



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Fig. 5a. Type Nia. NO-N Sandvik, grave 7. L 55 
mm. Trondheim 18648a. Photo MR. 



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Fig. 4. Type SPU, Small Punched. SV Gamla Upp- 
sala. L 55 mm. UMF 1 1 61. Photo MR. 



Published pictures of SPU brooches are 
Aspelin 1877—84 fig. 1832; Bennett Lager- 
lof 1989 fig. lob; Holmquist et al. 1970 fig. 
92:12; Horfors 1990:97, 102; Kivikoski 1980 
Pi. 10:7; Montelius 1877 fig. 26; Nerman 
1929 fig. 37; Nylen & Schonback 1994 fig. 
36; Petre 1984a fig. 340:2; Serning 1966 fig. 
1:31; Stjerna 1905 fig. 140; Waller 1996 Pi. 
XXV: 89; Wilson et al. 1998 fig. 163. 

Before they received their punched decora- 
tion, most SPU brooches fulfilled the defini- 
tion of SPL brooches. A few SPU brooches 
may be secondarily modified SPL brooches. 
There is, however, reason to believe that SPU 



and SPL brooches were not all made by the 
same artisans. 

a) The two brooch types have different cast 
line decoration. 

b) SPL brooches are generally slightly smaller 
and flatter than SPU brooches. 

c) SPU has a less wide and more easterly dis- 
tribution area than SPL. 

Find combinations show that SPU brooches 
were made in the Aland Isles for more than 
half a century after both SPL and SPU had 
gone out of fashion in the Lake Malaren area 
(see p. 162). 



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MARTIN RUNDKVI5T 



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Intricately decorated brooches 

These brooches have intricate cast (or rarely 
incised) decoration. The first step in classify- 
ing them is a partitioning into four groups on 
the basis of outline shape and pin fastening 
arrangements. 

1. 0rsnes group N. Oval (elliptical, egg- 
shaped or sub-rectangular) brooches cast 
in one piece with lug and catch for the pin. 

2. 0rsnes group O. Brooches with intricate 
irregular (animal-shaped) outlines cast in 
one piece with lug and catch for the pin. 

3. Group R643. Oval (elliptical, egg-shaped 
or sub-rectangular) brooches, thin-shelled, 
with the pin's fastening arrangements sol- 
dered onto the inside of the brooch, usu- 
ally placed at the ends of a separate curved 
metal strip. 

4. Group & type Stor-Skomo. Brooches with 
intricate irregular (animal-shaped) out- 
lines, thin-shelled, with the pin's fastening 
arrangements soldered onto the inside of 
the brooch. 

Each of these groups has a characteristic deco- 
ration and geographic distribution. Group N 
survives throughout most of the period and 
area under study here. Simply put, group O is 
a south-Scandinavian contemporary of early 
small N brooches, while group R643 and type 
Stor-Skomo are Norwegian contemporaries of 
late large N brooches. 

Determining whether a well-preserved 
brooch has an intricate irregular or oval outline 
is in principle easy. When Orsnes's (1966:148— 
160) classification of the brooches' decoration 
is considered, however, things turn out to be 
less clear-cut. Orsnes's system does not permit 
every conceivable combination of decoration 
and outline shape. Particularly with type Nid, 
decoration must often take precedence over out- 



line shape in classification. There are a number 
of brooches that do not have a perfectly convex 
outline but whose decoration is highly similar 
to that of oval Nid brooches. The alternative to 
such flexibility would be to leave a number of 
almost-oval brooches out of the system despite 
their obvious similarity to brooches within the 
system. This is not simply an efi^ect of Orsnes's 
small sample, where he might have been una- 
ware of the intermediate varieties. He placed 
several brooches with slightly irregular outlines 
in his oval group (e.g. Orsnes 1966 fig. 180), 
and I have followed his example. 

0rsnes group N 

Orsnes group N consists of intricately deco- 
rated oval brooches cast in one piece with 
lug and catch for the pin. Thus defined, this 
group survives through the Late Vendel, Early 
Viking and Middle Viking Periods and dies 
with the final tortoise brooch types. The cri- 
terion used to decide which types are treated 
here is whether a type was serial-produced on 
a large scale or not. Large-scale serial produc- 
tion began in the Early Viking Period with the 
Berdal types. These are typologically varied, 
while the likewise serial-produced Early Viking 
Period types P25 and P27 are highly uniform. 

Type definitions 

Nia Small (L<78 mm) flattened quad- 
ruped brooches with a wide, usual- 
ly ribbed dorsal plate and separate 
haunches (Orsnes 1966:149—1 50; cf. 
fig. 5; Arwidsson 1942 Abb. 57—61; 
AUD 1995:235; Bakka i()yi:^()£g. 3, 
5; Bergen Tillvekst 1933:26; Callmer 
1991 fig. 16; Gudesen 1980 fig. 28c; 
KVHAA:s mdnadsblad 1903-05 fig. 
225; Marstrander 1973 fig. 10; Old- 
saksamlingens Tillvekst 1995 fig. 9b; 



DOMED OBLONG BROOCHES OF VENDEL PERIOD SCANDINAVIA 



135 



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Fig. 5b. Type Nia. SK Uppakra. L 48 mm. U 1782. Photo BA. Drawing by Erika Rosengren. 



0rsnes 1966 fig. 172; Stjerna 1905 
fig. 136; Stromberg 1961 Taf. 63:2; 
Vedel 1897 fig. 93). 
Nib Small (L<78 mm) flattened quadruped 

brooches with a wide, usually ribbed Nic 
dorsal plate, divided by a decorative 
spinal ribbon, and separate haunch- 
es (0rsnes 1966:149—150; cf. fig. 
6; Arbman 1932 fig. 15; Arwidsson 
1940 Abb. 36; Blindheim 1949 fig. 
5; Gjessing 1934 pi. 41; Johansen & 
LercheTroUe 1994:25, 72; Jorgensen 
& Norgard j0rgensen 1997 pi. 22:5; 
Journal of Danish Archaeology ip.182; Nid 
Nilsson 1992 fig. 3 a; Oldsaksamlingens 
Tillvekst 1995 fig. 9a; Oldtiden VIII p. 
121; 0rsnes 1966 fig. 169, 178; Oster- 
gaard Jensen 1987; Petersen 1928 fig. 
7; Ramqvist 1998 fig. 76; Sarauw & 



Alin 1923 fig. 188; Shetelig 1920 fig. 
288; Stavanger Museums Aarbok 1^16 
no I fig. i; Stjerna 1905 fig. 135, 137; 
Tillvdxten SHM 1^01 p. 118 fig. 61). 
Small (L<78 mm) flattened quadru- 
ped brooches with an elongated side- 
view animal on either side, joined at 
head and rear, separated by a spool- 
shaped or irregular fleld, and separate 
haunches (0rsnes 1966:149—1 50; cf. 
fig. 7; Bakka 1972 fig. i; j0rgensen 
1990 pi. 10:8, 16:1, 16:3; Lind 1984 
fig. 3:1; Serning 1966 fig. 96:1). 
Small (L<78 mm) brooches with 
intricate animal interlace on sides, 
ofi:en divided by a decorative spinal 
ribbon (0rsnes 1966 fig. 149— 151; 
cf. fig. 8; Aberg 1923 fig. 258; AUD 
2000:271; Bo Henriksen 2002 fig. iic; 



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% 



^ 





Fig. 6a. Type Nib. SK Uppakra. L 51 mm. U 7+16. Photo BA. Drawing by Erika Rosengren. 



^ 



j0rgensen & N0rgard j0rgensen 1997 
fig. 27:17, pi. 2:7—8; Montelius 1873 
fig. 56; 0rsnes 1966 fig. 175-177, 179, 
181; Ramskou 1976 fig. 122). 

Nie Very small (L<52mm) brooches where 
the flattened quadruped motif has 
been abbreviated to a mask at either 
end. These are reminiscences of the 
quadruped's face and back haunches, 
respectively. Between the two masks 
are in most cases abstract interlace 
(0rsnes 1966:149—151; cf. fig. 9; 
AUD 1999:156; Bo Henriksen 2002 
back cover right, fig. lie; Johansen & 
LercheTroUe 1994:25; Nielsen 2002 
fig. 8; 0rsnes 1966 fig. 174). Nie 
brooches may alternatively have fea- 
tureless ends with the same kind of 
abstract interlace between them. 

N I V3 Small (L<78 mm) flattened quadruped 



brooches whose haunches are joined 
across the spine in two flgure-eights 
(cf flg. 10; Vinsrygg 1979 type III, 
fig. 9c, loabce; Gjessing 1934 pi. 39c, 
40; SJ0vold 1974 fig. 29, 36efg; Trond- 
heim, K. Norske Videnskahers Selskabs 
Skrifier 1925 no 3 p. 57). 
TT "Transitional types" (Sw. overgangsty- 

per; cf. fig. 11). 

1. No Berdal, P25, P27, P35, P37 or 
later brooch belongs to type TT. 

2. With the above exception, all N 
brooches with at least one of the fol- 
lowing characteristics belong to type 
TT. 

a. Length >77 mm 

b. Plastic beaded moulding 

c. Style E decoration 

d. Indistinct gripping beast deco- 
ration 



DOMED OBLONG BROOCHES OF VENDEL PERIOD SCANDINAVIA 



137 



% 



^ 




^ 





ii 



Fig. 7. Type Nic. SJ Gerdrup Ravnemark. L 46 
mm. NM C30998. Photo MR. 



e. 4 medallions layout 

f. 2 rhombs/6 medallions layout 

Published pictures of TT brooches areAarsk 
Foren. Norske Fortidsm. 1882 p. 109; Aberg 
1923 fig. 260, 295; Ambrosiani 1968; Arbman 
1940-43 Taf. 62:1 ff; Areslatt 1993 fig. 13, 14, 
50; Atterman 1935 fig. 53a:g; Bakka 1973 fig. 
9, 17; Bergens Museums Aarbok 1920—21 p. 24; 
Bertil Almgren 1955 Pi. 43b; Oscar Almgren 
1905 fig. 30; Blindheim et al. 1999 pi. 78c; 
Br0ndsted 1936 fig. 57, 114; Callmer 1984 
fig. 3; Christensen & H0J 1984:18—19; Drei- 
jer 1966 fig. 4; Drotz & Ekman 1995 fig. 33; 
Fig.6b.TypeNib.SKUppakra.L36mm.Ui737. Gjessing 1934 textfig. 25-26, pi. 37c, 39b, 
Photo BA. Drawing by Erika Rosengren. 42—43; Gudesen 1980 fig. 28; Helgen 1982 



138 



MARTIN RUNDKVI5T 



% 



^ 



^ 






Fig. 8 a.TypeNld. SKUppakra. L 48 mm. U 6242. 
Photo BA. Drawing by Erika Rosengren. 



Fig. 8 b. Type Nid variant NSV. BO Norre San- 
degard Vest. L 46 mm. NM C10269. Drawing by 
Poul Christensen after Jorgensen & Norgard Jor- 
gensen 1997 PI. 2:7. 



fig. 43; Holmquist et al. 1970 fig. 87:1, Pi. 
32:7; Jansson 198 5 fig. 2, 4, 5, 7, 8; j0rgensen 
1990 pi. 1:5, 11:7, 16:2, 20:7, 21:1, 21:3, 
24:1—2, 24:2, 25:1—3; Kersten & La Baume 
1958 Taf. 149:11; Kirpichnikov 2004 fig. 8—9; 
Kivikoski 1973 fig. 436; KVHAA.s mdnadsblad 
1903—05 fig. 226; Lorange 1875:179; Mac- 
Gregor 1997:46; Montelius 1 873 fig. 57; 1 877 
fig. 16—17, ^7! Odencrants 1933; OJGi 126; 
0rsnes 1966 fig. 183—193; Petersen 1928 fig. 
8, 9, 28, 29; Ramskou 1965 fig. 4, 6; Rasmus- 
sen & Roland 1989 fig. 4:7, 5:1-2; Rydh 1936 
fig. 52; Rygh 1885 fig. 641-642, 645; Shetelig 
1920 fig. 264, 269, 289—291; Simonsson 1972; 
Stjerna 1905 fig. 138—139, 141— 142; Strom- 



DOMED OBLONG BROOCHES OF VENDEL PERIOD SCANDINAVIA 



139 



% 



^ 





Fig. 8 c.Type Nid variant To ftegard. SJTiss0-Kal- Fig. 9 a. Type Nie variant I. JY Bejsebakken. L 36 
margarden. L 48 mm. NM KM949. Photo MR. mm. NM C33 516. Photo MR. 




Fig. 8 d. Type Nid variant VedskoUe. Storck's collection, Kalmar. L 49 mm. SHM 2076:1 5. Photo MR. 



140 



MARTIN RUNDKVI5T 



^ 



^ 



U2736 




^ 



Fig. 9 b. Type Nie variant 2. SK Uppakra. L 33 
mm. U 2736. Photo BA. 





Fig. 10. Type N1V3. NO-N Ytre Kvaroy, grave 8. 
L 57 mm.Tromso 6377b. Photo MR. 



Fig. 9 c. Type N le variant 3 . JY Bejsebakken. L 
34mm. NM C30551 + C33473. Photo MR. 



berg 1961 Taf. 44:id, 63:5—7; Trondheim, K. 
Norske Videnskabers Selskabs Skrifier i^oS no 14 
p. 39 fig. 8, p. 25; 1922 no 6 p. 37; Trondheims 
Museum Aarsbok 1888 pi. IV:i4; Vedel 1897 
fig. 97-102; VZG 1846; Wilson et al. 1998 
fig. 46; Worsaae 1859 fig. 420; 1865:94 fig. 9. 



2. 3. 1. 1 Variants among the Ni types 

Disregarding paired brooches found together 
in graves, neither Nia, Nib, Nic nor N1V3 
contains any brooches that are similar enough 



DOMED OBLONG BROOCHES OF VENDEL PERIOD SCANDINAVIA 



141 



% 



^ 



Table 5. 0rsnes group N. 



Population 


N1a(n=25) 


N1b(n=31) 


N1c(n=11) 


Nid (n=18) 


N1e(n=13) 


N1V3 (n=6) 


TT(n=127) 


description. 
















Outline 


81% el- 


70% elliptic. 


50% egg- 


44% 


Elliptic 


67% elliptic. 


76% elliptic. 


shape 


liptic, 19% 


26% sub- 


shaped, 37% 


somewhat ir- 




33% egg- 


22% egg- 




egg-shaped 


rectangular. 


elliptic, 13% 


regular, 37% 




shaped (n=6) 


shaped, 2% 




(n=16) 


4% egg- 


somewhat 


elliptic, 13% 






sub-rectan- 






shaped 


irregular 


egg-shaped. 






gular (n=93) 






(n=23) 


(n=8) 


6% sub- 
rectangular 
(n=16) 








Transversal 


Squat, steep 


Squat, steep 


Low, evenly 


Low, evenly 


Low, evenly 


Low, evenly 


High, steep 


profile 


sides 


sides 


rounded 


rounded 


rounded 


rounded 


sides 


Pin fastening 


Cast lug & 


Cast lug & 


Cast lug & 


Cast lug & 


Cast lug & 


Cast lug & 


Cast lug & 




catch (by 


catch (by 


catch (by 


catch (by 


catch (by 


catch (by 


catch (by 




definition) 


definition) 


definition) 


definition) 


definition) 


definition) 


definition) 


Number of 


Single 


94% single 


Single 


Single 


Single 


Single 


96%) single 


lugs 




lug, 6% two 
lugs(n=16) 










lug, 4% two 
lugs(n=71) 


Cast textile 


None 


11% (n=18) 


33% (n=9) 


None 


None 


None 


53% (n=70) 


impressions 
















Matched 


Yes, rarely 


Yes, once 


Yes, once 


Yes, once 


None 


None 


Yes, com- 


pairs 














monly 


Length 


46.7 ±7.9 


52.4 ± 10.9 


52.9 ± 12.6 


46.3 ±5.6 


35.4 ±3.0 


49.4 ±5.4 


84.6 ± 15.0 


(mean ± std 


mm (n=16) 


mm(n=21) 


mm (n=9) 


mm (n=16) 


mm (n=10) 


mm (n=6) 


mm (n=84) 


dev.) 
















Width (mean 


24.6 ±4.3 


27.2 ±6.6 


30.2 ±6.8 


26.0 ±3.3 


18.4± 1.8 


29.1 ±2.6 


42.4 ±8.4 


± std dev.) 


mm (n=19) 


mm (n=25) 


mm (n=9) 


mm (n=16) 


mm (n=10) 


mm (n=6) 


mm (n=84) 


Height 


8.4 ±2.1 


9.4 ±3.0 


9.2 ±2.1 


8.0± 1.5 


5.1 ±0.5 


9.2 ± 1.4 


18.3 ±4.9 


(mean ± std 


mm(n=12) 


mm (n=16) 


mm (n=6) 


mm (n=6) 


mm (n=4) 


mm (n=5) 


mm (n=58) 


dev.) 
















Edge thick- 


1.3 ±0.4 


1.3 ±0.3 


1.4 ±0.3 


1.4±0.3 


1.3 ±0.1 


0.7 ±0.3 


1.5±0.6 


ness (mean ± 


mm (n=21) 


mm (n=19) 


mm (n=8) 


mm (n=10) 


mm (n=6) 


(n=5) 


mm (n=74) 


std dev.) 
















W/L (mean ± 


0.53 ±0.05 


0.50 ±0.05 


0.57 ±0.05 


0.57 ±0.04 


0.53 ±0.05 


0.59 ±0.02 


0.50 ±0.06 


std dev.) 


(n=14) 


(n=22) 


(n=9) 


(n=15) 


(n=12) 


(n=6) 


(n=88) 


H/W(mean ± 


0.33 ±0.04 


0.35 ±0.08 


0.31 ±0.06 


0.30 ±0.07 


0.26 ±0.02 


0.31 ±0.03 


0.44 ±0.08 


std dev.) 


(n=9) 


(n=14) 


(n=6) 


(n=5) 


(n=4) 


(n=5) 


(n=56) 



to warrant the definition of a variant. Nid 
and Nie, however, do contain such variants. 



Ni variants 
NidNSV 



Roughly elhptical, irregu- 
lar outline. Two side-viewed 
elongated animals on each 



side, both facing forward. 
Sides separated by an angu- 
lar droplet-shaped feature 
divided into forward-point- 
ing chevrons. n=3. (Fig. 8b; 
0rsnes 1966 fig. 180; j0r- 
gensen & Norgard Jorgensen 
1997 fig. 27:17, pi. 2:7-8). 



142 



MARTIN RUNDKVI5T 



% 



^ 



NidToftegard Roughly egg-shaped, irregu- 
lar outline. Two side-viewed 
elongated animals on each 
side, both facing forward. 
The bodies of the upper ani- 
mals cross near the apex of the 
brooch so that the rear body of 
the left-hand animal is on the 
right hand side of the brooch, 
and vice versa. n=2. (Fig. 8c; 
Bo Henriksen 2002 fig. iic). 

Nid Vedsk0lle EUiptical outline. Flattened 
quadruped layout. Decora- 
tive spinal ribbon contain- 
ing a tendril forming three 
pretzel knots. Each of the 
main quadruped's legs is 
extended backward into 
a large upside-down side- 
viewed animal head. n=2. 
(Fig. 8d; Montelius 1873 
fig. 56; Aberg 1923 fig. 258; 
0rsnes 1966 fig. 175). 

Nievari Wide ribbed dorsal plate. 

n=2. (Fig. 9a; 0rsnes 1966 
fig. 174). 

Nievar2 Two interlaced single-line 

V:s at apex. n=4. (Fig. 9b; Bo 
Henriksen 2002 backside of 
cover & fig. lie). 

Nievar3 Two interlaced double-line 

C:s at apex. n=2. (Fig. 9c; 
Johansen & Lerche Trolle 
1994:25; Nielsen 2002 fig. 
8). 

Variants of type XT 

TT is a highly varied type with many unique 
members. The eight variants defined below 
account for 27% of the total studied popu- 
lation. 

0rsnes (1966, types N2a etc.) subdivided 



theTT brooches on a taxonomic level between 
myTT type and its variants. I have disregarded 
his scheme as it is my opinion that each of his 
five types collects brooches that are neither very 
similar to each other nor consistently dissimi- 
lar to those of the other types. 

Looking with correspondence analysis at 
how various typological traits combine among 
theTT brooches, I have found no intelligible 
clustering beyond a vague tendency to fore- 
shadow the four basic designs of the Early 
Viking Period (see p. 155). There are also a few 
TT brooches that borrow traits from coeval 
R643 designs. 

TT variants 

TTB1580 Flattened quadruped layout. 
Wide spinal ribbon. Covered 
with intricate style E decoration. 
Four droplet-shaped haunch- 
es pointing obliquely down- 
ward toward the middle of the 
brooch. No eyes. On either 
broad side, a complete Style E 
quadruped, facing toward the 
front end of the brooch, bowing 
so deeply that its head is upside 
down. n=2. (Fig. i ic; KVHAA:s 
mdnadsblad I'^o'^—O'^ p. 176 fig. 
226). 

TTBJ485 2 rhombs/6 medallions lay- 
out. Beaded curved-line lattice 
enclosing fields filled with non- 
zoomorphic abstract decoration. 
Featureless discs at corners of 
rhombs. n=4. (Fig. iid;Arbman 
1940—43 Taf. 62:1; Jansson 
1985:22 fig. 7). 

TT BJ602 Flattened quadruped layout. 
Spinal ribbon. Four legs with 
large feathery feet. Round eyes 
between forefeet. On either 



DOMED OBLONG BROOCHES OF VENDEL PERIOD SCANDINAVIA 



143 



% 



^ 



^ 



broad side, a complete quad- 
ruped, facing toward the rear 
end of the brooch, bowing so 
deeply that its head is upside 
down. The heads and necks of 
similar rear-facing head-bowing 
animals are found between the 
eyes and the forward haunches. 
n=2. (Fig. lie; Jansson 1985:19 

fig- 4)- 

TT BJ65 5 4 medallions layout. Ring-cross 
at apex. Large spiral palmettos 
at ends. Medallions filled with 
intricate Style E decoration. n=3 . 
(Fig. I if; Jansson 1985:20-21 
fig. 5; Kirpichnikov 2004:188- 
190). 

TT Marsta 2 rhombs/6 medallions lay- 
out. Beaded straight-line lat- 
tice with transversals across 
rhombs, enclosing fields filled 
with intricate Style E decora- 
tion. Featureless discs at corners 
of rhombs, featureless squares at 
mid-point of transversals. n=2. 
(Fig. iig; Odencrants 1933). 

TT 0steras 4 medallions layout. Feature- 
less rhomb with concave sides 
at apex. Beaded dividing lines. 
A single articulated Style E 
animal in each medallion: two 
quadrupeds and two birds. n= 5 . 
(Fig. iih; Vedel 1897 fig. 102; 
Shetelig 1920 fig. 269; Petersen 
1928 fig. 29; Gjessing 1934 pi. 
43b; 0rsnes 1966 fig. 191— 193; 
j0rgensen 1990 pi. 11:7, 20:7, 
21:1, 21:3). 

TT Sundby Beaded moulding along spine. 
Upper half of broad sides filled 
with interlaced Style E birds. 
Wide obliquely chequered field 



along brim. n= 5. (Fig. iii;Aberg 
1923 fig. 260; Dreijer 1966 fig. 
4; Ambrosiani 1968 fig. i— 2a). 
TT Tryti Tree-like branched moulding 

along spine. On each broad side 
a single articulated long-necked 
quadruped holding its tongue 
in its fore paw and a branch of 
the tree in its hind paw. Line- 
hatched background. n=2. (Fig. 
iij; Gjessing 1934 textfig. 25, 
pi. 37c). 



0rsnes group O 

0rsnes group O consists of intricately deco- 
rated brooches with intricate irregular outline 
shapes, cast in one piece with lug and catch 
for the pin. Types Oia and Oib contain no 
discernible variants. 

Type definitions 

Oia Small (L<78 mm) non-openwork flat- 
tened quadruped brooches (0rsnes 
1 9 66: 158; cf. fig. 12; Aarb0ger Nordisk 
Oldkynd. 1912:104; Arbman 1932 fig. 
i^h\AUD 1995:237; Holmquist et al. 
1970 fig. 97:1; j0rgensen & Norgard 
Jorgensen 1997 pi. 9:1, 11:13, 2.2.:6; Jor- 
gensen & Pedersen 1996; 0JG4 391:1; 
0rsnes 1966 fig. 219, 221; Ramskou 
1976 fig. 240; Stjerna 1905 fig. 134; 
Stjernquist 1951 fig. 42:6; Strom- 
berg 1961 Taf. 32:4, textfig. 5:2; Vang 
Petersen 199 1 fig. 8; Vedel 1897 fig. 
87,92). 

Oib Large (L>77 mm) flattened quadruped 
brooches whose surface is divided by an 
orthogonal grid of mouldings (0rsnes 
1966:1 58; cf fig. 13; j0rgensen 1990 pi. 
10:6, 12:1; Stjerna 1905 fig. 47; Vedel 
1897 fig. 89-90;). 



144 



MARTIN RUNDKVI5T 



% 



^ 



Table 6. 0rsnes group O. 



Population description. 


Ola (n=24) 


Olb (n=4) 


01c(n=2) 


02 (n=36) 


Outline shape 


Irregular (by defini- 
tion) 


Irregular (by defini- 
tion) 


Irregular (by defini- 
tion) 


Irregular (by defini- 
tion) 


Transversal profile 


Low, evenly rounded 


Low, rounded with 
narrow vertical edge 


Low, evenly 
rounded 


Low, evenly rounded 


Pin fastening 


Cast lug & catch (by 
definition) 


Cast lug & catch (by 
definition) 


Cast lug & catch 
(by definition) 


Cast lug & catch (by 
definition) 


Number of lugs 


92% single lug, 8% 
two lugs (n=12) 


Single 


Single 


Single 


Cast textile impressions 


None 


67% (n=3) 


None 


43%(n=23) 


Matched pairs 


None 


None 


None 


Yes, commonly 


Length (mean ± std dev) 


45. 8± 11.5 mm 
(n=13) 


89.9 ±7.2 mm(n=4) 


82.7 and 85.0 mm 


58.8 ±7.0 mm 
(n=23) 


Width (mean ± std dev) 


25.4 ± 6.6 mm 
(n=19) 


37.7 ±4.6 mm (n=3) 


30.1 and 37.0 mm 


32.7 ±3.9 mm 
(n=24) 


Height (mean ± std dev.) 


6.3 ±2.1 mm(n=8) 


Low 


Low 


6.3 ± 1.0 mm(n=8) 


Edge thickness (mean ± 
std dev.) 


1.3±0.3 mm(n=16) 


1.7 ± 1.2 mm(n=3) 


1.6 and 1.4 mm 


1.2 ±0.3 mm(n=22) 


W/L (mean ± std dev) 


0.53 ± 0.05 (n=13) 


0.41 ±0.02(n=3) 


36% and 44% 


0.55 ± 0.05 (n=24) 


H/W (mean ± std dev) 


0.26 ± 0.09 (n=8) 


Low 


Low 


0.18±0.03(n=7) 



Oi c Large (L>77 mm) flattened quadruped 
brooches with a bird's tail formed of two 
S-shaped interlace ornaments (0rsnes 
1966:158—159; cf. fig. 14; j0rgensen 
1990 pi. 11:5; Vedel 1897 fig. 91). 

O2 Small (L<78 mm) brooches with an 
elongated side-view animal on either 
side, joined at head and usually also rear, 
usually separated by a spool-shaped or 
irregular field, often openwork (0rsnes 
1966:159; cf fig. 15; AUD 1989:203; 
1995:248; 2001:124; Hardh 2002 fig. 
9; j0rgensen 1990 pi. 9:5—6, 10:1, 10:7, 
12:2; Jorgensen & Norgard Jorgensen 
1997 fig. 27:1 5—16, pi. 3:1—2; Kiviko- 
ski 1973 fig. 419; Lind 1984 fig. 3:2-3; 
Stjerna 1905 fig. 45; Stjernquist 1993 
fig. 11; Vedel 1897 fig. 95-96). 

O variants 

Oic The two members of type Oic 

are so homogeneous and difi^er- 



ent from the other O brooches 
that the type is an entity on the 
variant level. Oic may in fact be 
seen as the final baroque type of 
the bird brooch series (0rsnes 
group D). n=2. (Fig. 14; Vedel 
1897 fig. 91; j0rgensen 1990 
pi. 11:5). 

O2 b A long-haired human figure 

wearing knee breeches lies 
supine on the brooch with its 
head turned to the left, grip- 
ping the two elongated animals 
by their necks. n=3. (Fig. i 5b; 
Vedel 1897 fig. 96). 

O2 Ellegard The two elongated animals de- 
limit a regular pointed oval 
field filled with a stylised ani- 
mal. The maws of the two side- 
view animals form a meandering 
groove across the front end of the 
brooch. Along the rear edge are 



DOMED OBLONG BROOCHES OF VENDEL PERIOD SCANDINAVIA 



145 



% 



^ 





Fig. 1 1 a. Type TT, an example of the flatte- 
ned quadruped design. Gotland. L 85 mm. 
Malmo 2282. Photo Malmo Museums. 



Fig. II c. Type TT variant Bl 580. NO-S 
stray find. L 89 mm. Bergen I 580. Photo 
MR. 




^ 




Fig. 1 1 d. Type TT variant 8)48 5 . SV Harads Kumla, 
grave 16.L84mm.SHM 34108 F799. Photo MR. 
This variant is an example of the 2 rhombs/6 med- 
allions design. 



Fig. II b. Type TT, an example of the 4 medal- 
lions design. NO-N Vang. L 92 mm.Tromso 
9552. Photo MR. 



146 



MARTIN RUNDKVI5T 



^ 



^ 




Fig. lie. Type TT variant Bj6o2. SJ Rseve- 
banke. L 84 mm. NM C30665. Photo MR. 




Fig. II h.TypeTT variant 0steras. NO-N 0steras. 
L 78 mm. Trondheim 7958. Photo MR. 




Fig. 1 1 i. Type TT variant Sundby. AL Sundby. L 
76 mm. Mariehamn 252:2. Photo MR. 




Fig. II f.TypeTT variant BJ655. SV Bjorko, grave 
65 5. L 96 mm. SHM BJ65 5. Photo MR. 





Fig. II g. Type TT variant Marsta. SV Marsta. L 
105 mm. Uppsala 4286. Photo MR. 



Fig. 1 1 j. Type TT variant Tryti. NO-S Vik 
vicarage. L 89 mm. Bergen 8143d. Photo MR. 



DOMED OBLONG BROOCHES OF VENDEL PERIOD SCANDINAVIA 



147 



^ 



^ 




Fig. iz.Type Ola. SKUppakra. Extant 
L 47 mm, snout broken off. U 1340. 
Photo MR. 





Fig. l4.Type Olc. BO Bsekkegard, grave 
63. L 83 mm. NM C2530. Photo MR. 




Fig. 1 3 . Type O I b. BO Lousgard, grave 
6. Orig. L 80-85 mm. NM C5592. 
Photo MR. 



Fig. I 5 a. Type O2. SKUppakra. L 52 
mm. U 3023. Photo BA. 



148 



MARTIN RUNDKVI5T 



^ 



^ 



^ 




Fig. 15 b. Type O2 variant b. BO Lousgard, grave Fig. I 5 c.Type O2 variant EUegard. BO N0rre San- 
3. L 67 mm. NM C5 587a. Photo MR. degard, Vedel's grave 6. L 62 mm. NM C10289. 

Photo MR. 



six small round features through 
which a tendril is threaded. 
n=i4. (Fig. I 5c; Vedel 1 897 fig. 
95; Stjerna 1905 fig. 45; Lind 
1984 fig. 3:2— 3; j0rgensen 1990 
pi. 9:5—6, 10:1, 10:7; j0rgensen 
& Norgard j0rgensen 1997 fig. 
27:15, pi. 3:1-2). 

Group R643 

Group R643 consists of intricately decorated 
oval brooches, thin-shelled (and thus often 
damaged), with the pin's fastening arrange- 



ments soldered onto the inside of the brooch, 
usually placed at the ends of a separate curved 
metal strip. The small early type R643E gene- 
rally has two separate solder patches. The group 
takes its name from Rygh 1885 fig. 643 (depict- 
ing the broochT 1945). These types are great- 
ly varied and contain no discernible variants 
except type R643C whose three members are 
highly uniform. 

Type definitions 

R643A Intricate interlace decoration, usu- 
ally zoomorphic, often asymmetric. 
Cannot have the flattened quadruped 



DOMED OBLONG BROOCHES OF VENDEL PERIOD SCANDINAVIA 



149 



% 



^ 



Table 7. Group 


R643. 










Population 
description. 


R643A (n=36) 


R643B (n=5) 


R643C (n=3) 


R643D (n=3) 


R643E(n=15) 


Outline shape 


Elliptic (n=11) 


Elliptic (n=1) 


Elliptic 


Elliptic (n=1) 


58% sub-rec- 
tangular, 33% 
elliptic, 8% egg- 
shaped (n=12) 


Transversal profile 


Evenly rounded 


Evenly rounded 


Squat, steep 
sides 


Evenly rounded 


Various, most 
evenly rounded 


Pin fastening 


93% soldered 
metal strip, 7% 
lug & catch solde- 
red singly (n=28) 


Soldered (by 
definition) 


Soldered (by 
definition) 


Soldered (by 
definition) 


75% lug & catch 
soldered singly, 
25% soldered 
metal strip (n=12) 


Number of lugs 


? 


7 


? 


7 


7 


Cast textile im- 
pressions 


None 


None 


None 


None 


None 


Matched pairs 


Yes, commonly 


None 


Yes, once 


None 


Yes, twice 


Length (mean ± 
std dev.) 


90.5 ± 16.4 mm 
(n=12) 


65.0, 78.0 and c. 
85 mm 


96.0-102.0 mm 


c. 60-70 mm 


47.2 ±7.9 mm 
(n=12) 


Width (mean ± 
std dev.) 


61.3 ± 19.2 mm 
(n=12) 


39.0 and 61.0 
mm 


60.0 toe. 70 
mm 


38.0 toe. 45 
mm 


27.8 ± 5.2 mm 
(n=13) 


Height (mean ± 
std dev) 


16.7 ± 6.7 mm 
(n=14) 


15.0 and >20 mm 


18.0 and 18.3 
mm 


6.3 and 8.8 
mm 


8.1 ± 1.8 mm 
(n=8) 


Edge thickness 
(mean ± std dev.) 


1.1 ± 0.6 mm 
(n=27) 


1.5 ± 0.5 mm 
(n=3) 


1.0 and 1 .6 mm 


0.3 and 0.8 
mm 


0.7 ± 0.4 mm 
(n=10) 


W/L (mean ± std 
dev.) 


0.66 ±0.09 
(n=10) 


0.60 and c. 0.72 


63% and 65% 


c. 0.60-0.65 
(n=2) 


0.58 ±0.06 
(n=11) 


H/W(mean ± std 
dev) 


0.29 ± 0.08 (n=9) 


0.25 (n=1) 


0.27 and 0.31 


0.17andc. 
0.21 


0.31 ±0.10(n=8) 



motif (cf. fig. i6; Bakka 1973 fig. 
I, 13, 15; Gjessing 1934 pi. 3 8bef, 
45a; Gudesen 1980 fig. i/acd; Haug 
& Johansen 2003:4; Jansson 1985 
fig. 3; Marstrander 1973 fig. 8; 
Petersen 1928 fig. 3; Rygh 1885 fig. 
643; Shetelig 191 2 fig. 148; 1920 fig. 
263, 293; Stromberg 1961 Taf. 63:4; 
Trondheim, K. Norske Videnskabers 
Selskabs Skrifter, Tilvekst 1909 p. 6 
fig. 2; Vinsrygg 1979 fig. I3abc). 
R643B Geometric lattice decoration. The 
fields enclosed within the lattice are 
either chequered, plain or filled with 
animal interlace. Ofiien raised studs 
at lattice intersections (cf. fig. 17; 



Bennett & Hager 1976 fig. 7; Lin- 
dahl 1950; Oldsaksamlingens aarsbok 
1890 fig. 14; 0rsnes 1966 fig. 196; 
SJ0vold 1974 fig. 3 8d). 

R643C 4 medallions, each enclosing a mous- 
tachioed human figure caught in 
interlace (cf. fig. 18; Gjessing 1934 
pi. 43c, textfig. 27; Petersen 1928 
fig. 5—6; SJ0vold 1974 fig. 41a). 

R643D Bilaterally symmetric interlace deco- 
ration depicting two elongated side- 
view^ animals (cf. fig. 19; Vinsrygg 
1979:39-40, fig. 11; Gjessing 1934 
pi. 37ad; Shetelig 191 2 fig. 147; 1920 
fig. 292; SJ0vold 1974 fig. 3 8ac). 

R643E Small (L<78 mm) flattened quadru- 



150 



MARTIN RUNDKVI5T 



% 



^ 



Table 8. Group & type Stoi^Skomo. 



Population description. 


Stor-Skomo (n=4) 


Outline shape 


Sub-triangular 


Transversal profile 


Irregular 


Pin fastening 


Lug & catch soldered singly 


Number of lugs 


7 


Cast textile innpressions 


None 


Matciied pairs 


Always 


Length 


82.4 and 85.0 mnn 


Width 


55.0 mm (n=1) 


Height 


c. 25 mm (n=2) 


Edge thickness 


0.7, 0.7 and 0.9 mm 


W/L 


0.58 (n=1) 


H/W 


0.45 and c. 0.52 



ped brooches (cf. fig. 20; Gjessing 
1934 pi. 37b, 39a; Helgen 1982 fig. 
28; 0rsnes 1966 fig. 173; Serning 
1 960 pi. 11:8; Shetelig 1 9 1 2 fig. 404; 
SJ0vold 1974 fig. 38b; Vinsrygg 1979 
fig. 8abcd, 9ab). 

Group & type Stor-Skomo 

Group & type Stor-Skomo consists of intri- 
cately decorated brooches with an intricate 
irregular outline shape, thin-shelled (and thus 
rarely intact), with the pin's fastening arrange- 
ments soldered onto the inside of the brooch. 

Type definition 

Stor-Skomo Large (L>77) flattened quadru- 
ped brooches with a wide and 
high front end and a narrow and 
low rear end, rather like a toad 
that is sitting down and watch- 
ing the stars (cf. fig. 21; Gjess- 
ing 1934 pi. 38a; Trondheim, 
K. Norske Videnskabers Selskabs 
Skrifter, Tilvekst ic)oy.2.6). 



Prototypes and parallels of the brooches 
and the flattened quadruped motif 

There has been some discussion regarding the 
typological ancestry of the brooches under 
study here. Montelius (1873:186—189) iden- 
tified SPL as the earliest type, without how- 
ever suggesting any typological ancestor for it. 
Ekholm (191 8) compared type SPL to small 
oval metal spangles found in a Late Roman Iron 
Age grave in Finland. Arbman (1932:94—96) 
rejected this parallel and pointed instead to 
two plain knife pommels of the Early Vendel 
Period from Sodermanland (SHM 9994) and 
Ostergotland (SHM 17906:10) as probable 
ancestors of the SPL brooches. Arbman's sug- 
gestion carries more weight than Ekholm's in 
view of the closeness both in shape, size and 
date of the brooches and the pommels. 

Vedel (1890:58-60; 1897:86) beheved that 
group O (irregular outline) spawned group N 
(oval outline). This is unlikely as the small- 
est types of domed oblong brooches (SPL, 
SPU and the Ni types) are all oval. On the 
other hand, the flattened quadruped motif 
originated long before the time of the domed 
oblong brooches (Stjerna 1905:147—149). For 



DOMED OBLONG BROOCHES OF VENDEL PERIOD SCANDINAVIA 



151 



% 



^ 




Fig. 1 6 a. Type R643A. NO-S Hauge. Orig. L c. Fig. 16 c. Type R643A. NO-N Stromsasen, grave 
90 mm. Oslo Cl97o8a. Photo MR. 5- L 95 mm. Trondheim 19966 F40. Photo MR. 



^ 



fig. 528; Magnus 1999 fig. 5) as well as on the 
gold filigree collars (Salin 193 5 fig. 499, 501; 
Magnus 1999 fig. 4). 

The Migration Period sword pommels have 
two quadrupeds each. There are Vendel Period 
pommels with a single animal (FI GuUdynt, FI 
Kirmukarmu, FI Ristimaki, SVEds prastgard, 
SV Trosa; Hackman 1895; Stjerna 1905 fig. 
49—50; Arbman 1932 fig. 11; Nerman 1932; 
Kivikoski 1973 fig. 507—508; Magnus 1999 
fig. 6; Lamm & Rundkvist 2005), very much 
like domed oblong brooches with the flattened 
quadruped motif. The one from Ed dates from 
the Early Vendel Period. Flattened quadrupeds 
also occur as decorative bronze mouldings on 
the sockets of two (Early and Middle, respec- 
instance, it occurred in the Late Migration tively) Vendel Period lance heads, one from 
Period on Style I relief brooches (e.g. Salin NO By in Stod parish (Gjessing 1934 pi. 54) 
1935 fig- 85, 134, 350, 637, 638; Magnus and one from SV Vendel boat grave XII (Stolpe 
1999 fig. 1-3) and sword pommels (Salin 193 5 & Arne 1927 Pi. XXXIV: 5). 




Fig. 16 b. Type R643A. NO-N Melhus. Orig. L c. 
90 mm. Trondheim 6575. Photo MR. 



152 



MARTIN RUNDKVIST 



^ 



^ 




Fig. 17. Type R643B. NO-S Void. Orig. L c. 85 
mm. Oslo C15912. Photo MR. 





Fig. 18. Type R643C. NO-N 0stnes. L 102 mm. Fig. 19. Type R643D. NO-S Midtbust. Orig. L c. 
Tromso 908. Photo MR. 70 mm. Bergen 5785. Photo MR. 



The motif thus appears earlier in the weap- 
onry of the Vendel Period than in the jewel- 
lery of the time. Weaponry details depicting 
flattened quadrupeds occur both with oval 
and irregular outlines. Thus it seems that sub- 
sequently domed oblong brooches of various 
outline shapes with the flattened quadruped 
motif (groups N and O) originated at about 
the same time, all as adaptations of weaponry 
details with the traditional flattened quadru- 
ped motif. 

The flattened quadruped occurs on a flat 
Style D rectangular copper alloy plate from an 
uncertain grave find at N-Tr0ndelag, Alstad- 
haug psh, S0vik (T 11 09 3; Blindheim 1949 
fig. 4b; SJ0vold 1974 fig. 36d). It measures 
63 X 40 mm. Uniquely, the quadruped has 



a tightly coiled spiral on its neck. The piece's 
original mode of use is uncertain. Four rivet 
holes have been drilled secondarily through 
the decorative motif and its frame, apparently 
in order to use the plate as a mount. 

A slightly domed irregular mount from SJ 
Tiss0 {AUD i()C)y.2^-/) shows a single side-view 
of a Style D quadruped with a ribbed dorsal 
shield, much like the flattened quadrupeds 
of Nia and Oia brooches. I have not seen 
it first-hand and can thus say nothing of its 
back side. It has four rivet holes for fastening 
and is c. 67 mm long. It may have been part 
of an elaborate helmet, as has been suggested 
for two similar mounts found near the cult 
building excavated at SK Uppakra (Helges- 
son 2004:232). 



DOMED OBLONG BROOCHES OF VENDEL PERIOD SCANDINAVIA 



153 



^ 



^ 



h'WP/ t; ; W'"*Vi 




Fig. 20. Type R643E. SK Uppakia. L 49 mm. Lund 
U 5706. Photo MR. 

Possibly also part of a helmet is a 38 mm 
wide copper alloy fragment with the flattened 
quadruped motif, found in a grave at Hed- 
mark, L0ten psh, By (Oslo C9515; Martens 
1969 fig. 2ic). The quadruped's shoulder area 
is domed, but its ribbed dorsal plate becomes 
progressively flatter toward the rear where it 
is almost flat before the fragment breaks off. 
The fastening arrangements on the back side 
— an iron rivet at the middle of the dome and 
two low lug-like features on either side of it 
cast as part of the piece — are unlike anything 
seen on domed oblong brooches. 

An elongated animal of the kind pictured 
on brooches of types Nic and O2 as well as 
certain TT brooches occurs in tree-dimensional 
sculptural form as a brooch in UP Valsgarde 
grave 13 (UMF 5913:235), dating from the 
end of the Late Vendel Period (Schonbeck & 



Thunmark-Nylen 2002). The brooch is 47.2 
mm long, very finely wrought and inlaid with 
brick red enamel, and clearly depicts a horse. 
The SALJ excavation unit of Uppsala uses a 
likeness of it as its logotype (www.sau.se). 

The flattened quadruped motif occurs also 
in the Style E metalwork of the Vendel- Viking 
Period shift. Two roughly rectangular brooches 
(Montelius 1872 fig. 436; Stjerna 1905 fig. 48; 
Nerman 1929 fig. 42; Blindheim 1949 fig. 
3b) from Oland (SHM 1304:1841:61) and 
the Grobin area in Latvia depict the flattened 
quadruped being attacked by four snakes. The 
brooches are 54.0 and c. 50 mm long. The same 
snake attack is depicted by a late 8th century 
Continental silver animal figurine with Tas- 
silo chalice decoration, found at SK Uppakra 
(Helgesson 1999). It also occurs on an elabo- 
rate Oia brooch (Vedel 1897 fig. 92; 0rsnes 
1966 fig. 219) from grave 12, BO Lousgard. 

Two rectangular Style E strap mounts from 
a cremation grave at OL Klinta combine the 
flattened quadruped in relief and the sculp- 
tural heads of gripping beasts with their signa- 
ture ponytail hairdos (SHM 27877; Hagberg 
1966 fig. 6). They measure c. 45 x 30 and c. 
40 X 25 mm. 

The first serial produced Viking 
Period types 

The Berdal types of the Early Viking Peri- 
od span the boundary between unique and 
uniform brooches. I know of seven unique 
brooches that have many features in com- 
mon with the main Berdal group but retain 
the ancestral layout with two small eyes near 
one end and two pairs of large haunch marks 
{Bergen Tillvekst 1944; Petersen 1928 fig. 10, 
16; Rygh 1885 fig. 644; Shetelig 1920 fig. 
281). All have been found in southern Nor- 
way, most in Vestfold and Hedmark. These I 



154 



MARTIN RUNDKVI5T 



% 



^ 




Fig. 21. Type Stor-Skomo. NO-N Stor-Skomo. L 82 mm. Trondheim 7687. Photo MR. 



have termed proto-Berdal brooches (cf. Jansson 
198 5:28—29). They are Hsted in the catalogue 
but will not be discussed further here. 

The lengths of the most common serial pro- 
duced Early Viking Period types (taken from 
my own measurements and Jansson 1985) are 
as follows. Note that the Berdal types are far 
more various than the others both as to length 
and to decoration. 

Berdal. L 57—113 mm 
P25. L 96-103 mm 
P27. L 98—113 mm 
P37. L 96—110 mm 

When large-scale serial production of tortoise 
brooches started, four basic designs from TT 
brooches and large R643 brooches were used: 
flattened quadruped (Berdal P11-P24), oblique 
lattice (P25), 4 medallions (P27), and, probably 
slightly later, 2 rhombs/6 medallions (P37). 
P35 is the typological link between the TT 
brooches with two rhombs and P37. 



Chronology 
Chronological backbones 

This study has four chronological backbones: 
two seriations of female graves (appendix 1—2), 
the Ribe stratigraphy (Feveile 1994; 2002:18; 
2006; Feveile & Jensen 2000) and the increas- 
ing length of the brooch types through time 
(Fig. i; Table 10). I have developed my seri- 
ations from those of j0rgensen (1997:26 
fig. 16) for Bornholm and H0ilund Nielsen 
(1999:190 fig. 10:36) for mainland Sweden. 
Both have undergone intensive tweaking. I 
have added and removed graves and artefact 
types, I have re-classified artefacts (primarily 
the domed oblong brooches) and I have re- 
run the seriations (using WinBASP). Finally, I 
have re-phased both chronologies because not 
all of the phases proposed by Jorgensen and 
Hoilund Nielsen have any diagnostic types. 

(A phase without any diagnostic types lacks 
a definition, and a certain combination of types 
that are each present on their own in neigh- 



DOMED OBLONG BROOCHES OF VENDEL PERIOD SCANDINAVIA 



155 



% 



^ 



bouring phases cannot be used as a phase defi- 
nition. For example, consider a phase division 
where phase i is defined by type A alone, phase 
2 by the combination of type A and B, and 
phase 3 by type B alone. If we want to date a 
grave containing type B but not type A, then 
we cannot tell whether it dates from phase 2 
or 3. The absence of type A from the grave 
may be due to many other things than chro- 
nology, for example the personal taste of the 
deceased, the economic means of the mourn- 
ers, the temperature on the pyre, the preser- 
vation conditions or the excavation methods. 
However, the grave certainly post-dates the 
introduction of type B, which might be used 
as a diagnostic type of a phase. 

Attempts to define phases in seriations on 
the basis of type combinations do not produce 
useful fine chronology. Instead one arrives at 
phasing systems where the "date" of a grave 
is linked to the number of artefact types in it. 
Thus some phases cannot by definition have 
any poorly equipped graves, others cannot 
have any richly equipped ones.) 

My Vendel Period chronology for Bornholm 
has five phases and covers 32 artefact types, as 
set out in Appendix i. Appendix 2 is a cor- 
responding chronology for mainland Sweden 
(mainly Uppland and Sodermanland, with a 
few graves from Smaland, Ostergotland, Vast- 
manland and Halsingland) with five phases and 
26 artefact types. I have followed j0rgensen's 
absolute chronology based on decorative styles 
compared with historically datable artwork 
from the Continent and the British Isles. 

Table 9 is a correlation table for the local 
sequences including Vinsrygg's (1979) for 
northern Norway. The brooches under study 
occur in three phases from AD 700 to some 
time in the early 9th century, giving a mean 
phase length of about half a century, that is, 
two generations of brooch wearers. 



Early brooches: small and/or 
animal-shaped, AD 700-750/770 

All small brooch types (except the rare and 
varied type R643B) and all animal-shaped 
ones (except the very rare type Stor-Skomo) 
are diagnostic of this phase (Table 10). They 
are on average less than 78 mm long, typically 
c. 40 mm, as represented by the highest peak 
in the length histogram Fig. i. They seem to 
have been fashionable for 50—70 years. The 
greater mean length of type O2 indicates a 
late date within the phase (cf. Fig. i), which 
is supported by the type's late position in the 
seriation in appendix i. 

Contrary to earlier opinion, the small plain 
brooches do not appear to be earlier than the 
ones with intricate decoration. Rather, these 
two groups reflect difi^erent regional fashions: 
plain brooches in the Lake Malaren area (cf. 
H0ilund Nielsen 1991 fig. 3) and intricate- 
ly decorated ones in south Scandinavia and 
Norway. 

Also belonging to this phase are three larger 
types. Oib and Oic are long animal-shaped 
brooches known exclusively from Bornholm. 
The TT variant 0steras (with one find from 
N-Tr0ndelag, Sparbu psh, 0steras and four 
from Bornholm) is of particular interest as it 
embodies a number of innovations that proved 
long-lived. TT 0steras is the first large oval 
brooch type on Bornholm, the first type with 
the 4 medallions layout and one of the earliest 
exponents of Style E. All these traits survived 
through the final Vendel Period and into the 
Early Viking Period when they are found on 
mass-produced tortoise brooches such as types 
P25 and P27. 

As shown in Table 9, the small brooch types 
appear to have survived longer on Bornholm 
than in the Lake Malaren area. This is indi- 
cated by the fact that bead set types R3C and 



156 



MARTIN RUNDKVI5T 



^ 



^ 



Table 9. Interregional synchronisation of the Vendel Period. 



Date 


Bornholm (Jor- 
gensen 1997) 


Orsnes styles, 
S. Scandinavia 


Bornholm 


Mainland Swe- 
den 


N Norway (Vins- 
rygg 1979) 


AD 540-570 


1A/1B1 


- 


B0R1 


MLS1 


MIG 


AD 570-500 


1B2 


B 


B0R1 


MLS1 


1 


AD 600-670 


1C+1D1 


C 


B0R2 


MLS2 


1 


AD 670-700 


1D2 


C, D 


B0R3 


MLS3 


1 


AD 700-750 


2A 


C, D, E 


B0R4 


MLS4 


2a 


AD 750-770 


2B 


D, E, F 


B0R4 


MLS5 


2b 


AD 770-790 


2C 


D, E, F, GRB 


B0R5 


MLS5 


2b 


AD 790-840 


VIK 


E, GRB 


VIK 


VIK 


VIK 



Table 10. Chronology of the domed oblong brooches. 

SS = South Scandinavia, SW = Sweden, NO = Norway, Al = Aland 



Type 


Mean L 


700-750 


750-770 


770-790 


790-840 


Nie 


35.4 


SS 


- 


- 


- 


SPL 


40.4 


SS SW NO 


- 




- 


SPU 


43.6 


SSSW 


AL 


AL 


AL 


Ola 


45.8 


SS 


SS 


- 


- 


Nid 


45.3 


SS 


SS 




- 


Nia 


45.7 


SS SW NO 


SS 




- 


R643E 


47.2 


SSNO 


- 


- 


- 


N1V3 


49.4 


NO 


- 




- 


Nib 


52.4 


SS SW NO 


SS 


- 


- 


NIC 


52.9 


SSSW 


SS 




- 


02 


58.8 


SS 


SS 


- 


- 


R643D 


65.0 


NO 


- 


- 


- 


R643B 


75.0 




- 


SS SW NO 


- 


TT 0steras 


80.9 


- 


SSNO 


- 


- 


Stor-Skomo 


83.7 


- 


- 


NO? 


NO? 


01c 


83.9 


SS 


SS 




- 


TT 


84.5 


- 


SS SW NO 


SS SW NO 


SWNO 


R640 


88.1 


- 


- 


NO 


NO 


01b 


89.9 


SS 


SS 




- 


R643A 


90.5 


- 


- 


NO 


NO 


R643C 


99.0 


- 


- 


- 


NO 



^ 



R3d are diagnostic both of Bornholm's penul- 
timate Vendel Period phase (BOR4) and of the 
final Vendel Period phase on Lake Malaren 
(MLS 5). These two regional phases must thus 
be partly parallel. It appears unlikely that it 
would have taken several decades for the seg- 
mented metal foil beads and rock crystal beads 



to reach the Lake Malaren area after they had 
become fashionable on Bornholm. Also, TT 
0steras appears already in phase BOR4, which 
is another indication that this phase lasted past 
the start of MLS 5. The average lengths of TT 
brooches from the various regions support this 
conclusion (see below). 



DOMED OBLONG BROOCHES OF VENDEL PERIOD SCANDINAVIA 



157 



^ 



^ 



Late brooches: the transitional type, generally earlier than large ones. The length 

AD 750—840 averages in table ii indicate that type TT 

Scholars (e.g. Almgren 1955:81-84; 0rsnes first appeared in the Lake Malaren area, soon 

1966:151-157; Jansson 1985:15-23) have followed by Norway then by south Scandina- 

long debated the place of the so-called "tran- ^i^ ^^^^P^ Bornholm, and finally very late in 

sitional types" (TT) in the chronology Do ^he life of the type, by Bornholm. A late shift 

they belong to the Late Vendel Period, to the ^° ^^''g^ ^'°°^^ ^YP^' i" «o^th Scandinavia is 

Early Viking Period, or to both? For the sake ^1^° indicated by a casting mould found in 

of clarity I believe that we should base the ^'^^' ^^ich demonstrates the production of 

decision primarily on seriations of find com- ^ ^ype Nia brooch some time in the interval 

binations. Appendices 1-2 show that type TT 760-8 20. 

is present in find combinations of the Vendel ^^ metalworkers of Ribe abandoned type 

Period's two last phases and the Viking Period's ^T for various Berdal types (that define the 

first phase. On Bornholm, i out of 9 secure ^^art of the Viking Period), in about AD 780 

combinations with TT (iio/o) belongs to the (Feveile & Jensen 2000:13, fig- 6; 2006:155). 

Viking Period. In mainland Sweden, the figures ^till, TT brooches with close similarities to 

are 5 out of 14 secure combinations (360/0). later Viking Period types such as P37 have been 

In Norway there are only three closely dat- ^o^^^ '"^ o^her areas. Not all the TT brooches 

able find combinations with type TT known ^o^^^ i" ^iki^g ^"1°^ contexts in mainland 

to me, all source critically questionable, one Sweden were Vendel Period heirlooms, 

from the Late Vendel Period and two from the ^ot for lack of trying, I have been unable 

Early Viking Period ^° ^'^^ ^'^Y criteria that could define a Viking 

To sum up, mostTT brooches were depos- ^"1°^ sub-type of TT I know of twelve TT 
ited in the final Vendel Period. In absolute brooches found in securely documented Viking 
dates, this means that all were deposited after ^"1°^ contexts identified by metalwork or 
c. AD 750, and most before c. AD 790. The ^ead sets (as set out by Callmer 1977, group 
seriation in appendix i shows that, excepting ^^ onward). Detailed study of these brooches 
the TT 0steras variant discussed above, TT regarding their dimensions, proportions, tech- 
is a diagnostic type of the final phase of the "i^^l characteristics and decoration showed 
Vendel Period on Bornholm, c. AD 770-790. ^hat they are neither a homogeneous group 
Phase BOR5 represents a single generation of '^°' diScrcm in any meaningful sense from the 
women on Bornholm. average TT brooch. I have concluded that the 

As argued above, type TT was adopted at o^l^ ^^^^^^ subdivision that is possible with 

difl^erent dates in difi^erent regions. Uis can ^he materials at hand is the isolation of variant 

be deduced from find combinations, but also ^T 0steras, which is clearly decades earlier 

from the regional variation in length among ^han most TT brooches on Bornholm. Also, 

TT brooches. As the brooches of the early ^' g^ipping beasts are unknown before the time 

8 th century are smaller than the TT brooch- "^^YP^ ^T and very common afterwards, it is 

es, and as the tortoise brooches of the Early lively that TT brooches with gripping beasts 

Viking Period are larger than the TT brooches, (^4 out of 127 brooches) are somewhat later 

we may assume that small TT brooches are ^han the average TT brooch. But in the four 

graves (involving five brooches) where such 

158 MARTIN RUNDKVI5T 



^ 



^ 



Table 11. TT brooches, average length, regionally. 



Lake Malaren area 


77.5 mm 


General average 


84.6 mm 


Norway 


84.9 mm 


South Scandinavia except Bornholm 


89.1 mm 


Bornholm 


99.3 mm 



brooches' date of deposition can be closely 
ascertained, they have been deposited in the 
final Vendel Period (see pp i 59—160). 

Style E 

During classification of the TT brooches, I 
have defined Style E as follows. A decorative 
motif is executed in Style E if it incorporates 

A) a fork-like feature consisting of at least two 
sinuous parallel tendrils of equal length, and/or 

B) a triquetra knot incorporated in interlace. 
Style E occurs both in animal figures and in 
abstract surface-covering interlace. In Style E 
animal figures, the fork is typically a bird's tail 
or a foot, and the knot a haunch. 

Many of the TT brooches under study have 
interlace decoration that does not fulfil this 
definition yet is clearly neither Style C, Style 
D nor the Jellinge Style. By elimination, one 
might say that this anonymous interlace must 
be Style E. That would, however, be a useless 
negative definition. Style E would be an enor- 
mous global group if it were defined as "any 
interlace that is neither Style C, Style D nor 
the Jellinge style". 

Early and main period gripping beasts 

I have previously (Rundkvist loo^a.-.yy, 
2003c: 1 02— 103) used the undifferentiated 
gripping beast motif as the diagnostic typo- 
logical element of the Early Viking Period. 
However, during work with the TT brooches 
I have realised that there are in fact difi^erent 



kinds of gripping beasts. One of them pre-dates 
the Viking Period raids on Western Europe 
and Jan Petersen's Viking Period assemblage 
by a few decades. 

I agree with Wamers (1999) that the grip- 
ping beast was born as a Carolingian lion in the 
same Continental environment as the Tassilo 
chalice style, and that both reached Scandi- 
navia at about the same time, whereupon the 
Scandinavian reception of the Tassilo chalice 
style engendered Ramskou's (1965) Style E 
It appears, however, that the lions lingered 
in Scandinavia for a few decades before they 
became naturalised as the typical Viking Period 
gripping beasts. I wish, therefore, to suggest a 
bipartition of the gripping beast decoration. 

1. A few pieces of metalwork from the final 
Vendel Period up to about AD 790 has 
schematised gripping beasts, executed in 
indistinct relief, usually single ones impris- 
oned in circular frames (fig. 22). These 
proto-gripping beasts are typified by those 
seen on TT brooches. 

2. The common Early Viking Period gripping 
beast decoration after about AD 790 is dis- 
tinctly modelled and largely occurs as net- 
works of interlocking beasts (fig. 23). This 
group is typified by the Oseberg burial and 
the first tortoise brooches (Berdal and P27). 

Norway's indigenous brooch types 

In laying out the present classification scheme I 
have isolated group R643 with five types: intri- 
cately decorated oval brooches, thin-shelled. 



DOMED OBLONG BROOCHES OF VENDEL PERIOD SCANDINAVIA 



159 



^ 



^ 




Fig. 22. Proto-gripping beasts of the Final Vendel Period. Details of three TT brooches: NM C3103, 
NM C2454, Bergen 700a. Photos MR. 




^ 



Fig. 23. Early Viking Period gripping beasts on a proto-Berdal brooch. Oslo 19179. Photo MR. 



with the pin's fastening arrangements soldered 
onto the inside of the brooch. The techni- 
cal characteristics of group R643 are shared 
by types R640 (large plain thin-shelled oval 
brooches) and Stor-Skomo (large intricately 
decorated thin-shelled animal-shaped brooch- 
es). These seven types are indigenous to Nor- 
way although a few finds have also been made 
elsewhere. 

Two of the Norwegian types, R643D (n=3) 
and R643E (n=i 5), are small and diagnostic of 



the early 8th century (cf. Vinsrygg 1979:34— 
40). Of the five large Norwegian types, R643B 
(n=5) appears from find combinations to be 
diagnostic of the late 8th century. 

R640 (n=3 8) and R643 (n=36) are repeat- 
edly combined in grave finds and appear to 
be entirely contemporaneous. About half of 
the closely datable secure find combinations 
(59% and 56% respectively) date from the 
Viking Period, and the rest from the final Ven- 
del Period (contra Bakka 1973). They appear to 



160 



MARTIN RUNDKVI5T 



^ 



^ 



be roughly contemporaneous with typeTT in that lack the ancestral eye holes inherited from 

Norway, although, judging from their average 6th century brooch types. This developmen- 

sizes and the percentages above, they probably tal event has no equivalent among the domed 

have a somewhat later centre of chronologi- oblong brooches, but appears to coincide with 

cal gravity. the appearance of beaded mouldings, which 

The largest of all types under study here, is one of the more common defining charac- 

R643C (n=3), is known from only one closely teristics of our typeTT. Carlsson's phase A 

datable context, which belongs to the Early also has brooches with proto-gripping beasts. 

Viking Period. Type Stor-Skomo (n=4) likewise just like the ones on a few TT brooches. Csn 

has only one closely datable context (T 7687— A should thus to all appearances be placed 

7699), whose date is indicated by ahead set of in parallel with the transitional type (c. AD 

Callmer's (1977) group IB. Callmer's database 750—840), straddling the Vendel- Viking Period 

contains thirteen other find combinations with boundary. This view is an intermediate position 

bead sets of this group. Many of them have between the start dates for Csn A suggested 

domed oblong brooches of types R643A and by Carlsson 1983 (AD 725) and Rundkvist 

TT but some also possess diagnostic types 2003a (AD 790). 

either of the final Vendel Period or the Early With Carlsson's phase B, networks of inter- 
Viking Period (although Callmer places all of locking distinctly modelled gripping beasts 
group I after AD 790). Type Stor-Skomo, thus, appear. This trait is characteristic of the serial 
cannot be dated closer than to the lifetime of produced Early Viking Period tortoise brooch 
bead group lA, which spanned the Vendel- types from Berdal and P27 onward. 
Viking Period shift. A further link to this period 
can be seen in brooch fragments from a final 

,^ J , r, . J .c\7M\7 I J fcTj\/i The small punched brooches of Aland 

Vendel Period grave at SV-N Vagled (SHM '^ 

13804). This is apparently an R640 brooch Type SPU appears to have survived much long- 

onto which a small quadruped figurine has er on the Aland Isles than around Lake Malaren 

been riveted {Tillvdxten SHM 1909 fig. 58). (Rundkvist in press.). Whereas it fell out of 

The figurine has the same lifted muzzle and use along with the other small brooch types 

sloping body as type Stor-Skomo and should in Sweden about AD 750 it has been found 

thus be contemporaneous with that brooch both in final Vendel Period and Early Viking 

type. Period graves in the Aland Isles. 

There are also two final Vendel Period finds 
with type SPU from the Lake Malaren area 

Gotland's animal-head brooches n ^ ^^ • « j i j x, ^r- . 

(boat grave 3 5 at iuna in Dadelunda psh, Vast- 

An independent control of the Late Vendel and manland; and SHM 32577:51 from Soderman- 

Early Viking Period oval brooch sequence can land). These brooches have good parallels both 

be had from Anders Carlsson's (1983) seriation among the early main body of SPU brooches 

of the animal-head brooches of Gotland. The and in one of the Early Viking Period finds 

Gotlandic brooches display the same sequence from Aland. The one from Sodermanland is 

of decorative traits as the domed oblong ones, worn, the one from Vastmanland apparently 

Carlsson drew the starting line of his repaired judging from a drawing (Nylen & 

sequence at the first animal head brooches Schonback 1994 fig. 36). The SPU brooches in 

DOMED OBLONG BROOCHES OF VENDEL PERIOD SCANDINAVIA 161 



% 



^ 



these two final Vendel Period graves were thus is among archaeologists today. It should thus 

probably local heirlooms rather than recent be emphasised that the brooches under study 

imports fi-om Aland. In any case, these finds here signal the presence of aristocratic women, 

were excluded fi-om the seriation for mainland This throws an interesting light on finds from 

Sweden in appendix 2. wilderness locations such as Lake Gijrrajawrie 

in Swedish Lappland (SHM 103 21) and Lake 
Naldsjon in Jamtland (SHM 8747), that are 

Function and social significance u ui ., u , ui , c u . .u 

^ probably attributable to Saami hunter-gatherers. 
Small domed oblong brooches are rarely found 
in matched pairs, with the exception of type 

o L- L • 1 f J • • ,u Technical characteristics 

U2 which IS commonly round as pairs in the 

inhumation graves of Bornholm. Some early ^ 

brooch types (e.g. SPL and SPU) were appar- All studied brooches are cast in copper alloy 

ently not regularly worn on the chest to hold from original wax models, with a single excep- 

the dress together, as they often occur as the tion. A unique brooch from NO-N Sandvik (T 

only brooch of any kind in graves. This may i8652e; Marstrander 1973 fig. 9) is made from 

however have to do with the lack of female sheet metal and has clumsy incised decoration, 

inhumation graves outside of Bornholm. It is apparently the product of an unskilled 

The dress changes with the introduction of attempt to copy an Nia or Nib brooch, 
large brooch types c. AD 750 when matched The thin-shelled Norwegian types are par- 
brooch pairs become common, a trait that then ticularly skilfully made in a manner quite their 
continues to characterise the brooches of the own. Apart from the plain R640 type and a 
Viking Period. Brooch pairs were now made to few pieces with incised decoration, most of 
be worn on the chest, and there is often a third them have cast decoration that could easily 
brooch worn at the throat to secure a shawl have pierced the brooch but very rarely does, 
or cloak (j0rgensen 1997:5 5—59)- A gold foil None of them has textile impressions on the 
miniature figure from BO Sorte Muld (Watt inside, and it is in fact a bit of an enigma how 
1999 Abb. I2:7e) depicts a robed lady with they were made. They are very delicate, and 
a ponytail hairdo and a jewellery set of this despite their thickened edges and the metal 
kind. She wears a disc-on-bow brooch at her strips soldered onto their insides many of them 
throat and a pair of oval brooches on her chest, are poorly preserved, 
probably intended as O2 or TT brooches. 
Disturbingly, her limp posture indicates that 

, . ... J r r r Tin pldtinQ and gilding 

she IS an execution victim and has been hung. r- j ;7 c7 

As mentioned above, we are mainly dealing Tin plating is common on Middle Vendel 

in this study with uniquely designed pieces of Period metalwork from south Scandinavia, 

highly skilled craftsmanship, characterised by With the Late Vendel Period, however, this 

intricate animal art styles that were controlled technique fell out of fashion. Only five of the 

by the aristocracy. Understanding and appre- brooches under study have the silvery sheen 

dating this complex and miniaturised artistic of tin-plating: the outside of an Ni or Oia 

genre takes practice, and was most likely at least brooch from SK Uppakra (U38321), the out- 

as uncommon a skill in the 8th century as it side of an Nia brooch from SJ Lserkefryd (NM 

162 MARTIN RUNDKVI5T 



^ 



^ 



C3 2698), the outside of an Nid brooch from these fastening arrangements soldered onto 

SJTiss0 (NM KN0545), the inside of a gilded the inside of the brooch, usually placed at the 

Nib brooch from SJ Tiss0 (NM KN1350), ends of a separate curved metal strip. Final- 

and the inside ends of an R643A brooch from ly, four atypical brooches from Smaland and 

0stfold (Oslo Ci97o8a). Sodermanland appear to have original riveted 

Gilding is more common than tin-plating iron fastening arrangements. The fact that this 

but nevertheless rare. 19 brooches show traces design is so uncommon is not surprising as it 

of gilding. 68% of them are from south Scan- produces brooches with unsightly rivet heads 

dinavia, 42% are from SK Uppakra and SJ on the front side. 

Tiss0. 78% are small and early, 22% are type In 98% of the determinable cases (n=22i) 

TT (late and large). there is only a single pin lug. Five brooches 

To sum up, tin-plating and gilding mainly have two lugs set side by side. They are widely 

appear on brooches from aristocratic settings spread in time and space and should probably 

in south Scandinavia in the early part of the be seen as random innovations. Viking Period 

period under study. tortoise brooches generally have two lugs. Jan 

Petersen (1928:24) identified type P25 as the 
first of the serial-produced tortoise brooches 

^ on the grounds that it has a uniquely high 

Nine brooches have inlay sockets recessed into percentage (80%) of single pin fastening lugs, 

the surface, all as part of a more or less evident In 98% of the determinable cases (n=i6i), 

flattened quadruped motif. The sockets mark the pin catch is bent to the right when the 

eyes, haunches and spines. The material inside brooch's inside is seen with the catch end 

the sockets is extant on only three brooches: upward. 

one with silver sheet (Stjernquist 1993 fig. 11), With 1 1 exceptions, the pin catch is placed 

one with red enamel (NM C5607) and one at the head end of brooches with the flattened 

with blue and red enamel (NM C482). See quadruped motif and at the narrow end of 

pp. I 51— I 54 for a parallel from UP Valsgarde. brooches with an egg-shaped outline. Three 

As a group, the nine brooches with inlay of the exceptions are visibly due to repairs, 

sockets have much in common with the tin- see below. 

plated and gilded ones — indeed, three of them All extant pins are made of iron or steel, 

are gilded. All but one are from south Scandi- most of them simply riveted to the lug. There 

navia and all but two are early. are also spring-loaded pins, where the spring is 

generally a backward continuation of the pin 
that forms a loop pressed against the inside of 

Fastening arrangements ., ltm -l kua, 

^ ^ the brooch. Iwo Norwegian brooches nave ilat 
I have already touched upon the fastening springs made by hammering the back end of 
arrangements of the brooches in the context the pin, as became rather common on Nor- 
of typological classification and interregional wegian tortoise brooches in the Viking Peri- 
variation. Most brooch types are cast in one od. ATT brooch from Sodermanland (SHM 
piece, with a pin fastening lug at one end of 25848:86) has a bronze sheet spring under 
the inside and a pin catch at the other. The its pin. An O2 brooch from the Aland Isles 
thin-shelled Norwegian types, however, have (Helsinki 5179:2) has a Y-shaped pin that may 

DOMED OBLONG BROOCHES OF VENDEL PERIOD SCANDINAVIA 163 



^ 



^ 



have been fitted secondarily to the brooch by to the brooches and are rarely extant today, 

an artisan fi-om east of the Baltic. 50% of the repaired brooches also show signs 

The pin fastening and stabilising strips sol- ofwear. Only 25% of non-repaired brooches 

dered into the R640 brooches are all made of are worn, indicating that many repairs were 

iron. Most of them are very poorly preserved, made long after the brooches were completed, 

probably due to galvanic corrosion. Shapes due to wear. The pin fastening lug (45 cases) 

and dimensions can, however, in many cases has more often been repaired than the pin catch 

be determined from the remaining rust stains. (31 cases). This is the opposite of what has 

These vary considerably and form four groups: been observed on snake brooches (Rundkvist 

i) most commonly a simple straight ribbon, 2003c:io8). Nor do the snake brooches show 

width 7—19 mm; 2) a strip with tapered ends, any correlation between wear and repair. These 

max width c. 18 mm; 3) a lozenge with con- observations indicate that the two classes of 

cave sides, max width 43 mm; 4) a strip with brooches were used in very difi^erent ways. It 

widened ends, min width i o mm. may have to do with whether the brooches were 

The pin fastening and stabilising strips sol- worn vertically or horizontally, whether they 

dered into the R643A brooches are made of were used to hold the dress together or simply 

iron with the exception of a pair from N-Tr0n- as ornaments, and whether bead strings were 

delag (T 6575) whose strips are made of bronze often attached to their fastening lugs or not. 

and finely line decorated. As with R640, most The pin catch is, as noted above, almost 

of the iron strips are poorly preserved but vary always placed at the head end of brooches 

considerably in shape and dimensions. Most with the flattened quadruped motif and at the 

brooches have straight ribbons, 5—22 mm narrow end of brooches with an egg-shaped 

wide. Tapered strips, max width 9—20 mm, outline. There are a few exceptions. Gilded and 

are about half as common. A pair of brooches inlaid brooches are strongly over-represented 

from Hordaland (Bergen 12012) has lozenge- among these brooches whose pin fastening 

shaped strips. One brooch from N-Tr0ndelag lug and pin catch have been swapped (3 out 

(T 18652c) has a strip with widened ends. of 11, one of which is visibly repaired). This 

should not be taken to mean that the makers 
of particularly fine brooches were less atten- 

^ tive to the details of the pin fastening. Rather, 
60 brooches bear witness to repairs, all but it seems likely that most lug-catch swaps are 
one regarding the pin fastening lug and/or due to repair and that the artisans and wear- 
pin catch. (One of the TT brooches from BO ers were more likely to repair a particularly 
Lillevang-Melsted, gr. 2, NM C6593, has had fine brooch than a commonplace one. This is 
a casting defect in its surface filled in). The supported by the fact that one of the brooches 
methods used to replace broken pin lugs and from Lake Gijrrajawrie in Swedish Lappland 
catches are riveting and soldering, in some (SHM 103 21), discussed above, has had a lug- 
cases both. catch swap. The owner lived very far from the 

Repairs are equally common in all brooch areas where these brooches were made, and was 

types except the R643 types, which show very thus both more likely to repair the brooches 

few traces of repairs. This is due to the fact that when they broke, and less likely to know the 

their pin fastening contraptions were soldered standard way of finishing them. 

164 MARTIN RUNDKVIST 



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Production sites of which I have examined first hand. The Post 

T L -J »•£: J c • L J L L »L » Office excavations of 1990—91 furnished a 

i have identmed no unnnished brooches that ^^ ^ 

1 1 • 1- ^ J »• V TT, » detailed stratigraphic sequence that has been 

could indicate production sites, ihe surest way & r "i 

• ^ V L ^ » r r f * • locked into absolute chronology with dendro 
to pinpoint sites where metalwork or a certain &■' 

1-1 j-»»jLr • » dates (Feveile & Jensen 2000; 2006; Feveile 

kind was made is to study broken ceramic cast- ^ ^ ' ' 

11/ T „ „ T3 : L A/T J 2002:18). Mould fragments for 0rsnes type 

ing moulds (e.g. Lamm 1970; Drinch Mad- / & /r 

„o . 17 -r „„ .\ c: : L J » r r N brooches occurred in stratigraphic phases 
sen 1904; Feveile 1994). Finished metalwork & r r 

ir^jj I J-, C and D (AD 725—760, 760—780). These 

may have been traded across long distances ^ / j / > / / ' 

J J J • r L r types were succeeded by type Ribe— 9 Berdal 

and ended up as scrap in workshops rar away J <: 1 1 r -' 

r »L J »• V \A \^ c » brooches (with single gripping beasts) in phase 

rrom the production site. Mould rragments, ^ & & rr & / r 

»L »L L J » r-r r -j E (AD 780s) and standard Berdal brooches 

on the other hand, were most likely consid- ^ ' ' 

J *Lr TT, L » J » L with interlocking gripping beasts in phases 

ered worthless, ihey can be expected to have & & rr & r 

r J ,v J <-U ILL F-I (AD 790-850). After AD 850 the strati- 

been deposited very near the workshop where \ I J > I > 

A I J J A L r V vL graphic sequence on the site was interrupted 

the moulds were used. A number or sites with & r "i r 

»L- r • J f »• J L • r »L o»L J for several centuries, 

this kind or casting debris rrom the oth and 

„^r ^ • I r c J- • Among the casting moulds for 0rsnes type 

9th centuries are known rrom bcandinavia. & & ir 

r\ \ \j \ •■ JD-LL *^r rj N brooches from excavations in Ribe identi- 

(Jnly rielgo and Kibe have, to my knowledge, 

• ijj rjf»Lr-jfL L J fied by Fielge Brinch Madsen, Claus Feveile 

yielded moulds ror the kind or brooches under '' & > 

J r and myself, there are nine fragments belonging 

TT rr ^ -J I J r rr r • to at least six top-side moulds for decorated 

rialr a top-side mould ror a small plain ^ 

r I vL ..r- L L f J brooches (Table 12). They represent types Nia 

brooch without lines or grooves has been round ^ ' / r ir 

1 ■ r £ J r *L ^ » r r and TT and were found in contexts dated to 

along with sparse hnds or other metalwork- 

j L • »D -rj- r^ Q\T \j \ ■■ AD 760—820. (This late occurrence of Nia 

ing debris at Building Oroup i on ciV rielgo ' ^ 

/r J D • L „„. ,_ .o\ T» tallies well with the indications that the small 

(hnd no 7553; Keisborg 1994:25, 48). It was 

c J » -J »L cwr f L o » brooch types survived longer on Bornholm 

round outside the bw corner or house at a ^ t' & 

j»Lf»r ».„ T c-LJL L than in the Lake Malaren area, cf. Table 9.) 

depth or at least 40 cm. iwo hnished brooches ' ^' 

r^i ^ rr j»D-rj- Only three fragments can be placed in a sing- 

or the same type were also round at Building / & r & 

(^ L »L »L r • -J L le phase of the Post Ofiice stratigraphy, all of 

Cjroup I, both near the surrace inside house t' & r /> 

„ »L » » J • L»L -J L o nn, V them in phase G, AD 800—820. They prob- 

9 that stood right beside house 0. ihe site was r > / r 

inhabited from the Late Migration Period to ^^^^ represent two TT brooches. 

the Early Viking Period, with houses 8 & 9 ^' ^"'^ ^^^ excavation in Ribe also yield- 

r • • J • »L c »L rr r»L • j ed c. 18 fragments of moulds and one nearly 

being in use during the hrst hair or the period & '' 

/-D • L „„ . \ complete top-side mould for featureless oval 

(Reisborg 1994:71). l l ^ if uf 

nn, *L J „»L » » r r r brooches, ihere are also a lew mould rragments 

ihe 7th and 9th century metalworkers or & 

TVD-L r f »L • J for other plain domed objects. Most of these 

J Y Kibe are known ror their mass produc- t' > 

tion of Early Viking Period Berdal brooches, fragments belong to phase C (AD 725-760). 

jr-irjr ■ rj The brooch mould fragments are too Strongly 

as witnessed by rich hnds or casting moulds & & '' 

/D • L \/r J „o. c -r „„ c -r B^ domed to belong to the smooth inner shells of 

(Brinch Madsen 1904; Feveile 1994; Feveile & & 

T ^\ TT ^1 ^- I oth century double-shelled tortoise brooches. 

Jensen 2006 j. riowever, the same excavations '' 

1 r • rj J r l r rj AJso, metaJworking ceased at Ribe before the 

have also yielded a lesser number or mould ' & 

r ^ c rA »MLL » double-shelled types appeared. However, those 

rragments ror Wrsnes type JN brooches, most ^ t^ rr > 

fragments that allow measurements do not cor- 
DOMED OBLONG BROOCHES OF VENDEL PERIOD SCANDINAVIA 165 



^ 



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Table 12. Early domed oblong brooch types identified among the casting moulds 
from Ribe. 





Type 


Context 


Phase 


Ref 


D4215 


TT, medallions 


1974, Dommerhaven 
5M74, sq DS, layers 
G&L 


3-4 (D-l) 


Brinch Madsen 
1984:142 


D10463 


TT, style E 


1975, Kunstmus 
have 4M75, sq ZR, 
cone 8 


3 (D-G) 


Brinch Madsen 
1984:158 


D10608 


? 


1975, Kunstmus 
have 4M75, sq ZR, 
cone 7/8 


3 (D-G) 


Brinch Madsen 
1984:168 


D13044 


TT, beaded moulding 


1975, Kunstmus 
have 4M75, sq ZR, 
cone 7 


3 (D-G) 


Brinch Madsen 
1984:184 


7x2488 


Nia, wc. 28 mm 


1986, Set. Nieolaj- 
gadeS, A279 


VH4(D-E) 


Jensen 1991:30 


9x204.2 


TT style E 


1990-91, Posthuset 
M2E,A31/32 


G 




9x311 


TT, flattened quadru- 
ped, 78 x 38 x 14 
mm 


1990-91, Posthuset 
M4M,A196 


DorE 




9x378.2 


TT, beaded moulding, 
style E 


1990-91, Posthuset 
M3H, A240/243 


G 




9x378.16 


TT, beaded moulding, 
style E 


1990-91, Posthuset 
M3H, A240/243 


G 





respond with any known plain brooches. The 
nearly complete mould (D6702-1-6861) repre- 
sents an undecorated and slimly proportioned 
domed oval brooch measuring 72 by 3 2 by 1 2 
mm. There are no parallels to this combination 
of traits — featurelessness, proportions, dimen- 
sions — so the brooch was most likely intended 
to receive incised decoration after casting, which 
would have made it a TT brooch (cf. Table 5). A 
smaller mould fragment (9x3 51-1-9x551) would 
have produced a c. 42 mm wide and c. 1 8 mm 
high brooch, dimensions that also correspond 
only with TT brooches. 

A poorly preserved finished brooch belong- 
ing to one of the Ni types (H0ilund Nielsen 
2004:63, fig. 4) has been found during trial 
trenching (termed "gleaning" in the publi- 



cation) at the art museum in Ribe. It is an 
unstratified find. 

During excavations in 1998—2003, the early 
urban settlement of Kaupang in southern Nor- 
way produced 6 kg of casting-mould fragments 
(Pil0 & Pedersen 2007:1 81). They are, however, 
so poorly preserved that in only very few cases 
can it be determined what kind of object they 
belong to. One of the few attested object classes 
is single-shelled Viking Period tortoise brooches 
of serial produced types. There is however no 
sign of the earliest such types (P25, P27orBer- 
dal), nor of transitional types. Trefoil brooches 
and equal-armed LJ0nes brooches do occur 
(Unn Pedersen, e-mail 27 May 2008). 

In the Black Earth of SV Bjorko, the earliest 
known type of domed oblong brooch repre- 



166 



MARTIN RUNDKVI5T 



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sented among the casting mould fragments is toise brooches (types P51, P52, P55), trefoil 

P2 5. No fragments of moulds for TT brooches brooches and disc brooches are represented 

have been identified. A few ambiguous frag- (Eniosova 2002). 

ments may possibly belong to Berdal brooches Apart from the casting moulds, it is also 

(BjornAmbrosiani, personal communication possible to locate production sites through 

16 July 2003). Nevertheless, TT brooches have distinct brooch types with a restricted geo- 

been found in four graves on Bjorko (Bj 48 5, graphical distribution (Table 14). One examp- 

602, 65 5, 1009), very near the Black Earth. le of this is the late 8th and early 9th century 

The finds from JY Hedeby date mainly from afterlife of the small punched brooch type in 

the mid— 9th century onward. There appear the Aland Isles (Rundkvist in press). Others 

to be no casting moulds for domed oblong are type N1V3 in northern Norway (Vinsrygg 

brooches of the transitional type or the earliest 1979 type HI); and Oib, Oic andTT Osteras 

Viking Period among the finds from this site on Bornholm. 

(Volker Hilberg, e-mail 21 February 2005). As stated above, most of the brooches under 

The pro to-urban settlement at SK Ahus study are individual designs. Uniquely, at least 

II (Transval) has yielded rich finds of casting 61% of the 1 3 type Nie brooches known to me 

moulds, particularly in the fills of sunken-floor belong to uniform variants, indicating serial 

huts (Callmer 2003). Domed oblong brooches production although not on a Viking Period 

were produced at this site from a time corre- scale. Most of the Nie brooches are metal 

sponding to AD 760 in the Ribe Post Office detector finds from central places in south 

chronology onward. Not all mould fragments Scandinavia. This is the sort of context where 

have as yet been cleaned and conserved, and small-scale serial production has been demon- 

TT brooches may be represented. Certainly strated for several other brooch types of the 

identified types all however belong to the Early Migration and Vendel Periods (e.g. Arrhenius 

Viking Period: Berdal, P27 and P37 (Johan 1999; Hardh 1999; Rundkvist 2003c). The 

Callmer, e-mail 31 May 2005). I have not seen rare cases of tin plating and gilding (see p. 

any of these mould fragments. 163) also cluster there, emphasising further 

The cemeteries of Bornholm have produced that although we have no casting moulds for 

rich and varied finds of domed oval brooches, domed oblong brooches yet from these sites, 

but no casting moulds for this brooch group they are where we should seek remains of the 

are known from the island's settlement sites era's top-tier jewellery workshops. 
(Margrethe Watt, e-mail 17 February 2005). 

In Staraya Ladoga, no casting moulds for 

the brooch types under study nor for Viking Interregional Variation 

Period tortoise brooches have been found (A.N. and reolonal Identity 

Kirpichnikov, e-mail 13 April 2005). How- ^^ 1 1 1 1 .,,..,. r 

'^ _ - r ^' iable 13 shows the regional distribution or 

ever, two finished brooches, one type SPL 111 1 11 1 

^ ^ _ the brooches under study that are determin- 

and one type TT BJ655, have been found in , , _. ^ . . 

^^ '^ ' _ _ _ able as to type, ihe hgures do not correspond 

the town's culture layers (Kirpichnikov 2004 |. r 1 r r > 1 • • r 

, \ . . directly to the brooches popularity in the vari- 

and e-mail). The only site in Old Russia with . . , . t, , . . r 

, , , . ous regions in prehistory. Four biasing ractors 

casting moulds for Scandinavian jewellery is , , , 1 1 r r 

" _ ... may be suggested that push up the hgures tor 
Gnezdovo, where Middle Viking Period tor- 

DOMED OBLONG BROOCHES OF VENDEL PERIOD SCANDINAVIA 167 



% 



^ 



a region: a) rich inhumation graves (particu- 
larly Bornholm and Norway), b) active metal 
detectorists collaborating with museums (par- 
ticularly south Scandinavia), c) easily visible 
grave superstructures (most areas with finds 
except south Scandinavia), d) organisations 
that employ archaeologists (all urban areas). 
Because of these biases, it is not very instruc- 
tive to look at the absolute figures in Table 1 3 . 
Instead, we shall study the relative abundance 
of difl^erent brooch types within the areas where 
they are common. 

Early brooches, interregional 
variation 

Table 14 presents the regional variation in the 
frequency of early 8th century brooch types. 
(For a similar study of the snake brooch- 
es of the preceding century, see Rundkvist 
200 3c: 1 10— 1 13.) The table covers 10 regions 
and 14 brooch types. 

The number of determinable brooches and 
brooch types from each region vary widely. 
Interestingly, the typological diversity of a 
region is not proportional to sample size. 
The Lake Malaren area has very few brooch 
types despite its many finds, while northern 
Sweden, Oland and Gotaland have few and 
relatively diverse brooches. Gotaland has a 
disproportionately large number of unique 
brooches (two uniques to seven typological- 
ly determinable early brooches), indicating 
local types that are poorly represented due 
to the small sample. The typological diver- 
sity of northern Sweden and Oland, however, 
marks them as border areas where the edges 
of adjacent regional distributions overlap. The 
women of these areas appear not to have cul- 
tivated brooch types of their own, but instead 
selected designs from various neighbouring 
power centres. 



Table 13. Domed oblong brooches, detei^ 
minable as to type. 



South Scandinavia 


Bornholm 


84 


Scania 


65 


Jutland 


33 


Zealand 


42 


Funen 


8 




Sweden 


Lake Malaren 


82 


Oland 


19 


Gotaland 


15 


N Sweden 


15 


Gotland 


2 




Nonvay 


S Norway 


75 


N Norway 


74 




Wf Europe 


Aland 


13 


Finland 


3 


Russia 


2 


Latvia 1 




NW Europe 


Frisia 


2 


N Germany 


2 



A correspondence analysis (Fig. 24) of Table 
14 (treated as a frequency matrix) shows that 
there are three main regional brooch assemb- 
lages that every region under study has related 
to in different ways. (For an explanation of how 
correspondence analysis works, see Rundkvist 
2003b:9— 10. In the scattergram Fig. 24, Oland 
and Gotaland appear close together, while 
Lake Malaren and northern Norway appear far 
apart. This means that the brooch assemblages 
of Oland and Gotaland are similar, whereas 
those of Lake Malaren and northern Norway 
are dissimilar, as seen in table 14.) These typo- 
logically distinct regions are a) Bornholm and 



168 



MARTIN RUNDKVIST 



^ 



^ 





Units 




r-2.5 

; 

Born+ESc 
-2.0 

-1.5 

-lj9t*Fun 

-0.5 ♦ 
EZea+WSc 




4.0 


.,.,♦ -30 -20 -10 

'^'^"'--'".^' .1 , . . . . 


, WZealand 


1.0 






SNorway 


--0.5 

GotalfflSid 

NSweden 
--1.0 

--1.5 • 
Malaren 

^2.0 





Fig. 24 Early 8th century 
regional variation. Correspon- 
dence analysis scattergram. 



eastern Scania, b) the Lake Malaren area, c) 
northern Norway. At the centre of the scatter 
is the most eclectic, most varied, most well- 
connected, least distinctive regional assem- 
blage, that of eastern Zealand and western 
Scania. Uppakra and Tiss0 are located here. 

It should be emphasised, however, that all 
of the regions studied in table 14 and fig. 24 
have at least one thing in common: early 8th 
century domed oblong brooches. Adjacent 
areas such as Gotland or Estonia have no such 
brooches at all. In this sense, the women of 
Oland had more in common with their con- 
temporaries in northern Norway than with 
those on nearby Gotland. 

As I have argued regarding the snake brooch- 
es (Rundkvist 2003c:iio— 113), if a brooch 
type is absent from an area adjacent to one 
where this type is common, then this must 
be interpreted as purposeful avoidance. Such 
a refusal marks a symbolic distance that most 
likely reflects (and helped construct) ethnic 
and/or political boundaries. Above, I have iden- 
tified a few brooch types with very restricted 
distributions, indicating local production sites. 
But this restriction is most likely not simply 



a question of limited supply, but also of limi- 
ted foreign demand. It shows that there were 
distinct ethno-political entities in the Aland 
Isles (late survival of type SPU), in northern 
Norway (type Ni V3) and on Bornholm (types 
Oib, Oic, TT 0steras). The women of the 
Lake Malaren area with their characteristic 
SPL and SPU brooches conspicuously avoided 
type Nib despite the fact that it was popular 
in all adjacent regions, and hardly touched 
any of the other Ni types. Type Nie is com- 
mon in Jutland and Funen but absent from 
western Zealand and southern Norway. The 
near-restriction of the thin-shelled types R643a 
etc. to Norway may be interpreted similarly. 

Late brooches, interregional 
variation, broadening contacts 

The regional distribution of snake brooches 
(Rundkvist 2003 c) and early domed oblong 
brooches indicate small polities with distinct 
symbolic programmes in the period c. AD 
5 50—750. With the late 8th century, however, 
this picture changes into one that marks the 
period as an ouverture to the Viking Period. 



DOMED OBLONG BROOCHES OF VENDEL PERIOD SCANDINAVIA 



169 



^ 



^ 



Table 14. Regional variation in the early 8th century. 





Jutl& 
Funen 
(n=31) 


WZeal 
(n=15) 


EZeal 
&WSc 
(n=35) 


ESc& 

Born 

(n=65) 


Oland 
(n=10) 


Gotal 
(n=7) 


Ma- 
laren 
(n=48) 


N 

Sweden 

(n=7) 


N 
Norway 
(n=19) 


S 
Norway 
(n=14) 


Nia 


6% 


20% 


14% 


8% 


10% 


14% 


4% 


29% 


5% 


21% 


Nib 


15% 


20% 


20% 


5% 


40% 


43% 


- 


14% 


- 


29% 


NIC 


- 


7% 


3% 


8% 


10% 


- 


2% 


14% 


- 


- 


Nid 


10% 


27% 


14% 


5% 














Nie 


35% 


- 


6% 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


N1V3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


32% 


- 


Ola 


13% 


20% 


14% 


14% 


10% 


14% 


2% 


- 


- 


- 


01b 


- 


- 


- 


6% 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


01c 


- 


- 


- 


3% 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


02 


3% 


- 


11% 


45% 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


7% 


R543D 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


11% 


7% 


R543E 


6% 


- 


6% 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


42% 


14% 


SPL 


6% 


7% 


6% 


2% 


10% 


29% 


69% 


29% 


5% 


21% 


SPU 


3% 


- 


6% 


- 


20% 


- 


23% 


14% 


- 


- 
























Sum 


100% 


100% 


100% 


100% 


100% 


100% 


100% 


100% 


100% 


100% 


Types 


9 


6 


10 


9 


5 


4 


5 


5 


5 


5 



The regional variation in the frequencies of 
late 8th / early 9th century brooch types is set 
out in Table i 5. (Note that a: in this table, a 
set of brooches of the same type from one find 
context has been counted as only one find, 
and b: the table does not cover all compara- 
ble brooch types used at the time, as the Early 
Viking Period tortoise brooches came into use 
and replaced type TT toward the end of the 
studied interval.) 

In this period, instead of a number of widely 
distributed distinct brooch types, we have the 
extremely varied type TT that does not lend 
itself easily to subdivision. Most of the regions 
under study are thus highly uniform in their 
brooch assemblages: typeTT dominates. Nor- 
way, however, is distinguished in this period 
through the proliferation of its indigenous large 
thin-shelled brooch types. As in the preceding 
period, there is great variation within Norway, 



with the northern part of the country culti- 
vating a distinct fashion. Northern Norway is 
the only part of Scandinavia where type TT is 
largely avoided. With a single exception (from 
Troms), theTT brooches of northern Norway 
are all from Nord-Tr0ndelag, the province 
bordering on southern Norway. 

Among the bewildering variety of the 
brooches under study here there are a few 
groups of almost identical pieces that I have 
termed variants. Their geographic distribution 
changes through time in an interesting way 
(Table 16). Early variants are closely concent- 
rated, no farther apart than eastern Zealand 
and Poland. Representatives of late variants, 
on the other hand, are often found much far- 
ther apart. This indicates increasing mobility 
of goods, craftsmen or both and supports the 
dating of some TT brooches to the Viking 
Period with its intensified long-distance trade. 



170 



MARTIN RUNDKVI5T 



^ 



^ 



Table 15. Regional variation in the late 8th / early 9th century. 





Jutl& 
Funen 
(n=2) 


WZeal 
(n=3) 


EZeal 

&WSc 

(n=5) 


ESc& 

Born 

(n=20) 


Oland 
(n=8) 


Gotal 
(n=6) 


Ma- 
laren 
(n=27) 


N 

Sweden 

(n=5) 


N 
Norway 
(n=33) 


S 
Norway 
(n=42) 


R640 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


33% 


36% 


R643A 


- 


- 


- 


5% 


- 


- 


4% 


- 


39% 


21% 


R643B 


- 


- 


- 


5% 


- 


17% 


4% 


- 


3% 


2% 


R643C 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


5% 


- 


Stor- 

Skomo 


















3% 


2% 


TT 


100% 


100% 


100% 


75% 


100% 


83% 


93% 


100% 


12% 


38% 


TT0S- 
teras 








15% 










3% 


























Sum 


100% 


100% 


100% 


100% 


100% 


100% 


100% 


100% 


100% 


100% 


Types 


1 


1 


1 


4 


1 


2 


3 


1 


7 


5 



Table 16. Regional distribution of variants. 



Early 8th century 


Nievarl 




Jutland 


N1evar2 




Jutland 


Nie var2 




Funen, W Scania 


NIdToftegard 




Funen, E Zealand 


Nid NSV 




Bornholm 


01c 




Bornholm 


02 b 




Bornholm 


02 Ellegard 




Bornholm, W Scania 


N1dVedsk0lle 




E Zealand, ?Oland 




Late 8th and early 9th 


century 




TT BJ485 




Lake Malaren 


TT Sundby 




Lake Malaren, Aland, Oland 


TT Marsta 




Lake Malaren, Vastergotland 


TT BJ602 




Lake Malaren, W Zealand 


TTBJ655 




Lake Malaren, Russia 


TT Tryti 




S Norway 


TT 0steras 




S Norway, Bornholm 


TTB1580 




S Norway, Smaland 



^ 



DOMED OBLONG BROOCHES OF VENDEL PERIOD SCANDINAVIA 



171 



^ 



^ 



Uniques down. In the rhombic central field is abstract 

\ A h r j»jj »f ^j symmetrical relief decoration involving two 

As the brooches under study do not rorm stand- '' & 

J- J ^ J I II r side-by-side boat outlines. The size and deco- 

ardised types and as we have small groups or '' 

I I -^-i r 1 (' ■ ^\c ^ ration indicate an early date, 

closely similar brooches (variants; rrom sepa- '' 

^ r • ^ ^ NM KN512, ametaldetectorfindfi-om ST 

rate sites, any assignment or unique status ^ ' ■' 

^r • • I ^1 »L » » J ' Tiss0, is a tiny brooch with a pointed front end 

must be provisional. Chances are that todays ' ^ t- 

■ ^1 r ^ r I J and a rounded back end, cast lug and catch, 

unique piece may in the ruture be revealed as ' & 

r r II L • nn,- • It has finely chip-carved decoration with an 

a member or a small cohesive group, ihis is / r 

^- I I i-i I • 1 r^"» I J abbreviated flattened quadruped motif, four 

particularly likely in areas such as Ciotaland ^ t^ ' 

1 fL LL L c J»rr distinct legs and abstract interlace panels on 

where lew brooches have been round at all. & i^ 

-^vr»L »L » » T -rr • »L- »• the sides. The front pair of circles can be seen 

With that caveat, 1 will in this section enu- i^ 

„ ^ 1 L »L » T • » L .-J: either as the eyes or the front haunches of the 

merate brooches that 1 perceive to be so idio- '' 

»• iU » T L » L ur » r quadruped. The closest parallels in size and 

syncratic that 1 have not been able to place n r r 

^1 • II J c J » I • I decoration are found among type Nie, point- 

them in any well-dehned typological group. & /r 'r 

My type definitions are formulated to exclude & " 

I NM C482, a stray find from SK Lod- 

dekopinge, is a small oval brooch with a mostly 

plain surface and some cast decoration (lines 

Early 8th century uniques ^^^ ^^.^ ^^^^i^^^^ ^^^^ 1^^ ^^^ ^^^^1^ j^ 1^^^ 

T 9361, from a grave at NO-N Hov (Vinsrygg two pairs of round inlay sockets with red and 
1979 fig. 9d), is a small oval rather flat brooch blue enamel, showing its flattened quadruped 
with a cast pin lug and unique decoration. ancestry. Along the spine is a carefully moulded 
It consists of a stylised flattened quadruped feature that looks like a stylised tree, similar to 
motif made up of abstract roughly symmetric the tree of the TTTryti brooches. Someschol- 
interlace. It can be seen as a typological Unk ars have grouped this brooch with the small 
between small flattened quadruped brooches punched type, but it has no punched decora- 
such as type Ni a and the large R643 a brooches tion at all and the simUarity is superficial. Its 
with their intricate interlace, and thus prob- size indicates an early date, its decoration a 
ably dates from the mid-8th century. date in the mid-8th century. 

NM C33367, a metal detector find from JY LUHM U2845, a metal detector find from 

Humlebakken, is a small oval brooch with the SK Uppakra, is a small brooch with cast lug 

4 medallions layout and very finely moulded and catch, an irregularly triangular outline 

chip-carving. The cast pin catch and lug have and a flattened quadruped motif made up of 

been replaced by iron rivets and solder. The abstract symmetric interlace. It would belong 

brooch would join type TT if it were not for to type Oia if it were not for the fact that it 

its tiny size and unique decoration. In each is flat and has openwork. It may be seen as a 

medallion is an animal head with a large round mix between type Oi a and an epaulet-shaped 

eye, a spiral-rolled ponytail hairdo, short jaws snake brooch (0rsnes 1966 type H3). This 

and a bifurcated tongue (no good parallels in affinity and the size of the brooch indicate a 

0rsnes 1966, but similar to some heads in very early date. 

other Style D metalwork). When the brooch Grave 7 at GO Ingelstad Kvarngard (SHM 

is placed on a surface, these heads are upside- 8923:7) contained two domed oblong brooch- 

172 MARTIN RUNDKVI5T 



^ 



^ 



es, one of type Oia and one unique. Among 
the grave finds, only the brooches are chrono- 
logically informative. The unique one is a small 
thin-shelled oval brooch with an incised flat- 
tened quadruped motif and human faces on 
the haunches (Arbman 1932 fig i 3a). It is thus 
similar to type R643E, but differs from this 
type through its pin fastening arrangements. 
Instead of two solder patches on the inside, it 
has an iron rivet at either end. 

This trait may be a regional speciality, judg- 
ing from a brooch found in grave 6 at GO 
Jussberg (SHM 18876:6). It is another small 
thin-shelled oval brooch with two iron rivets. 
In addition, it has remains of an iron strip on 
the inside. Its size and an R3b bead set date 
the grave to phase MLS4. The brooch has 
very simple incised line decoration, forming 
a double-line arch on either side. 

SHM 5552, a bog find from SV Segerstad 
(Magnus 1999 fig. i), is a large, irregularly 
shaped, gilded and very finely wrought brooch 
with cast lug and catch. Its quadruped motif is 
so high that it cannot really be called flattened: 
it is more of a figurine than anything else. Its 
decoration forms a rare but not unheard-of 
combination of Style I and Style D, indicat- 
ing, as Arwidsson (1942:29—30) observed, a 
brief Style I renaissance in the 8th century. Its 
closest parallels are found among types Nia 
and Nib, indicating an early date. 

UMF 3401, a stray find from SV Fors, is 
a plain oval domed object similar to a SPL 
brooch. It differs from type SPL in that it has 
no traces of any pin fastening arrangements, 
it has very thick walls and it has uncommon 
pale blue corrosion. It is uncertain whether 
this was a brooch at all. 



Late 8th and early 9th 
century uniques 

Grave 14 at NO-N Sandvik contained a 
brooch (T i865 2e; Marstrander 1973 fig. 
9) that has been discussed on p. 162. Made 
from sheet metal with clumsy incised deco- 
ration, it is apparently an unskilled copy of 
an Nia or Nib brooch. On the inside is a 
solder ribbon with a rivet hole at either end. 
The grave is late as it also contained a pair of 
R643A brooches. 

A brooch in Gihle's collection (no 11+46; 
Herteig 1955:1 55, fig. 48), found in a grave at 
NO-S Kap, is large, sub-rectangular, rather flat, 
thin-shelled, with abstract incised decoration 
on a 4 medallions layout. Herteig judged it an 
amateurish piece of work. Its closest parallels 
are found among types R643A and R643C. 
These resemblances and the size of the brooch 
indicate a late date. 

I have previously mentioned the fragments 
of a curious composite brooch, plain and thin- 
shelled with a quadruped figurine riveted on 
top, found in a rich grave at SV-N Vagled 
(SHM 13804; Tillvdxten SHM i()0() Hg. 58). 
A late production date for the brooch is indi- 
cated by the similarities to types R640 and 
Stor-Skomo. A very fine type E2d disc-on-bow 
brooch with Style D relief dates the grave to 
the final Vendel Period. 

Grave 47 at AL Grelsby contained two 
domed oblong brooches, one type SPU and 
one unique (Aland 61 5:217; Horfors 1990:98; 
Rundkvist in press fig. 7). It is small, shaped 
like half a barrel and has cast lug and pin catch. 
The decoration has a 6 medallions layout, but 
the medallions are plain, without animal art 
or other interlace. Cornelian beads date the 
grave to the Early Viking Period, demonstrat- 
ing the long survival of SPU in the Aland Isles. 

A grave at AL Sundby contained three 



DOMED OBLONG BROOCHES OF VENDEL PERIOD SCANDINAVIA 



173 



^ 



^ 



domed oblong brooches, two of type TT 
Sundby (the eponyms of this variant) and one 
unique brooch (Aland 252:3; Dreijer 1966 
fig. 4; Rundkvist in press fig. 5). It is small, 
oval and has cast lug and pin. The decoration 
is abstract, intricate and expertly executed in 
soft relief. It gives the impression of animal 
interlace that has been either misunderstood 
or deliberately schematised beyond recogni- 
tion. The background on which the interlace 
rests is hatched in various directions, a trait 
that connects the brooch with a number of 
TT brooches from around Scandinavia. This 
indicates a late production date consistent with 
the find combination's late deposition date. 

The brooches from Uppakra 

As noted on p. 169, the domed oblong brooch- 
es of eastern Zealand and western Scania form 
the most varied, most well-connected and least 
distinctive regional assemblage in all of early 
8th century Scandinavia. Most of the brooches 
collected from this region come from Uppakra 
and SJ Tiss0, two fat she-spiders in a very large 
web. Both sites may at least at times have been 
controlled by the same people. 

Counting brooches that I have seen first 
hand or well illustrated, Uppakra is the sing- 
le richest find spot for the types under study 
here, with 44 specimens (status 23 October 
2003, see Catalogue). It is followed by the BO 
Bsekkegard cemetery with 25 brooches and the 
SJ Tiss0 settlement site with 20. 

Table 17 shows the type spectrum at 
Uppakra, covering 33 brooches whose type 
can be determined. All but one date from 
the early 8th century. This must be due to 
taphonomy rather than any change in set- 
tlement intensity after AD 750. The large 
late 8th century brooches are easier to find 
if you drop them and more likely to break 



Table 17. Brooch types at Uppakra. 


Type 


Number 


Nia 


4 


Nib 


6 


NIC 


1 


Nid 


4 


N1evar2 


2 


Ola 


5 


02 


4 


R643E 


1 


SPL 


2 


SPU 


2 


TT 


1 


Unique 


1 



into unidentifiable pieces than the small and 
compact early brooches. Indeed, only about 
a tenth remains of the single TT brooch from 
Uppakra (U 5 560). The very large serial pro- 
duced Viking Period tortoise brooches from 
Uppakra that I have seen are also all heavily 
fragmented. 

The median preservation percentage of 
the Uppakra brooches I have seen is high: 
78%. This indicates that we are largely deal- 
ing with dropped or sacrificed jewellery, not 
scrap metal. However, a few random checks 
(see Catalogue) indicate that if one were to go 
through all the Uppakra metal detector finds 
from one end to the other, one would find 
a considerable number of additional small 
fragments of domed oblong brooches. The 
way my Uppakra sample has been selected, I 
have mainly been able to study the dropped or 
sacrificed brooches, while the ones that ended 
up as scrap still largely remain unidentified. 
In my opinion, the Uppakra finds document 
clearly that a brooch there might end its days 
in a craftsman's scrap bag or among the nettles 
beside the pig pen when the pin happened to 
break. It would be very difficult to estimate 
which fate was more common, particularly as 



174 



MARTIN RUNDKVIST 



% 



^ 



the typical fate of a piece of scrap was to be 
re-cast, not deposited where we might find it. 
As noted on pp. 163 and 165—168, Uppakra 
and Tiss0 are among the few sites where tin- 
plated and gilded brooches of the types stud- 
ied here occur, as do the few serial produced 
variants such as Nie van. This hints strongly 
that domed oblong brooches were made at 
these sites. These traits may also be seen as the 
distinctive characteristics of Uppakra's domed 
oblong brooches. The site has extremely many 
brooches and they document contacts all across 
Scandinavia, but they are on average somewhat 
finer than most, and jewellery has apparent- 
ly been serial-produced here at an unusually 
early date. Such small-scale serial production 
at Uppakra can in fact be seen more clearly 
among other Vendel Period brooch types (e.g. 
Helgesson 2002:50, 53; Rundkvist 2003c). 

Photo: Martin Rundkvist and Bengt Alm- 
gren, LUHM 

Acknowledgements 

The research presented in this paper and the 
rather extensive travel involved was generously 
funded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sci- 
ences; the Helge Ax:son Johnson foundation; 
the Royal Academy of Letters, History and 
Antiquities; the Evers & Co fund; the Jacob 
Letterstedt society; and Svenska Fornmin- 
nesforeningen. 

I wish to extend my heartfelt thanks for 
help with accessing finds to Hampus Cinthio 
& Hasse Hansen (LUHM), Lars j0rgensen & 
Kirsten Lindhard (NM), Heid GJ0stein Resi 
& Unn Pedersen (Oslo), Live Johannessen 
(Bergen), Ole-BJ0rn Pedersen (Trondheim), 
Monica Hansen (Troms0), Kent Andersson 
& Jessica Hedenskog (SHM), Christina Ris- 
berg (UMF), Britta Peterson (SSM), and Claus 



Feveile (Ribe). Warm thanks for other help, 
support and information are due to Bjorn 
Ambrosiani, Natalie Becker, Helge Brinch 
Madsen, Volker Hilberg, Birgitta Hardh, Tor- 
kel Johansen, Anatoliy N. Kirpichnikov, Lars 
Larsson, Bente Magnus, Tatjana Nikolayeva, 
Ola R0nne, Pelle Rundkvist and Margrethe 
Watt. 



AL 
ESc 
E Zeal 
GO 



Jud 
JY 



Abbreviations 

The Aland Isles. 

Eastern Scania, southermost Sweden. 

Eastern Zealand, Denmark. 

Gotaland: the Swedish provinces 

of Vastergotland, Ostergotland and 

Smaland. 

Jutland, Denmark. 

Jutland, Denmark. 

NO-N Northern Norway from Nord-Tr0n- 
delag northward. 

NO-S Southern Norway from S0r-Tr0nde- 
lag southward. 

Oland, an island and Swedish prov- 
ince. 

Figure numbers in Petersen 1928. 
Figure numbers in Rygh 1885. 
Statens Historiska Museum, Stock- 
holm, Sweden. 
Zealand, Denmark. 
Scania, southernmost Sweden. 
The Lake Malaren area, i.e. the Swed- 
ish provinces of Uppland, Vastman- 
land and Sodermanland. 
Western Scania, southernmost Swe- 
den. 

W Zeal Western Zealand, Denmark. 

SV-N Norrland: northern Sweden from 
Dalarna northward. 

T Inventory numbers in Vitenskaps- 

museet, Trondheim, Norway. 



OL 

P 
R 

SHM 

SJ 

SK 

SV 



WSc 



DOMED OBLONG BROOCHES OF VENDEL PERIOD SCANDINAVIA 



175 



^ 



^ 



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Eisenzeit in Schonen. Acta Archaeologica Lunden- 

sia, series in quarto 4. Lund. 
Tillvdxten SHM l<)0<). Statens Historiska Museum 

och K. Myntkabinettet. Tillvaxten under ar 1909. 

Pomvdnnen 4. KVHAA. Stockholm. 
Vang Petersen, P. 1 99 1. Nye fund af metalsager fra 

yngre germansk jernalder. Detektorfund og danefe 

1 966-1 98 8. In Mortensen & Rasmussen 1 99 1. 
Vedel, E. 1890. Bornholmske undersogelser med 

serligt hensyn til den senere jernalder. Aarhoger 

for Nordisk Oldkyndighed 1890. Det Kongelige 

Nordiske Oldskriftselskab. Copenhagen. 

— 1897. Efterskrift til Bornholms oldtidsminder og 
oldsager. Copenhagen. [Includes an updated ver- 
sion of Vedel 1890.] 

Vinsrygg, S. 1979. Merovingartid i Nord-Noreg. 
Studiei utvalt materiale fra gravfunn. Arkeologiske 
avhandlinger fra Historisk museum, Universitetet 
i Bergen 2. Bergen. 

VZG . Nerman, B . 1 969-7 ^.Die Vendelzeit Gotlands. 
KVHAA. Stockholm. 

Waller, J. 1996. Drdktndlar och drdktskick i ostra 
Mdlardalen. Kontinuitet och fdrdndring under 
folkvandringstid och vendeltid. Aun 23. Depart- 
ment of Archaeology, University of Uppsala. 

Wamers, E. 1999. Zwischen Salzburg und Oseberg. 
Zu Ursprung und Ikonographie des nordischen 
Greiftierstils. Freeden, Uta et al. (eds). Volker an 
Nord- und Ostsee und die Franken. Akten des 48. 
Sachsensymposiums in Mannheim voni 7. Bis II. 
September ipgj. Bonn. 

Watt, M. 1999. Gubber. Reallexikon der germanischen 
Altertumskunde. Bd 13, Greifvogel — Hardeknut. 
Berlin. 

Wilson, L., Bohn, H., Cassel, K. & Eriksson, M. 
1998. E18 Koping-Arhoga. Gravar och hoplatser. 
UV Uppsala Rapport 1997:55. Riksantikvarieam- 
betet. Uppsala. 

Worsaae, J. J. A. 1859. Nordiske oldsager. Det 
kongelige museum i Kjobenhavn. Copenhagen. 

— 1865. Om Slesvigs eller Sonderjyllands Oldtidsmind- 
er. En sammenlignende Undersogelse. Copenhagen. 



Catalogue 

During data collection I have been aided in 
particular by lists compiled by Bjorn Ambro- 
siani (Ms. 1956— 1960) and Karen H0ilund 
Nielsen (1999). 

I studied and photographed the metal 
detector finds of domed oblong brooches 
from Uppakra and other Scanian sites on 
16—20 September 2002 and 23 October 
2003. I have had access to Uppakra's metal 
detector finds number Ui— U37379 and 
U37879-U38654 (full search). Rather than 
search through all of Ui— U37379, I relied 
largely on Birgitta Hardh's and Bertil Hel- 
gesson's general type determinations in the 
main finds database. Full search through two 
randomly selected finds crates (Ui— 200 and 
U6201— 6400) resulted in the identification 
of three new specimens (U00163, U06211, 
U06250). Two of these are small fragments 
and difiicult both to identify and to classify. 
U06211 is an intact brooch without surface 
decoration and thus not immediately simi- 
lar to the brooches illustrated by 0rsnes (but 
cf. 1966:1 5 5). These findings indicate that a 
patient search through all of Uppakra's metal 
detector finds would probably unearth quite a 
number of fragmented and unadorned domed 
oblong brooches. 

Denmark's metal detectorists currently sub- 
mit 100—200 datable Vendel Period bronz- 
es each year to their country's museums (cf. 
AUD). Very few of these finds have been pub- 
lished since Vang Petersen's (1991) survey of 
finds submitted 1966— 1988. I studied and 
photographed the finds from SJ Tiss0, JY Bejse- 
bakken and other Danish sites at the National 
Museum in Copenhagen on 13— 17 January 
2003. I searched through all metal finds from 
the sites along the western shore of LakeTiss0 
(Fuglebrogard, Bulbrogard, Mellemstycket and 



180 



MARTIN RUNDKVI5T 



% 



^ 



Kalmargarden) that were kept there. Some 
finds fi-om the site were at this time kept at 
the regional museum of Kalundborg, and thus 
unavailable to me. 

On 4—13 November 2003 I studied the 
domed oblong brooches of Norway at the 
regional archaeological museums in Oslo, Ber- 
gen, Trondheim and Troms0. On 14 January 
2004 I studied the brooches in the Uppsala 
University Museum. I paid study visits to Hel- 
sinki and Mariehamn on 8—9 March 2004 and 
Ribe on 4 January 2005. 1 studied the brooches 
in the museums of my home town Stockholm 
(SHM and SSM) on several occasions from 
2003 to 2005. 

I have information about the existence of 
numerous brooches that I have seen neither 
first-hand nor as illustrations. The areas where 
this known incompleteness in my sample is 
greatest are Zealand (62% incomplete) and 
Jutland (39% incomplete). This is because the 
Danes publish summary information about 
their rich metal detector finds in AUD. In 
other regions were there is no comparable pub- 
lication and very little metal detecting, I do 
not know what I am missing. But I do know 



that the brooches are not as many in absolute 
terms as in Denmark. I suspect, however, that 
a considerable number of the "animal-shaped" 
brooches (general type O in the catalogue) 
mentioned mAUD that I was unable to find 
in Copenhagen actually refer to oval ones with 
the flattened quadruped motif which I did 
find, from the same sites. The incompleteness 
percentages would thus probably be lowered 
if one looked at the original finds lists from 
the metal detector sites in question. 

In 27 cases I have been able to compare 
Vedel's (i 897:84—8 5) length measurements of 
domed oblong brooches from Bornholm with 
new measurements of my own. The median 
absolute difference between Vedel's figures 
and mine is 2.5 mm, and there is no signifi- 
cant skew in the tendency of the difi^erence 
(greater/smaller). The maximum difi^erence is 
13.0 mm. Vedel measured the brooches to an 
accuracy of 1/8 inch, that is, 3.25 mm, and 
I measured them to an accuracy of 0.1—0.5 
mm. The observed median difi^erence of 2.5 
mm is less than Vedel's level of accuracy. His 
figures may thus be taken at face value when 
no modern measurements are available. 



DOMED OBLONG BROOCHES OF VENDEL PERIOD SCANDINAVIA 



181 



% 



^ 





Invno 


Reg 


Provenance (Amt/Lskp, 
parish, site) 


Context 


Vidi 


Type 


Gild/tin 


Pres 


Lug 


Catch 


Pin 


L 


W 


H 


Th 


Worn 


Rep 


1 


Ranne 1729 


bo 








Nl 












55 












2 


Ranne 1730 


bo 








Nl 












65 












3 


OdensE 7390 


fy 


Svendborg, Flodstrup, 
Risinge 


str 




Nl 




1 








67 


35 






1 




4 




ge 


Oldenburg 






Nl 


gild 


1 








46 


25 






1 




5 


Ribe D2592 


iy 


Ribe, Ribe, Art museum 


set 


1 


Nl 




0,9 


solder spot 


dx 




58 


c32 


ell 


2,1 


1 




6 


NMjnr 0560/72 


iy 


Ringkobing, Borbjerg, 
Trabjerg 


md 




Nl 












44 












7 


NMC31256 


^ 


Soro, Boesiunde, Neble 


md 


1 


Nl 




0,2 


? 


cast, 
broken 


iron 


? 


? 




1,2 







8 


NMjnr 
4970/83x24 


^ 


Sora, Boesiunde, Neble 


md 




Nl 












42 












9 


Lund interim 
81503 


sk 


Sk.S.Sandby, Kungsmarken 






N! 




0,75 








>56 


30 


9 








10 


LijndU09941 


sk 


Sk, Uppakra, Uppakra 


md 


1 


Nl 


gild 


0,8 











>36 


15 


13 


1,5 


1 




11 


SSMe3 


sv 








Nl 












40 












12 


ASRD2592 










Nl 












59 












13 


Priv. Paulsson 










Nl 












38 












14 


NM C30983 










Nl 












44 












15 


NM 00999x875 










Nl 












25 












16 


NM C30730 










Nl 












54 












17 


Priv. Ohisson 










Nl 












50 












18 


LundU38321 


sk 


Sk, Uppakra, Uppakra 


md 


1 


Nl /Ola 


tin 


1 


1 


? 


? 


33,5 


19,35 


5,5 


1,5 


1 




19 


Renne 1409x978 


bo 


0-lars, Narre Sandegard 


md 




Nl? 




frag 




















20 


NM C00965:b 


bo 


Bodils, Kannikegard, gr 195 


gr 


1 


Nla 




0,15 


secondary 
bronze riveted 
sheet 




"" 


50 










1 


21 


NM C05508:a 


bo 


0-lars, Lousgard, gr 12 


gr 


1 


Nla 




1 


1 


? 


extant iron 


45 


27,5 




1,4 







22 


NMC05508:b 


bo 


0-lars, Lousgard, gr 12 


gr 


1 


Nla 




1 


1 


cast, dx 


extant iron 


44,2 


26,5 




1,3 







23 


SHM 12314:5 


90 


Sm,Aspsh(Palmgren's 

collection) 


str 


1 


Nla 




0,99 


1 


cast, 

broken 


rusty catch 


48,5 


23,4 


7,5 


1,4 


1 




24 


NMC33355 


jy 


Alborg, Hasseris, Bejsebak- 
ken, Stolpedalsvej 


md 


1 


Nla 




1 


!* 


cast, dx 


? 


39,4 


17,3 




1,1 


1 


1 


25 


NMC33325 


jy 


Alborg, Hasseris, Bejsebak- 
ken, Stolpedalsvej 


md 


1 


Nla 




0,9 


1 


cast, dx 


iron 


29 


15 




1,2 


1 




26 


Trondheim 13643a 


no-n 


N-Trandelag, Fosnes k., Jea, 
Sandvik, gr. 07 


gr 


' 


Nla 




1 


1 


? 


? 


54,8 


30 


8,5 


1,5 







27 


OsloC38649b 


no-s 


Oppland, Nord-Fron, 
Vuludalen 


gr 




Nla 












49 


25-30 










28 


OsloC29479 


no-s 


Oppland, OstreToten k., 
Sandre Rise / Hof 




1 


Nla 




1 


1 


dx 


iron spring 


38,2 


22,7 


8,3 


1,3 


1 




29 


Bergen 08385 


no-s 


S& F, Gloppenk., Breim, 
Skrappa/Skryppe 


str 


' 


Nla 




1 


1 


dx 


? 


43 


24 


9 


1,4 


1 




30 


NM C32698 


5j 


F-borg, Jarlunde, Laerkefryd 


md 


1 


Nla 


tin 


0,95 


1 


cast, dx 


iron 


40,2 


21,5 




1,1 







31 


NMjnr 7701/94, 

FB0861 


^j 


Holbffik, Store Fugiede, 
Fugledegard/Bulbrogard 


md 


' 


Nla 




0,5 


? 


? 


? 


>33 


21 




0,6 







32 


NMjnr 7701/94, 
FG1896 


5j 


Holbffik, Store Fugiede, 
Fugledegard/Bulbrogard 


md 


1 


Nla 




0,55 


1 


!* 


rusty lug 


>30 


28 




1 


1 




33 


NMC23186 


5j 


Holbaek, Saerslev, Saerslev 


str 


1 


Nla 




1 


1 


cast, dx 


rusty lug 


47,8 


25 




1,5 


1 




34 


Ystad 145 


sk 


Sk, Kiaby, Backaskog 






Nla 




0,95 








>50 


31 










35 


Lund U03968 


sk 


Sk, Uppakra, Uppakra 


md 


1 


Nla 




0,17 


? 


7 


? 


? 


? 


12,55 


1,5 







35 


Lund UO50O3 


sk 


Sk, Uppakra, Uppakra 


md 


1 


Nla 


gild 


0,5 


? 


cast, 
broken 


? 




20,7 




1 







37 


LundU01782 


sk 


Sk, Uppakra, Uppakra 


md 


1 


Nla 




1 


1 


cast, sin 





48 


23,5 


5 


0,4 







38 


Lund U 10800 


sk 


Sk, Uppakra, Uppakra 


md 


1 


Nla 




0,17 


? 


? 


? 


? 


? 


3,7 


0,8 







39 




sk 


Sk,Ahus,Ahusll 


set 




Nla 




0,5 








c50 


c26 










40 


SHM 31277:10 


sv 


So, Osterhaninge, Gudd, 
Raa101,gr.10 


gr 


1 


Nla 




0,85 


1 


? 


? 


c45 


24 


8,55 


1,7 





1 


41 


SHM 23151:11 


sv 


Up, Spanga, Rinkeby, Raa 
178, gr. 11 


gr 


1 


Nla 




0,75 


1 


? 


? 


7 


? 


3 


1,5 





1 


42 


SHM 10321 a 


sv-n 


La,Asele lappmark, 
Vilhelmina, Girisjdn 


str 


1 


Nla 




1 


1 


cast, 
broken 


^ 


59,4 


29,7 


9,4 


1,5 







43 


SHM 10321 b 


sv-n 


La,Asele lappmark, 
Vilhelmina, Girisjdn 


str 


1 


Nla 




1 


1 


dx 


rusty catch 


59,3 


29,5 


10 


1,2 







44 


SHM 

01304:1834:97 


6\ 


01, Kopingpsh 


str 


1 


Nla 




1 


1 


dx 


? 


51,45 


27 


9,25 


1,4 





1 


45 


SHM 22517:11 


sv-n 


Hs,Alfta,Viken 13, Erkpal- 
snaset, gr. 11 


gr 




Nla/b 




0,8 






iron 


43 


25 


9 




1 




45 


NMC07223 


bo 


Gudhjem, Lillevang- 
Melsted, gr. 4 


gr 


1 


Nib 




0,85 


1 


cast, dx 


iron spring 


57,5 


37,5 




1 







47 


Renne 

1409x749:5 


bo 


0-lars, Nsrre Sandegard, 
gr 58 


gr 




Nib 




1 








50 


25 










48 


SHM 05745:2 


g6 


Sm, Berga, Domaryd 


gr 


1 


Nib 




0,5 


? 


? 


iron 


63 


29,5 


9 


1,4 


7 




49 


SHM 05745:1 


g6 


Sm, Berga, Domaryd 


gr 


1 


Nib 




0,75 


rivet hole 


rivet hole 


? 


63 


29,5 


9,1 


1,4 


1 




50 


SHM 17905:11 


go 


Og.Skedevi, Ruda, 
Smedjebacken 


gr 


1 


Nib 




1 


1 


? 


? 


55,7 


27,65 


12,1 


1,25 


1 


1 


51 




jy 


Hjorring, Hellevad, 
Stentinget 


md 




Nib 


gild 


1 








49,5 


27 










52 


Vendsysseljnr 

208/1980 


jy 


Hjorring, Ingstrup, Trudslev 


set 




Nib 




0,5 





















53 


Horsens1319 


jy 


Vejie, Klakring, Juelsminde 


str 




Nib 




1 








41 


17,5 











182 



MARTIN RUNDKVI5T 



^ 



^ 





Invno 


Reg 


Provenance (Amt/Lskp, 
parish, site} 


Context 


Vidi 


Type 


Gild/tin 


Pres 


Lug 


Catch 


Pin 


L 


W 


H 


Th 


Worn 


Rep 


54 


NMC30750 


iy 


Alborg, Hasseris, 
Bejsebakken 


md 


1 


Nib 




0,95 


2 


? 


iron 


58 


32 




1,B 







55 


NMjnr 4584/82 
[DF 1989) 


jy 


Alborg, Lindholm, Lindholm 

hoje (nord) 


md 




Nib 




0,8 





















56 


Bergen 04213 


no-s 


Hordaland,Olenk., 
Fjellberg p., Nervik 


str 


1 


Nib 




1 


1 


dx 


^ 


56 


32,5 


11,5 


2,2 







57 


OsloC33649a 


no-s 


Oppland, Nord-Fron, 
Vuludalen 


gr 




Nib 




0,65 








c55 


36 










58 


Slavanger3852 


no-s 


Rogaland, Karmoy k., 
Skudenesp., Ferkingstad 


9' 




Nib 












<51 












59 


Oslo COl 547 


no-s 


Telemark, Bamie k., 
Brevikstrand 


gr 


1 


Nib 




0,75 




dx 


? 


c47,5 


30 


10 


1,6 







60 


NMjnr 7701/94, 
FB0401 


5! 


Holbaek, Store Fuglede, 
Fugledegard/ Bulbrogard 


md 


1 


Nib 




1 




cast, dx 


extant iron 


42,8 


19,5 




1,4 







61 


fJMjnr 1423/75, 
KN1350 


si 


Holbaek, Store Fuglede, 
Kalmargarden 


md 


1 


Nib 


both 


0,33 




^ 


rusty catch 


7 


30 




1,3 


1 




62 


NMjnr 1423/75, 
KN1221 


si 


Holbfik, Store Fuglede, 
Kalmargarden 


md 


1 


Nib 


gild 


0,165 




? 


? 


? 


? 




1,5 


1 




63 


NM C30664 


si 


Khvn, SctJorgensbierg, Set 
Hans hospital 


md 


1 


Nib 




1 




cast, 

broken 


? 


35,3 


15,15 




1,4 







64 


Gothenburg 2008 


sk 


Ha, Lindome Sintorp 


str 




Nib 




1 








53 


27 






1 




55 


Lund Ravi F8 


sk 


Sk, Ravlunda Ravlunda 
23:3(Mdletofta) 1997, F8 


md 


1 


Nib 




1 




cast, 

broken 


? 


45,4 


24,4 


7,85 


1,3 





' 


66 


LundU01737 


sk 


Sk, Uppakra, Uppaira 


md 


1 


Nib 




0,95 







extant iron 
spring 


35,1 


15,6 


5,5 


1 


1 




67 


Lund U01033 


sk 


Sk, Uppakra, Uppakra 


md 


1 


Nib 




0,95 







rust 


45 


21 


7,5 


0,7 







68 


Lund U37352 


sk 


Sk, Uppakra, Uppakra 


md 


1 


Nib 




0,75 




? 




>34 


25,4 


5 


1 







69 


Lund U00980 


sk 


Sk, Uppakra, Uppakra 


md 


' 


Nib 




0,45 




? 


7 


^ 


■ 


8,7 


1,2- 

2,3 







70 


Lund U 10846 


sk 


Sk, Uppakra, Uppakra 


md 


1 


Nib 


gild 


0,33 







rust 






7,5 


1,3 







71 


LundU00007&15 


sk 


Sk, Uppakra, Uppakra 


md 


1 


Nib 


gild 


0,9 







extant iron 


50,5 


25,2 




1,3 


1 




72 


Raadnr 3714/88 


sv-n 


An,Arnas,Arnasbacken, 
Raa 2, house 4, Fl 567 


set 




Nib 




1 




? 


iron 


54 


33 


5 








73 


SHM 23648 


ol 


01, Grasgard, Lot 


str 


1 


Nib 




1 




dx 


7 


48 


25,8 


10 


1,4 


1 




74 


Kalmar 05853 


ol 


01, N.Mockleby, Dorby 


str 




Nib 




0,95 




cast, 
broken 


7 


67 


40 


17 









75 


Kalmar 34791:470 


ol 


01, S Mockleby, Cementa's 
quarry 


str 




Nib 




0,9 




dx 




71 


33 


14 







1 


76 


SHM 11494 


ol 


01, S. Mockleby, S. 
M6ckleby4 


str 


1 


Nib 




0,99 




cast, 
broken 


? 


37,35 


20,2 


8,35 


1,2 







77 


NMC26583 


bo 


Bodils/Pouls, Ellegard,gr. 13 


gr 




NIC 




1 








48 


29 











78 


NMC02532 


bo 


0-lars, Baekkegard 




1 


Nlc 




0,33 




!* 


extant iron 
spring 


? 


? 




1,9 







79 


NMC02394 


bo 


0-lars, B£ekkegard,gr. 059 


gr 


1 


NIC 




0,85 




cast, dx 




75 


42 


12 


1,9 







80 


NMC02455 


bo 


0-lars, Bffikkegard, gr. 105 


gr 


1 


Nlc 




0,8 




cast, dx 


rusty both 


66,7 


34,7 


11,3 


1,3 







81 


NMC02456 


bo 


0-lars, Bffikkegard, gr. 105 


gr 


1 


Nlc 




0,2 




cast, dx 


extant iron 


? 


? 




1,3 







82 


Schleswig4333 


ge 


Fehmarn, Johannisberg 


str 




Nlc 




1 




cast, 

broken 


? 


54 


36 






1 




83 


NM C30998 


sj 


Sora, Eggeslevmagle, 
Gerdrup Ravnemark 




1 


Nlc 




0,9 




cast, 
broken 


rusty both 


46,2 


23,5 




1,3 


1 




84 


Lund U03356 


sk 


Sk, Uppakra, Uppakra 


md 


1 


Nlc 




1 




cast, 
broken 


rust 


53 


34,4 


7 


1 


1 


1 


85 


SSM 05779:10:2 


sv 


So, Botkyrka, Norsborg, 
gr. 10:2 


gr 


1 


Nlc 


gild 


1 




dx 


iron 


39,8 


24 


7,8 


1,4 







86 


SHM 23206:1 


sv-n 


Dr, Transtrand, N Bred- 
sundsnaset, gr. 1 


gr 


1 


Nlc 




1 




cast, 
broken 


? 


40,8 


24,5 


9,5 


1,4 







87 


Kalmar 07565 


dl 


01, N.Mockleby, Dorby 


str 




Nlc 




1 




dx 


? 


43 


24 


7,5 









88 


Odense w-o no 


? 


Denmark 


str 




Nld 




1 








42,5 


25 










89 


NMC32659 


7 


Unknown 


str 


1 


Nld 




0,95 




cast, dx 


rusty lug 


49 


28,6 




1,4 







90 


NMC13494 


iy 


Vejie, RandboUandel 


str 


1 


Nld 




1 




cast, 

broken 


iron 


58,3 


32,5 




1,35 


1 




91 


Alborg 129x1230 


iy 


Alborg, Lindholm, Lindholm 
haie, gr. 1230 


gr 




Nld 




1 






extant iron 


52 


28 


8 









92 


NMjnr 1423/75, 
KN0948 


si 


Holbfik, Store Fuglede, 
Kalmargarden 


md 


1 


Nld 




0,95 




cast, dx 


? 


44,4 


25 




1,8 







93 


NMjnr 1423/75, 
KN0545 


si 


Holbsk, Store Fuglede, 
Kalmargarden 


md 


1 


Nld 


tin 


0,95 




? 


7 


43 


28 




1,6 


1 




94 


NMC34829 


si 


Sore, Ringsted, Kloster- 
marken 


md 




Nld 




1 








37,7 


22,1 










95 


LundU03351 


sk 


Sk, Uppakra, Uppakra 


md 


1 


Nld 




1 










34 


19,4 


5,5 


1,7 


1 




96 


Lund U06242 


sk 


Sk, Uppakra, Uppakra 


md 


1 


Nld 




1 




cast, 
broken 





47,5 


25,8 




1,1 


1 


1 


97 


Lund U06414 


sk 


Sk, Uppakra, Uppakra 


md 


1 


Nld 




0,2 




7 


7 






10 


1 







98 


Lund U04437 


sk 


Sk, Uppakra, Uppakra 


md 


1 


Nld 


gild 


0,33 




? 


7 




22,2 




1 







99 


Rsnne 1409x874 


bo 


0-lars, Narre Sandegard 


md 




NldNSV 




1 








45,3 


24 










100 


NMC10259 


bo 


0-lars, Narre Sandegard, 

gr.V4 


gr 




Nld NSV 




0,95 




cast, dx 


extant iron 


46 


27 


7,3 








101 


NMC10270 


bo 


0-lars, Narre Sandegard, 
gr.V4 


gt 




NldNSV 




0,95 








46 


27 










102 


NMjnr 7638/93 
(DF1996)b 


fy 


Svendborg, Nyborg Ids, 
Hjulby, ToftegardSydost 


md 




Nld 

Toftegard 




0,95 








51,5 


30 


6,5 










DOMED OBLONG BROOCHES OF VENDEL PERIOD SCANDINAVIA 



183 



^ 



^ 





Invno 


Reg 


Provenance (Amt/Lskp, 
parish, site) 


Context 


Vidi 


Type 


Gild/tin 


Pres 


Lug 


Catch 


Pin 


L 


W 


H 


Th 


Worn 


Rep 


103 


NMjnr 1423/75, 
KN0949 


5j 


Ftolbaek, Store Fuglede, 
Kalmargarden 


md 


1 


Nld 

Toftegard 




0,9 


1 


? 





48,2 


26 




1,B 







104 


SHM 02075:15 


^ 


Storck's collection, Kalmar 


str 


1 


Nld 

Vedskolle 


gild 


0,99 


1 


7 


iron 


48,7 


23,6 


9,5 


1,4 





1 


105 


NMC25000 


^ 


Praesto, Herf0lge,Vedsk0lle 


str 




Nld 

Vedskolle 




0,95 








46 












105 


NM]nr8117/99 
[DF 1999), OEM 

8519 


fy 


Svendborg, Herrested, 
Toften 


md 




Nle 




1 








38 


18 










107 


NMC33648 


iy 


Hjorring, Skallerup, Narlev/ 
Sogard 


md 




Nle 




' 




















108 


NMC33600 


jy 


Hjorring, Skallerup, Nsriev/ 
0stergard 


md 




Nle 




1 




















109 


NMC34487 


jy 


Viborg, Monsted, Toftum 


md 


1 


Nle 




0,8 


1 


cast, dx 


rusty lug 


33 


17 




12 


? 




110 


NMC33374 


jy 


Alborg, Norre-Tranders, 
Humlebakken 


md 


1 


Nle 




1 


1 


cast, 
broken 


? 


29,9 


17 




1,5 





1 


111 


Priv. Fannss 


jy 


Alborg, Hasseris, 
Bejsebakken 


set 




Nlevarl 




1 








36 


20,5 


4,7 








112 


NMC33515 


jy 


Alborg, Hasseris, 
Bejsebakken 




1 


Nle varl 




1 


1 


cast, 
broken, 
iron rivet 


iron 


35,6 


20,7 




1,4 


1 


' 


113 


Odense 


fy 


Odense, Herredsted, Maare 






Nlevar2 




1 








33 


18 










114 


NMjnr 7538/93 
(DF1997)b 


fy 


Svendborg, Nyborg Ids, 
Hjulby, ToftegardSydost 


md 




Nlevar2 




1 








39,5 


19,5 


5,5 









115 


LundU01455 


sk 


Sk, Uppakra, Uppakra 


md 




Nlevar2 




1 




cast, dx 





37,3 


20,5 


5,55 


1,3 


1 


1 


115 


Lund U02735 


sk 


Sk, Uppakra, Uppakra 


md 




Nlevar2 




1 










32,5 


17 


4,7 


1,2 


1 




117 


NM 


jy 


Alborg, Hasseris, 
Bejsebakken 


set 




Nlevar3 




1 




















118 


NMC30551 + 
33473 


jy 


Alborg, Hasseris, 
Bejsebakken 


md 




Nlevar3 




0,9 




cast, dx 


rusty lug 


34 


15,5 




1,1 







119 


Trondheim 13223 


no-n 


N-Tr0ndelag,Verdalk., 
0streVuku, Holmli 






N1V3 




0,95 




? 


? 


44,2 


25,5 


8,3 


1 


1 


' 


120 


Trondheim 

14049a-3 


no-n 


Nordland, Branney k., 
Torvskjadammen 


gr 




N1V3 




1 




? 


? 


47 


28,5 


8,5 


0,9 


1 


1 


121 


Trondheim 


no-n 


Nordland, Brsnnoyk., 


gr 




N1V3 




0,99 




dx 


? 


54,6 


31,5 


11,5 


0,4 









14049a-2 




Torvskjadammen 






























122 


Trondheim 
14049a-l 


no-n 


Nordland, Brsnnoyk., 
Torvskjadammen 


gr 




N1V3 




1 




dx 


? 


48,5 


23 


8,25 


0,7 







123 


Tromsa 06377b 


no-n 


Nordland, Luroyk,,Ytre 
Kvarsy, grave 3 


gr 




N1V3 




1 




? 


? 


57 


33 


9,B 


0,5 







124 


British Museum 


no-n 


Troms, Troms0k.,near 
TromsB 


gr 




N1V3 




1 








44 


27 











125 


NMjnr 7334/91 
(DF1991) 


bo 


Ibsker, Braendesgard 


md 





























125 


NMjnr 51 15/85 
(DF1995) 


bo 


Klemensker, Ladegard 


md 





























127 


NMjnr 61 15/85 
(DF 1999) 


bo 


Klemensker, Ladegard 


md 





























128 


NMjnr 6295/85 


bo 


Klemensker, MollegSrd 


md 





























129 


Ronnejnr 1002:b 


bo 





















54 












130 


Rsnnejnr 1002:a 


bo 





















54 












131 


NMjnr 6965/89 
(DF1993) 


fy 


Svendborg, Gudme, Gudme 
ll/NO 


md 





























132 


NMjnr8138/00 
(DF2000) 




Hjarring, Saltum, Lille Norge 


md 





























133 


NMjnr 5990/85 
(DF1991) 




Banders, Alboge, Kumlhaj 


md 





























134 


NMjnr 7915/95 
(DF1996) 




F-borg, Ramlose, Kraem- 
mergard 


md 





























135 


NMjnr 7701/94 
{DF1999)b 




Fiolbffik, Store Fuglede, 
Fugledegard / Bulbrogard 


md 





























135 


NMjnr 7701/94 
{DF1998)b 




Holbffik, Store Fuglede, 

Fugledegard / Bulbrogard 


md 





























137 


NMjnr 7701/94 
{DF1998)a 




Holbffik, Store Fuglede, 

Fugledegard /Bulbrogard 


md 





























138 


NMjnr 7701/94 
{DF1999)a 




Holbffik, Store Fuglede, 

Fugledegard /Bulbrogard 


md 





























139 


NMjnr 1423/75 
{DF1997)b 




Holbffik, Store Fuglede, 
Kalmargarden 


md 





























140 


NMjnr 1423/75 
{DF1998)b 




Holbffik, Store Fuglede, 
Kalmargarden 


md 





























141 


NMjnr 1423/75 
{DF1997)a 




Holbffik, Store Fuglede, 
Kalmargarden 


md 





























142 


NMjnr 1423/75 
{DF1998)a 




Holbffik, Store Fuglede, 
Kalmargarden 


md 





























143 


NMjnr 7206/91 
[DF2000) 




Khvn, Hojelse, EllebEekgard 


md 





























144 


NMjnr 8234/01 
[DF2002) 




Khvn, Ledoje, Godhojs agre 


md 





























145 


NMjnr4158/82 




Khvn.Vindinge, Stalmo- 
segard 


md 






























184 



MARTIN RUNDKVI5T 



^ 



^ 





Invno 


Reg 


Provenance (Amt/Lskp, 
parish, site} 


Context 


Vidi 


Type 


Gild/tin 


Pres 


Lug 


Catch 


Pin 


L 


W 


H 


Th 


Worn 


Rep 


145 


NMjnr 7745/94 
[DF 1996) 


sj 


Khvn.Blsemagle, Kapelvej 


md 





























147 


Lund U06741 


sk 


Sk, Uppakra, Uppakra 


md 


1 







0,2 


^ 


cast, 
broken 









3 


1,1 







148 


NM C00955:a 


bo 


Bodils, Kannikegard, gr. 195 


gr 


1 


Ola 




1 


1 


cast, dx 


iron 


51,2 


23,5 




1,4 







149 


NMC05507 


bo 


0-lar5, Lousgard, gr. 12 


g' 


1 


Ola 




0,95 


1 


cast, dx 


extant iron 


73 


45,3 




1,3 







150 


Ranne 
1409x349:3 


bo 


0-lar5, Narre Sandegard, 
gr. 16 


g' 




Ola 




0,9 


1 






55 


29 










151 


Renne 
1409x511:75 


bo 


0-lars, Narre Sandegard, 
gr. 23 


gr 




Ola 




0,8 








49-55 


>27 










152 


Renne 

1409x750:2 


bo 


0-lars, Narre Sandegard, 
gr. 58 


gr 




Ola 




0,95 








47 


24 


10,7 








153 


Ranne 3139x82 


bo 


0-lars, Snekkebjerg 


md 




Ola 




0,33 








7 












154 


SHM 08923:7:al 


go 


Sm, Berga, Ingelstad 
Kvarnagard, gr. 7 


gr 


1 


Ola 




0,9 


iron rivet, 
possib sec 


cast, repi 
by iron 
rivet 


iron spring 


48,2 


22 


6,2 


1,3 





1 


155 


NMC05339 


jy 


Hjorring, Torslev, Riis Fattig- 
gard, gr. 5 


gr 


1 


Ola 




0,95 


2 


cast, 
broken, 

repaired, 
dx 




41,5 


21 




1,3 


1 


1 


155 


NMjnr 4585/82 


jy 


Alborg, Hasseris, 
Bejsebakken 


md 




Ola 




0,95 








28 


15 










157 


Alborg 129x1520 


jy 


Alborg, Lindholm, Lindbolm 
hoje, gr. 1520 


gr 




Ola 




0,5 


^ 




iron 














158 


NM C33422 


jy 


Alborg, Sender Tranders, 
Postgarden 


md 


1 


Ola 




0,99 


1 


cast, dx 


iron 


36,4 


20 




1,5 


1 




159 


NMjnr 7701/94, 
FB0748 


5j 


Holbfik, Store Fugiede, 
Fugledegard/Bulbrogard 


md 


1 


Ola 




0,95 


1 


? 


rusty both 


c45 


29 




1,5 


1 




150 


NMjnr 1423/75 

(DF 1995), 
KN0675 


5j 


Holbfik, Store Fugiede, 
Kalmargarden 


md 


1 


Ola 


gild 


0,75 


1 


cast, dx 




50-55 


33 




2 







161 


NMjnr 4970/81 


5j 


Sore, Boeslunde, Neble 


md 




Ola 




0,95 








40 


25,5 










152 


Lund 29226 


sk 


Sk, Ravlunda, Ravlunda 
29:17 




1 


Ola 




0,95 


1 


cast, 
broken 


rust 


38,1 


20,2 




1 







153 


Lund U07206 


sk 


Sk, Uppakra, Uppakra 


md 


1 


Ola 




0,5 


? 


cast, 
broken 





? 


31,2 


5,4 


1,1 


1 




164 


Lund UO 1340 


sk 


Sk, Uppakra, Uppakra 


md 


1 


Ola 




0,95 


1 


? 


rust 


>47,4 


25,8 


5,8 


1,2 


1 




165 


LundU38535 


sk 


Sk, Uppakra, Uppakra 


md 


1 


Ola 




0,15 


? 


dx 


? 


? 


? 


? 


1,3 







166 


LundU38182 


sk 


Sk, Uppakra, Uppakra 


md 


1 


Ola 




0,9 


1 


? 


? 


c35 


22 


4,1 


1 


1 




167 


LundU03353 


sk 


Sk, Uppakra, Uppakra 


md 


' 


Ola 




0,9 


? 


cast, 
broken 





>31,4 


25,7 


5,35 


1 


1 


1 


168 


Lund met-det 


sk 


Sk,Vittskovlek:a, 
0111-0110,F67,JP1 


md 


1 


Ola 




0,9 








>42 


? 


? 


0,5 







169 


Lund 


sk 


Sk,Va, SitGertrudsvang, 
1945, rutaEl:lll 


set 




Ola 




1 






rust 


44 


23 










170 


SHM 25481:50 


sv 


Up, Ekero, Helgo, Raa 

150,gr.60 


gr 


1 


Ola 




0,99 


? 


' 


? 


35 


19 


4,5 


1,3 







171 


SHM 28913 


ol 


OI.As, Nasby, gr. 1 


gr 


1 


Ola 




0,9 




dx 


? 


55,5 


27,5 


7,25 


1,4 


1 




172 


NMC07222 


bo 


Gudhjem, Ullevang- 
Melsted, gr. 4 


gr 


1 


Olb 




0,8 




cast, dx 


rusty lug 


95 


39 




0,8 


1 




173 


NMC02395 


bo 


0-lars, Bsekkegard, gr. 059 


gr 


1 


01b 




0,95 




cast, dx 


extant iron 


97 


41,5 




3 







174 


NMC02409 


bo 


0-lar5, Bsekkegard, gr. 066 


gr 


1 


Olb 




0,75 




^ 


extant iron 
spring 


c85 


? 




? 







175 


NM C05592 


bo 


0-lars, Lousgard, gr. 05 


gr 


1 


Olb 




0,9 




cast, dx 


extant iron 
spring 


80-85 


32,5 




1,2 


1 




175 


NMC05352 


bo 


Gudhjem, N of Gudhjem 


g' 


1 


Ok 




0,85 




cast, dx 


iron 


85 


37 




1,4 





1 


177 


NM C02530 


bo 


0-lars, B^kkegard, gr. 053 


gr 


1 


Ok 




0,95 




cast, dx 


iron spiral 


82,7 


30,1 




1,6 







178 


NM C06872 


bo 


Gudhjem, Lillevang- 
Melsted,gr. 3 


gr 


1 


02 




0,99 




cast, dx 


extant iron 


69,2 


37 




1,2 







179 


NMC35052 


bo 


Olsker, Gl.Skovgard 


md 


1 


02 




1 


1 


cast, dx 


iron 


50,3 


33 




1 







180 


Rannejnr 1081 


bo 


Aker, Limensgard, R^ve- 
kulebakke 


gr 




02 
























181 


Rannejnr 1081 


bo 


Aker, Limensgard, R^ve- 
kulebakke 


gr 




02 
























182 


NM C02390 


bo 


0-lars, B£ekkegard,gr. 050 


gr 




02 












57 


28 










183 


NM C02408 


bo 


0-lars, Baekkegard, gr. 055 


gr 


1 


02 




0,75 


? 


cast, dx 


extant iron 


c57 


? 




1,2 


7 




184 


Ranne 1409x927 


bo 


0-lars, Norre Sandegard 


md 




02 
























185 


Ranne 1409x881 


bo 


0-lars, Norre Sandegard 


md 




02 




1 
















1 




186 


Ranne 1409x928 


bo 


0-lars, Norre Sandegard 


md 




02 




frag 




















187 


Ranne 1409x948 


bo 


0-lars, Norre Sandegard 


md 




02 
























188 


Ranne 3139x79 


bo 


0-lars, Snekkebjerg 


gr 




02 




0,99 


1 


? 


? 


49 


22,8 










189 


NM C32682 


iy 


Alborg, Norholm, Mel- 
lemholm 


md 


' 


02 




1 


1 


? 


rusty both 


56,7 


29,1 




1,5 


1 


1 


190 


Oslo CI 5881 


no-s 


Ostfold, Rakkestad k., 
Sondre Hosten 


gr 


1 


02 




0,45 


? 


dx 


^ 


? 


c22 


5,4 


1,8 


1 


1 


191 




sk 


Sk, Smedstorp, Gardlbsa,pit 
house settlement 


set 




02 




1 


1 






57 


33 











192 


LundUO3023 


sk 


Sk, Uppakra, Uppakra 


md 


1 


02 




0,9 


1 


cast, sin 


rust 


52,2 


33,2 


6,5 


0,8 


1 




193 


Lund U00589 


sk 


Sk, Uppakra, Uppakra 


md 


1 


02 




1 


1 





rust 


50,3 


34 


5,5 


1,2 


1 




194 


Lund U00984 


sk 


Sk, Uppakra, Uppakra 


md 


1 


02 




1 


1 





rust 


49,2 


33,4 


5,5 


1,3 


1 




195 


Lund met-det 


sk 


Sk,Vittskovlek:a, 
0111-0110, F72,JP5 


md 


1 


02 




1 


? 


cast, dx 


extant iron 


40,5 


24,5 




0,5 


1 


1 



DOMED OBLONG BROOCHES OF VENDEL PERIOD SCANDINAVIA 



185 



^ 



^ 





Invno 


Reg 


Provenance (Amt/Lskp, 
parish, site) 


Context 


Vidi 


Type 


Gild/tin 


Pres 


Lug 


Catch 


Pin 


L 


W 


H 


Th 


Worn 


Rep 


196 


Helsinki 5179:2 


al 


Lemland, Mattas, gr. 14 


9' 




02 




0,99 


1 


dx 


iron 
Y-shaped 


59,5 


34,3 


7,6 


1 







197 


NMC05405 


bo 


0-lars, Kobbea?,c]o5eSW 
of Gudhjem 


str 




02 b 




0,95 


1 


solder 


rusty lug 


55,9 


35 




1,5 


1 




198 


NMC05587:b 


bo 


0-lars, Lousgird, gr. 03 


gr 




02b 




0,99 


1 


cast, dx 


extant iron 
spring 


58,5 


34 




1,1 


1 




199 


NMC05587:a 


bo 


0-lars, Lousgard.gr. 03 


gr 




02b 




0,95 


1 


cast, dx 


extant iron 


57,3 


34 




1.2 







200 


NM C26581 


bo 


Bodils/Pouls, Ellegard, gr. 13 


gr 




02 Ellegard 




1 








51 


32 










201 


NM C26582 


bo 


Bodils/Pouls, Ellegard, gr. 13 


gr 




02 Ellegard 




0,95 








51 


33,6 










202 


NMC02534 


bo 


0-lars, B^ekkegard 






02 Ellegard 




0,6 


? 


cast, dx 


iron 


? 


? 




1,2 







203 


NM C02385:b 


bo 


0-lars, Bsekkegard, gr. 044 


gr 




02 Ellegard 












55 


37,3 










204 


NMC02385:a 


bo 


0-lars, B^kkegard, gr. 044 


gr 




02 Ellegard 




0,75 


? 


cast, 
broken 


iron 


i' 


? 




1 







205 


NMC023B9 


bo 


0-lars, B^kkegard,gr. 050 


gr 




02 Ellegard 












57 


28 










205 


NMC02395 


bo 


0-lars, B^kkegard, gr. 059 


gr 




02 Ellegard 




0,75 


1 


cast, dx 


extant iron 


64 


? 




2,1 







207 


NMC05593 


bo 


0-lars, Lousgard, gr. 06 


gr 




02 Ellegard 




1 


1 


cast, dx 


extant iron 


61,1 


31,8 




0,3 







208 


NMC05604 


bo 


0-lars, Lousgard.gr. 11 


gr 




02 Ellegard 




0,5 


1 


cast, dx 


extant iron 


58,5 


32,5 




0,9 







209 


NMC05603 


bo 


0-lars, Lousgard, gr. 1 1 


gr 




02 Ellegard 




1 


1 


? 


extant iron 


60,2 


32 




1,2 







210 


Ronne 1409x880 


bo 


0-lars, Norre Sandegard 


md 




02 Ellegard 




0,95 




















211 


NMC10289 


bo 


0-lars, Norre Sandegard, 
grV5 


gr 




02 Ellegard 




0,95 


1 


cast, dx 


extant iron 


62 


35,5 


7,3 


1,3 







212 


NMC10285 


bo 


0-lars, Norre Sandegard, 
grV5 


gr 




02 Ellegard 




0,5 


1 


? 


rusty lug 


? 


37 


7,3 


1,2 







213 


Lund U38099 


sk 


Sk, Llppakra, Uppakra 


md 




02 Ellegard 




0,55 


1 


? 


7 


55-50 


39 


5 


1,2 


? 




214 


Arendal298b 


no-s 


Hedmark, Nes, Hovindsholm 


str 




proto-Berdal 




0,5 








94 


45 










215 


OsloC00172 


no-s 


Hedmark.Nes, Hovindsholm 


str 




proto-Berdal 




1 








94 


45 










216 


OsloC30251 


no-s 


Hedmark, Ringsaker, By 


str 




proto-Berdal 
























217 


Bergen 09502 


no-s 


S S F, Gloppen k., Breim, 
Bjornarheim 


gr 




proto-Berdal 




0,85 


1 


^ 


^ 


c85 


c56 


19,5 


1,3 







218 


OsloC19179a 


no-s 


Vestfold, Hedrum, Brun la- 
nes. Berg 






proto-Berdal 




1 








96 












219 


OsloC19179b 


no-s 


Vestfold, Hedrum, Brun la- 
nes. Berg 






proto-Berdal 




0,5 


? 


!* 


iron 


clOO 


c60 


25 


2,8 







220 


OsloC12799 


no-s 


Vestfold, Lardal, Styrvoll 


gr 




proto-Berdal 




0,75 


2 


dx 


? 


clOO 


c50 


21 


? 


? 




221 


Trondheim 03452 


no-n 


N-Trondelag, Nedre 
Stjordalen.Alstad 


gr 




R640 




0,25 


17 mm 






? 


c70 


13,5 


0,25 







222 


Trondheim 
07713-3 


no-n 


N-Trondelag, Overhallak., 
Stor-Skomo 


gr 




R640 




frag 


ribbon iron 






>70 


? 


>15 


0,5 


? 




223 


Trondheim 
07688-1 


no-n 


N-Trondelag, Overhalla k., 
Stor-Skomo 


gr 




R640 




0,55 


ribbon ironw 
17 mm 






? 


c57 


12,5 


0,6 







224 


Trondheim 02373 


no-n 


N-Trondelag, Stod, 
Grindberg 


gr 




R540 




1 


ribbon ironw 
18,8 mm 






88 


62 


14,3 


0,25 







225 


Trondheim 02374 


no-n 


N-Trondelag, Stod, 
Grindberg 


gr 




R540 




' 


solder 


solder 


? 


71 


46,5 


10,7 


0,4 







226 


Troms0O5O34d2 


no-n 


Nordland, Andoyak., 
Dverberg 


gr 




R640 




0,45 


ribbon iron 
tapered max w 

18 mm 






? 


c70 


>16 


0,3 







227 


Tromso05034dl 


no-n 


Nordland, Andoyak., 
Dverberg 


gr 




R640 




0,8 


ribbon iron 
widened ends 
max w 24 mm 






>100 


75 


19 


0,7 







228 


Bergen 00622a 


no-n 


Nordland, Bod0k.,Vag0y 


gr 




R640 




1 


lozenge iron 






94,5 


69 


21 


1,2 







229 


Bergen 00622c 


no-n 


Nordland, Bod0k.,Vag0y 


gr 




R640 




0,1 


ribbon iron 






? 


7 


7 








230 


Bergen 00622b 


no-n 


Nordland, Bod0k.,Vag0y 


gr 




R640 




0,95 


lozenge iron 






93,8 


69 


c20 


1 







231 


Tromse 03803b 


no-n 


Nordland, Gildeskalk., 
Vigtelen 


gr 




R640 




0,99 


lozenge iron 
max w 43 mm 






79 


62 


19,7 


0,5 







232 


Tromse 03803a 


no-n 


Nordland, Gildeskalk., 
Vigtelen 


gr 




R640 




0,99 


lozenge iron 
max w 43 mm 






80 


61 


17,2 


0,5 







233 


Tromso 01615-2 


no-n 


Nordland, Mel0yk.,0ysund 


gr 




R640 




0,1 


? 


? 


? 


>70 


>55 


? 


1 


? 




234 


Tromso 01039-1 


™-„ 


Troms, Bjarkoy k., Helloy, 
gr. 1 


gr 




R640 




0,6 


ribbon iron 
tapered max w 
17 mm 






c90 


66 


14 


0,6 







235 


Tromso 01039-2 


no-n 


Troms, Bjarkoy k., Helloy, 
gr. 1 


gr 




R640 




frags 








i' 


? 


? 








236 


Tromso 01041 


no-n 


Troms, Bjarkoy k., Helloy, 
9r.3 


gr 




R640 




0,99 


ribbon iron 
widened ends 
w 10-19 mm 






95 


65 


15,9 


0,35 







237 


Tromso 04064b 


no-n 


Troms, Tromso k., Austein 


gr 




R640 




0,25 


solder 


solder 


? 


c95 


c70 


7 


0,5 







238 


Tromse 04054a 


no-n 


Troms, Tromso k., Austein 


gr 




R640 




0,75 


solder 


solder 


? 


93 


c57 


14,3 


0,35 







239 


Oslo C34253 


no-s 


Aust-Agder,Valle,Vik 


str 




R640 




0,75 


ribbon iron 






c95 


c50 


21 


1,2 







240 


Bergen 07539a 


no-s 


Hordaland, Tysnes, Opdal, 
Store Kongsvik 


gr 




R640 






ribbon iron 


















241 


Bergen 07539b 


no-s 


Hordaland, Tysnes, Opdal, 
Store Kongsvik 


gr 




R640 






ribbon iron 


















242 


Bergen 08255b 


no-s 


More S Romsdal, Hjorund- 
fjord, Bjorke kirkegaard 


gr 


1 


R640 




0,75 


ribbon iron 






c90 


c75 


c28 


2,5 







243 


Bergen 08255a 


no-s 


MoreS Romsdal, Hjorund- 
fjord, Bjorke kirkegaard 


gr 


1 


R640 




0,99 


ribbon iron 


dx 


iron 


86 


74 


27,7 


2,7 







244 


Bergen 


no-s 


More S Romsdal, Sykkylven, 
Vik, gr. 8 


gr 




R640 




frags 


ribbon iron 


















245 


Bergen 


no-s 


More & Romsdal, Sykkylven, 
Vik, gr. 8 


gr 




R640 




frags 


ribbon iron 



















186 



MARTIN RUNDKVI5T 



^ 



^ 





Invno 


Reg 


Provenance (Amt/Lskp, 
parish, site} 


Context 


Vidi 


Type 


GiJd/tin 


Pres 


Lug 


Catch 


Pin 


L 


W 


H 


Th 


Worn 


Rep 


245 


Stavanger2351 c? 


no-s 


Rogaland, Egersund p., 
Ogna s., Kvalbein 


gr 




R540 
























247 


Stavanger2351 b 


no-s 


Rogaland, Egersund p., 
Ogna s., Kvalbein 


gr 




R640 




' 








100 


57,5 










248 


Bergen 09012 


no-5 


S S f, Gloppen, Breim, 
Sanddal 


gr 




R540 
























249 


Bergen 10975b 


no-s 


S&F, Gloppen, Sarheim 


gr 




R640 




frags 




















250 


Bergen 05030b2 


no-s 


S Si f, Stryn, Gutdal 


gr 


1 


R540 




frags 


ribbon iron w 
14,5 mm 






>80 


? 


? 


? 


? 




251 


Bergen 05909 


no-s 


S & F, Stryn, Gutdal 


gr 


1 


R640 




1 


ribbon iron 
tapered 






99 


81 


21,5 


0,8 







252 


Bergen 09061 


no-s 


S&F,Vik, Hopperstad, 

Haugateigen 


gr 




R640 




0,8 








59 


c40 










253 


Bergen 06500-3 


no-s 


S&F,Vik, Skjen^um 


gr 


1 


R640 




0,2 


ribbon iron w 
15 mm 






i' 


? 


i' 








254 


Trondheim 
13885-1 


no-s 


S-Trsndelag, Bjugn p., 
Ness., Nes 


g' 


1 


R640 




0,75 


ribbon iron 






? 


c68 


? 


0,8 


? 




255 


Trondheim 17739a 


no-s 


S-Trondelag, 0rlandet, 
Grande 


gr 


1 


R640 




0,99 


ribbon iron w 
7 mm 






92 


77,5 


29 


1,1 







256 


Trondheim 17739b 


no-s 


S-Trondelag, ©riandet, 
Grande 


gr 


1 


R540 




0,9 


ribbon iron w 
7 mm 






89,3 


c80 


27,5 


1,1 







257 


Trondheim 17679a 


no-s 


S-Trondelag, Sriandet, 
Grande 


g' 


1 


R540 




0,99 


ribbon iron 






91 


73 


23,1 


1,1 







258 


Bergen (03202a?) 


no-s 


Vestfold, Hedrum, Brunla- 
nes, Nordheim 


gr 




R640 
























259 


Trondheim 17313 


no-n 


N-Trendelag, TJ0tta,T]0tta, 
gr. 19 


gr 




R543 




frag 




















250 


Tromss 10817 
(1962/18) 


no-n 


Troms, Sandtorg, Haukebo 


gr 




R643 
























251 


Bergen 07109 


no-s 


Mare S Romsdal, Sendmor, 
0rsta, Osberg/Oseborg 


gr 




R643 




0,2 


ribbon iron 




iron flat 
spring 


? 


? 


? 


? 


!* 




252 


Stavanger 4924 


no-s 


Rogaland, Sola k., Byberg 


gr 




R643 




frags 




















263 


Trondheim 01945 


no 


!* 


str 




R643A 




0,99 


ribbon rusty w 
7 mm 






92 


74 


17,5 


OJ 







264 


Trondheim 
18545-1 


no-n 


fJ-Trendelag, Fosnes k., Joa, 
Sandvik, gr. 03 


gr 




R643A 




0,3 


ribbon iron 






c88 


c50 


>12 


1,1 







265 


Trondheim 
18545-2 


no-n 


N-Trondelag, Fosnes k., Jaa, 
Sandvik, gr. 03 


gi 




R643A 




0,15 


ribbon iron, 
tapered, w 


dx 






? 




? 


? 




266 


Trondheim 13552a 


no-n 


N-Trondelag, Fosnes k., Jaa, 
Sandvik, gr. 14 


gi 




R643A 




0,6 


ribbon iron 




iron 


84,5 


c50 


13,5 


0,4 





? 


267 


Trondheim 18552c 


™. 


N-Trandelag, Fosnes k., Jaa, 
Sandvik, gr. 14 


gr 




R643A 




0,9 


ribbon iron 
w 8-13 wide 

ends 






84 


c50 


14 


0,4 







268 


Trondheim 08804 


no-n 


N-Trandelag, Frosta, Sjursvik 


gr 




R643A 




0,85 


ribbon solder 

w 1 1,5 mm 






c82 


c52 


19,3 


1 







259 


Trondheim 
19966Af20 


no-n 


N-Trandelag, Levanger p., 
Frosta, Stromsasen, gr. 5 


gr 




R643A 




0,6 


ribbon iron 






94 


69,6 


25,2 


1,5 







270 


Trondheim 
19966Bf40 


no-n 


N-Trandelag, Levanger p., 
Frosta, Stromsasen, gr. 5 


gr 




R643A 




0,75 


ribbon iron 
tapered w 
15,25 






95,3 


58,4 


29 


1,7 







271 


Trondheim 15525 


no-n 


N-Trandelag, Msre, La 


gr 




R643A 




1 


nbbon rusty 






82,5 


57 


13,1 


0,4 


1 




272 


Trondheim 
05575-1 


no-n 


N-Trondelag, Overhalla 
k., Melhus 


gr 




R643A 




0,33 


nbbon bronze 
tapered c 
100 x9 mm 
line dec 




iron 


c90 


c80 


24 


1,3 







273 


Trondheim 
05575-2 




N-Trondelag, Overhalla 
k., Melhus 


gr 




R643A 




0,25 


ribbon bronze 
tapered c 
100x9mm 
line dec 










c25 


1,2 







274 


Trondheim 03035 


no-n 


N-Trandelag, Overhalla k., 
Stor-Skomo 


gr 




R643A 




0,25 


ribbon rusty w 
5-5 mm 






>85 


? 


? 


? 







275 


Trondheim 
07713-1 


no-n 


N-Trondelag, Overhalla k., 
Stor-Skomo 


gr 




R643A 




0,55 


ribbon rusty w 
15 mm 






? 


c54 


11 


0,9 







275 


5HM 20483:3 a 


no-n 


N-Trondelag, Ovre Stjordal, 
Hegra, Bjertheim 


str 




R643A 




0,33 


? 


? 


? 


>63 


? 


<10 


0,55 







277 


SHM 20483:3 b 


no-n 


N-Trondelag, 0vre Stjordal, 
Hegra, Bjertheim 


str 




R643A 




0,15 


? 


? 


? 


>63 


? 


<10 


0,55 







278 


Tromso 05034c 


no-n 


Nordland, Andaya k., 
Dverberg 


gr 




R643A 




0,33 


? 


? 


? 


^ 


<52 


i' 


0,5 


1 




279 


Tromso 01615-3 


™-„ 


Nordland, Meloy k., 0ysund 


gr 




R643A 




0,8 


ribbon solder 
tapered w 
13,5 mm 






80-85 


50-55 


8-13 









280 


Tromso 01615-4 


"" 


Nordland, Meloy k., 0ysund 


gr 




R643A 




0,33 


ribbon solder 
tapered w 
13,5 mm 






80-85 


50-55 


8-13 









281 


Tromse 01907 


no-n 


Troms, Bjarkoy k., Vestnes, 
gr. 10 


gr 




R643A 




0,9 


solder spot 


solder 

spot 


? 


70 


39 


5 


0,5 


1 





DOMED OBLONG BROOCHES OF VENDEL PERIOD SCANDINAVIA 



187 



^ 



^ 





Invno 


Reg 


Provenance (Amt/Lskp, 
parish, site) 


Context 


Vidi 


Type 


Giid/tin 


Pres 


Lug 


Catch 


Pin 


L 


W 


H 


Th 


Worn 


Rep 


282 


Tromsa 04516a 


no-n 


Troms, Tranoy, Nordstrau- 
men, Solvang 


gr 


1 


R543A 




0,5 


ribbon solder 
irregular max 
w 12 mm 






65-70 


42 




1 







283 


Tromso 04616b 


no-n 


Troms, Tranoy, Nordstrau- 
men, Solvang 


gr 


1 


R643A 




0,25 


ribbon solder 
S2rivholes 
at end 






c90 


c60 


>14 


0,9 


? 




284 


OsloC22596a 


no-5 


Aiist-Agder,Valle,Vik 


gr 


1 


R643A 




0,75 


ribbon iron 






121,5 


69 


21,8 


2,2 


7 




285 


OsloC22596b 


no-5 


Aiist-Agder,Valle,Vik 


gr 


1 


R643A 




0,1 


? 


? 


? 


? 


? 


7 


? 







286 


OsloC16876 


no-s 


Hedmark, Lsten, Skjen;e 


gr 


1 


R643A 




0,25 


? 


? 


? 


>70 


? 


10-15 


1,6 


7 




287 


Bergen 12012a1 


no-s 


Hordaland, Meland, Fosse 


gr 


1 


R643A 




0,5 


ribbon iron, 
rhomboid 
w concave 
edges 






105 


90 


7 


1,7 


7 




288 


Bergen 12012a2 




Hordaland, Meland, Fosse 


gr 


1 


R643A 




0,33 


ribbon iron, 
rhomboid 
w concave 
edges 






105 


90 




1,7 






289 


Trondheim 


no-s 


Mare & Romsdal.Vike 
cburch 


gr 




R643A 




frags 


ribbon iron 


















290 


OsioC25074a 


no-5 


Oppland, Faberg, Odiand 


gr 


1 


R643A 




0,6 


solder indet 
shape 


? 


? 


clOO 


59 


17 


0,8 







291 


Bergen 09014-2 


no-s 


S& F, Gloppenk,Breim, 
Sanddal 


g' 


1 


R643A 




frags 


ribbon iron 
tapered max w 
20 mm 






7 




7 


2,1 


? 




292 


Bergen 09014-1 


no-s 


S& F, Gloppenk,Breim, 
Sanddal 


gr 


1 


R643A 




frags 


ribbon iron 
tapered max w 
20 mm 






7 




7 


2,1 


? 




293 


Bergen 06035 


no-s 


S S F, Innvik, Langeseter 


gr 




R643A 




0,75 








93 


>55 










294 


Bergen 06500-1 


no-s 


S a F, Vik, Skjervum 


gr 


1 


R643A 




0,05 


ribbon iron w 
22 mm 






i' 


? 


? 








295 


Bergen 05500-2 


no-s 


SSF,Vik, Skjen/um 


g' 


1 


R643A 




0,1 


ribbon iron w 
22 mm 






7 


? 


7 








296 


OsloC19708a 


no-s 


Ostfold, Onsey, Hauge 


gr 


1 


R643A 




0,66 


ribbon iron c 
85x22 mm, 

rivets at ends 






c90 


c50 


cl7,5 


1 







297 


Lund 29055 


sk 


Sk,Ahus,Ahus 


str 


1 


R643A 




0,75 


solder? 


solder? 





>70 


47,5 


13 


0,8 







298 


SHM 05208:33 


sv 


Up, Adelso, Bjdrkd, Svarta 
Jorden 


set 


1 


R643A 




0,8 


solder spot 


solder 
spot 


? 


59,3 


30 


8,7 


1,2 







299 


NM C05605 


bo 


0-lars, Lousgard, gr. 11 


gr 


] 


R643B 




0,6 


soldered 


soldered 


rust 


55 


39 




1 







300 


SHM 24198:2 


90 


Og,Kimsta,Tangstad,gr. 2 


g' 


1 


R643B 




? 


? 


? 


? 


78 


7 


? 


7 







301 


TromsB 01041 




Troms, Bjarkoy k., Helloy, 
gr.3 


gr 


1 


R643B 




0,75 


rusty lozenge 


rusty 
lozenge 


? 


>85 


c55 


? 


!* 







302 


OsloC15912 


no-s 


Hedmark, Grue, Void 


gr 


1 


R543B 




0,6 


? 


dx 


? 


c85 


51 


15 


1,9 







303 


SHM 31039:06 


sv 


So, Tyreso, Nasby 4:1, Raa 
27, gr. 06 


gr 


1 


R643B 




0,05 


!* 


? 


? 


? 


!* 


>20 


1,5 


? 




304 


Trondheim 02953 


no-n 


N-Trandelag, Skognp., 
Alstahaugs., Vaian 


gr 


' 


R543C 




0,45 


rusty Stripe w 
11 mm 






96 


50 


18,3 


1,5 







305 


TromsB 00909 


no-n 


Troms, Bjarkey, 0stnes 


gr 


1 


R643C 




0,33 


7 


sin&dx 


7 


c 100 


c70 


3 


7 


7 


1 


305 


Tromso 00908 


no-n 


Troms, Bjarkay, 0stnes 


gr 


' 


R543C 




0,9 


soider + 2 
holes 


solder -i- 2 
holes 


iron 


102 


55 


18 


' 







307 


TromsB 03426a 


no-n 


Nordland, Steigen k., 
Skagstad 


str 


1 


R543D 




0,7 


soider 


!* 


? 


65-70 


40-45 


>7 


? 







308 


Troms0 03497a 


no-n 


Nordiand, Vestvageyk., 
Buksnes, Utakieiv 


gr 


1 


R643D 




0,8 


solder 


solder 


? 


c50 


38 


6,3 


0,3 







309 


Bergen 05785 


no-s 


More & Romsdai, Strand k., 
Midtbust 


gr 


1 


R643D 




0,85 


? 


solder 


? 


c70 


c42 


8,8 


0,8 







310 


Umea.Hogre all- 
manna laroverket 


? 


Unknown 


str 




R643E 




0,99 


ribbon iron 






c55 


c36 






1 




311 


NMC07755 


iy 


Ringkabing, Rindum/ 
Nordre Omme, Skrostrup/ 
Skostrup mose 


str 


1 


R643E 




' 


solder spot 


soider 

spot 


7 


52,3 


28,8 




0,3 







312 


NMC33346 


iy 


Aiborg, Hasseris, Bejsebak- 
ken, Stolpedalsvej 


md 


1 


R643E 




1 


solder spot 


? 


? 


i' 


30 




1,1 







313 


OsloC21512a 


no-n 


Nordiand, Hadsel, Hennes 
/ Hemnes 


gr 


1 


R643E 




0,9 


solder spot 


soider 

spot 


? 


44 


21 


5 


1 


? 




314 


TromsQ 06371 a 


no-n 


Nordland, Luray k.,Ytre 
Kvaray, grave2 


gr 




R643E 




1 








42 


27 


8,25 









315 


Tromse 06371 b 


no-n 


Nordland, Luray k.,Ytre 
Kvaray, grave 2 


gr 




R643E 












44 


28 










316 


Tromse 06377c 


no-n 


Nordland, Luray k.,Ytre 

Kvaray, grave 8 


gr 


1 


R643E 




1 


solder spot -1- 2 
driiled holes 


soider 

spot-i- 
2 drilled 
holes 


? 


52,7 


33,5 


9,5 


1,5 







317 


TromsQ 06377d 


"" 


Nordiand, Luray k.,Ytre 
Kvaray, grave 8 


gr 


1 


R643E 




1 


solder spot -1- 
1 hole 


soider 

spot -1- 1 
hole 




45,2 


26,2 


8,3 


0,3 


1 




318 


Tromsa 06378a 


no-n 


Nordland, Luray k.,Ytre 
Kvaray, grave 9 


gr 


1 


R643E 


gild 


0,99 


solder spot 


solder 
spot 


? 


39 


21 


10,3 


1 


!* 




319 


TromsB 05378b 


no-n 


Nordland, Luray k.,Ytre 
Kvaray, grave 9 


gr 


1 


R643E 




0,99 


solder spot 


solder 
spot 


? 


40 


21 


9 


0,5 


7 





188 



MARTIN RUNDKVI5T 



^ 



^ 





Invno 


Reg 


Provenance (Amt/Lskp, 
parish, site} 


Context 


Vidi 


Type 


Gild/tin 


Pres 


Lug 


Catch 


Pin 


L 


W 


H 


Th 


Worn 


Rep 


320 


Tromso 03497b 


no-n 


Nordland,Vestvag0yk, 
Buksnes, Utakleiv 


gr 


1 


R543E 




' 


ribbon rusty 
tapered max w 
1 1,6 mm 






53 


32,5 


8,1 


0,3 







321 


Bergen 05807 


no-s 


S & F, Eid k., Myklebostad, 
gr. east 


gr 




R543E 




0,6 


ribbon iron 




extant iron 


55-60 


37 










322 


Trondheim 18026 


no-s 


S-Trondelag, Hitra k., 
Dolmoy, Stadsvik 


gr 




R643E 












53 












323 


Raa UV-Syd 


sk 


Sk, Fladie psh, Raa 8, G 
9755,AV7745 


set 




R643E 




0,95 


solder spot 


solder 

spot 


extant iron 


35,8 


23,5 




0,4 







324 


Lund U05706 


sk 


Sk, Uppakra, Uppakra 


md 




R643E 




1 


solder spot 


solder 

spot 





48,8 


31,5 


c5 


0,8 


1 




325 


SHM 02075:13 


? 


Storck's collection, Kalmar 


str 




SPL 




1 


1 


dx 


? 


33,9 


17,5 


6,5 


1 







326 


SHM 05819:505 


? 


Tradgardh's collection 


str 




SPL 




1 


1 


dx 


iron spring 


52,5 


24,7 


9,4 


1,3 







327 


OM 


? 


Unknown 


str 




SPL 
























328 


Helsinki 9365:394 


fi 


Kalanti, Kalmumaki 


gr 




SPL 




1 


1 


dx 


3 


41 


16,2 


9,9 


0,8 







329 


Helsinki 7930:33 


a 


Satakunta, Kumo/Kokemaki, 

Kuoppala-Pusso 


gr 




SPL 




0,8 


1 


? 


? 


40,8 


19 


10,5 


0,9 





1 


330 


NMC30744 


jy 


Alborg, Hasseris, 
Bejsebakken 


md 


1 


SPL 




1 


1, replaced w 

solder 


cast, sin 


? 


25,2 


12,3 




1,6 





1 


331 


Alborg 129x1725 


jy 


Alborg, Lindholm, Lindholm 
haje, gr 1725 


gr 




SPL 




1 






extant 


35 


15 










332 


Tromsa 


no-n 


Nordland, Lodingen, Hustad 


g' 




SPL 
























333 


OsloC23173a(= 
T 5900) 


no-s 


Hedmark,Vang k., 
Vang,Aker 


g' 


' 


SPL 




1 


1 


? 


iron spring 


49 


32 


10,8 


1 







334 


Stavanger 4044 


no-s 


Rogaland, Klepp p. & k., 
Bores,Sele 


str 




SPL 




0,95 








38 


16,9 










335 


Trondheim 18758d 


no-s 


S-Trsndelag, Oppdal 
k.,Vang 


gr 


1 


SPL 




0,5 


blank surface 


? 


? 


>30 


22 


5,8 


0,3 






335 




ru 


Staraya Ladoga 


set 




SPL 
























337 


NMC31292 


5j 


Sore, Boeslunde, Neble 




1 


SPL 




1 


1 


cast, dx 


iron 


38,7 


15,3 




1,85 


1 




338 


LundU06211 


sk 


Sk, Uppakra, Uppakra 


md 


1 


SPL 




1 


blank surface 


blank 
surface 


!* 


33,8 


18,5 


5,45 


0,9 







339 


LundU04917 


sk 


Sk, Uppakra, Uppakra 


md 


1 


SPL 




1 


1 


cast, dx 


rust 


33,3 


15,5 


8,05 


0,5 







340 


Lund met-det 


sk 


Sk, Allekopinge, Ripa Sandar 
44:1, 9812, F5,JP151 


md 


1 


SPL 




1 


1 


cast, dx 





39,5 






0,9 







341 


SHM 32577:51 b 


sv 


So, Aspd, Stenby, Raa 
141,gr. 51 


gi 


1 


SPL 




1 


1 riveted iron 


dx 


iron spring 


59,5 


27,4 


10,4 


0,8 







342 


SHM 30621:13 


sv 


So, Botkyrka, Tomtberga, 

Raa 10,gr. 13 


gr 


' 


SPL 




0,5 


? 


cast, 
broken 


? 


? 


c20 


c7 


1,1 







343 


SHM31039:19 


sv 


So, Tyreso, Nasby 4:1, Raa 
27,gr. 19 


gi 


1 


SPL 




0,9 


1 


replace- 
ment dx 


iron spring 


38,9 


14,7 


8,3 


0,9 


? 


1 


344 


SHM 18355:36 


sv 


Up,Adels6, Hovgarden, 
gr. 35 


gr 


1 


SPL 




0,95 


? 


cast, 
broken 


? 


c40 


15 


S 


1 


? 




345 


SHM 29094:10790 


sv 


Up, Ekero, Helgo, BGl 


set 


1 


SPL 




0,75 


? 


cast, 
broken 


? 


35-40 


cl2 


c5 


0,45 


? 




346 


Uppsala 4318 


sv 


Up, Haggeby Overhassla, 
gr.A 


gr 




SPL 




0,95 








42 


15 


9,5 








347 


SHM 32300:91 c 


sv 


Up, Lovb, Lunda, Raa 
27,gr. 91 


gr 




SPL 




0,75 






extant iron 


47 


21 


5 








348 


SHM 32300:91 b 


sv 


Up, Lovtj, Lunda, Raa 

27,gr. 91 


gr 




SPL 




0,95 






extant iron 


42 


15 


5,5 








349 


SHM 
26042:172/124 


sv 


Up, Norrsunda, Brista, Raa 
7,gr.172 


gr 




SPL 




0,99 




dx 


^ 


39 


18 


11,5 


1,B 


1 




350 


SHM 
26042:182/132 


sv 


Up, Norrsunda, Brista, Raa 
7,gr. 182 


gr 




SPL 




1 




cast, 
broken 


iron spring 


35 


15 


7 


1,B 







351 


SHM 15174 


lib 


sv 


Up, S:tPer, Billby, gr. 11 


gr 




SPL 




0,8 




dx 


iron spring 


40 


19 


5,9 


1,3 







352 


SHM 15174 


18:1 


sv 


Up, S:tPer, Billby, gr. 18:1 


gr 




SPL 












39 


20 










353 


SHM 15618 


12 


sv 


Up, Tierp, Lundby, gr. 12 


gr 




SPL 




1 




? 


? 


30,5 


14,3 


7,45 


1 







354 


SHM 10033 


14 


sv 


Up,Vendelk:a, Raa27 


gr 




SPL 




0,8 




















355 


SHM 09521 


b:5c 


sv 


Up,Vendel, Karby 2,gr. B:5 


gr 




SPL 












35 












356 


SHM 04259 1/2 a 


sv-n 


Dr, By, Djupvik, find A 


gr 




SPL 




1 




cast, 
broken 


? 


50 


20,1 


7,9 


1 







357 


SHM 12221:B 


sv-n 


Ga, Hedesunda.Ostveda 


gr 




SPL 




1 








39 


17 


5,5 








358 


Helsinki 1751:4 


al 


Finstrbm, Kulla 


gr 




SPL 




1 




? 


iron 


40,5 


18,7 


8,7 


1,1 







359 


Helsinki 4626:10 


al 


Geta, Hockbole, gr. 3 


gr 




SPL 




0,8 




? 


iron spring 


c36 


13,9 


7,6 


1,4 







350 


Aland 094:60a 


al 


Saltvik, Odkarby, Backas/ 
Ostergarden, gr. 10 


gr 




SPL 




0,99 




dx 


iron spring 


38,9 


18,4 


8,5 


1,4 


1 




361 


SHM 02724 


go 


Vg, Friggeraker, Backabo 


str 




SPL Billby 




1 




dx 


? 


50,45 


24 


9,3 


0,8 







362 


SHM 17906:10 


g6 


Og,Skedevi, Ruda, 
Smedjebacken 


gr 




SPL Billby 




0,9 




dx 


iron spring 


45 


21 


10 


1,15 







353 


SHM 32577:51 c 


sv 


So, Aspd, Stenby, Raa 
141,gr.51 


gr 




SPL Billby 




0,75 




? 


? 


? 


>18 


>7 


0,9 


7 




354 


RaaF67022 


sv 


Up,Adels6, Bjdrko, Svarta 
Jorden 1994, R6704 


set 




SPL Billby 




0,9 




dx 


iron spring 


45 


15,5 


12 









355 


SHM 
26042:180/121 


sv 


Up, Norrsunda, Brista, Raa 
7,gr. 180 


gr 




SPL Billby 




1 




dx 


iron spring 


42,9 


18,5 


11,7 


1,3 







355 


SHM 15174:11a 


sv 


Up, S:t Per, Billby, gr. 11 


gr 




SPL Billby 




0,99 




dx 


iron 


36,8 


15,5 


7,9 


0,9 







357 


SHM 23304:17 


sv 


Up, Ska, Ska-Edeby, gr. 17 


gr 




SPL Billby 




0,85 




dx 


iron spring 


39 


13,5 


5,8 


0,95 







358 


SSM 57497:47 


sv 


Up, Spanga,Arvinge, Raa 
162, gr. 47 


gr 




SPL Billby 




0,75 




dx 


7 


c44 


18 


8,6 


1,1 







359 


SHM 14723:a 


sv 


Up, S:t Per, Erikssund, 
Bjdrkbacken 


gr 




SPL Billby/ 
Ashusby 




1 




dx 




39 


21 


9,75 









DOMED OBLONG BROOCHES OF VENDEL PERIOD SCANDINAVIA 



189 



^ 



^ 





Invno 


Reg 


Provenance (Amt/Lskp, 
parish, site} 


Context 


Vidi 


Type 


Gild/tin 


Pres 


Lug 


Catch 


Pin 


L 


W 


H 


Th 


Worn 


Rep 


370 


SHM 31461:05 


sv 


Up, Vallentuna, Nasby 1:1, 
Raa 21,gr. 05 


9' 


1 


SPLBillby/ 
Ashusby 




' 


1 


dx 


iron 


44 


19,7 


9,1 


1,3 







371 


SHM 33852 


sv 


So, Huddinge, Lissma, gr. 53 


gr 




SPLHulter- 
stad 




' 


1 






43 


20 


12 








372 


SHM 27258:7171 


sv 


Up, Ekero, Helgd, BG1 


set 




SPLHulter- 
stad 




0,9 


1 


dx 


? 


38,1 


10,5 


5,85 


0,95 





1 


373 


SHM 31451:34 


sv 


Up,Vallentuna, rJasby 1:1, 
Raa 21, gr. 34 


gr 




SPLHulter- 
stad 




' 


1 


cast, 
broken 


? 


33 


15 


5,5 


1,4 


? 




374 


SHM 
01304:1836:35 


ol 


01, Hulterstadk:a 


gr 




SPLHulter- 
stad 




0,95 


1 


replaced 
w iron 
rivet 


? 


39 


17,35 


7,5 


1,1 


1 


1 


375 


SHM 16470 


ol? 


01? 


str 




SPLHulter- 
stad 




1 


1 


dx 


? 


39,7 


20 


8,5 




1 


1 


376 


SHM 30521:36 


sv 


So, Botkyrka.Tomtberga, 
Raa 10, gr. 36 


gr 




SPLAshusby 




0,99 


solder 


solder 


? 


35,5 


17,5 


6,? 


1,2 







377 


SHM 

26042:173/125 


sv 


Up, Non-sunda, Brista, Raa 

7,gr. 173 


gr 




SPLAshusby 




1 


1 


dx 


iron 


43,3 


20 


10,7 


1,1 







378 


SHM 08800:23 


sv 


Up, Norrsunda,Ashusby, 
gr.28 


g' 




SPLAshusby 




1 


blank surface 


blank 
surface 


? 


33 


20 


9,1 


1,1 







379 


SSM 


sv 


Up, Spanga,Arvinge, Raa 
152,gr. 15 


gr 




SPLAshusby 




1 


















1 


380 


SHM 17059 


sv 


Up,Tolita, Ersta 


g' 




SPLAshusby 




1 




dx 


iron spring 


43 


? 


? 


1,15 







381 


SHM 25849:10 


sv 


Up, Taby, Roslags-Nasby, 
Raa 140, gr. 10 


gr 




SPLAshusby 




1 




dx 


iron 


48 


20,7 


9,25 


1,2 







382 


Aland 094:60b 


al 


Saltvik, Odkarby, Backas/ 
Ostergarden, gr. 10 


gr 




SPLAshusby 




1 




? 


? 


35,5 


11,7 


8,4 









383 


SHM 34108 F858 


sv 


So, Harad, Harads Kumla 
2:9, Raa 15, gr. 85 


gr 




SPLAshusby/ 
Hulterstad 




1 




dx 


iron 


40,5 


20,5 


7,9 


1,3 


7 




384 


SHM 02076:16 


? 


Storck's collection, Kalmar 


str 




SPU 




1 




dx 


iron 


41,2 


25,1 


7,3 


1,1 


? 




385 


Kurlandisches 
Provinzialmuseum 
in Mitau 


ba 


Lettland, Kr. Bauske, 
Diinhof, river Daugava 


str 




SPU 




0,99 




dx 




49 


19 










386 


NMjnr 5725/84 d 


jy 


Alborg, Nsrre-Tranders, 
Humlebakken 


md 




SPU 












42 












387 


Lund U38040 


sk 


Sk, Uppakra, Uppakra 


md 


1 


SPU 




1 


1 


dx 


? 


35,5 


14,35 


4,35 


0,5 


1 




388 


Lund U05627 


sk 


Sk, Uppakra, Uppakra 


md 


1 


SPU 




0,55 


1 





rust 


>35 


25,8 


10 


1,6 







389 


SHM 32577:51 a 


sv 


So.Aspo, Stenby, Raa 
141,gr51 


gr 


' 


SPU 




1 


1 


dx 


iron spring 


36,9 


15,5 


7 


0,7 


1 




390 


SHM 30621:11 


sv 


So, Botkyrka,Tomtberga, 
Raa 10, gr 11 


gr 


1 


SPU 




1 


1 


cast, 
broken 


iron spring 


41,5 


21 


8,2 


1,4 







39] 


SHM 26481:54 


sv 


Up, Ekero, Helgd, Raa 
1 50, gr 54 


gr 


' 


SPU 




0,8 


1 


dx 


iron spring 


42,5 


17 


9,4 


1,2 







392 


Uppsala 1151 


sv 


Up, G:a Uppsala 


g' 


1 


SPU 




0,95 


1 


dx 


rusty catch 


55,4 


24,7 


9,3 


1,2 







393 


SHM 32300:91 a 


sv 


Up, Lovo, Lunda, Raa 
27,gr91 


gr 




SPU 




0,9 






extant 


35 


15 


4,5 








394 


VM 5794 a 


sv 


Up, Simtuna,Vad 


str 




SPU 
























395 


VM 5794 b 


sv 


Up, Simtuna,Vad 


str 




SPU 
























396 


SHM 29783:19 


sv 


Up, Sollentuna,Tureberg, 
Raa 277, gr. 19 


gr 




SPU 




0,9 








c50 


24 


7 








397 


Vasteras 


sv 


Vs, Bade lunda, Tuna, gr 35 


gr 




SPU 




0,99 


1 




iron 


49,3 


18,7 


10,7 






1 


398 


SHM, Raadnr 
2386/93 UV 

Uppsala 


. 


Vs, Koping, Ullvi, Raa 
83,gr 5 


gr 




SPU 




1 








43 


21 










399 


SHM 31030:4 


sv 


Vs, Romfartuna,Gesala 3:4, 
Raa 38,gr 4 


gr 




SPU 




frags 




















400 


SHM 04259 1/2 b 


sv-n 


Dr, By, Djupvik,findB 


gr 


1 


SPU 




0,75 




dx 


iron 


35 


15 


7,4 


0,85 







401 


Aland 615:216 


al 


Finstrom, Grelsby, gr 47 


gr 


1 


SPU 




0,99 




dx 


iron spring 


39 


15,5 


8,4 


1 







402 


Aland 515:302 


al 


Finstrdm, Grelsby gr 52 


gr 


1 


SPU 




0,45 




? 


? 


>54 


c28 


15 


? 


? 




403 


Aland 386:124 


al 


Sund, Kastelholm, Langang- 
sbacken, gr 59 


gr 


1 


SPU 




0,45 




? 


? 


? 


cl8 


? 


^ 


? 




404 


Aland 198:09 


al 


Sund, Kastelholm, Stenha- 
gen, gr 1 2 


gr 


1 


SPU 




0,99 




^ 


? 


c39 


? 


7 


? 







405 


Lund 14134 


dl 


01 




1 


SPU 




1 




cast, dx 





53,5 


30,5 




1 







405 


SHM 

01304:1835:98 


dl 


01, Grasgard, Osby 


gr 


1 


SPU 




1 




cast, 
broken 


? 


55 


23,3 


11 


0,9 





1 


407 


Trondheim 
07687-1 


no-n 


N-Trondelag, Overhalla k., 
Stor-Skomo 


gr 


1 


Stor-Skomo 




1 


solder 


solder 


? 


82,4 


47,8 


c25 


0,9 






408 


Trondheim 
07537-2 


no-n 


N-Trondelag, Overhalla k., 
Stor-Skomo 


gr 


1 


Stor-Skomo 




0,33 




? 


? 


? 


55 


25 


0,7 






409 


Trondheim 
00735-1 


no-s 


S-Tr0ndelag,Oppdalk., 
Vang, Prestegarden 


str 


1 


Stor-Skomo 




0,7 




? 


? 


85 


<56 


>15 


0,7 







410 


Trondheim 
00735-2 


no-s 


S-Tr0ndelag,Oppdalk., 
Vang, Prestegarden 


str 


1 


Stor-Skomo 




0,33 




? 


? 


? 


? 


>17 


? 


? 




411 


Ashmolean 
1909.115 


!* 


Denmark 


str 




TT 




1 






iron 


84,5 


40 


20 









412 


SHM 02076:17 


? 


Storck's collection, Kalmar 


str 


1 


TT 




0,95 




dx 


? 


41,5 


21,8 


9,5 


1,3 


1 




413 


SHM 06819:507 


7 


Tradgardh's collection 


str 


1 


TT 




1 




dx 


iron spring 


c64 


>18,4 


<17 


1,5 







414 


NMC06593:b 


bo 


Gudhjem, Lillevang- 
Melsted,gr 2 


gr 


1 


n 




1 




cast, dx 


extant iron 
spring 


94,5 


49 




3,1 







415 


NMC06593:a 


bo 


Gudhjem, Lillevang- 
Melsted, gr. 2 


gr 


1 


TT 




1 


1 


cast, dx 


extant iron 
spring 


95 


50 




3,9 





1 



190 



MARTIN RUNDKVI5T 



^ 



^ 





Invno 


Re 


g Provenance (Amt/Lskp, 
parish, site) 


Context 


Vidi 


Type 


Gild/tin 


Pres 


Lug 


Catch 


Pin 


L 


W 


H 


Th 


Worn 


Rep 


416 


NMC02898 


bo 


Gudhjem, Lillevang, gr. 
2(18) 


gr 


1 


IT 




1 


1 


cast, dx 


iron 


91,85 


46,15 


22,7 


1,5 


1 


1 


417 


NMC02903 


bo 


Gudhjem, Lillevang, gr. 
4(20) 


gr 


1 


IT 




1 


1 


cast, dx 


iron 


111 


59,5 




1,4 





1 


418 


NM C02904 


bo 


Gudhjem, Lillevang, gr. 
4(20] 


gr 


1 


IT 




1 


1 


cast, dx 


rusty lug 


105,75 


63,8 




1,8 





1 


419 


NMC25520 


bo 


Marie, Saltuna,gr. 14 


g' 




IT 












105 












420 


NM C25519 


bo 


Marie, Saltuna, gr. 14 


gr 


1 


IT 




0,95 


1 


cast, dx 


iron spring 


104,1 


50,5 




1,45 


1 




421 


NMC01752 


bo 


0-lars, B^kkegard 


gr 


1 


IT 




0,85 


1 


cast, dx 


iron spiral 


115 


44 




1 


1 




422 


NMC02454 


bo 


0-lars, B^kkegard, gr. 105 


gr 


1 


IT 




0,95 


1 


cast, dx 


extant iron 


93,4 


43,3 




1,2 







423 


NMC03102 


bo 


0-lars, B^kkegard, gr. 159 


gr 


1 


IT 




0,5 


? 


? 


? 


104 


48,5 




2,1 







424 


NMC03103 


bo 


0-lars, B£kkegard,gr. 159 


gr 


1 


TT 




1 


1 


cast, dx 


rusty lug 


84 


45 




1,9 





1 


425 


NMC31086:c 


bo 


0-lars, Baekkegard,gr. 166 


gr 




TT 




0,99 








118 


57,3 










425 


NMC31086:a 


bo 


0-lars, Baekkegard,gr. 166 


gr 




TT 




0,99 








115 


57,3 










427 


NMC31086:b 


bo 


0-lars, B£ekkegard,gr. 155 


gr 




TT 




0,99 








112 


57,3 










428 


NMC05707 


bo 


0-lars, Lousgard, gr. 47 


gr 




TT 












104 


48,75 










429 


NM C05706 


bo 


0-lars, Lousgard, gr. 47 


gr 




TT 




1 


2 






103 


48,75 










430 


NMC03375 


bo 


0-lars, Sigtegard 


gr 




TT 




1 








91 


48,75 










431 


NMC03374 


bo 


0-lars, Sigtegard 


gr 




TT 




1 








91 


48,75 










432 


Helsinki 8913:1 


fi 


Kalanti, Pietila 


Btr 


1 


TT 




1 


1 


dx 


? 


71,9 


39,2 


20,5 


2,9 







433 


NM 10774:b 


fy 


Svendborg, Tranekffir, 
Traneksr 


str 


' 


TT 




1 


1 


cast, 
broken 


? 


96,5 


38,8 




1,1 


1 




434 


NM 10774:a 


fy 


Svendborg, Tranekaer, 
Tranekfir 


str 


1 


TT 




1 


1 


cast, dx 


!* 


88,4 


36,5 




1 


1 




435 


Nebel a 


ge 


Nordfriesland, Amrum, 
Nebel 


gr 




TT 




0,99 








55 


43 


19 








436 


Nebelb 


ge 


Nordfriesland, Amrum, 
Nebel 


gr 




TT 




frags 




















437 


Malm6 2282 


qo 


Go 


str 


1 


TT 




0,99 


? 


7 


iron 


85 


48 


17,8 




1 


1 


438 


SHM 02393 


qo 


Go, Grotlingbo, Barshalder 


str 




TT 




1 








75 


37 










439 


SHM 
01304:1832:16 


go 


Sm, Hdgsby psh 


str 




TT 




0,8 


1 






clOO 












440 


SHM 05907:42 


qo 


Sm,0densj6psh 


gr 


1 


TT 




2 frags 


? 


? 




7 


? 


7 


? 







441 


Jonkoping 


go 


Sm, Reftele, Nennesmo, 
gr. 10a 


gr 




TT 




0,95 


1 


dx 


iron 


85 


35 


20 








442 


NM 03413 


iv 


Abenra, Bov, Froslev 


gr 


1 


TT 




0,8 


1 


cast, dx 


rusty both 


85 


40 




2,2 


1 




443 


Trondheim 12571 


no 


n N-Trondelag, Levanger p., 
Frol s., Borroy 


str 


1 


TT 




0,9 


2 


dx 




102,5 


50 


25,3 


0,6 





1 


444 


Trondheim 03451 


no 


n N-Trondelag, fJedre 
StJ0rdalen,Alstad 


gr 


1 


TT 




0,95 


1 


? 


iron spring 


83 


52 


10,9 


1 







445 


Trondbeim 08621 


no 


n N-Trondelag, Stjsrdal k., 
Lanke, Dyva 


str 


1 


TT 




0,99 


? 


i' 




54,3 


30 


12,7 


1,1 


1 


1 


446 


Trondheim 03847 


no 


n N-Trondelag, Stjordalk., 
Lanke, Dyva 


str 


1 


TT 




0,99 


? 


? 




57 


30 


11,5 


1,2 


1 


1 


447 


Tromso 09552 
(1967/24) 


no 


n Troms, Lenvik,Vang 


str 


1 


TT 




0,9 


1 


dx 


iron 


92 


53 


15,4 


2,2 







448 


OsloC01970b 


no 


s Aust-Agder, Grimstad k., 

Hommedal, Eide, Svennevik 


gr 


1 


TT 




0,5 


1 


^ 




i' 


39 


19,5 


0,7 







449 


OsloC01970a 


no 


s Aust-Agder, Grimstad k., 

Hommedal, Eide, Svennevik 


gr 


1 


TT 




1 


1 


dx 


iron 


82,5 


41 


17 


1 







450 


OsloC30150 


no 


s Hedmark, Stange k., 
Romedal, Leken 


str 


1 


TT 


gild 


1 


1 


sin 




55,5 


35,5 


12,4 


1,9 


1 


1 


451 


Bergen 07163a 


" 


s Hordaland, Jondal k., 

Strandebarm p., Jondal s., 

Birkeland 


gr 


1 


TT 




0,5 








>45 




>9 









452 


OsloC22724 


no 


s Oppland, S. Fron, Hundorp 


gr 


1 


TT 




0,9 


1 


dx 


iron 


83 


44 


16,3 


1,7 







453 


Stavanger 8099 


no 


s Rogaland, Hak., Haold 
parsonage 


gr 




TT 




0,99 








83 


45 










454 


Bergen 00401b 


no 


s Rogaland, Rennesoy, Bru 


str 




TT 
























455 


Bergen 00401a 


no 


s Rogaland, Rennesoy, Bru 


str 


1 


TT 




1 


1 


dx 


iron 


84 


39,8 


18,4 


1,9 







455 


Bergen 00700b 


no 


s S& F, Balestrand, Vangsnes 


gr 


1 


TT 




0,95 


1 


? 


? 


94 


41 


17,7 


0,8 


1 


1 


457 


Bergen 00700a 


no 


s S& F, Balestrand, Vangsnes 


gr 


1 


n 




0,95 


1 


dx 


7 


92 


42 


18 


1,1 


1 


1 


458 


Bergen 03134al 


no 


s S S F, Luster, Nes 


str 


1 


TT 




1 


1 


dx 


iron 


105 


53 


27,3 


1,5 





1 


459 


Bergen 03134a2 


no 


s S & F, Luster, Nes 


str 


1 


TT 




0,9 


1 


dx 


? 


105 


51,5 


25,4 


1,7 





1 


450 


Trondheim 08747 


no 


s S-Trondelag, Af]ord,A, 
Skalviken,Vasstrand 


gr 


' 


TT 




0,7 


1 


dx 


iron 


88 


c40 


21,5 


1,4 







461 


Trondheim 07433 


no 


s S-Trondelag, Afjord, A, 
SkalMiken,VaBstrand 


str 


1 


TT 




0,5 


!* 


? 


!* 


67 


c35 


20,2 


? 


? 




452 


Bergen 05478a 


no 


s V-Agder, Flekkefjord k., 
Herad, Drange 


gr 


1 


TT 




0,85 


1 


dx 


iron 


84 


c35 


c13 


? 







453 


Bergen [Skien 
2734) 


no 


s Vestfold, Hedrum, Brunla- 

nes, Nordheim 






TT 




1 








80 


37,5 










464 


Oslo 


"° 


s Vestfold, Tjolling,N. 

Kaupang, N. Bikjholberget, 
K/1954gr.VIII 


gr 




TT 




0,99 








81 


40 


15 




1 


1 


465 


Bergen 01512 


no 


s Vestlandet/Bergensstift 


str 


1 


TT 




0,8 


1 


dx 


7 


100 


50 


35 


1,7 







466 


NMC07741 


5i 


Holbffik, Lammefjorden 


str 


1 


TT 




1 


1 


cast, dx 


iron 


89,9 


39,8 




1,75 







467 


NMjnr 7701/94, 
FB0657 


5j 


Holbffik, Store Fuglede, 
Fugledegard / Bulbrogard 


md 


1 


TT 




0,2 


? 


cast, dx 


!* 


? 


>35 




1,9 







468 


NMC30671 


5j 


Khvn,Allerslev, Lejre 
forssgscenter 


str 




TT 


gild 


1 






iron 


80 


35 











DOMED OBLONG BROOCHES OF VENDEL PERIOD SCANDINAVIA 



191 



^ 



^ 





Invno 


Reg 


Provenance (Amt/Lskp, 
parish, site) 


Context 


Vidi 


Type 


Gild/tin 


Pres 


Lug 


Catch 


Pin 


L 


W 


H 


Th 


Worn 


Rep 


459 


NMC12265 


5j 


Khvn, Torslunde, Torslunde, 
gr.A 


gr 




TT 




0,99 








93 












470 


NMC12264 


5j 


Khvn, Torslunde, Torslunde, 
gr.A 


gr 


1 


TT 


gild 


0,99 


1 


cast, dx 


extant iron 


85,9 


39,1 




1,5 







471 


NMC12263 


^ 


Khvn, Torslunde, Torslunde, 
gr.B 


gr 


1 


TT 


gild 


1 


1 


cast, dx 


iron 


92,75 


35,4 




1,B 


1 




472 


Priv, Bresmar 


sk 


Ha, Sdndrum church?, 
Steglabacken? 


str 




TT 




0,99 








98 


42 










473 


SHM03414:c:3 


sk 


Sk, Ingelstorp, ingelstorp 


str 


1 


TT 




1 


1 


dx 


? 


88 


38,4 


24 


1,3 




1 


474 


SHM 27124 


sk 


Sk, N.Mellby,Vatteryd, 
square stone setting 


gr 


1 


TT 




0,05 


? 


? 


? 


? 


? 


10-15 


1 







475 


Lund RavlF152 


sk 


Sk, Ravlunda, Ravlunda 
23:3-4 (Maletofta), 9911- 

0003, F152, JP204 


md 


1 


TT 




0,2 


? 












0,5 







476 


Lund U05560 


sk 


Sk, Uppakra, Uppakra 


md 


1 


n 




0,1 


? 


? 


? 






c22 


1,5 


1 




477 


Kristianstad 59 


sk 


Sk.Villandshd 


str 




TT 




1 








85 


41 










478 


Lund 10623 


sk 


Sk,Ahus,Ahus 


str 


1 


TT 




0,95 


1 


cast, dx 


rust 


92,2 


48,2 


23,25 


1,3 







479 


SHM 05042 


sv 


So, Nacka, Erstavik, Agnd 


str 


1 


TT 




1 


1 


cast, 

broken 


? 


59 


27 


11,9 


1,4 


1 




480 


SHM 14551:3 


sv 


So, Overjarna, Linga, gr. 3 


gr 


1 


TT 




0,05 


? 


? 


? 


? 


? 


>20 


2,1 







481 


SHM B] 349 


sv 


Up,Ade!sd, Bjdrkd, gr.0349 


gr 


1 


TT 




0,99 


1 


dx 


iron spring 


54 


27 


12,6 


1,4 







482 


SHM Bj 1009 


sv 


Up,Adelsd, Bjdrkd, gr. 1009 


gr 




n 




0,1 


? 


? 


? 


? 


? 


; 


? 






483 


SHM 18357:5 


sv 


Up, Adelsd, Kunsta, pasture 
E of the farm, gr. 5 


gr 


' 


n 




0,2 


? 


? 


? 


? 


? 


>20 


1,5 







484 


SHM 12175 


sv 


Up, Bondkyrka, Haga, 
Hagahdgen 


str 


' 


TT 




1 


1 


dx 


iron spring 


60 


27 


11,8 


1,2 


1 




485 


SHM 29045:1 


sv 


Up, Danmark, Kumla, gr. 1 


gr 




TT 










iron 


97 


60 


29 








486 


SHM 25481:50 


sv 


Up, Ekero, Helgd, Raa 
150,gr. 50 


gr 




TT 




0,2 




















487 


SHM 31439:22:70 


sv 


Up, Fresta, Grimsta S Boll- 
stanas, Raa 32-34, gr. 22 


gr 


1 


TT 




0,99 


1 


dx 


iron 


58,5 


34 


15 


1,55 


1 




488 


SHM 31439:22:82 


sv 


Up, Fresta, Grimsta & Boll- 
stanas, Raa 32-34, gr. 22 


gr 


' 


TT 




0,99 


? 


dx 


iron 


69,5 


29,5 


15,9 


1,3 







489 


SHM 24362:b 


sv 


Up, Habo-Tibble,Vallby 


gr 


1 


TT 




1 


1 


dx 


7 


70 


35,5 


17 


1 


1 




490 


SHM24352:a 


sv 


Up, Habo-libble,Vallby 


gr 


1 


TT 




1 


1 


dx 


iron 


58 


30 


15 


0,9 







491 


Uppsala 3294 


sv 


Up, Skogs-Tlbble, Onsike 


str 




TT 












90 












492 


SHM 26695 


sv 


Up, Stockholms-Nas, 

Kummelsvik 


str 




TT 












80 












493 


SHM 25849:10:35 


sv 


Up, Taby, Roslags-Nasby, 

Raa 140, gr. 10 


gr 


' 


TT 




0,1 


? 


? 


? 


? 


? 


>13 


2 







494 


SHM 20523:53a 


sv 


Up, Vendel, Hovgardsberg, 

gr. 53a 


gr 




TT 




frags 








80-100 












495 


SHM 24985A 


sv 


Up, Vendel, Husby, Laberga 
kulle.gr.A 


gr 




TT 




frags 




















496 


SHM, Raadnr 
2385/93 UV 

Uppsala 


sv 


Vs, Koping, Kramsta, Raa 

192, gr. 14 


gr 




TT 




1 








74 


31 










497 


Koping 


sv 


Vs, Koping, Nyckelberget 






TT 




0,99 




















498 


SHM 31030:8 


sv 


Vs, Romfartuna,Gesala 3:4, 
Raa 38, gr. 8 


gr 




TT 




1 




















499 


SHM 18735 


sv-n 


Ga,Torsaker, Fors 


bog 




TT 




1 


1 






81,5 


45 


18 








500 


SHM 22517:07 


sv-n 


Hs,Alfta,Viken 13, Erkpal- 
snaset, gr. 07 


gr 


1 


TT 




0,1 


? 


dx 


? 


? 


? 


>20 


1,7 







501 


Ostersund 9053:3a 


sv-n 


Ja, Mattmar, Jattebacken, 

Raa 10,gr. 3 


gr 




TT 




0,5 




















502 


Ostersund 
9053:3b 


sv-n 


Ja, Mattmar, Jattebacken, 

Raa 10,gr. 3 


gr 




TT 




0,75 




















503 


SHM 08747 


sv-n 


Ja,Offerdal/Aspas,N shore 
of LakeNaldsjon 






TT 












>101 












504 


SHM 08169 


sv-n 


Ang, Bjdrna, Mattarbodum 


str 


1 


TT 




0,9 


1 


dx 


? 


86 


49 


19,9 


0,7 


1 




505 


Lund 12357a 


ol 


01, Gardbyk:a 


str 


1 


TT 




0,33 


1 


? 


? 


? 


c50 


cl5 


1,5 


1 




506 


Raadnr 6693/58 

F5 


ol 


01, Koping, Hassleby, Raa 

103,gr. 1 


gr 


1 


TT 




0,95 


? 


? 


? 


c75 


33,5 


15,5 


1 





1 


507 


Raadnr 6693/58 

F4 


d! 


01, Koping, Hassleby, Raa 

103,gr. 1 


gr 


1 


TT 




1 


1 


cast, dx 


? 


50 


28 


10,1 


1 


1 


1 


508 


SHM 

01304:1846:3 


dl 


01, Runstenpsh 


str 


1 


TT 




1 


1 


dx 


? 


85,8 


45,5 


19,5 


1,4 







509 


SHM 

01985:1848:11 


dl 


01, Sandbypsh 


str 


1 


TT 




1 


1 


cast, 
broken 


? 


70,45 


33,8 


14,4 


1,2 







510 


SHM 
05988:XXXXX 


dl 


01, Stenasa,Slager5tad 






n 
























511 


SHM 11580:2 


dl 


OI,Torslunda, Katorp 


str 


1 


TT 




0,5 


1 


dx 


? 


c95 


c50 


cl8 


1,35 







512 


SHM 04803(1 


dl 


OI,Torslunda/N. Mockleby/ 
Algutsrum 


str 


1 


TT 




0,95 


1 


dx 


? 


75 


56 


14,8 


1,35 







513 


SHM 12314 


90 


Sm (Palmgren's collection) 


str 




TTB1580 




0,25 










cSO 










514 


Bergen 01580 


no 


? 


str 


1 


nB1580 




1 


2 


? 


? 


89 


46,5 


18,1 


1,1 





1 


515 


SHM 34108 F800 


sv 


So, Harad, Harads Kumla 
2:9, Raa 15, gr. 15 


gr 


1 


TTBJ485 




0,8 


1 


dx 


iron 


84,5 


45 


20 


2,1 







516 


SHM 34108 F799 


sv 


So, Harad, Harads Kumla 
2:9, Raa 15,gr. 16 


gr 


1 


nB]485 




1 


1 


dx 


iron 


84 


45 


20,8 


2,3 







517 


SHM B]485{2) 


sv 


Up, Adelsd, Bjdrko,gr. 0485 


gr 




TTBJ485 




1 


1 






79 


47 


20 








518 


SHM B] 485(1) 


sv 


Up,Adelsd, Bjdrkd, gr. 0485 


gr 




nB]485 




1 


? 






80 


46 


19 









192 



MARTIN RUNDKVIST 



^ 



^ 





Invno 


Reg 


Provenance (Amt/Lskp, 
parish, site} 


Context 


Vidi 


Type 


Gild/tin 


Pres 


Lug 


Catch 


Pin 


L 


w 


H 


Th 


Worn 


Rep 


519 


NMC30555 


^ 


Soro, Slots Bjergby, 
Rdevebanke 




1 


TTBi602 




' 


1 


cast, dx 


rusty both 


84,1 


42,9 




1,9 


1 




520 


SHMBj 602(1) 


sv 


Up.Adelso, Bjorko, gr. 0602 


gr 




TT Bi602 




0,99 


1 




iron 


85 


47 


19 









521 




ru 


Staraya Ladoga 


set 




TT Bi555 




0,55 


1 






c93 


c50 


c23 








522 


5HM Bj655a 


sv 


Up.Adelso, Bjorko, gr. 0655 


gr 


1 


TTBi655 




0,8 


1 


dx 


iron 


96 


48 


24,5 


1,9 





1 


523 


5HM Bj655b 


sv 


Up,Adels6, Bjorko, gr. 0655 


gr 


1 


TT BJ655 




0,99 


1 


cast, 
broken 


iron 


97,5 


50 


24,7 


2 







524 


Pm. Cedergren 


go 


vg 


str 




TT Marsta 




1 








102,5 


51,25 










525 


Uppsala 4285 


sv 


Up, Balinge, Marsta 


gr 


1 


TT Marsta 




0,99 


1 


dx 


iron 


104,8 


55,8 


25,5 


2,5 


1 


1 


525 


SHM 20319 


sv 


So, Salem k:a, 150 mW 


str 


1 


n Sundby 




0,95 


1 


cast, 
broken 


iron spring 


54 


34 


15,2 


2,1 





' 


527 


SHM 25848:86 


. 


Up, 0. Ryd, Ullna, Raa 
59,gr.85 


gr 


1 


TT Sundby 




1 


1 


riveted 
bronze dx 


bronze sheet 
spring 


52 


34 


12,5 


1,2 




1 


528 


Aland 252:1 


31 


Sund, Sundby 


gr 


1 


TT Sundby 




1 


1 


dx 


iron 


74,8 


41,2 


18,9 


2,2 


1 




529 


Aland 252:2 


al 


Sund, Sundby 


gr 


1 


TT Sundby 




0,99 


1 


dx 


iron 


75 


40,6 


18,6 


1,5 


1 


1 


530 


SHM 07584 


61 


01, Hulterstad, S.Alby 


str 


1 


n Sundby 




0,95 


1 


dx 


7 


57 


37 


17,3 


1,8 





1 


531 


Bergen 04057a 


no-s 


S S F, Vik, Tryti 


str 


1 


TT Tryti 




0,9 


1 


dx 


iron 


81 


41 


14,7 


1,9 


1 




532 


Bergen 08143d 


no-s 


S S F, Vik, Vik prestegard 


gr 


1 


TT Tryti 




0,99 


1 


3 


iron 


88,5 


43 


17 


7 







533 


NMC02400& 
2401 


bo 


0-lars, Baekkegard, gr. 063 


gr 


' 


TT 0stera5 




0,25 


1 


cast, dx 


extant iron 


7 


3 




7 







534 


NMC02504 


bo 


0-lars, B£ekkegard,gr. 143 


gr 


1 


TT 0steras 




0,75 


1 


cast, dx 


extant iron 


77,5 


35 




7 


7 




535 


NMC02511 


bo 


0-lars, Bskkegard,gr. 153 


gr 


1 


TT 0steras 




0,55 


? 


cast, dx 


7 


84 


45,3 




1,2 







536 


NMC02512 


bo 


0-lars, Bskkegard,gr. 153 


gr 


1 


TT 0steras 




0,5 


? 


cast, dx 


extant iron 


84 


45,3 




1,7 







537 


Trondheim 07958 


no-n 


N-Trondelag, Sparbu, 
0steras 


gr 


1 


TT Bsteras 




1 


1 


dx 


!* 


78 


34,5 


15,3 


1 







538 


SHM08923:7:a2 


go 


Sm, Berga,lngelstad 

Kvarnagard, gr. 7 


gr 


' 


unique 




0,9 


iron rivet 


iron rivet 


7 


68 


>30 


10 


1,6 







539 


SHM 18875:6 


go 


Og, Heda,JLSsberg, gr. 6 


gr 


1 


unique 




0,95 


? 


7 


7 


50 


23 


5 


0,8 


1 




540 


NMC33357 


iy 


Alborg, Nsrre-Tranders, 
Humlebakken 


md 


1 


unique 




0,99 


sec iron & 
solder 


sec iron S 
solder 


7 


40,5 


19,5 




1,1 





1 


541 


Trondheim 18552e 


„o-„ 


N-Trandelag, Fosnes k., Jsa, 

Sandvik, gr. 14 


gr 


1 


unique 




1 


solder ribbon 
w 2 m holes at 
either end 






55,5 


32,4 


4,5 


0,2 


1 




542 


Trondheim 09351 


no-n 


Nordland, Nesna p., Dsnna 
k., Hov 


gr 


1 


unique 




0,75 


1 


7 


iron flat 

spring 


66 


c45 


clO 


1 







543 


Priv. Gihie 11 + 45 


no-s 


Oppland, OstreToten k.. 
Hot Kap 


gr 




unique 




1 








78 


51 










544 


NMjnr 1423/75, 
KN0512 


si 


Holbaek, Store Fuglede, 
Kalmargarden 


md 


1 


unique 




0,95 


1 


cast, dx 


rusty both 


35,9 


15,5 




0,9 


1 




545 


NMC00482 


sk 


Sk, Ldddekopinge, Lod- 
dekdpinge 




1 


unique 




' 


1 


cast, dx 


rusty lug 


45,9 


27,2 




1,9 







545 


LundU02845 


sk 


Sk, Uppakra, Uppakra 


md 


1 


unique 




0,9 


1 


cast, 
broken 


? 


40,4 


18 




1 


1 




547 


SHM 5552 


sv 


So, Oja, Segerstad 


bog 


1 


unique 


gild 


1 


1 


dx 


rusty catch 


105 


47 


28,5 


1,2 







548 


Uppsala 3401 


sv 


Up, Tierp, Fors 


str 


1 


unique 




0,75 


? 


? 


? 


c54 


c30 


12,1 


3,5 







549 


SHM 13804 


sv-n 


Ja, Frosbn, Vagled 


gr 




unique 
























550 


Aland515:217 


al 


Finstrdm,Grelsbv, gr. 47 


gr 


1 


unique 




0,8 


1 


dx 


iron spring 


33,7 


cl7 


8,6 


1,5 







551 


Aland 252:3 


al 


Sund, Sundby 


gr 


1 


unique 




1 


1 


dx 


iron 


53,3 


35,2 


15,6 


1.3 







552 


SHM 00507:25d 


? 


Unknown; NOT Sm,S.Vi 


str 




? 




0,2 










32 










553 


Trondheim 08052 


no-n 


rJ-Trondelag, Overhallak., 
Stor-Skomo 


gr 


1 


7 




frags 




















554 


Tromsa 01515-1 


no-n 


Nordland, Meloyk.,0ysund 


gr 


1 


? 




0,17 


? 


? 


? 


? 


? 


7 


0,8 







555 


Trondheim 


no-s 


MoreS Romsdal, Vike 
church 


gr 




i' 




frags 




















556 




sk 


Sk, Smedstorp, Gardlbsa 2, 
gr. 57:40 


gr 




i' 




0,1 




















557 


Lund U06250 


sk 


Sk, Uppakra, Uppakra 


md 




? 




0,33 













>32 


c5 


0,5 


1 




558 


Lund U00163 


sk 


Sk, Uppakra, Uppakra 


md 




? 




0,1 

















0,8 







559 


Lund U06952 


sk 


Sk, Uppakra, Uppakra 


md 




? 




0,25 


1 








? 


7 


c5 









560 


Lund U28524 


sk 


Sk, Uppakra, Uppakra 


md 




? 




0,17 











? 


7 


7,5 


1,3 







561 


Lund U38102 


sk 


Sk, Uppakra, Uppakra 


md 




7 




0,1 


? 


? 


7 


3 


7 


cl5 


1,5 


? 




562 


Lund U05105 


sk 


Sk, Uppakra, Uppakra 


md 




? 




0,33 













>25 


10 


2,8 


1 




553 


Lund U05240 


sk 


Sk, Uppakra, Uppakra 


md 




3 




0,17 











3 


7 


5,7 




1 




564 


Lund UO 55 5 5 


sk 


Sk, Uppakra, Uppakra 


md 




? 




0,4 





7 


extant iron 




18 
















































^ 



DOMED OBLONG BROOCHES OF VENDEL PERIOD SCANDINAVIA 



193 



^ 



^ 



Appendix 1. A chronology for Vendel Period female 
graves on Bornholm. 



Developed from j0rgensen 1997:26 fig. 16. 
Table 18. 





0rsnes 
type 


BOR1 
540-600 


BOR2 
600-670 


BOR3 
670-700 


BOR4 
700-770 


BOR5 
770-790 


VIK1 
790-840 


Diag 


E2b: Disc-on-bow 
brooch, 3 foot discs, 
eagle beaks 


E4-5 



















Diag. B0R1 


F1-3: Small equal- 
armed brooch 


F1-B 



















Diag. B0R1 


G1: Duckbill brooch, 
holes, punched dec 


G1 



















Diag. B0R1 


G2: Duckbill brooch, 
no holes, punched 
dec 


G2 



















Diag. B0R1 


ila: Disc brooch, 

punched dec 


11 



















Diag. B0R1 


lib: Disc brooch, em- 
bossed sheet metal 


12 



















Diag. B0R1 


PI a: Dress pin, simple 
box head 


P1-I-P4 



















Diag. B0R1 


Pic: Dress pin, simple 
cone head 


P3 



















Diag. B0R1 


Pib: Dress pin, 
simple polyhedron 
head 


P2-I-P5 




1 
















G3: Duckbill brooch, 
no holes, no punch 
dec 


G3 





1 














Diag. B0R2 


E2a: Disc-on-bow 
brooch, 1 foot disc, 
eagle beaks 


E1-3 





1 


1 













Jlcd: Oval plate 
brooch 0rsnes J3-4 


J3-4 





1 


1 













Q2a: Bracelet, spiral- 
coiled, flat inside 


Q1 





1 


1 













SI : Bead spacer 


SI 








1 











Diag. B0R3 


P2abc: Dress pin 
0rsnes P6-8 


P6-8 








1 











Diag. B0R3 


Q2bc: Bracelet, 
spiral-coiled, concave 
inside 


Q2-3 








1 











Diag. B0R3 


D: Top-view bird 
brooch 


D 








1 











Diag. B0R3 



194 



MARTIN RUNDKVI5T 



^ 



^ 





0rsnes 
type 


BOR1 
540-600 


BOR2 
600-670 


BOR3 
670-700 


BOR4 
700-770 


BOR5 
770-790 


VIK1 
790-840 


Diag 


K1: Rectangular 
brooch 0rsnes K1-3 


K1-3 








1 











Diag. B0R3 


Q3a: Armlet, flat 
pointed ends 


Q4 








1 












12: Disc brooch, edge 
<B mm 


13 








1 












buTTos: Domed 
oblong brooch vari- 
ant TT0steras 


N2e 



















Diag. B0R4 


buNlab: Domed 
oblong brooch type 
Nia/b 


Nlab 



















Diag. B0R4 


buNIc: Domed 
oblong brooch type 
NIC 


NIC 



















Diag. B0R4 


buOla: Domed 
oblong brooch type 
Ola 


Ola 



















Diag. B0R4 


buOlb: Domed 
oblong brooch type 
01b 


01b 



















Diag. B0R4 


bu02: Domed 
oblong brooch type 
02 


02 



















Diag. B0R4 


13: Disc brooch, edge 
5-6 mm 


14 



















Diag. B0R4 


R3c: Bead set, blue & 
green + gold foil 


- 



















Diag. B0R4 


Q3b: Armlet, thick- 
ened ends 


05 













1 







buTT: Domed oblong 
brooch type TT, not 
0steras 


N2abcd 














1 





Diag. B0R5 


Q3c: Armlet, wide 
flat middle 


06 














1 


1 




R3d: Bead set, gold 
& silver foil -1- rock 
crystal 
















1 


1 




buVIK: Tortoise 
brooch P25, P37 etc 


N3 

















1 


Diag. VIK 


Eab: Early Viking 
Period equal-armed 
brooch 



















1 


Diag. VIK 



DOMED OBLONG BROOCHES OF VENDEL PERIOD SCANDINAVIA 



195 



^ 



^ 



PGPIFGIEPGEJQSPQDKQIbblbQbRbbQbRbe 
1111121213212122 132uu3u3u3uu3u3ua 



a- bbb aca ab 
3 d be 



TO NbOcONcTdVb 
Tl 1 2 11 T I 
oa a be K 

s b 



lillb2 


XX 














lillb2 


BORl 


540 


saltunlO 


X 


X 












saltunlO 






bakl55 


XXX 












bakl55 






melkob9a 


X 


XX 












melkob9a 






melOlS 


X 


X 












melOlS 






gryet 


X 


X 












gryet 






lensgard 


X 


X 












lensgard 






ns397 


X 


X 












ns397 






kob006 


X 


X 












kobOOe 






bak030 




XX 












bak030 






lou036 


X 


XX 












lou036 






knarrel 


XXX 


X 










knarrel 






lou040 




XXXX 










lou040 






lou035 




X 


XX 










lou035 






kob004 




X 


X 










kob004 






lou037 




X 


X 










lou037 






kob033 




X 


X 










kob033 


B0R2 


600 


bak090 






X X 










bak090 






nsv020 






XXXX 










nsv020 






nsvOOg 






XXX X 










nsvOOg 






bakl41 






X X 










bakl41 






bak014 






X X 










bak014 






nsv054 






X X 










nsv054 






bakl57 






X XX 


X 








bakl57 


B0R3 


670 


nsv032 






XX 


X 








nsv032 






baklOg 






X 


X 








bakl09 






bakll2 






X XX X 








bakll2 






nsvOTO 






X 


X X 








nsv070 






bak016 






X 


X 








bakOlb 






nsv02 6 






XXX X 








nsv026 






louOie 






X 


X 








louOie 






louOOg 






XX X 








lou009 






louOlB 








XXX 








louOlB 






nsvOTl 








XXX 








nsv071 






nsv028 








XX 








nsv028 






bakOOS 








XX 








bakOOS 






bak077 








XXXX 






bak077 






bak063 








X 


X 






bak063 


B0R4 


700 


nsv023 








X 


X 






nsv023 






bak003 








X X 






bak003 






bakl43 










X X 






bakl43 






bakl53 










X X 


X 




bakl53 






kanl95 










X X 




kanl95 






bakOSO 










X 


XX 




bakOSO 






lou012 










X XX 


X 


lou012 






bak044 










X 


X 


X 


bak044 






lillmel4 










XX XX 




lillmel4 






ellegard 












XXX X 


ellegard 






lou006 












X X 




louOOe 






bak066 












XXX 




bak066 






bak059 












X XX 


bak059 






lillmel2 












X 


XX 


lillmel2 


B0R5 


770 


saltunl4 












X 


XXX 


saltunl4 






lou047 












X 


XXX 


lou047 






bakl5 9 














XX 


bakl59 






bakl66 














XXX 


bakl66 






lillev2 














XXXX 


lillev2 


VIK, 


790 


lillevl 














X X 


lillevl 






llllmelS 














X X 


llllmelS 






ns-bmr 














X X 


ns-bmr 






bakl5 6 














X XXX 


bakl56 






lou028 














XXX 


lou02B 






lou029 














XX 


lou029 






lillev9 














XX 


llllev9 







^ 



PGPIFGIEPGEJQSPQDKQIbblbQbRbbQbRbe 



1111121213212122 

a ca- bbb aca ab 

3 d be 



132uu3u3u3uu3u3ua 
a TO NbOcONcTdVb 
Tl 1 2 11 T I 
oa a be K 
s b 



Fig. 25. Seriation female graves 
Bornholm 



196 



MARTIN RUNDKVI5T 



^ 



^ 



Appendix 2. A chronology for Vendel Period female 
graves in mainland Sweden 



Developed from H0ilund Nielsen 1999. 
Mainly Uppland and Sodermanland, with 
a few graves from Smaland, Ostergotland, 
Vastmanland and Halsingland. The Vendel 
Period graves of these provinces hold a great 
unrealised chronological potential in the almost 
ubiquitous combs. A great many more useful 
find combinations could be had if these combs 

Table 19 



were classified according to some version of 
Petre's (1984b) typology. It would be particu- 
larly valuable to identify more diagnostic types 
for phases MLS 2 and MLS 3. 

Phase MLSi is not included in the seriation as 
it does not include any domed oblong brooches. 
It has a distinct typological identity in H0ilund 
Nielsen's seriation, as given in Table 19. 





MLSI 
540-600 


MLS2 
600-670 


MLS3 
670-700 


MLS4 
700-750 


MLS5 
750-790 


VIK1 
790-840 


Diag 


G4: Proto-animal-head 
brooch 


1 

















Diag. 
MLSI 


L2a: Snake brooch 
8-shaped 1 snake 


1 

















Diag. 
MLSI 


F1-3: Small equal- 
armed brooch 


1 

















Diag. 
MLSI 


R3a: Beads, red & 
orange 


1 


1 
















A2e: Annular brooch 


1 




1 













P1-5: Dress pin 0rsnes 
PI -5 


1 




1 


1 










S2c: Wheel cross 
brooch 



















Diag. 
MLS2 


L2b: Snake brooch 
8-shaped 2 snakes 



















Diag. 
MLS2 


L3a: Side-view eagle 
brooch, human face 







1 













L4: Horse brooch / 
mount 







1 













F4: Husby brooch 







1 













Q2: Bracelet, spiral- 
coiled 








1 


1 










E2a: Disc-on-bow 
brooch, 1 foot disc, 
eagle beaks 








1 











Diag. 
MLS3 


R3b: Bead set, blue & 
green 








1 


1 


1 







L3b: Side-view eagle 
brooch, no face 











1 








Diag. 
MLS4 


buSPU: Domed oblong 
brooch type SPU 











1 








Diag. 
MLS4 



DOMED OBLONG BROOCHES OF VENDEL PERIOD SCANDINAVIA 



197 



^ 



^ 





MLS1 
540-600 


MLS2 
600-670 


MLS3 
670-700 


MLS4 
700-750 


MLS5 
750-790 


VIK1 
790-840 


Diag. 


buNlabc: Domed 
oblong brooch type 
Niabc 











1 








Diag. 
MLS4 


buSPL: Domed oblong 
brooch type SPL 











1 








Diag. 
MLS4 


SI: Bead spacer 



















Diag. 
MLS5 


khnl2: Disc brooch, 2-7 
mm edge thickness 



















Diag. 
MLS5 


E2c: Disc-on-bow 
brooch, baroque 



















Diag. 
MLS5 


S2f: Crescent pendant 



















Diag. 
MLS5 


buR643B: Domed 
oblong brooch type 
R643B 



















Diag. 
MLS5 


R3c: Bead set, blue & 
green + gold foil 



















Diag. 
MLS5 


R3d: Bead set, gold & 
silver foil + rock crystal 



















Diag. 
MLS5 


buTT: Domed oblong 
brooch type TT 
















1 




eab: Early Viking Period 
equal-armed brooch 

















1 


Diag. VIK1 


RVIK: Early Viking 
Period bead set 

















1 


Diag. VIK1 


BuBerdal: Berdal tor- 
toise brooch 

















1 


Diag. VIK1 



198 



MARTIN RUNDKVI5T 



^ 



SLRLLFPQAELbRbbSkESbRRbeRb 
22334412223u3uulh22u33uaVu 
cbaa - eabSbNS ncfRdcTbIB 



^ 



raa27:78 


XX 












raa27 


78 MLS2, 600 


20139:80 


XXX 












20139 


80 


28735:20 


X X 












28735 


20 


25151:07 


X X 












25151 


07 


25151:11 


XX 












25151 


11 


30621:72 


X XX 










30621 


72 


raa5808 


X 


X 










raa9808 


19416:26 


X 


X 










19416:26 


30432:31 


XXX 










30432:31 


26042178 


X 


X 










26042178 


25151:17 


X 


XX 










25151:17 MLS3, 670 


26481: 41 




XX X 










26481:41 


S08801 




X X 










S08801 


19842: 4 


X X 


X 








19842 


4 


raal8: 4 




X 


X 








raal8 


4 


13974:7 




X 


X 








13974 


7 


29401:4 




XX X 


X 








29401 


4 


25915:23 




XX X 


X 








25915 


23 


26481102 




X 


X 








26481102 


S15482 




X X 


X 








S15482 


29783:19 




XX 


XX 








29783:19 MLS4, 700 


30621:45 




X 


X X 








30621:45 


S14505 




X 


X 








S14505 


20523:25 






X X 








20523:25 


08800:28 




X 


X 


X 






08800:28 


30521:11 






XX 








30621:11 


25481:54 






XX 








26481:54 


32300:91 






XX 


X 






32300:91 


31277:10 






XX 






31277:10 


22517:11 






XX 






22517:11 


S00577 






XX 






S00577 


30621:36 






X 


X 






30621:36 


31039:19 






X 


X 






3103 9:19 


26042180 






X 


X 






26042180 


31461:34 






X 


X 






31461:34 


15174:11 






X 


X 






15174:11 


15174:18 






X 


X 






15174:18 


up4318 






X 


X 






up4318 


26042172 






X 


X 






26042172 


26042182 






X 


X 






26042182 


21650:55 






X 


X 






21650 


55 


18357: 4 






X 


X 






18357 


4 MLS5, 750 


31331:6 






X 


X 






31331 


6 


26042044 






X 


X 






26042044 


15618:08 






X 


X 






15618:08 


26789:11 






X 


XX 






26789:11 


raal621 








XX 






raal621 


26042148 






X 




X 




26042148 


raa9819 






X 




X 




raa9819 


31039:07 






X 




X 




31039 


07 


20926:2 






X 




X 




20926 


2 


14723:5 






X 




X 




14723 


5 


06745 






X 


X 




06745 


24198:2 






X 


X 


XX 


24198:2 


09404 








X 


XX 




09404 


18357:2 








X 




X 


18357:2 


26042173 








X 




X 


26042173 


kuinla8 5 








X 




X 


kumlaes 


30425:20 










X 


X 


30425 


20 


30425:13 








X 


X 


X 


30425 


13 


raa80:22 










X 


X 


raa8 


22 


31461:40 










X 


X 


31461 


40 


31039:06 










X X 


31039 


06 


20523:53 










X 


X 


20523 


53 


31030:8 










X 


XX 


31030 


8 


31439:22 












X X 


31439 


22 


25848:86 












XX 


25848 


86 


18357:5 












XX 


18357 


5 


24985a 












XX 


24985a 


kuinlal6 












XX 


kuinlal6 


^6481:50 












XX 


26481:50 


bj485 












XX 


bj485 VIK, 790 


bj655 












X X 


bj655 


bj602 












XX X 


bj602 


bj552 












XXX 


bj552 


b1557 












XX 


b1557 



^ 



SLRLLFPQAELbRbbSkESbRRbeRb 
2 233 4 412 2 23u3uulh22u33uaVu 
cbaa - eabSbNS ncfRdcTbIB 



Fig. 26. Seriation female graves Mainland 
Sweden 



DOMED OBLONG BROOCHES OF VENDEL PERIOD SCANDINAVIA 



199 



^ 



^ 



^ 



^