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Full text of "Egyptian Language"

WALLIS 
BUDGE 




RKP 




EGYPTIAN 
LANGUAGE 

Easy Lessons in Egyptian Hieroglyphics 
SIR E. A. WALLIS BUDGE 




The ancient Egyptians expressed their ideas in writing by 
means of a large number of picture signs, known as Hiero- 
glyphics. They began to use them for this purpose more than 
seven thousand years ago, and they were employed uninter- 
ruptedly until about ioo bc, that is to say, until nearly the end 
of the rule of the Ptolemies over Egypt. It is hardly probable 
that the hieroglyphic system of writing was invented in 
Egypt, and evidence indicates that it was brought there by 
certain invaders who came from north-east or central Asia; 
they settled down in the valley of the Nile, somewhere 
between Memphis on the north and Thebes on the south, 
and gradually established their civilization and religion in 
their new home. Little by little the writing spread to the 
north and to the south, until at length hieroglyphics were 
employed, for state purposes at least, from the coast of the 
Mediterranean to the most southern portion of the Island 
of Meroe, a tract of country over 2,000 miles long. 

This book is intended to form an easy introduction to 
the study of the Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions, and was 
prepared in answer to many requests made both in Egypt 
and in England. 



r 




SOME RELATED BOOKS 

EGYPTIAN MAGIC 
E. A. Wallis Budge 

EGYPTIAN RELIGION 
Egyptian Ideas of the Future Life 
E. A. Wallis Budge 

THE BOOK OF THE DEAD 

An English Translation of the Chapters, Hymns, etc., 

of the Theban Recension 

With an Introduction and Notes 

E. A. Wallis Budge 

THE NILE AND EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION 

Alexandre Moret 

History of Civilization Series 



ROUTLEDGE & KEGAN PAUL 

ISBN 07100 1 129 6 
Printed in Great Britain 



A 



EGYPTIAN LANGUAGE 



By the same author 

THE BOOK OF THE DEAD 

An English Translation of the Chapters, 

Hymns, etc., of the Theban Recension, 

with an Introduction and Notes 

Illustrated with twenty plates, <fver four 

hundred line reproductions, and a 

seven-colour facsimile from 

the Papyrus of Ani 



EGYPTIAN LANGUAGE 

EASY LESSONS IN EGYPTIAN 
HIEROGLYPHICS 

WITH SIGN LIST 

BY 

SIR E, A. WALLIS BUDGE 

M.A., LITT.D,, D.LIT. 

LATE KEEPER OF THE EGYPTIAN AND ASSYRIAN ANTIQUITIES 
IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 



London : Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd 
new york: Dover Publications Inc 



Published in Great Britain by 

Routledge & Kegan Paul Limited 

Broadway House, 68-74 Carter Lane 

London EC 4V jEL 

and in the U.S.A. by 

Dover Publications Inc. 

180 Varick Street 

New York, 10014 

Eleventh Impression igyi 
Twelfth Impression 1973 

No part of this book may be reproduced in any form 

without permission from the publisher, except for 

the quotation of brief passages in criticism 

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 66-21262 

ISBN o 7100 1 1 29 6 (Great Britain) 
ISBN 0-486-21394-3 (United States of America) 



Printed in Great Britain by 

Redwood Press Limited 

Trowbridge, Wiltshire 



Co 

HENRY EDWARD JULER, ESQUIRE, F.R.C.8 

KTC, ETC., ETC. 

TO WHOSE SKILL AND KINDNESS 
MY EYESIGHT OWES SO MUCH. 



PREFACE. 



This little book is intended to form an easy intro- 
duction to the study of the Egyptian hieroglyphic in- 
scriptions, and has been prepared in answer to many 
requests made both in Egypt and in England. It con- 
tains a short account of the decipherment of Egyptian 
hieroglyphics, and a sketch of the hieroglyphic system 
of writing and of the general principles which underlie 
the use of picture signs to express thought. The main 
facts of Egyptian grammar are given in a series of 
short chapters, and these are illustrated by numerous 
brief extracts from hieroglyphic texts ; each extract is 
printed in hieroglyphic type and is accompanied by 
a transliteration and translation. Following the exam- 
ple of the early Egyptologists it has been thought 
better to multiply extracts from texts rather than to 
heap up a large number of grammatical details without 
supplying the beginner with the means of examining 
their application. In the limits of the following pages 



VIII PREFACE. 

it would be impossible to treat Egyptian grammar at 
any length, while the discussion of details would be 
quite out of place. The chief object has been to make 
the beginner familiar with the most common signs and 
words, so that he may, whilst puzzling out the ex- 
tracts from texts quoted in illustration of grammatical 
facts, be able to attack the longer connected texts 
given in my "First Steps in Egyptian" and in my 
"Egyptian Reading Book". 

Included in this book is a lengthy list of hierogly- 
phic characters with their values both as phonetics 
and ideograms. Some of the characters have not yet 
been satisfactorily identified and the correctness of 
the positions of these is, in consequence, doubtful ; 
but it has been thought best to follow both the classi- 
fication, even when wrong, and the numbering of 
the characters which are found in the list of "Hiero- 
glyphen" printed by Herr Adolf Holzhausen of Vienna. 



E. A. WALLIS BUDGE. 



British Museum, 

February 14th, 1910. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER PAGE 

I. Hieroglyphic Whiting ... ... ... 1 

II. The Rosetta Stone and the Decipherment op hiero- 
glyphics ... ... ... ... 13 

III. Hieroglyphics as Ideographs, Phonetics and Deter- 
minatives ... ... ... ... ... 28 

IV. A Selection of hieroglyphic characters with their 
phonetic values, etc. ... ... ... 43 

V. Pronouns and pronominal suffixes ... ... 95 

VI. Nouns ... ... ... ... ... 105 

VII. The Article ... ... ... ... ... \\2 

VIII. Adjectives, Numerals, Time, the Year, etc. ... 123 
IX. The Verb ... ... ... ... ... 141 

X. Adverbs, Prepositions (simple and -compound), etc. 155 

XI. Conjunctions and Particles ... ... 192 

XII. Extracts for Header ... ... 212 — 246 

1. Inscription of Pepi i ... ... ... 212 

2. General Stele of Panehesi ... ... 215 

8. Inscription of Ankijni ... ... ... 223 

4. Text from the cxxvth Chapter of the Book 

of the Dead ,,, ... ... 226 



CHAPTER L 



HIEROGLYPHIC WRITING. 



Thb ancient Egyptians expressed their ideas in 
writing by means of a large number of picture signs 
which are commonly called Hieroglyphics. They 
began to use them for this purpose more than seven 
thousand years ago, and they were employed unin- 
terruptedly until about B. C. 100, that is to say, until 
nearly the end of the rule of the Ptolemies over Egypt. 
It is hardly probable that the hieroglyphic system of 
writing was invented in Egypt, and the evidence on 
this point now accumulating indicates that it was 
brought there by certain invaders who came from 
north-east or central Asia ; they settled down in the 
valley of the Nile at some place between Memphis on 
the north and Thebes on the south, and gradually 
established their civilization and religion in their new 
home. Little by little the writing spread to the north 
and to the south, until at length hieroglyphics were 
employed, for state purposes at least, from the coast 



2 HIEROGLYPHIC WRITING. 

of the Mediterranean to the most southern portion of 
the Island of Meroe, that is to say, over a tract of 
country more than 2000 miles long. A remarkable 
peculiarity of Egyptian hieroglyphics is the slight mo- 
dification of form which they suffered during a period 
of thousands of years, a fact due, no doubt, partly to 
the material upon which the Egyptians inscribed them, 
and partly to a conservatism begotten of religious con- 
victions. The Babylonian and Chinese picture charac- 
ters became modified at so early a period that, some 
thousands of years before Christ, their original forms 
were lost. This reference to the modified forms of 
hieroglyphics brings us at once to the mention of the 
various ways in which they were written in Egypt, 
i. e. f to the three different kinds of Egyptian writing. 
The oldest form of writing is the hieroglyphic, in 
which the various objects, animate and inanimate, for 
which the characters stand are depicted as accurately 
as possible. The following titles of one Ptah-hetep, 
who lived at the period of the rule of the IVth dynasty 
will explain this ; by the side of each hieroglyphic is 
its description. 

I. 1 <=> a mouth 

2. §1 a door made of planks of wood fastened 
together by three cross-pieces 

3. « — d the fore-arm and hand 

1 The brackets shew the letters which, when taken together, 
form words. 



HIEROGLYPHIC WRITING. S 

4. 3) a lion's head and one fore paw stretched 

out 

5. **— n see No. 3 



(10. I a 
ill. ^ a 



6. tj-p doorway surmounted by cornice of small 
serpents 

?• "Jr3^ a jackal 

8. /?^U a kind of water fowl 

9. 1\ an owl 



growing plant 
cake 



12. Hra a reed to which is tied a scribe's writing 

tablet or palette, having two hollows in it 
for red and black ink 

13. ^\ see No. 9 

14. <=> see No. 1 

15. |_J the breast of a man with the two arms 

stretched out 

16. o see No. 11 

17. Ma a seated man holding a basket upon his 

head. 



4 PICTUK&SIGNS. 

In the above examples of picture signs the objects 
which they represent are tolerably evident, but a 
large number of hieroglyphics do not so easily lend 
themselves to identification. Hieroglyphics were cut 
in stone, wood, and other materials with marvellous 
accuracy, at depths varying from 1 / 16 of an inch to 
1 inch ; the details of the objects represented were 
given either by cutting or by painting in colours. 
In the earliest times the mason must have found it 
easier to cut characters into the stone than to sculpture 
them in relief; but it is probable that the idea of 
preserving carefully what had been inscribed also 
entered his mind, for frequently when the surface 
outline of a v character has been destroyed sufficient 
traces remain in the incuse portion of it for purposes 
of identification. Speaking generally, celestial objects 
are coloured blue, as also are metal vessels and 
instruments ; animals, birds, and reptiles are painted 
as far as possible to represent their natural colours ; 
the Egyptian man is painted red, and the woman 
yellow or a pinky-brown colour ; and so on. But 
though in some cases the artist endeavoured to make 
each picture sign an exact representation of the 
original object in respect of shape or form and colour, 
with the result that the simplest inscription became 
a splendid piece of ornamentation in which the most 
vivid colours blended harmoniously, in the majority 
of painted texts which have been preserved to us 
the artists have not been consistent in the colouring 



PICTUEESIGNS 5 

of their signs. Frequently the same tints of a colour 
are not used for the same picture, an entirely dif- 
ferent colour being often employed ; and it is* hard 
not to think that the artist or scribe, having come to 
the end of the paint which should have been employed 
for one class of hieroglyphics, frequently made use 
of that which should have been reserved for another. 
It has been said that many of the objects which are 
represented by picture signs may be identified by 
means of the colours with which they are painted, 
and this is, no doubt, partly true; but the inconsistency 
of the Egyptian artist often does away entirely with 
the value of the colour as a means of identification. 
Picture signs or hieroglyphics were employed for 
religious and state purposes from the earliest to the 
latest times, and it is astonishing to contemplate the 
labour which must have been expended by the 
mason in cutting an inscription of any great length, 
if every character was well and truly made. Side 
by side with cutters in stone carvers in wood must 
have existed, and for a proof of the skill which the 
latter class of handicraftsmen possessed at a time 
which must be well nigh pre-dynastic, the reader is 
referred to the beautiful panels in the Gizeh Museum 
which have been published by Mariette. 1 The hiero- 
glyphics and figures of the deceased are in relief, 
and are most delicately and beautifully executed ; 

1 See Lea Mattaba de VAncien Empire. Paris, 1882, p. 74 ff. 



6 THE PAPYRUS PLANT. 

but the unusual grouping of the characters proves that 
they belong to a period when as yet dividing lines for 
facilitating the reading of the texts had not been in- 
troduced. These panels cannot belong to a period 
later than the Illrd, and they are probably earlier than 
the 1st dynasty. Inscriptions in stone and wood were 
cut with copper or bronze and iron chisels. But the 
Egyptians must have had need to employ their hiero- 
glyphics for other purposes than inscriptions which 
were intended to remain in one place, and the official 
documents of state, not to mention the correspondence 
of the people, cannot have been written upon stone or 
wood. At a very early date the papyrus plant 1 was 
made into a sort of paper upon which were written 
drafts of texts which the mason had to cut in stone, 
official documents, letters, etc. The stalk of this plant, 
which grew to the height of twelve or fifteen feet, was 
triangular, and was about six inches in diameter in its 
thickest part. The outer rind was removed from it, 
and the stalk was divided into layers with a flat needle ; 
these layers were laid upon a board, side by side, and 
upon these another series of layers was laid in a 
horizontal direction, and a thin solution of gum was 
then run between them, after which both series of 
layers were pressed and dried. The number of such 
sheets joined together depended upon the length of the 
roll required. The papyrus rolls which have come 

1 tlyblus hieraticus, or Cyperus papyrut. 



HIERATIC WRITING. 7 

down to us vary greatly in length and width ; the finest 
Theban papyri are about seventeen inches wide, and 
the longest roll yet discovered is the great Papyrus 
of Rameses III, 1 which measures one hundred and 
thirty-five feet in length. On such rolls of papyrus the 
Egyptians wrote with a reed, about ten inches long 
and one eighth of an inch in diameter, the end of 
which was bruised to make the fibres flexible, and 
not cut ; the ink was made of vegetable substances, or 
of coloured earths mixed with gum and water. 

Now it is evident that the hieroglyphics traced in 
outline upon papyrus with a comparatively blunt reed 
can never have had the clearness and sharp outlines 
of those cut with metal chisels in a hard substance ; 
it is also evident that the increased speed at which 
government orders and letters would have to be written 
would cause the scribe, unconsciously at first, to ab- 
breviate and modify the picture signs, until at length 
only the most salient characteristics of each remained. 
And this is exactly what happened. Little by little the 
hieroglyphics lost much of their pictorial character, and 
degenerated into a series of signs which went to form 
the cursive writing called Hieratic. It was used ex- 
tensively by the priests in copying literary works in 
all periods, and though it occupied originally a sub- 
ordinate position in respect of hieroglyphics, especially 
as regards religious texts, it at length became equal in 

* Harris Papyrus, No. 1. British Museum, No. 9999. 



8 HIEROGLYPHIC AND HIERATIC WRITING COMPARED. 



importance to hieroglyphic writing. The following 
example of hieratic writing is taken from the Prisse 
Papyrus upon which at a period about B. C. 2600 two 
texts, containing moral precepts which were composed 
about one thousand years earlier, were written. 

// 12 ^tu t* i9 




17 ^8 SO 21 22 » ** 25 2S^ «/ 



Now if we transcribe these 
obtain the following : — 

1. (1 a reed 
<==> a mouth 
gat a hare 
aa/vw\ the wavy surface 

of water 
<wwv\ see No. 4 
^z^* a kind of vessel 

an owl 

a bolt of a door 

a seated figure 

of a man 

a stroke written 

to make the word 

symmetrical 



2. 
3. 

4. 

5. 
6. 

7. 
8. 

9. 
10. 



11. 

12. 
13. 
14. 

15. 
16. 

17. 

18. 
19. 
20. 

21. 



into hieroglyphics we 

(1 see No. 1 

A a knee bone (?) 
=> see No. 2. 
-^-. a roll of papyrus 
tied up 



an eye 
see No. 6 

a goose 

see No. 9 
see No. 4 



1 a chair back 
_ J* 7 a sickle 



DEMOTIC WRITING. 9 

22. ^bv an eagle 25. f*h see No. 14 

23. ^k see No. 7 26. 1 an axe 

24. A a tree 27. | see No. 10. 

On comparing the above hieroglyphics with their 
hieratic equivalents it will be seen that only long prac- 
tice would enable the reader to identify quickly the 
abbreviated characters which he had before him ; the 
above specimen of hieratic is, however, well written 
and is relatively easy to read. In the later times, i. e., 
about B. C. 900, the scribes invented a series of purely 
arbitrary or conventional modifications of the hieratic 
characters and so a new style of writing, called 
Enchorial or Demotic, came into use ; it was used 
chiefly for business or social purposes at first, but at 
length copies of the "Book of $ie Dead" and lengthy 
literary compositions were written in it. In the Pto- 
lemaic period Demotic was considered to be of such 
importance that whenever the text of a royal decree 
was inscribed upon a stele which was to be set up in 
some public place and was intended to be read by 
the public in general, a version of the said decree, 
written in the Demotic character, was added. Famous 
examples of stelae inscribed in hieroglyphic, demotic, 
and Greek, are the Canopus Stone, set up at Canopus 
in the reign of Ptolemy III. Euergetes I. in the ninth 
year of his reign (B. C. 247—222), and the Rosetta 



10 METHODS OF WRITING HIEROGLYPHICS. 

Stone set up at Rosetta, in the eighth year of the reign 
of Ptolemy V. Epiphanes (B. C. 205—182). 

In all works on ancient Egyptian grammar the 
reader will find frequent reference to Coptic. The 
Coptic language is a dialect of Egyptian of which four 
or five varieties are known ; its name is derived from 
the name of the old Egyptian city Qebt, through the 
Arabic Quit, which in its turn was intended to re- 
present the Gr. AifiJTrcoq. The dialect dates from the 
second century of our era, and the literature written 
in it is chiefly Christian. Curiously enough Coptic is 
written with the letters of the Greek alphabet, to 
which were added six characters, derived from the 
Demotic forms of ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics, to 
express sounds which were peculiar to the Egyptian 
language. 

Hieroglyphic characters may be written in columns 
or in horizontal lines, which are sometimes to be read 
from left to right and sometimes from right to left. 
There was no fixed rule about the direction in which 
the characters should be written, and as we find that 
in inscriptions which are cut on the sides of a door they 
usually face inwards, i. e., towards the door, each 
group thus facing the other, the scribe and sculptor 
needed only to follow their own ideas in the arrange- 
ment and direction of the characters, or the dictates 
of symmetry. To ascertain the direction in which an 
inscription is to be read we must observe in which 
way the men, and birds, and animals face, and then 



METHODS OF WRITING HIEROGLYPHICS. 



11 



read towards them. The two following examples will 
illustrate this : — 









2. &> 

AAAAAA 

"imnnr 



AAAAAA 



11 



1^ 



I I I 

AAAAAA 









i _ _ 

*1 



AAAAAA 
Q \\ 

AAAAAA 



AAAAAA 

A 

II) 

n <* 



Now on looking at these passages we notice that the 
men, the chicken, the owls, the hawk, and the hares 
all face to the left ; to read these we must read from 
left to right, i. e., toioards them. The second extract 
has been set up by the compositor with the characters 



12 



METHODS OF WRITING HIEROGLYPHICS. 



facing in the opposite direction, so that to read these 
now we must read from right to left (No. 3). 



I ® 



I © 



AA/WNA 

ill 

^ r 

A/WWA 









A\ 



AAAAAA 

I I I 

/WWW 

\\ 



A/VSAAA 

\\ <=> 

a/ww\Q 



PP 



AA/WW 
lllllllll 



Sf 



1 



AAAAAA 



1 



Hieratic is usually written in horizontal lines which 
are to he read from right to left, but in some papyri 
dating from the Xllth dynasty the texts are arranged 
in short columns. 

Before we pass to the consideration of the Egyptian 
Alphabet, syllabic signs, etc., it will be necessary to 
set forth briefly the means by which the power to read 
these was recovered, and to sketch the history of the 
decipherment of Egyptian hieroglyphics in connection 
with the Eosetta Stone. 



CHAPTER II 

THE ROSETTA STONE AND THE DECIPHERMENT OF 
HIEROGLYPHICS. 

The Rosetta Stone was found by a French artillery 
officer called Boussard, among the ruins of Fort Saint 
Julien, near the Rosetta mouth of the Nile, in 1799, but 
it subsequently came into the possession of the British 
Government at the capitulation of Alexandria. It now 
stands at the southern end of the great Egyptian 
Gallery in the British Museum. The top and right 
hand bottom corner of this remarkable object have 
been broken off, and at the present the texts inscribed 
upon it consist of fourteen lines of hieroglyphics, thirty- 
two lines of demotic, and fifty-four lines of Greek. It 
measures about 3 ft. 9 in. X 2 ft. 4 1 / 2 in. X H in. on 
the inscribed side. 

The Rosetta Stone records that Ptolemy V. Epiphanes, 
king of Egypt from B. C. 205 to B. C. 182, conferred 
great benefits upon the priesthood, and set aside large 
revenues for the maintenance of the temples, and 
remitted the taxes due from the people at a period of 



14 THE ROSETTA STONE 

distress, and undertook and carried out certain costly 
engineering works in connection with the irrigation 
system of Egypt. In gratitude for these acts the priest- 
hood convened a meeting at Memphis, and ordered 
that a statue of the king should be set up in every 
temple of Egypt, that a gilded wooden statue of the 
king placed in a gilded wooden shrine should be 
established in each temple, etc. ; and as a part of the 
great plan to do honour to the king it was ordered that 
a copy of the decree, inscribed on a basalt stele in 
hieroglyphic, demotic, and Greek characters, should be 
set up in each of the first, second, and third grade 
temples near the king's statue. The provisions of this 
decree were carried out in the eighth year of the king's 
reign, and the Rosetta Stone is one of the stelae which, 
presumably, were set up in the great temples through- 
out the length and breadth of the land. But the im- 
portance of the stone historically is very much less than 
its value philologically, for the decipherment of the 
Egyptian hieroglyphics is centred in it, and it formed 
the base of the work done by scholars in the past 
century which has resulted in the restoration of the 
ancient Egyptian language and literature. 

It will be remembered that long before the close of 
the Roman rule in Egypt the hieroglyphic system of 
writing had fallen into disuse, and that its place had 
been taken by demotic, and by Coptic, that is to say, 
the Egyptian language written in Greek letters ; the 
widespread use of Greek and Latin among the govern- 



KIRCHER AND WARBURTON. 15 

ing and upper classes of Egypt also caused the dis- 
appearance of Egyptian as the language of state. The 
study of hieroglyphics was prosecuted by the priests 
in remote districts probably until the end of the Vth 
century of our era, but very little later the ancient 
inscriptions had become absolutely a dead letter, and 
until the beginning of the last century there was 
neither an Oriental nor a European who could either 
read or understand a hieroglyphic inscription. Many 
writers pretended to have found the key to the hiero- 
glyphics, and many more professed, with a shameless 
impudence which it is hard to understand in these 
days, to translate the contents of the texts into a modern 
tongue. Foremost among such pretenders must be 
mentioned Athanasius Kircher who, in the XVIIth cen- 
tury, declared that he had found the key to the hiero- 
glyphic inscriptions ; the translations which he prints in 
his Oedipus Aegyptiacus are utter nonsense, but as they 
were put forth in a learned tongue many people at the 
time believed they were correct. More than half a 
century later the Comte de Pahlin stated that an in- 
scription atDenderah was only a translation of Psalm C, 
and some later writers believed that the Egyptian 
inscriptions contained Bible phrases and Hebrew com- 
positions. 1 In the first half of the XVIIIth century 
Warburton appears to have divined the existence of 
alphabetic characters in Egyptian, and had he pos- 

1 See my Mummy, p. 126. 



16 AKERBLAD, YOUNG, CHAMPOLLION. 

sessed the necessary linguistic training it is quite pos- 
sible that he would have done some useful work in 
decipherment. Among those who worked on the right 
lines must be mentioned de Guignes, who proved 
the existence of groups of characters having deter- 
minatives, and Zoega, who came to the conclusion that 
the hieroglyphics were letters, and what was very 
important, that the cartouches, i. e., the ovals which 
occur in the inscriptions and are so called because they 
resemble cartridges, contained royal names. 1 In 1802 
Akerblad, in a letter to Silvestre de Sacy, discussed 
the demotic inscription on the Rosetta Stone, and pub- 
lished an alphabet of the characters. But Akerblad 
never received the credit which was his due for this 
work, for although it will be found, on comparing 
Young's "Supposed Enchorial Alphabet" printed in 1818 
with that of Akerblad printed in 1802, that fourteen 
of the characters are identical in both alphabets, no 
credit is given to him by Young. Further, if Cham- 
pollion's alphabet, published in his Lettre d, M. Dacier, 
Paris, 1822, be compared with that of Akerblad, sixteen 
of the characters will be found to be identical ; yet 
Champollion, like Young, seemed to be oblivious of the 
fact. 

With the work of Young and Champollion we reach 
firm ground. A great deal has been written about the 
merits of Young as a decipherer of the Egyptian hiero- 

1 De Usu et Origine Obeliscorum, Rome, 1797, p. 465. 



CHAMPOLLIONS WORK. 17 

glyphics, and he has been both over-praised and over- 
blamed. He was undoubtedly a very clever man and 
a great linguist, even though he lacked the special 
training in Coptic which his great rival Champollion 
possessed. In spite of this, however, he identified cor- 
rectly the names of six gods, and those of Ptolemy and 
Berenice; he also made out the true meanings of several 
ideographs, the true values of six letters 1 of the al- 
phabet, and the correct consonantal values of three 2 
more. This he did some years before Champollion 
published his Egyptian alphabet, and as priority of 
publication (as the late Sir Henry Rawlinson found it 
necessary to say with reference to his own work on 
cuneiform decipherment) must be accepted as indicat- 
ing priority of discovery, credit should be given to 
Young for at least this contribution towards the de- 
cipherment. No one who has taken the pains to read the 
literature on the subject will attempt to claim for Young 
that the value of his work was equal to that of Cham- 
pollion, for the system of the latter scholar was eminently 
scientific, and his knowledge of Coptic was wonderful, 
considering the period when he lived. Besides this the 
quality of his hieroglyphic work was so good, and the 
amount of it which he did so great, that in those respects 
the two rivals ought not to be compared. He certainly 
knew of Young's results, and the admission by him 

1 I- e., (I [I i, i m, a/wvw n, D p, *-»— f t a t. 

» J. «, &, J&a, (I 



18 THE OBELISK OF PHILAE. 

that they existed would have satisfied Young's friends, 
and in no way diminished his own merit and glory. 

In the year 1815 Mr. J. W. Bankes discovered on the 
Island of Philae a red granite obelisk and pedestal 
which were afterwards removed at his expense by 
G. Belzoni and set up at Kingston Hall in Dorsetshire. 
The obelisk is inscribed with one column of hieroglyph- 
ics on each side, and the pedestal with twenty-four lines 
of Greek. In 1822 Champollion published an account of 
this monument in the Revue encyolopedique for March, 
and discussed the hieroglyphic and Greek inscriptions 
upon it. The Greek inscription had reference to a 
petition of the priests of Philae made to Ptolemy, and 
his wife Kleopatra, and his sister also called Kleopatra, 
and these names of course occur in it. Champollion 
argued that if the hieroglyphic inscription has the same 
meaning as the Greek, these names must also occur in 
it. Now the only name found on the Rosetta Stone is 
that of Ptolemy which is, of course, contained in a car- 
touche, and when Champollion examined the hiero- 
glyphic inscription on the Philae obelisk, he not only 
found the royal names there, enclosed in cartouches, 
but also that one of them was identical with that 
which he knew from the Greek of the Rosetta Stone 
to be that of Ptolemy. He was certain that this name 
was that of Ptolemy, because in the Demotic inscrip- 
tion on the Rosetta Stone the group of characters which 
formed the name occurred over and over again, and 
in the places where, according to the Greek, they ought 



THE NAMES PTOLEMY AND CLEOPATRA. 19 

to occur. But on the Philae Obelisk the name Kleo- 
patra is mentioned, and in both of the names of Ptolemy 
and Kleopatra the same letters occur, that is to say L 
and P; if we can identify the letter P we shall not only 
hare gained a letter, but be able to say at which end 
of the cartouches the names begin. Now writing down 
the names of Ptolemy and Kleopatra as they usually 
occur in hieroglyphics we have : — 



Pt„le my QgJW] 

Kleopatra ( iLQfl^^lkol 

Let us however break the names up a little more 
and arrange the letters under numbers thus : — 

Ptolemy. 
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 

D ^ £] -Sfca <= (j() (1 

Kleopatra. 
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 

We must remember too that the Greek form of the 
name Ptolemy is Ptolemaios. Now on looking at the 
two names thus written we see at a glance that letter 
No. 5 in one name and No. 1 in the other are identical, 
and judging by their position only in the names they 
must represent the letter P j we see too that letter No. 2 



20 RECOVERY OP THE EGYPTIAN ALPHABET. 

in one name and No. 4 in the other are also identical, 
and arguing as before from their position they must 
represent the letter L. We may now write down the 
names thus : — 

2. 3. 4. 6. 6. 7. 
P - fl L = \\ fl 

1. 8. 4. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 

* L 1 f! p & «=■ ^ \ - ° 

As only one of the names begin with P, that which 
begins with that letter must be Ptolemy. Now letter 
No. 4 in one name, and letter No. 3 in the other are 
identical, and also judging by their position we may 
assign it in each name the value of some vowel sound 
like O, and thus get : — 

2. 5. 6. 7. 

P o O L <=()(] (1 

1. 3. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 

' L 4 ° p "k «=" *=» & " ° 

But the letter between P and O in Ptolemy must be 
T, and as the name ends in Greek with S, the last 
letter in hieroglyphics must be S, so we may now write 
down the names thus : — 

5. 6. 
P T L £= M S 



1. 3. 6. 7. 8. 9. 11. 



RECOVERY OF THE EGYPTIAN ALPHABET. 21 

Now if we look, as Champollion did, at the other 

ways in which the name of Kleopatra is written we 

shall find that instead of the letter cr^a we sometimes 

have the letter <= which we already know to be T, and 

as in the Greek form of the name this letter has an A 

before it, we may assume that <K\ = A ; the initial 

letter must, of course, be K. We may now write the 

names thus : — 

6. 6. 

P T O L e= flfl S 



3. 8. 11. 

K L (] O P A T <=> A T o 

The sign (1 (No. 3) in the name Kleopatra represents 
some vowel sound like E, and this sign doubled (No. 6) 
represents the vowels AI in the name Ptolemaios ; but as 
(||1 represent EE, or I, that is to say I pronounced in the 
Continental fashion, the O of the Greek form has no 
equivalent in hieroglyphics. That leaves us only the 
signs crrz, <n> and o to find values for. Young had 
proved that the signs ^ always occurred at the ends 
of the names of goddesses, and that ^ was a feminine 
termination ; as the Greek kings and queens of Egypt 
were honoured as deities, this termination was added 
to the names of royal ladies also. This disposes of the 

signs g, and the letters / (No. 5) and <=> (No. 8) can 

be nothing else but M and R. So we may now write : — 
P T O L M I S, i. e., Ptolemy, 
KLEOPATRA,i.« v Kleopatra- 



22 RECOVERY OF THE EGYPTIAN ALPHABET. 

Now a common title of the Roman Emperors was 

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 



written hieroglyphically ^3?& (j (j ' <=> - "— • We 
know that H M = I, l = S, and <==> = R ; and as <ctp* 
is used as a variant for the first sign in the name of 
Kleopatra given above, *zza must be K also. The last 
sign — *— is interchanged with I, and we may thus 
write under the hieroglyphics the values as follows : — 



K I S R S 

that is to say Katcapo? or Caesar. From the different 
ways in which the name of Ptolemy is written we learn 
that Y\ = U, and that (j> has also the same value, 
and that v\ has the same value as crzr, i. e., M, is also 
apparent. Now we may consider a common Greek nam e 
which is written in hieroglyphics f J (| -2*a& (| (J a "^ 1; 
we may break it up thus : — 

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 



J1 



Of these characters we have already identified Nos. 2, 
3, 5, 7 ; 8 and 9, and from the two last we know that 
we are dealing with the name of a royal lady. But 
there is also another common Greek name which may 
be written out in this form : — 

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 



and we see at a glance that the only letter that we 



RECOVERY OF THE EGYPTIAN ALPHABET. 23 

have not met with before is «««. Reading the values 
of this last group of signs we get E R (or L) K S 
T R (or L) S, which can be nothing else but Eleks- 
ntrs or "Alexander" ; thus we find that ««« = N. Now 
substituting this value for sign No. 4 in the royal lady's 
name given above we read . E R N I . A T ; and as the 
Greek text of the inscription in which this name occurs 
mentions Berenike, we conclude at once that No. 1 
sign J = B, and that No. 6 sign S = K. From other 
Greek and Latin titles and names we may obtain the 
values of many other letters and syllables, as will be 
seen from the following : — 

i- @Hivg0 phiuliupu 



(or UA).S., i.e., Philip. 



3. (^^pS?1 BA.R.N.I.K.T., i. e., Berenice. 

. A_£a&^2^p/-n^ c^J A. R. R.S.N. A. T., i. e., 
' V jl<=>— -W moj Arsinoe. 



r-jL J&zf\(\ iT\A.B.S.I.N.A.Lu, 
V Jg^— w— i i Js^ J ^ Arsinoe. 

5- (^^°q 1 T.R. A.P.N.T., ». 6., Tryphaena. 



S.K.I.S.R. 
Tiberius Caesar. 



H RECOVERY OF THE EGYPTIAN ALPHABET. 



' |4^NMP 



<d-«»T 



K-A-I-S K-A-I-S-R-S K-R-M- 
i. e., Gaius Caesar Germ- 



O 



3 



NIK - 1 - S 

anicus. 



C3 



@ 



J5HQ 



K-L-UT - S 
i. e., Claudius 



T-I BA-R-SA 

Tiberius. 



< 



(3 o 



I 1 



A-U-TU-K-R-T-R 
i. e., Autocrator 



K 



I-S-R 
Caesar. 



imp ^ IIP :m!^1 



T-A-T-A-S A-R-I-S A-T-R-I-N-S 

Titus Aelius Hadrianus. 



10. 



C 



P^2> 



m 



®~ 



W^l 



A-U-R-L A - IS AN-TA - N - INS 
*. e., Aurelius Antoninus. 

In the Ptolemaic and Roman times the titles of the 
kings or emperors were often included in the car- 
touches, and from some of these Champollion derived 



TITLES OF PTOLEMIES AND CAESARS. 25 

a number of letters for his Egyptian alphabet. Thus 
many kings call themselves § t — r an d •£• ^TV 
which appellations were known to mean "Of Ptah be- 
loved" and "living ever". Now in the first of these 
jf *= we know, from the names which we have 
read above, that the first two signs are P and T, i. e. f 
the first two letters of the name Ptah ; the third sign 
R must then have the value of H or of some sound like 

A nn 

it. If these three signs 8 form the name of Ptah, then 
the fourth sign rzn must mean "beloved". Now as 
Coptic is only a dialect of Egyptian written in Greek 
letters we may obtain some help from it as Champollion 
did ; and as we find in that dialect that the ordinary 
words for "to love" are met and mere, we may apply 
one or other of these values to the sign i — r , In the 
same way, by comparing variant texts, it was found 
that •¥- was what is called an ideograph meaning "life". 
or "to live" j now the Coptic word for "life" or "to 
live", is onkh, so the pronunciation of the hieroglyphic 

sign must be something like it. We find also that the 

O O ****** 

variant spellings of •¥■ give us ■¥• , and as we al- 
ready know that ***** = N, the third sign ® must be 
KH ; incidentally, too, we discover that •¥• has the syl- 
labic value of ankh, and that the a has become 6 in 
Coptic. If, in the appellation •¥• X^ , i. e., "living 
ever", ^ means "life", it is clear Sat t^ must mean 
"ever". Of the three signs which fornTthe word we 
already know the last two, o and =?~=, for we have 



26 RECOVERY OF THE EGYPTIAN ALPHABET. 

seen the first in the name Ptolemy, and the second in 
the name Antoninus, where they have the values of T 
and TA respectively. Now it was found by comparing 
certain words written in hieroglyphics with their equi- 
valents in Coptic that the third sign ^^ was the equi- 
valent of a letter in the Coptic alphabet which we may 
transliterate by TCH, i. e. f the sound which c has before 
i in Italian. Further investigations carried on in the 
same way enabled Champollion and his followers to 
deduce the syllabic values of the other signs, and at 
length to compile a classified syllabary. We may now 
collect the letters which we have gathered together 
from the titles and names of the Greek and Roman 
rulers of Egypt in a tabular form thus : — 



A ID II 

|j AorE § H 

A ® KH 

or w I — *— or I S 

^K or Q or JT) O or U 

D P 

or * M 



o T 

It 
"^ tcii 



K 

"^^ or \{ N ^ ]£ 

jfca or <^=> R © K 



RECOVERY OF THE EGYPTIAN ALPHABET. 27 

It will be noticed that we have three different kinds 
of the K sound, three of the T sound, two of the H 
sound, and three A sounds. At the early date when 
the values of the hieroglyphics were first recovered 
it was not possible to decide the exact difference be- 
tween the varieties of sounds which these letters re- 
presented ; but the reader will see from the alphabet 
on pp. 31, 32 the values which are generally assigned to 
them at the present time. It will be noticed, too, that 
among the letters of the Egyptian alphabet given above 
there are no equivalents for F and SH, but these will 
be found in the complete alphabet. 



CHAPTER in. 



HIEROGLYPHICS AS IDEOGRAPHS, PHONETICS, AND 
DETERMINATIVES. 

Every hieroglyphic character is a picture of some 
object in nature, animate or inanimate, and in texts 
many of them are used in more than one way. The 
simplest use of hieroglyphics is, of course, as pictures, 
which we may see from the following : — ga* a hare ; 
<K\ an eagle ; %^» a duck ; m a beetle ; jjjjjj a field 
with plants growing in it ; * a star ; R a twisted rope ; 
i"""n a comb ; A a pyramid, and so on. But hiero- 
glyphics may also represent ideas, e. g., vt a wall 
falling down sideways represents the idea of "falling" ; 
HR a hall in which deliberations by wise men were 
made represents the idea of "counsel" ; | an axe re- 
presents the idea of a divine person or a god ; T a 
musical instalment represents the idea of pleasure, 
happiness, joy, goodness, and the like. Such are called 
ideographs. Now every picture of every object must 
have had a name, or we may say that each picture was 



DIFFICULTIES OF HIEROGLYPHIC WRITING. 29 

a word- sign ; a list of all these arranged in proper order 
would have made a dictionary in the earliest times. 
But let us suppose that at the period when these pictures 
were used as pictures only in Egypt, or wherever they 
first appeared, the king wished to put on record that 
an embassy from some such and such a neighbouring 
potentate had visited him with such and such an 
object, and that the chief of the embassy, who was 
called by such and such a name, had brought him rich 
presents from his master. Now the scribes of the period 
could, no doubt, have reduced to writing an account 
of the visit, without any very great difficulty, but when 
they came to recording the name of the distinguished 
visitor, or that of his master, they would not find this 
to be an easy matter. To have written down the name 
they would be obliged to make use of a number of 
hieroglyphics or picture characters which represented 
most closely the sound of the name of the envoy, with- 
out the least regard to their meaning as pictures, and, 
for the moment, the picture characters would have 
represented sounds only. The scribes must have done 
the same had they been ordered to make a list of the 
presents which the envoy had brought for their royal 
master. Passing over the evident anachronism let us 
call the envoy "Ptolemy", which name we may write, 
as in the preceding chapter, with the signs : — 
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 



fl 



Now No. 1 represents a door, No. 2 a cake, No. 3 a 



30 ALPHABETIC AND SYLLABIC PHONETICS. 

knotted rope, No. 4 a lion, No. 5 (uncertain), No. 6 two 
reeds, and No. 7 a chairback ; but here each of these 
characters is employed for the sake of its sound only. 
The need for characters which could be employed 
to express sounds only caused the Egyptians at a very 
early date to set aside a considerable number of picture 
signs for this purpose, and to these the name of phone- 
tics has been given. Phonetic signs may be either syl- 
labic or alphabetic, e. g., __^ peh } A\ mut, f) maat, 
Vrf X e P er > which are syllabic, and H p, J b, 1\ m t 
<=> r, kzz* k, which are alphabetic. Now the five al- 
phabetic signs just quoted represent as pictures, a door, 
a foot and leg, an owl, a mouth, and a vessel respective- 
ly, and each of these objects no doubt had a name ; 
but the question naturally arises how they came to 
represent single letters ? It seems that the sound of the 
first letter in the name of an object was given to the 
picture or character which represented it, and hence- 
forward the character bore that phonetic value. Thus 
the first character g P, represents a door made of a 
number of planks of wood upon which three cross- 
pieces are nailed. There is no word in Egyptian for 
door, at all events in common use, which begins with P, 
but, as in Hebrew, the word for door must be con- 
nected with the root "to open" ; now the Egyptian word 
for "to open" is x pt[d]h, and as we know that the 
first character in that word has the sound of P and of 
no other letter, we may reasonably assume that the 
Egyptian word for "door" began with P. The third 



THE EGYPTIAN ALPHABET. 31 

character 1\ M represents the horned owl, the name 
of which is preserved for us in the Coptic word mUlotch 
(motpA.02sl) ; the first letter of this word begins with 
M, and therefore the phonetic value of 1\ is M. In 
the same way the other letters of the Egyptian alphabet 
were derived, though it is not always possible to say 
what the word-value of a character was originally. In 
many cases it is not easy to find the word- values of an 
alphabetic sign, even by reference to Coptic, a fact 
which seems to indicate that the alphabetic characters 
were developed from word-values so long ago that the 
word- values themselves have passed out of the written 
language. Already in the earliest dynastic inscriptions 
known to us hieroglyphic characters are used as pic- 
tures, ideographs and phonetics side by side, which 
proves that these distinctions must have been invented 
in pre- dynastic times. 

The Egyptian alphabet is as follows : — 



□ 



^ 


A 


GO 


w. 


F (£>) 




A 





k or ^ 


M (a) 


J) 


A 


(P) 


AAAAAA 01* \/ 


N (3) 


or w 


I 


tt 


<c=> or_Ba& 


11 and L ("), b) 


or (S 


U 


(1) 


ra 


H (n) 




B 


(a) 


i 


H (n) 




P 


(a) 


© 


KH (x) (Arab. £) 



32 POLYPHONOUS CHARACTERa 

— s (d) s k (a) 



P 



i w I 



<d 



s (tf) o T (n) 

SH(6) (fc) e=^ T (JD) 

K (3) ),» TH(0) 01) 

Q (p) ^ TCH(T') QO 



The Egyptian alphabet has a great deal in common 
with the Hebrew and other Semitic dialects in respect 
of the guttural and other letters, peculiar to Oriental 
peoples, and therefore the Hebrew letters have been 
added to shew what I believe to be the general values 
of the alphabetic signs. It is hardly necessary to say 
that differences of opinion exist among scholars as to 
the method in which hieroglyphic characters should 
be transcribed into Roman letters, but this is not to be 
wondered at considering that the scientific study of 
Egyptian is only about ninety years old, and that the 
whole of the literature has not yet been published. 

Some ideographs have more than one phonetic value, 
in which case they are called polyphones ; and many 
ideographs representing entirely different objects have 
similar values, in which case they are called homo- 
phones. 

As long as the Egyptians used picture writing pure 
and simple their meaning was easily understood, but 
when they began to spell their words with alphabetic 
signs and syllabic values of picture signs, which had 



DETERMINATIVES. 



33 



no reference whatever to the original meaning of the 
signs, it was at once found necessary to indicate in some 
way the meaning and even sounds of many of the words 
so written ; this they did by adding to them signs 
which are called determinatives. It is impossible to say 
when the Egyptians first began to add determinatives 
to their words, but all known hieroglyphic inscriptions 
not pre-dynastic contain them, and it seems as if they 
must have been the product of prehistoric times. They, 
however, occur less frequently in the texts of the earlier 
than of the later dynasties. 

Determinatives may be divided into two groups ; 
those which determine a single species, and those which 
determine a whole class. The following determinatives 
of classes should be carefully noted : — 



Character Determinative oi 



*a 



to call, beckon 

man 

to eat, think, 
speak, and of 
whatever is 
done with the 
mouth 

inertness, idle- 
ness 

woman 



Character Determinative of 

6. jjorl god, divine be- 

^ ' ing or thing 

1. JL goddess 

8. | tree 

9. "^ plant, flower 

10. \>, is earth, land 

11. £5* road, to travel 

12. fw) foreign land 



34 



DETERMINATIVES. 



Character Determinative of Character 

13. : fhtf nome 26. <G=« 



14, /www water 

A/WWV 



15. 
16. \ 
17, 

is. C3 

19.^ 

21. J\ 

22. <? 

23. E^ 

25. 



house 



to cut ; slay 



27. H 

28. O 

29. © 



fire, to cook, 30 m 

burn 

smell (good or 31. o or ^> 

bad) ° 

,, 32. o&b 

to overthrow 

33. ^ s- 

strength 

to walk, stand, 34. 2y-2 
and of actions 

performed 35. J 
with the legs 

flesh 



Determinative of 
fish 

rain, storm 

day, time 

village, town, 
city 

stone 
metal 
grain 
wood 
wind, air 

foreigner 

liquid, ungu- 
ent 

abstract 



36. & 

animal ' ^^ 

bird 38. Vg> 

little, evil, bad 39. Jj§)v& J) children, 



crowd, collec- 
tion of people 



A few words have no determinative, and need none, 
because their meaning was fixed at a very early period, 
and it was thought unnecessary to add any ; examples 



EXAMPLES OF THEIR USE. 35 

of such are fi Jiena 1 "with", fl\\ am "in", tHIo 

mak "verily" and the like. On the other hand a large 
number of words have one determinative, and several 
have more than one. Of words of one determinative 
the following are examples : — 

1. (I H h QA dm to eat ; a picture of a man putting food 
into his mouth ^7\ is the determinative. 
^5 ««X a flower ; the picture of a flower \fr 
is the determinative. 

3. yjp \^ sma to slay ; the picture of a knife \v is 

the determinative, and indicates that 
the word sma means "knife", or that 
it refers to some action that is done 
with a knife. 

4. >t s=r^ ses bolt ; the picture of the branch of a 

tree s^>-r>- is the determinative, and 
indicates that ses is an object made 
of wood. 
Of words of one or more determinatives the follow- 
ing are examples : — 

1 . /wwsa (I (I \ \J renpit flowers ; the pictures of a flower 
in the bud jL and a flower ^r, are the 
determinatives ; the three strokes | | | 
are the sign of the plural. 

1 Strictly speaking there is no e in Egyptian, and it is added 
in the transliterations of hieroglyphic words in this hook simply 
to enahle the reader to pronounce them more easily. 



36 



SPELLING OF WORDS. 



-or 



□ AAAAAA 

AAAAAA 



a 3 Hap god of the Nile ; the pictures of 

A \-JL 

water enclosed by banks rz rr, and 

AA/WVA 6\ 

running water ^^, and a god Jv are 



/VWWV 

the determinatives. 



^* ^\.^\ft^^SrJl' nemme l M P 00r f°lk 5 * ne pictures 

of a child % 7 and a man M£, and a 

woman J] are the determinatives, and 

shew that the word nemmeh means a 

number of human beings, of both 

sexes, who are in the condition of 

helpless children. 

Words may be spelt (1) with alphabetic characters 

wholly, or (2) with a mixture of alphabetic and syllabic 

characters ; examples of the first class are : — 



I I A/WWV ^\. 



o I I I 



^v* 



/r~«& 



^~-^ 






sfenf a knife 

dsfet wickedness 

Sat a book 

uda a boat 

fyeqer to be hungry, hunger 

semelii left hand side 
a sistrum. 



PHONETIC COMPLEMENTS. 37 

And examples of the second class are : — 
o ^ — » — 

1. R AAAA/w *\&. henkset hair, in which ^i has by itself 
a v 4 <a | ' J 

the value of hen ; so the word might 

Q /W\A/\A H 

be written x ^a. or W^z^s 

— »— 
O I 

2. 7\ 9 Jj o nehebet neck, in which 7\ has by itself 

the value of neh ; so the word might 
be written ^ J~as well as^J J ~ 

^* & S S ° *^^ $T ^ I ' re X^ men an< i women, in 
which <C^|| has by itself the value ot 
re x it ; thus in ^ (] (] o <gg Vj| ^ j 
the word is actually written twice, for 



In many words the last letter of the value of a syl- 
labic sign is often written in order to guide the reader 
as to its pronunciation. Take the word ^1\ =S25=« 
The ordinary value of ^ is mesfer "ear", but the 
^|\ which follows it shews that the sign is in this word 
to be read mesUm, and the determinative indicates that 
the word means that which is smeared under the eye, 
or "eye-paint, stibium". For convenience' sake we 
may call such alphabetic helps to the reading of words 
phonetic complements. The following are additional 
examples, the phonetic complement being marked by 
an asterisk. 



38 



PHONETIC COMPLEMENTS. 



ft 



tmm 



mesfer ear 

$a* rain 

£enar storm 

me?'#w unguent 

i hememu mankind. 



We may now take a short extract from the Tale 
of the Two Brothers, which will illustrate the use of 
alphabetic and syllabic characters and determinatives ; 
the determinatives are marked by *, and the syllabic 
characters by f ; the remaining signs are alphabetic. 
(N. B. There is no e in Egyptian.) 



A/WSAA 

un 



AA/WV\ 

an 



paif 
His 



<2* o-=t §t 

?1 C=^=i* I 

sen da her 

brother elder 



yepevu ma abu 

became like panthers 



J^@< Q* 



Witt ¥- 

shcmdlu au-f 

southern. He 



St 

I 
her 



tat 
made 



temtu 
sharp 



paif 
his 



nui 
dagger, 



EXTRACT FROM TALE OF TWO BROTHER& 39 

dw-/ for tatu-f em tet-f un an 

he placed it in his hand. 

V a tf sen aa aha en 

His brother elder stood 

ha pa sbai paif 

behind the door of his 



A * 



ahait er %atbu paif 

stable to stab his 

r# ^ ^ mi- mi- k 

sen Serau em paif i em 

brother younger at his coming at 

^ S7 - V VI. -Ml 

?*w/ia er* fat aq naif 

eventide to make to enter his 

aaut er pa ahait 

cattle into the stables. 



40 EXTRACT FROM TALE OF TWO BROTHERS. 



m r 

%er dr pa &u her h,etep 

Now when the god Shu was setting 



ST \ 



du-f 
he 



#t 

I 
her 



* l 



atep-f stimu neb 

was loading himself with green herbs of all kinds 



^•lll 



M- P-L«f 



en 
of 



se/et em jpct^f se^ent 

the fields according to his habit 



£ $f 



s^;. «i« % 



A/WV/YV QJ. 

.. i w Mw. i 

enit Art* ne& dw-/ Jar i 

of day every, he was coming [home]. 



ait 



ta 
The 



^ 



tj ^t* x* St 



cow 



$autt 
leading 



7*er 



t A 

A* 
dq 

entered 



er 
into 



1i* ra 



i i i 



1« P 



dhait 



du 



<§. 



stable, 

pax-set sadu 

her keeper, 



set 
she 



St 

I 

/jer 



wa&wd 
Verily 



said 
t 



pa 
the 



en 
to 



paik 
thy 



1 



EXTRACT FROM TALE OF TWO BROTHERS. 41 



r-**-i * It A • ta I ^Z^ \\ 

sew aa d/id er ft&t-tuk yeri 

brother elder standeth in front of thee with 



paif 
his 



^1* 

nui 
dagger 



<* 



er 
to 



%atbu 
stab 



^*, 



k 
thee; 



to er - hat - f 
from before him. 



rwd - k 
run away 

I 
far setem pa tet taif 

hearkened unto the speech of his 



/vwvw 

un 



AA/WAA 

an - f 
He 



*l 



ah 
cow 



hauti 
leading. 



1* % TM f V 



ait 



fa fcef-Od 
The next 



I 
her 



t * 
A* 



1« hVZ\W 

du set her tet - 8d - / 
she was saying to him 

I O <2 v\ U 

#er ennu yeri pa 

looked under the 



entered, [and] 

em matet duf 
likewise. He 



i- -j* 



aba 
door 



en 
of 



42 



EXTRACT FROM TALE OP TWO BROTHERS. 



D o 



paif 
his 

w 

petrd 



ra 

dhait 
stable, 

1*1* «• 

re} 



i i i 



@ 



duf 



he 



saw the legs 
<2 



en 
of 



*en da dw/ dAd 

brother elder [as] he stood 



en 



I 
her 



paif 
his 

fV* 

behind 



pa sba du paif 



nut 



the 



door 



o i 
em tet-f 
in his hand. 



1 



© §f 



his 
t 



duf her 
He 



3 

udh 
set 



* o 



Hi 
atep 

load 



er 
upon 



pa 
the 



du£en£ 
ground, 



taif 
his 

dw^ Jer 
he betook 



[1®p®5 



* A* 
II 



himself 



er 
to 



flight 



6dw 
rapid. 



* A* 
II 



CHAPTER TV. 1 



A SELECTION OP HIEROGLYPHIC CHARACTERS WITH 
THEIR PHONETIC VALUES, ETC. 



Phonetic 
value. 

enen 



A kes (?) 
tua \ 
tua J 
hen 



1. Figures of Men. 

Meaning as ideograph or determinative. 

man standing with inactive arms 
and hands, submission 
to call, to invoice 

man in beseeching attitude, propi- 
tiation 

to pray, to praise, to adore, to entreat 



to praise 
8. Y qa, had to be high, to rejoice 
9 ffi an man motioning something to go back, 



to retreat 



1 The numbers and classification of characters are those given 
by Herr Adolf Holzhausen in his Hieroglyphen. 



44 




LIST OF SIGNS. 


ia$ 


dra | 


man calling after someone, to beck- 


11.^ 


dn J 


on 


i*£ 


— 


see No. 7 


ȣ 


— 


see No. 10 


14. £ 




man hailing some one 


!5.^ 


d6 


to dance 


«»-fr 


ah 


to dance 


17. Y 


ah 


to dance 


18. r^ 


Ab 


to dance 


19 '^ 


kes 


man bowing, to pay homage 



20. 



kes man bowing, to pay homage 



21. J^, - 



22 



-$\ 



23. ^j 

24. jMl heter 

25. Sj drnen 



man running and stretching forward 
to reach something 



, sati to pour out water, to micturate 



two men grasping hands, friendship 

a man turning hfo back, to 
hide, to conceal 



MEN. 45 

26. ^J nem PJgmy 

27 fl ^ image, figure, statue, mummy, 

j > aju, qei es transformed dead body 



28. w\ fetta a deacl body in tne ^d of a 
* serpent 

29. |^ ur, ser great, great man, prince, chief 
30- |y| dau, ten man leaning on a staff, aged 
31. m nevt manabouttostrikewithastick, 



strength 
32. •»? — man stripping a branch 



33. ^| < MO 

34. f%T 8eh.er to drive away 

35. $® vevee (?) tw0 men P erformin g a cere- 
tVvj mony (?) 

36. ■# iewa (?) 

37. ^w d$t man holding an instrument 

38. yk — man holding an instrument 



39 «h§ man about to perform a cere- 

Ji mony with two instruments 

40. Vj[j netf see No. 31 

41. ^3? — to play a harp 



46 LIST OF SIGNa 

42- Iy^I — to plough 



43. M$ £a to give a loaf of bread, to give 

44. jfa sa to make an offering 

45. ^3] nmi man performing an act of worship 
man throwing water over himself, 



46. «fi ab 



a priest 
47. [JX sati, set man sprinkling water, purity 



48. wK — a man skipping with a rope 

49. rW %us man building a wall, to build 

50. 1&§ — man using a borer, to drill 

51. \\k 2 e ^ to huild 

„ a man with a load on his head, to 

52. | /a, &a« bear , to carry, work 

gg ^tt7> a man supporting the whole sky, to 

Ji stretch out 

54. ^ fa to bear, to carry ; see No. 52 

55. ^gf-^% %&steb man holding a pig by the tail 



56. Qp 2 e * 1 to bind together, to force something 

57. ]g g«> I t0gcth ° r 

man holding the ? h,eq sceptre, 

58. jg H prince, king 



59. 

62. 

63. 

65. 

68. 

69. 

70. 

71. 

72. 

74. 

75. 

76. 

78. 

79. 

80. 

82. 

83. 



ur\ 



$ 



MEN. 47 

prince, king 

prince or king wearing White crown 

prince or king wearing Red crown 

prince or king wearing White and 
Red crowns 

great man, prince 

prince, king 

a baby sucking its finger, child, 
young person 

a child 

a child wearing the Red crown 

a child wearing the disk and uraeus 



> xefti 



a man breaking in his head with an 
axe or stick, enemy, death, the dead 



man armed with a bow and arrows, 
bowman, soldier 

- man armed with shield and sword. 
menf , » 

bowman, soldier 



48 

84. 
85. 
86. 
87. 
88. 
89. 
90. 

91. 

92. 

93. 

94. 

96. 

97. 

98. 

99. 
100. 
101. 



^ 
& 



LIST OF SIGN& 

man with his hands tied behind 
him, captive 

man with his hands tied behind 

him, captive 

— man tied to a stake, captive 

— man tied by his neck to a stake 

beheaded man tied by his neck 
to a stake 

sa, remt man kneeling on one knee 

d to cry out to, to invoke 

man with his right hand to his 

a mouth, determinative of all that 

is done with the mouth 

enen submission, inactivity 



hen 



tua 



amen 



aulj., sur 



sa 



amen 



ab 



to praise 

to pray, to praise, to adore, to 
entreat 

to hide 

to play a harp 

to give or offer a vessel of water 
to a god or man 

to make an offering 

, , man hiding himself, to hide, 
i, nab , . , , 

hidden 

man washing, clean, pure, priest 



MEN. 



49 



102. 

103 
104. 
105. 
106. 

107. 

108. 
110. 
111. 
112. 
113. 
114. 
115. 

116. 

117. 

119. 



I - 
1 - 



> rib man washing, clean, pure, priest 



fa, hat man carrying a load ; see No. 52 

, , man wearing emblem of year, a 

* * large, indefinite number 

a god wearing the sun's disk and 
kefy grasping a palm branch in each 

hand 
— to write 

dead person who has obtained 
power in the next world 

dead person, holy being 



1 - 
$ - 
4 - 



dead person, holy being 
a sacred or divine person 

a sacred or divine king 

divine or sacred being holding 
the sceptre ? 

divine or sacred being holding 
the sceptre j 

divine or sacred being holding the 
whip or flail J\ 

divine or sacred being holding ? 
and 



50 LIST OF SIGNS. 

. 9f v J king wearing the White crown and 

UV. ^ — holding <j> and ^ 

91 y king wearing the Red crown and 

39 holding ? and J\ 

9 „ ,W king wearing the Red and White 

ill crowns and holding ^ 

9 . JSP king wearing the Red and White 

£_( crowns and holding ? 

25. sjr — ibis-headed being, Thoth 

« \ a sacred person holding a cord? 

26 - | W a guardian? 

1 27 vM I sa a sacre( * person holding a cord? 
ill ' a guardian? 

L28. &W 8a a watchman, to guard, to watch 

l29 - A 

[30. 

[31. Mj ^eps a sacred person 

[32. Lit netem a person sitting in state 

[33. ^e^ %er to fall down 

[34. t^^fr mit a dead person 

L35. &&& melf, to swim 

\ neb a man swimming, to swim 



a sacred person, living or dead 



WOMEN. 



61 



1. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 



Teeter 
Qehem 

m- 

-I 
j 



2. Figures op Women 

two women grasping hands, 
friendship 

woman beating a tambourine, to 

rejoice 

to bend, to bow 

the goddess Nut, i. e., the sky 

woman with dishevelled hair 

a woman seated 

a sacred being, sacred statue 
a divine or holy female, or statue 



an 



Q& Qehem 



a guardian, watchman 

see No. 3 
J} beq a pregnant woman 

Gt) mes, papa a parturient woman, to give birth 
JBf mena to nurse, to suckle a child 

8$ renen to dandle a child in the arms 



52 



LEST OP SIGN& 



1. 

3. | 

7. ^ 
8. 

10. 

11. 

13. 

14. 
15. 

16 * | 

18. $ 



3. Figures of Gods and Goddesses. 
Ausdr (or -4«dr) the god Osiris 



PtaJf, 
Ptah 



the god Ptafc 

Ptah holding a sceptre, and wear- 
ing a menat (w 

Ta-tunen the god Ta-tunen 



Tanen the god Tanen 

Ptdl}-Tanen the god Ptah-Tanen 
An-heru 



Amen 

Amen 

Amen 

Amen 
Amen 

Aah 

%ensu 



the god An-heru 

Amen, or Menu, or Amsu in his 
ithyphallic form. 
Amen wearing plumes and hold- 
ing j 

Amen wearing plumes and hold- 
ing Maat 

Amen wearing plumes and hold- 
ing a short, curved sword 

Amen holding the user sceptre -j 
the Moon-god 
the god Khensu 
the god Shu 



GODS AND GODESSB8L 63 

W. $ £u the god Shu 

2 °" H Maa7~ g ° d Ra as the m ^ty one of Maat 



21. k| Rd the god Ra wearing the white crown 

22 Y&v p a R a holding sceptres of the horizons 

OH of the east and west 



23. W Ra 



Ra holding the sceptre ^ 

94. f§^ Tfa -^ a wearing disk and uraeus and 

lj holding ] 

25. J] ^?a Ra wearing disk and uraeus 

«- J „ Horus (or Ra) wearing White and 

. ^J . erw £ e( j crowng 

- o _, Ra wearing disk and holding sym- 

27 ' 1 Ra bolof"life" 

29. j$ Ra Ra wearing disk, uraeus and 

™ plumes, and holding sceptre 

31. ^ Set the god Set 

32. *dj Anpu the god Anubis 

33. ^ TeT}uti the god Thoth 

36. g 

37. ^ Znewu the god Khnemu 

38. & 

39. M Hapi the Nile-god 



54 

40. 
41. 
42. 
45. 
51. 
52. 
53. 
54. 
55. 
58. 
62. 
63. 
64. 
65. 
66. 
67. 
68. 



rt 



LIST OF SIGNS 
Auset (or Ast) Isis holding papyrus sceptre 
Auset (or Ast) Isis holding symbol of "life" 
Auset (or Ast) Isis holding papyrus sceptre 
Nebt-het 






4 



Nut 

Ses"eta 

Usr-Maat 

> Maat 



col Anqet 
Bast 
Se%et 



Un 



Nephthys holding symbol of 
"life" 



the goddess Nut 

the goddess Sesheta 

the goddess Maat with sceptre 
of strength 

the goddess Maat 

the goddess Anqet 
the goddess Bast 
the goddess Sekhet 

the hare-god Un 

the goddess Mehit 

a deity 

a god who frightens, terrifies, 
or drives away 




MEMBERS OF THE BODY. 



Sefter see No. 68 



55 



Bes 



the god Bes 



%eper& the god Khepera 

4. Members op the Body. 
tep, fata the head, the top of any thing 
l}er, hra the face, upon 

5, Q > 7 - ^^ jrf u " e r the hair > t0 want > to Iack 



1. ® 
3. § 



8- I 

10. -C2>- 

11. -<e> 

12. 

13. 

U.fff 

15. 



Sere (?) 



a lock of hair 
the beard 



%dbes 

mer, maa t the right eye, to see, to look 

ari after something, to do 

— the left eye 



maa 



rem 
an 



to see 

an eye with a line of stibium 
below the lower eye-lid 

an eye weeping, to cry 
to have a fine appearance 



56 


" LIST OF SIGNS. 


16. i*«i 


merti, maa 


the two eyes, to see 


17 13 


utat 


the right eye of Ra, the Sun 


18. g? 


utat 


the left eye of Ra, the Moon 


19. 3f1S 


ufatti 


the two eyes of Ra 


20.^ 


tebT} 


an utchat in a vase, offer- 
ings 


23. o 


ar 


the pupil of the eye 


24. ^of 


teblj. 


two eyes in a vase, offerings 


25.^= 


am 


eyebrow 


26. §> 


mester 


ear 


28. jf 


%ent 


nose, what is in front 


29.<=> 


re 


opening, mouth, door 


30. cs> 


septi 


the two lips 


£) A » <^ 1Trff ^ 


sept 


lip raised shewing the teeth 


32 *> 


art 


jawbone with teeth 


33- (**>?* 


tef, dtet 


exudation, moisture 


35, 36. J, | 


mef 


a weapon or tool 



37. >^ 



oat, pes{ the backbone 



MEMBERS OF THE BODY. 67 

Sd{ the chine 

menu the breast 
8e%en to embrace 



. not having, to be without, 

negation 

, the breast and arms of a man, 

the double 

hands grasping a sacred staff, 

Wi • ZG8G7* »i • it 

something holy 

hands grasping a paddle, to 
X en transport, to carry away 

. . arms holding shield and club, 

to fight 



u(en 



to write 



hand holding a whip or flail, 
X** to be strong, to reign 

hand and arm outstretched, 
to give 



a, ta 



me ™ to bear, to carry 
ermen 7 * 

fa to give 

ma to give 



58 


LIST OF SIGNS. 


66. a d 


mci, henk 


to offer 


67. a__& 


— 


to offer fruit 


68. «* n 


nini 


an act of homage 


69. W) 


neyt 


to be strong, to shew strength 


72.i_fl 


%erp 


to direct 


73, 76. <sza, c=s tet 


hand 


74. fsfa 


Sep 


to receive 


77. ^§>d 


Jeep 


to hold in the hand 


82. "& 


am 


to clasp, to hold tight in the fist 


84,85.]^ 


teba 


finger, the number 10,000 


- 11 


meter, aq 


to be in the centre, to giye evi- 
dence 


86. ^ I 


an 


thumb 


87.^ J 







88. ^ssn maa a graving tool 

__ bah, met, phallus, what is masculine, hus* 

fat, ka band, bull 

91. c= fp utet to beget 

92, 93. ^=6=^, pa tern, seshem 







MEMBERS OF THE BODY. 


94 


S> 


%erui 


male organs 


95. 


V 


kern 


woman, female organ 


96. 


A 


i 


to go, to walk, to stand 


98. 


ZV 


an, hem 


to go backwards, to retreat 


99. 


5 


udr, ret, 
ment 


to flee, to run away 


100. 


* 


teha 


to invade, to attack 


101. 


L 


ker 


to hold, to possess 


102. 


A 


q 


a knee 


103. 


J 


b 


a leg and foot 


105. 


dH 


db 


arm -j- hand -\- leg 


10G. 


± 


teb 


hand -j- leg 


107. 


* 


db 


horn -f- ieg 


109. 
111. 


:i 


ha 


piece of flesh, limb 



59 



fej 



sesem 



2. ^ nefer 



5. Animal. 



horst 



60 




LIST OF SIGNS. 


3 -^ 


dj}, ha 


ox 


6 -fe) 


kaut 


cow 


13. £5? 


ba 


calf 


14. fi^ 


du 


calf 


15.3*3 


ba 


ram 


16 ^ 


ba 


Nubian ram of Amen 


"■fa 


ar 


oryx 


19 % 


88,1). 


oryx, the transformed body, 
spiritual body 


22- M 


X eu 


a water bag 



23. ^-j Oa donkey 

24. ^? uher (?) dog 

25. M\ amhet ape 

29. J3 — theapeofThoth 



32. 



31. M — ape wearing Red crown 

ape oeanng utchat or Eye of the 
sun 

36. 5r5K ma > or m ^ au lion 

38. _&a I, r, ru, re lion couchant 



43. Sb2 


Xerefu, 
akeru 


the lions of Yesterday and To-da^ 


44. J&aS 


neb 


• • • • • 


v-h 


matt 


cat 


49. "5^ 


sab 


jackal ; wise person 


52.^ 


— 


the god Anubis, the god Ap-uat 


55.^ 


seieta 




■*# 


W% 


a mythical animal 


&7.<^. 


— 


wild boar 


58. ,S» 


un 


a hare 


60. 1ft 


ab 


elephant 


61 ^ 


apt 


hippopotamus 


62< Q 


X eb 


rhinoceros 


63 -^r 


rer 


Pig 


65 -K 


ser 


giraffe 


"•*& 


get 


the god Set, what is bad, death, etc 


68. £_j 


set 


the god Set 


* JtTT^O 


pennu 


rat 



62 




LIST OF SIGNS. 




6. 


Members of Animals 


3. it 


<$ 


ox 


4, 5. <£?, 


a %ent 


nose, what is in front 


M 


x e x 


head and neck of an ox 


8. 32. 


iefit 


strength 


•■? 


— 


head and neck of a ram 


12. ^ 


iesa 


to be wise 


14. ft 


peh, 


head and neck of a lion, strength 


m 


pehti 


two-fold strength 


16. _=^ 


to 


head and paw of lion, the fore- 
part of anything, beginning 


21. 4- 






22.^ 


1 set 




24. $84 






30.^ 


at 


hour, season 


33. V 


dp 


the top of anything, the forepart 


35. Y 


dat 


rank, dignity 


37. ^{ r 


apt rer 


opening of the year, the new 



year 



41. \ 

44. w= 

45. v 

46. ^ 

49. C5V 
51. 



MEMBERS OF ANIMALS. 63 

ah horn, what is in front 

dbeh 



dbeh 



tooth 
tooth 



dten,mesfer t0 d ° the dut ? of some <»">, 
vicar, ear, to hear 



peh 
%epe& 



62. / 
X 

/ 

54. JJ 
65,56.^ 
57. £1] 

59. | I 

60. *Y 
63 



kep 



sat 



to attain to, to end 
thigh 



nem, uhem leg of an animal, to repeat 



paw of an animal 
skin of an animal 

skin of an animal, animal of 
any kind 

an arrow transfixing a skin, 
to hunt 



* ^3 t ua, dud, dsu bone and flesh, heir, progeny 



64 



LIST OF SIGNS. 



1. 
2. 

3. 
4. 



a 

maa 
ma 



8. 
9. 

11. 
12. 
13. 
15. 
16. 
21. 



7. Birds. 
eagle 

eagle + sickle 
eagle -f- azz 



> ti, nej a bird of the eagle class ? 



Heru hawk, the god Horus, god 

bah hawk with whip or flail 

Herui the two Horus gods 

Peru Horus with disk and uraeus 

„ Horus wearing the White and 

Heru t, , 

Red crowns 

H.eru nub the "golden Horus" 

neter god, divine being, king 

dment the west 

Heru sma "Horus the uniter of the two 

taui lands" 

Heru Sept Horus-Sept 



BIROS. 



XU 



28. ^\^ axem, diem sacred form or image 



29 -L 


Heru- 


iuti 


Horus of the two plumes 


30/ &> 


mut, ner 


vulture 


33 M 


Nebti 




the vulture crown and th 






uraeus crown 


36 < 43 'k-^ 


m 


oVl 


38.^ 








394 k 


> ma 




to give 


40.^ 








41 ■& 


mer 






42 -;k 


embafr 




before 


«•% 


te/jtuti 




ibis 


46.^ 


qem 




to find 


47.^5 


l}am 




to snare, to hunt 



48, 51. 3^, ^ TeJiuti the god Thoth 

53. <5^ ha the heart-soul 

54. «n£^ bain souls 



66 


LIST OF SIGNS. 


55. ^ 


bale 


to toil, to labour 


58.^ 


X u 


the spirit-soul 


GO. ~5S 


bennu 


a bird identified with the phoenix 


61. "&- 


bdJ m i 


to flood, to inundate 


63. ^ 


us~a 


to make fat 


64. ^ 


teier 


red 


66. ^j 


Ufa 


bread, cake, food 


67.^ 


sa 


goose, son 


»-V 


Ufa (?) 


food 


70.^ 


set 


to make to shake with fear, to 
tremble 


71. V 


aq 


duck, to go in 


72.^ 


hetem 


to destroy 


™-K 


pa 


to fly 


7 ,^ 


x en 


to hover, to alight 


"■ W 


qema, ben 


to make, to lift up, to distinguish 


™-\ 


teb 









BIRDS. 


— PARTS OF BIRDS. 


79. ^^r 


ur 


swallow, great 


80. ^ 


$erdu 


sparrow, little 


«■%» 


ti 


a bird of the eagle kind 


82.^ 


re%it 


intelligent person, mankind 


83. ^> 


u 


chicken 


87 '^ 


fa 




90. JJ22, J 


sc5 


birds' nest 


91. (S3- 


senf 


dead bird, fear, terror 


92 -«^v 


ba 


soul 



67 



b. Parts of Birds. 

1. ^jj sa } apt goose, feathered fowl 

3. ^ ner head of vulture 

4. ^ pelf 

8. ~^* = yu head of the bennu bird 

9 - =?? ™X 

10. y2) o,ma% eye of a hawk 



68 

11. ^Sl tenb 

13. K 6u, mad 

17. /■»— & ermcn 

18. JL *<* 

20. /-= — 

21. ^> *a 



LIST OF SIGNS, 
wing, to fly 

feather, what is right and true 
to bear, carry 
foot of a bird 
to cut, to engrave 
son, with o t daughter 



1 

2. <£K 

4 



9. Amphibious Animals. 
§et turtle, evil, bad 

aS lizard, abundance 

at, seqa crocodile, to gather together 
ctOi, henti prince 
5, 6. «43s»> ( S^s. at crocodile 

the god Sebek 

crocodile skin, black 
the goddess IJeqt 
young frog, 100,000 



7. Jg\ Sebek 

8. s — i qam 

9. ^ Heqt 
10. < v*> a . lief en 



16. 



dr& 



serpent, goddess 



AMPHIBIOUS ANIMALS. — FI£IL 69 

Meh.ent the goddess Meljent 



14. 

15. 

19. W| dtur shrine of a serpent goddess 

22. *^y^ bef,fent worm 

24. •ty&hh Jpep the adversary of Ra, Apophis 



25. ^) 


t, tet 


serpent, body 


27 -1h 


met 




30. *— 


f 


a cerastes, asp 


31. f- 


sef 




32. *~a 


per 


to come forth 


33. ^a 


aq 


to enter in 


37. <«) 


ptalj, 


to break open 
10. Fish. 


i.<& 


tin 


fish 


3.^ 


betu 


fish 


6.*-* 


sepa 


centipede 


9 -^ 


n&r 





70 

10. ^ t a 

» oes 

14. Qd x e Pt 



LIST OF SIGNS. 

dead fish or thing 

to transport 
thigh (?) 

11. Insects. 



1. 

4. 

7. 



net, bat bee 

sut en net 
(or bat) 

Xeper 



"King of the South and North" 



«/ 



to roll, to become, to come into 
bei: 



being 



8. jj^. seneliem grasshopper 

9. glgp serq scorpion 



12. Trees and Plants. 
1, 2. A, ffl dm tree, what 'is pleasant 

6. ^ 6ener palm tree 

7. $X& .... acacia 

9. vj^- ffit branch of a tree, wood 



renp, ter shoot, young twig, year 

eternal year 
time 

a thorn 

shoot, name of a goddess and city 



TREES AND PLANTS. 71 

13,14.f,{ 

15,16,17.£,£J 
1, £ - 

19 ' i ~ 
20, 21. ^, J sept 

22. I. ne%eb 

11 enen — 

24. I su, suten king of the South 

25, 27. -=1^, -^ sliema south, name of a class of priestess 
^- tk res > south 

28,29.1,1 I 

® ; res south 
30, 31. ^, <|> J 

feather 



33 



• 1 



34. j| 

35 

36 



d 
t 

■ 

t 

seyet 
ah 



to go 

plants growing in a field 



an offering 



ia, akh 



72 

37. T,T,T 

38. TtTtT 

40. ]J7 fan 
42,43.^,1^ 
44. Jr meld 

45 - II 



LIST OF SIGNS. 

lotus and papyrus flowers growing, 
field 

cluster of flowers or plants 

cluster of lotus flowers 

the North, the Delta country, the 
land of the lotus 



Ml 

48. "^f 
55. (^ 
58. 
02. 

63 -fe 

67. 4. 

68. I 
70. I 



> res , the South, the papyrus country 



uat young plant, what is green 



nehem 



flower 
ilower bud 

lotus flower 



un 

ien 



flower 



73, 77. ], <J Ut, ut to give commands 



TREES AND PLANTS. 



73 



74, 75. Y, "HK fret white, shining, light 

78. ^T %t*tf an instrument, to turn back 

80. fl| met to give birth 

— the union of the South and North 



81, 

82. 

83. 

86. *&t> — 

88.^ 

89.^) 

90. » 

' ' ; drp grapes growing, wine 

91 rri 

92. o info' pomegranate 



> beti barley 
grain 
6en granary, barn, storehouse 



93 



3,94.J,p 



96. 



bener sweet, pleasant 



98. o netem sweet, pleasant 



74 LIST OF SIGNS. 

13. Heaven, Earth and Water. 
1. F=q pet, fyer what is above, heaven 

' *' I kerb s ky with a star or lamp, night 

water falling from the sky, dew, 



4. §ffl dtet 

5. flfp Oe/jen lightning 

6 p=> ^gj-< one half of heaven 



rain 



7. © Ra, hru the Sun-god, day 

9. {S> X u radiance 

10, 11. O, «a tftf the Sun-god 

Q the sun sending forth rays, splen- 

13. ^ xu.,uber. dour 

„ , A „ . the star Sothis, to be provided 

14. A bept 

LA with 

IQ ^Qj — the sun's disk with uraci 

17. vss? — winged disk 

23, 25. Q, ^ X s tne rising sun 

26. O paut cake, offering, ennead of goda 

28. ^=>n *per a rib, to arrive at 



HEAVEN, EARTH AND WATER 75 

29. **y*s aah, dbt moon, month 

35. ^c sba, tua star, star of dawn, hour, to pray 

36. ^) tuat the underworld 



37. 

)ta land 

s&t i or 

40. f^^o \ mountainous land 

semi) 

41. (Jl^ — foreign, barbarian 

42. C=3 tu mountain, wickedness 
44. c2] %ut horizon 



45, 46. rfrfff , 3ffFE /<esp, sept norae 

the land on one side of the Nile ; 

\> 
48. n — land 



47. V dteb ^_ all Egypt 



49. *-£* uat, her a road, a way 

50. / l$es, m side 

51. 52. CD, tnnn dner stone 

53. o id (?) sand, grain, fruit, nuts 

55. *a/ww n surface of water, water 



76 

57. 
58. 
60. 
61. 
62. 
64. 
66. 
68. 
69. 
70. 
71. 
72. 



LIST OF SIGNS. 



AA/VAAA 

w*~w mu water 



mer 



can sha 
*=JP Sem 



€EE3 Amen 

CZD da 

8 %uti 

W i>4 



ditch, watercourse, to love 

lake 

to go 

lake 

the god Amen 

island 

the two horizons (t. e., East and 
West) 

swamp, marsh 



XZf I liemt, baa metal, iron ore {or copper ore ?) 



& 



14. Buildings. 
1. © nu town, city 

3. n per house, to go out 

^ I V er ~X eru sepulchral meals or offerings 



7. 

8. 

10. 

11, 
13. 
14. 
16. 
17. 
19. 
29. 
32. 
36. 
37. 
41. 
43. 
44. 
45. 



C+3 per Tj.e( 

n h } 

Lfl wer ) 
hetu 



on 



BUILDINGS. 77 

"white house", treasury 

quarter of a city (?) 

house, temple 
temples, sanctuaries 
god's house 

great house 

Lady of the house, t. e., Neph- 
thys 

MwJ Het-Heru House of Horus, i. e., Hathor 

§j olid, great house, palace 

l^i use%t hall, courtyard 

3 E dneb, sebti wall, fort 



n\ 



u 



neter fat 
fret da 
Nebt-het 



^S^ uhen 

- 

■o 1 



, seb 



Jp 3 qenb 



to overthrow 
fortified town 

door, gate 
corner, an official 



78 




LIST OF SlfiNS. 


48. T 


hap 




to hide 


B1 ' &2 -A-A- 




pyramid 


53. 1 


teyen 




obelisk 


54. 


ulu 




memorial tablet 


55. fl 


u X a 




pillar 


61. | 


%aker 




a design or pattern 


62. m 


seh, ar 


1 


a hall, council-chamber 


set heb 


(?) 


festival celebrated eve 
thirty years 


65 -ffi 


heb 




festival 


67. A 






double staircase, to go up 


68. ,/] 


W*> 




staircase, to go up 


69. "fiiiimi 


da 




leaf of a door, to open 


70. -— 


8 




a bolt, to close 


71. -7J- 


as, se&j 


mes 


to bring, to bring quickly 


72, 73. jx^si, •**»-> 


Us 


to tie in a knot 


74. -<joi»- 


times 






7o. v y 


Amsu 




the god Amsu (or Min ?) 


76. {J 


qet 







SHIPS AND PARTS OF SHIPS. - SEATS, TABLES, ETC. 79 



1. 



^| 



15. Ships and parts op Ships. 



uda, %et boat, to sail down stream 



2. ^| 

5, 6. ^2^, Co? uJta loaded boat, to transport 



14. 



16. Xp. 
19. I 

»■ I 

23. as 

61. *Ai 

62. 

63. 



2. Jj] 



— to sail up stream 

we/, fau wind, breeze,, air, breath 

Slid to stand 

Jem helm, rudder 

Xeru paddle, voice 

seSep 

Jjennu the name of a sacred boat 

— boats of the sun 



16. Seats, Tables, etc. 
&8t, Auset seat, throne, the goddess Isis 

l,iet 

3. £^ — seat, throne 






5. c=&=> sever 

6. — Q— hetep 
9. fl\ *er 

20, 22. gg, | 
23, 24. R, |S| 
25. i^°-J dot 
27. A *e& 
28,29.|,^ dn 
30. tt Je» 
81, 33. ft, | d« 
36. 



37. 






> new 



80 LIST OF SIGNS. 

5, 6. S^Z-, £=a- «s 

7 - ^ l , fe r 

8. ^1 

9. (1 . 

1 . ^4^ sem, ses"em 



to lie down in sleep or death 



clothes, linen 

table of offerings 
what is under, beneath 

funeral chest, sarcophagus 

zone, district 
to provide with 
pillar, light tower (?) 



squeezing juice from grapes i 
the god Shesmu or Seshmu 



38. II. | 



SEATS, TABLES, ETC. — TEMPLE FURNITURE. 81 

meter to use violence 



39. TO.J 

41. I # I $es linen, clothing, garments 

43. ^ uri pillow 

44. Y un-lira mirror 

45. 46.*^f , T serit, %aibit fan, shadow 
47. PQ. »inx a scales, to weigh 

50. r£j ) 

K N ttfa to balance, to test by weighing 

52,53,54.) 

to wake up 
55. 



•i 1' il' 1 u * es ' res t0 raise up ' 



„ a reed whistle, what is right 

07. /rrzi maat . . , . 

or straight 

58. *"™^" dot standard 

17. Temple Furnitoiuc. 
2. Sr^ x OM * ft l tar 

4. ¥ — fire standard 

axe or some instrument used in 
13. "1 neter the performance of magical ce- 

' remonies 



82 LIST OF SIGNS. 

16. ft ~L neter %ert the underworld 

the tree-trunk that held the dead 



18. 


fl 


r^ 


body of Osiris, stability 


20. 


I 


swia 


to unite 


22. 


1 


sen 


brother 


23. 


I 


**en 




26. 


.6. 

T 


db 


the left side 


28. 


1 


dm 


to be in 


29. 


/)fe. 


Seseta 


name of a goddess 






18. 


Clothing, etc. 


1. 


^ 


meflt 


head-gear 


7. 


Q 


xeperS 


helmet 


8. 


<J 


fyeC 


the White crown of the South 


9. 


J 


res 


the South land 


11. 


V 


teSer 


the Red crown of the North 


12. 


y 


mefrt 


the North land 


13. 


y 


sexet 


the White and Red crowns united 


14. 


e 


u, sad 


cord, one hundred 



CLOTHING, ETC. 83 



17 W 

17 - vU 


£wtfi 


two feathers 


»JJU 


atef 


plumes, disk and horns 


24 - a 


meli 


crown, tiara 


25.(25) 1 
26.^ J 


usex 


breast plate 


28. fc? 


daj 


collar 


29. ^Fnt^ 


sat 


garment of network 


30 -^l 


&?ni 


tunic 


32.^ 


#e&« 


linen, garments, apparel 


34.23d 


wesen 




36. <—^ 


«icr, ne» 


tongue, director 


38. g 


<efo 


sandal 


39. Q 


£en, yetem 


circle, ring 


41. /^V 


\&mt, tem$ 


to collect, to join together 


42. | 


6e* 


buckle 


43, ^ 


flnx 


life 



84 

«■ (54 

47. tf=^ 

Din 

50. } 

52. j 
56. 
59. 

60. \ 
61. 

62. | 

64. J 

65. ? 

G6. "j 

73. 
74. 

76. 
77. 



sefaut 

mendt 

kep 

dper 

Xerp 

se%em 

anient 

yu 

Alt 
heq 
tcli am 
Uast 
usr 

dvies 
X u 
Beb 
se%er 



LIST OF SIGNS. 

a seal and cord 

an instrument worn and carried 
by deities and men 



to be equipped 

to direct, to govern 

to be strong, to gain the mastery 

the right side 

fly-flapper 

the emblem containing the head 
of Osiris worshipped at Abydos 

sceptre, to rule 

sceptre 

Thebes 

strength, to be strong 

name of a sceptre 

flail or whip 

the firstborn son of Osiris 

fringe (?) 



ARMS AND ARMOUR. 



85 



19. Arms and Armour. 



>• 1 
11 

1 



Ham 

qema, 

aq 



, nehes, 1 
i, tela j 



db 

seteb, seteb 



1,*'%\& 



9. J 
10. } 



fep 
%epe§ 
%aut 
k 

qet 
14, 15. \^, >^. tes 

19. [p> nemmet 

20. ^ setem 
pet 



11. v=^ 
12. 
13. ^ 



21. 

25. cj=o 

26. c^o j 



sta, or ati 



foreign person, to make, 

finger 

what is opposite, middle 



what is hostile 

axe 

the first, the beginning 

scimitar 

knife 

knife 

dagger 

knife 

block of slaughter 



bow 

the front of any thing 



86 LIST OF SIGNS. 

28. j=< pe$ to stretch out, to extend 

33. *— <* set arrow, to shoot 

38. Lj— jJ sa the side or back 

41. <-=> da great 

42. <— sun arrow 

43. **-» %a body 

45. s^ | 

„ V wri< chariot 

20. Tools, etc. 

1. % — m , 

2. fs^ <d< emanation 

3. £• — » setep to select, to choose 



en adze 



4.^| 
5.rO 

7. =v #«* to fight, to smite 

8. 1? ma sickle 

9. *~£? mad sickle cutting a reed (?) 



TOOLS, ETC 87 

2. V- mer, hen to love 

3. < >s >^ ' heb } ar,per to plough, hall, growing things 

4. tpzzr tern to make perfect, the god Teinu 

5. Jn bat miraculous, wonderful 

8-cL " 

9 - ) » 

20. | — metal 

21. J (a fire-stick (?) 

26. Q men% good, to perform 

28. t hemt workman 

29. ¥ aba to open out a way 



31. 9 ^,(db,ab f ) di death 

I mer ' 

35. | net to break 

38. „cZ- ud one 

40. )ck Net the goddess Neit'h 

42. n ie8 t Sema to follow after, follower 

45. a qes bone 



seh 



88 
47. 

48. 1^ 

49. A hep 

50. f 5 *^ nub 

53. f5ta^ hel 

54. F$r\ uasm, smu 

55. ^1 se^et 



LIST OF SIGNS. 



estate, farm 

to hide away 

gold 

silver 

refined copper 

fowler's net 



21. Cordwork, Network. 



1. <5. u, 6aci 

2. — <£- sta 
5. A an 

6 - 5 L » 

v £es, g;es, geo 

8. * { 

9, 10. o^, ^ — 
13. ^ arq 

15, 16. ««\, •<£( mefr 



cord, one hundred 
to pull, to haul along 
to be long, extended 
pious, sacred 

to fetter, linen bandage 

to unfasten, book, writing 
to bring to the end 
to fill 



17.*^ 


set 


to gain possession of 


21. xzx: 


I 




22>-< 


> at {ant) 


part of a fowler's net 


23. § 


Sen 


circuit 


25 - ® 


sent 


outline for foundation 
building 


26. f) 


ua 


magical knot (?) 


27. fl\ 


ru\ 


plant, growing things 


28. ^ 

29. -HW- 


> sa 


amulet, protection 


30. | 


h 


rope 


31.^. 


her 


k + r 


32. -jp 


ha 


b + a 


34. 1 

35. ^|* 


sek 




37. | 


uah 


to place, be permanent 


39. e==g 


uten 


offerings 


40. *=r 


(eben 


to go round about 



90 

43. s= 

44. s^r 3 ^t (?) 

45. Q ut 

46. H3 se* 



LIST OF SIGNS. 
rer, V e X er, 1 to g0 rounfl about 

6 (th) 



to take possession oT 

to bandage, substance which 
has a strong smell 

flowing liquid 



22. Vessels. 



i- tf 



Bast 



name of a city and of a god- 
dess 



4. 


1 


fcea 


to sing, to praise, to be fa 
voured 


5. 


ft 


qebfy 


cold water, coolness 


6. 


I 


\en 


king, majesty, servant 


7. 


1 


neter lien 


divine servant, priest 


8. 
9. 


rfTh J 


Xent 


what is in front 


11. 


8 


ynem 


to unite, to be joined to 


14. 


4 


art 


milk 


17. 


*> 


te X 


unguent 



VESSEIA 91 

20. -Aft- drp wine 

21. O nu, qet, net liquid 

22. K an to bring 

23. «0> d& heart 

25. /"° | rtft 

\ . ' to be clean, ceremonially pure 

26, ST. ^J, j^> j "** 



29. y md as, like 

31. vj #en£, d6, w*ex mistress, lady, broad 



33. 


ta 


cake, bread - 


37, 38.(^x61 


fire 


39. ^ 


ba 


bowl containing grains of in- 
cense on fire 


40. e 


ter 


bowl containing fruit (?) 


41. £ 


£ 


libation vase 


43. ^z^ 


neb 


lord, all, bowl 


44.^=* 


k 


flat bowl with ring handle 


49. *3£? 


> heb 


festival 



92 LIST OF SIGNS. 

53. ,-£> I 

\ at, beti grain, barley and the like 

55. f^> I 







23. 


Offerings. 


l, 2. <s>, 


0=0 ' 






3, 4. ao, 


C°3 


> ta 


bread, cake 


5,6. e, 


e 






10. © 


paut 




bread, cake 


9 


paut 




company of nine gods 


14. © 


sep 




time, season 


17. e 


X 




a sieve 


22 - A 


tA 




to give 


23. & 


ter 






24. £> 


%emt 




bronze 


D 


ta 




. . . • • • 



24. Musical instruments, writing materia is, etc. 

jp» writing reed, inkpot and pa 

1. j^ an, sesk ^ fo ^^ to paint 

2. c^£=a *3* (■) * papyrus roll, book 



MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS, ETC. — LINE CHARACTERS. 93 
3. t=ifcsj mesen 

to play music 
sistrum 

instrument like a lute, good 

10. ^dtiE Nefer-Temu the god Nefer-Temu 

11. ^^ sa syrinx, to know 

12. tHHh men to abide 




25. Line characters, etc. 



1. l ua 



one 



2, 4. |||,i — sign of plural 

5. >\ ui sign of dual 

1- X sei to split 

9. met ten, nn = ftwt« twenty, nnn 
= mob thirty 

10. -fj-, -0- herit fear, awe 

11. 3 ten to split, to separate 

12. o e cake 



94 LIST OF SIGNS. 

14. — h- te{ what is said 

a . "another reading", i. «., var- 

, hi tet . . j. 

— +— * lant reading 

15. h+h qen, set, at boundary, border 

19. CZZH ren name 

20. s — > sen to depart 
22. . — (f seqer captive 

25. (2 apt part of a palace or temple 

27. «^o per, at, beti grain, wheat, barley 

29, 30. (L J ncm 

38, 40. |D|) door 

46. c== lyes side, half 



CHAPTER V. 

PRONOUNS AND PRONOMINAL SUFFIXES. 

The personal pronominal suffixes are : — 
Sing. 1. (J, $, |, |, | A 

„ 2. m. *zzm K 



„ 2.f. -,*=-,$ T,TH(0) 

3. m. *~^ P 



it 



n 3. f. -^- or I S 



piur. i. ;t; N 

2. A/WVVA /V/WN/VA TEN, OEN 

" i i r i i i 

■ II rt /VWNAA 

3. **~\ I SEN 
w i i r I i i i 

The following examples illustrate their use : — 
?b^ Ha ba-d my soul 

j}J)J) Q ' <^» *e X e*-fc thy field 



96 EXAMPLES OP PRONOMINAL SUFFIXES. 

emma-t with thee 

P ^\ h (j ° k-^_ Suit-f his shade 

A ii wl ~"~~ mefets her words 

M SA ^"^ AAAAAA <* &* fin - n what was said by us 

ISM «=*' i i i J 

® I a/vww nut-ten your cities 

-=^X 1 hati-sen their heart. 

o WVll I I 

These suffixes, in the singular, when following a 
word indicating the noun in the dual, have the dual 

■<2>- * — 

ending w i added to them ; thus merti-Ji "his 



two eyes"; V\ XbJ/ muti-fi "his two serpent 

fnothers"; „ ~* xv dui-fi "his two arms"; 

retui-fi "his two legs". 
The forms of the pronouns are : — 

I. Sing.l. ^$,^1 UA 

„ 2.m. J^> s=^> TU,6U 

„ 3.m. \\\ SU 

„ 3.f. [U,"^ SET 

AAAAAA __ 

Plur.l. , , , N 

„ 2. ~^\ ^ TEN.6EN 

77 i i r i i i 

ft AAAAAA II 

„ 3. I , SEN 



II 



Sing. 1. 
„ 2.in. 
„ 2.f. 
„ 3. m. 
„ 3.f. 



PRONOUNS. 



A^ 



AAAAAA *W\AAA 



AAAAAA AAAA/NA 
WW /W>/\AA 
A/VWNA A/WWV 



Plur. 1. (wanting) 
„ 2 



A/WSAA C5 A/VAAAA 

AA/WW 

° I I l' <=» 



97 
NUK, ANUK 
ENTEK, ENTUK 
ENTET, ENTUT 
ENTEF, ENTUF 
ENTES, ENTUS. 



tk ~^ ENTETEN, 

V X AAAAAA _ " 

JT. . . ENTUTEN 



Aaaaaaa aaaaaa r» aaaaaa ENTFSFN 

I'i i i' ^ <a| i i i ENTUSEN. 



The following are examples of the use of some of 
these : — 



M^M- 1 



dnuk 
1 



paik 
thy 



sen §erdu 
brother younger. 



2 







J J\ 

A/WWV I 

as ben dnuk 
Behold, not [am] I 



^1S\ 



taik muft 

thy mother? 

~ 1,111 

smen iier auset en dtef 

Thou [art] stablished upon the seat of the divine father. 



V <0 I AAAAAA H U \A I eU 

entek smen her duset 



98 

AAAAAA 

entef secern 
He leadeth 



DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN& 



va 
me. 



fen-f 



tet en sen an fon-f entuten d% 
Said to them his majesty, ye [are] what? 



The demonstrative pronouns are 



Sing. m. 
„ f. 



□ 

/www 

d 

AAAAAA 

D D 

K 1 X 



„ 111. 

„ m. 
n * 
Plur. m. (I D , 

] aaaaaa" 

] aaaaaa' AA 



a 

AAAAAA 



AAAAAA 
AAAAAA -71 AAAAAA -Jl \\ 



PEN this 

TEN this 

PEF, PEFA that 

TEF, TEFA that 

PA this 

TA this. 

APEN, PEN these 

APTEN, PETEN these 

^"2^5 NEFA those 



NA 
PAU 



these 
these. 



EXAMPLES OP THEIR USE 99 

The following are examples of the use of these : — 

O AA/VWN \ / PI 

1.8 V A 

hena dp pen 

With messenger this. 

*!P1 (IT, k D«l ? n- .1 

$es - sen em hetu nu sat(!) ten 

They shall recite the chapters of book this. 

MP ft ,1 ¥ ^ - 

d* ser pef en Sa sper er 

Behold, prince that of Sais went forth to 

oi: - M^ 

Aneb-l.ietet em u%a 

Memphis in the night. 

as pefa pu tet en setem 

Behold, that which is said to the listeners]. 

nuk tefa hetet sat Ed 

I [amj that scorpion the daughter of Ru. 



100 



DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 



tu 



mM 



amma - tu amu-a 

Grant thou that I may eat 



f 



maast 
liver 



en 
of 



pax 
this 



dJj, 
ox. 



e»*<a - nd hekau dpen 

May be given to me words of power these. 



8. 



/wwsa ^ y\ 
dn dq 

Not shall enter 



i i 

qemtu - k 

thy disasters 



en ta 

the 



em 
into 



D ^ 



at - d dpten 

my members these. 



9 -!^i^2i;ri^ 



?^- 



alia - 6d ere/c ?na nefa 

Thou art standing like these 



10. 



/VWVAA *V /WVW4 M 

na jm en ** em-sa 
These are who [are] behind 



pa 
the 



Asdrtiu 

divine Osiris 
beings. 

Thigh. 



RELATIVE PRONOUN& 101 

<5 



pan setem en neteru 
these heard of the gods. 



Other words for "this" are 0\^ ennu, and A. A., 

4-4*. or 4"f enen, and they are used thus : — 



aaaaaa T^ —TJs. M 1 1 <w\aaa -^ U " 



AAAAAA ^V ^^ tk fl A 

v — Zl AAAAAA _Zl I I 



ewnu ennui en pet 

This canal of heaven. 

— "^ tc*\ T^*\ rv.1 r "P f 3TJ! 



ts, - k maa-a enen yeper 

Grant thou [that] I may see this [which] happeneth 



em. maat - k 
in thine eye. 

The relative pronouns are U V& d and ' WWSA ent, or 

AAAAAA . AAAAAA ' i— L ^ 

M enu or entet, and they are used thus : — 

X,u Qenru ast d 

Glorious things [and] mighty deeds many which 



I 



AAAAAA \J. 

he did as king. 



102 RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 

M* kO 1i n ~ Uh\ 

an ementuf a dri-tu nef hebsu 
It was he who made for him clothes. 

hest dat ent yer suten 

Favour great which [he had] with the king. 



AAAAAA 



' <= £ > K**- QLxQxl a « J5*^ Squill 

drit-nef dput neb enti em se%et 
He did errand every which [was] in the fields. 



5 / I I /WVN* 

es o oil 

enietf em nw< - sen 



Which [was] in city their. 

The reflexive pronouns are formed by adding the 
word *) tes to the pronominal suffixes thus : — 

"^ VJf tes " & myself 



^ 



ID 



lilt 



tes-lc 


thyself 


tes-t 


thyself (fern.) 


te»-f 


himself 


tes-s 


herself 


lessen 


themselves. 



REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS 
Examples of the use of these are :- 



103 



OHM J 
net-d 



tet-a 



% - no net-a tet-a fes-d 

I have come, and I have avenged my body my own. 

suta - kud md sufa - k 

I have made myself strong as thou hast made 



tu fes-k 
strong thyself. 



^ 



1 S 



em dn neter tesef 
In the writing of the god himself. 



Q w 



I 



~\ 



dnuu - f 
He writeth 



^^ T i <ia^> 



nek §ait 


en 


for thee the Book 


of 


^ m*L s 





AA/VNAA AAAAAA _ 

sensen em iebau-f fesef 

Breathings with his fingers his own. 



104 USE OF REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. 

fet ta netert em re - s fes - s 
Speaketh the goddess with her mouth her own. 

6. ® S^7 ^^ f f ~~™ . . . . t\ r^ 

<=>^ ^ I I I | | III ,^> ' ^ 

yer - sen her krd - sen em ta 

They fall down upon face their .... in land 



ill 
fes - sen 
heir own. 



CHAPTER VI. 

NOUNS. 

Nouns in Egyptian are either masculine or feminine. 
Masculine nouns end in U, though this characteristic 
letter is usually omitted by the scribe, and feminine 
nouns end in T. Examples of the masculine nouns 
are : — 

m SO or m ^° hru day 
@ V& dnu scribe 



^ |% F ? =;| lperlu night, 

but these words are just as often written ' " * , ras V& 
and ^ x ]r 7T~ i - Other examples are : — 

D x A d P envoy 

I | gSa j qeres sepulchre 

J neter god 

re chapter, mouth. 



106 FEMININE NOUNS. 

Examples of feminine nouns are : 





iat 


book 


D *a 


pe* 


heaven 


mJJJ\> 


«ex e * 


field 




seb%et 


pylon 


i:a 


netert 


goddess 


^5^ 


fept 


boat 



D q 

Masculine nouns in the plural end in U or IU, and 
feminine nouns in the plural in UT, but often the T is 
not written ; examples are : — 

anyxu living beings 

the forms in which 



f 



t~TC~1 



| Z&emu the godg appear 



? r=x Y& J) j ftou {^V^ ^ * 






i ii i i 



shau doors 



I ^^5W VI suteniu netiu (or bdtiu) 

l hemut women 

I 



i o J&3lL i Kings of the South and North 



satut daughters 



«=>< 9 me/m< offerings 

fj S ! dswtf places. 



PLURAL NOUNS. 107 

The oldest way of expressing the plural is by writ- 
ing the ideograph or picture sign three times, as the 
following examples taken from early texts will shew : — 



m 


re{ 


legs 


tt% 


X u 


spirits 


11 _J L_ _J 1 1 


per 


houses, habitations 


o a o 


hemut 


women 


© 
© © 


nut 


cities 


MMM 


sexet 
uat 


fields 


S^E^S^S 


ways, roads. 



Sometimes the picture sign is written once with three 
dots, o or ooo, placed after it thus : — 

*° 

o x u spirits 

The three dots or circles o afterwards became modi- 

I ° 

fied into i or III, and so became the common sign of the 

plural. 

Words spelt in full with alphabetic or syllabic signs 

are also followed at times by o : — 

a o re6 men 

y ^\ frunut young women 



108 



MODE OP EXPRESSING TOE PLURAL 



l \\ l 



ft! 

Jl oo 



urau 



great ones 
rru little ones. 



The plural is also expressed in the earliest times by 
writing the word in alphabetic or syllabic signs followed 
by the determinative written thrice : — 



Jl» 



•IPtPIP 



PlJlll 



bat 

besek 

arrt 

qesu 

sefeb 

ermen 



hearts 

intestines 

abodes 

bones 

obstacles 

arms 



I — M rl in il in rl H nl in. 



d/emw-*e&tt a class of stnrs 
8e%et fields 



* 
* * 



il&wlll 



seb 

petet 

(dm 



stars 
bows 
sceptres. 



In the oldest texts the dual is usually expressed by 
adding UI or TI to the noun, or by doubling the 



THE DUAL. 109 

picture sign thus :— ^; the two eyes, *$*$ the two 
ears, ~ — ° the two hands, CZ^ the two lips, and the 
like. Frequently the word is spelt alphabetically or 
syllabically and is determined by the double picture 
sign, thus : — 

the two divine souls 

the double heaven, t. e., North and 



o f=r South 

the two sides 






the two lights. 



Instead of the repetition of the picture sign two 
strokes, II were added to express the dual, thus 
S Jj Hap, the double Nile-god. But in later times 

the two strokes were confused with w, which has the 
value of I, and the word is also written x Jj ; but 
in each case the reading is Hapui. The following are 
examples of the use of the dual : — 

arit - nef te%enui urui em mat 
He made two obelisks great of granite 

2 -^ L!VI1J1 £>• 

-pa te%enui urui 

The two obelisks great. 



110 THE DUAL. 

«■ i r = h\§ sv 

nefer lira em iuti urui 

Beautiful of face with two plumes great. 

er dmtu beyenti urti 

Between the two pylons great. 

Baui-fi pui en dmu Tefet 

His double soul that which [is] in Tattu 

{Busiris). 

«■ Mi s &tm 

baui \er-ab fafui 

The divine souls within the two divine Tchafui. 

baui-fi lier-abui tafui ba 

His double soul within the two Tchafui [are] the soul 

a\ ~~~ of 35$ d^> — J^ 

pit en Ha ba pu en Asar 

of Ra, [and] the soul of Osiris. 



w HI £1 ill 



X# - kud em sati - Qen 

I have risen as two daughters your. 



EXAMPLES OF ITS USE 111 

MT2DTIrr.HKM ITM 

dnet hrdu - Qen Rehti Senti 

Homage to you [ye] two opponents, [ye] two sisters, 



Merti 
[ye] two Mert goddesses. 



tep aui senti - k 

Upon the two hands of thy two sisters. 



CHAPTER VII. 



THE ARTICLE. 



The definite article masculine is AX or 
PA, the feminine is o<|\ TA, and the plural^is 

a/ww> /ww*. _Ct^v> * 

\ NA 0r \ " — NA EN ; the followin g examples 
will explain the use of the article. 



*a/w\a jr /www u »^ 

na pw en£i em-so 
Those are who [are] behind 



pa 
the 



%epe§ 
star Thigh 



D 



em pet 
in heaven. 



pa bes 

The flame 



en 
of 



I 

/w 

nnnj ■ ■ ■ • o 

uat en Qefyent 
tablet of 



TftT 

crystal. 



X 



seSet 
fire 



J.inct 
and 



pa 
the 



THE ARTICLE 



113 



3. 



nuk 
I [am] 



pa 
the 



ha 
Soul 



en 
of 



ta 
the 



fat cLdt 
Body great. 



4. 



re% 
I know 

nn;, 
nn 

XLII en 
forty-two who 



had ren 

the name 



en 
of 



pa 
the 



1 

neter 
god[s] 



^a» 



AAA/WW 

uneniu 
exist 



14* I 



Q AAA/VAA 



with thee. 



ne/er jpa 
Good [is] the 



stimu em ta 

grass in the place 



dset 



CSSJl 

AAAAAA J 

<=> I 



ment 
such and such. 



^ 



a - mk & 



The 



<£ 






J}emt 
wife 



en 
of 



his 



sen d,a 
brother elder 



& 



I 

her 



P- 



/<em« 
she was sitting at 
1 /. e., she was sitting dressing her hair 



we&£ - set 
her hair. * 



114 



THE ARTICLE. 



7. Ik 2=2 I 



na 
The 



T 
SerSeru 

winds (air) 



A° 

AAAAAA [ I 

111© 

£eps e» j4nnw 

venerable of Annu. 



en 
of 



/./[a] e<3e£ 

the acacia tree 



<§. 



au-f 



I 



«»-=» 



He 



K 

%atbu 
slew 



taif 
his 



ii ? ito" p- r - 

dw-/ #er #a3 ' se * na en 
he threw her [to] the 



9. ^» 1 

AAAAA/X AAAAAA 

«w an pa 
The 



l\in 



#em< 
wife, 

dogs. 



© 



^ 



s£i /jer %eperu em 

smell became in 






n n 



na en Zie6*w en Aa-perti 
the garments of Pharaoh. 



The masculine indefinite article is expressed by 
aaaaaa u& en, and the feminine by l **** uat 



THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE 



115 



en 5 the words ud, en and uat en mean, literally, "one 
of". Examples are : — 



qet • nef 
He built 



«^2_ 



ua 



J 



/WWVA 



en bexennu 

a house 



am 
with 



£e£ - f em 
his own hand in 



ta 
the 



no* 

M /VSAAAA 



as 



ant pa 
valley of the cedar. 



du-f Iter an 



He 



>4 



o 



brought 



<fe£ - k 
fashion thou 






en sfent fcete 

a knife [for cutting] reeds. 



a 



en 



set 
wife 



hemt 



en 
for 



Batau 
Batau. 



4. 



#er ar 
When 



ft 

thou 



"S 



<=» <S 



^em - y emtuk 

findest it, thou shalt 



116 



THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE. 



§ _ 

I <* <2. 

her t&tu-f 

put it 



er ucL en 
into a 



Ipai en 

pot of 



*/ww\ 
/www 

AAA/W\ 

water 



US — M tT* 



cold, [and] verily 



an% - a 
I shall live. 



pa Rd \er tat 



au 



/WWW 
A/WWV 
/WWW 



The Ra 



%eperu ua en 
caused to become a 



(2. * . ■ (5 



er drt£ - f er 

stream great between him [and] between 



viu 






l! 



his 



sen aa 
brother elder. 



From the union of the definite article with the per- 
sonal suffixes is formed the following series of words :— 



MASCULINE. 



FEMININ2. 



1 ' c - t } pai-a 



> tai-d 



DEFINITE ARTICLE WITH PERSONAL SUFFIXES. 1 1 7 

zzz* tai-k 
> tai-t 



pai-k 
pai-t 



I I I 



pai-f 
pais 
pai-set 
pain 



"ww pax-ten 

iii ■* 



I I I 
III 



Till 1 



pax-sen 
pai-u 

nai-d 
nai-a 
nai-k 
nai-d 
nai-t 
nai-f 
nai-s 



\ 



\ 



tai-f 
tai-8 
tai-set 
tai-n 



i i i 



<ww« tax-ten 
i I \ 

"**** tax-sen 
i i i 



COMMON. 

AAAAAA f\ f\ A/VSAAA 

I I I 



AA/VW» 
I I I 



tai-u 



nax-n 



nai-ten 



i i i 



<2 



nai-v. 



1 18 DEFINITE ARTICLE WITH FE1JS0NAL SUFFIXES. 

The following examples will illustrate their use : — 
1. 



pai-d sen da Iter sdnnu - nd 

My brother elder hurried me. 



pai-d neb nefer 

My lord beautiful. 



d# ^ai - k i em - sa-d er 

Fie on thy coming after me to 



%albu 
slay [me]. 

%er pai-t hai emma-d 

For thy husband [is] to me 

em seyeru en dtef 

in the guise of a father. 



EXAMPLES- 



119 



* w % °& - m^ m 



ds to 
Behold the 



\errd 
wife 



en 
of 



pai-f 
his 



sen da 
brother elder 



senpu - Od 
was afraid. 



(|e (1. 






di* - set #er fe£ en 
She said to 



pax - set 
her 



@ 



sdu 
keeper. 



au hcLti - sen \ier netem \er pax - sen 
Were their hearts rejoicing over their 



I JT <£ 
rd baku 

doing of work. 



8. 



temit 
That not 



<2 



A 
u%aa 

may fall 



tai-d 
my 



!i 



mddu 
hair 



£er uat 
on the way 



120 DEFINITE ARTICLE WITH PERSONAL SUFFIXES 
9. 



tauk 
Thy 



iai a§ - 8d em 

letter abounds in 



A 

nasaqu 
breaks. 



10. 



\ 



Q /WW\* 



A/S/WAA 



1 

neb liencl 
King[s] all with 



III 'Lvvw ^ cCli 
tot-u suten Jj.em.ut 

their queens. 



'■MKilWIM 



amma 
Let be 



:m.l 



dn - fa* - nd 
brought to me 



nai-a 
my 



uru 
nobles 



daiu 
great. 



er 
To 



nai-k 
thy 



i i i 
re-Jjet 

storehouses 



cLaiu 
great 



k ?®1 

em Uast 
in Thebes. 



AA/WVA l\ l\ 



nai-f 
His 



en 



children. 



EXAMPLES. 



121 



4. 



rii 



I I I 



not - sen 
their 



With 



I III ooo 

set em 6H 

were they as the sand. 






en 
weapons, 



3 *^ 

rcL ai- 
numerous 



nai-t* 
Their 



«13 

gerdtt 
bolts 



I III 
em %emt 

of copper (or bronze). 



6. o 
X 



II k 

ketex 
Goods 



em 
on 



herti 



w 
A 



I 

her 



I ill < e =aiii 
nam aa 

porter[s] and upon their asses. 



I caused to sit 



re p«j*» « 

nai-u grw6w £<3w-d 

their shadow. I caused 



W-«&8I k 

refit 
the people 



em 
in 



T 



►A 
^emi to 

to travel the 



set Ta-merd ifa* - s seuse%-§ 

woman of Egypt on her journey making long [her 

journey] 



122 DEFINITE ARTICLE WITH PERSONAL SUFFIXES. 



i 



<— - > C-Jf II AAAAAA IU. 

to the place she wished [to go], not attacked 



se£ fcawt bu-nebu her uat 

her any person whatsoever on the way 



CHAPTER VIII. 

ADJECTIVES, NUMERALS, TIME, THE YEAR, ETC. 

The adjective is, in form, often similar to the noun, 
with which it agrees in gender and number ; with a few 
exceptions it comes after its noun, thus : — 



i-n- 



Xet nebt nefert abt %et nebt netemet beneret 
Thing every, good, pure ; thing every, pleasant, sweet. 

The following will explain the use of the adjective 
in the singular and plural. 



^fTt &w ssi — f:,-f, i: 

anx-d em tau en beti frefet 

Let me live upon bread of barley white, 



heqet-d em pertu teieru 

my ale [made] of grain red. 



124 ADJECTIVES. 

M* II ? Z.& ? ? ft 1 

di* Jen £«r #ems #er drt* hru 
Was [His] Majesty sitting to make a day 

nefer er hencL - set 
happy with her. 

gem - A; to Serau nefer 

Thou didst find the girl pretty 



who was watching the gardens 



to entft /icr sau na kamu 



&a dri-d nek hebsu neferu 

Indeed I will make for thee clothes beautiful. 

du - sen her rut em iauabu 

They grew into trees 



I I 
set 
two great 



li i i 
sen aaiu 



ADJECTIVES. 



125 



IV 



em - bah neteru 



m zumi 



au-a em-oaii neieru aaxu 

I am in the presence of the gods great. 

The adjectives "royal" and "divine" are usually 
written before the noun, thus : — 

+ H[ii m! suten an royal scribe 

WW\A I 121 cLl 

I t ^ — o suten hemu royal workman 

I ^ ©Y\(]^nJ suten uad royal boat or barge 



1 ° *= 

I A/VNAAA ^ 



:l* 



royal acquaintance or 
«ztte?i rev , . 

kinsman 

tufenftemt ro ^ vl woman > *• *' 
queen 

sutenuhenu royal servants 

divine servant, t. e., 
priest 



ID 
1C 



cr-n 



neter hen 
neter het 
neter utef divine father. 



divine house, i. «., 
temple 



Adjectives are without degrees of comparison in 
Egyptian, but the comparative and superlative may be 
expressed in the following manner : — 



126 COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES 



1. 



du - set nefer em t,iat - set er set 

She whs fair in her body more than 



b&mt nebt enti em pa ta (er - f 
woman any who [was] in the earth the whole of it. 



~- ~ "mil 

ur - k er neteru 

Great art thou more than the gods. 

3. (1 ^ * <=> 3 

I o III III \> III 

se - ti^< - u er 6a 

They were numerous more than the sand. 

Mm T— ^-1 - 111! 

dncf #rd - A; #w er neteru 

Homage to thee [O thou one] glorious more than the gods. 

betenu er desemv X a X e ^ 

Fleet more than greyhounds, swift 



O 
er Suit 

more than light. 



NUMERALS. 127 



«■ 8^ Ul— w k 

%eper dqer - k eref em 

It shall happen thou shalt be wise more than he by 



%er 
being silent. 



7. 



I 



nefer setem er entet neb 

Good is hearkening more than anything, t. e., to obey 

is best of all. 



Numerals. 




128 



NUMERATE. 



Illll 

n 

nn 



nm = 



nn 

nn 

nn 
nnn 

nnn 
nnn 

nnn 
nnnn 

nnnn 
nnrm 

mm 
nmnn 



@ 



) 



O <2 

AMWM 



-li 

- 1 



<a 



J 

(?) 
(?) 

- n^i 
i ® i 

= (?) 

- laa — ■ 






xemennu 

pest 

met 
taut 
mob 
foment 

(?) 

(?) 
sefe X 
Xemennui 

(?) 
Sacl 

X« 

fab 
fyefennu 



9 

10 

20 

30 

40 

50 

60 

70 

80 

90 

100 

1000 

10,000 

100,000 



ORDINAL! 129 

Q = 8 ^ &nn« = 10,000,000 

The ordinals are formed by adding O nu to the 
numeral, with the exception of "first", thus : — 



jept 





Ma8c. 


Fern. 


First 


D w t 


i ® 
D o 


Second 


II 


»2 


Third 


III 


■ 2 


Fourth 


mi o 




Fifth 


WHO 


11111° 


Sixth 


III 
III ° 


ill O 
III o 


Seventh 


111 

mi 


III 

mi o 


Eighth 


mi 
mi ° 


llll 

iw<=» 


Ninth 


11,1 o 
iiiii° 


iiiio 

lllllo 


Tenth 


no 


n ° 



and so on. From the following examples of the use of 
the numerals it will be noticed that the numeral, like 
the adjective, is placed after the noun, that the lesser 
numeral comes last, and that the noun is sometimes in 
the singular and sometimes in the plural. 



130 USE OF NUMERALS. 

rex ' kua ren en P a ntter XLII 
I know the name of the god forty-two, 
i. «., I know the names of the forty-two gods. 

re en tekau IV 

Chapter of the flames four, i. e., "four flames". 

3 - 5 W r, eee k <*>M -- 

nes su %eb 300 em au-f 

Belong to him measure[s] 300 in his length, 

o i nnn Jrc* «-»•'-. 
%et 230 em usext-f 

measure[s] 230 in his breadth. 

mefr 1000 pu em au-f 

Cuhit[s] one thousand is he in his length. 



5. "^ ^^ n — | — Q 

Jaw d nek met en tebd, en \ep en 

I have given to thee ( 10 of 10,000 1 of hushels of 
\ i.e., tens of ten ) 
[ thousands J 



neferu er sefefau neter-^etep-k 

grain for the supply of thy offerings. 



USE OF NUMERALS. 131 

aqu aaiu (100,000 X 9) + (10,000 X 0j 
Loaves large, 900,000 + 90,000 

a a Q&QQ. HO 

A i ©ee nnn 

+ (2000 X2) + (200 X 7) + (20 X 5; 

+ 2000 + 700 + 50 

i. e., 992,750 large loaves of bread. 

7. In the papyrus of Rameses III we have the following 
numbers of various kinds of geese set out and added 
up thus : — 

@@©@ 



I 
I 






nn = 6820 

n = 1410 

nnn im = 1534 

-= 150 

= 4060 

n n - 25020 

[fflffi III! n - 57810 

Hf - 21700 

<B& ™ '-■ 1240 



nn 
nnn 

nnn 
nnn 



1 

mm 



(3(3 



n — 6510 



Total (10,000 X 9) + (1000 X 32) + (100 X 40) + (10 X 25) + i = 126,254 



132 DIVISIONS OF TIME. 

Ordinal numbers are also indicated by *» c> \ meli, 
which is placed before the figure thus : — 

»• k m " -^ t k m 

em maSLu melj, ud, em maau 

In the temples of the first [rank], in the temples 



°^\ II 

me/t sen 
of the second [rank]. 

Time. 
The principal divisions of time are : — 

lj.at second ^p* 

ra e 



AAAAAA ^ 







P 

I O 



ir 



unnut hour 
d&e< month 
*e£ 30 years 

henti 120 years §o| 

1,000,000 i_ 
years «**-V. 

Q sen 10,000,000 

Examples of the use of these are : — 
1 III ^ hi 



at 


minute 


hru 


day 


renpit year 


/ten 


60 years 


heh 


100,000 
years 


tetta 


eternity. 



ft a 

ta - f renput ait fyer fyer renput-a 

May he give years many over and above my years 



I 
her 



EXAMPLES. 



133 



ent 
of 



f 



O 
* i III 
anx abetu 

life ; [and] months 



i i i 
a§ 
many 



I 
her 



* III __ 
abet-a 

my months 

°V& ° 
III 21 I 

hru-d nu 
my days of 

,1 



O 

I 

nu 

of 



f 



5. — ra v 

1 © <=>jri 

anx hru 

life ; [and] days 

r ^jm 

life ; [and] nights 



i over, t. e., \ 
\in addition to/ 

III I 

«i her 

many over 

iii | 
a£ her 
many over 



fcerh. - d 
my.nights. 



A/WV\A A 



untet - f henti ^ 

His existence is [for] 120 years X 100,000 years. 



3 -5Mf 



j Q /WWW 



AAAAAA Q s\ 

■ %J4 

unemu anx er nefyeh. 
Who exist living for 



henti 



ever, 120 years X 



tetta 
eternity. 



134 DIVISIONS OP TIME 

4.1)^^, <=> Jfl| ~~ f.| 

au - k er help en fyefy 

Thou art for millions of years of millions of years, 



© I 2L 1 I 



aha heh 



a period of millions of years. 

This was the answer which the god Thoth made to 
the scribe Ani when he asked hira how long he had 
to live, and was written about the XVIth century B. C. 
The same god told one of the Ptolemies that he had 
ordained the sovereignty of the royal house for a period 
of time equal to : — 



l 

I 



j g^ &&& 



3t m i« 

tetta henti heh setu 

An eternity of 120 year periods, an infinity of 30 year 

periods, 

1 

heh renput Genu dbef hefnu 

millions of years, ten millions of months, hundreds of 

thousands 

••• ))) d in <*: 

hru tebsu unnut %au at 

of days, tens of thousands of hours, thousands of minutes, 



THE THREE SEASONS, 135 



e® 8 Y^o nnn rs 

&acL \at met ant 

hundreds of seconds, [and] tens of thirds of seconds 

The Egyptian Year. 

The year, <wwv\ J q renpit, plural <===> D \^ <^ j 
consisted originally of twelve months, each containing 
thirty days ; as the month contained three periods of 
ten days the year consisted of thirty-six weeks of ten 
days each. Later the Egyptians added five days 1 to 
the years, and thus made it equal to 365 days <*<§& 
**"* ' ^ * .' Each month was dedicated to a god. The 
twelve months were divided into three seasons of four 
months each, thus : — 

1- fflyt akliet season of inundation and period of 
sowing. 



2. <==? pert season of "coming forth" or growing, 

i.e., spring. 

3. /WW* iemut season of harvest and beginning of 

/WWW f?l ° ° 

/www VC/ . ■, .. 

inundation. 
Documents were dated thus : — 

1 Called "epagomenal days". 

* They discovered that the true year was longer than 865 days, 
that the difference between 365 days and the length of the true 
year was equal nearly to one day in four years, and that New 
Year's day ran through the whole year in 365 X4» 1460 years. 



136 THE DATING OF INSCRIPTIONS. 

i. f 2 \\ ^ "ii w,<* © » 

renpit IV abe{ IV akhet hru t 

Year four, month four of the sowing season, day one 

I AA/WVA 

%er hen en 
under the majesty of, etc. 
t. e., the first day of the fourth month of the sowing 
season in the fourth year of the reign of king So- 
and-so. 



czszj © ill 

AAA/WV 111 



renpit V abet III semut hru pest %er 

Year five, month three of inundation, day nine under 

l — m GEDI 

hen en mtennet (or bat) Usr-Madt-Rd-setep-en-Rd 

the maiesty of J ^ ie king of the I Usr-Maat-Ra-setep-en-Ra, 
J J \ South and North/ 



sa Rd Rd-meses-tneri-Amen 

son of the Sun, Rameses, beloved of Amen, etc. 

3. {; nn, ~ [,] m; ^ 

renpit XXI abet I akhet x er 

Year twenty-one, month one of sowing season under 



THE DATING OF INSCRIPTIONS. 137 



cm ^^ iff n <2 



Jen en swtoi &d£ Amen meri Pidn/i 

the majesty of J tQ<} l" 11 ? °* tne I PiSnkhi beloved of Amen. 
J J \ South and North,/ 

f : in- »hm »° :. 

renpit IX Apalius sesu VII 

Year nine of Apellaeus, day seven, 

ii 

(ep per hru XVII en dmu 

first[month] of spring, day seventeen of the dwellers in 

?5 « ! % 

Ta-mert yer hen suten bat 

i Ta-mert, l under the majesty of / the king of the I 
U e., Egyptf J J \ South and North J 

Ptualmis dn% tetta Ptah. meri 
Ptolemy, living for ever, beloved of Ptah. 
This date shews that there was a difference of ten 
days between the dating in use among the priests and 
that of the Egyptians in the time of Ptolemy III Euergetes, 
king of Egypt from B. C. 247 to B. C. 222. 

. r<a nnn nr-i in 

4. \ . ,, -^ III O m 

I I II KKtt III 

renpit XXXII abet III kemut hru VI 

Year thirty-two, month three of sowing season, day six 



138 THE DATING OP INSCRIPTIONS 



j^er Jen suten bat 

under the divine majesty of I foe king of the l 
J J \ South and North,/ 



QSHMHif i 



Rn-usr-maM - meri - Amen an% uta 

Ra-usr-maat - meri - Amen, life! strength! 



(i %n C3EED 



senb sa Ra Barneses l,ieq Annu 

health! son of the Sun, Rameses, prince of Heliopolis. 

The words t | I, which frequently follow royal 
names, may be also translated "Life to him ! Strength 
to him ! Health to him !" They often occur after any 
mention of or reference to the king, thus : — 

pa baireaa da en Ka-perti 

The door great of Pharaoh, 

f 1 P 

dn% uta senb 
life 1 strength ! health ! 



EGYPTIAN MONTHS. 



139 



*• £ - 11 f A S ! - I'M 

tta en «ttten hemu fep en hen - f 
One royal workman first of His Majesty, 

flnx ttfo sen& 
life ! strength ! health ! 

It has been said above that each month was dedicated 
to a god, and it must be noted that the month was 
called after the god's name. The Copts or Egyptian 
Christians have preserved, in a corrupt form, the old 
Egyptian names of the months, which they arrange in 
the following order : — 



m; 



ii » 
tii » 



ii 

■o 
i i I n 

I 11 I » 



1st month of winter 
2nd „ „ 

3rd „ 

4th „ „ 

1st month of spring 
2nd „ „ 

3rd „ „ 

4th „ 



= Thoth 

— Paopi 

— Hathor 

— Khoiak 
= Tobi 
= Mekhir 

= Phamenoth 

= Pharmuthi 



140 



/S/WN/VV 



/WWW 

II " 

III " 

I II I " 



THE EPAGOMENAL DAYS. 

1st month of summer = Pakhon 

2nd „ „ = Paoni 

3rd „ „ = Epep 

4th ,, ,, = Mesore. 



The epagomenal days were called O 
"the five days over (i. e., to be added to) the year". 



@ III 



CHAPTER IX. 



THE VEBB. 



The consideration of the Egyptian verb, or stem- 
word, is a difficult subject, and one which can only be 
properly illustrated by a large number of extracts from 
texts of all periods. Egyptologists have, moreover, 
agreed neither as to the manner in which it should be 
treated, nor as to the classification of the forms which 
have been distinguished. The older generation of 
scholars were undecided as to the class of languages 
under which the Egyptian language should be placed, 
and contented themselves with pointing out grammatical 
forms analogous to those in Coptic, and perhaps in some 
of the Semitic dialects ; but recently the relationship 
of Egyptian to the Semitic languages has been boldly 
affirmed, and as a result the nomenclature of the Semitic 
verb or stem- word has been applied to that of Egyptian. 

The Egyptian stem- word may be indifferently a verb 
or a noun ; thus W %eper means "to be, to become", 
and the "thinsj which has come into being". By the 



142 



THE VERB. 



addition of ^z^* W* the stem-word obtains a participial 
meaning like "being" or "becoming" ; by the addition 



I in the fem. 
I 



yeper 



of ^S i i in the masc. and <=> 3 
becomes a noun in the plural meaning "things which 
exist", "created things", and the like ; and by the 
addition of ( J| we have w(j Jf| %epera the god to 
whom the property of creating men and things belonged. 
The following examples will illustrate the various uses 
of the word :— 



■li Zb\ 



o © I 
neter uau %eper em s'ep (ep 

The god one [who] came into being in time primeval. 



2. 



I 



%eper 
Came into being words 



:^l 



metet nebt Tem 

all of Tem. 



3 



AAA/WW 

an 



&5 « 3s*l',l iflnm ! 

%epert sat tu 

Not had come into being earth [and] mountains. 



saut %epert Owt 

Guarding I t hi «& that hath \ that 
\come into being) 



&at 
great. 



EXAMPLES. 143 



arid %eperu neb er \tya, 

I have made transformations all at the dictates 

db-d em bu neb mer ka-d 

of my heart in place every [which] wished my ha. 

em /ird en jfepert* #« i - fyer-sa 

In the face of men and women and those who shall come 

-V 

8 en 
after them. 



<s=~ 



an 



rex - en - tu %epert drit 



Not are known / the things that will i [as] the work 
\ come into being f 



1 



neter 
of God. 



8 - Kl e^ 8TMI 

Xeper-d geper %epe?'« 

I I am he who 1 an( J I who made to I l the beings who \ 

\ came into being/ Icome into being | \came into being / 



144 THE VERB. 

Xeperw - kud em %eperu en 

I came into being in the forms of 

I w 



© 



Xeperd X e P er em 8e P ie P % 

the god Khepera, who came into being in primeval time. 

Or again, if we take a word like (j <=> dqer it will 
be seen from the following examples that according to 
its position and use in a sentence it becomes a noun, 
or a verb, or an adjective, or an adverb. 

sma-d em %u 6eps% dqer 

May I join the spirits holy [and].perfect 

nu neter-%ert 
of the underworld. 



oil e> 

sat (I) ent sdqer X u 

The book of making jjj-j p^H 



M-ituis^- u 



du-f netri emmd aqeru 

He is divine among the perfect ones. 



EGYPTIAN STEM-WORDS. 



145 



W\ P 



XT* 
I I I 



au 
They, 



III III Q \\ o \\ 

sen dawtf enfi er - ft&ti-f 
the cattle which were before him 



© II 



I £5 <£ 

her jjeperw nefer er aqer sep sen 

became fine, exceedingly, twice. 

/. e., the cattle became very fine indeed. 

Stem-words in Egyptian, like those in Hebrew and 
other Semitic dialects, consist of two, three, four, and 
five letters, which are usually consonants, one or more 
of which may be vowels, as examples of which may be 
cited : — 



/VA/WVA 

a. 



ra^A 



i w I 



X 



ffp 



23 



^"TTi 



an 


to return, go or send back 


ha 


to walk 


aha 


to stand 


Sat 


to cut 


rerem 


to weep 


nelpa 


to cut 


nemme8 


to enlighten 


nefnet 


to converse 



146 STEM-WORDS OF MORE THAN TWO CONSONANTS. 

/wwvk , — *w*a to heap up to over- 

/ »+** nemesmes n . 

flowing. 



A/WVW 



ft $\ ft f\ .- f r (probably pronounced 

\_E^$_B^ netemtem) to love. 

The stem-words with three letters or consonants, 
which are ordinarily regarded as triliteral roots, may 
be reduced to two consonants, which were pronounced 
by the help of some vowel between ; these we may call 
primary or biliteral roots. Originally all roots consisted 
of one syllable. By the addition of feeble consonants 
in the middle or at the end of the monosyllabic root, 
or by repeating the second consonant, roots of three 
letters were formed. Roots of four consonants are 
formed by adding a fourth consonant, or by combining 
two roots of two letters ; and roots of five consonants 
from two triliteral roots by the omission of one conso- 
nant. 

Speaking generally, the Egyptian verb has no con- 
jugation or species like Hebrew and the other Semitic 
dialects, and no Perfect (Preterite) or Imperfect (Future) 
tenses. The exact pronunciation of a great many verbs 
must always remain unknown, because the Egyptians 
never invented a system of vocalisation, and never took 
the trouble to indicate the various vowel sounds like 
the Syrians and Arabs ; but by comparing forms which 
are common both to Egyptian and Coptic, a tolerably 
correct idea of the pronunciation may be obtained. 

There is in Egyptian a derivative formation of the 



THE CAUSATIVE FORMATION. 147 

word-stem or verb, which is made by the addition of 
S, — •»— or I, to the simple form of the verb, and which 
has a causative signification ; in Coptic the causative 
is expressed both by a prefixed S and T. The following 
are examples of the use of the Egyptian causative : — 

1. From < ^'\jj^3|| 5a to be great :— 



s-aa-a neferu-f 

I made great, i. e., magnified his beauties. 

® anx to live : — 

H«:5 m rMfli n S" 

atlya-a mennu aaiu ma \uu 

I dragged [two] statues huge as mountains 

fc, 6 ° ' — a. n* — ^ 

_»*&» _M_imiD — »— n | 1 ® ,_*<-, 

em seset behes s-dn/ 

of white marble [and] alabaster, and I made[them]likelife 

em ari fyetep Jjter unemet semJii 

making [them] to rest at the right [and] left 

en pai - 9 reat yeti 

of its door inscribed 



148 



VERB WITH PRONOMINAL SUFFIXES. 



M 



| AAA/W\ ^*\i 

T}.er ren ur \en - k 

with the name great of thy majesty. 



3. From Vrjf ^ %eper to become :- 

A 2$ /WWW 



CD 

seyeperu - nd re-hefu-f 

I made to come into being his treasure-houses 



/WW\A 
A/WNAA 

(WWW 



j/*** r 



6a/i em /et <a ne& 

[which were] flooded with things of every land. 

The verb with pronominal personal suffixes is as 
follows : — 



Sing - ^flvft 

1 com. © U £1 

_ A/WWX 

2 m. ^ 
2f. 

3 m. 



nn 



PlUr. AAAAAA 

1 com. ' • • 

2 com. 



3 com. 



AAAAAA 
I I I 

WWW 



I I 



re%-a 

nehem-k 

fet-t 

m-f 

qem-8 
ari-n 
mit-ten 



I know 

thou deliverest 
thou speakest 
he cuts 
she finds 
we do 
ye die 



Xepersen they become. 



AUXILIARY VERBS. 



149 



The commonest auxiliary verbs are f dka to 

stand ; ^k» wn to be ; (j V> du to be ; <=> dri to do ; 
^ — o tfa to give ; the following passages illustrate their 
use : — 

1. ^> D ^ 



AA/NAAA A/Wt/VA 

wn an - f 
Was he 



give thou to me 



I 
#er let 

saying 

o Si I I 
grain'. 



nes set 
to her, 



I A 

did 



'Stand up 



2 -?r ^P-Z JKSI 



Stood up said she to him, 'No one 



ptt wa 



hath spoken 



evtmd-d 
with me 



except 



paik 
thy 



se« ierdu 
young brother'. 



aha en 

Stood up 



glanced 



en 
at 



%«'*« 



o III 
set 

them 



er 



hten - f dJid - nef 

His Majesty, he stood up furious with rage against 



150 EXAMPLES OF USE OF AUXILIARY VERBS. 

— — (]ft a 

AAAAAA W II 

III §1 *— 



AAAAAA 



sew ma tef MenQu 

them like father Menthu, 



^~^ 1© 
net f/ia«i 
lord of Thebes 



1. ^» 



AAAAAA AAAAAA 

«n on 









Was 



2. ^» 



she 



standing up. 



AAAAAA AAAAAA 

wn an - f 
Was he 

se* em fof 
saying :— 



#er fettw emma 

speaking with 



3, ^» 

AAAAAA 

«n 
Was 



AAAAAA 

dn - / 
he 

•3 £3 

.Ra - .Hem 



#er ar^w - / 

taking an oath to him 



a w n 



pa 
the god Ra - Harmachis, 



her 



en 



em 
saying;— 



«B| 



4. ^» lj 

AAAAAA AAAAAA 

im dn 
Was 



the 



afe<w 
young man coming (?) to 



W\AA j>v 

A I 

en Jer 



EXAMPLES OF USE OF AUXILIARY VERB& 



151 



I 



mepa 
speak 



11- m 



emma 
with 



paif 
his 



sen 
brother. 



du-d sen} - kud 
I am fearing 



2. (je*— . 

du-f 
Was he 

du-f 
was he 



going into 



I 



qem 
finding 



en baiu-lc 

thy souls (t. «., will). 



cm 

I 
per 

house, 



pat/ 
his 



P*>H )1 f^ 

sefer - 0« wer 

lying 



11 

Oa 



taif 
his 



en 



$ewi< 
wife 



<5 



dfau 



¥ h ? *H 



sick through f violent 1 
"j treatment, f 



du • set her 
Was she 



tat 



AA/VA/W * 

AAAAAA | 

wm for 



I 



em p«*y 

according to his 



temt tat mu her tet • f 
not putting water upon his hand 

P<rfli 1- J- I 



se%eru du bu put 
wont. Was not 



152 EXAMPLES OF USE OF AUXILIARY VERBS. 



set setau er - hat - f 

she lighting a fire before him. 



au 
Was 



paif 
his 



per em kekui 
house in darkness. 



-Ml -11 



/SAA/V/Vk 

III O £>© 



madi 
Come, 

ft 



fWVW^ ------ 

III 
dri - n en - n unnut 

let us make for ourselves an hour 



<£ 



seteru 
lying down. 



2. 



<2>- 



°°\ 



o 






em an »ne# db • k 
[Do] not make to fill heart thy [with] the wealth 





kai 




of 


another. 




. J 

A/VAAM 

ben 


dw-d 


Not 


am 


I 



o A 

er {dt per -f em 

letting to come forth it from 



EXAMPLES OF USE OF AUXILIARY VERBS. 153 

re - & en red ne&$ 

my mouth to people any. 

emtuf an naif daut 

He brought his cattle 



P 



c=>^ in 



er - Jjj&t - f er tat seter - u em 

before him to make lie down them in 



^ | 

CT3\ 



m P.T. 4i*M 

pat - sen dhait 

their stalls. 

In the limits of this little book it is impossible to set 
before the reader examples of the use of the various 
parts of the verb, and to illustrate the forms of it which 
have been identified with the Infinitive and Imperative 
moods and with participial forms. If the Egyptian verb 
is to be treated as a verb in the Semitic languages we 
should expect to find forms corresponding to the Kal, 
Niphal, Piel, Pual, Hiphil, Shaphel, and other conju- 
gations, according as wo desh'cd to place it in the 
Southern or Northern group of Semitic dialects. Forms 
undoubtedly exist which lend themselves readily to 
Semitic nomenclature, but until all the texts belonging 



154 THE VERB. 

to all periods of the Egyptian language have been 
published, that is to say, until all the material for 
grammatical investigation has been put into the 
Egyptologists' hands, it is idle to attempt to make a 
final set of grammatical rules which will enable the 
beginner to translate any and every text which may 
be set before him. In many sentences containing 
numerous particles only the general sense of the text 
or inscription will enable him to make a translation 
which can be understood. In a plain narrative the verb 
is commonly a simple matter, but the addition of the 
particles occasions great difficulty in rendering many 
passages into a modern tongue, and only long acquain- 
tance with texts will enable the reader to be quite 
certain of the meaning of the writer at all times. More- 
over, allusions to events which took place in ancient 
times, with the traditions of which the writer was well 
acquainted, increase the difficulty. This being so it 
has been thought better to give at the end of the Sketch 
of Egyptian grammar a few connected extracts from 
texts, with interlinear transliteration and translation, 
so that the reader may judge for himself of the dif- 
ficulties which attend the rendering of the Egyptian 
verb into English. 



CHAPTER X. 

ADVERBS, PREPOSITIONS, CONJUNCTIONS, PARTICLES. 

Adverbs. 

In Egyptian the prepositions and certain substantives 
and adjectives to which <=> er is prefixed take the 
place of adverbs ; examples are : — 

1. The cattle which were before him became 

j^ - i^fl - " -jr p.t. 

nefer er dqer scp sen qeb - sen 

fine exceedingly, twice, they doubled 

AP«>U p,7, «H£ • » 

mesu - sen er dqer sep sen 
their births exceedingly, twice. 

2. ^» ~*~J) T*~- <=> <>^> ^ § O- 

un set nefer er aa - ur tyr db 
Was the woman fair exceedingly to the mind 



156 PREPOSITIONS 



y m 



en hen-f er yet neb 
of his majesty more than any thing. 



3.^ 



au - f sent er aa - ur 
Was he afraid exceedingly. 

%Gqu ' t u V a hetrd er 

Were cut (wounded) the horses 



O ©11 O 
ennuit 

immediately. 

Prepositions. 

Prepositions, which may also be used adverbially, 
are simple and compound. The simple prepositions 
are : — 

1. aaaaaa en for, to, in, because. 

2. 1\ em from, out of, in, into, on, among, as, 

conformably to, with, in the state of, 
if, when. 

3. <=> er to, into, against, by, at, from, until. 

4. ^ or ^ her upon, besides, for, at, on account of. 



5. » 



tep upon. 



6. 

7. 



ffl 



9 -I 

10. Ji 

"•dlh 



prepositions. 157 

%er under, with. 

%er from, under, with, during. 

ma from, by. 

#enfl with. 

X«/< in the face of, before, at the time of. 

%mt in front of, at the head of. 

12. ^j^P h, a behind. 

13. y (1 md like, as. 

14. ^* for since, when, as soon as. 
The following are used as prepositions : — 

(JHhl\ ami dwelling in. 

dri dwelling at or with. 

heri dwelling upon. 

%eri dwelling under. 

(epi dwelling upon. 



IT 



® 



fjjl) q \\ X en * 1 occupying a front position. 

These are formed from the prepositions f\ m, <cz> 
r, y #er, #er, »* fop, and (j||| o £en£ respec- 



158 PREPOSITIONS. 

tively. The following examples will illustrate the use 
of prepositions : — 

en ka en Ausar an Ani 

To the ka of Osiris, the scribe Ani. 

(double) 



© /=] t\ .ra.tk 



i 

I AvWtAA 

I 



in I m> "srjr 

paut neteru em hennu en 

The company of the gods [are] in praises because 

uben-Jc 
thou risest. 

3. wm c= S^ — ^> ^2|| *=» 

ta em iertu en maa satet-k 

The earth [is] in rejoicing at the sight of thy beams. 

II 1 tk I) w_ c= & ifl OQ D a 

' Ji J o ^n IJ(wi q F=* 

uben-f em %ut abtet ent pet 

He riseth in the horizon eastern of heaven. 



2 - pRi 



I Q Q === 

I 



wfaw pet ta em ma%ait 

Weighers of heaven and earth in scales. 



EXAMPLES OF THEIR USE 159 

3 -^ ¥ & k IT ^\> 

maa - nd Bern em dri \iemu 

May I see Horus fas the guardian of V the rudder. 
I *. e., standing at J 

*• ^M - «= r t j^a 

qem - / em X e< but 

May it be found on the wood of the table of offerings. 

^tfSkZfc-WZlll 

nuk ua em ennu en cnen neteru 

I [am] one of those gods. 

MIX £*• k I s 

& ua pest em Aah pert 

Hail One shining from the Moon! Cometh forth 

£ k7,M* JL - ^« 

Osiris Ani this among thy multitude. 

7 - k 8kT&8i §* ¥ 

em hamemet un - nd 

In the state of the hamemet beings may I lift up iny legs 

[as] doth lift up the legs Osiris. 



160 



PREPOSITIONS. 



an %ent - a her - f em tebt - a 

Not let me walk upon it with my sandals. 



9. 



®° 



tept - re pert em 

Conformably to the utterance [which] came forth from 



em 



I 
re 



1 
Jj,en en Heru 

the mouth of the majesty of Horus. 



aw-/ #er iemi 
He followed 






1 



daw* 
cattle 



em - sa 
after 



I 



er *e#e£ 
in the fields. 



2. 



er 
Into 



paif 
his 



I 
2>er 

house 



er 
at 



era W^l 

rw/*a 
evening. 



naif 
his 



AA/VAAA 



tennu 
each 



EXAMPLES OF THEIR USE 161 

Stand up, wait until the daybreak being 

pa Men lj.tr uben 

the Disk, t. e., Ra, shining (or rising). 

*• lift -* tf «=> ^1° 

#e/>* - to J/aritf er frdui 

Embraced art thou by Maat at the two seasons. 

entek setemet er anyui-k 

Thou hearest with thy two ears. 

em a#3 er-d em meter 

Let none stand up against me in evidence, 

em X ese f er-a em tatat 

none make opposition to me among the chiefs. 

7> « 0^_, <==> I^J]]^ 



men 



db -k er alj.au - f 

Stable is thy heart by (or on) its supports. 



162 SIMPLE PREPOSITION& 

se%em - & em utu 

I have gained the mastery of what was commanded 



drit er - a fep ta 
to be done for me upon earth. 

Tehuti MaSt fyer Sui - f 

Thoth and Maftt upon his two hands (i. e., on the right 

and left). 



2.^^ ^>«$ • • „_ akl>|e 

t& " k maa-tu T}er tep (uait 

Thou lettest be seen thyself at (the head of the morning,) 

\ i. «., the early morning, \ 

O 

I ^ 

hru neb 

each day. 

<2#<S a^a - ne^ 1 Jjer - s 

He hath fought for it. 



4. — ■ — <==> Oftn xx fi x ^zz § ,<_ 

AJ\ ill SlJI era i A i i i <=» 

a^ - sen er dsi - a seS - sen fyer • f 

They enter into my sepulchre, [or] they pass by it. 



EXAMPLES OF THEIR USE 163 

6 - m ~ mi - < ? 

*-& nek «0t neb-d for 

I have come to thee, O Prince, my lord, for the sake 

Bent-enQ-re£t 
of Bent-enth-resht. 



v. i. q 



S -=»J] «=> □ n 



/WVW\ 



dr £er< re/ re j?en semadxeru- 

If now be known chapter this he will be made 






/ pu tep ta em Neteryert 

victorious upon earth [and] in the underworld. 

maa-d neferu-k ufa-d tep ta 

I shall see thy beauties, I shall be strong upon earth. 

dp en pa ser en Bexten iu 

An envoy of the Prince of Bekhten hath come 

<=> Jllll A III 4 a 

%er dnut ait en suten hemt 
with gifts many for the queen. 



164 SIMPLE PREPOSITIONS. 



retiu seqte$ %er fyen-k 

Vigorous is the seqtet boat under thy majesty, 



TM 



I- k Tl 



satut - k em Jirdu 

thy beams [are] in [their] faces. 

qem-en-tu re pen em Xemennu %er 

Was found chapter this in Hermopolis under 



www y I **M\A 1 1 

re#i* en #e?i en neter pen 

the two feet of the majesty of god this. 

fe£ dn *wten pa neter aa 

Spake the king, the god great 

jrer serw fjfluti 

with the princes [and] chiefs. 



0e« mefeh %er lien en Tela 

[I was] girded with the belt under the majesty of Teta. 



EXAMPLES OF THEIR USE. 165 

3 <L !' — M dEI f 

%er hen en suten net (or bat) Assd an% 

Under the majesty of / the king of the 1 Assa living 
{South and North.J ' * 

Si - "» 

tetta er neheh 

for ever [and] ever. 



(TTTH 



du qemt - s ma hent Iter bennut 
It is found by women with emerald ore (?). 



IX 



du-f er hems hena taif 

He sat with his 



hemt emtuf surd 

wife, he drank, etc. 

9 © . . D o o ^vva , o . 

j\ v •> \ y , ,, n i_j <2>- 

teben-k pet hena Ra maa-k 

Thou goest round heaven with Ra, thou seest 

refit 
the beings of knowledge. 



X. 1. 



166 SIMPLE PREPOSITIONS. 

du sta - tu-f Ijena suteniu 

He is led along with the kings of the south, 

neii (or £>dft) ra «e& 

and the kings of the north each day. 

gwa 2?5 %«/< tt&en - / 

Praised be Ra when he riscth. 



»MT W - 4- ?l - J< 

«e<#e£ - / x e /* R& er bu neb 
He journeyeth before Ra into place every 



meri - f dm 
wisheth he [to be] there. 






dri-d nek yut 
I made for thee a hidden 


-ri 

ietat 
horizoi 


em mm< - A; 
a in thy city 


U 1 "T| 1 — 
C/asf xe/t en 

Thebes in the face of 


fj 


aba - k 
ly courtyard. 



EXAMPLES OP THEIR USE. 167 

Amen neb nest taut %ent 

Amen, lord of the thrones of the world, at the head 

Apt 

of the Apts (Karnak). 






VI pu kerb dm %ent mu 

The sixth who is there is at the head fof the watery) 

y abyss, j 

awi - sen em sau ha - k 
Their hands [are] as protectors behind thee. 



■ilM ^M-M - mi! 

west tefaut en neteru 

Producer of the food of the gods 

behind the shrines. 



rer - wd #a sufyt - J 

I go round behind his egg. 



168 

xra. i. 



SIMPLE PREPOSITIONS. 



td-tu 



nd hetepu em bdhk md 

May be given to me offerings in the presence as [to] 



§esu Heru 

the followers of Horus. 



M 



I have 



kud 
come 






A/VNiWA 
I I I 



%er - ten fer - ten 

before you, do ye away with 



!T«E4 v* 



o Ji i i 1 w 1111)1 21 ^1 O 

fu neb art - d md ennu 

evil all dwelling in me like that [which] 



dri 



A/VWVA ^A/^A/V\ www 

I I I 

en ten en 

ye did for 



III 



Mi mi uo 

spirits seven these 



dmiu £es en 

who [are] in the following of 



neb 
their 



I i i i 
sen 

lord 



Sepa 
Sepa. 



EXAMPLES OP THEIR USE. 169 



*w war er $a< hen - f for 

He fled before his majesty when 



8etem -f 

he heard [of him]. 

?«&a - d nehaut sentrd 

I planted sycamores and incense-bearingtrees 

m thy courtyard, never 

^ir : tt ^ mi 

p«*rd - tt an for rekuneter 

were seen [such as] they going back since f the time 1 

jofthegod.J 

dm - d d* to e« heqt see d 

I have eaten, behold, bread of sorrow, I have drunk 



AAAAAA 


= 


ft #K 

1 -£J /WtAA* Sif 


a 





a 


*IW 


em 


d6 


for 


Art* 


l>e/ 


water 


of 


affliction 


since 


day 


that 



170 quasi PEEPOsrnoNa 



-^rva /www 

8etem-k ren - a 

[in which] thou didst hear my name. 

Examples of the words which are like prepositions 
are : — 



dnet fyrd-k 
Homage to thee 


ik k 

ami em 
dweller in 


^ Dill 5S= ^' 
T}etepu neb 

peace, lord 


aut db 
of joy of heart! 






2 -3fl 11 k 

ya - 6d em 
Thou art crowned as 


^ 12V k Tl 

weft J'aiau em (ieq 
lord of Tattu, [and] as prince 



ik ?>v 

ami ^l6^w 

dwelling in Abydos. 



I 

| /www 

I III 



8e f e X " wa da/vet dr< - ben 

I have set free the faults which dwell in you. 



EXAMPLES OF THEIR USE. 



171 



* — " *z=* <=> JTi II 1 \\ 

t er - f nek tut art 

He hath done away for thee the evils dwelling 

III I I 
%u $ej> - re - f 



? Ill^ 6 
Jjtclu - k em 

in thy members by the power of his utterance. 



au-f 
He 



I 



A/WWV 

ennw 
looked 



^i ^ U*fc 



C-D 



%eri pa 
under the 



sba 
door 



en 
of 



his 



'fa 
ahait 
stable. 



i i i 



6 - B A * 



i-tvrf er seter 

He came to lie down 



■-S- 



wm& ^enta' Re - stau 

I am at the head of Re-stau. 



fw/i 



under the jcedar) 



\ tree, j 



nuk 
I am 



ka em yenti 

the bull at the head 



se%et 
of the field. 



172 compound PREPOsrriONa 

The following are compound prepositions with 
examples which illustrate their use. 

!• y^. "iSsb >Jm| em & su i Q consequence of, in re- 
compense for. 

-Hi «k: m^ k 

td. - nef Jieq-d Qemt TeUrt em 

He hath granted me to rule Egypt and the desert in 

«^fl IT 

&8u art 

reward therefor. 

2. ^v I J j \em aq in the middle. 

-*-! ¥ i -I k -T1H r!?<l 

to* en Fa-a em aq hati - / 

An image of thegodFa-a in the middle of his breast. 

••k^Jfli— »-k- j J^\fl~ 

dou opposite. 

ft ^ r ^- k -J*M 

dw dpw - nef duset-f em abu 

Is ordered for him his seat opposite 

n 

sebau 
the stars. 



EXAMPLES OF THEIR USE. 173 

•^w em ua alone. 

aha ser em ua seti ses 

Stood the prince alone, he drew the bolt 

5. 1\ Y y em uah Jier in addition to. 

.11 5? i) ft\-- 

i 8a amQ abu 

Another order among the priests in addition to 



I 
ki sa dm8 abu em uah her 



II 
II 
8a IV 

the orders four [already existing]. 



6. 1$\ ^ em bah before, in the presence o£ 



A\\\ /www «. \ 



seiep 8ennu em bah - k 

The receiving of cakes before thee. 

!-" — rr, l 1 ^;^ k2 7" TH 

aha en sen seft em bah - a neteru 

They were slain before the gods 



174 



COMPOUND PREPOSITIONS. 



7. 






er ant 
To do 

Unydu 
the living 



mert - f 
his will 

I 
l 



emma with, among, 

11 = 
tap <a 
upon earth 



«wma 
among 



8. 1 



em mdtet likewise. 



A 



em mdfet 
Likewise 


emtuk 
thou 


i - ne& 
come 


to 


,QMfH, Q | 

sexet 

the fields 


w 

%eri 

with 


J o (£l 1 1 

peril* 
grain. 







A 



em rer about, around. 



Qesem 



i 



en hermit 



qet Qesem ur em ant 
Building a bastion great with work of artificer by the 

Q o t\ a < ) .A. o a 

%e< dter em rer dbtet 

work of the river about the eastern side. 



EXAMPLES OF THEIR USE. 175 

10 - ^ IM m nem > ^ IV em uema a 

second time, again. 



o o 
an mit - nef em nem 
Not shall he die a second time. 

H- j|^ <=>_p ^ em ruti outside. 

«^3 x-~ cr ~ 3 

A ^ _ 

per - f per-d em ruti 

He cometh forth, I come forth outside 



$~ 



12. |\ w ^ 
dition to 



J em hau moreover, besides, in ad- 



I /WWAA 



4^'ktfkU 

em x er *»•» ew #ait dmenit 

In the course of the day besides continually. 

13 ' wk> "i m * a * before, in front of. 






db - k nefem avati %a - em hat - k 
Thy heart is glad, the uracus riseth before thee. 



14 ' J^* <~> mi ,<fer in fi ' ont of > u P on - 

S JT I L_J cr^i *~^ J*^ <=> e^iii 
dw neter het - / em her set 

Is his divine house upon the mountains. 



176 COMPOUND PREPOSITIONS. 

15. ' § O em $er ah within, in the midst of. 

ad Nibinaitet enti em Jier 

The island of Cyprus which [is] in the midst 



o I 

db Uat - ur 

of the Green great (i. e., the sea) 

16. ( -JU. em %em without. 



ual} ka-f dn drit-a em 

( He \ hath placed his &a[inme], not do I work 

(i. e., God/ 



without him. 



17. ^, 5£$ em xennu within, inside. 

j^- k H°^~ ^T 

dwset / em %ennu kekiu 

His* seat is within the darkness. 



EXAMPLES OF TI1EIR USE. 177 



ra * 



18. ^j\ e,n yer among. 

0© i 1 

1 « — a Iiii A A 

du ertd - sen per hi 

May it be granted to them to come forth advancing 

k ^> urn t is 

em # %er Jtesu ent Ausdr 

among the favoured ones of Osiris. 



19. ^^ ® <=> em yet after, behind, in the train of. 

A*— kV ^ k 

du - f aq - f em yet pert em 

He shall enter in after coming forth from 



I <=>£££ ft 



5 cs <a * K«^_ 

weter yert ent Amentet vefert 

the underworld of Amentet the beautiful. 



20. f\ 'o 1 em sa after, behind, at the back of. 

n%s$\ m »>i k f 

sdti Su iu em sa - k 

The slayers of Shu come at thy back 



If 1 



® 



er #es<£ tep - k 

to cut off thy head. 



178 COMPOUND PREPOSITIONS 

21. 1\ A )f em qeb among, in the company of. 

^A A/VNAAA f] j 



A/WVSA 



un - no em rje& $esi emmd 

Let me live in the company of the favoured ones among 

^i 

ama%iu 
the venerable ones. 

22. f\ M em gref around, in the circuit of. 

n-i pj:o- k rrf 1 

je< - d se&fi em ge< - « 

I built a wall round about it. 



£ Ml risk Iv- - 

unen bes ait em qetet - f neb 

There shall be flames many round about it every 
[where] (i. e., throughout). 

23. 1\ ® em tep upon. 

.1 ™i^k?>kJ«« 

jjawf neterw nefc em £ep wa*< 

| The 1 of the gods are to thee upon [their] legs 
1 company? 

(i. e., they are standing or kneeling). 



EXAMPLES OP THEIR USE. 179 



^- ^ A j"*?" 1 em t e ^ u m return for. 



dri - ne/ widtei em/e^ mendndu- 

l Shall 1 for him the like after his death 

jbedonej 



J-±l I I Hi 



f em tebu dru dri - nef nd 

in return for the things which he hath done for me. 

25. 1\ & 1 em ter because of. 

• v*~~ Aj^hH 5 ^ <=> ^ 

an rex - / fcw er j?a 

Not knew he [how] to cross over to 

~ m- m * ^ kii 

enti paif sen ierdu dm em ter 

where [was] his brother younger there because of 



/www 

k "~~ 


-a^l a«s*».i 


na en 


emsehu 


the 


crocodiles. 


4,1 < 


^M^ES 


du-f 


remi 


Was he 


weeping 



em terti 

because of 



180 COMPOUND PBEPOSITIONS. 



»ei»'d patf sen ierdu 

the sight of his brother younger. 

26. <=> -jr^ y^ er amtu between (also <=> Onrl^v 

A/s/NAAAdiii JS*^ A OOO uwwiwm LA I I I I 

teyenui em smu benbenet - sen 

Two obelisks of smu metal their pyramidions 



piercing upwards in the colonnade 



/WWV\ ^^ 



iepset er dwifw be%enti urti en 

noble between the two pylons great of 



Y. .?[ ^ ® o 

suten ka neyt 

the king, the bull mighty. 
27. <o ^A er dwg between. 

du pa tut en pa suten 

Was the statue of the king 



EXAMPLES OF THEIR USE, 181 

aha her pai utu du fa>if 

standing by the stele was his 

Oesemu er duf retu - f 

greyhound between his legs. 

28. <=> I J a er Oa opposite. 

S«e^_ | I A I o I A Mil 

dw-/ #er a$a #er set er <?^ 

He was standing on the mountain opposite 



AMWW 



VWVNA f ■ — 3 Q ^ \\ A/VWW 

<a ne&g ^enft en<£ em pa tow 

the lock of hair which [was] in the water. 

29. <=> er l$es by the side of. 

*— ^ $ J n k u «=• 

tcl - k na duset em neter-%ert er 
Grant thou to me a place in the underworld by 

I -if i ^s-^i i i 

£es nebu maat 

the side of the lords of Maat. 



182 
30. 



COMPOUND PREPOSITIONS. 

^^ er bu-n-re outside, at the place 



(SI I I 
-d <=> A 

of the door of the way 

f. a, AAlVWv 

£e£ - wes - setf em 



-C2>- 



A 
duf tet - nes - set em dri per 

He said to her, Do not make an appearance 

£^5 



er 



J 



(S. <= 

III I A •$E3I 

&w - « - re £em 



outside 



so that not 



vma 
sea 



I 
Aer 



dfa 
seize 



t 
thee. 



the 



31. 



arms, with. 



na 

The 



mataiu 
guards 



aw n^i« l _£i^lll 
enti drma - u 

which [were] with them. 



en 
of 



32. 



/WWW 

<a \\ 

er ewtt 
Because 



er enii because, so that. 



J 



(3 

betau 
an evil 



CTD 



the cemetery 



ur da pa 

very great was that 



EXAMPLES OF THEIR USE. 183 



AAAAAA /WN/Wi 



• >r .k nil o in x 

dru na meru set Jiena na 

which had done the governors of the lands towards the 

seru en Aa-perti an% uta senb 
chiefs of Pharaoh, life ! strength ! health ! 

33. <r> — ^ er hat before. 

emtuf an naif daut 

He brought his cattle 

^ I 
er hat - f 

before him. 

er hena with. 



Xenemew-a fe/au en paw* 

May I smell the offerings of the company 



m 



v 



A/WSAA 
I I I 



weteri* /jeTns er /<e«d - sen 

of the gods, may I sit down with them. 



184 COMPOUND PREPOSITIONS. 

35. <=> ^. <=> " L ^~ I " er for in addition to, over 

I ' A 

and above. 

er fter £e£ai fefit 

In addition to the mysteries recited. 

36. <=> er vet after, behind 

en ta het Usr-maat-Ra meri Amen 

Of the house of king Usr-maat-Ra ineri Amen 

- r; » iff • - « 

er x e * P a wefer hen tep en Amen 

after the prophet chief of Amen. 



37. <rr> er ver with. 



perer er ver hau 

Coming forth with men and women of the time. 

38. <=> TlTIf \s\ 6r Saa as far as, until. 

«me»i hetepet a maau en ka-d 

Establishing my offerings due to my ka, 



EXAMPLES OF THEIR USE. 185 



^"k 



men em amenit er sad 

stablished in perpetuity until 

neheh 
eternity. 

set uta set jjiu mtlki e 

They are safe, they are protected [and] guarded 



m\^ M 



iad, 


fyeb 








until 


eternity 








=> qgi er 


sa after, 


at the back of. 


1 


A A 


-^ 


tf 


CTTD 

^ A 


re en 


a<£ 


er 


«a 


•pert 



39. 



Chapter of going in after coming forth. 
*0- <—> | ' | [ -' er d& in > witJlin ; among, interior. 

+H e: S Mb** 

$3 ere/c #e?* db uda - k 

There is rejoicing to thee in thy boat, 



186 



COMPOUND PREPOSITIONS 



fc— f a M 




qet - k em hetepu 




thy sailors are content. 




5 c» o a .ft. o q 


= \\{ 



§ 



Ul 



em dmentet em dbtet em tauu her abu 
In the west, in the east, in the countries interior. 



dnef 
Homage 

I A/WWA U *- ■* I 



#rd - k 
to thee, 



O 
Ra, 



neb 
lord 



A/WWA 

dwen 
hidden 



%ej?erd 
Khepera 



&ard - f 
is his shrine, 



heri-db 



neb 
lord 



P 

wad£ 
of right, 

■mil 

weterw 
of the gods, 



ufa - f 
his boat. 



41. • 



her d at once, straightway. 



" imrnrr 

aha en un 
They opened 

I 



AAAAAA /WWW A 

III 

en - sen her 



A A 
< 7 ? 



the gates at once, entered 



© 

/WWW 



en hen-f er yennu en nut 
his majesty into the city. 



EXAMPLES OF THEIR USE 

42. y f^Qi her bah before. 

Do @ 



187 



hetem 
Destroyed 



/! X 

»*/V\AA ^v^ * it> 

qennu-f 
his punishment. 



em &a^ 



§ 



^ T -* 

dpitu-f titer bah 
before his judgment [and] before 



43. $ 



#er ma by 



~* U 



art - en 
Done 



was 



£4 
□ I 
mest tu ' em 

casing the mountain in 



enen 
this 

ooo 

nub er 
gold all 



I 
her 



ma 



by 



au-f 
of it. 



44. Y for ^er beneath. 

seqebeb - d her %eru 

May I cool myself under 



V\ ^1 



AMWW 

nehet 



my sycamores, 



f 1 



i i i 



dm-d /aw en tata - sen 

may I eat cakes of their giving. 



188 COMPOUND PREPOSITIONS. 

45. ^ tP her sa besides, in addition to, moreover, after 

na en metet enti her sa ta 

The words which are (after or in \ the 



useyt madti 

Hall of Maati. 



,re f after or in 1 
{addition to> 
I [those of] J 



O 



ar Jj.er sa ari - & dru nu 

After I had performed the ceremonies of 

J^ AAA/WA I I I 



tep renpit heb uten - a en tef Amen 

f the New-Yearl I made an offering to father Amen, 
j festival J 



46. ^ for &«* hy the side of. 

erta - f metet Iter kes ari 

He giveth speech by the side of theirs. 

47. ^ %er a under the hand of, subordinate to. 



EXAMPLES OP THEIR USE. 189 

/ft „. D >C^_ <T> A AAAA/VA ^ Id^y 

%er a - f er ant en qeres 

Under his hand for the bringing of sarcophagus 

pen em Re-au 

this from Re-au (t. e., Mount Tura). 

48. ^^ ^=^ %er hat before, in olden time. 

Amen - Ra suten neteru pautti 

Amen-Ra, king of the gods f of the two l 

^companies 1 ! 

Xeperu X er hat 

[who] came into being in olden time. 

49. Si ^^_n fer a at once 

h.unnu nefer mad er per - k ter & 
Boy beautiful come to thy house at once! 

^>a«< neferi* oaf paid neterw ne<W 

The company of the gods great, the company of the gods little. 



190 COMPOUND PREPOSITIONS 

50. ^ ter baJi from of old, before. 



—ft— ^ 

a © 



AAAAAA 



an sep drit daut ten en 

Never was f made \ dignity this on 

\i. e , conferred) 



bale neb ter bal} 

servant any before. 



f=u) 



speru ti erek ter em ball 

Coming forth waiting for thee from of old. 



BMAAM B. AAAAAA 

VJL ter enti, &* ter entet because. 

li^^* 1 111 rT\ l^ D _tfin * © in 

seliud renputsen setekennu dbet- 

Disturbing their years, they invade their months 



— M M- AAAAAA #\ » 

AAAAAA fl» -<S>~ V\ AAAAAA AAAAAA 

I I I <=>^ w Jl ii» 

«en fer en fa' art* en sen het 

because they have done evil 

| M -CS>- AAAAAA 



X 



I A/WAAA ' ^_i U I ^-JJ-O 



dmen em dri£ nek neb 

secretly in [their] work against thee all. 



EXAMPLES OF THEIR USE. 



191 



ter entet ren en 
Because the name of 



Ra em yat 

Ra [is] in the body 



en Ausdr 
of Osiris. 

ter entet -f em 
Because he is as 






ua 
one 



emma 
among 




ennu 

those 



9 



au 



Xefti - f 



ter 



em 



ienit 



whose enemies are destroyed by the divine chiefs. 



& 



JP 



O Q <2>- 



ter entet 
Because 



maa 
see 



su neteru %u 

him the gods, and spirits, 



$£^1 ^ 1-M 



metu 
and dead 



em 
in 



aru 
the forms 



en 
of 



<HhT^ 1^1 



Xenti 



Amenti 



the Governor of Amentet (*. e., Osiris). 



CHAPTER XI. 



CONJUNCTIONS AND PARTICLE* 

The principal conjunctions are : — 

ww* en because of 



IP 



■o\ 



er 

her 

ma 



as 

dst 

ask 

x er 

ar 

dref 

eref 



until 

because 

when 



as 
re pu or 



> when 



now 



> now, therefore 



PARTICLES. 



193 



Particles. 
Interrogative particles are : 
1 an, which is placed at the beginning of a sentence 

WW 

and is to be rendered by "?" 
&x what ? 

taitraa who? 

dqeset, or aSeset, who ? what ? 

tennu where ? 

peti i 



/WWW 



/WWW 



a a 



what? 



M I 9(i petra j 
Negative particles are : 



or an 

/w/ww 



not 



pJU 



a © 



J^ 



•^CTff 



an sep at no time, never 

bu not 

ben not 

<m not 

dm not. 



194 PARTICLES. 

Examples of the use of these are : — 

neter £en re pu u& dm-b abu 
A prophet or one among the priests. 



i«a_ & - A ft @ 



d?* ?'e% s'd£(?) ten Zie»* £ep * a att-/ 
If be known book this upon earth, he 



I T 4* T 4 

art - « cm ariw her qeres re pu 
doetli it in writing upon a bandage or 



<*- _ _ UI , 



1^ 



<=>*--- err ! ^=7 <= - > *-^ 
du-f psr-f em hru neb mer-f 

he shall come forth day every he pleaseth. 



ds /*en-/ em Neher ma 

When his majesty [was] in Mesopotamia according 



WWNM 



enta-f Qennu renpit 

to his custom each year. 



EXAMPLES OF THEIR USE 195 

-!!„£, = IC- 

dst \en-f h,er T'ah em utit-f 

When his majesty [was] at Tchah in his expedition 

Q AA/WW AAAAA/S 

Q a © o 

second of victory. 

IP- II- = U- 1 

ask hen-f em Uast lent 

When hi3 majesty [was] in Thebes, the mistress 

«m i « 3Lx I I *— H — i 

nw< Jer art* 7*es en tef Amen-Ra 
of cities, to do what things pleased father Amen-Ra, 



SSZ3 



= -= JUT- 

ne& nes* tout ew #«&-/ 

the lord of the thrones of the world, in festival 



nefer en dp reset 

his beautiful of the temple southern. 

3. Q (]tk S ^ — < 

an au her - nek 



er - 8 



Shall it be that thou wilt be silent about it ? 



196 



4* 



an &u 



PARTICLES. 

-Jfi 

qebl} 



" aaaaaa y "^~^tt 
I 
an qeoij, db en hen - k 

Is it that not will cool the heart of thy majesty 



em 



1 1 

T T 

/wvw\ 

enen 



-«az>- 



(M'l 



nek 



er-a 



at this that thou hast done to me ? 



11 111 


kv ° 


<r — ^ n 


«\ AAAAAA 


<z> 


H (J 


V\ AAAAAA 


i\ 


^^ 


AAAAAA 


AAAAAA 1 . 


ir i i i 


® U 


J£^ w 


o o 



$# 



dn dw - fen re/ - tint erentet tud 
Is it that ye know not that I even 



^V VWi AAAAAA 

JL C-1 AAAAAA 

I know the name of 

mt f\ AAAAAA n 

4. J AAAAAA j I 4 

«=E>\ I I I I aaaaaa 



the net ? 



* 



fef - en - sen an fan-f entu- 

Said to them his majesty, "Ye [are] 



n 

AAAAAA M 
I I I 1< 



ten &x 

what (or who) ?" 



Ikafdi em mdtet su ma dx 

The country of I^atai in likeness is it like what ? 



EXAMPLES OP THEIR USE. 



7& -n 



*> © 



pa 
The 



{emdt 
town 



en 
of 



%irebu 
Aleppo 



197 

I 
her 

in 



-fial 



tfaif 
its 



•▼—& 



merfaredat 
neighbourhood [and] 



pat- 
its 



a /www 

/WWW 
' *^**^ t, » /WWW 



14 



/ 

5 j^t™*" 



%e£ wd dj£ 

ford [is] like what ? 



AWAM A/WWN 



?id 
Open to me ! 



/WWW V 

wn 



r&r «l 



mma 
Who 



tfrd 
then 



art thou ? 






nwA 
I am 



1 ~^ III \\ ^3^» 



ua 
one 



am 
of 



ten 
you. 



nima 
Who 



o w 
enti 

is 



#end - A; 
with thee ? 



<|« p 



du 



set 
She 



I 
her 



fe£ - ne/ ementek en 

said unto him, "Thou art . . 



198 PARTICLES. 

nimd trd 

who then ?" 

e. f 7 « q~ ^ qxi ^ 

an/ - k dref em dSeset yer 

Thou wilt live then on what with 

— h— a | 

III I III 

sen neteru 
them the gods ? 

aieset pu %u pui iem 

What is spirit that [which] goeth 

i a i TPR o w $ * ° w _^_ *^_ 

upon his belly, [and] his two thighs, [and] his back ? 

I2i/ srs* i q a' Jr wo hi q Jj^ 

a Tehv*% aieset jpu %epert set em 
Thoth, what hath happened to them, 

mesu Nut 

the children of Nut ? 



EXAMPLES OP THEIR USE. 



199 



1i^ 4-3-fi ^UTI 

a Tern dieset pu ias - a 

O Temu fwhat kind on \ have journeyed 

1 place is this j 

- h 

er set 
into it ? 



O 

aha 



I4-& °\ f 

dSeset pu 

What is [my] duration in 

(t. e., How long shall I live ?) 



em 



T® 
an x 
life? 



7. 



un - k 



er(a nek 

Shall be given to thee thy food 



AAA/VAA 

w 



teni 
where ? 



ft ill Mil 

........ sen neurit er-4 

Say they, the gods, unto me. 



I* 



Thou 



O 
tennu 

art where ? 



200 



8. 



PARTICLE& 



M*fe °W 



D W X 



L, V.1 "I 

A/V\AAA 



nuk 
I am 



mau 
cat 



put 
that 



peieni 
the fighter (?) 



42 

dse£ er 

of the persea tree by 



kes ■ f 
its side 



^ io 

Annu 
Annu 



em 
in 



kerk 
night 



i%* 



pui en \etem ffifti 

that of the destruction of the enemies 



O 



nu Neb-er-fer dm-f 

of Neb-er-tcher in it. 



peti eref 

What then is 



n n\h °w 



su mau 

it? 1 Cat 



put fa Ra pu fesef 
that male Ka is himself. 8 



peti eref su An-d-f pu 

What then is it ? The god An-a-f is it 

(t. e., it refers to An-a-f). 



* I. «., What is the explanation of this passage ? 

* /. e., That male cat is Ra himself. 



ft/VWVA AWW. • I I 



EXAMPLES OP THEIR USE 201 

petrd ren - k an sen er-d 

What [is] thy name [ sa y] tne y to me ? 

petrd maat - nek dm 

What didst thou see there ? 

iQt) S V. ^6 A/WVW AAA/W\ /] Vp\ _^^ 

2j/ /WWVt fill _2i -<^>- 

petrd dn - & en *e?i dw maa- 

What didst [say] thou to them ? I have seen 



nd dhehii em ennu en taiu 

rejoicings in these lands 

Fenpi 
of the Fenkhu. 

^ii C — rri ^ JPM 

jjefrd ergd - en - *en nejfc hesu 

What did they give thee ? A flame 

■* - % C L - flft a 

ym en seset #end ual en befrent 

of fire, and a tablet of crystal. 



202 PARTICLES. 

D <=> 



ii \zi r ~ r to 

petrd dref drit nek eres du 

What then didst thou with it [them] ? I 






I Us I 
gere* - nd set Jer wtefr en 

buried them by the furrow of 

Maaat as things for the night. 

petrd qemt - nek lj.er - f uteb 

What didst thou find by it, the furrow 

i^» «_d J^ c~D 1 ' Jr — *— nnm a — a 
Moat uas pu tes er\a 

of Maat \ A sceptre flint, 'Giver 

wiyw re»i - f 

of winds' is its name. 

°'i& ^ T ^ - £ 

jjetrd are/ 1 dW< - ne& er p a 

What then didst thou with the 



EXAMPLES OF TBEIR USE 203 



I 

A/VWW 

mm 



be* en seSet Jiena pa uat en 

flame of fire and the tablet of 



/WNAAA 



A k^J 



Decent em - %et qeres - k set 

crystal after thou didst bury them ? 

duhet - nd Jier - s du saset 

I said words over them I dug 



\> * — o ilr Oama 
set - nd uat qemamu 

broke the tablet, |"I] created 

A/V/VNAA 

en mer 
a pool of water. 



nd 



AAAAAA K/ f\ 

set du a%em • nd sefset 

it up, I extinguished the fire, I 



au 



9. -*- <L. 

aaaaaa I 

Not opposed is he, not turned back is he at 



AA/WVA J\ | 

an xesef - f dn Sena - f \er 



204 PARTICLES 

shau nu Amentet 

the doors of the underworld. 



an dm dwi me/a't 

Not having eaten goats [or] fish. 

dn - f su ma bdau en 

He brought it as a wonderful thing to 



swten /e/« waa - / entet se&eta 
the king when he saw that [it was] a mystery 

°\ Z\l - Afc - -If* 

pu da dn rnaa an petra 

great, [hitherto] not seen [and] not observed. 

ju 0% <§> -*" *■>- — ~^> 

dn dw £er* dn dri - entu 

For not is it [possible], not can be made 

kkllrh 1^ - 

ne(em-[f']emit dm - 8 

love in it. 



EXAMPLES OF THEIR USE. 



205 



10 



•SjA' 

emma 
Let 



Ms.n 



t I i 



Ge< - ud em haqet 

me take possession of the captives 



en Ausar 

. of Osiris, 



smait 
the fiends 



D © 
an sep 

at no time 
(i. e., never) 

Suti 
of Suti. 



un - a em 

let me be among 



dn 



D © 



D 



Never 



jja< dri£ mdt«t en 

before was done the like by 



bak 
servant 



neb 
any. 



O © 
dn sep 

Never 



D 



M\ h\ P^k 



pa 
before 



mdtu setem 
the like was heard. 



U.J* 

bu 
Not 



D o 



petrd - k 






<a en 
hast thou seen the land of Aupa ? [And] 



206 PARTICLES. 

IKTSrt > Til- 'MK 

%atumd. bu rex * & % aa " / 

ofKhatuma not knowest thou its form, 

M*%3^ k 111 ¥ l\ C 

Il$atai em mdtet su ma &% 

and Ikafai in resemblance it [is] like what? 1 

> *?*=> hi; - ra*» 

6w am - fc wfoti er Qe(e£ 

Not hast thou made a journey to Kadesh 



°^ *>*0 0<j> ^fv * 



:%toi. J' 



— n @ JTos — o^ Jb W±A 

h.ena Tubayjei bu iemi - k 

and Tubakhet ? Not hast thou gone 



/S/S/VAAA A/WVW 



er na en Sasu x er ^ * a 

to the Shasu people who have the 

mi Ml >fVi— 

pe£ maiau, bu {efcas - k 

bowmen [and] soldiers? Not hast thou passed over 



1 Dost thou not know what kind of place Khatami, is, and 
what sort of land lkatai is? 



EXAMPLES OP THEIR USE 



207 



*3* 
<* I 
uat 

the way 



na 
the 



er 
to 



dfau 
thieves 



x 5 fekM 



D @ 
w 



Pamafcare bu pui 

Pamakare ? Not did 



A 

rex pe/.i-f 
know [where] he had arrived. 



Not [any] one 



^ 12 

metet 

spake 



ma-a 
with me 



#erw 
except 



paik 
thy 



brother younger. 



12 



•Pii) pr 



ft/VA/W\ 
I 



*«#* - *en ren - d 

May they mention my name, 

n<2 f| £=z ^=? 1=3 

5iw em Ja£ nebu maat 
cessation/ before the Jords of law. 



-<s>- 



ben drit 

not making 



1 I. e., unceasingly. 



208 PARTICLES. 

/wwvs He <r ' :> (3 

A/WWV 

a$ hen dr em nefer - ud 

When not I was working 

/www q — ^ i ^n > 



Aa& - A; er an en - n pertu 
thou didst send to bring for us grain, 



dw Jai'A: Aewit #er fe£ - net madt 

was thy wife 1 saying to me, 'Come', etc. 



i3. ^^,t, =ki nvm\ 

iu-k en - n tern se%au- 

Come thou to us not [having] thy memories 



A 



k Ml 



k iu-k em dru - k 

of evil, come thou in thy form. 

*=k 4— 1\ k ¥?- 

tern X ese f su em a * ~ f 

Not repelling him in his moment. 

1 / e., Was it not when I was working that thou didst send 
me to fetch grain, [and as I was fetching it] thy wife said to 
me, 'Come'. 



EXAMPLES OF THEIR USE 



209 



D ^ 



If- f 1 



petra 
On seeing 



set 
it 



tern - k 
do not thou 



tet 
say, 



AAyWW C3 



yjm& - k 
'Thou hast made to stink 



w 
kaui 



ren - d 
my name 

I 
l 



£trd ne&£ 

men and women [and] e very-body/ 



en 
before 



I 

a gil 

d?n a<£ 5<z dm per peru 

Not entered a comer in, not came out a comer out, 



dri fyen-f merer-f 
did his majesty his will. 



J/WWVA ' II 

/\ AAAA/VA ***** 

X^- I I I 



aha 



en Aao - nef «n sen em tet 
He sent to them, saying, 



dm ^efew dw a&a 

Do not shut [your gates], do not fight 



210 PARTICLES. 

dm - k art her em ve§ 

Do not make terror in men and women, 



ik- — M 



dm - f s&u erek er 

Let it not [be] that thou criest out against 

setemet-k dm pu en db 

what thou nearest, that there may not be a heart 

PP1 

beqbequ 
of cowardice (?). 

_* *J \AlA AAAAAA 



dm-d ah-d en du 

Not shall I suffer I overthrow 

neet-d dmt uda en Rd 

from my throne in the boat of Iia 



da 
the mighty one. 



EXAMPLES OF THEIR USE. 21 1 



dm erta neken er - a dm- 

Do not cause injury to me. Do not 



® v& f^rf ^^^ 



AA/WV\ 



k erta tep-d ermen dm - d 

thou cause rny head to fall away from me. 

dm - k dri her lira nebt dpu her 

Do not thou perform [it] before people, but only 



? Ill ^< 

\du - k fes-k 

thine own self. 



EXTRACTS FOR READING. 
I. From an inscription of Pepi I. 

[Vlth dynasty.] . 

ha Pepi pu dr seGes - 0m 

Hail Pepi this ! Rise up thou, 

aha uab - k uab 

stand up ! Pure art thou, pure is 

ka - k uab bak uab 

thy double, pure is thy soul. pure is 

secern - k i ■ nek mut-k i - nek 

thy power. Cometh to thee thy mother, cometh to thee 



A TEXT OF PEPI 1 213 

^ ~ok ^ PrCJ P ~> CSD 

iVwf &mero urt s - uab - s Gtt Pepi 

Nut, the fashioner great, she purifieth thee, Pepi 

°\ ZS^ P =^ "3. (5j] D ^ 

75 u Senem - s Gu Pepi p U 

this, she fashioneth thee Pepi this 

*\ IP -^— r% (Jy] 4 

X M &s kii-k ha Pepi p U 

protecting when thou movest. Hail Pepi this 

««6 - < ttdJ Tea - k uab 

pure art thou, pure is thy double, pure is 

secern - & dm ^u uab 

thy power among the spirits, pure is 

%— Hi 111 ra^ im. CUD °^ 

Ja-& dm neteru ha Pepi pu 

thy soul among the gods. Hail Pepi this, 



fi n AAAAAA =1=1=] MWV 



8 



aaab - nek qesu - k seiep-nek tep-k 
are brought to thee thy bones, thou receivest thy head 



214 




A TEXT 0* 


1 PEPI L 






® 


VJQ 


<=S> 


C^ko 


IT 


<C3* 


X er 


Seb 


ater-f 


tut 


art 


- k 


before 


Seb ; he 


destroyed 


the evil 


belonging 


to thee 



CHE! °^ 



Pepi pu %er Tern 
Pepi this before Tern. 

The above passage is an address made to the dead 
king Pepi by the priest which declares that he is cere- 
monially pure and fit for heaven. The ka, ba and sekhem, 
were the "double" of a man, his soul, and the power 
which animated and moved the spiritual body in 
heaven ; the entire economy of a man consisted of khat 
body, ka double, ba soul, khaibit shadow, khu spirit, 
db heart, sekhem power, ren name, and sdhu spiritual 
body. The reference to the bringing of the bones seems 
to refer to the dismemberment of bodies which took 
place in pre-dynastic times, and the mention of the re- 
ceiving of the head refers to the decapitation of the 
dead which was practised in the earliest period of 
Egyptian history. Nut was the mother of the gods and 
Seb was her husband ; Tem or Temu was the setting 
sun, and, in funeral texts, a god of the dead. 



STELE OF PANEEESI. 215 



n. Funeral Stele of Fanehesi. 

(Brugsch, Monuments de VEgypte, Plate 3.) 
[XlXth dynasty.] 



tuau Ra %eft Jjtetep-f em 

Adoreth Ra when he setteth on 



^w< amentet ent pet an ud dqer 
the horizon western of heaven the one perfect, 

ft M *~ } <£ ^p : 

a»i utlju en suten apt Pa-nefyesi 

the scribe of /thetableofi of the royal house, Pa-nehesi, 
I offerings J 

tet - f anet - lira-k Ra dri 

[and] he saith : — Homage to thee, Ra, maker 



tememu Tern Heru-yuti neter ud, 

of mortals, Temu-Harmachis, god one, 



216 STELE OF PANEHESI. 

O AAAAAA a £L / | /WWVA | 

I © JS^* v "o I I I r-^-il 

an% em maat dri enti 

living upon right and truth, maker of things that are, 



i>M^-Wfl ft:* V T-M» 



qemam 



unenet en atu 



creator of I things which i [and] of animals, 

\ shall be, I 



I 

I c* A 



re0 jperi em maa< - / neb 

[and] of /men andi who come forth from his eye. Lord 
\ women, J 



o- .... — _ ^||^ 



F=* " * I 

pet we& ta dri %eru 

of heaven, lord of earth, maker of beings terrestrial [and] 



^,T. *• ^M 




fteru Neb-er-fer 


Jca em 


of f beings \ Neb-er-tcher, 
l celestial,/ 


the bull of 


O III 1 T/wvw\!l <=» 


- Tn 


paw* neteru suten hert 


neb neteru 


rthe company of 1 king of heaven, lord of the gods, 

l the gods, J 



STELE OF PANEHESI. 

e 



217 



dOt her paut neteru neter netri 

prince, chief of fthecompanyi god divine 
\ of the gods, / 



6. 



w 

'00 



geper fesef pauti 

self-created, god of the two companies of the gods 



ra 



hat 



m 



yeper em licit hennu - nek 

coming into being in the beginning. Praises are to thee, 

dri neteru Tern seyeper refit 

O / maker of the 1 Temu making to exist mankind, 
\ gods, / b ' 



Y 



neb 
lord 



benerdt 
of sweetness, 



n v, ^ 



f 



pest - f dn% 

he shineth [and] live 



da 
great 

lira nebt 
mankind. 



mert 
of love ; 



(d-d nek 
I give to thee 



'• 4» 



:sa_S5£ l -~ 



aaiu 
praises 



em 
at 



mdSer sehetep-d 

eventide, I make thee to set 



218 



STELE OF PANEHESI. 



* 



^ D 
tu hetepk em 

[when] thou settest in life. 



an% du sektet 



The sektet boat 



ss\l 



I 
§er *eaw 

is glad, 



>=x 



clfe* em 

the afet boat is in 



Ml 

ahi 
joyful 



AAAAAA IV - H AAAAAA 

^ AAAAAA 



000*^ 

aa/vw\ 



rajkv&! 

1 1 1 

hennu nemd - sen nek Nu[t] 

praising [as] they journey to thee. The goddess Nut 



M' 



^ D 
em Itetep qet - k 
is at peace, thy sailors are rejoicing ; hath over- 



/«<xa - Gd 



sexef' 



en 
thrown 



A/WVAA 



x«* - & 

thine eye 



o w 
thine enemy. 



A 



D0«»«0 I<M 






neJjem ret ent Apep 

Carried a way are the leg[s] of Apep. Thou settest, 



o 



nefer db • k aw em 

glad is thy heart joyful in the horizon of Manu 



CO] 
%ut 



ent 



00 
Manu. 



STELE OF PANEHESI. 219 

Plxl- Ik - II I - 

se\et - k dm en neter nefer neb 

Thou makest light there, god beautiful, lord 



#e£ heq Aufcert f& - k 

of eternity, prince of Aufcert. Thou givest 

*e£ep en enti dm X e fti 

thy radiance upon those there, [thy] enemies 

\elpai - sen neferu-k em sen 

see thy beauties in their [abodes and] 

& ia - oHfc" rri z!»^ ivi & 

em tephetu • sen dui - sen em 

in their habitations [and] their hands 



daui en ka • k dmentiu em 

adore thy double ; the beings in Amenti 

liddtu emyret eref pest-k 

rejoice after thou hast shone 



220 STELE OF PANEHESL 



[\7, -*l * 



•cr-3 III iii 

en sen weiw tuat abu - sen 

upon them, the lords of the underworld their hearts 



I 



wefem sehet - k Amentet maat - sen 

are glad [when] thou lightest up Amentet. Their eyes 

ses"u en maa - A; %imte§ 

open widely at the sight of thee, refreshed 

? rr. >Mk P.T". -* fc^fl 

abu - sen maa - sen tu held 

are their hearts [when] they see thee; rcjoiceth 

Tt /WWV\ IK ft IT^ 



D 1 1 I i i i ,wwsa w llll JT £ M I 

tet - k her sen an meni mestu 

thy body through them. Without pain [are] the births 



II lw rr, <£» iP#l 



/wwv\ o I It I 1 1 I iVf) | 

netey hdu - sen entek meses- 

of god [which are] their members ; thou givest birth 

-*- ^ ^Jl 



@ <y j \^ u m ^* <^=> ^* 



*J8 

set er au uben - k ter - k 

to them, all of them. Thou l'isest, thou destroyest 



STELE OF PANETTESI. 221 

<\ ra ^ ia - ,t; fs ^ *=* f 1 !^ lw 

dkeh - sen hetep - k er senetem hdu- 
their grief ; thou sejttest to make glad their 

A/VWNA ^ )j J /www CS\\ <^> V A <Z> 

i i i Au iii Jr a 

sen \ua - sen tu sper - k er 

members ; they praise thee [when] thou coinest forth to 

rr. « JL rr, ^ T T ^1 V'-DJk 

sen seiep - sen hat ent uda- 

them, they grasp the bow of thy boat. 



CQ2 



r^^i 



k hetep - k em %ut ent Manu 

Thou settest in the horizon of Manu, 

^ 4 k ? : - — » 

nefer • tu em Ra hru neb ta - k 

happy art thou as Ra day every. Grant thou 

± &~$ iiih— (IT, ~^° 

un ba - d yenti - sen pest 

that may be my soul along with them, may shine 



/WWW 

o 



fu - k her Senbet - a maa-d dten 
thy rays upon my body, may I see the Dish 



222 STELE OF PANEHESI. 

- 4- \\ ^m yd ? a 

%eft enen %u dqeru nu neter-xert 

[being] opposite to those spirits perfect of the underworld 



I I 



<m «■ ^>qi=LI 



hems iu emboli Unnefer driu 

who sit in the presence of Unnefer, and who make 



l I 

| AA/WV\ 



ma x eru en ka en Ausdr an 
to the double of Osiris, the scribe 



a 



uthu en suten apt Pa-nehesi 

of the table of offerings of the royal house, Pa-nehesi. 



«?i sa - f sean% ren - f 

[Dedicated] by his son, who niaketh to live his name, 



1 



cin netert ent neb taui 

the scribe of the goddess (?) of the lord of the two lands, 



INSCRIPTION OF ANEBNL 223 



5? 1 it 



" *** 



setep- sa dm het aat Ap-uat-mes maa-yeru 
/worker of i i n the palace, Ap-uat-mes right of speech 
* ma ? icl ' (or triumphant). 



III. Inscription of Anebni. 

(Sharpe, Egyptian Inscriptions, Plate 56.) 
[XVIlIth dynasty.] 

>-T <= if; > l 

drit em heset netert nefert nebt 

Made by the favour of the goddess beautiful, lady 

= (HuD n I) T 

taut Ra-maat-ka an^-0 tet-ft Ra 

of the two lands, IJatshepset living, established Ra 

I 1~X 2 'IZ1 1 — *- I ^ 

ma fetta Ijtena sen - 8 nefer neb 

like for ever, and her brother beautiful, thelord, 

- : a^m a f : e 

dri y(et Men-yeper-Rd td any Rd ma 
maker of things, Thothmes III., giver of life Ra like 

1 Literally, "protecting by means of the V" which was an 
object used in performing magical ceremonies. 



224 INSCRIPTION OF ANEBNL 

S 8 * + A ^ D H ^^ o III 

tetta suten ta hetep Amen neb nest 

for ever, King give an offering ! Amen, lord ) of the \ 

00 l thrones/ 



taui Ausdr J.ieq tetta Anpu 

of the two lands, [and] Osiris, prince of eternity, Anubis 



a 



dlh «•! G f 

%ent neter Jjtet dm Ut neb 

dweller by the divine coffin, dweller in J the city of Uord 

^embalmment,? 



= 52*1 111 

Ta-te8er tS - sen per-%eru menx 

of Ta-tcheser, may they give sepulchral meals, linen 

garments, 



t--:t j- n 



CTZ3 o 

sentrd merh %et nebt nefert abt perert 

incense, wax, thing every beautiful, pure, what appeareth 



nebt Zier %aut - sen em %ert km 

|of every"! upon altar their during the course of the day 



THE STELE OF ANEBNL. 225 

*>**^ <r*~a w r\ /vwvw aa/naaa ,* 

" f I -^rr"* 1 AAA/WW A/WNAA | 

of day every, the drinking of water at 

j-j-= i^r; pp;^ ik«— 

betbet dter seset dm en 

the deepest part of the river, the breathing there of the 

T^y 3 A *• k TiT. ** — 

we/i< dq pert em Re-stau en 

north wind, entrance and exit from Re-stau to the 

Tea en ud dqer hies en neter-f meru 
double of the one perfect, favoured of his god, loving 

10. g) ^^_ * ri|^— j||lA 

we J - / #er men% - f ies 

his lord by reason of his beneficence, following 

^W- <=> A 11.*— « £W) I s 

^ III I X I 

»ie&-/ er wfwt - jf #er set rest 

his lord on his expeditions over the country south 

i 1¥ SI 4*^ ,a - 1.1 

mehti suten sa mer %du suten 

[and] north, royal son, overseer of the weapons of the king, 



226 



THE BOOK OF THE DEAD. 






in 



e 



Anebni madryeru yer neteru paut 

Anebni right of speech before the gods [and] the company 

111 

neteru 
of the gods. 

IV. Text from the CXXVth Chapter of 
the Book of the Dead. 

[XVIIIth dynasty.] 



dnet hrdu-Qen neteru dpu du-d 

Homage to you, O gods these ! I, 



( I I 



I Ci /www 

■ | /WWvA 
{ | | | AA/WVA 



rex ' kud - ten rey - kud ren - ten enen 
even I know you. I know your names. Do not 



4, AA/WVA 



V 



/WWW 
I I I I 



/WWW 

a*/w\a 



%er - d 
cast me down 



en i&t - ten enen 

to your slaughtering knives, do not 

P^.T*. J4^# — 1$ JL 

td,r - ten 6d[n] - a en neter pen 

bring forward ye my wickedness before god this 



ADDRESS TO THE GODS. 227 



AAAAAA ° t 

AAAAAA 






LI v^-7 5 "- AAAAAA fV 

^3K> A /www _2j^ 

en<i Oen em ^ei - / enen iu-tn sep - d 

whom ye follow him, let not come my moment 



*■ AAAAAA 



her - ten fet - ten maid er - a embah 

before you. Declare ye right and truth for me before 



B* SJ § A/vwyA "^ 



5 Neb-er-fer her entet art - nd 

the hand of Neb-er-tcher, because I have done 



=; v\ . l]{© /WWVA X £Anft 

mafd em Ta-mera en ien - a 

right and truth in Ta-mera [Egypt], Not have I cursed 



AAAAAA 

Miii 



neter en iu sep - a anet htrduten 

God, not hath come my moment. Homage to you, 



neteru dm useyt - 6ew ent maciti 

O gods who live in your hall of right and truth, 

oti l$er em yal - sen dnyiu 

without evil in their bodies, who live 



228 



THE BOOK OF THE DEAD. 



sgm ^ hi Z&Ml. 



© 

em maat em, Annu 

in right and truth in Annu, 



samiu 
who consume 



/WN/WA 
I I 



haut - sen 
their entrails 



em 



em baljk Heru 
in the presence of Horus 



1-fl- II 



o 



^uVh 1 ^ ^ 



am 
in 



afew - f 
his disk ; 



a/vwva 

nehem - ten - ud 
deliver ye me 



J 



md 
from 

I 



Baabi 
Baabi, 



$ tT ^ JPTfc 

an/ era beseku 

who liveth upon the intestines 



1 1 r °^ 



serw 





I 

&rw 



pui 



of the princes, on day that 



wy/w\ M no— 

en apt aa< 

of the judgment great 



A/VWW 
I I I 



0. 



A 



AAAA/V\ 

I I I 



md. - ten 
by you ; 



i - Tcua 
I have come 



%er - ten 
to you. 



enen 
Not 



dff/et - d enen %ebent - a en 

have I committed faults, not have I sinned, not 



tu - d 



NEGATIVE CONFESSION. 

f=tb 



229 



/WWW 

enen 



M, 



S£ ^^/W^A 

"i, /WWVA 

meterte - a enen 



have I done evil, not have I borne false witness, not 

<r s> Q A/ww\ g M 



dri - nd 



%et eref an% • a 

let be done to me anything therefore. I live 



em 
in 



ma at 
right and truth, 



^ 



sam -a em madt 

I feed upon right and truth 



o 

I 

ah - a 



m 



in 



$1 



du dri - nd tetet ret 

my heart,. I have done that which commanded men, 



ra 



hereret neteru hers du se-hetep-nud neter 
are satisfied the gods thereat. I have appeased God 



^ 



i 11. 

I 



ft 



em mert - f 

by [doing] his will. 

A/WWt XT /vvv^ 

AOl I I A/w\A 

en Ae^ei ww en 

to the hungry, water to 



dw erf a - nd tfaw 

I have given bread 



V u**« 



dii 
the thirsty, 



230 THE BOOK OF THE DEAD. 

hebs en liaiu ma%en 

clothes to the naked, and a boat 



dui du dri - nd neter-hetepu en 

to the shipwrecked. I have made offerings to the 

in t~ -smits^ 

neteru peryeru en %u nehem- 

gods, and sacrificial meals to the spirits. Deliver 



I I 



; \$ H rr, &\l\ £ 



ten - ud dr ten %u ud 

ye me then ye, protect me 



IMrf, ^^ k 



j iii /yw ' 

dr ten enen smd - ten er - d em bah 
then ye, not make accusation ye against me before 

neter aa nuk ab re &b aaiu 

the god great. I am pure of mouth, pure of hands. 

fet - tu - nef ini sep sen an maaiu 

Is said to him, Come, twice, by those who see 



ACTS OF THE DECEASED. 231 

su her entet setem - nd metet tui 

him, because I have heard speech that 

tetet en da hend mau em 

spoken by the Donkey with the Cat in 

_<=> ffl < e== ii)' 



, ^«ri 'EMM ^ 

per Hept-re meteru - a em 

the house of Hept-re. I have borne testimony 

her - f td - f tentu au maa • nd 

before him, he hath given the decision. I have seen 

peses dSet em %ennu 

the division of the persea trees within 



Re-stau nuk semiu - d em bah. 

Re-stau. I, I offer up prayers in the presence of 



ftAiWAA 



111 ^Jl ^ ^ 

Ml ® U <=>• ii o Hit i i 

neteru re% yert yat-sen 

the gods knowing what concernelh their persons. 



232 THE BOOK OF THE DEAD. 

i - nd da er semeter 

I have come advancing to make a declaration of 



maat er ert&t dusu er 

right and truth, to place the balance upon 



ahdu - f em yennu kadv 

its supports within the amaranthine bushes. 

d qa Iter dat - f neb 

Hail exalted upon his standard, lord 

aie/w ari ren - / em ne& 

of the atef crown, making his name as the lord 

nifu nehem - kud ma naik 

of winds, deliver me from thy 

en dputat utetiu 

messengers who make to happen 



THE PURIFICATION OF THE DECEASED. 



233 



v*.y. mu\\ raa, 



18. 



Qemesu 
dire deeds, 

°ki i i 
at 

without 



sexepertu dterit 

who make to arise calamities, 



&T*- 



| /WWW jr*. 



I /WWW 
I <=> I I I I I 

tamet ent hrdu-sen 



£v /WW* 
| O O 



art - wd 



covering 



upon their faces, 



i i i 
maat neb 

because I have done right and truth. lord of 



^Pfli fizz ^\ 



em 
is 



maat ab - hud \iati - d 

right and truth, I am pure, my breast 

aiw petti - d turd her-db-d 

washed, my hinder parts are cleansed, my interior 



^ 



em 



e*e=>^ 



SI 



U I 



[hath been] in 



AIWW\ 
/WWW 

en en 



1& 



at dm - d 

a member in me 



seietit maat 

the pool of right and truth, not [is] 

O "fV S**~> /wvwv "WWW M 

^w aJ _ nd em 

lacking. I have been purified in 



234 



T1IE BOOK OF THE DEAD. 






/•^ rt A/WWV 

seSetit reset hetep-nd em 

the pool southern, I have rested in 



JJemt 
Hemet, 



~^ s »^ DAA 1 - V"~^%fc*l 



'A 



V^.*** 



me\det em seyet sanehemu 

to the north of the field of the grasshoppers ; 



r>E m i^- 



/SAAAAA 
O AA/WW 
AA/WVA 

a&et 



bathe the divine sailors in it 



em wnnui 
at the season of 



S 8 P^i 



aaaaaa III 



A0 C 

£erA en senaa d& en neteru 

night to gratify (?) the heart of the gods 



^ 



em %ei se^-d /<er-s e?« £er& 

after I have passed over it by night and 



^ 



O 
I 
em hru 



iut - f 



AAAAAA AAAAAA 

I I I 



l I I 
fan, tut - J an - sen er-d 

by day. They grant his coming, they say to me, 



i& -* 



/WWVA 



nxma 
Who 



trd tit an - sen er-d 

then art thou ? say they to me. 



THE MYSTIC NAME OF THE DECEASED. 235 



D * <L1 f! 



/WVAAA £_1' I III 



pit £rd ren - A; dn - sen er - a 

What then is thy name ? say they to me. 



D 



nw/c rw£ ^eri en hait ami 

I grow among the flowers dwelling in 



a/ww\ 



11 A^3=* I « D 

iaag ren - d ses-nek her ma 

the olive tree is my name. Pass on thou forthwith, 



H ill 2l A 2? 



I o I 

dn - *en er - a seina her nut 

say they unto me. I have passed by the town 



JM^ °* ii ~j> 



o es j 

mehtet baat peti trd maa - nek 

north of the bushes. What then didst thou see 

dm x en t P u hend mestet peti trd 

there ? The leg and the thigh. What then 

dn-7c en se»i dw maa - nd d^eAt 

didst thou say to them ? I saw rejoicing 



236 TIIE BOOK OF THE DEAD. 

em ennu taiu Fenyu peti trd 

in those lands of the Fenkhu. What then 



f ;> — " AAAAAA 

n /www o^ 

a I I I 



^jim °\ - :ii 

ertat-sen nek besu pu en seiet 

did give they to thee ? A flame it was of fire, 

g/WWW O /WWW Q . x> 

g TH (Him "*~* lyfff' 4 £CA 

X^— D V\ ,M1 ^oco c \\ iSU 

/tend ual en behent peti trd 

together with a tablet of crystal. What then 



:Wi 



d?'i - nek eves du qeres - nd set her 

didst thou do therewith ? I buried them by 



AAAAAA 



53= ^ 1:1 M;^ 

«*eZ> en maati em yet yaui 

the furrow of Maati with the things of the night. 

2?e<i tfrd gem - ne& dm /ier «<e& 

What then didst thou find there by the furrow 



v\\ 



W/NAA ■£—-& I G >£> A/WWA — « Q 

en maati uas pu en tes du 

of Maati ? A sceptre of flint (?) ; 



THE FLINT AND THE CRYSTAL. 237 

seSet - nek su petrd dref 

maketh to prevail thee it. What then is [the name of] 



1' a \ 



su uas pu 
the sceptre 



/WWSA 

en 
of 



nnm 



tes 
flint? 



erta nifu 
Giver of winds 



-<s>- 



ren - f peti trd dref art - nek er 
is its name. What then therefore didst thou do with 

^\ im 

besu 
flame 



pa 
the 



ftAAAAA 

en 
of 



X 



seiet Jiena pa 

fire and with the 



I, 



uat 
tablet 



set 
them? 



/WVW\ 



en 
of 



° III 
behent 



26 



! -^ 



1^ 



em x et qeres-k 

after thou didst bury 



*e£e£ - n d 
I adjured 



crystal 

hatu-nd fe r . 8 du 

I uttered words over it 

*<rt aw axew. - nd seset du 

it, and I extinguished the fire, 



238 



THE BOOK OF THE DEAD. 



set - nd uat em qemam 

I made use of the tablet in creating 



en mer madi 

a pool of water. Come 



SMI G v 



drek 
then 



A I 
aq her 

pass in over 



crzi 



D 



door 



pen en useyt ten 
this of Hall this 



ent 
of 



=£1 

Ma fit I 
Maali, 



29. 

du - k 
thou art 

ag- - A: 
enter thee 



A/WW\ 
/WWVA 



-\ l\ /WWVA 

II i I , 

rex " 0« - n e?ien(i.e.,an) ta - a 
knowing us. Not will I let 



her - a 
over me, 



/WWVA 

an 
saith 



J 

WV> 
b 

the bolt 



A/WW\ S3 

ben§ 



en 
of 



s&a 
door 

J | | /www 



D 

/WWnA 

pen 
this, 



30. /W/WW 



[d]n-ds tet-nek ren - a 
except thou sayest my name. 



AA/WW 

7*e« - < 



H 



<e/ en Zw maa 

Weight of the place of right and truth is thy name. 



THE DOOR AND ITS POSTS. 



an ta - d 
Not will let I 



A 

A 

aq - k 

enter thee 



31. 



11— f^ 



^~^a 



arit 
the post 



tmera 
risrht 



of 



Aer - d 
by me, 

sba 
door 



239 



A/SAAAA 

an 
saith 



pen 
this, 



[d]n-ds fet-nek ren - d henku - nef 

except thou sayest my name. He weigheth 



,^-fl 



i i i 

macit 



/WVAAA 
AAAAAA 



/d< maai re?i-£ e7ien(t.e.,dn) 

the labours of right and truth is thy name. Not 



5h 



# 



33. 



/WNAAA 

dti 



£a - d aq - k her-d an arit 

will I let enter thee by me, saith the post 



.A. 



abet ent 

left of 



sba pen [a]n-ds fe\ - nek 

door this, except thou sayest 



A/WW\ 



ren - a 
my name. 



lienku 
Judge 



34. AAA/WV 



^ 






en arp re?i - £ 
of wine is thy name. 



240 



THE BOOK OF THE DEAD. 



aaaaaa. 
enen 



1ft I 



A 



I 



W»AA -/-J 



o * 



,. . % ta - a seS - k her - a an sati 

(i.e., an) y 

Not will I let pass thee over me, sa-ith the threshold 



AAAAAA 
VWWV 

en 
of 



("I /WWW 

35. n n 



s6a 2 Jen [d]n-ds £e£ - neife ren - a 
door this, except thou sayest my name. 



dim 
Ox 

AAAAAA ^^■es^J Zj ' 

iiumii P 1 

«n - d 
will I open 



en Ksb 
of Keb 



AAAAAA 
/WW\A 



ren - A; enen (i. e., dn) 
is thy name. Not 



88. 



neifc an qert ent 

to thee, saith the bolt-socket of 



aha 
door 

8 ah 
Flesh 



AA/wv\ c- 

ren 



pen [a]n-ds let • nek # ren - a 
this, except thou sayest my name. 



? 



A/WW> 37. 



en 
of 



mut - f 
his mother 



Aa/wva <i— » 

ren - < 
is thy name. 



A/WW* A/WW\ W=A 2. 

cncn(».e„d») un - a nek tin 
Not will I open to thee, saith 



pait 
tho lock 



THE DOOR AND ITS POSTS. 241 

wa~v *<k\ c— i n n | ynaf 

en «6a jjen [d]n as fe£ - wefc fen - d 

of door this, except thousayest my name. 

an%c< wfdt ent Sebek neb 

Liveth the ttte&a* of Sebek, the lord of 

j£^ n c^s) AA/WVV aaaaaa -fflnmr El 

Bayau ren-t enen(dn) un • a 

Bakhau, is thy name. Not will I open 

AA/WSA g»i -tt y^ <d> ELL AA/WSA 

nefc enen (d?i) <d - d dq - k Ijer -a an 

to thee, not will I let pass thee over me, saith 



c-a n n 

AAAAAA 1 I 



111111111 

dri da en sba pen \a\nas 

the dweller at the door of door this, except 



*t aaaaaa «r — ^ jQ Q no 

«=2a\ V__^*> AAAAAA <£— » C-i rf3 \ 

tet - nek ren - a qebt ou erta-nef 

thou tellest ray name. Arm of Shu that placeth itself 



^ 



5MI 12* 



AAAAAA i 



em «aw «4wsur ren - it enen{an} 

for the protection of Osiris is thy name. Not 



242 



THE BOOK OF THE DEAD. 

^ J A~WVA ft 



I I 

n 



X 

A 
seS-k 



"~ ^ I I I AAAAAA 

#er - n dn 



»0 

£a - n seS-k her - n an heptu 

will we allow to pass thee by us, say the posts 



cm 



of 



sba 
door 



AAAAAA £Li/ I I I 

ren - n 



pen [dn] as fef - nek 

this, except thou sayest our names. 



aaaaaa 

D 



AAAAAA 

ne%enu nu 

Serpent children of Rennut are 



Rennut 



r\i\ aaaaaa 

AAAAAA £_l' I I • 

r en-ten 
your names. 

^> £V I AAAAAA 



I I I 



dw - & re# - 6d - n se§ drek Iter - n 

Thou knowest us, pass then by us. 



AAAAAA 
AAAAAA 



lA 



§ 



[#] ' 



I J 



enen(dn) #e?i£ - k her - a an sati 

Not shalt tread thou upon me, saith the floor 



M 



en 
of 



ren - a 
my name. 



useyt 
hall 

I 



Q AAAAAA c > 

AAAAAA I I *"**"S »l 

fen [dn]ds £e£ - A; 

this, except thou sayest 



^ (); 



her ma 



dref 



au - a 
I am 



A 



silent, 



THE DOOR AND ITS POSTS. 



n 



aaaaaa. 

AA/WSA 
/WWNA 

db - kua 



I am pure, 



Hi, 

ret - k 



^v AAAVNA 

#er entet 
because 

• A 
AAAAAA J\ V ' 



41. AAAAAA 

[d]n 
not 

@> I AA/W 
Aer - n 



243 

^^^ n /ww\a 

® U i i i 
re% ~ n 
do we know 

1&W 



am 



AA/WVA 
I I I 

sen 



thy two legs thou treadest upon us with them ; 



tet drek nd set 
tell then to me them. 



-^ 



Imsu 



ren 



Menu i s t h e name 
(or, Amsu) 



&>° 



en 
of 



besu 
Traveller 

ret - a 
my leg 



em ball 
before 



unemi 
right. 



IVAAWV \=7 «. < - ^ ,, 

www ^»-?*" o lej im »»»». yu 
?*npe£ en« Nebt-het ren en 
Grief of Nephthys is the name of 



re< - d 
my leg 



.4 



W \\ Jj <r^Sk 



d&i 
left. 



#en£ drefc 

Tread then upon us 



^X | AAAAAA 

Jer - n 



1^ 



du - k 
thou 



XII 



I | I AAA/Wi I A S 52* U CM ii 

rex - 6d - n enen(dn) semd - d <w dn 

knowest us. Not will I question thee, saith 



244 THE BOOK OF THE DEAD. 



' iiiiiiiii 



dri act en useyt Gen [d]nds 

the guardian of the door of hall this, except 

tet - nek ren - a sa dbu far 

thou sayest my name. Discerner of hearts, searcher of 



o 



/www 



nm -* i: 



fat ren - k semd -a tu aref 

reins, is thy name. I will question thee then. 

nima en neter ami unnut - f 

Who is the god dwelling in his hour ? 



r^^ii 



A/WWV 

tet - k set en maau taui 

Speak thou it. The recorder of the two lands. 



peti trd su maau taui 

Who then is he the recorder of the two lands ? 



A/WW 



Tehuti pu mad an Teliuti i - nek 

Thoth it is. Come, saith Thoth, come thou 



THE DOOR AND ITS POSTS. 245 

er ma i - nd da er semdt 

hither (?). I come advancing to the examination. 

peti trd X ert - k du-d ab - hud 

What then is thy condition ? I, I am pure 

em X u neb du %u - nud 

from evil all. lam protected 

^ AT, T 4-B^I n&lrr, 

em §entet ent dmu hru - sen 

from the baleful acts of those who live in their days, 

enen(dn) tud emma - sen semd - d dref 
not am I among them. I have examined then 

tu nima en haat em seiet 

thee. Who goeth down into the flame, 

dnbut-s em daretu unnu 

its walls are [surmounted] with uraei, being 



246 THE BOOK OF THE DEAD. 



I 



sa<w - / em ennu ui 

his paths in that same lake ? 



sebi pu Asar pu uta drek 

The traverser Osiris is. Come forward then, 



o 0=0 



maketu smd - Qd dw <aw - & 

verily thou hast been examined ; is thy bread 

em utat heqt em utat du 

from the utchat, and [thy] beer from the utchat, are 



A <E ^* i i i I 

per-tu nek %eru \ep ta 

brought out to thee sepulchral offerings upon earth 



1- \ 



Q 



em utat su er - a 

from the utchat. Hath decreed it he for me. 



7 



M 

at* 






-txz 






fff 



JCl 



SrfL 

\ 



I 



u 

©£ 

u 

It © 
I 5> 

If 

Y 



1 1 1 



s 

5 , 



4£ 









"-£ 



w 



i 






A. 

It i 
^37 



> 1 1 



4- 

yvtf 



Aft 



,/w 



7. 



k 

Is 



A. 

I 
-1 



-!^>- 



-rtr 









M 
JL 



hi jji 

3 

tr 



^ 






* 



Ml Q 

Hi 

> X 

K 

■ i i 

in ^ 



1 1 1 

zatz 



w 



M 

a O 

rrr 

'"I 

9tP 



P& 



• I I 

1 



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4 

7^ 















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^5 
■ u 



«ut^ 



^ 



n 
n 



riL 









4t 



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4 



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«3^ 



H 
I® 

& " 

• i i 

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4tP 









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ff 
^? 

t 



WALLIS 
BUDGE 






13 



RKP