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Full text of "A treatise on the art of breeding and managing tame, domesticated and fancy pigeons"

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DEDICATED TO THE YOUNG AND INEXPERIENCED FANCIER 

OP TAME, DOMESTICATED, AND FANCY PIGEONS. 





A 



TREATISE 



ON THE ART OF 



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BREEDING AND MANAGING 

T A ME, DOMESTICATED 



AND 



FANCY 



PIGEONS 



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''^^^^^l^uTl^ZSZnl^^ ^^«^ ^^^HOKS, WITH OBSEEyATIOKS, CONTAINIKa 

ttAX IS NECESSABY TO BE KNOWN OF TAME, DOMESTICATED, AN-> 

FANCY PIGEONS. 



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BY 



JOHN MATTHEWS EATON 

Author of the Almond Tumbler. 






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All that a Man knows, or ever will know, 



is by Obseryation or Reflection. 



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Locke. 




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, AND TO BE OBTAINED 

ISLINGTON GREEN. LON 



1852, 



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TO MY 



YOUNG AND INEXPERIENCED BROTHERS 



IN 



THE FANCY. 




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When I had concluded my Treatise on the Almond Tumbler, and about to bid 
you farewell after having given you all my observations and reflections on the 
subject, I called your attention to the " Wise Man's Saying," p. 49, ''There is a 
time for all things, and the time had arrived for us to part.'* Judge of my surprise, 
with my pen in hand, endeavouring to compile a Work on Tame, Domestic, and 
Fancy Pigeons in general, as encouraged by the acknowledged best Fanciers that 
ever lived, and, in page 5, informed you that I considered there was nothing so 
base as ingratitude, and I cannot bring my mind to bear otherwise, and brand 
myselt with ingratitude, if I did not attempt to compile a Work worthy of your 
acceptance, after the highly complimentary Testimonials of the Press," besides 
many letters from all parts of the country to the same effect, and at the same time 
pressing me to write a Work on Fancy Pigeons in general ; I repeat, judge of 
my surprise, appearing before you again in so short a time ; it was the last of my 
thoughts after having completed my Almond Tumbler, for on that, I can assure 
you, I caught a Tartar. 

Should the Work, or compilation, which it is my intention to lay before you, 
not please you, after reading it over, blame yourselves and not me, for endeavouring 
to carry out your earnest entreaties ; for I can assure you it is no joke to bring 
out a Work on the subject, for it will make enemies of a few waspish, crabby, old 
lanciers, (who sit behind their half-and-half and blow their baccy, whose names 
are not known in the Fancy out of the holes and corners they sit in, " but they are 
not all the Fanciers in the World!") who do not wish the young Fancier to 
know more than answers their purpose. The first time the idea struck me of 
writing the Almond Tumbler, I mentioned my intention, which caused some to 
laugh : when silence was restored, a gentleman remarked that if I wrote one he 
would answer it ; it may be this put a damper upon me and my work at the time, 
and I abandoned it : time rolled on-I gained more experience— all the world in 
a tever about the forthcoming Exhibition, I was desirous of bringing out something ; 
alter racking my brains (which I think, generally, is about as clear as mud in a 
wine glass) the idea of the Almond Tumbler struck me, and which I brought out. 
Mark the remarks that was made upon it by men who did know better, that thev 

did not believe I had the ability to produce such a work." I believe, two or 
three informed me, that the portrait of the Almond Tumbler as frontispiece, 
was excellent, for which I went to considerable expence, being determined to 
give the Young Fancier a high standard to breed up to ; they had cut the 
portrait out, went to considerable expense for frame, but burnt the book, (very 
pleasant to hear !) Others went so far as to give the credit to my much respected 
and esteemed Brother Fancier, Mr. Dean Wolstenholme, as the Author; but 
who was the engraver of the Portrait of the Almond Tumbler. 

I cannot help thinking but that I am justified in stating the facts of the case 
efore my Brother Fanciers, — after having written .my work, and prior to 
nr.^ ... , _ _ _ ^ ^^ .^ «* nothing but ri^ht " to read it over to 



<^onsigning it to the Press, I thought it 

ome friend or friends. I prevailed upon Mr. Wolstenholme, whose judgment 
upon Pigeons in general is second to no man, and whose honesty in these 
matters qualifies him for an impartial umpire upon any occasion ; and also upon 
my much esteemed respected old school-fellow, a young and inexperienced Fancier, 






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who had not much time, and less money to lay out in the Fancy, and was a 
common-sense man ; before these two friends of mine I read over the manuscript ; 
Mr. WoLSTENHOLME, gavc me two ideas and no more, which I will give you. p. 9. 

First. — Sir John Sebright said, he would produce any given feather in three 
years; but it would take him six years to obtain head and beak. 

Second.— (p. 32, on my writing of Beak.) " By breaking the upper mandible 
when the bird is a few days old; but it may be detected, from the injury it has 
received, similar to our own flesh when we have received a severe pinch ; it may 
also be detected in the bird when grown up, by the position of the beak, it has an 
un^iatural appearance, the beak pointing upwards." For these two ideas I feel 
grateful to my friend and brother Fancier— the Animal Artist. The case was very 
different with my much respected, esteemed, and old school-fellow, Henry Major, 
who would not tell a lie to oblige a friend, or hurt a foe. He was not an experienced 
Fancier, not having been long enough in the Fancy. He stated most positively 
to me, that he could not give a single idea. But he thought, without altering the 
idea, by transposing some of the sentences, would read better. He did so; we 
read them over, and greatly approved of the transposition, for which I feel 
grateful. I am aware there are a few Fanciers who would have given the credit 
(provided there was any due) to Mr. H. Major, it would not do, simply because 
he was not a sufficient Fancier.* It appears to me some few of the hole-and- 
corner Fanciers was quite willing to give the credit, as I said before, provided 
there was any due to any one save me, the Author. 



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* AUow^ me in this part to give you a portion of a Letter I received from my 
much respected old school-fellow, Henry Major, on board the ** Peru," lying 



wait to sail for Geelong, Port Phillip, Australia ; 



«* 2nd Sept. 1852. 



" Dear Eaton, 



" In case yoti were not able to come down here to see us 

once more, I thought I would drop you a line to say, We are well, and going on 
as well or better than w^e could expect, &c. &c, I trust that every incident that 
may happen may serve to reconcile us to a voyage, and to life on the other side of 

the Globe, &c. &c. Eemember me to Dean 



WOLSTENHOLME 



r ^^ ^^ 

Fancier (if I may have the vanity to call m^yself one), convey my best wishes and 
tell them, when I am far away I shall still bear them in remembrance. 

"Farewell, and believe me to remain, 

" Yours most sincerely, 

" HENRY MAJOR." 



^ 
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Why 



of truth, and would yield to no man if he thought he was right; in argument, on 
different topics, at times, we were mountains high, (but we agreed to differ, 
believing each other sincere,) and to use an expression of his elder brother, 
Mk. George Major, that he carried about him so large a quantity of Carbonic 
Gas, he was afraid to come near him for fear of being "Blown Up," 



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AlmonS rfW "t*^"^"' ■ ^^^ received from some few, prior to my writing the 
done with T' ^Pr^/''^ *^'"^ I ^°"1^ be a thorn in their side before I had 
the^^hroatfc ^f 1*^^* ^^^ the thorn, that not only stuck in their side, but 

at, I exnect h 4ni ^-^^^^^ ?™^' «^°"^^ ^ ^""g «"* t^« ^«^k I am attempting 
the voX an/i* '""V^n their gizzard ; for endeavouring to open the eyes of 

inLJdiy fo drirtpr'^'f*?' ^^ ^"^*™^*^"g ^^^^ *« ^^^^^ -^^k' ^^«™' -^ 

standing to tSV ^P^" ,^«'^ ^^^^ ^^^ look out of the windows of his under- 

Pigeon Show for r i ?/', ^""^ "°* *" *^k« ^" f<»^ granted what he hears at a 
eighteen laoniZ .?^P^*- Although my Almond Tumbler has now been published 
and I sincerP V L gentleman who promised to answer it has not at present, 
^ '^'^^'^ely hope your head and mine will not ache until he does. 

for thrve^r Si, ^^"^l^^g® *° ^^P^ess my gratitude to the Gentlemen of the Press, 
the Almond TiLll^vi' ?^^ i^^ ^^"""S^^ ^t to give upon my Work- 
en treatLlmTnl/-' "^'ff^'^ flattering te8timomals,%ombined with many 
work on Tarn? Some'X.f f "^ft "^ '^^ ^^^^''y' "'"g^^g ™^ *» ^^g °"t a 
cowed by un^k^dnesTf If fou T^ ^^"7 ^'^""^ :-Do yol think I am to be 
that is wLw is composed of ^ I^^^ T""" ^°t"°* ^"°^ ^^^"^ ^^e little Bit of Stuff 
know that I ^am tairrotS Vl ~%r Offi*°° ^^°1 Y^ ,¥'^^«^ M^"' *^"* ^ 

am. 1 asked. Did you thmk I was to he cowed by unkindness ? Ppr-fmnl.. ^nf 

pushing ^ .ome abler ^^^Tt^ ft^ ll JS^ ^:^:f^S;^^^* «^ 

RiSrd T«v, T ^ ^'^' '?°°'' b^* f««^« ^i" lea™ in no other," as poor 
cannoVvf content -'' H *^'* ' '^'' '* '^ l''^'' T- ^^ ^^^ g^^ advice, bufwe 

counsellircannot h A.ln ? '^'"^'A 'r'""?'' *^"'' "^^^^ '^^^ ^^" "ot be 
will surely rSvlA--^?',,^"^ further, that " If you will not hear reason, she 
" I was consLn« ^ knuckles,' as poor Richard says, and is beautifully observed, 
to merbut rather ;L^ tenth part of the Wisdom was my own which he ascribed 
nations.'' "^^^^^^ *1^« gleanmgs that I had made pf the sense of all ages and 

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Mr. Moore in his Work, Paragraph 5, says, " I have wisely learnt from U f« 
seek a proper refuge against an/ ill-natured"^ censures. " To this n~ T I 
leave to prefix your name. Sir William Stapleton Bart f ^f V ^w T ^J^^ 
assure the World that you who have niir^b«=n/p- ' .' *° ^^^^ ^^^^' »nd to 

do not think the subject LTow your regard ^^ '' '''^ considerable prices 

feew!^' T''*'°" ''' ^^''.' am I to fly to for refuge against any ill-natured 
ackSedii^rr r^f "g '"y^elf .simply under thesf words ykSn. 

Sancfenn!?"* ^ '"'"'^r'' "l*^^ ^''^^"^ "P°» Tame. Domesticated 
sense o?TK;^f ^^^ "^^ °^,"' hut rather the gleanings that I have made of the 
glean and cirf "^P^"^"^.^*! fanciers that eler lived. I have endeavoured to 

as evV?hine Tn^^°".l"'y'"1,^PT^ ^^°*^^^ ^" ^^"^y* and believe me, I am, 

attention t'lilsuT' t ' * ^'" ' ^^'^ ^^' ^'''°*'^ *™'' '^'^' ^"'^ 



I 

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JOHN MATTHEWS EATON. 




^' Islington Green, 



LoN 



DON. 



^th Dec. 1852. 




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AN ADDRESS, &c 



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Owing to the noise of the ratthng of carriages of every description before daylight, 

and not being able to sleep for the noise, I got up and lighted my candle, made up 
my mind to endeavour this day to contribute more to the Work that I am engaged 
upon, than any other day I shall have it in hand. This day, Thursday, 18th of 
November, 1852, is appointed for the solemn funeral of the mortal remains of the 
immortal Wellington ; such a sight will take place this day as never was witnessed 
before in England, and never will be witnessed again. He richly merited all that 
a grateful Nation lavished or bestowed upon him. Filling the office he did, he 
could not help the loss of life ; but he treasured and husbanded the lives committed 
to his charge, and did not spill a single drop of blood more than could by any 
possibility be helped ; taking into consideration what he had to accomplish, and 
it is a question whether any other man could be found that would have spilled so 
little ; notwithstanding, he had some of the greatest and bravest officers that ever 
lived. I almost tremble when I contemplate upon the loss of life and accidents 
that may take place this day, owing to a grateful Nation paying their last debt of 
gratitude to the spiritless body (for the spirit had returned to God, who gave it) 
of the Great Iron Duke. Take him for all in all, I believe him to be the greatest 
man that has been born into the World, since Jesus Christ, in whom he trusted, 
and I believe the Nation believes that he could glory and exult with a confidential 
hope, whenever he uttered these words ; for 1 know that my " Redeemer liveth, and 
that he shall stand at the latter day upon the earth, and, though after my skin 
worms destroy this body, yet in my flesh shall I see God, whom I shall see for 
myself, and mine eyes shall behold, and not another, though my reins be consumed 
within'me." Job, xix. chap., 25th, 26th, 27th verses. ^ I may be a false prophet 
with regard to my apprehensions as touching the loss of lives or accidents, although 
every precaution has been taken that ingenuity could invent. 

I cannot help thinking but barricades act the very reverse to what they are 
intended for — a stop, bar, obstruction — to stop up, choak, squeeze, and jam the 
masses of the people together against the barricades, where there is no flinching 
or giving way. These barricades are about breast high, and the pressure from 
without is so great, being jammed together against the barricades, that by some 
means or other, after desperate efforts, the people are enabled to stoop their heads 
and shoulders, to endeavour to get on the other side of the barrier ; and in their 
attempt from one side of the barrier (experiencing the pressure) they are not 
enabled to raise their head and shoulders again, but are trampled to death. For 
argument sake admit that the parties within the barrier are screened from the 
pressure without. Answer me this question ; What becomes of those without, 
and are pressed upon the barrier, where it is useless to attempt to flinch? for 
instance, take Chancery Lane, Bridge Street, Blackfriars, Farringdon Street, or 
the Old Bailey, and a hue and cry is raised that the funeral is coming; the rush 
is so tremendous, and the pressure so great from the top of Chancery Lane, in 
Holborn, to the bottom, close by Temple Bar; also at Bridge Street, from the 
people coming over Blackfriars Bridge and Farringdon Street ; multitudes rushing 
down from Holborn, and also the Old Bailey, from the same cause. It is true 
there are barricades, but the simple question is, Whether there would not be fewer 
lives lost without them ? people pressing one upon another, which is elastic and 




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gives way ; but it is a very different thing to be jammed against a barricade ; 
^nd it is the outer barricades where the multitudes are stopped that the squeezing 
and trampling to death takes place. I write from experience — I have had a few 
squeezes in my time, and the last I experienced, poor as I am, would have given 
one hundred pounds to have been out of the pressure, which I never expected 
to be alive, and having a strong recollection of the fact, and not any desire to 
have such another hug or embrace, I chose rather to stay at home and contemplate 
his great achievements?, and endeavour to instruct you, my young Fancier. I said 
such a sight had never taken place in England, and never would again, as will this 
f^' , * js.to be hoped that never such an opportunity will ever fall to the lot 
ot an mdividual to gain so much glory (as it is called), but that the blessings of 
peace may attend us. The Nation, in its wisdom, found out the only appropriate 

resting place for all that remains of him, and that was by the side of the immortal 
JNelson, 

This grave, which is incomplete, craving the ashes of that great and good 
statesman, the late Right Honourable Sir Robert Peel, Bart, the greatest and 
best Statesman tbis Country ever produced. He had the Poor at heart, and 
caused the Widow and the Orphan Childrens' heart to leap for joy. He was the , 
cause of making provisions cheap for the Poor. It was a great loss to the Nation 
at the time, there not being a Public Funeral for so good a man. John Bull is a 

heavy, at the same time a deep thinking man. He is not altogether forgetful, 
and may reason, that the promise may be long delayed, but cannot come too 
la*e. This may be applicable to the raising of the monument to Nelson. Years 
may roll on before the Nation claims the ashes of the greatest and best-hearted 
statesman it ever produced, to perfect that grave that lays under the centre of the 
dome of Saint Paul's ; then will the Nation have its Trinity in Unity (I do not 
mean the incomprehensible union of the three persons in the Godhead.) But 
having the greatest Sailor, the greatest Soldier, and the greatest and best Statesman 
this country ever produced, laying side by side and their dust mingling together 
■With each other. I may not live to witness it, but believe it must take place to 
complete the grave. I rejoice to know that I was a False Prophet as regards the 
accidents I was fearful would take place on the solemn occasion, which was 
averted owing to the judicious arrangements of the Authorities. 

Mr. MooRE, at the bottom of Paragraph 6, writes, give me leave to entertain 
you with the following story, &c. &c. I have only simply and plainly to inform 
you, that it is not my intention to apologise to you in stating facts. 



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COLUMBARIUM: 



OB, 



THE 



PIGEON. HOUSE 



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SEIKO AN 



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INTRODUCTION 



TO A 



NATURAL HISTORY 



OF 









GEONS 



GIVING AN 



ACCOUNT OF THE SEVERAL SPECIES KNOWN IN ENGLAND, WITH 

THE METHOD OE BREEDING THEM, THEIR DISTEMPERS 

AND CURES. 



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ou?^ MindV^ayfivT^K^''-' ^^y^^^^- ^ "^'^ Acquaintance with Nature brings to 

Curio«li7' f/J'f*' ^^ instructing our Understandings and gratifvin/ our 



CuriosHio= . „ y Tl ^ iusirucnng our Understandings i 
uriosities j and next by exciting and cherishing our Devotion. 



Boyle's Experimental Philosophy, p. 2. 



BY JOHN MOORE, 




LONDON : 



Printed for J. Wilfoud, behind the Chapter-House in St. Paul's Church- Yard. 



1735. 






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DEDICATION. 



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TO 



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1. 



SIR WILLIAM STAPLETON, Baronet. 

SIR, 

oniLce^? /h ^°^°^^^ ^^ Novelty have any allurements, the following 



2. 



ana m'^ J subjects the Naturalists seem to have exhausted. Horses and Dogs, 
hav<. ,,?.i animals that serve for the conveniences or amusements of life, 

m7nt^.» f T'Ju *^^nlcest enquiries ; while the Pigeon, that contributes in some 
ledsui^e to both, a domestic as it were of ours, has been totally neglected. 

T)en 7f mi*,!'/ partiality usually shewn to the victor, the Hawk has engaged the 

Larce meT^itl r*r \H' ^^^ P'^^y' that seems to fly to us for protection, has 
scarce met with that, which even the wisdom of the Legislature has allowed it. 

thitTi d^Tnr hreTrfscS'Th^^^^^ *^f '""r."^ ^^^«*^ *° ^° --« j-^- *« 
furnished me with L^[t! «. r !f ">«tl^ods,_ which long experiince has 

ui liisuea me with, tor its propagation and preservation. 

cens^e?''¥olSn'^'"* ^tT ^' ,*'* '''^ ^ ^'""^'^ ^^^"g^ ^g^^^^t any ill-natured 
assure tiie Worid Zf'' ^ \^ t'^' *° P^^^^ ^^"^ "^™« t° t^i« ^^^k, and to 
pr ces don't th it It ^k"" .t" i ^^^' Purchased Pigeons at very considerable 
prices, don t think the subject below your regard, and that the Author is, 



Your most obedient and most humble Servant, 



J. MOORE. 




1. 



To my young and inexperienced Fancier. I have thought fit to Number the 

bri^fn.? • ? ^^-f ^l' ^."""^ MooKE's Work, although it is not so in the 

hrVpfl V ''^"C^i^ing It to be the easiest mode I could adopt, it being my intention 
uiieny ot caUing your attention to some of the Paragraphs contained in his Work 
ana having carefully read over his work and entertaining so high an opinion of hi^ 

work-COLUMBAEIUM, or The Pigeon House, I shall, as^ I observed before 
humble Pander ^^ ^^ "°' ^"^ ^^^^^ *^^ ^"""^ °"* ^^^""^ *^® ""^^'^^ "^ t^^ ™ore 

2 and 3— Mr. Moore apppears deeply to regret the Pigeon should have been so 

ong neglected by our Naturalists, while Horses, Dogs, and Hawks, have 

undergone the nicest enquiry. ^ -ud-wjiB, uave 

oth^rPi^^i'^-^!"* ^°y account upon record, that any Pigeon-Fancier (for no 
af,?/^! f^ 1 ? ^^ ^\^^ contributed so much original matter to the Pigeon-Fanciers 
as aid the late Mr. John Moore, which I will endeavour to prove to you, by and 
Sncier?^ ^^^^ through his Work ; he was the Pre-eminent of Pigeon- 

S.—it would appear there were illnatured Fanciers in the Fancy at the period 
sorn M? ™^<^OKE wrote his Book, 1735; being a good general, and anticipating 
StT^ I'lnatured censures, he sought protection under a Fancier, Sir William 
here t^^-°^' Baronet, to whom he dedicated his Work. I think it will be right 
Way tl? V^^orm you, who and what Mr. Moore was, and taking the most simple 
Prepar /I K^* ■ ^* "°t ^®^"S ™y intention of publishing his account of some Medicines 
account f '^™' ^*^ * faithful narrative of some Cures effected by them ; the 
nothing i*^® Medicines and Cures takes up one quarter of the Book, and has 
Mr John M '"^ °^ *** ^° ^^*^ Pigeons. Mr. M. describes himself thus :— 
Lane the « ^^^» Apothecary, at the Pestle and Mortar, in Lawrence Pountneys 
livpd'af f^„^^t Sreat gates on the left hand from Cannon Street, who formerly 

uvea at the Pestle and Mortar, in Abchurch Lane, London. 



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aiJ'~ ^"^ History of Birds in general has been given us by many bandp, 

sePmT;!.""^^ P^!'^ '" ^ ^^"^^^ accurate manner, yet the study of this genus of birds 
sivSi m hnf ^f'T^ *° ^^ neglected by most of our naturalists, who have 

descripS '^fy^^'f '\ "l™«^t satisfaction by the most exact and amp k 
in all thP^n; • I' "«\°^^«"« to all mankind, what vast numbers of these birds in 

n flower Lnko??? K ? '^^ f ' ''^^ ^'^' ^" '^' ^^"gd«™' "«* «^V 4 peVsois 
d^gr r^f Shtv whn\ ^^^" Jy P^'^^o"^ of the greatest distinction'and L first 

eSvonlT?i ^A ^ ^7' ^}'^^ *^^^'^ ^''■^^ ^" «° g'^^at ^^teem, that they have 
a?a^n !v """'^ ^* ^'^'i ."'^ experimental knowledge of them, purchasing, 

?hem^/n fL?/'"''i ^' ™'".^ °^'^' ^^^^'^^ ^°^^^ ^^ ^^^^ couldhear of and cultivating 
wiem in their own houses ; Hichard ATHERTON,Esq. of Atherton Hall in Lancashire 

^f .0^' i\??*^'™^" both of will and ability to prosecute his fancy in this branch 
ot natural history, was buildmg a stately house in Lancashire, on the top of which 



6.- 



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to quarrel with him, he appears to me to be somewhat hard to pleasCj like many more 
in the World— in several parts of his Work he bitterly complains of the Naturalists 
and Ornithologists, of their indolence in not giving us an account of Fancy Pigeons, 
and those that did give us but very short cursory descriptions, and in this have 
been guilty of great mistakes. Mr Mooke might have saved himself a good deal 
ofuneasinessif he had only have asked himself the question. How can a learned 
man write on a subject he did not understand ? It must be the work of a Pigeon 
Fancier to write on Pancy Pigeons, considering the standards they are endeavoured 
to be brought up to ; to sum it up those who did not write and those who did, did 
«ot please Mr. Moore. I imagine for a moment, two of your most eminent 
"Wranglers, who had never kept a Pigeon in their lives, was set to wrangle on the 
fiveproperties of a Fancy Pigeon, a subject they were totally unacquainted with, 
"owing no more of the five properties of the Pigeon than the Pigeon knew abou' 



now 



*^^"i i it would therefore foUovv^, as wise men, the less they said the better, I will 
^y young Fancier, put it to you, will you remain quiet and not write, or write 
^pon a subject that you do not sufficiently understand. Mr. Mooke, in continuation 
01 the same paragraph, says : ** especially considering the vast opportunities they 
have had, or might have had, *^ what opportunities they might have had," learned 



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XIV. 







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he designed to have four turrets, in which his pigeons were to be disposed according 
to the nearness of relation between the different species, but death put an end to 
the undertaking in the year 1726, to tlie immense grief of all those gentlemen of 
the Fancy who had the honour of his acquaintance : he was a very compleat judge 
of a Pigeon and would spare neither cost nor trouble to procure the best ; he had 
one pouting cock which he valued at five pound, and a very choice collection of 



men could not be made Pigeon Fanciers in five minutes ;" neither by placing Fancy 
Pigeons in a shew pen for them to make their observations upon, would have 
enabled them to have written upon the five properties ; but they may have 
*' exclaimed as many others at first sight — very pretty, very pretty indeed," which 
reminds me of a gentleman, a good Fancier, who retired into the country, 
taking with him his best birds, but what disheartened him when he bred a good bird 
he had no one about him to shew it to, who knew how to appreciate its properties, 
and others who saw it said it is very pretty : he would rather have heard a fault 
found with one of the five properties by a good Fancier, than that anything but 
sweet music by persons who do not understand them, by saying very pretty, very 

pretty indeed. 

The loss of a spirited Fancier like Richari) Athekton, Esq., of Atherton Hall, 
Lancashire, who, as Mr. Moore observes, was a gentleman both of will and ability, 
besides being a very complete judge of a Pigeon, and would spare neither cost or 
trouble to procure the best, and had a very fine collection must have been severely 
felt by the Gentlemen of the Fancy of that day ; and is equally as severely felt by 
the gentlemen of the Fancy of the present day, when they sustain the loss of a 

good Fancier. It is quite clear that in Mr. Moore's day, as now, that not only the 
lower rank of life, but even persons of the greatest distinction and the first degrees 
of quality kept Pigeons; I would here particularly guard you against having too ^ 
great a variety of Pigeons, otherwise you will know a little of all the species, but J 
nothing about one as it ought to be known. It is a grievous thing when we^ hear 

talk of a man being so clever at all things, yet nobody would employ him, simply 
because he is not sufficiently clever in one thing ; the fact is, he is Jack-of-all- 
trades and master of none. Now I sincerely hope you will not make such a Fancier 
as this • I have heard some of the best Carrier Fanciers, and some of the best 
PouterFanciers, when asked their opinion on the Tumbler, have stated that they 
did not know anything about the properties of the bird, not having studied them, 
owing to having given their whole attention to one species, either the Carrier or 
Pouter- nevertheless, I should be very sorry to give either of these Carrier or 
Pouter Fanciers (I have in my mind's eye) the choice of going into my aviaries or 
lofts, to pick out what Tumblers they chose, although, comparatively>peaking, they 
did not know the Tumbler, as compared to the Camer or Pouter. I am sorry 
whenever I bear of a Carrier or Pouter Fancier giving them up ; they are most^ 
splendid birds, and well worthy the attention of good Fanciers. It is possible ^ 
there may be a few Fanciers that have a good general knowledge of Fancy Pigeons, j 
but there are many more who labour under a delusion by supposing they know 



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many other kinds. The same methods have been taken in most other countries 
as well as England, to gain this experimental knowledge, as in Holland, France, 
?i?^T/; ^®™^"y' Turkey, Persia, and Morocco. In the three last of which places, 
the Monarchs themselves have officers, called keepers of the Pigeons. Having 
thus mentioned the King of Morocco, give me leave to entertain you with the 
loilowmg story out of the Sieur. Mouette in his travels through that kingdom. 

^iir'^i!'^'? ^^^ among the other captives in Morocco, one Bernard Bausset, a 
youtn about twenty-five years of age, and one of the family of the Baussets, ancient 
consuls ot Marseilles and born in the town of Aubaigne in Provence ; he had the 
Keeping of the King's Pages' Clothes and Arms, and of the Stores laid up at the 
nrst gate of the Seraglio; besides which, he taught two of the king's children to 
speak Spanish. That prince having taken a liking to, and desiring to raise him 
Higher than the Christian religion would allow of; he tried all possible means to 
obhge him to become a Mahometan, and perceiving he could not prevail by fair 
means, very often had recourse to severity and ill usage. Being one day highly 

between the two gltes of the ^ir^"? f ?^"'''* ^ neglecting to cause the way 

stark TiaVo/l or!^ f J!l ui 1 ^f^^Sho to be swept, he caused him to be stripped 
hfm .W fi 1? A }^f'' ""'^^ ^^^^ "l'^'^"^ ^ ^^"^f"l °f l^^th^'- straps to give 

him above five hundred stripes; so that his body was all over as black as a shoe. 
in this condition, he sent him with two heavy chains to be cured in our prison, and 

Zut ^T "^P • '"'^ ^f .' "^^ ^'^'^ ^^' ^% 1^« stayed in the BiUe so they 

bln^2n ""''f ^r""' T^^'' ^' "^'^^ ^^^ «*«1^"- I* ^'^^^ that day a sack had 
been taken out of one of the magazines that are near the gate of the Seraglio. Sir, 

said Jjousset. I stayed there ever since you sent me, and durst not come away, 
TVithout your orders. Hereupon the king struck at him with a spear, and hurt him 
under the right eye, and then ordered his guards to cast him into the Lion's Walk: 
inat walk is like a court between four high walls, joining to the castle, and was 
parted from our Bitte or prison, by a wall, but three hands in thickness, which 
me lyons once undermined, and had like to have got in to us. 

. ?,""~~'^h® y^^th hearing that sentence pronounced, ran to the ladder that went up 
Yi the place, intending to throw himself in, before any other came to do it. The 
King dismounted from his horse, and went up after, bidding him change his 
religion, or he should be immediately devoured by the lions. Bausset resolutely 

answered, he was not at all concerned at it, since that was the way to make him 
happy ; for they could take but one life from him, which would end gloriously, and 

nrptfo '£S t]^'"' '^':?^ V '°^' ^' ^^^y' *^^" th«t h5« «'>^1 «ho"W become a 
prey to devils. Hereupon the king drew near the edge of the wall, to cast him 

down headlong ; but Bausset, who observed him narrowly, perceiving his design, 
leaped himself amidst four lyons, of a monstrous size, who had not been fed in 
three days. 




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^•re so opposed to each other in the standard as laid down by the Gentlemen of the 

ancy, that only bothers and confuses the young Fancier if he attempts too much 
once ; therefore, my advice to the young Fancier is, to make himself master of 

^G of the species of the Fancy first, and I have no doubt his observations and 
^flections will teach him that he has his work to do, in giving his whole attention 

/^^e species. I have very little opinion of a person becoming A, 1, in the Fancy, 
■1.^ ^^^^ves for too much at once ; therefore, I caution you not to attempt with 

. ^"^ sorts. But to return to Mr. Moore's amazement and astonishment, he 
S nave saved all this, if he had drawn this inference— How very few was 
competent to write on the subject, it being the work of a Fancier. 



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9, — Those creatvires beholding their prey, rose tip, and roaring put themselves 
in a posture to fall on him, whilst he offered up his prayers to heaven. But they 
as if with-held by some secret Power, presently lay down again. Yet some of 
them soon after got up, and made towards him, and being near passed by, 
without touching him, among the rest, one that was most ravenous came up to 
him seven times, and passed by as often. Thus the captive, like another Daniel, 
praised God, amidst those fierce creatures, which had not the power to hurt him. 

10. — The king, who withdrew as soon as he fell in, sent twice to see whether he 
was devonred, and in case he was not, to offer to take him out, if he would turn 
Mahometan ; but he returned them the same answer he had given to the king 
himself. We were all at pur prayers to implore the divine assistance upon him, 
and having made some hbles through the wall, that parted us from lyons to see, we 
encouraged him to be resolute and die, rather than renounce his religion, which 
he zealously promised us. 

11. — In the mean while a Spanish woman captive went to petition the king for 
Bausset's deliverance. She was called Mary of the Conception, born at St. Lucar 
de Barrameda in Andalusia ; came to Mamora, to carry home her husband, who 
was banished, and they were both taken returning into Spain. Having abundance 

of wit, without the least immodesty, she had gained the king's affections, who 
granted her whatsoever favour she asked either for Moors or Christians. She was 
called the common mother of all persons in distress, for she never thought much 
to sue for them. Her husband, whose name was John de Cormona, and she, had 
had the charge of the king's Pigeons and fed the lyons. The king having a 
kindness for Bausset, was pleased she should intercede, and gave orders immediately 
to have him taken out. No sooner had he spoke the word, than all the pages 
ran, striving wbo should be foremost, and left the king alone, at the first entrance 
into the Seraglio, which so highly offended him, that he called them back, and 
laid eight of them on the floor, all bloody and wounded with his scimitar. 

12, — However, when his wrath was appeased, the captive woman redoubled 
her entreaties so earnestly, that he could not refuse her, but ordered that she 
sliould go with her husband and one Prieur, a surgeon of Poitiers, to take Bausset 
from among the lions, which was accordingly done, when he had been there five 
hours ' for he leaped in at four, and came out at nine. Some days after, the lyons 
shewed not the same respect to three Faquers or Doctors of the Law of Mahomet, 
who took upon them to reprove the king for his cruelty, and were therefore cast 
into the same place, and immediately torn in pieces by the lyons. This story was 
well attested, brought to Paris, and put into the hands of the reverend fathers the 
mercenarians of Paris, to satisfy such as may call the truth of it in question. How- 
ever I had not made use of this story, only as it shews that even kings have been 

roud to confer the greatest favours upon those who were no more than the 




„eepers of their Pigeons. Thus we see how the knowledge of these birds has been 
propagated and encouraged in most parts of the World at a very great expense, while 
every observer had still this natural History to obtain in the same experimental 
and costly way, and was often grossly imposed upon by having a mixed strain 
put into his hands instead of the real species ; yet notwithstanding all this, and 
the ease wherewith it might have been accompUshed, I find an almost profound 
silence among the Naturalists upon this head. 

13.' — I have, therefore, ventured first to launch forth into this new science, not 
being insensible that I shall leave much room for others to make great improve- 
ments, if any shall hereafter think it worth their while to follow that track which 
I have only pointed out to them ; and I hope the learned world know how to make 
allowances for a first attempt in the advancement of any kind of knowledge. (13 *) 



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13.— To the young and inexperienced Fancier,— I am particulax^ly desirous of 
calling your attention to Paragraph 13. 5 it is nearly worth the whole of the 









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XVII. 



paragraphs put together, until we come to the considerations of the properties of 
the Pigeons as laid down by the standards, which we have to breed 



surpass if possible. 



up to and 




The late Mr. John Mooke here most distinctly states positively, without ..„._.. 
or equivocation, that he was the first to launch forth into this new science, and I 



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^s ago, the inference I therefore draw is, that it is true ; it would be folly in a 



^j ancier to state it was not true, unless he was prepared to prove it by books 

,, ^^^^^^'^ <3ate, as old Fanciers would know that the young Fancier was not 
2^ enough to recollect it. 
^r- Joim Moore 



It is my intention to reprint the whole of the late 

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Work 



e. It will be the fault of the Compositor, it not being my wish to alter a single 



Work 



^ work from which all other Works on the subject have been taken, which> 

"y> I shall endeavour to prove ; had it not been the fact. Fanciers of that 

Would have contradicted ; Authors, Compilers, and Commentators, would 

anded it down to posterity ; and to prove my assertion, I would recommend 

the youno" Tfn • 
^ J n -fancier to obtain as large a library as possible on the subject. I shall 

give you the late Mr. John Moore's Work, Columbarium : or the Pigeon House, 

or word. There will not be any occasion for you to strive to obtain a copy, 
and which if you did, I believe would be labour 



m vain. 



-t Would recommend you to obtain a Treatise on Domestic Pigeons, inscribed to 



John 



v.. Babry, Ingram Court, Fenchurch Street ; sold likewise by P. Stevens. 



near 



Webeey, Holborn ; and J. Walters 




Work 



-The Complete Pigeon Tancier, by Daniel Giktin, Esq. 
printed for Alexander Hogg, 16, Paternoster Eow, London; also, a Treatise 
on the Almond Tumbler, Author not named, printed for Alexander Hogg & Co 
16,-Paternoster Eow, London, 1802 and 1804; also, the Naturalists Library, that 
part which relates to Pigeons; Ornithology, Vol. 5th, part 3rd, by Pkibet:x John 
Selbt, Esq.,F.R.S, E.F.L.S,M.W.S.,&c.&c. ; W. H. Lizaks 
^quare, Edinburgh ; S. Highley, 32, Fleet Street, London ; and W. Cukry, Jun., 
^Dd Co., Dublin, 1835 ; also, the Dovecote and the Aviary, by the Eevbkend 
• S. Dixon, M.A. ; John Murray, Albemarle Street, London, 1851 ; also, 
ETEB BoswELL, on Pigeons, sold by George Eouxlbdge, 36, Soho Square, 
London. y /.. ^&/^ - ^^/^ i^. ' 



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A cannot help thinking but that I am justified, and I think this the best place 
^ call the attention of the Gentlemen of the Fancy to a very great error, that 
IS printed in a clever little Book,— being a compilation on Bees, Pigeons, Eabbits, 
^ Canary Birds, by Peter Bosweli,, Esq,— Greenlaw, to be obtained of George 

ouxLEDGE, 36, Soho Square, London, 1846. The * 



W( 



error" which I wish to 

The best 



lenticated Treatise on Domesticated Pigeons, especially regarding the fancy 
varieties, was published by Barry, of Fenchurch Street, la 1765. That Treatise 



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has been succeeded by Moore's Colvimbaritim, and some others, founded on their 
authority ; the very reverse is the fact of the case, Mr. Moore's Work '' preceded 
instead of succeeded," exactly thirty years. Mr, Moore's Work was published in 
1735 ; whereas, the Work published by Barry, of Fenchurch Street, was 1765, and 
is inscribed to John Mayor, Esq., the Author concealing his name. It is very 
likely that John Moore, the Pigeon Fancier, was in Heaven at the time the 
Work was printed. (There is something in the year 1765 which I never can 
forget, and that was, the year my late excellent and much respected Father was 
born, December 7th, 1765.) The compilation in which this error is discovered, 
is, as I said before, a clever little Work, and, although there are errors in it 
which could only be discovered by Pigeon Fanciers, it is written with so much 
candour by Peter Boswele, Esq , that if he had had the two Works by him, the 
error would not have crept in, and no doubt will be rectified in the next edition ; 
at the same time little knowing how much of his Work, although not taken direct 
from Mr. Moore's Work, (possibly he never saw it) contains so much original 
matter belonging to Mr. Moore. I informed you before, the clever little Work 

treated upon Bees, Pigeons, Babbits, and Canary Birds. 

Allow me to inform you all I know about Bees. On one fine summer's evening, 
about forty -five years ago, a schoolfellow and I were going to a place called 
the Pound, in the New Biver, to bathe, in passing through Canonbury Fields we 
stopped to see a gentleman who was Fly Fishing with house flies, which he had 
in a bottle, we were surprised at how fast he caught the various fish ; we made 
up our minds to try our luck at this new science of Fishing, for neither of us, 
I believe, had seen it before, at all events, with such success ; I can almost fancy 
I now see us on the bank, for I have a strong recollection of the fact — although 
my schoolfellow, brother Bob, (George Freeman), for we were two young disciples 
of old Izaac, is dead; my much respected old schoolfellow, Henry Major, and 
myself followed him to the grave— with our traps already to begin Fly Fishing; 
we had stiff bottom rods, this was not from choice but from necessity, we knew 
very well what we stood in need of; but having our pockets oftener to let than 
tenanted, I hope I may be spared the trouble of trying to impress it upon your 
i«inds that w^e were poor, not from choice but from necessity. All being now 
ready to commence Fly Fishing, we discovered that we had made a little mistake, 
that of coming without the flies in the bottles ; we were too good pupils of old Izaac 
to be daunted, owing to our forgetfulness, recollecting that hope and patience 
supports the Fisherman. It was a beautiful fine evening when we saw the 
gentleman Fly Fishing; but the following evening when we thought of going: at 
it, was bitter cold, we looked round the fields and trees for May flies (although 
it was in June), or any other fly, we were not particular, flies being scarce owing 
to the coldness of the evening, we looked out hard for flies, but it was labour in 
vain ; we got disheartened for that evening and agreed to put up our traps. I felt 
as though I wanted something to warm and awaken me up ; at this moment a Bee 
came flying by, I knocked him down with my hat, told my schoolfellow I expected 
to take a large Chub with it ; I almost imagined I heard the fish to say to my bait 
as I intended—I'll eat you, body and all ; but I expected the hook would stick 



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XlXo 



m his gill or somewhere else ; I was not very particulavj but reasoned 



niyself, that a large bait deserved a large fish, I was san^mne in my mind that 
I should catch a runi-un— so I did ; have a little patience with me. and I will tell 
you all about it, I was a good arithmetician, and understood Cocker well for 
my age j a little learning is a dangerous thing,— I was aware that the Bee had 
a sting, and always supposed the fang or trunk in the head was the sting, but 
not be wrong in my Cocker, and it is acknowledged in a multitude of council 
there is safety. I consulted my brother Bob where its sting was, and he pointed 
out to me its trunk which only confirmed my opinion, (and I thought two heads 
better than one if they were only calves' heads, which they proved to be) ; although 
I had knocked the Bee down with my hat, I had only stunned it ; being aware 
where its sting was, and acting with the utmost caution, narrowly watching with 
all my eyes his trunk, I proceeded with the courage of an Angler, but with an 
especial eye (on its trunk lest it should sting me) to place it on the hook ; quick 
as lightning I dropped ray rod, as though red hot; I was half way down the field 
upon one leg before you could have said ** Jack Robinson,*' my brother Bob ran 
after me to know what was the matter with me, he never would have caught 
me, had he not run cunning like the hound— *^ on the bias ;" do you suppose 
I could stop and tell him, — no more than the man with the cork leg, — if it had 
been possible I could have stopped, it would have bothered me, not knowing 
myself; my brother Bob no doubt thought I was cracked; he certainly was 
right this time, but decidedly wrong as to where the sting was ; I knew I was 
cracked, it was very small, what it wanted in size was made up with virulence. 
I have often thought of it in my sober moments, what it was that caused me to 
go upon one leg, and when that I was tired to go upon the other, like as you 
have seen dogs in the street going upon three legs, resting one then dropping 
the rested leg, and resting the tired leg ; whether the cork leg has stopped yet 
I do not know, but the last time I heard of it it was going at a terrible rate ; at 
last, my legs stopped, and when I came to my old school-fellow all in a sweat — no 
doubt a cold sweat— I had a colour like a turnip ; we looked volumes at each 
other, but the subject would not do to dwell upon. It is said there is not any 

mistakes in figures, although persons may be out in their Cocker; I had several 
ideas in this little affair, I thought I wanted warming, and, waking up, I thought 

a large bait deserved a large fish ; I made sure of catching a rum-un, I did not 

wm - 

care where the hook caught so that it held fast, it was all carried out by the Bee 
hooking in the tender part of the thumb — a Jack and a Flat. Several fly rods 
since then have come into my possession ; I believe I have never attempted since, 
and whenever I see a Bee I am lost in wonder and astonishment at it. Those beautiful 
Words of Watts ''How doth the little busy Bee, &c. &c. " comes to my mind, at 
the same time always keeping a respectful distance from them for auld 
acquaintance; I richly deserved all I got for knocking down an industrious 
Bee, and received my reward, and have not the slightest wish to scrape 
acquaintance with them again; I apologized to you to allow me to tell you 
all I knew about Bees, I have now informed you. 

In part of Paragraph 14, Mr. Mooke says^ "I have sometimes endeavoured to 
I'elax the mind, by throwing in some diverting parts of history, which though not 




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altogether necessary to the main purport of the Treatise, will, I hope, answer the 
end for which they were designed. Mr. Mooue knew, as a wise man, there was 
a time for all thuigs— a time for hard thinking, and a time to relax the mind. I 
am confident that no one will make a good Fancier who has not his head placed on 
his shoulders in the right way, and his hrains properly scraped, and then it will 
avail you nothing unless you exercise those hrains in deeply thinking. A thorough 
good and acknowledged Judge or Fancier, never acquired his experience by mere 
accident, hut must he the result of observation and reflection, I entertain very 
little opinion of that Gentleman joining a Pigeon Fancy Society, supposing he 
knows all about it, unless it he true, (if so, so much the better,) or it opens his 



eyes to conviction and that ha is all at 



there is hope that this person, in 



due time, will be a Fancier ; but, on the contrary, that Gentleman never will 
that imagines that he sees and perceives through all at once, or at first sight. It 
is possible he may do for a Chancellor of the Exchequer, or any thing else (save 
a Fancier.) It is wise to mind our stops, and be a little too slow, than like the 
fast Man upon Town, or his Country Cousin-the Go-a«head-man. To return to my 
old friend Cocker, to give us the total of this Paragraph ; for he knew from his 
observation and reflection there was not any possibility of gaining a thorough 
knowledge of Fancy Pigeons, but from long study and experience. He was fully 
sensible that studying the points and properties of the birds are often tedious and 
irksome, and therefore threw in some diverting parts of History ; I have no doubt 
some of the young Fanciers will think that I handle the matter too serious ; I do 
not wish to deceive the Fancier, but plainly to inform him, that he has his work to 
do ; I am fully as sensible as Mooke, that it is dry work, and requires to be 
enlivened up by facts, stories, and anecdotes. I sincerely hope I shall be able to 
get up the steam, and render the subject as pleasant as possible, giving everything 
its due consideration, or weighing it in the balance. I fancy I am of too serious a 
mood to try my hand at wit, at the same time it is not Philosophy to be unhappy 
to-day, because we r:ay be miserable to-morrow, and I cannot help thinking that 
we may as well be merry as sad. I cannot tell, my young Fanciers, how you feel 
in reading it ; I, who am writing it, feel dry, and as Parsons beautifully windup, 
having finished this Pint, let us have a Full Pot. 

I will hope against hope that you have obtained the small Library of Books, 
written by the various Authors on the Subject we have now under consideration, as 
before recommended ; at all events, I hope you have tried. It may be that you 

My object in advising you to obtain as large a Library 



Works 



Works 



reading carefully over a few times the earliest date, say John Moore, 1735, then 

dedicated to John Mayor, 1765, thirty years after Moore, 



Work 



Work 1765, to the Work 



compare the Works together interline with your pen, what you find in the second 
book what you find in the first, but do not interline that which is not in the first 
book, which leaves the un-interlined^ original matter due to the Work 1765 ; follow 
up the plan by comparing Daniel Girtin's Work, without date, to the two 
former works, interline all you have read before, but not that information 
which is not contained in the two prior books, which leaves the un-interlined 






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(13*) I am very sensible that proper Icons are of very great service to illustrate a 
Work of this nature ; but this piece being in its kind new, (ISf) and not being able 



original matter due to Mr. Dakiel Giktin; proceed in the same way with 
the Columbarian Work of 1802 and 1804, and that which you do not interline 
is original matter, and is due to the late celebrated Almond Fancier and 

WiNBUS, Esq. Solicitor, Southampton Buildings, Holborn, 



the Author 

Follow up the same plan with regard to the Naturalist's Library, vol. 5, part 3, 
on Pigeons, by Prideux John Selbx, Esq. F.K..S., E.F.L.S., M.W.S , &c. &c. 
1835. Also, the Dovecote and the Aviary, by the Eev. E. S. Dixon, M.A. &c. &c. 
1851, and what you have not read or discovered in prior dates give each Author 
according to the earliest dates the credit of originality, and nothing more ; at the 
same time I am aware there are Works published at One Shilling, others at 
Sixpence, and I once saw a Work published at One Penny ; when you come to 
read over all the Works you can obtain, after my style of interlining, you 
^ill then find out to whom the credit is due, as to originality, Kead, also, the 
Natural Histories, Encyclopaedias, some of the larger Dictionaries, &c. &c. in 
search of original matter, then discover how far the Works are the echo and 
re-echo of Works of prior date ; if Mr. Moore had seen some of the Works 
decently published he would have thought it a burlesque upon Pigeons. 

Mr, Moore, in the same Paragraph, states, "Not being insensible that I shall 
leave much room for others to make great improvements." Query ? I very much 
doubt whether any Fancier could surpass his Observations and Reflections ; if a 
J'ancier could not accomplish it, no other Writer could ; with regard to others 
following in the tract, which he says *^I have only pointed out to them ;" from 
^vhatever cause very few have followed him, although many have promised. If it 
■^vas possible for Mr, Moore to have seen the progress that Authors and Pigeon 
Fanciers have made after One Hundred and Seventeen Years, he would not have 
had any occasion to hope, that the Learned World knew how to make allowances 
for a first attempt in the advancement of any kind of knowledge. 

13* Moreover, he is fully convinced " that proper Icons are of very great service 
to illustrate a work of this nature," &c. It is my intention to illustrate this Work 
Mth the best engraved and coloured portraiis of Fancy Pigeons, as encouraged by 
*te acknowledged best Fanciers that ever lived ; viz. the Almond Tumbler, the 
Slack Mottle Tumbler, the Yellow Bald-head, the Eed Beard, the Black Carrier, 
^iid the Blue-pied English Pouter, The Portraits belonging to this Work areas 
'arge as life, and, on inspection, will be seen they have never been surpassed- 
They will not be bound up with the Work, simply for the more easy reference of 
the young Fancier while studying the Work. 

I3f Mr, MooKE observes, ^*the Work being New, and not knowing whether it 
■^ould be attended with profit or loss," — that appears to me to be the true reading 
^^ it— besides swelling the price too high for many, he abandoned having Portraits 
father than bad ones, which shewed his good sense. I only wish it was possible 
he could witness the Icons, as he called them, that will accompany this Work 5 it 
is possible, provided we could find, and place the portraits over, his grave, like the 
' Tally lioo'' over Tom Moody's grave, that he is fairly ran down. 




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to gUess at what reception it may meet with from the World ; I knew the expenses of 
exact cuts would swell the price too high for many that may have a mind to 
purchase this Work; and on the contrary, that if they are not delineated with the 
utmost accuracy according to their various characteristicks, they only puzzle tho 
tnind, and render the description of them more obscure ; and, therefore, I chose 
rather to have none, than bad ones. 

14. — In the sequel of this Work, I have endeavoured as near as possible to 
give exact criterions for the knowledge of each distinct species ; and being aware 
that bare descriptions are often tedious and irksome, I have sometimes endeavoured 
to relax the mind by throwing in some diverting parts of history, which though 
not altogether necessary to the main purport of the Treatise, will I hope answer 
the end for which they were designed. 



1 



b. 



Being well assui'ed that this book will fall into the hands of many of the 
illiterate part of mankind, who are altogether ignorant of the terms of Art, and 
even in the meaning of many words of more frequent use among the politer part; 
1 have for the sake of such added an Alphabetical Explanation of the less common 
words made use of in this Treatise. 

16.— So hoping it will have the desired effect, of pushing on some abler Pen, 
I commit it at once to the candid censure of Mankind. 



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14.— It is certain that Mr. Moore must have been a rare Fancier, or he never 
could have defined the different species and their properties so true as he has done, 
unless he had been a great Observer and Eeflector, 



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COLUMBARIUM : 



OR, THE PIGEON HOUSE 







THE INTRODUCTION. 

17.— Zoology, or the History of Animals, has heen a task in all ages deemed 
worthy the consideration of the best and ablest Philosophers, and many branches 
of this useful history have been handed down to us from them in an elegant and 
instructive manner, showing us the beauty and wisdom of providence and our great 
Creator, in the formation of such an almost infinite variety of creatures, and raising 
our thoughts to the sublimest notions of that tremendous Being, whose almighty 
fiat gave them birth; at the same time teaching us to adore his bounty and good- 
ness in making mankind their superior, and submitting them all to his use. The 
contemplation of God in his creatures sets us such a lesson of humility, as ought 
to make the proud man blush, and humbly prostrate himself before the throne of 
that omnipotent invisible Deity, whose hand supports him in common with the 
oi'ute creation 

18. — I could wish some abler pen had undertook the work now before me, but 
'having examined most of the writers on these subjects, and finding in them either 
^0 account at all, or else a very imperfect and superficial one, which for want of a 



17. -We 



ought to feel grateful to Mr. Moore in calling our attention, or 
I'eminding us, that we are creatures and not the Creator, and that "All is 

Vanity under the Sun." 

18."Mr. Moore, over and over again, appears to deeply lament and deplore the 

task of writing, or giving information to the Pigeon Fanciers, had not fallen to 
the lot of some abler pen than himself. In commenting on his writings to the 
same effect prior, I made use of this word— Query. I repeat now again, Query ; 
and ask. If ever there was a Fancier who could have done more than Mr. Moore 
did, considering it was the first attempt at this new Science, and not having any 
tract or line pointed out to him to follow ? He had examined most of the writers 
^li these subjects, and finding in them either no account at all, or else a very 
imperfect and superficial one, which for want of a due opportunity to examine the 
^Ird they were describing, they have generally taken up at random and upon 
credit. Mr. Moore says, "I thought it, in some measure, incumbent on me to 
attempt a Natural History of this kind, partly as having in my house most of the 
sorts to be described, and partly to provoke other Gentlemen who have more skill 
and ability to rescue this part of the History of Animals from that obscurity it has 
so long laboured under." When the idea struck Mr. Moore to attempt a Natural 
History of Pigeons, it was a lucky thought for the Gentlemen of the Fancy, and a 
fortunate thing that no one else had attempted it prior, otherwise it might have 
not been half so well executed, and have been the means of preventing Mr. M. 
from writing upon the subject, which would have been a great loss to the 
Gentlemen of the Fancy. 



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24 

due opportunity to examine the bird they were describing, they have generally 
taken up at random and upon credit; I thought it in some measure incumbent 
upon me to attempt a natural history of this kind, partly as having in my own 
house most of the sorts to be described, and partly to provoke other gentlemen 
who have more skill and ability, to rescue this part of the history of animals from 
that obscurity it has so long laboured under. 

19.— In order therefore to render this treatise, (which has been so long due from 
one part of my countrymen, I mean the naturalists, and so long desired by 
another) as compleat as possible, I shall divide this book into two parts ; in the 
first I shall treat of the method of keeping, breeding, and preserving of Pigeons, 
and in the second I shall give an account of the different sorts, endeavouring to 
clear up all obscurities, and render the knowledge and distinction of the several 



1 



19.— Mr. MooKE observes in this Paragraph, " in order therefore to render this 
Treatise, which has been so long due from one part of my countrymen, I mean 
the Naturalists, and so long desired by another," (alluding to the Pigeon Pancier, 
although^he does not exactly say so in his Work, which from beginning to end, is 
entirely written and confined to the Pigeon Fancier.) Mr. M. cannot help 
thinking that the Naturalists had greatly slighted the Gentlemen of the Pigeon 
Pancy. Could a Naturalist have written upon a subject unless he was a Pigeon 
Fancier ? It is possible a Naturalist might compile and write upon a thousand 
different animals and birds for the general reading of the millions, as lions, 
tigers, elephants, rhinoceros, camels, dromedaries, camelopards. Sec. ; or birds, 
the eagle, ostrich, or the titlark, and Cochin China fowls, &c, &c. I am not 
aware that the Naturalists have raised a standard, or how many properties 
constitute the standard, as laid down to test the lion or tiger, &c. • but this 
may arise from the want of pluck on the part of the Naturalists in not going 
into their pens, examing their properties or points, for fear of catching cold. 
The Gentlemen who delight in the song of birds, and who understand their 

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song, as laid down by Bird Fanciers, have as much right to bitterly complain 
as does Mr. Mooke, that the Naturalists had entirely overlooked them, and had 
not given any account of the execution song birds execute; imagine to yourself, 
a match made by two Bird Fanciers, each, supposing they had the best titlark 
between wood and wirej to sing a match for half an hour, as a matter of course 
the bird performing the most execution would win ; but would it be right and 
fitting to appoint a Naturalist to keep score unless he was a good Bird Fancier, 
and understood their song, such as weeting, sweeting, chouing, fearing, 
whisking, laughing, rattling, and their objectionable song, such as snuffling, 
shiting, &c. I tell you plainly it is the office of the Bird Fancier ; how 
frequently do you hear persons say sweet, sweet, pretty dick ; supposing the 
bird to say sweet, instead of weet, but they do not understand them, whereas, 
a Bird Fancier would remain quiet and listen to their song and execution. 

Should it so happen that I can attend at the grand Birmingham Show of 
ornamental and domestic Poultry, at Christmas, after viewing the Pigeons, my 
attention would be called to see the Cochin China Fowls. As a matter of 
course my attention would be directed to those birds that had taken first, second, 
or third prizes ; prior to that, I should endeavour to obtain the best written 






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species facile to all those, who either do or may hereafter delight in the contempla- 
won of this innocent part of the creation ; that b}^ comparing any bird with the 
characteristics here given, they may be able to determine not only the species 
Itself, but to form a tolerable judgment whether it be of the better sort or not : and 
to this end I have not only examined those birds of each sort which I keep myself, 
but have had recourse to, and consulted most of the oldest and most experienced 
persons that kept pigeons and dehghted in this fancy. 



Work on the celebrated Cochin China Eowl, instructing me of the properties, 
now many there are, and of what they consisted; not that I should know any 
n^ore about them; but as every one has a beginning, I cannot he^p thinking 
that of obtaining the best Work or Works as laid down by the Gentlemen of 
ne Cochin China Fancy, to guide the awarding of prizes by the umpires, as 
appointed by the Gentlemen of the Cochin China Clubs, to be the best and 
first step in the right way to obtain a knowledge of these celebrated Fowls, 
^hich obtained, the greatest number of points, or properties, as laid down ; say 
five for argument, or seven or nine, it being necessary to have an odd number, 
otherwise the two best birds might equally divide the properties, then the prize 
*^ould not be awarded, I said five for argument; supposing one bird to obtain 
shape and feather, two beautiful properties ; but the bird shewn against it, obtained 
*he other three properties, whatever they may be, the prize must be awarded 
^y the judges to the bird that obtained the three properties, notwithstanding 
the other bird possessed shape and feather, which, as I observed before, are 
truly beautiful properties ; if, on the contrary, the prizes are awarded to the 
general appearance of the bird. It is a clear proof there is not any standard laid 
^own, (it is high time there was), which leaves the Judges and Fanciers in the 
^a-rk, not knowing what they are aiming at. Surely, it is not the work of a 
Naturalist to lay down a standard, but the work of the Cochin China Eanciers. 

■ 

With regard to those Pigeons that Pigeon Panciers consider worthy of a 
standard ; namely, the Tumbler, Carrier, and English Pouter : for instance, if 
the Tumbler possessed shape and feather, two grand properties; nevertheless, 
if anot^jer Tumbler is shewn against it, and possessing the properties of head, 
^eak, and eye, the bird taking the three properties out of the five, according 
^ the standard laid down by the Gentlemen of the Fancy, must of necessity 

I "® awarded the prize. Again, if a Carrier possessed length and thinness of 
^^ck, length of body, and great width of chest, which is, after all, only one 
property — shape, also the head ; nevertheless, if another Carrier is shewn against 
^t* and possessing the properties of beak, wattle, and eye, the bird taking the 
three properties out of the five, according to the standard laid down, must be 
^Warded the prize. Again, if an English Pouter possessed the properties 
^^ape, and beauty in feather ; nevertheless, if another English Pouter is shewn 
Against it, and possessing the properties of length of body, length of legs, crop, 
*^e bird taking the three properties out of the five, according to the standard 
^aid down by Fanciers, must be awarded the prize, notwithstanding the general 

I ^Ppearance of the bird possessing shape and feather, which, as I said before, 
is truly beautiful. 

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Having a standard laid down to test the birds, creates harmony, aiid removes 
unpleasantness. If two Gentlemen of the Fancy agree to shew two Almond 
Tumblers for a bottle of wine, bowl of punch, or a rump and dozen j if they I 
are two free honest good Fanciers, and their hearts in the right place, they do 
not require the umpires to tell them, which has lost or won, knowing that one | 
bird has taken three, four, or the five properties, although the bird that lost, the 

owner would not take ten pounds for it 5 moreover, it silences the inexperienced 
Fancier, who shows for the five properties—his bird possessing shape and feather. 
The inexperienced Fancier, from the general appearance of his bird, supposes 
he has won, but the umpires inform he has lost, upon head, beak, and eye, of 
which he is satisfied ; taking the general appearance of a bird, and not having 
a standard, is a very childish affair, and produces ill will. It is useless for 
umpires to inform a gentleman he has lost, and that is all he will say ; it is better 
to have a standard, and point out the properties on which he lost, which would 
give greater satisfaction 5 besides, there are Fanciers (after the decision of the 
umpires) that are equal as good judges, if not superior in judgment, for it often 
happens that the umpires do not keep birds ; at all events, they have no right 
to have any birds contending for the prizes. If there is not any standard, and 
you take the general appearance of the bird, you might as well have young ladies 
from boarding-schools, for your umpires, who would look out a bird and call it 

very pretty. 
The first time I had the honor of attending the Columbarian Society, held 

at the Gray's Inn Coifee-house, London, when the Almond Tumbler that 
took the first prize was shewn me, I expressed my surprise, (being a young head 
and beak fancier) ; but a gentleman, a good Fancier, made it clear to me, when he 
stated that it was the only bird in the pen that came up to the standard— Feather, 
which I will give you, viz. three colours— black, white, and yellow, in the nine 
first feathers of each wing, and twelve in the tail; see J. M. Eaton's Almond 
Tumbler, p. 7, on Feather. The Columbarian Society takes notice only of the 
Almond Tumbler, and very judiciously have their first prize Feather, to 
prevent Fanciers running from Feather. But if, on the contrary, thm-e had 
been three Almonds, all standard birds, then the Umpires woirld have awarded 
the prize to the bird that obtahied three properties out of the five, viz. Feather, 
Shape, Head, Beak, Eye. It sometimes happens that the first prize is not 
awarded, owing to a standard bird (Feather) not being exhibited. 

This celebrated Society have another standard for Almond Tumblers, and that is 
for the bird that takes the most properties out of the five, namely. Head, Beak, 
Eye, Shape, and Feather, and this bird is, generally, the Lion of their Anniversary. 
It so happened, that the bird which was a standard feather and took the first prize, 
came into the possession of a friend of mine. 1 could have had the bird but would 
not being a short-faced head and beak Fancier, and the bird possessing only one 
property out of the five, which was feather. How different was the case with 
regard to the bird that was the Lion of the Day, which was shewn for the five 

onerties ! I could have wished to have bought that bird, but I knew it would 
h e been to have offered an insult to the Gentlemen forming that Society, although 



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27 

20, — But not to detain you any longer with the introductionj I shall in the first 
place give an account in what manner to build your loft. 

THE METHOD OF BUILDING A LOFT. 

21.— A pigeon loft ought to be built to the south or south-west, the sun lying 
■warmest on them from those quarters ; but if you have not that conveniencCj you 
may make a hole in the roof of your house, and there lay your platform, smaller 
or larger as you think proper. A carpenter that is used to such work will put you 
in a method, always remembering to erect proper works to keep off those tor- 
mentors of the gentlemen of the Fancy— the cats, for in one night's time they will 



I 



they have a rule privately among themselves, by which any member of the Society 
has the privilege of putting up any bird in the pen to auction, and the owner of the 
bird has one bid and no more ; if the owner of the bird is satisfied with the highest 
bid, the bird is sold ; if, on the contrary, the owner puts a higher price on the 
bird, which often gives it a fresh fillip, and competition begins again, and whoever 
is the highest bidder obtains the bird : the bird I am writing of was sold for many 
guineas, for I know the gentleman who purchased it. 

Why I should have written so much about the standard, I am at a loss to 
know, unless it is to throw out a gentle hint to umpires, who have a standard 
to test the birds by— to act strictly up to the standard as laid down, not forgetting 
themselves, and taking the general appearance of the bird, or to those Fanciers 
who appoint umpires to award prizes where there is no standard laid down ; but 
the taking the general appearance of the bird, which is sure to give dissatisfaction. 
In a former part I mentioned very learned men, Naturalists, could write and 
edify the general reading of millions; I now inform you, they could not write 
to satisfy a few Gentlemen Pigeon Fanciers, unless they were Pigeon Fanciers 

; Naturalists did write upon Fancy Pigeons. Did they please 
Mr MooKE ? Certainly not. If we knew his private thoughts, for ought we 
know, in his estimation instead of being Naturalists, he may have set them down 
as naturals, for writing on a subject they did not understand. In looking over 



themselves 



some 



Works 



shew^n Mr. Moore some of the engravings, and colouring of the tame and 
domesticated Pigeons, and to have asked him what birds they were, he, no 
doubt, would have answered that he thought they belonged to the eagle, or vulture 
specie, being so unlike the domesticated Pigeons. He expresses his surprise 
and amazement at the indolence of all our Ornithologists ; he had examined most 
of the writers on the subject, and, fmding in them no account at all, or else a very 
imperfect and superficial one, (for want of a due opportunity to examine the bird 
they were describing) , they have generally taken up at random, and upon credit. 

He . 

Natural History of this kind, and to this end I have not only examined those 
birds of each sort which I keep myself, but have had recourse to, and consulted 
most of the oldest and experienced persons that kept Pigeons, and delighted 
in this Fancy." He certainly adopted the most wise course he could pursue, to 
carry out his object. 



says 



*'I thouf>ht it in some measure incumbent upon me to attempt a 




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28 

make a very great havock, and are generally observed to destroy those pigeons 

which you most value ; so that His better to be at some charge first, to prevent the 

incursions of such dangerous and fatal invaders, who seldom or never give any 
quarters.* 

22— Let your loft be large enough to contain the number of pigeons you intend to 
keep, always allowing at least two holes or breeding places for every pair ; for the 
more room they have, the more quiet they will sit, and breed the better ; I once 
knew a gentleman, who could not raise three young ones out of nine pair of 
breeding pigeons all the spring, and for above three months after, only by keeping 
them straitened in too narrow a compass : Whereas, about the latter end of 
August, or beginning of September, he moved them into a larger loft, and the 
same pigeons bred well, even then, and through the most part of the winter. The 
reason of this inconvenience is this, salacious cocks will often be playino* to, and 
disturbing the others as they sit, and others who want room to sit will fight for 
nests, and by this means destroy both eggs and young ones. 

23. — To make your breeding places, you may erect shelves of about fourteen 
inches broad, allowing eighteen inches betwixt shelf and shelf; for otherwise your 
tall powters, by being forced to crouch for want of height, will get a habit of 
playing low, and spoil their carriage. In these shelves erect partitions at about 
the distance of three feet, fixing a blind by a board nailed against the front, on 
each side of every partition; by this means you will have two nests in the length of 
every three feet, and your pigeons will sit dark and private. You may if you 
please, fix a partition between each nest, to prevent the young ones from running 
to the hen, when sitting at the other end, and cooling her eggs ; for in breeding 
time, when the young ones are about three weeks old, the hen, if' a good breeder 
will lay again, and leave the cock to take care of, and bring up the young ones. 

25. — In every nest you must put a straw basket, or earthen pan, both which 
are made and adapted to this very purpose ; for besides that by this means the 
eggs are prevented from rolling out of the nest, you need never handle your 
young pigeons, if you have a mind to look on them, which often puts them into a 
scouring. Some like the basket best, as judging it warmest, and not so liable to 
crack the egg when first laid ; others are for the pan, as not so apt to harbour 
vermin, and say that the foregoing inconveniences are easily remedied by giving 
them a sufficient quantity of clean straw, or frail; the frail is most valued because 
it lies hollow, and will last a great while, for when your young ones have left their 
nest, 'tis but taking hold of the ends of the frail, and the dung will shake off it, and 
the frail be as fit for use as before, 

26. — As for your trap or aviary, it is always built on a platform or floor of deals, 
on the outside of your house, that your pigeons may have free passage into it • it is 
formed of laths nailed so close together, that the smallest pigeon can't make its 



*2h 



Mayor, p. 2. Notwithstanding the cats are natural enemies to Pigeons, 
it is a common thing to see one in most Pigeon lofts, which are put in there 
when very young, and by proper methods being used with them, such as 
sometimes beating them with a dead Pigeon, and holding an egg, made hot, to 
their nose, which intimidates them from touching the eggs, &c., they naturaUy 
become afraid of them, and will never hurt either the eggs or Pigeons, provided 
they are constantly supplied with food ; they are extremely necessary in a loft, by 
keeping it clear of rats and mice, which are full as destructive to the Pigeons as 
the cats, by sucking their eggs, killing the young ones, and even the old ones, &c. 

23.— See J. M. Eaton's Almond Tumbler, p. 38, 39, &c. « There are," &c. 

25.— Ibid, p. 39 to 41. '' I have found," &c. 



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29 

escape through it. Some build these very small, with three doprs, one on eacli 

side, which all draw up together by pulling a single string, intending chiefly to 
catch stray pigeons, whom they decoy into it, by strewing hemp-seed, or rape and 
canary, which all pigeons are very fond of. Others build them very wide and 
lofty, so that four or five persons may conveniently stand in them together, with 
a shelf or two on every side, (*) designing them to give room and air to pigeons 
of the homing sort, which they are obliged to keep confined ; this practice is 
of very great use, by keeping such prisoners in a good state of health, 

27. — In order to complete your loft, you must furnish it with proper meat boxes* 
and bottles and stands for water. 

28. — Your meat-box ought to be formed in the shape of a hopper, as a reservoir 
for their food, it must be covered over on the top, to prevent them from dunging 
among the grain; from hence the meat descends into a square shallow box, fenced 
m with rails or holes on each side, to keep them from flirting the grain over on the 
floor amongst their own dung. 

29, — Your water-bottle should be a large glass bottle, with a long neck, holding 
three or four gallons, and its belly made in the form of an egg to keep them from 
dunging on it. This bottle should be set upon a stand or three-footed stool, made 
hollow at top to receive the belly, and let the mouth into a small pan, your water 
"will by this means gradually descend out of the mouth of the bottle, as your 
pigeons drink it, and be sweet and clean, and always stop when the surface of the 
Water meets with the mouth of the bottle. 

30. — The reason of which is this, the belly of the bottle being entirely close at 
top, keeps off all the external pressure of the atmospfiere, which pressing hard upon 
the surface of the water in the pan, which is contiguous to that in the bottle, is too 
potent for the small quantity of air, which is conveyed into the belly of the bottle 
"With the water, and which consequently, as being the lighter matter, rises to the 
top of the bottle, as it stands in its proper situation, but the water beintr sucked 
away by your pigeons, that it no longer touches the mouth of the bottle,°the con- 
fined air exerts its power, and causes the water to descend till they become con- 
tiguous as before. 

THE METHOD OF MATCHING OR PAIRING YOUR 

PIGEONS. 

31.— Your loft being thus finished and equipped, my next instructions shall be 
how to niatch or pair your pigeons together ; and here we must observe, that 
though they are very constant when mated to each other, seldom or never suing 
^ divorce, except when either of them grow sick or very old, yet it is sometimes 
^^I'y difficult to make them couple to your liking. 

32.— The best way therefore to effect what you desire on this head, is to erect 
two coops, usually called by the Fanciers matching places, close together, let the 
partition between be made of lath, that they may see each other, and you may 
easily contrive it so that they may both eat and drink out of the same vessels; 
^eed them often with hemp-seed, which will make them salacious, and when you 



26. 



With 



tlaese four or five brother Fanciers for " Auld Lang Syne," should the mornings be 
^old and frosty; or, vise versa, to quench the thirst, should it be hot or oppressive 
^hen the coppers are hot. 

27 to 31.— See J. M, Eaton's Almond Tumbler, p. 43, 44, 45, &c. *' 
regard," &c. 

31 to 36,— Ibid, p. 10, 11, 12, 13, &c. <' Matching and Pairing." 



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observe the hen to sweep her tail and shew to the cock, as he plays in the other 
pen, you may then put her in to him, and they will soon be matched. 

33. — But if for want of this convenience, you are obliged at first to put them 
both into one coop, always put the cock in first, for three or four days or a week, 
and let him get master of the place, especially if the hen be a virago, or else they 
will fight so much as perhaps may settle in them an absolute aversion for ever 
after ; but if the cock be first master of the house he will beat the hen, if obstinate, 
into compliance. 

34. — Your pigeons being thus matched, turn them loose into your loft, and let 
them chose what nest they best like, or if you have a mind to fix them to any par- 
ticular nest, you may effect it in this manner. — Make a lath machine, the length 
of your breeding places, closed in at top and bottom with boards, and projecting 
out as far as your loft will conveniently allow ; one of your top boards must lift up 
with hinges, in order to put in meat and water, this you may hang before any hole, 
and put your pigeons in it, and when they have been five or six days used to the 

nest, take it away, in the night is the best time, and they will keep to that nest. 



3 



5, — The same method may be used, and is very good, to prevent your strain 
being adulterated by a false tread, which an over salacious hen will often submit 
to. Therefore keep them up by this method till the hen has laid both her eggs, 
then take it away and give them their liberty, till the hen has fed oflT her soft 
meat, then the hen will begin to be salacious again, therefore at that time confine 
them as before, and you are sure to keep your strain pure and entire. This 
method is somewhat troublesome, and therefore not worth using but for your best 
pigeons; as for those who breed for the dish, 'tis no matter whether they are 
bastardized or not. 

TO KNOW A COCK FROM AN HEN. 

I 

36. — Having thus informed you how to mate or pair your pigeons, I shall next 
give you some instructions how to form a tolerable judgment whether a pigeon be 
cock or hen, for in this point the best and oldest Fanciers have been sometimes 
deceived ; for this purpose, therefore, take the following rules. 

37,_The hen has generally a shorter breast-bone than the cock. 

38.— Her vent, and the os sacrum, or bone near the vent, is more open than in 
the cock. 

39. — Her head and cheeks are thinner, and she does not look so bold as the 
cock. 

40. — Her coo is shorter, and nothing near so loud and masculine as the cock's, 
besides the cock frequently makes a half round in his playing, which the hen does 
not, though a merry rank hen will sometimes show, and play almost like a cock, 
and if very salacious, will sometimes tread another pigeon. 

41.— And lastly, in young pigeons, that which squeaks longest in the nest, is 
generally reputed a hen. 



THE 



42 



— We come now to treat of the generation ot tins bird, that is, the method it 
makes use of for propagation of its species ; and here I must acknowledge myself 
obliged to Dr. Harvey (*) in his excellent treatise of the generation of animals. 



,41. 



Where 



42. — GiKTiN, p. 135. In treatinf>' of this subject, we must candidly acknowledge, 
that we are somewhat indebted to the late ingenious Mi'. John Moore, for the 
light he has thrown upon it. 

* 42.— Mayor, p. 14. We are partly obliged to Dr. Haryey in his Treatise of the 
Generation of Animals, and partly to other authors. 



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31 

43.— All animals therefore are distinguished into three sorts ; oviparous, or such 
as are formed from an egg ; viviparous, or such as are produced from the uterus 
alive and in perfection ; and vermiparous, or such as are formed from a worm. 

44.— Though in fact the foetus of all kinds of animals is produced from an egg ; 
the only reason therefore of this distinction is, that in some anmials, this egg (if 1 
may be allowed the phrase) is hatched, or brought to perfection m the uterus, 
whereas all of the feathered kind emit or lay this egg, and produce their young 
from it by incubation. 

45.— The Pigeon, therefore, is an oviparous bird; I call it a bird, because all 
that belong to this genus feed their young ones for some considerable time 
after they are hatched ; whereas, the young ones of the fowl kind will search 
for their own food, and eat it themselves almost as soon as they are discharged 
from the shell of that egg in which they were produced. 

46.-It will not here be amiss to give some account of the production of 
the egg. Nature produces in the ovary, or upper matrix of the hen or temale 
bird, a great cluster of small y»lks, sticking together like a bunch of grapes, 
which from this similitude Dr. Harvey calls a vitellary, and adds that in 
Pieeons, he has observed this cluster of eggs to be all of a hke magnitude, 
excepting only two which were larger than the rest, and were now ready to 
descend into the lower uterus or womb. 

47.— The cock in the act of coition impregnates these eggs, and by a wonderful 
operation of Nature renders them prolifick ; we shall not take upon us here 
to determine the method by which this is performed, but shall content ourselves 
with observing that their is a spot at each end of the egg, called by the learned, 
chalazEB, from the resemblance of a small hail-stone, and, vulgarly, the cock s 
treadles : these, by a mistake, have been accounted to proceed from the emission 
of the male, and to contain the plastic virtue of the fcetus but experience 
has abundantly proved that these treadles are to be found m all eggs, whether 
they are prolifick and fruitful or subventaneous and addle. 



47.— Mayor, p. 16. The eggs of the smallest birds may be judged by that 
of the hen, where the parts are more apparent. We may easily distinguish 
the yolk that is in the heart of it, as likewise the first white substance that 
surrounds it ; and, a second white, in which, the mass in the middle swims ; 
besides these, we can see the ligaments that sustain the yolk towards the centre 
of the egg, together with the membranes that enfold it, one yellow, another 
black ; and, a third and fourth, that encompass the whole ; and lastly, the shell 
that defends all the rest. What lies within these inclosures has the first 
formation ; the shell makes the last appearance, and hardens from day to day ; 
it is a fluxion of salts evacuated from the humours of the dam, and which the heat 
fixes and consolidates round the egg, to form a crust that has a double function 
one is to put the mother into a condition of discharging the egg without crushing 
it-the second, is to preserve the young from all accidents till it be formed, and 

in a capacity to forsake the egg. 
young birds, the office of a breast and milk, with which the offspring of other 
animals are nourished, because the little chick that lies in the egg in the state 
of a nymph, and concealed under the skin of a worm, is first sustained with the 
white of the egg, and afterwards with the yolk, when the animal has gathered 
a little strength, and its parts begin to be fixed. Under this membrane that 
surrounds the yolk, is found a little cicatrice, or white spot, which is only the seed 



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48. — It is the opinion of most, and that not without great probahility, that 
all the eggs a hen will ever lay, are contained in this vitellary or cluster, and 
that as soon as this number is exhausted, she will become effaete or barren. 
Some people therefore to abuse mankind, and vend a useless bird, will oil the 
vent of a barren hen and force an egg into it, to make you believe she is not 
effaete; if you happen to be thus imposed on, that you may not lose your 
seasons of breeding, by keeping such a hen matched to a good cock, we shall 
give a method to prove whether she be effaete or not. When the cock drives 
her hard to nest, give her a pair of eggs, and let her hatch them and bring 
up ; pursue this method for two or three pair, if you value her, and if she be 
not barren ; this, and cross-matching her, that is pairing her to another cock, 
will effectually bring her to laying. 

49. — Before we leave this head, we cannot omit mentioning the dalliances 
' made use of by this bird before coition, which are in a manner endearing and 
peculiar only to them. And here the cock when salacious, will by a voice at 
that time peculiarly harmonious, and by several pretty, and as we may call 
them, foppish gestures, woo the femaje, and tndeavour to incline her to his 
embraces ; she,^ if consenting, will soon shew it by her motions, as sweeping 
her tail, spreading her wings, and giving a nod with her head, as much as to 
say, good sir, you may if you please ; from thence they proceed to billing, in 
which action the hen will put her beak into the cock's, who seems to feed her, 
after this she will squat and readily receive his tread. 

50. — Your hen by this means being rendered prolific, they will seek out a 
nest, or convenient place, for the repository of their eggs, into which they will 
carry straw, frail, feathers, and such other materials, as they find proper to form 



where the worm resides. The egg, into which this little animal is injected, 
becomes prolific ; but that wherein no such creatures can be discovered, wants 
the seed, and contains only a barren nutriment. The females sometimes lays eggs 
without any congress with the male, but they never produce anything. The little 
chick, under the form of a worm, is continually situated on the yolk, and always 
ascends to the top of that side where the warmth of the dam attracts her ; but as 
it would be quickly overthrown were it removed, and in such case would no 
longer be sensible of the heat that is so necessary to its welfare. The yolk is 
poized by two ligaments, which are always visible at the aperture of the egg, and 
fasten it on each side to the common membrane that is glued to the shell- Should 

^ 

one draw a line from one ligament to the other, it would not exactly pass through 
the middle of the yolk, but above the centre, and would cut the yolk into two 
unequal parts, so that the smallest part of the egg is of necessity raised towards 
the belly of the bird that performs the incubation, and the other part being more 
gross and weighty, always descends as near to the bottom as the bands will permit, 
by which means, should the 6gg be displaced, the youn^ could not receive any 
injury, and whatever may happen, it enjoys a warmth that puts all about it 
in action, and by degrees completes the disengagements of its parts. As it is 
incapable of sliding down, it nourishes itself in ease, first with this liquid and 
delicate white, which is adapted to its condition, and afterwards with the yolk, 
which affords a more substantial food ; and when its bill is hardened, and he 
begins to be uneasy at his confinement, he endeavours to break the shell, and 
does so in effect ; after which, he issues out with his belly covered with the 
yolk that nourishes him a little longer till the parents supply him. 






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^ Warm ahd soft reception for the egg, neither party being at this tim^ idle, 
though some are more industrious than others, on this account, who will lay 
their eggs almost on the bare boards. 

5L — When a hen is nigh the time of her laying, her mate will pursue het 
from place to place, not suffering her to be quiet in any place but her nest, 
of a peculiar instinct, I suppose, fearing his offspring should be lost, by 
dropping her egg in some place improper for incubation. And here you must 
observe that some cocks are so very hot, that they wont, at such a time, suifer 
a hen almost to eat, this will render her very weak, and often make her lay a 
thin-shelled or imperfect egg; to prevent this inconvenience, the best way is 
to take the cock from her, till the egg be^ come to a greater perfection in the 
uterus. 

52. — Pigeons though they will make a great increase in a year, yet it is 
not from the number of eggs they lay at one time, for they lay but two, and 
then immediately proceed to incubation, but from the frequency of the repeated 
hatchings, which generally happen once in five or six weeks, according as they 
are good or bad breeders. 

53. — When a Pigeon has laid her first egg, she rests one day between, and 
on the succeeding day lays her second ; they generally stand over the first egg, 
which, if you please, you may call an improper incubation, till the next is 
laid, and then sit close, that both young ones may be hatched at once, or pretty 
nearly; though some will sit close on the first, and by that means hatch one 
young one two days before the other. 

54. — The time of a Pigeon's incubation, which trouble is equally divided 
between the cock and hen, except that the hen always sits at night, is nineteen 
or twenty days from the first egg, and seventeen or eighteen from the last, 
at which time you ought to observe whether the eggs are hatched or not^ for 
two special reasons ; 

55. — ^irst — Because your young ones, for want of due heatj which often happens 
if the old do not sit close, may want strength to extricate themselves out of the 
■shell, and so die in it for want of air and proper sustenance ; for the nutriment 
they received from the internal part of th-e egg is by this time exhausted ; 
whenever therefore an affair of this nature happens, if the egg be chipped or 
cracked with the force of the young one, break the shell all round with your 
nail, or the head of a pin, and you will find your account in it. 

56.— Secondly— If your Pigeons do not hatch, because their eggs are addle, or 
otherwise, you ought to give them a pair, or at least one young one to feed off 
their moist meat, which would else make them sick, and they will be apt to 
lay again too soon, which w^ill weaken them very much. 

57. — The young ones being thus ushered into the World, naturally leads us to 
take a view of the manner in which it receives its first sustenance. AVe have 
already mentioned soft meat, which is nothing else but a fine soft liquid pap 
prepared as it were by instinct by the parents, by a dissolution of the hard 
grains in their craw, against the time that the foetus is first disclosed, when 
"Weak, naked, and helpless; this soft meat they throw up out of their crav/, 
taking the beak of their young ones in their own, and by this means injecting 
it into theirs ; with this meat they continue feeding them for six or seven days, 
"vvhen they begin to mix some harder food amongst it^ until at length they feed 

them with all whole grain* 









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p. 33, " When you," &c. 

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THEIR DIET. 



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58. — We come now to treat of their diet, or the food proper for Pigeons, (*) 
The Pigeon is a granivorous bird, and may be fed with various sorts of grains, as 
tares, horse-beans, pease, wheat, barley, hemp-seed, or rape and canary, of 
each of which in their order, (f) 

59. — Of all grains, tares are found to be most adapted to these birds, and old 
tares are much the best, for the new are very apt to set your Pio-eons into a 
scouring, especially the young ones; the same will likewise happen from old 
tares, if they have by any means been touched or immersed in salt or sea water ; 
for though Pigeons love salt, yet too much is very pernicious, as for instance, if 
in a voyage you give them salt water instead of fresh you will soon kill them, 

60. — Horse-beans are the next food to tares, but you must take care to get 
them as small as possible; there are a sort which they call small French ticks, 
which are good food, and somewhat cheaper than tares, but liable to two 
inconveniences; first, they are much harder of digestion, and consequently, will 
not so readily make soft meat for the young ones. Secondly, your Pigeons are 
sometimes apt to be choaked with them, especially young ones, and such whose 
oesophagus or gullet is any ways inclinable to be small, as in most long necked 
Pigeons it is. I had a carrier the other day, which fell down off my house into 
the yard, and when it was taken up, (I not being at home) it gaped, as I was 
informed, as if for w^ant of breath, and died in a few minutes, it was very fat, 
and seemingly in good health; I opened it, to see if I could find any cause from 
Vvdthin, but all its internals seemed perfectly sound and in good order, at last 
examining more strictly. I found a horse-bean, and that not a very laro-e one, 
sticking in the lower part of the gullet, which, with some little difficulty, I pulled 
out ; and this, I verily believe, was the only cause of its death. 

61. — Pease, wheat, and barley are apt to scour your Pigeons too much, 

therefore you ought to give them very little, if any, of this sort of food. 

62. — There is a sort of diet, called Scotch meat, which is pease, beans, and 
tares mixed together, some people feed their Pigeons with this, because cheap, 
but the beans are generally apt to be too large. 

63. — Hemp- seed, rape and canary are food that Pigeons are very fond of, but 

by no means ought to be made their constant diet. 

64. — N. B. Even French tick beans are not proper for Dutch Croppers, or any 
large cropfc Pigeons, because they are apt to make them gorge. 



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THE SALT CAT. 




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65. — Being thus entered on the head of diet, it necessarily leads us to consider 
a certain useful composition called by the Fanciers a Salt Cat, so named, 1 suppose, 
from a certain fabulous oral, tradition of baking a cat in the time of her 
salaciousness, with cummin seed, and some other ingredients as a decoy for 
your neighbour's Pigeons; this, though handed down by some Authors as the 
only method for this purpose, is generally laughed at by the Gentlemen of the 
Fancy, and never practised. 



58 to 64. 



With 



* 



58.— GiRxm, p. 113. The common Pigeon gives but little trouble, yet the fancy 



birds require a great deal of attendance. 



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Mayoh, p. 27. The late grand duke of Tuscany, who was a very great 



Fancier, nsed to feed them with the stones of grapes, which in that country are 
ery plentiful, and call them together by ringing a bell. 



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66.— The right salt cat therefore is, or ought to he thus made : Take gravel or 
drift-sand, loom, such as the brick-makers use, and the rubbish of an old wall, 
or for want of this a less quantity of lime, let there be a gallon of each ; add to 
these a pound of cummin seed, a handful of bay salt or salt petre, and beat them 
all up together into a kind of mortar, mixing them up with stale urine, and your 
Pigeons will take great delight in it. 

67.— The gravel or sand helps to scour their craws, and is of great service to 
digestion. 

68.— The loom being of an unctuous, oily nature, is a very great assistance to 
them in the discharge of their soft meat, or other meat when they are feeding 

young ones. 

69.— The lime or rubbish helps to harden the shell of their egg; and you will 
find by experience, that when with egg they are prodigiously fond of lime, and 
will have it someway or other, if possible. By this means therefore you keep 
them from pecking the mortar off your own, or your neigbbour's houses, though 
the damage from thence accruing cannot but be very trifling : for the whole 
lengtb of their beak, and farther they cannot go, cannot reach far enough to 
loosen any tile that is naturally firm. 

70. The salt and urine is a great provocation to drink, and this is no small 

service to your Pigeons, which are of a very hot nature. 

71.— The cummin seed, which has a strong smell in which Pigeons delight, will 
keep your own Pigeons at home, and allure others that are straying about, and 
at a loss where to fix upon a habitation. 

72. — The best way is to put your salt cat in jars, with holes in the sides for 
them to peck it out, and a cork at top to prevent their dunging on it, and to keep 
off the rain, or any other contingencies if exposed to the weather' 

DISTEMPERS OF PIGEONS. 






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73. We come now to treat of the several distempers mcident to birds ot this 

kind,' and to prescribe the various remedies generally made use of in their cure. 

74 _l The first disease therefore that we shall take notice of is, the 
corruption of the egg in the uterus ; this generally proceeds from an unmatched 
hen being over salacious, by reason of high feeding, or some other cause, who 

will often without the coition of the male engender eggs, but seldom without his 
concurrence either perfect them or bring them forth, so that they will corrupt in 
the Womb ; the only remedy for this is to put her to a cock in time. 

75._2. The wet roop next falls under our consideration, and in this case, once 
in two or three days give them three or four pepper corns at most, and put 
a handful of green rue in their water, you may let all your Pigeons drink of it, 
for it is very healthful. 



73 to 98.— See J. M. Eaton's Almond Tumbler, p. 45, 46, 47, 48. " As a/' &c. 

73 to 98.— GiRTiN, p. 124. In treating of the diseases relating to Pigeons, we 
shall chiefly follow the sentiments of the late Mr. Johk Mooke, who was not 
only a very judicious Fancier, but also a gentleman of the faculty, who spared no 
pains to make himself acquainted with the diseases of these birds, and to apply 
the best method of cure, therefore, without further apology, we shall take him 
for our guide. Mayor, p. 34. after guide.— We come now to treat of the several 
distempers incident to birds of this kind, and to prescribe the various remedies 
generally made use of in their cure. Mayor a^s^d Girtik gives word for word 
the late Mr. John Moore, on distempers and cures, and nothing more. 



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76.-3. The dry roop, which you generally distinguish by a husky cough ; and I 
am apt tobeheve proceeds from a cold, to which they are very liable, especially in 
molting time ; to cure this, give them every day three or four cloves of garlick. 

77,-4, The next distemper that falls under our cognizance is, the canker, which 
proceeds mostly from the cocks fighting and pecking each other, though some 
people have assured me, that giving them water in a tin vessel, will likewise throw 
them into this disease. The method of cure is this, take burnt alum and honey 
and nib the part aiFected every day and it will cure it ; but if this happens not to 
take effect, dissolve five grains of roman vitrol in half a spoonful of wine vine<^ar 
add It to the former composition, and rub the part affected. Some people will tlike 
ott the scurf and make it bleed, before they apply the remedy, but I am apt to 
believe, you will generally find it searching enough without. 

78 —5. If the wattles or flesh round the eyes of the carrier, horseman, or barb are 

pecked and torn, wash them first with stale urine for several days ; if this does'not 

do, dissolve two drams of alum in an ounce and a half of water and wash the part 

grieved ; but if the case be very stubborn, mix twenty grains of red precipitate 

witfi halt an ounce of honey, anoint the part therewith and it will certainly effect 
the cure. ■^ 

/9.— 6. Pigeons, especially in the Summer season, are apt to be troubled with 
small insects, which the Fanciers term lice ; in this case, smoak their feathers well 
with the smoak of tobacco, and it will infallibly kill them. 

•u^T^'i -P^"'*^ is another sort of small vermin, which are very troublesome, and 
wifl often kill your young ones in the nest, by creeping into their ears, &c. especially 
when first hatched, and always prevent their thriving ; to binder this, strew tobacco 
dust in the nest, and over your young pigeons, and it will destroy these vermin 
which are called pigeons bugs by some, and by others the blacks. * 

81.— 8. Another disease to which they are subject is gizzard-fallen, that is the 
gizzard falls down to the vent. The gentlemen of the fancy, say it proceeds from 
weakness though I rather believe it is caused by feeding with too much hemp- 
seed. ^ I know no cure for this malady, unless nature herself works one which it 

sometimes will in young pigeons. , ' 

_ 82.-9. The next distemper is what the Fancy calls navel-fallen ; in this case, 
there is a kind of a hag hanging down near the vent. This malady is generally 
desperate ; and if giving them clary, or some other strengthening things won't 
cure them, I know nothing that will. t> & & 

83.- 



1 vu ^^r"' ^""^ '^^^? *° ^^ pap-arsed, as the fancy call it. This distemper 
proceeds either from a natural innate weakness, or from a cock's being too salacious 
and treading his hen too often; I know no cure for it, except flying will do it. 
Young pigeons and carriers are most subject to it especially if not flown. 



84._— 11 Some pigeons, as croppers, and powters, are apt. to gorge themselves, 
that is, when they have been too long from grain, they will eat so much that they 
cannot digest it, but it will lie and corrupt in the crop and kill the pigeon. If this 
therefore at any time happens, take the following method. 

85.— Put them in a strait-stocking, with their feet downward, streaking up the 
crop, that the bag which contains the meat may not hang down; then hang the 
stocking upon a nail, keeping them in this manner, till they have digested their 
tood, only not forgetting to give them now and then a little water, and it will often 
cure them ; but when you take them out of the stocking, put them in an open 
basket or coop, giving them but a little meat at a time, or else they will be apt to 
gorge again. ^ j if 

86.— If this does not effect the cure, you may slit the crop from the bottom 
with a penknife or sharp pair of scissars, take out the corrupted meat, wash the crop, 
and then sew it up again. This method has been practised with some success, 
though the crop will not be so round as before. 

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87. 



-Others will tie that part of the crop, in which the undigested meat lieSy. 
tight round with a string, and let it rot off. This method never fails, though it 
spoils the shape of the crop. 

88.— 12. The next and most fatal distemper incident to this kind of birds is the 
vertigo, or (as generally styled by the Fancy) the megrims ; in this disease the 
pigeon reverts or turns its head, in such a manner, that the beak will lie on its 
back, and will flutter and fly about at random. This distemper is usually reckoned 
incurable, and indeed it too often proves so; though I once had a turbit, of the 
owl kind, taken with it in a violent manner. Some gentlemen seeing it, advised 
me to pull the head off] I told them, I would first try if I could not cure it, which 
they asserted to be impossible ; however, I took about a quarter of a pint of 
^ater, an ounce and a half of spirit of lavender, one drachm of spirit of sal armo- 
^iac distilled with quick lime ; these I mingled altogether, then I tasted it, and 
found it too strong for the bird, and therefore added a little more water; I believe 
in three or four hours, I poured down its throat, at three or four times, a spoonful 
and a half of this mixture, for I had rather it should die than live in that condi- 
tion ; at last it began to discharge a white slimy substance upwards and down- 
wards, but did not care to feed that day ; the next day I found it better, though 
still it would hold its head on one side, or awry. This medicine I gave it every 
third or fourth day, still lessening the quantity ; I gave it garlic the days betwixt, 
and sometimes two or three peppercorns till perfectly recovered; I am not certain 
M'hether this pigeon ever bred afterwards or no. 

89. — 13. If your pigeons do not molt off kindly, or stop in their molting, so that 
they don't throw their feathers well, it is a certain sign of an ill state of health : to 
Remedy this, the following method will be of much use. 

, 90. — Pluck their tail-feathers out, and put them up in some warm place, allow- 
ing them a larger portion of hempseed with their ordinary food, a little saflJron, or 
clary, steeped in their water, is likewise very beneficial ; some will give them 
^Ider-berries or cochineal for this purpose. 

91.— 14. Your pigeons likewise, especially in molting time, will be subject to 
Scouring, which keeps them very poor, low, and out of flesh. To cure this, give 
them pump-water with a lump of chalk in it, or put about the quantity of two 
horse beans down their throats every day ; if that don't effect the desired end, give 
them some smiths forge water down their tliroats which is very binding. A 
gentleman told me, that having been informed, that gravel was good for his 
pigeons, he gave them some of the grit that is left in the trough under a grindle 
stone, where they ground edge tools, and it bound them so much that it killed 
most of them ; a httle of this may therefore be good in case of scouring. 

,,92.— 15. There is another distemper, which is called the small pox, in which 
there rise, on their legs, wings, and body, eruptions or pustules full of a yellow 
fatter. Some open them, and apply burnt alum and honey, or touch them with 
-ti-oman vitrol, and it will cure them. 

93. — 16. When your pigeons are sick, lowering, or hanging their wings, give 
them every day a spider or two, wrapt up in butter, and if you dare trust them 
let them fly. - . ^ 

. 94. — 17. Pigeons will be sometimes lame,, and the ball of their foot swelled, either 
through cold, or the prick of a nail: in this case, spread some Venice turpentine ou 
^I'own paper, apply it to the part, leave it there till well, which it will be in a very 
t^w days. 

95. — 18, The flesh-wen comes next under our consideration, which is no more 
nut a fleshy tumor, arising on the joints of the wings or legs : this may be either 
cut off*, or opened, and after having taken out the kernel, wash it with alum water, 

, 96. — 19. The bone-wen is an ossificated tumor, arising upon the joints as before : 
this is seldom or never cured, and the pigeon that is affected with it will never 



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breed. Some pretend to cure it, by a composition of quick lime and black soap ; 
but if you make it too strong, or let it lie on too long, it will take off the leg or 
other part that 'tis applied to, for it is a caustic. 

97.— 20. The last distemper I shall take notice of is a core, so called because it 
resembles the core of an apple; it is hard and generally of a yellowish colour, 
intermixed with red, and is usually found in the anus or vent. This when ripe 
may be forced or drawn out ; and in order to ripen it and keep them loose, give 
your pigeon so affected a purge of tobacco; a very small quantity is sufficient : I 
have known this make them discharge the core themselves. I once knew a pigeon 
affected with this sort of malady, in the oesophagus, or throat, some part was taken 
out, but the bird died. 

THEIR USEFULNESS. 

98; — Having thus instructed you how to breed, preserve and cure your 
pigeons, we shall next show their usefulness in human life. 

99, — It is a bird well known to be much used by way of food ; and here I shall 
give you the remarks of one or two authors upon this head. Mr. Lemery in his 
treatise of foods, after having advised to the choice of young pigeons, that are 
tender, fleshy, and well fed, proceeds thus, "They are nourishing, somewhat 
binding, strengthening and provoke urine : they are looked upon to be good for 
cleansing the reins, and to expel the gross matters that stick there. 

100. — As a pigeon grows old, so proportionably does its flesh become dryer, and 
more solid ; harder of digestion, and so fit to produce gross and melancholy 
humours; and hence it is, that some authors have condemned the use of pigeons- 
and look upon them to be bad food, 

101. "They agree at all times with any age and constitution, but those that 

are melancholy ought to make use of them more moderately than other persons,'' 

102, — Dr. Salmon in his Seplasium, or English Physician, which I look upon as 
the best book he ever wrote, says, "The flesh is not so easy of digestion as that of 
chickens. Authors say that eating of their flesh is profitable against the plague, 
insomuch, that they who make it their constant or ordinary food, are seldom 
seized with pestilential distempers. Others commend it against the palsie and 
trembling. Others say it is of great use and advantage to them that are dim- 
sighted. The flesh of young pigeons is restorative, and of good use to cure such 
as are in consumptions, and to recruit the strength of such, as are getting up, or 
newly recovered from some great sickness: It is indeed savory and good food, 
and not much inferior to the most esteemed. The anus of a live pigeon, applied 
to the biting of a serpent, viper, or rattle snake, draws away the poison and cures 
the sick, being renewed as often as the pigeon dies ; applied to the soles of the 
feet in a fever, it draws away the fever, and helps the megrims or head ache. Cut 
up alive and applied to the place pained, eases the pain and draws away the malig- 
nity, if any be; for the vital spirits yet remaining in the hot flesh and blood, do 
insinuate themselves through the pores of the skin, into the blood of the sick 
person, now dispirited and ready to stagnate, enduring it with new life and vigour. 
Potestates made of the flesh, admirably cure consumptions, and restore wasted 
flesh. 

103.— "The blood put warm into the eyes allays pain, cures blear eyes, and 
also green wounds, 

' 104.— "R of the blood |ji, honey 5^i» white sugar candy 5ij; grind them 
together till they are well mixed, for the purposes aforesaid; as also agamst 
suffusions, blood-shots and other distempers and weaknesses of the eyes. 

105,_-f'The coats of the stomach. R of them powdered 5j, opium in fine powder 
4 grains, catechu in fine powder 3ij ; mix them. Dose 12 or 13 grains every night 
at going to bed. 



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106. 



—'* The Doctor lias left us in the dark what distemper this medicine is 

designed to cure, but I am apt to believe it is for a diarrhea, yet I can't see of 
^hat use the coats of pigeons stomach can be, unless from their diuretic quality. 



107.— "The feathers. R 



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draconis, fine 



bole, sheeps blood dried, fine aloes, ana 3j ; mix them. It stops bleeding in any 
part, being applied." 

THEIR DUNG. 

108. — Having thus shown you something of the usefulness of this bird, both in 
food and physic, I cannot omit saying something of its most excrementitious part. 

109. — The dung therefore of pigeons challengeth the priority, not only of the 
dung of fowls, but of all other creatures whatsoever, on the account of its useful- 
ness in human life. 

110. — Its benefit in agriculture is so well known to some farmers, that Plat gives 

an account of those that have fetched it sixteen miles, and given a load of coals in 
lieu of it. Where he observes, that in the place it was fetched from, it would have 
done more hurt than good, whereas where it was carried, it did as much good as 
double the charges; in the one soil it cured the barrenness, whereas in the other 

it would have poisoned the fertility. 

111. — It is of a very hot nature, from the nitrous quality wherewith it is endued, 
and therefore it is a very excellent soil for a cold, moist natured ground. It is 
generally used for wheat and barley that lye afar off, and not easily to be helped. 
One load of it is worth ten load of other dung, and will go as far in manuring of 
land. It is generally sown after the same manner as the grain, and harrowed in 
with it. 

112. — It is likewise extraordinary good soil for a hop garden. 

113, — Tanners make use of it in tanning the upper leathers, and if you pick and 
sift it, will give you eightpence a bushel for it, provided you send it home to their 
own houses ; so that this article, and the young squabs will nearly, if not quite 
nxaintain your pigeons in food, provided you buy it at the best hand, and take care 
to keep them clean. 

114. — Dr. Salmon, in his treatise before mentioned gives us the following 
account of its usefulness in medicine. 

1 15. — *' It is, says he, of common use in cataplasms or plaisters which rubify and 
draw strongly. Beaten^ sifted, and mixed with water-cress-seeds, it is good against 
chronic diseases ; such as the gout, megrim, vertigo, cephalsea, pains in the side, 
cholic, apoplexes, lethargies, &c." 

116. — After this he gives us several recipes in which the dung of pigeons is a 
JUain ingredient, as, 

117. — " 1 R. Of the dung in powder ^iiij, barley-meal or flower ^iij, vinegar 
q.f. mix them, to make a cataplasm against scrophulous and other like hard tumors. 

118. — "2 R. Of the powder of the dung Jij, bears grease Jiiij, pepper in 
powder ^j, oil of cummin seed ^U ; mix them for an ointment against baldness. 



119. 



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3 R. Of the dung in powder Jiiij, black soap Jiij, oil of amber Jj, 



Mithridate fij ; mix them, for a cataplasm to ripen a plague sore. 



120. 



''^ 4 R. Of the powder of the dung f j. Powder of winter cherries jfS 
Cromwell seed 3ij ; mix them and make a powder against the stone. Dose, from 
from 3l] to 3j.'' 

121. — This dung is used likewise in salt-petre beds, and is of very great advantage 
In the nourishing and production of it ; and till the days of Oliver Cromwel, we had 
^o salt-petre brought from abroad, but it was made at home, from a mixture of 
pigeons dung, fowls dung, hogs dung, fat earth and lime, which with another 



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ingredient will form salt-petre, only it must be kept covered with a shed, to prevent 
or keep off the rain, that it may only mix with the nitrous quality of the air; and 
therefore when this commodity is very dear, as it has often been, and may be 
again, the salt-petre men produce it after this manner to this very day, by 
throwing in the scum or refuse of their salt-petre amongst it. 

122. — Thus we have shewn the various uses even of the most disesteemed and 
excrementitious part ; but before we leave this head, we cannot forbear mentioning 
the following story out of Tavernier, in the fourth book of his first Volume of 
Persian Travels, page 146. 

123. — Says he, speaking of the people of Ispahan, " As for their Pigeons, 
they fly wild about the country, but only some which they keep tame in the 
City to decoy the rest, which is a sport the Persians use in hot weather as 
well as cold. Now in regard the Christians are not permitted to keep these 
Pigeons, some of the vulgar sort will turn to Mahometans to have that liberty. 
There are above three thousand Pigeon-houses in Ispahan, for every man may 
build a Pigeon house upon his own farm, which yet is very rarely done, ail 
the other Pigeon houses belong to the king, who draws a greater revenue from 
the dung than from the Pigeons; which dung, as they prepare it, serves to 
smoak their melons." 



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—The Carrier is larger in size than most of the common sorts of Pigeons : 
I measured one the other day, w^hose length from the point of the beak to the 
extremity of the tail was fifteen inches ; this, though not one of the largest, 
weighed near twenty ounces. Their flesh is naturally firm, and their feathei'S 



close, when they stand erect upon their legs, their necks being usually long, 
there appears in them a wonderful symmetry of shape beyond other PigeonSj 
which are generally crowded on heaps. 

125. — The upper chap of the bill is half covered from the tiead, with a naked, 
white, tuberous, furfuraceous flesh, which projects or hangs over both its sides on 
the upper part nearest the head, and ends in a point about the middle of the bill ; 
this is called the wattle, and is sometimes joined by two small excrescenses of the 
same kind on each side of the under chap* 

126. — This flesh is in some carriers more inclinable to a blackish colour, which 

is generally the more valued. 

127. — The eyes, whose iris, or circle round the black pupil, is generally of the 
colour of a reddish gravel, (*) are equally surrounded with the same sort of furfura* 
ceous matter, for about the breadth of a shilling ; this is generally thin when it 
spreads wide, and is most valued, yet when the flesh round the eye is thick and 
broad it shows the carriers to be of a good blood that will breed very stout ones. 

128.— This bird is often esteemed, by the gentlemen of the Fancy, as the King 
of Pigeons, on the account of its beauty and great sagacity; for which reason Mr. 
Hickman, a distiller in Bishopsgate-street (not of the family of the lying Hick- 
mans) whpn living, always kept a silver hatchet and block, on which he decently 
chopped off their heads, alledging, that being of the blood royal, they ought not to 
die after the same manner as the vulgar herd. 

129.— A carrier is generally reckoned to have twelve properties, viz. 

Three in the beak. 

Three in the wattle. 

Three in the head. " ^ 

Three in the eye. 



* 127.— Matok, p. 86. *' But should be a fiery red. 
brick -dust color." 



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130. — To begin therefore with the first; the properties of the beak are to be long, 
strait, and thick. 

131. — As to its length, an inch and a half is reckoned a long beak, though 
there are very good carriers that are found not to exceed an inch and a quarter. 

132.— The straitness of the beak adds a wonderful beauty to its length, and if 
otherwise it is said to be hook-beaked, and is not so much esteemed. 

133.— The thickness of the beak is likewise a very great commendation, and if 

It fails in this point it is said to be spindle beaked, which diminishes something of 
its value. 

134. — The next three properties are those of the wattle, which ought to be 
hroad across the beak ; short from the head towards the apex, or point of the 
hill, and tilting forwards from the head; for if otherwise it is said to be pegg- 
wattled, which is very much disesteemedj and, therefore, some people (*) to 
. itnpose upon mankind, and enhance the price of an indifferent bird, have artificially 
i'aised the hinder part of the wattle, filled it up with cork, and wired it in wdth 
fine wire, in such a manner as not to be easily perceptible, especially to gentlemen 
Avho are not adepts in the Fancy. 

135. — We come now to consider the properties of the head, which are its length, 

its narrowness, and its flatness, When a Carrier has a long, narrpvy head, and a 

Very flat scull (f), it is much admired, and if otherwise it is said to be barrel 
headed. 

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136. — The last three properties are those of the eye, which ought to be broad, 
J^und, and of an equal thickness ; for if one part of the eye be thinner than the 
J^est, it's said to be pinch-eyed, which is deemed a very great imperfection ; 
whei-eas if it has the contrary properties, it is said to have a rose-eye which is very 
Valuable. 



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137. — To these, sortie add the distance, w^hich is between the hinder part of the 
"Wattle, and the edge of the eye ; but I cannot allow this to be a property, because 
^vhen a Carrier comes to be three or four years old, if the eye is broad and the 
battle large, they must of necessity meet : the distance therefore seems to be rather 
^ property of the horseman, of which more in its proper place. 

138.^Another distinguishing mark of a Carrier is the length and thinness of its 
neck, which some call a property ; and indeed it must be allowed to add a very 
great beauty to this bird, especially considering the breadth of its chest. (J) 

131.— In Moohe's day an inch and a half was regkoned a long beak, although at 
this time, there are beaks that would measure one inch and three quarters, and 
Some few two inches : it is infinitely better to have a beak one inch and a half in a 
J'ight position, possessing the properties, straight and thick, than have a beak 

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^pon which tricks have been plajed when young and coaxed to the length of two 

« 

inches, and spindle beaked. The exx)erienced Fanciers are aware how^ some 
Measure, as I said before. Position, thickness, and straitness of the beak causes 
fte admiration of Fanciers; if you refer to the portrait of the Carrier accompanying 
^his work, you will find the beak two inches full, and if measured from the back of 

r 

^he head to the end of the beak, nearly three inches, understanding that in some 
Parts of the country they measure in this way. 
133.— GiRTiN, p. 63. Beak a black color. 



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134.— Mayob, p. 82, " To impose upon the ignorant." 



t 135.— Ibid, p. 82. " With a hollow impression or dent in the middle." 
I 138.— Mator, p 83. "The broader the chest the better, for which reason the 
"Gad should incline backward, which shew's it more advantageously." 

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139,— Its feather is chiefly hlack or dun, though there are likewise blues, whites, 

and pieds of each feather, but the black and dun answer best the foregoing pro- 
perties ; yet the blues, and blue pieds are generally esteemed for their scarcity, 
though they will not usually come up to the properties of the foregoing feathers.* 

140, The original of these Pigeons came from Bazora, in^Persia, being some- 
times brought by shipping, and sometimes in the caTavans; hence by some ignorant 
people they are called buffories. 

141. — This city is situate about two miles distant from a river called Xat Arab, 
which is formed by the meeting of the two great rivers, Tygris and Euphrates; 
near this place is a small house, like a hermitage, dedicated to Iza ben Mariam, 
that is, Jesus the son of Mary ; in passing which place, the Mahometans them- 
selves very devoutly offer up their prayers : there is likewise a considerable quan- 
tity of land, whose revenues belong to this chapel. 

142. — We come now to give an account of the name which is given to this 
pigeon, and it is called a Carrier, J)ecause it is frequently made use of to carry a 
letter from one place to another. And such is the admirable cunning, or sagacity 
of this bird, that though you carry them hood-winked, twenty or thirty miles, nay 
I have known them to be carried threescore or a hundred, and there turned loose,(*) 
they will immediately hasten to the place where they were bred. The Dutch call 
this pigeon bagadat, I suppose, from a corruption of the name of the city Bagdat, 

139.— According to Mr. Moore, (Paragraph 129,) a Carrier is reckoned to 
have twelve properties, &c. and all in that small portion of the bird — the Head ; 
allowing no property to test the Carrier by that standard, laid down with regard to 
the wonderful symmetry and elegance of shape ; although in former times it was 
called by the Gentlemen of the Fancy " the King of Pigeons/' for its elegance and 
sagacity. An umpire, unequal to the office he was filling, might award the prize 
from a general appearance of the bird (its elegance and symmetry of shape) 
although it was not laid down as one out of the twelve properties to test the 
Carrier by, and I think we are greatly indebted for the judicious remarks of Mayok. 
After all, my brother Fanciers, I will be candid, and inform you, that I do not 
believe the Carrier to be an original bird, but bred up to the highest possible pitch, 
by the Fancier, from the Horseman— when at this high pitch or standard then it 
was called a Carrier, nor is it .possible to prevent the degeneration by any art 

whatever, which I shall endeavour to prove when I come to the Horseman, 

* 139.— Mayok, p. 84. But, in my opinion, the above twelve properties would be 
better, and not so liable to be confused, if they were reduced to five properties, viz. 

1st. The Beak. 
2nd. The Wattle. 
3rd. The Head. 

4th. The Eye. 

5th. Length and thinness of neck, and length of body. 

But as the gentlemen of that Fancy have not yet taken upon them to fix a proper 

standard, as has been done for the Almond Tumbler and the Pouter, the above is 

submitted to their consideration. The reducing the twelve properties to five, 

simplifies, and is generally adopted by the Gentlemen of the Fancy, who are 

appointed tc the office of Umpires. 

* 142.— -GiKTiN, p. 65. The winged messenger no sooner finds itself at large, than 

its love for its native home influences all its motions. It immediately flies up into 






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"which was formerly old Babylon which Nimrod built, because they judge this 
pigeon in its way from Bazora to be brought through that city. 

143. — In Turkey they call them Bagatins or Couriers, and the Turks and 
Persians make a common practice of breeding this sort of Pigeons in their 
Seraglios, where there is one, whose business it is to feed and train these birds, for 
the use afterwards designed, which they do in this manner : when a young one flies 
Very hard at home, and is come to its full strength, they carry it in a basket, or other- 
wise, about half a mile from home, and there they turn it out ; after this they will 
Carry it a mile, then two, four, eight, ten, twenty and so on, till at length they will 
i^etum from the farthest parts of the kingdom. This practice is of admirable use ; 
for every Bashaw has generally a basket full of these Pigeons sent him from the 
grand Seraglio, and in case of any insurrection or other emergent occasion, he 
traces a letter under the wings of a pigeon, whereby its flight is not in the least 
incommoded, and immediately turns it loose, but for fear of their being shot, or 
struck by a hawk, they generally dispatch five or six ; so that by this means, dis- 
patches are sent in a more safe and speedy method, than could possibly be other- 
wise contrived. 

144, — N.B. If a Pigeon be not practised when young, the best of them will fly 
but very indifferently, and may very possibly be lost. 

146. — LiTHGOw in his travels gives the following remarkable account: after 
having told us of pigeons, that in forty eight hours, would carry a letter from 
Babylon to Aleppo, which is thirty days journey, he proceeds thus; "The city 
Ptolemais was besieged by the French and Venetian armies, and was ready to fall 



the clouds to an almost imperceptible height, and then, with great certainty and 
exactness, darts itself, by some unknown intuitive principle towards its native 
spot, which is frequently at the distance of many miles, bringing its message to 
the person to whom it is directed. By what visible means they discover the place, 
or hy what compass they are conducted in the right way, is equally mysterious and 
unknown ; but it has been proved, by experiment, that they will perform a journey 



of forty miles, in the space of one hour and a half; which is a degree of dispatch 



three times sooner thanTErswIftest four-footed animal can possibly perform. 

GiRTiN, p. 66. Extraordinary attention was formerly paid to the training of 
these Pigeons, in order to be sent from governors in a besieged city, to generals 
that were coming to succour it ; from princes toiheir subjects, with the news of 
some important transaction. 

143.— GiRTiN, p. 67. In the East, they formerly kept relays of these Pigeons in 
Constant readiness to carry expresses to all parts of the country. When the 
governor of Dalmatia heard the news of the death of Orillo, he let fly a Pigeon, 
^nder whose wing he had fastened a letter; this fled to Cairo, from whence 
9- second was dispatched to another place, as was customary, so the death of Orillo 
^as made known to all Egypt, in the space of a few hours ; but the simple use of 
Ihem was known in very early times : When Modena was besieged, Brutus within 
the walls, kept an uninterrupted correspondence with Hirtius without, and this by 
the assistance of Pigeons, setting at nought every stratagem of the besieger, 
A-nthony, to stop these winged couriers. In the times of the Crusades there are 
^any instances of these birds being made useful in the service of war. Tasso 
^elates one during the siege of Jerusalem; and, Joinville another, during the 
crusade of St, Louis, 



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into their bands, when the soldiers beheld a pigeon flying over them to the city, 
who thereupon set up so sudden and so great a shout, that down fell the poor airy 
post with her letter, which being read, was found to contain, that the Sultan was 
coming towards them with an army sufficient to raise the seige, and would be with 
them in three days; the Christians having learnt this, sent away the Pigeon with 
another letter, to this effect; that they should see to their safety, for that the 
Sultan had such other important affairs, as rendered it impossible that he should 
come to their relief. Upon the reception of this letter the city was immediately 
surrendered to the Christians ; upon the third day, the Sultan arrived according to 
his promise, but perceiving how matters went, returned again with his army." 

146. — That passage of making the Pigeon fall to the ground by the shout of the 
soldiers, seems a little too much to savour of Romish superstition ; for it appears a 
little unphilosophical, to imagine that the air could be so far broke by a shout, as 
to render the strong pinions of so swift a bird useless. 

147.— .OviD likewise, in his Book of Metamorphoses, tells us that Taurosthenes, 
by a Pigeon stained with purple, gave notice of his victory at the Olympic games, 

*^ ^^ ^ «*V4- A^A ^Ari-kV M ■ « 



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148. 



-WiLLOUGHBY also iu his Ornithology, and with that I shall conclude the 
account of this bird, produces the example of the ancients in making use of 
Pigeons for the conveyance of letters ; thus Hiritius and Brutus at the siege of 
Modena, by means of Pigeons held a mutual correspondence with each other. 

COLUMBA TABELLAHIA MINOR. The Horseman. 

149. — This Pigeon in shape and make very much resembles the Carrier, only it 
is smaller in all its properties, viz. Somewhat less in body, shorter necked, the 
protuberent flesh upon the beak smaller, as likewise that round the eye, so that 
there remains a larger space or distance between the wattle and the eye, in this 
Pigeon than in the Carrier. They are generally more inclined to be barrel-headed 
and their eye somevdiat pinched. 

150.— It is to this day a matter of dispute, whether this he an original Pigeon : 
or whether it be not a bastard strain, bred between a Carrier and a Tumbler, or a 
Carrier and a Powter, and so bred over again from a Carrier, and the oftener it is 
thus bred, the stouter the horseman becomes. 



150, — If it was a matter of dispute in tbe year 1735, (it is more so now, in the 
year 1852.) It is quite clear that none of us are able to recollect whether this be 
an original bird or not, nevertheless if we have brains, as I said in a former part of 
this work, let us endeavour to exercise them ; after reading Mooke, and comparing 



Work 



few words, which is the same as regards the sense, or differently placing the 
paragraphs ; now as none of US can recollect, and as it was a matter of dispute 
one hundred and seventeen years ago, we have the same right to exercise our 
judgment (however little it may be) as they had in the year. 1735, when this hook 
■was printed, and from which this subject under consideration is taken. I shall 
eWeavour to tread in the footsteps of that humble and modest Fancier, who I style 
the pre-eminent of Fanciers— the late Mr, Johk Moore, who repeatedly in his 
work expressed his wish that the work had been brought out by more able pens, 
and hoped it would provoke others with more skill and abilities to follow in the 
tract which he had only pointed out, to which I gave my hearty Amen. (Query,) 
Do not for a moment suppose that I consider myself equal to the task ; but as a 



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45 

humble unassuming Fancier, like Moore, I tell you boldly trnd fearlessly, without 
evasion or equivocation that the Horseman is an Original Bird. That is my opinion, 
I throw down the gauntlet to provoke other's tb tak'e it up ; some of you m^y say^ 
that, although written in such humble language, you should give us the why or the 
"Wherefore it is your opinion, I will endeavour to do so. All the Authors state, 
the Horseman is a hybrid, in shape and make very much re Jerhbles the Carrier, 
<5tily it is smaller in all its properties, viz. less in body, shorter necked, the wattle 
o\i the beak smaller, as likewise that round the eye ; there remains a larger space 
or distance bet^jpeen the wattle arid th6 eyie, in this Pigeon, than in the Carrier. 
They are more inclined to be barrel-headed, and their eye sbiri'ewhat pinched. To 
sum up this account, although it comes the nearest to a Carrier than any other 

Pigeon, altogether less than any of its jiroperties (save thickness of neck and the 
"Wi^'ant of elegance) . 1 put it to the experienced Carrier Eancierj whether this bird, 
taking all its properties into consideration, is a Carrier in miniature. Certainly 
not ; how comes it to be so short and thick-necked and broad-headed ? there are 
Horseman of all manner of feathers, and pieds ; but Carriers are chiefly blacks and 
duns. I have often asked Fanciers how they distinguished between a Carrier and a 
Horseman, but they have thought it too delicate a question to answer. I have, in 
conversation with some of the most experienced Fanciers heard them say, that if in 
breeding from a pair of Horseman they throw and breed an extraordinary bird, 
they call it a Carrier ; atid, if on the contrary, they breed from an extraordinary 
pair of Carriers, and they breed plain birds, then they are called Horseman, aiid I 
helieve this to be near the mark. 

X know two Gentlemen, stout Bird Fanciers (this is the term generally made 

^^e of by the Fanciers of Carriers and Horseman); one gentleman said he had 
nothing but Carriers, the other said he !iad nothing but Horseman j I admired 
the Horseman of the one, better than the Carrier of the other, which only proves, 
**Whatis thereinatiarrie?" It would appear contradictory if we come to the 

r 

feather, for if Carriers breed Horseman, and Horseman Carriers, how comes it 
to pass that we have so few Carriers, but are principally blacks and duns, for 

L - ^ ^ 

we have Horseman of all colours ; and I am sensible we have Carriers alsoi but 
Very few, comparatively speaking. la Horseman, the blue aiid pied are most 
^oted to be genuine and good, Then how comes it to pass that we have so few 
hlue and blue-pied Carriers, unless the blacks and duns answer best to breed up 
to? It was so in 1735, and is so now, the blacks and duns having been so bred 
together. If you were to breed from two blacks, dr two duns, or from a black arid 
a dun, who would take to say what the colour of their young would be, very likely a 
hlacic and a dun in every nest, or contrary to the colour of the parent bird from 
^Uch they^re bred ; yet being a black and dun, simply, for ought I know, the 
hiacks and duns, having beeri bred together hundreds of years back as they are 
^ow, I have no doubt that if the hlues had been bred up, as the blacks arid duns 
have been, we should have had as elegant for all properties, which so characterises 
the Carrier for that elegance and wonderful symmetry of shape beyond other 

J M 

l?igeons. Whereas, the Horseman appears a short, dumpy, thick necked, bl'bad 
headed bird. How did it obtain that broad head ? Never from the Dragon, 



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Tumbler, or the Pouter, is my opinion ; but that the Horseman is the original 
bird, and the Carrier is not. Do you suppose for a moment, that the Carriers 
of the East, was like the engraving of the Carrier that accompanies this Work? 
(see) It is my opinion that it was no more like it, than the Antwerp Carrier is 
like it; but who knows what the spirited experienced English Fancier will 
bring the Antwerp Carrier to, in the next fifty years. I have seen Dragons 
that appeared to come nearer in shape and symmetry to the Carrier, than some 
Horseman (but with less wattle) appearing more like a Carrier in miniature. I stated 
it to be my opinion that the Horseman was the original bird, and not the Carrier, 
I will endeavour to prove my assertion ; imagine to yourself, an old and experienced 
Fancier, of forty years standing, possessing the acknowledged best strain of 
Carriers, to die, and all he possessed willed over to his nearest and only relation, 
a nephew, and among other things, this truly beautiful strain of Carriers comes 
into his possession, and being grateful for what he has received, is determined 
not to part with this strain of Carriers, knowing the immense pains, and the 
delight his uncle took in them (although a novice himself.) I will simply put 
the question to the experienced Carrier Fancier, How many years he will give me 
before this remarkable fine strain of Carriers degenerate into the original 
Horseman ? You may put a question to me, and ask me whether they would 
degenerate more, by lowering from the Horseman to the Dragon, to which I 
should certainly answer, No ; believing the Horseman to be the original bird, 
and would not sink below its nature. Again, to try to prove my assertion, I 
believe the Carrier bred up to the standard, was, and is bred up by the most 

r 

experienced Fanciers, from observation and reflection, and a thorough knowledge 
of these birds ; nevertheless, he has to exercise all he knows, by counteraction 
and art, assisted by Nature, who sports and freaks at times, and produces a 
wonderful and extraordinary Carrier. Now having this Carrier, and selecting the 
very best Carrier from your aviary or loft, I simply put the question to the most 
experienced Carrier Fanciers, (it is useless to put it to any one else, you might 
as well put it to Aldgate pump). Can you depend upon their young being 
extraordinary Carrier birds, as they are called ? who, from his experience, would 
answer. No ! there being such a tendency in these high bred birds, to degenerate 
and throw back ; and this is the cause why a good Fancier would rather have the 
cast ofis, of a good strain, than an apparent good bird that he knew nothing about. 
It frequently happens that Fanciers are very strong, and well up with these 
birds, and would not take twenty guineas a pair for them, and have not parted 
with their best birds, and if you ask them how they are going along, or with 
what success they have had during the breeding season, the answer is very bad, 

and not bred a bird ; the meaning is, not worthy to be mentioned, owing to 
the tendency there is to degenerate. Ifc is equally as easy, if not more so, to 
breed the Carrier up from the Horseman, as to breed your short-faced Tumblers 
for the five properties, from the rough long-faced common flying Tumblers, 
having such a tendency to degenerate. Again, the same takes place with regard 
to the English Pouter, when bred up to the highest pitch, there being such a 
tendency to degenerate. 



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47 

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The Horseman has been a very useful bird, among Fanciers, (which no one can 
^eny) and has aided and assisted the Fancier in bringing to perfection more 

+ 

I*igeons than any other.— The English Pouter or Cropper, see paragraph 161 ; 
the Pouting Horseman, paragraph 182 ; and the Dragon, paragraph 156, and what 
I have been contending for the Carrier, paragraph 124. The experienced Fancier 
^ould be able to discover the original bird, the Horseman ; not the Horseman 
bred up to the highest possible pitch, from the selection of the two best Horseman 
in the aviary or loft, Nature aiding and assisting by giving a little one in ; and 
an accidental hit would pjpduce an extraordinary bird, then it would be called 
a Carrier, although the same bird bred from Horseman ; neither the Hybrid 
t>ragon, first, second, and third breed, for the oftener they are bred over to the 
Horseman, the stouter they become; but there appears something so particular 
in the character of the original Horseman, it^ broad head, its short thick neck, 
and its dumpiness, as compared to the Carriei^ If we were at a Horseman or 

Carrier show 

is there in a name?— mark the remarks you would hear; it is possible some 
^ould say, I do not know when 1 have seen a better show of stout birds, take 
them all for all. You would find a diflference of opinion, some saying, I should 
choose that black cock, if it was a little narrower in the head, or more snake 
headed, with a hollow or dent in the middle, for we are inclined to think it is 
rather barrel headed ; others would say, give me the dun hen, provided it was 
longer and thinner in the neck, not so short and thick, but more swan necked ; 
others might say, that is the bird for me, provided it possessed more carriage, 
and not so spindle beaked, which proves the difficulty of breeding out the 
properties of the original marked Horseman ; and it is truly astonishing to think 
'vvhat beautiful birds they are, when you come to consider with what difficulties 
the Fancier is beset, in producing the Carrier with all its elegancies, and main- 
taining the five properties, as laid down for the standard by the Gentlemen of 
the Carrier Fancy, viz.— beak, wattle, head, eye, shape, all combined in a single 
bird, and coming from the original bird, the Horseman. 

Imagine to yourself, two Fanciers, one styling himself a Horseman Fancier 
^nd the other styling himself a Carrier Fancier, having contended for a longtime 
Ss to whether the Horseman or the Carrier is the original bird, both arguing all 
they know as regards these birds, which is not a little, being two good Fanciers, 
Wt they cannot agree at this meeting, and take leave of each other, wishing each 
^ther luck, &c. One thinks a little country air, and being a disciple of Old Isaac 
desirous of seeing how his brother Bobs are going along, betakes himself to 
I>agenham Eeacb, and totis surprise meets his brother Fancier and Bob, who he 
'^ad only parted with in the morning-the one went by Train, the other by Coach, 
^hey expressed their surprise and exclaimed, like Darby and Joan, who had 
agreed to enjoy themselves, for once, with a Duck and Green Peas. Hot ! and on 
*able ; ready to begin. Knock at door ! A cousin, wife, and four children drops in, 
and the exclamation is, "Who'd have thought of seeing You!" Neither being 
desirous of renewing the argument on Carriers or Horseman, but are lost in wonder 
and astonishment at the beauty of the scenery, and exclaim, How delightful is the 



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151. 



-The only thing that seems inclinable to favour the opinion, that they are 
original, is a strain of this kind brought oyer from Scanderoon, which will fly very 
great lengths and very swift ; but still the answer readily occurs, that they may be 
bred orig;inally the same way at Scanderoon and so transmitted to us, however non 
nostrum est inter vos tantas componere Lites, that is, we shan't take upon us to 

determine such controversies as these. 

152. — There are of this kind, of all manner of feathers ; but the blue and blue" 
pieds are most noted to be genuine and good, and if flown are very good breeders" 

153. — These are one of the sorts of Pigeons that are chiefly made use of in 
England, for the carriage of letters, or flying of wagers; because those that are 
possessed of the true original Carriers, which are at pre^nt very scarce here, pay 
too dear, and have too great a value for them, to risk their being lost upon every 
trifling wager. 

154. — These pigeons when regularly flown, twice on a day, that is, turned out 
alone and put upon wing without any others, will fly very large circumferences, so 
that after they have made a tour or two round your own house, they will fly four 
or five miles out at length and so maintain the circuit for an hour or two : this the 
Fanciers call going an end, and is what Daniel Moggs, who was one of the oldest 
Fanciers, meant, when he jocularly used to bid his pigeons maintain their length. 

155. — This practice is of admirable service to them, when they come to be 
trained for the homing part. 



scene of Eural Nature to the Philosophic eye and contemplatve mind ! and agree to 
walk together to witness what sport had attended thei, brother trollers- the first 
they enquired of had taken two jack, the second had taken two pike, and another, 
brother Bob, had taken two fish— a term well understood hy anglers ; now, here 
are jack, pike and fish taken, What is the difference ? For argument sake, and to 
lay a trap for you, I will say, there is none, and that all three are the same fish. 
Do not be too cunning, and tell me that a pike is a year older than a jack, otherwise 
I shall put the question, and ask you, Are your stout birds for the first two, three, 
or four years Horseman, and as they grow old and become heavily wattled, then 
they turn into Carriers, although the same bird ; which only proves that the 
Horseman is the original bird, and the Carrier by the art of man. 

In the same paragraph (150) , on the matter in dispute I find " Or " twice ; and in 
Paragraph 151, one — " May Be ;" this is not very definite to argue upon j therefore, 
to render it more clear, and define it to you, I had better throw in the words. 
Perhaps, it is possible, but rather improbable that I have thrown some light upon 
these words " or " and '* may be ;*' as we are upon the subject of wonderful Flying 
Birds, there are people in the world who say, pigs '' may " fly, others say " they are 
very unlikely birds." It is the last of my thoughts to dwell upon this subject. I 
verily believe I never should, had Matok and Girtin said a little upon it. Instead 
of copying MooKE only, I could not in my conscience let this, the most useful bird 
we have in the whole Pancy (the Horseman) pass unnoticed ; considering that it 
has contributed in bringing to perfection— the English Pouter, the Pouting 
Horseman, the Dragon, and also the Carrier itself. I shall require something 
more in argument from those who differ from me, than mere — "'Tisn't, 'Tisa't.*' 
I shall, therefore, fall in with the views of Mooke, the pre-eminent, and not 
trespass upon your valuable time, to determine such controversies as these. 






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COLUMBA TABELLARIA MINIMA. The Dragoon. 

156. — This Pigeon is absolutely and without dispute a bastard strain, being bred 
originally from a Horseman to a Tumbler, and by matching their breed often to 
^he Horseman, they will obtain a tolerable degree of stoutness. 

157. — This Pigeon is a very good breeder,(*) and as they are somewhat less than 
^ Horseman, are reckoned lighter, and more expeditious in their flight, for ten or 



* 157. — Mayor, p. 89. And good nurses, and are chiefly kept as feeders for 

raising of Pouters, Leghorn Kunts, &c- 

Mayok, p. 92. The following may be depended upon as a fact, notwithstanding 
the appearance of incredibility, as several gentlemen now living can aflinn the 
same, if requisite— a gentleman of my acquaintance having a small wager depending, 
Sent a Dragon by the Stage Coach to his friend at St. Edmond's Bury, together 

y 

Mth a note, desiring the Pigeon, two days after his arrival there, might be thrown 
'ip precisely when the town clock struck nine, in the morning, which was 
^.ccordingly executed ; and the Pigeon arrived in London, and flew to the sign 
of the Bull's Head Inn in Bishopsgste Street, into the loft, and was there shewn 
^t half an hour past eleven o'clock the same morning on which he had been 
thrown up at St. Edmond's Bury, having flown seventy-two miles in two hours 
^nd a half. The wager was confirmed by a letter sent by the next post from 
^ person at St. Edmond*s Bury. I could relate several more exploits of this 
Mature performed by Dragons, particularly of their being thrown up and returning 
^y moon-light, &c., but the above may be thought sufiicient. 

I did not exactly agree with Moore on the last subject— the Horseman— but 
I am determined to agree with him on the Dragon, believing what he states to 

be correct. 

I believe there are many gentlemen living in the country, and not associating with 
Fanciers, who keep Pigeons, that fancy they have the finest strain of Carriers in 
the World; if flown, no doubt very clean, their feathers close and tight, tha 
colours silver, yellow, or blue, with the black bar across the flight ; I acknowledge 
all looking very beautiful as touching Dragons. Should it so happen that this 
Ve old English gentleman, one of the olden times, gave an invite to one of his 
^Id friends, to come and spend a few days with him in the country, (but fortunately, 
^^ unfortunately, he is a good Carrier Pancier), after hearing this fine old 
■English gentleman (in his way) describing the perfections or imperfections of 
fte Carriers, as he pleased to call them, for want of knowing better. I ask 
you, as wise men, would it not be cruel if this Carrier Fancier, on a visit or 
^Piitiging excursion, should endeavour to lighten the darkness of this fine old 
■English gentleman, one of the very olden times; for instance, in the first place 
^t Would be too late in his day to make a good Carrier Pancier of him, and in the 
^^cond place, it is possible there was no one in the locality to instruct him ; it 
therefore appears to me, taking all the circumstances into consideration, to let 
'"^is fine old English gentleman enjoy his own opinion. 

My brother Cockneys— I have a bone to pick with you before I am done with 
^^ Dragoon, as Authors are pleased to spell it. I look upon Cockneys as the 

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twenty miles, but the Horseman if good, will generally out-do them at a greater 

length 5 they ought to be flown and trained hke the foregoing. 

COLUMBA GUTTUROSA BATAVI^, 

s 

Tlie Dutch Cropper. 

158.— This Pigeon seems to be originally Dutch, being naturally thick, and its 

name is derived from a large bag, or crop of wind, which they carry under their beak, 

and can at pleasure either raise or depress ; they are thick bodied and short, their 

legs are likewise thick, short, and feathered down to their feet ; their crop is large 

but always hang low, the feathers on their thighs hang loose, whereby they are 

said to be flag-thighed, their legs stand wide and they seldom play upright, they 

are gravel-eyed, and generally very bad feeders, therefore as soon as they have 

fed off their soft meat it is proper to put their young ones under a pair of small 

Runts, Dragoons, or Powting-horsemen, which may be kept as nurses for that 
purpose. 

159.— There are of all sorts of feathers in this pigeon, and the Dutch in breed- 
ing it take a very great care ; for as soon as they have fed off their soft meat, they 
put their yoiing ones under others to nurse, and then separate the old ones, 
placing them in different coops, and feeding them high with hemp or rape seed for 
a month, then turning them together ; and by being very hearty and salacious, 
they breed pigeons with very good properties ; from whence we may observe, that 
would mankind be alike abstemious, their progeny might be more compleat both 
in body and mind. 

160. — These are the Pigeons that are most apt to gorge, if not kept constantly 
supplied with meat and water. 

r 

COLUMBA GUTTUROSA ANGLICANA, 

TTie English Powter. 

161. — This Pigeon, which was first bred in England, and is therefore called the 
English Powter, is originally a mixed breed between a Horseman and a Cropper, 



» 



most cunning birds that fly— they appear to me to be hydrids ; do not mistake 
me, I do not mean between a ** Bull and a Jack-ass," but bred in from shire 
to shire. As you have some pretence to education, be pleased to answer me the 
question I am about to put to you; I accuse you of nothing, Why do the Authors 
on Pigeons spell the Dragon with two oo, making the word Dragoon, a kind of 
soldier that serves indifferently either on foot or on horseback ? ** Walker." In 

4 

society we never call it the Dragoon, but the Dragon — Drag-un, a winged serpent, 
•* Walker," from which it derives its name, and while I am on this point, and, 
as I told you before, I wish to accuse you of nothing, answer me this question. 
How it comes to pass that Authors have thought fit to spell the Pouter thus 
Powter ? The name is derived form Ihe word, to pout, by thrusting out, " Walker" 
The march of intellect being on the wing, I hope that not any Author who after 
follows me, will be guilty of doing that which I complain of; it may be excusable 
of me in bringing forward Mooke's Work, as I am desirous it should be published 
letter for letter. 

158.— Mayor, p. 92. But now the Gentlemen Fanciers in England, pay very 
little regard to this Pigeon, since they have made it subservient to their purpose; 
viz. bv raising from them and others, the Pouter. 



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51 

^^d by matcning their young ones over and over to the Cropper, experience 
teaches us, it will add a wonderful beauty to this bird, and raise in it the five fol- 
lowing properties. 

1. Length of Body. 

2. Length of Legs. 

3. Neatness of Crop. 

4. Slendernes of Girt. 

5. Beauty in Feather. 

162. — 1. As to the length of body, the longer they are from the Apex of the 
beak, to the end of the tail, the more the Pigeon is esteemed : I have seen one 
that measured this way near twenty inches, though seventeen or eighteen is 
reckoned a very good length. (♦) 

^ 163. — 2. The length of the leg, is the next thing to be examined in a Powter, 
«. e. from the upper joint of the thigh(t) in sight, to the end of the toe nail ; (J) and in 



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* 162 — Maxok 



It should have a hollow back, running oS taper from 
the shoulders, to form a fine shape, (for if it rises on the back it is called hog* 
backed), and it should be small in the girt. Great caution should be observed in 

r 

oieasuring their length of body, lest the head and tail should be pulled ofi", which 
(if I am rightly informed) was once the case, and thereby a fine bird sacrificed. 

1 163. Mayor (p. 94.) states with regard to length of leg, and in this property 
some of them wanting a mere tiifle of seven inches and a quarter. 

+ 163,— it requires truth and honesty in measuring, besides being rather difficult, 
I have heard some of the best Pouter Fanciers say, it requires two to measure, 
provided it requires to be accurately done, and is to be done in the following way ; 
let one hold the leg out as straight as possible, then place the blade of a pen-knife, 
tooth-pick, or small wedge in the upper joint of the thigh, the other taking the 
length from whatever may be placed in the joint, letting the rule touch and 
continuing it to the end of the longest toe-nail, it does not appear to me to be 
altogether fair, having no limits to the length of toe-nail; for if two gentlemen 
showed two birds for length of leg, and, fairly speaking, the length of leg was equal ; 
yet if one in the toe-nail ran out a quarter, or half an inch more than the other \ 
nevertheless, as the standard laid down, it counts as length of leg, although the 
bird would not stand any higher for it. The Pouter Panciers may reason and say, 
n has as much right to count as the running out or length of beak in the Horseman 
<>r Carrier. I acknowledge this to be fair argument, and leave it to the Pouter and 
Cari-ier Fanciers to decide. I think it right in this place to inform you, that I 
Measure only to the end of the quick, and all that is over and above consider horn ; 
the same remarks is applicable to the short-faced Tumblers. Mr. Moore, in the 
Pi^eceding Paragraph 162, as touching length of body, states, in his day, that he had 
^^en one nearly twenty inches, and in Paragraph 163,! wanting a mere trifle of 
^even inches ; and Mayor, p. 94, states the leg seven inches and a quarter it 



therefore appears the leg is fu ll one-th 



of the length of the whole body of the 



"^^rd ; now, for instance, if it was possible to breed a bird so long in body as twenty 

hree inches ; the leg, in the same proportion, would be eight inches. Answer me 

*his question. Would this Pouter be able to play with a fine tail, well spread like a 

an, without scraping the ground therewith, otherwise it would he awkwardness, 
instead of grace and elegance. 



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52 

this property some pigeons have been very considerable, wanting a mere trifle of 
seven inches, yet the bird that produces six and a half or three quarters must be 
allowed to be a very good one, (*) 

164. — 3, The next property to be considered is the crop, which ought to be large 
and round especially towards the beak, filling behind the neck, so as to cover the 
shoulders and tie neatly off at the shoulders, and form a perfect globe, 

165. — 4, The smaller the girt the better, because by this means a contrast of 
beautiful shape is given to the whole bird, 

166. — 5. The last thing that is generally allowed as a property in a Powter is 
the Feather, (f ) and indeed its plumage affords a very great variety. 

167. — The Pieds are most universally esteemed, and under these may be 
ranked, the Blue-pied,(J) the Black-pied, the Red-pied and the Yellow-pied. Each 
of which advance in their worth according as they answer best the foregoing pro- 
perties ; for instance, if the Blue-pied and Black-pied are equal in the measure of 
the other properties: the Black-pied will be reckoned the best Pigeon, on the 
account of the feather, and the Yellow-pied if equal, better than any. 

^ 168. — Before we leave this head of feathers, we must take notice how a Powter 
ought to be pied : and in the first place, the chop ought to be white, girt round 
with a shining green, intermixed with the colour with which he is pied. By the 



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163. Maxob, p. 95. Their thighs and legs should be stout and thick, and well 
covered with smooth white feathers, and not thin wire legs and naked, as formerly. 
165.— I cannot but help thinking that the Gentlemen of the Pouter Fancy 

r 

have lost ground, as touching the girt of the Pouter ; I am ready to acknowledge 
they have bred, if I may use the term, some tremendous large birds, but 
unfortunately they have bred them to weigh too much, which is the property 
of the Leghorn and Spanish Eunt. A Pouter ought, in hand, to handle like a 
Tumbler, not requiring both hands, or as the old Fanciers call it, draw it through 
the ring of your fingers, comparatively speaking. It appears to me breeding for 
large birds, instead of symmetry, shape, style and elegance. Again, I am fearful that 
some have run from one extreme to the other ; formerly the legs of the Pouter 
werethin, wiry, and featherless ; hut I have seen some whose legs were so stout 
that they reminded me of mill-posts, and the feathers on the legs rushed out to 
such an enormous extent, (instead of appearing like down, snow, or being iced) , 
which balks the bird if it attempts to play, not having the freedom of its legs 
which it otherwise would, bringing to your recollections some of the old fashioned 
feather-legged Bantams. I would almost as soon have them somewhat thin leg, 
and almost naked, as to have their legs more like mill-posts — rushed and sprouted, 
almost preventing the bird walking. However, there is no accounting for taste, 
when the breeder says he greatly admires it, the smaillness of girt gives such 
smartness to the bird. 

1 166.— As regards feather, it will be " Hobson's choice " with you, as it is with 
every other Fancier. 1 am fully sensible, as you are, how much it contributes to 
the admiration of the bird when beauifully feathered, as laid down by Moore, and 
what a difference there is in a bird only wanting the bib, for then he is called 
swallow-throated- 

J 167.— Mayor, p. 95. The Blue Pied Pouter should be the best sky blue. Or, 
Powder Blue, as it is termed by the Gentlemen in the Fancy,— J, M. Eaton. 



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53 

chop, is meant, the front part of the crop, and this white ought by no means to go 
behind the neck, for then it is said to be ring-headed. 

169. 2. He ought to have a hib or round patch, of the same colour with which 

he is pied,* coming down from his under chop, and felling upon the chap, which 

makes it the shape of a half-moon; but if this bib be wanting he is said to be 
swallow-throated. 

170.— 3. His head, neck, and back ought to be of one uniform colour, and the 
tail the same, (*) and if the Pigeon be Blue-pied he ought to have two bars or 
streaks of black across the lower part of both wings ; but if these happen to be of 
a brown colour, he is said to be kite barred, which is not so valuable. 

171.-4. The shoulder or pinion of the wing ought to be mottled with white, 
lying^^round in the shape of a rose; this is called a rose-pinion, and is reckoned 
the best, though but very few arise to be compleat in this property; but if the 
pinion runs with a large patch of white to the outer edge of the wing, he is said to 
be lawn-sleeved, (f) 

172. — 5. His thighs ougbt to be clean white, though sometimes the joints of 
the knees will be edged round with another colour, but let it fall here, or on any 
other part of the thigh, he is foul thighed. (J) 

173 _6. The nine flight feathers of the wing ought to be white, otherwise he| 
is said to be foul flighted, and if only the external feather of the wing be of the^ 
colour of the body, it is called sword flighted or sworded. (§) 



* 170.— His head, neck, back, and tail ought to be one uniform colour. Mayor 
and GiRTiN has the same 'words as Moore j neither of the three mention— with 
the exception of the Yellow and the Red-pieds, then their tails should be white. 
It was an oversight, no doubt, and perplexed many a young Fancier, as it did me 
a few years ago. Looking at Pouters one night with tails, same as head, neck, and 
back; and another time, at yellows and reds, with white tails: Time and 
experience improved my eye, and matured my judgment. 

1 171.— GiRTiN, p. 50. The reader is desired to take notice that lawn-sleeved, 
kite-barred, &c. and such like terms which frequently occur in describing these 
birds, are fancy terms, and made use of by Gentlemen of the Fancy only. 

+ 172.— GiRTiK, p. 51. Their legs covered with white, soft downy feathers. 

§ 173. — I know a Gentleman in the Pancy, one of the best tempered men I ever 
knew, and it would take a great deal to put his pipe out ; if in society, and 
speaking of the properties of the English Pouter as they ought to be— first, length 
of body— second, length of legs— third, neatness of crop— fourth, slenderness 
of girt— fifth and last, beauty in feather. If he heard a party finding fault with 
an English Pouter, or Pouters, possessing the four first properties in an eminent 
degree; it was more than flesh and blood could stand, and the only thing I ever 
saw that ruffled his temper ; he enjoyed his opinion of the man, for I cannot 
call him a Fancier. Feather will be the last property you will have to bother 

i 

yourself with, considering what you have to encounter with in the first four 
properties. There are people in the World that say *^ a good horse cannot be a 
bad colour," and equally applies to the English Pouter ; for instance, if it 
was possible for you, at your next Show, to take a bird as I have been describing, 
possessing the four first properties out of the five in an eminent degree, and 
although the most despicable colour in the feather, (mealy) you might inform 



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174. 



Besides the five properties before mentioned, there is another, which 
though not generally allowed, will be found to be one of the best, I mean the 
carriage ; under which I comprise the following heads. 

175-1 The crop ought to be so far filled with wind, as to shew its fuU 
extent, without buflmg or bemg slack-winded, which are both esteemed very great 
faults ? The Pigeon that bufles fills his crop so full of wind, that it is thereby 
strained m such a manner, that he is ready to fall backwards, because he can't 
readily discharge the confined air, which renders him uneasy and unwieldlv and 
many a good thing has, by this means, either fallen into the strtt^or become a 
prey to those fatal enemies of the Fancy, the cats. The other extreme LTeins 
Slack-winded, so that he shows little or no crop, and appears not much better than 

tJ'^^j'^^' '^Jrf^''"''? ^^^^^y '" carriage, is their playing upright, with a fine 
tail, well spread like a fan, without scraping the ground therewith, or tuckins it 
between their legs ; neither should they set up the feathers on their rump when 
they play, which is called rumping. ^ 

wiSnL^^^^ ^^'* 5T*y f '^^J""^^^ ^" ^ P«^*^^ ^^ to stand close with his legs, 
w thout straddling, and keep the shoulders of his wing tight down to his body, and 

when he moves, to trip beautifully with his feet, almost upon his toes, without 
jumping, which is the quality of an Uploper. 

^olllTlt,^''^^^^'' w * "^"^^^ .^"'^^F *° ^" t^^^« properties, might be said to be 
Eeon that ^'I^S Perfection is incompatible with anything in this world, that 
Figeon that makes the nearest advances towards them, is certainly the best. 

179 -Some have answered them so well, that I have known eight guineas 
refused for a single pigeon of this breed. ^ guineas 



many 



me how much handsomer it would have been if it had been a yellow-pied. You 

may keep your information to yourself, for I already know it ; produce and show 
the mealy bird I have described, and you will find that you are oftered 
guineas for it- 

■ 

Mayok, p. 63. The above, and many other inconveniences too tedious to 
mention attending the Pouter, and no trouble at all (comparatively speaking) 

attending the other, easily accounts for the preference given to the Almond 
Tumbler. 

Matoe, p. 97. When Pouters are designed to be shewn, they should be 
previously prepared for that purpose, by keeping them from food five or six hours 
before the time of shewing them, otherwise they cannot so conveniently swell or 
get their crop up properly, to appear to advantage ; and particular care must 
be afterwards taken to prevent the dangerous and disagreeable inconvenience 
of gorging themselves, for at that time they are most apt to do it, from having 
been kept so long empty. 

Mayor, p. 97. These Pigeons appear very noble on the outside of a house, 
but the better sort are never suffered to fly. 

ATOR, p. 97. There are many who have not judgment sufficient to discover 
the beauties and properties of the Pouter, that condemn it on account of the crop, 
which they say seems an incumbrance to the bird, and appears unnatural. 

Mayor, p. 100. The Fanciers of these birds, by dint of application, indefatigable 
industry, and great expense, have certainly bred them to a great degree towards 
perfection, insomuch that eighteen pairs and a half of them were sold by public 



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55 

auction for ninety-two pounds, nine shilllings and sixpence, as appears by a 
paragraph in the Daily Advertiser of Thursday, January 1st, and the day following 
in the Gazetteer, and London Daily Advertiser of Friday, January 2nd, 1761, 
which for the greater satisfaction of the reader, I shall here transcribe. On 
Monday evening last, at the sale of Pouting Pigeons, at Mr. Hat's, The French 
Horn, in Beach Lane, consisting of eighteen pairs and a half of Pigeons j they 
Were sold as follows : 

£ s. d. 

Matok, p. 101. Lot 1. One pair 2 12 6 

„ 2. Ditto 2 7 

„ 3. Ditto 2 

„ 4. Ditto 1 17 

„ 5, Ditto 2 12 6 

„ 6. Ditto 3 5 

„ 7. Ditto 3 13 6 

„ 8. Ditto 4 7 

„ 9. Ditto 4 6 

„ 10. Ditto 3 10 

„ 11. Ditto 3 16 

„ 12. Ditto... 5 2 

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„ 13. Ditto 4 10 

„ 14. Ditto... 8 

„ 15. Ditto .-. 13 6 

„ 16. Ditto 16 16 

„ 17. Ditto 4 10 

„ 18. A Hen only 5 5 

„ 19. One pair 13 

Total X92 9 6 

Mayor, p. 102. He says, " As I was present at the above sale, so I had an 
opportunity of examining the birds, some of which were very indiiferent ones, 
and some of them very capital ones indeed— lots 14, 15, 16, and 18; to my 
knowledge, two pairs of which were afterwards sold for thirty-six Guineas, by 

private contract. 

Matok, in continuation, the Almond Tumblers (at the time these Pigeons 
Were sold) were not arrived at one half of the perfection that they are at this 
time, and it is the opinion of many, that were the same number of Almond 
Tumblers to be sold now, they would bear a price equal, if not superior, to 

r 

the above. 
Matok, p. 59. The Pouter is introduced in Mayor's Work among the Almond 

Tumbler ; as he says, '' purposely to shew the difference of trouble, time, and 

inconvenience, between breeding them and the Almond Tumblers." The Pouter 

r 

Was formerly much valued, as well as the Carrier, and seemed at one time to 
engross the principal part of the Fanciers ; but of late, numbers who were very 
staunch in the Pouter Fancy, have, with myself, relinquished that, and become 




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56 

fond of the Almond Tumbler ; and I make no doubt but many more will soon 
be tired, and follow my example ; for when we consider the trouble that attends 
the breeding and raising of young Pouters, (exclusive of the extra expense), 
compared with that of the Almond Tumbler, it is not in the least to be wondered 
at, for the Powter requires an infinite deal of attention, it being necessary to 
keep them separately all the winter season ; that is to say, every single bird, 
cocks as well as hens, in a separate pen or coop, each of which must be furnished 
■with meat and water, and should be lofty and spacious, as, otherwise, they would 
contract an habit of stooping, which is an imperfection, and should by all means 
be prevented. Then having (in the spring) matched or paired them, you must 
be provided with at least two pairs of Dragons, to every pair of Pouters for 
nurses or feeders, which must be kept in a separate loft from the Pouters 
otherwise they would bastardize, and spoil the breed. Pouters are never suffered 
by those who are curious, to hatch their own eggs, they being bad feeders, and 
would often starve their young ones. When the Pouter has laid her egg, it must 
be shifted under a Dragon, that has likewise laid, nearly about the same time, 
and that of the Dragon be placed under the Pouter, exchanging the one with 
the other, it being necessary the Pouter should have an egg, or eggs, to sit on, 
to prevent her laying again too soon, which would weaken, and in a short time 
kill her; likewise, the inconveniency attending them when gorged, by putting 
them in a stocking, as mentioned under the head of distempers (first by Mr. 
Moore— see Paragraph 84, 85.) Again, should a Fancier begin with half a dozen 
pair of Pouters, he would, in a short time, be under a necessity of purchasing 
more, or exchange (perhaps his best birds) for worse, in order to cross the strain, 
for should he (as the term is) breed them in and in, which is matching father 
and daughter, or brother and sister, or any other way incestuously together, 
the breed would degenerate, and not be worth sixpence ; whereas, the same 
number of Almond Tumblers would inevitably stock him for life, for the breeding 
of Tumblers in and in, would consequently breed them smaller, which is a perfection I 
in them, and they require no attendance while breeding, provided you supply 
them with meat and water, and throw them a little straw, and do not (like the 
Pouter) require time to be lavished upon them to make them familiar. Experience 
teaches us that were Tumblers to be kept in separate pens, as the Pouters are, 
they would show in the same manner, and be equally as familiar as the Pouter, 
for the Pouter should be almost constantly attended and talked to, during the 

hua! hua! stroking them 
down the back, and clacking to them as to chickens, otherwise they would lose 
their familiarity, which is one of their greatest beauties, and is termed shewing, 
and would make the finest of them appear despicable, which made a facetious 
gentleman of my acquaintance say, '/that Pouters were a fancy more particularly 
adapted to Weavers, Cobblers, and the like kind of trades only, that worked in the 
same room where they were kept, that the owners might have an opportunity 
of conversing with them, at the same time they were earning their subsistence." 
Though I must allow of the propriety of the above observation, I cannot help 
thinking it rather severe than otherwise, for certainly every gentlemen has 
an undoubted right to please himself with the fancy he most delights in. 



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COLUMBA GOTTUROSA LUTETI^ vel parisiorum 



The Parisian Powter. 

. 180.— This Pigeon was originally bred at Paris (*) and from thence brought to 
Brussels, whence it was transmitted to us; it has all the nature of a Powter, but is 

179.— GiRTiN, p, 52. The Pouter that approaches nearest all these properties is 
^ Very valuable bird, and some Fanciers, by a patient perseverance and great 
expence, have bred these birds so near the standard prescribed as to sell them for 

twent 



y guineas a pair 



Almond 



egard td the Portrait of the English Pouter that will accompany this 
Work, I have not seen, being in the hands of my brother Fandier, Mr. Dean 
WoLSTENHOLME, the Auimal Artist and Engraver. I am not aware that I could 
tave employed any one so competent, he being a first-rate Fancier, and having 

-y^u uiiiYv.*o«^ — - o ^ Tumbler. Should 

it be a little overdrawn, which I sincerely hope it will, accuse me and not him, 
Owing to my desire to give you a good copy to breed up to ; not so much like 
the En-'iRh Pouter of the present day, but what it ought to be ; and this idea 
Wings to mind n6ar fifty years ago, of a short argument I had with a very one-sided 
arguer, although very powerful, extremely forcible, and drove his arguments 
We. It happened on this wise, after having got through my pot-hooks and 
hangers, and on a little farther, my old and much respected schoolmaster Called 
me to his study, presented me with a set of engraved copies, instructed me how 
to write them into my writing book ; as well executed as they were, it nearly 
broke my poor little heart, I was quite willing to do it, but seeing the impossibility^ 
a lucky thought struck me, and being a quick boy, and grateful for the pains 
he had taken with me, causing me to be so bright in so short a time. In my 
innocence, I asked him if he could write like it himself; although he had a study, 
1 question very-much whether he ever studied Blackstoue or Coke, for he took 
the law into his own hands. Which is contrary to law, and gave me a round 
dozen. I never particularly afterwards argued the cause with him, having once 

_ I 

felt that he had the strength of the law on his side. I never brought an action 
Against him, for taking the law into his own hands. I may have gained something 
ffom this, and it was that whidh caused me to write such a beautiful hand. 
To* return t^ ^he Pouter that will accompany this Work, which I stated I hoped 
^ould be over drawn, by way of a copy for you to breed up to, I have thought 
fit, in colour, to choose the blue-pied, as shewing off the greatest variety of feather. 
liead from Paragraph 168, to Paragraph 175. I cannot help thinking that if 
Wr pied English Pouters was placed before me, and all of equal properties 
the blue-pied, the black -pled, the red-pied, and the yellow-pied— and I was 
^Uowed to make choice of one of these Pouters, provided the blue pied was 
^ light bright sky, or powder blue, like some of the owl Pigeons, with beautiful 
hlack bars across the wings, &c., hut what I should choose the blue-pied, owing 
^o the variety of feather in the blue pied, and its beautiful black bars across 
tlie flight, which I am so great an admirer of, although I am fully sensible 
that the black-pied, red-pied, and yellow-pied, rank before it. 

* 180.— Matc-R p. 103. This bird Is vulgarly called the Parazence Pouter. 

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generally long cropped and not very large, it is short bodied, short legged arid 
thick in the girt ; what is chiefly admired in this bird, is its feather, which is in- 
deed very beautiful and peculiar only to itself, resembling a fine piece of Irish 
stitch, being chequered with various colours in every feather, except the flight 
which is white ; the more red it has intermixed with the other colours, the more 
valuable it is : Some are gravel-eyed, and some bull-eyed, but it is equally indif- 
ferent which eye it has. 



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COLUMBA GUTTUROSA SALIENS. The Uploper. 

181. — The Uploper is a Pigeon bred originally in Holland, its make and shape 
agrees in every respect with the English Powter, only it is smaller in every pro- 
perty. Its crop is very round, in which it generally buries its bill; its legs are 
very small and slender, and its toes are short and close together, on which it treads 
so nicely, that when moving, yoii may put anything under the ball of its foot ; it is 
close thighed, plays very upright, and when it approaches the hen, generally leaps 
to her, with its tail spread, which is the reason the name is given to it, from the 
Dutch word Uplopen, which signifies to leap up. These pigeons are generally all 
blue, white, or black, though I will not assert that there are no pieds of this 
speices. There are but very few of them in England, and I have been informed 
that in Holland they have asked five and twenty guineas for a single pair of them.* 

COLUMBA TABELLARIA GUTTUROSA. 



The Powtina Hi 



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182. — This Pigeon is a bastard strain between the Cropper and the Horseman, 
and according to the number of times that their young ones are bred over from the 
Cropper, they are called first, second or third bred ; and the oftener they are bred 
over, the larger their crop proves. The reason of breeding these Pigeons is to 
improve the strain of the Powters, by making them close thighed, though it is apt 
to make them rump, from the Horseman's blood, (f ) They are a very merry Pigeon 
Upon a house, and by often dashing oiFare good to pitch stray Pigeons, that are at 
loss to find their own home; (t) they breed often and are good nurses, generally 
feeding their young ones well. I have known these Pigeons to be six inches and 
six and a half in legs; they are a hearty Pigeon and, give theni but meat and 
water, iieed very little other attendance. Some of them will home ten or twenty 
miles. (§) 



* 181. — Mayor, p. 105. The reason that they do not encourage the breed of 



I 



them here, I should imagine 



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having brought the English Pouter to such 



perfection, that, in fact, at this time, there is no comparison to be made between 
them ; though it has been reported, that in Holland they have asked twenty-five 
guineas for a single pair of Uplopers, which I must confess I want faith to credit. 

t 182. — Mayor, p. 106. But having now brought the strain of the Pouters to 
so high perfection, that practice is disused. 

X Mayor, p. 106. Which gives great satisfaction to those gentlemen who delight 
in the Plying Fancy. 

§ There cannot, I think, be a doubt among Fanciers that the Pouting Horseman 
is a hybrid, between the Cropper and the Horseman, coming nearer in appearance 
to an English Pouter in miniature, than a Horseman does to a Carrier in miniature^ 
as I observed in a former part of this work. At the sale of Bantams Pigeons 
belonging to the late celebrated and spirited Fancier, Sir John Sebright, I wa^ 



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59 

astonished to see the English Pouters in miniature, possessing the five properties 
of the English Pouter, viz. 1st.— Length and shape of body ; 2nd. -Length of legs ; 
3rd.— Crop ; 4th.— Feather ; 5th.~ Shape or carriage. It is the sagacity of the 
Horseman that enables it to find its way home, twenty miles or upwards, which 
proves they are good flyers, provided they are light in body and small in girt, (to 
use the old Fanciers* term, of passing them through the ring of your finger, 
comparatively speaking) . I have seen some of these light-bodied Pouting Horse- 
man, that appeared to me to fly as light as Tumblers, and when flying with the 
Tumblers, their round globular crops, well filled and up, has a very pleasing effect, 
owing to the contrast of the Tumblers. 

only a merry, but a spirited Pigeon, and not only spirited but graceful in the 
extreme; I would rather see an elegant shape, small or narrow girt Pouting 
Horseman, six and a half inches in the leg, (think of this. Gentlemen of the 
touting Fancy !) than an English Pouter, even if it would measure seven and a 
_ inches. A large English Pouter, with thick girt and hog -backed. Style is a 
grand thing, and the Pouting Horseman is the English Pouter, retaining all its 

properties. 
The large and noble English Pouter is like unto the large and fine old English 

gentleman, one of the olden times ; the large fine English Pouter shews only 
by instinct, not determined by reason or deliberation, while the fine large English 
gentleman propelled by deliberation or reason to do his duty; for instance, if 
the late Iron Duke of Wellington opened a Ball, with our most gracious Sovereign 
in the Minuet de la Cour, or the Gavotte de Vestris, and knowing whatever was 
done ought to be done well, therefore, if dancing, it ought to be done well. As 
a man of the World, he knew the common dancers at the Opera-house could 
cut six, he was fully sensible that having the honour to dance with our Sovereign 
1 Lady, the Queen, he had to shew off, and cut sixteen, like the Tumbler Pigeon 
in tumbling, without losing ground or time, although between eighty and ninety 
years of age, almost too much for flesh and blood to contemplate ; but he was 
such a man for duty, either towards his Sovereign or her subjects. I cannot help 
thinking there is a bearing or affinity not unlike in the fine large English Pouter, 
especially the cocks, and the fine large English gentleman, that their size and 
Weight is an incumbrance to them both alike, in shewing their agility. I am 
aware of the epidemic that fine large English gentleman laboured under, of having 
constitutions that will bear a great deal of ease, which reminds me of some 
of the greatest vocalists we ever had, who show off on the stage more like 
elephants than actors. It is very different with the actresses, they show off, 
appearing to take great delight in showing off, and would appear to me that 
some of them had taken private lessons from the elegant formed and graceful 
English Pouter hen. You must make allowance for fashion, for, at this time, 
it is straight down from top to bottom alike, or as much shape as there is ia 
a sack of saw-dust. They very much resemble each other in another point, 
^eing matched up too soon, consequently spoiled. You may ask me whether we 
We not had some fine English gentlemen, who have shown off, to which I 



answer, Yes; 



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60 

who have shown off to the utmost, to an admiring and grateful Nation. These 
are the exceptions to the rule, and not the rule, the same is equally applicable 
to the large English Pouters. How often does it happen at a grand show of 
these remarkable fine large English Pouters, that after having been previously 
prepared for showing, that is separating each cock and hen, and not allowing 
them to see a Pigeon, and show well in their own pens ; but when put into the 
show-pen a male bird, expecting he will show, it stretches out its head and neck, 
a|)parently taking a sight of all the Fanciers in the room, and almost as much 
as to say to some of them — you owe me something ; some of them may show to 

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a certain extent, but not to the extent the Fanciers could have desired. To a 
certain extent, I think these fine large male English Pouters labour under the 
same epidemic that the fine large English gentlemen does, viz. — that their size 
and weight is an incumbrance to them, and the cause producing the effect alike 
in the large gentleman or the large Pigeon — that of a constitution that will bear 
much ease, I said it was very different with the females showing off; at this 
part you might be desirous of putting a question to me, I will answer twenty 
if I consider them fair questions, Then do you consider the females more 
audacious and wicked than the males ? I tell you I do not consider this a fair 
question, and beg leave most respectfully to decline answering it, at the same 
time you can draw your inference, recollecting that you have no right to 
assume anything. 

4 

It is very disheartening to the Gentlemen Fanciers of the English Pouter when 
this takes place, after forwarding their birds often some miles, &c. to give their 
brother Fanciers a treat, as it was supposed ; but it does not always turn out to be 
so, owing to their not shewing, as it is called; nevertheless, it often proves a 
treat, to see what length of body and shape they have, length in leg, and beautiful 
in feather. It is otherwise with the light (not heavy) merry-spirited Pouting 
Horseman cock, when put into the show pen, always up and ready for his work, 
not long in stripping himself, putting himself in beautiful attitude, and suiting the 
action to the word display that fine action of showing which is so well understood 
by the Gentlemen of the Fancy ; giving infinite satisfaction, with regard to their 
being a merry Pigeon upon the top of a house, and by often dashing off, are good 

r 

to pitch stray Pigeons that are at loss to find their home. Allow me here, by way 
of bringing it to a close, to mention, that when I was a very little boy, and as I 
suppose a good little boy, (as is the custom to interpret favourably of children ; for 
it is only when we are children of a larger growth that we kick over the traces,) 
fifty years ago, and scarcely could walk, I had that propensity for birds, that 
whenever I had a halfpenny given me, I would go on all- fours up the stairs to one 
Jemmy Gillham, a bird-catcher, who lived next floor to the skies, and lay out my 
all with this merchant bird-catcher— ^that amounted to a halfpenny, for which I 
obtained a bird ; how I got down with a bird in hand at this time perplexes me, for 
I can recollect I went up on all-fours, as I said before, to the next floor to the skies 
never recollect, falling down, but recollect when down, and coming into the 
light, the bird, I suppose some hard-billed bird— hen sparrow, green bird, or 
chaffinch— gave me a severe peck, I let it go and then had a good roar ; this Jemmy 






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Gillhara, although only a bird-catcher, had his heart in the right place. He knew 
nie and my parents, for he did not live far from us — brought me another bird and 
told me to hold it tight 5 I took his advice, being determined it should not get its 
head round to peck me, I was no better off with regard to having a singing bird 
when I got it home, than with the bird that pecked me and flew away ; for in 
following his advice, in holding it tight, I choaked it 1 My kind and affectionate 
Mother seeing the trouble I was in, besides being bankrupt, (like all other mothers, 
hangs to boys, while the fathers stick to the girls— Very natural !) sent 
servant with a cage and obtained a bird for me ; my broken heart began to mend, 
for I was astonished to hear how plain it could say or speak, Pink ! Pink I Pink ! 
I was acquainted with him up to the time of his death, which was between forty 
and fifty years ; He was a worthy old man, and there was not a vice in him, 
although a humble bird-catcher. There was a highly respectable Bird and Pigeon 
Dealer, of the name of Nathaniel Preston, corner of Featherstone Street, City 
Boad — it was proverbial of him that he would use a child or boy as well as the most 
experienced Fancier — who would at times favor this bird-catcher, who had a very 
pretty flight of Black Beards, &c., and say, " Jemmy, try this Squeeker, for I 
entertain a high opinion of it." Amongst them was a blue-pied Pouting Horseman 
cock, one of the most splendid birds that ever I saw, that was as good as a little 
fortune to him, and fly equal to any of his Tumblers, at the season of the year when 
bird-catching was bad. He would sell off all his Pigeons except this blue Pouting 
Horseman cock and a black-bearded cock, (his other black-beards he sold knew a 
thing or two, he used to say they would do forty miles), was as good as a little 
fortune to him, for he would generally look two or three times a day to see what 
stray hens the cocks had brought in, and thought it a bad day's work if they did 
not bring in one a piece ; for as soon as he perceived a strange one, he took it 
away, and sold it, and turned them out to look for others. I never witnessed such 
a flying Pouting Horseman as this, it flew more like a hawk than a Pigeon, besides 
being such a bird for dashing off. It was unfortunately shot by a publican, who 
had been a gamekeeper, and I believe was the cause of nearly ruining the poor old 

bird-catcher. 

I have, this week, bought two pretty little blue Pouting Horseman cocks, I am 
informed they come from Norwich. I am given to understand they fly tremendously 
with very large crops. I am only surprised that such little birds should have such 
large crops. I have not bought them with the idea of stray catching ; having so 
many feeders, I should not know a stray Pigeon in the loft, unless a marked, or 
superior Pigeon, my lofts being always open they can come in and go out as they 
like. I have matched these two little Pouting Horseman cocks to two of my best 
high-flying Tumbler hens, for the purpose of taking them up into the elements, for 
I think they look very well in flight with the tumblers ; I care nothing about their 
young, and if they do not fly well, when let out, they will make room for others 

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that will. 
The Gentlemen Fanciers of the English Pouter, may assume that I admire the 

smaller Pouting Horseman, to the larger English Pouter. 1 warned you in a 

former part of this Work, not to assume anything, for the contrary is the fact j 



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COLUMBA REVOLVENS. The Tumbler. 

183.— This bird is so called, from an innate faculty peculiar to this species, which 
Is their tumbling in the air, and which they effect by throwing themselves over 
backward, after the same manner that the most expert artists in tumbling perform 
what thev call the back-spring. (*) 



I never have, and never shall advise the young and inexperienced Fancier to 
art&npt to breed a second-rate bird, while he has the opportunity to breed a 
first-rate bird, therefore, I shall not advise him to breed the Pouting Horseman, 
while he has the opportunity to attempt to breed the English Pouter, any more 
than I shall advise him to breed a Skinum, Dragon, or Horseman, while he has 
the opportunity to attempt to breed a Carrier, for degeneracy will do that, in 
spite of the eflfbrts of the most experienced Fanciers ; but I am desirous that 
you should breed the English Pouter with more style and grace, with a hollow 
back, smaller in the girt, stout legs, but not like mill-posts, soft downy or 
snow-like feather legs, but not rushed and sproixted with feathers that almost 
prevents the bird from walking. Not having seen the English Pouter that will 
accompany this Work, although I entertain the highest opinion of my brother 
Fancier, Dean Wolstenholme, the Painter and Engraver, as to the production ; 
I shall, nevertheless, call your attention to it, believing it will he a copy for you 
to breed up to, and surpass if possible. 

' I deeply lament and deplore that there are not more Gentlemen in this noble, 
dignified, graceful and majestic Fancy, for its elegance, style, and boldness of 
figure, which so characterises the English Pouter, is well worthy of the utmost 
attention that the most accomplished Fancier can give it, and will amply repay 
him for all the toil, labour, time, trouble, and expense he has bestowed upon it. 

183.— Mayor, p. 68. Many people are of opinion that the Almond Tumbler 
will not perform this back spring, but I must beg leave to contradict this notion, 
as a gentleman with whom I am very intimately acquainted, who flies his Almond 
Tumblers in the country, has assured me they are full as expert in tumbling as 

any Tumbler whatever. 



* 183.— With 



when I first was 



about to enter the Fancy, and going among Fanciers to purchase Almond 
Tumblers one of the Fanciers said to me " See my Almond Tumblers tumble. 



and go out of sight." I thought, comparatively speaking, I was determined that 1 
would not lose sight of them : they were let out and began tumbling in good style, 
and mounted to that degree in the elements, that, in spite of all my watching them, 
although only over my head, and a bright morning, they did go out of my sight. 
I watched them till, I think, they appeared to me not larger than files, having by 
this time the crick in my neck by looking up so high and straight, for still I believe 
they were over my head ; at last they appeared in sight, came gradually down, 
tumbling naost splendidly. I must confess I was astonished, and would not believe 
it that of Tumblers going out of sight, straight over my head on a clear morning. 
On a moment's reflection, I ought not to be so hard of belief, for most of us have 

seen a balloon up, which is somewhat larger than a Pigeon, and we have watched 









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63 

184— A Tumbler is a very small (*) Pigeon, short bodied, full breasted, thiri 

necked, spindle-beaked, (t) and a short button head, (J) and th^ irides of the 
eyes ought to be of a bright pearl colour. 



that as carefully as we could, nevertheless, it has given us all the slip- I once 
saw three up at the same time, they appeared to me like migratory birds ; you 

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follow my leader, or one after another. I lost sight of them all, therefore it j? 
not strange that Pigeons should go out of sight, with regard to tumbling. I have 
no doubt you have often witnessed the Tumbler's back, but not go over. I have 
often heard it said the cause is owing to the bird having a long tail, and the bird's 
head touching the tail, balks the bird in going over. To obviate this, some have 



afterwards 



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therefore, in reasoning, it would follow that the Almond Tumbler being so small, 
snug, and compact a bird, being so short from the beak to the end of the tail, 
that if flown would tumble better than any other bird, far it is certain the shorter 
and more chubby the Tumblers are the more they tumble ; and, on the contrary, 
the large common run-out Tumblers like Skinum's, seldom or ever tumble. 

« 184.— A first-rate Tumbler, possessing the five properties, is, beyond all doubt, 
the smallest Pigeon that the Fancier takes into consideration. The Chinese 
Pigeon, of which you will read afterwards, very likely a Fancier never saw ; and if 
he did, what would he make of it in the end. Mr. Mooke, in Paragraph 212, | 
writing of the Jacobine Pigeon, states, " is, if true." the smallest of all Pigeons. * 
I have not any doubt but the Jack was a very pretty Pigeon in MooRis's time. 
One Hundred and Seventeen years ago ; but it has, at the present time, very much ^ 
degenerated, or the incomparable Tumbler, possessing the five properties, very J 
much improved-it is certain, one or the other. 

t 184.— Mator, p. 68. A «' short " spindle beak. 

t 184.— If my memory is not traitor to me, I believe in reading over the text 
Mr. John Moore's Work, you will often fall in with the description of button head. 
What a button was in Mooke's day, I will not presume to say. Do as I am doing 
now put your finger upon the top of the button of the coat you have on, and then 
answer me this question, " Is this the shape of head you are desirous of obtaining 
in the Tumbler," fit to put a muffin or crumpet board upon, that you are rampant 
mad or desirous of obtaining in the Tumbler. I think, decidedly not ; at the same 



time, willing to please you if possible, would you not rejoice to obtain the Carrier 
head like unto it ; the head and beak are perfectly straight across as is the button. 
Willing to please you if possible, now do again as I am doing, put your finger and 
thumb around the button ; now answer me this question. Is this the head that 
you are desirous of obtaining for the Tumbler. " There's a good time coming 
Boys ! there's a good time coming ! There's a good time coming. Boys ! only wait 
a little lono-er !" it therefore follows, that the button head is equally as applicable 
to the Carrier as to the Tumbler ; unless in Mr. Mooee's day, as in my day, when 
1 played at buttons, if you will only recollect or refresh your memory, when the 
battle was lost or won as regards the game of buttons, a Roley Foley was 



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185. — The Dutch Tumbler is much of the same make, but larger, often feathered 
legged, and more jowlter-headed with a thin flesh or skin round the eye, not 
unlike a very sheer dragoon; some people don't esteem them on this account, 
though I have known very good ones of the Dutch breed, not any ways inferior 
to what they call the English. Others have remarked that they are apt to 
tumble too much, and to lose ground, that is, sink beneath the rest of the flight, 
which is a Very great fault, but I have observed the same by the English, and am 
apt to believe that most of the extraordinary feathers have been produced by 
mixing with the Dutch breed; for it is generally observed that the English 
Tumblers are chiefly black, blue, or white. 

186. — This Pigeon affords a very great variety of colours in its plumage, as 
blacks, blues, whites, reds, yellows, dUns, sflvers, and, in short, a pleasant mixture 
of all these colours with the white. But amongst all, there is a mixture of three 
colours, vulgarly called aii Almond, (*) perhaps from the quantity of almond 
coloured feathers that are found in the hackle : others call it an ermine, I suppose 
from the black spots that are generally in it ; however I am sensible the name is 
not compatible to the term so called in heraldl-y, which is only white spotted with 
black; yet as the gentlemen of the Fancy have assigned this name to this motley 
colour, I shan't quarrel with them about a term : if the three colours run through 
the feathers of the flight and tail, it is reckoned a very good almond, or ermine^ 
and is much valued. 



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occasionally brought out to balance the account- We looked upon it not as we do 
upon a stray Pigeon, but as bankers do upon light sovereigns, and insisted upon a 
good discount. It is possible in Moore's day, fori was not there to witness, that 
they wore these Eoley Poley buttons, at all events it is a bad idea or word to 
express a round-headed Pigeon ; you had much better use the word — round, as a 
marble or bonce, or bagatelle ball or globular, and I sincerely hope that however 
many may follow me, that not any of you will make use of the word — Button head. 
1 consider it not applicable for what it was intended to convey. I have heard some 
country Fanciers use the term to express the round headed Tumbler, call them 
Bullet-headed; nevertheless, I think this a bad name, for I have seen bullets a bad 
shape, but consider them home made, the tiame I like best is, Globular. 

186, — Mr. MooKE presents the Gentlemen of the Pigeon Eancy with a very 

> . email account of the splendid Almond Tumbler ; however, the little he does say is to 

the point, it may be that he was ndt an Almond Tumbler Fancier. I am of opinion 

that the Almond Tumbler had not arrived to the excellence or standard that it 

J 

had acquired when Mayor wrote on the Almond Tumbler, exactly thirty years 
after. I cannot help thinking, from the beautiful account given by Mayor, 
\ compared to the account given by Moorb ; nevertheless, who, for all in all, as ^ 
Fancier, I style or call the pre-eminent of Fanciers. There must have been great 
spirit among the Gentlemen of the Almond Fancy during this thirty years. It has 
been stated that fifty or sixty years ago the Gentlemen of the Fancy had better 
birds than they have at the present time, that the Almond Tumbler was a more 
perfect bird than it is now. If the question was put to me thus. What is your 
opinion with regard to Tumblers, Carriers, or Pouters, whether there is anything 
alive in the present day equal to what has been seen, taking into consideration 
the many generations of Pigeon Fanciers who have shew^n, but now gone to 

■ 

their long homes ? I should conscientiously answer, No 1 The Fancy, like 





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187. 



_„_ -^.J5, An ermine Tumbler never comes to the full beauty of its feather, ) 
till it has twice molted off, and when it grows very old will decline till it runs ' 
^way to a down-right mottle or other colour, (*) "^ 



everything else, ebbs and flows, and in some generations there are more ardent 
and enthusiastic Fanciers than in other generations, besides, Pigeon Fancying 
has its fashions ; at times, it is all the rage to breed Carriers, other times the 



Pouters, then again Almonds, or black, red, or yellow-mottled lumblers; but a 
thorough good Fancier now a day, never stoops to breed toy birds, as they 
are called, the name being enough. If you require further proof of how little 
' 9se toy birds, as they are called, are held in estimation, read the account given 
by MooKE, and compare the toys of the present day, and then you will perceive 
how the Gentlemen of the Fancy have suifered them to degenerate, not being 
>ivorth the trouble bestowed upon them ; but to return, had Mooke seen the 
Almond Tumbler in the state of perfection that Mayor described it, I firmly 
believe he would have told us all about it ; he was too honest a Fancier to have 
done otherwise. Mayor gives a long and beautiful account of the Almond 
Tumbler, too long for me to place it in this book, for if I placed Mayor's account 
of the Almond Tumbler, should I have acted fair if I withheld the whole of the 
beautiful Treatise on the Almond Tumbler, by an Old Fancier, name not 
ttientioned ? The great unknown was no other than 
Southampton Buildings, Holborn, 



WiNDUS 



Work 



humble, but honest Fanciers, would not consider themselves justified in purchasing 
it; besides, having written my Almond Tumbler, it would not do for me to sit 
ill judgment and point out what was original matter, and what was not— this I 

leave for your careful consideration. 

* I cannot help thinking that after carefully having studied and digested Moore's 
work, that he has paid more attention to the Carrier and Pouter than he did to the 
Tumbler. It is very remarkable, but not more remarkable than true, that Mooke 
does not mention the black-mottled Tumbler, the yellow-mottled Tumbler, or the 
ted mottled Tumbler, neither does he mention the bald -head Tumbler, or the heard 
"humbler. He rather leaves me here in a fix, for as I stated before in a former part 
Of this work, that we had no right to assume anything. Read Paragraphs 185, 186. 
In Paragraph 186, Mooee says, this Pigeon affords a very great variety of colours 
iu its plumage, as blacks, blues, whites, reds, yellows, duns, silvers, and in short 
a pleasant mixture of all these colours with the white ; at the same time I am 
driven to exercise my brains upon this subject, and cannot help thinking but there 
must have been black, yellow and red -mottled Tumblers in Mookb's day. and as 
this F..ncy ranks so high with Gentlemen Eanciers, 

surprised that he did not mention the mottles, bald-heads, or beard Tumblers, 
may be for aught I know, as I was not here one hundred and seventeen years ago, 
that the mottles, bald heads, and beards, was as prevalent then - - 
and Mooke might have considered it unnecessary to mention it, or might have 
considered that he had mentioned it when he stated there were Tumblers of all 



I do feel astonished and 

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188. 



These Pigeons by their flight afford an admirable satisfaction, to those 
gentlemen of the Fancy that have time^ to attend them, and make their observa- 
tions ; for besides the pleasure that they afford by their tumbling, which is very 
considerable, they will rise to an immense height in the air, so that sometimes the 
eye can scarcely follow them, I have frequently lost sight of them, though they 
have been almost perpendicular over my head and the day has been very clear 
and serene ; yet by a fixed regard of the place where I lost them, (for they nevef 
ramble far like the Horseman, and if good when they are used to each other, a- 
flight of a dozen will keep so close together, that you may cover them all with a- 
large handkerchief) I have at length perceived them, but so small that they 
appeared no bigger than a sparrow. 

189. — At this height they will keep two, three, four and sometimes five hours 
together, nay I have heard it frequently asserted, that there have been pigeons of 
this breed, which have flown nine hours, (*) when they are up at their pitch, the 
better sort seldom or never tumble, choosing rather to afford you that diversion 
when they are more in sight, tumbling very often at the first beginning to rise, and 
again when they are coming down to pitch. 

190. — I now come to the method of raising a flight of Tumblers : and in the 
first place, they ought, if you have convenience, to be kept in a loft by themselves, 
not having any acquaintance, if possible, with your other pigeons; for if they are 
used to fly with others, it will make them sink their flight, when they observe 

others skimming in the air below them. 

191. — Secondly, they ought to be turned out, and pvit upon flight only once a 
day at most, and that by themselves, after being well acquainted with your 
house ; the morning is the best time for this diversion, and after they are come 
down, throw them a little hempseed or rape and canary to entice them in and bo 

keep them confined till the next day. 



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colours: I acknowledge there is, of whole or self-colour, as it is termed by the 
Fanciers.. Mayor, thirty years after, gives an excellent account of theblacks? 



yellows,- and red-mottled Tumblers, also of the bald-head and beard Tumblers, 

which I will place before you. 

189. — Mayok, p. 70. Or twelve hours ; but I hope to be excused in thinking 
the Gentlemen of the flying Eancy may have been deceived in point of tiniCj 
w^hen they have made those assertions, though I cannot absolutely contradict it* 
I remember to have heard an old Eancler (not a mile from Long Acre) declare^ 
that he once had a flight of Tumblers that soared so prodigiously high that (t^' 
use his own words) he could see them when they were out of sight, w^hich? 
undoubtedly, appears rather paradoxical ; but as miracles never cease, we shall 

suffer that to pass for one. 

I cannot help thinking but that Mr. Mayok required, a little charity, with tb^ 
old Eancler, for seeing his birds when out of sight ; there is such a differenci? 
in our vision at times. You all know that at times we see double; and what » 
makes it so remarkable at the same time is, that none of us can see a hole throug^^ 
a ladder. It is possible the first might apply to the Old Fancier, and the Seconal 
to Matok, For a moment allow me to indulge in the phantom of the mind ; ^ 
wonder where Mayok heard the old Fancier relate it, no doubt at a meeting o^ 
the Fanciers, and they were mellowing their clay ; you may depend upon it, it wa^ 
not at a Total Abstinence Society, for these places were not in fashion at the tin^^' 



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67 

Thirdly. If possible get one or two that have been used to flying high, for they 
^lU train your yoiu)g ones up the sooner, 

192. — Besides these things, the Fanciers have observed particular seasons, 
^'hen a Tumbler will make a more extravagant flight than ordinary, as for instance, 
'^vhen she sits upon eggs, and a few days after having fed off* the soft meat ; I can't 
find any philosophical reason to be given for this, yet as it is confirmed by obser- 
vation, I thought it worth taking notice of. 

193. — Another time, when they w^ill make a very extraordinary flight, is, when 
you observe ravens, crows or any other birds wantonly playing at a great height 
in the air ; this may be very easily accounted for, there being at such a time 
Something, in the temperament of the air, suitable to the genius of those birds, 
that delight in the upper regions of the atmosphere. 

194.— Here I must advise the Fancier, not to turn out his Tumblers, when 
there appear any signs of a rising fog, for by this means the sight of their habita- 
tion is intercepted, and many a good flight lost for ever. 

195. — A high wind will likewise drive them too far from home, so that if they 
are not entirely lost, they may lie out all night, and so be exposed to the cats or 

Various other accidents. 

196._Lastly, never turn out your hen Tumbler when she is with egg,^ for 
hesides that she is at that time sick and unfit to fly, so likewise by her long flight, 
she may drop her egg, an instance of which I have known, and so prevent the 
increase of your breed. (♦) 



196,— Mayor, p. 64. There was also a prize last season for black-mottled 
Tumblers, whose properties should agree with those of the Almond Tumbler, 
except the feather, which should be a black ground, the body mottled with white, 
^vith a black tail and flight ; and when they are in perfection, they are an excessive 
pretty fancy, and very valuable. There is, likewise, another very pretty fancy, 
<^qual at least, if not superior, to the black mottled, viz. the yellow mottled 
Tumbler; whose properties likewise agree with the Almond Tumbler, except the 
feather, which should be a yellow ground, the body mottled with white and a 
yellow flight and tail. Either of these two last mentioned fancies ai'e extremely 
useful (provided they answer in their other properties) to intermix occasionally 
M'ith the Almond. 

Mayor, p. 106, presents you with a print of the black mottled Tumbler, as he 
is pleased to call it with about forty black feathers in it; but on inspection, it is, in 
*^act, neither more or less than a white mottle with black flight and tail; and, as I 
Said before, with between thirty and forty black feathers, spotted over it. 

Moore not having mentioned this bird, but Mayor having given a beautiful 
description of it, I shall only have to mention an omission, or it may be that it 
^as not an omission, at all events, I believe it too late to prove whether in Moore 
Or Mayor's time they had the handkerchief back, as is now understood by the 
fanciers of the present day ; whether they had or whether they had not, one 
^liing I do know, there is not any mention of it by Moore, Mayor, Girtin, or 
^^y other writer upon the black, yellow, or red mottle ; and I wish you to under- 
I stand once for all, that a mottle is a mottle provided its colour be black, yellow, 
^^d, kite, or any other colour. I can very well recollect the time that I insisted 
^Pon the mottle of whatever colour, to have no other feather in it but about nine 



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68 

or ten white feathers in the shoulder of the wing, and that to form the rose 
pinion as it is called, being the most elegant of all pinions- However, listening 
to some worthy old Eanciers who have greatly contended for the handkerchief 
back, as a relief to the mottled Tumbler, by having the back a little way down 
mottled with white feathers, and experiencing the diiference between breeding 
a bird for feather and that of giving an Artist instruction in painting a Portrait, 
in which you can have nine, ten, or eleven white feathers placed in the portrait 
just where you please. It is otherwise with regard to breeding a mottle for feather, 
for the white feathers may just come where you do not want it, and then you 
call it spot rumped or glazed faced. Talk 's cheap and costs nothing ! I am aware 
that in five minutes' talk, you can breed prettier marked birds than in seven 
year's practise. It is possible you may put a question to me, and ask me whether 
I consider it, a Hit or Miss ? Luck 's all ! To which I most distinctly answer, No. 
But, on the contrary, requires great judgment, and knowing how your birds were 
bred, as regard matching. I beg leave most respectfully to apologize to you, sir, 
it being too late, and perceiving that you know a thing or two, of entering 
further into the discassion, as I said before, considering the time of morning ; 
I have only to act with you as the old crow did with the young crow, in giving 
its best advice on being turned loose upon town or country ; the old crow advised 
the young crow, that if ever it saw the boys, of whatever size, to stoop down 
to pick up a stone to throw at it, to be off immediately ; the young crow in its 
simplicity, put it to the old crow what it should do provided these boys, of 
whatever growth, should have a stone in their pockets, the old crow served the 
young crow as I am going to serve you, by wishing you, Good Morning. 

Mator, p. 74. The bald-pated Tumblers, which are of various colours in their 
body, as blacks, blues. &c. with a clean white head, a pearl eye, white flight and 
white tail, are esteemed good flyers, and are very pretty, even when flying in the 
air, for the contrast of the feather appears at that distance when the weather is 
clear and fine ; but the blue one are reputed to rise higher than any other colour. 
There are also some called blue or black -bearded, that is either of those colours 
having a long white spot from the under jaw and cheek, a little way down the 
throat and regularly shaped, which has a pretty effect as an ornament ; and if they 
run clean in the flight and tail, as before mentioned in the baldpated Pigeon, 

they are accounted handsome. 

I cannot by any possibility let this opportunity pass without noticing the 
admiration the old Fanciers bestow upon the pretty little blue whole feather 
Tumbler, with its black bars, whenever they have the opportunity to see one 5 but 

they are very scarce. 

The Almond Tumbler, the black, red, and yellow mottled Tumbler, bald-head 
and beards, of whatever colour in feather, the blue or white, or any colour, 
provided it is not objectionable— the fact is, a Tumbler is a Tumbler for All that and 
AH that ; and they all require to be equally good as touching the five properties as 
laid down by the Fanciers ; a white short-faced Tumbler, possessing the five 
properties with a pearl eye, would be considered a great curiosity, and would 



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ealise a large sum of money, I knew an old fancier, that after his death, one oi 



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69 



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his bald-heads, at auction, realized twenty-five pounds ; and I knew another case 
of a blue-beard, it was a bad colour, sooty blue or lead colour, that it could not be 
purchased for ten pounds ; therefore, it does not follow that it is so much in 
feather, but the fact is, in the properties of Carriage, Head, Beak, &c. which it is 
useless to attempt to deny, therefore it follows, the Almond Tumbler and other 
Tumblers, equally possessing the five properties alike, differ in nothing but feather. 
Mayor, p. 65. It may not be amiss before I conclude this head, to remark 
a distinction which the Society of Columbarians make between Pigeon Fanciers 
and Pigeon-keepers, viz.-such gentlemen who keep good of the sort, whether 
they are Almond, black-mottled, or yellow-mottled Tumblers, Carriers, Pouters, 
Horseman, Dragons, Leghorn or Spanish Bunts, Jacobines, Barbs, Turbets, Owls, 
broad tailed Shakers, Nuns, Spots, Trumpeters, &c., are styled Fanciers ; on 
the contrary, those who keep trash are caUed Pigeon-keepers, of which last 
denomination there are a surprising number. It is prodigiously amazing and 
unaccountable, that any gentleman will bestow food upon such as are not in 
reality worth the tares they devour, and can be accounted for no other way than 
by supposing such gentlemen utterly unacquainted with the true properties and 
perfections of the several species they entertain, which it must be confessed is 
rather an harsh supposition, (except they breed for the spit only, and even then 
their table might be as amply supplied by the better sort), the expense of keeping 
either being equal in every respect, the difference arising only in the purchase 
of one pair. Should any objection be made to the expense of the first purchase 
of the better sort, I answer it is infinitely cheaper to bestow four or five guineas 
on one pair of good birds (which in a short time would sufiiciently stock a loft, 
and repay the purchase with great interest. Pouters or Leghorn Runts excepted, 
because, as before observed, they must not be bred in and in), than to begin 
with bad ones at eighteen pence a pair, the value of which can never be enhanced. 
I hope I need not here apologize, or be thought iUnatured by those gentlemen 
whose fancy may differ from mine, in giving my real sentiments and opinion 
so freely, as I have advanced nothing but matter of fact, and is the result of many 
years experience, having been possessed (I believe I may venture to say, without 
vanity), of as good, if not the best in England, of Fancy Pigeons, besides toys of 

all kinds. 

It is my intention of having two Almond Tumblers, a black-mottle, a red- 
bald-head, and yellow-beard, all Tumblers to accompany this Work, for your 
observations and reflections. I would here most particularly call your attention to 
the five properties of the Tumbler, contained in my Almond Tumbler, p. 7, 8, 9, 
In fact the whole of my Almond Tumbler is applicable to any other Tumbler, as 
touching the five properties, &c. &c. (with only the exception of the Feather.) 
For what, after all, is an Almond, but a Tumbler ! The cause of my writing so 
little in this place upon the Tumbler is, having written so fully at another part of 
the work on the Almond Tumbler, and, for the last time, to rivet on your memory 
is applicable to all Tumblers. 



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COLUMBA DOMESTICA LABRONIS s'eu PISARUM. 

The Leghorn Bunt. 

■ 

197.— The Leghorn Runt is a stately large Pigeon, seven inches or better in 
legs, close feathered, and fast fleshed, extremely broad chested and very short in 
the back, he carries his tail, when he walks, somewhat tunied up likq a duck, but 
when he plays, he tucks it down ; his neck is longer than any^ther Pigeon which 
he carries bending like a goose or a swan. He is goose headed, and his eye lies 
1^ hollow m his head, with a thin skin round it much like the Dutch Tumbler, but 
broader, iis^beak is very short for so large a bird, with a small wattle on it, and the 
upper chap a little benaing over the undeff " 

198.— They are a very tender bird, (*) and great care ought to be taken of their 

young ones, (f) I was offered seventeen shillings for a single cock, and Sir 

DoLBEY Thomas would have given me a guinea and a half for the same bird. {%) 

Ihere are very few true original ones of this breed in England; and if matched to 

a bpanish Runt, they will breed a very large Pigeon, closer in flesh and feather, 

than the Spanish Runt, and will breed much faster ;(§) I have killed of their young 

ones, which when on the spit were full as large as middling spring fowls; (1|) 

where note that these and all other Runts, increase in their bulk, till they are three 
or four years old. 

199.— As to their feather, they are various, but the best that I have seen were 
either black or red mottled. 

200.— There is a vast difference in these birds, and I have seen very bad ones 
that have been brought from Leghorn, little better than a common Runt; how- 
ever this is the genuine true description of the Leghorn Runt, which is more 
valued than any other sort of Runts. 

201.— This Pigeon was originally bred either at Pisae in the Duke of Tuscany 's 
dominions, or at Pisse in Peloponesus, and from thence brought to Leghorn, and 
so transmitted to us; but I rather judge the latter* because it answers the descrip- 
tion of the Pigeon which Willoughrs- in his Ornithology calls Columba Turcica 
seu Persica, the Turkish or Persian Pigeon, 



* 198.—MAYOB, p. 109. But I must beg leave to dissent from that opinion of 
them, having kept them several winters in a little shed or room, one side of which 
was entirely open, and exposed to the easterly winds, with no other fence but a 
net, which kept them confined. 

t 198-— Ibid. p. 109, For they rear but few in the season if left to bring them 
up themselves, therefore it would be most proper to shift their eggs under a 
Dragon, or some other good nurse, in the same manner as mentioned of the Pouter ; 
remembering to give them a young one of some kind to feed off their soft meat, if 
this method be pursued they will breed very well. 

X 198.— Ibid. p. 109, I have known four guineas given for a pair of these birds. 

§ 198.— Ibid. p. 109. I had a hen of the Leghorn breed that weighed two pounds 
two ounces, avoirdupoise weight. 

II 198.— GiRTiN, p. 83. Some of this sort when brought to table have appeared 
as large as a pullet ; and a certain veteran Fancier of credit has assured us, that 
he killed a hen of the Leghorn breed that weighed two pounds and a half, 
avoirdupoise weight. 



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COLUMBA DOMESTICA HISPANIC. 

77ie Spanish Hunt 

202 —This Pigeon, as may readily be perceived by its name, comes originally 
from Spain ; and is the longest bodied of all pigeons ; I have seen them three and 
twenty inches long, from the Apex of the beak to the extremity of the tail, they 
are thick and short legged, loose feathered, and loose fleshed, and don t walk erect 
as the Leghorn Runt does. 

203.— There are of all feathers in this kind of bird, but' being short-legged, are 
apt to sit too heavy upon their eggs, and by that means break them, to prevent 
which inconvenience, the best way is to put chalk eggs under them, and set then- 
eggs under a pair of smaller Runts or Powting-horseman, which are more kindly 
b^leders ; not forgetting to give your Spanish Runts a pair of young ones, at the 
time when they ought to hatch, that they may feed off their soft meat, which they 
always prepare against that time. 

204 I have seen a Pigeon very much resembling the Spanish Rvmt, with 

lono^er legs, but I rather take these Runts to come from Mexico, Peru, or some 

other parts 'of the Spanish West Indies. 

COLUMBA DOMESTICA FRISI-^. 

The Friesland Runt. 

205 —This Pigeon comes from Friesland, and is one of the larger sort of 
middle-sized Runts ; its feathers stand all reverted, and I can't see for what it can 
be admired except for its ugliness. 

206.-There are other sorts of Runts, as the Roman Runt which is so big and 
heavy it can hardly fly ; and the Smyrna Runt, which is middle sized and 
feather-footed. I have seen the feathers growing on the outside of each foot that 
thevlook as if they carried wings on their feet, I have measured some of these ; 
feat^hers which havj been four inche_s and a half long ; these birds are very apt to 
drartheir eggs and young ones out of the nest, if not kept clean and dry To 
thefe we mfy add the fommon Runt, which are kept purely for the dish, and 
generaUv in llcker-holes in inn yards or other places, and are well known to every 
body ; they are good feeders and therefore good nurses for any of the more 
curious sorts of Pigeons. 

207. The following sorts of Pigeons are generally deemed and called Toys by 

the gentlemen of the Fancy. 

COLUMBA MACULATA. Tlie Spot. 

208 —This Pigeon is about the size of a small Runt, and was first transmitted to 
us from Holland, but from whence the original of this breed came, I can t as yet 
learn • they have a spot upon their heads, just above their beak, and from thence - 
take their name, the feathers of the tail are of the same colour with the spot, and 

he rest of their body is all white. The spot and tail in some of these Pigeons is 
bLkn others red, in others yellow ; and I have been informed that there are ( 
some blue -they look pretty when they spread their tail and fly, and always breed 
their young ones of the same colour. I 

COLUMBA RIDENS. The Laugher. 

209 —This Pigeon is about the size of middling Runt, and much of the same 
make,"and I am informed has a very bright pearl eye, almost ^^^^^e 5 as for ^^s 
feather it is red-mottled ; and some tell me they have seen blues. They are said 



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to come from the Holy Land near Jerusalem. When the cock plays to his hen, 

he has a hoarse coo, not unlike the guggling of a bottle of water, when poured 
out, and then makes a noise, which very much imitates a soft laughter, and from 
thence this bird has its name. 

COLUMBA TIBICEN. The Trumpeter. 

210, — ^The Trumpeter is a bird much about the size of a Laugher, and very 
runtishly made ; they are generally pearle-eyed, black-mottled, very feather- 
footed and legged, turn crowned like the Nun, and sometimes like a Finikin, 
but much larger, which I take to be the better sort as being more melodious ; but 
the best characteristic to know them, is a tuft of feathers growing at the root of 
the beak, and the larger this tuft is, the more they are esteemed. The reason of 
their name, is from their imitating the sound of a trumpet after playing : though 
I once enquired of a German, who brought Pigeons over to sell here, the reason of 
their being so called, and as he told me, he believed, was that they were first 
brought to Holland by a drummer or trumpeter, and so were called trumpeters from 
him. Credat Judaeus Apella, let who will swallow this gudgeon, (*) 

211. — The more salacious they are, the more they will trumpet; for which 
reason, if you have a mind to be often entertained with their melody, you must 
give them good store of hemp-seed ; otherwise they will seldom trumpet much, 
except in Spring, when they are naturally more salacious than usual. 

COLUMBA CYPRIA CUCULLATA. 

The Jacohine Pigeon. 

L 

212. — The Jacohine, or as it is vulgarly called for shortness, the Jack, is, if 
true, the smallest of all Pigeons, and the smaller still the better; it has a range of 
feathers inverted quite over the hinder part of the head, and reaching down on 
each side of the neck to the shoulders of the wings, which forms a kind of a fryer's 
hood ; from hence this Pigeon has its name Jacobine, because the fathers of that 
order all wear hoods to cover their bald crowns ; hence the upper part of this 
range of feathers is called the hood, and the more compact these feathers are, and 
the closer to the head, so much the more this bird is esteemed : The lower part of 
this range of feathers is called by us, the chain, but the Dutch call it the cravat, 
the feathers of this chain ought to be long and close, so that if you strain the neck 
a little, by taking hold of the bill, the two sides will lap over each other in some of 
the best ; but there are but very few now to be found in England compleat.(t). 



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* 210.-^It appears a hundred and seventeen years ago, when Moore wrote his 
book, there were gudgeons in the world, but since then the flats have become 

more fashionable. 

1 212.— Mayor, p. 114. The breed of them having suffered much in my opinion 
in general, by a wrong method of propagating them, viz—that of intermixing 
the breed of the EufF with them, in order to improve their chain, by lengthening 
the feathers thereof, whereby, the chain is considerably detrimented by being 
looser, and not so closely connected as it otherwise would have been, had the 
Jack and the Euff been entirely kept separate. It has likewise caused the Jack 
to be bred larger, a longer beak, and looser in its hood than it was originally; for 
the true Jack is a small bird, very little larger than a Tumbler, and the smaller 

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it is the better. 

Mator, P- 115. The Pigeon dealers have a method of coaxing the hood and 
chain of this bird (as the term is) which they perform by clipping the feathers 



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213.— The Jacobine ought to have a very short bill, the shorter the better, and 



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what it will, they ought to have a clean white head, white flight. 



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^ clean pearle eye. 

214.— As fo 

^e the feather 

^'hite tail. 

215. — Of these Pigeons some are feathered legged and footed, others are not, 
and both sorts are equally esteemed, according to th.e various inclination of 
different fanciers. (*) 

COLUMBA CUCULLATA MINOR. 2he Capuchine. 

216.— This Pigeon is in shape and make very like the Jacobine, and has its 
liame like the former from another set of hooded ecclesiastics. 

217.~It is something larger in body than the Jack, its beak longer, it has a 
tolerable hood, but no chain, it is in feather (f) and other properties the same. Some 
^vill assert it to be a distinct species, but I am more inclinable to imagine it is only 
9- bastard breed from a Jacobine and another Pigeon ; however thus far I am sure, 
that a Jack and another will breed a bird so like it, as will puzzle the authors of 
this assertion to distinguish it, from what they call their separate species. (J). 



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Q-t the back part of the head and neck, and continually stroking the hood and 
chain forwards, which makes them advance further than they otherwise would ; 
^nd sometimes they cut a piece of skin out between the throat and the chest, and 
sew it up again, by which means the chain is drawn closer. It should have a 
^'ery small rise, &:c. 

\ 

* 215.— MayoKj p. 116. In France and Holland they have brought this specie?. 
to much greater perfection than in England, for of late years they have been 
inuch neglected here, which I think the greater pity, as they are by far the most 
pleasing of any of the Toy Pigeons whatever. A very ingenious gentleman of 
^}' acquaintance, and an e.^ceeding good Fancier, as well as a great Naturalist, 
being at Paris last summer, pm'chased two pairs of these birds, and charged 
himself with the trouble and care of bringing them over to England, which he 
effected, in order to restore the true original breed of them, but was prevented 
^ti that, by a cat getting into his loft, and thereby destroying them all. 

Mayor, p. 117. The following being in itself so uncommon, and a Fact, 
t cannot help taking notice of it ; a person the other day passing through Fleet 
Street, seeing a piint of this bird at a shop window, stopped to make his 
observations thereon, and having well viewed it he went in and purchased it, 

V 

declaring to the seller, that he never saw a stronger likeness in his life, and, as 
for the wig, it was exactly the same he always wore, for be imagined it altogether 
^ caricature of one of his intimate acquaintances; and the person of whom he 
Wght it, did not think it necessary at that time to undeceive him. 

t 217. —Mayor, p. 121. Its feathers is various, sometimes^blue, red, yellow, 
bottled, black, &c. ; but should, like the Jack, alwayTTiave^a clean white head, 
^hite flight and white tail, and a pearl eye. 

X 217.— Ibid. p. 122, These sort are in very small esteem amongst the Fanciers, 
though each particular species have their admirers, 

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- COLUMBA VESTALIS. The Nun. 

218.— The Ruff should in proper order have been next inserted, as being nearest 
in kind to the two foregoing ; but we chose rather to introduce the Nun in this 
place, that she might be as near as possible to those venerable sons of the church, 
who generally take a great delight to associate themselves with the female saints. 

219. — The Nun therefore is a bird somewhat larger than a Jacobine, her 
plumage is very particular, and she seems entirely to take her name from it, her 
head being as it were covered with a veiL (*) 

220.— Her body is all white, her head, tail and six of her flight feathers ought 
to be entirely black, red and yellow ; (f) and whatever feathers vary from this are 
said to be foul, though the best of them all will sometimes apt to breed a few foul 
feathers, and those that are but little so, though not so much valued, will often 
breed as clean feathered birds as those that are not. 

221. — A Nun ought likewise to be pearle-eyed, and to have a white hood, or tuft 
of feathers on the hinder part of the head, which the larger it is, adds a consider- 
able beauty to the bird. 



COLUMBA GALEATA. The Helmet. 



223. 



The 



—This Pigeon is much about the size of a Nun, or somewhat bigger. 

head, tail, and flight-feathers of the wings, are always of one colour, as black, red, 
yellow ; and I have been informed there are some blue, and all the rest of the 
I body white, so that the chief difference between them and the Nun is, that they 
have no hood on the hinder part of the head and are generally gravel-eyed. 

224.— They are called Helmets from their heads being covered with a plumage 
which is distinct in colour from the body, and appears somewhat hke a helmet to 
cover the head. 



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COLUMBA CUCULLATA RUDIS. The Ruff. 

225.— This Pigeon is larger than the true original Jacobine, though in shape 
and make much the same. {%) 

226. — It has a longer beakj^the irides of the eyes in some are of a pearl-colour, 
in others of a gravel colour, the feathei's of its hood and chain are much longer, 
though the chain does not come down so low to the shoulders of the wings, neither 
are they near so compact and close as the others, but are apt to blow about with 



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* 219.— Mayor, p. 123, Is a bird that attracts the eye greatly, from the contrast 
in her plumage, which is very particular. 

^ 220.— Ibid. p. 123. Namely, if her head be black, her tail and flight should be 
black likewise ; if her head be red, then her tail and flight should be red ; or if her 
head be yellow, her tail and flight should be also yellow ; and are accordingly called 
either red-beaded Nuns, yellow -headed Nuns, &c. Should a black-headed Nun 
have a white or any other coloured feather in her head, except black, she would be 
called foul-headed ; or a white feather in her flight, she would be foul-flighted, &c. 
and the same rule stands good in the red -headed or yellow-headed Nuns. 

+ 225.— Mayor, p. 119. Insomuch that they have been frequently sold for such, 
to those who have not thoroughly understood the properties belonging to the Jack. 



^ ^ I 



* 



75 

every blast of wind, fall more backward off tbe bead, and lie in a rough confused 
manner, whence the Pigeon has its name. (*) 

227 -The strain of Jacobines has been much vitiated by matching them to this 
Pigeon in ordex to improve their chain by the length of the Ruff's feathers but 
insiad'of this, the Jack is bred larger, longer beaked, looser m its hood and chain , 
and in short worsted in all its original properties. 



COLUMBA IN GYRUM 



m 



h 

228.-This Pigeon is in make and shape very like a common Runt, and much 
about the same size. The crown of its head is turned much after the manner of a 
^nats lirit is gravel-eyed and has a tuft of f-the- jn t ^ hm^^^^^^^ 
crown which runs down its neck not unlike a horses main ( it is cleanea lootea 
and legged and always black, and blue pied When it is salacious, it -e-ver its 
hen and turns round three or four times, flapping its wmgs, then reverses and 
turns as many the other way. 

99Q —Where a gentleman in the country to stock a dove-house with this sort of 
Pige^ons, their whimsical gestures might engage the country people to imagme he 
kept an enchanted castle. 

230 -Some people disapprove of this sort of Pigeons as apt to vitiate their 
other krairby^maling a hen squat by these antic gestures; but m fact they are 
no more dangerous that way than any other breed when salacious. 



I 



.* 



COLUMBA CIRCUMAGENS 



The Turner. 



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9-^ This Piffeon is in many respects like the Pinnikin, except that when it is 






I 



COLUMBA NUMIDICA 



The Barb, or Barbery 



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2'?2-This Pigeon is in size somewhat larger than a Jacobine it is called a Barb 
for sh^;7nei inSd of "he Barbary Pigeon, being ongmally brought from that 

^° 233^— It has a very short beak like a bull-finch, with a very small wattle, and a 
naked" circle of tuberous red flesh round the eyes, whose irides are of apearle colour, 
the broader and redder this flesh is, the more the bird is valued, th«"g ?/J ^^J^/y 
narrow when the bird is young, and does not come to its full growth till they are 
?our yeaTsold. Some of them have a tuft of feathers on the hinder part of the^ 
head, somewhat like a Finniken, and others not. -^ 

234.-Mr. WiLLOUGHBy, in his description of this bird, is S^^y / V^^ f^f 
mistake in imagining the tuberous flesh to be white m some birds of this kind, 
"ifch ii neve'l, though it will grow paler when the bird is sick ; but when it 
recovers, always reassumes its wonted redness. „• . . 

2S5 -Their original colour is either black or dun, though there are Pieds of 
bo'ithes J feathers! but they are bred from the Barb and Mahomet, and are not so 

much valued. 



t 226. 



r z^o -Mayor, p. 120. Their feather is also the same as that of the Jack ; so 
that it is not to be so much wondered at, that those who were unacquainted with 
the properties of the true original Jack, should have a Ruflf imposed on them m its 
stead • hut I hope we have sufficiently described the Ruff to be worse than the Jack 
in all its properties, so as to prevent future impositions of that kind. 



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76 
COLUMBA NUMIDICA ALBA. The Mahomet. 



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236. 



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-This Pigeon is no more in reality than a white Barb, which makes the 
red tuberous flesh round the eyes look very beautiful. All that can further be 
added with regard to this Pigeon, is to assign the reason, why this name of 
Mahomet is given to it, which I take to be this. 

237.— Mahomet, the imposter prophet of the Turkish religion, and author of the 
Alcoran, is reputed by some authors, and those of good note, as Scalio-er, Grotius, 
and Sionita, to have made use of the following stratagem, to induce the credulous 
Arabians to believe that he conversed frequently with the Holy Spirit, and received 
from his mission as a prophet, and the new doctrines he was about to broach. 

238. — This imposture he carried on in this manner: he took a young pigeon of 
this kind which we are now describing, and which by the immaculate whiteness of 
its plumage, was not an improper emblem of purity and the celestial dove : this 
bird he brought up by hand, and made it very tame and familiar, till at last he 
taught it to eat meat out of his ear, which he might easily do, especially if he 
fed it with rape or hemp-seed there, which all Pigeons are naturally fond of, till 
at last the Pigeon would come frequently to search for its food there. This bird 
he imposed upon the Arabians to be the Holy Ghost, whispering the dictates of the 
Almighty, and teaching him the precepts of his new law, and from hence, this 
bird IS called after him by the name of Mahomet. (*) 

239.— Since we are thus entered into the story of this Imposter, it may not be 
amiss to amuse our readers, with a stratagem an Arabian girl made use of to prove 
the truth of his pretended mission ; the story as related by D. Prideaux in his life 
of Mahomet runs thus. 

240.— Three years before his death, he led forth his army against Chaibar, a city 
inhabited by Arabs of the Jewish religion, who being overthrown by him in'battle 
he besieged their city and took it by storm. And here those who are the magni- 
fiers of Ali, tell this miracle of him, that in the assault, Sampson like, he plucked 
up one of the gates of the city (which was of that weight, saith Abul Feda, that 
eight other men could not move it) and held it before him for a shield to defend 
himself against the beseiged, till the city was taken. On Mahomet's entering the 
town, he took up his quarters in the house of Hareth, one of the principal inhabit- 
ants of the place; whose daughter Zainab making ready a shoulder of mutton for 
his supper, poisoned it ; and here those who are for ascribing miracles to Mahomet, 
tells us that the shoulder of mutton spoke to him, and discovered that it was 
poisoned 5 but it seems if it did so, it was too late to do him any good. For 
Basher, one of his companions, falling on too greedily, to eat of it, fell down 
dead on the place. And although Mahomet had not immediately the same fate, 
because not liking the taste, he spit out again what he had taken into his mouth] 

* 238.— Mayok, p. 141. So far Mr. Mooee : and I think he has extremely well 
accounted for its. being so called ; but it is the opinion of many Fanciers that the 
bird called a Mahomet is nearly a cream coloured, with bars cross the wings as 
black as ebony, the feathers very particular, being of two colours : the upper part 
or surface of them, appearing of a cream, and underneath a kind of sooty colour, 
nearly approaching to black ; as are likewise the flue-feathers, and even the skin, 
which I never observed in any other Pigeon but these ; its size much like that of a 
Tuibit, with a fine gullet, and in lieu of a frill, the feathers rather appear like a 
seam, the head is short, and inclhied to be thick ; hath an orange-eye, and a small 
naked circle of black flesh round the same ; and a beak something resembling that 
of a bullfinch with a small black wattle on it. 

Mayoe, p. 142. I must confess I rather think this bird a mixed strain, between 
a Turbit and some other Pigeon. 



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77 

yet he let down enough to do his business : for he was never well after this supper, 
^nd at three years end died of it. The maid being asked why she did this, 
answeredj that she had a mind to make trial whether he were a prophet or no. 
For were he a prophet, said she, he could certainly know that the meat was 
poisoned ; and therefore would receive no harm from it ; but if he were not a 
Prophet, she thought she should do the world good service in ridding it of so 
"Wicked a tyrant. 

241. — During his sickness, he much complained of the bit which he had taken 
at Chaibar, telling those that came to visit him, that he had felt the torments of it 
in his body ever since, and that at times it brought on him very dolorous pains, - 
and that then it was going to break his very heart strings. And when among 
others, there came to see him the mother of Basher, who died on the spot, of that 
poison, he cried out, O mother of Basher, the veins of my heart are now breaking 
of the bit which I eat with your son at Chaibar : so that it seems notwithstanding 
the intimacy which he pretended with the angel Gabriel, and the continual revela- 
tion which he bragged that he received from him, he could not be preserved from 
thus perishing by the hands of a silly girl. 

COLUMBA FIMBRIATA. The Turbit. 

242. — The reason, why this pigeon is so named by the English, I cannot by \ 
any means account for; the low Dutch call it cort-beke, (*) or short-bill upon the \ 
account of the shortness of its beak. i 

243. — It is a small Pigeon very little bigger than a Jacobine, its beak is veiy \ 
short like a partridge, and the shorter the better; it has a round button head, and I) 
the feathers on the breast open and reflect both ways, standing out almost like a 
fringe or the frill of a modern shirt ; this is called the purle, and the more of it 
the bird has, the more it is admired. 

244. — As for the feather, their tail and back of the wings ought to be of one 
entire colour, as blue, black, red, yellow, dun and sometimes chequered ; (f) the 
flight feathers and all the rest of the body should be white. (J) They are a very pretty 
light pigeon, and if used to fly when young, some of them make very good flyers. 
1 have seen a flight of them kept by one Girton that would mount almost high 
as Tumblers. (§) 

245. — There are of this sort all white, black, and blue, which by a mistake are 
often called and taken for owls. 



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COLUMBA BUBO NOMINATA. The Owl 



246. 



■This Pigeon is in make and shape like the former, except that the 
^hap of its beak is hooked over like an owl's, from whence it has its name. 



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* 242, — GiKTiN, p. 95. From a corruption of the word cortback, or cortbete, 
as it is called by the Dutch, which word seems to be originally derived from the 
I'rench conrtbec, and signifies a short bill, for which this Pigeon is remarkable. 

f 244. — Mayor, p- 127- The red and yellow ones excepted, whose tails should 
be white ; and those that are blue, should have black bars across the wings. 

+ 244.— Matok, p. 128. And are called by the Fanciers (according to the colour 
they are of) as black-shouldered, yellow-shouldered, blue-shouldered Turbits, &c. 

§ 244— GiRTiK, p. 96. A veteran Fancier of some note has informed us that 
he trained a flight of these birds, which, for their lofty soaring, seemed to dispute 
^he palm with his Tumblers. 

246. — Mayok, p. 125. This bird, from its pleasing, meek, and innocent aspect, 

^ should have described immediately after the Jacobine, it being, in my opinion. 



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247. — Its plumage (*) is always entirely white, blue, or black, (f) 



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COLUMBA TREMULA LATICAUDA. 

4 

J"Ae JBroad'-iailed Shaker. 

248 — This Pigeon, has a beautiful long thin neck, -which bends like the neck of 
a swan, leaning towards the back ; it has a frequent tremulous motion, or shaking 
in the neck, especially when salacious, which is the reason they are called 
Shakers. It has a full breast, a very short back, and a tail consisting of a great 
number of feathers, seldom less than four and twenty, which it spreads in a very 
elegant manner, like the tail of a turkey cock, and throws it up so much that the 
head and tail frequently meet. 

249. — They are called by some Fan-tails, and I once saw one that had ^ix and 
feathers in its tail ; but when they have so many feathers it is apt to make 
tTiemrrop iheir tails, and not let it meet with their head, which is a very great 
fault. 

260. — They are most commonly all white, though I have seen both black, blue, 
red and yellow pieds, but the white ones have generally the best carriage in their 
tail and head: there are two sorts of these broad-tailed shakers, the one having a 
neck much longer and more slender than the pther, but the longest neck is the 
most beautiful and the most esteemed. 



COLUMBA TREMULA ARCTICAUDA. 

77ie Narrow-tailed Shaker. 

251. — This Pigeon is reckoned by some a distinct species, though I am apt to 
believe it is only a bastard breed between the foregoing and some other bird. Its 
neck is shorter and thicker, its back longer, the feathers of its tail are not so much 
spread out, but fall as it were double, lying over one another, and the tail generally 
lops very much. (J) 



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the next in point of beauty ; but as Mr. Moore observes : " 'Tis pity to separate 
those venerable Sons of Clergy, and the female Saints /' therefore, we have 
suifered them to follow each other for that reason only. It has a very round 

button head and gravel eye. 

* 247.— Mayor, p. 126. The feathers on the breast open and reflect both ways 
expanding itself something like a rose/which is called the purle by some, and 
by others the frill, and the more the bird has of that the better, with a gullet 
reaching down from the beak to the frill. 

t 247.— Mayor, p. 126. Or yellow, &c., except some that are chequered. The 
blue ones should have black bars across the wings, and the lighter they are in 
colour, particularly in the hackle, the more they are valued. These birds should 
have their breeding places made so that they may sit in private, as mentioned 
under the bead of building a loft, for they are very wild, like the Carrier, and 
apt to fly off tbeir eggs if in the least disturbed. 

J 251.— Mayor, p. 131. Its feather varies as the former, but are generally 
white ; though I have seen an Almond of this sort, which was purchased by a 
certain nobleman. 



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of the less a 
of this Work 



Words 



A. 



Abstemious, moderate, or temperate. 

Adapted, made fit for. 

Adepts, masters of, or proficients in. 

Adulterated, counterfeited, or made 

worse. 
Agriculture, the art of husbandry, or 

improvement of land to make it 

fertile. 

Alcoran, the Turks book of their law or 
gospel, written by the false prophet 
Mahomet. 

Anus, the orifice, or hole of the funda- 
ment. 

Apex, the point or top of anything. 

Atmosphere, that part of the air next 
our earth which receives and con- 
tains the vapours and exhalations, 

B. 

Bashaw, a governor or magistrate of a 
particular place, or provmce among 
the Turks, Bazora a city m Persia. 

Cataplasm, a poultice. Cephalsea, an 
obstinate head-ache, 

Chalaz^, hail-stones. 

Characteristic, a mark or sign. 

Chronic, that which is of a long^ con- 
tinuance, and not presently coming to 



Emergent, something of consequence 

that happens on a sudden. 
Emisssion, a sending forth, a casting out. 
To engender, to breed within, com- 
monly spoken of animals, and not of 

human nature. 
Erect, upright. 

Eruption, an issuing, or breaking out. 
Excrementitious, pertaining to the 

excrement, or whatever is evacuated, 

or cast out of the body. 
Excrescency, superfluous flesh that 

grows, to any part of the body. 
Exhausted, drained or emptied. 
External, outward. 
Extremity, the edge, end, brink, or 

border of a ^ing. 
To Extricate, to disentangle, or dis- 
engage. F- 

Fertility, fruitfulness. 

Foetus, the young of any animal per- 
fectly formed. 

Frail, the basket in which raisins are 
brought over. 

Furfuraceous, scurfy, from its resem- 
blance to bran. 

G. 

-I 

Generation, a real action, whereby a 
living creature begets another like it 
of the same kind. 



a height. 
Cognisance, knowledge or notice. 
Coition the intercourse between male Genus, the kind. 



Genius, disposition, or inclination. 
Genuine, natural, or real. 



and female. ^ 

Compact, close, well jomed together. 
Concurrence, meeting, or assistance. 
Contiguous, close, touching, as when 

the surface of one body meets with 

another. 
Contingency, casualty, or accident. 
Contrast, a difference, or opposition of 

figure, which is reckoned beauty. 
Caustic, a composition for burning, or 

eating holes in the part to which it is 

applied. 

Dalliance, toying, or wantonness. 
Diarrhsea, looseness. 
Dictates, precepts, or rules. 
Dissolution, a dissolving or separation 

of the parts. 
Diuretic, that provokes urine. 

Dolorous, grievous, sad. 

E. 

Effbete, barren. 

Emblem, a representation of some mo- 
ral notion by way of picture, or 
device. 



L 



D. 



Immaculate, spotless, unspotted. 
Immense, unmeasurable, vast, prodi- 
gious. 
Immerst, plunged or dipped into. 
To Impregnate, to render prolific, or fit 

to bring forth 

Incident, liable to, any thing that 
happens, or falls out. 

Incubation, sitting a brood. 

Incompatible, not suitable to, not agree- 
ing with. 

Inferior, lower in degree, worse. 

Ingredient, the separate parts, that go 
to the making up a mixed body. 

Injecting, casting or squirting in. 

Innate, inbred, natural. 

Instinct, that disposition, or natural 
sagacity in any creature, which by its 
peculiar formation it is naturall;^ 
endowed with, by virtue whereof, 
they are enabled to provide for them- 
selves, know what is good for them 
and are determined to preserve and 
propagate their species. 



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Intercepted, prevented. 
Interna], inward. 

Inverted, turned backward, or the con- 
trary way from the common custom. 
Iris, the circle round the black spot, or 

pupil of the eye. 
Ii'ides, the plural number of the fore- 

. going. L. 

LieUj the place, room or stead of, 

M. 

Machine, an engine fitted for some 

peculiar purpose. 
Magnitude, size, bulk, bigness. 
Malady, a disease. 
Malignity, hurtfulness, mischievous 

quality. 
Matrix, that part of the v/omb wherein 

the foetus, or the egg is conceived 

and nourished till the time of its 

delivery. 

Megrims, a distemper which affects the 
temples or head. 

Mission, a sending, or an authority to 
preach. 

Nitrous, having the quality of nitre. 
Nutriment, nourishment or food. 

O. 

Oesophagus, the gullet, being a passage 
for the food, situate behind the wind- 
pipe. 

Operation, a labouring or working. 

Ornithology, a description of the several 
kinds and natures of birds. 

Ossificated, turned to, or become bone. 

Ovary, that part of the womb in which 
the eggs are contained, called by the 

fanciers, the egg-bag. 

P. 

Perpendicular, directly upright. 

Plastic virtue, a term invented by natu- 
ralists to express the faculty of gener- 
ation. 

Plumage, the colour and mixture of the 
feathers. 

Pores, holes, or void spaces between the 
particles or smaller parts of matter. 

Potent, powerful. 

Potestates, or powers, are the result of 
a combination or union of the essential 
oils with the spirit, wherein it is sup- 
posed are contained all the principal 
virtues. 

Pressure, the pressing of the air by its 

gravity or weight 
Priority, being first in rank, order, or 



Progeny, oilspnng, issue, or race. 
Projecting, standing out. 



Prolific, fruitful, apt to breed. 

Propagation, the act of encreasing, or 

multiply the kind. 
Protuberant, bunching, or standing out. 
Provocative, apt to provoke, or stir up. 

Pustules, wheals or pimples full of 
matter. 

R. 

Reception, receiving. 

Recipe, a prescription or bill, giving 
directions for preparing or compound- 
ing of a medicine. 

Reflected, turned back. 

Repository, a place to lay up anything. 

Resservoir, a receiver to retain any- 
thing till wanted. 

Restorative, of a restoring or strength- 
ening nature. 

Reverses, turns backs. 

Reverted, turn back. 

S. 

Sagacity, wisdom or cunning. 
Salacious, wanton, rank. 

Salaciousness, wantonness, or rankness. 

Scrophula, the evil. 

Seraglio, the palace of the grand Seig- 
nior at Constantinople, where he 
keeps his court, concubines, &c. 

Species, a particular sort. 

To Stagnate, to stand still, as water in a 
pool, without motion. 

Subventaneous, addle. 

Sustenance, food, nourishment. 

Symmetry, a due proportion, or unifor- 
mity of parts, in respect to the whole. 

T. 

Temperament, a proper mixture of the 
elements. 

Tour, a turnabout. 

Transmitted, sent over. 

Tremulous, shaking or quavering. 

Tuberous, full of knots, or small swel- 
lings. 

Tumor, a rising or swelling in the 



U. 



body. 

Uterus, the womb. 
Unctuous, oily, greasy. 

Vertigo, a giddiness or swimming in the 

head; an indisposition in the brain. 
Virago, a hen that beats or fights with a 

cock, taking the offices of the male 

upon her. 
Vital, belonging to, or supporting life, 
Vitellary, the cluster of eggs in a hen, 

from their resemblance to a bunch of 

grapes. 

Vitiated, corrupted, spoiled, made worse. 
FINIS. 



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THE LACE PIGEON. 

Mayor, p. 143. This bird is, I believe, originally bred in Holland, where I am 
informed there are great numbers of them; though not one th^<^ ^ ^now of to be 
seen in England at present : it is in size rather less than a common Runt, and iike 
itinshapelid make; though I once saw a Shaker of this kind: their ^^ol^uri^ 
white, and they are valued on account of tbeir scarcity and tbe peculiarity ot the r 
feathers ; the fibres, or web, of which appear disunited from each other hroughout 
their whole plumage, and not in the least connected, as in common with all other 
Pigeons, where they form a smooth close feather. 

THE FRILL BACK. 

Mayor, p. 144. Is something less in size than a Dragoon and i^ shape like 
the common Runt ; their colour generally (if not always white ; and what i. 
chiefly remarkable in them is, the turn of their feathers, which appear as if every 
«ne distinctly had been raised at the extremity with a small round.pointed mstiu- 
ment, in such manner as to form a small cavity in each of them. 

GiRTiN p 107. Or, as if the bird had been under the hands of some of our 
modern hd?:dressers, and had its plumage frizzed and curied at the -ds. It is 
in size less than the common Runt, though very much hke it m shape , and its 
plumage is always white, 

THE SMITER. 



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GiRTiN, p. 107. This Pigeon in shape, make and diversity of plumage nearly 
resembles the Tumbler, the size excepted, it being a much larger bid fhe 
Smiter is supposed to be the same species that the Dutch call the D^ager when it 
flies it has a peculiar tremulous motion with its wmgs, and ^«™T"^y "^^^^ J^^^^^^^ 
circular manner, the male for the generahty, flymg much ^f f | .*/" 7n™''i 
and though it does not tumble, it has a particular manner oii^^\^ngmd flabbmg 
its wingsf with which it makes so loud a noise as to be heard a a great distance ^ 
V^hich is frequently the cause of its shattering or breaking its quill-featheis. 

THE CHINESE PIGEON. 

GiRTiN, p. 1 08. This beautiful little Pigeon is a native of Pekin in China, and 
was impo;t?d into Europe in some of the Compames' ships ; it is only to be seen m 
the collections of the rich and curious, who have always large cages, or a distinct 
aviary built on purpose for them. It is a very scarce and dear bn-d, and in our 
opinion one of the greatest curiosities of the Pigeon kind, therefore for the satis- 
faction of our readers we shall give a particular description ot it. 

This Pigeon in size is rather less than the common Swallow; the sides «[ the 
head are yellow, but the top, and the space round the eyes are of ^"/f /«!« ^: 
it has a blueish 'ash-coloured beak, and the mdes of its ^J'^^^'^^ "/.^^^\"^j''^£e 
the extreme feathers on each side the head and neck are red, ^J^ there are b^e 
feathers about the rise of the wings ; the hind part of the "^'^k and back are brown 
and the extremities of the feathers black ; those on the shoulders are lighter, ana 
Tarigated a^hf ends with black and white. The first and l-t co^rt ea^hers are 
black! but are white on their external edges; the long f^^thejs «f thej^>"g« ^i^^ 
black the edges of which are tipped with white ; and the ^e^ and^f \^^^^ f ^ 
lovely' pale rose colour. The tail, which is composed of twelve feathers, ,, ^ 
mixture of dusky and bright ; the legs and feet are red, and the claws black. 

PORCELAIN PIGEON. 

There are many other species of Pigeons of which Moore, Mayor or Girtin 
does not mention, viz., the Magpie, the common Runt, the Archangel, the 




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Porcelain, the Antwerps, &c. &c. The Magpie Pigeon resembles the Magpie iii 
feather, from which it derives its name. The common Runts are as familar with 
lis as the House-Sparrow, which you will observe at a country inn on the road side 
when you stop to bait your horse, and kept on farms ; it is somewhat different with 
the Archangel, they are not scxcommon as the common Runts, but as regards head 
and beak, I think not superior ]Nyhat the Fanciers intend doing with this bird I am 
at a loss to know, whether they intend to breed it down to the'^Tumbler's head and 
beak, or carry it out to the Carrier's head and beak',Kleaving it as they have found 
it, is not progressing ; as it is, it will scarce bear looking at, except it is for its 
feather, which are such quiet colours. When I attended the sale of the late Sir 
John Sebright's Bantoms and Pigeons, Ai*changels were knocked down by 
the hammer at about three guineas per pair, the Fancier could not distinguish any 
properties in them but bad ones ; therefore thought them worthless, and would not 
give them loft room. I received a basket of Pigeons from Ireland, and among 
them two Archangels, the one alive the other dead, from some cause ; I thought 
of making a feeder of the cock, for my short-faced Almonds and black mottled 
Tumblers, but on reflection considered it too coarse, that it would wrench the 
beak, I caused it to be offered to the shops for sale, none of them would give 
more than a shilling or eighteen pence for it ; I thought it more valuable at that 
time, and put it back into the cocks' loft; a country gentleman noticed it for its 
bronze feather, I mentioned to him if he would accept it. He accepted it. It was 
the first, and I believe will be the last, if it was possible that I could remain in the 
Fancy for the next fifty years, unfess I became in my second childhood. 

With regard to the Porcelain Pigeons, I never saw but one pair, black ground 
and most beautifully mottled; differently mottled to the black mottled Tumbler ; 
they were in a basket, placed rather high and out of my reach, and writing from 
memory. The Fancier has his work to do if he intends to make it a valuable bird, 
and cause it to be admired by the gentlemen of the Fancy. The best thing I think 
he can aim at, is to cross it v/ith a Carrier, and by perseverance, in time, to obtain 
the Carrier with its beautiful formed long-faced, straight narrow head with a dent 
in the centre, retaining its beautiful mottled plumage ; unless this or something 
else be done with this bird, it will not be thought anything more of by good 
Fanciers than the Archangels. With regard to what there is in a name, I do not 
think that it is correct to suppose, that because a bird is called an Archangel that it 
must follow that it came from Russia ; or a Pigeon is called an Antwerp, that it 
must of necessity be originally bred at Antwerp (more in its place when I come to 
give an account of the Antwerp Pigeon") ; for instance, if a captain of a vessel from 
California, or any of the new discoveries in South Australia, he being a little bit of 
a Fancier only about the edges, seeing Pigeons or something he thought had a 
resemblance to Pigeons, but something rather peculiar to Pigeons, the captain 
considering the vast amount of trouble he has had in bringing this pair of birds 
from Austraha, is determined to get rid of them^ on the first opportunity ; his vessel 
arriving at the London ports, and taking them into the best markets he is aware of, 
(say Leadenhall, for argument sake) ; when he has ascertained the highest price 
that the most respectable dealers will give him for this pair of birds, h*e hopes 
that God will forgive him if ever he attempts to bring another pair. A ricketty 
or crotchetty old gentleman, one of the olden times, passing through Leadenhall 
market, seeing and supposing that he knew some little about Pigeons, and it may 
be for ought I know, very little; nevertheless he purchases this pair of birds, having 
obtained them, he is bothered what to call them, but luck is always in the way of 
some men, and looking on his way home into a china shop, and seeing china 
spaniels and birds in china of different sorts, nothing so quick as thought, he stamps 
them and calls them Porcelain birds, simply and honestly at the same time from 
what he had witnessed at this china shop. 






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^vhen Mr. Francis Redman, 
Re 



THE ANTWERP. 

L 

With regard to the Antwerp, I am bound to give you all the information I 
possess however little that may be ; it is a new bird, comparatively speaking : 
I believe very little was known of this bird in England until the great Match, 

~ ^ of the Borough, but now of the Swiss Cottage, 

ent's Park, an acknowledged good Fancier, who tossed (as it is called by 

Fanciers) from off London Bridge, one hundred and ten of these birds (Antwerps), 
about one hundred reached home ; there is not a doubt but that all of these birds 
had been severally trained by the Dutch fishermen, who bring their cargoes of 
Pish &c. to Billingsgate market, and who are in the habit of practising these 
sharp Antwerps, as they are called. I beheve that if all their sharp birds (that 
is the proper name) was practised and sold to the Cockney Fanciers of London, 
I firmly believe that nine out of ten would return to their home. Mr. Giles, oi, 
the firm of Giles & Co. of the celebrated bird shop, &c. &c. formerly of Mutton 
Hill, Clerkenwell, but novf close by, having returned from Antwerp, &c. &c, 
after purchasing a large quantity of canary birds, gold fish, &c. &c. also a lot of 
Pigeons • it so happened that I was the first that saw the Pigeons, they looked 
as thougii they could eat me, (or like year-off larks in a store cage, when caught 
trammelling for brancher, or nestling sky-larks.) I picked fifteen out of the lot, 
and one was a very strong beautiful white owl, who unfortunately got out of the 
pen and went through a pane of glass like a brick-bat. 1 informed Giles of it ; 
his answer was. That it would not stop till it reached Antwerp. I believe so, and 
so would you, if you had seen how it took the pane of glass ; the other fourteen 
Antwerps I kept in the loft and trap ; these wild devils (if I may be permitted 
to use such a term) for six weeks, whenever I went up into the loft, were always 
in the trap, appearing to me as looking out for a chance, providing opportunity 
vv'ould favor them during that time. Whenever I went into the loft where 
these birds were, they came about my eyes like brick-bats ; I had often to put on 
toy spectacles for preservation, for fear of their cutting my eyes out of the sockets 
of my head. I had enough of these birds confined, therefore I was determined 
they should fly. I went to work; as I supposed, very cunning; ordered ample 
food and water to be placed in the loft, that would supply them tbe next day 
so as not to go into the loft to scare them away : my boy and myself agreeing at 
dark to let down the traps, and not going to see till candle-hght next night : these 
Antwerp birds did fly with a vengeance ; for, at candle-light next evening, 
although V7e had endeavoured to act very cunning, when we came to look for 
the Antwerps, there was two stopped ; I presume, they were the most foolish. 
For instance, one of the lot of the celebrated Match that was thrown up at 
London Bridge was caught in Kent Street, Borough. In conversation one day 
With an excellent short-faced Fancier, I being desirous of obtaining information 
as touching the originality of this bird, not telling him that 1 was writing 
this book, I put the question to him, and asked, How the Antwerp was 
bred f He said. It was bred from two birds, and then crossed with the Antwerp ; 
I stopped him, and asked him, How he got the Antwerp ; this bothered him, he 
laughed heartily, acknowledged he was in a fix, and gave it up, I was no better ; 
still determined, if possible, to give you some httle account of this useful bird, 
went to Mr Giles, who informed me a particular old acquaintance ot lus, a 
Yorkshireman, who went to Antwerp, married there and kept an hotel ; that he 
became an enthusiastic Pigeon Flyer, and had a place naif as long as a street; 
whenever Giles was at Antwerp he put up at this hotel, and ascertained the way 
they obtained the Antwerp or sharp bird, was from the cross of their Owl and our 
English Dragon ; the?e-are''5tK^vays of breeding sharp or cunning birds, and 
that is by crossing the long-faced and long-flighted Beard over to the Eng ish 
Dragon, and their young over to the Owl. The Antwerp bird is such a marked 
tirdTand the more ugly it is the better they perform their work— that is, of Flying ; 
they have a high head (not like the Carrier) at the same time mousey, with a 



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down beak, like unto a man with a Roman nose ; they are of various colours, and 
one out of ten, more or less for argument, have a brighter than a pearl eye, as the 
Almonds have, for some few of the Antwerps heve a pure clear white eye, not 
surpassed by any Pigeon we have. The Flying Fanciers of Antwerp care not a 
straw what the colour of the bird is, provided it will do execution in flying, and 
it is their opinion that the gravelly-coloured -eye bird, will perform more execution 
than the truly beautiful clear white eye, which some of these birds have : there is 
an erroneous notion with some Fanciers, who assert, that it is not an Antwerp 
unless it has a pearl eye. I have no doubt but you have heard, that, on the 
Continent, the people take as deep an interest in their extraordinary Flying 
Matches, as some people in this country take in Horse Racing. I dare 
not trust my memory, and now writing from memory, and not knowing where 
to inform you to look to authenticate my assertion, to the best of my belief, 
the account I am about to give you, is that in a grand match from some 
part of Spain to Antwerp, that some of these birds performed the distance of 
six hundred miles. It is possible you may havq read the account as well as 
myself; I have read of Pigeons doing two thousand miles; I do not believe 
all I read. When I first came into the Fancy, and looking out for short-faced 
birds, and being at the late Mr. Attwood's, he, in conversation with some of 
the flying Fanciers, stated that Beards of five-eighths, was quite long enough 
to do Dover to London. ' I was pleased to hear this remark, for I thought I had 
dropped into the right shop, and should obtain some short-faced half-inch 
Almonds. I then asked him if he had got some short-faced Almonds, he said 
could I not see them ; to which I answered, No ; and had to come out of the 
shop as I went in. It was only last week that a friend of mine was informing 
nie of some Squeakers doing Newmarket to London ; I spoke to him on the 
subject, he admitted they had thrown a feather, and they were Grunters instead 
of Squeakers. Reading Bell's Life, I often read of bets and matches at 
Birmingham, Sheffield, Manchester, and other places, for a home and home 
match, for four or five miles, the distance is nothing; I admit the difference 
of a few seconds in which the winning bird does it. If you want a good home 
and home match, make a match from London and Birmingham, London and 
Sheffield, London and Manchester, or London and Liverpool, _ this would be 
something like a homing match; but four or five miles is nothing, when you 
read the account of Beards of five-eighths doing Dover to London, or Grunters 
doing Newmarket to London ; every man has not the opportunities to train 
and practice his birds like others. I have known some most villanous things 
come to light in Fanciers trusting to others to toss their birds. The late Mr. 
Spicer, who formerly ' kept the Peacock at Islington, had great facilities over 
others in tossing birds ; formerly the coaches to Birmingham, Manchester, and 
Liverpool, stopped at his house, and the coachmen and guards use to practice his 
birds for him ; still it is a great pity that these sharp, subtle, cunning birds, even 
if shop-keepers knew that one of these birds had performed a hundred miles, 
they would not give you more than sixpence or ninepence for it at most, I cannot 
help thinking but it is very disheartening to any one who keep these sagacious 
birds ; if I wanted to breed a cunning or sharp bird, I would get the best sky 
blue, with black bars across the flight, Dragon cock, and the best sky blue, with 
black bars across the flight, hen Owl, by this means you would get beautiful 
feathered sharp birds, if you get nothing else. It is possible you might have 
obtained the white eye from the long-faced Beard; one thing I am certain of, 
the Owl shews itself very prominent in these birds, although there are a wonderful 
many mealy feathered birds called Antwerps, and some of them very pleasant 
to look at. I believe they are only half-bred birds, whereas, the genuine, as I 
would call it, right or wrong, blue or chequered Antwerp, that looks volumes 
at you, is the bird that accomplishes the work. 




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85 



To the YOUNG and INEXPERIENCED FANCIER, 

I cannot do better in closing this Work, than taking out some remarks in a 
letter, or letters, 1 have forwarded to my old schoolfellow, Mr. Henry Major, 
Geelong, Australia. 

My dear Harry, 

&e. &c. You will be surprised when you come to read what I am about 
to inform you ; a short time prior to your leaving old England, that you loved, 
and you know made a promise and vow to your better half, provided circumstances 
would allow to come back, and lay your weary head low in old England, who, 
you said, " You loved with all its faults ; " my prayer is, " God speed the Plough," 
'with regard to your return to old England. I can assure you I shall rejoice 
to see you, and have another game at bagatelle, giving you, at the French game, 



two score, and the break as usual, although I have not played more than twice 
or thrice since you left England, owing to my time being so fully occupied 
with business, and what I am about to inform you. It is possible you can 
recollect when we were sitting in the back parlour, I shewed you a paper, I had 
headed it "Wisdom," and reasoned what I should gain or lose in the estimation 
of Fanciers in general, if I attempted a Work on Tame and Domesticated 
Pigeons; if you recollect the conclusion we came to, was, that I had every 
thing to lose and nothing to gain, therefore came to the determination to abandon 
the idea for ever, especially as I could not obtain my text, (Johh Moore's 
Work, 1735); although it cost me many pounds one way and the other, to 
obtain the book, besides the great loss of time, for I searched every Bookseller 
North, East, South and West, besides advertising it several times through the 
different channels. Had I not seen and read the Work, I should not have 
believed there was such a Work. The Fancier to whom the Work belonged, 
used to say it was the only copy in the World ; he promised me more than a year, 
he would lend it to me, (if he had, I made up my mind to have employed some 
one to have written it out before I returned it), but that he had lent it to a 
Fancier, and could not get it back. 

Some time after you had sailed, 3rd of September, for Geelong, having two 
gentlemen to wait upon in town with the difference of about an hour and a half 
as to time ; knowing by the time I arrived home, it would be time to start off 
again to wait upon the other ; under these circumstances I thought I might as well 
loiter about as to work hard for nothing ; being in a bookselling neighbourhood, the 
idea struck me I would try if possible to obtain Moore's work, by passing away the 
time, believing the booksellers with their immense old stock of books, and not 
having a methodical catalogue of their old books, and being busy at times, when 
a question is put to them without considering answer, No ! I reasoned further, it is 
possible booksellers may not have a work to-day, but who knows to the contrary 
but they may have it to-morrow. I was determined to make good use of this one 
hour and a half surplus time on my hands, went into many bookshops, the answer 
I received was No ! No ! No ! You must Hunt it up ! I thought I had hunted it 
up, and the more I hunted it up as the booksellers called it, the further I was off 
the scent, for I believe I had applied at one thousand different places to obtain it, 
although it is possible you may say there is not one thousand booksellers near or 
about London. I know my labour in endeavouring to obtain this book, better 
than any one else can tell me ; if you doubt what I say, try to obtain it. 

Seeing two boys in deep conversation at an extensive second-hand or old book 
shop, I believe if I had asked one of them if he had Moore on Pigeons, he would 
have said. No ! (but I had my wits about me for the first and last time). I arrested 
both their attentions, by stating, I would stand a glass or a shilling's worth of brandy 

and water if he had got the book I wanted, and told the boy to consider before he 



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said, No ! the two boys looked at each other, for I took them by surprise, ^* I thiiii^; 
they smelled the brandy and water;" after a little consideration one of the boys 
went down a tremendous long shop (much longer than a short street) to his em- 
ployer, who was at the back of the premises, who went and laid his hand upon a 
book ; I saw the boy coming in the distance with a book in his hand, I thought it 
very likely it was something about Pigeons, but never thought it was Moore's 
work ; to my astonishment and delight it was the identical work I was in search of, 
having it in my hands, I thought my eyes would have darted out of the sockets of 
my head when I beheld the book, I moreover thought, *' I'll be blessed if ever this 
book leaves niy hands, whatever the price." I paid the price, the boy had his 
shilling for brandy and water, and no doubt all pleased with the transaction. 
Having yet time to the good, I went into a house, (called for a sandwich, and that 
which you never did like, a glass of bitter ale), and read the work through as far 

as regards Pigeons. 

Afterwards I began to think upon the work, and recollecting that it contained 
so much matter that I had read before in other works, I was determined to see 
what amount of original matter belonged to each writer upon Pigeons, I, therefore, 
took Moore's 1735, then Mayor, 1765, and compared them as I read, interlined 
Mayor's work, what I found in Moore, that which was not interlined, I considered 
original matter, I adopted this plan with all the works that was in my possession, 
and 1 am not aware that there are any that I am not possessed of that is worth 
having ; at all events, I never hear talk of any ; and having John Boys, Esq.'s beau* 
. tiful Observations and Reflections, derived from fifty years experience, the 
idea struck me of what use I would make of them, entertaining so high an opinion 
of the late Joijn Moore's Work, and as I heard there was not another copy, and 
believing there could not be more than two or three copies in the world, I thought 
it a pity so valuable a work from which all others have grown out, should be lost 
for ever to the Pigeon Fancier, (for ought you and I know the book may have 
been stole from the gentleman to whom it was lent, and no wonder the Fancier 
could not get it back again, and that I purchased the work ; 1 think if it was so, it 
is excusable, considering the use I intend making of the book). I thought I would 
publish the work entire, and give the original matter due to other authors, besides 
endeavouring to make a few remarks from observations, and as the ideas struck 
me, when my Almond Tumbler was printed, I regretted that I had not numbered 
the paragraphs, but it was too late then. I borrowed the idea from Cobbett's 
grammar to soldiers, sailors, and plough-boys, to paragraph this work, 
surprise you to see me state grammar, for you know, that I know as much about 
grammar as grammar knows about me, notwithstanding what my excellent father 
paid for my education. 

When I brought out my Almond Tumbler, and read the manuscript over to 
you and Wolstenholme, only two original ideas was added to the manuscript, the 
one, the villanous trick of breaking the upper mandible of the beak, when the 
bird is a few days old, so as to form a straight or up beak. But will these birds 
breed beaks like them? — Query. The other was the late Sir John Sebright's 
remark that he would breed feather in three years, but would take six years to 
breed head and beak; this was due to Mr. Wolstenholme. Your labour was 
different, although you could not give me a single idea, that of transposing, you 
know some stated Wolstenholme was the Author. Some little time back, a 
gentleman in the coffee-room, at Thompson's, the Fox Tavern,^ Islington Green, 
put' the question to me in a loud and audible voice, whether Mr. . . . . . 

did not assist me in the writing of my Almond Tumbler. I can assure 
you it awoke me up, and I thought, who next? I assured the gentleman 
(for be is a gentleman) that I did not know a Fancier of that name ; 
but I think I know the Fancier to whom he alluded,' who has only four letters in 

.... When I heard this I thought, what next ! 



It will rather 



in his name, instead of five 

and came to the determination that this Work should go forth with all its faults 

no doubt, which are many 



without its being read over to any cn§, rather than be 






^y<. 









87 

r 

nettled and stung by. a few pismires. There may be good attending this, if these 
few will exercise their grammatical knowledge (or the want of it) ; then again, if they 
cast them up, it will improve them in their arithmetic. Should it require trans- 
posing, which it will no doubt, they can do with it as the cat does with the bitten 
endeavour to lick it into liking. Why I should have taken notice of these few, 
that resembles the dog in the manger, that would not make an attempt to write 
themselves (to instruct the young and inexperienced Fancier), found fault with me 
for attempting ; besides stating they did not believe I had the ability to write my 
Almond Tumbler. Will these few believe now what they read, and exercise 
their abilities upon it, or will they attempt, after my weary head is laid low, in 

claim to the Work, on Tame and Domesticated 



a cowardly lying way, lay 

Pigeons, as bein^ the Author, or having aided 



or assisted me in any way. Let 

that I mav be able 



may 



to 



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them come forward in my life-time, not after I am dead, 
prove to the contrary ; but enough of this. 

Just as I am beginning to wax warm, and getting my pen in order 
feeling myself as pleased, not as a Tom Tit upon a round of beef, but as a 
Titty-mouse with a hemp seed — the Printer sent me some sheets to read over, I 
was somewhat surprised when my eye caught the high figure of the Page (80), 
and that it was time to bring the Work to a close ; calling upon the Printer to 
know why they were so long over it, they said it was heavy work and that there 
was three Compositors upon it, this tickled my Vanity, that in my leisure time I 
could write as fast as three Compositors could set up ; which only proves that ^ 
had not much time to read over what 1 had 



although I 



put upon paper, 
&c. ; at the same time I can 

on atiCbunt of the 



stated, *' Just as I was beginning to wax warm, 
assure you I have not altogether experienced it a joke, 
unreasonable hours that I have devoted to it for the last month, not seeing my 
bed, except one day in the week, until two, three, four, and five o'clock in the 
morning. It has brought me very shaky, and having experienced, eighteen years 
back, a nervous irritabihty, I can assure you I am not desirous of experiencing 
another. Should I ever attempt another Work, which I do not know but I shall, 
I will endeavour not to be so foolish over it, and devote such mireasonable hours ; 
you have often heard me say that seven days in the week was too long for me, 
and that in the hot weather I made fourteen days and fourteen nights, viz. by 
laying down on my bed for one hour after I had had my dinner ; for there are two 
things I like to do, either to be asleep or awake; and if I dare trust my heart, I 
think I have an active mind, that must be engaged in something. It was better 
that it should be engaged in a Work like this, than in something worse, considering 
Moore's Original Work, from which all others have sprung out, was nearly 
for ever lost to the Gentlemen of the Fancy. 

Under these circumstances, the idea struck me, that I would endeavour to 
contribute my mite in rescuing the Work from the hands of rude Old Time, and 
hand it down for some years yet to come to my Brother Fanciers, believing no 
other Fancier had the intention. I am fully as sensible as you are, that when 
you come to read the Work over, you will discover inelegancies of ideas. I 
believe, had you been, in England, I should have read the Work over to you, 
you knowing it would not do to dub you as the Author. But then, the Unmerciful 

that you are so fond of. You will have ample opportvmity to 
exercise it in Australia, which you will not here, upon my Work. I am aware if 
it was possible, if I had time to read it over myself, I could transpose and improve 
it, but I have my work to do to keep a-head of the Compositors. The style 
in which I should have Uked best to have brought it out, provided I had th 
abilities to imitate, was Dr. Franklin's '^ Poor Richard," more than the powerful 
and accomplished reasoner Locke '' On the Understanding ;" as I cannot imitate 
either, I was compelled to make the best of my own Originality. Those knowing 
nie and my ways, would say, *' This is Eaton All Over !" as many Gentlemen said 
"who knew me, after reading my Almond Tumbler. To return to the Pruning Knife : 
you would have had *' A Go-in! here," provided I would have let you. It is 



Pruning Knife ! 



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possible you can recollect, although we agreed to differ, we did not always agree in 
reading the Almond Tumbler over, owing to my obstinacy, which got your monkey 
and carbonic acid gas up, and although I never said so to you, I often said within 
myself (Harry don't " frown !*') it is hard when a man gets his monkey up, at the 
same time to look exceedingly pleasant ; excuse me here while I pour myself out a 
glass of wine, to drink your health, wishing you a very large measure of good luck. 
I mentioned to you that you would discover inelegancies, more than that, *' rude 
ideas;*' I was driven to that, to keep as near to my original ways, otherwise those 
that know my ways, would not have believed the animal wrote it. I am aware 
that it is not written after the style that Mayor in his frontispiece has, which is 
taken from Baker's Natural History. Curiosity and a fondness foi novelty are 
implanted by Providence in the mind of man, to make him observe and examine 
things attentively; distinguish their various productions, form, and structure; and 
admire their beauties, properties, and use. Whilst he is doing this, he is improv- 
ing his judgment, performing his duty and making himself happy. 

It is my intention of concluding this Work, on Tame and Domesticated Pigeons, 
nearly with the same words I did my Almond Tumbler, p. 49, in the two 
last Paragraphs, which idea you was pleased with. 

" There is a time for all things," as the wise man observed ; and the time 
has now arrived for us to part ; but in bidding you "good bye " for the present, 
(as it is not my intention of taking my farewell of you, as I did in the same 
paragraph of the Almond Tumbler, and then appearing so soon again before you 
on Tame and Domesticated Pigeons), allow me, my yoimg Fanciers, to suggest. — 
Has the perusal of the foregoing pages been the means of making you a more 
ardent admirer of Fancy Pigeons ? do you see fresh beauties while studying the 
properties of these admired birds? and, do you feel a determination to excelin this 
pleasing and intellectual study? If this is the effect it has produced on your mind, 
I shall consider myself fortunate in producing such a result ; and I do most 
sincerely hope that you may experience as much pleasure and satisfaction as I 
have myself enjoyed. 

Hoping that you may long enjoy this pleasure and the intercourse of intelligent 
and agreeable brother Fanciers, and that you may be able to exclaim, " Happy 
is the man that forsakes his vices, and becomes an enthusiastic admirer of the 
better sort of Fancy Pigeons," is the sincere wish of 



JOHN M. EATON, 



The Author, 



FINIS. 



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DEDICATED TO THE YOUNG AND INEXPERIENCED FANCIER 

OF THE ALMOND TUMBLER. 



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A 



TREATISE 



ON THE ART OF 



BREEDING AND MANAGING 



THE 





I 



BY 




JOHN MATTHEWS EATON 



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** All that a Man knows, or ever will know, 

is t>y Observation or Eeflection." 

Locks. 



PUBLISHED 



FOR THE AUTHOR, 



7, ISLINGTON GREEN, LONDON. 



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1851 










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TO THE 



YOUNG AND INEXPERIENCED FANCIER 



OF THE 



ALMOND TUMBLER 



i 



The study and science of the Almond Tumbler is productive of a great amount 
of pleasure, and in the present day there are many gentlemen of highly cultivated 
minds, have proved by their engagement in the breeding and 



rearing, 



sparing 
neither pains or expense, have fostered and cultivated, with the utmost care, this 
truly beautiful pigeon called the Almond Tumbler. That it is a science well 
worthy the attention of those who might be induced to engage in this deligbtful 
recreation or fancy. 

My object in publishing this Treatise on the breeding and rearing the Almond 
Tumbler, is to place it in the hands of the youngFancier, who is desirous of cultivating 
a knowledge, and endeavouring still further to improve their beauties ; at the 
same time, I am fully sensible that there is not a copy of a work, worthy to be 
placed in the hands of the young Fancier, can be obtained without the utmost 
difficulty, owing to their being out of print. At one time I should have hesitated 
at the thought of writing upon so difficult a subject, for it requires a very nice 
judgment to form a true estimate of the Almond Tumbler; and, it must be con- 
fessed, they labour under the greatest disadvantage in not having their perfections 
and properties properly understood by the gentlemen of the Pigeon Fancy in general. 
Being fully aware of the great disadvantages that some of the young Fanciers 
residing in some parts of the country labour under, not having the advantages of 
attending societies and seeing and examining the birds that are put into the 
penns on show days, and joining in cheerful conversation with experienced Fanciers, 
who are both able and willing to instruct, by pointing out what are good 
properties and what are bad in a bird ; under these circumstances this treatise 
will not be unacceptable to the young Fancier, provided he has made up his mind 
to be a Fancier and rank A. 1. ; he must carefully read, mark, learn, and inwardly 
digest what is written in this treatise, to guide his judgment, for as there is 
no royal road to learning, so there is no possibility of gaining a thorough knowledge 
of the Almond Tumbler but from long study and experience. 

I shall here endeavour to rivet, as it were, on the minds of those who will 
engage in this delightful study, some great facts ; the first thing especially to be 
attended to, is the selection of really good birds — they should be young, healthy, 
vigorous, and bred from as pure and good a stud or strain as can be obtained. From 
the highly artificial state of the Almond Tumbler in the present day, there is a 
tendency to degenerate, or throw back, as it is termed in the Fancy. For even 
when good birds are put together, they do not invariably throw birds equal to 
those they are bred from; but if inferior birds are matched together, the produce 
must necessarily be unworthy the attention of a Fancier. Nonpareils will not 
always produce nonpareils, but nonpareils cannot be expected from inferior birds. 
Much attention and great care are necessary with these birds to insure success; 
especially if the young Fancier raises a standard in his mind to surpass those who 
have tried before him, and has made up his mind not to rank second best ; but 
the satisfaction of producing th^ best bird must be very great, and will amply 
repay him for all the care and labour that has been expended. 

There are many gentlemen now engaged in breeding and rearing the Almond 
Tumbler, and the amateur has an opportunity of obtaining superior birds to 
commence with, ana which is so indispensable to insure success. This he may do, 

by following the remarks made in this treatise, and the information he may obtain 







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among his brother Fanciers, The value of the birds, as usual with matters of 
taste, will depend much on the estimated qualities of the birds; and if they should 
be of extraordinary beauty and excellence in the five properties, the price will be 
proportionably high, as there are many gentlemen in the fancy who know how 
to appreciate a good bird, and do not hesitate to give a good price for it ; there- 
fore, you must not expect to obtain a bird for five pounds, that other fanciers 
would give ten pounds for. 

I have now arrived at a difficult point, and that is how to instil the knowledge 
of a bird possessing good properties into the mind of the young Fancier when he 
sees it, and should he be anxious to purchase the bird, I should advise him to 
consider whether he really stands in need of the bird, and believes it will improve 
his stud or strain of birds, if so, buy it at any price, for it cannot be dear. From 
tny experience, combined with the conversation of some of the best and most 
experienced Fanciers, the only way to obtain an extraordinary bird, is to give 
more than it is worth, comparatively speaking, The first time I attended a Grand 
Show, there was, as I thought, such a particularly pretty neat looking pair of 
birds, nothing gaudy about them; they appeared so remarkably neat and quiet, 
that the thought struck me of Friends or Quakers; I became anxious to obtain 
this pair of birds, and seeing the gentleman to whom the birds belonged, I 
politely asked him if he considered it a fair question whether he would part with 
them, and he as politely, said he would as he was desirous of bringing as many 
gentlemen into the fancy as possible, and would favor me being a young and 
inexperienced Fancier, and the price would be five pounds ; he greatly astonished 
me when he uttered *'five pounds,*' for if he had said five shillings, I think at that 
time I should have had spirit enough in me to have offered four shillings and 
sixpence ; but since then, I have had the honor of tliat gentleman's acquaintance, 
have been repeatedly in his aviary, and seen the pair of birds I am writing of, 
and after having acquired some knowledge of the Almond Tumbler, my experience 
has taught me that the birds were worth more money than he had asked ; for, in 
fact, they were a pair of extremely short faced and beautiful Golden Duns, bred 
from a splendid pair of Almonds, hut I was at the time too inexperienced to know it ; 
and here I would particularly caution the young Fancier, on entering the societies 
where the shows take place, not to give offence to any of its members, by asking what 
do you want for that bird? you would be treated with contempt and not get an 
answer, for you might as well ask some gentlemen to part with half their fortunes, 
as a bird they highly estimate. But there are ways of doing things without 
giving offence, and I think the best way to put the question to the owner of the 
bird, is politely to ask him, whether he considers it a fair question, if he would 
part with the bird, and then you will receive a polite answer. 

L 

The best and cheapest bird I ever bought cost me five pounds, why I say the 
cheapest, is, because I bred twelve young ones from him, and all good birds. I 
have given more, and know some gentlemen that have given still higher prices 
than myself, and I saw a few evenings since, at one of the societies, a Pigeon, the 
gentleman to whom it belonged, stated he would not take twenty pounds 
fur it. But to return to the young Fancier, 1 would advise him to purchase 
good birds, and, if he is acquainted with experienced Fanciers, to solicit their 
assistance in obtaining birds that will be serviceable to him ; if, on the other hand, 
he Avoiild rather trust to his own judgment, all I can say, is, I wish him luck, 
for it will prove a lottery, as the most experienced Fanciers have acquired their 
knowledge with care^ trouble, and expense; neither can the young and inex- 
perienced expect to escape unscathed, till time and experience shall improve his 
eye, and mature his judgment. 

This bird is called the *• Almond Tumbler" by the gentlemen of the Fancy ; in my 
researches I have traced it back to the year 1735, and as the gentlemen of the 
Fancy have assigned this name to tliis truly beautiful bird, after a mature con- 
siderution I think it would be injudicious to alter it, for if a meeting of all the 



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Almond Tumbler Fanciers was called together, I very much question whether any 
one of them could assign a better name. For what is it that we Fanciers allow 
to constitute the Almond Tumbler, the three colors, black, white, and yellow, 
variously and richly interspersed ; but the greatest difficulty, amounting almost to 
an impossibility, is to obtain a rich bright yellow, nevertheless the ardent and 
indefatigable young Fancier should strive to reach the standard, authorized by 
the gentlemen of the Fancy, namely black, white and yellow, and in his efforts 
to obtain yellow will produce a rich almond colour usually called the ground, and 
from which the bird derives its name. There are three colors in the bird, and it 
would be folly to find a new name for it, as the oldest and best informed Fanciers 
are of opinion that a better name could not be found, and shows the good sense of 
the Fanciers centuries ago. I sincerely hope the name of the bird will for ever be 
set at rest, as it is known by the name in every clime where the English tongue 
isspoken, as the ''Almond Tumbler/' It will not be my fault, should the old 
and experienced Fancier happen to make a mistake,^ and sit in judgment upon 
this Work, or become severely critical, for comparatively speaking, I am but a 
young Fancier, my object is a pure one in publishing this treatise, that it may find 
its way into the hands of the young and inexperienced; the idea struck me that 
I mi^ht give him my experience, from actual observation and reflection ; but 
for a better and more experienced Fancier than myself, to suppose for one 
moment, that I had the audacity to endeavour to instruct him, "is his mistake — 
not mine/' as I sincerely hope that I am entirely free from such intention. 

But a person not acquainted with the beauties of this study or science, should not 
take upon himself the character of judge, and condemn a study or science of which 
he is utterly ignorant ; should he make his remarks freely, they would most probably 
be characterised by a gross want of information, and only meet with that contempt 
which they deserved. I am fully aware there are gentlemen who cannot see any 
beauty in Pigeons, except in a pie, "these are Belly Fanciers"; and, although 
very numerous, with these I shall have nothing to do. 

That it is an innocent amusement and recreation, well adapted to the pro- 
fessional gentlemen of law, physic, and divinity, or any other person engaged in 
long continued and excessive exertion of the intellectual faculties. Ihe rdief 
this delightful recreation gives is truly astonishing, by unbendmg the^ mmd after 
close and intent application to abstruse subjects; for the mmd ot man is incapable 
of constant apphcation either to study or business, and It is therefore highly 
necessary to relieve it. I am of opinion that many of the brightest luminaries that 
have suddenly been lost to society, would not have been so, had they been engaged 
in this Fancy, by way of recreation or relief to the mind. I have known some 
very old gentlemen in the Fancy, but never yet knew a Fancier that was troubled 
with hippochondriasis. 

There is nothing so base as ingratitude, and I cannot allow it to pass over without 
calling upon the young Fanciers to join me in acknowledging the debt of gratitude 
we owe to the old and experienced Fanciers of past ages, for handing down to us 
young Fanciers such a beautiful strain of birds to commence with ; for when we 
reflect for a moment, that these beautiful birds were originally produced from the 
common Pigeon, and when you consider that at one time the beak should not 
exceed seven-eighths of an inch, (meaning the distance from the ins, or circle 
round the pupil of the eye, to the end of the quick on the beak.) Now it the beak 
was limited to seven-eighths of an inch, which I presume wa^^ considered short 
at that time, what is the length it might not have run out to ! and this is another 
proof of the debt of gratitude we owe, as I said before, to the old ajid experienced 
Fanciers, and in a most especial manner to the gentlemen of the Columbarian 
Society who have had so great a share for the last hundred years in bringing the 
Almond Tumbler to the standard it has now arrived at. And now, my young 
Fancier, with these great advantages on your side at your commencement, I hope 
and trust by your spirit, attention, and perseverance, you will still more contribute 










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to increase its beauties' and perfections, I will endeavour to stimulate and cheer 
you on, by informing you that the most experienced and accomplished Fancier 
that ever lived at one time, knew no more about the Almond Tumbler than the 
Almond Tumbler knew about him, or the little knowledge ycu are in possession 
of, provided you know any thing of the Almond Tumbler; and here I will tell you 
another great fact, and that is, that the field is still as open for fresh competitors 
now, as it was one hundred years ag6. I am fully sensible that there are among the 
Fanciers, gentlemen infinitely more able in every sense of the word, bein 
experienced and having more leisure time, therefore could have produced a'beiter 
Treatise on the subject of the Almond Tumbler than I shall be able to do, but, 
from some cause or other they have not thought fit so to do ; at the same time I 
must keep in view the expence of the Work, so that it shall not be beyond the 
reach of the humble Fancier. Prudence has dictated to me to address my work 
to the young and inexperienced, being fully sensible that I was incompetent to 
offer remarks to the old and experienced Fancier; but, I believe, that the young 
Fancier may, with advantage to himself, digest every remark in this Treatise. 

There is another consideration that has flashed across my mind, to accelerate 
my work, so as to be able to bring it out by the first of May, when all the people 
in the world, comparatively speaking, are striving to produce something that will 
be acceptable to those who take an interest in those subjects that come nearest and 
dearest to their hearts; and as I have not heard of any Fancier's intention to 
produce a similar Treatise at the time of the Great Exhibition, when ** all the 
World Will be our country, and doing good our Keligion," I was determined to 
offer my mite on such an auspicious occasion. When we consider the deep 
interest that the most illustrious Prince and Consort of the best Sovereign that 
ever graced the British Throne, takes in the Exhibition, surely it would be 



unpardonable in us Fanciers to let the present 
endeavouring to throw in our mite or offering, 
beautiful Pigeons at the Aviaries at Windsor, 



opportunity pass away, without 
It is well known that there are 
and I have heard it stated that 
Napoleon was a Pigeon Fancier. However, it is one thing to have Pigeons, but 

rguite another thing to understand them. If it was possible for noblemen and 
gentlemen to know the amazing amount of solace and pleasure derived from the 
Almond Tumbler, when they begin to understand their properties, I should think 
that scarce. any nobleman or gentleman would be without their aviaries of Almond 
Tumblers, and which would form a splendid ornament in their beautiful gardens 
ov grounds. Having wandered a little, I will return again to my more immediate 
subject; it is with Fanciers as with others, that they do not exactly think alike 
upon some of the points or properties ; all that is wanted is honesty. If those great 
and eminent ministers, Whitfield and Wesley, after a college education could not 
exactly agree upon the same text, is it surprising that you and I should not exactly 
agree upon the remarks we may make from our experience derived solely from 
actual observations, taking the Almond Tumbler as our text ; but one thing is 
certain, provided we are Fanciers in the true acceptance of the word, we must go 
hand in hand upon the five properties, allowing each of us to choose our favorite 
point of property ; for which of the five properties could we part with in producing 
a good bird — it is absolutely necessary to have the five properties to constitute a 
really good bird* 

That the Almond Tumbler may be improved beyond what it has hitherto been, 
that new beauties may be discovered, and a higher standard taken as the beau 

ideal of each amateur, — and that it may as far exceed the present standard, as that 

which is now looked up to does that of half a century back, 

Is the sincere and hearty wish of a brother Fancier, 

Who has devoted time, care, and attention to the subject. 



7, Islington Green, 

London. 

May Ist, 1851. 



JOHN MATTHEWS EATON. 



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A 



TREATISE 



ON 



BREEDING 



AND MANAGING 



THE 



ALMOND 




I 



DESCRIPTION OF THE BIRD. 

FEATHER. 

Imagine to yourself, taking into your aviary or loft some inexperienced friends 
who have expressed a great desire to see some Almond Tumblers what would be 
7Z first thing that would attract their attention, Feather would strike some— 
Shane or Carriage would rivet the attention of oihers ; but it; on the contrary, you 
took experienced Fanciers into your aviaries or lofts, and asked them which they 
considered the grandest property of the five, my impression is that they would say, 
Shane or Carriage ; nevertheless, it is my intention in giving a description ot the 
five properties to take Feather first; not that J consider feather the grandest 
nrouertv of the five, but from the bird deriving its name from the feather, and 
from the rich and variegated colours striking the eye of the general observer. 

It is the decided opinion of all Fanciers, that the ground or foundation of the 
feather should be, strictly speaking, a rich bright yellow, but the d.thculty to 
obtain it, and intermix, split or break the yellow feather with a decided black I 
^hink is carcely attainable: a fact, that has been established by many careful and 
of rep ated experiments by the most able Fanciers that have ever lived ; we must 
?he etbre be cLtent with having the ground of the bird a rich brigh almond 
cXa but the inside of the shell of the almond nut isthe best colour, and the oldest 
FanSrs are unanimous in opinion that this beautiful and very valuable species 
derived its name—" Almond," because the ground of the bird is, or should be, a 
rich bright almond colour. 

The standard authorised or laid down by the Columbarian Society, as regards the 
Feather is as follows, three colours, namely, black, white, and yellow, in the nine 
first feathers of each wing, counting from their extremities, and twelve in the tai ; 
the aforesaid three colours well developed would constitute a standaid, but the 
Ivick breast and rump, should be hkewise variegated to be complete in feather ; 
the hackle or neck feathers should be bright and-well broken with the same colours, 
and should resemble the delicate touches of the pencil of a fine artist. 

There are gentlemen in the Fancy who have asserted, that they have had some 
so truTv beautiful and spangled, that have had few feathers in them but what have 
cor Sued the three colours°that constitute the Almond-blacl^ white, and yellow, 
TarSv and richly intermixed; and that after breeding them a considerable 
lime reicSng those that ran from feather, and judiciously matching the good 
fSered ones together, have brought them to such great perfection, that they 
should have been surprised to have bred any others than Almonds. There are 
Sr so magnificently elegant iu feather that their flight, tail, back and rump, 
Ce re^^eTbled a bed of the finest and best broken tulips that can be imagined, or 
^pTe " of tt be'st and most highly polished tortoiseshdl, for the ".ore they are 
variegated, particularly in the flight and tail, provided the ground be yellow oi ^ 



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rich bright Ahnond, through hackle, shoulder, and rump, the whole to be equally 
spangled and broken with black and white, the more they are esteemed ; but the 
yellow 13 a colour most difficult to attain. 

SHAPE OR CARRIAGE. 

The Almond Tumbler ought to be a very small Pigeon, and the more diminutive 
the better, provided it maintains its other noble properties boldly, and, which is 
essential to constitute a good bird, for the more snug and compact, the more thev 
are appreciated, and the more the value of the bird is enhanced. It should be 
very short in the back, and the lower it stands the better, with small round body, 
but particularly with a fine prominent full and extremely broad, or, as the Fanciers 
term it, a square chest, the lower the neck the better, and should be shorter than 
any other Pigeon, with a particularly thin or slim neck, and beautifully curved 
under the throat and thrown back, the shorter the flight and tail feathers the better. 

It is my opinion that shape or carriage is the grandest property in the Almond 
Tumbler, and would be one of the best criterions to judge of a bird coming from 
a good stud, for as I observed before, there is a tendency in the Almond Tumbler 
to degenerate or throw back in some of their properties, notwithstanding being 
bred out of the very best strain of birds ; for on examining an Almond Tumbler, 
should some of its properties run out as expressed by Fanciers, yet the bird still 

inamtaming shape and carriage, are evident proofs of its coming from a first-rate 
stud of birds. ^ 

The shape or carriage of most things living is the most beautiful property, save the 
imnd, and to my fancy I am not aware that there is anything under the Sun or 
that you can imagme or conceive, that is so truly beautiful and elegant in its 
proportion or symmetry of style, as the shape or carriage of the Almond Tumbler 
approaching perfection, in this property, (save lovely woman) and has been most 
happily selected as the emblem of beauty, tenderness and affection, and is depicted 
as the appropriate attendant of Venus. 

HEAD. 

r 

The head should be as broad as possible, and not only broad, but as high and 
lofty as possible, and not only broad and lofty, but at the same time should be as 
round as possible, like a marble. It should have a good dig, chop, or stop, or 
any other technical term that the Fanciers understand and are pleased to call it. 

wl ?f S^i ^^^ 'l!''!'^*^ ^PP^^^ ""^ '^ ""'^^^ overhanging a portion of the beak, 
at that beautiful part of the bird, which in the estimation of the best Fanciers is 
not excelled by any, I allude to that grand point, the stop, in front of the head 
or more properly speaking, under the head ; the feathers forming the front of 
the head should make a dead stop, and above all things not run ip a slanting- 
direction into the wattle on the beak, which is a defect, and is called a needle point. 
Looking at the head in front, should it happen to present an angular or slanting 
direction tovyards you, it is called by the gentlemen of the Fancy thin-faced or 
mousey; it is one of the greatest imperfections that a bird can possibly have, and 
is the very opposite of a round head and quick stop. There are but few 'birds 



comparatively speaking that have these beautiful dead and decided stops, and still 
turther to add to the beauty and finish of the head, the feathers under the eye 
and ^out the lower jaw should be full and a little curved upwards, which is called 
" ^^ffy.'* For a broad lofty round headed bird with a good stop, is in a fair way to 
be considered a wonder, and more particularly so by the head and beak Fanciers 
who constitute at least three- fourths of the Almond Tumbler Fanciers. To produce 
a bird as above described, some of the gentlemen of the fancy have said it has 
been the work of a season, and have considered themselves amply rewarded. 

But there are other gentlemen in the Fancy, who have asserted that head and 
beak is to be produced at any time. " Any time " is rather hard to define, but, if 



4j 



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I L 



9 

they mean the longest time, then they are right, but on the contrary, if they meaia 
the shortest time, then they are decidedly wrong ; nothing is easier than to assert 
a thing, but they would experience the difficulty, if they attempted to produce 
head and beak. 

For, Sir John Sebright said he would produce any given feather in three 
years, but it would take him six years to obtain head and beak. 



J 



i 






BEAK. 

The beak of a first-rate Almond Tumbler ought not to exceed gye-eighths of 

an inch, and it would be infinitely better, if it was possible, to breed them that 

they did not exceed half an inch, from the iris of the eye to the point, or more 

properly speaking, to the end of the quick on the beak, I repeat again, if it was 

possible to have them so short faced, as it is termed by Fanciers. It is possible for a 

bird to be considered a pleasant or neat bird, even at three quarters of an inch, 

but exceeding that length must be looked upon as unworthy of attention. The 

beak should run in a straight line from the head, be extremely fine and pointed ; I 

have some in my aviaries that have astonished me, nor could I have believed it 

possible that the beaks could have been so fine, had I not have witnessed it myself j 

but there are beaks on birds apparently sliort, that has no more style in them than 

your thumb nails.*^ There are many of the first-rate Fanciers, who are particularly 

' \partial to what is called the goldfinch beak, which is very beautiful ; others say, 

/take a full size round cherry, then take a barley corn, and judiciously placing and 

/thrusting it into the cherry, form as it were your beak; and that is not all, for it 

/ will form a good head and beak, provided, as I said before, it is judiciously done ; 

I others take an oat, but as I think the goldfinch beak the handsomest, I would 

advise the inexperienced Fancier to get the head of a goldfinch and keep it by 

him for his observation. * 

The wart or wattle on the beak should be very fine and as little of it as possible, 
resembling as it were a thread drawn across the beak, and where this fineness of 
wattle can be obtained it adds greatly to the beauty of the bird, and a sure mark 
of its being well bred, besides giving the appearance of a more decided stop. 



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THE EYE. 



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The brighter and more 

the 



prominent the 
bright eyed Perch,) 
that the eve should 



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and 



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like 
it is the 
fixed 



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fish, 



eye oi a 

general opinion 

the centre of the 



(take for example 

among the Fanciers, that the eye should be nxea m 
head. I will here endeavour to show you what would apparently give 

of a loftier, broader, and less '* behind the head," — suppose 

that the head was an inch nerfectlv round, divide 



the 
for 

the 



appearance 

argument sake, that the head was an inch perfectly round, 
one inch into sixteen equal parts, and if you place the eye one sixteenth more or 
less below the centre of the head, the more lofty headed the Almond Tumbler 
will appear, or the reverse ; and the same holds good if the eye is placed back in 
the head, giving the head a broader appearance in front, and less ''behind the 
head," which is opposite to what is called ** duck-necked," by the Fanciers; but 
the effect is still greater where the beak is found placed low on a round headed 
Almond Tumbler, for it gives that truly beautiful and striking stop, which is not 
eclipsed by any other portion of the bird, and which is held in such high esti- 
mation by the best Fanciers. 

The eye should be free from a thick skin or flesh around it, which to Fanciers 
is a great defect, a beading may look very pretty on a miniature frame, but is 
the very reverse to the eye of the Almond Tumbler ; the eye should be feathered 
close to the edge and the more bright and silvery or pearl coloured the iris of the 
eye ig the better. 



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THE HEN. 

The Hen is inferior to the Cock in some of the properties and superior in others, 
which I shall endeavour to shew ; and it is with the Almond Tumbler as with most 
other birds, that the male is more impiident and audacious, coarser in his looks, 
beak, and wattle, the Hen is more delicate, finer in her beak and wattle, and 
though generally a more spare appearance, comes very little short in shape or 
carriage. She is smaller than the cock, which is an advantage. The cock and 
hen are equal as regards the eye ; that is to sav, the eye of the male is not more 
wicked than the females; but with regard to feather, the cock has a deal more 
ground, more break or variegation in his flight and tail feathers ; although there are 
hens equal in feather to the cocks, they are very few, they are the exception 
to the rule. Should it so happen that two birds possessing the five properties, 
namely, head, beak, eye, carriage, and feather, equally alike, I have no hesitation 
in saying that the hen is worth double the money of the cock. There are hens in 
feather that come up to the standard of the cock, but, as I observed before,^ they 
are the exception, and not the rule, being very scarce and not quite so brilliant 
in feather. 



MATCHING OR PAIRING. 

There are several things here to take into consideration ; the first would he, how 
many pairs of birds you intend to match up? What is the temperature of your 
aviary or loft? How are you circumstanced for room? The reason why 1 ask 
how many pairs you intend to match up is this, if you intend only matching a few 
pairs and have ample room for them, then match them by the beginning ot iMarch, 
or should the place be warm, then the middle of February ; but if you match up 
forty pairs, as I have done, and require the birds to keep the penns you assign 
them, then match up the iirst of February, as you will experience much trouble 
and it will take considerable time before you can get the birds steady to the places 
you have assigned them. 

The first or second round of eggs, as it is termed by the Fanciers, seldom produce 
anything, owing to their being thin-shelled, soft or lush eggs. Should they break 
or destroy their eggs, it is necessarv either to give them addled or bone eggs, made 
on purpose, and make them set their time, if possible, and then it is absolutely 
necessary to give them a young one to feed off their soft food, whicli they will 
generally do in a week or ten days ; there is a great difference in their feeding, 
some feed well, whilst others, comparatively speaking, will not feed at all. I said 
it was absolutely necessary to make them set their time and feed off their sott 
food otherwise they will only lay soft shelled eggs, and that so frequently through 

the breeding season, that you will ruin the constitution of the hens lor ever. 

On the knowledge you possess of matching and shifting will depend your success 
as an Almond Fancier ; these are the two grand secrets or great facts-the first, 

to produce it ; the second, to raise. - ., r i, n 

must first breed a good bird before you attempt to raise it, consequently 1 shall 
endeavour here to assist you, how to breed a good bird. I stated in a lormer 
part of this work, that you have no right to expect a Wonder or ISonpareil from 
inferior birds. Fanciers widely differ in their attempts to breed a good bird ; 
thereare some Fanciers that would sacrifice every other property in a bird to obtain 
head and beak, by matching the two best head and beak birds in the aviary orlolt, 
while there are others, sacrificing the other properties to obtain leather, this is 
the cause of our observing such good head and beak birds, but running Irom 
feather ; on the contrary, those Fanciers who sacrifice every thing for leather, 
breed birds with beautiful feather, but they run out in head and beak. Fanciers, 
in looking at good head and beak birds, will tolerate the bird and overlook leather ; 
but if it was the best feather possible to obtain and ran out m the head, thm-taced 



It is needless for me to tell you, that you 










11 



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or mousey, the remark many of the Fanciers would make, as I have heard it 
observed, they would give ten pounds provided the bird was as good in head and 
beak as it was in feather. 



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There are some of the young Fanciers who are over covetous, who go for all the 

five properties at once, they have their reward by getting nothing ; others breed to 

a feather, but they forget to say what feather. 1 will here mention a case to show 

the uncertainty of breeding to a feather, as it is called 3 the best pair of Almonds 

cock and hen, extra good in all properties, that I ever possessed, keeping them 

matched together for three years, bred three beautiful almond cocks, two kitchens, 

yellow and red whole feather, yellow and red agates, all coming from the same 

pair of birds. Is this what they call breeding to feather? Now, if this pair of 

Almonds had bred all the young-ones as near alike for feather as they did head and 

beak, then that would be nearer breeding to feather. I will give you another 

instance that occurred, I matched up a beautiful head and beak splash cock to a 

the one 




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rich kite hen, and in the same nest or round, produced two young ones 
pure white, the other as black as a coal ; I thought this breeding to feather with | 

The inexperienced Fancier may say, that they did not come from a 



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a vengeance. 



good stud of birds ; when he knows more he will say less, for I question very 
much whether he ever will be able to obtain such birds as I am writing of. 

Counteraction is a grand thing to be observed, but this must have its limits; for 

it would be unwise to match up a bad cock to an extra good hen, for if you spUt the 

difference in their young, you make half-and-half of them; '* Half-and-half " may 

be very good to a Fancier on a long dusty road and his throat parched vvith thirst, 

when he comes up to a Pig and Whistle Shop, and can get nothing better, but 

half-and-half Almonds will not do for the Fancier, besides throwing away the use 

of the hen for the season. A gentleman, a member of the original Columbarian 

Society, to whom we owe so much, stated, that the best Almond supposed ever 

to have been bred was bred from a white agate cock and kite hen ; but we are not 

to consider this surprising, for the agate cock and kite hen, for ought we know, 

may have had the blood of the Almonds, in a direct line for the last hundred 

years ; and do not Fanciers, who say they cannot have too much of a good thing, 

match up the most plum puddingy Almonds, as they call it, cock and hen; and 

do they always throw Almonds? certainly not, but all colours in feather, such as 

rich kites, duns, yellows, reds, whole feathers, and agates. These birds having 

the blood of the "^Almonds, and coming from good feathered Almonds, as far as 

you are able to ascertain ; if you are acquainted with their pedigree, so much the 

better; these young birds, being judiciously matched, are as likely to throw 

Almonds, as the Almonds themselves; and there are some of the best and most 

experienced Fanciers express it as their opinion, that the amazing power of the 

Almond Tumbler to throw all shades of colour — v/hole feather, agate, splash, 

broken, or spangle, is one of the chief causes that keep Fanciers so long in the 

fancy; propels or induces the Almond Fancier to persevere, owing to the uncertainty 

of throwing the feather; for, as they observe, if it was reduced to a certainty, the 

zest would be lost ; and, as I observed before in another part of this work, that 

the Almond Tumbler Fancy is as open now for fresh competitors, as it was a 

century ago. There are Fanciers who condemn me, and say that I match up too 

high for feather; be this as it may, I am one of those who think we cannot have 

too much of a good thing, and may be rewarded like the man who reasoned, 

" That if a little physic was good, what must a great deal be?" why, do every 

thing but what it was intended to do. The Fancier may draw his inference, that 

I am a Head and Beak Fancier, and despise Feather, I am a great admirer of 

Head and Beak, but am not insensible to Feather; for, as I observed before, which 

of the five properties could we afford to lose ? and is not feather a grand property ? 

It unfortunately sometimes happens that on exhibiting a bird on a grand show 
night among the Fanciers, that if the bird possesses four good properties out of the 
five, namely : — head, beak, eye, and carriage, but should fall short in feather, a 



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** Feather Fancier" would remark the deficiency of feather, apparently overlooking 
the four other properties ; nevertheless do not lose your command of temper, but 
do as I have done this season, provided the strength of your aviaries and lofts 
will allow you to pick out of seventy pairs of birds as mine will, match up expressly 
six pairs of the best feather, and most likely to throw feather, you will probably 
be in a condition to challenge them to show for feather. 

I will be very brief in touching on the delicate subject of exhibiting a bird as 
their own, although borrowed from another, for my own part I would as soon 
challenge all England to show a bird, as some, (very few I hope in the Fancy,) who 
would make a bet to show a bird of their own breeding, and then borrow the 
best bird they could procure for the occasion ; I sincerely hope as I stated before 
that this rarely occurs, but it has occured. If you fall in challenging all England, 
you fall nobly, but if you are outwitted by a trick, you fall ignominiously. And 
while I am treading on this delicate ground, in an especial manner I would call 
upon the young Fancier that if ever you are placed in a position, not the most 
pleasant in the science of the Almond Tumbler, I allude to that of being appointed 
one of the umpires, let honesty and integrity be as the breath of your soul, and if there 
is no doubt on your mind that the two birds are equal, wash your hands as it were of 
the responsibility, provided you are not already outvoted by calling in another 
umpire or referee, and, above all things, err rather from want of judgment than de- 
sign, for be assured the eyes of the Fancier would be upon your decision, and should 
your decision be manifestly partial, you will bring down the detestation of the 
whole Fancy upon you, and be stamped with infamy to the end of your days. 

It might appear to you that I would almost write anything rather than grapple 
with the subject of inatching and pairing the birds, I thought it would not be 
amiss to go into my aviaries to see how I had matched my birds, and found that 
I had nearly matched them all manner of ways, with the exception of head and beak, 
so that I cannot exactly recommend you to the matching from my own aviaries ; 
it is better to have ten pairs of good birds well-matched, than fifty pairs by 
counteraction. Match up your aviary or loft of birds, commencing with your 
best cock and hen, and going down till you come to birds that you do not approve 
of, then discard them. I do not pretend to instruct you how to breed any given 
feather in the Almond, for after all, feather is only one property out of five, 
therefore, it is absolutely necessary to guard the other properties in producing an 
extra bird. It is possible that you may have a cock, so undeniably good in all the 
five properties, or particularly in feather, head and beak ; and if it was possible 
that you had a hundred hens, you might exclaim that you had not a hen good 
enough, in head and beak to match over to him, and at last be driven to match 
a kite hen, simply because they often run better in the head and beak than the 
Almonds. The kite hen has the advantage over the du.n hen, by producing better 
sound black. The dun hen will produce a more yellow and soft ground, and will 
not produce such good black in flight, tail and spangle, but appear smokey or dunnish, 
unless tlie cock is amazingly strong in feather. Good sound whole feather Almond 
bred Hens, with their rumps extra covered, namely : kites, duns, reds, or yellows, give 
a sound foundation or ground, and by matching them over to an Almond or Splash 
cock, you stand a great chance of breeding an Almond or Splash, and an Almond or 
Splash hen may likewise be matched to whole-feather sound Almond bred cocks; 
but I think it is absolutely necessary that the black feather should be visible either 
in the cock or hen. It is possible that two whole-feather Feather birds may throw 
Almonds or Splashes, but I think it is dangerous to try it, unless you are destitute 
of a bird, that would be more suitable, it is then better to buy a bird. 

I cannot help thinking but that the ground of the Almond Tumbler, generally 
speaking, has greatly improved in the last few years, being more yellow. I say 
generally, for the gentlemen of the original Columbarian Society, always had good 
feathered birds, but there were other Fanciers who had not : although it was 
agreed that the feather should be black, white, and yellow; some appeared as 






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13 

though the ground, flight, and tail feathers, were red, instead of yellow, and 
the black an olive ; these are called too deep in colour, and may be called mahogany 
birds • hut then there is another description of birds, such as is called bred too 
high for feather ; it is easy to say to high for feather, and another thing, what you 
mean by it, do you mean to say that too deep colour bred bird, and the too high 
bred bird is the same thing ? Certainly not ; the effect shows itself when we 
produce a number of white or white agate young birds, that we certainly have 
matched the birds too high for feather, and too much blood in them, as it is called ; 
but if on the contrary, you should happen to breed an Almond, it is generally an 
extra feathered bird. It cannot be reduced to a certainty how to breed for feather, 
but if a Fancier is very desirous of breeding for feather, I do not know that he 
could accomplish his object better than by matching an Almond cock, which is 
bred very high for feather, black, white, and yellow, but the black particularly 
good and strong, over to a rich golden dun hen bred from two Almonds; the 
reason why I say that the black in the cock should be particularly good and strong, 
is that while the dun is proverbial in softening a hard feathered Almond cocc, arid 
ei'vine a beautiful and soft yellow or Almond ground, fails in producing the black. 
1 am not aware of any match that is likely to throw better feather, provided as 
I said before that the black is good, but it almost amounts to an impossibility 
to intermix a decided black with a rich bright yellow ; there are many gentlemen 
of the Fancy, who know what a good black is, but I am fearful have not paid that 
attention to ascertain what is good yellow. 

Now that I am writing on black and yellow, let us endeavour to illustrate or 
define it, and I think you could not do better than thus : suppose a grand show 
open to Lll England, to produce the best standard Almond Tumbler and the two 
gentlemen Fanciers appointed umpires in a room by themselves, he birds bemg 
handed in for admissibility, the standard being black, white, and yellow they have 
agreed in passing two birds at first sight into the penn which are to be examined 
again prior to their being shown for the prize ; another bird is now handed in, which 
is a standard bird, but is objected to by one of the umpires, and the other asks 
upon what grounds-the answer he received that it is not a jet or good black 
that it is a faint, smoky, bad black ; then the other umpire ms.sts upon good 
yellow, and goes to the penn to examine the two birds that had passed to be 
re eximbed, and declares them disquahfied for showing the other umpire requires 
Jhe cause and is answered that the ground of the bird, also the flight and tail 
is nearer a red than a yellow, and as the one would not pass a faint black, neither 
would the other pass a reddish bird for yellow. 

To return to the matching of the rich Almond cock and golden dun hen, if 
on the contrary, the same cock was matched over to a good kite hen, they would 
throw in better black, at the same time producing more kites, it may be Almond 
and Kite in each nest. I think you will not be wrong even in matchmg up a 
Spangled or good Splash cock to a sound bright whole-feather hen Almond bred 
namely-duns, kites, reds, yellows, or even red and yellow mottled agate Almond 
bred birds, and reversing it with the hens and cocks. Not knowing how to FoJ"ce 
a eiven feather myself, I experience the difficulty of instructing you, but 1 ttimfc 
what I have stated are the best rules to lay down, and it will assist you it you 
know how the birds have been bred ; at the same time it is encouraging to the 
young Fancier, that he may come into the Fancy and thiw a bud for feather 
from an agate cock and kitchen, with the most experienced Fancier, still, feather 



is but one property out of five. 



OF LAYING. 



Much will depend on the state of the weather ; should it he mild or warm, the 



hens will begin to lay in about a week after matching. 
of those effffs that come very soon after matching ; 



experienced greater success with the eggs that have come later. 



have very little opinion 
on the contrary, I have 

Make them a 






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good nest of soft straw, well rubbed with the hand, for they seldom make a proper 
one themselves. Barley straw is best for this purpose, but of whatever you make 
it, let it be a good sound tight nest, for if it is loose and careless the eggs will get 
under the straw, the birds lose them, forsake the nest, and the eggs are not 
hatched, owing to a little carelessness. The hen mostly lays two eggs, missing 
one day between the first and second; after having laid her first egg, which is 
always between five and six o'clock in the afternoon, she and the cock alternately 
stand over it, to protect it from the intrusion of other birds; the second is laid, 
usually, at one o'clock, or soon after, on the tbird day, when they commence 
incubation in the following manner: — the cock sits from between nine and ten in 
the morning till four or five o'clock in the afternoon^ when the hen sits till the 
following morning, and so alternately till the seventeenth day from the laying the 
last egg^ when the incubation is complete, and the eggs will be chipped, and in 
general batched in the course of that day, if they hatch at all, and this regularity 
and alternate relief is maintained during the feeding as weil as the sitting. 

I used, formerly, when the first egg was laid between five and six o'clock in the 
afternoon to take it away and put it into a pill box, lined with wadding, to prevent 
its breaking, and substitute a bone egg, for the birds to stand over, or sit upon, 
and on the third day, when the hen would lay her second egg, between one and 
two o'clock; prior to this, on the same morning, restore the first egg about nine 
o'clock, so that it might acquire the same warmth of the last egg, and both 
hatched together. I know I was a great gainer by this method, but having many 
birds, it was too troublesome; but if you have a few birds and time on your hands, 
it will reward you for your trouble. 

OF HATCHING. 

The Fancier should be very particular, and be certain of tlie day of hatching. 
The way I do is to keep a book on purpose, and in looking at the nest pans, where 
I expect them to lay after six o'clock in the evening; if an egg is laid, I put in 
the book the number of the penn to which the birds belong the day the first egg is 
laid ; suppose the first egg on the first of the month, the second egg on the third, 
then add seventeen days for sitting from the last egg which is laid on the third, 
making it the twentieth; and while you are goiitg your round to look after fresh 
laid eggs, look to those eggs that are to hatch that day, for be assured that in nine 
cases out of ten the birds will be hatched if hatched at all, unless the weather is 
unfavorable and the birds do not sit close ; on the contrary, should the weather be 
very hot, and the birds sit close with a good warm nest, they will rather hatch 
before. We will suppose the seventeenth day from the hen having laid her last 
egg now arrived, and the young ones beginning to hatch, much attention is now 
necessary to be paid, and a little judicious assistance is sometimes requisite to 
assist the young bird in extricating itself from its prison-house, and particularly 
in the spring, when the young ones even in the shell are more delicate and weakly 
than they are at a later period of the season, and consequently less able to disengage 
themselves. If an egg does not spring or chip by the time it ought, namely, in 
the course of the seventeenth day, the Fancier should hold it to his ear, and if the 
young one makes a crackling kind of noise, and that pretty briskly, he may 
conclude it will soon chip; when it has so chipped, if the young one should not 
proceed in its endeavours to break the shell as much as the Fancier thinks it ought 
to have done in the time, and does not continue to make so brisk a noise, it is a 
sure sign that the young one is weakly and almost exhausted, requiring immediate 
assistance ; in that case he should gently dent his thumb or finger nail, or the head 
of a pin, in a circle round the eggj in the same manner as if it had been done from 
within by the beak of the young one itself; remembering to let in a little air, 
which may be safely done at the part where its beak lies, and no blood will issue 
from it, by which means it will be greatly assisted in extricating itself, and many 

a valuable bird may be thus saved ; particular care should be taken not to pick a 



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15 



hole in any other part of the shell than above mentioned or make it bleed, although 
I have heard some Fanciers say they have taken them out of the shell and they 
have bled like pigs, but it is extremely dangerous. If it has been moving about 
in the shell so long as to have absorbed all the moisture or blood, and has by its 
circuitous motion rolled up the little caul or membrane in which it is ^ enveloped 
-whilst in the egg, it may safely be set at liberty, taking care to expose it to the air 
as short a time as possible. When it is disengaged from the shell, a portion 
of the yolk will be seen attached to its navel, which will nourish it for a day or 
two, if the old ones should not happen to feed it immediately. It happens from 
some cause or other, that the young ones do not get fed, in these cases if the 
Fancier is anxious to save the produce of the pair, and has no means of shifting 
them under another pair, he must take some crumb of bread, and some yolk of an 
egg boiled hard, and masticate them in his mouth till they become of the proper 
consistence to pass into the crop of the young bird, and by applying its beak to 
his mouth it will in general suck its crop full very readily, and by the time he has 
repeated this a day or so, the chances are greatly in favor of the old ones feeding 
it, either from a more abundant supply of soft meat, or from some other cause ; 
but if the Fancier neglects this too long, the young bird will become weak and 
will not thrive upon his experiment, even though it should have taken some of this 
artificial food into its crop in the way before mentioned; but when once the old 
ones have fed it after him, it is astonishing to see the alteration that takes place in 
the young bird for the better, in a few hours. 

If one should hatch considerably before the other, which it will do if the old 
ones have rather sat upon^ than merely stood over the first egg, and it should happen 
to be a bad head and beak bird, which is not very promising, kill it, although an 
Almond, and rather take the chance of what the other egg will produce; it being 
in his favor that the produce will be a short-faced good head and beak bird : the 
reason I recommend this is, because the rough and strong bird being first hatched, 
will acquire too much strength, get all the food and starve the one most wished to 
be raised. For you do not stand in need of rough Almonds, any more than 
queer Kites ; should you have plenty of feeders that can bring it up you may do 
so, and make a feeder of it, but do not hazard the rearing of a valuable bird 
through it. The more you kill, comparatively speaking, however strange it may 
appear to you, my experience teaches the greater will be your gain ; otherwise, as I 
stated before, you will raise the rough long-faced, and lose the valuable short-faced 
birds, but I advise you to have plenty of feeders. 

OF SHIFTING. 

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Hatching a little wonder is one thing, to raise it another; and in a former part 

of this work I laid great stress on the shifting, when you consider how early the 
,,,.., . . ,. .... ,1 - .!-•_ • particularly the case 



old birds begin to decline sitting on their young; this is _ 

with the Almond Tumblers, who will rarely bring np their own young, exceptin 
the height of summer, by reason of their quitting them sooner to go to nest again; 
they begin to get restless as early as the sixth day, and the ninth or tenth they 
will be off the nest for an hour or more at a time, and get calling to nest again 
by which the young ones are left exposed to the air before they have a feather 
upon them, and die of cold with their crops full; to obviate this he should shift 
them under another pair that have not hatched so long, and kill the young ones 
he takes away from such other pair, if he has not a shift for them also ; in doing 
which he gets these shifted young ones an additional supply of warmth from being 
sat on, and of soft meat, from the fresh pair not having hatched or fed so long, and 
consequently their soft meat not being exhausted. Some Fanciers are very unwilling 
to kill a bird, by which means they frequently lose two ; but, surely, it is better to 
kill one to save the other, than not to kill it, and so lose both. 

If he has not Almonds enough, it is better to get some common Tumblers for 
feeders or nurses, such as bald-heads or beards, and by killing their young, which 



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16 

he will do without reluctance^ lie may be certain of bringing up his young Almonds, 
and if he is judicious he may generally have a succession of feeders, by taking 
away the hens of his feeders, and confining them awhile, and when any of his best 
Ahnorids are within a day or two of laying, turn the feeder hen to her mate, they 
will go to nest immediately, and lay in a week or less after the others, by which 
means he will get a certain shift for his young Almonds at the distance of six, 
seven, or eight days, which is just the time the old ones begin to desert them, and 
thus bring up a pair of good birds, which without such feeders he probably would 
have lost, he should let the common birds feed their own young a day or two 
after hatching to bring on their soft meat. 

There are Fanciers, who, by no means approve of shifting oftener than once, 
if it can be avoided, but sometimes the course of shifting throughout the whole 
loft, will necessarily be such that it cannot be prevented. Too great a supply of 
soft meat is very detrimental, and frequently fatal, by causing the canker or 
putrescence in the throat of the young bird- It is very necessary to give the 
young ones fresh nests when you shift them, and here I will just throw out a hint 
I sincerely hope you have no insects, for if you scrape up your aviary, loft, or 
breeding places daily, by attention to these rules you will not be troubled with 
these insects in any material degree ; the best way is to burn the old nests, and 
a few hot cinders dropped into the nest pan^ and shaken round, will kill all 
that remain in the porous parts of the pan. Some Fanciers assert that shifting 
the nests of the young birds is apt to give them the scowers, but I cannot say I 
have ever experienced that to be the case, on the contrary they have always 
thriven greatly. 



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OF MOULTING. 

This, though not a disease, but natural to all the feathered kind, is more fatal 
to the Almond Tumbler than any disease that afflicts them, they moult, or in 
other words, cast their old feathers, and acquire anew set every year. Numbers 
of them die under this painful operation of nature, before they can accomplish the 
change, and most of them are rendered more or less unwell, particularly the hens, 
which are generally more delicate and less capable of bearing such a change ; if 
they are old it is mostly fatal to them. They begin to moult about May or June 
by casting the flight feathers, and no further moult is perceptible till the middle 
of July or so, when the body feathers begin to appear pretty thick about the 
aviary or loft, in August they get considerably into moult, and in the month 
of September, they are what is called deep in moult, many of them being very 
ragged about the breast and hackle, and some of their necks are featherless, but 
full of stumps of the new feathers, which gives them a very disagreeable appearance 
for a short time, greatly altering the proportions of their shape, and disguising 
them so much that the Fancier scarcely knows his own birds. Should he chance 
to go out of town for a month or six weeks at this particular season, he would on 
his return have great difficulty in distinguishing one. from another, from the great 
alteration that takes place, for in general they acquire more colour, and get darker 
every year, particularly the cock birds. They do not get completely out of moult 
till November, and I have seen them moulting even later than this. Towards the 
close of the season, when the birds are in the worst stage of their moulting, and 
the weather is gradually getting colder, warmth is particularly necessary in 
order to assist them in casting their feathers kindly. Notwithstanding this, I do 
not think it right to shut up the aviary or loft, running the risk of affecting the 
health of the birds in general, and making them tender on account of a few that 
are not so well as the others, for air is as necessary as warmth ; but such as are 
unusually ill should be taken and put in a pen, in a room where there is a fire, 
giving them a pill or two of aloes, with some seed. If they do not begin to moult 
freely with this treatment, some of their rump and tail feathers should be pulled 
out, which will sometimes set them into moult ; it will be proper to give all the 



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17 

birds a good handful of hemp or rape seed every day, which will warm and 
make them comfortable, and greatly assist by such warmth to cast the feather. 

Some birds that are rather delicate will not blow their flights and tails kindly, 
w]uch will be seen on examining them, and they will be found covered with a 
sheath or cylinder to the very tip or extremity of what should be the feather, 
giving it the appearance of a thin skewer; when this is perceived it is a sign of 
weakness, and the bird should be kept warm if it could be spared from the loft, 
and the feather will blow freclv, as warmth assists the feather in blowing, so cold 
and damp weather will make the husk or sheath tough, and prevent its drying 
and scaling off as it will do in hot weather, and the feather will perish. It the 
bird cannot be spared from the aviary or loft to be kept warm, so that the feather 
may disengage itself; the husk should be peeled off as far as it is tolerably dry, 
and care must be taken that the feather is not pulled out, as the one that succeeds 
it (if any does succeed) will be worse than the one so drawn, and most likely be 
nothing more than a mere stimip or perished feather, care must also be taken 
not to make it bleed. The best way I have found out in endeavouring to moult the 
birds, was to imagine that I was fatting the birds for the spit, believing from 
observations that a bird would not die of moulting, provided it was fat ; on the 
contrary, I am certain that a poor lean emaciated half-starved bird cannot 
by anv possibility throw its feather, and the only way I ever found out to cause 
it to moult, was to get it in high condition, and then it moulted without any 
further trouble of mine, and I believe that I could never get the birds so fat as 
when I gave them wheat; be this as it may, if you want to get your birds well 
through the moult, get them as fat as you possibly can, and a little saffron in their 
water is likewise very beneficial. 



VERMIN 



These birds, like every other kind, have their peculiar species of vermin, the 
most troublesome are a sort of louse, not unlike in colour those found upon 
persons of filihy habits, but of a different shape, being nearly round, and about 
half the size, they run incredibly swift, and on turning up the feathers on the 
belly of the bird, disappear in an instant, they harbour m the short eatbers on 
the underpart of the rump close to the quills of the tail feathers ; but are to be 
found i.. greater abundance on the belly, near the vent, where the bud cannot 
very well reach them, and if the bird is very foul the roots of the feathers will be 
clotted with nits or eggs, and swarms of these insects will run away in every 
direction the moment the feathers are turned up ; they also inhabit the neck, where 
tliey likewise deposit their eggs in great abundance, being there perfectly safe, 
from destruction till they arrive at maturity, when they descend to the belly-part 
for sustenance. Birds with wry, crooked, or hooked beaks, are most subject 
to these vermin, being from those defects less able to destroy them, and should 
therefore be particularly attended to. 

The best remedy, beyond all doubt, is the ungueM. mercur., commonly called 
blue ointment, rubbed, on the parts, but not in such quantity as to affect the bird, 
a small portion is sufficient ; this should not be rubbed about the head or neck, 
but only on the belly, and the clotted or nitted feathers pulled off, which will clear 
the way for the application of the ointment, and by the next day he will not be 
able to find any vermin of that kind upon the birds. They should be examined 
every now and then, as the nits in the neck which were not affected with the 
unction will be continually coming to life, and create a new brood, and over-rua 
the birds a<Tain very shortly, therefore, as often as any signs of vermin appear 
rub a little^of the ointment on the belly to receive thein, which will infallibly kill 
all that touch it, by these means the Fancier will always keep his birds clear.,. 

This is particular necessary for the hens, as many of them suffj^r,^ and are 
exhausted so much by this Uttle blood sucker that they will not breed, but ujion 

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deaning tliera they recover their health, and breed as well as ever. I have leen 
birds so devoured with them, as to have large crusts or scabs formed by the 
ichor that flows from the wounds these little animals inflict upon their bellies, 
under which scabs, forming a sort of canopy, they run for shelter, and remain in 
Batety when the bird is picking itself; another purpose is also answered by these 
incrustations, covering parts of the belly of the bird in a circle beyond where the 
wounds are, by rendering the parts so covered softer to the piercers of these little 
insects, and affording them a more ready, as well as a safe opportunity of satisfvin? 
the cravings of their voracious appetites. The blue ointment not only destroys 
the vermin, but heals the wounds under the crusts before mentioned, in a day 
or two. Some Fanciers are afraid of venturing upon this remedy, and have 
recourse to the usual ones of snufF, tobacco dust, snufF and hog's-lard, smoking 
their feathers, &c. ; but I am satisfied these are of very little, if any use. because 
they are not fatal to the insects, if they come in contact with it, and, besides, 
they are very troublesome and prejudicial in the application, by getting into the 
bird s eyes, nostrils, &c., disfiguring them, and discolouring their plumage, whicb 
must be turned back to get the snufF down to the quills of the feathers. 

I know a good Fancier that always uses a strong decoction of tobacco water. I 
lormerly used sweet oil, and the heat of the body caused the oil to spread all 
over the skin of the bird, and the insects could not escape; but I fancied the oil 
rotted the roots of the feather, and caused them to come oW. I mentioned the 
circumstance one evening at a grand show, and was informed that if I used 
anmal oil, instead of vegetable, it would not happen-such as neat's-foot oil; I 
think this would be worth trying. Of late I have used nothing but the blue 
ointment, and have anointed upwards of one hundred at the same time, but only 
on the belly, never having used it on the neck, and never saw any of them 
tremulous or paralytic ; but there are Fanciers who have ventured to rub some 
of the ointment about the neck feathers ; if the Fancier does this, it must be 
done very cautiously and sparingly, otherwise it will affect the birds so far as 
to make them tremulous and paralytic, and even kill them. I therefore recommend 
the young Fancier not to apply the ointment to the neck at the same time that 
he does to the belly, but wait two or three days first. 

I am bound to acknowledge, after the most mature consideration, that I cannot 
possibly do better than give verbatim, some of the remarks on the management of 
the Almond Tumbler, contained in a work now out of print, dedicated to the 

Crentlemen of the Cohimbarian Society;" those remarks are so true, taken from 
actual observations and constitutes a complete fund of experience; nevertheless, 
1 sha 1 add a few ideas, which I trust will not be found unacceptable or unworthy 
of following the excellent remarks I here allude to. 

THE LOFT 

Should be very airy, and at the top of the house, and if it is large, it would be 
better to divide it, as the Fancier will find two rooms very convenient upon many 
accounts, particularly in cross-matching, in the middle of the breeding season if 
the produce of his birds should not please him ; and he will find his birds more 
familiar if they have not too much wing room; and when he wishes to catch 
any of them, he should entice them into the area with a little rape or hemp seed 
by which he will avoid hurrying them about the room, and may catch them at 
pleasure, and prevent the probability of a hen who is near laying, dropping her 
egg on the grovmd. The area should, if convenient, have a south west aspect, 
that the birds may have the benefit of the Sun in the spring mornings, when 
they are near laying, which will greatly assist them if the weather should 
unfortunately set m cold, soon after matching. And besides, it is very great service 
to the young ones as soon as they are able to fly up to it ; but if it is convenient, 
I should recommend a separate room or loft for them, as soon as they are fit 
to be drafted off, as they will certainly thrive better, where they have no old 



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birds to contend with, and knock them about, the penns should be two feet 
square at the least, with fronts to them, and a pitching board, and a small place 
to go in and out at. which should be made to fasten up as occasion requires. The 
lighter the work is, consistent with the proper degree of strength, the better, and 
the work should be let in, in order to give it a neat appearance. There are 
people in the Fancy who are carpenters, and understand that sort of work better 
than a man who is not a Fancier. The bars should not be more than two niches 
asunder, I prefer a shelf midway between the" flooring and the ceilmg ot the 
penn, big enough to hold a nest pan, and a little over, for the birds to pitch upon 
when they fly up to it; by this means the young ones may always be prevented 
getting into the new nest with the old ones, when they are gone to nest again, 
and thus many a pair of eggs may be saved. When the old ones begin to leave 
their young, which they will generally do in nine or ten days time, and frequently 
sooner, remove the pan with the young ones from the shelf to the floor of the penn, 
the old ones will not forsake them, but continue to feed them as before, and the hen 
will sit on them at night as usual. A few days afterwards, when you perceive 
they are very anxious to go to nest again, put them a fresh pan on the shelf, 
which they will readily take to, and this plan may be pursued all through the 
season, and save a vast deal of trouble and loss. Thoiigh I have said it is desirable 
to have a warm aspect for the areas, I by no means wish it to be understood that 
I think the loft should be kept warm ; on the contrary, it should have a free 
current of air, and in winter, except in very coarse days, I think the birds cannot 
be kept too cool, being convinced it braces them, and particularly the hens. It 
is only at the laying time in the spring, that I recommend the loft being shut up, 
to keep out the cold and searching winds, as the hens are at this time frequently 
very ill. 

The loft and areas should be scraped every day, and kept thorough clean, the 
birds will be much more healthy, and never get clogged with dirt, and the lancier 
will have greater pleasure in going into his loft ; besides all this, it will prevent 
the possibility of fleas and other vermin infesting him. A little water should be 
sprinkled on the floor in the hot summer months, provided the Fancier does 
not p-ravel his loft. Some use this method of gravelling the floor, which I 
disapprove, on account of the dust it makes, and the harbour it affords for vermm, 
but the birds should always have access to gravel. 

Above all, take care that the loft is not infested with rats or mice, the former 
of which will not only destroy the eggs, but the young ones also, and even the 
old ones, if no young' ones are to be had; but a good cat trained up in the loft, 
and well disciplined, will remedy all this. I recommend a boar cat, but he should 
be castrated, that he may not be hankering to get out after the females, or entice 
others to the loft. 



boar cat is. 



Ashe cat is objectionable on the same account as an uncut 
These are more formidable enemies in their natural state than any 



other, and the loft on that account should, if possible, be inaccessable to the 
approach of cats. If this cannot be managed, they must be trapped, and all means 
used to prevent their ravages, not omitting to make the bars of the areas proof 
against their paws. 

OF PENNING THE BIRDS. 

The birds being paired, the next care must be to make them well acquainted 
with their respective penns, and for this purpose they should be penned up for a 
few days, or longer if necessary, in the penns designed for them, during which 
time they will match strong, and become well acquainted with their habitations. 
The Fancier should then begin by opening two of the penns, that are most remote 
from each other, and the birds, finding no entrance to any other, will readily learn 
to know the places they came out of. When these two pair are well acquainted 
with their penns, they should be fastened up again, and two other pair let out, 
reaiembering to let out such as are most distant from each other, by which means 



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they ^'Hl b« less liable to nii^itake each other's home ; and so he must proceed, 
till the whole are well acquainted with their respective abodes. Great care should 

be taken to prevent a cock getting master of two penns, for if once he gets a habit 
of going into another bird's penn, be assured he will never rest till he has driven 
that cock and hen from their house, and spoilt their eggs or killed their young 
ones. When this is become very troublesome, the only remedy is, to put him and 
and his hen into another room, for it is ahnost impossible to break him of this 
trick, if once he gets master. Thus the advantage of dividing the loft is clearly 
filiewn, for without this convenience, he must be under the necessity of keeping 
that p^iir of birds constantly penned up, which would be very prejudicial to their 
health, and fill them with vermin. During this period, the young Fancier must 
bestow a little time in watching them, and putting them a few times into their own 
penns, if they are at a loss to find them. By attending to these rules, the birds 
will soon become steady and settled. Particular care should also be taken always 
to give the cock the same habitation he had last year, if not, he will get master of 
two penns, and occasion the difficulty just mentioned. The same care is not 
necessary with regard to the hens, they will always follow their cocks, when 
thoroughly matched. 

OF THE NEST PANS. 

Every pair of birds should be provided with a nest pan, which should be put on 
the shelf in the penn, and the birds made to go to nest there, as pointed out in my 
observations upon making the penns. These pans should be about eight inches in 
diameter at the top, and between three or four inches in depth; they should not 
be perpendicular, but slope inwards from the top to the base, and should be rough 
on the inside, for the better retention of the straw. These can be made at any 
pottery, upon giving a model, or proper instructions how they are to be made. 
Some Fanciers have used little nests, in the shape of a pan, made with straw bands 
after the fashion of a bee-hive; these are very objectionable, on account of the 
harbour they afibrd for vermin, and from which it would be impossible ever to 
clear them. 



BY WHICH TO 



MARKS, 

ERTAIN THE COLOURS OF YOUNa BIRDS IN THE NEST. 



If the beak has no mark on it, but is quite white, the bird will be an Almond. 

If the beak is white, and has a little patch of black somewhere about it, this 
will probably be a Splash; but, should it be an Almond, it will most likely have 
a great deal of black about it. 

If the beak he crossed on the point with a black stripe, or cross, rather inclining 
to blue, this bird will be a black, and not a Kite. 

If with a deep blue mark, it will be a blue, which colour is very objectionable; 
and, if the pair should throw this colour more than once, they should be parted, 
and'were they mine, I should part them the first time. 

If with a black mark, rather inclining to, or having a faint tinge of red, it will 
btJ a Kite, and most likely a rich one. 

If with a slatey- coloured mark, it will be a Dun. 

If with a straw-colour, a Yellow. 

If with a deeper straw-colour, inclining to red, an Agate. And, 

If with a deep red, it will be a Red, or Red-mottled bird. 

By minute attention to these marks, the Fancier will seldom fail in his prediction 
of the colour, long before any signs of feathers are visible. 

With respect to such young birds turning out good or bad, that cannot be 
reduced to so great a certainty, as they alter so much in the nest, that a person 



■*j 



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21 

would sometimes scarce think it was the same bird he had seen a day or two 
before, was he not certain that no one could have changed it. These alterations 
are sometimes for the better, and sometimes for the worse, so that there is no 



saymg, 



with any precision, which will, or will not, be a good bird, nntil after it 
Ivis mouhed, when the bird is seen in full beauty, and to the best advantage. 
Notwithstanding this, I am inclined to think that a good Fancier, who has made'^, 
his observations, can give a pretty good guess, so far as head and beak only are 
concerned, because they are apparent, and the other properties occult, and not to 
be discovered till the bird arrives at maturity. But, if the young one is chubby 
about the beak, and has very little space between the head and the wattle, he may 
be assured it will be a short-faced bird, and may, in general, tell whether the beak 



will be coarse or iiue. 



OF DRAFTING 



THE yOUNO ONES INTO ANOTHER LOFT. 

This is very desirable, provided the Fancier is not straightened for room. As 
soon as the young ones can feed themselves, they should be taken into the loft 
provided for them, and have plenty of gravel and mortar, and their area should 
be kept tliorougli clean, where they will pick themselves, and bask in the sun, 
and thrive prodigiously. 

Their food should be the best tares ; or if sound beans could be procured that 
are small enough, I should prefer them, but it will be better to let them have 
both, as I do not think tares alone, a wholesome diet, being apt to make them scour. 

An additional reason for drafting the young ones off, is, that the old ones should 
not continue feeding them, till they are on the point of hatching again, which they 
will do, even though they can feed themselves, and which is very injurious to the 
old ones, as they have no time to recruit from their labour, which, in feeding two 
or three large birds on the floor, as is often the case, is very great, and pulls the 
birds down very much, and throws them out of condition, particularly the hens, 
who are not equal to it, and have frequently seen them very ill irom so great 
exertion, and on taking them in hand, have fpund them con^^iderably wasted, 
which by taking off the young birds, has been remedied in a few days, and 
the old ones have picked up their flesh as before. For want of an additional room 
to draft them off, the Fancier must, if his loft is divided, put them in the 

contrary side, where they will be prevented teazing the old ones, and learn to 
feed well in two or three days, 

OF BARREN BIRDS. 

It sometimes happens that the Fancier has a pair of barren birds in his loft, that 
is, a pair that from age, or some other defect of nature, will not bleed. This is 



moi 
too 



-e frequently attributable to the hen, as she is more liable to be weakened from 
much breeding, and laying too quickly, and perhaps not having had sufficient 
care taken to sit and feed her oft: But if she lays reguhnly, and the eggs do not 
come to perfection, after the iipual time of sitting, it is clear it is not her fault, and 
must be attributed to some defect in the cock. If she does not lay, and only 
wants to be continually going to nest, it is her fault, and the best way is to give 
her a pair of eggs, and let htr sit on them, and provide her a young one to feed 
oft; when her time for sitting is out ; and repeat this when she wishes to go to nest 
a<'ain for a few times, and if the hen is curable with(»ut flying her, this will make 
her lay again. If she is very valuable, the Fancier should send her to some friend 
in the country who keeps pigeons, and match her to one of the common birds, and 
let her flv ; and if she is not past breeding, it will bring her round. When the 
Fancier has a hen of this description, and the cock is not too good to lose the use 
of in this way, he may make them very useful as feeders, by sitting them at 
almost any time he wishes, which office, by a little man^ement, they will very 
readily perform^ and when their time of sitting is expired, will be ready to take tt 



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pair of good joung ones off from some other pair, that are beginning to desert 
them. Should he not like to keep a pair of this description, he must discard the 
faulty bird ; hut before he does this, he should examine it, to see if it has any 
vermin, as they are sometimes the cause of barrenness. 

OF WASHING. 

The Fancier should take notice, that nothing contributes more to cleanliness 
than frequent washings, in which the birds delight amazingly, and plunge into 
the water with great eagerness ; but this must not be permitted to be done 
in a slovenly way, if it is, they will not be benefitted. The pan should be put 
into the area, and the birds made to wash there, that the waste water may run 
away, and not be suffered to wash in the loft, and make a wet place, that will 
not be dry in three or four days, by which they will draggle their flights and 
tails, and make themselves more dirty, instead of cleaner. The water should 
not be given them more than twice a week, or three times at most, for if they 
have it too frequently, they will not use it. Another inconvenience that would 
result from their constantly having water to wash in, would be, that some would 
be washing one day, and some another, the area would never be dry, and the 
same evil would arise as if they were permitted to wash on the floor of the loft, 
for nothing soils their plumage so much as constant wet, particularly their flights 
and tails. I think the cistern water for this purpose is best, because it is softer 
and more likely to assist in removing the filth from their plumage, than pump-water. 

OF FLYING THE BIRDS. 

Some Fanciei's prefer flying their birds, but to this I cannot assent, either in 
town or country, more particularly in town, as they are extremely weak and timid, 
and the least blast of wind would blow them down the chimneys; or one bird 
playing up against another, would have the same effect, and the Fancier would 
be continually losing birds of value, to his great mortification, and be constantly 
getting into disgrace with his neiglibours, and perhaps into difficulties, add to 
this, that the birds would be ten times more dirty, and washing is of no use, 
therefore, as no advantage whatever can possibly be derived from it, I object to 
it entirely. In the country it is different, because it is clean, and may benefit the 
plumage ; but even there, I would not fly them constantly, as it tends to make 
them coarse, which is the reverse of what is wished to be obtained in these birds, 
viz. — delicacy ; I should therefore fly them only occasionally, which would answer 
all the purposes of keeping them healthy, and beautiful in their plumage. And 
a further reason is, that it tends to make them wild, instead of what is so desirable, 
perfectly familiar. Some have doubted whether the Almonds will tumble in the 
air when flvino" like the common Tumblers, but I can solve that doubt, by assuring 
them, that they will, and that I once had one of my own, that tumbled remarkably 
well, and very clean, never losing any way in the air, so as to be distanced by the 
rest of the flight, which is a great perfection in tumbling. 

OF LOAM. 

m 

The birds should be furnished with loam, of which they are remarkably fond, 
which should be put into a garden or flower-pot, and well soaked, and when the 
■water has drained off, and the loam become solid, lay the pot on its side, and they 
will eat the loam very greedily, especially if there is a little salt in it, of which 
they are also immoderately fond ; but as they^ are already of a hot nature, and 
sufficiently thirsty, I do not approve of increasing that thirst by artificial means, 
unless some good reason could be given for it, and which I confess I am at a 
loss to find out. Some Fanciers say, that obliging them to drink is very useful 
to them ; but I cannot say I agree with them, as it seems to me to stand to 
yeaso^, that a bird will drink sufficiently if it can get it, without any unnatural 



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23 

means to provoke it. There are loam-pots to be had at the earthenware shops 
made on purpose, they are of a conical form, part of the cone or cap takes off, 
for the reception of the loam, and there are holes in the side for the birds to get at it. 

I am of opinion, that loam should be given only in the summer time, or breeding 
season, and not in the winter, having good reason to think it occasions the roop, 
or at least promotes it, and retards the cure when the bird is troubled with that 
complaint, and the reason that occurs to me, seems to be feasible enough, which 
is, that the roop being a sort of cold in the head, and the nose, or nostrils rather, 
having a communication with the mouth, and being in that complaint always 
BtufFed with rheum or phlegm, I think it is fair to presume, that the constant 
eating of cold loam may sometimes occasion the roop, or at least may tend to 
make it worse, when a bird is alre&dy affected with it. I used formerly to suffer 
my birds to eat it all winter, and they all had this complamt more or less. It 
afterwards occured to me that this might possibly be the reason, and since tha. 
time I have not allowed them any, after the cold weather has set m, and have 
had the satisfaction of finding, that none of my birds have been attected witft it 
since, in a general way, but only now and then one. Some Fanciers make a 
composition of loam, gravel, and mortar, adding some salt, but I think it is far 
preferable to give them each of these (except the salt) in their crude or natural state. 

GRAVEL. 

Is essentially necessary for the birds to have always by them; and unless they 
have or some substitute in lieu of it, as sand or mould, I am inclined to think 
they 'would not be healthy. It is absolutely requisite for the purpose of grinding 
and digesting the food, which enters the stomach from the crop, in a whole, though 

soft state, and was it not for the particles of gravel, little stones, and other hard 
substances which they pick up, and which passes through the gizzard with the 
food, and assists maceration and digestion, I should think birds would not only 
become very unhealthy and indolent, but not live in our lofts to that age which 
they frequently do, some of them living with us nine, ten, and even eleven years. 

MORTAR. 

From the eagerness with which these birds search for, and from the avidity 

with which they devour mortar, one would think it was as absolutely necessary 

to their existence as gravel, but reflection will teach us that it is not, for before 

the mortar can reach the stomach it must be rendered soft, if not entirely dissolved, 

and thereby become unfit for the purpose of grinding the food, which is the use 

of the small stones in the gravel, but it may possibly, from its heat, assist in 

promoting maceration and digestion. Some Fanciers assert it will harden the 

Lgshell, when a hen is near laying; but to this I cannot readily subscribe, 

conceiving that mortar from its hot nature would rather corrode, than indurate 

the shell. I do not however perceive that any ill effects arise from their eating 

it. and on that account perhaps it may be fair to conclude, that it is of some service 

to them There is no doubt but their fondness for mortar arises from the quantity 

of salt-petre or saline particles, which it contains, and their immoderate partiality 

for salt bein'c' universally known and admitted, I should think, that although they 

are so fond of it, yet it is by no means absolutely necessary to their existence ; 

but where Fanciers fly their birds, it is absolutely necessary to supply them well 

with mortar, as a matter of policy, otherwise they will shortly unroof the house 

thev belong to, and greatly damage those adjoinmg, and brmg their keepers into 

difiiculty The mortar should not be new, but should be got on purpose from 

the rubbish of some old house or wall that is pulling down, which has lost the 

greater part of its original hgat, and which is therefore preferable to fresh made 
mortar. 



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OF THEIR FOOD. 

I shall now call the young Fancier's attention to a matter which is most material 
of all to the health of his birds, and upon which the speedy and vio-orous increase 
of their young greatly depends, I mean their food. 

If the throats of the young birds were not so small, I have no hesitation in 
saying, that beans of the best qiiality, and as small as they could be obtained, would 
be the best food that could possibly be given them ; and was it not for the difficulty 
the old birds have in feeding their young entirelv upon beans, I would never ffive 
Ihem any thing else. This might possibly be objected to by some, from a sup- 
position, that beans alone would not so readily furnish a sufficiency of soft meat, 
from their solidity, but I should think this reason would not bear them out, as it 
IS notorious that the birds of the common Fanciers are fed upon nothing else, and 
they are always furnished with as much soft meat as those that are otherwise fed. 
But in the breeding season, the Almond Tumbler should be su|)plied also with 
good sound old tares, and to the hoppers containing these, as well as the beans, 
they should have free access, that they may satisfy themselves as often as occasion 
requires, which is almost incessant whilst they are feeding their young, being very 
voracious feeders, which may be accounted for, from their great heat of constiUition, 
the food being quickly digested and converted into excrement, and continually 
passing through them ; care should be taken not to purchase such beans or tares 
as have been at sea, and got damaged with salt water, as they will infallibly scour 
or purge the birds, and probably kill some of them. In order to ascertain this, 
the Fancier ought always to put some of them into his mouth, and chew them, 
by which means he will readily discover it, should it be so. 

In order, in some measure, to prove my argument as to the beans being the 
best food, and preferable to any other, I shall state the observations I have made 
upon the excrement of the birds as soon as voided. 

I have noticed the excrement of birds that have been fed upon ordinary beans, 
and found that it was tolerably hard and good, but that it was not attended with 
much mucus or slime, from which I infer, that the food was not sufficiently 
nutritious to afford the proper quantum of mucus necessary for the easy discharge 
ofthefceces; but the foeces of birds fed upon prime hard old beans, have been 
very different, and according to my idea have worn a much more healthy appearance 
than the former; the fceces of birds so fed have been voided in a solid lump, 
surrounded with a plentiful quantum of fine oily, or slimy mucus, from whence 
I think the operation of digestion is better performed by the best food, and 
consequently that the birds must be more healthy. 

Tares, if of ever so good quality, are very improper to feed birds upon alone, for 
they are very laxative, and never prodiice a solid excrement, which in a great 
measure tends to prove my argument as to the superiority of the first mentioned 
food; for whoever has made any observation upon the ordure of birds fed upon 
tares alone, will, I trust, allow, tliat it is never solid, but generallv of a pasty 
consistence, and sometimes very thin ; I think it thence follows, that birds in this 
constant state of laxation, can never be so hearty and vigorous as those fed upon 
gpod old beans, which produce a solid excrement. 

From what I have above advanced, it will readily be supposed that I prefer 

beans alone for their constant food, when the breeding season is over; I certainly 
do, and with great reason, as I attribute my having been particularly fortunate 
to the observations of the before-mentioned rules, and may venture to say, althouoh 
my birds are kept in the heart of this great city, enveloped in constant clouds of 
smoke from chimnies, foundries, furnaces, &c., no Fancier's birds are more healthy, 
and few have raised so many young ones in proportion to their stock, or lost so 
few old ones from diseases^ &c. The only inconvenience which I can complain 
pfis, the utter impossibility of keeping the plumage of my birds so clean an4 



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25 

beautiful, as those kept in a clearer atmosphere, which is certainly very much to 
their disadvantage, and a great detraction from the beauty of their colours, 

OF THEIR DRINK. 

I prefer pump water for the drink of the birds, conceiving it to be more bracing, 
and less impregnated with animalculse than cistern, or river water, consequently 
less subject to putrescence in the hot water. They are very great drinkers, not 
drinking like fowls by little sips, but in continued draughts, like quadrupeds, 
moving their mouths very quick, and swallowing the water greedily. Particular 
care should be taken to keep their fountains or bottles clean, as it is not at all 
improbable that diseases may arise from the foul state of a fountain, which will 
become greatly furred, and even stink, when the weather is hot, if not frequently 
cleaned. ' The fountains or bottles should not be filled too full in hot weather, so 
that the water may be soon drank, and replaced with fresh, which will prevent 
the possibility of its becoming putrid. Some put a lump of chalk into their water, 
this may be very well, where there is none but river water to be had, but I should 
think no great degree of astringency could be communicated to the water by it. 
If any scourings take place amongst the old birds, the Fancier may break plenty 
of chalk and mortar on the floor, which they will eat readily ; and as to tbe young 
ones, he must adopt the remedy laid down on treating of this complaint. 

They are exceedingly fond of urine, and will drink it greedily, if they can get 
at it; some Fanciers soak their loam with it, which induces them to eat a great 
deal of it, and they will scarcely ever leave the place where it is to be obtained. 
This may be very well for those Fanciers who keep common birds and fly them, 
but I object to it for the Almond Tumbler, on the same gr<amd as salt, viz that 
of creating an artificial thirst to birds already sufficiently thirsty. Pigeons drink 
much at all times, but particularly when feeding large young ones ; they then 
run to the water, and take five or six hearty draughts, and immediately feed their 
young; this assists in soaking the food, and also in the easy discharge of it from 
the crop of the old ones into those of the young. 

OF PARTING THE BIRDS 

AFTER THE BREEDING SEASON. 

I am a great advocate for this measure, having found my account in it, and 
thence been thoroughly convinced of its beneficial effects, great ulility, and 
convenience; and I shall endeavour to convince the young Fancier also, of the 
propriety and advantage of this plan, by a few observations to that point. In 
the first place, a great deal of plague and trouble is saved to the Fancier, by the 
impossibility of the birds going to nest, which they will do, if not parted, in spitQ 
of all his etibrts to prevent them; he is then under the necessity of continuing them 
another round, as the Fanciers term it, (though he is convinced of the impropriety 
of it, at that late season of the year) to the great detriment of his hens, and 
without a chance of bringing up what they may happen to hatch. In the next 
place, should the weather set in cold, the birds remain a little inactive for the 
moment as it were, but the first warm day that comes, though in December or 
January, they are all alive, calling to nest, copulating, &c. which is very prejudicial 
to both, but particularly to the hens, as it must necessarily tend to weaken and 
enfeeble them, and make them what is called pappv, which is caused by their 
being over salacious, and having tOQ frequent connection with the males without 
going to nest, as they would do if the weather was not so cold. Thus we plainly 
see, that the only advantage to be derived fi'om keeping the birds together in the 
winter, is, ironically speaking, to spoil the hens. 

And further, as few Fanciers match their birds in the manner they were matched > 
the preceding season, from the number of young ones they may have bred, which * 
bv the following season are become matchable, and occasion the necessity of 



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altering the old matches, and from other causes, the advantage of parting the birds 
in the winter, is here, I think, particularly conspicuous; it will enable him to 
cross-match all his birds without the least difficulty, as they will cross-match ten 
times more readily when they have been asunder two or three months, than when 
they have been kept together. 

When I have had occasion to cross-match two or three pair of birds in the heighth 
of the breeding season, on account of their produce not pleasing me, I have 
frequently had great difficulty in obtaining my point, from the strong recollection 
the birds have had of each other ; and though I have at last succeeded, the 
moment the hens have been turned into the loft they have flown to their former 
penns and mates, and it was a considerable time before they were reconciled to 
their new mates and abodes. To prevent this, the new matched pair should be 
fastened into their own penn, taking care that the cock has the same penn as he 
had before. This evil will be completely remedied by parthig the loft, as the 
Fancier may then put a pair or two of the cross-matched birds into the contrary 
side to which they have been accustomed, and by this means avoid the intercourse 
that must necessarily take place between the new matched birds, and their former 
mates. 



Another thing is necessary to be attended to by the Fancier, in cross matching, 
he should have two or three matching penns in some other part of his house. 



viz, 



if not too inconvenient, in order that the birds he is about to cross match, may 
be out of the hearing of their former mates, and of the other birds in the loft, 
which will greatly facilitate their speedy matching to their new mates. They will 
frequently be a very long time in matching in the loft, where they can both see 
and hear each other, and sometimes will not match at all. 

If they continue obstinate, a handful of rape or hemp seed should he given them 
occasionally; and if the cock is very violent, and fights his hen, an open lath 
partition should be put across the penn, to separate them, so that they may only 
see each other, and they will soon match by this method, which will be ascertained 
by the hen sweeping her tail, nodding her head, &c. which is called shewing. 

OF THEIR DUNG. 

Their dung is so valuable, and in so great requisition, that if it is preserved 
genuine, and as little straw and other rubbish as possible sufiered to get amongst 
it, tanners and others will give five shillings per sack for it, and will fetch it 
whenever they are informed there is any ready for them. It is used by the 
tanners to separate the hair from the hides, being of an extremely hot nature, and 
answering their purpose better than most other things they make use of. It is 
also an excellent manure for cold, wet, and clayey land, and if it could be procured 
in any quantity, the farmers of such sorts of land would give almost any price for it. 

OF THEIR DISEASES. 

The Almond Tumblers are not naturally liable to many diseases ; the majority 
of those which do attack them, I attribute to a want of suflfiicient cleanliness, and 
good management in their masters, but if taken care of in these respects, they will 
live nine or ten years, and sometimes longer, and are generally taken oflf at last by 
the moult. 

F 

The first and most fatal that has come under my observation is, what is 
commonly understood and called by the name of the Canker. This disorder is very 
much confined to the young birds in the nest, and does not very frequently attack 
the old ones, and as it originates in the oesophagus or throat, it seems to me to arise 
from the putrefaction of a redundancy of the soft meat, and that putrescency 
communicating itself to the throat, and causing a core, I am inclined to think, it 
ought with greater propriety to be called a sore throat, and perhaps, from the 
intolerable foetor emitted froni the throat and crop, not improperly a putrid sore 






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throat ; be this as it may, if the complaint is suffered to go on without any attempt 
to relieve the bird, the core will enlarge, the throat swell, and the bird soon die of 

suffocation. 

Some people are apt to pick off the core, or cut it out, but this is not only of no 
use, but fatal, as the core soon becomes larger than before, and could it all be cut 
clean out, the bird would die very shortly, if not in a few minutes. 

I have more than once opened the throat of a bird that died of this disease, and 
all the information 1 could obtain was, that the core adhered so tight to the fleshy 
or muscular parts of the throat, that it actually appeared like a part of the flesh, 
being as it were incorporated with it, except that the colour of the core, being of a 
yellow, distinguished it from the throat itself: the core was perfectly hard, and 
would separate from the flesh, by pulling, or picking it with a knife, but this was 
with some difficulty, on account of the adhesion, and when it did separate, it left 
a large and deep hole. I have been surprised that I never should have been able 
to discover any pus in the throat, which induces me to think that no suppuration 
takes place, but this is probably because the bird must die of suffocation from the 
swelling in the throat, before the matter can have had sufficient time to form, and 
discharge itself. 

My researches therefore have not been attended with any certain success, but 
have'left me still to conjecture. 

One thing however I have ascertained, that to cut or pick the core, is fatal 
sooner or later, from the great pain and quantity of blood the bird loses from these 
operations. 

Although as I have at first observed, this disease is more particularly incident 
to young "birds in the nest, yet it is by no means uncommon in old birds ; it does 
not in general attack the throat, as in the young ones, but appears in a different 
way, and usually comes about the mouth and beak, and is not to be discovered 
very readily at first, but when it begins to enlarge, the bird will not be able to 
close its mouth, and seems as if it was panting for breath, and on examining it, the 
core will soon be discovered. I once had a bird that was attacked with this 
complaint, and I discovered a core as big as a pea on the outside of the beak or 
lower jaw, which was much swoln. and it was with great pain and difficulty that 
the bird could swallow : this had no doubt been some time forming, but it soon 
gave way on applying the remedy I have under written. 



Not being sufficiently able to trace the 




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of this disorder, I must endeavour 



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to make some amends to the Fancier by communicating a cure when the effect is 
produced: and which, if attended to, and frequently and patiently administered, 
will, I have no doubt, generally succeed. 

I cannot describe the qiiantums and proportions of the ingredients in the way a 
medical man would do, but must content myself with tellmg the Fancier m aplam 
—to take 

A half-pint phial, and fill it three parts full of the best vinegar, drop into it as 
many drops of spirit of vitriol as will make it sufficiently pungent, which 
may be ascertained by trying it on the tongue a few times, sweeten it 
with a little honey, which will make it adhere to the throat, shake them 
well together, and take a feather, and anoint the inside of the throat of 
the bird affected, two or three times a day, and in general a cure will be 
accomplished; hang the phial up in the loft where it will be ready for 
future occasions, as 1 do not perceive that the specific loses its virtue by 



keepin 



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That this complaint is contagious, I have no doubt, for it generally attacks a 
number of young birds at the same time, and is most prevalent in the hot months. 
Formerly this complaint used to infest my loft every season, by which I lost many 
good birds, but from what cause it arose I never could discover, the same degree 



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of cleanliness having been observed, and the birds having been treated in every 
respect the same then, as since, as far as I can recollect, and I have not had a 
single instance of the kind for many years past. The only possible conjectnre I 
can make, is, tliat possibly I miglit not have been so particular about the food I 
tlien gave them, and most unquestionably, the quality of the food is very material 
in the prevention of complaints. 

THE ROOP. 

The next disorder that comes particularly under our notice is, the TJoop, This, 
as I before observed, is a kind of cold or influenza, and is more frequent in cold, 
damp, a»id wet weather, therefore in such weather tlie loft should be kept 
particularly clear of dung, which if suffered to remain will increase the damp, and 
make the birds worse, and perhaps spread the complaint through the whole loft, 
for I am of opinion, that this disorder is also contagious, therefore, on its first 
appearance the infected bird or birds should be taken away, and kept warm, and 
should occasionally have a handful of seed given them. Some put rue into their 
water, but I do not think this is of any use ; the only remedy with which I am 
acquainted, is to keep them warm, and squeeze the rheum out of their nostrils, 
and aUo from the orifice in the palate or roof of the mouth, which communicates 
with the nostrils, by pressing which with the thumb and finger, and at ihe same 
time opening the mouth, a lump of rheum like jelly, wmII be seen obtruding itself 
from the orifice, which should be removed, and the bird will then breathe freely. 
This should be repeated about twice a day, and a pill of bitter aloes, the size of a 
pea, given once in two days, which will warm the inside, and the bird will soon 
recover. A few pepper-corns are not amiss to be given the intervening days. 
Tliis is by no means a dangerous complaint, if attended to when discovered. It 
seems to me to be very similar to a violent cold and stoppage in the head. 

THE VERTIGO. OR MEAGRIMS. 

These birds are subject to a complaint called the Vertigo or Meagrims, which is 

an involuntary turning or twisting of the head towards the back, accompanied 

with a blinking of the eyes, and the bird flutters and flies indiscriminately against 

any thing that comes in its way. It is very disagreeable and painful to see them 

in this situation ; as I have yet to find out a certain cure for this complaint, and 

as the bird seldom if ever gets the better of it, was it mine, and an indifferent 

bird, I should think it best to put it out of its misery, and not torture it with 
useless experiments. 

THE STAGGERS. 

This is another complaint, and is a constant turning round or staggering, when 
the bird attempts to walk or fly ; but as I am in the same predicament with respect 
to the cure of this complaint as of the other, I should be necessitated to adopt the 
same remedy. 

Both the above complaints are very rare, and have never happened in my loft, 
although I have seen them, so that [ have never been driven to ihe necessity of 
considering what would be proper to administer upon these occasions. By what 
information I have gathered upon the subject, I am inclined to think that these 
complaints are rarely, if ever cured; I think it probable, that making a small 
puncture in the roof of the mouth, to let out a little blood, might be attended with 
beneficial effects, as the disorders both seems to me, to arise from a giddiness in 
the head. Was a valuable bird of mine to be in either of these situaticms, I should 
Certainly be induced to try the experiment, notwithstanding what I before said 
about useless experiments ; indeed the experiment would be hardly worth making 

tipon an ordinary bird, unless for satisfaction sake, and for the purpose of knowing 
how to treat a better bird; was it to be in that situation. 






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SCOURING OR PURGING. 

Picreons ate sometimes subject to scouring or purging, particularly young otief, 
-W'hich is generally accompanied with a foetid smell ; when this is perceived, put 
down the throat a lump of chalk of the size of a bean, three or four times a day, 
wliich will effectually stop it, and the bird will soon be as well as before. Pump 
water, as before observed, bein^ more astringent, sliould be given them, and the 
cb)tted feathers, if any, should be plucked from about the anus, to prevent theit 
being cold and wet, which the constant purging will occasion, and their nests 
should be kept dry, as from weakness in this complaint they are frequently unable 
to dung over the side of the nest-pan. 

THE SMALL POX. 

The young birds are also subject to a complaint, which, from its similarity, is by 
Fanciers called the Small Pox ; it generally makes its appearance just before tlie 
birds begin to fledge, and cotnes out pretty thick in little pustules filled with 
matter about the head, neck, and back; but I never observed that the birds were 
the least ill with it, and it Usually disappears in six or seven days, without having 
had the smallest effect upon them that I coidd perceive, the birds thriving and 
growing all the time as if nothing was the matter with them. 

They have some other little complaints too trifling to notice, but if a bird is 
unwell and I cannot discover what the cause of its illness is, I generally administer 
a pill or two of rheubarb, of the size of a pea, and repeat it on the alternate day, 
which purges them, and generally sets tl^em right. 

OF ODD OR UNMATCHED BIRDS. 

The Fancier should avoid keeping too many odd or unmatched birds in bis loft, 
for they will be continually getting into the penns of the other birds that are sitting 
steadily, and fight them, and if not break the eggs, in all probability cause the hen 
to forsake her nest, bv which she will be liable to lay again too quickly, and 
without having sat a proper time to recruit herself; or if she was near hatching, 
her crop will be filling with soft meat, 
getting rid of, for her, and she will be m danger of bemg sick and ill, in 
consequence of it. To remedy this, he had better buy a common bird or two to 
match to his own that are odd; and they will thus be prevented doing him 
mischief, and be attended with the advantage of being serviceable to him as feeders.. 



which the Fancier will have no 




of 



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Some Fanciers fit up their lofts with mere shelves, and partitions between them, 

ry bird m 



without any fronts, so that each division is open to the intrusion of 
the loft, as well as to the pair it belongs to. This, in my opinion, is an extremely 
erroneous notion, as the Fancier must be in a much greater degree of uncertainty 
as to the crenuine produce of his birds, and of course much less able to give their 
true pedi^^ree, than if the penns were enclosed, for I have more than once been witness 
to the atfempt of a strange bird, to tread a hen, which has squatted to receive the 
tread of her own mate, and no doubt but this sometimes actually takes place when 
the Fancier is not present to prevent it. Add to this, that the birds are frequently 
prevented treading their own hens, by the interference of other birds, who will 
always fly at them, and prevent them, if they are any where about the loft exposed 
to their view, which must ever be the case in open penns ; but where the penns 

* ' ' copulate in quiet, and the strain is rendered 



have fronts to them, the birds . , , 

much more certain. The birds will also sit better, and be less likely to forsake 
their eggs, which they will sometimes do, if they are too much exposed. And 
another advantage is thereby derived ; the penns have fronts of good workmanship^ 
takes oft that naked look, and give the loft a much more finished and neat appearance^ 



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A bird has sometimes a crossed or wry beak, which is a very great disfigurement 
and of course must be as great an imperfection This may be remedied whilst the 
bird is young, and running about the floor, and is to be done in the following 
manner : — That part of the upper beak which projects over the side of the under 
one, must be pared off neatly, and the like done to the lower beak, which in 
general curves upward on the contrary side, something similar to the tush of a hog, 
but they must not be pared so close as to make them bleed ; then give the upper 
beak a gentle bend the contrary way to which it inclines, serving the under beak 
in the like manner, and by repeating this several times a day, and keeping the 
curved parts of the beak constantly pared off, as they shoot again, the beak may 
be got perfectly straight. This remedy will not answer for an old bird, as the horn 
of the beak is not sufficiently pliable, but i^ become hard and brittle, and in the 
attempt to bend, would snap off. 

If the Fancier should have any young birds on the floor that are deserted, and 
not fed by the old ones that should feed them, and are unable to feed themselves, 
he must get a few beans down them once or twice a day, to prevent their losing 
ground, and getting poor. This is to be done by putting some beans into his own 
mouth, and then applying the beaks of the birds, at the same time opening them, 
and as soon as the birds feel the beans, they will in general swallow them readily; 
but he must take care not to stop their breath by feeding them too long at a time, 
their throats being very small just at the swallow, and one bean sticking in that 
part would choak the bird and kill it ; he must also give them some water in the 
same way, and occasionally put their beaks into the water in the fovmtain, and they 
will soon learn to go to it themselves ; this is necessary only with such birds as 

above described, that are backward from having been left too soon. Birds that are 
obliged to be thus treated, are very apt to get under the feet of the Fancier, as they 
run to him directly he goes into the loft; he should therefore put such into the 
area, that he may not tread upon them, particularly if he has any person in the 
loft with him. 

There is a Society of Gentlemen of great respectability formed for the encourage- 
ment of the breed of the Almond Tumbler, under the title of The Columbarian 
Society, who meet almost monthly throughout the year, to dine and spend a 
cheerful day together, chiefly in conversation upon the Fancy, and to produce such 
young birds as they may have bred since their last meeting, for the inspection and 
entertainment of the Society. These gentlemen have a subscription among them- 
selves, for the purpose of giving premiums to such persons as shall have bred (that 
season in which the subscription is made) the best birds, according to the standard 
laid down by the Society. The prizes are generally four in number, and divided 
into two classes, viz. Two cocks and two hens ; and the subscription is usually 
ample enough to allow the first cock and hen, ten guineas each; and the second, 
five or six each. Sometimes there are six prizes, which are divided in the same 
ratio, making the prize for the first bird in each class, considerably larger than the 
others. These prizes are adjudged and determined by a committee of three 
gentlemen chosen from among themselves, prior to the shew-day, who have not 
any birds of their own, qualified as candidates for the prizes. On the shew-day 
the committee assemble, and the birds which are candidates for the prizes are then 
put into the penns in an adjoining room, the cocks by themselves in one penn, and 
the hens by themselves in another, whither the committee adjourn alone, to decide 
upon the birds qualified to take the respective prizes, according to the standard 
acknowledged by the members, which the committee have before them, to remind 
and guide them in their decision. When they have made up their minds, the birds 
are respectively marked, so as to ascertain which is first, second, &c. And the 
members at large are then admitted into the room, to claim their own birds, and 
receive a prize for such of them, as from the before-mentioned marks shall 
appear to be entitled to one. There is sometimes also a private subscription, or 
sweepstakes, amongst some of the members, for the best cock or hen bird that has 



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not taken a prize, which has frequently amounted to ten guineas ; so that it is no 
uncommon thing to divide between forty and fifty guineas for prizes on the shew-day. 

This Society is now, and has been for some years past, held at Gray*s Inn Coffee- 
house, Holborn, London, on the first Tuesday in every month in the year, with 
the exception of one or two, when the members are likely to be out of town. 

I am aware, that in some parts of the country, Fanciers live at too great a distance 
from each other to meet once a month ; but surely they could meet once a quarter, 
and by forming themselves into a society, showing their birds, &c. which would im- 
prove their knowledge of the Almond Tumbler, and greatly facilitate the study of this 
bird. I would here suggest that a society might be formed, open to all the world, 
to show the best Almond Tumbler for the five properties, on one day in the year; 
the meeting to take place in the most central part of the country — say Birmingham, 
supposing it to be the most central for the London, Manchester, Liverpool, Scotch 
and Irish Fanciers; but if not approved of — say London, or any other place; 
taking care that there are facilities to get to and from, for it might not be 
convenient for some gentlemen to stop, dine, and spend a cheerful day together 
in conversation upon the Fancy. 

It is not my intention to enter into particulars how a society of this sort is to 
be carried out, it may be done by subscription, or ^ by Fanciers having to pay 
a certain sum on the entering of each bird competing for the pnze, or both 
combined. I have no doubt that many gentlemen who are not Fanciers, but 
great admirers of the Almond Tumbler, would subscribe to carry out the object, 
and have the gratification of seeing some of the best birds under the Sun. 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

I sincerely hope that I should be the last Fancier to instil into the mind of 
the amateur, (provided I had the ability, or more properly speaking dishonesty) 
how to make up a bird; nevertheless I could not conscientiously pass over without 
informing you of your priveleges. You have a right to cut or shorten the beak 
to the end ot the quick and to scrape the sides of the beak with a sharp instrument, 
or broken glass, to show it off to the greatest advantage ; at the same time, you 
have no right to cut or scrape through the quick; if by accident, you should do 
so, the bird would not die, yet the experienced Fancier will discover it. The 
cause of my mentioning this circumstance is, that the young Fancier should not 
be disheartened, and lamenting that he cannot breed such short faced birds as 
he sees ; but from his want of knowledge, he may look at the head and beak of birds 
that have been cut to the end of the quick, and look at his own birds, whose 
beak have been allowed to grow or run out, and he could have wished his own 
birds were as short faced. It is possible it might be shorter, but he took his distance 
for the one to the quick, and the other to the end of the horn.^ I hope I have 
said enough here to open the eyes of the amateur, without giving offence to 
the more experienced, or practical Fancier. 

The young Fancier has also the right to pluck or withdraw any objectionable 
feather, provided he keeps the bird in his own aviary or loft, but has no right to 
show it for feather ; but if he does, it may be discovered, and if he has done 
so by way of selling the bird, it amounts to a fraud; this is what is called 
in the Fancy, weeding, or gardening. 

In your time you may hear some things that^ will appear strange, and greatly 
surprise you, listen to their remarks, but I caution you not to repeat them, unlesa 
you have been an eye witness. It is possible you may hear of the making up of 
birds ; I believe the only properties that it is possible to alter is Feather, Head, 
and Beak. The feather we will take first, by plucking or withdrawing any 
objectionable feather, called weeding, or gardening;' secondly, the head, as I 
have heard it stated, by employing caps, placed on the heads of young birds in 
the nest to grow to. It is possible it might have been tried, but as I never saw it 



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^one I discard it and throw overboafd a3 unworthy of belief. But last, the beak ; 
notwithstanding the above remarks as regards feather and head, there are some 
few fanciers, of whom it is asserted they make tlie beak, (which is so much 
admired), by breaking the upper mandible when the bird is a few days old ; bnt it 
mav be detected, from the injury it has received, similar to our own flesh, when 
we have received a severe pinch; it may also be detected in the bird when grown 
Up, by the position of the beak, it has an unnatural appearance, the beak poititing 
upwards. Having made these remarks, (the reason I shall inform you by-and-bye,) 
I again caution you, my young Fancier, not to make a charge by hearing, or even 
reading this Treatise, but keep a still tongue and put the question to yourself, 
how it is possible that you might discover a bird tnade up as regards head and 
beak. I informed you just before that the beak has»an unnatural appearance of 
being thrust upwards, which is the opposite of its natural tendency, and likewise 
at the same time appearing as though thrust further back into the head ; but I will 
endeavour to give you a better rule or criterion to judge by,— my experience 
teaches me that these tricks cannot be played upon the head and beak of the 
Almond Tumbler, without greatly distorting the eye, making it appear very 
unnatural and greatly offending the eye of the Fancier; it appears as though it 
was a weak watery eye, always winking and blinking: at the same time should 
you, on looking at a bird, believe tricks have been played upon it, but has a full 
bold beautiful fair eye, 1 think you would be drawing a wrong conclusion, and if 
the bird was for sale, you are not bound to buy it, being in doubt. 

There are Fanciers who have time on their hands, scarcely ever look at their 
young birds in the nest, but have got into the habit of stroking the beak upwards; 
If they do nothing moi'e than this I do not find fault; but I know it is the very 
contrary of what I do, being determined to see what the beaks will come to in a 
iiatural way; owing to this and having very fine beak birds, I should not think 
there was a Fancier who bred more cross or wry beaks than myself. It is not the 
fault of the Almond Tumbler, but of the Fancier, in not keeping the beak straight, 
for they are not hatched crooked or awry, but are wrenched by the feeding of the 
old pnes, and those beaks that we see crooked it shortened and pared to the end of 
the quick, would look very different. If I examined a crooked beak bird, and saw 
by trimning its beak to the quick, if it did not exceed five-eighths of an inch, or 
a little over, I would as soon breed from or sooner, than from a straight beak bird 
that I knew nothing about ; well knowing how easy it is to keep the beak straight 
while the bird is young and the horn is sufficiently pliable, but will not answer for 
an old bird, as the horn is hard and brittle, and in the attempt to bend would snap 
olf. I do not know that it it is possible to make up the head of an Almond 
Tumbler, but this much I do know, that it would be utterly impossible to produce 
first-rate birds from such. The cause of my making these remarks is, you may 
suppose that the Fanciers of the present day had not heard of these reports, and 
this is the reason of its appearing in this Treatise, for I do not like writing on such 
a dishonest subject, and as 1 informed you before, that if I possessed both ability 
and dishonesty combined, I would not instruct you how to make up a bird ; the 
only way I know of making a good bird is to breed it from two first-rate birds. 

I believe there are Fanciers at this time whose judgment of the Almond 
Tumbler has never been surpassed, and is not likely to be eclipsed; yet it is 
possible that the head and beak Fanciers of the present day may persevere in 
breeding such short-faced birds, as to enable the young and rising Fanciers to 
breed birds whose distance shall not exceed the half-inch from the iris round 
the pupil of the eye to the end of the quick on the beak. I have some in 



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my possession as short-faced as I have ever seen, but 1 never witnessed m-o 
than two or three birds whose *'Head and Beak,'* as it is called, did rot exce< 



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exceed 
the half-inch in the whole course of my life. Still, I believe in the course of 
a few years, that the head and beak will be shortened, and that half-inch 
distance birds will not be so rare,, or considered so great a curiosity as they 

are at the present time. 



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When you are going your round at six o'clock in the evening to see if eggs are 
laid, observe at the same time the eggs that you expect to be hatched on that day; 
if they are not sprung or chipped, place the egg to your ear, and if you hear a brisk 
crackling noise within, put the eggs into your mouth, one after the other, and well 
saturate them with your spittle, repeat this, and it is to be hoped as the shell dries 
and becomes brittle that it will burst and let out a little wonder! I particularly 
cautioned you to know the day the eggs were to hatch, and that without doubt. 
If I was in your aviary or loft with you in the evening, and you showed me a pair 
of eggs that you believed were to hatch that day or the following day, if these eggs 
had not sprung or chipped, and on putting the eggs to my ear did not hear so 
brisk a noise in the shell, I should conclude it was to-morrow. It is said 
to-morrow never comes, but it comes a day too late for you when you find the two 
birds dead in their shells.* I am convinced that better head and beak birds have^ 
perished in the shell than ever were hatched, the reason is the amazingly short- | 
faced bird cannot reach the shell with its beak, and perishes in the shell, if the I 
judgment of the Fancier does not extricate it ; while, on the contrary, the bird i 
that only comes out to be killed by a good Fancier, (I allude to the rough long- ^ 
faced bird), soon sticks its beak through the shell, and extricates itself. 

Owing to my being pressed for time in preparing this Treatise for publication, I 

neglected entering into my register the days on which the eggs ought to be 

hatched, and which has given me both trouble and loss. I will give you two 

instances of this :— On looking at the eggs, that I knew by my experience were 

near hatching, I discovered an egg with a large hole in it, the bird alive, strong, 

and hardy, I considered it was to all appearance time it was out of the shell, I 

gently dented the shell of the egg all round with my finger nail, it bled profusely, 

and I placed it back in the nest pan with the other egg, which was addled. At 

four o'clock next morning I looked to see if the young bird had extricated itself 

from the shell, the blood had caused the broken shell to adhere closely, and my 

opinion is, that the parent birds had set heavily, so that it appeared to me as 

though the bird and shell were jammed together, and the bird apparently dead. 

I took it to the light, and the fresh air caused the bird to open its mouth, I then 

extricated it from the shell, but the bird only lived a few hours. In this case 

I considered that I was a little too fast. In the evening of the same day, on 

looking at the eggs that I considered were near hatching, and placing some to my 

ear, I found one egg with the young one within making a sharp crackling noise, 

this egg not being sprung or in the slightest degree chipped, I could not perceive 

where the beak was placed, and recollecting that I condemned myself a few hours 

before for being too fast, placed the egg back, and at four o'clock the next 

morning, on again placing the egg to my ear, all was quiet and has remained so 

-ever since. 1 then blamed myself for being too slow. I would caution you 

against being too fast or^ too slow, and my advice to you is to ** Bememher the 

Seventeenth " day from laying the last egg. I lost these two birds from a little 

neglect, not having entered in the book the day on which the eggs should have 

been hatched, owing to my time being so much occupied as before alluded to. Had 

I known for certain, that in the first case I have mentioned it was only the 

" sixteenth " day from laying the last egg, I might have been more cautious how 

I dented the shell, and in the second case, if I had known that it was the 

" eighteenth " day from the laying the last eg^, I would not have hesitated in 

breaking off a small portion of the shell, where to the best of my judgment the 

beak Ues, to let in a little air. 

The idea struck me of communicating to you how many hours a bird will live in 
the shell without being sprung, chipped, or a small hole made in the shell to let in 
air. I am fearful that the Printer will require this part before I shall be able to 
define it to my own satisfaction, but I am convinced that it is not long before, or 
otherwise the bird will be suffocated in the shell ; but a bird may live comparatively 
speaking a considerable time in the shell, where the beak has protruded through 
the shell and obtains air, 

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The greatest difficulty you will have to encounter witL^ is when the birds have 
set their full time, viz. the seventeenth day from the laying the last egg, and when 
you place it to your ear a sharp crackling noise is heard from within the shell, 
by the bird endeavouring to extricate itself, and yet the egg is not sprung, or the 
least rise on the shell to shew you where the beak lies; under these circumstances 
I would advise you to put it back for an hour, in the hope that it will become 
visible where the beak lies, and when you examine the egg again, if you can 
perceive the rise where the beak lies, pick off a little of the shell on that part to 
let the young one have air. On the contrary, should it so happen that you 
cannot by any possibility discover where the beak is, and placing the egg to your 
ear, you believe that it does not make so brisk or sharp a crackling noise as before, 
it is a certain sign that the bird is becoming more weakly, that its short beak 
cannot by any possibility reach to puncture the shell, and that it will be dead in a 
short time, if it does not immediately receive air ; under these circumstances the 
young Fancier must make a small hole, to the best of his judgment, where he 
supposes the beak lies. 

Of the two evils — "A little too Fast, or a little too Slow," I should advise you 
to choose the little too Fast ; but, remember, I said " little," and the better to rivet it 
on yoxir mind, would say " very little." The greater part of this trouble may be 
avoided by a little care on the part of the Fancier, by recollecting the '' seventeenth 
day," and letting the birds have good warm nests, which will greatly assist in 
hatching the eggs; but with regard to the particularly short-faced birds, whose 
beaks cannot by any possibility reach the shell, it is otherwise, and no fault of the 
Fancier. He must pay great attention, by observing the eggs that are hatching, 
to endeavour to ascertain where the beak lies, and when he is necessitated to 
puncture a hole in the shell of an egg where the beak is not visible, he should use 

the greatest caution. 

It will not answer to put an egg into your mouth that is much chipped, or 
more properly speaking, a little smashed, owing to the old birds having set too 
heavy on the eggs, and the blood within will cause the shell to adhere so tight 
to the bird ; in this case the young Fancier must exercise his judgment, how 
far he can judiciously and with care (where the smashed shell is dry) pick it off. 
Again where a bird has sprung the shell, which is always where the beak lies, 
and the bird appears fixed so tight in the shell that it cannot move about, take 
a drop of sweet oil, after picking off the shell, if not already off, passing it between 
the head and the shell, by which means it will be greatly assisted in extricating 
itself, and many a valuable bird may be thus saved. The cause of my writing 
thus much on this subject is, that if you are not careful you will lose the birds 
most desired to be saved, as my experience teaches me, that if the bird to be 
hatched on the last day (that is the seventeenth from the laying of the last egg) 
is not out of the shell by the eighteenth day, it must be under particular circum- 
stances that I would leave it there so long ; I should not expect to see it out alive. 
But this requires great judgment. To the best of my recollection, I never heard 
the bird alive, in the shell, more than twenty-four hours, or so long ; and if the 
beak does not puncture the shell— or you, to let in a little air, the bird is suffocated 
in the shell. 

There are Fanciers who take the eggs from the Almond two or three days before 
hatching, and place them under a pair of their feeders— such as baldheads or 
beards which set closer, consequently hatching sharper than the Almonds. It is 
done by placing the eggs of the Almonds under the baldheads or beards, and vice. 
versa ; and when the Almonds eggs are hatched, then exchange again. At the 
same time, it does not follow that their soft meat, or food, is up; although they 
have set their time — seventeen days. It sometimes happens that their soft food 
does not come on for two or three days after; nevertheless, you must get them 
fed from somewhere, otherwise they will perish. It would be uncharitable in me 
to expect the young Fancier will know all at once; experience keeps a dear school, 



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35 

and the most experienced Fanciers that ever lived, had more or less to learn in 
this school Some of the Almonds do not set close, particularly the old and 
valuable ones (why I sav old and valuable ones, had they heen otherwise they 
would have been discarded) ; besides they do not appear to have sufficient heat 
in their bodies to hatch their eggs. When this is discovered, you had better set 
their eggs at the commencement under feeders, that have laid at the same time, 
by exchanging their eggs ; and this must not be done in a forgetful manner. You 
may always know when you begin to understand the birds, whether their soft food 
is on or not, by trying the craw or crop of the birds, and if on, it appears sott and 
pappy ; on the contrary, hard, but will come on in a few days. 

When I get a IHtle nonpareil out of the shell, I am lost in wonder and astonish- 
ment how I shall get it fed. I have heard it stated that there are Fanciers who 
keep doves to feed their short faced birds, and I am assured that they feed well 
and longer than the pigeon. As I never tried I do not know ; but if they will 
many a valuable short faced bird would be saved. I have before now been placed 
in such a difficulty with a particularly short faced bird, that after trying halt a 
dozen pair of birds that had hatched at the same time, and yet could get none 
of them to feed it. I have thought that if I had canary birds hatching at the same 
time I would have tried them ; and if they fed it for a day or two, then have 
placed it under pigeons to bring it up. It may be worth trying doves as they 
have eight broods a year. The shorter faced your feeders the better, I think they 
ought not to exceed six-eighths ; for if you feed with strong, Jong-faced take for 
example a dragon, one inch and a quarter, or one and a half, you will observe 
when the little short-faced birds leave their pans, and if very hungry, chase the 
old ones either in their penn, aviary, or loft, and in their haste to obtain food will 
thrust its head into the old bird's mouth, or comparatively speaking, down its 
throat, to meet the food, by which means the young bird's head is flattened, (being 
soft at the time), quite the contrary of what could be desired a lofty head; it 
therefore follows, that by having long-faced feeders, you flatten the head and 
wrench the beak ; but on the contrary, having short faced feeders the young ones 
cannot thrust their heads into their mouths, neither will the beaks be so wrenched. 
If the owl pigeon was not so shy, I should prefer it for a feeder. But short faced 
hardy blue tumblers, beards, or baldheads are very good. 

There are some few Fanciers who would not shift oftener tlian once, neither 
would I, provided I thought it safe to trust to that shift to finish the hirds ; but 
as I do not, I shall write my remarks :— I approve of shifting the young birds ^ at 
six days ; yet giving the old ones an older bird to draw off their sott food, which 
they generally do in about ten days. It is evident by this that their soft food 
is not off; but the danger of their being off the young ones a considerable time, 
suffering them to die of cold, with their crops full, while the old ones are calling 
to nest again. In vour experience you will find as many or more die of cold 
crammed full, than 'those that are not fed, and the reason is tjns : that they require 
warmth by being sat on, as much or more than they do food I think crammed 
as they are, and the food getting chilled or cold, is the cause that accelerates their 
death I give the young birds another shift when they are twelve or thirteen 
davs old under a piir of feeders that have fed three or four days, for the sake of 
warmth ' and now my last shift, however well apparently, the pair of birds feed 
that have the shift of the birds twelve days old, you will have to ask yourself 
the question will this pair of birds finish them, by feeding four weeks till they 
can feed themselves-it may, or it may not he so You cannot help your thoughts 
on this or any other subject; but as I do not think it safe I endeavour for the 
last shift, to get them at twenty-one days old under a pair of good tempered birds, 
(for there is I vast difference in their tempers after they have fed a week or so; 
calculating that they will feed them well for three weeks, which will finish them 
and by this time they will feed themselves. 



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My experience teaches me that I can take extreme cases, and l will give you 
two that happened, one in my aviary, the other in my loft :— I had a black mottle 
that picked up the tares, and fed well for three weeks; but at five weeks it left 
off feeding itself, and as it had lost all idea of being fed, it died. The other 
happened in my loft where I flew my feeders, a pair of short-faced red agates, 
bred from Almonds, which would not learn to feed themselves, although would 
fly round with the feeders, they were fed by one or another in the loft, until they 
would feed them no longer, and they both were starved to death at two months 
old. These are not the rules but the exceptions ; sometimes it happens that you 
experience difficulty in shifting a bird so old as three weeks, I am aware that 
it is easier for the last shift, to shift them at seventeen or eighteen days, the 
feeders taking to them more kindly. When you shift the birds that have grown 
pretty old, comparatively speaking, do not let the old birds come and take a 
sight of them, for here you would witness a strange scene at times, but put the 
hen upon the young. And it is infinitely better to shift these large birds, at 
dark, or as near dark as possible, and be sure to put the hen on, and in the 
morning she will not discover the exchange, or else be reconciled to it; it is very 
important to change at dark and put the hen on. Should the colours of the birds 
shifted vary much, my experience teaches me that it is not so much in the size 
of the bird as the colour— was it it not for the fighting attitude the bird puts itself 
into at about three weeks — therefore you will see the propriety in shifting these 
large birds at dark. Generally speaking, it would not do to exchange under your 
feeders a young white bird, where before they had a black one; and the reverse 
by shifting a black one, where before they had a white one ; the result would 
very likely be, that a good tempered pair of feeders after looking at and going 
from it many times, might at last take to it : while the ill tempered pair would 

kill it at once. You will see the impropriety of shifting colours differing so 
widely; but endeavour to shift by giving the colour as near as possible. 

It is important in your shifting that your nest pans should be the same size 
and height; for if before your feeders had a nest pan only two inches high, and 
in your shifting you gave them a pan four inches high, the one comparatively 
they could walk into, while they would have to jump up to the other and would 
cause them to be suspicious that all was not right, forsake the pan after killing 
the birds, owing to a little neglect on your part. You will find it a good plan to 
put the shifted birds into their pans,, till the feeders are reconciled to the birds 
shifted, and then you can with safety exchange the pans if necessary, owing to 
being dirty. 

I observed before, the young ones vary much as regards feeding themselves 
and here I will inform you of my method of treating the young birds to learn to 
feed themselves. I have a penn two feet square and nine inches high, made of 
strong wire, the wires not more than one inch and a quarter apart, for the birds 
will get out if further apart, the wires up and down, and no bottom to it, the floor 
will form the bottom besides being easier to clean. Let it be wired over the top, 
ag it will give more light; I have mine made in two halves, owing to my aviary 
being parted, but have an opening in the partition large enough to let a pigeon 
through, by placing one piece on each side of the partition it again becomes a, 
square, then form within and without the wire-work a frame work of wood, one 
inch and a half, making three inches together. There is not any need of its being 
a fixt^re whether you have them in squares, or halves as I do, for then I can place 
the half against the wall or any where else ; you will find the advantage in having 
them made in halves. Let this frame work be one inch and a half high from the 
flooring where the wire work rests, and it will form a kind of trough, fill it up 
Ayith the best old tares, and at the same time so constructed that the water from your 
carboys, fountains or other proper vessels, shall come within the wire work ; now 
make all the old birds come to feed and drink where you fix this penn. I informed 
you before that there is not any fixed rule or time when the young birds will begin 



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to feed themselves, miich will depend on the strength and forwardness of the bii'd^, 
otherwise writing from observation, the hardy and forward ones at a month old 
are more inclined to pick up than at a more advanced age ; therefore, it is policy 
to look round your aviary or loft for these birds and place them inside the penn 
constructed for them. You will now observe what I have been driving at, and 
that is, the old birds coming to feed and water, taking care that they cannot get it 
elsewhere, (only water on the days you allow them to wash,) teaches the young 
birds to feed and drink. 

It does not follow because you have placed them under this penn for the old 
ones to teach thert, that they will feed, but you must have your eye and judgment 
upon them, and feel their craw or crops if it is filled out with food. To assist vou 
I will now suppose a case, that you have brought down six young Almonds, then- 
ages differing a little, and placing them in a penn in the morning, between five 
and six o'clock in the evening examine them by feelmg their crops, which is easily 
felt bvvourhand; should only one have fed full, leave it under the penn, and put 
the other five back to their places from whence you took them, and the old ones 
will fill them full for the night ; repeat this plan, by putting them under the penn 
in the morning, and if there is not sufficient food in them in the evening, place 
them back from where vou took them, continue this plan till they feed themselves, 
which will prove my assertion, that while some birds will feed at a month, others 
are not safe to be trusted at six weeks ; be sure before you draft them oil to 
another place that they feed themselves, for it may turn out that they are ted 
from old birds about the place (that have lost their young by death or being 
shifted) through the wires of the penn, as some will feed any young ones about 
the place I have tried experiments by way of enticing them to eat, giving them 

hemp, rape, wheat, &c. but I think these are bad, and often prevent their 
feeding on tares, which is to be desired while they are young, of which I wil 

instance; I bred a very rich bright yellow whole feather, beautiful 
beak I was very desirous of rearing it, and I decoyed it to feed 
hv siving it hemp, rape, wheat, and tares : it took to wheat, and would eat 
nothing else : it was now three months old, I was determmed to break it off wheat 
and that it should feed upon tares-it beat me, by dying, for it would not take to 
toes • nevertheless a little of these might not do harm. The best plan I^ ever 
found was to get or sift the tares as small as possible, put some in a small pipkm, 
«our boiling water over them, and put them into the oven by the side of the fire 
over niffht, and in the morning when the young birds were under the penn, I made 
them a little heap of these tares (taking care that the old pigeons could not reach 



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feeders and" the young birds would eat them freely while tlaey continued warm 
I think'vou will find your interest in trying this. You will act unwisely if you put 

the voung birds into the places in the evening from where you took them in the 
morning provided they are full ; for if they feed themselves keep them to it fo 
week, fnd then if you can put the young into an aviary, loft, or parted place, to 
prevent the old ones from worrying them, they will improve rapidly. The sooner 
vour young birds feed themselves the better, they are likely to be 
beak less wrenched, and at all events the head not less round. 

You are not to expect the head of a bird at three months old, to appear 
t,n=,„Hfnllv formed as a bird's head that is three years old ; for they fill out, 
more Serly speaking, as it is termed by the Gentlemen of the Fancy, 
" Make Up "therefore it will be clear that you require time and experience to 
know these things. Again, the Almond Tumbler does not arrive at its highest 
nitch of nluma°e till it has moulted three or four times; some will still increase 
in beauty, while" others will decline till they become mottled, splashed, or whole- 
feather. I have now endeavoured to instruct you how to breed and rear thg 
Almond Tumbler. 



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There are some rich Fanciers who will stand at nothing as regards expence, 
and where they breed on the floor, cut away the flooring to let in the nest pan 
flush or nearly so, similar to the basin in wash-hand stands. It can he done in 
any of the penns above, by letting the bottom of the pan 




through the penri 
below ; or you can have false bottoms to your penns. The cause of their adopting 
this plan is, that some of the young birds are restless by some means, and get 
out of their pans, and after rambling about in their penns, fall again into their nest 
pans; on the contrary, if this plan is not adopted, the birds that could not regain 
possession of their pan owing to being young, or badly fledged, and if the night 
is cold, you would most probably find them dead in the morning. Many valuable 
birds are lost, which otherwise would have been saved, had the former plan been 
adopted. I do not approve of pitching boards projecting before the penns, but would 
rather them made flush with the penns; for merry cocks would he pitching on any 
of these boards, consequently being higher, would, if they did no further mischief, 
tantalize or worry the birds to whom the penn belonged, 

I think there is no occasion for a penn to be two feet square, it is larger than 
there is occasion for and appears unsightly, I will endeavour to give you an idea 
of what I think would look better, a penn two feet long, eighteen inches deep, 
sixteen inches high in the clear, shifting fronts, the bottom of the door five inches 
from the bottom of the pen, to prevent the young ones getting out; let the door- 
way be open to the top, which will be eleven inches high ; let it he ten inches wide 
and placed in the centre of the penn, rabbetted and fastened with two buttons on 
the outside, the bars not exceeding one inch and a half, mortised in to give a 
neater appearance. Although I have shewn the advantages derived by sinking the 
nest pans, I would still have a shelf half way between the top and the bottom of 
the penn, just big enough and nothing to spare, with a hole in it to receive the pan, 
and the birds to fly up on the edge of the pan, direct over the pan that is sunk in 
the bottom of the penn, for it might be that the old ones were setting in the above 
pans, while finishing off young ones below ; the rail of the small door framing 
forms the pitching board which is flush with the pen ; this is one cause why I 
approve of large entrances to the penns, but there is still another and greater, and 
that is preventing them from striking the joints of their wings, greatly injuring 
them, causing wens and crippling them for life. I should advise the young 
Fancier to look round and see if there was any thing in the aviary or loft, 
provided the bird flew or came in contact with; above all things have no sharp 
edges, let every thing be rounded, even the door ways to your penns, or perches 
in your aviary or loft, if you have any. My advice to you is to have as few 
of these as possible, unless, ironically speaking, you are blessed with a wilderness 
sort of place for your Almonds, and even then there is danger by a friend 
but stranger to your Almonds, who might frighten and cause them to injure 
themselves against these uncalled for and dangerous places. Although I said 
strangers to your Almonds, it is possible might know more about the Almond 
than you that are reading, or I that am writing this Treatise, still he is strange 
to your birds, 

I will suppose my birds would be dirty if I gave them. a chance, I will set 
my wits to work and defy them by removing every thing out of their way 
which would in the slightest degree soil their plumage, I have my aviary and 
loft scraped up twice a day, and would have it scraped up three times or 
ofteneV if occasion required it; on the flooring in my aviaries and lofts, I have 
eleven-inch deals, sawed into three equal widths, which is nearly three inches 
and three quarters each, and fixing them edgways on the floors, about twelve 
inches apart, now these boards being three inches and three quarters high from 
the ground floor and as the pigeon is fond of resting upon something, prevents 
their tail and flight coming in contact with their dirt on the floor, provided 
would allow any to be there. 



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Some Fanciers have small deal boxes, similar to boarding-scliool boys boxes, 
ivith a logger bole cut for tlie birds to go in and out at ; it opens at the top being 
on hinges, to put in the nestpans or look at the young birds. I formerly used 
pots in m; loft amongst my feeders where I shifted the young Almonds ; hese 
were pots similar in shape to a bee-hive ; the dimensions were twelveinches high 
Ind ten in clear at bottom, with a flat knob at top to lift it up by ; but wi hout 
any bottom, the flooring forming the bottom, with a logger hole five inches wide 
and reaching seven high from the bottom, I could place them anywhere on the 
flooring of theloffrand put the nest pan under them I used them also m my 
penns with Almonds, which kept them very warm, but it is too troublesome to 
fit off to look at a nmuber of young birds It did not answer amongst the feeders, 
the young birds getting out and were killed by the birds m the loft. 

So much depends on the circumstances and spirit of the Fancier, and the 
difference is so great between the prince and the peasant (although a spirited 
FancSrif it was^their intention to prepare a place for the Almond Tumbler, _ the 
Sn^emigl Construct a place that wmild astonish those who are not Fanciers, 
Sore tSI the Almond Tumblers ; while the peasant would be compelled, com- 
paratively speaking, to breed in a rabbit hutch. 

The Fancier best knowing how he is circumstanced for room, will be more 
competenrto mature his own plans ; but having tiers of penns is decidedly the 
S, as They can be made portable and shifted from one place to another. 

I have found in my experience, that after taking great pains in the making of 

^ood nests in the pans, that the birds going into other penns, robbing and destroying 

f ach others nest, or by " calling" and making their nest otherwise than I could 

hafe desSd th^t in I week aler they had sfarce a bit of ^tr- left - ^^^^^^^ ^ 

now having many birds this annoyed me, and caused me to think how i coum 

X it and her7l will inform you how, this season, 1 have constructed the.r nest.- 

My pans are seven inches in diameter at the top, and four inches in depth (both 

hi^he clear) but sloped inwards, the bottom of the outside five mches, that they 

nay 'tard firm if placed on a shelf or the flooring ; they are very stou^ so hat 

Sa Hrd flew upon the edge of a pan it would not pull it over I get rush matting 

It '^»n'^"^\7" . . „. !, upholsterers or other shops) and placing the top of 

[^evlTZnl S rlnd,trng:tting fresh yellow' {eal sawdust that has the 

turpfntine^in t, which the insects will not come near take a pint of this and pu 

it into the pan, work it round, still maintaining the shape of the pan by a small 

nan or wooden bowl, (I once heard a Professional Gentleman state that he made 

the nest in the pans with his lapstone) and then carefully placing the rush matting 

which will cover the saw dust, forming a lining within the pan, and at the same 

time retaining the shape of the pan. 

While I was thinking of this plan, I had made up my mind to paste in the rush 
maUing! burfortunately for me, in placing it in the inside of the pan. found it 
Snff and adhere so closely that I abandoned the paste. It may be objected to by 
s?me^FTncfers that the ru^sh matting would harbour the vermin (;l-y,.l^ave no 
St to be in the aviary or loft,) I believe the turpentine m the fresh yellow deal 
sawdust would prevent that; and at the same time cause great warmth to the 
e^gs or young birds. If through your neglect you have allowed vermin in your 
Sf«rvo? loft vou must exercise great care or the vermm will beat you. It is 
Srwise with me, for I have declared war against and will exterminate them, 
SoSd the sawdust fail in keeping away the insects. I will, after having cut a 
score or two of these rush mattings, place them one upon another m a pail and 
XneettW the strongest tobacco water, pour It on the matting, letting it absorb 
fs L'eh S'it' wm, then taking them out and putting a few bits of lath or stou 
wire placed over the pail, placing the ma ting judiciously so as to drain mt^ the 
pail that none of the tobacco water is lost (for you will find ample loom toi 
Iconomyinthe breeding and rearing the Almond ^--^^)^ ^-^^^^^^1 
nearly so, place this over the sawdust and form the mner hning of your nest p<.a , 



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HnA should the tobacco water drain into the sawdust so mucli the better, I tk'w.h 
this would eifectually keep them from the nest pans, for it is to them anything 
but a sweet savour. Nevertheless, if this should fail, they will drive me to argue 
the cause with them; I will consider what will kill a young pigeon in the nest, or 
one of these insects; and if there was not any other way left to exterminate the 



Vermin, I would rub a little of the blue ointment on that side of the matting that 
comes next the sawdust — I said "little " so as not to affect the young hatched bird, 
a very little would do, and kill all that touch it, without the possibility of injuring 
the young bird, for it is on the other side of the matting, and iCthe insects is on 
the top side of the matting it will most assuredly pass through, where there will 
be something that will give it a warm reception, and effectually kill it. I do not 
expect that you will be driven to such extremities, for I think you will find that 
the sawdust, or the sawdust and the decoction of tobacco combined, will cause 
the insects if any, lo leave the birds that are setting, and get at the bottom 
outside the pans. You will therefore perceive that it not only keeps the yotmg 
birds free from insects, but absolutely cleanses the old ones likewise during their 
setting, it will be as well to put a little straw in the bottoms of their made-Up 
pans ; one reason is, they like to set on straw — and the other is, there may be a 
doubt in your mind as to the injurious effect of the blue ointment ; besides k 
appearing as natural as any thing that I am aware of to the birds. I would not 
on any account have the straw longer than six inches for the better laying in the 
nest pans. 

You will find your interest in it if you let them have on the floor a small round 
basket, the wicker about one inch and a half a part, and filling it with straw as 
before observed, six inches long, it teaches them to find their penns, they appear 
to take great delight in cartying it to their nest pans, and leave off robbing their 
neighbours ; it is necessary at times to cast your eye round to see the nest pans, 
for some few of the birds will carry so much straw to their nest, that it will surprise 
you how it was that the eggs did not roll off, and if they hatched, the young 
would be in great danger of falling off the nest, when this is discovered remove a 
portion, still leaving them a good nest, for fear they should desert it ; my pan may 
likewise be objected to as being too deep, with the sawdust and naatting I car* 
make it any depth, as occasion requires. 

I observed^ in a former part of this work, how restless some of the young one» 
were, and would get out of their pans and die of cold; might not this restlessness 
arise from the belly ache ? "for why should not young pigeons have the belly ache 
as well as other things f I have now the advantage in having deep pans, for I can 
take the sawdust and matting away and putting a little sti'aw at bottom will 
confine them to their pans, for they could not get out of a pan four inches deep in 
the clear; likewise, the pan being only seven inches diameter at the top, quiter 
large enough for Almond Tumblers, proves the advantages to be derived from 
these snug pans. When the pans have become dirty and it is necessary to clean 
them, lay hold of the rush matting and pull it out, scrape it and lay it in the 
tobacco water, which will kill the vermin, should there happen to be any, dry it 
and it will be ready for use again ; it will be advisable to turn the sawdust out of 
the pan into the fire : now with respect to the cleansing of the pan, should there 
be any insects in the porous parts of the pans, either in the inside or outside, 
attempting to destroy them with clear wafer would be useless. I formerly used 
(after my nest pans were washed) to place them in a large tub of tobacco water 
which i obtained from the tobacco manufacturers, it being stronger than I could 
make it, this effectually destroys the vermin and nits ; some Fanciers wash their 
pans with soda and water, others after washing the pans thoroughly clean, put 
them into the copper amongst the soap-suds and soda after " a Great Wash," as it 
is called, not forgetting to give the fire an extra poke. If you make your nests^ 
as I do with saw dust and rush matting, instead of putting a little straw on the top 
of the matting use wormwood^ a small quantity will do, and it will cause ths^ 



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41 

ItiSeCts to leave the ilest; be careful in shifting young birds that you do not givd i 
pan with the nest made of wormwood where before it was made of straw, for from 
the strong smell, the old birds may discover it ; but put a httle in all the pans. 

Whenever you shift young Almonds, be sure and put the number of the peiin^ 
or a mark on the pan, by which you will know the pedigree of the yoting birds, 
and as soon as pretty well feathered, enter themi into a book kept for that purpose t 
It is useless to attempt to trust to meniory if you have a number of birds. You 
will in your experience find that birds on some days Would feed half a dozen 
young birds, and other days not feed at all ; and vice, versa, with other birds ; you 
must therefore shift the pan with the youiig birds where they will get fed, otherwise 
they will die ; those old birds that did riot feed will sit on and keep the fed birds 
warm- and feed well the next day ; therefore you will perceive that it is qiiite 
immaterial where the pan is shifted to, having the number or mai*k on it ; yoii 
must also mark the pan when you give them a clean one, and should you be very 
particular about your nest pans, or use pots to cover the nest pans, have a model 
made at a turner^s, and take it to any pottery, they will make it to your pattern ; 
have plenty of nests made in the pans, and by placing them one in another, say 
twelve high, the weight and pressure forms them nicely— do not spoil a ship for a 
halfpenny's worth of tar, or else I leave you to guess what will follow. I am at a 
loss to know why I should have written so much on the subject of insects and 
cleanliness, for my birds are not allowed to be dirty, unless it is to put you upon 
your guard against them. The plan I have adopted with regard to making the 
nests in the pans with matting, sawdust, and wormwood, this season, has answered 
the purpose beyond my utmost expectations. 

You will have observed in at part of this Work, treating on the marks by which 
to ascertain the fioloUrs of young birds in the nest, if the beak has no mark on it 
but is quite white, the bird will be an Almond; this is true and false at the same 
time : the Almond will have a white beak, and the white Agate coming from 
Almonds, also will have a white beak, but the experienced Fancier will, at a few 
days old, discover whether it is aii Almond or white Agate, arid so will you my 
young and inexperienced Fancier. For it is all plain to him who understands, 
arid I will inform you how to discover it,— look at the eye or eyelid, if a white 
Agate it will appear ferrety, red, and fiery ; while the Altnond will be the contrary. 
The other remarks as to the colour of the birds by the beak, ttiy experience teaches 
me is correct, and the Fancier who first discovered it must have been a very close 
observer, and entitled to great Credit, If you match extraordinary rich feathered ^ 
Alriionds together, you will breed inofe or less Agates, of various colours—^ 
yellows, reds, &c. some of these birds have beautiful pearl eyes; but if you breed 
a, pure white, which is still termed an Agate (owing to its coming froni Almonds) 
Which rarely have pearl eyes, otherwise would be considered a curiosity, a proof 
that you had matched your birds too high, as it is called. 

I feel great pleasure in seeing how heartily my birds engstge in washing them^ 
sdves, and should think that a bird was not well that did riot wash with great 
eai^nestriess ; if I became possessed of a fresh bird, the first thing I should observe is 
whether the bird took delight in washing ; and if not, should say to myself, this 
Is no favorite of mine, unless possessing some undeniable properties, for I cannot 
endure a bird dirty in body with a scrubby flight and tail Deep earthen pans are 
extremely dangerous, there being no foothold for the birds to get up the sides, and 
many a good bird is drowned. I will endeavour, my young Fancier, to guard you 
against such a calamity, by informing you of the construction of my tubs for the 
washing and cleansing of the birds, my tubs are twenty inches in diameter, six 
inches high, both in the clear, with four steps all round the tubs equal distances 
and one inch wide (similar to steps to go down into a bath or a staircase); and 
should some of your pigeons stand low, and enter the tubs with avidity, and if 
they get out of their depth, they rush to the sides and climb up the steps, otherwise? 
they would be drowned. There is a small brass plug at the bottom of the tub t& 






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let off the water gently after washing, for you would find the tub and water heavy 
if you attempted to turn it over, making a terrible mess, besides splashing yourselt 
in the bargain ; take especial care that the waste water is drained off cleverly, so 
as not to make the slightest mess in your aviary or loft ; the tubs have lids to 
cover over after washing, which forms a kind of pitching place for the birds ; let 
the tubs be thick, or place a kind of beading all round the top of the tub about 
three quarters of an inch wide ; if you do not adopt this plan let the top of the 
tub be rounded, (it is dangerous to have any sharp edges where there are Almonds) 
for as the birds are coming out of the water after washing they rest upon the top 
of the tub, which cleanses their flight and tail ; if they should happen to draw 
their wings on the floor, (this is called by the gentlemen of the Fancy drop wmgs) ; 
in the greatest probabiHty they would not do this if the top of the tub was sharp 
and hurt their feet. I employed a plasterer to form the steps or stairs inside my 
tubs for washing, who used compo, and it set as hard as stone ; it is possible a 
carpenter or cooper would accomplish it. 

I believe few Fanciers ever tried so many experiments as I have, and here I 
will give you one : -I considered if it was possible to put anything into their water 
to clear their plumage, and at the same time to destroy the insect if any were 
there, without affecting the health of the birds when they drank it. I consulted an 
eminent chemist upon the subject, it was more than a dose for him ; and therefore 
I had to prescribe, which bothered me a good while in thinking— at last a thought 
came into my head that if I put soap into their water, believing that it would not 
hurt them if they drank it, but it might give them a gentle purge, (and recollecting 
that some Fanciers adopt the plan of taking their shaving box and make a strong 
lather, and then with their shaving brush rubbing the bird all over to destroy the 
insects) I got half a pound of soft soap, put into a quart pot filling it up with 
boiling water, stirring it up to cause it to dissolve, leaving it m the pot the overnight 
and then in the morning mixed it with the water they were to wash m ; the birds 
did not approve as I suppose the colour of the water and did not wash. I cannot 
help thinking if I had acted more prudently, that when I had pulled out the plug 
to let off the water after washing, then filUng up the tubs again and putting in the 
quart of soap and water, well mixing it, placing the lid over it to let it settle, and 
keeping the birds an extra day back from washing, but what they would have 
eagerly plunged into the water-however, I have not tried it. I would advise 
thit the birds should not have the water to wash in oftener than three times a week, 
unless it is the hens that are parted from the cocks, for some of them are rank 
sooner than the cocks ; but it would not be judicious to match them up so early 
in the spring, and by letting the hens have the water four or five times a week, 
greatly cools them and somewhat prevents their calling to nest. 

Should it so happen that your taste or fancy lies in having coarse, long-faced, 
mousey-headed and fiery-eyed birds, then fly them by all means, and not only fly 
them, but fly them hard, for the harder you fly them, the more rough and coarse 
you make them. But if, on the contrary, you want hem little wonders or 
nonpareils, short-faced, lofty-heads with good stops, pearl eyes, fine beaks, and 
less wattled, then above all things " Do not let them fly. 

As regards loam, spare neither pains or expense to get it as good as possible, and 
soak it in brine, which you can get from your butcher; turn it out to dry, and 
then only let your pigeons have it during the breeding and feeding season, 
believing that it is a great help to old ones in assisting them to feed their 
voung, besides I believe in a measure preventing putrescence m the throat ot 
the young birds; the brine in the loam, I think, sharpens the appetite of the old 
birds, and I know causes them to drink more, which I think assists the feeding 
of voung birds ; besides the brine or salt cleansing the throat or craw of the 
young birds. I let my birds have it only during the breeding season. 

I ctnnot see the utility of mortar where the birds have loam soaked in brine, 
besides having gravel and grit ; on the contrary, I have experienced in my birds 



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the loss of many an eye tln-ough it. Formerly I used to give my birds cvuslied 
mortar and some of tliem having weakly eyes, I examined them, when there did 
not appear the slightest sign of a peck from other birds, but appeared weakly, as 
though dust was in them; I washed them with alum and other eye waters, some 
of them baffled me, and the birds lost their sight. I -began to suspect there was 
something wrong, and, after consideration took away the mortar, the result taught 
me that I had removed the cause. 

Gravel or grit is absolutely necessary ; my birds have always gravel. I think it 
would be an inprovement in getting the grit or small stones that are washed up 
after a storm or dry windy weather, by the paths or gutters, and taking half 
gravel and half grit, mix it together ; my object m this is, that some of the gravel 
i^s so fine, not possessing sufficient httle stones, which are so essential to assist in 
grinding and digesting their food. In giving them gravel and grit this must not 
be done in a careless or slovenly way, or you may experience what I complained 
of as regards the eye ; for where there is a number of birds flying about the aviary 
or loft, and coming in contact with gravel and grit causes the dust to get into 
their eyes, but place the gravel and grit out of their way in flying. 

There is scarcely any thing that I would sooner call your attention to, than 
not to allow, if possible, a single particle of dust in your aviary or loft. I 
would not have the gravel or grit in my aviary or lofts was it not absolutely 
necessary, and it is placed very cautiously, after my aviary or lofts are well 
scraped and swept. It will take you some years before you have tried as 
many experiments as I have— some to my sorrow, but would occupy too 
large a space here to give an account of all the results. 

With regard to their food, I think there cannot be two ophiions, but that 
beans, unquestionably are the best food possible to give the Almond Tumbler, 
(provided you can procure them small enough) and I would give them nothing 
else even through the breeding season, running the risk of choakmg a few 
voung ones in the nest, provided I could get all the old ones to feed upon 
beans but as some of the very short-faced breeders will not, you are under 
the necessity of letting them have tares as well. Let your beans and tares be 
old and of the best quality that money will purchase, for it will be cheap m 
the' end to you If the laying out of money is not a consideration to you, and 
if vou ever saw a beautiful sample of very small beans (although new) buy 
them and lay them aside for two years, and it will more amply repay than 
laving down wine, or money in the funds. The food next to best small beans, is 
sound old tares, and prime hard peas ; old wheat is nourishing and fattening. It 
is well to give your birds a change of food, particularly when they are feeding 
their young, they eat more and feed their young better ; but small hard beans 
invigorates, braces up, and makes your birds hardy. 

I will inform you the manner in which I feed and water my birds, after trying 
all kinds of hoppers, or other utensils, I found the most simple way the best; 
I informed you that I parted my aviary. I have pieces of wood five feet long, 
one inch and a half high, placed parallel with the partition, not exceeding two 
inches distance from the partition : should you find that one inch and a half is 
enough so much the better, it prevents the birds dirtying the food; there are 
pieces of wood at each end the width you have it— no bottom, and not a 
fixture that you may be better able to free it from dust at times, 'and by placing 
bits of 'wood you can make as many partitions as you please, and give them various 
kinds of food in the partitions, such as beans, tares, peas, &c, &c. likewise gravel 
and grit ; there is no top or board overhanging it as there is to a hopper, but 
it is more lightsome, which is an important thing on dark days, amongst the short 

days. 

With respect to the manner in which I water my Almond Tumblers, I am fearful 
I shall give you a lame account ; I use a kind of earthen carboy with an earthen 



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^tand to receive it, (they are both made at the same time at the pottery,) which 
has holes all around it for the birds to put their heads in to drink out of; it is 
a clever contrivance, for when I give them fresh water, turning the carboy 
Upwards, the stand receives it; it is easily filled, and prevents the making a mess 
on the floor. It appears to me that the makers of these drinking utensils have 
left off making these things, as I cannot possibly obtain one, any more than I 
can loam pots. Some Fanciers use a stone bottle and making a hole the height 
they wish their birds to drink from, say one inch and a half from the dish in 
which you place this bottle. You must make it air tight at top, by placing a bung 
in, and sealing wax it over; but it is apt to make a mess on the flooring by filling 
it. You can get a stand made of hoop iron, with three or five legs to come into 
the dish from which the birds drink, and should the legs not be sufficient to 
prevent the birds from dirtying the water, which is very important, have a few 
wires affixed to the stand and make the birds drink through them. Carboys, which 
can be obtained of the chemist, the size according to the number of birds you keep, 
and having a stand judiciously made is a Very good thing, otherwise a three-legged 
stool ; but whatever you use, keep the water clean and sweet. These are the most 
simple, and at the same time the best way I have discovered in feeding and 
wateriilg my birds, besides their partaking of their food and water clean. I have 
an opening in my partition for the carboy to be placed in the centre, that the birds 
on either side of the aviary may drink out of the same utensil. 

I have observed the great difference in the feather of two birds, the one fed 
upon beans and the other upon tares ; the plumage of the bird feeding upon beans 
would be rich, bright, and shining — while the other, feeding upon tares, on the 
contrary, would appear dull, cold, and without any gloss on the feather ; the 
inference I draw is, that beans are to the plumage of the Almond Tumbler, wh^t 

nitre is to the horse's coat. 

It is admitted by all Fanciers that spring water is best for their drink, while 
soft water is better for them to wash in. I was desirous, if possible, to put some- 
thing into the water to make it more stringent and bracing, without injuring the 
birds, 1 consulted my old friend the chemist, if he would inform me how I could 
carry my plan into effect, I shall never forget how emphatically he answered me, 
(looking round the premises at the same time), by saying there was nothing in his 
warehouses that would so effectually answer the end, as putting into the water a 
handful of rusty old screws ; this I have adopted witJi great advantage, with the 
addition of a few lumps of chalk. Some put a handful of green rue into their 
water, this may be very well, but if you let it remain too long it will become 
stinking and furr the fountains, or whatever utensil they drink out of. Especial 
attention must be paid to keep the water sweet and clean, in the first instance to 
have the utensil from which your birds drink, scalded and kept thoroughly clean ; 
do not let them have more water than will last them one day, and let it be so 
constructed that the birds cannot by any possibility get into it to wash (which they 
certainly will do if not prevented) and make it dirty. There cannot be a doubt 
but that some of the diseases which unfortunately take place in the Almond 
Tumblers of some Fanciers, arise entirely from a want of cleanliness on the part 
of the owner of these birds^ the putrid state of the water produces the canker in 
the old birds, by the slime adhering to their beaks. 

I object, for fear of adding to this fatal disease, (however clean their aviary or 
loft may be scraped and swept up), of making a constant practice of feeding the 
Almond Tumbler by hand, as it is called, of throwing the food on the floor, only 
letting the birds have as much food as they will pick up at a time. The argument 
in its favor is, as some assert, that it keeps the bird sharper, and that it will eat 
with greater avidity ; even if this was true I should object to it, for however clean 
the floor of the aviary or loft might be, when you begin to feed them by hand, some 
of the birds would dung at the time of feeding, and the beans and tares mixing 
with the dung might cause or accelerate the canker or other diseases. I am fully 



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sensible that you cannot avoid occasionally feeding them on the floor, as for instance, 
if the mornings were exceedingly cold, or the birds deep in moult, you would be 
desirous that all your birds should share alike when you gave them hemp seed to 
warm and make them comfortable, for it would be unwise to give them a hopper 
full as you could wheat ; under these circumstances you would be obliged to throw 
it upon the floor as the birds eat it up, taking care that if the birds dung while 
eating, not to throw any near that place. I will now return to the subject of their 
drink. Years back I put rue into their water, I fancied they did not like the rue, 
and I know they did not drink so much. It may be that I made it too bitter and 
overdid this as everything else, (prior to my attempting to write a treatise on 
the breeding and management of the Almond Tumbler, and in this I have caught 
a tartar.) There is not the shadow of a doubt in my mind, provided I had the 
ability, strictly adhering to truth, derived from observation that I should overdo 
this treatise also ; but unfortunately for me, I see no fear of that owing to my want 
of ability, and therefore my young and inexperienced Fancier you must take the 
will for the deed by having it under-done. 

As a preventive is acknowledged to be better than a cure, and having endeavoured 
to instruct you how to keep your pigeons free from diseases by cleanliness and 
good management. J should not have called your attention to the subject of their 
complaints if it was not to have mentioned a case that happened in my aviary, 
I had a celebrated black mottled cock (well known by many gentlemen in the 
Fancy by the name of *' the schoolmaster") and it was seized with a violent attack 
of vertigo, or meagrims ; not knowing what to do 1 put it into a round open wicker 
basket, and took it to one of the most experienced gentlemen in the Fancy, living 
at Highbury, he said that in all his experience he never had seen one so "drunk," 
as he called it, and advised me to put it in the dark. I thought it stood in need 
of something more than putting it in the dark, so taking it to my friend, the chemist, 
and showing him the bird, we consulted what to do, and came to the determination 
that if the bird did drink, it should drink that which the chemist prepared for it, 
as it should have nothing else. The bird did not like the preparation, but thirst 
beat it and not being able to get anything else, was compelled to drink when it 
became thirsty, and that freely ; it continued in this state about a fortnight 
without appearing to get better : it pained me to see it in thi^ condition, and very 
late one night, or early in the morning, after attending a show, and being assured 
that there was not any cure for it, and if there was, the chances were so great 
against its breeding, that under these circumstauces I made up my mind to kill it. 
While dressing myself in the morning I heard my groom coming down stairs, and 
ordered him to kill the bird ; but before he got to the bottom of the stairs to the 
kitchen, where the bird was kept by the fire, I called out to him not to kill it till 
I had seen it, we both looked at it (for he was a good fancier) and thought it 
better, we shook the basket and the bird kept on its feet, from this time the bird 
gradually improved and became as well as evei*. 

There was something rather remarkable about the hen that I matched to this 
cock, A Fancier, whom I knew, and am sure he wished me well as a young Fancier, 
called upon me one evening at my house, and stated that he had a black mottle 
hen, so good that he could not afford to buy a cock that was a match, and should 
like me to have the hen, for he was sure that it would do me good ; I purchased 
it, and being very green in the Fancy, took it to a Grand Show, and put it in the 
penn to hear its merits or demerits, for I knew as much about the properties of 
the bird, as the bird knew about me, being so " Raw " in the Fancy at that time ; 
the first remark that was made was by one of the most spirited, and I believe not 
second best, with regard to his judgment, to any Fancier living; his remark was, 
as soon as I placed the bird in the penn, " I will give you fifty shillings for that 
black mottle hen." I did not expect to hear that, and therefore reasoned silently 
that if the bird was worth to him fifty shillings with his great experience, what 
inust it be worth to me ? Being desirous of making progress in the fancy, I there- 
fore declined parting with the bird, although a still higher price was offered 







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Looking back to my early days in the Fancy I am sure of this, that I oftener got a 
good bird by accident than by judgment: besides the mexpenenced fancier, wtien 
he becomes experienced, can recollect how he has been treated by Fanciers, who 
ought rather to have encouraged any young Fancier than otherwise. Having 
occasion to have some alterations in my aviary and lofts, amongst the workmen 
there was a carpenter who was a flying Fancier, and on shewing him my birds 

when we came to the black mottle hen, he said, " You bought that of Mr. 

I asked him, how he knew that ? He ,said he had sold it to him for half a crown, as 
it did not fly well with his bald-heads, that a charwoman, knowing that he kept 
pigeons, had brought it to him to see if he would buy it, and he gave her one 
shilling for it. She said that she had picked it up, while it was eating the oats 
from some horse-dung in the HoUoway Road, one bitter snowy winter s morning; 
that the poor bird was nearly starved, and might have perished, had not this good 
woman have saved it. There is not the shadow of a doubt but that this beautiful 
black mottled hen had made its escape from some good fancier s aviary or loft in 
HoUoway or the neighbourhood ; the bird could not fly well, owing to having 
been confined. 

Now from the cock that would have been dead in two minutes after I had 
ordered it to be killed (had I not called out) and which I cured of the Vertigo, 
and the hen nearly lost in every sense of the word, I obtained my strain of black 
mottled tumblers, which I believe is not surpassed by that of any other Fancier 
livin-r. My young Fancier, I have two objects in view, in informing you ot 
this,°the first is not quickly to despair of curing a bird ; and the second is, that it 
is possible you may obtain a first-rate stud of birds, even through accident, if you 
•will only persevere and become A. 1 . in the Fancy. 

With regard to the canker, it arises from dirty feeding and putrid drinking, of 

which the unclean Fancier ought to be ashamed, and it is to be hoped that he will 



In a former part of this work I called your particular 

Remove the cause that produces evils, and the effect 

would follow. But" the Fancier may say that this advice comes too late, for his 



never do so any more, 
attention to cleanliness. 



birds have got it, which nobody can deny ; this unfortunately being the case, I 
will endeavour to instruct him how to cure it :— take burnt alum and honey, and 
rub the part affected every day, and most likely it will be cured ; should this not 
have the effect; dissolve five grains of Roman vitriol m half a spoonful of best 
white wine vinegar, add it to the former composition, and rub the part affected. 
Or take half an ounce of burnt alum, half an ounce of gunpowder, a gdl_ of best 
white wine vinegar, and mix them well together, take one of your pigeon s flight 
or tail feathers that you will find about your aviary or loft, and anoint the part 
affected • and if even in the throat, you must use one of these prescriptions with 
the feather and anoint the inside of the throat, twice a day. I do not object to the 
raising the'scurf, and cause it to bleed a very IMe where it can be got at, believing 
it more effectual. I am aware that there are Fanciers who object to this, thinking 
it searching enough without. You can try it without, and if it does not succeed, 
then raise the scurf a little ; fortunately for me not havmg occasion to use these 
nrescriptions I have never tried the burnt alum, gunpowder, and vinegar, 
but entertain a high opinion of its eff-ects owing to the strong assurances I have 
received from some of the best Fanciers. It is absurd and childish twaddle to assert 
that the canker arises from the birds fighting; call things by their right name and 
then I do not object. You may say that the cocks f^ght and get pecked on the 
head • this is true and if you like to call it sores on the head, I have no objection, 
and if vou apply the prescription, or use a little alum and water, will cure it, but do 
not on any account say that it is the cause of canker, for if you do you assert any- 
thing but the truth. 

With cleanliness and care I think your birds will not be troubled with diseases, 
besides the delight it will afford you of seeing your birds healthy, vigorous, and 
clcin- but if on the contrary— Woe be to you ! Fanciers differ with regard to 



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the treatment of their birds, if unwell, some giving pills made of rhubarb, others 
giving pills made of bitter aloes, my favorite pill is a compound of both. The way 
I do is to take a good many at once, when they are not breeding I remove their 
water overnight, and keep them some hours in the morning without, and when 
I think they are very thirsty, give them their water as usual, with this difference : 
dissolve some Epsom salts, and mix it with their water, they being very thirsty 
will not discover it until after they have drank very heartily; I cannot tell you 
what quantity to mix not knowing how many birds you intend giving it to ; should 
you have any birds in your aviary, or loft, that are scoured or purged, remove them 
while the salts are in the water, if any is left, throw it away at night and let 
them have their water as usual without any salts, then restore the birds that you 

consider too loose. 

I hinted before in a former part of this work that it was possible that I might 
have over done some things, nevertheless on reasoning, I am not afraid of killing 
a pigeon, which I would treat as mankind; I will suppose my havmg a stomach 
full of hard old beans and a pigeon with a stomach full of hard old beans, and the 
picreon got rid of the beans before I did, (for ought I know the beans might kill 
m^), the inference I should draw was, that the pigeon was stronger, or at all events 
its digestive powers, although I should not be alarmed for fear of killing an old 
bird, 1 should act very cautiously where there were yoimg ones, from one hour 
to one week old, and not give the salts and water where these young birds were, 
not knowing the' effect, it might purge and kill them. If it was possible that in a 
loft were there were no young birds under three weeks old, the feeders partaking 
of the salts and water, and then feeding these big young ones, my opinion is, that 
not any evil would arise, but on the contrary good, inasmuch as it might cleanse, 
the craw, prevent canker in the throat, and cool the young bird which is very 
hot, but freely purged, at the same time the Fancier can exercise his own judgment. 

Peppercorns are very good to give to your old birds, or those that appear cold, 
every other day, giving three or by no means exceeding four at a time. They 
should be taken from the aviary or loft and judiciously placed near the fire for a 
few days. In my experience if birds are kept too long before the fire they seldom 
recover for air is more important to their health than heat— but changes are 
requisite at times. You will find in your experience some birds that may live 
one or two years with you that are never hardy or vigorous, and will not match 
up, but moping about and that even from the nest ; unfortunately it happens they 
have some good properties about them, otherwise we should effectually cure them 
by cutting off their heads. I consider more birds die of consumption, or wasting 
away, than any other complaint, and that is a reason why I endeavour to keep my 
birds fat. There is some little danger here, but not a tenth part to where the birds 
waste away and die of a decline ; sometimes it happens that a bird will fall from 
its perch on the floor like a stone, and on picking it up will be dead and as fat as 
butter, no doubt the cause of it was the overflow of blood to the head, and might 
be called apoplexy. The vertigo or meagrims arises from the same cause. If I 
happen to be in my aviary, or loft, and a bird should fall off its resting^ place, or 
taken in a fit, I plunge it into cold water as quickly as possible, and give it two 
compound of rhubarb and bitter aloes pills. There cannot be a doubt but that 
makincx a small puncture in the roof of the mouth to let out a little blood might 
be atte'^nded with a good effect, as apoplexy, or vertigo, arises from too great a 
fulness of blood in the vessels of the head; if you do not let blood, well drench 
them with the pills. 

There are many absurd things recommended for the cure of pigeons too numerous 
to mention, I will give you one or two— such as spiders wrapped in butter. Where 
would you find a spider in a genteel house, unless you went into the wine cellars. 



and there your cobwebs are ornaments, as mirrors or glasses are to your drawing 
room. If there is any charm it arises from the butter ; then again giving them 
three or four cloves of sarlick. When I got garlick for my pigeons it so happened 



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that it was the first and last time, for when I had stripped it and came to 
the clove, [ thought I would give it if I wanted to choak my bird, but not 
having such a desire I refrained from giving it ; likewise giving them a purge of 
tobacco — these things are too troublesome. It is possible you might get the garlick 
down the throat by quartering it, and then four cloves making sixteen pieces : a 
pretty treat to a Fancier if he has anything else to do, or to crown all, get tobacco 
water down their throats to give them a purge. 

I am fully sensible that the Almond Tumbler Fancier has a great command of 
temper and patience, but be need have the patience of Job to try these things. 
My young Fancier, I have not the power or right to prevent you from trying all 
you hear or read as to cures, but shall content myself with following my old 
fashioned way of considering a preventive better than a cure. I am aware that 
there are complaints over which we have no control — for instance : a bird even from 
the nest never having a sound constitution, the vertigo or meagrims. fits, &c. ; but 
if I have a bird very ill, from whatever cause, or bad eyes, &c, I take it to my friend 
the chemist, and he treats it as he would you or me, and I should advise you, my 
young Fancier, to do the same, and the sooner you take it after you have discovered 
something wrong in the bird the better. According to your station in life, yx)u 
may have an intimate friend or companion a physician, surgeon, &c, and as they 
are gentlemen by education, their good sense will teach them if you broach the 
subject to them, that it was not intended to insult them. I cannot inform you, 
otherwise I would, what it was that cured the black mottle cock of the vertigo or 
meagrims, not considering it a fair question to put to my friend the chemist. Very 
old tallow the size of a bean is an excellent thing for the roop, (whether it is the 
wet or dry roop, which is a cold and cough,) put down their throat, heals their 
breast, and eases their breath ; and it is possible some good may arise from the 
butter (but the spider ?) 

It is possible, from reading this Treatise, that if two birds were in the penn, the 
one a carrier, the other an Almond Tumbler, you might be able to discover the 
Almond Tumbler, from the great difference of the birds, but when you come to 
know that the one-sixteenth part of an inch excites the admiration of good Fanciers, 
it is infinitely more appreciated, and greatly enhances the value of the bird. I 
have endeavoured to root and ground you in the most important things connected 
with the Almond Tumbler, by calling your particular attention to the five properties 
to breed a good bird ; how to raise it by its food and drink, and then to preserve 
it alive for nine, ten, or more years by good management and cleanliness, besides 
other things connected with the management of the aviary or loft. 

If you do not keep a man or boy to look after your birds, when you go into your 
aviaries or lofts whatsoever you have to do, do quickly ; not to saunter or idle 
away your time as though to shew how lazy and sleepy you can be, but let "quick " 
be the word. It will avail you nothing, whether the Author thinks little or much 
upon the subject, provided you do not think for yourself. If you have never 
thought before, and the perfections or imperfections of the five properties of the 
Almond Tumbler cause you to begin thinking, the Fancy will be a blessing to you, 
for you cannot think hard or deeply on the Almond Tumbler, without thinking on 
more important matters. 

Should you, after reading this Treatise, be in doubt on the properties of an 
Almond Tumbler, the only thing left me to do is, to advise you to look to the 
Portrait at the beginning, to guide your judgment in the choice of such birds as 
are likely to be of service to you. With my Friends I have often stated it to be 
my intention to write a Treatise on the Almond Tumbler, I abandoned it, after 
finding it was my master-piece ; but the Exhibition, comparatively speaking, in 
everybody's mouth ; I could not take up a newspaper, periodical, or any new 
work, without its appearing to me all Exhibition : that some of the people of All 
Nations were about to exhibit something, I thought I should hke to Exhibit too: 



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but what to exhibit bothered me : after some little consideration the idea stmck 
me of the Almond Tumbler, believing that the people of AH Nations had not 
contemplated bringing out a work of this kind, and that it would be too bad not 
to pre7nt the young and inexperienced Fancier with a Treatise on the Almond 
Tumbler, at the time of Exhibiting, for these reasons I would niake an attempt 
even should I fail: when the work is printed, and I come to read it over, I expect 
to be vexed, owing to omissions, which I should have had great pleasure m com- 
municating to you. 

" There is a time for all things," as the Wise Man observed, and the time has 
now arrived for us to part ; but in bidding farewell to my reader allow me to 
surest has the perusal of the foregoing pages been the means of makmg you my 
young kncier, a^more ardent admirer of the Almond Tumbler? do you see fresh 
r^pnn^Hp; while studying the properties of this much admired bird? and do you feel 
a deTe^inSn to excl in t^is pleasing and intellectual study ? if this is the effect it 
bas nroduced in your mind, I shall consider myself fortunate in producmg such a 
result and I do most sincerely hope that you may experience as much pleasure 
and satisfaction as I have myself enjoyed. 

Hoping that you may long enjoy this pleasure and the intercourse of intelligent 
and agreeable Brother Fanciers, and that you may be able to exclaim,-Happy is 
ihe mlin that forsakes his vices, _ and becomes an enthusiastic admirer of the 
Almond Tumbler, is the sincere wish of 

THE AUTHOR. 



FINIS. 



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W. A. Wriglit, Printer, 9 and tO, Fulwood'* Rents, 

Holboin, Londont 



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CONTENTS. 



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De^icAtion to the young and 
, inexperienced Fancier of 

the Almond Tumbler 
Description of the Bird—the 



Feather 



Shape or Carriage 

Head .... 
Beak .... 

Eye ... . 



Matching or Pairing 
Of Laying . . . 



The Loft 



Of Penning the Birds . . 

Of the Nest Pans . . • . 

Marks, by which to ascertain 

the colours of young Birds 



1—6 



7 

8 
8 

9 

9 

10 
13 

14 



Of Hatching . , . . . 

Of Shifting ...... 15 



Of Moulting 

Of Vermin 



16 
17 

18 

19 
20 



Of Drafting . . . 

Of Barren Birds . 

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Of Washing . . . 
Of Flying the Birds 

Of Loam . . . 

Of. Gravel . . . 



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Mortar 



Of their Food 
Of their Drink 



Of Parting the Birds after the 
Breeding Season . . . 



Of their Dung 



Of their Diseases . . • 



The Roop 

The Vertigo or Meagrims 



The Staggers 



Scouring or Purging , 



The Small Pox 



PAGE 



21 



Of Odd or Unmatched Birdi 

m 

General Observations . . 



21 

22 

22 

22 

23 

23 
24 

25 



25 
26 

26 

28 

28 
28 

29 
29 
29 

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Young and Inexp^ieiMied FaiiQfer <tf Hie Almond Tumbler 



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All that a Mail knt^ws, or ?jer will fcnow,^ 
■^ is ty Observation or Reflection. "-Locke. 



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, /• //i. JforJfc -Dedication, . 4escriptiot^ of the JFive Pfopferto o^ the 
CortJ^rii. 0/ ^IJ J?„7carriai^He;a, Bea^ Eye, of Pairing, Laying, Hatching. 
Pi^f "' ^^Si^^x^n XiS or Loft, Pen^inJ the, Bi^ds.^ljest^ Pans, JVfa^Jy 
Sliifting, Moult ng, ^^T^'^'^// Birds before Fledged, of Pr#ing,^.:B^T^?n Bir4s, 
:,.Mcli to ascertain the Colours o^ ^ir« their Cures, General O^servataons, „&c. 

TBSTIMONIAiiS OF 

o/?So^^EiSJG'&D^NAGING. THE ALMOND 
A TREATISE ON THE ART OF BREED WG AND ^^ .^e most^ beaiJtiful of 

TUMBLER. Bv J' j^^^^-S^^^^I^coSur 5^ black, white, and yellow .land the 
Pij^eons in s^^P^^^'^.^^^f'ieJ "Ya Lis^efforts to obtain yellow, will produce a rich almond 
auUior says that t^«/f "J^l^^^ndrand from which the bird aeriyesats name/' Never was 
colour, usually called the SJorma,»^ii the desert ever, attended with 

: ^^IX oT^o^^iZZ ^s^^ ^^^t X^Sff^^f #" 

.By J^iJJX^-^^E^^K rS^ study and attentions .ean 

""^ '« Let every man ^P«^^f ^^^^^Jj^^a?^^^^ he carinot'fdl to add to the 

, not mere book-reading, hut observa^^^^ ^^^^ And another greatt man 

, general stock oi onv^^novf^i^e. . ^o^ro oi wards Im lieu of teaching iAi«^* . • 

SUves :-Top^much^mseis g™^^^^ 

I have heard with respect and P^^^t a^cw" J subject and went quit© beyond, me. 
i„ the^elding <>f ^'^""^^^^IKif when he came sWenly oil^a bo^k treating, aliBOst 

Every candid man niustha.^^ Jfa pecS subject, with which the writer wasacqualal^d 
upon the exhaustive system, on a pecun j ,^^ ^^ J.M.' Eaton o^ t^^ Almond 

in its xninute^t ^^*^'t Ld wiW S^^ 

Tumbler." The ""^in^t^^*«Jf^'^Sasm, nothing excellent was .^yer prpdjiced}^ for without 

that, ^itboutspme spark o^^^^^^^ p^erseverance p^ture ^^^ "^^ WP^^YJ^Pf^^ ^ 



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and adaptability to the purposes of man may be attained, let the horse, the ox, the pig, 

the sheep and the feathered denizens of the poultry-yard, testify. Here the dovecote puts 
forth its claimr And, if flower-cultivation have its enthusiasts, why not the improvement 
in beauty of form, colour, and carriage of the most poetic and certainly classic of birds ? 
The dove has for ages figured in poetry. In the book before us, the beauties of the 

bird of Venus are dwelt on in plain prose. ' ^ 

To return to matter-of-fact. Mr. Eaton s pages give more mmute, sound, practical, 
and available instruction and advice, as to the means of procuring:, propagating, 
preserving and discriminating, the merits of the most beautiful of all the varied breeds 
of the Columba, to wit, the Almond Tumbler, than any writer who has preceded him. In 
fact, his is the monograph on this subject. . .. , ^ . . ' 

A portrait, printed in colours, depicting a most beautiful and rare specimen of the 
breed Cin possession of the author) faces the title-page. 

MINING JOURNAL, July 26th, 1851. 

A Treatise on thb Art of Breeding and Managing the Almond Tumbler.— 
By J. Matthews Eaton. London : Published for the Author, Islington Green. 

The notice of a work expressly devoted to the study of the breed and management of 
Pigeons may, at first sight, appear out of place in a publication confining itself to the 
higher branches of science and the arts, but when we consider that the rising generation 
among our Cornish miners are great pigeon fanciers, and also that a fondness for the 
rearing of dumb animals, and watching their habits and their instincts is at least an 
innocent, if not an edifying pastime during the hours of relaxation, we have no hesitation 
in calling attention to this publication, the result of upwards of many years* experience in 
this, to some, fascinating occupation. Although stated to be *' on breeding and managing 
the Almond Tumbler," we apprehend it will generally apply to all description of Pigeons, 
although more expressly and particularly drawn up from the habits of the former ; and the 
author states he has been induced to publish the work from a wish to place in the hands 
of the young fancier a treatise from which he might obtain upon his favorite subject both 
information and amusement, and at a price within the reach of all, there not being at 
present to be obtained a work of such a nature without much difficulty. In the treatment 
of the subject the author has avoided all ambiguity, eschewed low flash terms, and 
stated his advice and meaning throughout in plain English, though he appears to us 
somewhat enthusiastic in his valuation of the enjoyments to be obtained from this study ; 
this, however, is excusable, and probably an advantage to the young reader. In the 
description of the Almond Tumbler, the management of them in feeding, pairing, hatching, 
&c. their treatment under diseases, and an insight here and there into the ** shows " of the 
higher classes of fanciers, the author gives convincing proof of much practical experience 
in the subject he writes upon; and to those who are yet tyros in this departm«?nt of 
education we strongly recommend the volume, which contains a beautifully coloured 
portrait of a valuable Almond tumbler in the possession of the author. 

MORNING POST, August 19th, 1851. 
A Treatise on the Art of Breeding and Managing the Almond Tumbler. 

By John Matthews Eaton. . ^ • r 

;Pigeon fanciers will derive great pleasure, as well as very useful information, fi;om 
reading this little book, about the most beautiful of pigeons ; and the portrait of one of 
them in the frontispiece will satisfy any one how well the subject of it deserves attention. 
The name of this valuable species is derived from its colour, because the ground or 
foundation of the feather should be a rich bright almond or yeUow colour. " The standard 
authorised or laid down by the Columbarian Society, as regards the feather is as follows : 
Three colours, namely, black, white, and yellow in the nine first feathers of each wing, 
counting from their extremities, and twelve in the tail ; the aforesaid three colours, well 
developed, would constitute a standard, but the back, breast, and rump, should be likewise 
variegated, to be complete in feather ; the hackle or neck feathers should be bright and 
well broken with the same colours, and should resemble the delicate touches of the pencil 
of a fine artist." But in the opinion of Mr. Eaton, the shape and carriage of this bird is 
its noblest property, and to secure this perfection of shape and feather, the greatest care 
and skill in breeding and management is required. The tendency to degenerate, which 
is observed in the Almond Tumbler, demands the exercise of judgment and experience for 
its counteraction ; and we believe that young fanciers may safely place themselves under 
the guidance of our author. His knowledge of the habits and character of the bird appears 
to be complete, and he has taken pains to omit no point upon which his readers could 
desire information or advice. 

THE WEEKLY DISPATCH, August 31st, 1851. 
A Treatise on the Art op Breeding and Managing the Almond Tumbler, 
By John Matthews Eaton.— The author (residing at 7, Islington-green) has, under the 
above title, published a very useful little manual regarding the " Almond Tumbler," a 
pigeon of very beautiful form and peculiar plumage. The matter is ample in its range of 
subject, copious and plain, so far as the directions for management, breedmg, trammg, 
&a, go, and the evident pleasure the writer seems to have taken in his subject, makes 
his book a very agreeable as well as a very instructive one. 

r 

Wright, Printer, 9 & 10, Fulwood'a Rents, Holborn. 



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A TREAf ISE ON THE ART OF BREEDING AND MANAGING THE 



ALMOND TUM 




LER. 



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BY AN OLD FANCIER. 



TO THE YOUNG FANCIER, 

I shall endeavour here to be as brief as possible, fearing I have 
jran out farther than I intended. Some time after I had written my Alnwnd 
Tumbler (1st of May, 1851), I received letters from John Boys, Esq., Magistrate 
of Margate, a rare and experienced old Fancier, who took two copies of my 
Work on the Almond Tumbler ; after reading it oyer he highly complimented 
me on my production, stating, that it was his intention to have written a Work 
himself, but, having carefully read over my Work, he abandoned the idea, and 
very kindly offered me all his manuscript and marginal notes, to make whatever 
use I thought fit of them ; " and what use do you think I made of them :'' to 
hand them down to you to read, mark, learn, and inwardly, to digest; at the 
same time giving the credit to the observer, John Boys, Esq., Magistrate of 
Margate, for his observations. 

I 

^ I am particularly desirous that the Fancier here should not by any possibility 
o\'erlook or forget, that whenever he is called at this part of the Work with 
regard to the page, it has reference only to the Work published 1802 — 1804- 
either of the years will do, as the one is only a re-print of the other, entitled-r 
A new and complete Treatise on the Art of Breeding and Managing the Almond 
Tumbler, by an Old Fancier (name not mentioned) ; but the great unknown 

■was no other than Windus, Esq., Solicitor, Southampton Buildings, Holborn ; 

and, as far as I can, I wish to keep the names of old and experienced Fanciers 
alive, that when I refer you to the Columbarian Work, I shall refer you to the 
Author — WiNDus, on whose Work John Boys, Esq/s remarks apply, and that 
only ; and it will be policy if you can obtain one, which I believe you cannot. 

On the 7th of October, 1851, I received his Book,' with his marginal notes, 
and having an exact copy of the Work (A new and complete Treatise on the 
Art of Breeding and Managing the Almond Tumbler), I copied bis notes into 
a fellow copy, word for word, with this little difference: 

"This dayj Oct. 7th, 1851, received through the Post, the work on the Almond 
Tumbler, and dedicated to the Gentlemen of the Columbarian Society, with the 
remarks and notes of John Boys, Esq Magistrate, &c. of Margate, for which I 
feel grateful, and shall fill them in this book, as he has done in the book he has 
sent me. — John M. Eaton." 

" The notes and corrections in this book have been made, some ten, some 
twenty, and some thirty years ago, and up to the present time, as they occured to 
me from experience. 

Margate. 

Windus, p. 4 and 5, 
"M. 1805 and 6. 



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John Boys." 

His remarks as regards the prices of Almonds 

Excellent birds were to be had at five guineas a pair, although 

d 



occasionally they reached from ten to fifteen guineas ; they are much improve 
since that period, but most difiicult to be met with,*' * 

Page 6. " Those who criticise and scoff at this Fancy should take care 
not to become a Florist Fancier, or an admirer of improved Horses, Dogs or Sheep ; 
nor exchange his ignorance for the knowledge of the best Ficcatees, Dahlias,' 



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Tulips (worth ten and twenty guineas a piece), Roses (of which there are 1500 

varieties), Anemonies, Heart-ease, Ranunculusses, Auriculars, &c, &c. &c, * 




Page 7. Writing from experience, " and by practice and experience to 
know how to mix and improve the color of the Feather hy the matching of the 
males and females/' Writing of what are beauties and what are imperfections : 
" Those whose experience enables them to produce variety of Feather, may, by the 
matching of the parents, also learn something of Nature's laws in the marriage 
and qualification of human parents, both in personal forms and principles, by 
inheritance either of health, disease or sense." 

Page 12. On the handling of a Pigeon: " The mode of handling a bird 
shews at once whether the holder is a Fancier, or not even a wild and violent bird 
will become quiet in the hand of an experienced Fancier." On a badly formed 
head, ** which is termed Mous-ey." 

Page 13. Writing on the property, beak, " it should never exceed six-eighths, 
at the present day some are barely five-eighths. — 1848/' 

Page J 4. "The Lofts. The best Fanciers will devote three or four rooms 
to his birds." The area; " by keeping the birds from strangers, and taming 
them with hemp seed to feed out of the hand, they may be caught and handled as 
easily as a dog or cat." 

Page 15. On drafting young birds into another aviary. " By all means." 

Page 16. On laying: "an experienced Fancier will always know within 
a few hours when the hen will lay her first egg of another nest ; and I have found, 
in general, that a cock will not hunt and peck his hen so fiercely when his hen 
droops and laps her wings ; but where he does he should be caged close to the 
hen's nest until she has laid her first egg," 



Page 1 7. 

valuable," 



Page 21. 



On the warmth of the loft or aviary. " But warmed air is most 
On dust : « All dust on the floor is certain to settle upon the 
oily feathers, and make the birds look filthy." Objecting to a cat in the loft ; " I 
strongly object to a cat's guardianship," 

Page 18. On pairing ; " In 1851, I had only two thin-shelled eggs, and Paired 
twelve young ones in very cold weather, from sixteen pairs hatched in February. 

Page 19. Advantage of separating birds; " Birds separated during winter 
may be rematched with perfect ease in February." 

Page 20. On covmteraction ; "except as to their being both of too much 
feather, in which case they produce white and blind or purry-eyed birds." On 
not matching birds too high; "in this I quite agree, John Boys, 1849. 

On dun colour : " But on breeding for feather, they are most 
useful in high bred matches. A dun in general, is a brown black, or a black 
brown ; at least, it is a very bad black, and sometimes a blue black. A good dun, 
in its first plumage, should shew a silvery appearance, that is, should seem to 
indicate that in its first moult it would become silvery." 

Page 22. On pairing : " I recommend that pedigree in this case be attended 
to, for doubtless a parent, or grand-parent, of almost every splash may 

H _ . __ _ _ . . B,^ _ _ _ ■ 

_ ™_^ 

, * Page 6. J. M. E. His marginal notes here apply to those Splatherers, who (as 

Solomon beautifully observes, " you may bruise in a mortar, and yet you cannot 

obtain gumption out of them ") ridicule the Pigeon. It may be pardonable m 

some of these, simply because they are void of brains, not having been handed 

down to them ; or they may have received an injury on a "large pimple," growing 

out at the top of the neck, which will never come to a_head. But it is 

unpardonable in learned men, who attempt to write upon the Pigeon, who only 

'burlesque the Pigeon; nevertheless, do not be ill-natured to such, but throw 

around them your mantle of love and charity as I mean to do, and to deeply 

lament and regret that learned men should attempt to write on a subject they do 

not understand. 



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be traced, and if that parent was defective in any other point, the match of a 
young splash should be considered and regulated accordingly ; in reference to 
the ben he should have the splashes often fail in eye." , 

Page 23. On preventing a cock getting master of two pens : " I had 
one unruly cock, and could only cure him of his tricks by swinging him round 
and round until he was so giddy that he could not stand, and then put him into 
the breeding place where he had so trespassed, and the pair so trespassed upon 
gave him a sound thrashing, and forced him down from the nest, after which he 
desisted and gave up the point." 

Page 24. On nest pans : " eight and a half inches out to out at top ; three 
and a half deep, seven and a half wide bottom, outside. This is the admeasurement 
of my pans made on purpose. (Four dozen.)" 

Page 25. On straw : " Oat straw is best." 

Page 26. On the cocks worrying and driving hens to nest : « I think this is a 
useless precaution unless the birds are crowded. After the hen has laid the first 
egg, the cock becomes quiet, and whenever she is separated froni amongst the 
crowd of other birds, he in general ceases to drive her; and it is better to leave 
them to themselves and to the instincts of nature, unless the cock be quite violent. 

Page 27. On laying first egg : '' Or soon after ;" on second egg : " More 
frequently nearer about two o'clock." 

Page 28. On laying ; observes, see Page 37. 
only is necessary ; wrong and dangerous." 



Quite unnecessary ; warmth 



Page 29. On laying : " The necessity for this has never yet come under my 
observation, 1849 ; nor since.— J. B., 1851." " I have saved many an egg 
dropped on the floor, by placing a very small quantity of hay or straw under 
or round the egg, and watching that hen that will go to it, and, when discovered, 
I have put the egg into the nest intended for her, and shut her up until she has 
laid the second egg." ' 

Page 31. On parting the birds : " I recommend the middle of September; 
because late bred birds will otherwise be moulting in cold weather, and when 
this is the case they seldom or never become strong and healthy, without artificial 
warmth and much trouble. When a bird from a valuable breed happens to be 
hatched so late as in the second week of October, and if it be much desired to 
save it the best plan is to let its parents or nurses lay once more, and compel 
'them to lay in the nest where this young valuable one is, and by this means 
the parents will always be sitting on the new eggs with the young ones, and 
thereby the additional warmth will save it ; then break the eggs and destroy the 
nest, about ten days after being sit upon." 

Page 33. On barren birds.— See a note at the foot of page 34. 

Pao-es 34-35. On hatching ; " I think the author is mistaken on two points ia 
reference to barren birds and the providing of soft meat I have a pair of red 
mottles that have brought up four nests in the season of 1849, without once laying, 
but with a severe driving to the nest by the cock ; upon each occasion I first gave 
them sham eggs, which I cheated to believe were laid on the first and third day, 
and upon one of those occasions when they had only set ten days I happened 
to have an odd young one, just hatched, and of httle value, and lor the 
sake of experiment, I put it under the barren birds, to try if they could furnish 
soft meat before the proper time, and I was agreeably surprised to find that they 
could and did supply it, although not so eltectually as it they had sat the full 
seventeen days : but nevertheless, the supply was sufficient to save the young one, 
and they brought up the young one to be a remarkably strong one. It should,^ 
however, be mentioned, that I gave the barren birds a mixed food or refuse— rice 
and bruised hempseed, in addition to what they could pick up out of the pigeon- 
house and they became as good nurses as the other birds that bred in due course. 

■ Page 35. On eggs springing and chipping.— See page 37. 



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Page 36. On the least effusion of blood will be fatal to the foetus : "not quite fatal." 

Page 37. On hatching ; " My practice was always as follows : — early on the 
seventeenth day if the egg remained entire and unchipped, I put the egg into a 
tea-cup full of water, blood warm, and the hollow part of the egg where the 
beak was, would always float uppermost^ I then punctured the shell at that part to 
give air, and took away so much shell as was free from the caulor membrane, and 
then put the egg under the parent. In the evening, if no progress had been made, 
I cracked the egg-shell all round with my thumb nail, and on the following morning 
I found the young one had always been hatched, unless any blood had been shed 
by the operation — J, B." 



Page 40. On shifting ; " sometimes the seventh. 



97 



Page 41. 



On shifting ; 



" In general there should not be a greater length of 



time than seven days. I very seldom exceed three or four days and when the 
difference is so great as nine or ten days the young ones begin to show the color of 
their feather, and in consequence thereof the old ones will sometimes on discovering 
the cheat, kill them or turn them out of the nest ; this however occurs but seldom," 
It is an excellent plan to remove the pans of young ones by slow degrees, i. e. from 
shelf to shelf downwards to the floor, where by placing clean straw in a warm 
corner the young ones of ten or twelve days old, on getting out of their nests will 
resort and cluster together, thereby obtaining constant warmth from each other, 
being fed by all the old birds that have young ones on the same floor, which is 
always the case. I have seldom less than five or six in a nest in this manner, at 
one time, on the floor. 

Page 42. On hen with egg ; " after the birds are paired the hen will go seven 
or eight days with egg before laying." On shifting; "How is this to be 
accomplished without endangering the nurselings placed under the care? The 

plan is not a good one in my opinion." 

Page 44. On marks to ascertain the colour of birds. — See page 21. 

Page 45. On marks, &c. " Several of these points are correct, but this is not 
to be depended on." 

Page 46. On drafting young birds ; " In this respect great caution is required ; 
a young one should have eaten alone three or four days before being separated 
from its parents; for, upon being put amongst strange young ones, they will 
always at least cease to feed heartily and perhaps not at all, lose flesh, and become 
ill : the best plan is to draft them in the morning, and if towards evening their 
crops are empty, remove them back again to the parents until the following 
morning, and repeat this for two or three days, when they will do well, and may 
be finally separated s^afely. (1847.)" 

Page 47. On drafting young birds and their food ; " Fine refuse ; rice at all 
times in the breeding season, or wheat, tares old, ticks olds, hemp in very small 
quantity, and very seldom on rape ; and canary I object to." 

h 

Page 48. On barren birds. — See page 34. ^ 

Page 51. On vermin, and blue ointment; "on each side of the breast bone ;^ 
but it is too violent and dangerous a remedy upon a very valuable bird." 

Pages 52-53. On fumigating ; " My plan by fumigation has been very 
successful as follows : — Make a large brown paper bag with a hole through the 
bottpm sufficient for a bird's head to be passed through it, put the bird in the bag 
with its head outwards through the hole, and then with fumigating bellows fill the 
bag with very strong tobacco smoke, taking care that the bird's head is kept on 
the outside, so as to breathe good air ; in three or four minutes every insect will be 
killed, and set the bird at large ; where eggs and knits are deposited amongst the 
neck feathers, repeat the fumigation about in the ensuing month. — Qu. Would 
not an oiled silken bag be more manageable and useful V 



On vermin. 



Page 54. 
otally 3 and in all respects, different 



"The common Pigeon Louse and Feather Louse are 

I have 



Pigeons kept clean never have fleas. 



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never tried this, fearing to destroy by the alkali m soap that oily coat which is on 
the feathers, and for a time keeping the bird much warmer than _ other wise-a bird 
so treated is like a sheep shorn in cold weather." See M.S. note m the 52nd page. 
■ Pa^e 55 On vermin on fresh birds ; " Unnecessary in the country where 
birds are kept clean ; but all newly added birds should be examined and cleaned. 
Page 58. On plumage, rain, and water : « Unless the spring water is from 

a chalky soil." , r 

Pa^es 58-59 On flying the birds : " And especially if the loft is kept free 
fromSt and dirt On thf contrary, more than half of my flyers are by good 
iroiii uubi aiiu mvself in an arm chair on the lawn, fly to 

usage qmte tame, and when I ^^^^ ^s^/j ^^ l^^^^j, ,^,^^ ^^a playing with 
me and surround me, s^v^^" *fj^ '^\i i^ Ue true, I have a%air of red 

Zt|^r eK S^^^^^^^^^ -« ^ -^' -^ ^-^ --^^^^ 

'1^0^ On loam : ;« A l^-^^^^^^thT teTho^^^^^^^^ 

beTon TZ^T^ZST^il ir and they swallow a quantity of fiJe 

^gravel on that account." 

Page 62. Gravel.-See the note at the foot of page 60. 

PoL fi-^ Mortar • " Mortar dust will greatly injure the plumage, and 
neveTadmlt iJJrtr 'the dusty strong alkali, which, by settling on the feathers, 
kills the oil of the plumage, and the birds are always dirty. 

Paee 66 On their food : « I do not concur in this ; if the food is damaged 
Natufe pits out to the old ones not to touch it, if they can get other food. 
Good old wheat and tares, old tick, and refuse rice, are the best articles of food 
^aced in hoppers, so that the old ones can always get which they like. The 
palate is their safest guide, having plenty of choice. 

Pase 67. On change of food.-see page 47. "Beyond a week or ten days 
at one period, change of food is of great advantage, 

Pa^e 68-69 On the healthy state of the birds : " In this year (1849) from five 
rage b» oy. y" ""= r-ccxlA thirtv-two voune ones, by the aid of nine pairs 
pairs of ^ell bred birds I reared t^^^^y ^^^^^^^^^^^ .^^ ' / ,„,, „f those high 
of common Tunabler, as m^ses, ana oy g j^ s^ ^^ 

bred birds that ff ^;^;.^,\^.^"^ t^el^^^^^ was old tick beans, aid tares 

t:)'rlX^l^o'^^^^^^ ^-^ %%f birds a litUe refuse 

S and hemp-seed every morning and evenmg until the parents had fed off 
Jheir "oft S. By care I never lost a bird; for. lu _a5^ti«»'J_^^«°7l'i'? 



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S im oThatchinI, and frequently broke the shell of an egg when the young 
one was not strong enough to extricate itself, by first puncturing a small hole 
nei the beak to gie air, and' on the following day cracking the shell all round 
near tne oeaK lo give an, f^n^^ fmm cold weather; from the second 

the egg The fir«* -^^Vob^Fnl L yo^^^^^ the third set in June 

set in May and June, I obtained hve yomig , .^ ^^^ 

r obS nt:";ounT orsf XbLt ^August and Sentember,^ obtained six 
vounfones i in th! sixth and last set in September anS begmnmg of October, 
young ones , f'?" ' , ^her thirty-two. After this, and as soon as the old birds 
SIX more, makmg ^^f g^^V^ ^J ^^^^ again, I separated male from female, 
began to show ^^S^\fjX^\^^ nurses. During the whole season I did not 
foTa' Wr? 3er"5 "st- ^^^^ after^he first three or four days." 

(J. B., November, 1849.) 

P«.xP 70 71 On parting the birds after breeding season.— See also page 
31 ^" One of the methods to check going to nest again, is to make them, 
if vou can feed as many young ones as possible, as they are seldom with egg 
agrwSst so feeding, Ld more especially if their pans be taken away The 

feediiig lowers the old ones, but not near so much as gomg to nest again , and by 



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this method your young ones become much stronger birds, and more fitted to 
begin moulting before winter sets in." Page 72-73. " No sound Fancier will 
keep his birds together in winter. I think this of but little importance ; well 
managed birds in a roomy loft are best left to themselves ; where crowded, the 
remarks will apply." 

4 

Page 74. " Query. — Was the above remark worth publishing ? *' 

Page 75. On diseases : *' I have never lost but one young bird from this 
disease [canker] ; it is in fact a cancer, and in my opinion is hereditary amongst 
the highest bred birds when kept upon bad food, and in a filthy state ; or why 
should I have escaped it amongst at least five hundred young ones." 



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Page 80. The roop ; " Has never attacked my birds. 

Page 81. The vertigo or meagrims ; " Thirty-six years ago when my collection 
of Dragons (about thirty) every morning brought me from London, in slips, the 
leading article of the Morning Post newspaper tied round the leg, I had three birds 
attacked, but they recovered on resting them and giving good food. (Note in 1850.)" 

Page 83. On the staggers ; '* I have never had a bird die by being attacked by 
either of the last three diseases, which I attribute to care, diet, regimen and 
flying at large in fine weather." On scouring or purging ; " The astringent quality 
depends on the soil from whence the water issues, or the quahty of the pipes which 
convey it.' 

Page 84. On smallpox. " This disease never visited my birds." 

Page 86. On a Fancier scarcely knowing his own birds, when sore in moult : 
" This is as true as it is remarkable." On moulting; " Especially the late-bred 
young ones, which should be kept in warmer rooms, or at least where the cold air 

is excluded." 
Page 92. On a bad eye, most difficult to counteract; *^So I think. (J. B.)" 

Page 93. Sexes; " difficult to tell." 

Page 94. Sexes of young birds : "By no means so easily decided until after 
they have moulted. 

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Page 97. On feeders : " I am rather adverse to keeping common birds for 
feeders, and prefer inferior bred Tumblers, Bald Heads, or Beards ; but they 
have this evil — by their constantly flying and tumbling, they encourage the young 
high-bred birds to fly so much as to make them rather coai*se, which is worse 
than shutting them up altogether. All birds with wings should be allowed to 
use them in moderation only." 

Page 98. On young birds deserted, on getting food down their throat : " The 
present breed of small Almonds will not admit of beans. Give them sound old 

tares or wheat." 

Page 100. On laying second egg: "If in good health: but if in a weakly 
state, it will be at two o'clock or later." On the Portrait of Windus's Almond 
Tumbler: " In 1850 I bred a black mottled cock, whose carriage in my opinion 
so far exceeded the representation here shewn in profile, that I employed an able 
painter to make an oil painting of the bird, but instead of preserving the black 
mottled feather, I gave the painter a richly Almond feathered bird to copy instead 
thereof, so that now I have an oil painting of as perfect and bright an Almond 
as can be produced to my taste. The two birds were caged for the painter's 
guide."* 



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* These Observations and Eemarks are, upon the whole, true to the letter^ 
which you will find in your experience ; at the same time I do not exactly agree 
•with all that John Boys, Esq. remarks, not having time to tell you the why or the 
wherefore j nevertheless, I believe, if you read over my ALMOND TUMBLER, it 
"Will throw light upon the subject ; but expecting to appear before you again in a 
short time, my Young and Inexperienced Eancier, is the cause of my taking leave 
of you so abruptly, although it is not my intention to leave or forsake you.— J.M,E. 



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J. M. E. To my Young Fancier, 

I cannot help thinking, but that I should have acted dishonest to you, if I had 
withheld this vast amount of experience derived solely from Observation and 
Reflection from Fifty Years study on the Art of Breeding and Managmg : I 
should have been no less dishonest, if I had attempted to have disguised and 
cooked it up, and endeavoured to impose upon you, laying claim to it as touchmg 
the Originality: I have exerted my little abilities to the utmost to give each 
Fancier or Writer the credit that is due to hira, as touching Origmahty. 

There is no doubt but that John Boys, Esq. could have arranged his Observations 
inanitely better than I shall, but having his permission to make whatever use I 
tWht^fit of his Notes in the margin, the thought struck me that it was pregnant 
with dange? if I apprised him of my intention to publish his Observations and 
would thfnk him, if not too much trouble, to put them m that form he Would 
Ukettiem to appear in print; having permission in my possession I did not like to 
run the risk for he might for ought I know have withdrawn his permission for my 
run the risK, ?^^^,« ^'»" verv kindly invited me to Margate. I am somewhat 

nfe^riu tit™eer&^^^^ ' Going ! Going ! bit not gone yet. He 

rather complaining that he does not exactly feel as he did thirty years ago, my 
advice isTo foHow^Chesterfield, and talk of that forty years hence ) I have never 
had the honor of seeing him, but can take an exceedmgly good lesson out of his 
Kl^ and sincerely hope that you feel as grateful as I do, for handing down his 

experience to us. ' 
To my Brother Fanciers, 

Should it so happen in your experience from Observations the idea has 
struck you that you have witnessed things, that are worthy to be handed down to 
posterity among Pigeon Fanciers, and that it is not your intention to publish a Work 
Ff you will forward them to me, should there be merit m them and Ongmahty, I 
will take care they come to light among the Gentlemen of the Fancy, and you 
shall have the credit as touching the Ongmahty. 

FINIS. 

r 

[AS KEGAKDS JOHN BOXS, ESQ.'S NOTES.] 



rOwinff to a mistake on my part, in omitting to let the Printer have these 
remarks, and the sheets being struck off, I am under the necessity of placing 

them here.] 
Moore, paragraphs 73 to 98.-See J.M. Eaton's Almond Tumbler, p. 44 to 48, 

"I object," &c. 

J.M.E. I would strongly recommend the young and inexperienced Fancier to put 

in practice the remedies as laid down by Mooke, whenever any of his Pigeons are 

suffering from distempers or accidents from whatever cause. I entertain a much 

Ser opinion of the remedies prescribed, when I ascertained froni his Work, 

Columbarium, or the Pigeon-house, that he was a medical man : his Work shews 

Sow great an observer he was of a Pigeon, which he only kept as a fancy and 

fn relieve the mind. I cannot help thinking, one who thouglit so hard and deeply 

nn aPileon thought equally as hard, or moie deeply on his profession, and was 

TcSSan ornament to the profession to which he belonged ; and it must 

be owi'you, provided you think hard and deeply on the Pigeon. I am then 

convinced that you are blessed with the means to think hard and deeply on 

rrinttPrs of infinite greater importance. Entertaining so high an opinion ot his 

See and instructiLs all throughout his Work, I advise you that if unfortunately 

anv of vour Pigeons are overtaken with diseases or accidents, which, most 

assuredly they will, apply Mooke's remedies, and the sooner it is discovered the 

better, remembering the Poet's advice, " A stitch In time, saves mne. 



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III 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE. 

i)edication to the Youn^ and In- 
experienced Fancier, on Tame, 
Domesticated, and Fancy 

Pigeons 3 

An Address, &c 6 

Columbarian, or the Pigeon- 
house, by JoHK Moore. 9 

Dedication 1 11 

The Preface 13 

Umpires — their duties 24 

Method of building aLoft 27 

Method of Matching and Pairing 

your Pigeons 29 

To know a Cock from a Hen...... 30 

The Generation of Pigeons 30 

Their Diet 34 

The Salt Cat 34 

Distempers of Pigeons 35 

Their Usefulness 3S 

Their Dung 39 

The Carrier 40 

H 

„ Horseman 44 

„ Dragoon 49 

„ Dutch Cropper 50 

„ English Powter 50 

„ Parisian Powter 57 

„ Uploper 58 

„ Powting Horseman 58 

„ Tumbler 62 

„ Almond Tumbler 64 

" See Almond Tumbler, by 
J. M. Eaton." 

The Black Mottled Tumbler 67 

„ Yellow do. do 67 

5, Red do. do 67 

„ -Kite do. do 67 

J, Dun- do. do. 

„ Bald head do 68 






PAGE- 

The Beard Tumbler .i^.i 68 

„ Blue do 68 

Tumblers in general .*.... 68 

The Leghorn Runt 70 

„ Spanish Runt 71 

„ Frieslaud Runt 71 

„ Spot 71 

„ Laugher , 71 

„ Trumpeter 72 

,, Jacobine ..j 72 

„ Capuchine 73 

„ Nun ;,.„. 74 

„ Hislinet 74 

« Ruff 74 

„ I^innikin .- 75 

„ Turner 75 

„ Barb or Barbary i* 75 

„ Mahomet 76 

„ Turbit 77 

„ Owl 77 

„ Broad tailed Shakers or 

Fantail 78 

„ Narrow-tailed Shaker 78 

An alphabetical Explanation at 
the end of Work 81 

The Lace Pigeon 81 

„ Prill Back 81 

„ Smiter 81 

„ Chinese 81 

„ Porcelain 81 

„ Antwerp 83 

An Address, &c 85 

Almond Tumbler, by J. M. Eaton- 
John Bots, Esq.'s Observations 

and Reflections, 
The Testimonials of the Press 

on J. M, Eaton's Almond 

Tumbler. 

+ 

( 

^ 



W. A. Wright, Printer, 9 and 10, Fulwood^^ Rents, Holt)o?'n- 



., 



:s=;r*^rv^yV;^i? " -'■-. «*>>■■: j^:-y^/}r :>->., ■^-^^^.vi-^T^'Tvr 





A 



TREATISE 



ON THE ART OF BREEDING AND MANAGING 



-J 



AI.L THE KNOWN 







A 



DOMESTICATED, AND FANCY 

PIGEONS, 

CAREFULLY COMPILED FROM JHE BEST AUTHORS, 

CONTAININa THE WHOLE OF THE WORKS OE\ , TnTTT^T "RnVS 

JOim MOOKE, 1735, JOHN MAYOR, 1765, DANIEL GIRTIN, a^^d JOHN BOYS, 

Esquires' Notes ; with Observations and Reflections 

BY JOHN MATTHEWS EATON, 

AUTHOB OK " The ALMOND TUMBLER." -^ .^^=t« 

With 7 Elegantly executed Engraved Coloured Portraits, 

Wlin / '^if L^^^ Is XX.E. (BT DEAN WSTEN^^^^ 
TWO ALMOND TUMBLERS, BLACK MOTTLED, BED BALD-HE AJ)^ 
BEARD TUMBLERS, BLACK CARRIER, & BLUE PIED ENGLISH BOUiL^^^ 

And Containing aU tHat is necessary to l)e known of Tame. Domesticated and ^^J^y^^®^"*' 

T«B S»OItT»AITS, when Framed and Glazed, are much admirea, 

and are great Ornaments to any Room. 

Publislied by, and'to be OBTAINED of the Author ^^^ 
JOHN MATTHEWS EATON, 7, Islington Green, IuONPOn. 

FRICB 10s. (Post Free.) 

*• Money Orders to be made payable 86, Upper Street, Islington. 



! 

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CONTENTS. 



3 



9 



30 



/ PAGE 

Dedication to the Young and In- 
experienced Fancier, on Tame, 
Domesticated, and Eancy 

Pigeons •••• 

An Address, &c - 6 

Coiumbarian, or the Pigeon- 
house, by John Moobe 

Dedication ^^ 

The Preface J3 

Umpires — their duties ^^ 

Method of building a Loft 27 

Method of Matcliing and Pairing 

your Pigeons • • ^^ 

To know a Cock from aHen...... 
'The Generation of Pigeons 30 

Their Diet ..— • 34. 

The Salt Cat.. ^34 

Distemi)ers of Pigeons 35 

Their Usefulness..... 38 

Their Dung 39 

The Carrier 40 

Horseman 44 

Dragooii 49 

Dutch Cropper 50 

English Powter 50 

Parisian Powter 57 

Uploper..... -. 58 

Powting Horseman.. 58 

Tumbler. ». 62 

Almond Tumbler 64 

" See Almond Tumbler, by 

~ J. M. Eaton." 

The Black Mottled Tumbler 67 



pAaB 

The Beard Tumbler 63 

„ Blue do - ll 

Tumblers in general ••••• 68 

The Leghorn Runt 70 

Spanish Eunt 71 

Friesland Eunt 71 

71 

71 

72 



99 

» 

99 

» 

99 
» 



99 
99 

99 



99 
99 

» 
99 

J 

99 
99 
99 
99 



99 

99 

■1 



Yellow do. 

Red do. 

Kite do. 

Dun do. 

Bald-head 



do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do, 



..•••• 



*.« • • 



...... 



•t. ^ffi 



67 
67 

B7 
6S 



Spot ,. 

Laugher 

Trumpeter •......••.• 

Jacobine 72 

Capuchine 73 

Nun 74 

Helmet ?........ 74 

Euff -... 74 

Pinnikin .••• 75 

Turner 75 

Barb or Barbary 75 

Mahomet •• 76 

Turbit 77 

Owl -. 77 

Broad-tailedShakers orFantail 78 

„ Narrow-tailed Shaker 78 

An alphabetical Explanation at 

the end of Work 81 

The Lace Pigeon 81 

Prill Back 81 

Smiter ..... 81 

Chinese 81 

Porcelain t..^. ...... .^ 81 

„ Antwerp 83 

An Address, &c 85 

Almond Tumbler, by J. M. Eaton. 
John Bots, Esq.'s Observations 

and Reflections. 
The Testimonials of the Press on 
J.M.Eaton's AlmondTumbler.^ 

. Pomesticated^ 



99 

» 
99 
99 



Do. on Tame, 

and fancy Pigeons 



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TESTIMOHIAIiS OP THE PRESS. 



BELL'S LIFE, January 23rd, 1853. 
PIGEON FANCY— We have just received a Treatise on the Art of Breeding and 
Managing Tamf, Domesticated, and Fancy Pigeons, by Mr. John Matthews Eaton, 
of 7, Islington Green.^a gentleman who a short time back wrote a work upon the Almond 
Tumbler. ITie present is a work much wanted by the Fancy, and shall be noticed at 
lenrrth in our columns the first opportunity. At present we have only space to say that 
the Author is a Fancier and Breeder, and thoroughly master of his subject. 

MIDLAND SPORTING CHRONICLE, January 28th, 1853. 

X nnor.4TlSE OS THE ART OF BREEDING AND MANAGING ALL THE KNOWN FaNCY 

PiGiroNs — By John Matthew Eaton, 7, Islington Green, London. -In the present mania 
forimprovements,wefeelconvincedthattheresultQfthe Author's labours will be fully 
Appreciated ; and that the treatise before us will meet with a deserving encouragement, 
and be looked up to as a guide and an authority for amateur Fanciers. The manual is 
very entertaining and instructive throughout, copious m detail and the production of one 
who has evidently made a warm study of improving the breed of these beautiful birds. 
In addition to his own practical knowledge, he favours us with a careful compilation from 
the valuable works of the late John Moore (1735), Mayor (1765), D. Giriin and John 

^^^ respective methods of treatment an the 

The suWert could not have been better handled than it has been by Mr. 
Eaton, whose pages indeed, give "more minute, sound practical, and available instruction 
and advice, as to the means of procuring, propagating, preservmg,_and discriminating the 
merits" of the Fancy Pigeon than any writer we are acquainted with. Truly, his is the 
monograph on this subject. A well executed set of engravings, showing the Fancier what 
to " breed up to," accompanies the work. 



. Boys, Esq., with a commentary on their 
Columbarium. 



BELL'S LIFE, January 30th, 1853. 

A TREATrSE ON THE ART OF BREEDING AND MANAGING TaME, DOMESTICATED, AND 

Fancy Pigeons. By John Matthews Eaton.— Mr. Eaton is well and most favourably 
known to u^ as the Author of The Almond Tumbler, and as one of the most enthusiastic 
Pigeon Fanciers of the day. If the Greek poet Anacreon, or the Latin one— Catullus, 

lived in these degenerate davs, they would most assuredly write odes m his praise, for he 
could furnish them with better Carrier Pigeons to bear messages of love to their 
mistresses .tUap Athens or Rome ever produced. Mr. Eaton loves Pigeons with a smceie 
fervour that must render him a happy man, and his love for those beautiful birds has led 
him to study profoundly their natural history and habits. He knows how to treat them 
!n hcslth and in disease, to train them for all the usds they may be pat to, as from 
cleaving the air to be cleft themselves, poor things! for those pies so palatable to 
omnivorous man. As an instructor in the Art of breeding and rearing every species of 
Pigeon Mr. Eaton cannot be surpassed, and all his various knowledge he has scattered 
cleverly over the pages of the book under notice. Young and inexperienced Fanciers, 

buy it immediately. „ , ,„-„ 

MORNING HERALD, February 1st, 1853. 

A Treatise ON THB ART of Breeding and Managing Tame, Domesticated, and 
Fancy Pigeons. By J. M. Eaton. Published by the Author, Islington Green. It may 
truly be said that the author of this work thoroughly understands the subject on which he 
empldyed his pen. No point, however minute, has escaped his observation in the rearing, 
managing, and training of Pigeons of every kind and vaxiety. He is ^"^^^^''^^"upf wUh 
the science of which he is so experienced a professor, and his book may be consulted with 
conSnTe on 111 the matters delating to the Procanng, propagating preserving and 
discriminating the merits of the Pigeon tribe. All who are inclined to indulge in ths 
Fancy williind ample matter in this Volume to employ tlieir thoughts ^"J d ect the'r 
efforts. It is accompanied by six ^nely coloured plates, representing beautiful specimens 
of the different breeds of the Pouter, the Carrier, the Beard, the Bald-head, the Black ^ 
mottle, and the Alraond Pigeons. 



MORNING POST, February 9th, 1853. 





4 



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information on the breeding and management of these beaufiful birds, we cannot 
recommend a bettet^uide. ' He is, moreover, deeply read in the lit-^rature of the subject, 
and he has rendered good service to the art which he pr6fesses, oy Preserving in his 
present book a vety scarce kid Valuable Treatise, published in 1735. i^y- Mr. John Moore, 
under the title of " Columbarium, or the Pigeon-H6use," from wL>ich all subsequent 
writers have largely borrowed, and as it should seem not always with duO acknowledgment. 
This Treatise stands very high in the estimation of Mr. Eaton, and with Lna additions and 
annotations contains the fullest and most satisfactory information which evei.^the uninitiaiea 
ean require. Several other works have succeeded it ; and whatever is origlLV'il ana "seiui 
in them has also been embodied by our zealous friend in his notes ; so that i.n tnis dook 
the result of his own observation and experience is engrafted upon the stock of r^jorraation 
which his predecessors had accumulated ; SJid the student who comes to this weL^-suppiiea 

Itorehouse will assuredly not be sent empty away. Elegancies of^tyle are of httle QaoKieut 




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in such a book ; and we are not sure that Mr. Eaton would not have lost more than h@ 
could gain by submitting his manuscript to the revision of soine^ literary friend; more 
especially as the adoption of that course, with respect to his former work, appears to 
^ have deprived him, most unjustly in some quarters, of the credit of its authorship. We 
formerly bore testimony of the merits of his "Almond Tumbler;" and its insertion in 
the present volume, with the notes added by John Boys, Esq. Marj^ate, is convenient, 
and appears torrender the hook exhaustive of the subject. The Portrait of a very splendid 
specimen, belonging to the Author, adorns the Volume. 

SUNDAY TIMES. February 13, 1853. 
A Treatise on Breeding and JSIanaglng Pigeons, By J. M. Eaton. There seems to be 
an inherent love amongst English people for rearing and improving the breed of Pigeons, 
and several works have been written upon the treatment of Fancy Pigeons which have' 
been held in great repute by amateur Fanciers. Mr. Eaton, already favourably known 
to the world as the author of a Treatise on the Almond Tumbler, now brings forward a 
more comprehensive work on the art of breeding and managing common, domesticated, 
and fancy Pigeons. The work does not profess to be entirely original ; Mr. Moore's 
Columlariumy or the Pigeon Houscy published in 1735, being made the text of the present 
vfork, with copious notes compiled from the works of Mayor and Girtin, and many 
valuable comments from Mr, Eaton's own pen. The book, as far as we are competent to 
judge, appears to be a complete practical guide for the inexperienced Pigeon Fancier, an 
elaborate treatise by a man who has evidently devoted time, care, and attention to the 
subject upoii which he writes. Accompanying the work we have received some well- 
executed engravings, coloured after nature, of the much-admired " Almond Tumbler" 
and other rare and beautiful varieties of Fancy Pigeons 

MIDLAND SPORTING CHRONICLE, March 4th, 1853. 
A Treatise on the Art of Breeding and Managing Tame, Domesticated and Fancy. 
Pigeo7is, By John Matthews Eaton, 7, Islington Green, London. ■ A few weeks ago we 
noticed in terms of high and deserved commendation this valuable treatise, -which is 
peculiarly adapted to assist the inexperienced in the art. of Pigeon Fancying. To the 
work is prefixed a fine coloured engraving of the Almond Tumbler, for the successful 
breeding of which the author is so greatly distinguished; and among its contents will be 
found,' in addition to a full description of this beautiful bird,, copious accounts of the 
various species of domesticated Pigeons known in this country, and perspicuous directions 
for breeding them. The best methods, also, of treatment when these beautiful animals 
of the feathered race are labouring under any of the distempers to which they are occa- 
sionally subject, are here fully developed. The construction of a Columbarium, or the 
Pigeon-house, and observations on the usefulness of the Pigeon, both in food and physic 
form not the least important portions of this valuable acquisition to our works on Natural 
Plistory. It is difficult to select one page more than another, where so much valuable 
theoretical and practical information prevails throughout, to give the reader an adequate 
conception of its merits. We, therefore, take promiscuously from it a description of the 
Carrier Pigeon, which will afford him a fair specimen of the able and interesting manner 
in which the Author has treated his subject: — "The Columha Tabellaria^ or Carrier 
Pigeons, — [Too long for insertion in this Extract. Read p. 40 to 44.] In conclusion We 
may venture to pronounce this vade mecum^ which no Bird-fancier should be without as 
the very best of its kind extant. The same able and intelligent author has published a 
series of admirably executed engravings, coloured to the *' very life,'^ which forms a 
beautiful and instructive illustration of the subject which he has in the above book executed 
with such masterly skill. Tbey consist of portraits— 1. The Carrier. 2. A Pouter. 
3. A Bald Head. 4. A Black Mottle. 5, The Beard. 6. An Almond: of which the 
author possesses the best breed in the kingdom. This proves a valuable and beautiful 
appendage to the studio of the Ornithologist. 

THE FIELD, Mauch 5th, 1853. 
A Treatise on the Art of Breeding and Managing all the known Tame^ Domesticated 

and Fancij Pigeons, Published by, and to be obtained of, the Autho/ 
John Matthews Eaton, 7, Islington Green, London. 

Mr. Eaton has dedicated his Illustrated Work to the Young 'Fancier, and appears io 



as 



. have had an especial eye to givmg him the advantage ot all his own experience deriv 
from long observation and reflection. He points out the way of obtaining such birds .*« 
will lay a foundation, or improve a stud or strain of birds, and at the same gives the more 
experienced Fanciers (so often appointed Umpires), much wholesome advice. The 
Author appears somewhat nettled and galled at the few who attributed the authorship of 
his former work (*' The Almond Tumbler '') to other writers. It appears that Mr. Eaton 
has dived deeper into the subject of Fancy Pigeons than any other author: In his boolc 
he has at least rescued fi^om the rude hand of time the original work on Fancy Pigeons, 
from which almost all other writers have largely borrowed without acknowledgment (the 
late John Moore's " Columbarium ; or, the Pigeon House,'': 1735). He has taken this 
book as his text, and it appears to us that he has seriously weighed every remark he haa 
made before C9mmitting his volume to press 



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THE MINING. JOURNAL, IVUkch 5th, 1853 



This work, which forms the second published by 
« . X *: — rtrv^KT-aoincr Tiot onlv oniiiions and 



')f Breeding and Managing 

tlie author, is, as its title "^P^^!V^P^"ta„a persevering attention to the sub ect under 
advice, the result of many years constant aMP^rse ^^ Eaton, some sixteen 

notice, but forms a valuable «^q^^^\J" . '^.^„ Ji^,„ reviewed in our columns. In noticmg 

months since, and which was, "P."";^'^ f J^^^"" ' 'J^^t we are soaring aloft, while our 
the treatise at present und.r revi^^^^^^^ 

vocation is that in the depths or inm j^^^ ^ ^^U ^^y^ 

more especially our provmce ; but as ^^ J^^'^^^J^^^^^^^^ view of the 

we will needs indulge om- author and oui^^^^^^ minute details as to "the 

subject matter treated upon. ;;;^T"^Xr p^^^^^^ however, will doubtless be 

properties, of beak, wattle, and eye ^^ f ^^^'^^o^^^^^ pf V-the fancy," and which are 
?ead with interest and advantage by those who ^J^ lo^^J^ ^ .^ ,^^ ^^/l „f ^^e work is a 
of an instructive and amusing, nature we may ^bser^ve tha^ . ^^.^^^> » Columbarium, 

reprint of a treatise or paper published in J/S-^'^y J"^'^^^^^^ History of Tame Pigeons.*' 
or the Pigeon-house; being an ^«tr°duction to a Natoa^ 11 y .^ ^^^^^ ^^^ 
This would appear to be highly prized by ^ ,• Eatj)n who ^ur ni^ . ^^^ , 

on the facts^ut forth, ™f Y .^^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^JZ Sch w'e must nieds ref^ 
original, as told by the ^^f or m his own wa^^^^^^ „,t,3 ,p ^ed. 

work itself. Having travelled ^^^^3 .^'/''J^' "1 a space 88 pages, with an address, 
and a letter from the editor or <=o"^"i^!"*^^°'';?;^PJ'^^^^^ of the " Treatise on the 

dedication, and introductory '^^^^^'^J ', J^'J^f^I'^r -' reviewed in our columns of July 
Art of Breeding and Managing the Almondju^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^hich will 

26,1851, which closes the ^^ "«^^;. J^JT fan^^^^^ 

doubtless be attached to the P^^l^^^^t^^^Jy *^,^*Se^ to do the subject fkir justice, the 
|he question, were we to attempt any ^^f ^^f ^^^f^'^fienee of how much may be said on 
treatise should be perused throughout, f^ *^.^.,^'^^^Xance. It should- be observed that 
a subject which at first might appear ?f^° ^ f^.^^f^"'^^^^^^^ by elaborately coloured 

the volume, in addition to the plates i" y^^^u^ed, ^« ^'^g.^j^^^, 4e Black Mottle, and 
engravings of the Pouter," the Carrier the Beaid he Bald hea^ .^ themselves the full 
the' Almond Pigeon, which are executed ^J^^ ^^PfJ^"';^^^ ,,„ Recommend the work to the 
value of the treatise m question. J"/^^ ^ 'to others, in tlie various departments 
perusal of all interested m the ^tudy, a"d w'"^^^ ^ .^^ „ 

illustrative of natural history or scientific uses go thou a 

a great deal to tell, and he tells it m ^„^^'''''''^^^^Z^^ aid Fancy Pigeons, is to us 
the Art of Breeding and Managing 2 ameDomest^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ 

all unversed in the mysteries of ' fancv a ^^JY ^^ \,€^Ae^, a Treatise of a 
readers we doubt not very mstructive also. He leprin ^^^ 

Mr. Moore, called the Columbarian, or ^if ^^^^^^^^^ and contain a deal of 

"'^Z:^:' olZ:^:.^ 00^™^ gentleman, companion. 

v^wxAAUJu vj. October 20th, 1853. • . j • „n 

• wlfpn " 1 Picreon Fancier " was associated m all 

Time was, not many years smce when a P eon ^ Dog-stealers, and for no 



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the pariahs of Society — and their pursuits were deemed scarcely fit to be mentioned 
within avidience of /* ears polite." The Auricula and the Polyanthus became ** vulgar 
flowers " for they were pets of the Manchestexvand Spitalfields weavers ;. and the remnant 
of this' bad spirit lingers with those who talk of abandoning Pine-culture, now that thia 
fruit is become familiar to *^ common people.*' Such pride and exclusiveness would have 
a heaven for gentility, with a wide gulph between that and the heaven of the poor. 

Gladdened are we by the knowledge that these sentiments are gradually lessening^ 
both in intensity and .in the number of their disciples, and respect for the man, rather 
than a belief in the degradation %{ his pursuit, is now felt for him who shows a taste for 
the purer occupations of life. 

The cultivator of a Pansey in a court-yard of Whitechapel, and the breeder of Pigeons 
in Drury Lane, is now more often thought of as one who exhibits a praise-worthy frame 
of mind — and that the love of nature implanted in our first parents in their state of 
innocence being yet uneiFaced, he is raised in the scale of worthiness. It is ju^stly felt 
that he clings to all he can of the country — that though he cannot have a flower-border, 
he finds the best substitute within his reach in. a flower-pot upon his window-sill— 
though he cannot have a poultry-yard, he has all he can of its tenants, overwhich to be 
solicitous in the pigeon-hutches of his attic. The man in whom such tastes remain and 
triumph over all opposing difficulties, so far from being altogether bad, is one in whom 
much that is estimable prevails. We have too long watched and made notes among 
Cottage Gardeners not to have had this fully proved, and to rejoice in the knowledge 
that it may be admitted as a rule, that he who loves the coimtry loves virtue too. 

How strong the prejudice must have been against the pursuits of the masses was 
never so strongly demonstrated as in the prejudice against the breeding of Fancy 
Pigeons. The Dove, or Pigeon, is asssociated with all that is holy in Christianity, 
and with much that was held sacred in Mythology. Its very name in Hebrew, Jonu, 
is derived from a word signifying gentleness, and from the day it brought the olive-leaf 
to the ark, both the plant and its winged bearer have been esteemed emblematical of 
peace. Even the Brahmins tell of their deities assimiing the form of the Dove ; Mahomed 
had an attendant spirit in the same form ; and, in the same similitude has appeared the 
Divine Spirit. Yet, notwithstanding this sqcred association, notwithstanding the 
and beauty of the bird, its rearing and cultivation, until very recently, has 
anathematized as "alow pursuit." '; 

' Common sense is prevailing, and, consequently, prejudice is giving way ^even here, 
and we are.well pleased with the prospect of seeing the breeding of Pigeons improve by 
the side of poultry-keeping, " ISfor is this taste for Pigeons without the support of any one 
plea that can be urged in favour of rearing poultry. Beauty, gentleness, profit, are 
common^ to both, and, in antiquity, the Dove-cote might claim precedence of the Fowl- 
house. We might, without much difficulty, trace the rearing of Pigeons back to the 
remotest ages, and evidence. is abundant, we think, to show that so far from our various 
breeds of Pigeons all owing their original parentage to the Stock Dove, that every region 
had its particular variety, On.the present occasion, let us rest contented with the pigeon-^ 
keeping of the Romans. If we turn to the pages of the agricultural writers of that great 
nation, we find that their knowledge on this subject was ample and accurate. The directions 
given for the erection of the Dove-houses, for feeding, for cleanliness, and other minute 

are such..Qs might be repeated in the pages of a modern author, and 

There is one fact to which we will bear testimony, and 
have found noticed in 




s 

been 



particulars 

accepted as sound instruction. 

which we do not remember to have found noticed in any : modern author. ** The 

whole Dove-cote, says Columella, ought to be polished with w^Ai/e plaister, for these 

birds are especially pleased with that colour." _ . . 

These conquerors of the world were acquainted with several varieties. We find 
^noticed ''the Romaii,' ' tind Columella says, *' let not such as are of different kinds be 
loined together, as the Alexandrian and the Campania^"* That they had the Carrier 
Variety, we have this testimony of Pliny. "Pigeons have oeeh 'employed as inter- 
messengers updn affairs pf great urgency. Letters were sent annexed to their feet, to 
-tlie canip of the consul, by Decimus Brutus, whilst beseiged in Modena. Of what 
avail were the trench and watchful sentinels of Antonius, when the messenger traversed 






■the sky!" '* Many men, adds Pliny, have each a love for these birds, that they build 
towers for them upon the roofs of their houses-, and have pedigrees showing the purity 
and descent of e^ch. Even the ancients,^ as exemplified in Lucius Axiup, a Roman of 
the Equestrian Order, before the Pompeian civil war, sold every pair of his pigeons 
{denariis quadringentis) iox $12. 193., as Marcus Varro has recprded. It i^ certain that 
some countries are very celebrated for^the excellence of their breed, those in Campania 
are considered the largest to be produced." ^lor^did the mania decrease, for Columella 

I am ashamed of my own age, if we believe that some purchaser^ are to be found 
v/ho have paid four thousand nummi (£32) for a pair of birds/' What would the old 
Romans have written, if he had been at Stevens's auction, and, seen £40 giv^n for one ! 
It is true that this one wag a Shanghae cock, but for a century much larger prices, if we 



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estimate the comparative weights, have been given for Fancy Pigeons in this country. 

Thus we have before us the account of a sale of nmeteen pairs of " Powter Pigeons, on 
the 30th of December, 1761, in Beach Lane, London. They fetched £92. 9s. 6d., and 
one pair was knocked down for sixteen guineas. Two pairs were afterwards re-sold for 
thirty-six guineas. An account of the sale is in Mr. Eaton's work, which we shall notice 
presently. It was in the first half of the last century, that the cultivation of the Pigeon 
was most general in England, and during that period appeared the first works upon the 
subject that are to be found in our literature. The earliest of these publications was 
The Columbarium, by John Moore. This appeared in 1735, being followed, m 1765, 
by an annonymous Treatise on Domestic Pigeons ; by Daniel Girting Complete Ptgeon 
Fancier, without date. There appeared, in 1802-4, A Treatise on the Almond Tnmbler, 
by an un-named author, but who was a Mr. Windus, a London attorney, and now we 
have before us the whole combined in one volume, with a large amount of original notes, 
by John Matthews Eaton. His Treatise on the Art of breeding and managing the Almond 
Tumbler was published in 1851, and again, with the annotated work, in the present year, 

under the title of A Treatise on Pigeons. _ , . , • 

' It is the best and fullest work which has yet appeared upon the subject, and with it 
are given a portfolio of portraits, beautifully drawn and coloured, the size of life, of the 
Almond Tumbler, Bald Head, Beard, Black Mottle, Carrier, and Pouter. ^ ^ 

We consider it the best work that has hitherto appeared relative to Pigeons, because it 
is the accumulated experience of practical men arranged by one enthusiastically fond of 
the birds concerning which he writes. This enthusiasm carries him beyond the bounds 
of sober judgment occasionally, but no reader will consider this unpardonable, eyen 
although he goes the length of admiring an '' Almond Tumbler," as the most beautilul 



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a freshness and raciness 



of God's creatures, with the exception of woman ! 

Mr. Eaton is not a practised writer, and, therefore, there 
about his rambling that disarms criticism, and commands forgiveness, though, he mingles 
Nelson, Peel, and Wellington, with Pouters, Croppers, and Tumblers> and hesitates not 
a moment to wander from the Dovecot^' to Wellington's Funeral, the Crystal Palace, and 
even his father's day of nativity ! He is, in truth, the most vagrant of scribes— but there 
is a carelessness of rules, and an earnestness of purpose, that defies and disarms censure. 
It is rendered a very readable book by its imperfections, and we should be sorry to have 
it pruned into regularity. The general detail of management, and more fespeciaily, 
perhaps, the mysteries of " cross-matching;' and the selection of breeding-stock, with a 
view to the result desired in the progeny, are ably explained, with a liberality that is not 
always manifested by those individuals to whom the designation ofjaneier more 
properly belongs. The author, indeed, expresses apprehension that his endeavours to aid 
the novice in pigeon-breeding may be considered as an infringement Sf the brotherhood, 
but the higher, on this very ground; should be the award of merit and approbation. The 
feelin£v referred to existed among those to whom other birds, besides Pigeons, were an 
object 6f interest ; and thus, had a Bantam fancier, some thirty years since, produced 
such a volume explanatory of his favorite's pedigree and management, less uncertainty 
would now prevail, though the author's subsequent position among "the gentlemen ot 
the fancy " would probably have been far from enviable. - 

One great merit for which Mr. Eaton's book deserves a position on the shelves of every 
pigeon-keeper arises from its value as a record for upwards of 100 years of the various 
standards and points of excellence in the different varieties. It is so far from being the 
ex joar^e statement of the views and prejudices of ^n individual, that authorities, pa^t 
and present, pro and con, are fairly placed in review before the reader, to whom 
Mr Eaton then explains the reasons on which his own judgment would be grounded. 

If we express a wish for any curtailment of the length to which the treatise has been 
prolonged, it proceeds from our belief that the more material portions of his work would 
thus have been more readilf reached, and presented in a clearer form to the eye. 
Grammatical accuracy would have avoided many confused passages, and there are ?ome 
few allusions to sacred names and subjects that are not introduced with the respect and 

" Should another edition be called for, such alterations 



Essentially a 



reverence we should have desired. 

and corrections would render the book still more generally popular. 

practical work, it ckhnot fail, if properly employed, of answering the expectations of 

those who may purchase it, either with a view to mere rudimentary knowledge, or the 

acquisition of some bf those dearly- cherished and scrupulously-guarded secrets of the 

*' fancy " that are here boldly revealed for publip information. 

Enough has been said to shew our estimate' of the value of Mr. Eaton's production,^ 
so let us now pass a step onwards, and regard the pigeon-fancier generally, with respect 
to the present system of exhibiting their birds at our Poultry Shows. ~ 

Horror and dismay, we imagine, would be manifestly pourtrayed on the countenances 
of many a member of the Columbarian, or similar Societies, were it proposed to place 
their cherished Carriers, Pouters, or Tumblers, under Jhe same rules and principles of 
competition as the Birmingham, Metropolitan, and other leading Associations ol the 



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same description would require. Our remarks, hitherto tolerated, may here, perchance, 
be so utterly repugnant to long-cherished opinions that brook no contradiction, that 
the columns of our brother contributors may share the flames to which our own rashness 
may have exposed this present production. But we have a firm conviction that much 
was erroneous in the arbitrary standard of the pigeon-fancier of the present and former 
days, that may be rectified by the better principle of recent arrangements. 

Let us take the case of the Carrier, for instance : in this, as in every other bird, or 
quadruped, of which we propose to ourselves the production in the most perfect form, 
we consider how far figure, and the other conditions of its existence, may be best adapted 
to the special object that we have in view. With the Carrier,^ the power of traversing 
great distances in the shortest space of time would, unquestionably, be the point we 
should all aim at ; and the person, therefore, who is selected to arbitrate on the merits 
of competing birds, should scan their capabilities with particular reference to this one 
point; ^'feather,'' might turn the scale, if equality existed in the more material features. 
Now let us turn to Mr. Eaton as a faithful opponent of the standard, according to which 
judgment would now be pronounced by a member of a Society specially constituted for 
the Pigeon fancy. At page 40, we find that, according to Mr. Moore, "a Carrier is 
generally reckoned to have twelve prcq)erties, namely :— Three in the beak ; three in the 
wattle * three in the head ; three in the eye. Here it is evident that the points of merit 
are wholly limited to a very "small portion only of the bird, the head; and we are, con- 
sequently, prepared to learn that more recent authorities have extended the area over 
which judgment should be given, while they limit the points, or properties, to five,f 
namely, the beak, the wattle, the head, the eye, and lastly, the length and thinness o 
neck, and the length of body. But eVen here ** feather" is excluded from the formal 
enumeration of what will be considered as points of merit, contrary, as we think, to the 
prihciples on which "a bird of any kind, designed for other purposes than those of the 
tableshouldbe judged of, If it be said that this matters not with the Carrier, because 
its capabilities of accomplishing extended flight are the main object we have in view, 
and therefore that, like a good horse, a Carrier cannot be of a bad colour, we are 
perfectly ready to assent to the assertion. But other features, be it remembered, beyond 
those that would conduce to great powers of flight, are arbitrarily brought into the cal- 
culation, some, indeed, that might well be thought likely to defeat that very object; why, 
therefore, should we not gratify our eye by having a bird of handsome plumage, a^ well 
one with the wattle, or the orbit, of unnatural size. With respect to the wattle, indeed, 
we might say, so far as it is truly a characteristic of the Carrier, let us see to its due 
preservation ; but why breed for such a bloated amplification of this feature, as must 
tend to obstruct the very object for which the bird itself is valued. We might just as 
well design the lines for a vessel with a view to extreme speed, and then suspend over 
her finely-drawn bows a couple of hogsheads to deaden her way through the water. The 
extended beak, the long, narrow, and flat head, the thin neck, the muscular formation 
of the chest, and the well-developed wing, are all in character ; but all, at the same 
time, directly append to the disproportionate size of the bloated excrescense of the 

wattle, now so greatly coveted. ,..,". , „ „, 

With the " Tumbler," again, extraordinary agility m the air, the tacihty with which 
what in the circus is termed the *' back spring,'" is performed by them, is the property 
that would have first brought the birds possessing it into favour, and which should ever 
since have been borne in view by their subsequent admirers. But we learn from Mr. 
Eaton (page 22, Almond Tumbler), it is not desirable to allow them their liberty, "since 
they are extremely weak and timid, and the least blast of wind would blow them down 
the chimneys, or one bird playing against another would have the same effect." Nor are 
we more likely to cultivate the variety from being told that the property oi ^* shortness 
of face,'' including the most diminutive form to which the bill can possibly be reduced^ 
is carried to that extent that the young birds frequently dies in the shell from the stunted 
proportions of this member being unable to chip- through its case ; and, even supposing 
it succeeds in this, that the same unnatural reduction of the parent's will prevent their 
feeding their young, who must, therefore, be either transferred to other Pigeons who 
have not thus suffered from the freaks of fancy, or else starve. 

One more instance, and we have done. The epitome of excellence in a '^Pouter'' 
is made to consist of a huge globular swelling of the throat, slenderness of girt, and 
length of legs. We are certainly at a loss to conceive how any combination of those 
" properties " can be made subservient to the graceful appearance of any variety of birds 
that, like the Pigeon, possesses such natural elegance of form, and is in every respect, so 
calculated for its habits of existence. ^ \ 

If we are here met with a declaration that the " Gentlemen of the Fancy " have a 
right to select such standards of excellence as custom has bequeathed to them, and 
have, too, endowed with special beauty in their own eyes, all we have to reply amounts 
to this, that they have a perfect right to gratify their "fancy," only we are unwilling to 
recognise that word as synonymous with beauty of appearance, or hamony with the 

unvarying combination of beauty and aptitude for their several conditions which dis* 
tinguishes every work of nature, 



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Such abnormal productions as we have here alluded to may have many parallel instances 
in other animals: among them the unfortunate "Creepers and Jumpers," among the 
Bentams of former days ; and the toy terrier of our own, but in the latter instance, we 
may still retain symmetry, although utility is lost. In the vegetable world, the labour 
of a life is thought by the Chinaman to be well recompensed by the stunted proportions of 
an orange-tree, or myrtle, or the diminutive club feet of his wife and daughters. 

Fashion will probably long continue to exert influence in encouraging similar eccentric 
results ; but if there are still found those who reject the just proportions of the natural 
form in favour of such deformities, let; them, he satisfie4 with their success m having so 
far distorted the usual laws by which both the animal and vegetable kingdoms are 
governed, ^without desiring the acquiescence of others to their own theory of beauty, based 
on eccentricity, and contradiction to the requirements, as well as the natural condition, 



of the subject they choose to operate on 



complained of, may be mentioned the treatment of the beautiful " Archangel " Pigeon, 

recently introduced into this country. The " Pigeon-fancy " look with disfavour on this 

bird • ^rid the question is asked. What are we to do with it ! Is there any hope of 

breeding it up to the beak and wattle of the Carrier, or down to the beak and bullet-head 

of the Tumbler! To neither, if our entreaties may be heard; for rarely have colours 

been so well spotted, or figure and proportions sThappily adapted, as in this singularly 

striking addition to our list of Pigeons. "Let weh alone," is a good old motto: and 

we shall be well content to find to see Pouters overbalancing themselves on the house-tops ; 

Carriers too precious to leave their owner's loft ; , and Tumblers without the power of 

using their wings ; if the Archangel and others of the genus be left to^us in the state m 

■ which we are now so fortunate as to possess them, and towards which perfection the 

. breeders art, we imagine, done but little. To those whose patience has carried them 

through these remarks our meaning will be plain ; it may, mdeed, be thus briefly summed 

up, that the principle on which Pigeons are now being shown at our general Poultry 

.Exhibitions is more likely to lead to their production in a better form, both as regards 

Vt beauty of appearance, and agreement with the properties and characteristics of the difterent 

' ' varieties, than where, as now and in former days, regard was exclusively given to certain 

exaggerated forms of their particular parts and members. _ . 

Nothing, however, is further from our intention or wish than any depreciation ot the 
merits of Mr. Eaton's work : he is a faithful exponent of the views of those whom he 

. designates as " the Fancy," and the guarantee of long experience will render his treatise 
valSle to many who, 'like ourselves, are fond of his favourite birds, ^vithout being 
biassed by a standard which we conceive to be rather at variance with the power and 
properties on which excellence should be established. 



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