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on War, Revolution, and Peace 


• •+YWr%^fauxv!^>v**za ' 







in three volumes, 

1768— 1 771. 




ten „ 





eighteen „ 





twenty „ 

1801— 1 8 10. 




twenty „ 

1815— 1817. 




twenty „ 





twenty-one „ 

1830— 1842. 




twenty -two ,, 

1853— 1860. 




twenty-five n 




ninth edition and eleven 

supplementary volumes, 

190a— 1903. 



published in twenty-nine volumes. 








in three volumes, 





ten „ 

1777— 1784. 




eighteen „ 





twenty „ 

1801— 1810. 




twenty „ 





twenty „ 





twenty-one „ 

1830— 1842. 




twenty-two „ 

1853— 1860. 




twenty-five „ 




ninth edition and eleven 

supplementary volumes, 

100a— 1903. 



published in twenty-ninc volumes, 

1910— 191 1. 

M "1 * 

■^CITiCi ; H 












'•A > i 

* p . .. 

Copyright, in the United States of America, 1910, 


TbeEncydopwfca Bntannka Comptny, . 

.-,; i 1 




A. Bo.* 





A. CS. 





A. Co.* 


A. J. 0. 

Const: Botany. 


Augusts Boudinhon, D.D., D.C.L. 

Professor of Canon Law in the Catholic Univcnity of Paris. Editor of the Canonist* i Concordat; 
eontemporain. Author of Biens figliu 4t prints canoniques; Ac. I Consistory. 

Alice B. Gommx. 

Hon. Member of the Folk-lore Society. Author of Dictionary of Traditional Games 
of Groat Britain and Ireland; Children's Singing Games. 

Alfred Barton Rendu. M.A., D.Sc.. F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Keeper, Department of Botany, British Museum. Author of Text Book en Classifi- 
cation of Flowering Plants; Ac 

Arthur Christopher Bensok, C.V.O., M.A., F.R.Hbt.S. 
See the biographical article: Benson. Edward White. 

Albert Curtis Clark, M.A. 

Fellow and Tutor of Queen's College, Oxford, and University Reader in Latin. 
Editor of Cicero's Speeches (Clarendon Press). 

Arthur Cushhan McGhteit, D.D., Ph.D., M.A. 

Professor of Church History in Union Theological Seminary, New York. Author of 
A History of Christianity in the Apostolic Age; Ac 

Algernon Charles Swinburne. 

See the biographical article: Swinburne, A. C 

Austin Dobson. 

See the biographical article: Dobson, Henry Austin. 

Rev. Andrew Ewbane Burn, M.A., D.D. 

Vicar of Halifax and Prebendary of Lichfield. Author of An Introduction to the \ CtardL 
Creeds and the To Denm; Niceta of Remesiana; &c ' 

Arthur Francis Leach. M.A. | 

Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple. .Charity Commissioner lor England and Wales. \ 

(in part). 

. Congrtvt, 
[ciswtorlwsi, 4th Earl of. 


Formerly Assistant Secretary of the Board of Education. 
College, Oxford, 1874-18*1. Sunhope Priaeman, 1872. 

of All Sools' 

Major Arthur George Fredebxce Griffiths (d. 1008). f 

H.M. Inspector of Prisons, 1878-1896. Author of The Chronicles of Newgate-A 
Secrets qf the Prison House; Ac L 

Rxv. Alexander Gordon, M.A. 

Lecturer on Church History in the University of Manchester. 


Albert Hauck, D.Th.. Ph.D.. DJuris. 

Professor of Church History in the University of Ldprig. Director of the Collection 
of Ecclesiastical Archaeology. Member of the Royal Saxon Society of Arts and . 
Sciences. Formerly Professor : - * u - "- J f ! — -* ■*-■ ■*-" ' -*- J- * 

• in the University of Erlangen. Editor of the 3rd 

edition of Herzog-Hauck's RealencyhlopddiejAr protestantische Theologie und Kirche. 
Author of Kirckengeschichle De ut schla nds ; TertuUians Leben und Schriften; Ac. 

Augustine Henry, M.A., F.L.S. 

Reader in Forestry, Cambridge University. Formerly Official in Chinese Imperial . 
Maritime Customs. Explorer of the Flora of the interior of China, Formosa and ' 

Abel Hendy Jones Greemdge, M.A., D.Lttt. (Oxon.) (d. 1905). 

Formerly Fellow and Lecturer of Hertford College. Oxford, and of St John's College, 
Oxford. Author of infamia in Roman Lew; Handhooh of Greek Constitutional. 
History; Roman Public Life; History of Rome. Joint-author of Sources of Reman 
History, i$J~7Q *£. 

Rev. Alexander James Grieve, M.A., B.D. (Lond.). 

Professor of New Testament and Church History, Yorkshire United Independent 
CoBege, Bradford. Sometime Registrar of Madras University and Member oP 
l»frs«s* Educational Service. 

1 A complete Qst, showing all individual contributors, appears to the final volume. 

Church History (in part). 


E (in pari). 


CbXm: Geography and 

Colombia: Geography ami 


A. J. L. Andrew Jackson Lamoureux. 

Librarian, College of Agriculture, Cornell University. Editor of the Rio News 
(Rio de Janeiro), 1879-1901 


Professor at the College dc France. Director of the Ecole des Haute* Etudes. , 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Member of the Institute. Author of Geographic 

JL W. C Arthur WniiAM Clayden, M.A. 

Christ's College, Cambridge. Principal of the Royal Albert Memorial College, - 
Exeter. Author of Cloud Studies; The Clouds of Venus; &c 

A. W. Po. Alfred William Pollard. M.A. 

Assistant Keeper of Printed Books, British Museum. Fellow of King's College, 
London. Hon. Secretary, Bibliographical Society. Editor of Boohs about Boohs ' 
and Btbliographica. Joint-editor of the Library. Chief Editor of die " Globe" 

A. W, R. Alexander Wooo Rehton, M.A., LL.B. f 

Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court of Ceylon. Editor of Encyclopaedia of the Law 1 
of England. I 

C. Earl of Crewe. f 

See the biographical article: Ciewb, Earl OF. \ 

C. A. HftcH. Charles Alexander Macmunn, M.A., M.D., F.CS. f Coiom* of Animafe 

Formerly Physician and Pathologist to Wolverhampton General Hospital Author A ^ F-Z., . ' 

of Outlines of Clinical Chemistry; The Spectroscope tn Medicine; Ac. I ^*unstry. 

C B.* Charles Bemont, D.Litt. (Onm.). J Chroakb; 

See the biographical article: Bemont. C I ComilHim. 

C BL Rev. Charles Bigg, M.A„ D.D. (1840-1908). t 

Regius Professor of Ecclesiastical History, Oxford, 1001-1906. Examining J Clement of Aknadrfe 
Chaplain to Bishop of London. Author of Neoptatonism; The Christian PleJonists') /JTa^rt 
of Alexandria; &c Editor of St Augustine's Confessions; De Imitation*, *c , J, K m F°pi' 

C R.* Charles Evbritt, M.A.. F.C.S., F.G.S., F.R.A.S. /Chemistry; 

Sometime Scholar of Magdalen College, Oxford. \ Ctrftlt (in pari). 

C.E.A. C E. Akers. f 

Formerly Times Correspondent in Buenos Aire** Author el A History of South < Chile: History (in pari). 
America, 1854-1904. I 

C. H. Hft. Carlton Huntley Hayes. D.D. f 

Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City. Member J flfnUrt VL* 

of the American Historical Association. Author of An Introduction to the Sources 1 rum-t VUL* antinomy 

relating to the Barbarian Invasions. I """"— '*"•• •■»*»?«• 

0* J* H« Charles John Holmes, M.A. f 

Director, Keeper and Secretary of the National Portrait Gallery. Stade Professor 1 China: Chinese Art (Sculptwt); 
of Fine Art, Oxford, 1904-1910. . Author of Constable; Constable and his Influence | Conftt&bJe, John. ' 
on Landscape Painting; Notes on the Science of Picture Mahing; Ac I 

C. K. K. Sot Charles Malcolm Kennedy, K.C.M.G., C.B. (1 831-1008). r 

Head of Commercial Department, Foreign Office, 1873-1893. Lecturer on Inter- I 
national Law, University College, Bristol. Commissioner in the Levant, 1 870-1871 : < COflUMfelal TrSttlSfl. 

at Paris, 1872-1886. Plenipotentiary, Treaty of the Hague, 1 88a. Author of | 
Diplomacy and International Law. 

0. It Christian Pfister, D. is L. fChfldebtrt; Chllperle; 

Professor at the Sorbonnc, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of < Clotaire; Clotilda. Stint: 
Btudes sue le regno de Robert le Pieux; Ac I Owls. 

0. R. B* Charles Raymond Beazley, M.A., D.Lrrr., F.R.G.S., F.R.Hist.S. 

Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow 

of Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography, i ffommbllS. ChrbtOfihar. 
Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1889. Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author ir ' VW " MM,, "» ^""r* 1 ' 
Henry the Navigator; The Dawn of Modem Geography; Ac 


0.4. Hon. Carl Schurz, LL.D. f_ w 

See the biographical article: Schurs, Carl. • \ Oaf, Henry. 

0. W. R. OL Charles Wallwyn Radcufte Cooke. f 

President, National Association of English Gdcr-makers. M.P. for Walworth, < Cider, 
1885-1892, and for Hereford, 1893-1900. Author of A Booh about Oder and Perry. I 

C W. W. Sir Charles William Wilson, K.C.B., K.C.M.O., F.R.S. (1836-1907). 

Majoc-GeneraJ, Royal Engineers. Secretary to the North American Boundary 
Commission, 1858-1862. British Commissioner on the Servian Bourn 1 " 

Commissioner on the Servian Boundary Com- 
irector-General of the C 
_. _ ilitary 

mission. Director-General of the Ordnance Survey, 1886-1894. Director-General 
of Military Education, 1895-1898. Author of From Korti to Khartoum; Life of 

Cfileim (in part). 

D. F. T. Dovald Francis Tovey. , m_ M .M«.H 

Balliol College, Oxford. Author of Essays in Musical Analysis, comprising the] JJSw 
Classical Concerto; The Goldberg Variations; and analyses of many other classical 1 aMltt J 












Ed. at. 


P.O. P. 



David George Hogarth, M.A. 

Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. 
Fellow of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naukratis, 1899 
and 1903; Ephesus, 1904-1903; Assiut. 1906-1907. Director, British School at 
Athens, 1897-1900; Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899. 

David Hanhay. 

Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Sheet History of Royal Nary, 
1217-1688', Life of Emilio Outdo*; Ac 

(in P«t)\ 


I Church, Sir Richard; 

Rev. Ducald Macfadyen, M.A. f 

Minuter of South Grove Congregational Church, Highgate. Director of the Loodoa < Concordance. 
Missionary Society. Author of Constructive Congregational Idoals. I 

Edward Baonall Poulton, M.A., D.Sc, LLD.. F.R.S. 

Hope Professor of Zoology in the University of Oxford. Fellow of Jesus College, 

Oxford. Author of Tko Colours of Animals; Essays on Eootnlion; Darwin and the 

Original Species; Ac 
Right Rev. Edwabd Cutrbebt Butler, O.S.B., Dim. (Dublin). 

Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath. 

Edmund Crosby Quiccin, M.A. i 

Fellow and Lecturer in Modern Languages and Monro Lecturer in Celtic, Gonvule H 
and Caius College, Cambridge. 

Edwabd Everett Hale 

See the biographical article: Hale, E. E. 

Edmund Gosse, LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Gossa, E. 

E. G. J. Moywa, F.R.G.S. 
New College, Oxford. 

Colours of 

Cistercians; Clan, Saint; 
dam, Poet; Clnnjr. 

Columba, Saint 


{Cfioriamblc Verse; Clanvowe; 
Coffins, wmiam; 
Coaaoieaee, Hendrlk; 
Constable, Henry. 

•f Chile: History (in part). 

/Chios {in 'part); 


dough, A. H. 

Ernest Arthur Gardner. M.A. 

See the biographical article: Gardner, Percy. 
Ellis Hovell Minns, M.A. 

Lecturer in Palaeography in the University of Cambridge. Lecturer and Assistant 

Librarian, and formerly Fellow of Pembroke College, Cambridge. 
Edmund Kerchever Chambers. 

Assistant Secretary, Board of Education. Sometime Scholar of Corpus Christ! 

College, Oxford. Chancellor's English Essayist, 1891 . Author of The Medieval Stage. ' 

Editor of the " Red Letter " Shakespeare; Donne's Poms; Vaughan's Poem; &c 
Edward Manson. f 

Barrister-at- Law, Middle Temple. Joint-editor of Journal of Comparative Legislation; < Company. 

Law of Trading Companies; Practical Guide to Company Law; Ac. I 

Eduard Meyer, D.Lrrr. (Oxon.), Ph.D., LL.D. 

Professor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. Member of the Royal 
Prussian Academy. Author of Geschichle des Alterthunsi Forschungen tnr alien' 
Gesckuhte; &c - 

Edmund Owen, M.B., F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.Sc. 

Consulting Surgeon to St Mary's Hospital, London, and to the Children's Hospital, • 
Great Ormond Street. Author of A Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students, 

Rev. Edmund Venables, M.A., D.D. (1810-1805). 

Canon and Precentor of Lincoln. Author of Episcopal Palaces of England. 

Ettrick William Creak. C.B., F.R.S., F.R.G.S, 

Cleft Palate and Hare Ufv 



rick William Creak. C.B., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. f 

Captain, R.N. Formerly Superintendent of Comp a sses, Hydrographic Department, \ Co&pass {in pari). 

Admiralty. Author of many papers on magnetic subjects. t 

Formerly Fellow of University College. Oxford. 
Texts of Aristotle; Myth, Magic and Morals; &c 

Frederick Cornwallis Conybeare, M.A., D.Th. (Giessen), 

Fellow of the British Academy. Former!] ~ 

Author of The Ancient Armenian 

Francis Edward Wentworth-Sheilds, MJnst.C.E. 
Docks Engineer, London & South- Western Railway. 

Frederick Georce Meeson Beck, M.A. 

Fellow and Lecturer in Classics, Clare College, Cambridge. 

'Frederick Gymer Parsons, F.R.C.S., F.Z.S., F.R.Anthrop.Inst. 

Vice-President, Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Lecturer on 

Anatomy at St Thomas's Hospital and the London School of Medidne for Women. 

Formerly Hunteriaa Professor at the Royal College of Surgeons. 
Frederick Hibth, Ph.D. 

Professor of Chinese in Columbia University, New York. Author of China and the 

Roman Orient; The Ancient History of China to the End of the Ghon Dynasty; Ac. 
Francis H. Butler, M.A. 

Associate of the Royal School of Mines. 
Rev. Frederick John Tervts-Smtth, M.A., F.R.S.. F.R.A.S. 

Msaard Lecturer in Experimental Mechanics and Engineering, Trinity College, • 

Oxford. Fc<merlyUmversiry Lecturer in Mechanics. 




History (in part). 
- Compass {in part). 




Professor of History in the University of Hamburg. Formerly Protestor of Medieval 
and Modern History in the University of Jena. Author of Die House umd Engfond 
im 14. Johrhundert; Untersuckungen fber den Vrsfpmg der deutschen Stadtoerfassung; 
Urhnnden %ur stadtischen Verfassungsgeschichte; AmUr und ZUnfte; Sec 

F. LL 0. Francis Llewellyn Griffith, M.A., Ph.D. (Leipzig), F.S.A. f 

Reader in Egyptology, Oxford University. Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, J 
Oxford. Editor of the Archaeological Sumy and Archaeological Reports of the ] 
Egypt Exploration Fund. Fellow of Imperial German Archaeological Institute. I 

F. 9. II Col. Frederic Natusch Maude, C.B. f 

Lecturer in Military History, Manchester University. Author of War end thai 
World's Policy; The Leipzig Campaign; The Jena Campaign, I 

F. R. a Fianx R. Cana. J Congo; 

Authoro( South Africofr<mtheGreatTnhtolhe Union. \ Congo Frat State (in part). 

F. W. R.* Frederick William Rudler, I.S.O., F.G.S. fchmaharvl- Chmanmsa* 

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1879-1902. « Xt-.HI. »«#■»»»■■■» 
President of the Geologists' Association. 1887-1889- I C™****' 

0. Lord Grmthorpe. / q^ (• ^^ 

See the biographical article: Grimthorfe, ist Barok. \ "■" ** *""'• 

0. A. B. Georoe A. Boulenger, F.R.S. f cuhOd* 

In charge of the Collections of Reptiles and Fishes, Department of Zoology, British -) Jf~| * 
Museum. Vice-President of the Zoological Society of London. I WML 

Q, C. W. George Charles Williamson, Litt.D. f „ . _, 

Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Portrait Miniatures; Life of Richard I ClOUa^ FTEBOOB; 
Cosway, R.A.; George EnrUkeart; Portrait Drawings; &c Editor of new edition ] Clonal, Jean. 
. M Paint 

Chile: History (in part); 
Colombia: History, 

Conjuring (,» pari). 

of Bryan's Dictionary of Painters and Engravers. 

0. ■. Rev. George Edmundson, M.A., F.R.Hist.S. 

Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Brasenose College. Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1909. 
Employed by British Government in preparation of the British case in t u - fa -* : -'- ** 
Guiana-Venezuelan and British Guiana-Brazilian boundary arbitrations. 

0. Fa. G. Faur. 

Q. CL Co. George Gordon Coulton, M.A. 

Birkbeck Lecturer in Ecclesiastical History, Trinity College, Cambridge. Author 
of Medieval Studies; Chancer and his England; &c 

0. H. C. George Herbert Carpenter, M.R.I.A. 

Professor of Zoology in the Royal College of Science, Dublin. Author of Insects: • 
their Structure and Ufa. 

0. H. Fo. George Herbert Fowler, Ph.D., F.Z.S., F.L.S. r 

Formerly Berkeley Fellow of Owens College. Manchester, and Assistant Professor of J Coelenttra. 
Zoology at University College, London. Member of Council of Linnean Society. I 

0. J. George Jamieson, C.M.G., M.A. r 

Formerly Consul-General at Shanghai, and Consul and Judge of the Supreme Court, J China (in pari). 


; Turner. r 

Oaitndon, Constitutions of. 

0. J. T. George James Turner. 

Barnster-at-Law, Lincoln's Inn. Editor of Select Pleas of the Forests for the Selden . 
Society t ace 


G. L. Georo Lunge, Ph.D., F.C.S. 

See the biographical article: Lunge, Georo. \ v 

6. S. C Sir George Sydenham Claree, G.C.M.G.. G.CJ.E., F.R.S. r 

Governor of Bombay. Author of Imperial Defence; Russia's Croat Sea Power; The J Coaflng-StatiODS. 
Last Great Naval War; &c ^ 

G. W. Km* Rev. George William Knox, D.D., LL.D. t 

Professor of Philosophy and History of Religion, Union Theological Seminary, New _ U1 ,. 
York. Author of The Religion of Jesus, The Direct and Fundamental Proofs of the \ Christianity. 
Christian Religion; &c I 

H. A. OL Herbert Allen Giles, MA., IX.D. r 

Professor of Chinese in the University of Cambridge. Member of the China Consular I 'China: Language. LUtratttra. 
Service, 1 867-1 893. Author of a Chinese-English Dictionary ; A Chinese Biographical i RAiAo*. 
Dictionary; History of Chinese Literature. [ ****?**. 

H. B. Hoary Bauermann, F.G.S. (d. 1009). r r „, #. + ~. 

Formerly Lecturer on Metallurgy at the Ordnance College, Woolwich. Author of J ?" <«» P** 1 *', 
A Treatise on the Metallurgy of Iron. |Cok». 

H. C. H. Rev. Horace Carter Hovey, A.M., D.D. r 

Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Geological „. . . a..^ 

Society of America. National GeographlcSociety and Societe de SpMeologte (France). I COlOuai GiftrB. 
Author of Celebrated A merican Caverns ; Handbook of Mammoth Com of Kentucky ; &c [ 

H. B. W. Henry Edward Watts. f 

Editor of the Melbourne Argus. Author of Life of Cervantes. Translator of Don < CM, Tbt. 
Quixote, I 

H. H. C Sot Henry Hardinge Cunynchame. K.C.B.. M.A. f 

Assistant Under-Secreury. Home Office ; Vice-President, Institute of Electrical { CMk* 
Engineers. Author of various works on Enamelling. Electric Lighting, &c JL 









J. A. P. 

J. A. ■» 


J. IX 

J. IP. 



Hugh Lohcbohrne Callentur, LL.D-, F.R.S. 

ProroMpr of Physic*, Royal College of Science. London. Formerly Professor of. 
Physics in McGill College, Montreal, and ih University College, London. 

Hugh Munro Ros*. 

Formerly Exhibitioner of Lincoln CaJlrn* Oxford. 
E'tgmttfrtni Sup fitment, Antbor of Brttisk Railways. 

Editor at "Th* Times' 

Of HMt 

I (in fori). 

Hauv Marshall Ward, F.R.S. , D Sc, (d, 100O. r 

Formerly Professor of Botany. Cambridge UniveTsitY> President of the British J _. ■u^i «j « «^ 
M -k\c\\ Sotict y. Am bur uf /"imier anJ iff«w p/ its Diseases; The Oak; Diseases] ^ WntuMutl JullOi. 
itt/'Jcatfi&C. I 

Haiold MrM'.iR Woodcock, D Sc. f 

Assistant to the Professor ol Prolo- Zoology. London University. Fellow of Unl> 1 
verity College, London. Author o! " Mac mofhi eel late* H " in Professor Ray Lan- | 
lusters Treatise of Zootogy t and of various scientific papers* I 


Henry Stuart Tones. M.A. 

Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Oxford- Director of the British School 
Rome, 190J-J905. Author of The Reman Empire; Ac 

Henry Stvrt, M.A. 

Author at Idota Tticatri; Tie Idea of a Free Church; Personal Idealism; dec 

Henry Smith Williams, M.D., B.Sc. . 

Formerly Lecturer in the Hart lord School of Sociology. I'.S.A. Editor of The] ChrOBOlOfJ (in part); > 
Historians' Hi^ty cf the World. Author of The Story ofSinetewnlh Century Science; ~ ~~ " 
The History pfthe Art of Writing; The LiUOn ef Heredity; &c, 

Horace White. LL.D. 

Formerly Editor of the AVw York Evemnt, Poll, Sometime Editor of L 
Ttfbitnf. Author of Money ami Banking Itluitratrd by American History; 

\er Question; 



Tariff Question; The Gold Question > t The SU 

H. Wick ua it Steed. 

Correspondent of The Times at Rome, 1897-1903, and at Vienna. 

SlB Henry Yule, K.C.SJ-. C.B. 

See the biographical article: Yule, SlR HSNtY. 

Israel Abrahams, M.A. 

Reader in Tahnudic and Rabbinic Literature in the University of Cambridge. 
Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A * 
Short H*n*ry of Jewish Literature: Jewish Life in the Middle Ages; Judaism; Ac 

Edited Quarterly Review, ia^-i 30JJ. 

John Algernon Clarke* 
Author of ft* Stock* ; Ac 

John Ambrose Fleidnc. MA D.Sc., F.R.S,, MJ.K.8. 

Pender Profes-tut of Electrical Engineering in the University of London. Fellow of 
University CoHrge, London. Formerly Fellow of St Johns College, Cambridge, 
and Lecturer on Applied Mechanics ia the I Diversity. Author oT Magnets ana 
Eietlric Currents. 

Jobk Allen Howe, B.Sc 

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London. 

Vi*¥ Rev. Joseph Armitace Robinson. D.D + 

Dean of We* minister. Fellow of ihr llriii&h Academy- Hon- Fellow of Christ's 
College* Cambridge. For merl y Fel low of Ch ris* ' » Coll ege. Cam bridge, and Norrieian 
Professor of Di vim t y i n the U ni* crw t y . Author of Seme Thoughts on the Incarnation ; 

John Chrjstophxi Schwab, A.M., Ph.D. 

Librarian, Vale University. Editor of Yale Review. Author of The Confederate 
States *f America ; History of New York Property Tax; *c 

Stt jAitES Donaldson. 

' Bee the biographical article : DONALDSON, Su J.. 

History (m part). 





Confederals States of AjMrit*, 

I Clement of AJeundria (in part). 

Johannes Diderib van dei Wmli, Ph.D. 
Professor ol Physics at the University of Ai 

profestor ol Phyii 

the Liquid and Caseous Stales* 

trsity of Amsterdam. Author of The Continuity of\ Co ndamntt OB Of GatH. 

Rev. James Everett Frame, A.M. (Harvard}. ( 

Edward Robin^n Prnlnoor of BjUjcal Theology In Union Theological Seminary, « 

hew York. Author of Furpasa of JV«w Tttiamuui thaatogy. 

fffJfiifUfti aWttld to Iba* 

Jomt Edwin Sanovs* M.A., Litt-D. p LL.D. I 

Public Orator in the University of Cambridge. Fellow of St John's College, J 
Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of History of Classuai] 
Scholarship: &c. I 

John Horace Rount*. LL.D. (Edin,), ' f 

Author of feudal Emtfamd, Studies ta Asrajr and PumSy History; Peerage audi Clin: PamUj. 

Fedttres; &c 

L Joseph John Thomson) MA., DSc. F.R.S.. LL.D,. Pn.D, 
Cavendish Professor of Experimental Physics, Cambridge. Professor of Physics, COBdtNfiOll, 
Royal Institution, London. Fellow of Trinny College, Cambridge- PresMJent • Casta. 
of the Ornish Aflsociation, 1009-1910^ Awarded Nobel Pn« for Physica* 1 006. v«*w. 
Author of Candttflion af EUttriiily through G&stn Retcnt Reuurtkei in iiU-atricity , 
ami Mae/i*iij*n\ Appli&itim of Dyuamue to Physic* and Chemistry; b\c* 

Blaetrie: rArtfsjga 



J. Ho. 












L.B. . 






| Conjuring (in part). 


ClOCk (in part). 

Rev. James Lecce. 

See the biographical artidc: Lbogb, J AMES. 

John Linton Myres, M.A., F.S.A. I 

Wykcham Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford. Formerly I 
Gladstone Professor of Greek and Lecturer in Ancient Geography, University of 1 
Liverpool. Lecturer in Classical Archaeology in University of Oxford. I 

Viscount Moeley of Blackburn. J 

See the biographical article: Morley, VISCOUNT. I 

John Malcolm Mitchell. I 

Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Lecturer on Classics at East London 1 
College (University of London). Joint-editor of Grate's History of Greece. I 

John Mackinnon Robertson, M.P. f m _ ._ _, . _ . 

Author of Montaigne and Shakespeare; Modem Humanists; Buckie and his Critics; \ Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. 
&c. M.P., Tyncsiclc Division of Northumberland. I 

John Nevil Maskelyne. 

Author of Modern Spiritualism; Sharps and Hats; &c. 

James George Joseph Penderel-Brodhurst. 
Editor of the Guardian, London. 

Jean Paul Hippolyte Emmanuel AdhImar Esmein. 

Professor of Law in the University of Paris. Officer of the Legion 
Member of the Institute of France. Author of Cours tihnentaire fhist 

Joseph Rogerson Cotter, M.A. 

Assistant to the Professor of Physics, Trinity College, Dublin. Editor of 2nd < ColOU 
edition of Preston's Theory of HeaL 

John Smith Flett, D.Sc., F.G.S. f Clay; 

Pctrographcr to the Geological Survey. Formerly Lecturer on Petrology in J CAnrrafttiMi- 
Edinburgh University. NcillMcdallist of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Kgsjy | 2?2!™It. 
Medallist of the Geological Society of London. L Coilgtomera* 

John Scott Keltie, LL.D., F.S.S., F.S.A. (Scot.). 

Secretary, Royal Geographical Society. Knight of Swedish Order of North Star. 
Commander of the Norwegian Order of St Obf. Hon. Member, Geographical - 
Societies of Paris, Berlin, Rome, Ac Editor of Statesman's Year Book, Editor of 
the Geographical Journal. 

Joseph Thomas Cunningham, M.A., F.Z.S. 

Lecturer on Zoology at South-Western Polytechnic, London. Formerly Fellow of 
University College, Oxford, and Assistant Professor of Natural History in the Uni 
vcrsity of Edinburgh. Naturalist to the Marine Biological Association. 

James Thomson Shotwell, Ph.D. 

Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City. 

ion of Honour. J 
histoire du droit j 


Cote Napoleon. 

Congo Free State (in part). 


{ Colbert, Jem Baptist*. 

James Vernon Bartlet. M.A., D.D. (St Andrews). f «.«*«««. ih 1n<m . 

. Professor of Church History, Mansfield College, Oxford. Author of The Apostolic \ S*™ 11 ™ Literatim; 

Agc;&c ^^ \ Congregationalism. 

Kathleen Schlesinger. 

Author of The Instruments of Ike Orchestra. 

Laurence Binyon. 

See the biographical article: Bin YON, L. 

Lours Duchesne. 

Sec the biographical article: Duchesne, L. M. O. 

Lionel Giles, M.A. 

Assistant, Oriental Department, British Museum. 
of War. 

Chelyi; Cheng; Chorus; 
Cftaan; cittern; Clarina; 
Clarinet; Clavichord; 
Clavicjrtherium; Concertina, 

Author of Sun TeionlheArt 

Leonard James Spencer, M.A. 

Assistant, Department of Mineraloi 
Sussex College, Cambridge, and J 

!/, British Museum. Formerly Scholar of Sidney 
arkness Scholar. Editor of the Mineralogical 

LuiGi Villari. 

Italian Foreign Office (Emigration Department). Formerly Newspaper Corre- 
spondent in East of Europe. Italian Vice-Consul in New Orleans, 1906; Phil- 
adelphia. 1907; and Boston, U.S. A., 1007-1910. Author of Italian Life in Town 
and Country; &c. 

Michael Ernest Sadler, M.A., LL.t>. 

Professor of the History and Administration of Education in the University of 
Manchester. Formerly Director of Special Enquiries and Reports to the Board of 
Education. Student and Steward of Christ Church, Oxford. Editor of Continua- 
tion Schools in England and elsewhere; Moral Instruction and Training in Schools; Ac 

: Chinese Art. 


Language (in pari). 

Chlstrtnlte; Chlorite; 
Chromtte; Chrysocolla; 
CUntonlte; Cohaltite; 
Colemanite; Columblte. 

Cibrario; Colleoni; 
Colletta; Colonna: Family; 
Colonna, Vlttorla; 










P. Lb. 




CotarMit, J. IX C* lit 

Chios (t» part). 

IfTL: autipope, 
~ Of. 

Rt. Hon. Sib Mountstuart Elpuxnstone Grant-Duff, G.C.S.I., F.ILS. (1820- 

M.P7for the Elgin Burghs. 1837-1881. Under-Secretary of State for India. 1868- 
1874. Under-Secretary of State for the Colonic*, 1880-1881. Governor of Madras, ' 
1881-1886. President of the Royal Geographical Society, 1889-1893. President 
of the Royal Historical Society, 1893-1899. Author of Studies in European Politics; 
Notes from a Diary, Ac. 

Marcus Niebuhr Too, M.A. 

J'ellow and Tutor sA Oriel College, Oxford. University Lecturer b Epigraphy, 
oint-author of Catalogue of the Sparta Museum, 

Max Otto Bismarck Caspau, M.A. 

Reader in Ancient History at London University. Lecturer in Greek at Birming- 
ham University, 1905-1908. 

Joseph Marie Noel Valob. 

Member of Academic des Inscriptions et Belles- Lcttres, Paris. Honorary Archivist 
at the Archives Nattonales. Formerly President of the Societe de rfitstoire dc 
France and the Societe de l'Ecole de Chartea. Author of La France rt le grand 
schisme d'Occidenl; Ac 

Korthcote Writbridce Thoiias, M.A. 

Government Anthropologist to Southern Nigeria. Corresponding Member of the 
Societe d' Anthropologic dc Paris. Author of Thought Transference; Kinship and 
Marriage in Australia; Ac 

Oswald Barron, F.S.A. 

Editor of the Ancestor, 1902-1905. Hon. Genealogist to Standing Council of the 

Honourable Society of the Baronetage. 1 

Ossxrr John Radcliffe Howartr. M.A. f 

Christ Church, Oxford. Geographical Scholar, 1901. Assistant Secretary of the i Coal (in part). 

British Association- I 

Oct ate Maus, LL.D. (Brussels). f 

Advocate of the Court of Appeal at Brussels. Director of VArt Modem* and of | 
La Libre Esthiiiaue. President of the Association of Belgian writers. Officer of i Gfejt, Paul Jet*. 
the Legion of Honour. Author of Le Thedtrv de Bayrtnth; Aux Ambassadeurs; I 
Malta, Constantinople et la Crimee; Ac. [ 

Percy Alexander Macmaiion, D.Sc., F.R.S. f 

Lite Major, R.A. Deputy Warden of the Standards, Board of Trade. Joint , 
General Secretary of the British Association. Formerly Professor of Physics, 1 
Ordnance College. President of London Mathematical Society, 1894-1896. I 

Philip Chesney Yorke, M.A. 
Magdalen College, Oxford. 


Ouirtearde, 1st Earl of; 
Cttwtearde, Harqueas of; 
OartBdoa, 1st Earl of; 
— ' of r 



and of U 

Philip Lake, M.A., F.G.S. t 

Lecturer on Physical and Regional Geography in Cambridge University. Formerly J 

of the Geological Survey of India. Author of Monograph of British Cambrian \ 
Trilobites. Translator and Editor of Kaysera Comparative Geology. { 

Robert de Courcy Ward. A.M. (Harvard). 

Assistant Professor of Climatology in the University of Harvard. Fellow of Royal 
Meteorological Society, London, Sometime Editor of American Meteorological'] 
Journal. Author of Climate considered especially in Relation to Man; Ac 

Sir Robert Hunter, C.B., M.A. 

Solicitor to the Post Office. Author of The Preservation of Open Spaces 
footpaths and other Rights of Way; Ac 

Ronald John McNeill, M.A. f 

Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. Formerly Editor of the Si James's < 
Goutie, London. [ 

Sir Robert Kennaway Douglas. f 

Formerly Professor of Chinese, King's College, London. Keeper of Oriental I 

Printed Books and MSS. at British Museum, 1 892-1907. Member of the Chinese 4 China: History (m Part). 
Consular Service. 1858-1865. Author of The Language and Literature of China; 
China; Europe and the Far Mast; Ac ' 

Richard Lydekker, F.R.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S. l 

Member of the Staff of the Geological Survey of India, 1874-1882. Author of J 
Catalogues of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in British Museum; The Dear of] 
all Lands; Ac { 

Robert Nbsbet Bain (d. 1009). f 

Formerly Assistant Librarian, British Museum. Author of Scandinavia: the Political J 
HisUnyof Denmark, Noruay and Swden,isi3-i9O0;TTuFirslRtmanotsj6i j to I72S\\ Christian IL, HL, !?•! 
Slavonic Europe: the Political History of Poland and Russia from 1469 to J796; Ac. [ ChrfcttDB of SwtOBB. 

dart, 1st Earl of. 

China: Fauna; 
Cniropatra; Chiru; 
Cl oooad Laopoid. 

IL Phene Spiers, F.S.A., F.R.LB.A. 

Formerly Master of Architectural School and Surveyor, Royal Academy, London. 
Past President of Architectural Association. Associate and Fellow of King's College, 

f«mVin. Corresponding Member of the Institute of France. Editor of 

History of Architecture, Author of Architecture: East and West; Ac 


{in part)', 



r • . ■ 











W. C. D. W. 



Stanley Arthur Cook, MA 

Editor for Palatine Expkwatioo Fund. Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac, and 
formerly Fellow, GooviDe and Caius College, Cambridge. Examiner m Hebrew 
and Aramaic, London University, 1904*1908. Author of Glossary of Aramaic 
Inscriptions; The Laws of Mam and Coda of Hammurabi; Critical Nam am OU 
Testament History; Religion of Ancient Palestine; &c 


Sidney James Low. M.A. 

FeUow of King's College, London. 

Jreuow of King s College, London. Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple, formerly 

Editor of the St James's Gazette. Joint-editor of the Dictionary of English History. 4 

Author of The Governance of England. Joint-author of vol. xiL 01 Longman s 

Political History of England, 1837-1901. [ 

SniON Newcomb, D.Sc., D.C.L. J 

See the biographical article: Newcomb, Simon, i 

Sxivanvs Phillips Thompson, M.D., D.Sc.. F.R.S. 
' Principal and Professor of Physics w the Cit 

y and Guilds Technical College, Fins- J 

, /,of Institution of Electrical Engir ' 

Author of Lectures on Light; Michael Faraday; &c 

homy. Formerly President of Physical Society, of Institution of Electrical Engineers, 
and of Rontgen Society. * ' '" ' " • . . - - 

ChiwWD, Let* BaadoHA. 


Thomas Allan Ingram, M.A-, LLP. 
Trinity College, Dublin. 

Thomas Ashby, MA, Dim. (Oxon.), P'.S.A. 

Formerly Scholar of Christ Church. Oxford. Director of British School of Archaeo- 
logy at Rome. Member of the German Imperial Archaeological Institute. Craven 
FeUow, Oxford, 1897. 

Sn Thomas Barclay, M.P. 

Member of the Institute of International Law. Member of the Supreme Council J 
of the Congo Free State. Officer of the Legion of Honour. Author of Problems 1 
of International Proem** and Diplomacy; Ac. MJ\ for Blackburn, 1910. I 

Dr Theodore Frelihchoysen Collier, Ph,D. J 

Assistant Professor of History, Williams College, WiUiamttoim, Mass., U.SJL 

Thomas Grecor Brows, M.D.. F.R.S. 

Professor of Physiology m the Univcrsfty of Toronto. Author of Essentials of' 
Experimental Physiology. 

f Child, Sir Josiah; 

Uw Relating to (in port); 
Chfitorft Hondrtds; Oearmf 

(Ct&Offr tin port); 


Ctrathii Mom; Cledia, Via; 


9. wtu iti«miii>i. R.G.S., € 
The Countries of the Kind's 


COL. Sir Thomas Hunorriord Houxcb, K.C.M.G., K.C.I.E., D.Sc. 
Superintendent Frontier. Surveys, India, 1892-1898. Gold Medallist, 
London, 1887. Author of The Indian Borderland, 
Award; India; Tibet; &c 

Rev. Thomas Kelly Cheyne, D.D., D.Lttt. 

See the biographical article: Cheyne, T. K. \ 

Thomas Mwr, C.M.G., M.A., LL.D 7 F.R.S., F.R.S. (Edin.). f 

Superintendent-General of Education in Cape Colony. Formerly Assistant Pro- I 
fessor of Mathematics in the University of Glasgow. V ice-Chancellor of the J cirala (in AaWI 
University of the Cape of Good Hope till 1901. Author of Theory of Determinants] ^^ im mmv * 
in the Historical Order of Development; History of Determinants; Text-Booh of De- I 
terminants; &c 

Thomas Seccombe, M.A. r 

Balliol College. Oxford. Lecturer in History, East London and Birkbeck Colleges, I chsnlar AncM aV 
University of London. Assistant Editor, Dictionary of Notional Biography, 1891- | wwu ^*> eumvw » 
1900. Author of The Age of Johnson; &c L 

Valentine Chirol. f 

Director of the Foreign Department of The Times. Author of The Middle Eastern < China: History (in part). 
Question; The Far Eastern Question; Ac. [ 

Rev. William Augustus Brevoort Coouoge, M.A., F.R.G.S., D.Ph. (Bern). 
Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Professor of English History, St David's 
■ College. Lampeter, 1 880-1 881. Author of Guide du Haut Dauphine; The Range of- 
the Tbdi\ Guide to Grindehoald; Guide to Switzerland; The Alps in Nature and in 
History; dx. Editor of the Alpine Journal, 1880-1889, Sec 

Walter Alison Phillips, MA 

Formerly Exhibitioner of Mcrton College and Senior Scholar of St John's College, ' 
Oxford. Author of Modem Europe; The War of Creeh Independence; Ac 

W. Baker Brown. 

Lieut^Col., Commanding Royal Engineers at Malta. 
William Cecil Dampier Wketham, M.A., F.R.S. 

. Fellow and Tutor of Trinity College, Cambridge. Author of Theory of Solution, 

RectnlDepetopmoutof Physical Science; &c 

William Feilden Craies, M.A. 

New College. Oxford. Barri»ter-at-Law, Inner Temple. Lecturer on Criminal Law, . 
King's College, London. Author of Craies on Statute Law. Editor of AfdibofdV 
Criminal Pleading (23rd edition). 

William Georce Freeman, B.Sc. (London), A.R.C.S. 

Joint-author of Nature Teaching'. The World's Com m e rci a l Products. Joint-editor 
Of Science Progress in the Twentieth Century. 

Chain de Ponds, La; 
Colre; Como, Lake of; 
IConstanoa, Lake of. 
Chimera; Choir; 
Church History (in part); 
Clement VIL; 
Confessional; Congress; 

Coast Defence. 

Conduction, Electric: 
in Liquids. 

Children, Law leuUing to 












Cates (1831-1895). f 

General Biography. Author of A History of England from 1 ChronolOfV (in nariL 
Confessor & the Death if King John; Ac Part author of 1 VBrenwg W ^ m *"*> 

lory: I 

William Kirby Sullivan, Ph.D., D.Sc. 

President of Queen's College, Cork, 1873-1890, Author of Celtic Studies; Ac 

William Lies? Readwim Cates (1831-1895). 
Editor of Dictionary of ~ 
Ike Death of Edward the 
Encyclopaedia of Chronology. 

William Michael Rossettl 

See the biographical article: RossETtt, D. C 
Walter Nernst, Ph.D. 

Professor of Physical Chemistry in the University of Berlin. Director of the 

Physico-Chemical Institute in the University. Member of the Royal Prussian 

Academy of Science. Author of TheoreHscke Ckemte; &c 

Vzn. Winpeid Oldpield Burrows, M.A. 


LGfaUKto of Lorrame. 

h. Winpeid Olofteld Burrows, M.A. f Ct . nta ^ m . s 

Archdeacon of Birmingham. Tutor of Christ Church, Oxford, 1884-1891, and < """"S* 
Principal of Leeds Clergy School, 1891-190* I Confirmation. 


uam Roy Smith, M.A.. Ph.D. f 

Associate Professor of History, Bryn Mawr College, Pennsylvania. Author of-j CompromlM MtSJOres Of 1880. 

Sectionalism in Pennsylvania during the Revo luti on; Ac. t 

William Robertson Smith. LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Smith, W. R. 

William Warde Fowler, M.A. 

Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford. Sub-Rector, 1 881-1904. Gifford Lecturer, 
Edinburgh University, 1908. Author of The City-Slate of the Creeks and Romans, 
The Roman Festivals of Ike Republican Period; Ac 

William Walker Rockwell, LioThbol. - f 

Assistant Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, New York.-* 1 
Author of Die Doppeleke des Landgrafen PkUipp von Hessen. I 

/chronicles, Books of impart). 


Club: Crtek Mat Roman. 

m»iF* y. 

Earl of. 


Chilean CtfH War. 
Oifle-Ponnrian War. 



Chopin. 1 CH?o, Lord, 


ChnrehlD, Charles. 

Cinque Ports. 
ChrQ Lbt 
Ctrii Serrieo. 
Clause wltx. 
Clayton-Bnlwer Treaty . 



Coks, Sir Edward. 


Colours, 1 

Common Order, Book ot 

Congrere, Sir WuHam. 
Conlo Soetlon. 

Consarvattvo Vnitf • 

J.*; 1 




CHATELET (from Med. Lat. casteUa), the word, sometimes 
also writtencaj/t0ef,uscd in France for a building designed for the 
defence of an outwork or gate, sometimes of great strength or 
size, but distinguished from the chdUau, or castle proper, in 
being purely defensive and not residential. In Paris, before the 
Revolution, this word was applied both to a particular building 
and to the jurisdiction of which it was the seat. This building, 
the original Chatelet, had been first a castle defending the ap- 
proach to the Cite" . Tradition traced its existence back to Roman 
times, and in the x8th century one of the rooma in the great 
tower was still called the chambrc de Cisar. The jurisdiction was 
that of the provostship (prcvdtf) and viscountship of Paris, which 
was certainly of feudal origin, probably going back to the counts 
of Paris. 

It«was not till the time of Saint Louis that, with the appoint- 
ment of £tienne Bofleau, the provostship of Paris became a 
prtxfiti en garde, i.e. a public office no longer put up to sale. 
When the baillis (see Bailiff and Bailie) were created, the 
provost of Paris naturally discharged the duties and functions 
of a bailli, in which capacity he heard appeals from the seigniorial 
and inferior judges of the city and its neighbourhood, keeping, 
however, his title of provost. When under Henry II. certain 
baiUiages became presidial jurisdictions(fr£skfi<fi(x), i.e. received 
to a certain extent the right of judging without appeal, the 
Chatelet, the court of the provost of Paris, was made a presidial 
court, but without losing its former name. Finally, various 
tribunals peculiar to the city of Paris, i.e. courts exercising 
jurisdictions outside the common law or corresponding to certain 
tours dfexcepiion which existed in the provinces, were united with 
the Chatelet, of which they became divisions (ckombres). Thus 
the lieutenant-general of police made it the seat of his juris- 
diction, and the provost of the tie de France, who had the same 
criminal jurisdiction as the provosts of the marshals of France 
in other provinces, sat there also. As to the personnel of the 
Chatelet, it was originally the same as in the baiUiages, except 
that after the 14th century it had some special officials, the 
auditors and the examiners of inquests. Like the baillis, the 
provost had lieutenants who were deputies for him, and in 
addition gradually acquired a considerable body of ex officio 
councillors. This last staff, however, was not yet in existence at 
the end of the 14th century, for it is not mentioned in the Registre 
criminel dm Ckdtclct (1389-1392), published by the Soctftt des 
Bibliophiles Francois. In 1674 the whole personnel was doubled, 
at the time when the new Chatelet was established side by side 
with the old, the two being soon after amalgamated. On the eve 
of the Revolution it comprised, beside the provost whose office 
had become practically honorary, the lieutenant citil, who 
presided over the chambrc de prtvdU au pare civil or court of first 
iastaace; the lieutenant criminel, who presided over the criminal 

court; two lieutenants partiadiers, who presided in turn over 
the chombre du prisidial or court of appeal from the inferior 
jurisdictions, a jug* auditeur; sixty-four councillors (cm- 
settlers); the procureur du roi, four aoocats du rot, and eight 
substitute, U. deputies of the procureur (see Procuxatoi), beside 
a host of minor officials. The history of the Chatelet under the 
Revolution may be briefly told: the Constituent Assembly em- 
powered it to try cases of Use-nation, and it was also before this 
court that was opened the inquiry following on the events of 
the 5th and 6th of August 1789. It was suppressed by the law 
of the 1 6th of August 1700, together with the other tribunals of 
the ancien rtgime. Q.P E.) 

CHATBLLERAULT, a town of western France, capital of an 
arrondissement in the department of Vienne, 19 m. N.N.E. 
of Poitiers on the Orleans railway between that town and 
Tours. Pop. (1006) 15,214. Chatellerault is situated on the 
right and eastern bank of the Vienne; it is connected with the 
suburb of Cfaatcauneuf on the opposite side of the river by a 
stone bridge of the x6th and 17th centuries, guarded at the 
western extremity by massive towers. The manufacture of 
cutlery is carried on on a largn scale in villages on the banks of 
the Clain, south of the town. Of the other industrial establish- 
ments the most important is the national small-arms factory, 
which was established in 18x5 in Chiteauncuf, and employs 
from 1500 to 5500 men. Chatellerault (or Chitelherault: 
Castettum Airaldi) derives its name from a fortress built in 
the xoth century by Airaud, viscount of its territory. In X515 
it was made a duchy in favour of Francois de Bourbon, but It 
was not long after this date that it became reunited to the 
crown. In 1548 it was bestowed on James Hamilton, 2nd earl 
of Arran (see Hamilton). 

CHATHAM, WILLIAM PITT, 1st Earl or (1708-1778), English 
statesman, was born at Westminster on the 15th of November 
1708. He was the younger son of Robert Pitt of Boconnoc, 
Cornwall, and grandson of Thomas Pitt (1653-1726), governor 
of Madras, who was known as " Diamond " Pitt, from the fact 
of his having sold a diamond of extraordinary size to the regent 
Orleans for something like £135,000. It was mainly by this 
fortunate transaction that the governor was enabled to raise 
his family, which was one of old standing, to a position of wealth 
and political influence. The latter he acquired by purchasing 
the burgage tenures of Old Sarum. 

William Pitt was educated at Eton, and in January 1727 waa 
entered as a gentleman commoner at Trinity College, Oxford. 
There is evidence that he was an extensively read, if not a . 
minutely accurate classical scholar; and it is interesting to 
know that Demosthenes was his favourite author, and that ha 
diligently cultivated the faculty of expression by the practice o£ 
translation and re-translation. tataR&Xar) vnX,\xMn>^tas^ 


he had suffered even during his school-days, compelled him to 
leave the university without taking his degree, in order to travel 
abroad. He spent some time in France and Italy, but the 
disease proved intractable, and he continued subject to attacks 
of growing intensity at frequent intervals till the close of his life. 
In 1727 his father had died, and on his return home it was 
necessary for him, as the younger son, to choose a profession. 
Having chosen the army, he obtained through the interest of his 
friends a comet's commission in the dragoons. But his military 
career was destined to be short. His elder brother Thomas 
having been returned at the general election of 1734 both for 
Oakhampton and for Old Sarum, and having preferred to sit for 
the former, the family borough fell to the younger brother by the 
sort of natural right usually recognized in such cases. Accord- 
ingly, in February 1735, William Pitt entered parliament as 
member for Old Sarum. Attaching himself at once to the formid- 
able band of discontented Whigs known as the Patriots, whom 
Walpole's love of exclusive power had forced into opposition 
under Pulteney, he became in a very short time one of its most 
prominent members. His maiden speech was delivered in April 
1736, in the debate on the congratulatory address to the king on 
the marriage of the prince of Wales. The occasion was one of 
compliment, and there is nothing striking in the speech as re- 
ported; but it served to gain for him the attention of the house 
when he presented himself, as he soon afterwards did, in debates 
of a party character. So obnoxious did he become as a critic of 
the government, that Walpole thought fit to punish him by 
procuring his dismissal from the army. Some years later he had 
occasion vigorously to denounce the system of cashiering officers 
for political differences, but with characteristic loftiness of spirit 
be disdained to make any reference to his own case. The loss 
of his commission was soon made up to him. The heir to the 
throne, as was usually the case in the house of Hanover, if not 
in reigning families generally, was the patron of the opposition, 
and the ex-cornet became groom of the bed-chamber to the 
prince of Wales. In this new position his hostility to the govern- 
ment did not, as may be supposed, in any degree relax. He had 
all the natural gifts an orator could desire — a commanding pres- 
ence, a graceful though somewhat theatrical bearing, an eye of 
piercing brightness, and a voice of the utmost flexibility. His 
style, if occasionally somewhat turgid, was elevated and passion- 
ate, and it always bore the impress of that intensity of conviction 
which is the most powerful instrument a speaker can have to sway 
the convictions of an audience. It was natural, therefore, that 
in the scries of stormy debates, protracted through several years, 
that ended in the downfall of Walpole, his eloquence should have 
been one of the strongest of the forces that combined to bring 
about the final result. Specially effective, according to contem- 
porary testimony, were his speeches against the Hanoverian 
subsidies, against the Spanish convention in 1739, and in favour 
of the motion in 1742 for an investigation into the last ten years 
of Walpole's administration. It must be borne in mind that the 
reports of these speeches which have come down to us were made 
from hearsay, or at best from recollection, and are necessarily 
therefore most imperfect. The best-known specimen of Pitt's 
eloquence, his reply to the sneers of Horatio Walpole at his youth 
anddcclamatory manner, which has found a place in so many hand- 
books of elocution, is evidently, in form at least, the work, not of 
Pitt, but of Dr Johnson, who furnished the report to the Gentle- 
man's Magazine. Probably Pitt did say something of the kind 
attributed to him, though even this is by no means certain in view 
of Johnson's repentant admission that he had often invented not 
merely the form, but the substance of entire debates. 

In 174a Walpole was at last forced to succumb to the long- 
continued attacks of opposition, and was succeeded as prime 
minister by the earl of Wilmington, though the real power in 
the new government was divided between Carteret and the 
Pelhams. Pitt's conduct on the change of administration was 
open to grave censure. The relentless vindictiveness with 
which he insisted on the prosecution of Walpole, and supported 
Che bill of indemnity to witnesses against the fallen minister, 
was in itself not magnanimous; but it appears positively un- 

worthy when it is known that a short time before Pitt had offered, 
on certain conditions, to use all his influence in the other direction. 
Possibly he was embittered at the time by the fact that, owing 
to the strong personal dislike of the king, caused chiefly by the 
contemptuous tone in which he had spoken of Hanover, he did 
not by obtaining a place in the new ministry reap the fruits of 
the victory to which he had so largely contributed. The so-called 
" broad-bottom " administration formed by the Pelhams in 
1744, after the dismissal of Carteret, though it included several 
of those with whom he had been accustomed to act, did not at 
first include Pitt himself even in a subordinate office. Before 
the obstacle to his admission was overcome, he had received a 
remarkable accession to his private fortune. The eccentric 
duchess of Marlborough, dying in 1744, at the age of ninety, 
left him a legacy of £10,000 as an "acknowledgment of the 
noble defence he had made for the support of the laws of England 
and to prevent the ruin of his country " As her hatred was 
known to be at least as strong as her love, the legacy was probably 
as much a mark of her detestation of Walpole as of her admiration 
of Pitt It may be mentioned here, though it does not come in 
chronological order, that Pitt was a second time the object of a 
form of acknowledgment of public virtue which few statesmen 
have had the fortune to receive even once. About twenty years 
after the Marlborough legacy, Sir William Pynsent, a Somerset- 
shire baronet to whom he was personally quite unknown, left 
him his entire estate, worth about three thousand a year, in 
testimony of approval'of his political career. 

It was with no very good grace that the king at length consented 
to give Pitt a place in the government, although the latter did 
all he could to ingratiate himself at court, by changing his tone 
on the questions on which he had made himself offensive. To 
force the matter, the Pelhams had to resign expressly on the 
question whether he should be admitted or not, and it was only 
after all other arrangements had proved impracticable, that they 
were reinstated with the obnoxious politician as vice-treasurer 
of Ireland. This was in February 1746. In May of the same 
year he was promoted to the more important and lucrative office 
of paymaster-general, which gave him a place in the privy council, 
though not in the cabinet. Here he had an opportunity of display- 
ing his public spirit and integrity in a way that deeply impressed 
both the king and the country. It had been the usual practice 
of previous paymasters to appropriate to themselves the interest 
of all money lying in their hands by way of advance, and also to 
accept a commission of J% on all foreign subsidies. Although 
there was no strong public sentiment against the practice, Pitt 
altogether refused to profit by it. All advances were lodged by 
him in the Bank of England until required, and all subsidies 
were paid over without deduction, even though it was pressed 
upon him, so that he did not draw a shilling from his office 
beyond the salary legally attaching to it. Conduct like this, 
though obviously disinterested, did not go without immediate 
and ample reward, in the public confidence which it created, 
and which formed the mainspring of Pitt's power as a statesman. 
The administration formed in 1746 lasted without material 
change till 1754. It would appear from his published corre- 
spondence that Pitt had a greater influence in shaping its policy 
than his comparatively subordinate position would in itself have 
entitled him to. His conduct in supporting measures, such as 
the Spanish treaty and the continental subsidies, which he 
had violently denounced when in opposition, had been much 
criticized; but within certain limits, not indeed very well 
defined, inconsistency has never been counted a vice in an English 
statesman. The times change, and he is not blamed for changing 
with the times. Pitt in office, looking back on the commencement 
of his public life, might have used the plea " A good deal has 
happened since then," at least as justly as some others have 
done. Allowance must always be made for the restraints and 
responsibilities of office. In Pitt's case, too, it is to be borne in 
mind that the opposition with which he had acted gradually 
dwindled away, and that it ceased to have any organized existence 
after the death of the prince of Wales in 1751. Then in regard 
to the important question with Spain as to the right of 1 


Pitt has disarmed criticism by acknowledging that the course 
he followed during Wapole'a administration was indefensible. 
All due weight being given to these various considerations, it 
must be admitted, nevertheless, that Pitt did overstep the 
limits within which inconsistency is usually regarded as venial. 
His one great object was first to gain office, and then to make 
his tenure of office secure by conciliating the favour of the king. 
The entire revolution which much of his policy underwent in 
order to effect this object bears too close a resemblance to the 
sudden and inexplicable changes of front habitual to placemen 
of the Tadpole stamp to be altogether pleasant to contemplate 
in a politician of pure aims and lofty ambition. Humiliating 
is not too strong a term to apply to a letter in which he expresses 
his desire to " efface the past by every action of his life/' in order 
that he may stand well with the king. 

In 1754 Henry Pelham died, and was succeeded at the head of 
affairs by his brother, the duke of Newcastle. To Pitt the change 
brought no advancement, and he had thus an opportunity of 
testing the truth of the description of bis chief given by Sir 
Robert Walpole, " His name is treason." But there was for a 
time no open breach. Pitt continued at his post; and at the 
general election which took place during the year he even 
accepted a nomination for the duke's 'pocket borough of Ald-w 
borough. He had sat for Seaford since 1 747. When parliament 
met, however, he was not long in showing the state of his feelings. 
Ignoring Sir Thomas Robinson, the political nobody to whom 
Newcastle had entrusted the management of the Commons, 
he made frequent and vehement at tacks on Newcastle himself, 
though still continuing to serve under him. In this strange 
state matters continued for about a year. At length, just after 
the meeting of parliament in November 17 51, Pitt was dismissed 
from office, having on the debate on the address spoken at great 
length against a new system of continental subsidies, proposed by 
the government of which he was a member Fox, who had 
just before been appointed secretary of state, retained his place, 
and though the two men continued to be of the same party, and 
afterwards served again in the same government, there was 
henceforward a rivalry between them, which makes the celebrated 
opposition of their illustrious sons seem like an inherited quarrel. 

Another year had scarcely passed when Pitt was again in 
power The inherent weakness of the government, the vigour 
and eloquence of his opposition, and a series of military disasters 
abroad combined to rouse a public feeling of indignation which 
could not be withstood, and in December 1756 Pitt, who now 
sat for Okehampton, became secretary of state, and leader of 
the Commons under the premiership of the duke of Devonshire. 
He had made it a condition of his joining any administration 
that Newcastle should be excluded from it, thus showing a 
resentment which, though natural enough, proved fatal to the 
lengthened existence of his government. With the king un- 
friendly, and Newcastle, whose corrupt influence was still 
dominant in the Commons, estranged, it was impossible to 
carry on a government by the aid of public opinion alone, how- 
ever emphatically that might have declared itself on his side. 
In April 1757, accordingly, he found himself again dismissed 
from office on account of his opposition to the king's favourite 
continental policy But the power that was insufficient to keep 
him in office was strong enough to make any arrangement that 
excluded him impracticable. The public voice spoke in a way 
that was not to be mistaken. Probably no English minister 
ever received in so short a time so many proofs of the confidence 
and admiration of the public, the capital and all the chief towns 
voting him addresses and the freedom of their corporations. 
From the political deadlock that ensued relief could only be had 
by an arrangement between Newcastle and Pitt. After some 
weeks' negotiation, in the course of which the firmness and 
moderation of " the Great Commoner," as he had come to be 
called, contrasted favourably with the characteristic tortuosities 
of the crafty peer, matters were settled on such a basis that, 
while Newcastle was the nominal, Pitt was the virtual head of 
the government On his acceptance of office he was chosen 
snember for Bath. 

This celebrated administration was formed in Jane 1757, and 
continued in power till 1761. During the four years of its 
existence it has been usual to say that the biography of Pitt is 
the history of England, so thoroughly was he identified with the 
great events which make this period, in so far as the external 
relations of the country are concerned, one of the most glorious 
in her annals. A detailed account of these events belongs to 
history; all that Is needed in a biography is to point out the 
extent to which Pitt's personal influence may really be traced 
in them. It is scarcely too much to say that, in the general 
opinion of his contemporaries, the whole glory of these years 
was due to his single genius; his alone was the mind that planned, 
and his the spirit that animated the brilliant achievements of 
the British arms in all the four quarters of the globe, Posterity, 
indeed, has been able to recognize more fully the independent 
genius of those who carried out his purposes. The heroism of 
Wolfe would have been irrepressible, Clive would have proved 
himself M a heaven-born general," and Frederick the Great 
would have written his name In history as one of the most skilful 
strategists the world has known, whoever had held the seals of 
office in England. But Pitt's relation to all three was such as to 
entitle him to a large share in the credit of their deeds. It was 
his discernment that selected Wolfe to lead the attack on Quebec, 
and gave him the opportunity of dying a victor on the heights of 
Abraham. He had personally less to do with the successes in 
India than with the other great enterprises that shed an undying 
lustre on his administration; but his generous praise in parlia- 
ment stimulated the genius of Dive, and the forces that acted 
at the dose of the struggle were animated by his indomitable 
spirit. Pitt, the first real Imperialist m modern English history, 
was the directing mind in the expansion of his country, and 
with him the beginning of empire is rightly associated. The 
Seven Years' War might weO, moreover, have been another 
Thirty Years' War if Pitt had not furnished Frederick with 
an annual subsidy of £700,000, and in addition relieved him of 
the task of defending western Germany against France. 

Contemporary opinion was, of course, incompetent to estimate 
the permanent results gained for the country by the brilliant 
foreign policy of Pitt. It has long been generally agreed that 
by several of his most costly expeditions nothing was really won 
but glory It has even been said that the only permanent 
acquisition that England owed directly to him was her Canadian 
dominion; and, strictly speaking, this is true, it being admitted 
that the campaign by which the Indian empire was virtually won 
was not planned by him, though brought to a successful issue 
during his ministry. But material aggrandizement, though 
the only tangible, is not the only real or lasting effect of a war 
policy. More may be gained by crushing a formidable rival than 
by conquering a province. The loss of her Canadian possessions 
was only one of a series of disasters suffered by France, which 
radically affected the future of Europe and the world. Deprived 
of her most valuable colonies both in the East and in the West, 
and thoroughly defeated on the continent, her humiliation was 
the beginning of a new epoch in history. The victorious policy 
of Pitt destroyed the military prestige which repeated experience 
has shown to be in France as in no other country the very life 
of monarchy, and thus was not the least considerable of the many 
influences that slowly brought about the French Revolution. 
It effectually deprived her of the lead in the councils of Europe 
which she had hitherto arrogated to herself, and so affected the 
whole course of continental politics. It is such far-reaching 
results as these, and not the mere acquisition of a single colony, 
however valuable, that constitute Pitt's claim to be considered 
as on the whole the most powerful minister that ever guided the 
foreign policy of England. 

The first and most important of a series of changes which 
ultimately led to the dissolution of the ministry was the death 
of George II on the 35th of October 1760, and the accession of 
his grandson, George III. The new king had, as was natural, new 
counsellors of his own, the chief of whom, Lord Bute, was at once 
admitted to the cabinet as a secretary of state. Between Bute 
and Pitt there speedily arose an occasion of serious difference. 


The existence cf the so-called family compact by which the 
B.-rv.iJ cf ftkz.ce and Spain bound themselves in an offensive 
a-i.±xce agaxat England having been brought to light, Pitt urged 
f-a: .: k, .^,1 i#e met by an immediate declaration of war with 
b^L^. To this course Bute would not consent, and as his refusal 
vls tz.l'.a*<i Ly ail his colleagues save Temple, Pitt had no 
tb-j.:* i/. ti leave a cabinet in which his advice on a vital 
q-t«-'.s tii been rejected. On his resignation, which took 
I**.-* j. Cjr.y^r : 761, the king urged him to accept some signal 
cjsc cf royal favour in the form most agreeable to himself. 
A',v.ei£t'y he obtained a pension of £3000 a year for three lives, 
as~ La *.5e. Lady Hester Grenville, whom he had married in 
: ; 54. «u created Baroness Chatham in her own right. In con- 
Ltx.'^ with ihe latter gracefully bestowed honour it may be 
■»Vt.Kft4 that P.ti » domestic life was a singularly happy one. 

Pitt's sp»>:t was too lofty to admit of his entering on any 
merely facuo j opposition to the government he had quitted. 
On the contrary, Lis conduct after his retirement was dis- 
tir.g-~»h?i Ly a moderation and disinterestedness which, as 
B-iKt Las remarked, " set a seal upon his character." The war 
with Spiic, La -*L;ch he had urged the cabinet to take the initia- 
tive, proved inevitable; but he scorned to use the occasion 
for "altercates aci recrimination," and spoke in support of 
the government measjres for carrying on the war. To the 
preliminaries of the peace concluded in February 1763 he offered 
an ioJig&abi reactance, considering the terms quite inadequate 
lo the successes that had been gained by the count ry. When the 
treaty was discussed iz. parliament in December of the preceding 
year, though suffering from a severe attack of gout, he was carried 
d-iwn to the Italic, a.-id in a speech of three hours* duration, 
interrupted more than once by paroxysms of pain, he strongly 
protested agaicst its various conditions. The physical cause 
wL'.h rendered this effort so painful probably accounts for the 
ii!t*liw.y of his appearances in parliament, as well as for much 
l). it i\ otherwise inexplicable in his subsequent conduct. In 
17'* J he <&j'tt against the obnoxious tax on cider, imposed by 
Ls brot;*r-;.vla«, faorge Grer.villc, and his opposition, though 
uavxcetif-J in the Ho**e, helped to keep alive his popularity 
wiih th* 'v-r/.ry, whi'.h '.ord.&iiy hated the excise and all con- 
w.ted *it :. .« . Vi h*r« xj-.i • y tar the question of general warrants 
**• »'*': ■•*« <*r. .■>.!•«■. *;«.-. the cave of Wilkes, Titt vigorously 
r/.*.:.u..'.*/: i.v r ...•&■...■/, \r t .-. defending at once the privileges 
of Kr,.if.»?.i *.- : '.-a .'»*>riom of the press. During 1765 he 
•pMrrr.t v, , <ft ,_,,- v.-*../ i.vjtpacitated for public business. 
I: •*#. \: -.m -y m r ,. .... x m yp.zvA with gTeat power the pro- 
y*^. '/ ■ « ;».■•*..-$■..••. 4/: v.if.i-.t ration for the repeal of the 
A-.**.'*: ".**■■.> Af *.'jr..:.? that it was unconstitutional to 
: " y/i* '+ 1 • 1 w yjt. ■ v. v, v... v He thus cndorscil the contention 
v f ■ v. '/..;:..:". ',* ••• 3/", ..-.rj of principle, while the inujoiity of 
* .'A* mh: *."■/: ... -^ ;,.-:. '/>.-> ten ted themselves w itli icasling the 
1 -*■- "... *,./«■. ,;. v.t.tTt*. on the ground of expediency. The 
*»;•«. A'f. i.-.-> »»:, *ai only passed *.irj pn\\u with another 
•*..-.* ..'...jr u*. An^.ri'an assemblies, ami di-ilaring the authority 
'A ».'.» fcrjv ,h parliament over the ml«uiira " in all ia*e» what- 
vy "T "; v* that the House of Comm-iim n |iuduli «l in the most 
f' the principle Pill Uu\ •(■■mi lli» language in 
approval of the resistance of ihr mlimialB w.11 unum.illy boM, 
and perhaps no one but him.scll muld liiivr uuplnied it *ilh 
irr.pur.ity at a time when the In -nlntn ol dibaW *j» uiily im 
perfectly conceded. 

Pitt had not been long out of ollur when he was Milii iletl to 
return to it, and the solicitations wue mote lli.m ome unewed. 
Unsuccessful overtures were made !«• him l» i7 f M, ««»•! twin* 
•n '7ftSt >n May and June— the ni-n«»tMi«ir in May Ik-jiir the 
king's uncle, the duke of CumK'il.inil, who went tl««*vn in |K-nmn 
to Hayes. Pitt's scat in Kent, ll is Lnowti that 1m- liad the 
ci|i|iort unily of joining the marquis of Kiuliiiuhiinr» >lmrl -livi-il 
ad rninl-t ration at any time on his own leim*, nml hi* (oiiduit 
in di.i lining an arrangement with thut minihter has been more 
generally condemned than any other sle|» in his public life. In 
July 1706 Rockingham was dismissed, and Pitt was entrusted by 
the king with the task of forming a government entirely on his 

own conditions. The result was a cabinet, strong much beyond 
the average in its individual members, but weak to poweriesaaess 
in the diversity of its composition. Burke, in a memorable 
passage of a memorable speech, has described this " chequered 
and speckled " administration with great humour, speaking of 
it as " indeed a very curious show, but utterly unsafe to touch 
and unsure to stand on." Pitt chose for himself the office of 
lord privy seal, which necessitated his removal to the House of 
Lords; and in August he became earl of Chatham and Viscount 

By the acceptance of a peerage the great commoner lost at 
least as much and as suddenly in popularity as be gained. in 
dignity. One significant indication of this may be mentioned. 
In view of his probable accession to power, preparations were 
made in the city of London for a banquet and a general jUumina- 
tion to celebrate the event. But the celebration was at once 
countermanded when it was known that he had become earl of 
Chatham. The instantaneous revulsion of public feeling was 
somewhat unreasonable, for Pitt's health seems now to have 
been beyond doubt so shattered by his hereditary malady, that 
he was already in old age though only fifty-eight It was natural, 
therefore, that he should choose a sinecure office, and the ease of 
the Lords. But a popular idol nearly always suffers by removal 
from immediate contact with the popular sympathy, be the 
motives for removal wliat they may. 

One of the earliest acts of the new ministry was to lay an 
embargo upon corn, which was thought necessary in order to 
prevent a dearth resulting from the nnprecedentcdly bad 
harvest of 1 766. The measure was strongly opposed, and Lord 
Chatham delivered his first speech in the House of Lords In 
support of it. It proved to be almost the only measure intro- 
duced by hJsgovcmmcnt in which hcpersonally interested himseH. 
His attention had been directed to the growing importance of 
the affairs of India, and there is evidence in his correspondence 
that he was meditating a comprehensive scheme for transferring 
much of the power of the company to the crown, when he was 
withdrawn from public business in a manner that has always 
Uvn regarded as somewhat mysterious. It may be questioned, 
indeed. wh:ther even had his powers been unimpaired he could 
have carried out any decided policy on any question with a 
cabinet representing interests so various and conflicting; but, 
as it hapi>cned. he was incapacitated physically and mentally 
during nearly the whole period of his tenure of office. He 
scarcely ever saw any of his colleagues though they repeatedly 
and urgently pressed for interviews with him, and even an offer 
from the king to visit him in person was declined, though in the 
language of profound and almost abject respect which always 
maiked his communications with the court. ^ nas been in- 
Mtmated l>oth by contemporary and by later critics that being 
disapiK'inted at his loss of popularity, and convinced of the 
im|>o:*ibilily of co-operating with his colleagues, he exaggerated 
hi» malady as a pretext for the inaction that was forced upon 
him by circumstances. But there is no sufficient reason to doubt 
that he was really, as his friends represented, in a state that 
utterly until toil him for business. He seems to have been freed 
for a time from the pangs of gout only to be afflicted with a 
ninnies of mental alienation bordering on insanity This is the 
ino>t satis factur>', as it is the most obvious, explanation of 
his utter indifference in presence of one of the most momentous 
problems that ever pressed for solution on an English statesman. 
Those who are able to read the history in the light of what 
occurred later may perhaps be convinced that no policy whatever 
initiated after 1706 could have prevented or even materially 
delayed the declaration of American independence; but to the 
politicians of that time the coming event had not yet cast so 
dark a shadow before as to paralyse all action, and if any man 
could have allayed the growing discontent of the colonists and 
prevented the ultimate dismemberment of the empire, it would 
have been Lord Chatham. The fact that he not only did nothing 
to remove existing difficulties, but remained passive while his 
colleagues took the fatal step which led directly to separation, 
is in itself dear proof of his entire incapacity. The imposition 


of the import duty on tea and other commodities was the project 
of Charles Townshcnd, and was carried into effect in 1767 without 
consultation with Lord Chatham, if not in opposition to his 
wishes. It is probably the most singular thing in connexion 
with this singular administration, that its most pregnant measure 
should thus have been one directly opposed to the well-known 
principles of its head. 

For many months things remained in the curious position that 
he who was understood to be the head of the cabinet had as little 
share in the government of the country as an unenfranchised 
peasant. As the chief could not or would not lead, the sub- 
ordinates naturally chose their own paths and not his. The 
lines of Chatham's policy were abandoned in other cases besides 
the imposition of the import duty; his opponents were taken 
into confidence; and friends, such as Amherst and Shelburne, 
were dismissed from their posts. When at length in October 
1768 he tendered his resignation on the ground of shattered 
health, he did not fail to mention the dismissal of Amherst and 
Shelburne as a personal grievance. 

Soon after his resignation a renewed attack of gout freed 
Chatham from the mental disease under which he had so long 
suffered. He had been nearly two years and a half in seclusion 
when, in July 1769, he again appeared in public at a royal levee. 
It was not, however, until 1770 that he resumed his seat in the 
House of Lords. He had now almost no personal following, 
mainly owing to the grave mistake he had made in not forming 
an alliance with the Rockingham party. But his eloquence was 
as powerful as ever, and all its power was directed against the 
government policy in the contest with America, which had 
become the question of all-absorbing interest. His last appear- 
ance in the House of Lords was on the 7th of April 1778, on the 
occasion of the duke of Richmond's motion for an address 
praying the king to conclude peace with America on any terms. 
In view of the hostile demonstrations of France the various 
parties had come generally to see the necessity of such a measure. 
But Chatham could not brook the thought of a step which 
implied submission to the " natural enemy " whom it had been 
the main object of his life to humble, and he declaimed for a 
considerable time, though with sadly diminished vigour, against 
the motion. After the duke of Richmond had replied, he rose 
again excitedly as if to speak, pressed his hand upon his breast, 
and fell down in a fit. He was removed to his scat at Hayes, 
where he died on the nth of May. With graceful unanimity 
all parties combined to show their sense of the national loss. 
The Commons presented an address to the king praying that the 
deceased statesman might be buried with the honours of a public 
funeral, and voted a sum for a public monument which was 
erected over his grave in Westminster Abbey. Soon after the 
funeral a bill was passed bestowing a pension of £4000 a year 
on his successors in the earldom. He had a family of three 
sons and two daughters, of whom the second son, William, 
was destined to add fresh lustre to a name which is one of the 
greatest in the history of England. 

Dr Johnson is reported to have said that " Walpole was a 
minister given by the king to the people, but Pitt was a minister 
given by the people to the king," and the remark correctly 
indicates Chatham's distinctive place among English statesmen. 
He was the first minister whose main strength lay in the support 
of the nation at large as distinct from its representatives in the 
Commons, where his personal following was always small. He 
was the first to discern that public opinion, though generally 
dew to form and slow to act, is in the end the paramount power 
in the state; and he was the first to use it not in an emergency 
merely, but throughout a whole political career. He marks the 
commencement of that vast change in the movement of English 
politics by which it has come about that the sentiment of the 
great mass of the people now tells effectively on the action of 
the government from day to day, — almost from hour to hour. 
He was well fitted to secure the sympathy and admiration of his 
countrymen, for his virtues and his failings were alike English. 
He was often inconsistent, he was generally intractable and 
overbearing, and he was always pompous and affected to a 

degree which, Macaulay has remarked, seems scarcely compatible 
with true greatness. Of the last quality evidence is furnished 
in the stilted style of his letters, and in the fact recorded by 
Seward that he never permitted his under-secretaries to sit in 
his presence. Burke speaks of "some significant, pompous, 
creeping, explanatory, ambiguous matter, in the true Chathamic 
style." But these defects were known only to the inner circle 
of his associates. To the outside public he was endeared as a 
statesman who could do or suffer " nothing base," and who had 
the rare power of transfusing his own indomitable energy and 
courage into all who served under 'him. " A spirited foreign 
policy " has always been popular in England, and Pitt was the 
most popular of English ministers, because he was the most 
successful exponent of such a policy. In domestic affairs his 
influence was small and almost entirely indirect. He himself 
confessed his unfitness for dealing with questions of finance. The 
commercial prosperity that was produced by his war policy was 
in a great part delusive, as prosperity so produced must always 
be, though it had permanent effects of the highest moment in the 
rise of such centres of industry as Glasgow. This, however, was 
a remote result which he could have neither intended nor foreseen. 
The correspondence of Lord Chatham, in four volumes, was 

ftublifthed in 1 838-1 840; and a volume of his letters to Lord Camet- 
ord in 1804. The Rev. Fsancis Thackeray's History of the Ri. Hon. 
William Pitt, Earl of Chatham (2 vols., 1827), is a ponderous and 
shapeless work. Frederic Harrison's Chatham, in the "Twelve 
English Statesmen " series (1905), though skilfully executed, takes a 
rather academic and modern Liberal view. A German work, William 
PiU, Graf von Chatham, by Albert von Ruville (3 vols., 1005; English 
trans. 1907), is the best and most thorough account 01 Chatham, 
his period, and his policy, which has appeared. See also the separate 
article on William Pitt, and the authorities referred to, especially 
the Rev. William Hunt's appendix i. to his vol. x. of The Political 
History of England (1905). 

CHATHAM, also called Mxraiocht, an incorporated town and 
port of entry in Northumberland county, New Brunswick, Canada, 
on the Miramichi river, 24 m. from its mouth and xo m. by rail 
from Chatham junction on the Intercolonial railway. Pop. (1001) 
5000. The town contains the Roman Catholic pro-cathedral, 
many large saw-mills, pulp-mills, and several establishments 
for curing and exporting fish. The lumber trade, the fisheries, 
and the manufacture of pulp are the chief industries. 

CHATHAM, a city and port of entry of Ontario, Canada, and 
the capital of Kent county, situated 64 m. S.W. of London* 
and ix m. N. of Lake Erie, on the Thames river and the Grand 
Trunk, Canadian Pacific and Lake Eric & Detroit River railways. 
Pop. ( 1 oox ) 0068. It has steamboat connexion with Detroit and 
the dties on Lakes Huron and Erie. It is situated in a rich agri- 
cultural and fruit-growing district, and carries on a large export 
trade. It contains a large wagon factory, planing and flour mills, 
manufactories of fanning mills, binder-twine, woven wire goods, 
engines, windmills, &c. 

CHATHAM, a port and municipal and parliamentary borough 
of Rent, England, on the right bank of the Med way, 34 m. 
E.S.E. of London by the Soulh-Eastern & Chatham railway. 
Pop. (1891) 31,657; (ioox) 37.057. Though a distinct borough 
it is united on the west with Rochester and on the east with 
Gfllingham, so that the three boroughs form, in appearance, a 
single town with a population which in 1001 exceeded x 10,000. 
With the exception of the dockyards and fortifications there are 
few objects of interest. St Mary's church was opened in 1003, but 
occupies a site which bore a church in Saxon times, though the 
previous building dated only from 1786. A brass commemorates 
Stephen Borough (d. 1584), discoverer of the northern passage 
to Archangel in Russia (1553). St Bartholomew's chapel, 
originally attached to the hospital for lepers (one of the first in 
England), founded by Gundulph, bishop of Rochester, m 1070, 
is in part Norman. The funds for the maintenance of the hospital 
were appropriated by decision of the court of chancery to the 
hospital of St Bartholomew erected in 1863 within the boundaries 
of Rochester. The almshouse established in 159s by Sir John 
Hawkins for decayed seamen and shipwrights is still extant, the 
building having been re-erected in the 19th century; but the fund 
called the Chatham Chest, originated by H»^tts&vok\»tfefcHfcv 


1588, was incorporated with Greenwich Hospital in 1802. In 
front of the Royal Engineers' Institute is a statue (1800) o! 
General Gordon, and near the railway station another (1888) to 
Thomas Waghorn, promoter of the overland route to India. In 
1005 King Edward V1L unveiled a fine memorial arch com- 
memorating Royal Engineers who fell in the South African War. 
It stands in the parade ground of the Brompton barracks, facing 
the Crimean arch. There are numerous brickyards, lime-kilns 
and flour-mills in the district neighbouring to Chatham; and the 
town carries on a large retail trade, in great measure owing to 
the presence of the garrison. The fortifications are among the 
most elaborate in the kingdom. The so-called Chatham Lines 
enclose New Brompton, a part of the borough of Gillingham. 
They were begun in 1758 and completed in 1807, but have been 
completely modernized. They are strengthened by several 
detached forts and redoubts. Fort Pitt, which rises above the 
town to the west, was built in 1779, and is used as a general 
military hospital. It was regarded as the principal establishment 
of the kind in the country till the foundation of Netley in Hamp- 
shire. The lines include the Chatham, the Royal Marine, the 
Brompton, the Hut, St Mary's and naval barracks; the garrison 
hospital, Melville hospital for sailors and marines, the arsenal, 
gymnasium, various military schools, convict prison* and finally 
the extensive dockyard system for which the town is famous. 
This dockyard covers an area of 516 acres, and has a river 
frontage of over 3 m. It was brought into its present state by 
the extensive works begun about 1867. Before that time there 
was no basin or wet-dock, though the river Medway to some 
extent answered the same purpose, but a portion of the adjoin- 
ing salt-marshes was then taken in, and three basins have been 
constructed, communicating with each other by means of large 
locks, so that ships can pass from the bend of the Medway at 
Gillingham to that at Upnor. Four graving docks were also 
formed, opening out of the first (Upnor) basin. Subsequent 
improvements included dredging operations in the Medway to 
improve the approach, and the provision of extra dry-dock 
accommodation under the Naval Works Acts. 

The parliamentary borough returns one member. The town 
was incorporated in 1S90, and is governed by a mayor, six alder- 
men and eighteen councillors. Area, 4355 acres. The borough 
includes the suburb (an ecclesiastical parish) of Luton, in which 
are the waterworks of Chatham and the adjoining towns. 

Chatham (CctcAam, Chetkam) belonged at the time of the 
Domesday Survey to Odo, bishop of Bayeux. During the 
middle ages it formed a suburb of Rochester, but Henry VIII. 
in founding a regular navy began to establish dockyards, and the 
harbour formed by the deep channel of the Medway was utilized 
by Elizabeth, who built a dockyard and established an arsenal 
here. The dockyard was altered and improved by Charles I. 
and Charles IL, and became the chief naval station of England. 
In x 708 an act was passed for extending the fortifications of 
Chatham. During the excavations on Chatham Hill after 1758 a 
number of tumuli containing human remains, pottery, coins, &c. v 
suggestive of an ancient settlement, were found. Chatham was 
constituted a parliamentary borough by the Reform Bill of 183 a. 
In the time of Edward III. the lord of the manor had two fairs, 
one on the 24th of August and the other on the 8th of September. 
A market to be held on Tuesday, and a fair on the 4th, 5U1 and 
6th of May, were granted by Charles II. in 1679, and another 
provision market on Saturday by James II. in 1688. In 1738 
fairs were held on the 4 th of May and the 8th of September, and 
a market every Saturday. 

CHATHAM ISLANDS, a smaU g^p in the j^^ c Ocean, 
forming part of New Zealand, S30 m# ^ £. of Lyttelton in the 
South Island, about 44 S., i 77 * \y j t consists of three 
islands, a large one called Whairikautf, or Chatham Island, a 
smaller one, Rangihaute, or Pitt Island, * n( j a xhird, Rangatira, 
or South-cast Island. There are also sev^ Rm|| ^ rocky islets. 
Whairikauri, whose highest point reaches about xooo ft., is 
remarkable for the number of lakes and tarns it contains, and for 
the extensive bogs which cover the surface of nearly the whole 
of the uplands. It is of very irregular form, about jg as. in 

length and 25 m. in extreme breadth, with an area ot 
— « little larger than Middlesex. The geological h 
principally of volcanic rocks, with schists and tertiarj 
and an early physical connexion of the islands with N 
is indicated by their geology and biology. The climi 
than that of New Zealand. In the centre of What 
large brackish lake called Tewanga, which at the so 
is separated from the sea by a sandbank only x 50 yds. 1 
it occasionally bursts through. The southern part © 
has an undulating surface, and is covered either wi 
forest or with high ferns. In general the soil is extra 
and where it is naturally drained a rich vegetation 
flax occurs. On the north-west are several conical hil 
which are surrounded by oases of fertile soil. On 
western side is Petre Bay, on which, at the mouth < 
Mantagu, is Waitangi, the principal settlement. 

The islands were discovered in 1791 by Lieuten 
Broughton (1769-1821), who gave them the name o 
from the brig which he commanded. He described 1 
as a bright, pleasure-loving people, dressed in seaUui 
and calling themselves Morioris or Maiorioris. In 
were conquered by 800 Maoris who were landed fromi 
vessel. They were almost exterminated, and an e 
influenza in 2839 killed half of those left; ten yean 
were only 00 survivors out of a total population of 11 
subsequently decreased still further. Their languag* 
to that of the Maoris of New Zealand, but they differec 
from them in physique, and they were probably a era 
an immigrating Polynesian group and a lower indigent 
esian stock. The population of the islands includes 
whites of various races and the same number of nath 
Maoris). Cattle and sheep are bred, and a trade is ca 
them with the whalers which visit these seas. The c 
from the group is wool, grown upon runs farmed botl 
peans and Morioris. There is also a small export by 1 
of the flesh of young albatrosses and other sea-birds, b 
and cured, for the Maoris of New Zealand, by whom it 1 
a delicacy. The imports consist of the usual 00 
required by a population where little of the land i 

There are no indigenous mammals; the reptiles 
New Zealand species. The birds— the largest factor in 
— have become very greatly reduced through the in 
of cats, dogs and pigs, as well as by the constant pen 
every sort of animal by the natives. The larger bell-t 
ernis mclanoccphala) has become quite scarce; the n 
fruit-pigeon {Carpophaga chaJkanunsis), and the tw 
rails (NesolimHas diejfenbathii and Cabdus modest us), 
which was confined to Whairikauri and the other tc 
Island, are extinct. Several fossil or subfossil avian f< 
interesting from the point of view of geographical di 
have been discovered by Dr H. O. Forbes, namely, a ti 
of raven (PaLxocorax morwrum), a remarkable rail ( 
plcryx), closely related to the extinct Apkanapttryxtf'. 
and a large coot (Palatolimtuu ekatkamensu). There 
been discovered the remains of a species of swan be 
the South American genus Chenopis, and of the tuatara 
lizard, the unique species of an ancient family now surv 
in New Zealand. The swan is identical with an extli 
found in caves and kitchen-middens in New Zealand, 
contemporaneous with the prehistoric Maoris and « 
used by them for food. One of the finest of the endec 
ing plants of the group is the boraginaceous " Chath 
lily " {Uyositidium nobile), a gigantic forget-me-not, w' 
on the shingly shore in a few places only, and alwa; 
the high-water mark, where it is daily deluged by t 
while dracophyllums, leucopogons and arborescent raj 
characteristic forms in the vegetation. 

See Bruno Wei*. Finftit Jakre anf Chatham Islai 
" ~ "-'— "The Chatham Isla ' 

.„..„.^_, -iJ*). vol. ltii. p. 669. " 

Ums> f«J*tioa to a former Southern Continent," Sup 

>): H. O. Fofhea. " The" Chatham' Islands and lb 
. — ..__ (iB93). vol. liu. p. Mg t "jhc Chatha 

1900): H. 


Papers. R.G.S.. vol. iu. (1803); J. H. Scott. "The Osteology of 
the Maori and the Morion," Trans. New Zealand Institute, vol. xxvi. 
(1893); C. W. Andrew*. "The Extinct Birds of the Chatham 
Wands." NevilaUs Zoologicae, vol. H- p. 73 (I09*)> 

CHATILLON, the name of a French family whose history has | 
farmshed material for a large volume in folio by A. du Cbeane, 
a learned Frenchman, published in 1611. But in spite of its 
merits this book presents a certain number of inaccurate state- 1 
menta, some of which it is important to notice. If, for instance, 
it be true that the Chatfllons came from ChAtillon-sur-Marne 1 
(Marne. arrondissemenl of Reims), it is now certain that, since 
the nth century, this castle belonged to the count of Cham- 1 
pagne, and that the bead of the house of ChAtillon was merely 
tenant in that place. One of them, however, Gaucher of Chatillon, 
lord of Crecy and afterwards constable of France, became in 
1290 lord of Chatillon-sur-Marne by exchange, but since 1303 a 
new agreement allotted to him the countabip of Forden, while 
Chatillon reverted to the domain of the counts of Champagne. 
It may be well to mention also that, in consequence of a resem- 
blance of their armorial bearings, du Chesne considered wrongly 
that the lords of Bazoches and those of Chateau-Porricn of the 
nth and xjth centuries drew their descent from the house of 

The most important branches of the house of Chatillon were 
those of (1) St Pol, beginning with Gaucher III. of ChAtillon, 
who became count of St Pol in right of his wife Isabelle in 1205, 
the last male of the line being Guy V. (d. 1360); (2) Blois, 
founded by the marriage of Hugh of Chatillon-St Pol (d. 1248) 
with Mary, daughter of Margaret of Blois (d. 1 230), — this branch 
became extinct with the death of Guy II. in 1397; (3) Porcien, 1 
from 1303 to 1400. when Count John sold the countship to Louis, 
duke of Orleans; (4) Penthievre, by the marriage of Charles of 
Blots (d. 1364) with Jeanne (d. 1384), heiress of Guy, count of 
PenthieVre (d. 1331), the male line becoming extinct in 1457. 

See A- du Chesne. Histoire gentaloQque it la maison de Ckatftllon- 
sur-Marne (1621): Ansclme, Histowe ienialopque da Is motion 
nyale de France, vi. 91-124 (1730)- (A. Lo.) 

CHATILLON-SUR-SEINE, a town of eastern France, capital 
of an arrondissement in the department of Cote-d'Or, on the 
Eastern and Paris-Lyon railways, 67 m. N.N.W. of Dijon, 
between that city and Troyes. Pop. (1006) 4430. It is situated 
on both banks of the upper Seine, which is swelled at its 
entrance to the town by the Douix, one of the most abundant 
springs in France. Chatillon is constructed on ample lines and 
tendered attractive by beautiful promenades. Some ruins on 
an eminence above it mark the site of a chateau of the dukes of 
Burgundy. Near by stands the church of St Vorle of the 10th 
century, bat with many additions of later date; it contains a 
sculptured Holy Sepulchre of the 16th century and a number of 
frescoes. In a fine park stands a modern chateau built by 
Marshal Marmont, duke of Ragusa, born at ChAtillon in 1774. 
It was burnt in 1871, and subsequently rebuilt The town 
preserves several interesting old bouses. Chatillon has a sub- 
prefecture, tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a school 
of agriculture and a communal college. Among its Industrie* 
are brewing, iron-founding and the manufacture of mineral and 
other blacks. It has trade in wood, charcoal, lithographic and 
other stone. ChAtillon anciently consisted of two parts, Chau 
mont, belonging to the duchy of Burgundy, and Bourg, ruled by 
the bishop of Langres; it did not coalesce into one town till the 
end of the 16th century. It was taken by the English in 1360 and 
by Louis XI. in 1475, during his struggle with Charles the Bold. 
ChaiiDon was one of the first dtles to adhere to the League, but 
suffered severely from the oppression of its garrisons and gover- 
nors, and in 1595 made voluntary submission to Henry IV. In 
modern times it is associated with the abortive conference of 
itr4 between the representatives of Napoleon and the Allies 

CHATSWORTH, a village of Derbyshire, England, containing 
a sent belonging to the duke of Devonshire, one of the most 
splendid private residences in England. Chatsworth House I 
shunted close to the left bank of the river Derwent. 2} m. from 
BakewelL It is Ionic in style, built foursquare, and enclosing a 
large open courtyard, with a fountain in the centre. In front j 

a beautiful stretch of lawn slopes gradually down to the riverside, 
and a bridge, from which may best be seen the grand facade of 
the building, as it stands out in relief against the wooded ridge 
of Bunker's Hill. The celebrated gardens are adorned with 
sculptures by Gabriel Cibber; Sir Joseph Paxton designed the 
great conservatory, unrivalled in Europe, which covers an acre; 
and the fountains, which include one with a jet 260 ft. high, are 
aid to be surpassed only by those at Versailles. Within the 
house there is a very fine collection of pictures, including the 
well-known portraits by Reynolds of Georgians, duchess of 
Devonshire. Other paintings are asccribed to Holbein, Durer, 
Murillo, Jan van Eyck, Dolci, Veronese and Titian. Hung in the 
allery of sketches there are some priceless drawings attributed 
to Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raftaclle, Correggio, Titian 
and other old masters. Statues by Canova, Thorwaldsen. 
Chantrey and R. J. Wyatt are included among the sculptures. 
In the state apartments the walls and window-panes are in some 
cases inlaid with marble or porphyry; the woodcarving, mar- 
vellous for its intricacy, grace and lightness of effect, is largely 
the work of Samuel Watson of Heanor (d. 1715)* Chatsworth 
Park is upwards of xi m. in circuit, and contains many noble 
forest-trees, the whole being watered by the Derwent, and 
surrounded by high moors and uplands. Beyond the river, and 
immediately opposite the house, stands the model village of 
Edcnsor, where most of the cottages were built in villa style, with 
gardens, by order of the 6th duke. The parish church, restored 
by the same benefactor, contains an old brass in memory of 
John Beaton, confidential servant to Mary, queen of Scots, who 
died in 1570; and in the churchyard are the graves of Lord 
Frederick Cavendish, murdered in 18S2 in Phoenix Park, 
Dublin, and of Sir Joseph Paxton. 

Chatsworth (Cketsvorde, Ckctdsvorde, " the court of Chetel ") 
took its name from Chetel, one of its Saxon owners, who held it 
of Edward the Confessor. It belonged to the crown and was 
entrusted by the Conqueror to the custody of William PevereU. 
Chatsworth afterwards belonged for many generations to the 
family of Leech, and was purchased in the reign of Elisabeth 
by Sir William Cavendish, husband of the famous Bess of 
Hardwick. In 1557 he began to build Chatsworth House, and 
it was completed after his death by his widow, then countess of 
Shrewsbury. Here Mary, queen of Scots, spent several years of 
her imprisonment under the care of the earl of Shrewsbury. 
During the Civil War, Chatsworth was occasionally occupied 
as a fortress by both parties. It was pulled down, and the 
present house begun by William, 1st duke of Devonshire in 1688. 
The little village consists almost exclusively of families employed 
upon the estate. 

CHATTANOOGA, a city and the county-seat of Hamilton 
county, Tennessee, U.S.A., in the S.E. part of the state, about 
300 m. S. of Cincinnati, Ohio, and 150 m. S.E. of Nashville, 
I Tennessee, on the Tennessee river, and near the boundary line 
between Tennessee And Georgia. Pop. (i860) 2545; (1870) 
6093; (1880) 12,892; (1800) 29,100; (1000) 30,154, of whom 094 
were foreign-born and 23,122 were negroes; (U.S. census, 1010) 
44.604. The city is served by the Alabama Great Southern (Queen 
and Crescent), the Cincinnati Southern (leased by the Cincinnati, 
New Orleans & Texas Pacific railway company), the Nashville, 
Chattanooga & St Louis (controlled by the Louisville & Nash- 
ville), and its leased line, the Western & Atlantic (connecting 
with Atlanta, Ga.), the Central of Georgia, and the Chattanooga 
Southern railways, and by freight and passenger steamboal 
lines on the Tennessee river, which is navigable to and beyond 
this point during eight months of the year. That branch of 
the Southern railway extending from Chattanooga to Memphis 
was formerly the Memphis & Charleston, under which name it 
became famous in the American Civil War Chattanooga 
occupies a picturesque site at a sharp bend of the river To the 
south lies Lookout Mountain, whose summit (2126 ft. above the 
sea; 1495 ft- above the river) commands a magnificent view. 
To the east rises Missionary Ridge. Fine driveways and electric 
lines connect with both Lookout Mountain (the summit of which 
. is reached by an inclined plane on which cars are operated trf 



cable) and Missionary Ridge, where there are Federal reserva- 
tions, as well as with the National Military Park (15 sq. m.; 
dedicated 1895) on the battlefield of Chickamauga (?.».); this 
park was one of the principal mobilization camps of the United 
States army during the Spanish-American War of 1898. Among 
the principal buildings are the city hall, the Federal building, 
the county court house, the public library, the high school and 
the St Vincent's and the Baroness Erlanger hospitals. Among 
Chattanooga's educational institutions are two commercial 
colleges, the Chattanooga College for Young Ladies (non- 
sectarian), the Chattanooga Normal University, and the Uni- 
versity of Chattanooga, until June 1907, United States Grant 
University (whose preparatory department, "The Athens 
School," is at Athens, Tenn.), a co-educational institution under 
Methodist Episcopal control, established in 1867; it has a school 
of law (1899), a medical school (1889), and a school of theology 
(1888). East of the city is a large national cemetery containing 
more than 13,000 graves of Federal soldiers. Chattanooga is 
an important produce, lumber, coal and iron market, and b the 
principal trade and jobbing centre for a large district in Eastern 
Tennessee and Northern Georgia and Alabama. The proximity 
of coalfields and iron mines has made Chattanooga an iron 
manufacturing place of importance, its plants including car 
shops, blast furnaces, foundries, agricultural implement and 
machinery works, and stove factories; the city has had an 
important part in the development of the iron and steel industries 
in this part of the South. There are also flour mills, tanneries 
(United States Leather Co.), patent medicine, furniture, coffin, 
woodenware and wagon factories, knitting and spinning mills, 
planing mills, and sash, door and blind factories—the lumber 
being obtained from logs floated down the river and by rail. The 
value of the dty's factory products increased from $10,517,886 
in 1900 to $15,193,909 in 1905 or 44*5%- 

Chattanooga was first settled about 1835, and was long known 
as Ross's Landing. It was incorporated in 1851 as Chattanooga, 
and received a city charter in 1866. Its growth for the three 
decades after the Civil War was very rapid. During the American 
Civil War it was one of the most important strategic points in 
the Confederacy, and in its immediate vicinity were fought two 
great battles. During June 1862 it was threatened by a Federal 
force under General O. M. Mitchel, but the Confederate army 
of General Braxton Bragg was transferred thither by rail from 
Corinth, Miss., before Mitchel was able to advance. In 
September 1863, however, General W. S. Rosecrans, with the 
Union Army of the Cumberland out-manoeuvred Bragg, con- 
centrated his numerous columns in the Chickamauga Valley, and 
occupied the town, to which, after the defeat of Chickamauga 
(?.».), he retired. 

From the end of September to the 24th of November the Army 
of the Cumberland was then invested in Chattanooga by the 
Confederates, whose position lay along Missionary Ridge from 
its north end near the river towards Rossvflle, whence their 
entrenchments extended westwards to Lookout Mountain, which 
dominates the whole ground, the Tennessee running directly 
beneath it. Thus Rosecrans was confined to a semicircle of 
low ground around Chattanooga itself, and his supplies had to 
make a long and difficult ditour from Bridgeport, the main road 
being under fire from the Confederate position on Lookout and 
in the Wauhatchie valley adjacent. Bragg indeed expected that 
Rosecrans would be starved into retreat. But the Federals once 
more, and this time on a far larger scale, concentrated in the face 
of the enemy. The XI. and XII. corps from Virginia under 
Hooker were transferred by rail to reinforce Rosecrans; other 
troops were called up from the Mississippi, and on the x6th of 
October the Federal government reconstituted the western 
armies under the supreme command of General Grant. The 
XV. corps of the Army of the Tennessee, under Sherman, was 
on the march from the Mississippi. Hooker's troops had already 
arrived when Grant reached Chattanooga on the 33rd of October. 
The Army of the Cumberland was now under Thomas. Rosecrans 
having been recalled. The first action was fought at Brown's 
Ferry in the Wauhatchie valley, where Hooker executed with 

complete precision a plan for the revictuaUing of Chattanooga, 
established himself near Wauhatchie on the 28th, and repulsed 
a determined attack on the same night. But Sherman was still 
far distant, and the Federal forces at RnoxviUe, against which 
a large detachment of Bragg's army under Longstreet was now 
sent, were in grave danger. Grant waited for Sherman's four 
divisions, but prepared everything for battle in the meantime. 
His plan was that Thomas in the Chattanooga lines should 
contain the Confederate centre on Missionary Ridge, while 
Hooker on the right at .Wauhatchie was to attack Lookout 
Mountain, and Sherman farther up the river was to carry out 
the decisive attack against Bragg's extreme right wing at the 
end of Missionary Ridge. The last marches of the XV. corps 
were delayed by stormy weather, Bragg reinforced Longstreet, 
.and telegraphic communication between Grant and the Federals 
at Knoxville had already ceased. But Grant would not move 
forward without Sherman, and the battle of Chattanooga was 
'fought more than two months after Chickamauga. On the 23rd 
of November a forward move of Thomas's army, intended as a 

G-tftivaf lln *f *fi«* XX XX Urnhm tr—p» .mm 

demonstration, developed into a serious and successful action, 
whereby the first line of the Confederate centre was driven in 
for some distance. B ragg was now much weakened by successive 
detachments having been sent to RnoxviUe, and on the 24th the 
real battle began. Sherman's corps was graudally brought over 
the river near the mouth of Chickamauga Creek, and formed up 
on the east side. 

The attack began at 1 p.m. and was locally a complete success. 
The heights attacked were in Sherman's hands, and fortified 
against counter-attack, before nightfall. Hooker in the mean* 
while had fought the " Battle above the Clouds " on the steep 
face of Lookout Mountain, and though opposed by an equal 
force of Confederates, had completely driven the enemy from 
the mountain. The 24th then had been a day of success for the 
Federals, and the decisive attack of the three armies in concert 
was to take place on the 25th. But the maps deceived Grant 
and Sherman as they had previously deceived Rosecrans. 
Sherman had captured, not the north point of Missionary Ridge, 
but a detached hill, and a new and more serious action had to be 
fought for the possession of Tunnel Hill, where Bragg's right now 
lay strongly entrenched. The Confederates used every effort to 
hold the position and all Sherman's efforts were made in vain. 
Hooker, who was moving on Rossville, had not progressed far, 
and Bragg was still free to reinforce his right. Grant therefore 
directed Thomas to move forward on the centre to relieve the 


pressure on Sherman. The Army of the Cumberland was, after 
all, to strike the decisive blow. About 3.30 p.m. the centre 
advanced on the Confederate's trenches at the foot of Missionary 
Ridge. These were carried at the first rush, and the troops were 
ordered to lie down and await orders. Then occurred one of 
the most dramatic episodes of the war. Suddenly, and without 
orders either from Grant or the officers at the front, the whole 
line of the Army of the Cumberland rose and rushed up the ridge. 
Two successive lines of entrenchments were carried at once. 
Id a short time the crest was stormed, and after a last attempt 
at resistance the enemy's centre fled in the wildest confusion. 
The pursuit was pressed home by the divisional generals, notably 
by Sheridan. Hooker now advanced in earnest on Rossville, 
and by nightfall the whole Confederate army, except the troops 
on Tunnel Hill, was retreating in disorder. These too were 
withdrawn in the night, and the victory of the Federals was 
complete. Bragg lost 8684 men killed, wounded and prisoners 
out of perhaps 34,000 men engaged; Grant, with 60,000 men, 
lost ab out 6 000. 

CHATTEL (for derivation see Cattle), a term used in English 
law as equivalent to " personal property," that is, property 
which, on the death of the owner, devolves on his executor or 
administrator to be distributed (unless disposed of by will) 
among the next of kin according to the Statutes of Distributions. 
Chattels are divided into chattels real and chattels personal. 
Chattels real are those interests in land for which no " real 
action " (see Action) lies; estates which are less than freehold 
(estates for years, at will, or by sufferance) are chattels real. 
Chattels personal are such things as belong immediately to the 
person of the owner, and for which, if they are injuriously 
withheld from him, he has no remedy other than by a personal 
action. Chattels personal are divided into choses in possession 
and choses in action (see Chose). 

A chattel mortgage, in United States law, is a transfer of 
personal property as security for a debt or obligation in such 
form that the title to the property will pass to the mortgagee 
upon the failure of the mortgagor to comply with the terms of 
the contract. At common law a chattel mortgage might be 
made without writing, and was valid as between the parties, 
and even as against third parties if accompanied by possession 
in the mortgagee, but In most states of the Union legislation 
now requires a chattel mortgage to be in writing and duly 
recorded in order to be valid against third parties. At common 
law a mortgage can be given only of chattels actually in existence 
and belonging to the mortgagor, though if he acquired title 
afterwards the mortgage would be good as between the parties, 
but not as against subsequent purchasers or creditors. In 
equity, on the other hand, a chattel mortgage, though not good 
as a conveyance, is valid as an executory agreement. 

Goods and chattels is a phrase which, in its widest signification, 
includes any property other than freehold. The two words, 
however, have come to be synonymous, and the expression, 
now practically confined to wills, means merely things movable 
in pos session . 

CHATTERIS, a market town in the Wisbech parliamentary 
division of Cambridgeshire, England, 25} m. N. by W. of Cam- 
bridge by the Great Eastern railway. Pop. of urban district 
(loot) 471 1. It lies in the midst of the flat Fen country. The 
church of St Peter is principally Decorated; and there are 
fragments of a Benedictine convent founded in the roth century 
■ad rebuilt after fire in the first half of the 14th. The town has 
breweries, and engineering and rope-making works. To the 
north runs the great Forty-foot Drain, also called Vermuyden's, 
alter the Dutch engineer whose name is associated with the fen 
drainage works of the middle of the 17th century. 


OuttJUadh-yAya) (1838-1804), Indian novelist, was born in 

Hie district of the Twenty-four Parganas in Bengal on the 17th 

j of Jane 1838, and was by caste a Brahman.. He was educated 

I tt the Hugfi College, at the Presidency College in Calcutta, and 

1 at Calcutta University, where be was the first to take the degree 

of B.A. (1858). He entered the Indian dvil service, and served 

as deputy magistrate in various districts of Bengal, his official 
services being recognized, on his retirement in 1891, by the 
title of rai bahadur and the CLE. He died on the 8th of April 

Bankim Chandra was beyond question the greatest novelist 
of India during the 19th century, whether judged by the amount 
and quality of his writings, or by the influence which they have 
continued to exercise. His education had brought him into 
touch with the works of the great European romance writers, 
notably Sir Walter Scott, and he created in India a school of 
fiction on the European model. His first historical novel, the 
Durges-Nandini or Chiefs Daughter, modelled on Scott, made 
a great sensation in Bengal; and the Kapala-Kundala and 
Mrinalini, which followed it, established his fame as a writer 
whose creative imagination and power of delineation had never 
been surpassed in India. In 187s he brought out his first social 
novel, the Bisha-Brikkha or Poison Tree, which was followed by 
others in rapid succession. It is impossible to exaggerate the 
effect they produced; for over twenty years Bankim Chandra's 
novels were eagerly read by the educated public of Bengal, 
including the Hindu ladies in the zenanas; and though numerous 
works of fiction are now produced year by year in every province 
of India, his influence has increased rather than diminished. 
Of all his works, however, by far the most important from its 
astonishing political consequences was the Ananda Math, which 
was published in 1882, about the time of the agitation arising 
out of the Ilbert Bill. The story deals with the Sannyasi (i.e. 
fakir or hermit) rebellion of 1772 near Purmca, Tirhut and 
Dinapur, and its culminating episode is a crushing victory won 
by the rebels over the united British and Mussulman forces, 
a success which was not, however, followed up, owing to the 
advice of a mysterious " physician " who, speaking as a divinely- 
inspired prophet, advises Satyananda, the leader of " the 
children of the Mother," to abandon further resistance, since a 
temporary submission to British rule is a necessity; for Hinduism 
has become too speculative and unpractical, and the mission of 
the English in India is to teach Hindus how to reconcile theory 
and speculation with the facts of science. The general moral 
of the Ananda Math, then, a that British rule and British 
education are to be accepted as the only alternative to Mussulman 
oppression, a moral which Bankim Chandra developed also in 
his Dharmataltwa, an elaborate religious treatise in which he 
explained his views as to the changes necessary in the moral and 
religious condition of his fellow-countrymen before they could 
hope to compete on equal terms with the British and Mahom* 
medans. But though the Ananda Math is in form an apology 
for the loyal acceptance of British rule, it is none the less inspired 
by the ideal of the restoration, sooner or later, of a Hindu 
kingdom in India. This is especially evident in the occasional 
verses in the book, of which the Bande Mater am is the most 

As to the exact significance of this poem a considerable 
controversy has raged. Bande Malar am h the Sanskrit for 
" Hail to thee, Mother!" or more literally " I reverence thee, 
Mother!", and according to Dr G. A. Grierson (The Timet, 
Sept. X2, 1906) it can have no other possible meaning than an 
invocation of one of the " mother " goddesses of Hinduism, in 
his opinion Kali " the goddess of death and destruction/' Sir 
Henry Cotton, on the other hand (10. Sept. 13, 1006), sees in 
it merely an invocation of the "mother-land" Bengal, and 
quotes in support of this view the free translation of the poem 
by the late W. H. Lee, a proof which, it may be at once said, 
is far from convincing. But though, as Dr Grierson points out, 
the idea of a " mother-land " is wholly alien to Hindu ideas, it is 
quite possible that Bankim Chandra may have assimilated it 
with his European culture, and the true explanation is probably 
that given by Mr J. D. Anderson in The Times of September 94, 
1006. He points out that in the nth chapter of the 1st book of 
the Ananda Math the Sannyasi rebels are represented as having 
erected, in addition to the image of Kali, M the Mother who Hat 
Been," a white marble statue of " the Mother that Shall Be," 
which "Is apparently a representation of the mothftt-VwA. 



The Bands Malar am hymn is apparently addressed lo both 

The poem, then, is the work of a Hindu idealist who personified 
Bengal under the form of a purified and spiritualized Kali. 
Of its thirty-six lines, partly written in Sanskrit* partly in 
Bengali, the greater number are harmless enough. But if the 
poet sings the praise of the " Mother " 

" As Lachmi. bowcred in the flower 
That in the water grows," 

be also praises her as " Durga, bearing ten weapons,** and lines 
10, n and 12 are capable of very dangerous meanings in the 
mouths of unscrupulous agitators. Literally translated these 
run, " She has seventy millions of throats to sing her praise, 
twice seventy millions of hands to fight for her, how then 
is Bengal powerless?" As S. M. Mitra points out (Indian 
Problems, London, xooS), this language is the more significant 
as the Bands II alar am in the novel was the hymn by singing 
which the Sannyasis gained strength when attacking the British 

During Bankim Chandra Chatterji's lifetime the Bande 
Motor am, though its dangerous tendency was recognized, was 
not used as a party war-cry; it was not raised, for instance, 
during the Ilbert Bill agitation, nor by the students who flocked 
round the court during the trial of Surendra Nath Banerji in 
1883. It has, however, obtained an evil notoriety in the agita- 
tions that followed the partition of Bengal That Bankim 
Chandra himself foresaw or desired any such use of it is impossible 
to believe. According to S. M. Mitra, he composed it " in a fit 
of patriotic excitement after a good hearty dinner, which he 
always enjoyed. It was set to Hindu music, known as the 
MoUar-Kawali-Tal. The extraordinarily stirring character of 
the air,- and its ingenious assimilation of Bengali passages with 
Sanskrit, served to make it popular." 

Circumstances have made the Bande hi at or am the most 
famous and the most widespread in its effects of Bankim 
Chandra's literary works. More permanent, it may be hoped, 
was the wholesome influence he exercised on the number of 
literary men he gathered round him, who have left their im- 
press on the literature of Bengal. In his earlier years he served 
bis apprenticeship in literature under Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar, 
the chief poet and satirist of Bengal during the earlier half of the 
10th century. Bankim Chandra's friend and colleague, Dina 
Bandhu Mitra, was virtually the founder of the modern Bengali 
drama. Another friend of his, Hem Chandra Banerji, was a poet 
of recognized merit and talent. And among the younger men 
who venerated Bankim Chandra, and benefited by his example 
and advice, may be mentioned two distinguished poets, Nalein 
Chandra Sen and Rabindra Nath Tagore. 

Of Bankim Chandra's novels some have been translated into 
English by H. A. D. Phillips and by Mrs M. S. Knight. 

CHATTERTON, THOMAS (1752-1770), English poet, was born 
at Bristol on the 20th of November 1752. His pedigree has a 
curious significance. The office of sexton of St Mary Reddiffe, 
at Bristol, one of the most beautiful parish churches in England, 
bad been transmitted for nearly two centuries in the Chatter- 
ton family; and throughout the brief life of the poet it was 
held by his uncle, Richard Phillips. The poet's father, Thomas 
Cbatterton, was a musical genius, somewhat of a poet, a numis- 
matist, and a dabbler in occult arts. He was one of the sub- 
chanters of Bristol cathedral, and master of the Pyle Street free 
school, near Reddiffe church. But whatever hereditary ten- 
dencies may have been transmitted from the father, the sole 
training of the boy necessarily devolved on his mother, who was 
in the fourth month of her widowhood at the time of his birth. 
She established a girls' school, took in sewing and ornamental 
needlework, and so brought up her two children, a girl and a 
boy, till the latter attained his eighth year, when he was admitted 
to Colston's Charity. But the Bristol blue-coat school, in which 
the curriculum was limited to reading, writing, arithmetic and 
the Church Catechism, had little share in the education of its 
marvellous pupil. The hereditary race of sextons had come to 
retard the church of St Mary tUdckfft aa their own peculiar 

domain; and, under the guidance of his uncle, the child found 
there his favourite haunt The knights, ecclesiastics and civic 
dignitaries, recumbent on its altar tombs, became his familiar 
associates ; and by and by, when be was able to spell his way 
through the inscriptions graven on their monuments, he found 
a fresh interest in certain quaint oaken chests in the muniment 
room over the porch on the north side of the nave, where parch- 
ment deeds, old as the Wars of the Roses, long lay unheeded 
and forgotten. They formed the child's playthings almost from 
his cradle. He learned his first letters from the illuminated 
capitals of an old musical folio, and learned to read out of a 
black-letter Bible. He did not like, his sister said, reading out 
of small books. Wayward, as it seems, almost from his earliest 
years, and manifesting no sympathy with the ordinary pastimes 
of children, he was regarded for a time as deficient in intellect. 
But he was even then ambitious of distinction. His sister relates 
that on being asked what device he would like painted on a bowl 
that was to be his, he replied, " Paint me an angel, with wings, 
and a trumpet, to trumpet my name over the world." 

From his earliest years he was liable to fits of abstraction, 
sitting for hours in seeming stupor, or yielding after a time to 
tears, for which he would assign no reason. He had no one near 
him to sympathize in the strange world of fancy which his 
imagination had already called into being; and circumstances 
helped to foster his natural reserve, and to beget that love of 
mystery which exercised so great an influence on the develop- 
ment of his genius. When the strange child had attained his 
sixth year his mother began to recognize his capacity; at eight 
he was so eager for books that he would read and write all day 
long if undisturbed; and in his eleventh year he had become a 
contributor to Felix Farley's Bristol Journal. The occasion of 
his confirmation inspired some religious poems published in this 
paper. In 1763 a beautiful cross of curious workmanship, which 
had adorned the churchyard of St Mary Reddiffe for upwards of 
three centuries, was destroyed by a churchwarden. The spirit 
of veneration was strong in the boy, and he sent to the local 
journal on the 7 th of January 1764 a clever satire on the parish 
Vandal But his delight was to lock himself in a little attic 
which he had appropriated as his study; and there, with books, 
cherished parchments, saved from the loot of the muniment room 
of St Mary Reddiffe, and drawing materials, the child lived in 
thought with his 15th-century heroes and heroines. The first of 
his literary mystifications, the duologue of " Elinoure and Juga," 
was written before he was twelve years old, and be showed his 
poem to the usher at Colston's hospital, Thomas Phillips, as the 
work of a 15th-century poet. 

Cbatterton remained an inmate of Colston's hospital for 
upwards of six years, and the slight advantages gained from 
this scanty education are traceable to the friendly sympathy of 
Phillips, himself a writer of verse, who encouraged his pupils to 
write. Three of Chatterton's companions are named as youths 
whom Phillips's taste for poetry stimulated to rivalry; but 
Cbatterton held aloof from these contests, and made at that 
time no confidant of his own more daring literary adventures. 
His little pocket-money was spent in borrowing books from a 
drculating library; and he early ingratiated himself with book 
collectors, by whose aid he found access to Weever, Dugdak 
and Collins, as well as to Speght's edition of Chaucer, Spenser 
and other books. 

His "Rowleian" jargon appears to have been chiefly the 
result of the study of John Kersey's Dictionarium Anglo- Br i- 
tannicum, and Prof. W. W. Skeat seems to think his knowledge 
of even Chaucer was very slight. His holidays were mostly 
spent at his mother's house; and much of them in the favourite 
retreat of his attic study there. He had already conceived the 
romance of Thomas Rowley, an imaginary monk of the 15th 
century, and lived for the most part in an ideal world of his own, 
in that dder time when Edward IV. was England's king, and 
Master William Canynge — familiar to him among the recum- 
bent effigies in Reddiffe church — still ruled in Bristol's dvic 
chair. Canynge is represented as an enlightened patron of 
literature, and Rowley's dramatic interludes were written far 



performance at his house. In order to escape a marriage urged 
by the king, Canynge retrred to the college of Westbury in 
Gloucestershire, where he enjoyed the society of Rowley, and 
eventually became dean of the institution. In " The Stork of 
William Canynge," one of the shorter pieces of his ingenious 
romance, his early history is recorded. 

•' Straight was I carried back to times of yore, 
Whilst Canynge swathed yet in fleshly bed. 
And saw all actions which had been bclore. 

And all the scroll of Fate unravelled; 
And when the fate-marked babe acome to sight, 
1 saw him eager gasping after light. 
In all his shcepen gambols and child's play. 

In every merrymaking, fair, or wake, 
I kenn'd a perpted light of wisdom's ray; 

He ate down learning with the wastel-cake; 
As wise as any of the aldermen. 
He'd wit enow to make a mayor at ten. 

This beautiful picture of the childhood of the ideal patron of 
Rowley is in reality that of the poet himself— 41 the fate-marked 
babe," with his wondrous child -genius, and all his romantic 
dreams realized. The literary masquerade which thus consti- 
tuted the life-dream of the boy was wrought out by him in 
fragments of prose and verse into a coherent romance, until the 
credulous scholars and antiquaries of his day were persuaded 
into the belief that there had lain in the parish chest of Redcliffe 
church for upwards of three centuries, a collection of MSS. of 
rare merit, the work of Thomas Rowley, an unknown priest of 
Bristol in the days of Henry VI. and his poet laureate, John 

Among the Bristol patrons of Chatter-ton were two pewterers, 
George Catcott and his partner Henry Burgum. Catcott was one 
of the most aealous believers in Rowley, and continued to collect 
bis reputed writings long after the death of their real author. 
On Burgum, who had risen in life by his own exertions, the blue* 
coat boy palmed off the de Bergham pedigree, and other equally 
apocryphal evidences of the pewterer's descent from an ancestry 
old as the Norman Conquest. The de Bergham quartering, 
blazoned on a piece of parchment doubtless recovered from the 
Redcliffe muniment chest, was itself supposed to have lain for 
centuries in that ancient depository. The pedigree was pro- 
fessedly collected by Chatterton from original records, including 
" The Ffowley MSS." The pedigree still exists in Chatterton's 
own handwriting, copied into a book in which be had previously 
transcribed portions of antique verse, under the title of " Poems 
by Thomas Rowley, priest of St. John's, in the city of Bristol "; 
and an one of these, " The Tournament," Syrr Johan de Berg- 
hamme plays a conspicuous part. The ennobled pewterer 
rewarded Chatterton with five shillings, and was satirized for 
this valuation of a noble pedigree in some of Chatterton's 
latest verse. 

On the ist of July 1 767, Chatterton was transferred to the office 
of John Lambert, attorney, to whom he was bound apprentice 
as a clerk. There he was left much alone; and after fulfilling 
the routine duties devolving on him, he found leisure for his own 
favourite pursuits. An ancient stone bridge on the Avon, built 
in the reign of Henry II., and altered by many later additions 
into a singularly picturesque but inconvenient thoroughfare, 
had been displaced by a structure better adapted to modern 
requirements. In September 1768, when Chatterton was in the 
second year of his apprenticeship, the new bridge was partially 
opened for traffic. Shortly afterwards the editor of Felix Farley's 
Journal received from a correspondent, signing himself Dunelmus 
Bristoliensis, a " description of the mayor's first passing over the 
old bridge," professedly derived from an ancient MS. William 
Barrett, F.S.A., surgeon and antiquary, who was then accumu- 
lating materials for a history of Bristol, secured the original 
manuscript, which is now preserved in the British Museum, along 
with other Chatterton MSS., most of which were ultimately 
Incorporated by the credulous antiquary into a learned quarto 
volume, entitled the History and A nHquitus of tkt City of Bristol, 
published nearly twenty years after the poet's death. It was 
at itts) cjnso that the- definite story made ils appearance- over 

which critics and antiquaries wrangled for nearly a century— 
of numerous ancient poems and other MSS. taken by the elder 
Chatterton from a coffer in the muniment room of Redcliffe 
church, and transcribed, and so rescued from oblivion, by his 
son. The pieces include the " Bristowe Tragedie, or the Dethe 
of Syr Charles Bawdin," a ballad celebrating the death of the 
Lancastrian knight, Charles Baldwin; "jElIa," a "Tragycal 
Enterlude," as Chatterton styles it, but In reality a dramatic 
poem of sustained power and curious originality of structure; 
" Goddwyn," a dramatic fragment; u Tournament," " Battle 
of.Hastings," " The Parliament of Sprites," " Balade of Charitie," 
with numerous shorter pieces, forming altogether a volume of 
poetry, the rare merit of which is indisputable, wholly apart from 
the fact that it was the production of a mere boy. Unfortunately 
for him, his ingenious romance had either to be acknowledged as 
his own creation, and so in all probability be treated with con- 
tempt, or it had to be sustained by the manufacture of spurious 
antiques. To this accordingly Chatterton resorted, and found 
no difficulty in gulling the most learned of his credulous dupes 
with his parchments. 

The literary labours of the boy, though diligently pursued at 
his desk, were not allowed to interfere with the duties of Mr 
Lambert's office. Nevertheless the Bristol attorney used to 
search his apprentice's drawer, and tear up any poems or other 
manuscripts that he could by his hands upon; so that It was 
only during the absences of Mr Lambert from Bristol that he 
was able to expend his unemployed time in his favourite pursuits. 
But repeated allusions, both by Chatterton and others, seem to 
indicate that such intervals of freedom were of frequent occur- 
rence. Some of his modern poems, such as the piece entitled 
'• Resignation," are of great beauty; and these, with the satires, in 
which he took his revenge on all the local celebrities whose 
vanity or meanness had excited his ire, arc alone sufficient to fill 
a volume. The Catcotts, Burgum, Barrett and others of his 
patrons, figure in these satires, in imprudent yet discriminating 
caricature, along with mayor, aldermen, bishop, dean and other 
notabilities of Bristol. Towards Lambert his feelings were of too 
keen a nature to find relief in such sarcasm. 

In December 1768, in his seventeenth year, he wrote to 
Dodsley, the London publisher, offering to procure for him 
" copies of several ancient poems, and an interlude, perhaps 
the oldest dramatic piece extant, wrote by one Rowley, a priest 
in Bristol, who lived in the reigns of Henry VI. and Edward IV." 
To this letter he appended the initials of his favourite pseudonym, 
Dunelmus Bristol itn sis, but directed the answer to be sent to 
the care of Thomas Chatterton, Redcliffe Hill, Bristol. To this, 
as well as to another letter enclosing an extract from the tragedy 
of " Ailla," no answer appears to have been returned. Chatter- 
ton, conceiving the idea of finding sympathy and aid at the hand 
of some modern Canynge, bethought him of Horace Walpole, 
who not only indulged in a medieval renaissance of his own, but 
was the reputed author of a spurious antique in the Castle of 
Otranta. He wrote to him offering him a document entitled 
" The Ryse of Pcyncteync yn Englande, wroten by T. Rowlcie. 
1469, for Mastre Canynge," accompanied by notes which included 
specimens of Rowley's poetry. To this Walpole replied with 
courteous acknowledgments. He characterized the verses as 
" wonderful for their harmony and spirit," and added, " Give me 
leave to ask you where Rowley's poems are to be had ? I should 
not be sorry to print them; or at least a specimen of them, if 
they have never been printed." Chatterton replied, enclosing 
additional specimens of antique verse, and telling Walpole that 
he was the son of a poor widow, and clerk to an attorney, but 
had a taste for more refined studies; and he hinted a wish that 
he might help him to some more congenial occupation. Walpolc's 
manner underwent an abrupt change. The specimens of verse 
had been submitted to his friends Gray and Mason, the poets, 
and pronounced modern. They did not thereby forfeit the 
wonderful harmony and spirit which Walpole had already 
professed to recognise in them. But he now coldly advised the 
boy to stick to the attorney's office; and " when be should 
have made a fortune," he might betake himself to more favourite 


studies. Chatterton had to write three times before he recovered 
his MSS. Walpole has been loaded with more than his just 
share of responsibility for the fate of the unhappy poet, of 
whom be admitted when too late, " I do not believe there ever 
existed so masterly a genius." 

Chatterton now turned his attention to periodical literature 
and politics, and exchanged Felix Farley* s Bristol Journal for 
the Town and County Magazine and other London periodicals. 
Assuming the vein of Junius— then in the . full blaze of his 
triumph — he turned his pen against the duke of Grafton, the 
earl of Bute, and the princess of Wales. He had just despatched 
one of his political diatribes to the Middlesex Journal, when he 
sat down on Easter Eve, 17 th April 1770, and penned his " Last 
WQl and Testament," a strange satirical compound of jest and 
earnest, in which he intimated his intention of putting an end 
to his life the following evening. Among his satirical bequests, 
such as his " humility " to the Rev. Mr Camplin, his " religion " 
to Dean Barton, and his "modesty" along with his "prosody 
and grammar " to Mr Burgum, he leaves " to Bristol all his 
spirit and disinterestedness, parcels of goods unknown on its 
quay since the days of Canynge and Rowley." In more genuine 
earnestness he recalls the name of Michael Clayfield, a friend to 
whom he owed intelligent sympathy. The will was probably 
purposely prepared in order to frighten his master into letting 
him go. If so, it had the desired effect Lambert cancelled his 
indentures; his friends and acquaintance made him up a purse; 
and on the 15th or 26th of the month he arrived in London. 

Chatterton was already known to the readers of the Middlesex 
Journal as a rival of Junius, under the nam de plume of Decimus. 
He had also been a contributor to Hamilton's Town and County 
Magazine, and speedily found access to the Freeholder's Magazine, 
another political miscellany strong for Wilkes and liberty. His 
contributions were freely accepted; but the editors paid little 
or nothing for them. He wrote in the most hopeful terms to his 
mother and sister, and spent his first earnings in buying gifts 
for them. His pride and ambition were amply gratified by the 
promises and interested flattery of editors and political adven- 
turers; Wilkes himself had noted his trenchant style, "and 
expressed a desire to know the author"; and Lord Mayor 
Beckford graciously acknowledged a political address of his, 
and greeted him " as politely as a citizen could." But of actual 
money he received but little. He was extremely abstemious, 
his diligence was great, and his versatility wonderful. He could 
assume the style of Junius or Smollett, reproduce the satiric 
bitterness of Churchill, parody Macphcrson's Ossian, or write in 
the manner of Pope, or with the polished grace of Gray and 
Collins. He wrote political letters, eclogues, lyrics, operas and 
satires, both in prose and verse. In June x 7 70— after Chatterton 
had been some nine weeks in London — he removed from Shore- 
ditch, where he had hitherto lodged with a relative, to an attic 
in Brook Street, Holborn. But for most of his productions the 
payment was delayed; and now state prosecutions of the press 
rendered letters in the Junius vein no longer admissible, and 
threw him back on the lighter resources of his pen. In Shoredilch, 
as in his lodging at the Bristol attorney's, he had only shared a 
room; but now, for the first time, he enjoyed uninterrupted 
solitude. His bed-fellow at Mr Walmslcy's, Shoredilch, noted 
that much of the night was spent by him in writing; and now 
he could write all night The romance of his earlier years 
revived, and he transcribed from an imaginary parchment of 
the old priest Rowley his " Excclcntc Baladc of Charitic." This 
fine poem, perversely disguised in archaic language, he sent to 
the editor of the Town and County Magazine, and had it rejected. 

The high hopes of the sanguine boy had begun to fade. He 
had not yet completed his second month in London, and already 
failure and starvation stared him in the face. Mr Cross, a neigh- 
bouring apothecary, repeatedly invited him to join him at dinner 
or supper; but he refused. His landlady also, suspecting his 
necessity, pressed him to share her dinner, but in vain. '• She 
knew," as she afterwards said, " that he had not eaten anything 
for two or three days." But he was offended at her urgency, 
and assured her that he was not hungry. The notcoi his actual 


receipts, found in his pocket-book after his death, shows that 
Hamilton, Fell and other editors who had been so liberal ia 
flattery, had paid him at the rate of a shilling for an article, and 
somewhat less than eightpence each for his songs; while much 
which had been accepted was held in reserve, and still unpaid 
for. The beginning of a new month revealed to him the indefinite 
postponement of the publication and payment of his work. He 
had wished, according to his foster-mother, to study medicine 
with Barrett; in his desperation he now reverted to this, and 
wrote to Barrett for a letter to help him to an opening as a 
surgeon's assistant on board an African trader. He appealed 
also to Mr Catcott to forward his plan, but in vain. On the 
24th of August 1770, he retired for the last time to bis attic in 
Brook Street, carrying with him the arsenic which he there 
drank, after tearing into fragments whatever literary remains 
were at hand. 

He was only seventeen years and nine months old; but the 
best of his numerous productions, both in prose and verse, 
require no allowance to be made for the immature years of their 
author, when comparing him with the ablest of his contem- 
poraries. He pictures Lydgate, the monk of Bury St Edmunds, 
challenging Rowley to a trial at versemaking, and under cover 
of this fiction, produces his " Songe of Alia," a piece of rare 
lyrical beauty, worthy of comparison with any antique or modem 
production of its class. Again, in his " Tragedy of Goddwyn," 
of which only a fragment has been preserved, the "Ode to 
Liberty," with which it abruptly doses, may claim a place among 
the finest martial lyrics in the language. The collection of poems 
in which such specimens occur furnishes by far the most remark- 
able example of intellectual precocity in the whole history of 
letters. Collins, Burns, Keats, Shelley and Byron all awaken 
sorrow over the premature arrestment of their genius; but the 
youngest of them survived to his twenty-fifth year, while 
Chatterton was not eighteen when he perished in his miserable 
garret. The death of Chatterton attracted little notice at the 
time; for the few who then entertained any appreciative 
estimate of the Rowley poems regarded him as their mere 
transcriber. He was interred in a burying-ground attached to 
Shoe Lane Workhouse, in the parish of St Andrew's, Holborn, 
which has since been converted into a site for Farringdon Market 
There is a discredited story that the body of the poet was re- 
covered, and secretly buried by his uncle, Richard Phillips, in 
Rcdcliffe Churchyard. There a monument has since been erected 
to his memory, with the appropriate inscription, borrowed 
from his " Will," and so supplied by the poet's own pen — " To 
the memory of Thomas Chatterton. Reader! judge not If 
thou art a Christian, believe that he shall be judged by a Superior 
Power. To that Power only is he now answerable." 

HiBLiocftAi-iiY,— Poemi tttppcsrd to h&ve hem uriiten at Bristol 
by Tkomai Rfiuttyand o*hert r in the Fifteenth Ccnlvr* (1 777) was edited 
by Thomas Tyrwhitl; Thnftm Wart on, in his Hi iter v pj Entfiik 
Poetry (177*), vol. iL section vm,, gives Rowley a place among the 
15th century poets; but neither of these critics btlic v*d in the 
antiquity of the poems. In t?8a a nuw edition of Rowley '■ poem* 
appeared, with a " Commentary, in which the antiquity of them b 
considered and defended," by Jeremiah Milles, dean of Exeter. 
The controversy which raced round the Rowley poem? i* dimmed 
in A. Kippi?, Btograpfiia Brilanttua, {vqL iv,. 1780), where there b a 
detailed account py G. Gnetory d Chattcrton'a life (pp,. 373-610). 
This was reprinted in the edition fiftoi) of Chatterton s Works w 
R. Sguthey and J> CottTc t published tor the benefit of the poet's 
*Utcr, Tho nc^Vclcd con Jit ion of the study or earlier English in 
ihc J 8t h ccmuTv Alone accounts for the temporary surcem of 
Ch.-ju i.-rton's mystification, ft has lone been apeed that ChattCffoa 
wa* sofcly responsible for I he Rowley Poems, put the lan^u.-uwand 
*tyle are analysed tn confirmation of this view by Pmi. W. W. 
Sit eat in an introductory «&ay prefaced to vol. ii. of The Poetical 
HVfjt; of Thonai Chaattiatt (1871) in the " Aldine Edition of the 
British Poets." This, which is the most convenient erjirion, aba 
contains a memoir of the poet by Edward BelL The spelling of the 
Rowley poems is there modernized. And many of the archaic words 
are replaced by modem equivalents provided in many cases from 
Chattcrton's own notes the theory being that Chatterton usually 
composed in modern English, and inserted his peculiar words and 
his complicated orthography afterwards. For some criticism «l 
rrof. SVeat's success in the very difficult task of reconstituting the 
text, see H. B. Formaa, Thomas Chatterton and his latest Editor (1874). 



The Chatterton MSS.. originally in the possession of William Barrett 
of Bristol, were left by nis heir to the British Museum in 1800. 
Others are preserved in the Bristol library. 

by D. C. Rossetti in " Five English Poets," and John Keats inscribed 
Endymion " to the memory of Thomas Chatterton." Alfred de 
Viftiy's drama of Chatterton gives an altogether fictitious account of 
the poet. Herbert Croft (fl-»T), in his Love and Madness, interpolated 
a long and valuable account of Chatterton, giving many of the 
poet's letters, and much information obtained from his family and 
friends (pp. 125-214. letter li.). There is a valuable collection of 
" Chattertoniana in the British Museum, consisting of separate 
works by Chatterton, newspaper cuttings, articles, dealing with the 
Rowley controversy and other subjects, with MS. notes by Joseph 
Haslewood, and several autograph letters. 

Among biographies of Chatterton may be mentioned Chatterton: 
A BiotrapkUml Study (1669), by Daniel Wilson; Chatterton: A 
Biotraphy (1800; first printed 1856 in a volume of essays), by 
D. Maason; "Thomas Chatterton T * (1900), by Ilclcne Richter, in 
Wiener Beitrdge zur engl. Philotogie; Chatterton. by C. E. Russell 

CHATTI, an ancient German tribe inhabiting the" upper 
reaches of the rivers Weser, Edcr, Fulda and Werra, a district 
approximately corresponding to Hcsse-Casscl, though probably 
somewhat more extensive. They frequently came into conflict 
with the Romans during the early years of the 1st century. 
Eventually they formed a portion of the Franks and were 
incorporated in the kingdom of Clovis probably with the Ripuarii, 
at the beginning of the 6th century. 

Tacitus, Annals, i. 2, II, 12, 13; Cermania, 30-31: Strabo p. 
291 f. 

CHAUCER, GEOFFREY (? 1340-1400), English poet. The 
name Chaucer, a French form of the Latin calcearius, a shoe- 
maker, is found in London and the eastern counties as early as 
the second half of the 13th century. Some of the London 
Chaucers lived in Cordwaincr Street, in the shoemakers' quarter; 
several of them, however, were vintners, and among others the 
poet's father John, and probably also his grandfather Robert. 
Legal pleadings inform us that in December 1324 John Chaucer 
was not much over twelve years old, and that he was still un- 
u/ . married in 13 28, the year which used to be considered 

that of Geoffrey's birth. The poet was probably born 
from eight to twelve years later, since in 1386, when giving 
evidence in Sir Richard lc Scropc's suit against Sir Robert 
Grosvenor as to the right to bear certain arms, he was set down 
as " del age de xl ans et plus, armccz par xxvij ans." At a later 
date, and probably at the time of the poet's birth, his father 
lived in Thames Street, and had to wife a certain Agnes, niece 
of Hamo de Compton, whom we may regard as Geoffrey Chaucer's 
mother. In 1357 Geoffrey is found, apparently as a lad, in the 
service of Elizabeth, countess of Ulster, wife of Lionel, duke of 
Clarence, entries in two leaves of her household accounts, 
accidentally preserved, showing that she paid in April, May and 
December various small sums for his clothing and expenses. 
In 1359, as we learn from his deposition in the Scropc suit , Chaucer 
went to the war in France. At some period of the campaign he 
was at " Retters," i.e. Rethel, near Reims, and subsequently 
had the ill luck to be taken prisoner. On the 1st of March 1360 
the king contributed £16 to his ransom, and by a year or two 
later Chaucer must have entered the royal service, since on the 
»oth of June 1367 Edward granted him a pension of twenty 
marks for his past and future services. A pension of ten marks 
had been granted by the king the previous September to a 
PhiUppa Chaucer for services to the queen as one of her " domi- 
cellae "or " damoisellcs," and it seems probable that at this date 
Chaucer was already married and this Philippa his wife, a con- 
clusion which used to be resisted on the ground of allusions in 
his early poems to a hopeless love-affair, now reckoned part of 
his poetical outfit. Philippa is usually said to have been one of 
two daughters of a Sir Payne Roct, the other being Katherine, 
who after the death of her first husband, Sir Hugh dc Swynford, 
In 1372, became governess to John of Gaunt's children, and 
subsequently his mistress and (in 1306) his wife. It is possible 
that Philippa was sister to Sir Hugh and sister-in-law to 

Katherine. In either case the marriage helps to account 
for the favour subsequently shown to Chaucer by John of 

In the grant of his pension Chaucer is called " dilectus vallectus 
noster," our beloved yeoman; before the end of 1368 he had 
risen to be one of the king's esquires. In September of the 
following year John of Gaunt's wife, the duchess Blanche, died at 
the age of twenty-nine, and Chaucer wrote in her honour The 
Book of the Duchcssc, a poem of 1334 lines in octosyllabic couplets, 
the first of his undoubtedly genuine works which can be connected 
with a definite date. In June 1370 he went abroad on the king's 
service, though on what errand, or whither it took him, is not 
known. He was back probably some time before Michaelmas, 
and seems to have remained in England till the 1st of December 
1372, when he started, with an advance of 100 marks in his 
pocket, for Italy, as one of the three commissioners to treat with 
the Genoese as to an English port where they might have special 
facilities for trade. The accounts which he delivered on his 
return on the 23rd of May 1373 show that he bad also visited 
Florence on the king's business, and he probably went also to 
Padua and there made the acquaintance of Petrarch. 

In the second quarter of 1374 Chaucer lived in a whirl of 
prosperity. On the 23rd of April the king granted him a pitcher 
of wine daily, subsequently commuted for an annuity of 20 
marks. From John of Gaunt, who in August 1372 had granted 
Philippa Chaucer £10 a year, he himself now received (June 13) 
a like annuity in reward for his own and his wife's services. 
On the 8th of June he was appointed Comptroller of the Custom 
and Subsidy of Wools, Hides and Woodfells and also of the 
Petty Customs of Wine in the Port of London. A month before 
this appointment, and probably in anticipation of it, he took 
(May 10, 1374) a lease for life from the city of London of the 
dwelling-house above the gate of Aldgate, and here he lived for 
the next twelve years. His own and his wife's income now 
amounted to over £60, the equivalent of upwards of £1000 in 
modern money. In the next two years large windfalls came to 
him in the form of two wardships of Kentish heirs, one of whom 
paid him £104, and a grant of £71: 4: 6; the value of some 
confiscated wool. In December 1376 he was sent abroad on the 
king's service in the retinue of Sir John Burlcy; in February 
1377 he was sent to Paris and Montrcuil in connexion probably 
with the peace negotiations between England and France, and 
at the end of April (after a reward of £20 for his good services) 
he was again despatched to France. 

On the accession of Richard II. Chaucer was confirmed in his 
offices and pensions. In January 1378 he seems to have been 
in France in connexion with a proposed marriage between 
Richard and the daughter of the French king; and on the 28th 
of May of the same year he was sent with Sir Edward dc Berkeley 
to the lord of Milan and Sir John Hawkwood to treat for help in 
the king's wars, returning on the 19th of September. This was 
his last diplomatic journey, and the close of a period of his life 
generally considered to have been so unprolific of poetry that 
little beyond the Clerk's " Tale of Grisilde," one or two other of 
the stories afterwards included in the Canterbury Talcs, and a 
few short poems, are attributed to it, though the poet's actual 
absences from England during the eight years amount to little 
more than eighteen months. During the next twelve or fifteen 
years there is no question that Chaucer was constantly engaged 
in literary work, though for the first half of them he had no lack 
of official employment. Abundant favour was shown him by the 
new king. He was paid £22 as a reward for his later missions in 
Edward III.'s reign, and was allowed an annual gratuity of xo 
marks in addition to his pay of £10 as comptroller of the customs 
of wool. In April 1382 a new comptrollership, that of the petty 
customs in the Port of London, was given him, and shortly after 
he was allowed to exercise it by deputy, a similar licence being 
given him in February 1385. at the instance of the earl of Oxford, 
as regards the comptrollership of wool. In October 1385 Chaucer 
was made a justice of the peace for Kent. In February 1386 we 
catch a glimpse of his wife Philippa being admitted to the 
fraternity of Lincoln cathedral in the cosnpany-oi Henry, earl of 



Derby (afterwards Henry IV.), Sir Thomas de Swynford and 
other distinguished persons. In August 1386 he was elected one 
of the two knights of the shire for Kent, and with this dignity, 
though it was one not much appreciated in those days, his good 
fortune reached its climax. In December of the same year he 
was superseded in both his comptrollerships, almost certainly 
as a result of the absence of his patron, John of Gaunt, in Spain, 
and the supremacy of the duke of Gloucester. In the following 
year the cessation of Philippa's pension suggests that she died 
between Midsummer and Michaelmas. In May 1388 Chaucer 
surrendered to the king his two pensions of 20 marks each, and 
they were re-granted at his request to one John Scalby. The 
transaction was unusual and probably points to a pressing need 
for ready money, nor for the next fourteen months do we know 
of any source of income possessed by Chaucer beyond his annuity 
of £10 from John of Gaunt 

In July 1389, after John of Gaunt had returned to England, 
and the king had taken the government into his own hands, 
Chaucer was appointed clerk of the works at various royal 
palaces at a salary of two shillings a day, or over £31 a year, 
worth upwards of £500 present value. To this post was sub- 
sequently added the charge of some repairs at St George's Chapel, 
Windsor. He was also made a commissioner to maintain the 
banks of the Thames between Woolwich and Greenwich, and was 
given by the carl of March (grandson of Lionel, duke of Clarence, 
his old patron) a sub-forcstcrship at North Pclherton, Devon, 
obviously a sinecure. While on the king's business, in September 
1300, Chaucer was twice robbed by highwaymen, losing £20 of 
the king's money. In June 1391 he was superseded in his office 
of clerk of the works, and seems to have suffered another spell of 
misfortune, of which the first alleviation came in January 1393 
when the king made him a present of £xo. In February 1394 
he was granted a new pension of £20. It is possible, also, that 
about this time, or a little later, he was in the service of the earl 
of Derby. In 1397 he received from King Richard a grant of a 
butt of wine yearly. For this he appears to have asked in terms 
that suggest poverty, and in May 1398 he obtained letters of pro- 
tection against his creditors, a step perhaps rendered necessary 
by an action for debt taken against him earlier in the year. 
On the accession of Henry IV. a new pension of 40 marks was 
conferred on Chaucer (13th of October 1309) and Richard II. 's 
grants were formally confirmed. Henry himself, however, was 
probably straitened for ready money, and no instalment of the 
new pension was paid during the few months of his reign that the 
poet lived. Nevertheless, on the strength of his expectations, 
on the 24th of December 1309 he leased a tenement in the garden 
of St Mary's Chapel, Westminster, and it was probably here that 
he died, on the 25th of the following October. He was buried in 
Westminster Abbey, and his tomb became the nucleus of what 
is now known as Poets' Corner. 

The portrait of Chaucer, which the affection of his disciple, 
Thomas Hocdeve,. caused to be painted in a copy of the la Iter's 
Rcgcmcnl of Princes (now Harlcian MS. 4866 in the British 
Museum), shows him an old man with white hair; he has a 
fresh complexion, grey eyes,, a straight nose, a grey moustache 
and a small double-poin ted beard. His dress and hood are black, 
and he carries in his hands a string of beads. We may imagine 
that it was thus that during the last months of his life he used 
to walk about the precincts of the Abbey. 

Henry IV.'s promise of an additional pension was doubtless 
elicited by the Complcynl to his Purs, in the envoy to which 
WorUm Chaucer addresses him as the " conqucrour of Brutes 
Albioun." Thus within the last year of his life the 
poet was still writing. Nevertheless, as early as 1393-1394, in 
lines to his friend Scogan,he had written as if bis day for poetry 
were past, and it seems probable that his longer poems were 
all composed before this date. In the preceding fifteen—or, if 
another view be taken, twenty — years, his literary activity was 
very great, and with the aid of the lists of his works which he gives 
in the Legend* of Good HVm^n (line* 414-431), and the talk on tho 
road which precedes the " Man of Law's Tale " (Canterbury 
Taks, IV 46-76), theorder in which his main wosks wese written 

can be traced with approximate certainty, 1 while a few both of 
these and of the minor poems can be connected with definite 

The development of his genius has been attractively summed 
up as comprised in three stages, French, Italian and English, 
and there is a rough approximation to the truth in this formula, 
since his earliest poems are translated from the French or based 
on French models, and the two great works of his middle period 
are borrowed from the Italian, while his latest stories have no 
such obvious and direct originals and in their humour and free- 
dom anticipate the typically English, temper of Henry Fielding. 
But Chaucer's indebtedness to French poetry was no passing 
phase. For various reasons— a not very remote French origin 
of his own family may be one of them — he was in no way inter- 
ested in older English literature or in the work of his English 
contemporaries, save possibly that of " the moral Cower." On 
the other hand he knew the Roman de la rose as modern English 
poets know Shakespeare, and the full extent of his debt 16 his 
French contemporaries, not merely in 1369, but in 1385 and in 
1393 (the dates are approximate), is only gradually being dis- 
covered. To be in touch throughout his life with the best French 
poets of the day was much for Chaucer. Even with their stimulus 
alone he might have developed no small part of his genius. But 
it was his great good fortune to add to this continuing French 
influence, lessons in plot and construction derived from Boc- 
caccio's FUoslrato and Tcscide, as well as some glimpses of the 
higher a rt of the Diviua Commcdia, He shows acquain tance also 
with one of Petrarch's sonnets, and though, when all is said, the 
Italian books with which he can be proved to have been intimate 
are but few, they sufficed. His study of them was but an 
episode in his literary life, but it was an episode of unique im- 
portance. Before it began he had already been making his own 
artistic experiments, and it is noteworthy that while he learnt 
so much from Boccaccio he improved on his originals as he 
translated them. Doubtless his busy life in the service of the 
crown had taught him self-confidence, and he uses his Italian 
models in his own way and with the most triumphant and assured 
success. When he had no more Italian poems to adapt he had 
learnt his lesson. The art of weaving a plot out of his own 
imagination was never his, but he could take what might be little 
more than an anecdote and lend it body and life and colour with 
a skill which has never been surpassed. 

The most direct example of Chaucer's French studies is his 
translation of Le Roman de la rose, a poem written in some 
4000 lines by Guillaume Lorris about 1237 and extended to over 
a 2,000 by Jean Clopincl, better known as Jean de Meun, forty 
years later. We know from Chaucer himself that he translated 
this poem, and the extant English fragment of 7608 lines was 
generally assigned to him from 1532, when it was first printed, 
till its authorship was challenged in the early years of the Chaucer 
Society. The ground of this challenge was its wide divergence 
from Chaucer's practice in his undoubtedly genuine works as to 
certain niceties of rhyme, notable as to not rhyming words ending 
in -y with others ending -ye. It was subsequently discovered, 
however, that the whole fragment was divisible linguistically 
into three portions, of which the first and second end respectively 
at lines 1 705 and 5810, and that in the first of these three sections 
the variations from Chaucer's accepted practice arc insignificant. 
Lines 1-1705 have therefore been provisionally accepted as 
Chaucer's, and the other two fragments as the work of unknown 
translators (James I. of Scotland has been suggested as one of 
them), which somehow came to be pieced together. If, however, 
the difficulties in the way of this theory are less than those which 
confront any other, they are still considerable, and the question 
can hardly be treated as closed. 

While our knowledge of Chaucer's Romaunt of the Rose is 
in this unsatisfactory state, another translation of his from 
the French, the Book of the Lyon (alluded to in the " Retrac- 
tion " found, in some manuscripts, at the end of the Canterbury 
Tales), which must certainly have been taken from Guillaume 

» The positions of the House of Fame and Palamon and Areyte an 
•rill mattes* of controversy. 



Hadu.ult 's LeDildu lien, has perished altogether. The strength 
of French influence on Chaucer's early work may, however, be 
amply illustrated from the first of his poems with which we are 
on sure ground, the Book of the Duckesse, or, as it is alternatively 
called, the Detk of Blaunche. Here not only are individual 
passages closely imitated from Machault and Froissart, but the 
dream, the May morning, and the whole machinery of the poem 
are taken over from contemporary French conventions. But 
even at this stage Chaucer could prove his right to borrow by 
the skill with which he makes his materials serve his own purpose, 
and some of the lines in the Dcth of Blaunche are among the most 
tender and charming he ever wrote. 

Chaucer's A. B.C., a poem in honour of the Blessed Virgin, of 
which the stanzas begin with the successive letters of the alpha- 
bet, is another early example of French influence. It is taken 
from the Pilerinage de la vie humaine, written by Guillaume de 
Deguilleville about 1330. The occurrence of some magnificent 
lines in Chaucer's version, combined with evidence that he did 
not yet possess the skill to translate at all literally as soon as 
rhymes had to be considered, accounts for this poem having been 
dated sometimes earlier than the Book of the Duckesse, and 
sometimes several years later. With it is usually moved up and 
down, though it should surely be placed in the 'seventies, the 
Com pi ey Ml to Pity, a fine poem which yet, from its slight obscurity 
and absence of Chaucer's usual ease, may very well some day 
prove to be a translation from the French. 

While Chaucer thus sought to reproduce both the matter 
and the style of French poetry in England, he found other 
materials in popular Latin books. Among his lost works are 
renderings of " Origencs upon the Maudeleyne," and of Pope 
Innocent HL on " The Wreced Engendring of Mankinde " 
(De miseria conditionis humanae). He must have begun his 
attempts at straightforward narrative with the Lyf of SeytU 
CecyU (the weakest of all his works, the second Nun's Tale in 
the Canterbury series) from the Legenda A urea of Jacobus de 
Voragine, and the story of the patience of Grisildc, taken from 
Petrarch's Latin version of a tale by Boccaccio. In both of these 
he condenses a little, but ventures on very few changes, though 
he lets his readers see his impatience with his originals. In his 
story of Constance (afterwards ascribed to the Man of Law), 
taken from the Anglo-Norman chronicle of Nicholas Trivet, 
written about 1334, we find him struggling to put some substance 
into another weak tale, but still without the courage to remedy 
Its radical faults, though here, as with Grisflde, he does as much 
for his heroine as the conventional exaltation of one virtue at 
a time permitted. It is possible that other tales which now stand 
in the Canterbury series were written originally at this period. 
What is certain is that at some time in the 'seventies three or four 
Italian poems passed into Chaucer's possession, and that he set 
to work busily to make use ef them. One of the most interesting 
of the poems reclaimed for him by Professor Skeat is a fragment- 
ary " Compleynt," part of which is written in terxa rima. While 
he thus experimented with the metre of the Divina Commedia, 
he made his first attempt to use the material provided by 
Boccaccio's Teseide in another fragment of great interest, that of 
Queue Anelida and Fals Arcyte. More than a third of this is 
taken up with another, and quite successful, metrical experiment 
in AnelidVs " compleynt," but in the introduction of Anelida 
herself Chaucer made the first of his three unsuccessful efforts 
to construct a plot for an important poem out of his own head, 
and the fragment which begins so well breaks off abruptly at 
line 357^ 

For a time the Teseide seems to have been laid aside, and it 
was perhaps at this moment, in despondency at his failure, that 
Chaucer wrote his most important prose work, the translation of 
the De Consolatione Pkilosophiae of Boethius. Reminiscences 
of this helped to enrich many of his subsequent poems, and 
inspired five of his shorter pieces (The Former Age, Fortune, 
Truth, CentUesse and Lak of Stedfastncsse), but the translation 
itself was only a partial success. To borrow his own phrase, his 
" Englysh was insufficient " to reproduce such difficult Latin. 
The translation is often barely intelligible without the original, 

and it is only here and there that it flows with any ease or 

If Chaucer felt this himself he must have been speedily con- 
sold by achieving in Troilus and Criseyde his greatest artistic 
triumph. Warned by his failure in Anelida and Arcyte, he was 
content this time to take bis plot unaltered from the Filostralo, 
and to follow Boccaccio step by step through the poem. But 
he did not follow him as a mere translator. He had done his 
duty manfully for the saints " of other holinesse " in Cecyle, 
Grisilde and Constance, whom he was forbidden by the rules of 
the game to clothe with complete flesh and blood. In this great 
love-story there were no such restrictions, and the characters 
which Boccaccio's treatment left thin and conventional became 
in Chaucer's hands convincingly human. No other English poem 
is so instinct with the glory and tragedy of youth, and in the 
details of the story Chaucer's gifts of vivid colouring, of humour 
and pity, are all at their highest. 

An unfortunate theory that the reference in the Legende ef 
Good Women to " al the love of Palamon and Arcyte " is to a 
hypothetical poem in seven-line stanzas on this theme, which 
Chaucer is imagined, when he came to plan the Canterbury Tales, 
to have suppressed in favour of a new version in heroic couplets, 
has obscured the close connexion in temper and power between 
what we know as the " Knight's Tale " and the Troilus. The 
poem may have been more or less extensively revised before, with 
admirable fitness, it was assigned to the Knight, but that its 
main composition can be separated by several years from that of 
Troilus is aesthetically incredible. Chaucer's art here again is at. 
its highest He takes the plot of Boccaccio's Teseide, but only 
as much of it as he wants, and what he takes he heightens and 
humanizes with the same skill which be had shown in trans- 
forming the Filostralo. Of the individual characters Theseus 
himself, the arbiter of the plot, is most notably developed; 
Emilic and her two lovers receive just as much individuality as 
they will bear without disturbing the atmosphere of romance.. 
The whole story is pulled together and made more rapid and 
effective. A comparison of almost any scene as told by the two 
poets suffices to show Chaucer's immense superiority. At some 
subsequent period the " Squire's Tale " of Cambuscan, the fair 
Canacee and the Horse of Brass, was gallantly begun in some- 
thing of the same key, but Chaucer took for it more materials 
than he could use, and for lack of the help of a leader like Boc- 
caccio be was obliged to leave the story, in Milton's phrase, 
" half-told," though the fragment written certainly takes us 
very much less than half-way. 

Meanwhile, in connexion (as is reasonably believed) with the 
betrothal or marriage of Anne of Bohemia to Richard II. (i.e. 
about 1381-1382), Chaucer had brought to a successful com-! 
pletion the Parlement of Foules, a charming sketch of 609 lines, 
in which the other birds, on Saint Valentine's day, counsel the 
" Formcl Egle " on her choice of a mate. His success here, as in 
the case of the Deth of Blaunche the Duckesse, was due to the 
absence of any need for a climax; and though the materials 
which he borrowed were mainly Latin (with some help from 
passages of the Teseide not fully needed for Palamon and Arcyte) 
his method of handling them would have been quite approved 
by his friends among the French poets. A more ambitious, 
venture, the Hous of Fame, in which Chaucer imagines himself 
borne aloft by an eagle to Fame's temple, describes what he 
sees and hears there, and then breaks off in apparent inability 
to get home, shows a curious mixture of the poetic ideals of the 
Roman de la rose and reminiscences of the Divina Commedia. 

As the Hous of Fame is most often remembered and quoted 
for the personal touches and humour of Chaucer's conversation 
with the eagle, so the most-quoted passages in the Prologue to' 
the Legende of Good Women are those in which Chaucer professes 
his affection for the daisy, and the attack on his loyalty by 
Cupid and its defence by Alceste. Recent discoveries have 
shown, however, that (besides obligations to Machault) some of 
the touches about the daisy and the controversy between the 
partisans of the Flower and of the Leaf are snatches from poems 
by his friends Froissart and Deschamps, which Chaucer takes up 



and returns to them with pretty compliments, and that he was 
indebted to Froissart for some of the framework of his poem. 1 
Both of the two versions of the Prologue to the Legende are 
charming, and some of the tales, notably that of Cleopatra, 
rank with Chaucer's best work. When, however, he had written 
eight and part of the ninth he tired of his scheme, which was 
planned to celebrate nineteen of Cupid's faithful " saints," with 
Alcestis as their queen. With his usual hopefulness he had 
overlooked the risk of monotony, which obviously weighed 
heavily on him ere he broke off, and the loss of the other ten 
stories is less to be regretted than that of the celebration of 
Alceste, and a possible epilogue which might have exceeded in 
charm the Prologue itself. 

Chaucer's failure to complete the scheme of the Legende of 
Good Women may have been partly due to the attractions of the 
Canterbury Tales, which were probably taken up in 
f****" immediate succession to it. His guardianship of two 
J2fc Kentish wards, his justiceship of the peace, his repre- 
senting the county in the parliament of 1386, his 
commissionership of the river-bank between Greenwich and 
Woolwich, all make it easy to understand his dramatic use of the 
merry crowds he saw on the Canterbury road, without supposing 
him to have had recourse to Boccaccio's Decamerone, a book 
which there is no proof of his having seen. The pilgrims whom 
he imagines to have assembled at the Tabard Inn in Southwark, 
where Harry Bailey was host, are said to have numbered " wel 
nyne and twenty in a company," and the Prologue gives full- 
length sketches of a Knight, a Squire (his son), and their 
Yeoman; of a Prioress, Monk, Friar, Oxford Clerk, and Parson, 
with two disreputable hangers-on of the church, a Summoncr 
and Pardoner; of a Serjcant-at-Law and a Doctor of Physic, 
and of a Franklin, or country gentleman, Merchant, Shipman, 
Miller, Cook, Manciple, Reeve, Ploughman (the Parson's brother) 
and the ever-famous Wife of Bath. Five London burgesses are 
described in a group, and a Nun and Priest 3 are mentioned as 
in attendance on the Prioress. Each of these, with Chaucer 
himself making the twenty-ninth, was pledged to tell two tales, 
but including one second attempt and a tale told by the Yeoman 
of a Canon, who overtakes the pilgrims on the road, we have 
only twenty finished stories, two unfinished and two interrupted 
ones. As in the case of the Legende of Good Women, our loss is 
not so much that of the additional stories as of the completed 
framework. The wonderful character sketches of the Prologue 
are carried yet farther by the Talks on the Road which link the 
different talcs, and two of these Talks, in which the Wife of 
Bath and the Pardoner respectively edify the company, have the 
importance of separate Tales, but between the Tales that have 
come down to us there arc seven links missing, 3 and it was left 
to a later and weaker hand to narrate, in the " Tale of Beryn," 
the adventures of the pilgrims at Canterbury. 

The reference to the Lyf of Scynt Cecyle in the Prologue to 
the Legende of Good Women gives external proof that Chaucer 
included earlier work in the scheme of the Canterbury Tales, 
and mention has been made of other stories which are indisput- 
ably early. In the absence of any such metrical tests as have 

1 The French influences on this Prologue, its connexion with the 
Flower and the Leaf controversy, and the prority of what had pre- 
viously been reckoned as the second or " B " form of the Prologue 
over the " A," were demonstrated in papers by Prof. Kittredge on 
" Chaucer and some of his Friends " in Modern Philology, vol. i. 

J Chicago, 1903), and by Mr J. L. Lowes on " The Prologue to the 
.egend of Good Women " in Publications of the Modern Language 
Association of America, vol. xix., December 1904. 

1 The Talks on the Road show clearly that only one Priest in 
attendance on the Prioress, and two tales to each narrator, were 
originally contemplated, but the " Prestcs thre "in line 164 of the 
Prologue, and the bald couplet (line 793 eq.) explaining that each 
pilgrim was to tell two tales each rcay, were probably both alterations 
made by Chaucer in moments of amazing hopefulness. The journey 
was reckoned a 3$ days' ride, and eight or nine tales a day would 
surely have been a sufficient allowance. 

'The absence of these links necessitates the division of the 
Canterbury Tales into nine groups, to which, for purposes of quota- 
tion, the letters A to I have been assigned, the line numeration of the 
Tales in each group being continuous. 

proved useful in the case of Shakespeare, the dates at which 
several of the Tales were composed remain doubtful, while in 
the case of at least two, the Clerk's tale of Grisilde and the 
Monk's tragedies, there is evidence of early work being revised 
and supplemented. It is fortunately impossible to separate the 
prologue to the charmingly told story of " yonge Hugh of 
Lincoln " from the tale itself, and with the " quod sche " in the 
second line as proof that Chaucer was here writing specially for 
his Prioress we are forbidden to limit the new stories to any one 
metre or tone. There can be no doubt, however, that what may 
be called the Tales of the Churls (Miller, Reeve, Summoner, 
Friar, &c), and the conversational outpourings of the Pardoner 
and Wife of Bath, form, with the immortal Prologue, the most 
important and distinctive additions to the older work. In these, 
and in the Pardoner's story of Death and the Three Revellers, 
and the Nun's Priest's masterly handling of the fable of the 
Cock and Fox, both of them free from the grossness which marks 
the others, Chaucer takes stories which could have been told 
in a short page of prose and elaborates them with all the skill 
in narration which he had sedulously cultivated. The conjugal 
reminiscences of the Wife of Bath and the Reeve's Tale with its 
abominable climax (lightened a little by Aleyn's farewell, lines 
316-319) are among the great things in Chaucer, as surely as 
Troil us, and Palamon and Arcyte and the Prologue. They help 
notably to give him the width of range which may certainly be 
claimed for him. 

In or soon after 1391 Chaucer wrote in prose for an eleven- 
year-old reader, whom he addresses as " Lite! Lowis my son," 
a treatise on the use of the Astrolabe, its short prologue being 
the prettiest specimen of his prose. The wearisome tale of 
" Melibee and his wyf Prudence," which was perhaps as much 
admired in English as it had been in Latin and French, may have 
been translated at any time. The sermon on Penitence, used as 
the Parson's Talc, was probably the work of his old age. " En- 
voys " to his friends Scogan and Bukton, a translation of some 
balades by Sir Otes de Granson, and the Compleynl to his Purs 
complete the record of his minor poetry. We have his own 
statement that in his youth he had written many Balades, 
Roundels and Yirelayes in honour of Love, and the two songs 
embedded respectively in the Parlement of Foules and the Pro- 
logue to the Legende of Good Women are charming and musical. 
His extant shorter poems, however, whether early or late, 
offer no excuse for claiming high rank for him as a lyrist. He 
had very little sheer singing power, and though there are fine 
lines in his short poems, witness the famous " Flee fro the prees 
and dwell with soothfastnesse," they lack the sustained concen- 
tration of great work. From the drama, again, Chaucer was cut 
off, and it is idle to argue from the innumerable dramatic touches 
in his poems and his gift of characterization as to what he 
might have done had he lived two centuries later. His own age 
delighted in stories, and he gave it the stories it demanded 
invested with a humanity, a grace and strength which place him 
among the world's greatest narrative poets, and which bring the 
England of his own day, with all the colour and warmth of life, 
wonderfully near to all his readers. 

The part played by Chaucer in the development of the English 
language has often been overrated. He neither corrupted it, as 
used to be said, by introducing French words which ._„ 
it would otherwise have avoided, nor bore any such """ 

part in fixing it as was afterwards played by the translators 
of the Bible. When he was growing up educated society 
in England was still bilingual, and the changes in vocabulary 
and pronunciation which took place during his life were the 
natural results of a society, which had been bilingual with a 
bias towards French, giving an exclusive preference to English. 
The practical identity of Chaucer's language with that of Cower 
shows that both merely used the best English of their day with 
the care and slightly conservative tendency which befitted poets. 
Chaucer's service to the English language lies in his decisive 
success having made it impossible for any later English poet to 
attain fame, as Gower had done, by writing alternatively in 
Latin and French. The claim which should be made for him ja 



that, at least as regards poetry, be proved that English was 

Chaucer borrowed both his stanza forms and bis "deca- 
syllabic " couplets (mostly with an extra syllable at the end 
of the line) from Guillaume Machault, and his music, like that 
of his French master and his successors, depends very largely 
on assigning to every syllable its full value, and more especially 
on the due pronunciation of the final -e. The slower movement 
of change in Scotland allowed time for Chaucer to exercise a 
potent influence on Scottish poetry, but in England this final 
•*, to which most of the earlier grammatical forms by Chaucer's 
time had been reduced, itself fell rapidly into disuse during the 
15th century, and a serious barrier was thus raised to the apprecia- 
tion of the artistic-value of his verse. His disciples, Hocdeve 
and Lydgate, who at first had caught some echoes of his rhythms, 
gradually yielded to the change in pronunciation, so that there 
was no living tradition to hand down his secret, while successive 
copyists reduced his text to a state in which it was only by 
accident that lines could be scanned correctly. For fully three 
centuries his reputation was sustained solely by his narrative 
power, his warmest panegyrists betraying no consciousness 
that they were praising one of the greatest technical masters 
of poetry. Even when thus maimed, however, his works found 
readers and lovers in every generation, and every improvement 
in his text has set his fame on a surer basis. 

BnUQG*ATHY.—TheCanterburyTaUshavca\ways been Chnuccr*s 
most popular work, and, including fragments, upward 1 of sixty 
15th-century manuscripts of it still survive. Two thin volume* of 
his minor poems were among the little quartos which Out ton printed 
by way of advertisement immediately on his return to England; 
the Canterbury Tales and Boeihius followed in 147a, TroQui and m 
second edition. of the Tales in 148,}, the Hous of /■'.;««■ in 1 4 84 . The 
Canterbury Tales were subsequently printed in 149a (Pynwn), 1498 
(de Worae) and 1526 (Pynson); Troilus in is 17 (de Wordc) and 
iu6 (Pynson); the Hous of Fame in 1526 (Pynson); the Parlement 
of Foules in 1526 (Pynson) and I £30 (de Worde), and the Mars, 

Venus " and Envoy to Bukton by Julyan Notary about i§oo. 
Pynson's three issues in 1526 almost amounted to a collected edition, 
but the first to which the title The Workes of Ceffray Chaucer was 
riven was that edited by William Thynne in 153a for Thomas 
Uudfray. Of this there was a new edition in 1542 for John Reynes 
and William Bonham, and an undated reprint a few years later for 
Bonham. Kele, Petit and Toye, each of whom put his name on part 
of the edition. In 1561 a reprint, with numerous additions, edited 
by John Sfcowe, was printed by J. Kynnton fori. Wight, and this 
was re-edited, with fresh additions by Thomas Spcght, in 1598 for 
C. Bishop and again in 1602 for Adam Islip. In 1687 there was an 
anonymous reprint, and in 1721 John Urry produced the last and 
worst of the folios. By this time the paraphrascrs were already at 
work. Dry dm rewriting ihe tales of the Knight, the Nun's Priest 
and the Wife of Bath H acid Pope the Merchant's. In 1737 (reprinted 
in tjJuy) the Prologue and Knight \ Tale were edited (anonymously) 
by Thomas MoreD H from the most authentic^ manuscripts," and 
here* though by dint of much violence and with many mistakes, 
Chiucer'i lines were for the first time in print given in a form in 
which they could be scanned. This, promise of better things (Morell 
still thought k necessary to accompany his text with the paraphrases 
by Betterton and Dry den) was fulfilled by a fine edition of the 
Caittrrb+ry Talcs (I775-'7?8K in which Thomas Tyrwhitt's scholarly 
instincts produced a comjjarutivcly good text from second-rate 
manuscript!! and accompanied it with valuable illustrative notes. 
The neit edition of any importance was that edited by Thomas 

Wright for the Percy Society in 1^48-1851, based on the erratic 
but valuable British Museum manuscript Haiiey 7334, containing 
reading* which must be either Chaucer's second thoughts or the 

emendations o( a brilliantly clever scribe. In 1866 Richard Morris 
re edited this te«t in a more scholarly manner for the Aldine edition 
of the British Poets, and in the fu (lowing year produced for the 
Clarendon Pre** Series a school edition of the Prologue and Tales 
of the Knight and Nun's Priest, edited with the fulness and care 
previously bestowed only on Greek and Latin classics. 

In 1968 the foundation of the Chaucer Society, with Dr Furnivall 
as its director and chief worker, and Henry Bradshaw as a leading 

?*rit F Jed to the publication at 3 *i\ text edition of the Canterbury 
Viet, and the consequent discovery that a manuscript belonging 
to the Earl of Ellcsmcre, though undoubtedly "edited," contained 
the best available text. The Chaucer Society also printed the best 
manuscripts of Troilus and Cn'seyde and of all the minor poems, 
and thus cleared the way for the "Oxford " Chaucer, edited by 
Professor Skeat, with a wealth of annotation, for the Clarendon Press 
in 1894. the text of which was used for the splendid folio printed 
two years later by William Morris at the Kelmscott Press, with 
■lustrations by Sir Edward Bume- Jones. A supplementary volume 

of the Oxford edition, entitled Chaucerian end other Pieces, issued 

by Professor Skeat in 1897. contains the prose and verse which his 
early publishers and editors, from Pynson and Thynne onwards, 
included among his Works by way of illustration, but which hod 

^J-.^tl-. — T 1 *- !._ i_J __ I :__ _.^ -i ■_■ . ■_... Tl. 

gradually come to be regarded as forming: part of h\s text. The 
reasons For their rejection are fully tinted by Professor Skeat in the 
work named and also in The Chaucer Canon, (1900)^ Many of these 

pieces have now been traced to other authors, and their exclusion, 
das helped to clear not only Chaucer's text but also his biography, 
which used (as in the " Life " published by William Godwin in two 
quarto volumes in 1 8oj) to be encumbered with inferences from 
works now known not to be Chaucer's, notably the Teiiamtni of 
L01* written by Thomas Usk, All information about Chaucer s 
life available in 1 900 found summarized by Mr R. B- C 
Kirk in Life-Records of Chaucer, part iv 4| published by the Chaucer 
Society in that year. See also Chaucer; a BiUmiraphical Manual, 
by Eleanor P. llammond (1909). (A, W, Fo.) 

CHAUDESAIGUES, a village of central France, in the depart- 
ment of Cantal, at the foot of the mountains of Aubrac, 19 m. 
S.S.VV. of St Flour by road. Fop. (1006) town, 937; commune, 
1558- It is celebrated for its hoi mineral springs, which vary 
in temperature from 135° to 177° Fahx., and at their maximum 
rank as the hottest in France. The water, which contains 
bicarbonate of soda, is employed not only medicinally (for 
rheumatism, &c), but also for the washing of fleeces, the incuba- 
tion of eggs, and various other economic purposes; and it 
t umiihes a ready means of heating the houses of the town during 
winter. In the immediate neighbourhood is the cold chalybeate 
spring of Condamine. The warm springs were known to the 
Romans , and are mentioned by SitoniusApollinaris. 

CHAUFFEUR (from Fr. chauffer, to heat, a term primarily 
used in French of a man in charge of a forge or furnace, and so 
of a stoker on a locomotive or in a steamship, but in its anglicized 
sense more particularly confined to a professional driver of a 
motor vehicle. (See also Brigandage.) 

pott and wit, waa born at Fontenay, Normandy, in 1639. His 
1'.! 1 1 ■ 1. maUre des comptcs of Rouen, sent him to study at the 
College de Navarre. Guillaume early showed the wit that was 
to distinguish him, and gained the favour of the duke of Vendome, 
win* procured for him the abbey of Aumale and other benefices. 
Louis Joseph, duke of Vendome, and his brother Philippe, grand 
prior of the Knights of Malta in France, at that time had a joint 
establishment at the Temple, where they gathered round them 
a very gay and reckless circle. Chaulieu became the constant 
companion and adviser of the two princes. He made an expedi-' 
lion to Poland in the suite of the marquis de Belhune, hoping to' 
make a career for himself in the court of John Sobieski; he saw 
one of the Polish king's campaigns in Ukraine, but returned to 
Paris v- l thout securing any advancement Saint-Simon says that 
the abbe helped his patron the grand prior to rob the duke of 
Vendome, and that the king sent orders that the princes should 
take the management of their affairs from him. This account 
has been questioned by Sainte-Beuve, who regards Saint-Simon 
as a prejudiced witness. In his later years Chaulieu spent much 
time at the little court of the duchesse du Maine at Sceaua. 
There he became the trusted and devoted friend of MdJJe 
Dtlauiiay, with whom he carried on an interesting correspond- 
ence. Among his poems the best known are " Fontenay " and 
' " La K f raite." Chaulieu died on the 27th of June 1710. 

Hit works were edited with those of his friend the marquis de la 
Fare in 1 714, 17*0 and 1774. See also C. A. Sainte-Beuve. Causeries 
du tttndi, vol. 1.; and Lettres inedites (1850), with a notice by 
Raymond, marquis de Berenger. 

CHAUMETTE, PIERRE GA8PARD (1763-1704), French 
revolutionist, was born at Never*. Unto the Revolution he 
lived a somewhat wandering life, interesting himself particularly 
in botany. He was a student of medicine at Paris in 1790, 
became one of the orators of the club of the Cordeliers, and 
contributed anonymously to the Revolutions de Paris. As 
member of the insurrectionary Commune of the xoth of August 
I7Q3, he was delegated to visit the prisons, with full power to 
arrest suspects. He was accused later of having taken part in 
the massacres of September, but was able to prove that at that 
time he had been sent by the provisional executive council to 
Normandy to oversee a requisition of 60,000 men. Returning 



from this mission, he pronounced an eloquent discourse in favour 
of the republic His simple manners, easy speech, ardent 
temperament and irreproachable private life gave him great 
Influence in Paris, and he was elected president of the Commune, 
defending the municipality in that capacity at the bar of the 
Convention on the 31st of October 1792. Re-elected in the 
municipal elections of the 2nd of December 1792, he was soon 
charged with the functions of procurator of the Commune, and 
contributed with success to the enrolments of volunteers by his 
appeals to the populace. Chaumette was one of the ringleaders 
in the attacks of the 31st of May and of the 2nd of June 1793 
on the Girondists, toward whom he showed himself relentless. 
He demanded the formation of a revolutionary army, and 
preached the extermination of all traitors. He was one of the 
promoters of the worship of Reason, and on the 10th of November 
1793 he presented the goddess to the Convention in the guise of 
an actress. On the 23rd of the same month he obtained a decree 
closing all the churches of Paris, and placing the priests under 
strict surveillance; but on the 25th he retraced his steps and 
obtained from the Commune the free exercise of worship. He 
wished to save the Hehertists by a new insurrection and struggled 
against Robespierre; but a revolutionary decree promulgated 
by the Commune on his demand was overthrown by the Con- _ 
vention. Robespierre had him accused with the Htbertists; he 
was arrested, imprisoned in the Luxembourg, condemned by the 
Revolutionary tribunal and executed on the 13th of April 1704. 
Chaumette's career had its brighter side. He was an ardent 
social reformer; he secured the abolition of corporal punishment 
in the schools, the suppression of lotteries, of houses of ill-fame 
and of obscene literature; he instituted reforms in the hospitals, 
and insisted on the honours of public burial for the poor. 

Chaumette left some printed speeches and fragments, and memoirs 
published in the Amateur d'autogrophes. His memoirs on the 10th 
of August were published by F. A. Aulard, preceded by a biographical 

CHAUMONT-EN-BASSIGNY, a town of eastern France, 
capital of the department of Haute-Marne, a railway junction 
163 m. E.S.E. of Paris on the main line of the Eastern railway 
to Belfort. Pop. (1006) 12,089. Chaumont is picturesquely 
situated on an eminence between the rivers Marne and Suine 
in the angle formed by their confluence. To the west a lofty 
viaduct over the Suize carries the railway. The church of 
St-Jean-Baptiste dates from the 13th century, the choir and 
lateral chapels belonging to the 15 th and 16th. In the interior 
the sculptured triforium (15th century), the spiral staircase in 
the transept and a Holy Sepulchre are of interest. The lycee 
and the hospital have chapels of the 17th and 16th centuries 
respectively. The Tour Hautef euille (a keep of the 1 1 th century) 
is the principal relic of a chateau of the counts of Champagne; 
the rest of the site is occupied by the law courts. In the Place 
de rEscargot stands a statue of the chemist Philippe Lebon 
(1767-1804), born in Haute-Marnc. Chaumont is the seat of 
a prefect and of a court of assises, and has tribunals of first 
Instance and of commerce, a lycee, training colleges, and a 
branch of the Bank of France. The main industries are glove- 
making and leather-dressing. The town has trade in grain, iron, 
mined in the vicinity, and leather. In 1 190 it received a charter 
from the counts of Champagne. It was here that in 18 14 Great 
Britain, Austria, Russia and Prussia concluded the treaty (dated 
March 1, signed March 9) by which they severally bound them- 
selves not to conclude a separate peace with Napoleon, and to 
continue the war until France should have been reduced within 
the boundaries of 1792. 

. CHAUNCEY, ISAAC (1772-1840), American naval com- 
mander, was born at Black Rock, Connecticut, on the 20th of 
February 1772. He was brought up in the merchant service, and 
entered the United States navy as a lieutenant in 1 798. His first 
services were rendered against the Barbary pirates. During these 
operations, more especially at Tripoli, he greatly distinguished 
himself, and was voted by Congress a sword of honour, which, 
however, docs not appear to have been given him. The most 
•dive period of his life is that of his command on the Lakes during 

the War of 181 2. He took the command at Sackett's Harbor on 
Lake Ontario in October 18x2. There was at that time only one 
American vessel, the brig " Oneida " (16), and one armed prise, 
a schooner, on the lake. But Commodore Chauncey brought 
from 400 to 500 officers and men with him, and local resources 
for building being abundant, he had by November formed a 
squadron of ten vessels, with which he attacked the r»«Hi»»i 
port, York, taking it in April 18x3, capturing one vessel and 
causing the destruction of another then building. He returned 
to Sackett's Harbor. In May Sir James Lucas Yeo (1 732-1818) 
came out from England with some 500 officers and men, to 
organise a squadron for service on the Lakes. By the end of 
the month he was ready for service with a squadron of eight 
ships and brigs, and some small craft. The governor, Sir G. 
pTcvost, gave him no serious support. On the 29th of May. dur- 
ing Cbauncey's absence at Niagara, the Americans were attacked 
at Sackett's Harbor and would have been defeated if Prevost had 
not insisted on a retreat at the very moment when the American 
shipbuilding yard was in danger of being burnt, with a ship of more 
than eight hundred tons on the stocks. The retreat of the British 
force gave Chauncey time to complete this vessel, the " General 
Pike," which was so far superior to anything under Yeo's com- 
mand that she was said to be equal in effective strength to 
the whole of the British flotilla. The American commodore was 
considered by many of his subordinates to have displayed 
excessive caution. In August he skirmished with Sir James Yeo's 
small squadron of six vessels, but made little effective use of 
his own fourteen. Two of his schooners were upset in a squall, 
with the loss of all hands, and he allowed two to be cut off by 
Yeo. Commodore Chauncey showed a preference for relying oa 
his long guns, arid a disinclination to come to close quarters. 
He was described as chasing the British squadron all round the 
lake, but his encounters did not go beyond artillery duels at 
long range, and he allowed his enemy to continue in existence 
long after he might have been destroyed. The winter suspended 
operations, and both sides made exertions to increase their forces. 
The Americans had the advantage of commanding greater 
resources for shipbuilding. Sir James Yeo began by h^hidfaf 
Sackett's Harbor in the early part of 18x4, but when the American 
squadron was ready he was compelled to retire by the disparity 
of the forces. The American commodore was now able to 
blockade the British flotilla at Kingston. When the cruising 
season of the lake was nearly over he in his turn retired to 
Sackett's Harbor, and did not leave it for the rest of the war. 
During his later years he served as commissioner of the navy, 
and was president of the board of naval commissioners from 
1833 till his death at Washington on the 97th of February 184a 

See Roosevelt's War of 1812 (1882) ; and A. T. Mahan, Sea-Power 
in Hi Relations to the War of 1812 (190$). 

CHAUNCY, CHARLES (1592-1672), president of Harvard 
College, was born at Yardley-Bury, Hertfordshire, England, in 
November x 592, and was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, 
of which he became a fellow. He was in turn vicar at Ware, 
Hertfordshire (1627-1633), and at Marston St Lawrence, North- 
amptonshire (1633-1637). Refusing to observe the ecclesiastical 
regulations of Archbishop Laud, he was brought before the court 
of high commission in 1629, and again in 1634, when, for opposing 
the placing of a rail around the communion table, he was sus- 
pended and imprisoned. His formal recantation in February 
1637 caused him lasting self-reproach and humiliation. In 1637 
he emigrated to America, and from 1638 until 1641 was an 
associate pastor at Plymouth, where, however, his advocacy of 
the baptism of infants by immersion caused dissatisfaction. 
He was the pastor at Sdtuate, Massachusetts, from 1641 until 
1654, and from 1654 until his death was president of Harvard 
College, as the successor of the first president Henry Dunster 
(c. 16x2-1659). He died on the 10th of February 1672. By 
bis sermons and his writings he exerted a great influence in 
colonial Massachusetts, and according to Mather was " a most 
incomparable scholar." His writings include: The Plain 
Doctrine of the Justification of a Sinner in the Sight of Cod (1659) 
and Antisynadalia Scripta Americana (1662). His son, Isaac 



31-1712), who removed to England, was a volu- 
r on theological subjects. 

liographical sketches of President Chauncy in Cotton 
malia Ckritti Americana (London, i7oa) t and in W. C. 
lariats of the Chammcys, including Freud**! Chauncy 

Chauncy's great-grandson, Chaixes Chauncy 
a prominent American theologian, was bom in 
lachusetts, on the xst of January 1705, and gradu- 
krdini72i. In 1727 he was chosen aa the colleague 
oxcroft (1697-1769) in the pastorate of the First 
Mton, continuing as pastor of this church until his 
le time of the " Great Awakening " of x 740-1743 and 
hauncy was the leader of the so-called " Old Light " 
t England, which strongly condemned the White- 
si as an outbreak of emotional extravagance. His 
iHy presented in his sermon Enthusiasm and in his 
noughts on the State of Religion in New England 
m in answer to Jonathan Edwards's Some Thoughts 
t Present Revival of Religion in New England (1742). 
a leading part in opposition to the projected estsb- 
n Anglican Episcopate in America, and before and 
jnerican War of Independence he ardently sup- 
hlg or patriot party. Theologically he has been 
lecursor of the New England Unitarians. He died 
the xoth of February 1787. His publications in- 
ert View of Episcopacy, as Exhibited in the Fathers 
n Church, until the close of the Second Century (1771); 
All Men, Illustrated and Vindicated as a Scripture 
\i)\ The Mystery Hid from Ages and Generations 
si by the Gospel- Revelation (1783); and Fhe Dis- 
\he Fall and its Consequences (1785). 
aid's privately printed Bibliotheca Chaunciana (Broofc- 
84) ; and Williston Walker's Ten New England Leaders 

a" town of northern France in the department of 
. S. by W. of St Quentin by rail. Pop. (1906) 
! town is situated on the Oise (which here becomes 
id at the junction of the canal of St Quentin with the 
of the Oise, and carries on an active trade. It 
tor-polishing works, subsidiary to the mirror-works 
In, chemical works, sugar manufactories, metal 
I breweries. Chauny was the scene of much fighting 
ml Years' War. 

QUA* a village on the west shore of Chautauqua 
>wn of Chautauqua, Chautauqua county, New York, 
. of the town (1900), 3590; (1005) 3505; (1910) 
village (1908) about 750. The lake is a beautiful 
cr over 1300 ft. above sea-levd, 20 m. long, and 
ud red yards to 3 m. in width. The town of Chau- 
anted near the north end and is within easy reach 
t and electric car connexions with the main railways 
ast and the west. The town is known almost solely 
permanent home of the Chautauqua Institution, a 
ipular education founded in 1874 by Lewis Miller 
of Akron, Ohio, and Bishop John H. Vincent 
rhe village, covering about three hundred acres of 
iufly laid out to provide for the work of the 

itauqua Institution began as a Sunday-School 
itute, and for nearly a quarter of a century the 
>n was in the hands of Mr Miller, who was responsible 
ness management, and Bishop Vincent, who was 
t instruction department. Though founded by 
in its earliest years it became non-sectarian and has 
meeting-ground for members of all sects and de- 
, At the very outset the activities of the assembly 
i: (x) the conducting of a summer school for 
ol teachers, and (2) the presentation of a series of 1 
iCturcs and entertainments. Although the move- 
ad still is primarily religious, H has always been 
t tha best religious education most necessarily take 

advantage of the best that the educational world can afford is 
the literatures, arts and sciences. The scope of the plan rapidly 
broadened, and in 1879 a regular group of schools with graded 
courses of study was established. At about the same time, also, 
the Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle, providing a 
continuous home-reading system, was founded. The season 
lasts during June, July and August. In 1907 some 325 lectures, 
concerts, readings and entertainments were presented by a 
group of over 190 lecturers, readers and musicians, while at the 
same time 200 courses in the summer schools were offered by a 
faculty of instructors drawn from the leading colleges and 
normal schools of the country. 

The Chautauqua movement has had an immense influence on 
education in the United States, an influence which is especially 
marked in three directions: (x) in the establishment of about 
300 local assemblies or " Chautauquas " in the United States 
patterned after the mother Chautauqua; (2) in the promotion 
of the idea of summer education, which has been followed by 
the founding of summer schools or sessions at a large number 
of American universities, and of various special summer schools, 
such as the Catholic Summer School of America, with head- 
quarters at Cliff Haven, Clinton county, New York, and the 
Jewish Chautauqua Society, with headquarters at Buffalo, N.Y.; 
and (3) in the establishment of numerous correspondence schools 
patterned in a general way after the system provided by the 
Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle. 

See John Heyl Vincent, The Chautauqua Mooenumt (Boston, 1886), 
and Frank C. Bray, A Reading Journey through C h au tauqua (Chicago, 

CHAUVBUX, BERNARD FRAH90I8, Maxquxs db (1766- 
' X832), French diplomatist and administrator. Though master of 
> the king's wardrobe in X789, he joined in the Revolution. He 
served in the army of Flanders, and then was sent to London 
in February 1792, to induce England to remain neutral in the 
war which was about to break out between France and "the 
king of Bohemia and Hungary." He was well received at first, 
but after the xoth of August 1792 he was no longer officially 
recognized at court, and on the execution of Louis XVL (21st of 
1 January x 793) he was given eight days to leave England. After 
an unsuccessful embassy in Tuscany, he was imprisoned as a 
suspect during the Terror, but freed after the 9th Thermidor. 
Under Napoleon he became a member of the council of state, and 
from 1812 to 18x4 he governed Catalonia under the title of 
intendant-gencral, being charged to win over the Catalonians 
to King Joseph Bonaparte. He remained in private life during 
1 the Restoration and the Hundred Days. In 1816 he was elected 
deputy, and spoke in favour of liberty of the press and extension 
of the franchise. Though he was again deputy in X827 he played 
no part in public affairs, and resigned in 1829. 

See G. PalUm, La Mission do Talleyrand A Londres en 190* 

(Paris, 1889). 

CHAUVIOKY, a town of western Prance, in the department 
J of Vienne, so m. E. of Poitiers by rail. Pop. (1906) 2326. The 
town is finely situated overlooking the Vienne and a small 
torrent, and has two interesting Romanesque churches, both 
restored in modern times. There are also ruins of a chateau of 
the bishops of Poitiers, and of other strongholds. Near Chau- 
vigny is the curious bone-cavem of Jioux, the entrance to which 
is fortified by large blocks of stone. The town carries on hme- 
burning and plaster-manufacture, and there are stone quarries 
in the vicinity. Trade is in wool and feathers. 

CHAUVIN. frriENME (1640-1725), French Protestant divine, 
was born at Nlraes on the x8th of April 1640. At the revocation 
of the Edict of Nantes he retired to Rotterdam, where he was for 
some years preacher at the Walloon church; in 1695 the elector 
of Brandenburg appointed him pastor and professor of philo- 
sophy, and later inspector of the French college at Berlin, where 
he enjoyed considerable reputation as a representative of 
Cartesianism and as a student of physics. His principal work 
is a laborious Lexicon Rationale, site Thesaurus Fhilosophicus 
(Rotterdam, 169s; new and enhuged edition, Leuwarden, iftj). 



He also wrote Theses de Cognition* Dei (1662), and started the 
Nouveau Journal des Savans (1604-1698). 

See E. and E. Haag, La Prance ProUstante, vol. iv. (1884). 

CHAUVINISM, a term for unreasonable and exaggerated 
patriotism, the French equivalent of " Jingoism." The word 
originally signified idolatry of Napoleon, being taken from a 
much-wounded veteran, Nicholas Chauvin, who, by his adoration 
of the emperor, became the type of blind enthusiasm for national 
military glory. 

CHAUX DB PONDS, LA, a large industrial town in the Swiss 
canton of Neuchatel. It is about 19 m. by rail N. W. of Neuchatel, 
and stands at a height of about 3255 ft. in a valley (5 m. long) 
of the same name in the Jura. Pop. (1900) 35>9*8 (only 13.659 
in 1850); (1905) 38,700, mainly French-speaking and Pro- 
tesUnts; of the 61x4 "Catholics" the majority are "Old 
Catholics." It is a centre of the watch-making industry, especi- 
ally of gold watch cases; about 70% of those manufactured 
in Switzerland are turned out here. In 1900 it exported watches 
to the value of nearly £3,000,000 sterling. There is a school of 
industrial art (engraving and enamelling watch cases) and a 
school of watch-making (including instruction in the manufacture 
of chronometers and other scientific Instruments of precision). 
It boasts of being le plus gros village de f 'Europe, and certainly 
has preserved some of the features of a big village. Leopold 
Robert (1 704-1835), the painter, was born here. ( W. A. B. C). 

CHAVES, a town of northern Portugal, in the district of Villa 
Real, formerly included in the province of Trax os Mohtes; 
8 m. S. of the Spanish frontier, on the right bank of the river 
Tamega. Pop. (1900) 6388. Chaves is the ancient Aquae 
Flaviae, famous for its hot saline springs, which are still in use. 
A fine Roman bridge of 18 arches spans the Tamega. In the 16th 
century Chaves contained 20,000 inhabitants; it was long one of 
the principal frontier fortresses, and in fact derives its present 
name from the position which makes it the " keys," or chaves, of 
the north. One of its churchescontains the tomb of Alphonso I. 
of Portugal (1139-1185). In 1830 the town gave the title of 
marquess to Pinto da Fonseca, a leader of the Miguelite party. 

CHA7.E1.I.1B, JEAN MATHIEU DB (1657-1710), French 
hydrographer, was born at Lyons on the 24th of July 1657. 
He was nominated professor of hydrography at Marseilles in 
1685, and in that capacity carried out various coast surveys. In 
1693 he was engaged to publish a second volume of the Neptune 
francais, which was to include the hydrography of the Mediter- 
ranean. For this purpose he visited the Levant and Egypt. 
When in Egypt he measured the pyramids, and, finding that 
the angles formed by the sides of the largest were in the direction 
of the four cardinal points, he concluded that this position must 
have been intended, and also that the poles of the earth and 
meridians had not deviated since the erection of those structures. 
He was made a member of the Academy in 1695, and died in 
Paris on the 16th of January 1710. 

CHEADLE, a town in the Altrincham parliamentary division 
of Cheshire, England, 6 m. S. of Manchester, included in the 
urban district of Cbeadle and Gatlcy. Pop. (ioox) 7916. This 
is one of the numerous townships of modern growth which fringe 
the southern boundaries of Manchester, and practically form 
suburbs of that city. Stockport lies immediately to the east. 
The name occurs in the formerly separate villages of Cheadle 
Ilulmc, Cheadle Bulkelcy and Cheadle Mosclcy. There are 
cotton printing and bleaching works in the locality. The parish 
church of St Giles, Cheadle, is Perpendicular, containing an altar- 
tomb of the 15th century for two knights. 

CHEADLE, a market town in the Leek parliamentary divi- 
sion of Staffordshire, England, 13 m. N.E. of Stafford, and 
the terminus of a branch line from Cresswell on the North 
Staffordshire railway. Pop. (xoox) 5186. The Roman Catholic 
church of St Giles, with a lofty spire, was designed by Pugin 
and erected in 1 846. The interior is lavishly decorated. There 
are considerable collieries in the neighbourhood, and silk and 
tape works in the town. In the neighbouring Froghall district 
limestone is quarried, and there are manufactures of copper. 
In Cheadle two (airs of ancient origin are held annually. 

CHEATING, "the fraudulently obtaining the property of 
another by any deceitful practice not amounting to felony, which 
practice is of such a nature that it directly affects, or may 
directly affect, the public at large" (Stephen, Digest of Criminal 
Law, chap. xL f 367). Cheating is either a common law or 
statutory offence, and is punishable as a misdemeanour. An 
indictment for cheating at common law is of comparatively rare 
occurrence, and the statutory crime usually presents itself in the 
form of obtaining money by false pretences (f.f.). The word 
" cheat " is a variant of " escheat" Le. the reversion of land to 
a lord of the fee through the failure of blood of the tenant 
The shortened form. " cheater " for " escheator " is found early 
in the legal sense, and chetynge appears in the Pramptarium 
Parvulorum, c. 1440, as the equivalent of confUcalio. In the 
1 6th century " cheat " occurs in vocabularies of thieves and other 
slang, and in such works as the Use of Dice-Play (153 a). It is 
frequent in Thomas Harman's Cowo/ or Warming for. . .Vega- 
bones (1567), in the sense of " thing," with a descriptive word 
attached, e.g.smdingchete— nose. InthctnctMihil Mumchance, 
his Discovert* of the Art of Cheating, doubtfully attributed to 
Robert Greene (1560-1592), we find that gamesters call them- 
selves cheaters, " borrowing the term from the lawyers." The 
sense development is obscure, but it would seem to be due to the 
extortionate or fraudulent demands made by legal " eacheators." 

m a th ematician, was born at Borovsk on the *6th of May 1S11. 
He was educated at the university of Moscow, and in 1859 
became professor of mathematics in the university of St Peters- 
burg, a position from which he retired in 1880. He was chosen 
a correspondent of the Institute of France in i860, and succeeded 
to the high honour of assocU Stranger in 1874. He was also a 
foreign member of the Royal Society of London. After N. L 
Lobachevskiy he probably ranks as the most distinguished 
mathematician Russia has produced. In 1841 he published a 
valuable paper, " Sur la convergence de la serie de Taylor," in 
Crcllc*s Journal. His best-known papers, however, deal with 
prime numbers; in one of these ("Sur les nombres premiers," 
1850) he established the existence of limits within which must 
be comprised the sum of the logarithms of the primes inferior 
to a given number. Anot her question to which he devoted muck 
attention was that of obtaining rectilinear motion by linkage. 
The parallel motion known by his name is a three-bar linkage, 
which gives a very close approximation to exact rectilinear 
motion, but in spite of all his efforts he failed to devise one that 
produced absolutely true rectilinear motion. At last, indeed, he 
came to the conclusion that to do so was impossible, and in that 
conviction set to work to find a rigorous proof of the impossibility. 
While he was engaged on this task the desired linkage, which 
moved the highest admiration of J. J. Sylvester, was discovered 
and exhibited to him by one of his pupils, named Lipkin, who, 
however, it was afterwards found, had been anticipated by 
A. Peaucellier. Chebichev further constructed an instrument 
for drawing large circles, and an arithmetical machine with 
continuous motion. His mathematical writings, which account 
for some forty entries in the Royal Society's catalogue of scien- 
tific papers, cover a wide range of subjects, such as the theory of 
probabilities, quadratic forms, theory of integrals, gearings, the 
construction of geographical maps, &c. He also published a 
Traill de la thlorU des nombres. He died at St Petersburg on 
the 8th of December 1894. 

CHEBOYGAN, a city and the county-seat of Cheboygan 
county, Michigan, U.S.A., on South Cliannel (between Lakes 
Michigan and Huron), at the mouth of Cheboygan river, in the 
N. part of the lower peninsula. Pop. (1890) 6135; (X900) 
6489, of whom 2101 were foreign-born; (1004) 6730; (1910) 
6859. It is served by the Michigan Central and the Detroit k 
Mackinac railways, and by steamboat lines to Chicago, Mil- 
waukee, Detroit, Sault Ste Marie, Green Bay and other lake 
ports; and is connected by ferry with Mackinac and Pointe aux 
Pins. During a great part of the year small boats ply between 
Cheboygan and the head of Crooked Lake, over the " Inland 
Route." Cheboygan is situated in a fertile farming region, for 



which it b a trade centre, and it has lumber mills, tanneries, 
paper mills, boiler works, and other manufacturing establish- 
ments- The water- works are owned and operated by the munici- 
pality. The city, at first called Duncan, then Inverness, and 
finally Cheboygan, was settled in 1846, incorporated as a village 
in 1871, reincorporated in 1877, and chartered as a city in 

CHECHENZES, Tchetchen, or Kjhsts (Kisti), the last being 
the name by which they are known to the Georgians, a people 
of the eastern Caucasus occupying the whole of west Daghcstan. 
They call themselves Nakhtche, " people." A wild, fierce people, 
they fought desperately against Russian aggression in the 18th 
century under Daud Beg and Oman Khan and Shamyl, and in 
the 19th under Khazi-Mollah, and even now some are inde- 
pendent in the mountain districts. On the surrender of the 
chieftain Shamyl to Russia in 1859 numbers of them migrated 
into Armenia. In physique the Chechentcs resemble the Cir- 
cassians, and have the same haughtiness of carriage. They are 
of a generous temperament, very hospitable, but quick to re- 
venge. They are fond of fine clothes, the women wearing rich 
robes with wide, pink silk trousers, silver bracelets and yellow 
sandals. Their houses, however, are mere hovels, some dug 
out of the ground, others formed of boughs and stones. Before 
their subjection to Russia they were remarkable for their inde- 
pendence of spirit and love of freedom. Everybody was equal, 
and they had no slaves except prisoners of war. Government 
in each commune was by popular assembly, and the adminis- 
tration of justice was in the hands of the wronged. Murder and 
jobbery with violence could be expiated only by death, unless 
the criminal allowed his hair to grow and the injured man 
consented to shave it himself and take an oath of brotherhood 
on the Koran. Otherwise the law of vendetta was fully carried 
out with curious details. The wronged man, wrapped in a white 
woollen shroud, and carrying a coin to serve as payment to a 
priest for saying the prayers for the dead, started out in search 
of his enemy. When the offender was found he must fight to a 
finish. A remarkable custom among one tribe is that if a 
betrothed man or woman dies on the eve of her wedding, the 
marriage ceremony is still performed, the dead being formally 
united to the living before witnesses, the father, in case it is the 
girl who dies, never failing to pay her dowry. The religion of 
the Chechenzes is Mahommcdanism, mixed, however, with 
Christian doctrines and observances. Three churches near Kistin 
in honour of St George and the Virgin are visited as places of 
pilgrimage, and rams are there offered as sacrifices. The 
Chechenzes number upwards of 200,000. They speak a distinct 
language, of which there are said to be twenty separate dialects. 

See Ernest Chanter, Recherches anthropologiques dans U Caucau 
(Lyon. 1885-1887) ; D. G. Brinton. Races of Man (1800) ; Hutchinson, 
Ltrimg Rates of Mankind (London, 1901). 

CHECKERS* the name by which the game of draughts (q.v.) 
is known in America. The origin of the name is the same as that 
of - chess " fo.r). 

CHEDDAR, a small town in the Wells parliamentary division 
of Somersetshire, England, 22 m. S.W. of Bristol by a branch 
of the. Great Western railway. Pop. (1901) 1975. The town, 
with its Perpendicular church and its picturesque market -cross, 
lies below the south-western face of the Mendip Hills, which rise 
sharply from 600 to 800 ft. To the west stretches the valley of 
the river Axe, broad, low and flat. A fine gorge opening from 
the lulls immediately upon the site of the town is known as 
Cheddar cliffs from the sheer walls which flank it; the contrast 
of its rocks and rich vegetation, And the falls of a small stream 
traversing it, make up a beautiful scene admired by many 
visitors. Several stalactitical caverns are also seen, and pre- 
historic British and Roman relics discovered in and near them 
are preserved in a small museum. The two caverns most fre- 
quently visited are called respectively Cox's and Cough's; in 
each, but especially in the first, there is a remarkable collection 
of fantastic and beautiful stalactitical forms. There are other 
caverns of greater extent but less beauty, but their extent is not 
completely explored. The remains discovered in the caves give 

evidence of British and Roman settlements at Cheddar (CesTe, 
C Med are), which was a convenient trade centre. The manor of 
Cheddar was a royal demesne in Saxon times, and the witcnage- 
mot was held there in 066 and 068. It was granted by John in 
1 204 to Hugh, archdeacon of Wells, who sold it to the bishop of 
Bath and Wells in 1229, whose successors were overlords until 
*SS3» when the bishop granted it to the king. It is now owned 
by the marquis of Bath. By a charter of 1 23 1 extensive liberties 
in the manor of Cheddar were granted to Bishop Joceline, who 
by a charter of 1235 obtained the right to hold a weekly market 
and fair. By a charter of Edward III. (1337) Cheddar was 
removed from the king's forest of Mendip. The market was 
discontinued about 1690. Fairs arc now held on the 4th of May 
and the 29th of October under the original grants. The name 
of Cheddar is given to a well-known species of cheese (see Daiiy), 
the manufacture of which began in the 17th century in the 
town and neighbourhood. 

CHEDUBA, or Man-aunc, an island in the Bay of Bengal, 
situated 10 m. from the coast of Arakan, between 18° 40' and 
18° 56' N. lat., and between 93° 31' and 93° 50' E. long. It 
forms part of the Kyaukpyu district of Arakan. It extends 
about 20 m. in length from N. to S., and 17 m. from E. to W., 
and its area of 220 sq. m. supports a population of 26,899 (in 
1 001). The channel between the island and the mainland b 
navigable for boats, but not for large vessels. The surface of the 
interior is richly diversified by hill and dale, and in the southern 
portion some of the heights exceed a thousand feet in elevation. 
There are various indications of former volcanic activity, and 
along the coast are earthy cones covered with green-sward, from 
which issue springs of muddy water emitting bubbles of gas. 
Copper, iron and silver ore have been discovered; but the 
island is chiefly noted for its petroleum wells, the oil derived 
from which is of excellent quality, and is extensively used in the 
composition of paint, as it preserves wood from the ravages of 
insects. Timber is not abundant, but the gamboge tree and 
the wood-oil tree arc found of a good size. Tobacco, cotton, 
sugar-cane, hemp and indigo are grown, and the staple ankle 
is rice, which is of superior quality, and the chief article of export. 
The inhabitants of the island arc mainly Maghs. Cheduba fell 
to the Burmese in the latter part of the x8th century. From 
them it was captured in 1824 by the British, whose possession 
of it was confirmed in 1826 by the treaty concluded with the 
Bur mese a t Yandaboo. 

CHEERING, the uttering or making of sounds encouraging, 
stimulating or exciting to action, indicating approval or acclaim- 
ing or welcoming persons, announcements of events and the 
like. The word " cheer " meant originally face, countenance, 
expression, and came through the O. Fr. into Mid. Eng. in the 
13th century from the Low Lat. caro, head; this is generally 
referred to the Gr. x&pa. Cora is used by the 6th-century poet 
Flavius Crcsconius Corippus, " Postquam venere verendam 
Caesaris ante caram " (In Laudem Justini Minor is). " Cheer " 
was at first qualified with epithets, both of joy and gladness and 
of sorrow; compare " She thanked Dyomede for alle ... his 
gode cherc " (Chaucer, Troylus) with " If they sing ... 'tis 
with so dull a checre " (Shakespeare, Sonnets, xcvii.). An early 
transference in meaning was to hospitality or entertainment, 
and hence to food and drink, " good cheer." The sense of a 
shout of encouragement or applause is a late use. Defoe (Captain 
Single ten) speaks of it as a sailor's word, and the meaning does 
not appear in Johnson. Of the different words or rather sounds 
that are used in cheering, " hurrah," though now generally 
looked on as the typical British form of cheer, is found in various 
forms in German, Scandinavian, Russian (urd), French (hour a). 
It is probably onomatopoeic in origin; some connect it with 
such words as " hurry," " whirl "; the meaning would then be 
" haste," to encourage speed or onset in battle. The English 
" hurrah " was preceded by " huzza," stated to be a sailor's 
word, and generally connected with " heeze," to hoist, probably 
being one of the cries that sailors use when hauling or hoisting. 
The German hock, seen In full in hock Ube der Kaiser, fcc., die 
French we, Italian and Spanish ma, evrica, are cries rather 



of acclamation than encouragement. The Japanese shout 
kammi became familiar during the Russo-Japanese War. In 
report* of parliamentary and other debates the insertion of 
"cheers" at any point in a speech indicates that approval was 
shewn by members of the House by emphatic utterances of 
" bear hear." Cheering may be tumultuous, or it may be 
conducted rhythmically by prcarrangemenl, as in the case of 
the " Hip-hip-hip " by way of introduction to * simultaneous 
•* hurrah." 

Rhythmical cheering has been developed to its greatest 
extent in America in the college yells, which may be regarded as 
a development of the primitive war-cry; this custom has no 
real analogue at English schools and universities, but the New 
Zealand football team in 1907 familiarized English crowds at 
their matches with a similar sort of wax -cry adopted from the 
Maoris. In American schools and colleges there is usually one 
cheer for the institution as a whole and others for the different 
classes. The oldest and simplest are those of the New England 
colleges. The original yells of Harvard and Yale are identical 
in form, being composed of rah (abbreviation of hurrah) nine 
times repeated, shouted in unison with the name of the university 
at the end. The Yale cheer is given faster than that of Harvard. 
Many institutions have several different yells, a favourite 
variation being the name of the college shouted nine times in a 
slow and prolonged manner. The best known of these variants 
is the Yale cheer, partly taken from the Frogs of Aristophanes, 
which runs thus: 

" Rrekekekfr. ko-Ax. ko-ax. 
Hrrkckt'kcft, ko-a*. ko-a*. 
O-op. O-op. narabaloQ, 
Yale, Yale. Vale, 

Rah. rah, rah. rah. rah, rah, rah, rah, rah, 
Yale! Yale I Yale!" 

The regular cheer of Princeton is: 
" ll'ray. h'ray. h'ray. tiger. 
Sim, boom, ah; Princeton I " 

This is expanded into the " triple cheer ": 
" H'ray, h'ray, h'ray. 
Tiger, tiger, tiger, 
Sm. mm, tits, 
Boom, boom, boom. 
Ah. ah. ah. 
Princet6n, Princct6n, Princeton 1" 

The " railroad cheer " is like the foregoing, but begun very 
slowly and broadly, and gradually accelerated to the end, which 
Is enunciated as fast as possible. Many cheers are formed 
like that of Toronto University: 

*' Varsity, varsity, 
V-ir-i-l-ly (.polled) 
VARSITY (spelled staccato) 
Rah. rah. rah! M 

Another variety of yell is illustrated by that of the School 
of Practical Science of Toronto University: 

" Who are we r Can't you guess? 
We are from the & PS. !" 

The cheer of the United States Naval Academy is an imita- 
tion of a nautical syren. The Amherst cheer is: 

" Amherst ! Amherst ! Amherst ! Rah « Rah ! 
Amher»t ! Rah ! Rah ! 
Rah I Rah ! Rah ! Rah I Rah I Rah ! Amherst I" 

Besides the cheers of individual institutions there are some 
common to all. generally used to compliment some successful 
athlete or popular professor. One of the oldest examples of 
these persona) cheers is: 

" Who was George Washington f 
lirrt in »ar. 
KirM in peace. 
First in the hearts of his countrymen." 

followed by a stamping on the floor in the same rhythm. 

College >el1s are used particularly at athletic contests. In 
any Urgccotlcgc there are several leaders, chosen by the students, 
who stand in front and call for the different songs and cheers, 

directing with their arms in the fashion of an orchestral con- 
ductor. This cheering and singing form one of the distinctive 
features of inter-collegiate and scholastic athletic contests in 

CHEESE (Lat. castas), a solidified preparation from milk, the 
essential constituent of which b the protdnous or nitrogenous 
substance casein. All cheese contains in addition some proportion 
of fatty matter or butter, and in the more valuable varieties the 
butter present is often greater in amount than the casein. Cheese 
being thus a compound substance of no definite composition is 
found in commerce of many different varieties and qualities; 
and such qualities are generally recognized by the names of the 
localities in which they are manufactured. The principal dis- 
tinctions arise from differences in the composition and condition 
of the milk operated upon, from variations in the method of 
preparation and curing, and from the use of the milk of other 
animals besides the cow, as, for example, the goal and the ewe, 
from the milk of both of which cheese is manufactured on a 
commercial scale. For details about different cheeses and cheese- 
making, see Daixy. From the Urdu ckix ("thing") comes the 
slang expression " the cheese," meaning "the perfect thing," 
apparently from Anglo-Indian usage. 

A useful summary of the history and manufacture of all sorts of 
cheeses, under their different names, is given in Bulletin 105 of the 
Bureau of Animal Industry (United States Dep. of Agriculture), 
Varieties of Cheese, by C. F. Doane and H. W. Laweoa (Washington, 

CHEESE CLOTH, the name given to cloth, usually made from 
flax or tow yarns, of an open character, resembling a fine riddle 
or sieve, used for wrapping cheese. A finer quality and texture 
is made for women's gowns. A similar doth is used for inside 
linings in the upholstery trade, and for the ground of embroidery. 

CHEETA (Chita), or Huntinc-Leopabd {Cynadurus jubatus, 
formerly known as Cue par da jubata), a member of the family 
Pelidae, distinguished by its claws being only partially retractile 
(see Caanivora). The checta attains a length of 3 to 4 ft; 
it is of a pale fulvous colour, marked with numerous spots of 
black on the upper surface and sides, and is nearly white beneath. 
The fur is somewhat crisp, altogether lacking the sleekness which 
characterizes the fur of the typical cats, and the tail is long and 
somewhat busby at the extremity. In confinement the cnecta 
soon becomes fond of those who are kind to it, and gives evidence 
of its attachment in an open, dog-like manner. The cheeta is 
found throughout Africa and southern Asia, and has been em- 
ployed for centuries in India and Persia in hunting antelopes 
and other game. According to Sir W. Jones, this mode of 
hunting originated with Hushing, king of Persia, 865 B.C., and 
afterwards became so popular that certain of the Mongol 
emperors were in the habit of being accompanied in their sport- 
ing expeditions by a thousand hunting leopards. In prosecuting 
this sport at the present day the cheeta is conveyed to the' field 
in a low car without sides, hooded and chained like hunting- 
birds in Europe in the days of falconry. When a herd of deer 
or antelopes is seen, the car, which bears a close resemblance to 
the ordinary vehicles used by the peasants, is usually brought 
within 200 yds. of the game before the latter takes alarm; the 
cheeta is then let loose and the hood removed from its eyes. No 
sooner does it sec the herd, than dropping from the car on the side 
remote from it sprcy, it approaches stealthily, making use of 
whatever means of concealment the nature of the ground permits, 
until observed, when making a few gigantic bounds, it generally 
arrives in the midst of the herd and brings down its victim with 
a stroke of its paw. The sportsman then approaches, draws off 
a bowl of the victim's blood, and rtats it before the cheeta, which 
is again hooded and led back to the car. Should it not succeed 
in reaching the herd in the first few bounds, it makes no further 
effort to pursue, but retires seemingly dispirited to the car. Is 
Africa the cheeta is only valued for its skin, which is worn by 
chiefs and other people of rank. It should be added that in 
India the name cheeta (chita) is applied also to the leopard. 

CHEFFONIER. properly CmFFOKrct, a piece of furniture 
differentiated from the sideboard by its smalts* tfse and by the 



enclosure of the whole of the front by doors. Its name (which 
comes from the French for a rag-gatherer) suggest* that it was 
originally intended as a receptacle for odds and ends which had 
no place elsewhere, but it now usually serves the purpose of a 
sideboard. It is a remote and illegitimate descendant of the 
cabinet; it has rarely been elegant and never beautiful. It was 
one of the many curious developments of the mixed taste, at 
once cumbrous and bizarre, which prevailed in furniture during 
the Empire period in England. The earliest cberToniers date 
from that time; they are usually of rosewood — the favourite 
timber of that moment; their " furniture " (the technical name 
for knobs, handles and escutcheons) was most commonly of 
brass, and there was very often a raised shelf with a pierced brass 
gallery at the back. The doors were well panelled and often 
edged with brass-beading, while the feet were pads or claws, or, 
ia the choicer examples, sphinxes in gilded bronze. Cbeffoniers 
are still made in England in cheap forms and in great number. 

CHEH-KIAJfG, an eastern province of China, bounded N. by 
the province of Kiang-su, E. by the sea, S. by the province of 
Fu-kien, and W by the provinces of Kiang-si and Ngan-hui. 
It occupies an area of about 36,000 sq. m., and contains a popu- 
lation of 11,800,000. With the exception of a small portion of 
the great delta plain, which extends across the frontier from the 
province of Kiang-su, and in which are situated the famous 
cities of Hu Chow, Ka-hing, Hang-chow, Shao-Sing and Ning-po, 1 
the province forms a portion of the Nan-shan of south-eastern 
China, and is hilly throughout. The Nan-shan ranges run! 
through the centre of the province from south-west to north- 
east, and divide it Into a northern portion, the greater part of 
which is drained by the T&icn-t'ang-kiang, and a southern 
portion which is chiefly occupied by the Ta-chi basin. The 
valleys enclosed between the mountain ranges are numerous, 
fertile, and for the most part of exquisite beauty. The hilly 
portion of the province furnishes large supplies of tea, and in the 
plain which extends along the coast, north of Ning-po, a great 
quantity of silk is produced. In minerals the province is poor. 
Coal and iron are occasionally met with, and traces of copper 
ore are to be found in places, but none of these minerals exists 
in sufficiently large deposits to make mining remunerative. The 
province, however, produces cotton, rice, ground-nuts, wheat, 
indigo, tauow and beans in abundance. The principal cities 
are Hang-chow., which is famed for the beauty of its surroundings, 
Ning-po, which has been frequented by foreign ships ever since 
the Portuguese visited it in the 16th century, and Wcnchow. 
Opposite Ning-po, at a distance of about 50 m., lies the island of 
Chusan, the largest of a group bearing that general name. This I 
island is ai m. long, and about 50 m. in circumference. It is I 
very mountainous, and is surrounded by numerous islands and 1 
islets. On its south side stands the walled town of Ting-hai, 
in front of which is the principal harbour. The population is 
returned as 50,000. 

CHEKE, SIR JOHN (1 514-1 SS7). English classical scholar, 
was the son of Peter Cheke, esquire-bedell of Cambridge Univer- 1 
sity He was educated at St John's College, Cambridge, where I 
he became a fellow in 1529. While there he adopted the prin- 
ciples of the Reformation. His learning gained him an exhibition 
from the king, and in 1540, on Henry VIII *s foundation of the 
regius professorships', he was elected to the chair of Greek. 
Amongst his pupils at St John's were Lord Burghlcy, who married 
Cheke's sister Mary, and Roger Ascham, who in The School- 
master gives Chcke the highest praise for scholarship and 
character Together with Sir Thomas Smith, he introduced 
a new method of Greek pronunciation very similar to that com- 
monly used in England in the igth century It was strenuously! 
opposed in the University, where the continental method 
prevailed, and Bishop Gardiner, as chancellor, issued a decree 
against it (June 1542); but Chcke ultimately triumphed. On 
the 10th of July 1554, he was chosen as tutor to Prince Edward, 
and after his pupil's accession to the throne be continued his in- 
structions. Cheke took a fairly active share in public life, be 
sat, as member for Bletchingley, for the parliaments of 1547 and 
i5S*-t5Sj; h* "** rode provost of King's College, Cambridge 

(April 1, 1548), was one of the commissioners for visiting that 
university as well as Oxford and Eton, and was appointed with 
seven divines to draw up a body or law* for the governance 
of the church. On the nth of October 1551 he wu knighted; 
in i jsj be wu made one of the secretaries of state, and sworn 
of the privy council. His zeal for Protestant am induced him 
to fallow toe duke of Northumberland, and he filled the office 
of secretary of state for Lady Jane Grey during her nine days' 
reign. In consequence Mary threw him into the Tower (Juty J 7* 
1 55j>, and con fist a led his wealth. He was, however, released 
on the ijth of September 1554, and granted permission to travel 
abroad. He went first to Basel, then visited Italy, giving 
lectures in Greek at Padua, and finally settled at Stras&burg, 
teaching Creek for his living. Id the spring of 1556 he visited 
Brussels to see his wife; on his way back, between Brussels and 
Antwerp, be and Sir Peter Carew were treacherously seised 
(May 15] by order of Philip of Spain, hurried over to England, 
and imprisoned in the Tofcer. Chcke waj visited by two priests 
ami by Dr John FeeLenham, dean of St Pauls, whom he had 
formerly tried to convert to Protestantism, and, terrified by a 
threat of the stake, he gave way and was received into the Church 
of Rome by Cardinal Pole, being cruelly forced to make two 
public recantations. Overcome with shame, he did not long sur- 
vive, but died in London on the ijth of September 1557, carry- 
ing, ai T. Fuller says (Church Hiitery). " God's pardon and all 
good men** pity along with him." About 1547 Cheke married 
Mary, daughter of Richard Hill, sergeant of the wine-cellar to 
Henry VII I ., and by her he had three ions. The descendants 
of one of these, Henry, known only for his translation of an 
Italian morality play Fr&Tryl {Trottdio dei Ltbero Arbiirie) by 
Nigri de B&ssano, settled at Pyrgo in Essex. 

Thomaa Wilson, in the cpUt fc prefixed to hii transition of the 
Oknthiac* of Demosthenes (JJToJ. has a long and meat interesting 
eulogy of Chefce : and Thomas Naih. in To ih* Gentftmtn Si*d™is. 
prcn>ftl to Rc.tri.-rt OreerveV irVnapta* (1589), <a11i him "the 
fcschijoDcr of eloquence, Sir fhort Cheke* a man of men. super- 
naturally traded in all tongue*.'* Many of CheWs work* art still 
in MS .„ some have been aWocei her lost, One of the most interesting 
from a historical point of view is the ffuri of Sedition h(Kt zrweom 
U is to & C'omfnunnLritk fi^oK written on the occasion of Ket'i 
rebellion, republished in 1 560, 1570 4 ml 104 t, on the last occasion 
with a life of the author by Gerard Langbaine. Other* are i>, 
JoQ/tnis CkTYityitomi horn iliac dune (I54J). &- Joannii Ckryictlami dc 
prtfrfcfrnlia Dti (134 j J, Tkt Cpi^/ wtGrding to St AtaHhtv . . , 
iraniiat/d ft. rjttJ: *d- Ume* Goodwin, i&J3) h D* obiiM Afdrfiwi 
JFurm (1551). (Leo VI. %} 4* Appar&u betiito (Duel. 1554; but 

dedicated to Henry VIM., I 544] 1 - Cnnnn* Hcreidtm. aut tfntopbiv** 

** >nnvm ( r 5 5 1 ) . Dt pramutiniiwM G*a*tae , . . frntpaf 

He alio tranvlatecfieveral Greek works, and lectured 

in Antonium Dtnnum (r*j 
(Bapel. 1SS5>- He allot* 
admirably upon Demosthenes 

Hit Ltfe wai written' by John Strypc {1811V; additions by J- 
Gough N idiots in Arthacotagfti (ta&o), axxvijj, ofl, uj, 

CH ELIJAH, trie name given by the French anthropologist 
G. de Mortillcl to the fint epoch of the Qua ternary period when 
the earliest human remains are discoverable. The word is 
derived from the French town Che lies in the department of 
Seine-el -Mame, The climate of the Che Hi an epoch was warm 
and humid as evidenced by the wild growth of fig trees and 
laurels. The animals characteristic of the epoch are the Elrpkat 
aKiiqmta, the rhinoceros, the cave-bear, the hippopotamus and 
the striped hyaena- Man existed and belonged to the Neander- 
thal type. The implements charac lens tic of the period are flints 
chipped into leaf shaped 'orrns and held in the hand when used* 
The drift -beds of St Acheul { A miens) , ol Menchecourt ( Abbeville}) 
of Hoxne (Suffolk), and the delrital lalrrite of Madras ate con- 
sidered by de Mortillcl to be synchronous with the Chelhan beds. 

See Gabriel de Monillot, Lt PilhiOoriqvt { 1000): Lord Avebury, 
Frthistwic Titrtfi (1900). 

18; 8), lord chancellor of England, was the third son of Charles 
Thesiger, and «u born in London on the 15th of April 1704. 
Hb father; collector of customs at St Vincent's, was the son of 
a Saion gentleman who had migrated to England and become 
secretary to Lord Rockingham, and was the brother of Sir 
Frederic Thesigrr, naval ADC to Nelson at Copenhagen. 
Young Frederic Thcstger was originally destined for a navaj 



career, and he served as a midshipman on board the " Cambrian " 
frigate in 1807 at the second bombardment of Copenhagen. His 
only surviving brother, however, died about this time, and he 
became entitled to succeed to a valuable estate in the West 
Indies, so it was decided that he should leave the navy and 
study law, with a view to practising in the West Indies and 
eventually managing his property in person. Another change 
of fortune, however, awaited him, for a volcano destroyed the 
family estate, and he was thrown back upon his prospect of a 
legal practice in the West Indies. He proceeded to enter at 
Gray's Inn in 18 13, and was called on the 18th of November 
18:8, another change in his prospects being brought about by 
the strong advice of Godfrey Sykes, a special pleader in whose 
chambers he had been a pupil, that he should remain to try his 
fortune* in England. He accordingly joined the home circuit, 
and soon got into good practice at the Surrey sessions, while he 
also made a fortunate purchase in buying the right to appear 
in the old palace court (see Lord Steward). In 1824 he dis- 
tinguished himself by his defence of Joseph Hunt when on his 
trial at Hertford with John Thurtell for the murder of Wm. 
Weare; and eight years later at Chelmsford assizes he won a 
hard-fought action in an ejectment case after three trials, to 
which he attributed so much of his subsequent success that when 
be was raised to the peerage he assumed the title Lord Chelms- 
ford. In 1834 he was made king's counsel, and in 1835 was 
briefed in the Dublin election inquiry which unseated Darnel 
O'Connell. In 1840 he was elected MP. for Woodstock. In 
1844 he became solicitor-general, but having ceased to enjoy 
the favour of the duke of Marlborough, lost his seat for Wood- 
stock and had to find another at Abingdon. In 1845 he became 
attorney-general, holding the post until the fall of the Peel 
administration on the 3rd of July 1846. Thus by three days 
Thesiger missed being chief justice of the common picas, for on 
the 6th of July Sir Nicholas Tindal died, and the seat on the 
bench, which would have been Thesiger's as of right, fell to 
the Liberal attorney-general, Sir Thomas Wilde. Sir Frederic 
Thesiger remained in parliament, changing his seat, however, 
again in 1852, and becoming member for Stamford. During 
this period he enjoyed a very large practice at the bar, being 
employed in many causes cticbres. On Lord Derby coming into 
office for the second time in 1858, Sir Frederic Thesiger was 
raised straight from the bar to the lord chancellorship (as were 
Lord Brougham, Lord Sclborne and Lord Halsbury). In the 
following year Lord Derby resigned and his cabinet was broken 
up. Again in 1866, on Lord Derby coming into office for the third 
time, Lord Chelmsford became lord chancellor for a short period. 
In 1868 Lord Derby retired, and Disraeli, who took his place as 
prime minister, wished for Lord Cairns as lord chancellor. Lord 
Chelmsford was very sore at his supersession and the manner 
of it, but, according to Lord Malmesbury he retired under a 
compact made before he took office. Ten years later Lord 
Chelmsford died in London on the 5th of October 1878. Lord 
Chelmsford had married in 1822 Anna Maria Tinling. He left 
four sons and three daughters, of whom the eldest, Frederick 
Augustus, 2nd Baron Chelmsford (1827-1005), earned distinction 
as a soldier, while the third, Alfred Henry Thesiger (1838-1880) 
was made a lord justice of appeal and a privy councillor in 1877, 
at the early age of thirty-nine, but died only three years later. 

Sec Lives of Ik* Chancellors (1008). by J. B. Atlay. who has had the 
advantage of access to an unpublished autobiography of Lord 

CHELMSFORD, a market town and municipal borough, and 
the county town of Essex, England, in the Chelmsford parlia- 
mentary division, 30 m. E.N.E. from London by the Great 
Eastern railway. Pop. (1901) 12,580. It is situated in the 
valley of the Chelmer, at the confluence of the Cann, and has 
communication by the river with Maldon and the Dlackwater 
estuary 11 m. east. Besides the parish church of St Mary, a 
graceful Perpendicular edifice, largely rebuilt, the town has 
a grammar school founded by Edward VI., an endowed charity 
school and a museum. It is the seat of the county assizes and 
quarter sessions, and has a handsome shire hall; the county gaol 

is near the town. Its corn and cattle markets are among 
largest in the county; for the first a fine exchange is provid 
In the centre of the square in which the corn exchange is situs 
stands a bronze statue of Lord Chief- Justice Tindal (1776- 1& 
a native of the parish. There are agricultural implement 1 
iron foundries, large electric light and engineering wm 
breweries, tanneries, makings and extensive corn mills. Tfc 
is a race-course 2 m. south of the town. The borough is tin 
a mayor, 6 aldermen and 18 councillors. Area 2308 acres. 

A place of settlement since Palaeolithic times, Chelmsf 
(Chil men ford, CkeJmeresford, Chelmcsford) owed its importa 
to its position on the road from London to Colchester. It e 
sistcd of two manors: that of Moulsham, which remained in 
possession of Westminster Abbey from Saxon times till the re 
of Henry VIII., when it was granted to Thomas Mildmay; 1 
that of Bishop's Hall, which was held by the bishops of Lock 
from the reign of Edward the Confessor to 1545, when it pas 
to the crown and was granted to Thomas Mildmay In 1 563. 1 
medieval history of Chelmsford centred round the manor 
Bishop's Hall. Early in the 12th century Bishop Maurice bi 
the bridge over the Chelmer which brought the road from Load 
directly through the town, thus making it an important stoppli 
place. The town was not incorporated until 1888. In si 
Chelmsford was made the centre for the collection of fifteen) 
from the county of Essex, and in 1227 it became the regular m 
of assizes and quarter-sessions. Edward I. confirmed Bish 
Richard de Gravcsend in his rights of frank pledge in Chelmsfc 
in 1200, and in 1395 Richard II. granted the return of writs 
Bishop Robert de Braybroke. In 1377 writs were issued for I 
return of representatives from Chelmsford to parliament, I 
no return of members has been found. In z 109 the bish 
obtained the grant of a weekly market at the yearly rent of c 
palfrey, and in 1201 that of an annual fair, now discontinui 
for four days from the feast of St Philip and St James. 

CHELSEA, a western metropolitan borough of Loodt 
England, bounded E. by the city of Westminster, N.W. 
Kensington, S.W. by Fulham, and S. by the river Tham 
Pop. (1001) 73,842. Its chief thoroughfare is Sloane Stre 
containing handsome houses and good shops, running south fit 
Knightsbridge to Sloane Square. Hence King's Road lea 
west, a wholly commercial highway, named in honour of Char 
II., and recalling the king's private road from St James's Pah 
to Fulham, which was maintained until the reign of George I 
The main roads south communicate with the Victoria or Chelv 
Albert and Battersea bridges over the Thames. The bcauti 
Chelsea embankment, planted with trees and lined with fi 
houses and, in part, with public gardens, stretches betwe 
Victoria and Battersea bridges. The better residential porti 
of Chelsea is the eastern, near Sloane Street and along the rivi 
the western, extending north to Fulham Road, is mainly a pc 

Chelsea, especially the riverside district, abounds in historic 
associations. At Ccalchythe a synod was held in 785. 
similar name occurs in a Saxon charter of the nth century aj 
in Domesday; in the 16th century it is Chelcith. The la! 
termination ey or ca was associated with the insular character 
the land, and the prefix with a gravel bank (ceosol; cf. Che 
Bank, Dorsetshire) thrown up by the river; but the eai 
suffix hylhe is common in the meaning of a haven. The man 
was originally in the possession of Westminster Abbey, but i 
history is fragmentary until Tudor times. It then came in 
the hands of Henry VIII., passed from him to his wife Cathari 
Parr, and thereafter had a succession of owners, among who 
were the Howards, to whom it was granted by Queen Elizabel 
and the Cheynes, from whom it was purchased in 1712 by ! 
Hans Sloane, after which it passed to the Cadogans. T 
memorials which crowd the picturesque church and churchya 
of St Luke near the river, commonly known as the Old Churc 
to a great extent epitomize the history of Chelsea. Such a 
those of Sir Thomas More (d. 1535); Lord Bray, lord oft 
manor (1539)* bis father and son; Lady Jane Guyldefoi 
duchess of Northumberland, who died " at her mancr of Chela 



b 1555; Xerd and Lady Daere (1594-1595); Sir John Lawrence 
(1638); Lady Jane Cheyne (1698); Francis Thomas, " director 
of the china porcelain manufactory, Lawrence Street, Chelsea " 
(1770); Sir Hans Sloane (1753); Thomas Shadwell, poet 
borate (169s); Woodfall the printer of Junius (1844)* and 
■any others. More's tomb is dated 1 53a, as he set it up himself, 
though it is doubtful whether he lies beneath it His house was 
■ear the present Beaufort Street. In the 18th and 19th centuries 
Chelsea, especially the parts about the embankment and Cheyne 
Walk, was the home of many eminent men, particularly of 
writers and artists, with whom this pleasant quarter has long 
been in favour. Thus in the earlier part of the period named, 
Atterbury and Swift lived in Church Lane, Steele and Smollett 
in Monmouth House. Later, the names of Turner, Rossetti, 
Whistler, Leigh Hunt, Carlyle (whose house in Cheyne Row 
is preserved as a public memorial), Count D'Orsay, and Isambard 
Brand, are intimately connected with Chelsea. At Lindsey 
House Count Zinsendorf established a Moravian Society (c. 1750). 
Sir Robert Watpoie's residence was extant till 1 810; and till 1824 
the bishops of Winchester had a palace in Cheyne Walk. Queen's 
Bouse, the home of D. G. Rossetti (when it was called Tudor 
Bouse), is believed to take name from Catharine of Braganza. 

Chelsea was noted at different periods for two famous places 
of entertainment, Ranelagh (q.v.) in the second half of the 18th 
century, and Cremorne Gardens (y.t.) in the middle of the 19th. 
Don Saltern's museum, which formed the attraction of a popular 
coffee-house, was formed of curiosities from Sir Hans Sloanc's 
famous collections. It was Sloane who gave to the Apothecaries' 
Company the ground which they had leased in 1673 * or lnc 
Physsck Garden, which is still extant, but ceased in 2002 to be 
w.^fin^ by the Company. At Chelsea Sir John Danvers 
(d. 1655) introduced the Italian style of gardening which was 
so greatly admired by Bacon and soon after became prevalent 
is England. Chelsea was formerly famous for a manufacture 
of buns; the original Chelsea bun-house, claiming royal patron- 
age, stood until 1839, and one of its successors until 1888. The 
P"frr | ^ i q works existed for some 25 years before 1769, when 
they were told and removed to Derby. Examples of the original 
Chelsea ware (see Ceramics) are of great value. 

Of buildings and institutions the most notable is Chelsea 
Royal Hospital for invalid soldiers, initiated by Charles II. 
(according to tradition on the suggestion of Nell Gwynne), and 
opened in 1694. The hospital itself accommodates upwards of 
500 men, but a system of out-pensioning was found necessary 
from the outset, and. now relieves large numbers throughout 
the empire. The picturesque building by Wren stands in exten- 
sive grounds, which include the former Ranelagh Gardens. A 
theological college (King James's) formerly occupied the site; 
it was founded in 1610 and was intended to be of great size, but 
the fffrfiy was unsuccessful, and only a small part of the build- 
ings was erected. In the vicinity are the Chelsea Barracks 
(not actually in the borough). The Royal Military Asylum for 
boys, commonly called the Duke of York's school, founded in 
180s by Frederick, duke of York, for the education of children 
connected with the army, was removed in 1009 to new quarters 
at Dover. Other institutions are the Whitelands training 
college for school-mistresses, in which Ruskin took deep interest; 
the St Mark's college for school-masters; the Victoria and the 
Cheyne hospitals for children, a cancer hospital, the South- 
western polytechnic, and a public library containing an excellent 
collection relative to local history. 

The parliamentary borough of Chelsea returns one member, 
and includes, as a detached portion, Kensal Town, north of 
Kmfffrtg t< > ,t The borough council consists of a mayor, 6 alder- 
men and 36 councillors. Area, 659-6 acres. 

CHELIBA, a dty of Suffolk county, Massachusetts, U.S.A., 
a suburb of Boston. Pop. (1800) 27,009; (2000) 34,072, of 
whom 11,203 were foreign-born; (19 10) 32,452. It is situ- 
ated on a peninsula between the Mystic and Chelsea rivers, 
and Charleatown and East Boston, and is connected with 
East Boston and Charlestown by bridges. It is served by the 
It Maine and (for freight) by the Boston & Albany 

railways. The United States maintains here naval and marine 
hospitals, and the state a soldiers' home, Chelsea's interests 
are primarily industrial. The value of the city's factory products 
in 1005 was $13,879,159, the principal items being rubber and 
elastic goods (83,635,2x1) and boots and shoes ($2,044,250.) 
The manufacture of stoves, and of mucilage and paste are 
important industries. Flexible tubing for electric wires (first 
made at Chelsea 1889) and art tiles are important products. 
The first settlement was established in 1624 by Samuel Maverick 
(c. 2602-c. 1670), the first settler (about 2629) of Noddle's 
Island (or East Boston), and one of the first slave-holders in 
Massachusetts; a loyalist and Churchman, in 1604 he was 
appointed with three others by Charles II. on an important 
commission sent to Massachusetts and the other New England 
colonics (see Nicous, Richaxd), and spent the last years of 
his life in New York. Until 2730, under the name of Winnisim- 
met, Chelsea formed a part of Boston, but in that year it was 
made a township; it became a city in 2857. In May 2775 a 
British schooner in the Mystic defended by a force of marines 
was taken by colonial militia under General John Stark and 
Israel Putnam,-— one of the first conflicts of the War of Inde- 
pendence. A terrible fire swept the central part of the city on 
the 22th of April 2008. 

See Mellen Chamberlain (and others). History of Ckdsta (2 vols., 
Boston. 1908), published by the Massachusetts Historical Society. 

CHELTENHAM, a municipal and parliamentary borough of 
Gloucestershire, England, 209 m, W. by N. of London by the 
Great Western railway; served also by the west and north 
line of the Midland railway. Pop. (1002) 49.439- The town is 
well situated in the valley of the Chelt, a small tributary of the 
Severn, under the high line of the Cotteswold Hills to the east, 
and is in high repute as a health resort Mineral springs were 
accidentally discovered in 2726. The Montpellier and Pittville 
Springs supply handsome pump rooms standing in public 
gardens, and are the property of the corporation. The Mont- 
pellier waters are sulphated, and are valuable for their diuretic 
effect, and as a stimulant to the liver and alimentary canaL The 
alkaline-saline waters of Pittville are efficacious against diseases 
resulting from excess of uric acid. The parish church of St Mary 
dates from the 24th century, but is almost completely modern- 
ized. The town, moreover, is wholly modern in appearance. 
Assembly rooms opened in 2825 by the duke of Wellington were 
removed in 2002. A new town hall, including a central spa and 
assembly rooms, was opened in 2003. There are numerous other 
handsome buildings, especially in High Street, and the Promen- 
ade forms a beautiful broad thoroughfare, lined with trees. 
The town is famous as an educational centre. Cheltenham 
College (1842) provides education for boys in three departments, 
classical, military and commercial; and includes a preparatory 
school The Ladies' College (2854), long conducted by Miss 
Beale (qv.), is one of the most successful in England. The 
Normal Training College was founded in 2846 for the training 
of teachers, male and female, in national and parochial schools. 
A free grammar school was founded in 2568 by Richard Pate, 
recorder of Gloucester. The art gallery and museum may be 
mentioned also. The parliamentary borough returns one 
member. The municipal borough is under a mayor, 6 aldermen 
and 28 councillors. Area, 4726 acres. The urban district of 
Charlton Kings (pop. 3806) forms a south-eastern suburb of 

The site of a British village and burying-ground, Cheltenham 
(Celtankomme, Chiltkam, Chdttkam) was a village with a church 
in 803. The manor belonged to the crown; it was granted to 
Henry de Bohun, earl of Hereford, late in the 22th century, but 
in 2109 was exchanged for other lands with the king. It was 
granted to William de Longespee, earl of Salisbury, in 2229, but 
resumed on his death and granted in dower to Eleanor of Pro- 
vence in 2243. In 2252 the abbey of Fecamp purchased the 
manor, and it afterwards belonged to the priory of ConneHle, 
but was confiscated in 2425 as the possession of an alien priory, 
and was granted in 2462 to the abbey of Lyon, by which it was 
held until, once more returning to the crown at the Dissolution, 



it was granted to the family of Dutton. The town is first 
tioned in 1223, when William de Longespee leased the benefit 
of the markets, fairs and hundred of Cheltenham to the men of 
the town for three years; the lease was renewed by Henry IIL 
in 1226, and again in 1230 for ten years. A market town in the 
time of Camden, it was governed by commissioners from the 
18th century in 1876, when it was incorporated; it became a 
parliamentary borough in 1832. Henry III. in 1 230 had granted 
to the men of Cheltenham a market on each Thursday, and a fair 
on the vigil, feast and morrow of St James. Although Camden 
mentions a considerable trade in malt, the spinning of woollen 
yarn was the only industry in 1779. After the discovery of 
springs in x 7 1 6, and the erection of a pump-room in x 738, Chelten- 
ham rapidly became fashionable, the visit of George 111. and the 
royal princesses in 1788 ensuring its popularity. 

See & Moreau. A Tour to Cheltenham Spa (Bath, 1738). 

CHELYABINSK, a town of Russia, in the Orenburg govern- 
ment, at the east foot of the Urals, is the head of the Siberian 
railway, 624 m. by rail E.N.E. of Samara and 154 m. by rail 
S.S.E. of Ekaterinburg. Pop. (1900) 25,505. It has tanneries 
and distilleries, and is the centre of the trade in corn and pro- 
duce of cattle for the Ural iron-work*. The town was founded 
in 1658. 

CHELTS (Gr. x&"j tortoise; Lat testudo), the common lyre 
of the ancient Greeks, which had a convex back of tortoise- 
shell or of wood shaped like the shell. The word ckdys was nsed 
in allusion to the oldest lyre of the Greeks which was said to 
have been invented by Hermes. According to tradition he was 
attracted by sounds of music while walking- on the banks of the 
Nile, and found they proceeded from the shell of a tortoise across 
which were stretched tendons which the wind had set in vibration 
(Homeric Hymn to Hermes, 47-5 1 ). The word has been applied 
arbitrarily since classic times to various stringed instruments, 
some bowed and some twanged, probably owing to the back 
being much vaulted. Kircher (Musurgia, i. 486) applied the 
name of ckdys to a kind of viol with eight strings. Numerous 
representations of the ckdys lyre or Ustudo occur on the Greek 
vases, in which the actual tortoisrshell is depicted; a good illus- 
tration is given in Le Antickitd di Ercolano (vol. i. pi. 43). Pro* 
pertius (iv. 6) calls the instrument the lyra testudinea. Scaliger 
(on Manilius, Astronomicon, Proleg. 420) was probably the first 
writer to draw attention to the difference between ckdys and 
cithara (q.v.). (K. S.) 

CHEMICAL ACTION, the term given to any process in which 
change in chemical composition occurs. Such processes may be 
set up by the application of some form of energy (heat, light, 
electricity, &c.) to a substance, or by the mixing of two or more 
substances together. If two or more substances be mixed one of 
three things may occur. First, the particles may be mechani- 
cally intermingled, the degree of association being dependent 
upon the fineness of the particles, &c. Secondly, the substances 
may intermolecularly penetrate, as in the case of gas-mixtures 
and solutions. Or thirdly they may react chemically. The 
question whether, in any given case, we have to deal with a 
physical mixture or a chemical compound is often decided by 
the occurrence of very striking phenomena. To take a simple 
example: — oxygen and hydrogen are two gases which may be 
mixed in all proportions at ordinary temperatures, and it is easy 
to show that the properties of the products are simply those of 
mixtures of the two free gases. If, however, an electric spark 
be passed through the mixtures, powerful chemical union ensues, 
with its concomitants, great evolution of heat and consequent 
rise of temperature, and a compound, water, is formed which 
presents physical and chemical properties entirely different from 
those of its constituents. 

In general, powerful chemical forces give rise to the evolution 
of large quantities of heat, and the properties of the resulting sub- 
stance differ vastly more from those of its components than is the 
case with simple mixtures. This constitutes a valuable criterion 
as to whether mere mixture is involved on the one hand, or strong 
chemical union on the other. When, however, the chemical 
forces art weak and the reaction, being incomplete, leads to a 

state of chemical equilibrium, in which all the reacting tubal 
are present side by side, this criterion vanishes. For exampl 
question whether a salt combines with water molecules 
dissolved in water cannot be said even yet to be fully se 
and, although there can be no doubt that solution is, in : 
cases, attended by chemical processes, still we possess as y 
means of deciding, with certainty, how many molecul 
water have bound themselves to a single molecule of the diss 
substance {solute). On the other hand, we possess exact met 
of testing whether gases or solutes in dilute solution raac 
with another and of determining the equilibrium state wk 
attained. For if one solute react with another on addinj 
latter to its solution, then corresponding to the decrease « 
concentration there must also be a decrease of vapour pact 
and of solubility in other solvents; further, in the cue 
mixture of gases, the concentration of each single constii 
follows from its solubility in some suitable solvent. We 
obtain the answer to the question: whether the concenta 
of a certain constituent has decreased during mixing, Le, win 
it has reacted chemically. 

When a compound can be obtained in a pure state, aiu 
affords us an important criterion of its chemical nature 
unlike mixtures, the compositions of which are always var 
within wider or narrower limits, chemical compounds pn 
definite and characteristic mass-relations, which find full ex] 
sion in the atomic theory propounded by Dal ton (see At 
According to this theory a mixture is the result of the xm 
interpenetration of the molecules of substances, which rei 
unchanged as such, whilst chemical union involves changes 1 
deeply seated, inasmuch as new molecular species ap| 
These new substances, if well -defined chemical compounds, I 
a perfectly definite composition and contain a definite, gene 
small, number of elementary atoms, and therefore the la' 
constant proportions follows at once, and the fact that oal 
integral number of atoms of any element may enter into 
composition of any molecule determines the law of mul 

These considerations bring us face to face with the tas 
more closely investigating the nature of chemical 
forces, in other words, of answering the question: j** 
what forces guide the atoms in the formation of a new JjJJJ 
molecular species? This problem is still far from 
being completely answered, so that a tew general remarks 1 
suffice here. 

It is remarkable that among the most -stable chemical < 
pounds, we find combinations of atoms of one and the a 
element. Thus, the stability of the di-atomic molecule"* 
so great, that no trace of dissociation has yet been proved « 
at the highest temperatures, and as the constituent atoms of 
molecule N« must be regarded as absolutely identical, it Is < 
that " polar " forces cannot be the cause of all chemical ad 
On the other hand, especially powerful affinities are 
at work when so-called electro-positive and dectro-nega 
elements react The forces which here come into play appes 
be considerably greater than those just mentioned; for insta 
potassium fluoride is perhaps the most stable of all kr* 

It is also to be noticed that the combinations of the elec 
negative elements (metalloids) with one another exhibi 
metalloid character, and also we find, in the mutual combinat 
of metals, all the characteristics of the metallic state; bu 
the formation of a salt from a metal and a metalloid we haw 
entirely new substance, quite different from its compone 
and at the same time, the product is seen to be an electro! 
i.e. to have the power of splitting up into a positively at 
negatively charged constituent when dissolved in some sohr 
These considerations lead to the conviction that forces < 
" polar " origin play an important part here, and indeed we 1 
make the genera] surmise that in the act of chemical combina 
forces of both a non-polar and polar nature play a part, and 1 
the latter are in all probability identical with the electric fbi 

It now remains to be asked — what are the laws which goi 



the action of these forces? This question is of fundamental 
import* nor, since it leads directly to those law* which regulate 
the chemical process. Besides the already mentioned funda- 
mental law of chemical combination, that of constant and 
multiple proportions, there is the law of chemical mass-action, 
discovered by Guldberg and Waage in 1867, which we will now 
develop from a kinetic standpoint 

Kinetic Boris of Ok Law of Chemical Mau-octum.—Wt will 
assume that the molecular species A ( , A* . . . A' w A\ . . 
are present in a homogeneous system, where they can react on 
each other only according to the scheme 

A.+A.+ ...J*A',+A',+ ...; 
this Is A special case of the general equation 

*»A»+%Atir-... <± *'»A',+*'.A'.+. ... 
fa which only one molecule of each substance takes part In the 
reaction. The reacting substances may be either gaseous or 
form a liquid mixture, or be dissolved in some selected solvent; 
but hi each case we may state the following considerations 
regarding the course of the reaction. For a transformation to 
take place from left to right in the sense of the reaction equation, 
all the snoloceles At, A*> . . . must dearly collide at one point; 
eihenrJse no reaction is possible, since we shall not consider 
si de reac ti o ns Such a collision need not of course bring about 
that transposition of the atoms of the single molecules which 
constitutes the above reaction. Much rather must it be of such 
a kind as is favourable to that loosening of the bonds that bind 
the atoms in the separate molecules, which must precede this 
transposition. Of a large number of such collisions, therefore, 
only a certain smaller number will involve a transposition from 
left to right in the sense of the equation. But this number will 
be the same under the same external conditions, and the greater 
the note numerous the collisions; in fact a direct ratio must 
exist between the two. Bearing in mind now, that the number 
of cotillions must be proportional to each of the concentrations 
of the bodies A*, A* . . ., and therefore, on the whole, to the 
product of aD these concentrations, we arrive at the conclusion 
that the velocity t of the transposition from left to right in the 
sense of the reaction equation is vkc x c t . . ., in which c t , c % 
. . . represent the spatial concentrations, i*. the number of 
gAm-Aokcules of the substances A t , A* . . . present in one 
litre, and a is, at a given temperature, a constant which may be 
called the velocity-coefficient. 

Exactly the same consideration applies to the molecules 
A'i, A'» . • . Here the velocity of the change from right to 
left in the sense of the reaction-equation increases with the 
number of fnltisions of all these mokcules at one point, and this 
is proportional to the product of all the concentrations. If 
¥ drrP^** the corresponding proportionality-factor, then the 
velocity • of the change from right to left in the sense of the 
reaction-equation is v'-JrWt . . . These spatial concentra- 
tions arc often called the " active masses " of the reacting com- 
ponents. Hence the reaction-velocity in the sense of the reaction- 
equation from left to right, or the reverse, is proportional to the 
product of the M active-masses " of the left-hand or right-hand 
compoaenU respectively. 

Neither nor w* can be separately investigated, and the 
measurements of the course of a reaction always furnish only 
Wm _ mmM the difference of these two quantities. The reaction- 
JJLSrf velocity actually observed represents the difference 
«aaasa> of these two partial reaction-velocities, whilst the 
amount of change observed during any period of time 
is equal to the change in the one direction, minus the change in 
the opposite direction. It must not be assumed, however, that 
on the attainment of equilibrium all action has ceased, but 
rather that the velocity of change in one direction has become 
equal to that in the opposite direction, with the result that no 
farther total change can be observed, i.e. the system has reached 
aquilfbriuin,for which the relation f—r'-o must therefore hold, 
or what is the same thing 

**»... -aVicV..; 
Oaf is tbf fundamental law of chemical statics. 

The conception that the equilibrium is not to be attributed 
to absolute indifference between the reacting bodies, but that 
these continue to exert their mutual actions undiminished and 
the opposing changes now balance, is of fundamental significance 
in the interpretation of changes of matter in general. This is 
generally expressed in the form: the equilibrium in this and 
other analogous easts is not static but dynamic This conception 
was a direct result of the kinetic-molecular considerations, and 
was applied with special success to the development of the kinetic 
theory of gases. Thus with Claushis, we conceive the equilibrium 
of water-vapour with water, not as if neither water vaporised 
nor vapour condensed, but rather as though the two processes 
went on unhindered in the equilibrium state,*.*, during contact 
of saturated vapour with water, in a given time, as many water 
molecules passed through the water surface in one direction as 
in the opposite direction. This view, as applied to chemical 
changes, was first advanced by A. W. Williamson (1851), and 
further developed by C. M. Guldberg and P. Waage and 

From the previous considerations it follows that the reaction- 
velocity at every moment, sVe. the velocity with LMmm§ 
which the chemical process advances towards the ^Iim^oi 
equilibrium state, is given by the equation kuwum, 

V-v-r*-***,. . . -ftVrt. ... ; 
this states the fundamental law of chemical kinetics. 

The equilibrium equation is simply a special case of this more 
general one, and results when the total velocity is written 
zero, just as in analytical mechanics the equilibrium conditions 
follow at once by specialization of the general equations of 

No difficulty presents Itself in the generalization of the previous 
equations for the reaction which proceeds after the scheme 
»iA4+«»Ai+ . . . -M\A'i+n'»A't+ .... 

where*),** . . .,« / i,« / t, . . . denote the numbers of molecules 
of the separate substances which take part in the reaction, and 
are therefore whole, mostly small, numbers (generally one or 
two, seldom three or more). Here as before, t and v* are to be 
regarded as proportional to the number of collisions at one point 
of all molecules necessary to the respective reaction, but now *t 
molecules of A ( , *•* molecules of At, &c>, must collide for the 
reaction to advance from left to right in the sense of the equation; 
and similarly n\ molecules of A'i, n't molecules of A'* &c., 
must collide for the reaction to proceed in the opposite direction. 
If we consider the path of a single, arbitrarily chosen molecule 
over a certain time, then the number of its collisions with other 
similar molecules will be proportional to the concentration C 
of that kind of molecule to which it belongs. The number of • 
encounters between two molecules of the kind in question, during 
the same time, will be in general C times as many, i.e. the number 
of encounters of two of the same molecules is proportional to 
the square of the concentration C; and generally, the number 
of encounters of n molecules of one kind must be regarded as 
proportional to the nth power of C, i.e. O. 

The number of collisions of n t molecules of A t , * t molecules 
of At ... is accordingly proportional to CpC? . • . , and the 
reaction-velocity corresponding to it is therefore 

and similarly the opposed reaction-velocity is 

the resultant reaction-velocity, being the difference of these 
two partial velocities, is therefore 

v-»-r*-K?c? ..-atr^c';'*... 

This is the most general expression of the law of chemical mass- 
action, for the case of homogeneous systems. 

Equating V to sero, we obtain the equation for the equilibrium 
state, vis* 

(?<?. . . /C;"'«C*\ . ..-t/y-K; 
K is called the " equilibrium-constanL w 



These formulae hold for gases and for dilate solutions, but 
assume the system to be homogeneous, ix. to be either a homo- 
Ltm to. geneous gas-mixture or a homogeneous dilute solution. 
Oom&amS The case in which other states of matter share in the 
MNi r s equilibrium permits of simple treatment when the 
27£j!^ substances in question may be regarded as pure, and 
consequently as possessing definite vapour-pressures 
or solubilities at a given temperature. In this case the molecular 
species in question, which is, at the same time, present in excess 
and is hence usually, called a Bodenkdrper, must possess a constant 
concentration in the gas-space or solution. But since the left- 
hand side of the last equation contains only variable quantities, 
it is simplest and most convenient to absorb these constant 
concentrations into the equilibrium-constant; whence we have 
the rule: leave the molecular species present as Bodenkdrper 
out of account, when determining the concentration-product. 
Guldberg and Waage expressed this in the form " the active 
mass of a solid substance is constant." The same is true of 
liquids when these participate in the pure state in the equilibrium, 
and possess therefore a definite vapour-pressure or solubility. 
When, finally, we are not dealing with a dilute solution but with 
any kind of mixture whatever, it is simplest to apply the law 
of mass-action to the gaseous mixture in equilibrium with this. 
The composition of the liquid mixture is then determinable 
when the vapour-pressures of the separate -components are 
known. This, however, is not often the case; but in principle 
this consideration is important, since it involves the possibility 
of extending the law of chemical mass-action from ideal gas- 
mixtures and dilute solutions, for which it primarily holds, to 
any other system whatever. 

The more recent development of theoretical chemistry, as 
weU as the detailed study of many chemical processes which 
have found technical application, leads more and more con- 
vincingly to the recognition that in the law of chemical mass- 
action we have a law of as fundamental significance as the law 
of constant and multiple proportions. It is therefore not without 
interest to briefly touch upon the development of the doctrine 
of chemical affinity. 

Historical Development of the Law of Mass-action. — The theory 
developed by Torbern Olof Bergman in 1775 must be regarded 
as the first attempt of importance to account for the mode of 
action of chemical forces. The essential principle of this may 
be stated as follows: — The magnitude of chemical affinity may 
be expressed by a definite number; if the affinity of the sub- 
stance A is greater for the substance B than for the substance 
C, then the latter (C) will be completely expelled by B from its 
compound with A, in the sense of the equation A-C+B - A«B-fC. 
• This theory fails, however, to take account of the influence of 
the relative masses of the reacting substances, and had to be 
abandoned as soon as such an influence was noticed. An 
attempt to consider this factor was made by Claude Louis 
Berthollet (1801), who introduced the conception of chemical 
equilibrium. The views of this French chemist may be summed 
up in the following sentence: — Different substances have differ- 
ent affinities for each other, which only come into play on im- 
mediate contact. The condition of equilibrium depends not only 
upon the chemical affinity, but also essentially upon the relative 
masses of the reacting substances. 

Essentially, Berthollet's idea is to-day the guiding principle 
of the doctrine of affinity. This is especially true of our con- 
ceptions of many reactions which, in the sense of Bergman's idea, 
proceed to completion, i.e. until the reacting substances are all 
used up; but only for this reason, via. that one or more of the 
products of the reaction is removed from the reaction mixture 
(either by crystallization, evaporation or some other process), 
and hence the reverse reaction becomes impossible. Following 
Berthollet's idea, two Norwegian investigators, C. M. Guldberg 
and Peter Waage, succeeded in formulating the influence of the 
reacting masses in a simple law— the law of chemical mass-action 
already defined. The results of their theoretical and experi- 
mental studies were published at Christiania in 1867 (£ludes sur 
Us qffinitis ckinuqms); this work marks a ucw epoch in the 

history of chemistry. Even before this, formulae to describe the 
progress of certain chemical reactions, which must be regarded 
as applications of the law of mass-action, had been put forward 
by Ludwig Wflhehny (1850), and by A. G. Vernon-Harcourt 
and William Esson (1856), but the service of Guldberg and 
Waage in having grasped the law in its full significance and 
logically applied it in all directions, remains of course un- 
diminished. Their treatise remained quite unknown; and so 
it happened that John Hewitt Jellett (1873), J. H. van't Hoff 
(1877), and others independently developed the same law. 
The thermodynamic basis of the law of mass-action is primarily 
due to Horstmann, J. Willard Gibbs and van't Hoff. 

Applications. —Let us consider, as an example of the appli- 
cation of the law of mass-action, the case of the dissociation of 
water-vapour, which takes place at high temperatures in the 
sense of the equation 2H<0-2HrK)*. •Representing the con- 
centrations of the corresponding molecular species by (H J, Ac, 
the expression [H J* lOj/lH/^ must be constant at any given 
temperature. This shows that the dissociation is set back by 
increasing the pressure; for if the concentrations of all three 
kinds of molecules be increased by strong compression, say to 
ten times the former amounts, then the numerator is increased 
one thousand, the denominator only one hundred times. Hence 
if the original equilibrium-constant is to hold, the dissociation 
must go back, and, what is more, by an exactly determinable 
amount At 2000° C. water-vapour is only dissociated to the 
extent of a few per cent; therefore, even when only a small 
excess of oxygen or hydrogen be present, the numerator in the 
foregoing expression is much increased, and it is obvious that in 
order to restore the equilibrium state, the concentration of the 
other component, hydrogen or oxygen as the case may be, must 
d iminish . In the case of slightly dissociated substances, there- 
fore, even a relatively small excess of one component b sufficient 
to set back the dissociation substantially. 

Chemical Kinetics.— It has been already mentioned that the 
law of chemical mass-action not only defines the conditions for 
chemical equilibrium, but contains at the same time the prin- 
ciples of chemical kinetics. The previous considerations show 
indeed that the actual progress of the reaction is determined by 
the difference of the reaction-velocities in the one and the other 
(opposed) direction, in the sense of the corresponding reaction- 
equation. Since the reaction-velocity is given by the amount of 
chemical change in a small interval of time, the law of chemical 
mass-action supplies a differential equation, which, when in- 
tegrated, provides formulae which, as numerous experiments 
have shown, very happily summarise the course of the reaction. 
For the simplest case, in which a single species of molecule under- 
goes almost complete decomposition, so that the reaction- 
velocity in the reverse direction may be neglected, we have the 
simple equation 

and if x-o when /-o we have by integration 

We will now apply these conclusions to the theory of the 
ignition of an explosive gas-mixture, and in particular to the 
combustion of "knallgas" (a mixture of hydrogen n—rrmt 
and oxygen) to water-vapour. At ordinary tempera- •«**•• 
tures knallgas undergoes practically no change, and JJjJLJJf" 
it might be supposed that the two gases, oxygen and f 
hydrogen, have no affinity for each other. This concruswa, 
however, is shown to be incorrect by the observation that it a 
only necessary to add some suitable catalyst such as platinum- . 
black in order to immediately start the reaction. We must 
therefore conclude that even at ordinary temperatures strong 
chemical affinity is exerted between oxygen and hydrogen, but 
that at low temperatures this encounters great Mctional resist- 
ances, or in other words that the reaction-velocity is very small. 
It is a matter of general experience that the r es ista nces which 
the chemical forces have to overcome diminish with rising 
temperature, i.e. the reaction-velocity increases with temperature. 
Therefore, when we warm the knallgas, the number of collisions 
of oxygen and hydrogen molecules favourable to the formation 



»mes greater and greater, until at about $00" the 
nation of water Is observed, while at still higher 
1 the reaction-velocity becomes enormous. We 
position to understand what is the result of a strong 
of the knallgas, as, for example, by an electric spark. 
V heated parts of the knallgas combine to form 
r with great velocity and the evolution of large 
seat, whereby the adjacent parts are brought to a 
iture and into a state of rapid reaction, i.e. we 
gnition of the whole mixture. If we suppose the 
w at a very high temperature, then its combustion 
mger complete owing to the dissociation of water- 
it at extremely high temperatures it would practi- 
ar. Hence it is clear that knallgas appears to be 
r temperatures only because the reaction-velocity 
U but that at very high temperatures it is really 
no chemical forces are then active, or, in other 
semical affinity is very small, 
mination of the question whether the failure of 
d is due to an inappreciable reaction-velocity or to 
aesnical affinity, is of fundamental importance, and 
nt case can the reaction be hastened by catalysts, 
nical compounds behave like knallgas Acetylene 
vdinary temperatures, inasmuch as it only decom- 
■; but at the same time it is explosive, for the 
a when once started is rapidly propagated, on 
*e heat evolved by the splitting up of the gas into 
hydrogen. At very high temperatures, however, 
quires real stability, since carbon and hydrogen 
!o form acetylene. 

esrehes have shown that the combustion of an 
gas-mixture which is started at a point, e.g. by an 
ctric spark, may be propagated in two essentially 
ferent ways. The characteristic of the slower 
nbustion consists in this, via. that the high tempera- 
previously ignited layer spreads by conduction, 
png the adjacent layers to the ignition-temperature; 
of the propagation is therefore conditioned in the 
f the magnitude of the conductivity for heat, and 
darly, in the second place, by the velocity with 
derately heated layer begins to react chemically, 
e gradually in temperature, i.e. essentially by the 
reaction-velocity with temperature. A second 
pendent mode of propagation of the combustion 
sis of the phenomenon that an explosive gas-mixture 
sd by strong compression or — more correctly — by 
mperature thereby produced. The increase of the 
is of the reacting substances consequent upon this 
treasure raises the reaction-velocity in accordance 
of chemical mass-action, and so enormously favours 
olution of the heat of combustion, 
fore clear that such a powerful compression-wave 
initiate the combustion, but also propagate it with 
gh velocity. Indeed a compression-wave of this 
hrough the gas-mixture, heated by the combustion 
[Ji temperature. It must, however, be propagated 

faster than an ordinary compression-wave, for 
ignition in the compressed (still unburnt) layer is 
m of a very high pressure, which must in accordance 
ariples of wave-motion increase the velocity of 

Tlic absolute velocity of the explosion-wave 
in the light of these considerations, to be susceptible 
calculation. It is at least clear that it must be 
higher than the velocity of sound in the mass of 
heated by the explosion, and this is confirmed by 
lemcnts (see below) which show that the velocity 
ion-wave is from one and a half times to double 
d-waves at the combustion temperature, 
ir in a position to form the following picture of the 
ich follow upon the ignition of a combustible gas- 
ained in a long tube. First we have the condition 
notion; the heat is conveyed by conduction to the 

adjacent layers, and there follows a velocity of propagation of 
a few metres per second. But since the combustion is accom- 
panied by a high increase of pressure, the adjacent, still unburnt 
layers Are simultaneously compressed, whereby the reaction- 
velocity increases, and the ignition proceeds faster. This 
involves still greater compression of the next layers, and so if 
the mixture be capable of sufficiently rapid combustion, the 
velocity of propagation of the ignition must continually increase. 
As soon as the compression in the still unburnt layers becomes 
so great that spontaneous ignition results, the now much 
more pronounced compression-waves excited with simultaneous 
combustion must be propagated with very great velocity, is. 
we have spontaneous development of an "explosion-wave." 
M.P.E. Berthelot, who discovered the presence of such explosion- 
waves, proved their velocity of propagation to be independent 
of the pressure, the cross-section of the tubes In which the 
explosive gas-mixture is contained, as well as of the material 
of which these are made, and concluded that this velocity is a 
constant, characteristic of the particular mixture. The deter- 
mination of this velocity is naturally of the highest Interest. 

In the following table Berthdot's results are given along with 
the later (1891) concordant ones of H.'B. Dixon, the velocities 
of propagation of explosions being given in metres per second. 

Reacting Mixture. 

Velocity of Wave in 
Metres per second. 



Hydtfof en and oxygen. HffO- 
lUcirogcn and nitrous oxide, Hi+N*0 ■ 
^fclh3^*r and ofcygen, CH*+40 . 
Ethylene ♦. M C,H,+60 
Acetylene ¥ , „ GHt+50. 
Cyanogen ♦, ♦♦ GN,-MO. 
Hydrogen and chlorine, Hj+Ui . 
2Hi+a . 




The maximum pressure of the explosion-wave possesses very 
high values; it appears that a compression of from 1 to 50-40 
atmospheres is necessary to produce spontaneous ignition of 
mixtures of oxygen and hydrogen. But since the heat evolved 
in the path of the explosion causes a rise of temperature of 
2ooo°-3ooo*. i.e. a rise of absolute temperature about four 
times that directly following upon the initial compression, we are 
here concerned with pressures amounting to considerably more 
than 100 atmospheres. Both the magnitude of this pressure 
and the circumstance that it so suddenly arises are peculiar to 
the very powerful forces which distinguish the explosion-wave 
from the slow combustion-wave. 

Nascent State.— The great reactive power of freshly formed 
or nascent substances (status natcens) may be very simply 
referred to the principles of mass-action. As is well known, 
this phenomenon is specially striking- in the case of hydrogen, 
which may therefore be taken as a typical example. The law 
of mass-action affirms the action of a substance to be the greater 
the higher its concentration, or, for a gas, the higher its partial- 
pressure. Now experience teaches that those metals, which 
liberate hydrogen from acids are able to supply the latter under 
extremely high pressure, and we may therefore assume that the 
hydrogen which results, for example, from the action of sine 
upon sulphuric acid is initially under very high pressures which 
are then afterwards relieved. Hence the hydrogen during 
liberation exhibits much more active powers of reduction than 
the ordinary gas. 

A deeper insight into the relations prevailing here is offered 
from the atomistic point of view. From this we are bound to 
conclude that the hydrogen is in the first instance evolved in 
the form of free atoms, and since the velocity of the reaction 
H-fH-Ht at ordinary temperatures, though doubtless very 
great, is not practically instantaneous, the freshly generated 
hydrogen will contain a remnant of free atoms, which are able to 
react both more actively and more rapidly. Similar considera- 
tions are of course applicable to other cases . 

/<m-re*c/tffu.— The applic at ion of the law of chemkal mats* 



action is much simplified in the case in which the reaction- 
velocity is enormously great, when practically an instantaneous 
adjustment of the equilibrium results. Only in this case can the 
state of the system, which pertains after mixing the different 
components, be determined merely from knowledge of the 
equilibrium-constant This case is realized in the reactions 
between gases at very high temperatures, which have, however, 
been little investigated, and especially by the reactions between 
electrolytes, the so-called ion-reactions. In this latter case, 
which has been thoroughly studied on account of its fundamental 
importance for inorganic qualitative and quantitative analysis, 
the degrees of dissociation of the various electrolytes (acids, 
bases and salts) are for the most part easily determined by the 
aid of the freezing-point apparatus, or of measurements of the 
electric conductivity; and from these data the equilibrium- 
constant K may be calculated. Moreover, it can be shown 
that the state of the system can be determined when the equi- 
librium constants of all the electrolytes which are present in the 
common solution are known. If this be coupled with the law 
that the solubility of solid substances, as with vapour-pressures, 
is independent of the presence of other electrolytes, it is sufficient 
to know the solubilities of the electrolytes in question, in order 
to be able to determine which substances must participate in the 
equilibrium in the solid state, i.«. we arrive at the theory of the 
formation and solution of precipitates. 

As an illustration of the application of these principle?, we 
shall deal with a problem of the doctrine of affinity, namely, 
that of the relative strengths of acids and bases. It 
|y2j2r was quite an early and often repeated observation 
tat teswi that the various acids and bases take part with very 
varying intensity or avidity in those reactions in 
which their acid or basic nature comes into play. No success 
attended the early attempts at giving numerical expression to 
the strengths of acids and bases, i.e. of finding a numerical 
coefficient for each acid and base, which should be the quantita- 
tive expression of the degree of its participation in those specific 
reactions characteristic of acids and bases respectively. Julius 
Thomsen and W. Ostwald attacked the problem in a far-seeing 
and comprehensive manner, and arrived at indisputable proof 
that the property of adds and bases of exerting their effects 
according to definite numerical coefficients finds expression not 
only in salt-formation but also in a large number of other, and 
indeed very miscellaneous, reactions. 

When Ostwald compared the order of the strengths of adds 
deduced from their competition for the same base, as determined 
by Thomsen's thermo-cnemical or bis own volumetric method, 
with that order in which the adds arrange themselves according 
to their capadty to bring caldum oxalate into solution, or to 
convert acetamide into ammonium acetate, or to split up 
methyl acetate into methyl alcohol and acetic acid catalytically, 
or to invert cane-sugar, or to accelerate the mutual action of 
hydriodic on bromic add, he found that in all these well-investi- 
gated and very miscellaneous cases the same succession of acids 
in the order of their strengths is obtained, whichever one of the 
above chemical processes be chosen as measure of these strengths. 
It is to be noticed that all these chemical changes cited took 
place in dilute aqueous solution, consequently the above order 
of adds refers only to the power to react under these circum- 
stances. The order of acids proved to be fairly independent 
of temperature. While therefore the above investigations 
afforded a definite qualitative solution of the order of acids 
according to strengths, the determination of the quantitative 
relations offered great difficulties, and the numerical coefficients, 
determined from the separate reactions, often displayed great 
variations, though occasionally also surprising agreement. 
Especially great were the variations of the coefficients with the 
concentration, and in those cases in which the concentration 
of the add changed considerably during the reaction, the calcu- 
lation was naturally quite uncertain. Similar relations were 
found in the investigation of bases, the scope of which, however, 
was much more limited. 

These apparently rather complicated relations were now 

deared up at one stroke, by the application of the law of chemical 
mass-action on the lines indicated by S. Arrhenius in 1887, when 
he put forward the theory of dectrolytic dissociation to explain 
that peculiar behaviour of substances in aqueous solution first 
recognized by van't Hoff in 1885. The formulae which must 
be made use of here in the calculation of the equilibrium-relations 
follow naturally by simple application of the law of mass-action 
to the corresponding ion-concentrations. 

The peculiarities which the behaviour of adds and bases 
presents, and, according to the theory of Arrhenius, must 
present — peculiarities which found expression In the very early 
distinction between neutral solutions on the one hand, and arid 
or basic ones on the other, as well as in the belief in a polar 
antithesis between the two last— must now, in the light of the 
theory of dectrolytic dissociation, be conceived as follows: — 

The reactions characteristic of adds in aqueous solution, 
which are common to and can only be brought about by acids, 
find their explanation in the fact that this class of bodies gives 
rise on dissociation to a common molecular species, namely, the 
positivdy charged hydrogen-ion (h). The specific chemical 
actions peculiar to adds are therefore to be attributed to the 
hydrogen-ion just as the actions common to all chlorides are to 
be regarded as those of the free chlorine-ions. In like manner, 
the reactions characteristic of bases in solution are to be attri- 
buted to the negatively charged hydroxyl-ions (oh), **»ch 
result from the dissociation of this class of bodies. 

A solution has an acid reaction when it e/>ntiins an excess of 
hydrogen-ions, and a basic reaction when it contains an excess 
of hydroxyl-ions. If an acid and an alkaline solution be brought 
together mutual neutralization must result, since the positive 
H-ions and the negative OH-ions cannot exist together in view 
of- the extremely weak conductivity of pure water and its conse- 
quent slight dectrolytic dissociation, and therefore they must at 
once combine to form electrically neutral molecules, in the sense 
of the equation + 

In this lies the simple explanation of the " polar M difference 
between add and basic solutions. This rests essentially upon the 
fact that the ion peculiar to adds and the ion peculiar to bases 
form the two constituents of water, ix. of that solvent in which 
we usually study the course of the reaction. The idea of the 
" strength " of an add or base at once arises. If we compare 
equivalent solutions of various adds, the intensity of those 
actions characteristic of them will be the greater the more free 
hydrogen-ions they contain; this is an immediate consequence 
of the law of chemical mass-action. The degree of dectrolytic 
dissociation determines, therefore, the strength of acids, and a 
similar consideration leads to the same result for bases. 

Now the degree of dectrolytic dissociation changes with 
concentration in a regular manner, which is given by the law of 
mass-action. For if C denote the concentration of the electrolyte 
and a its degree of dissociation, the above law states that 

CV/C(i -a)«CoV(i -o) -K. 

At very great dilutions the dissodation is complete, and equiva- 
lent solutions of the most various acids then contain the sane 
number of hydrogen-ions, or, in other words, are equally strong; 
and the same is true of the hydroxyl-ions of bases. The dis- 
sociation also decreases with increasing concentration, but at 
different rates for different substances, and the relative 
" strengths " of acids and bases must hence change with concen- 
tration, as was indeed found experimentally. The dissodation- 
constant K is the measure of the variation of the degree of 
dissodation with concentration, and must therefore be regarded 
as the measure of the strengths of adds and bases. So that in 
this special case we are again brought to the result which was 
stated in general terms above, viz. that the dissociation-coefficient 
forms the measure of the reactivity of a dissolved electrolyte. 
Ostwald '3 series of acids, based upon the investigation of the 
most various reactions, should therefore correspond with the 
order of thdr dissociation-constants, and further with the 



order of their freezing-point depressions in equivalent solutions, 
since the depression of the freezing-point increases with the 
degree of electrolytic dissociation. Experience confirms this 
conclusion completely. The degree of dissociation of an acid, 
at a given concentration, for which its molecular conductivity 
is A, is shown by the theory of electrolytic dissociation to be 
a-A/A«; A„, the molecular conductivity at very great dilu- 
tion in accordance with the law of Kohlrausch, is «+?, where 
■ and t are the ionic-mobilities (see Conduction, Electric). 
Since «, the ionic-mobility of the hydrogen km, is generally 
more than ten times as great as v, the tonic-mobility of the 
negative acid-radical, A* has approximately the same value 
(generally within less than 10%) for the different acids, and the 
molecular-conductivity of the acids in equivalent concentration 
b at least approximately porportional to the degree of electrolytic 
dissociation, it. to the strength. 

In genera], therefore, the order of conductivities is identical 
with that in which the adds exert their specific powers. This 
remarkable parallelism, first perceived by Arrhenius and Ostwald 
in 1885, was the happy development which led to the discovery 
of electrolytic dissociation (see Conduction, Electric; and 

Catalysis. — We have already mentioned the fact, early known 
to chemists, that many reactions proceed with a marked increase 
of velocity in presence of many foreign substances. With 
Berzdius we call this phenomenon " catalysis," by which we 
understand that general acceleration of reactions which also 
progress when left to themselves, in the presence of certain 
bodies which do not change in amount (or only slightly) during 
the course of the reaction. Acids and bases appear to act 
catalytically upon all reactions involving consumption or 
liberation of water, and indeed that action is proportional to the 
concentration of the hydrogen or hydroxyf-ions. Further, the 
decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is " catalysed " by iodine- 
ions, the condensation of two molecules of benzaldefayde to 
benzoin by cyanogen-ions. One of the earliest known and 
technically most important instances of catalysis is that of the 
oxidation of sulphur dioxide to sulphuric add by oxygen in the 
presence of oxides of nitrogen. Other well-known and remark- 
able examples are the catalysis of the combustion of hydrogen 
and of sulphur dioxide in oxygen by finely-divided platinum. 
We may also mention the interesting work of Dixon and Baker, 
which led to tbe discovery that a large number of gas-reactions, 
eg. the combustion of carbon monoxide, the dissociation of 
sal-ammoniac vapour, and the action of sulphuretted hydrogen 
upon the salts of heavy metals, cease when water-vapour a 
absent, or at least proceed with greatly diminished velodty. 

" Negative catalysis," i.e. the retardation of a reaction by 
addition of some substance, which is occasionally observed, 
appears to depend upon the destruction of a " positive catalyte " 
by tbe body added. 

A catalyte can have no influence, however, upon the affinity 
of a process, since that would be contrary to the second law of 
thermodynamics, according to which affinity of an isothermal 
process, which is measured by the maximum work, only depends 
upon the initial and final states. The effect of a catalyte is 
therefore limited to the resistances opposing the progress of a 
reaction, and does not influence its driving-force or affinity. 
Since the catalyte takes no part in the reaction its presence has 
no effect on the equilibrium-constant. This, in accordance 
with the law of mass-action, is the ratio of the separate reaction- 
velocities in the two contrary directions. A catalyte must 
therefore always accelerate the reverse-reaction. If the velodty 
of formation of a body be increased by addition of some substance 
then its vdodty of decomposition must likewise increase. We 
have an example of this in the well-known fact that the formation, 
and no less the saponification, of eaters, proceeds with increased 
vdodty in tbe presence of adds, while the observation that in 
absence of water-vapour neither gaseous ammonium chloride 
dJasoriates not dry ammonia combines with hydrogen chloride 
becomes clear on the same grounds. 

A general theory of catalytic phenomena does not at present 

exist. The formation of intermediate products by the action 
of the reacting substance upon the catalyte has often been 
thought to be the cause of these. These intervening products, 
whose existence in many cases has been proved, then split up 
into the catalyte and the reaction-product. Thus chemists 
have sought to ascribe the influence of oxides of nitrogen on the 
formation of sulphuric add to the initial formation of nitrosyl- 
sulphuric add, SOi(OH)(NO,), from the mixture of sulphur 
dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and air, which then reacted with water 
to form sulphuric and nitrous adds. When the velodty of such 
intermediate reactions b greater than that of the total change, 
such an explanation may suffice, but a more certain proof of this 
theory of catalysis has only been reached in a few cases, though 
in many others it appears very plausible. Hence it is hardly 
possible to interpret all catalytic processes on these lines. 

In regard to catalysis in heterogeneous systems, especially 
the hastening of gas-reactions by platinum, it is very probable 
that it is closely connected with the solution or absorption of tbe 
gases on the part of the metal. From the experiments of G. 
Bredig it seems that colloidal solutions of a metal act like the 
metal itself. The action of a colloidal-platinum solution on the 
decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is still sensible even at a 
dilution of 1/70,000,000 gnn.-mol. per litre; indeed the activity 
of this colloidal-platinum solution calls to mind in many ways 
that of organic ferments, hence Bredig has called it an " inorganic 
ferment." This analogy is especially striking in the change of 
thdr activity with time and temperature, and in the possibility, 
by means of bodies like sulphuretted hydrogen, hydrocyanic 
add, &c, which act as strong poisons upon the latter, of "poison- 
ing " the former also, i.e. of rendering it inactive. In the case 
of the catalytic action of water-vapour upon many processes 
of combustion already mentioned, a part of the effect is prob- 
ably due to the circumstance, disdosed by numerous experi- 
ments, that the union of hydrogen and oxygen proceeds, 
between certain temperature limits at least, after the equation 
H, + O, - H4O1, that is, with the preliminary formation of 
hydrogen peroxide, which then breaks down into water and 
oxygen, and further, above all, to the fact that this substance 
results from oxygen and water at high temperatures with great 
vdodty, though indeed only in small quantities. 

The view now suggests itself, that, for example, in the com- 
bustion of carbon monoxide at moderatdy high temperatures, 
the reaction 

(I.) 2CO+0.-2CO* 

advances with imperceptible speed, but that on the contrary the 
two stages 

fll.) 2H,0-r>0»-2HA. 

(III.) 2CO+2H/),-2COi+2HA 

which together result in (I.), proceed rapidly even at moderate 

Temperature and Reaction-Velocity.— Then are few natural 
constants which undergo so marked a change with temperature 
as those of the vdodties of chemical changes. As a rule a rise 
of temperature of xo* causes a twofold or threefold rise of 

If the reaction-coeffident it, in the sense of the equation 
derived above, via. *-/"• log |a/(«-*)l» be determined for the 
inversion of cane-sugar by an add of given concentration, the 
following values are obtained:— 

Temperature -25° 40° 43* 50* 55* 
* -9*7 73 139 »« 491: 
here a rise of temperature of only 30" suffices to raise the speed of 
inversion fifty times. 

We possess no adequate explanation of this remarkable 
temperature influence; but some account of it is given by the 
molecular theory, according to which the energy of that motion 
of substances in homogeneous gaseous or liquid systems which 
constitutes heat increases with the temperature, and hence also 
the frequency of collision of the reacting substances. When we 
reflect that the velocity of motion of the molecules of gases, and 
in all probability those of liquids also, are proportional to the 
square root of the absolute temperature, and therefore rise by 



only i % per degree at room-temperature, and that we must 
assume the number of collisions proportional to the velocity of 
the molecules, we cannot regard the actually observed increase 
of reaction-velocity, which often amounts to 10 or z 2 % per degree, 
as exclusively due to the quickening of the molecular motion by 
beat. It is more probable that the increase of the kinetic energy 
of the atomic motions within the molecule itself is of significance 
here, as the rise of the specific heat of gases with temperature 
seems to show. The change of the reaction-coefficient h with 
temperature may be represented by the empirical equation 
log 4- -AT" 1 + B + CT, where A, B, C are positive constants. 
For low temperatures the influence of the last term is as a 
rule negligible, whilst for high temperatures the first term on the 
right side plays a vanishingly small part. 

Definition of Chemical Affinity. — We have still to discuss the 
question of what is to be regarded as the measure of chemical 
affinity. Since we are not in a position to measure directly the 
intensity of chemical forces, the idea suggests itself to determine 
the strength of chemical affinity from the amount of the work 
which the corresponding reaction is able to do. To a certain 
extent the evolution of heat accompanying the reaction is a 
measure of this work, and attempts have been made to measure 
chemical affinities thermo-chemically, though it may be easily 
shown that this definition was not well chosen. For when, as is 
clearly most convenient, affinity is so defined that it determines 
under all circumstances the direction of chemical change, the 
above definition fails in so far as chemical processes often take 
place with absorption of heat, that is, contrary to affinities so 
defined. But even in those cases in which the course of the 
reaction at first proceeds in the sense of the evolution of heat, 
it is often observed that the reaction advances not to com- 
pletion but to a certain equilibrium, or, in other words, stops 
before the evolution of heat is complete. 

A definition free from this objection is supplied by the second 
law of thermodynamics, in accordance with which all processes 
must take place in so far as they are able to do external work. 
When therefore we identify chemical affinity with the maximum 
wcrk which can be gained from the process in question, we reach 
such a definition that the direction of the process is under all 
conditions determined by the affinity. Further, this definition 
has proved serviceable in so far as the maximum work in many 
cases may be experimentally measured, and moreover it stands 
is a simple relation to the equilibrium constant K. Thermo- 
d>r.arnics teaches that the maximum work A may be expressed 
as A- RT log K, when R denotes the gas-constant, T the absolute 
te r.peraturc. In this it is further assumed that both the molc- 
c -!ir species produced as well as those that disappear are present 
Ln concentration. The simplest experimental method of 
directly determining chemical affinity consists in the measure- 
rs r.t of electromotive force. The latter at once gives us the work 
which can be gained when the corresponding galvanic element 
implies the electricity, and, since the chemical exchange of one 
gram-equivalent from Faraday's law requires 06,540 coulombs, 
we obtain from the product of this number and the electromotive 
force the work per gram-equivalent in watt-seconds, and this 
quantity when multiplied by 0-23872 is obtained in terms of the 
usual unit, the gram-calorie. Experience teaches that, especially 
when we have to deal with strong affinities, the affinity so deter- 
mined is for the most part almost the same as the heat -evolution, 
whJit in the case in which only solid or liquid substances in the 
pure slate take part in the reaction at low temperatures, heat- 
evclution and affinity appear to possess a practically identical 

Hence it seems possible to calculate equilibria for low tem- 
peratures from heats of reaction, by the aid of the two equations 

A-Q, A*RTlogK; 
a.TJ since the change of A «ith temperature, as required by the 
principles of thermodynamics, follows from the specific heats of 
the reacting substances, it seems further possible to calculate 
cherr.ical equilibria from heats of reaction and specific heats 
The circumstance that chemical affinity and heat-evolution 
so nearly coincide at low temperatures may be derived from the 

hypothesis that chemical processes are the result of forces of 
attraction between the atoms of the different elements. If we 
may disregard the kinetic energy of the atoms, and this is 
legitimate for low temperatures, it follows that both heat-evolu- 
tion and chemical affinity are merely equal to the decrease of the 
potential energy of the above-mentioned forces, and it is at once 
clear that the evolution of heat during a reaction between only 
pure solid or pure liquid substances possesses special importance. 

More complicated is the case in which gases or dissolved sub- 
stances take part. This is simplified if we first consider the 
mixing of two mutually chemically indifferent gases. Thermo- 
dynamics teaches that external work may be gained by the mere 
mixing of two such gases (see Diffusion), and these amounts of 
work, which assume very considerable proportions at high 
temperatures, naturally affect the value of the maximum work 
and so also of the affinity, in that they always come into play 
when gases or solutions react. While therefore we regard as 
chemical affinity in the strictest sense the decrease of potential 
energy of the forces acting between the atoms, it is dear that the 
quantities here involved exhibit the simplest relations under the 
experimental conditions just given, for when only substances 
in a pure state take part in a reaction, all mixing of different 
kinds of molecules is excluded; moreover, the circumstance 
that the respective substances are considered at very low tempera- 
tures reduces the quantities of energy absorbed as kinetic 
energy by their molecules to the smallest possible amount. 

Chemical Resistance. — When we know the chemical affinity of 
a reaction, we are in a position to decide in which direction the 
process must advance, but, unless we know the reaction-velocity 
also, we can in many cases say nothing as to whether or not the 
reaction in question will progress with a practically inappreciable 
velocity so that apparent chemical indifference is the result. 
This question may be stated in the light of the law of mass- 
action briefly as follows: — From a knowledge of the chemical 
affinity we can calculate the equilibrium, ix. the numerical 
value of the constant K - hjk'; but to be completely informed 
of the process we must know not only the ratio of the two 
velocity-constants h and h\ but also the separate absolute values 
of the same. 

In many respects the following view a more comprehensive, 
though naturally in harmony with the one just expressed. 
Since the chemical equilibrium is periodically attained, it follows 
that, as in the case of the motion of a body or of the diffusion of 
a dissolved substance, it must be opposed by very great friction. 
In all these cases the velocity of the process at every instant is 
directly proportional to the driving-force and inversely pro- 
portional to the frictional resistance. We hence arrive at the 
result that an equation of the form 

reaction-velocity mchemicatfonef chemical resistance 
must also hold for chemical change; here we have an analogy 
with Ohm's law. The " chemical force " at every instant may 
be calculated from the maximum work (affinity); as yet little 
is known about " chemical resistance," but it is not improbable 
that it may be directly measured or theoretically deduced. 
The problem of the calculation of chemical reaction-velocity in 
absolute measure would then be solved; so far we possess indeed 
oniy a few general facts concerning the magnitude of chemical 
resistance. It is immeasurably small at ordinary temperatures 
for ion-reactions, and, on the other hand, fairly large for nearly all 
reactions in which carbon-bonds must be loosened (so-called 
" inertia of the carbon-bond ") and possesses very high values 
for most gas-reactions also. With rising temperature it always 
strongly diminishes, on the other band, at very low tempera- 
tures its values are always enormous, and at the absolute xero 
of temperature may be infinitely great. Therefore at that 
temperature all reactions cease, since the denominator in the 
above expression assumes enormous values. 

It is a very remarkable phenomenon that the chemical resist- 
ance is often small in the case of precisely those reactions in 
which the affinity is also small, to this circumstance is to be 
traced the fact that in many chemical changes the most stable 
condition is not at once reached, but is preceded by the fonnatioa 



of more or less unstable Intermediate products. Thus the un- 
stable ozone is very often first formed on the evolution of oxygen, 
whilst in the reaction between oxygen and hydrogen water is 
often not at once formed, but first the unstable hydrogen) 
peroxide as an intermediate product. 

Let us now consider the chemical process in the light of the 

reaction-velocity « chemical forcefchemical resistance. 
Thermodynamics shows that at very low temperatures, i.e. 
in the immediate vicinity of the absolute zero, there is no 
equilibrium, but every chemical process advances to completion 
in the one or the other direction. The chemical forces therefore 
act in the one direction towards complete consumption of the 
reacting substance. But since the chemical resistance is now 
immensely great, they can produce practically no appreciable 

At higher temperatures the reaction always proceeds, at least 
in homogeneous systems, to a certain equilibrium, and as the 
chemical resistance now has finite values this equilibrium will 
always finally be reached after a longer or shorter time. Finally, 
at very high temperatures the chemical resistance is in every case 
very small, and the equilibrium is almost instantaneously 
reached; at the same time, the affinity of the reaction, as in the 
case of the mutual affinity between oxygen and hydrogen, may 
very strongly diminish, and we have then chemical indifference 
again, not because, as at low temperatures, the denominator 
of the previous expression becomes very great, but because the 
numerator now assumes vanishing] y small values. (W. N.) 

CHEMISTRY (formerly "chymistry"; Cr. X"M«k; for deri- 
vation see Alchemy), the natural science which has for its pro- 
vince the study of the composition of substances. In common 
with physics it includes the determination of properties or 
characters which serve to distinguish one substance from another, 
but while the physicist is concerned with properties possessed by 
all substances and with processes in which the molecules remain 
intact, the chemist is restricted to those processes in which the 
molecules undergo some change. For example, the physicist 
determines the density, elasticity, hardness, electrical and 
thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, &c; the chemist, 
on the other hand, investigates changes in composition, such as 
may be effected by an electric current, by heat, or when two or 
more substances are mixed. A further differentiation of the j 
provinces of chemistry and physics is shown by the classifications 
of matter. To the physicist matter is presented in three leading 
forms— solids, liquids and gases; and although further sub- 
divisions have been rendered necessary with the growth of I 
knowledge the same principle is retained, namely, a classification 
based on properties having no relation to composition. The 
fundamental chemical classification of matter, on the other 
hand, recognizes two groups of substances, namely, elements, 
which are substances not admitting of analysis into other 
substances, and compounds, which do admit of analysis into 
simpler substances and also of synthesis from simpler substances. 
Chemistry and physics, however, meet on common ground in 
a well-defined branch of science, named physical chemistry, 
which is primarily concerned with the correlation of physical 
properties and chemical composition, and, more generally, 
with the elucidation of natural phenomena on the molecular 

It may be convenient here to state how the whole tubjoct of 
chemistry is treated in thi* edition of the Emydvpatdia BrttannUa. 
The present article include* the folio wipe tcciioiuv; — 

I Hiitary— Thi* section is confined to (rating the ventral trend 
of the science, from it* infancy to the foundation* of the modern 
theory. The history of the alchemical period i* treated in more 
drtaifin the ankle Alchemy, and of the lAtrocHemietii ia the if tide 
Meuici^sl The evolution of the notion of clement it treated under 
Ei&uf.m; the molecular hypothesis of matter under Molecuekt 
ami the; genesis of, and deductions from, the atomic theory of 
Dalton receive; detailed anaU-sis in the article A TO**. 

U- Principlts,— Thi* section ireati oJ &uch subject* a* nomen* 
cUturc, formulae, chemical equations chemical change And similar 
subjects- It h intended to provide an Introduction, necessarily 
brier, to the terminology and machinery of the chemist. 

III. Tnortamc Chemistry.— Here is treated the history of descrip» 
tive inorganic chemistry; reference should be made to the ankle* 
on the separate elements lor an account of their preparation, 
properties, &c. 

IV. Organic Chemiitry.—Thte section includes a brief history of 
the subject, and proceed ■ to treat of the principles underlying tht 
structure and interrelations of organic compounds, 

V. Analytical Chtati nty,— This section treats of the qualitative 
detection and separation of the metals, and the commoner methods 
employed in quantitative analysis* The analysis of organic com- 
pounds is also noticed, 

VI. fkyiiial C**i*M/^y,— Thi* section is restricted to an account 
of the relations exiting between physical properties and chemical 
composition- Other branches of this subject are treated in tht 
articles OrgsticaL Action; Energetics; Solution: Alloys t 
Tut *J* OC II EM 1 i T a v . 

L History 

Although chemical actions must have been observed by man 
in the most remote times, and also utilized in such processes 
\ as the extraction of metals from their ores and in the arts of 
tanning and dyeing, there is no evidence to show that, beyond 
| an unordered accumulation of facts, the early developments of 
these industries were attended by any real knowledge of the 
nature of the processes involved. All observations were the 
result of accident or chance, or possibly in some cases of experi- 
mental trial, but there is no record of a theory or even a general 
classification of the phenomena involved, although there b no 
doubt that the ancients had a fair knowledge of the properties 
and uses of the commoner substances. The origin of chemistry 
is intimately bound up with the arts which we have indicated; 
in this respect it is essentially an experimental science, A 
unifying principle of chemical and physical changes was provided 
by metaphysical conceptions of the structure of matter. We 
find the notion of "elements," or primary qualities, which 
confer upon all species of matter their distinctive qualities by 
appropriate combination, and also the doctrine that _. 
matter is composed of minute discrete particles, JJJJJ 
prevailing in the Greek schools. These " elements," as*****. 
however, had not the significance of the elements of 
to-day; they connoted physical appearances or qualities rather 
than chemical relations; and the atomic theory of the ancients 
is a speculation based upon metaphysical considerations, having, 
in its origin, nothing in common with the modern molecular 
theory, which was based upon experimentally observed properties 
of gases (see Element; Molxcule). 

Although such hypotheses could contribute nothing directly 
to the development of a science which laid especial claim to 
experimental investigations, yet indirectly they stimulated 
inquiry into the nature of the " essence " with which the four 
"elements" were associated. This quinta essentia had been 
speculated upon by the Greeks, some regarding it as immaterial 
or aethereal, and others as material; and a school of philosophers 
termed alchemists arose who attempted the isolation of this 
essence. The existence of a fundamental principle, unalterable 
and indestructible, prevailing alike through physical and chemical 
changes, was generally accepted. Any change which a substance 
may chance to undergo waa simply due to the discarding or 
taking up of some proportion of the primary "elements" or 
qualities: of these coverings " water," " air," " earth " and 
" fire " were regarded as clinging most tenaciously to the essence, 
while "cold," "heat," "moistneas" and "dryness" were 
more easily cast aside or assumed. Several origins have been 
suggested for the word alchemy, and there seems to | ffita ^ L 
have been some doubt as to the exact nature and 
import of the alchemical doctrines. According to M. P. E. 
Berthelot, " alchemy rested partly on the industrial processes 
of the ancient Egyptians, partly on the speculative theories 
of the Greek philosophers, and partly on the mystical reveries 
of the Gnostics and Alexandrians." The search for this essence 
subsequently resolved itself into the desire to effect the trans- 
mutation of metals, more especially the base metals, into silver 
and gold. It seems that this secondary principle became the 
dominant idea in alchemy, and in this sense the word is used 
in Byzantine literature of the 4th century; Suidas^ vtbans^Vt 




the nth century, defines chemistry as the " preparation of 
silver and gold " (see Alchemy). 

From the Alexandrians the science passed to the Arabs, 
who made discoveries and improved various methods of separat- 
ing substances, and afterwards, from the nth century, became 
seated in Europe, where the alchemical doctrines were assidu- 
ously studied until the 15th and i6th centuries. It is readily 
understood why men imbued with the authority of tradition 
should prosecute the search for a substance which would 
confer unlimited wealth upon the fortunate discoverer. Some 
alchemists honestly laboured to effect the transmutation and to 
discover the " philosopher's stone," and in many cases believed 
that they had achieved success, if we may rely upon writings 
assigned to them. The period, however, is one of literary 
forgeries; most of the MSS. are of uncertain date and authorship, 
and moreover are often so vague and mystical that they are of 
doubtful scientific value, beyond reflecting the tendencies of 
the age. The retaining of alchemists at various courts shows 
the high opinion which the doctrines had gained. It fa really 
not extraordinary that Isaac Hollandus was able to indicate 
the method of the preparation of the " philosopher's stone " 
from " adamic " or " virgin " earth, and its action when medicin- 
ally employed; that in the writings assigned to Roger Bacon, 
Raimon Lull, Basil Valentine and others arc to be found the 
exact quantities of it to be used in transmutation; and that 
George Ripley, in the 15th century, had grounds for regarding 
its action as similar to that of a ferment. 

In the view of some alchemists, the ultimate principles of 
matter were Arbtotle's four elements; the proximate constituents 
were a M sulphur " and a " mercury," the father and mother 
of the metals; gold was supposed to have attained to the 
perfection of its nature by passing in succession through the 
forms of lead, brass and silver; gold and silver were held to 
contain very pure red sulphur and white quicksilver, whereas 
in the other metals these materials were coarser and of a different 
colour. From an analogy instituted between the healthy human 
being and gold, the most perfect of the metals, silver, mercury, 
copper, iron, lead and tin, were regarded in the light of lepers 
that required to be healed. 

Notwithstanding the false idea which prompted the researches 
of the alchemists, many advances were made in descriptive 
._,__ chemistry, the metals and their salts receiving much 

attention, and several of our important acids being 
discovered. Towards the 16th century the failure 
of the alchemists to achieve their cherished purpose, and the 
general increase of medical knowledge, caused attention to be 
given to the utilization of chemical preparations as medicines. 
As early as the 15th century the alchemist Basil Valentine had 
suggested this application, but the great exponent of this 
doctrine was Paracelsus, who set up a new definition: "The 
true use of chemistry is not to make gold but to prepare medi- 
cines." This relation of chemistry to medicine prevailed until 
the 17th century, and what in the history of chemistry is termed 
the iatrochemical period (see Medicine) was mainly fruitful 
in increasing the knowledge of compounds; the contributions 
to chemical theory are of little* value, the most important con- 
troversies ranging over the nature of the " elements," which were 
generally akin to those of Aristotle, modified so as to be more 
In accord with current observations. At the same time, 
however, there were many who, opposed to the Paracelsian 
definition of chemistry, still laboured at the problem of the 
alchemists, while others gave much attention to the chemical 
industries. Metallurgical operations, such as smelting, roasting 
and refining, were scientifically investigated, and in some degree 
explained, by Georg Agricola and Carlo Biringuiccio; ceramics 
was studied by Bernard Palissy, who is also to be remembered as 
an early worker in agricultural chemistry, having made experi- 
ments on the effect of manures on soils and crops; while general 
technical chemistry was enriched by Johann Rudolf Glauber. 1 

1 The more notable chemists of this period were Turquet de 
Mayernc( 1571-1 665), a physician Q f Paris.who re jetted the Galenian 
doctrines ami accepted the exaggerations of Paracelsus; Andreas 

The second half of the 17th century witnessed remarkable 
transitions and developments in all branches of natural science, 
and the facts accumulated by preceding generations 
during their generally unordered researches were rt- ^"^ 
placed by a co-ordination of experiment and deduction. From 
the mazy and incoherent alchemical ami iatrochemical doctrines, 
the former based on false conceptions of matter, the latter on 
erroneous views of life processes and physiology, a new science 
arose — the study of the composition of substances. The formula- 
tion of this definition of chemistry was due to Robert Boyle. 
In his Sceptical Chemist (1662) he freely criticized the prevailing 
scientific views and methods, with the object of showing that 
true knowledge could only be gained by the logical application 
of the principles of experiment and deduction. Boyle's masterly 
exposition of this method is his most important contribution to 
scientific progress. At the same time he clarified the conception 
of elements and compounds, rejecting the older notions, the 
four elements of the "vulgar Pcripateticks " and the three 
principles of the " vulgar Stagynsts," and defining an element 
as a substance incapable of decomposition, and a compound 
as composed of two or more elements. He explained chemical 
combination on the hypotheses that matter consisted of minute 
corpuscles, that by the coalescence of corpuscles of different sub- 
stances distinctly new corpuscles of a compound were formed, and 
that each corpuscle had a certain affinity for other corpuscles. 

Although Boyle practised the methods which he expounded, 
he was unable to gain general acceptance of his doctrine of 
elements; and, strangely enough, the theory which _. 
next dominated chemical thought was an alchemical 'SSf* 
invention, and lacked the lucidity and perspicuity 
of Boyle's views. This theory, named the phlogistic theory, 
was primarily based upon certain experiments on combustion 
and calcination, and in effect reduced the number of the 
alchemical principles, while setting up a new one, a principle 
of combustibility, named phlogiston (from fkoyurrfa, burnt). 
Much discussion had centred about fire or the "igneous principle." 
On the one hand, it had been held that when a substance was 
burned or calcined, it combined with an " air "; on the other 
hand, the operation was supposed to be attended by the destruc- 
tion or loss of the igneous principle. Georg Ernst Stahl, following 
in some measure the views held by Johann Joachim Bccher, as, 
for instance, that all combustibles contain a " sulphur " (which 
notion is itself of older date than Becker's terra pinguis), regarded 
all substances as capable of resolution into two components, 
the inflammable principle phlogiston, and another element— 
" water," " acid " or " earth." The violence or completeness 
of combustion was proportional to the amount of phlogiston 
present. Combustion meant the liberation of phlogiston. 
Metals on calcination gave calces from which the metals could 
be recovered by adding phlogiston, and experiment showed that 
this could generally be effected by the action of coal or carbon, 
which was therefore regarded as practically pure phlogiston; 
the other constituent being regarded as an acid. At the hands 
of Stahl and his school, the phlogistic theory, by exhibiting a 
fundamental similarity between all processes of combustion 
and by its remarkable flexibility, came to be a general theory 
of chemical action. The objections of the antiphlogistonists, 
such as the fact that calces weigh more than the original mctab 
instead of less as the theory suggests, were answered by postulat- 
ing that phlogiston was a principle of levity, or even completely 
ignored as an accident, the change of fualiiies being regarded 
as the only matter of importance. It is remarkable that this 
theory should have gained the esteem of the notable chemists 
who flourished in the 18th century. Henry Cavendish, a care- 
ful and accurate experimenter, was a phlogistonist, aa were 
J. Black, K. W. Scheele, A. S. Marggraf, J. Priestley and many 
others who might be mentioned. 

Libaviui (d. 1616). chiefly famous for his Operm Omnia MUk+- 

elucidated ihc nature of sails. 



ive chemistry was now assuming considerable pro- 
he experimental inquiries suggested by Boyle were I 
icing assiduously developed; and a- wealth of observa- 
ions was being accumulated, for the explanation of I 
resources of the dominant theory were sorely taxed. 
Antoinc Laurent Lavoisier, "... chemists have 
logiston into a vague principle, . . . which conse- 
nts itself to all the explanations for which it may be 
Sometimes this principle has weight, and sometimes 

sometimes it is free fire and sometimes it is fire 
rlth the earthy dement; sometimes it passes through 
4 vessels, sometimes these are Impervious to it; it 
rth causticity and non-causticity, transparency and 
lours and their absence; it is a veritable Proteus 
i form at each instant." Lavoisier may be justly 
t the founder of modern or quantitative chemistry, 
iremost, he demanded that the balance must be used 
ligations into chemical changes. He established as 
il that combustion and calcination were attended 
rase of weight, and concluded, as did Jean Rey and 
iw in the 17th century, that the increase was due to 
ation of the metal with the air. The problem could 
e completely solved only when the composition of the 
parts played by its components, had been determined. 
1 the air had received attention, especially since van 
ade his far-reaching investigations on gases: Mayow 
gd the existence of two components, a spiritus niiro- 
a supported combustion, and a spiriius nilri atidi 
nguished fire; J. Priestley and K. W. Schede, 
hey isolated oxygen, were fogged by the phlogistic 
i H. Cavendish, who had isolated the nitrogen 
Bosphere, had failed to decide conclusively what 

happened to the air which disappeared during 


' adequately recognized and acknowledged how 
wed to the researches of others; to himself is due j 
nation of these researches, and the welding of his 
• a doctrine to which the phlogistic theory ultimately I 
. He burned phosphorus In sir standing oven 
ad showed that (1) there was a limit to the amount I 
ens which could be burned in the confined air, (2) 1 
bo more phosphorus could be burned, one-fifth of the 
ippeared, (3) that the weight of the air lost was nearly 1 
e difference in the weights of the white solid produced ■ 
Dspfaorus burned, (4) that the density of the residual 1 
1 than that of ordinary air. The same results were 
4th lead and tin; and a more elaborate repetition 
r established their correctness. He also showed that 

mercury calx alone an •• air ** was liberated which 
n other " airs," and was slightly heavier than ordinary 1 
vcr, the weight of the " air " set free from a given 
be calx was equal to the weight taken up in forming 
ran mercury, and if the calx be heated with charcoal, 
«s recovered and a gas named " fixed ah*," the modern 
ude, was formed. The former experiment had been 
by Scheele and Priestley, who had named the gas 
rated air "; Lavoisier subsequently named it oxygen, 
t as the " acid producer " (e{fe, sour) The theory 
by Lavoisier came to displace the phlogistic concep- 1 
t first its acceptance was slow. Chemical literature 
f the phlogistic modes of expression— oxygen was 
licated air," nitrogen M phlogisticated air," fie- 
lded to retard its promotion. Yet really the transition 
me theory to the other was simple, it being only 
:o change the " addition or loss of phlogiston " into 
sr addition of oxygen." By his insistence upon the 

balance as a quantitative check upon the masses 
a all chemical reactions, Lavoisier was enabled to 
>y his own investigations and the results achieved 1 
the principle now known as the " conservation of; 
latter can neither be created nor destroyed; however 
.system be caauaged, the weights before and aftsr see! 

equal. 1 To him Is also due a rigorous examination of the nature 
of elements and compounds; he held the same views that were 
laid down by Boyle, and with the same prophetic foresight 
predicted that some of the elements which he himself accepted 
might be eventually found to be compounds. 

It is unnecessary in this place to recapitulate the many 
results which had accumulated by the end of the x 8th century, 
or to discuss the labours and theories of individual workers 
since these receive attention under biographical headings; 
in this article only the salient features in the history of our 
science can be treated. The beginning of the 19th century 
was attended by far-reaching discoveries in the nature of the 
composition of compounds. Investigations proceeded in two 
directions:-— ( 1) the nature of chemical affinity, (a) the laws 
of chemical combination. The first question has not 
yet been solved, although it has been speculated upon 
from the earliest times. The alchemists explained 
chemical action by means of such phrases as " like attracts 
Dike," substances being said to combine when one " loved " 
the other, and the reverse when it M hated " it. Boyle rejected 
this terminology, which was only strictly applicable to intelligent 
beings; and he used the word " affinity " as had been previously 
done by Stahl and others. The modern sense of the word, vis* 
the force which holds chemically dissimilar substances together 
(and also similar substa nces as is seen in di-, tri-, and poly-atomic 
molecules), was introduced by Hermann Boerhaave, and made 
more precise by Sir Isaac Newton. The laws of chemical com- 
bination were solved, in a measure, by John Dalton, and the 
solution e xpr e ss ed as Dalton's "atomic theory." Lavoisier 
appears to have assumed that the composition of every chemical 
compound was constant, and the same opinion was the basis 
of much experimental inquiry at the hands of Joseph Louis 
Proust during 1801 to 1800, who vigorously combated the 
[doctrine of Claude Louis BerthoUet (Bssai de statique ckimiq**, 
1x803), vi** tm H fixed proportions of elements and compounds 
combine only under exceptional conditions, the general rule 
[being that the composition of a compound may vary continuously 
between certain limits.' 

This controversy was unfinished when Dalton published the 
first part of his New System ef Chemical Philosophy in 1808, 
although the per solium theory was the most popular. fr,y >a 
I Led thereto by speculations on gases, Dalton assumed 
that matter was co mp o se d of atoms, that in the elements the 
atoms were simple, and in compounds complex, being composed 
of elementary atoms. Dalton furthermore perceived that the 
same two elements or substances may combine in different 
proportions, and showed that these proportions had always a 
simple ratio to one another. This is the "law of multiple 
proportions." He laid down the following arbitrary rules for 
determining the number of atoms (n a compound:— if only one 
compound of two elements exists, it is a binary compound and 
its atom is composed of one atom of each dement; if two 
compounds exist one is binary (say A + B) and the other ternary 
(say A + 2B) ; if three, then one Is binary and the others may be 
ternary (A + 2B,and2A + B), and soon. More important is his 
[deduction of equivalent weights, Lt. the relative weights of 
atoms. He took hydrogen, the lightest substance known, to 
be the standard. From analyses cf water, which he regarded 
las composed of one atom of hydrogen and one of oxygen, he 
I * This dictum was questioned by the researches of H. Landolt. 
A. Heydwcillcr and others. In a aeries of 73 reaction* it was found 
I that in 61 there was apparently a diminution in weight, but in 1908, 
[after a mart careful repetition and making allowance for all experi- 
mental errors, Laadoft concluded that no change occurred (see 

•The theory of BerthoUet was essentially mechanical, and be 
attempted to prove that the course of a reaction depended not on 
affinities alone but alto on the masses of the reacting components. 
I In this respect his hypothesis has much fa common with the " law 
of mass-action " developed at a much later date by the Swedish 
chemists Guldberg and Waage, and the American. Wiuard Cibba 
(ate Chemical Action). In hbclasskal thesis BerthoUet vigorously 
attacked the molts deduced by Bergman, who had followed In Ms 
table of elective attamataaaw the path taevessed by Stahl end S. P 



deduced the relative weight of the oxygen atom to be 65; 
from marsh gas and olefiant gas he deduced carbon-* 5, there 
being one atom of carbon and two of hydrogen in the former 
and one atom of hydrogen to one of carbon in the latter; 
nitrogen had an equivalent of 5, and so on. 1 

The value of Dalton's generalizations can hardly be over- 
estimated, notwithstanding the fact that in several cases they 
needed correction. The first step in this direction was effected 
by the co-ordination of Gay Lussac's observations on the 
combining volumes of gases. He discovered that gases always 
combined in volumes having simple ratios, and that the volume 
of the product had a simple ratio to the volumes of the reacting 
gases. For example, one volume of oxygen combined with two 
of hydrogen to form two volumes of steam, three volumes of 
hydrogen combined with one of nitrogen to give two volumes 
of ammonia, one volume of hydrogen combined with one of 
chlorine to give two volumes of hydrochloric acid. An immediate 
inference was that the Daltonian " atom " must have parts 
which enter into combination with parts of other atoms; in, 
other words, there must exist two orders of particles, via. (1) 
particles derived by limiting mechanical subdivision,, the modern 
molecule, and (2) particles derived from the first class by chemical 
subdivision, i.e. particles which are incapable of existing alone, , 
but may exist in combination. Additional evidence as to the 
structure of the molecule was discussed by Avogadro in 181 1, 
and by Ampere in 1 8 14. From the gas-laws of Boyle and J. A. C. 
Charles — viz. equal changes in temperature and pressure 
occasion equal changes in equal volumes of all gases and vapours 
—Avogadro deduced the law :— Under the same conditions 
of temperature and pressure, equal volumes of gases contain 
equal numbers of molecules; and he showed that the relative 
weights of the molecules are determined as the ratios of the, 
weights of equal volumes, or densities. He established the 
existence of molecules and atoms as we have denned above,, 
and stated that the number of atoms in the molecule is generally 
2, but may be 4, 8, &c. We cannot tell whether his choice of the 
powers of 2 is accident or design. 

Notwithstanding Avogadro's perspicuous investigation, and 
a similar exposition of the atom and molecule by A. M. Ampere, 
the views therein expressed were ignored both by 
their own and the succeeding generation. In place 
of the relative molecular weights, attention was concentrated 
on relative atomic or equivalent weights. This may be due 
in some measure to the small number of gaseous and easily 
volatile substances then known, to the attention which the 
study of the organic compounds received, and especially to the 
energetic investigations of J. J. Berzclius, who, fired with 
enthusiasm by the original theory of Dalton and the law of 
multiple proportions, determined the equivalents of combining 
ratios of many elements in an enormous number of compounds. 1 
He prosecuted his labours in this field for thirty years; as 
proof of his industry it may be mentioned that as early as 1818 
he bad determined the combining ratios of about two thousand 
simple and compound substances. 

We may here notice the important chemical symbolism or notation 
introduced by Berzeliui, which greatly contributed to the definite 
ChtmkMl and convenient representation of chemical composition 
mZZSmm mn & t ' ie tnc * n t °* chemical reactions. The denotation of 
dements by symbols had been practised by the alchemists, 
and it is interesting to note that the symbols allotted to the well-known 
elements are identical with the astrological symbols of the sun and 
the other members of the solar system. Gold, the most perfect metal, 
had the symbol of the Sun, O ; silver, the semiperfect metal, had 
the symbol of the Moon, 3): copper, iron and antimony, the 
imperfect metals of the gold class, had the symbols of Venus ? , 
Mars rj*, and the Earth £ '• tin and lead, the imperfect mctaU of 
the silver class, had the symbols of Jupiter 21, and Saturn T? ; 
while mercury, the imperfect metal of both the gold and silver 
class, had the symbol of the planet. Q . Torbern Olof Bergman used 
an elaborate system In his Opuscule pkytka et chemica (1783); the 

1 Dalton'satomic theory istreated in moredetailinthc art iclc Atom. 

• Berzetius, however, appreciated the necessity of differentiating 
the at om and the molecule, and even urged Dalton Co amend his 
dactriae, but without success. 


elements received symbols composed of circles, arcs of circles, and 
lines, while certain class symbols, such as^Jfor metals, -^-foradds, 
@ for alkalies,Q for salts,\j/ for cakes, Ac, were used. Compounds 
were r epresented by copulating simpler symbols, e.g. mercury calx 
1 was \j^ Q .» Bergman's symbolism was obviously cumbrous, and 
the system used in 1782 by Lavoisier was equally abstruse, since the 
forms gave no clue as to composition; for instance water, oxygen, 

and nitric acid irere\/,»(ft«» and Qs- 

A partial clarification was suggested in 1787 by J. H. Hassenfrati 
and Adet, who assigned to each element a symbol, and to each com- 
pound a sign which should record the elements present and their 
relative quantities. Straight tines and semicircles were utilized for 
the non-metallic elements, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur 
(the " simple actdifiable bases " of Lavoisier), and circles eadosinf 
the initial letters of their names for the metals. The " compound 
acidifiable bases," i.e. the hypothetical radicals of acids, were denoted 
by squares enclosing the initial letter of the base; an alkali was 
denoted by a triangle, and the particular alkali by inserting the 
initial letter. Compounds were denoted by Joining the symbols of 
the components, and by varying the manner of joining compounds 
of the same elements were distinguished. The symbol V was used 
to denote a liquid, and a vertical line to denote a gas. As as 
example of the complexity of this system we may note the fin 
oxides of nitrogen, which were symbolised as 

the first three representing the gaseous oxides, and the last two the 
liquid oxides. 

A great advance was made by Dalton. who, besides introducing 
simpler symbols, regarded the symbol as representing not only the 
clement or compound but also one atom of that element or com- 
pound; in other words, his symbol denoted equivalent weights. 4 
Thia *y*icm, whi h permitted the correct rep r ese ntation of molecuUr 
composition, was adopted by Bertelius in 1814, who, having replaced 
the geometric signs oi Dalton by the initial letter (or letters) of the 
Latin name* of the elements, re pres ented a compound by placing s 
pirn sign between the symbols of its components, and the number oi 
atoms of each component (except in the case of only one atom) by 
placing Arabic numerals before the symbols; for example, copper 
oxide was Cu +0, sulphur trioxide S+30. If two compounds com- 
bined, the + signs of the free compounds were discarded, and the 
number of atoms denoted by an Arabic index placed after the 
elements, and from these modified symbols the symbol of the new 
compound was derived in the same manner as simple compounds 
were built up from their elements. Thus copper sulphate was 
CuO+SO*. potassium sulphate 2SO"+Pof> (the symbol Pto for 
potassium was subsequently discarded in favour of K from hokum). 
1 At a later date Berzclius denoted an oxide by dots, equal in number to 
the number of oxygen atoms present, placed over the element; this 
notation survived longest in mineralogy, tie also introduced barred 
symbols, i.e. letters traversed by a horizontal bar, to denote the double 
atom (or molecule). Although the system of Berzclius has been 
modified and extended, its principles survive in the modern notation. 

In the development of the atomic theory and the deduction 
of the atomic weights of elements and the formulae of compounds, 
Dalton's arbitrary rules failed to find complete accept- 
ance. Berzelius objected to the hypothesis that if. ■*<•» 
two elements form only one compound, then the *" 

atoms combine one and one; and although he agreed 
with the adoption of simple rules as a first attempt at representing 
a compound, he availed himself of other data in order to gaia 
further information as to the structure of compounds. For 
example, at first he represented ferrous and ferric oxides by the 
formulae FeOj, FcOa, and by the analogy oi zinc and other 
1 basic oxides he regarded these substances as constituted similarly 
' to FeOj, and the acidic oxides alumina and chromium oxide as 
I similar to FeOj. He found, however, that chromic acid, which 
he had represented as CrO«, neutralized a base containing \ the 

* The following symbols were also used by Bergman :— 

! 0. <D. O. 0. I. ~. 3G.VVA 

which represented zinc, manganese, cobalt, bismuth, nickel, arsenic. 
platinum, water, alcohol, phlogiston. 
4 The following are the symbols employed by Dalton:— 

1 0. <D. ©. O. ®, ©.©, ©. CD. <D. O. O. Q 

, which represent in order, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon, oxygen, 
phosphorus, sulphur, magnesia, lime, soda, potash, strontia, baryta, 

, mercury; iron, zinc, copper, lead, silver, platinum, and gold weft 
represented by circles enclosing the initial letter of the escsnss*. 




quantity of oxygen. He inferred that chromic acid must 
contain only three atoms of oxygen, as did sulphuric add SOj ; 
consequently chromic oxide, which contains half the amount 
of oxygen, must be CrjOi, and hence ferric oxide must be FeiO> 
The basic oxides must have the general formula MO. To these 
results he was aided by the law of isomorphism formulated by 
E. Milscherhch in 1820; and he confirmed his conclusions by 
showing the agreement with the law of atomic heat formulated 
by Dulong and Petit in 1819. 

While successfully investigating the solid elements and their 
compounds gravimetrically, Berzclius was guilty of several 
inconsistencies in his views on gases. He denied that gaseous 
atoms could have parts, although compound gases could. This 
altitude was due* to his adherence to the "dualislic theory" 
of the structure of substances, which he deduced from electro- 
chemical researches. From the behaviour of substances on 
electrolysis (q.v.) he assumed that all substances had two com- 
ponents, one bearing a negative charge, the other a positive 
charge. Combination was associated with the coalescence of 
these charges, and the nature of the resulting compound showed 
the nature of the residual electricity. For example, positive 
iron combined with negative oxygen to form positive ferrous 
oxide; positive sulphur combined with negative oxygen to 
form negative sulphuric acid; positive ferrous oxide combined 
with negative sulphuric acid to form neutral ferrous sulphate. 
Berzclius elevated this theory to an important position in the 
history of our science. He recognized that if an elementary 
atom had parts, his theory demanded that these parts should 
carry different electric charges when they entered into reaction, 
and the products of the reaction should vary according as a 
positive or negative atom entered into combination. For 
instance if the reaction 2Ha+0,= HjO+IIiO be true, the 
molecules of water should be different, for a negative oxygen 
atom would combine in one case, and a positive oxygen atom 
in the other. Hence the gaseous atoms of hydrogen and oxygen 
could not have parts. A second inconsistency was presented 
when he was compelled by the researches of Dumas to admit 
Avogadro's hypothesis; but here he would only accept it for 
the elementary gases, and denied it for other substances. It is 
to be noticed that J. B. Dumas did not adopt the best methods 
for emphasizing his discoveries. His terminology was vague 
and provoked caustic criticism from Berzclius; he assumed 
that all molecules contained two atoms, and consequently the 
atomic weights deduced from vapour density determinations of 
sulphur, mercury, arsenic, and phosphorus were quite different 
from those established by gravimetric and other methods. 

Chemists gradually tired of the notion of atomic weights on 
account of the uncertainty which surrounded them; and the 
suggestion made by W. H. Wollaston as early as 1814 to deal 
only with " equivalents," i.e. the amount of an element which 
can combine with or replace unit weight of hydrogen, came 
into favour, being adopted by L. Gmclin in his famous text-book. 

Simultaneously with this discussion of the atom and molecule, 
great controversy was ranging over the constitution of com- 
Aioln i a pounds, more particularly over the carbon or organic 
mmdmolf compounds. This subject is discussed in section IV., 
"jJjT^ Organic Chemistry. The gradual accumulation of data 
*■*■*■* referring to organic compounds brought in its train a 
revival of the discussion of atoms and molecules. A. Laurent 
and C. F. Gerhardt attempted a solution by investigating chemical 
reactions. They assumed the atom to be the smallest part of 
matter which can exist in combination, and the molecule to be 
the smallest part which can enter into a chemical reaction. 
Gerhardt found that reactions could be best followed if one 
assumed the molecular weight of an element or compound to be 
that weight which occupied the same volume as two unit weights 
of hydrogen, and this assumption led him to double the equiva- 
lents accepted by Gmelin, making H=l, 0-10, and C-12, 
thereby agreeing with Bcrzelius, and also to halve the values 
given by Berzelius to many metals. Laurent generally agreed, 
except when the theory compelled the adoption of formulae 
containing fractions of atoms; in such cases he regarded the 

molecular weight as the weight occupying a volume equal to 
four unit weights of hydrogen. The bases upon which Gerhardt 
and Laurent founded their views were not sufficiently well 
grounded to lead to the acceptance of their results; Gerhardt 
himself returned to Gmelin's equivalents in his Lckrbuck dtr 
Chemie (1853) as they were in such general use. 

In i860 there prevailed such a confusion of hypotheses as to 
the atom and molecule that a conference was held at Karlsruhe 
to discuss the situation. At the conclusion of the sitting, 
Lothar Meyer obtained a paper written by Stanislas Cannixxaro 
in 1858 wherein was found the final link required for the deter- 
mination of atomic weights. This Jink was the full extension 
of Avogadro's theory to all substances, Cannizzaro showing that 
chemical reactions in themselves would not suffice. He chose 
as his unit of reference the weight of an atom of hydrogen, fo. 
the weight contained in a molecule of hydrochloric acid, thus 
differing from Avogadro who chose the weight of a hydrogen 
molecule. From a study of the free elements Cannizzaro showed! 
that an element may have more than one molecular weight; for 
example, the molecular weight of sulphur varied with the tem- 
perature. And from the study of compounds he showed that 
each element occurred in a definite weight or in some multiple 
of this weight He called this proportion the " atom," since 
it invariably enters compounds without division, and the weight 
of this atom is the atomic weight. This generalization was of 
great value inasmuch as it permitted the deduction of the 
atomic weight of a non-gasifiable clement from a study of the 
densities of its gasifiablc compounds. 

From the results obtained by Laurent and Gerhardt and their 
predecessors it immediately followed that, while an element could 
have but one atomic weight, it could have several equivalent 
weights. From a detailed study of organic compounds Ger- 
hardt had promulgated a " theory of types " which represented 
a fusion of the older radical and type theories. This theory 
brought together, as it were, the most varied compounds, and 
stimulated inquiry into many fields. According to this theory, 
an element in a compound had a definite saturation capacity, 
an idea very old in itself, being framed in the law of multiple 
proportions. These saturation capacities were assidu- y a » t ^ 
ously studied by Sir Edward Frankland, who from —** 
the investigation, not of simple inorganic compounds, but of the 
organo-mctallic derivatives, determined the kernel of the theory 
of valency. Frankland showed that any particular element 
preferentially combined with a definite number (which might 
vary between certain limits) of other atoms; for example, some 
atoms always combined with one atom of oxygen, some with two, 
while with others two atoms entered into combination with one 
of oxygen. If an element or radical combined with one atom 
of hydrogen, it was termed monovalent; if with two (or with 
one atom of oxygen, which is equivalent to two atoms of hydrogen) 
it was divalent, and so on. The same views were expressed by 
Cannizzaro, and also by A. W. von Hofmann, who materially 
helped the acceptance of the doctrine by the lucid exposition in 
his Introduction to Modern Chemistry, 1865. 

The recognition of the quadrivalency of carbon by A. Kekule 
was the forerunner of his celebrated benzene theory in particular, 
and of the universal application of structural formulae to the 
representation of the most complex organic compounds equally 
lucidly as the representation of the simplest salts. Alexander 
Butlerow named the " structure theory," and contributed much 
to the development of the subject. He defined structure " as the 
manner of the mutual linking of the atoms in the molecule," 
but denied that any such structure could give information as to 
the orientation of the atoms in space. He regarded the chemical 
properties of a substance as due to (x) the chemical atoms 
composing it, and (2) the structure, and he asserted that while 
different compounds might have the same components (isomer* 
ism), yet only one compound could have a particular structure. 
Identity in properties necessitated identity in structure. 

While the principle of varying valency laid down by Frankland 
is still retained, Butlerow's view that structure had no spatial 
significance has been modified. The researches of L. Pasftcnx* 




J. A. Le Bel, J. Wislicenus, van't Hoff and others showed that 
substances having the same graphic formulae vary in properties 
and reactions, and consequently the formulae need modification in 
order to exhibit these differences. Such isomerism, named stereo- 
it prevails among many different classes of organic compounds 
and many examples have been found in inorganic chemistry. 

The theory of valency as a means of showing similarity of 
properties and relative composition became a dominant feature 
of chemical theory, the older hypotheses of types, radicals, &c. 
being more or less discarded. We have seen how its 
utilization in the " structure theory " permitted great 
clarification, and attempts were not wanting for the 
deduction of analogies or a periodicity between elements. Frank- 
land had recognized the analogies existing between the chemical 
properties of nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic and antimony, 
noting that they act as tri- or penta-valent. Carbon was joined 
with silicon, zirconium and titanium, while boron, being tri- 
valent, was relegated to another group. A general classification 
of elements, however, was not realized by Frankland, nor even by 
Odling, who had also investigated the question from the valency 
standpoint. The solution came about by arranging the elements 
in the order of their atomic weights, tempering the arrangement 
with the results deduced from the theory of valencies and 
experimental observations. Many chemists contributed to the 
establishment of such a periodicity, the greatest advances being 
made by John Newlands in England, Lothar Meyer in Germany, 
and D. J. Mendeleeff in St Petersburg. For the development of 
this classification see Element. 

In the above sketch we have briefly treated the history of the 
main tendencies of our science from the earliest times to the 
ammmmy. establishment of the modern laws and principles. We 
have seen that the science took its origin in the arts 
practised by the Egyptians, and, having come under the influence 
of philosophers, it chose for its purpose the isolation of the 
quinta essentia, and subsequently the " art of making gold and 
silver." This spirit gave way to the physicians, who regarded 
" chemistry as the art of preparing medicines," a denotation 
which in turn succumbed to the arguments of Boyle, who regarded 
it as the " science of the composition of substances," a definition 
which adequately fits the science to-day. We have seen how 
his classification of substances into elements and compounds, 
and the definitions which he assigned to these species, have 
similarly been retained; and how Lavoisier established the law 
of the " conservation of mass," overthrew the prevailing phlogistic 
theory, and became the founder of modern chemistry by the 
overwhelming importance which he gave to the use of the balance. 
The development of the atomic theory and its concomitants— 
the laws of chemical combination and the notion of atoms and 
equivalent*— at the hands of Dal ton and Berzelius, the extension 
to the modern theory of the atom and molecule, and to atomic 
and molecular weights by Avogadro, Ampere, Dumas, Laurent, 
Gcrhardt, Cannizzaro and others, have been noted. The 
structure of the molecule, which mainly followed investigations 
in organic compounds, Frankland's conception of valency, and 
finally the periodic law, have also been shown in their chrono- 
logical order. The principles outlined above constitute the 
foundations of our science; and although it may happen that 
experiments may be made with which they appear to be not in 
complete agreement, yet in general they constitute a body of 
working hypotheses of inestimable value. 

Chemical Education. — It is remarkable that systematic in- 
struction in the theory and practice of chemistry only received 
earnest attention in our academic institutions during the opening 
decades of the 19th century. Although for a long time lecturers 
and professors had been attached to universities, generally their 
duties had also included the study of physics, mineralogy and 
other subjects, with the result that chemistry received scanty 
encouragement Of practical instruction there was none other 
than that to be gained in a few private laboratories and in the 
abop* of apothecaries. The necessity for experimental demon- 
ttmtioD mad p m ctical instruction, in addition to academic 

lectures, appears to have been urged by the French chemists 
L. N. Vauquelin, Gay Lussac, Thenard, and more especially by 
A. F. Fourcroy and G. F. Rouellc, while in England Humphry 
Davy expounded the same idea in the experimental demonstra- 
tions which gave his lectures their brilliant charm. But the real 
founder of systematic instruction in our science was Justus von 
Liebig, who, having accepted the professorship at Giesaen in 
1824, made his chemical laboratory and course of instruction 
the model of all others. He emphasized that the practical 
training should' include (1) the qualitative and quantitative 
analysis of mixtures, (2) the preparation of substances according 
to established methods, (3) original research— a course which has 
been generally adopted. The pattern set by Liebig at Giesten 
was adopted by F. Wfihler at GOttingen in 1836, by R. W. 
Bunsen at Marburg in 1840, and by O. L. Erdmann at Leipzig 
in 1843; *nd during the 'fifties and 'sixties many other labora- 
tories were founded. A new era followed the erection of the 
laboratories at Bonn and Berlin according to the plans of A. W. 
von Hofmann in 1867, and of that at Leipzig, designed by Kolbe 
in 1868. We may also mention the famous laboratory at Munich 
designed by A. von Bacyer in 1875. 

In Great Britain the first public laboratory appears to have 
been opened in 1817 by Thomas Thomson at Glasgow. But the 
first important step in providing means whereby students could 
systematically study chemistry was the foundation of the College 
of Chemistry in 1845. This institution was taken over by the 
Government in 1853, becoming the Royal College of Chemistry, 
and incorporated with the Royal School of Mines; in 1881 the 
names were changed to the Normal School of Science and Royal 
School of Mines, and again in 1890 to the Royal College of 
Science. In 1907 it was incorporated in the Imperial College of 
Science and Technology. Under A. W. von Hofmann, who 
designed the laboratories and accepted the professorship in 1845 
at the instigation of Prince Albert, and under his successor (in 
1864) Sir Edward Frankland, this institution became one of 
the most important centres of chemical instruction. Oxford 
and Cambridge sadly neglected the erection of convenient 
laboratories for many years, and consequently we find technical 
schools and other universities having a far better equipment and 
offering greater facilities. In the provinces Victoria University 
at Manchester exercised the greater impetus, numbering among 
its professors Sir W. H. Pcrkin and Sir Henry Roscoe. 

In America public laboratory instruction was first instituted at 
Yale College during the professorship of Benjamin Silliman. To 
the great progress made in recent years F. W. Garke, W. Gibbs, 
E. W. Morley, Ira Remsen, and.T. W. Richards have especially 

In France the subject was almost entirely neglected until 
late in the 19th century. The few laboratories existing in the 
opening decades were ill-fitted, and the exorbitant fees con- 
stituted a serious bar to general instruction, for these institutions 
received little government support. In 2869 A. Wurtx reported 
the existence of only one efficient laboratory in France, namely 
the £cole Normale Superieure, under the direction of H. Sainte 
Claire Deville. During recent years chemistry has become 
one of the most important subjects in the curriculum of technical 
schools and universities, and at the present time no general 
educational institution is complete until it has its full equip- 
ment of laboratories and lecture theatres. 

Chemical Literals* —The growth of chemical literature itnte the 
publication of Lavoisier 4 ! famous Traiti 4e ckimit in 178$, and of 
Rcr*elius' Lehrbuth dtr Chtmie in 1B08-1818, has been encrimnjv 
These two works, and especially the latter, wrre the model* followed 
by Then arch Liebig , Strorfcer. Wohler ind many others, tndudinr 
Thomas Graham, upon whose Liftmen ts of Cttemiitry wai touuded 
Otto'i famous Ltkrbvtk d*r r to which H- Kopp contributed 
the general theoretical part, Kolbe the organic, and Buff and 
2am miner the physircKhemic*l. Organic chemistry wai espeeially 
developed by the publication of Gerhard! t Trait fdt chimtt &r£nniqui 
in 1853-1836, and of Kelcute'i Lehrluch dtt crfojiijchtn Cktmu in 
[861-1882. General theoretical and physical rhemistry was treated 
with conspicuous acumen by Lothar Meyer in his htodtntf Tmtwitn, 
by W. Oswald in hi* Lthrbtuh frr nltftm, Chrmie {1&84-1E57), and 
by Kemst in his Thtoniw-h* Chemie, in English* Ragcoe and 
Schode miner "» Trt&tiH d» Chemistry la * ttanda*! work ; it records 




t v jcce** I .1] attempt to state the theories and facts of chemistry, 
mi in condensed epitomes, but in an easily read form. The J'riitU 
it ehimit mmir{rft, edited by H. Moitun. And the Ifandhuck 4er 
44twja.ri i*ihem Ckcmit, edited by Abee,g f are of the Mine type. 
. G, Dam aw' 1 fiandbuirh 4er unewpmiuken Chwmit and F. Bcilstcin's 
i/jiuftj*f A *&r o^dAi'jiL^rt £%mhj arc invaluable works of reference. 
Of the catMcr encyclopaedias we may notice th* famous Hand- 
Y$rirrbvfh dtr reinen und anicxandttn Chemie, edited by LifhEe; 
Fremy't Ejityctapidie de ekimit, Wurts's Duiuynnaire At chimie 
pure et u£#*v*i«i Watts* Dictionary of Chemiitry t and Ladcabutg'i 
Handv&rtcrbnth Jfr Chemie. 

The number of periodicals devoted to chemistry hai steadily 
increased since the early part of the 19th century. In England the 
most important is the Journal of the Chemical Society of Landau, 
tiTil [ju Wished in \*&\ii. Since \9~t abstracts of papers a ppearing 
in the other journals have been printed. In 1904 a new departure 
»ai made in issuing Ann mil Re pur is , containing resumes of the most 
FfnportanE researches of the year, THe Chemitat JVnrr h founded by 
Sir W. Groakes in 1S60, may also be noted. In America the chief 
periodical is the American Chemical Journal, founded in 1&J9- 
Germany is provided with a great number of magazines. The 
Bffkhie Act devSickrtt chemise ken Cesfilichoft. published by the 
Befit*. Chemkal Society, the Chtmiicha Centratblait, which ii con- 
fined to a bsttaci » of pa pecs a npeari n g \ n other j ou rnalf , t he Zeitsshtift 
fir Ckcmit, and Licbig » Annate n dtr Chemie are the most important 
of the general magazines: Others devoted to special phases are the 
Journal fur praktuehe Chemie, founded by Crdmann in 1834, the 
Zfitjchnfi fur ano*tani icht Chemie and 
taiixke Chemie. Mention may also h 
Jakrtsherkkte and the Jahrbuch dtr Chemie. In France, the most 
important journals are the Annates de chimie et dt physique, founded 
in 1789 with the title Annates dt chimie, and the CompUs rendus, 
pubuahed weekly by the Academic franchise since 1835. 

II. General Principles 

The substances with which the chemist has to deal admit of 

dasaification into elements and compounds. Of the former 

about eighty may be regarded as well characterized, although 

many mora have been described. 

Elements. — The following table gives the names, symbols 
and atomic weights of the perfectly characterized dements. — 
International Atomic Weights, 1910. 

the Zeiitthrifl far Mn£ 

£ Trui(.[c! of the mv.anj.iMe 



Name. Symbol. Weights. 

Name. Symbol. Weights. 



Aluminium • . Al 


Mercury . . , 

. Mo 


Antimony • • Sb 



Argon • .A 


Neodymiura . 



Arsenic ... As 


Neon . . . 



Barium . . . Ba 


Nickel . . 



Beryllium or Be ) 
Glucinura Gl ) 


Nitrogen . • 
Osmium . • 




Bismuth . . • Bi 


Oxygen . . 
Palladium . 



Boron • B 




Bromine ... Br 


Phosphorus . 



Cadmium . . Cd 


Platinum • 



Caesium . . . Cs 




Calcium . • . Ca 





Carbon . • . C 


Radium . . 



Cerium . • . Ce 



Rhodium . • 


102 9 

Chlorine ... CI 

Rubidium • 



Chromium . . Cr 


Ruthenium . 



Cobalt ... Co 


Samarium • 



Columbians . . Cb j 
or Niobium . Nb ] 

Scandium • 




Selenium . • 



Copper . . . Cu 


Silicon . . 



Dysprosium . . Dy 
Erbium . . . Er 


Silver . . 
Sodium . . 


Europium • . Eu 


Strontium . 



Fluorine . • . F 


Sulphur . . 


181 -o 

Gadolinium • . Gd 


Tantalum . 


Gallium . . . Ga 




Germanium . . Ge 


Terbium . . 



Gold . . . . Au 


Thallium . . 



Helium •• . .He 


Thorium . . 



Hydrogen • • H 


Thulium . . 


Indium ... In 


Tin . . . 


1 19-0 

Iodine ... I 

Titanium. . 

. Ti 


Iridium . • . Ir 

193* » 

Tungsten. . 



Iron . . . . Fe 


Uranium . . 

. U 


Krypton . . . Kr 

Vanadium . 

. V 


Lanthanum . . La 





Lead . . . . Pb 


Ytterbium (Neo 

Lithium ... Li 



' Yb 


Lutecium . . Lu 


Yttrium . . 

. Y 

Magnesium . . Mg 


Zinc . 

. Za 

£l 7 

Manganese • . Mn 



. Zr 

The elements are usually divided into two classes, the metallic 
and the non-metallic elements; the following are dasse4 as 
non-metals, and the remainder as metals.-— 

Hydrogen Oxygen Boron . Neon 

Chlorine Sulphur Carbon Krypton 

Bromine Selenium Silicon Xenon 

Iodine Tellurium Phosphorus Helium 

Fluorine Nitrogen Argon 

Of these hydrogen, chlorine, fluorine, oxygen, nitrogen, argon, 
neon, krypton, xenon and helium are gases, bromine is a liquid, 
add the remainder are solids. All the metals are solids at ordinary 
temperatures with the- exception of mercury, which is liquid. 
The metals are mostly bodies of high specific gravity; they 
exhibit, when polished, a peculiar brilliancy or metallic lustre, 
and they are good conductors of heat and electricity; the non- 
metals, on the other hand, are mostly bodies of low specific 
gravity, and bad conductors of heat and electricity, and do not 
exhibit metallic lustre. The non-metallic elements are also 
sometimes termed metalloids, but this appellation, which signifies 
metal-like substances (Gr. dbot, like), strictly belongs to certain 
elements which do not possess the properties of the true metals, 
although they more closely resemble them than the non-metals 
in many respects; thus, selenium and tellurium, which art 
closely allied to sulphur in their chemical properties, although 
bad conductors of heat and electricity, exhibit metallic lustra 
and have relatively high specific gravities. But when the 
properties of the elements are carefully contrasted together it 
is found that no strict line of demarcation can be drawn dividing 
them into two classes; and if they are arranged in a series, 
those which are most closely allied in properties being placed 
next to each other, it is observed that there is a more or less 
regular alteration in properties from term to term in the series. 

When binary compounds, or compounds of two elements, art 
decomposed by an electric current, the two elements make their 
appearance at opposite poles. Those elements which are dis- 
engaged at the negative pole are termed electro-positive, or 
positive, or basylous elements, whilst those disengaged at the 
positive pole are termed electro-negative, or negative, or chlorous 
elements. But the difference between these two classes of 
elements is one of degree only, and they gradually merge into 
each other; moreover the electric relations of elements are not 
absolute, but vary according to the state of combination In 
which they exist, so that It is just as impossible to divide the 
elements into two classes according to this property as it is to 
separate them into two distinct classes of metals and non-metals. 
The following, however, are negative towards the remaining 
elements which are more or less positive.*— Fluorine, chlorine, 
bromine, iodine, oxygen, sulphur, selenium, tellurium. 

The metals may be arranged in a series according to their 
power of displacing one another in salt solutions, thus Cs, Rb, 
K, Na, Mg, Al, Mn, Zn, Cd, Tl, Fe, Co, Ni, Sn, Pb, (H), Sb, Bi, 
As, Cu, Hg, Ag, Pd, Pt, Au. 

Elements which readily enter into reaction with each other, 
and which develop a large amount of heat on combination, are 
said to have a powerful affinity for each other. The tendency 
of positive elements to unite with positive elements, or of negative 
elements to unite with' negative elements, is much less than that 
of positive elements to unite with negative elements, and the 
greater the difference in properties between two elements the 
more powerful is their affinity for each other. Thus, the affinity 
of hydrogen and oxygen for each other is extremely powerful, 
much heat being developed by the combination of these two 
elements; when binary compounds of oxygen are decomposed 
by the electric current, the oxygen invariably appears at the 
positive pole, being negative to all other elements, but the 
hydrogen of hydrogen compounds is always disengaged at the 
negative pole. Hydrogen and oxygen are, therefore, Of very 
opposite natures, and this is well illustrated by the circumstance 
that oxygen combines, with very few exceptions, with all the 
remaining elements, whilst compounds of only a limited number 
with hydrogen have been obtained. 

Compounds.— A chemical compound contains two or more 



•1? :: »h:^i -< pcss;b!e to ar.aryse it. | 
» *: : = :•::;-•* :r :: 3>z:h« : ze :':. : f. tuild 
^_ -— -zz. .ii ::r:c=i--j. I- ?:r;ril a ri— pcusi has prc- 
■ — — ' ^^s.:*^.. :_i ::;=: :r:= — -*« ::" :_* el:=eza cf which 

J_ .*u«n;.^ .'."»>r-':-~t— A w:.w r-iy be dc£r.ed 

^ .>: 7,1-1 :c * s.:s i*:j *r.:h a: exist alone; an 

"" -«- r-T-- •*»• r»r: :i a * »r.:i car txis: is cem- 

- jciii ;-*; i:;ci. xzi fi."-:ri_> lie zrclecules oi the 

"a -4 w r*.v.s.c=-: :ie fcc-wzis scsatox:* 

«s. *: zcccr*:! irr xri i-ut» :e_r$ aerrurv ari the 

" r% - *rp.i *r.-.-£. Tic -US JJi"— Ti-li CCZ^^UlKZ AIC 

*~. Z* 'i.* T v »•*- —Tie si=-< cczrpc-ri always 

_ic i---r.». : i* -*:«- :-»i :-**airir j: ir* sa=-« =a±s 

^-.7. >-?---•-"-- -•" «&z-7is .: »b4:e-.:: sas:<: 

«i roc j cc ire iccnsr *c:i 

^r- — v- 

• .-1 *■ "V » 

: - % 

v . :. 

*.-.* A 

: -P : ^^ '-+ 



."». - 

-Trc r^vscs 

:i z^zn 



. %■ 


i.rc .2- 

. *xr« r:« 



.:c *^rc ts 

.*» SJTT." 

»c r-^i^. 



: - w - 

v: > % 

T.V* .*« 

cos %* 


. - *—" 

.- .* . 

*.v.* -C 

xrc -; 


.*" •:. 


.» x. »C 

* A2C *2 


> ■ *v 


-v.t .-; 

». •« r«t: 


^- . 

. ;• 

1 v :-■ 



.* v 

" > . * 

—"" -. ; 

r^-- * .: i 



.; . * ■« 


-CT5» '. _*. 


, fc , >.*s.wx .*.•£: :..tu .C»T »*.ci »c > 
^. . >..!-•• >ia<> .*.'•?. -etc »• .» «— • 

* J - * "J. * 

■ ir^" ** ix. * -* "*'* * v *** t: ^ - --*—"* %-aiir-A-v 

>. m _ * ^ p,t^ -*f 5**^ ^.VJ*. 4* 2CAS ^*- .'■*. 
■^^^^B^. *****^** w jK »s^ SAT-. A -X" •""-tV -V .X* 

evolution of h>*drogen. A base may be regarded as i 
mhich part of the hydrogen is replaced by a metal, < 
radical which behaves as a metal. (The term radical 
to a group of atoms which persist in chemical changes, b 
as if the group were an element; the commonest 
ammonium group, NH 4 , which forms salts similar to t 
of sodium and potassium.) If the add contains no oxygi 
kydrccid, and its systematic name is formed from th 
kyjre- and the name of the other clement or radical, 1 
syllable of which has been replaced by the termination -1 
example, the acid formed by hydrogen and chlorine is 
hydrochloric acid (and sometimes hydrogen chloride), 
add contains oxygen it is termed an oxyacid. The nomei 
of adds lollops the same general lines as that for bina; 
pounds. If one add be known its name is formed by 
misatwn -«■. e.g. carbonic add; if two, the one contain 
'.«* arrouzt of oxygen takes the termination -ous and t> 
:z< :eraiinat:on -ic, e.g. nitrous add, HNO:, nitric add, 
I: =cre than two be known, the one inferior in oxygen 
has *.he pre£x fiypo- &nd the termination -ous, and t 
*--<r!:T >. cx>-gtn content has the prefix per- and the tenr 
•u-. Th:5 is illustrated in the four oxyacids of chlorine, 
HCCV ECO:. HClOi, which have the names hypocl 
:b;.-rr-js. chloric and perchloric adds. An add is sail 
=rr.:!:i5;c. dibasic, tribasic, &c, according to the nux 
r:z .irrib'.e hydrogen atoms; thus HXOj is monobasic, su 
x.-.i K.»SO« dibasic, phosphoric acid H*F0 4 tribasic. 

A- acii terxr-inating in -cus forms a salt ending in -ilf, 
?-..z::i e=iir.g in ~ic forms a salt ending in -ale. T 
;V..*:ir.s exyaciis enumerated above form salts named 
::«".y hy^orhlcrises. ch'.oritcs, chlorates and perchlorates 
::7—:i rVcr: hyiracids terminate in -ufe, following tl 
: :r ^i-ar>' ccrr.pcur.ds. An acid salt is one in which tin 
i-r--.i o: hyircpen has not been replaced by metal; a 
s^l: ;* v-rs i= which all the hydrogen has been replaced 
>c-:.- sail is cr.s in which part of the add of the normal t 
b«2 rr-!acrd by ox>gen. 

\."cr*.:± F:—.Jz{. — Opposite the name of each elen 
iS: sx-.-ri cc'._rr-r. of the above table, the symbol is givcx 
:* il» ;y? er-jL-ycd to represent it. This symbol, howe\ 
c-'.y r;?7w<r:s :he particular element, but a certain < 
;_i=: :;. c: ;:. Thus, the letter H always stands for i a 
: 7.1:1 b;. wcl;h: cf hydrogen, the letter X for 1 atom or 1 
.*c;?.rr ir..i ihe s\mbol Q f or x atom or 35- 5 parts o 
- .- : are in h"ke manner represented by writ 
f -r-.*x-.j :: :r^:r constituent elements side by side, and i 
.za^. c t< x: :rr. c: each element be present, the number is ini 
:•. 1 =-_-r*rzl placed on the right of the symbol of the e 
„• •>« rxl;^ cr above the line. Thus, hydrochloric 1 
"??rts*r:sd by the fcrrr.uia HC1, that is to say, it is a com 
.*:* *i 1::-:: c: hyirc^en with an atom of chlorine, or of 
:> w^*—. 0: hydroptn w-ih 35*5 parts by weight of cl 
iri -. su'rhuric acli b represented by the formula HiS0 4 
j z *n -.i—t"'. that i: corjsists of 2 atoms of hydrogen, 1 of si 
ire 4 c: :\yprr.. ani consequently of certain relative wci 
•."•erf elcrxr.ts. A 2£ure placed on the right of a symb 
ifx'ts ib< *>-=boI to which it is attached, but when figt 
.-."a-.-rc :- :x*zt cf «%-«ra! symbols all are affected by i 
Ir^CV r-cars H^d taken twice. 

TV r*ir.b"-:lc?. cf weight in chemical change is 
crvr-Mvi 1 ii< :cra cf equations by the aid of these s) 

»..- .-ia-~ *. is :*" Se read as meaning that from 73 t> 
• v '.v : ore a.-i i*i t.; part* of zinc, 136 parts of zinc c 
1 ■»; : 'C7 .* c: V\ ix-^rc are produced. The + sign is inv, 
;- ■ .'.-*- : .^ :r.s way <;:hcr to express combination or 
.„v .* . *c =•« " ~« usually at lached to the use of the sign ■ 
•*j: *-.- such a=d such bodies such and such other 

1 K^csaisaK val jcs of the atomic weights arc employed 




Usually, when the symbols of the dements are written or 
printed with a figure to the right, it is understood that this 
indicates a molecule of the element, the symbol alone representing 
an atom. Thus, the symbols H t and P4 indicate that the mole- 
coles of hydrogen and phosphorus respectively contain 2 and 4 
atoms. Since, according to the molecular theory, in all cases 
af ■*— ■!*■ 1 change the action is between molecules, such symbols 
as these ought always to be employed. Thus, the formation of 
hydrochloric add from hydrogen and chlorine is correctly 
upKscn teri by the equation 

that is to say, a molecule of hydrogen and a molecule of chlorine 
give rise to two molecules of hydrochloric add; whilst the 
following equation merely represents the relative weights of the 
elements which enter into reaction, and is not a complete ex- 
pression of what is supposed to take placer— 

In all cases it is usual to represent substances by formulae 
whkh to the best of our knowledge express their molecular 
composition in the state of gas, and not merely the relative 
Bomber of atoms which they contain; thus, acetic add consists 
of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in the proportion of one atom 
of carbon, two of hydrogen, and one of oxygen, but its molecular 
weight corresponds to the formula C2H4O1, which therefore is 
always employed to represent acetic add. When chemical 
change is expressed with the aid of molecular formulae not 
only is the distribution of weight represented, but by the mere 
inspection of the symbols it is possible to deduce from the law 
of gaseous combination mentioned above, the relative volumes 
whkh the agents and resultants occupy in the state of gas if 
measured at the same temperature and under the same pressure. 
Thus, the equation 

■at only represents that certain definite weights of hydrogen 
and oxygen furnish a certain definite weight of the compound 
which we term water, but that if the water in the state of gas, 
the hydrogen and the oxygen are all measured at the same 
temperature and pressure, the volume occupied by the oxygen 
is only half that occupied by the hydrogen, whilst the resulting 
water-gas will only occupy the same volume as the hydrogen. 
In other words, a volumes of oxygen and 4 volumes of hydrogen 
famish 4 volumes of water-gas. A simple equation like this, 
therefore, when properly interpreted, affords a large amount of 
fafonnation. One other instance may be given; the equation 

represents the decomposition of ammonia gas into nitrogen and 
hyd rog en gases by the electric spark, and it not only conveys 
the information that a certain relative weight of ammonia, 
5?ft"«tft iw g of certain relative weights of hydrogen and nitrogen, 
is broken up into certain relative weights of hydrogen and 
ahrogen, but also that the nitrogen will be contained in half 
the space which contained the ammonia, and that the volume 
of the hydrogen will be one and a half times as great as that of 
the original ammonia, so that in the decomposition of ammonia 
the volume becomes doubled. 

Formulae which merely express the relative number of atoms 
of the different dements present in a compound are termed 
empirical formulae, and the formulae of all compounds whose 
m^i#*nilar weights are undetermined are necessarily empirical. 
The molecular formula of a compound, however, is always a 
simple multiple of the empirical formula, if not identical with it; 
thus, the empirical formula of acetic add is CHiO, and its 
Molecular formula is QH4O,, or twice CHjO. In addition to 
empirical and molecular formulae, chemists are in the habit of 
employing various kinds of rational formulae, called structural, 
constitutional or graphic formulae, &c, which not only express 
the molecular composition of the compounds to which they 
apply, but also embody certain assumptions as to the manner 
in which the constituent atoms are arranged, and convey more 
or less information with regard to the nature of the compound 
itself, vis. the class to which it belongs, the manner in which 

it b formed, and the behaviour it will exhibit under various 
drcumstances. Before explaining these formulae it will be 
necessary, however, to consider the differences in combining 
power exhibited by the various elements. 

Valency.— It h found that the number of atoms of a given 
element, of chlorine, for example, which unite with an atom of 
each of the other elements is very variable. Thus, hydrogen 
unites with but a single atom of chlorine, sine with two, boron 
with three, silicon with four, phosphorus with five and tungsten 
with six. Those elements which are equivalent in combining 
or displacing power to a single atom of hydrogen are said to be 
unnalent or monad elements; whilst those which are equivalent 
to two atoms of hydrogen are termed bivalent or dyad elements; 
and those equivalent to three, four, five or six atoms of hydrogen 
triad, tetrad, pentad or hexad elements. But not only is the 
combining power or valency (atomidty) of the dements different, 
it is also observed that one dement may combine with another 
in several proportions, or that its valency may vary; for example, 
phosphorus forms two chlorides represented by the formulae 
PCI, and PCI*, nitrogen the series of oxides represented by the 
formulae N4O, NO, (NA)> NA> NA, molybdenum forms tho 
chlorides Mod* MoCU, fttoCU, MoCU, MoO«(?), and tungsten 
the chlorides WO* WCU, WCU, WO* 

In explanation of these facts it is supposed that each element 
has a certain number of " units of affinity," which may be 
entirely, or only in part, engaged when it enters into combination 
with other elements; and in those cases in which the entire 
number of units of affinity are not engaged by other elements, 
it is supposed that those which are thus dis enga ged neutralize 
each other, as it were. For example, in phosphorus penta- 
chloride the five units of affinity possessed by the phosphorus 
atom are satisfied by the five monad atoms of chlorine, but in 
the trichloride two are disengaged, and, it may be supposed, 
satisfy each other. Compounds in which all the units of affinity 
of the contained elements are engaged are said to be saturated, 
whilst those in which the affinities of the contained elements are 
not all engaged by other elements are said to be u n satu rat ed. 
According to this view, it is necessary to assume that, in all 
unsaturated compounds, two, or some even number of affinities 
are disengaged; and also that all elements which combine 
with an even number of monad atoms cannot combine with an 
odd number, and vice versa,— in other words, that the number 
of units of affinity active in the case of any given element must 
be always either an even or an odd number, and that it cannot 
be at one time an even and at another an odd number. There 
are, however, a few remarkable exceptions to this "law." 
Thus, it must be supposed that in nitric oxide, NO, an odd 
number of affinities are disengaged, since a single atom of dyad 
oxygen is united with a single atom of nitrogen, which in all its 
compounds with other elements acts either as a triad or pentad. 
When nitric peroxide, NA, Is converted into gas, it decomposes, 
and at about 180° C. its vapour entirely consists of molecules 
of the composition NOj; while at temperatures between this 
and o° C. it consists of a mixture in different proportions of the 
two kinds of molecules, NA and NO». The oxide NOj must 
be regarded as another instance of a compound in which an odd 
number of affinities of one of the contained elements are dis- 
engaged, since it contains two atoms of dyad oxygen united with 
a single atom of triad or pentad nitrogen. Again, when tungsten 
hexachloride is converted into vapour it is decomposed into 
chlorine and a pentachloride, having a normal vapour density, 
but as in the majority of its compounds tungsten acts as a hexad, 
we apparently must regard its pentachloride as a compound 
in which an odd number of free affinities are dismgagrd. Hither- 
to no explanation has been given of these exceptions to what 
appears to be a law of almost universal application, viz. that the 
sum of the units of affinity of all the atoms in a compound 1* 
an even number. 

The number of units of affinity active in the case of any 
particular element is largely dependent, however, upon the 
nature of the element or elements with which it is issoristed. 
Thus, an atom of iodine only comhanes with one of hydrogen^ 



zcn is associated wit 
«.r^"c .i!!";riit> to the < 

'.K *e;c::.! atom of ox 

.> r •. to be s*ipp«»^ 

-. i-.t'ACcn the a:o 

. ttpres* the hypothc 
:::-.: l.rectiy «:thi. 
.: i.:r*. anJ er.Iy 
:. .-.».— an hypvtt 

: :•!•. .: .> v.*:en jv»m"» 

. ~ z< mZZ. +L.1 to J:?p!» 

. _ . ? 

, f.r.plcr <. 


:rj form 



ft tv 

tettft c 



*"** .« aria 




tic all compounds of similar atoms united together by one or 
more units of affinity, according to their valencies. If this be 
the case, however, it is evident that there is no real distinction 
between the reactions which take place when two elements 
nwnhrnc together and when an element in a compound is dis- 
placed by another. The combination, as it is ordinarily termed, 
of chlorine with hydrogen, and the displacement of iodine in 
potassium iodide by the action of chlorine, may be dted as 
examples; if these reactions are represented, as such reactions 
very commonly are, by equations which merely express the 
relative weights of the bodies which enter into reaction, and of 
the products, thus— 

H + a - Ha 

Hydrogen. Chlorine. Hydrochloric add. 

KI + a - KG + I 

Potassium Iodide. Chlorine. Potassium chloride. Iodine. 

they appear to differ in character; but if they are correctly 
represented by molecular equations, or equations which express 
the relative number of molecules which enter into reaction and 
which result from the reaction, it will be obvious that the 
character of the reaction is substantially the same in both cases, 
and that both are instances of the occurrence of what is ordinarily 
termed double decomposition— 

H, + CI, - 2HCI 
Hydrogen. Chlorine. Hydrochloric add. 
2KI + CI, - 2KC1 + U 

Potassium iodide. Chlorine. Potassium chloride. Iodine. 

In all cases of chemical change energy in the form of heat is 
either developed or absorbed, and the amount of heat developed 
or absorbed in a given reaction is as definite as are the weights 
of the substance engaged in the reaction . Thus, in the production 
of hydrochloric add from hydrogen and chlorine a 2,000 calories 
are developed; in the production of hydrobromic add from 
hydrogen and bromine, however, only 844<>caloriesaredeveloped; 
and in the formation of hydriodic acid from hydrogen and 
iodine 6040 calories are absorbed. 

This difference in behaviour of the three elements, chlorine, 
bromine and iodine, which in many respects exhibit considerable 
resemblance, may be explained in the following manner. We 
may s up po s e that in the formation of gaseous hydrochloric add 
bom gaseous chlorine and hydrogen, according to the equation 

a certain amount of energy is expended in separating the atoms 
of hydrogen in the hydrogen molecule, and the atoms of chlorine 
in the chlorine molecule, from each other; but that heat is 
developed by the combination of the hydrogen atoms with 
the chlorine atoms, and that, as more energy is developed by the 
union of the atoms of hydrogen and chlorine than is expended 
u separating the hydrogen atoms from each other and the 
chlorine atoms from one another, the result of the action of the 
two elements upon each other is the development of heat,— the 
amount finally developed in the reaction being the difference 
between that absorbed in decomposing the elementary mole- 
cules and that developed by the combination of the atoms of 
chlorine and hydrogen. In the formation of gaseous hydrobromic 
add from liquid bromine and gaseous hydrogen— 

in addition to the energy expended in decomposing the hydrogen 
and bromine molecules, energy is also expended in converting 
the liquid bromine into the gaseous condition, and probably 
less heat is developed by the combination of bromine and 
hydrogen than by the combination of chlorine and hydrogen, so 
that the amount of heat finally developed is much less than is 
developed in the formation of hydrochloric acid. Lastly, in 
the production of gaseous hydriodic add from hydrogen and 
solid iodine — 

so much energy is expended in the decomposition of the hydrogen 
and iodine molecules and in the conversion of the iodine into the 
gaseous condition, that the heat which it may be supposed is 
developed by the combination of the hydrogen and iodine atoms 
is insufficient to balance the expenditure, and the final result is 

therefore negative; hence it is necessary in forming hydriodic 
add from its dements to apply heat continuously. 

These compounds also afford examples of the fact that, 
generally speaking, those com p ounds are most readily formed, 
and are most stable, in the formation of which the most heat is 
developed. Thus, chlorine enters into reaction with hydrogen, 
and removes hydrogen from hydrogenised bodies, far more 
readily than bromine ; and hydrochloric add is a fax more 
stable substance than hydrobromic add, hydriodic add. bring 
greatly inferior even to hydrobromic add in stability. Com- 
pounds formed with the evolution of heat are termed exothermic, 
while those formed with an absorption are termed endothermic 
Explosives are the commonest examples of endothermic com- 

When two substances which by their action upon each other 
develop much heat enter into reaction, the reaction is usually 
complete without the employment of an excess of either; for 
example, when a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen, in the pro- 
portions to form water— 

is exploded, it is entirely converted into water. This is also 
the case if two substances are brought together in solution, by 
the action of which upon each other a third body Is formed 
which is insoluble in the solvent employed, and which also does 
not tend to react upon any of the substances present; for 
instance, when a solution of a chloride is added to a solution of 
a silver salt, insoluble silver chloride is precipitated, and almost 
the whole of the silver is removed from solution, even if the 
amount of the chloride employed be not in excess of that 
theoretically required. 

But if there be no tendency to form an insoluble compound, 
or one which is not liable to react upon any of the other substances 
present, this is no longer the case. For example, when a solution 
of a ferric salt is added to a solution of potassium thiocyanate, 
a deep red coloration is produced, owing to the formation of 
ferric thiocyanate. Theoretically the reaction takes place in 
the case of ferric nitrate in the manner represented by the 

Fe(NO,), + 3KCNS - Fe(CNS), + 3KN0,; 

Ferric aitnte. Fttaatan thlocjuate. Ferric thiocyanate. Pttttriam aanta. 

but it is found that even when more than sixty times the amount 
of potassium thiocyanate required by this equation is added, 
a portion of the ferric nitrate still remains unconverted, doubtless 
owing to the occurrence of the reverse change — 

In this, as in most other cases in which substances act upon one 
another under such circumstances that the resulting compounds 
are free to react, the extent to which the different kinds of action 
which may occur take place is dependent upon the mass of the 
substances present in the mixture. As another instance of this 
kind, the decomposition of bismuth chloride by water may be 
dted. If a very large quantity of water be added, the chloride 
is entirely decomposed in the manner represented by the 
equation — 

BICI. + OHi - BiOO + 2HO, 
Bismuth chloride. Bismuth oxychloride. 

the oxychloride being predpitated; but if smaller quantities 
of water be added the decomposition is incomplete, and it is 
found that the extent to which decomposition takes place is 
proportional to the quantity of water employed, the decern- 
position being incomplete, except in presence of large quantities 
of water, because of the occurrence of the reverse action— 
BiOCl +2HC1 - BiCU+OH*. 

Chemical change which merely involves simple decomposition 
is thus seen to be influenced by the masses of the reacting sub- 
stances and the presence of the products of decomposition; in . 
other words the system of reacting substances and resultants 
form a mixture in which chemical action has apparently ceased, 
or the system is in equilibrium. Such reactions are termed 
reversible (see Chemical Action). 




epted explanations of 
■.* of solar energy and 
ay require recasting, 
ted uranium, he also 
the mineral variously 
jargoon, but he failed 
jmplished some years 
he double potassium 
e following year, 1795, 
.1 third new clement, 
•irm),as in the case of 

disulphidc by W A. 

Vauquelinin 1797, and 

>S, the next important 

ith platinum and the 

< d by Antonio de Uiloa 

I. T. Scheffer in 1752. 

palladium, especially 

■-rbing (" occluding ") 

rdinary temperatures, 

.g year he discovered 

thson Tcnnant added 

ium; the former was 

• >xidcs (fptf , rainbow), 

.<-• (hank smell) The 

metal," ruthenium, 

. The great number 

.'Is of this group of 

y investigations, and 

ature. Bcrzelius was 

iiccecded by Bunsen, 

tut the separation of 

'eve, the first to make 

and their compounds. 

.s formed by the union 

ie, discovered by Paul 

.ttted by F. B. Mylius 

phosphoplatinic com- 

.nd phosphorus penta- 

•ounds, formed by the 

of these metals, which 

daily S. M. Jdrgensen. 

the atomic weights of 

-rzclius being doubtful. 

onstant for platinum, 

palladium, and A. A. 

witnessed the discovery 

lysis of compounds and 

t investigation of the 

s clearly demonstrated 

sis could render to the 

of this method by Sir 

ycbates of the metals of 

■ results which he thus 

1808 Davy isolated 

1 his attention to the 

. strontium and mag- 

ulty, and it is to be 

»se metals even in an 

metallurgy). The 

Davy in 1809 led 

e following year he 

herto unrecognized 

1 it to be a metal. 

illic in character, 

ogy with carbon 

ed the element, 

ireoal and iron 

dition he first 

>d of heating 

double potassium fluorides with metallic potassium. The 
success which attended his experiments in the case of silicon led 
him to apply it to the isolation of other elements. In 1824 he 
obtained zirconium from potassium zirconium fluoride; the 
preparation of (impure) titanium quickly followed, and in 1828 
he obtained thorium. A similar process, and equally efficacious, 
was introduced by F. Wtthlcr in 1827. It consisted in healing 
metallic chlorides with potassium, and was first applied to 
aluminium, which was isolated in 1827; in the following year, 
beryllium chloride was analysed by the same method, beryllium 
oxide (berylla or glucina) having been known since 1798, when 
it was detected by L. N. Vauquclin in the gem-stone beryl. 

In 181 2 B. Courtois isolated the element iodine from " kelp," 
the burnt ashes of marine plants. The chemical analogy of this 
substance to chlorine was quickly perceived, especially after 
its investigation by Davy and Gay Lussac. Cyanogen, a 
compound which in combination behaved very similarly to 
chlorine and iodine, was isolated in 181 5 by Gay Lussac. This 
discovery of the first of the then-styled " compound radicals " 
exerted great influence on the prevailing views of chemical 
composition. Hydrochloric acid was carefully investigated 
at about this time by Davy, Faraday and Gay Lussac, its 
composition and the elementary nature of chlorine being thereby 

In 181 7 F. Stromeyer detected a new metallic element, cad- 
mium, in certain zinc ores; it was rediscovered at subsequent 
dates by other observers and its chemical resemblance to zinc 
noticed. In the same year Berzelius discovered selenium in a 
deposit from sulphuric acid chambers, his masterly investigation 
including a study of the hydride, oxides and other compounds. 
Selenic add was discovered by E. Mitscherlich, who also observed 
the similarity of the crystallographic characters of sclenates 
and sulphates, which afforded valuable corroboration of his doc- 
trine of isomorphism. More recent and elaborate investigations 
in this direction by A. E. H. Tutton have confirmed this view. 

In 18 1 8 L. J. Thtnard discovered hydrogen dioxide, one of 
the most interesting inorganic compounds known, which has 
since been carefully investigated by H. E. Schtine, M. Traube, 
Wolfenstcin and others. About the same time, J. A. Arfvedson, 
a pupil of Berzelius, detected a new element, which he named 
lithium, in various minerals— notably pctalite. Although 
unable to isolate the metal, he recognized its analogy to sodium 
and potassium; this was confirmed by R. Bunsen and A. 
Matthiessen in 1855, who obtained the metal by electrolysis 
and thoroughly examined it and its compounds. Its crimson 
flame-coloration was observed by C. G. Gmclin in 1818. 

The discovery of bromine in 1826 by A J. Balard completed 
for many years Berzelius's group of " halogen " elements, the 
remaining member, fluorine, notwithstanding many attempts, 
remained unisolated until 1886, when Henri Moissan obtained 
it by the electrolysis of potassium fluoride dissolved in hydro- 
fluoric add . Hydrobromic and hydriodic adds were investigated 
by Gay Lussac and Balard, while hydrofluoric add received 
considerable attention at the hands of Gay Lussac, Thenard 
and Berzelius. We may, in fact, consider that the descriptive 
study of the various halogen compounds dates from about this 
time. Balard discovered chlorine monoxide in 1834, investigat- 
ing its properties and reactions; and his observations on hypo- 
chlorous arid and hypochlorites led him to conclude that " bleach- 
ing-powder " or " chloride of lime " was a compound or mixture 
in equimolecular proportions of calcium chloride and hypo- 
chlorite, with a h'ttle calcium hydrate. Gay Lussac investigated 
chloric acid, Stadion discovered perchloric acid, since more 
fully studied by G S. Scrullas and Roscoe; Davy and Stadion 
investigated chlorine peroxide, formed by treating potassium 
chlorate with sulphuric acid. Davy also described and partially 
investigated the gas, named by him " euchlorine," obtained 
by heating potassium chlorate with hydrochloric acid; this 
gas has been more recently examined by Pebal. The oxy-adda 
of iodine were investigated by Davy and H. G. Magnus; periodic 
acid, discovered by the latter, is characterized by the striking 
complexity of its salts as pointed out by Kimmins. 




IH Inorganic Chemtstey 

Inorganic chemistry h concerned with the descriptive study 
of the elements and their compounds, except those of carbon. 
Reference should be made to the separate articles on the different 
elements and the more important compounds for their prepara- 
tion, properties and uses. In this article the development of 
this branch of the science is treated historically. 

The earliest discoveries in inorganic chemistry are to be found 
in the metallurgy, medicine and chemical arts of the ancients. 
The Egyptians obtained silver, iron, copper, lead, sine and tin, 
either pure or as alloys, by smelting the ores; mercury is men- 
tioned by Theophrastus (c. 300 B.C.). The manufacture of glass, 
also practised in Egypt, demanded a knowledge of sodium or 
potassium carbonates; the former occurs as an efflorescence 
on the shores of certain lakes; the latter was obtained from 
wood ashes. Many substances were used as pigments: Pliny 
records white lead, cinnabar, verdigris and red oxide of iron; 
and the preparation of coloured glasses and enamels testifies to 
the uses to which these and other substances were put. Salts of 
ammonium were also known; while alum was used as a mordant 
in dyeing. Many substances were employed in ancient medicine; 
galena was the basis of a valuable Egyptian cosmetic and drug; 
the arsenic sulphides, realgar and orpiment, litharge, alum, 
saltpetre, iron rust were also used. Among the Arabian and 
later alchemists we find attempts made to collate compounds by 
specific properties, and it is to these writers that we are mainly 
indebted for such terms as "alkali," "sal," &c The mineral 
adds, hydrochloric, nitric and sulphuric adds, and also aqua 
regia (a mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acids) were discovered, 
and the vitriols, alum, saltpetre, sal-ammoniac, ammonium 
carbonate, silver nitrate (lunar caustic) became better known. 
The compounds of mercury attracted considerable attention, 
mainly on account of their medicinal properties; mercuric 
oxide and corrosive sublimate were known to pseudo*Geber, and 
the nitrate and basic sulphate to " Basil Valentine." Antimony 
and its compounds formed the subject of an elaborate treatise 
ascribed to this last writer, who also contributed to bur knowledge 
of the compounds of zinc, bismuth and arsenic All the com- 
monly occurring elements and compounds appear to have 
received notice by the alchemists; but the writings assigned 
to the alchemical period are generally so vague and indefinite 
that it is difficult to determine the true value of the results 

In the succeeding latrochemical period, the methods of the 
alchemists were improved and new ones devised. Glauber 
showed how to prepare hydrochloric acid, spirUus salts, by 
heating rock>saH with sulphuric add, the method in common 
use to-day; and also nitric add from saltpetre and arsenic 
trioxide. Libavius obtained sulphuric add from many sub- 
stances, e.g. alum, vitriol, sulphur and nitric add, by distillation. 
The action of these adds on many metals was also studied; 
Glauber obtained sine, stannic, arsenious and cuprous chlorides 
by dissolving the metals in hydrochloric add, compounds 
hitherto obtained by heating the metals with corrosive sublimate, 
and consequently supposed to contain mercury. The scientific 
study of salts dates from this period, especial interest being 
taken in those compounds which possessed a medicinal or 
technical value. In particular, the salts of potassium, sodium 
and ammonium were carefully investigated, but sodium and 
potassium salts were rarely differentiated. 1 The metals of the 
alkaline-earths were somewhat neglected; we find Georg 
Agricola considering gypsum (caldum sulphate) as a compound 
of lime, while caldum nitrate and chloride became known at 
about the beginning of the 17th century. Antimonial, bismuth 
and arsenical compounds were assiduously studied, a direct 
consequence of their high medicinal importance; mercurial 
and silver compounds were investigated for the same reason. 
The general tendency of this period appears to have taken the 
form of improving and developing the methods of the alchemists; 

*The definite distinction b e t we en potash and soda was first 
established by Duhamd de Monceau (1700-1781). 

few new fields were opened, and apart from a more complete 
knowledge of the nature of salts, no valuable generalizations 
were attained. 

The discovery of phosphorus by Brand, a Hamburg alchemist, 
in 1660 exdted chemists to an unwonted degree; it was also' 
independently prepared by Robert Boyle and J. KunckeJ, 
Brand having kept his process secret. Towards the middle of 
the 1 8th century two new elements were isolated: cobalt by 
G. Brandt in 1 74 2, and nickel by A. F. Cronstedt in 1 7 50. These 
discoveries were followed by Daniel Rutherford's isolation of 
nitrogen in 177s, and by K. Scheele's isolation of chlorine and 
oxygen in 1774 (J. Priestley discovered oxygen independently 
at about the same time), and his investigation of molybdic and 
tungstic adds in the following year; metallic molybdenum 
was obtained by P. J. Hjelm in 1783, and tungsten by Don 
Fausto d'EIhuyar; manganese was isolated by J. G. Gahn in 
1774. In x 784 Henry Cavendish thoroughly examined hydrogen, 
establishing its elementary nature; and he made the far-reaching 
discovery that water was composed of two volumes of hydrogen 
to one of oxygen. 

The phlogistic theory, which pervaded the chemical doctrine 
of this period, gave rise to continued study of the products of 
calcination and combustion; it thus happened that the know* 
ledge of oxides and oxidation products was considerably 
developed. The synthesis of nitric add by passing electric 
sparks through moist air by Cavendish is a famous piece of 
experimental work, for in the first place it determined the 
composition of this important substance, and in the second 
place the minute residue of air which would not combine, although 
ignored for about a century, was subsequently ********* by 
Lord Raylcigh and Sir William Ramsay, who showed that it 
consists of a mixture of elementary substances— argon, krypton, 
neon and xenon (see Argon). 

The 1 8th century witnessed striking development* in 
pneumatic chemistry, or the chemistry of gases, which had 
been begun by van Helmont, Mayow, Hales and Boyle. Gases 
formerly considered to be identical came to be clearly distin- 
guished, and many new ones were discovered. Atmospheric ' 
air was carefully investigated by Cavendish, who showed that 
it consisted of two elementary constituents: nitrogen, which 
was isolated by Rutherford in 1772, and oxygen, isolated in 
1774; and Black established the presence, in minute quantity, 
of carbon dioxide (van Helmont's gas sylvtslrc). Of the many 
workers in (his field, Priestley occupies an important position. 
A masterly device, initiated by him, was to collect gases over 
mercury instead of water; this enabled him to obtain gases 
previously only known in solution, such as ammonia, hydro- 
chloric acid, silicon fluoride and sulphur dioxide. Sulphuretted 
hydrogen and nitric oxide were discovered at about the 
same time. 

Returning to the history of the discovery of the elements and 
their more important inorganic compounds, we come in 1789 to 
M. H. Klaproth's detection of a previously unknown constituent 
of the mineral pitchblende. He extracted a substance to which 
he assigned the character of an element, naming it uranium 
(from Obpavte, heaven); but it was afterwards shown by E. M. 
Peligot, who prepared the pure metal, that Klaproth's product 
was really an oxide. This clement was investigated at a later 
date by Sir Henry Roscoc, and more thoroughly and successfully 
by C. Zimmermann and Alibegoff. Pitchblende attained con- 
siderable notoriety towards the end of the 19th century on 
account of two important discoveries. The first, made by Sir 
William Ramsay in 1896, was that the mineral evolved a peculiar 
gas when treated with sulphuric acid; this gas, helium (q.v.), 
proved to be identical with a constituent of the sun's atmosphere, 
detected as early as 1868 by Sir Norman Lockyer during a 
Spectroscopic examination of the sun's chromosphere. The 
second discovery, associated with the Curies, is that of the 
peculiar properties exhibited by the impure substance, and due 
to a constituent named radium. The investigation of this 
substance and its properties (see Radioactivity) hss proceeded 
so far as to render it probable that the theory of the unalterability 




of dements, and also the hitherto accepted explanations of 
various celestial phenomena— the source of solar energy and 
the appearances of the tails of comets — may require recasting. 

In the same year as Klaproth detected uranium, he also 
isolated zirconia or zirconium oxide from the mineral variously 
known as zircon, hyacinth, jacynth and jargoon, but he failed 
to obtain the metal, this being first accomplished some years 
later by Berzelius, who decomposed the double potassium 
fifconrum fluoride with potassium. In the following year, 1795, 
KJaprotb announced the discovery of a third new clement, 
titanium, its isolation (in a very impure form), as in the case of 
zirconium, was reserved for Bcrzelius. 

Passing over the discovery of carbon disulphide by W A. 
Lampadius in 1706, of chromium by L N Vauquelin in 1797, and 
Klsproth's investigation of tellurium in 1798, the next important 
series of observations was concerned with platinum and the 
allied metals. Platinum had been described by Antonio de Ulloa 
in 1748, and subsequently discussed by H. T. Scheffer in 1752. 
la 1803 W H. Wollaston discovered palladium, especially 
interesting for its striking property of absorbing (" occluding ") 
as much as 376 volumes of hydrogen at ordinary temperatures, 
and 643 volumes at 90° In the following year he discovered 
rhodium; and at about the same time Smithson Tennant added 
two more to the list — iridium and osmium; the former was 
so named from the changing tints of its oxides (T/xt, rainbow), 
and the latter from the odour of its oxide (fo/hj, smell) The 
most recently discovered "platinum metal," ruthenium, 
was recognized by C. E. Clans in 1845. The great number 
and striking character of the compounds of this group of 
metals have formed the subject of many investigations, and 
already there is a most voluminous literature. Berzelius was 
an early worker in this field, he was succeeded by Bunsen, 
and Deville and Debray, who worked out the separation of 
rhodium; and at a later date by P T. Clcve, the first to make 
a really thorough study of these elements and their compounds. 
Of especial note are the curious compounds formed by the union 
of carbon monoxide with platinous chloride, discovered by Paul 
Schtttxenbcrger and subsequently investigated by F. B. Mylius 
and F. Foerster and by Pullinger; the phosphoplatinic com- 
pounds formed primarily from platinum and phosphorus penta- 
chloride; and also the " ammino " compounds, formed by the 
union of ammonia with the chloride, &c, of these metals, which 
have been studied by many chemists, especially S. M. Jdrgensen. 
Considerable uncertainty existed as to the atomic weights of 
these metals, the values obtained by Berzelius being doubtful 
K. F. O. Seubert redetermined this constant for platinum, 
flf""«™ and iridium, E H. Keiser for palladium, and A. A. 
JoJy for ruthenium. 

The beginning of the 19th century witnessed the discovery 
of certain powerful methods for the analysis of compounds and 
the isolation of elements. Berzelius's investigation of the 
action of the electric current on salts clearly demonstrated 
the invaluable assistance that electrolysis could render to the 
isolator of elements; and the adoption of this method by Sir 
Humphry Davy for the analysis of the hydrates of the metals of 
the alkalis and alkaline earths, and the results which he thus 
achieved, established its potency. In 1808 Davy isolated 
sodium and potassium; he then turned his attention to the 
preparation of metallic calcium, barium, strontium and mag- 
nesium. Here he met with greater difficulty, and it is to be 
questioned whether he obtained any of these metals even in an 
approximately pure form (see ELiCTxoirETALLURGY). The 
discovery of boron by Gay Lussac and Davy in 1809 led 
Berzelius to investigate silica (siltx). In the following year he 
announced that silica was the oxide of a hitherto unrecognized 
element, which he named silicium, considering it to be a metal. 
This has proved to be erroneous; it is non-metallic in character, 
and its name was altered to silicon, from analogy with carbon 
and boron. At the same time Berzelius obtained the element, 
in an impure condition, by fusing silica with charcoal and iron 
In a blast furnace; its preparation in a pure condition he first 
accomplished in 1823, when be invented the method of beating 

double potassium fluorides with metallic potassium. The 
success which attended his experiments in the case of silicon led 
him to apply it to the isolation of other elements. In 18S4 he 
obtained zirconium from potassium zirconium fluoride; the 
preparation of (impure) titanium quickly followed, and in 1828 
he obtained thorium. A similar process, and equally efficacious, 
was introduced by F. Wohler in 1827. It consisted in heating 
metallic chlorides with potassium, and was first applied to 
aluminium, which was isolated in 1827; in the following year, 
beryllium chloride was analysed by the same method, beryllium 
oxide (berylla or glucina) having been known since 1708, when 
it was detected by L. N. Vauquelin in the gem-stone beryl 

In 181 2 B. Courtois isolated the element iodine from " kelp," 
the burnt ashes of marine plants. The chemical analogy of this 
substance to chlorine was quickly perceived, especially after 
its investigation by Davy and Gay Lussac. Cyanogen, a 
compound which in combination behaved very similarly to 
chlorine and iodine, was isolated in 181 5 by Gay Lussac This 
discovery of the first of the then-styled " compound radicals " 
exerted great influence on the prevailing views of chemical 
composition. Hydrochloric acid was carefully investigated 
at about this time by Davy, Faraday and Gay Lussac, its 
composition and the elementary nature of chlorine being thereby 

In 181 7 F. Stromeyer detected a new metallic element, cad- 
mium, in certain zinc ores; it was rediscovered at subsequent 
dates by other observers and its chemical resemblance to sine 
noticed. In the same year Berzelius discovered selenium in a 
deposit from sulphuric add chambers, his masterly investigation 
including a study of the hydride, oxides and other compounds. 
Selenic acid was discovered by E. Mitscherlkh, who also observed 
the similarity of the crystallographic characters of selenates 
and sulphates, which afforded valuable corroboration of his doc- 
trine of isomorphism. More recent and elaborate investigations 
in this direction by A. E. H. Tutton have confirmed this view. 

In 1818 L. J. Thenard discovered hydrogen dioxide, one of 
the most interesting inorganic compounds known, which has 
since been carefully investigated by H. E. Schone, M. Traube, 
Wolfenstein and others. About the same time, J. A. Arfvedson, 
a pupil of Berzelius, detected a pew element, which he named 
lithium, in various minerals— notably petalitc. Although 
unable to isolate the metal, be recognized its analogy to sodium 
and potassium; this was confirmed by R. Bunsen and A. 
Matthiessen in 1855, who obtained the metal by electrolysis 
and thoroughly examined it and its compounds. Its crimson 
flame-coloration was observed by C. G. Gmelin in 1818. 

The discovery of bromine in 1826 by A J. Balard completed 
for many years Berzelius's group of " halogen " elements, the 
remaining member, fluorine, notwithstanding many attempts, 
remained unisolated until 1886, when Henri Moissan obtained 
it by the electrolysis of potassium fluoride dissolved in hydro- 
fluoric acid. Hydrobromic and hydriodic adds were investigated 
by Gay Lussac and Balard, while hydrofluoric acid received 
considerable attention at the hands of Gay Lussac, Thenard 
and Berzelius. We may, in fact, consider that the descriptive 
study of the various halogen compounds dates from about this 
time. Balard discovered chlorine monoxide in 1834, investigat- 
ing its properties and reactions; and his observations on hypo- 
chlorous arid and hypochlorites led him to condude that " bleach* 
ing-powder " or M chloride of lime " was a compound or mixture 
in equimolecular proportions of calcium chloride and hypo- 
chlorite, with a little calcium hydrate. Gay Lussac investigated 
chloric add, Stadion discovered perchloric add, since more 
fully studied by G S. Serullas and Roscoe; Davy and Stadion 
investigated chlorine peroxide, formed by treating potassium 
chlorate with sulphuric add. Davy also described and partially 
investigated the gas, named by him " eucblorine," obtained 
by heating potassium chlorate with hydrochloric add; this 
gas has been more recently examined by Pebal. The coy-acids 
of iodine were investigated by Davy and H. G. Magnus; periodic 
add, discovered by the latter, is characterized by the striking 
complexity of its salts as pointed out by T 




In 1830 N. G. Sefstrom definitely proved the existence of ft 
metallic .dement vanadium, which had been previously detected 
(in 1801) in certain lead ores by A. M. del Rio; subsequent 
elaborate researches by Sir Henry Roscoe showed many in- 
accuracies in the conclusions of earlier workers (for instance, the 
substance considered to be the pure element was in reality an 
oxide) and provided science with an admirable account of this 
element and its compounds. B. W. Ceriand contributed to our 
knowledge of vanadyl salts and the vanadic acids. Chemically 
related to vanadium are the two elements tantalum and colum- 
bium or niobium. These elements occur in the minerals colum- 
bite and tantalite, and their compounds became known in the 
early part of the 19th century by the labours of C. Hatchett, 
A. G. Ekeberg, W. H. Wollaston and Berzelius. But the 
knowledge was very imperfect; neither was it much clarified 
by H. Rose, who regarded niobium oxide as the element The 
subject was revived in 1866 by C. W. Blomstrand and J. C. 
Marignac, to whom is due the credit of first showing the true 
chemical relations of these elements. Subsequent researches by 
Sainte Claire DeviUe and L. J. Troost, and by A. G. Krttss and 
L. £. Nilson, and subsequently (1004) by Hall, rendered notable 
additions to our knowledge of these elementsand theircompounds. 
Tantalum has in recent years been turned to economic service, 
being employed, in the same manner as tungsten, for the pro- 
duction of the filaments employed in incandescent electric 

In 1833 Thomas Graham, following the paths already traced 
out by £. D. Clarke, Gay Lussac and Stromeyer, published his 
masterly • investigation of the various phosphoric acids and 
their salts, obtaining results subsequently employed by J. von 
Liebtg in establishing the doctrine of the characterization and 
basicity of acids. Both phosphoric and phosphorous acids 
became known, although imperfectly, towards the end of the 
18th century, phosphorous acid was first obtained pure by 
Davy in 181 », while pure phosphorous oxide, the anhydride 
el phosphorous acid, remained unknown until T. E. Thorpe's 
investigation of the products of the slow combustion of phos- 
phorus. Of other phosphorus compounds we may here notice 
Gengembre's discovery of phosphuretted hydrogen (phosphine) 
in 1783, the analogy of which to ammonia was first pointed out 
by Davy and supported at a later date by H. Rose; liquid 
phosphuretted hydrogen was first obtained by Thenard in 
1838, and hypophosphorous add was discovered by Dulcng 
in 1816 Of the halogen compounds-of phosphorus, the tri- 
chloride was discovered by Gay Lussac and Thenard, while the 
pentachloride was obtained by Davy. The oxychloride, bro- 
mides, and other compounds were subsequently discovered, 
here we need only notice Moissan's preparation of the trifluoride 
and Thorpe's discovery of the pentafluoride, a compound of 
especial note, for it volatilizes unchanged, giving a vapour of 
normal density and so demonstrating the stability of a pentava- 
len.t phosphorus compound (the pentachloride and pentabromide 
dissociate into a molecule of the halogen element and phosphorus 

In 1840 C. F. Scbonbein investigated ozone, a gas of peculiar 
odour (named from the Gr. 6f«r, to smell) observed in 1785 by 
Martin van Marum to be formed by the action of a silent electric 
discharge on the oxygen of the air; he showed it to be an 
allotropic modification ef oxygen, a view subsequently confirmed 
by Marignac, Andrews and Soret In 1845 a further contribution 
to the study of allotropy was made by Anton Schrotter, who 
investigated the transformations of yellow and red phosphorus, 
phenomena previously noticed by Berzelius, the inventor of the 
term " allotropy.'* The preparation of crystalline boron in 1856 
by Wohler and Sainte Claire Deville showed that this element 
also existed in allotropic forms, amorphous boron having been 
obtained simultaneously and independently in 1809 by Gay 
Lussac and Davy. Before leaving this phase of inorganic 
chemistry, we may mention other historical examples of allo- 
tropy. Of great importance is the chemical identity of the 
diamond, graphite and charcoal, a fact demonstrated in part by 
Lavoisier in 1773, Smithson Tennant in 1790, and by Sir George 

Steuart-Mackenzie (1780-1848), who showed that equal weights 
of these three substances yielded the same weight of carbon 
dioxide on combustion. The allotropy of selenium was fiat 
investigated by Berzelius, and more fully in 1851 by J. W«> 
Hittorf, who carefully investigated the effects produced by heat; 
crystalline selenium possesses a very striking property, via. 
when exposed to the action of light its electric conductivity 
increases. Another element occurring in allotropic forms Is 
sulphur, of which many forms have been described. E. Mit- 
scherlich was an early worker in this field. A modification 
known as " black sulphur/' soluble in water, was announced 
by F. L. Rnapp in 1848, and a colloidal modification was 
described by H. Debus. The dynamical equilibrium 1 
rhombic, liquid and monosymmetric sulphur has been ' 
out by H. W. Bakhuis Roozeboom. The phenomenon of allo- 
tropy Is not confined to the non-metals, for evidence has been 
advanced to show that allotropy is far commoner than hitherto 
supposed. Thus the researches of Carey Lea, E. A. Schneider 
and others, have proved the existence of " colloidal silver *\ 
similar forms of the metals gold, copper, and of the platinum 
metals have been described. The allotropy of arsenic and 
antimony is also worthy of notice, but in the case of the first 
element the variation is essentially non-metallic, closely resemb- 
ling that of phosphorus. The term allotropy has also been 
applied to inorganic compounds, identical in composition, bat 
assuming different crystallographic forms Mercuric oxide, 
sulphide and iodide, arsenic trioxide; titanium dioxide and 
silicon dioxide may be cited as examples. 

The joint discovery in 1859 of the powerful method of spectrum 
analysis (see Spectroscopy) by G. R. Rirchhoff and R. W. 
Bunsen, and its application to the detection and the characteriza- 
tion of elements when in a state of incandescence, rapidly led 
to the discovery of many hitherto unknown elements. Within 
two years of the invention the authors announced the discovery 
of two metals, rubidium and caesium, closely allied to sodium, 
potassium and lithium in properties, in the mineral lepidotite 
and in the Durkheim mineral water. In 186 1 Sir William Crook** 
detected thallium (named from the Gr. ffdXXot , a green bud, on 
account of a brilliant green line in its spectrum) in the sdenious 
mud of the sulphuric acid manufacture, the chemical affinities 
of this element, on the one hand approximating to the metals 
of the alkalis, and on the other hand to lead, were mainly 
established by C A. Lamy Of other metals first detected by 
the spectroscope mention is to be made of indium, determined 
by F Reich and H T Richter in 1863, and of gallium, detected 
in certain zinc blendes by Lecoq de Boisbaudran m 1875 The 
spectroscope has played an all-important part in the character- 
ization of the elements, which, in combination with oxygen, 
constitute the group of substances collectively named the ** rare 
earths." The substances occur, in very minute quantity, in a 
large number of sparingly-distributed and comparatively rare 
minerals— -euxenite, samarksite, cerite, yttrotantab'te, && 
Scandinavian specimens of these minerals were examined by 
J Gadolin, M H. Klaproth, and especially by Berzelius; these 
chemists are to be regarded as the pioneers in this branch of 
descriptive chemistry Since their day many chemists have 
entered the lists, new and powerful methods of research have 
been devised, and several new elements definitely characterized. 
Our knowledge on many points, however, is very chaotic; great 
uncertainty and conflict of evidence circulate around many of 
the " new elements " which have been announced, so much so 
that P T Cleve proposed to divide the " rare earth " metals into 
two groups, (1) "perfectly characterized"; (2) "not yet 
thoroughly characterized." The literature of this subject is 
very large. The memorial address on J. C. G. de Marignac, a 
noted worker in this field, delivered by Cleve, a high authority 
on this subject, before the London Chemical Society (7.C 5. 
Trans., 1895, p. 468), and various papers in the same journal 
by Sir William Crookes, Bohuslav Brauner and others should 
be consulted for details. 

In the separation of the constituents of the complex mixture 
of oxides obtained from the " rare earth " minerals, the mtthffdt 




/ forced upon chemists are those of fractional predptta- 
bon or crystallization-, the striking resemblances of the com* 
sounds el these elements rarely admitting of a complete separa- 
tion by simple precipitation and nitration. The extraordinary 
asttrnrr requisite to a successful termination of such an analysis 
cui only be adequately realized by actual research; an idea 
any be obtained from Crookes's Select Methods in Analysis, 
Off recent years the introduction of various organic compounds as 
predpttaaU or reagents has reduced the labour of the process; 
sad advantage has also been taken of the fairly complex double 
salts which these metals form with compounds. The purity of 
the compounds thus obtained is checked by spectroscopic 
■hmtalkmi. Formerly the spark- and absorption-spectra 
were the sole methods available; a third method was introduced 
by Crookes, who submitted the oxides, or preferably the basic 
auphates, to the action of a negative electric discharge in vacuo, 
■ad investigated the phosphorescence induced spectroscopically 
By such u study in the ultra-violet region of a fraction prepared 
from crude yttria he detected a new element victorium, and 
by elaborate fractionation obtained the element 

The first earth of this group to be isolated (although in an 
impure form) was yttria, obtained by Gadolin in 1704 from the 
mineral gadofinite, which was named after its discoverer and 
investigator. Klaproth and Vauquelin also investigated this 
earth, but without detecting that it was a complex mixture — 
a discovery reserved for C G Mosander The next discovery, 
made independently and simultaneously in 1803 by Klaproth and 
by W. Ksinger and Berzelius, was of ccria, the oxide of cerium, 
sn the, mineral cerite found at Ridderhytta, Westmannland, 
These crude earths, yttria and ceria, have supplied 
i if not all of the " rare earth " metals. In 184 1 Mosander, 
in 1830 discovered a new element lanthanum in the 
cerife, isolated this element and also a hitherto un- 
1 substance, didymia, from crude yttria, and two years 
later he announced the determination of two fresh constituents 
of the same earth, naming them erbia and terbia. Lanthanum 
has retained its elementary character, but recent attempts at 
separating it from didymia have led to the view that didymium 
is a mixture of two elements, praseodymium and neodymium 
face Duhjuum). Mosander's erbia has been shown to contain 
\ other oxides-— thulia, holmia, &c. — but this has not yet 
1 perfectly worked out In 1878 Marignac, having subjected 
' 1 erbia, obtained from gadolinite, to a careful examina- 
the presence of a new element, ytterbium; 
is confirmed by Nilson, who in the following year 
discovered another element, scandium, in Marignac's ytterbia. 
Scandium possesses great historical interest, for Cleve showed 
that it was one of the elements predicted by Mendeleeff about ten 
yean previously from considerations based on his periodic 
rlsswifirirkni of the elements (see Element). Other elements 
predicted and characterized by Mendeleeff which have been 
since realized are gallium, discovered in 1875, and germanium, 
di s covered in 1885 by Clemens Winkler. 

In 1880 Marignac examined certain earths obtained from the 
mineral samarskite, which had already in 1878 received attention 
from Dekfontaine and later from Lecoq de Boisbaudran. He 
'the existence of two new elements, samarium and 
t investigated more especially by Geve, to whom 
1 of our knowledge on this subject is due. In addition to 
the rare elements mentioned above, there are a score or so more 
whose existence is doubtful Every year is attended by fresh 
M discoveries " in this prolific source of elementary substances, 
bat the paucity of materials and the predilections of the investi- 
gators militate in some measure against a just valuation being 
accorded to such researches. After having been somewhat 
neglected for the greater attractions and wider field pre- 
sented by organic chemistry, the study of the elements 
sad their inorganic compounds is now rapidly coming into 
favour; new investigators are continually entering the lists; 
the beaten paths are being retraversed and new ramifications 

IV. OtGAMic Chemist** 

While inorganic chemistry was primarily developed through 
the study of minerals— a connexion still shown by the French 
appellation chimie «wiir«/*— organic chemistry owes its origin 
to the investigation of substances occurring in the vegetable 
and animal organisms. The quest of the alchemists for the 
philosopher's stone, and the almost general adherence of the 
iatrochemists to the study of the medicinal characters and 
preparation of metallic compounds, stultified m some measure 
the investigation of vegetable and animal products. It is true 
that by the distillation of many herbs, resins and similar sub- 
stances, several organic compounds had been prepared, and in a 
few cases employed as medicines; but the prevailing classifica- 
tion of substances by physical and superficial properties led to 
the correlation of organic and inorganic compounds, without 
any attention being paid to their chemical composition. The 
clarification and spirit of research so dearly emphasised by 
Robert Boyle in the middle of the 17th century is reflected in 
the classification of substances expounded by Nicolas Lemery, 
in 1675, in his Court do c kymh . Taking as a basis the nature of 
the source of compounds, he framed three classes: 
comprising the metals, minerals, earths and stones; 
table," comprising plants, resins, gums, juices, Jec.; and 
" animal," comprising animals, their different parts and excreta. 
Notwithstanding the inconsistency of bis allocation of substances 
to the different groups (for instance, acetic add was placed in 
the vegetable dais, while the acetates and the products of their 
dry distillation, acetone, &c, were placed in the mineral class), 
this classification came into favour. The nhlogistonists en- 
deavoured to introduce chemical notions to support it: Becber, 
in his Physic* subterranea (1669), stated that mineral, vegetable 
and animal matter contained the same elements, but that more 
simple combinations prevailed in the mineral kingdom; while 
Stanl, in his Specimen Beeheriamm (1703), held the '' earthy " 
principle to predominate in the mineral class, and the " aqueous " 
and " combustible " in the vegetable and animal daises, It 
thus happened that in the earlier treatises on phlogistic chemistry 
organic substances were grouped with all combustibles. 

The development of organic chemistry from this time until 
almost the end of the 18th century was almost entirely confined 
to such compounds as had practical applications, especially in 
pharmacy and dyeing. A new and energetic spirit was introduced 
by Scheele; among other discoveries this gifted experimenter 
isolated and characterised many organic adds, and proved the 
general occurrence of glycerin (OlsOss) in all oils and fats. 
Bergman worked in the same direction; while Rouelle was 
attracted to the study of animal chemistry. Theoretical specula- 
tions were revived by Lavoisier, who, having explained the nature 
of combustion and determined methods for analysing com- 
pounds, concluded that vegetable substances ordinarily contained 
carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, while animal substances generally 
contained, in addition to these elements, nitrogen, and sometimes 
phosphorus and sulphur. Lavoisier, to whom chemistry was 
primarily the chemistry of oxygen compounds, having developed 
the radical theory initiated by Guyton de Morveau, formulated 
the hypothesis that vegetable and animal substances were oxides 
of radicals composed of carbon and hydrogen; moreover, since 
simple radicals (the elements) can form more than one oxide, 
he attributed the same character to his hydrocarbon radicals: 
he considered, for Instance, sugar to be a neutral oxide and 
oxalic add a higher oxide of a certain radical, for, when oxidized 
by nitric add, sugar yields oxalic add. At the same time, how- 
ever, he adhered to the classification of Lemery; and it was 
only when identical compounds were obtained from both vege- 
table and animal sources that this subdivision was discarded, and 
the classes were assimilated in the division organic chemistry. 

At this time there existed a belief, held at a later date by 
Berzelius, Gmelin and many others, that the formation of 
organic compounds was conditioned by a so-called vital forta\ 
and the difficulty of artificially realising this action explained 
the supposed impossibility of synthesizing organic co mp o un d s. 



This dogma was shaken by WOhler's synthesis of urea in 
1828. But the belief died hard; the synthesis of urea remained 
isolated for many years, and many explanations were attempted 
by the vitalists (as, for instance, that urea was halfway between 
the inorganic and organic kingdoms, or that the carbon, from 
which it was obtained, retained the essentials of this hypothetical 
vital force), but only to succumb at a later date to the indubitable 
fact that the same laws of chemical combination prevail in both 
the animate and inanimate kingdoms, and that the artificial 
or laboratory synthesis of any substance, either inorganic or 
organic, is but a question of time, once its constitution is 
determined. 1 

The exact delimitation of inorganic and organic chemistry 
engrossed many minds for many years; and on this point there 
existed considerable divergence of opinion for several decades. 
In addition to the vitahstic doctrine of the origin of organic 
compounds, views based on purely chemical considerations were 
advanced. The atomic theory, and its correlatives— the laws 
of constant and multiple proportions— had been shown to possess 
absolute validity so far as well-characterized inorganic com- 
pounds were concerned; but it was open to question whether 
organic compounds obeyed the same laws. Berzelius, in 1813 
and 1814, by improved methods of analysis, established that 
the Daltonian laws of combination held in both the inorganic 
and organic kingdoms; and he adopted the view of Lavoisier 
that organic compounds were oxides of compound radicals, and 
therefore necessarily contained at least three elements— carbon, 
hydrogen and oxygen. This view was accepted in 1817 by 
Leopold Gmehn, who, in his Hondbnck der Chemie, regarded 
inorganic compounds as being of binary composition (the 
simplest being oxides, both acid and basic, which by combination 
form salts also of binary form), and organic compounds as 
ternary, i.e. composed of three elements; furthermore, he 
concluded that inorganic compounds could be synthesized, 
whereas organic compounds could not. A consequence of this 
empirical division was that marsh gas, ethylene and cyanogen 
were regarded as inorganic, and at a later date many other 
hydrocarbons of undoubtedly organic nature had to be included 
in the same division. 

The binary conception of compounds held by Berzelius received 
apparent support from the observations of Gay Lussac, in 1815, 
on the vapour densities of alcohol and ether, which pointed to 
the conclusion that these substances consisted of one molecule 
of water and one and two of ethylene respectively; and from 
Pierre Jean Robiquet and Jean Jacques Colin, showing, in 1816, 
that ethyl chloride (hydrochloric ether) could be regarded as 
a compound of ethylene and hydrochloric acid.' Compound 
radicals came to be regarded as the immediate constituents of 
organic compounds; and, at first, a determination of their 
empirical composition was supposed to be sufficient to char- 
acterize them. To this problem there was added another in 
about the third decade of the 19th century— namely, to determine 
the manner in which the atoms composing the radical were 
combined; this supplementary requisite was due to the dis- 
covery of the isomerism of silver fulminate and silver cyanate 
by Justus von Liebig in 1823, and to M. Faraday's discovery of 
butylene, isomeric with ethylene,.in 1825. 

The classical investigation of Liebig and Friedrich Wdhler 
on the radical of benzoic acid (" tlber das Radikal der Beniofr- 
saure," Ann. Chem. t 1832, 3, p. 949) is to be regarded as a most 
important contribution to the radical theory, for it was shown 
that a radical containing the elements carbon, hydrogen and 
oxygen, which they named benzoyl (the termination yl coming 
from the Cr. CX17, matter), formed the basis of benzaldehyde, 
benzoic acid, benzoyl chloride, benzoyl bromide and benzoyl 
sulphide, benzamide and benzoic ether. Berzelius immediately 
appreciated the importance of this discovery, notwithstanding 

1 The reader is specially referred to the articles Alizarin ; Indigo ; 
Put in and Tee penes for illustrations of the manner in which 
chemists have artificially prepared important animal and vegetable 

* These observations were generalized by J. B. Dumas and 
Polydore Boullay (1806-1835) in their "etheria theory " (vide infra). 


that he was compelled to reject the theory that oxygen could 
not play any part in a compound radical— a view which he 
previously considered as axiomatic; and he suggested the 
names " proin " or " orthrin " (from the Gr. vpul and opflpot, 
at dawn) However, in 1833, Berzelius reverted to his earlier 
opinion that oxygenated radicals were incompatible with his 
electrochemical theory; he regarded benzoyl as an oxide of the 
radical CmH», which he named "picramyl" (from «ixp6r, 
bitter, and djunroaXn, almond), the peroxide being anhydrous 
benzoic add; and he dismissed the views of Gay Lussac and 
Dumas that ethylene was the radical of ether, alcohol and ethyl 
chloride, setting up in their place the idea that ether was a 
suboxide of ethyl, (C»H»)iO, which was analogous to K4O, while 
alcohol was an oxide of a radical C»H«; thus annihilating any 
relation between these two compounds. This view was modified 
by Liebig, who regarded ether as ethyl oxide, and alcohol as the 
hydrate of ethyl oxide; here, however, he was in error, for he 
attributed to alcohol a molecular weight double its true value. 
Notwithstanding these errors, the value of the " ethyl theory " 
was perceived; other radicals— formyl, methyl, amyl, acetyl, 
Arc— were characterized; Dumas, in 1837, admitted the failure 
of the etherin theory, and, in company with Liebig, he defined 
organic chemistry as the "chemistry of compound radicals." 
The knowledge of compound radicals received further increment 
at the hands of Robert W Bunsen, the discoverer of the cacodyl 

The radical theory, essentially dualistic in nature in view of 
its similarity to the electrochemical theory of Berzelius, was 
destined to succumb to a unitary theory. Instances had already 
been recorded of cases where a halogen element replaced hydrogen 
with the production of a closely allied substance. Gay Lussac 
had prepared cyanogen chloride from hydrocyanic add, Faraday, 
hexachlorethane from ethylene dichloride, &c. Here the electro- 
negative halogens exercised a function similar to. electro-positive 
hydrogen. Dumas gave especial attention to such substitutions, 
named metalepsy QuraXiifts, exchange); and framed the 
following empirical laws to explain the reactions :— (1) a body 
containing hydrogen when substituted by a halogen loses one 
atom of hydrogen for every atom of halogen introduced, (2) the 
same holds if oxygen be present, except that when the oxygen 
is present as water the latter first loses its hydrogen without 
replacement, and then substitution according to (x) ensues. 
Dumas went no further that thus epitomizing his observations, 
and the next development was made in 1836 by Auguste Laurent, 
who, having amplified and discussed the applicability of Dumas' 
views, promulgated bis Nucleus Theory, which assumed the 
existence of " original nudd or radicals " (radkaux or noyau* 
fondamentaux) composed of carbon and hydrogen, and " derived 
nudd " (radicaux or noyaux dlrivts) formed from the original 
nudd by the substitution of hydrogen or the addition of other 
dements, and having properties closely related to the primary 

Vigorous opposition was made by Liebig and Berzelius, the 
latter directing his attack against Dumas, whom he erroneously 
believed to be the author of what was, in his opinion, a pernicious 
theory. Dumas repudiated the accusation, affirming that he 
held exactly contrary views to Laurent; but only to- admit 
their correctness in 1839, when, from his own researches and 
those of Laurent, Malaguti and Regnault, he formulated his 
type theory. According to this theory a "chemical type" 
embraced compounds containing the same number of equivalents 
combined in a like manner and exhibiting similar properties, 
thus acetic and trichloracetic acids, aldehyde and chloral, marsh 
gas and chloroform are pairs of compounds referable to the same 
type. He also postulated, with Regnault, the existence of 
" molecular or mechanical types " containing substances which, 
although having the same number of equivalents, are essentially 
different in characters. His unitary conceptions may be sum- 
marized: every chemical compound forms a complete whole, 
and cannot therefore consist of two parts; and its chemical 
character depends primarily upon the arrangement and number 
of the atoms, and, in a lesser degree, upon their chemical nature. 


»e emphatic opposition to the dualistic theory of Berzelius 
bardly possible; this illustrious chemist perceived that the 
ity of his electrochemical theory was called in question, 
therefore he waged vigorous war upon Dumas and his 
vers. But he fought in a futile cause; to explain the facts 
orward by Dumas he had to invent intricate and involved 
theses, which, it must be said, did not meet with general 
rtance; Licbig seceded from him, and invited Wohlcr to 
ivour to correct him. Still, till the last Berzelius remained 
ful to his original theory; experiment, which he had hitherto 
to he the only sure method of research, he discarded, and 
. place he substituted pure speculation, which greatly injured 
adical theory. At the same time, however, the conception 
dicals could not be entirely displaced, for the researches of 
ig and Wohler, and those- made subsequently by Bun sen, 
mstrated beyond all doubt the advantages which would 
ic from their correct recognition. 

step forward— the fusion of Dumas' type theory and the 
al theory — was made by Laurent and Charles Gerhardt. 
atly at 1842, Gerhardt in his Prfcis de chimie organique 
bited a marked leaning towards Dumas' theory, and it is 
out doubt that both Dumas and Laurent exercised con- 
mble influence on his views. Unwilling to discard the strictly 
try views of these chemists, or to adopt the copulae theory 
•melius, he revived the notion of radicals in a new form. 
icding to Gerhardt, the process of substitution consisted 
be union of two residues to form a unitary whole; these 
lues, previously termed " compound radicals," are atomic 
plezes which remain over from the interaction of two 
pounds. Thus, he interpreted the interaction of benzene 
nitric acid as C«H,+HNO,= C 6 H i NC,-f-HA the "residues" 
ensene being C«H» and II, and of nitric acid HO and NO». 
ihurly he represented the reactions investigated by Licbig 
Wfihler on benzoyl compounds as double decompositions, 
his rejuvenation of the notion of radicals rapidly gained 
wr; and the complete fusion of the radical theory with the 
«y of types was not long delayed. In 1849 C. A. Wurtz 
overed the amines or substituted ammonias, previously 
licted by Licbig: A. W. von Hofmann continued the investi- 
mi, and established their recognition as ammonia in which 
or more hydrogen atoms had been replaced by hydrocarbon 
cab, thus formulating the "ammonia type." In 1850 
AT. Williamson showed how alcohol and ether were to be 
rded as derived from water by substituting one or both 
rogen atoms by the ethyl group; he derived acids and the 
anhydrides from the same type; and from a comparison 
■any inorganic and the simple organic compounds he con- 
led that this notion of a " water- type " clarified, in no small 
sure, the conception of the structure of compounds, 
hese conclusions were co-ordinated in Gcrhardt's "new 
iry of types." Taking as types hydrogen, hydrochloric acid, 
er and ammonia, he postulated that all organic compounds 
e referable to these four forms: the hydrogen type included 
rocaxbons, aldehydes and ketones; the hydrochloric acid 
\ the chlorides, bromides and iodides; the water type, the 
hob, ethers, monobasic acids, acid anhydrides, and the 
ogous sulphur compounds; and the ammonia type, the 
lies, acid-amides, and the analogous phosphorus and arsenic 
pounds. The recognition of the polybasicity of acids, 
:h followed from the researches of Thomas Graham and 
tig, had caused Williamson to suggest that dibasic acids could 
eferred to a double water type, the acid radical replacing an 
n of hydrogen in each water molecule; while his discovery 
ribasic formic ether, CII(OC,Hi)i, in 1854 suggested a triple 
sr type. These views were extended by William Odling, and 
)ted by Gerhardt, but with modifications of Williamson's 
icts. A further generalization was effected by August 
uIG, who rejected the hydrochloric acid type as unnecessary, 
introduced the methane type and condensed mixed types. 
iting out that condensed types can only be fused with a 
cal replacing more than one atom of hydrogen, he laid the 
tdation of the doctrine of valency, a doctrine of incalcul- 




able service to the knowledge of the structure of chemical 

At about the same time Hermann Kolbe attempted a re- 
habilitation, with certain modifications, of the dualistic con- 
ception of Berzelius. He rejected the Bcrzelian tenet as to the 
unaltcrability of radicals, and admitted that they exercised a 
considerable influence upon the compounds with which they were 
copulated. By his own investigations and those of Sir Edward 
Frankland it was proved that the radical methyl existed in 
acetic acid; and by the electrolysis of sodium acetate, Kolbe 
concluded that he had isolated this radical; in this, however, 
he was wrong, for he really obtained ethane, CjH 4 , and not 
methyl, CII* From similar investigations of valerianic acid 
he was led to conclude that fatty acids were oxygen compounds 
of the radicals hydrogen, methyl, ethyl, &c, combined with the 
double carbon equivalent C* Thus the radical of acetic acid, 
acetyl, 1 was C : II, C,. (It will be noticed that Kolbe used the 
atomic weights H = i, C«-6, 0=8, S=iO, &c; his formulae, 
however, were molecular formulae, i.e. the molecular weights 
were the same as in use to-day.) This connecting link, Q, was 
regarded as essential, while the methyl, ethyl, &c. was but a 
sort of appendage; but Kolbe could not dearly conceive the 
manner of copulation. 

The brilliant researches of Frankland on the organo-mctallic 
compounds, and his consequent doctrine of saturation capacity 
or valency of elements and radicals, relieved Kolbe's views of 
all obscurity. The doctrine of copulae was discarded, and in 
1859 emphasis was given to the view that all organic compounds 
were derivatives of inorganic by simple substitution processes. 
He was thus enabled to predict compounds then unknown, 
e.g. the secondary and tertiary alcohols; and with inestimable 
perspicacity he proved intimate relations between compounds 
previously held to be quite distinct. Lactic acid and alanine 
were shown to be oxy- and amino-propionic acids respectively; 
glycollic acid and glycocoll,oxy-andamino-acetic acids; salicylic 
and benzamic acids, oxy- and amino-benzoic adds. 

Another consequence of the doctrine of valency was that it 
permitted the graphic representation of the molecule. The 
" structure theory " (or the mode of linking of the atoms) of 
carbon compounds, founded by Butlerow, Kckule and Couper 
and, at a later date, marvellously enhanced by the doctrine of 
stereoisomerism, due to J. H. van't Hoff and Le Bd, occupies 
such a positron in organic chemistry that its value can never 
be transcended. By its aid the molecule is represented as a 
collection of atoms connected together by valcndcs in such a 
manner that the part played by each atom is represented; 
isomerism, or the existence of two or more chemically different 
substances having identical molecular weights, is adequately 
shown; and, most important of all, once the structure is 
determined, the synthesis of the compound is but a matter of 

In this summary the leading factors which have contributed 
to a correct appreciation of organic compounds have so far been 
considered historically, but instead of continuing this method it 
has been thought advisable to present an epitome of present-day 
conclusions, not chronologically, but as exhibiting the prindples 
and subject-matter of our sdence. 

Classification of Organic Compounds. 

An apt definition of organic chemistry is that it is "the study 
of the hydrocarbons and their derivatives." This description, 
although not absolutely comprehensive, serves as a convenient 
starting-point for a preliminary classification, since a great 
number of substances, induding the most important, are directly 
referable to hydrocarbons, being formed by replacing one or 
more hydrogen atoms by other atoms or groups. Two distinct 
types of hydrocarbons exist: (1) those consisting of an open 
chain of carbon atoms — named the " aliphatic scries " (dXct^ap, 
oil or fat), and (2) those consisting of a closed chain — the 
" carbocycUc scries." The second series can be further divided 

1 This must not be confused with the modern acttyl, CHyCO, 
which at that time was known as actloxyl. 




into two groups: (i) those exhibiting properties closely analo- 
gous to the aliphatic scries — the polymethylenes (?.'.)• And (*) 
a scries exhibiting properties differing in many respects from the 
aliphatic and polymcthylene compounds, and characterized by 
a peculiar stability which is to be associated with the disposi- 
tion of certain carbon valencies not saturated by hydrogen— 
the " aromatic series." There also exists an extensive class of 
compounds termed the " heterocyclic series "—these compounds 
are derived from ring systems containing atoms other than 
carbon; this class is more generally allied to the aromatic 
series than to the aliphatic. 

We now proceed to discuss the types of aliphatic compounds; 
then, the characteristic groupings having been established, an 
epitome of their derivatives will be given. Carbocyclic rings 
will next be treated, benzene and its allies in some detail; and 
finally the heterocyclic nuclei. 

Accepting the doctrine of the tetravalency of carbon (its 
divalency in such compounds as carbon monoxide, various 
isocyanides, fulminic acid, &c, and its possible trivalency in 
M. Gomberg's triphenyl-methyl play no part in what follows), 
it is readily seen that the simplest hydrocarbon has the formula 
CH4, named methane, in which the hydrogen atoms are of 
equal value, and which may be pictured as placed at the vertices 
of a tetrahedron, the carbon atom occupying the centre. This 
tetrahedral configuration is based on the existence of only one 
methylene dichloride, two being necessary if the carbon valencies 
were directed from the centre of a plane square to its corners, 
and on the existence of two optical isomers of the formula 
C.A.B.D.&, C being a carbon atom and A.B.D.E. being different 
monovalent atoms or radicals (see Stereoisomerism). The 
equivalence of the four hydrogen atoms of methane rested on 
indirect evidence, e.g. the existence of only one acetic acid, 
methyl chloride, and other monosubstitution derivatives — until 
the experimental proof by *L. Henry (Zeit. f. Phys. Chem., 1888, 
a. P- SS3), who prepared the four nitromethanes, CHjNOi,each 
atom in methane being successively replaced by the nitro-group. 

Henry started with methyl iodide, the formula of which we write 
In the form CI*HnHJT.i. This readily gave with silver nitrite a 
nttromethane jn which wo may Giippow the nit regroup to replace 
the a h ydrogen atom, tVe* C ( NOz)* li J M L- The same met hyl iodide 
gave with potassium cyanide, acetonkril t which waj hydrvLysed to 
acetic acid; this must be C(CGO10Jh>H*Hj. ChJorination of this 
substance gave a monochloracetic acid ; we will assume the chlorine 
atom to replace the b hydrogen atom. This acid with silver nitrite 
gave nitroacetic acid, which readily gave the second nitromethane, 
CR^NOjhHuH^ identical with the first niironiethanc. From the 
njtroacetic acid obtained above, malonic acid was prepared, and 
from this a manor hlormalonic arid was obtained ; we assume the 
chlorine atom to replace the t hydrogen atom. This acid gives with 
silver nitrite the corresponding niiromalonie acid, which readily 
yielded the third mtrojncthane^CILHifNOjKHrf, aLw identical witn 
the first. The fourth nitromethane was obtained from the nitro- 
ma Ionic acid previously mentioned by a repetition" of the method 
by which the third was prepared ■ this wa* identical with the other 

Let us now consider hydrocarbons containing a atoms of 
carbon. Three such compounds arc possible according to the 
number of valencies acting directly between the carbon atoms. 
Thus, if they are connected by one valency, and the remaining 
valencies saturated by hydrogen, we obtain the compound 
H s CCHj, ethane. This compound may be considered as 
derived from methane, CH 4 , by replacing a hydrogen atom by 
the monovalent group CHj, known as methyl; hence ethane 
may be named " methylmcthane." If the carbon atoms are 
connected by two valencies, we obtain a compound HjCiCHj, I 
ethylene; if by three valencies, HCiCH, acetylene. These last 
two compounds are termed unsaturated, whereas ethane is 
saturated. It is obvious that we have derived three combinations 
of carbon with hydrogen, characterized by containing a single, I 
double, and triple linkage; and from each of these, by the 
substitution of a methyl group for a hydrogen atom, compounds 
of the same nature result. Thus ethane gives H,C-CHfCH», 
propane; ethylene gives H 2 C:CHCH|, propylene; and acety- 
lene gives HC : O CHj, allylene. By continuing the introduction 
of methyl groups we obtain three series of homologous hydro- 

Compounds containing these groupings are, however, rarely observed 
(see Chloral), and it is generally found -■■--■ * * 

" fpes are 

groupiii„ , . _„__,_..„., 

Containing the group — CH : O arc known as aldehydes («.*•.). while 

generally found that when compounds of 


_._„.__. :H: _ „„„. w _„ wm 

the group >C:0 (sometimes termed the carbonyl or keto group) 

these types are expected 

, . compou 

elements of water are split off, and the 
ings are reduced to - CH : O and > C : O. Compounds 

carbons given by the general formulae CH*** C*H», and ^ 
C»H>-t, each member differing from the preceding one of the - 
same series by CH* It will be noticed that compounds contain* £ 
ing two double linkages will have the same general formula as * 
the acetylene series; such compounds are known as the " diole- * 
fines." Hydrocarbons containing any number of double or a 
triple linkages, as well as both double and triple linkages, are 4 
possible, and a considerable number of such compounds have 
been prepared. 

A more complete idea of the notion of a compound radical follows 
from a consideration of the compound propane. We derived this 
substance from ethane by introducing a methyl group; hence it 
may be termed " methylethanc." Equally well we may derhe it 
from methane by replacing a hydrogen atom by the monovalent 
group CHj-CHj, named ethyl; hence propane may be considered 
as " ethylmethane." Further, since methane may be regarded as 
formed by the conjunction of a methyl group with a hydrogen atom, 
it may be named " methyl hydride"; similarly ethane is "ethyl 
hydride," propane, " propyl hydride." and so on. The importance 
of such groups as methyl, ethyl, &c. in attempting a nomenclature 
of organic compounds cannot be overestimated ; these compound 
radicals, frequently termed alkyt radicals, serve a similar purpose to 
the organic chemist as the elements to the inorganic chemist. 

In methane and ethane the hydrogen atoms are of equal value, 
and no matter which one may be substituted by another element 
or group the same compound will result. In propane, on the 
other hand, the hydrogen atoms attached to the terminal 
carbon atoms differ from those joined to the medial atom; we 
may therefore expect to obtain different compounds according 
to the position of the hydrogen atom substituted. By intro- 
ducing a methyl group we may obtain CH»-CHrCHrCH», 
known as " normal " or n-butane, substitution occurring at a 
terminal atom, or CH,CH(CH,)CH,, isobutane, substitution 
occurring at the medial atom. From n-butanc we may derive, 
by a similar substitution of methyl groups, the two hydrocarbons: 
(1) CHrCHrCHrCHs-CH,. and (a) CH,CH(CH,)CH,CH,; 
from isobutane we may also derive two compounds, one identical 
with (a), and a new one (3) CH,(CH»)C(CHi)CH*. These 
three hydrocarbons are isomeric, i.e. they possess the same 
formula, but differ in constitution. We notice that they may 
be differentiated as follows: (1) is built up solely of methyl and 
•CH? (methylene) groups and the molecule consists of a single 
chain; such hydrocarbons are referred to as being normal; 
(a) has a branch and contains the group* CH (methine) in which 
the free valencies are attached to carbon atoms; such hydro- 
carbons are termed secondary or iso-; (3) is characterized by a 
carbon atom linked directly to four other carbon atoms; such 
hydrocarbons arc known as tertiary. 

Deferring the detailed discussion of cyclic or ringed hydro- 
carbons, a correlation of the various types or classes of compounds 
which may be derived from hydrocarbon nuclei will now be given. 
It will be seen that each type depends upon a specific radical 
or atom, and the copulation of this character with any hydro- 
carbon radical (open or cyclic) gives origin to a compound of 
the same class. 

It is convenient first to consider the effect of introducing one, 
two, or three hydroxyl (OH) groups into the -CH* >CH t , and 
>CH groups, which we have seen to characterize the different 
types of hydrocarbons. It may be noticed here that cyclic 
nuclei can only contain the groups >CH a and >CH, the first 
characterizing the polymcthylene and reduced heterocyclic 
Compounds, the second true aromatic compounds. 

Substituting one hydroxyl group into each of these residues, we 
pbtain radicals of the type-CH,OH, >CHOH, and >COH; 
these compounds are known as alcohols (o.t».),and are termed primary, 
secondary, and tertiary respectively. Polymethylenes can give only 
secondary and tertiary alcohols, benzene only tertiary; these latter 
compounds are known as phenols. A second hydroxyl group may be 
introduced into the residues -CHjOH and >CH-OH, with the 
production of radicals of the form — CH(OH)» and >C(OH)». 

inc gruu-j ^\*-.\j \stmiciimcs ivrmcti me caroonyi or keto group) 
Characterises the ketones ($.».). A third hydroxyl group may be 


introduced into the— CHi O resid ue with the formation of the radical 
— C(OH) :Q; this is known a* the carboxyl group, and characterizes 
the pr&BMit acids. 

Sulphur analogue* q f these oxygen compounds arc known. Thus 
the tbio-alc ohol* or tttetaipiam \tj.v.) contain the group — CHi'SH; 
■nd the elimination or the elements of sulphuretted hydrogen 
between iwo molecule* of a thio-alcobot result* in the formation of a 
thio-cther of ju1phide t R*S. Oxidation of thio-elhcr* result* in the 
formation of sulphoxidc*, RjiS^O, and udphanes, R ( :SOj: 
oxidation of mercaptan* yields sulphonic acids R>SOjH, and or 
•odium mercaptidea sulphinic acids, R j SO{OH). We may alto 
notice that thio-ethcTs combine with alkyl iodide* to form sulpbine 
r:t tulphonium compounds, RilSI, Thjo-aklehyde*, rJiu>kctoncs 
ijod ihio-acid* also exist. 

We proceed to consider various simple derivatives of the 
alcohols, which we may here regard as hydroxy hydrocarbons, 
R»OH t where R is an alkyl radical, either aliphatic or cyclic in 

Of these, undoubtedly the simplest aretheefftm (q.v.) t formed by 
the elirni nation of the elements of water between two molecules of 
the same alcohol, " simple ether*. r * or of different alcohols, " mixed 
These compound* may be regarded as oxides in just the 
t -way as the alcohol* are regarded as hydroxide*. In tact, the 
analogy between (he alkyl group* and metallic element* forms a 
convenient basis from which to consider many derivatives. Thus 
from ethyl alcohol there cart be [~ 'pared compounds, termed esters 
(5rP.>, or ethereal aalts, exactly comparable in structure with corres- 
ponding salt* of, toy* potassium: by the action of the phosphorus 
Lk*dv the hydroxy! gmup i* replaced by a halogen atom with the 
rjrm.ii ion of derivatives ol the type R'Cl(Br,l); nitric acid forms 
nitrates, R-ONQj; nltmus add, nitrites, R-O-NO; sulphuric acid 
five* normal sulphates RiSO*. or acid sulphates, R*SO«H. Organic 
ALxA* also condense with alcohols to form similar compounds: the 
(at*, waxes, and essential oils are naturally occurring substances of 
this class. 

An important class of compounds, termed amines (g.r.), results 
bum the condensation of alcohols with ammonia, water being 
eliminated between the alcoholic hydroxyl group ami a hydrogen 
atom of the ammonia- Thrtx types <A 3 mines ^ puisible and luve 
betn prepared; pritiiary, R-Nllj; secondary ( R ; Nil; and tertiary, 
Rj[N;tne oxamines, RiN:0, are closely related to the tertiary 
ammonias, which also unite with a molecule of alkyl iodide to farm 
anfef of quaternary ammonium bases, t.g. R*N-I. It is worthy of 
note thai phosphorus and arsenic bases analogous to the amines 
are known (see Phosphorus and Arsenic). From the primary 
amines are derived the dia*o compounds (ij.t>.) and azo compound* 
if, v.}; closely related are the hydraxines (q-t,). Secondary amine* 
yield BJtrosamincs, R|N<NQ, with nitrous acid. Dy the action of 
hydroxy Lamine or pheny {hydrazine on aldehydes or ketones, con* 
densatkm occurs between the carbon yl oxygen of the aldehyde or 
Intone and the amino group of the hydro*™ hi mine or hydrazine. 
Thus with hydroxy la mine aldehydes yield aldoximes, R-CII 1 N-OH. 
ind ketones, ketoume*. R:C;N-Oli {see O.ximes), while phenyl 
by draxine gives phenyl hydra tones, RiC:N-NH'CiHi (see Hvdka- 
tajtMa}* DKyaklehydeii and oxykctoncs (vir, compounds containing 
ai oxy in addition to an aldchydte or ketonic irroupli imdcrgo 
both coodensation and oxidation when treated with phcnylnydrazine, 
forming: compounds known as osozones; these are of great import* 
ance in characterizing the sugars (j.».). 

The carboxyl group constitutes another convenient starting- 
point for the orientation of many types of organic compounds. 
This group may be considered as resulting from the fusion of a 
carbonyi (:CO) and a hydroxyl (HO*) group, and we may 
expect to meet with compounds bearing structural resemblances 
to the derivatives of alcohols and aldehydes (or ketones). 

Considering derivatives primarily concerned with transformations 
of the hydroxyl group, we may regard our typical acid as a fusion 
of a radical R-CO— (named acetyl, propionyl, butyl, &c, generally 
according to the name of the hydrocarbon containing the same 
number of carbon atoms) and a hydroxyl group. By replacing the 
hydroxyl group by a halogen, acid-haloids result ; by the elimination 
of the elements of water between two molecules, acid-anhydrides, 
which may be oxidized to acid-peroxides; by replacing the hydroxyl 
group by the group -SH, thio-acids; by replacing it by the amino 
group, acid-amides (qx.); by replacing it by the group — NH-NH*, 
add-bydrazides. The structural relations of these compounds are 
here shown: 


odd: acid-chloride; acid-anhydride; thio-acid; 


acid-amide; acid-hydrazide. 

It la necessary clearly to distinguish such compounds as the 
amino- (or amido-) acids and acid-amides; in the first case the 
aaaiao group b substituted in the hydrocarbon residue, in the second 
it is substituted in the carboxyl group. 



By transformations of the carbonyi group, and at the same time 
of the hydroxyl group, many interesting types of nitrogen com- 
pounds may be correlated. 

Thus from the acid -amides, which we have seen to be closely related 
to the acids themselves, we obiain, by rvplarinE the carbonyi oxygen 
by chlorine, the aeidamido-chlundes. R-CCliNHi, from which arc 
derived the iraido-ch lurid l>4, R-CCl:NH t by loss of one molecule of 
hydrochloric acid. By replacing the chlorine in the imido-chloride 
by an nxyalkyl group we obtain the imido-ethcrs, R-C(OR') :NH ; 
and by an amino group, the amidines. R-C(NHr);NH. The 
carbonyi oxygen may also DC replaced by theoxime group, : ft-OH; 
thus the acid* yield the hyUroxamic adds. R-CfOH) : NOH, and the 
acid amides the amidoxtmes, R-C(NHi);NO!i. Closely related to 
the amidoxime* are the niirolic acids, R-C(NO*}:NOH. 

Cyclic Hydrocarbons and Nuclei. ^ 

Having passed in rapid review the various types of compounds 
derived by substituting for hydrogen various atoms or groups of 
atoms in hydrocarbons (the separate articles on specific com- 
pounds should be consulted for more detailed accounts), we now 
proceed to consider the dosed chain compounds. Here we meet 
with a great diversity of types: oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur and 
other elements may, in addition to carbon, combine together in a 
great number of arrangements to form cyclic nuclei, which 
exhibit characters closely resembling open-chain compounds in 
so far as they yield substitution derivatives, and behave as 
compound radicals. In classifying dosed chain compounds, the 
first step consists in dividing them into: (1) carbocyclic, in which 
the ring is composed solely of carbon atoms— these are also 
known as homocydk or isocyclic on account of the identity of the 
members of the ring— and (2) heterocyclic , in which different 
elements go to make up the ring. Two primary divisions of 
carbocyclic compounds may be conveniently made: (1) those 
in which the carbon atoms are completely saturated— these are 
known by the generic term polymethylenes, their general formula 
being (CHj).: it will be noticed that they are isomeric with 
ethylene and its homologues; they differ, however, from this 
series in not containing a double linkage, but have a ringed 
structure; and (2) those containing fewer hydrogen atoms than 
suffice to saturate the carbon valencies— these are known as the 
aromatic compounds proper, or as benzene compounds, from the 
predominant part which benzene plays in their constitution. 

It was long supposed that the simplest ring obtainable con- 
tained six atoms of carbon, and the discovery of trimethylene 
in 1882 by August Freund by the action of sodium on trimethylene 
bromide, Br(CHj)aBr, came somewhat as a surprise, especially 
in view of its behaviour with bromine and hydrogen bromide. 
In comparison with the isomeric propylene, CH,-HC:CH 2 , it is 
remarkably inert, being only very slowly attacked by bromine, 
which readily combines with propylene. But on the other hand, 
it is readily converted by hydrobromic acid into normal propyl 
bromide, CHYCHrCH»Br. The separation of carbon atoms 
united by single affinities in this manner at the time the observa- 
tion was made was altogether without precedent. A similar 
behaviour has since been noticed in other trimethylene deri- 
vatives, but the fact that bromine, which usually acts so much 
more readily than hydrobromic acid on unsaturated compounds, 
should be so inert when hydrobromic add acts readily is one still 
needing a satisfactory explanation. A great impetus was given to 
the study of polymethylene derivatives by the important and 
unexpected observation made by W. H. Per kin, junr., in 1883, 
that ethylene and trimethylene bromides are capable of acting 
in such a way on sodium acetoacetic ester as to form tri- and tctra- 
methylene rings. Perkin has himself contributed largely to our 
knowledge of such compounds; penta- and hcxa-mclhylene 
derivatives have also received considerable attention (see 

A. von Baeycr has sought to explain the variations in stability 
manifest in the various polymethylene rings by a purely 
mechanical hypothesis, the " strain " or Spannungs theory 
(Ber., 1885, p. 2277). Assuming the four valencies of the 
carbon atom to be directed from the centre of a regular tetra- 
hedron towards its four corners, the angle at which they meet 
is 1 09° 28'. Baeyer supposes that in the formation of carbon 



" rings " the valencies become deflected from their positions, and 
that the tension thus introduced may be deduced from a com- 
parison of this angle with the angles at which the strained 
valencies would meet. He regards the amount of deflection as 
a measure of the stability of the " ring." The readiness with 
which ethylene is acted on in comparison with other types of 
hydrocarbon, for example, is in harmony, he considers, with 
the circumstance that the greatest distortion must be involved 
in its formation, as if deflected into parallelism each valency will 
be drawn out of its position through }.ioo° 28'. The values in 
other cases are calculable from the formula §(109° 28'— a), where 
a is the internal angle of the regular polygon contained by sides 
equal in number to the number of the carbon atoms composing 
the ring. These values are. — 

Trimethylene. Tetramethylene. 

i(ioo° 28'-6o°) -24° 44'- i(i09° 28' -90*) -9° 44'- 
Pentamethylene. Hexamethylene. 

I(i09*28'-io8°)-o°44'. K109 28'- 120 ) --5 16'. 

The general behaviour of the several types of hydrocarbons is 
certainly in accordance with this conception, and it is a remark- 
able fact that when benzene is reduced with hydriodic acid, it is 
converted into a mixture of hexamethylene and methylpenta- 1 
methylene (cf. W. Markownikov, Ann., 1808, 302, p. 1); and 1 
many other cases of the conversion of six-carbon rings into five- 
carbon rings have been recorded (see below, Decompositions of 
the Benzene Ring). Similar considerations will apply to rings 
containing other elements besides carbon. As an illustration it 1 
may be pointed out that in the case of the two known types of 
lactones — the 7-lactones, which contain four carbon atoms and 
one oxygen atom in the ring, are more readily formed and more 
stable (less readily hydrolysed) than the 6-lactones, which 
contain one oxygen and five carbon atoms in the ring. That the 
number of atoms which can be associated in a ring by single 
affinities is limited there can be no doubt, but there is not yet 
sufficient evidence to show where the limit must be placed. Baeyer 
has suggested that his hypothesis may also be applied to explain 
the instability of acetylene and its derivatives, and the still 
greater instability of the polyacetylene compounds. 

The ringed structure of benzene, C#He, was first suggested in 
1865 by August Kekul6, who represented the molecule by six 
CH groups placed at the six angles of a regular hexagon, the sides 
of which denoted the valencies saturated by adjacent carbon 
atoms, the fourth valencies of each carbon atom being represented 
as saturated along alternate sides. This formula, notwithstand- 
ing many attempts at both disproving and modifying it, has well 
stood the test of time; the subject has been the basis of constant 
discussion, many variations have been proposed, but the original 
conception of Kekule* remains quite as convenient as any of the 
newer forms, especially when considering the syntheses and 
decompositions of the benzene complex. It will be seen, however, 
that the absolute disposition of the fourth valency may be 
ignored in a great many cases, and consequently the complex may 
be adequately represented as a hexagon. This symbol is in 
general use; it is assumed that at each corner there is a CH 
group which, however, is not always written in; if a hydrogen 
atom be substituted by another group, then this group is 
attached to the corner previously occupied by the displaced 
hydrogen. The following diagrams illustrate these statements.—' 


H c cOc"0«ca"o 


hwM, •MwnacAOvyftfAMm. AMnvutc*. 

From the benzene nucleus we can derive other aromatic nuclei. 

common sides. 
naphthalene, C I0 H«; by 

graphically represented by fusing two or more hexagons alonj 

" ' * *-- " ' i obtain the to * 

pbenanthrene, LmH 10 ; by fusing lour, chrysene, „ ... 
possibly pyrene, C11H10; by fusing five, picene, C B Hi«. But it 

By fusing two nuclei we obtain the formula ol 
oH« ; by lusinj 
and phenanthrene, CmH w ; b] 

using three, the hydrocarbons anthracene 
fusing four, # chrysene, CnH», and 

must be here understood that each member of these condensed nuclei 
need not necessarily be identical in structure; thus the central 
nuclei in anthracene and phenanthrene differ very considerably 
from the terminal nuclei (see below, Condensed Nuclei). Other 


hydrocarbon nuclei generally classed as aromatic in character result 
from the union of two or more benwme nuclei joined by one or two 
valencies with poly methylene or oxidized poly methylene rings; 
instances of such nuclei are indenc, hydrindene, nuorene, and fluor- 
anthene. From these nuclei an immense number of derivatives may 
be obtained, for the hydrogen atoms may be substituted by any 
of the radicals discussed in the preceding section on the classi fi cation 
of organic compounds. 

We now proceed to consider the properties, syntheses, decom- 
positions and constitution of the benzene complex. It has 
already been stated that benzene derivatives may be 
regarded as formed by the replacement of hydrogen 
atoms by other elements or radicals in exactly the 
same manner as in the aliphatic series. Important 
differences, however, are immediately met with 
when we consider the methods by which derivatives 
are obtained. For example: nitric acid and sulphuric 
acid readily react with benzene and its homologues with the 
production of nitro derivatives and sulphonic acids, while in the 
aliphatic series these acids exert no substituting action (in the 
case of the defines, the latter acid forms an addition product); 
another distinction is that the benzene complex is more stable 
towards oxidizing agents. This and other facts connected with 
the stability of benzenoid compounds are clearly shown when 
we consider mixed aliphatic-aromatic hydrocarbons, i.e. com- 
pounds derived by substituting aliphatic radicals in the benzene 
nucleus; such a compound is methylbenzene or toluene, 
CeHs-CHa. This compound is readily oxidized to benzoic acid, 
CsHfCOOH, the aromatic residue being unattacked; nitric 
and sulphuric acids produce nitro- toluenes, QH^CHrNQ*, 
and toluene sulphonic acids, C*H«CHySOjH; chlorination 
may result in the formation of derivatives substituted either 
in the aromatic nucleus or in the side chain; the former substitu- 
tion occurs most readily, chlor-toluenes, CeH 4 -CHj-Cl, being 
formed, while the latter, which needs an elevation in temperature 
or other auxiliary, yields benzyl chloride, CeH«-CH a Cl, and 
benzal chloride, CcHfCHCU. In general, the aliphatic residues 
in such mixed compounds retain the characters of their class, 
while the aromatic residues retain the properties of benzene. 

Further differences become apparent when various typical 
compounds are compared. The introduction of hydroxyl 
groups into the benzene nucleus gives rise to compounds genetic- 
ally named phenols, which, although resembling the aliphatic 
alcohols in their origin, differ from these substances in their 
increased chemical activity and acid nature. The phenols 
more closely resemble the tertiary alcohols, since the hydroxyl 
group Is linked to a carbon atom which is united to other carbon 
atoms by its remaining three valencies; hence on oxidation they 
cannot yield the corresponding aldehydes, ketones or adds 
(see below, Decompositions of the Benzene Ring). The amines 
also exhibit striking differences: in the aliphatic series these 
compounds may be directly formed from the alkyl haloids and 
ammonia, but in the benzene series this reaction is quite im- 
possible unless the haloid atom be weakened by the presence of 
other substituents, e.g. nitro groups. Moreover, while methyl- 
amine, dimethylamine, and trimethylamine increase in basicity 
corresponding to the introduction of successive methyl groups, 
phenylamine or aniline, diphenylamine, and triphenylamine 
are in decreasing order of basicity, the salts of diphenylamine 
being decomposed by water. Mixed aromatic-aliphatic amines, 
both secondary and tertiary, are also more strongly basic than 
the pure aromatic amines, and less basic than the true aliphatic 
compounds; ' e.g. aniline, CeH&NHs, monomethyl aniline, 
C«H»NHCHa, and dimethyl aniline, C»HrN(CHj),, are in 
increasing order of basicity. These observations may be sum- 
marized by saying that the benzene nucleus is more negative 
in character than the aliphatic residues. 

Isomerism of Benzene Derivatives. — Although Kekule founded 
his famous benzene formula in 1865 on the assumptions that 
the six hydrogen atoms in benzene are equivalent and that the 
molecule is symmetrical, i.e. that two pairs of hydrogen atoms 
I are symmetrically situated with reference to any specified 
I hydrogen atom, the absolute demonstration of the validity of 




these assumptions was first given by A. Ladcnburg in 1874 
(see Ber. t 1874, 7, p. 1684; 1875, 8, p. 1666; Theorie der 
eromatiscken Verbhtdungen, 1876). These results may be 
graphically represented as follows: numbering the hydrogen 
atoms in cyclical order from 1 to 6, then the first thesis demands 
that whichever atom is substituted the same compound results, 
while the second thesis points out that the pairs 2 and 6, and 3 
and s are symmetrical with respect to i, or in other words, the 
di -substitution derivatives 1.2 and 1.6, and also 1.3 and 1.5 are 
identical. Therefore three di-derivatives are possible, viz, 
1.2 or 1.6, named ortho- (0), 1.3 or 1.5, named mcta- (m), and 
T.4, named para- compounds (p). In the same way it may be 
shown that three tri-substitution, three tetra -substitution, one 
penta-subslitution, and one hcxa-substitution derivative are 
possible. Of the tri-substitution derivatives, 1.2.3. -comrwands 
are known as " adjacent " or " vicinal " (v), the 1.2.4 as " asym- 
metrical " (as), the 1.3.5 as "symmetrical " (*); of the tctra- 
substitution derivatives, arc known as 
** adjacent," as " asymmetrical," and as " sym- 

O i »ii wO»W Tri-dcrivath«t Tctrftftritatlm 



• m p v as s v as s 

Here we have assumed the subslitucnt groups to be alike; 
when they are unlike, a greater number of isomers is possible. 
Thus in the tri-substitution derivatives six isomers, and no 
more, are possible when two of the substituents are alike; for 
instance, six diaminobenzoic acids, C«H«(NHs)aCOOH, are 
known; when all are unlike ten isomers are possible; thus, 
ten oxytoluic acids, C«H, CH,OHCOOH, are known. In the 
case of tetra-substitutcd compounds, thirty isomers are possible 
when all the groups are different. 

The preceding considerations render it comparatively easy to 
follow toe reasoning on which the experimental verification of the 
.. . above statements is based. The proof is divided into two 

ry**~l parts: (1) that four hydrogen atoms arc equal, and [2) 
T—j**, that two pairs of hydrogen atoms are symmetrical with 
■"MmmiT n ^ rrtnn toa specified hydrogen atom. In the first thesis, 
**■«*«. phenoloroxyberuene.Ctlit'OH.inwhichwewillassumethe 
hydroxyl group to occupy position I, is converted into brombenzene, 
which is then converted into benzoic acid, C«H t -COOH. From this 
substance, an oxybenzoic acid (meta-), C«H4-OHCOOH, may be 
prepared; and the two other known oxybenzoic acids (ortho- and 
para-) may be converted into benzoic acid. These three acids yield 
on heating phenol, identical with the substance started with, and 
since in the three oxybenzoic acids the hydroxyl groups must occupy 
positions other than I, it follows that four hydrogen atoms are equal 
in value. 

R. Hubner and A. Petcrmann (Ann., 1869, 149, p. 129) provided 
the proof of the equivalence of the atoms 2 and 6 with respect 
TT i ■mi ■ *°i. From mcta-brombcnzoicacid two nitrobrombenzoic 
*t _?_ J* acids are obtained on direct nitration; elimination of the 
k**njmm bromine atom and the reduction of the nitro to an amino 
"ZZZ^7 groupin these two acids results in the formation of the same 
ortho-aminobenzoicacid. Hence thepositionsoccupied by 
the aitro groups in the two different nitrobrombenzote adds must be 
symmetrical with respect to the carboxyl group. In 1879, Hubner 
(Ann., 195, p. 4) proved the equivalence of the second pair, viz. 
3 and 5, by starting out with ortho-aminobenzoic acid, previously 
obtained by two different methods. This substance readily yields 
ortho-oxybenzoic acid or salicylic acid, which on nitration yields two 
mononitro-oxybenzoir acids. By eliminating the hydroxy groups 
ia these acids the same nitrobenzoic acid is obtained, which yields 
oa reduction an aminobenzoic acid different from the starting-out 
acid. Therefore there must be another pair of hydrogen atoms, 
other than 2 and 6, which arc symmetrical with respect to 1. The 
symmetry of the second pair was also established in 1878 by E. 
Wroblewsky (Ann., 192, p. 196). 

Orientation of Substituent Groups.— The determination of the 
relative positions of the substituents in a benzene derivative 
constitutes an important factor in the general investigation 
of such compounds. Confining our attention, for the present, to 
ii-substitution products we sec that there are three distinct 
series of compounds to be considered. Generally if any group 
be replaced by another group, then the second group enters the 
nucleus in the position occupied by the displaced group; this 

means that If we can definitely orientate three di-dcrivatives 
of benzene, then any other compound, which can be obtained 
from or converted into one of our typical derivatives, may be 
definitely orientated. Intermolecular transformations — migra- 
tions of substitucnt groups from one carbon atom to another — 
are of fairly common occurrence among oxy compounds at 
elevated temperatures. Thus potassium ortho-oxybenzoate is 
converted into the salt of para-oxybenzoic acid at 220 ; the 
three bromphcnols, and also the brombcnzcncsulphonic acids, 
yield m-dioxybenzene or rcsorcin when fused with potash. It is 
necessary, therefore, to avoid reactions involving such inter- 
molecular migrations when determining the orientation of 
aromatic compounds. 

Such a series of typical compounds are the benzene dicarboxylic 
acids (phthalic acids). C.H 4 (COOH),. C. Gracbc (Ann., 1869, 149, 

J). 22) orientated the ortho-compound or phthalic acid from its 
ormation from naphthalene on oxidation: the meta-coro pound or 
isophthalic acid is orientated by its production from mesityleoe. 
shown by A. Ladenburg (Ann., 1875, 170, p. 163) to be symmetrical 
trimethyl benzene; tcrcphthalic acid, the remaining isomer, must 
therefore be the para-compound. 

P. Griess (Bcr., 1872, 5, p. 192; 1874, 7, p. 1223) orientated the 
three diaminobenzencs or phcnylenc diamines by considering their 
preparation by the elimination of the carboxyl group in the six 
diaminobenzoic acids. The diaminobenzene resulting from two of 
these acids is the ortho-compound; from three, the mcta-; and 
from one the para-; this is explained by the following scheme: — 

NH t NH, NH, NH a KH a NU, 

I^JcOOH LJ kJ»H. lyJw^aOOcl^NH, kj 

^tOOH _ ^ COOH . n5L 



W. Korner (Gaze. Chew. Ital., 4, p. 305) in 1874 orientated the 
three dibrombenzencs in a somewhat similar manner. Starting with 
the three isomeric compounds, he found that one gave two tnbrom- 
benzencs, another gave three, while the third gave only one. A 
scheme such as the preceding one shows that the first dibrombenzene 
must be the ortho-compound, the second the meta-, and the third 
the para-derivative. Further research in this direction was made by 
D.E Noctling (Bcr., 1883, 18, p. 26*7), who investigated the nitro-, 
amino-, and oxy-xylcnes in their relations to the three xylenes or 
dimethyl benzenes. 

The orientation of higher substitution derivatives is determined 
by considering the di- and tri-substitution compounds into which 
they can be transformed. 

Substitution of the Benzene Ring.— As a general rule, homologues 
and mono-derivatives of benzene react more readily with sub- 
stituting agents than the parent hydrocarbon, for example, 
phenol is converted into tribromphenol by the action of bromine 
water, and into the nitrophenols by dilute nitric acid; similar 
activity characterizes aniline. Not only docs the substituent 
group modify the readiness with which the derivative is attacked, 
but also the nature of the product. Starting with a mono- 
derivative, we have seen that a substitucnt group may enter 
in cither of three positions to form an ortho-, meta-, or para- 
compound. Experience has shown that such mono-derivatives 
as nitro compounds, sulphonic acids, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, 
and ketones yield as a general rule chiefly the mcta-compounds, 
and this is independent of the nature of the second group in- 
troduced; on the other hand, benzene haloids, amino-, 
homologous-, and hydroxy-benzencs yield principally a mixture 
of the ortho- and para-compounds. These facts arc embodied 
in the " Rule of Crum Brown and J. Gibson " (Jour. Chan. Soc. 
61, p. 367): If the hydrogen compound of the substituent 
already in the benzene nucleus can be directly oxidized to the 
corresponding hydroxyl compound, then mcta-dcrivatives 
predominate on further substitution, if not, then ortho- and para- 
derivatives. By further substitution of ortho- and para-di- 
derivatives, in general the same tri-derivative (1.2.4] is formed 
(Ann., 1878, 192, p. 219); meta-compounds yield [1.3.4] and 
[1.2.3] tri-dcrivatives, except in such cases as when both sub- 
stitucnt groups are strongly acid, e.g. m-dinitrobenxene, then 
[i-3-sl-derivatives are obtained. 

Syntheses of the Benzene Ring. — The characteristic distinctions 




which exist between aliphatic and benzenoid compounds make 
the transformations of one class into the other especially 
interesting. ... 

In the first place we may notice a tendency of several aliphatic 
compounds, e.t. methane, tetrachlormethane. &c, to yield aromatic 
compounds when subjected to a high temperature, the so-called 
pyrogenetic reactions (from Greek wvp. fire, and ywii*. 1 produce); 
the predominance of benzenoid, and related compounds— naphtha- 
lene, anthracene, phenanthrene. Ac— in coal-tar is probably to be 
associated with similar pyrocondensations. Long-continued treat- 
ment with halogens may, in some cases, result in the formation of 
aromatic compounds, thus perchlorbenzene, C»CU. frequently 
appears as a product of exhaustive chlonnation. while hexyl iodide, 
CiHial, yields pcrchlor- and perbrom-benzene quite readily. 

The tnmolecular polymerization of numerous acetylene com- 
pounds — substances containing two trebly linked carbon atoms, 
— C.C— , to form derivatives of benzene is of considerable interest. 
M P E. Berthelot first accomplished the synthesis of benzene in 
1870 by leading acetylene. HC : CH, through tubes heated to dull 
redness; at higher temperatures the action becomes reversible, 
the benzene yielding diphenyl, dipheny (benzene, and acetylene. 
The condensation of acetylene to benzene is also possible at ordinary 
temperatures by leading the gas over pyrophoric iron, nickel, 
cobalt, or spongy pbtinum (P. Sabatier and J. B. Scndcrcns). 
The homologues of acetylene condense more readily; thus allylcne, 
CH C-CHi. and crotonylene, CH,C • CCH,. yield trimethyl- and 
hexamethyl-benzcne under the influence of sulphuric acid. Toluene 
or mono-met hylbenzcnc results from the pyrocondensation of a 
mixture of acetylene and allylene. Substituted acetylenes also 
exhibit this form of condensation; for instance, bromacetylcne, 
BrC - CH, is readily converted into tribrombenzenc, while propiolic 
acid, HC : CCOOH, under the influence of sunlight, gives benzene 
tricarboxylic acid. 

A larger and more important series of condensations may be 
grouped together as resulting from the elimination of the elements 
of water between carbonyl (CO) and methylene (CHO groups. 
A historic example is that of the condensation of three molecules of 
acetone, CHiCOCHa. in the presence of sulphuric acid, to j-tri- 
mcthvlbenzene or mesitylene, C«H,(CHj)j, first observed in 1837 by 
R. Kane; methylethyl ketone and methyl-n-propyl ketone suffer 
similar condensations to j-triethylbenzene and s-tn-n-propylbenzene 
respectively. Somewhat similar condensations are: of geranial or 
citral. (CH,),CH-CHrCH.CH-C(CH,):CH-CHO. to ^isopropyl- 
methylbcnzene or cymene; of the condensation product of methyl- 
ethylacrolein and acetone. CHrCH^CH:C(CH,KH:CHCOCHa. 
to { 1 3. 4|-trimethylbenzene or pseudocumene; and of the con- 
densation product of two molecules of isovaleryl aldehyde with one 
of acetone. C,H,CH,CH :C(C,H,) CH :CHCOCH,. to (i)-methyl- 
a-4-di-isopropyl benzene. An analogous synthesis is that of di- 
Certain w-diketones condense to form benzenoid quinones, two 
molecules of the diketone taking part in the reaction; thus diacetyl, 
CH, COCOCH,, yields p-xyloquinonc. C*H,(CH,),0, (Btr.. 1888, 
21, p. 141 1), and acetylpropionyl, CHrCOCOCiH*, yields duro- 
quinone, or tctramcthylquinone, C«(CH»)«Ot. Oxymethylene com- 
pounds, characterized by the grouping >C:CH(OH), also give 
benzene derivatives by hydrolytic condensation between three 
molecules; thus oxymethylene acetone, or formyl acetone, 
CHj-CO-CH:CH(OH). formed by acting on formic ester with acetone 
in the presence of sodium ethylate, readily yields li.j.5]-triacetyl- 
benzene, C«Hi(CO-CHj)j; oxymethylene acetic ester or formyl 
acetic ester or 0-oxyacrylic ester, (HO)CH :CH«CO*CtH», formed by 
condensing acetic ester with formic ester, and also its dimolecular 
condensation product, cou malic acid, readily yields esters of J1.3.5I- 
benzene tricarboxylic acid or trimesic acid (see Btr., 1887, 20, 
p. 2010). 

In i8oo,0- Doehncr (R?r, at, p. 2$7?) investigated the condensation 
of pyroraccmic i*ci<\, CHrCO'tOOH* with various aliphatic alde- 
hydes, and obtained from two molecules of the acid and one of the 
aWi-hyde in the presence of baryta water alky tic isophthalic acids: 
With acetnldehyde |l,3.5j-meThyli*ophthalic acid or uvjtic acid t 

a4i-CH»-(CQOH)i. wasobuincdi with propionic aldehyde (1.3 j|- 
ylisophihalic acid, and with butyric aldehyde the corresponding 
propyl iaophthalic acid- We may here mention the tyutbesii oT 
oxyuvftk rsccr {ymeEhyl-4rcm''t-vbenierie dicar boxy tic ester) by 
ihe condensation of two molecules of sodium acetuaceiie ester 
with one of chloroform {Ann., 1883 1 3}i t p. 349,}, Of Other 
syntheses of true Lenzene derivatives, montian may be made of 
ihr formation of orcinol or [j- sl-dioxy toluene from dehydracelic 
iWiil: and the form at ion of esters of ovytolufc acid {5-methyl- 
1 oxy-benaoic BcidhC,HfCHi-OH'CQOH,wheii acetcffleova beefier, 
CHi'CO -CH* C O CO -COtCiH,, El boiled with baryta (Brr„ ft** 
ti. p 317I }, Of interest also are H. B. Hill and I. Torray F » ob**r\ a* 
tioni on nitromakinic aldehyde, NG^CH(CHUhJormed by acting on 
mucobromic acid r probably CHQCBr CWriCGOH, with alkahric 
nitrites; this subsumt condenses with acetone to give 6-nitrophcnol. 
and forms |T.3,5l-trtnitroU"nttne when its sodium wit is decomposed 
with an acid. 
By passing carbon monoxide over heated potassium J. von Lichig 

discovered, in 1834. an intemitng aromatic ronipound, pou&sium 
carbon monoiide or potassium bcxafnybentene, the natuie of 
which wj« satisfactorily cleared up by R N+ettki and T Bene k iter 
iBfr 18, p 4qo/) in 1K85. who hhowed that it yielded bexaoxy- 
bemene. C,(OH) f . when acted upon with ddute hydrochloric acid, 
further investigation of this compound brought to light a consider- 
able number of highly interest wg derivatives (see QutNOKts). 
Another hena-substituted benzene compound capable of direct 
synthesis is me'lnic acid or benfene carboxylic acid, CtLCOOH)*. 
This substance, first obtained from the mineral lionry stone* alu- 
minium meltitatc* by M H. Ktapruih in tjoo, 1* obtained when pure 
carbon (graphite or charcoal J is oxidized by alkaline permanganate, 
or when carbon forms the posit ive pole in dn electrolytic cell iBtr , 
iWRj, in, p. e?oq}. The composition of this substance was deter- 
mined by A. von Baeytr in t&J& t who obtained Leruene on distilling 
the calcium salt with Lime. 

Hitherto we have gentry l|y restricted ourselves to syntheses 
which result in the production of a true lien ten* ring but there 
are many reactions by which reduced benzene rings are tynihesucd, 
and from the compound s so obtained true bciucnoid compounds 
may be prepared. Of such syntheses we may notice the con- 
densation of sodium maloiiic ester to phlcroglucin trkarbohvlic 
ester, a substance which gives phloeoglucin or trioxybenrene when 
fused with alkalis, and behaves boih as m triketohexa methylene 
tricarboxylic ester and as a trio*ybeinene tricarboiyhc esttr, the 
condensation of succinic ester. (CHi-COiCiH*)]* under the influence 
of sodium to succinosuccinic ester, a difcctohe&ametbylene ^'* 
cafbo\ylic ester, which readily yields dioiiyLerephthaUc acid and 
bydri>quinone(F Herrmann. Ann., iRJJj. ?l i> p 306; also sec below, 
Conjipumhvn of tkt Btnxnf Cgmpiex}; the condensackm of acetone 
dTcarBoxylic ester with malonic ester to form tri kei one va methylene 
dicarbotylic citcr (E. Riminr, Gai?. Chrm.. f8oA a6, (a), p. 374). 
th-c condensation of aceione-di- propionic acid under the influence 
of boiling water to a di ketone &a methylene propionic acid (von 
Per h maim a nil Sidgwick, Brf-< t°Ati 3T* P- 3816). Many dilteto 
com pon mis suffer condensation between two molecules to form 
hydrobenft-ne derivatives^ thus ■,ir-di-acctoclutaric etier, 
C,f nOiCCC H» CO)CHCHrCH(COCH i)CQ,C*Hi. yields a methyl- 
ketohrxamet hvlcne r whiUry'aceiobuiyrk- ester ,CHiCO(C HtljCOjCtH*. 
i* convened into dihydrmesortinol or m-diker oh* xt methylene by 
sodium ethylate; this last reaction is reversed by baryta (see £«' 
torn positions 0/ Btnxm Rini). For other syntheses of hexamcthylene 
derivatives, see PolyuetuvlemfSu 

Dttamptotiiaiu of ike Btment Ring—We have previously 
alluded lo the relative stability of the benzene complex; con- 
sequently reactions which lead to its disruption are all the more 
interesting, and have engaged the attention of many chemists. 
If we accept KekuJe 1 * formula for the benzene nucleus, then we 
may expect the ctoublc linkages to be opened up partially, either 
by oxidation or reduction, with the formation of di-, letra-, or 
he Ka- hydro derivatives, or entirely, with the production of open 
chain compounds. Generally rupture occurs at mote than one 
point , and rarely are the six carbon alums of the complex 
regained as an open chain. Certain compounds withstand ting 
decomposition much more strongly than others, for instance, 
benzene and its hotnologues, carbootylic acids h and nitre com- 
pounds are much more stable towards oiidiaing agents than 
amino- and oxy-bemsenes, sminophenob, quinones, and oxy- 
carboxylic adds. 

Strong oxidation breaks the beruene complex into iuch compounds 
aa carbon dtoside. oaalk acid, formic acid. Act such decompositions 
are of little interest. More important are Kakstt'a si^m^ 
observations that nitrous acid oaidiaes pyrocatecbol or t"TJZL- 
|i r 2|-dioxybenzene. and protocatechuic acid or U .4!- 
dioxybenroic acid to dk>kytartarit acid, (C{OH), COOHj* (Ann., 
18*3, 3a 1 * p. ?3oh and O. Dotbner's preparation ol mesotartaric 
acid, the tmernally compensated tartaric acid* (CH(QH)-CQGH>i, 
by oiiidifing phenol with dilute potassium permanganate (Bcr*, 1691. 
=a. p. 17531- 

For many years it had been known that a mixture of potassium 
chlorate and hydrochloric or sulphuric acids possessed strong 
oxidizing powers, 1^. Cariui showed that potaAsmni r^^j 
chlorate and sulphuric acid oxidiicd benzene to trichlor- ZZ*?^?T 
phcnomalic acid, a substance afterwards investigated by ^rTttf 
Kekule and O. Strecker {Ann., i&Sa, 333, p tjo) k And ■ ' mm * 
shown to be /J'trichloracetnacrytu; acid. TO* COCH CHCOOH. 
which with baryta gave chloroform and mak'ic acid. Potassium 
chlorate and hydrochloric add onidiu phenol, salicylic acid (o-oxy- 
benroic acid % and caElic acid da^il tnoxybemok acid) to tri- 
ehlorpyroracemjc acid (i*ot rich lorglycerk acid), COiC^OHJvCOjH, 
a 9ub«tantealso obtained from trirhloracelouitrtlc, CCU-CQ'CM. by 
hydfolyris. We may also notice the conversion of picric acid- 
\ j. 4 fi|-irinitrophenol) Into chloropirrin, CCtiNOr, by bleaching lime 
(calcium hypochlorite), and into hromopicrin. CBrjNO,, by bromine 


The action of chlorine upon di- and tri-oxybenzenes has been 
carefully investigated by Th. Zincke; and his researches have led 
to the discovery of many chlorinated oxidation products which admit 
of decomposition into cyclic compounds containing fewer carbon 
atoms than characterize the benzene ring, and in turn yielding open- 
chain or aliphatic compounds. In general, the rupture occurs 
be t w e e n a keto group (CO) and a keto-chloiide group (CC!,). into 



which two adjacent carbon atoms of the ring are converted by the 
oxidizing and substituting action of chlorine. Decompositions of 
this nature were first discovered in the naphthalene series, where it 
was found that derivatives of indene (and of hydrindene and indone) 
and also of benzene resulted; Zincke then extended his methods to 
the disintegration of the oxybenzenes and obtained analogous 
results, R-pentene and aliphatic derivatives being formed (R- 
symbolizing a ringed nucleus). 

When treated with chlorine, pyrocatechol (1.2 or ortho-dioxy- 
benzene) (i) yields a tetrachlor ortho-quinone, which suffers further 
chlorination to hexachlor-o-diketo-R-hexene (2). This substance is 
transformed into hexach lor- R-pentene oxycarboxylic acid (3) when 
digested with water; and chromic acid oxidizes this substance to 
hexachlor-R-pentene (4) The ring of this compound hr ruptured by 
caustic soda with the formation of perchlorvinyl acrylic acid (5). 
which gives on reduction ethidine propionic acid (6), a compound 
containing five of the carbon atoms originally in the benzene ring 
(see Zincke. Btr , 1894, 27, p 3364) (the carbon atoms are omitted in 
some of the formulae). 


~ac % "*q« 

«. ci« a« 


<•> <D <4> 

($) (•) 

Resorcin (1.3 or meta dioxybenzene) (1) is decomposed in a 
somewhat similar manner. Chlorination in glacial acetic acid 
solution yields pentachlor-m-diketo-R-hexenc (2) and, at a later 
stage, heptachlor-m-dikcto-R-hexene (3}- These compounds are 
both de c o m posed by water, the former giving dichloraceto-trichlor* 
cratomc acid (4), which on boiling with water gives dichlormethyl- 
viny1-«-diketone (5). The heptacnlor compound when treated with 
chlorine water gives trichloraceto-pentachlorbutyric acid (6). which 
is hydrolysed by alkalis to chloroform and pentachlorglutaric acid 
(7), and is converted by boiling water into tctrachlor-diketo-R- 
(8). This latter compound may be chlorinated to 

. acetoacrylic chloride (9), from which the corresponding acid 

(to) is obtained by treatment, with water: alkalis hydrolyse the acid 

fS _ afSci. _ c/Sa 

I^OH Hl^O HCll^O 

y^n c j'« 




I <«) L 

MO,C< CCljCHCI* CCI jCO a H ♦ C HCI , 

co-cci tv 

ciooccitca-cocci,— 1 "^co (•) 

(10) (11) 

Hydroqainone (1.4 or para-dioxybenzene) (t) gives with chlorine, 
first, a tetrachlorquinone (2), and then hcxachlor-p-dikcto-R-hcxcne 
to), which alcoholic potash converts into perchloracroylacrylic acid 
(4). This substance, and also the preceding compound, is converted 
by aqneoua caustic soda into dichlormaletc acid, trichlorethylene, 
and hydrochloric acid (5) (Th. Zincke and O. Fuchs, Ann., 1892. 
267. p. 1). 

— °rS ci ^nc't^x cic- 
cil^Jci «LJci. ocl^cct CIC 



co,H ♦ J c, « 

C,C VO,H *' HC * 

PMoroglucin (t 3.5-trioxybenzene) ft) behaves similarly to 
resorcin. hexachloir [ 1 3.5) triketo-R-hcxylene (2} being first formed 
This compound is converted by chlorine water into octachloracetyl- 
acetone (3). by methyl alcohol into the ester of dichlormalomc acid 
and tetrachloracetone (4), whilst ammonia gives dichloracetamide 
Kr ' n " ~" ' ~ " ---"■ 

(5) (th. Zincke and O 

egel, Bet., 1890, 23, p. 1706). 
,<i) ajC-co-ca^coccij+co, 

(4) ^HC-CO'CHCl^CHj-OjC-CCIjCOjfCH, 
($) ClyHC'CONH, 

When phenol is oxidized in acid solution by chlorine, letrachlor- 
quinone U obtained, a compound also obtai ruble from hydfbquinoae- 
By conducting the chlorination in alkaline total ion, -. tt _ 
A Hantzsch {Brr. w r8Sg, 22, p. 1236) succeeded in ob- J^J'jJ" 
tuning derivatives of ct-diketo-R-hciione, which yield ^ZSS 
R<pentene and aliphatic com pound* on decora pout tan. 
When thus chlorinated phenol (t) yields trie htor-o-diketo-R- he vent 
(2>, which may be hydrolysed to an acid [3'. which, in turn, 
suffers rearrangement to frkhlor-R-pentcne-oxycaf boxy lit add (4). 
Bromine water oxid lies this substance to oxalic acid and tetrabrom- 
dichloracetone (5). 




Hd,C, SCO ■ I I^COOH Cl t 8rCCO'CBr a * 
— II— HCS^/CH, . — 


IsJ ' HVyJH, HCVyTCH, ""^f* "" HO.CCO.H 

(1) (a) (S) (4) (S) 

The reduction of o-oxybenioic acids by sodium in amyl alcohol 
solution has been studied by A. f£i n horn and J. S. Lumsden (Ann., 
1805, 2S6, p. 257). tt is probable that tctranydro acids are first 
formed, which suffer rearrangement to orthoketone carbotylic acids. 
Those substances absorb water and become pimelic acids. Thus 
salicylic acid yields n-pimeJic acid, HOOC-iCfidrCOOH. while 0-, 
m-. and p^resotiak acids, Ci H 4CH i) (QH J tCOQH). yield isomeric 
meihytpirnctic acids, 

Rcsorcin on reduction give* dihydroresortin, which C Merlins 
Mm., iSqj, %j$ p. jo) showed to be converted into n-jturar acid, 
HOOC'(CHi)i'CCJUH f when oxidized with pufaAsium perm3ri>: natc; 
according to D- Vtolandcr t^-i l8 95> 28 4 p. 23481 it is concerted 
into T-acL-tobu lyric acid, CH*CO-(CHi)i-COOH, when healed with 
baryta eo 150-160*. 

Configuration of Ike Bemene Complex. — The development of 
the " structure theory " in about i860 brought in its train an 
appreciation of the chemical structure of the derivatives of 
benzene. The pioneer in this field was August Kekule, who, 
in 186s (Ann., 137, p. 129; see also his Lekrbuch dcr organiscken 
Chemie), submitted his well-known formula for benzene, so 
founding the " benzene theory " and opening up a problem 
which, notwithstanding the immense amount of labour since 
bestowed upon it, still remains imperfectly solved. Arguing 
from the existence of only one mono-substitution derivative, 
and of three di-derivatives (statements of which the rigorous 
proof was then wanting), he was led to arrange the six carbon 
atoms in a ring, attaching a hydrogen atom to each carbon 
atom; being left with the fourth carbon valencies, he mutually 
saturated these in pairs, thus obtaining the symbol I (sec below). 
The value of this ringed structure was readily perceived, but 
objections were raised with respect to Kckul6's disposal of the 
fourth valencies. In 1866 Sir James Dcwar proposed an tin- 
symmetrical form (II); while in 1867, A. Claus (Tkeorctiscke 
Betrachtungen und dcren A nwendung zur SysUtnaUkder organiscken 
Chemie) proposed his diagonal formula (III), and two years 
later, A. Ladenburg (Bcr., 2, p. 140) devised his prism formula 
(IV), the six carbon atoms being placed at the six corners of a 
right equilateral triangular prism, with its plane projections 
(V, VI). 



Dcwar uiCUut (v v y , 






One of the earliest and strongest objections urged against Kekulc's 
formula was that it demanded two isomeric ortho-di-subatitution 
derivatives, for if we number the carbon atoms in cyclical 
order from I to 6, then the derivatives 1.2 and 1.6 should Obfectloa* 
be different. 1 Ladenburg submitted that if the 1-2 and toKckaWt 
1.6 compounds were identical, then we should expect the ahsshIs. 
two well-known crotonic acids, CH,CH CHCOOH and 
CH, CH CH, COOH. to be identical This view was opposed by 
Victor Meyer and Kekule The former pointed out that the supposed 
isomerism was not due to an arrangement of atoms, but to the dis- 
position of a valency, and therefore it was doubtful whether such a 
subtle condition could exert any influence on the properties of the 
substance Kekule answered Ladenburg by formulating a dynamic 
interpretation of valency He assumed that if we have one atom 

1 It is now established that ortho compounds do exist in isomeric 
forms, instances being provided by chlor-, brom-, and amino-toluene, 
chlorphenol. and rhloranilinc; but arguments, e.g. E. Knoevenagel a 
theory of " motoi5omerism, ,, have been brought forward to cause 
these facts to support Kekule. 



connected by single bonds to (say) four other atoms, then in * certain 
unk of time it will collide with each of these atoms in turn. Now 
suppose two of the attached atoms are replaced by one atom, then 
this atom must have two valencies directed to the central atom; 
and consequently, in the same unit of time, the central atom will 
collide once with each of the two monovalent atoms and twice with 
the divalent. Applying this notion to benzene, let us consider the 
impacts made by the carbon atom (i) which we will assume to be 
doubly linked to the carbon atom (2) and singly linked to (6), h 
standing for the hydrogen atom. In the first unit of time, the 
impacts arc 2, 6. h, 2; and in the second 6, 2, h, 6. If we represent 
graphically the impacts in the second unit of time, we perceive that 
they point to a configuration in which the double linkage is between 
the carbon atoms. 1 and 6, and the single linkage between I and 2. 
Therefore, according to Kekule, the double linkages are in a state of 
continual oscillation, and if his dynamical notion of valency, or a 
similar hypothesis, be correct, then the difference between the 1.2 
and 1.6 di-derivatives rests on the insufficiency of his formula, 
which represents the configuration during one set of oscillations only. 
The difference is only apparent, not real. An analogous oscillation 

Kevails in the pyrazol nucleus, for L. Knorr (A »»., 1804, 279, p. 188) 
s shown that 3- and 5-mcthylpyrazols are identical. 
The explanation thus attempted by Kckulc was adversely criti- 
cized, more especially by A. Laden burg, who devoted much attention 
. _^ to the study of the substitution products of benzene, and 

i f f!?* to the support of his own formula. His views arc presented 
mgr * - in his pamphlet: Theorte der aromalischen Verbtndungen, 

1876. The prism formula also received support from the 
following data: protocatcchuic acid when oxidized by nitrous acid 
gives carboxytartronic acid, which, on account of its ready de- 
composition into carbon dioxide and tartronic acid, was considered 
to be HO-C(COOH) s . This implied that in the benzene complex 
there was at least one carbon atom linked to three others, thus 
rendering Kekuld's formula impossible and Ladenburg's and Claus' 
possible. Kekule (Ann., 1883. 221, p. 230), however, reinvestigated 
this acid; he showed that it was dibasic and not tribasic; that it 
gave tartaric acid on reduction; and, finally, that it was dioxy- 
tartaric acid, HOOCC(OH),C(OH).COOH. The formation of 
this substance readily follows from Kekule's formula, while con- 
siderable difficulties are met with when one attempts an explanation 
based on Ladenburg's representation. Kekule also urged that the 
formation of trichlorphenomalic acid, shown by him and O. Strcckcr 
to be trichloracetoacrylic acid, was more favourably explained by 
his formula than by Ladenburg's. 

Other objections to Ladenburg's formula resulted from A. von 
Baeycr's researches (commenced in 1886) on the reduced phthalic 
^^ acids. Baeyer pointed out that although benzene deri- 

"■^•^f vatives were obtainable from hexamethylenc compounds, 
/vsMfcav*. vct - lt by ^j mcana follows that only hexamethylene 
compounds need result when benzene compounds are reduced. He 
admitted the possibility of the formulae of Kekule. Claus, Dewar 
and Ladenburg, although as to the last di-trimcthylcne derivatives 
should be possible reduction products, being formed by severing 
two of the prism edges; and he attempted to solve the problem by a 
systematic investigation of the reduced phthalic acids. 

Ladenburg's prism admits of one mono-substitution derivative 
and three di-derivatives. Furthermore, it is in accordance with 
certain simple syntheses of benzene derivatives (e.g. from acetylene 
and acetone) ; but according to Baeyer (Ber., 1886, 19, p. 1 797) 
it fails to explain the formation of dioxyterephthalic ester from 
succinosuccinic ester, unless we make the assumption that the 
transformation of these substances is attended by a migration of the 
•ubstitucnt groups. For succinosuccinic ester, formed by the action 
of sodium on two molecules of succinic ester, haseitherof theformulae 
(I) or (II) ; oxidation of the free acid gives dioxyterephthalic acid in 
which the para-positions must remain substituted as in (I) and (II). 
By projecting Ladenburg's prism on a plane and numbering the 
atoms so as to correspond with Kekule's form, viz. that 1.2 and 1.6 
should be ortho-positions, 1.3 and 1.$ mcta-. and 1.4 para-, and 
following out the transformation on the Ladenburg formula, then 
an ortho-dioxytcrcphthalic acid (IV) should result, a fact denied 
by experience, and inexplicable unless we assume a wandering of 
atoms. Kekule's formula (111), on the other hand, is in full agree- 
ment (Baeyer). This explanation has been challenged by Ladenburg 

59 ^OH CjOh (,)oh 

HaCrNcH-CO/t^ MC^jCMCO t W^ MC^Sc-CO,!! «t 0| C«j4iS(S)M 
ElOjDHCl^CM, EtOjOC^AM, "ttOyC-cLJcM «O a Oll)l4 7 l(l)OH 

CO COH COH (4)11 

(Ber., 1886. 19. p. 971; Ber., 1887. 20. p. 62) and by A. K Miller 
(J CS. Trans., 1887. p. 208). The transformation is not one of the 
oxidation of a hexamethylene compound to a benzenoid compound, 
for only two hydrogen atoms are removed. Surcinosuccinic ester 
behaves both as a ketone and as a phenol, thereby exhibiting 
desmotropy, assuming the ketone formula as indicating the con- 
stitution, then in Bacyer's equation we have a migration of a 
hydrogen atom, whereas to bring Ladenburg's formula into line 
an oxygen atom must migrate 


The relative merits of the formulae of Kekule*, Claus and Dewar 
were next investigated by means of the reduction products of benzene, 
it being Baeycr's intention to detect whether double linkages were 
or were not present in the benzene complex. 

To follow Baeyer's results we must explain his nomenclature of 
the reduced benzene derivatives. He numbers the carbon atoms 
placed at the corners of a hexagon from 1 to 6, and each side in the 
same order, so that the carbon atoms 1 and 2 are connected by the 
side I, atoms 2 and 3 by the side 2, and so on. A doubly linked pair 
of atoms is denoted by the sign A with the index corresponding to 
the side; if there arc two pairs of doubter links, then indices corre- 
sponding to both sides are employed- Thus A ] denote* a tetrahydro 
derivative in which the double Imk occupies the tide 1; A lJ , a 
dihydro derivative, the double links being along the sides 1 and j. 
Another form of isomerism is occasioned by spatial arrangement *, 
many of the reduced terephthalic acids existing in two steteo-iwineric 
forms. Baeyer explains this by analogy with fu marie and makic 
acids: he assumes the reduced benzene ring to lie in a plane: when 
both carboxyl groups arc on the same tide of thii plane, the acidi, 
in general, resemble malcic acids, these forms he denotes by rcu-cii, 
or shortly cts~, when the carboxyl groups are on opposite sides, 
the acids correspond to fumaric acid7 these forma are denoted by 
Ycis-trans, or shortly trans-. 

By reducing tcrcphthalic acid with sodium amalgam, care being 
taken to neutralize the caustic soda simultaneously formed by 
passing in carbon dioxide. A* ' dihydroterephthalic acid is obtained; 
this results from the splitting of a para-linkage. By boiling with 
water the A*-* acid is converted into the A 1 • dihydroterephthalic 
acid. This acid is converted into the A M acid by soda, and into the 
A 1 tctrahydro acid by reduction. From this acid the A 1 ' dihydro 
and the A 1 tetrahydro acids may be obtained, from both of which 
the hcxahydro acid may be prepared. From these results Baeyer 
concluded that Claus' formula with three para-Unkings cannot 
possibly be correct, for the A' * dihydroterephthalic acid undoubtedly 
has two ethylene linkages, since it readily takes up two or four 
atoms of bromine, and is oxidized in warm aqueous solution by 
alkaline potassium permanganate. But the formation of the A*» 
acid as the first reduction product is not fully consistent with 
KekukVs symbol, for wc should then expect the A" or the A" acid 
to be first formed (see also Pox.ymethyi.enss). 

The stronger argument against the ethylcnoid linkages 
demanded by Kekule's formula is provided by the remark- 
able stability towards oxidizing and reducing agents which 
characterizes all benzenoid compounds. From the fact that 
reduction products containing either one or two double linkages 
behave exactly as unsaturated aliphatic compounds, being 
readily reduced or oxidized, and combining with the halogen 
elements and haloid acids, it seems probable that in benzenoid 
compounds the fourth valencies are symmetrically distributed 
in such a manner as to induce a peculiar stability in the molecule. 
Such a configuration was proposed in 1887 by H. £. Armstrong 
(J.C.S Trans., 1887, p. 258), and shortly afterwards by Baeyer 
(Ann., 1888, 24s, p. 103). In this formula, the so-called " centric 
formula/' the assumption made is that the fourth valencies are 
simply directed towards the centre of the ring; nothing further 
is said about the fourth valencies except that they exert a 
pressure towards the centre. Claus maintained that Bacyer's 
view was identical with his own, for as in Baeyer's formula, the 
fourth valencies have a different function from the peripheral 
valencies, being united at the centre in a form of potential 

It is difficult to determine which configuration most accurately 
explains the observed facts; Kekule's formula undoubtedly 
explains the synthetical production of benzenoid compounds 
most satisfactorily, and W. Marckwald (Ann., 1893, 274, p. 331; 
1894, 279, p 14) has supported this formula from considerations 
based on the syntheses of the quinoline ring. Further researches 
by Baeyer, and upon various nitrogenous- ring systems by £. 
Bamberger (a strong supporter of the centric formula), have 
shown that the nature of the substituent groups influences the 
distribution of the fourth valencies; therefore it may be con- 
cluded that in compounds the benzene nucleus appears to be 
capable of existence in two tautomeric forms, in the sense that 
each particular derivative possesses a definite constitution. 
The benzene nucleus presents a remarkable case, which must be 
considered in the formulation of any complete theory of valency. 
From a study of the reduction of compounds containing two 
cthylcnic bonds united by a single bond, termed a "conjugated 
system," E. Thiele suggested a doctrine of " partial valencies," 




chich assumes that in addition to the ordinary valencies, each 
doubly linked atom has a partial valency, by which the atom first 
interacts. When applied to benzene, a twofold conjugated 
system is suggested in which the partial valencies of adjacent! 
itoms neutralize, with the formation of a potential double link. 
The stability of benzene is ascribed to this conjugation. 1 

Physico-chemical properties have also been drawn upon to 
•Sedde whether double unions are present in the benzene com- 
plea; but here the predilections of the observers 
JjjJkS *PP* ren tly influence the nature of the conclusions to 
ssstia*. be drawn from such data. It is well known that 
singly, doubly and trebly linked carbon atoms affect 
the physical properties of substances, such as the refractive 1 
index, specific volume, and the heat of combustion; and by* 
determining these constants for many substances, fairly definite 
values can be assigned to these groupings. The general quest ion 
cf the relation of the refractive index to constitution has been 
especially studied by J. W. Brtihl, who concluded that benzene 
contained 3 double linkages; whereas, in 1901, Pellini (Gaze II a, 
31, i. p. 1) calculated that single linkages were present. A' 
similar contradiction apparently exists with regard to the 
specific volume, for while benzene has a specific volume corre- 
sptnding to Claus' formula, toluene, or methyl benzene, rather 
points to Kckule's. The heat of combustion, as first determined 1 
by Julius Thomsen, agreed rather better with the presence of 
cine single unions. His work was repeated on a finer scale by 
M. P. E. Bcrthelot of Paris, and F. C. A. Stohmann of Leipzig; 
aad the new data and the conclusions to be drawn from them 
formed the subject of much discussion, Bruhl endeavouring, 
to show how they supported Kckul6's formula, while Thomsen 
maintained that they demanded the benzene union to have a 
different heat of combustion from the acetylene union. Thomsen 
then investigated heats of combustion of various benzenoid 
hydrocarbons — benzene, naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrcne, 
ic. — in the crystallized state. It was found that the results 
were capable of expression by the empirical relation C.IIi»- 
i04-3M*49*oo*i+iO5-47n, where C.Hj» denotes the formula 
of the hydrocarbon, m the number of single carbon Unkings and 
• the number of double Unkings, m and n being calculated on 
the KekuM formulae. But, at the same time, the constants in 
the above relation are not identical with those in the corre- 
sponding relation empirically deduced from observations on fatty 
hydrocarbons; and we arc therefore led to conclude that a 1 
benzene union is considerably more stable than an ethylene 

Mention may be made of the absorption spectrum of benzene. 
According to W. N. Hartley (J.CS., 1005, 87, p. 1822), there 
are six bands in the ultra-violet, while £. C. C. Baly and J. N. 
Collie (J.CS., 1905, 87, p. 1332; 1006, 89, p. 524) record seven., 
These bands are due to molecular oscillations; Hartley suggests 
the carbon atoms to be rotating and forming alternately single 
and double linkages, the formation of three double Unks giving 
three bands, and of three single Unks another three; Baly and 
Collie, on the other hand, suggest the making and breaking of 
links between adjacent atoms, pointing out that there arc seven 
combinations of one, two and three pairs of carbon atoms in the ' 
benzene molecule. 

Sicreo-ckemkal Configurations. — Simultaneously with the dis- 
cussions of Kekule, Ladcnburg, Claus, Bacyer and others as to the 
merits of various plane formulae of the benzene complex, there 
were published many suggestions with regard to the arrange- 
ment of the atoms in space, all of which attempted to explain 
the number of isomers and the equivalence of the hydrogen 
atoms. The development of stcrco-isomerism at the hands of 

1 Victor Meyer and G. Heyl (Ber., 1895, 28, p. 2776) attempted a 
Ktlution from the foUowing data. It i» well known that di-orthe- 
mbstituted benzoic acids arc estcrificd with difficulty. Two acids 
co rresponding to the formula of Kelcule and Claus are triphenyl 
acrylic acid,TC«H,),C: C(COOH)C.H». and triphenyl acetic acid, 
(CtHOiC'COOH. Experiments showed that the second acid was 
much more difficult to cstcrify than the first, pointing to the con- 
clusion that Claus' formula for benzene was more probable than 

J, Wislicr nt», Lc Be] and van 't Hoff has resulted in the intro- 
duction of another condition which formulae for the benzene 
complex must satisfy, viz, that the hydrogen atoms must all 
tic in one plane. The proof of this statement rests on the fact 
that if the hydrogen moms were not co-planar, then substitution 
derivatives (the substituting groups not containing asymmetric 
carbon atoms) should etist in enantiomorphic forms, differing in 
crystal form and in I heir action on polarized light; such optical 
antipodes have, however, not yet been separated. Ladcnburg's 
prism formula would give two enantiomorphic ortho-di-substi- 
lution derivatives, while forms in which the hydrogen atoms 
are placed at the corners of a regular octahedron would yield 
tmntiomorphie tri -substitution derivatives. 

The Oct ahedrat formula dLvu&Hd by Julius Thomsen (Ber., 1 886, ' 
lo s p. 204a) conrists of the dn carbon atoms placed at the corners 
of a regular octahedron, and connected together by the full lines at 
shown in (1); a plane projection gives a hexagon with diagonals 
ill, 1. Reduction to he u methylene compounds necessitate* the 
disruption of three of the edge* of the octahedron, the diagonal 
linkinga remaining intact, or, in the plane projection, three peripheral 
linkages, the hexa methylene ring assuming the form (III): 


In iRSg J t E. Mar* pulilkned a paper (Phil. Mag. [V.], 26, p. 436) 
in which he diHruued vjriou? *KTco-chcmical representation* of 
the Ik [imic nucleus (The tpUrco-rhcmistry of carbon compounds 
ha™ led to the spatial it presentation of a carbon atom as being 
t-i runted at the centre of a tetrahedron, the four valencies being 
directed toward* the aplresj n-e above, and Isomerism.) A form 
hi Fed on Kckulc's formula tonwbti in taking three pairs of tctra- 
hrcka, each pair hating a tide in common, and joining them up 
along the sidi* of a re gulir hexagon by means of their apices. This 
form, afterward-; Mipportcd by Carl < iraebe (Ber., 1902, 35,p. 526; see 
also Marsh's m»ly h J^yrn^ Chan. .Soc. Trant. % 1902, p. 06 ij shows 
the proximity of the orihn- position*, but fails to explain the identity 
of i.J ami 1.6 compounds. Arrangements connected with Claus* 
formula are obtained by placing six tetrahedra on the six triangles 
formed by I he dia finals of a plane hexagon. The form in which the 
tctrahedra are ail un one bide, afterwards discussed by J. Loschmidt 
(Mcnatt., 1S90, m, p. 38). would not give sterco-isomcrs; and the 
arrangement of plating the tetrahedra on alternate sides, a form 
after ward* developed by W. Vaubcl (J own. Pr. Chem., 1894 fa), 
49* p- 30^)* ha* the advantage of bringing the meta-positions on one 
tide, and I he ortho- and para- on opposite sides, thus exhibiting 
the similarity actually observed between these series of compounds. 
Mai^h aUo devised a fond closely resembling that of Thomncn, 
inasmuch as the carbon atoms occupied the angles of a regular 
octahedron, and the diagonal linkages differed in nature from 
the peripheral., but diffcrcne from Thomscn's since rupture of the 
diagonal and not peripheral bonds accompanied the reduction to 
he *a methylene. 

We may n!*j notice the model devised by H. Sachsc (Ber., 1888, 
31, 2&\Q; Zcil. fur pbyi. Chem, t |i, p. 214; 23, p. 2062). Two 
parallel triangular faces are removed frpvn a cardboard model of a 
regular octahedron, and on the remaining six faces tctrahedra are 
then placed: the hydrogen atoms are at the free angles. This 
configuration is, according to Sathse, more stable than any other 
form; no oscillation is possible, the molecule being only able to 
move as a whole. In I*kj7. J, N. Collie (Journ. Chem. Soc. Trans., 
p. 1013) considered in detail an octahedral form, and showed how by 
means of certain simple rotations of his system the formulae 
of Kekulfi and Claus could be obtained as projections. An entirely 
new device, suggested by B. Konig (Chem. Zeit., 1905, 29, p. 30), 
assumed the six esrbnn atoms to occupy six of the corners of a cube, 
each carbon atom being linked to a hydrogen atom and by single 
bonds to two neighbouring carbon atoms, the remaining valencies 
being directed to the unoccupied corners of the cube, three to each, 
where they are supposed to satisfy each other. 

Condensed Nuclei. 
Restricting ourselves to compounds resulting from the fusion 
of beaaene rings, we have first to consider naphthalene, CttH* 
which consists of two benzene rings having a pair of carbon atom* 
in common. The nefct members are the isomers anthracene and 
phenanthrenc t C t ,U,t,, formed from three benzene nuclei. Here 
we shall only discuss the structure of these compounds in the 
light of the modern benzene Uicatfcr, tcfatrat tSms^W*. \s*ta. 




to the articles Naphthalene, Anthracene and Phenan- 
ihrene for syntheses, decompositions, &c. 

Naphlkalcnc.—Qi the earlier suggestions for the constitution 
of naphthalene we notice the formulae of Wreden (i) and (i), 
Bcrthclot and Balls (3), R. A. C. E. Erlenmcyer (4) and Adblf 






The first suggestion is quite out of the question. C. Graebe in 
x866 (Ann. 140, p. 20) established the symmetry of the naph- 
thalene nucleus, and showed that whichever half of the molecule 
be oxidized the same phthalic acid results. Therefore formula (i), 
being unsymmctrical, is impossible. The third formula is based 
on Dewar's benzene formula, which we have seen to be incorrect. 
Formula (4) is symmetrical and based on Kekule's formula: it 
is in full accord with the syntheses and decompositions of the 
naphthalene nucleus and the number of isomers found, In 
1882 Claus suggested a combination of his own and Dewar's 
benzene formulae. This is obviously unsymmetrical, consisting 
of an aliphatic and an aromatic nucleus; Claus explained the 
formation of the same phthalic acid from the oxidation of either 
nucleus by supposing that if the aromatic group be oxidized, the 
aliphatic residue assumes the character of a benzene nucleus. 
Bamberger opposed Claus' formula on the following grounds,:— 
The molecule of naphthalene is symmetrical, since 2.7 dioxy- 
naphthalene is readily esterificd by methyl iodide and sulphuric 
acid to a dimethyl ether; and no more than two mono-substi- 
tution derivatives arc known. The molecule is aromatic but not 
benzenoid; however, by the reduction of one half of the mole- 
cule, the other assumes a benzenoid character. 

If ^mphthvLnmine and 0-naphthot be reduced, tetrahydro 
products arc obtained in which ine jrninu- or oxy- bearing half of 
the molecule become* aliphatic in character. The compounds w 
obtained, alicyclic^lctrahydronafilithyUmine and alieyeTie-0- 
tetrihydrortjphckj], elo&tly resemble 0-amiriodu'thylUnrene. 
C B H .(Ci I J t ) C|J I < N H ; . and fl-o w d id hy tben«ne .CftrUOHi) ■ CtH iOR 
If ^naphthyliminc and a-naphlhol be reduced, the hydrofirn atoms 
attach themselves to the non-substituted hilf ot the molecule, 
and the compounds so obtained resemble aminodicthylbcfttenc, 
C,Uj N[i,{C,R,)i, artd osydicthylbenxene, C.f U-Oil (C,lti)i. Bam- 
berj^er's observations on reduced qu incline derivatives point to the 
tame conclusion, that condensed nuclei are not benzenoid* but 
possess an individual character, which breaks down, however, when 
the molecule is reduced. 

It remains, therefore, to consider Erlenmcyer's formula and 
those derived from the centric hypothesis. The former, based 
on Kekull's symbol for benzene, explains the decompositions 
and syntheses of the ring, but the character of naphthalene 
is not in keeping with the presence of five double linkages, 
although it is more readily acted upon than benzene is. On the 
centric hypothesis two formulae are possible: (1) due to H.E. 
Armstrong, and (2) due to £. Bamberger. 


<«> (a) 

In the first symbol it is assumed that one of the affinities of each 
of the two central carbon atoms common to the two rings acts 
into both rings, an assumption involving a somewhat, wide 
departure from all ordinary views as to the manner in which 
affinity acts. This symbol harmonizes with the fact that the two 
rings are in complete sympathy, the one responding to every 
change made in the other. Then, on account of the rcl •■■-.■ 
slight— because divided— influence which would be exercised 
upon the two rings by the two affinities common to both, the 
remaining four centric affinities of each ring would presumably 
be less attracted into the ring than in the case of benzene; 
consequently they would be more active outwards, and com* 
bination would set in more readily. When, as in the formation 
of naphthalene tetrachloride, for example, the one ring becomei 
saturated, the other might be expected to assume the normal 

centric form and become relatively inactive. This is absolutely 
the case. On the other hand, if substitution be effected in the 
one ring, and the affinities in that ring become attracted inwards, 
as apparently happens in the case of benzene, the adjoining ring 
should become relatively more active because the common 
affinities would act less into it. Hence, unless the radical 
introduced be one which exercises a special attractive influence, 
substitution should take place in preference in the previously 
unsubstituted ring. In practice this usually occurs; for example, 
on further bromination, a-bromonaphthalene yields a mixture 
of the (1.4) and (1.5) dibromonaphthalenes; and when nitro- 
naphthalene is either brominated, or nitrated or sulphonated, 
the action is practically confined to the second ring. The 
centric formula proposed by Bamberger represents naphthalene as 
formed by the fusion of two benzene rings, this indicates that it 
is a monocyclic composed of ten atoms of carbon. The formula 
has the advantage that it may. be constructed from tctrahedral 
models of the carbon atom; but it involves the assumption that 
the molecule has within it a mechanism, equivalent in a measure 
to a system of railway points, which can readily close up and 
pass into that characteristic of benzene. 

Anthracene and PJunantkrcnc.— These isomeric hydrocarbons, 
of the formula CuHio, are to be regarded as formed by the 
fusion of three benzenoid rings as represented by the symbols.'— 

COO cPd 

In both cases the medial ring is most readily attacked; and 
various formulae have been devised which are claimed by their 
authors to represent this and other facts. According to Arm* 
strong, anthracene behaves unsymmetrically towards sub- 
stituents, and hence one lateral ring differs from the other; he 
represents the molecule as consisting of one centric ring, the 
remaining medial and lateral ring being ethenoid. Bamberger, 
on the other hand, extends his views on benzene and naphthalene 
and assumes the molecule to be (1). For general purposes, 
however, the symbol (2), in which the lateral rings are benzenoid 
and the medial ring fatty, represents quite adequately the 
syntheses, decompositions, and behaviour of anthracene. 




Phenanthrene is regarded by Armstrong as represented by (3), 
the lateral rings being benzenoid, and the medial ring fatty; 
Bamberger, however, regards it as (4), the molecule being 

c£t> <r£fe> 

O) (4) 

entirely aromatic. An interesting observation by Baeyer, Via. 
that stilbene, C»H t CH:CHC«H t , is very readily oxidized, 
while phenanthrene is not, supports, in some measure, the views 
of Bamberger. 

Heterocyclic Compounds. 
During recent years an immense number of ringed or cyclic 
compounds have been discovered, which exhibit individual 
characters more closely resembling benzene, naphthalene, &c 
than purely aliphatic substances, inasmuch as in general they 
contain double linkages, yet withstand oxidation, and behave as 
nuclei, forming derivatives in much the same way as benzene. 
By reduction, the double linkages become saturated, and 
compounds result which stand in much about the same relation 
to the original nucleus as hexamethylcne does to benzene. In 
general, therefore, it may be considered that the double linkages 
are not of exactly the same nature as the double linkage present 
in ethylene and ethylcnoid compounds, but that they are 
analogous to the potential valencies of benzene. The centric 
hypothesis has been applied to these rings by Bamberger and 
others; but as in the previous rings considered, the ordinary 




representation with double and single linkages generally repre- 
sents Che syntheses, decompositions, &c; exceptions, however, 
are known where it is necessary to assume an oscillation of the 
double linkage. Five- and six-membered rings are the most 
stable and important, the last-named group resulting from the 
polymerization of many substances; three- and four-membered 
rings are formed with difficulty, and are easily ruptured; rings 
containing seven or more members are generally unstable, and 
are relatively little known. The elements which go to form 
heterocyclic rings, in addition to carbon, are oxygen, sulphur, 
selenium and nitrogen. It is remarkable that sulphur can 
replace two methinc or CH groups with the production of com- 
pounds greatly resembling the original one. Thus benzene, 
(CH)*, gives thiophene, (CH)«S, from which it is difficultly dis- 
tinguished; pyridine, (CH)»N, gives thiazole, (CH)rN-S, which 
is a very similar substance; naphthalene gives thionaphthen, 
CtHcS, with which it shows great analogies, especially in the 
derivatives. Similarly a CH group may be replaced by a nitrogen 
atom with the production of compounds of similar stability; 
thus benzene gives pyridine, naphthalene gives quinoline and 
isoquinoh'ne; anthracene gives acridine and a and anthra- 
pyridines. Similarly, two or more mcthine groups may be 
replaced by the same number of nitrogen atoms with the forma- 
tion of rings of considerable stability. 

Most of the simple ring systems which contain two adjacent 
carbon atoms may suffer fusion with any other ring (also containing 
two adjacent carbon atoms) with the production of nuclei of greater 
complexity. Such condensed nuclei are, in many cases, more readily 
obtained than the parent nucleus. The more important types are 
derived from aromatic nuclei, benzene, naphthalene, &c.; the 
ortho-di-derivatives of the first named, lending themselves particu- 
larly to the formation of condensed nuclei. Thus ortho-phenylene 
j: — j_^ yields the following products: — 

contains a ring composed of four carbon atoms and one oxygen 

CliVCH/ CHrOi/ tH^CO^ CH-CfX 6h-CH^ 

In some cases oxidation of condensed benzenoid-heterocyclic nuclei 
results in the rupture of the heterocyclic ring with the formation of 
a benzene dicarboxylic acid ; but if the aromatic nucleus be weakened 
by the introduction of an amino group, then it is the benzenoid 
nucleus which is destroyed and a dicarboxylic acid of the heterocyclic 
ring system obtained. 

Heterocyclic rings may be systematically surveyed from two 
aspects: (1) by arranging the rings with similar hetero-atoms 
according to the increasing number of carbon atoms, the so-called 
" homologous series "; or (2) by first dividing the ring systems 
according to the number of members constituting the ring, and 
then classifying these groups according to the nature of the 
hetero-atoms, the so-called " isologous series." The second 
method possesses greater advantages, for rings of approximate 
stability come in one group, and, consequently, their derivatives 
may be expected to exhibit considerable analogies. 

As a useful preliminary it is convenient to divide heterocyclic 
ring systems into two leading groups: (1) systems resulting 
from simple internal dehydration (or similar condensations) of 
saturated aliphatic compounds — such compounds are: the 
internal anhydrides or cyclic ethers of the glycols and thioglycols 
(ethylene oxide, &c); the cyclic alkyleneimides resulting from 
the splitting off of ammonia between the amino groups of diamino- 
paraffins (pyrrolidine, piperazine, &c); the cyclic esters of 
oxycarboxylic acids (lactones, lactides); the internal anhydrides 
of aminocarboxylic acids (lactams, betaines); cyclic derivatives 
of dicarboxylic acids (anhydrides, imides, alkylen-esters, alkylen- 
amides, &c). These compounds retain their aliphatic nature, 
and are best classified with open-chain compounds, into which, 
in general, they are readily converted. (2) Systems which 
are generally unsaturated compounds, often of considerable 
stability, and behave as nuclei; these compounds constitute a 
well-individualized class exhibiting closer affinities to benzenoid 
substances than to the open-chain scries. 

-~ I The transition between the two classes as differentiated above 
- 1 Bay be illustrated by the following cyclic compounds, each of which 

T«nuMthjrkM Butyrobctooe. Succinic 

wide auhydrid*. aahydrkto. 

The first four substances are readily formed from, and converted 
into, the corresponding dihydroxy open-chain compound; these 
substances are truly aliphatic in character. The fifth compound, 
on the other hand, does not behave as an unsaturated aliphatic 
compound, but its deportment is that of a nucleus, many substitution 
derivatives being capable of synthesis. Reduction, however, con- 
verts it into an aliphatic compound. This is comparable with the 
reduction of the benzene nucleus into hcxametbylene, a substance of 
an aliphatic character. 

True ring systems, which possess the characters of organic 
nuclei, do not come into existence in three- and four-membered 
rings, their first appearance being in penta-atomic rings. The 
three primary members are furfurane, thiophene and pyrrol, 
each of which contains four methine or CH groups, and an 
oxygen, sulphur and imido (NH) member respectively; a 
series of compounds containing selenium is also known. The 
formulae of these substances are: 


Furfurane. Thiophene. 






Sclenophene. Pyrrol. 

By substituting one or more CH groups in these compounds 
by nitrogen atoms, ring-systems, collectively known as azotes, 
result. Obviously, isomeric ring-systems are possible, since the 
carbon atoms in the original rings are not all of equal value. 
Thus furfurane yields the following rings by the introduction 
of one and two nitrogen atoms: 

CH-N v N-CH v 

I >o I >> 

:h«ch' ch-ok 








n — r* v 





Thiophene yields a similar series: isothiazole (only known as 
the condensed ring, isobenzothiazole), thiazole, diazosulphides, 
piazthioles, azosulphimes and thiobiazole (the formulae are 
easily derived from the preceding series by replacing oxygen by 
sulphur). Thiophene also gives rise to triazsulphole, three 
nitrogen atoms being introduced. Selenophene gives the series: 
selcnazole, diazoselcnide and piaselenole, corresponding to 
oxazole, diazo-oxides and furazane. Pyrrol yields an analogous 
series: pyrazole, imidazole or glyoxaline, azimide or osotriazole, 
triazole and tetrazole: 


CH-N N «-*.n N 

CH-CH^ ch-ch' 



1 ;nh 1 yi 
n-ch/ n«ch' 

Triazole. Tetrazole. 

N-N v 




Six-membered ring systems can be referred back, in a manner 
similar to the above, to pyrone, penthiophene and pyridine, the 
substances containing a ring of five carbon atoms, and an 
oxygen, sulphur and nitrogen atom respectively. As before, 
only true ring nuclei, and not internal anhydrides of aliphatic 
compounds, will be mentioned. From the pyrone ring the 
following series of compounds are derived (for brevity, the 
hydrogen atoms are not printed) : 

:6: :a c c a XX ft 

Penthiophene gives, by a similar introduction of nitrogen atoms, 
penthiazoline, corresponding to mcta-oxazine, and para-thiaxine x 



corresponding to paroxazine. (para-oxazine). Pyridine gives 
origin to: pyridazine or ortho-diazine, pyrimidine or meta- 
diazine, pyrazine or para-diazine, osotriazine, unsymmetrical 
triazine, symmetrical triazine, osotctrazone and tetrazine. The 
skeletons of these types are (the carbon atoms are omitted for 

G 0- 0* 6 jatX"0r ft ft 

t* N N N K W H . H N 

Pyridine Pyridactne Pyrtnddfno Pyrazine Triasinea Oaotetraxonea Tetnsfn* 

We have previously referred to the condensation of hetero- 
cyclic ring systems containing two vicinal carbon atoms with 
benzene, naphthalene and other nuclei. The more important 
nuclei of this type have received special and non-systematic 
names; when this is not the case, such terms as phen-, benzo-, 
naphtho- are prefixed to the name of the heterocyclic ring. One 
or two benzene nuclei may suffer condensation with the furfurane, 
thiophene and pyrrol rings, the common carbon atoms being 
vicinal to the hetero-atom. The mono-benzo-derivatives are 
coumarone, benzothiophene and indole; the dibenzo-derivatives 
are diphcnylcne oxide, dibenzothiophene or diphenylene sulphide, 
and carbazole. Typical formulae are (R denoting 0, S or NH) : 


Isomers are possible, for the condensation may be effected on 
the two carbon atoms symmetrically placed to the hetero-atom; 
these isomers, however, are more of the nature of internal 
anhydrides. Benz-oxazoles and -thiazoles have been prepared, 
benz-isoxazoles are known as indoxazenes; benzo-pyraxoles 
occur in two structural forms, named indazoles and isindazolcs. 
Derivatives of osotriazol also exist in two forms— azimides and 

Proceeding to the six-membered hctero-atomic rings, the 
benzo-, dibenzo- and naphtho-derivatives are frequently of 
great commercial and scientific importance, a-pyronc condenses 
with the benzene ring to form coumarin and isocoumarin; 
benzo-7-pyrone constitutes the nucleus of several vegetable 
colouring matters (chrysin, fisctin, quercctin, &c, which are 
derivatives of flavonc or phenyl benzo-7-pyrone); dibcnzo-7- 
pyrone is known as xanthone; related to this substance are 
fluorane (and fluorescein), fluorone, fluorime, pyronine, &c. 
The pyridine ring condenses with the benzene ring to form 
quinoline and isoquinolinc; acridinc and phenanthridine are 
dibenzo-pyridines; naphthalene gives rise to o-and 0-naphtho- 
quinolines and the anthrapyridines; anthracene gives anthra- 
quinoline; while two pyridine nuclei connected by an inter- 
mediate benzene nucleus give the phenanthrolines. Naph- 
thyridines and naphthinolincs result from the condensation of 
two pryridine and two quinoline nuclei respectively; and 
quino-quinolines are unsymmetrical naphthyridine nuclei 
condensed with a benzene nucleus. Benzo -orthoxazines, 
-mctoxazines and -paroxazines are known: dibenzoparoxazine 
or phenoxazinc is the parent of a valuable series of dyestuffs; 
dibenzoparathiazine or thiodiphcnylamine is important from 
the same aspect. Benzo-ortho-diazincs exist in two structural 
forms, dnnolin and phthalazine; benzo-mcta-diazincs are 
known as quinazolines; benzo-para-diazines are termed quinoxa- 
lines; the dibenzo-compounds arc named phenazincs, this last 
group including many valuable dyestuffs— indulines, safranines, 
&c. In addition to the types of compounds enumerated above 
we may also notice purin, tropine and the terpenes. 

V. Analytical Chemistry 
This branch of chemistry has for its province the determination 
of the constituents of a chemical compound or of a mixture of 
compounds. Such a determination is qualitative, the constituent 
being only detected or proved to be present, or quantitative, in 
which the amount present is ascertained. The methods of 
chemical analysis may be classified according to the type of 


reaction: (1) dry or blowpipe analysis, which consists in an 
examination of the substance in the dry condition; this includes 
such tests as ignition in a .tube, ignition on charcoal in the 
blowpipe flame, fusion with borax, microcosmic salt or fluxes, 
and flame colorations (in quantitative work the dry methods are 
sometimes termed " dry assaying "); (2) wet analysis, in which 
a solution of the substance is treated with reagents which 
produce specific reactions when certain elements or groups of 
elements are present. In quantitative analysis the methods 
can be subdivided into: (a) gravimetric, in which the constituent 
is precipitated either as a definite insoluble compound by the 
addition of certain reagents, or electrolytically, by the passage 
of an electric current; (6) volumetric, in which the volume of a 
reagent of a known strength which produces a certain definite 
reaction is measured; (c) colorimctric, in which the solution has 
a particular tint, which can be compared with solutions of 
known strengths. 

Historical. — The germs of analytical chemistry are to be 
found in the writings of the pharmacists and chemists of the 
iatrochemical period. The importance of ascertaining the 
proximate composition of bodies was clearly realized by Otto 
Tachcnius; but the first systematic investigator was Robert 
Boyle, to whom we owe the introduction of the term analysis. 
Boyle recognized many reagents which gave precipitates with 
certain solutions: he detected sulphuric and hydrochloric 
acids by the white precipitates formed with calcium chloride 
and silver nitrate respectively; ammonia by the white cloud 
formed with the vapours of nitric or hydrochloric adds; and 
copper by the deep blue solution formed by a solution of ammonia. 
Of great importance is his introduction of vegetable juices (the 
so-called indicators, q.v.) to detect acids and bases. During the 
phlogistic period, the detection of the constituents of compounds 
was considerably developed. Of the principal workers in this 
field we may notice Fricdrich Hoffmann, Andreas Sigismund 
Marggraf (who detected iron by its reaction with potassium 
ferrocyanide, and potassium and sodium by their flame colora- 
tions), and especially Carl Scheele and Torbern Olof Bergman. 
Scheele enriched the knowledge of chemistry by an immense 
number of facts, but he did not possess the spirit of working 
systematically as Bergman did. Bergman laid the foundations 
of systematic qualitative analysis, and devised methods by which 
the metals may be separated into groups according to their 
behaviour with certain reagents. This subdivision, which is of 
paramount importance in the analysis of minerals, was subse- 
quently developed by Wilhelm August Lampadius in his Hand- 
buck zur ekemischen Analyse der Mincralicn (1801) and by John 
Fricdrich A. Gdttling in his Praktische Anlcitung zur prtfenden 
und zurlegenden C hemic (1802). 

The introduction of the blowpipe into dry qualitative analysis 
by Axel Frcdrik Cronstcdt marks an important innovation. 
The rapidity of the method, and the accurate results which it 
gave in the hands of a practised experimenter, led to its system- 
atization by Jons Jakob Berzclius and Johann Fricdrich Ludwig 
Hausmann, and in more recent times by K. F. Planner, whose 
treatise Die Probirkunst mit dem Ldthrohr is a standard work on 
the subject. Another type of dry reaction, namely, the flame 
coloration, had been the subject of isolated notices, as, for example, 
the violet flame of potassium and the orange flame of sodium 
observed by Marggraf and Scheele, but a systematic account was 
wanting until Cartmcll took the subject up. His results (Phil. 
Mag. 16, p. 382) were afterwards perfected by Robert Wilhelm 
Bunsen and Gustav Mere. Closely related to the flame-colora- 
tions, we have to notice the great services rendered by the 
spectroscope to the detection of elements. Rubidium, caesium, 
thallium, indium and gallium were first discovered by means of 
this instrument; the study of the rare earths is greatly facilitated, 
and the composition of the heavenly bodies alone determinable 
by it. 

Quantitative chemistry had been all but neglected before 
the time of Lavoisier, for although a few chemists such as 
Tachenius, Bergman and others had realized the advantages 
which would accrue from a knowledge of the composition of 




bodies by weight, and had laid down the lines upon which such 
determinations should proceed, the experimental difficulties in 
making accurate observations were enormous, and little progress 
could be made until the procedure was more accurately 
determined. Martin Hcinrich Klaproth showed the necessity for 
igniting precipitates before weighing them, if they were not 
decomposed by this process; and he worked largely with Louis 
Nicolas Vauquclin in perfecting the analysis of minerals. K. F. 
Wenzel and J. B. Richtcr contributed to the knowledge of the 
quantitative composition of salts. Anton Laurent Lavoisier, 
however, must be considered as the first great exponent of this 
branch of chemistry. He realized that the composition by 
weight of chemical compounds was of the greatest moment if 
chemistry were to advance. His fame rests upon his exposition 
of the principles necessary to chemistry as a sccience, but of his 
contributions to analytical inorganic chemistry little can be said. 
He applied himself more particularly to the oxygen compounds, 
and determined with a fair degree of accuracy the ratio of carbon 
to oxygen in carbon dioxide, but his values for thcratioof hydrogen 
to oxygen in water, and of phosphorus to oxygen in phosphoric 
add, are only approximate; he introduced no new methods 
either for the estimation or separation of the metals. The next 
advance was made by Joseph Louis Proust, whose investigations 
led to a clear grasp of the law of constant proportions. The 
formulation of the atomic theory by John Dalton gave a fresh 
impetus to the development of quantitative analysis; and the 
determination of combining or equivalent weights by Berzelius 
led to the perfecting of the methods of gravimetric analysis. 
Experimental conditions were thoroughly worked out; the 
necessity of working with hot or cold solutions was clearly 
emphasized; and the employment of small quantities of 
substances instead of the large amounts recommended by 
Klaproth was shown by him to give more consistent results. 

Since the time of Berzelius many experimenters have entered 
the lists, and introduced developments which we have not space 
to mention. We may, however, notice Hcinrich Rose 1 and 
Friedrkh Wdhler,* who, having worked up the results of their 
teacher Berzelius, and combined them with their own valuable 
observations, exerted gTcat influence on the progress of analytical 
chemistry by publishing works which contained admirable 
accounts of the then known methods of analysis. To K. R. 
Fresenius, the founder of the Zeitschrifl far analytische C hemic 
(1862), we are particularly indebted for perfecting and systematiz- 
ing the various methods of analytical chemistry. By strengthen- 
ing the older methods, and devising new ones, he exerted an 
influence which can never be overestimated. His text-books on 
die subject, of which the Qualitative appeared in 1841, and the 
Quantitative in 1846, have a world-wide reputation, and have 
passed through several editions. 

The quantitative precipitation of metals by the electric current, 
although known to Michael Faraday, was not applied to analytical 
chemistry until O. Wolcott Gibbs worked out the electrolytic 
separation of copper in 1865. Since then the subject has been 
extensively studied, more particularly by Alexander Classen, who 
has summarized the methods and results in his Quantitative 
Chemical Analysis by Electrolysis (1003). The ever-increasing 
importance of the electric current in metallurgy and chemical 
manufactures is making this method of great importance, and in 
some cases it has partially, if not wholly, superseded the older 

Volumetric analysis, possessing as it does many advantages 
over the gravimetric methods, has of late years been extensively 
developed. Gay Lussac may be regarded as the founder of the 
method, although rough applications had been previously made 
by F. A. II. Descroizilles and L. N. Vauquelin. Chlorimctry 
(1824), alkalimetry (1828), and the volumetric determination of 
silver and chlorine (1832) were worked out by Gay Lussac; but 
although the advantages of the method were patent, it received 
recognition very slowly. The application of potassium per- 
manganate to the estimation of iron by £. Margueritte in 1846, 

1 H. Rose. Ausffihrlichts Handbuch der analytischcn Chemie (1851). 
*F. Wohfcr, Die Mineralanalyse in Beispieten (1S6I). 

and of iodine and sulphurous add to the estimation of copper and 
many other substances by Robert Wilhelm Bunsen, marks an 
epoch in the early history of volumetric analysis. Since then it 
has been rapidly developed, particularly by Karl Friedrich Mohr 
and J. Volhard, and these methods rank side by side in value 
with the older and more tedious gravimetric methods. 

The detection of carbon and hydrogen in organic compounds 
by the formation of carbon dioxide and water when they are 
burned was first correctly understood by Lavoisier, and at he 
had determined the carbon and hydrogen content of these two 
substances he was able to devise methods by which carbon and 
hydrogen in organic compounds could be estimated. In his 
earlier experiments he burned the substance in a known volume 
of oxygen, and by measuring the residual gas determined the 
carbon and hydrogen. For substances of a difficultly combustible 
nature he adopted the method In common use to-day, viz. to mix 
the substance with an oxidizing agent — mercuric oxide, lead 
dioxide, and afterwards copper oxide — and absorb the carbon 
dioxide in potash solution. This method has been Improved, 
especially by Justus v. LicLig; and certain others based on a 
different procedure have been suggested. The estimation of 
nitrogen was first worked out in 1830 by Jean Baptiste Dumas, 
and different processes have been proposed by Will and F. 
Varrcntrapp, J. Kjcldahl and others. Methods for the estimation 
of the halogens and sulphur were worked out by L Carius (see 
below, § Organic Analysis). 

Only a reference can be made in this summary to the many 
fields in which analytical chemistry has been developed. Pro- 
gress in forensic chemistry was only possible after the reactions 
of poisons had been systematized; a subject which has been 
worked out by many investigators, of whom we notice K. R. 
Fresenius, J. and R. Otto, and J. S. Stas. Industrial chemistry 
makes many claims upon the chemist, for it is necessary to deter- 
mine the purity of a product before it can be valued. This has 
led to the estimation of sugar by means of the polarimcter, and 
of the calorific power of fuels, and the valuation of ores and 
metals, of coal-tar dyes, and almost all trade products. 

The passing of the Food and Drug Acts (1S75-1800) in England, 
and the existence of similar adulteration acts in other countries, 
have occasioned great progress in the analysis of foods, drugs, &c. 
For further information on this branch of analytical chemistry, 
see Adulteration. 

There exists no branch of technical chemistry, hygiene or 
pharmacy from which the analytical chemist can be spared, 
since it is only by a continual development of his art that we can 
hope to be certain of the purity of any preparation. In England 
this branch of chemistry is especially cared for by the Institute 
of Chemistry, which, since its foundation in 1877, has done much 
for the training of analytical chemists. 

In the preceding sketch we have given a necessarily brief 
account of the historical development of analytical chemistry in 
its main branches. We shall now treat the different methods ih 
more detail. It must be mentioned here that the reactions of 
any particular substance arc given under its own heading, and in 
this article we shall only collate the various operations and outline 
the general procedure. The limits of space prevent any sys- 
tematic account of the sqwration of the rare metals, the alkaloids, 
and other classes of organic compounds, but sources where these 
matters may be found are given in the list of references. 

Qualitative Inorganic Analysis. 

The dry examination of a substance comprises several opera- 
tions, which may yield definite results if no disturbing 
element is present; but it is imperative that any in- j^^ 
ference should be confirmed by other methods. 

1. Heat the substance in a hard glass tube. Note whether 
any moisture condenses on the cooler parts of the tube, a gas is 
evolved, a sublimate formed, or the substance changes colour. 

Moisture is evolved from substances containing water of crystal- 
lization or decomposed hydrates. If it possesses an alkaline or 
acid reaction, it must be tested in the first case for ammonia, and 
in the vecond case for a volatile acid, s-uch as sulphuric, nitric, 
hydrochloric, Sec 




Any evolved gas must be examined. Oxygen, recognized byita, 
power of igniting a glowing splinter, results from the decomposition 
of oxides of the noble metals, peroxides, chlorates, nitrates and other 
highly oxygenized salts. Sulphur dioxide, recognised by its smell 
and acid reaction, results from the ignition of certain sulphites, 
sulphates, or a mixture of a sulphate with a sulphide. Nitrogen 
oxides, recognized by their odour and brown-red colour, result from 
the decomposition of nitrates. Carbon dioxide, recognized by 
turning lime-water milky, indicates decomposable carbonates or 
oxalates. Chlorine, bromine, and iodine, each recognizable by its' 
colour and odour, result from decomposable haloids; iodine forms 
also a black sublimate. Cyanogen and hydrocyanic acid, recogniz- 
able by their odour, indicate decomposable cyanides. Sulphuretted 
hydrogen, recognized by its odour, results from sulphides containing 
water, and hydrosulphidcs. Ammonia, recognizable by its odour 
and alkaline reaction, indicates ammoniacal salts or cyanides 
containing water. 

A sublimate may be formed of: sulphur — reddish-brown drops, 
cooling to a yellow to brown solid, from sulphides or mixtures; 
iodine — violet vapour, black sublimate, from iodides, iodic acid, or 
mixture*: mercury and its compounds — metallic mercury forms 
minute globules, mercuric sulphide is black and becomes red on 
rubbing, mercuric chloride fuses before subliming, mcrcurous 
chloride does not fuse, mercuric iodide gives a yellow sublimate; 
arsenic and its compounds — metallic arsenic gives a grey mirror, 
arsenious oxide forms white shining crystals, arsenic sulphides give 
reddish-yellow sublimates which turn yellow on cooling; antimony 
oxide fuses and gives a yellow acicular sublimate; lead chloride 
forms a white sublimate after long and intense heating. 

If the substance does not melt but changes colour, we may have 
present: zinc oxide — from white to yellow, becoming white on 
cooling; stannic oxide — white to yellowish brown, dirty white on 
cooling; lead oxide — from white or yellowish-red to brownish-red, 
yellow on cooling; bismuth oxide — from white or pale yellow to 
orange-yellow or reddish-brown, pale yellow on cooling; manganese 
oxide — from white or yellowish white to dark brown, remaining 
dark brown on cooling (if it changes on cooling to a bright reddish- 
brown, it indicates cadmium oxide); copper oxide — from bright 
blue or green to black; ferrous oxide — from grcyjsh-whitc to black; 
ferric oxide — from brownish-red to black, brownish-red on cooling; 
potassium chromate — yellow to dark orange, fusing at a red heat. 

2. Heat the substance on a piece of charcoal in the reducing 
flame of the blowpipe. 

(q) The substance may fuse and be absorbed by the charcoal; 
this indicates more par tic utility ihe alkaline metal*. 

(&} An infusible white residue may be obi alncd, which may denote 
barium, strontium, calcium, magnesium, aluminium or zinc. The 
first three give characteristic flame colorations (see below); the last 
three, wh?n moistened with cobalt nitrate and re- ignited, give 
coloured masses; aluminium for silica} gives a brilliant blue ; side 
gives a green; whilst magnesium phosphates or arsenate (and to a 
less degree the phosphates of (he alkaline earth* } give a viol el mass. 

A metallic globule with or without an incrustation maybe obtained. 
Gold and copper salts give a metallic bead without an incrustation. 
If the incrustation be white and readily volatile, arsenic U present. 
if mure difficultly volatile and beads are present, antimony; zinc 
gives an incrustation yellow whilst hot, white on cooling* and 
volatilized with difficulty: tin gives a pile yellow incrustation, 
which becomes white on cooling, and docs not volatilize in either the 
reducing or oxidizing flames; lead gives a lemon- yellow incrustation 
turning sulphur- yellow on cooling* together with, metallic malleable 
bead s; bismuth gives- metallic gTubule* and a dark orange- yellow 
incrustation, which becomes lemon-yellow on cooling; cadmium 

Eivcs a reddish-brown incrustation, which is removed without 
saving a gleam by heating in th& reducing flame; silver gives white 
metallic globules and a darkened incrustation* 

3. Heat the substance with a bead of roicrocosmic salt or I 
borax on a platinum wire in the oxidizing flame. 

(o) The substance dissolves readily and in quantity, forming a 
bead which is clear when hot. If the bead is coloured we may have 
present: cobalt, blue to violet; copper, green, blue on cooling ; 
in the reducing flame, red when cola; chromium, green, unaltered 
in the reducing flame; iron, brownish-red, light-yellow or colourless 
on cooling; in the reducing flame, red while hot, yellow on cooling, 
greenish when cold ; nickel, reddish to brownish-red, yellow to 
reddish-yellow or colourless on cooling, unaltered in the reducing 
flame; bismuth, yellowish-brown, light-yellow or colourless on 
cooling; in the reducing flame, almost colourless, blackish-grey when 
cold; silver, light yellowish to opal, somewhat opaque when cold ; 
whitish-grey in the reducing flame; manganese, amethyst red, 
colourless in the reducing flame. If the hot bead is colourless and ! 
remains clear on cooling, we may suspect the presence of antimony, 1 
aluminium, zinc, cadmium, lead, calcium ana magnesium. When 
present in sufficient quantity the five last-named give enamel-white 
beads; lead oxide in excess gives a yellowish bead. If the hot I 
colourless bead becomes enamel-white on cooling even when minute j 
quantities of the substances are employed, we may infer the presence 
off barium or strontium. 

(ff\ The substance dissolves stewly and in small quantity, and form* 
a colourless bead which remain* &o on cooling. Either silica or lia 
may be present. If silica be present, it gives the if on bead when 
heated with a little ferric oxide; il tin is. present there is no change. 
Certain substances, such as the precious metals, arc quite insoluble in 
the bead, but float about in iL 

4, Hold a small purl ion of the substance moistened with 
hydrochloric acid on a clean platinum wire in the fusion ;onc 
of the Sunken burner, and note any colour imparted to the flame. 

Potassium gives a blue- violet flame which may be masked by the 
colorations due to sodium, calcium and other elements. Uy 
viewing the flame through an indigo prism it appears sky-blue, 
violet and ultimately crimson, as the thickness of the prism is 
increased. Other elements do not interfere with this method. 
Sodium gives an intense and persistent yellow flame; lithium c\\n s 
a carmine coloration, and may be identified in the presence of sodium 
by viewing through a cobalt glass or indigo prism; from potassium 
it may he distinguished by its redder colour; barium gives a yellowish' 
grccn flame, which appear* bluish -green when viewed through green 
glass; strontium gite* a erim&on Dame which appears purple or row 
when viewed through blue glass; calcium gives an orange- red 
colour which appears finch -green through green glass; inVftum 
gives a characteristic bluish -violet flame; copper gives an intense 
emerald 'green coloration, 

5. Film Reactions*— These reactions are practised in the 
following manner: — A thread of asbestos is moistened and then 
dipped in the substance to be tested; it is then placed in the 
luminous point of the Bunstn Dame, and a small porcelain basin 
containing cold water placed immediately over rJte asbestos. 
The formation of a film is noted. The operation is repeated with 
the thread in the oxidizing flame. 

Any film formed in the first ease is metallic, in the second it is the 
oxide. The metallic film is tested with 20% nitric acid and with 
bleaching" powder solution. Arsenic is insoluble in the acid, but 
immediately dissolves in the bleachtng-powder. The black films of 
antimony and bismuth and the grey mottled film of mercury are 
•tfowly soluble in (he acid, and untouched by bleach i rig-powder. 
The black films ol tin, lead and cadmium dissolve at once in the acid, 
the lead film being also soluble in bleaching -powder The oxide 
films of antimony, arsenic, tin and bismuth are white, that of bismuth 
slightly yellowish: lead yields a very pale yellow film, and cadmium 
a brown one; mercury yield's no oxide film. The oxide films {the 
metallic one in the case of mercury) are tested with hydriodic acid, 
and with ammonium sulphide, and from the changes produced the 
film can be determined {sec r\ M. Pcrfcin. QmililGtizc Chemical 
Analyst*, 1905), 

Having completed the dry analysis we may now pass on to 
the vet and more accurate investigation. It is first necessary 
to get the substance into solution. Small portions 
should be successively tested with water, dilute hydro- 
chloric add, ddulc nitric aeid T strong hydrochloric 
acid, and a mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acids, first in the 
cold and then with warming. Certain substances arc insoluble 
in all these reagents, and other methods, such as the fusion with 
sodium carbonate and potassium nitrate, and subsequent treat- 
ment with an acid, must be employed. Some of these insoluble 
compounds can be detected by their colour and particular re- 
actions. For further information on ibis subject, we refer the 
readers to Frcsenius's Qualitative Analysis. 

The procedure for the detection of metals in solution consist'- of 
fir?'! separating them into groups and then examining each group 
separately. For this purpose the cold solution is treated with 
hydrochloric acid, which precipitates lead, silver and mere urn us 
salts as chloride*. The solution is filtered and treated with an e*et** 
of sulphuretted hydrogen, either in solution or by passing in the gas; 
this precipitates mercury (mercuric ), any lead left over from the 

first group, copper, bismuth, cadmium, arsenic, antimony and tin 
as syl phi J<'*. The solution is filtered off, boiled till free of sulphur* 
et ted hydrogen, and ammonium chloride and ammonia addcfl. If 

phosphoric acid is absent, aJu minium, chromium and ferric hydrate 
are precipitated. If, however, phosphoric acid is present in the 
original substance, we may here obtain a precipitate of the phosphates 
of the remaining metals, together with aluminium, chromium and 
ferric hydrates. In this ense, the precipitate la dissolved in as little 
as possible hydrochloric Acid and boiled with ammonium ace tale, 
acetic acid and ferric chloride. The phosphates of aluminium. 
chromium and iron are precipitated, and the solution contains the 
same metals as if phosphoric acid had been absent. To the filtrate 
from the aluminium, iron and chromium precipitate, ammonia and 
ammonium sulphide' are added; the precipitate may contain nkkel, 
cobalt, line and manganese sulphides. Ammonium carbonate is 
added to the filtrate; this precipitate* calcium, strontium and 




The solution contains magnesium, sodium and potassium, 

which are separately distinguished by the methods given under their j 
own headings. 

We now proceed with the examination of the various group 
precipitates. The white precipitate formed by cold hydrochloric 
add is boiled with water, and the solution filtered while hot. Any • 
kad chloride dissolves, and may be identified by the yellow precipitate 
formed with potassium chroma te. To the residue add ammonia, 
sfcak*\ then filter. Silver chloride goes into eolutian. and may be 
precipitated by dilute nitric acid. The residue, which is black in 
colour, consists of mcrcurosoammonium chloride, in which mercury 
C40 be confirmed by its ordinary tests. 

Tne precipitate formed by sulphuretted hydrogen may contain 
thr. bLick mercuric. lead, and copper sulphides, dark* brown bismuth 
*utplude, yellow cadmium and aftcnious sulphides, orantft-rcd 
antimony sulphide, brown stannous sulphide, d nil -yellow stannic 
iJphide. and whitish sulphur, the last resulting from the oxidation 
<tf sulphuretted hydrogen by ferric salts, chromate*, &c. Warming 
with ammonium sulphide dissolves out the arsenic, antimony and 
t;» salts, whkh are fcpreripitated by the addition of hydrochloric 
«dd to the ammonium sulphide solution. The precipitate w shaken 
with ammonium carbonate* whkh dissolve* the arsenic* Filter and 
confirm arsenic in the solution by it* part icu Ear tests. Dissolve the 
residue in hydrochloric acid and test separately for antimony and 
tin. The residue from the ammonium sulphide solution in warmed 
with dilute nitric acid. Any residue consists of black mercuric 
fcqlphide (and possibly white lead sulphate), in which mercury is 
enn firmed by its usual tests. The solution is evaporated with a 
title sulphuric acid and well cooled, The white precipitate consists 
of tead sulphate. To the filtrate add ammonia in curt-vi; a \\)n\u 
precipitate indicates bismuth; if the solution tie blue, copper is 
present. Filter from tin l.i-.nmih, and if copper in present, 
add potassium cyanide till the colour is destroyed, then pass sulphur- 
etted hydrogen, and cadmium is precipitated as the yellow sulphide. 
If copper is absent, then sulphuretted hydrogen can be passed 
directly into the solution. 

The next group precipitate may contain the white gelatinous 
aluminium hydroxide, the greenish chromium hydroxide, reddish 
ferric hydroxide, and ^ possibly zinc and manganese hydroxides. 
Treatment with casuttc soda dissolves out aluminium hydroxide, 
which is reprecipiratcd by the addition of ammonium chloride. 
The remaining metals are tested for separately. 

The next group may contain black nickel and cobalt sulphides, 
flesh-coloured manganese sulphide, and white zinc sulphide. The 
last two are dissolved out by cold, very dilute hydrochloric acid, 
ami the residue is tested for nickel and cobalt. The solution is 
boiled till free from sulphuretted hydrogen and treated with excess 
of sodium hydrate. A white precipitate rapidly turning brown 
indicates manganese. The solution with ammonium sulphide gives 
a white precipitate of zinc sulphide. 

The next group may contain the white calcium, barium and 
strontium carbonates. The flame coloration (see above) may give 
information as to which elements are present. The carbonates arc 
dissolved in hydrochloric acid, and calcium sulphate solution is 
added to a portion of the solution. An immediate precipitate 
indicates barium; a precipitate on standing indicates strontium. 
If barium is present, the solution of the carbonates in hydrochloric 
acid is evaporated and digested with strong alcohol for some time; 
barium chloride, which is nearly insoluble in thus separated, 
the remainder being precipitated by a few drops of hydrofluosilicic 
acid, and may be confirmed by the ordinary tests. The solution free 
from barium is treated with ammonia and ammonium sulphate, 
which precipitates strontium, and the calcium in the solution may be 
identified by the white precipitate with ammonium oxalate. 

Having determined the bases, it remains to determine the acid 
radicals. There is no general procedure for these operations, 
and it is customary to test for the acids separately by special 
tests; these are given in the articles on the various adds. A 
knowledge of the solubility of salts considerably reduces the 
number of acids likely to be present, and affords evidence of great 
value to the analyst (see A. M. Comey, Dictionary of Chemical 
Solubilities). In the above account wc have indicated the pro- 
cedure adopted in the analysis of a complex mixture of salts. 
It is unnecessary here to dwell on the precautions which can only 
be conveniently acquired by experience; a sound appreciation 
of analytical methods is only possible after the reactions and 
characters of individual substances have been studied, and wc 
therefore refer the reader to the articles on the particular ele- 
ments and compounds for more information on this subject. 

Quantitative Inorganic A nalysis. 
Quantitative methods are divided into four groups, which we 
now pass on to consider in the following sequence: (a) gravimetric, 
(0) volumetric, (7) electrolytic, (6) colorimetric. 

(a) Gravimetric.— This method is made up of four operations: 
(1) a weighed quantity of the substance is dissolved in a suitable 
solvent; (2) a particular reagent is added which precipitates 
the substance it is desired to estimate; (3) the precipitate is 
filtered, washed and dried; (4) the filter paper containing the 
precipitate is weighed either as a tared filter, or incinerated and 
ignited cither in air or in any other gas, and then weighed. 

(1) Accurate weighing is all-important; for details of the various 
appliances and methods see Weighing Machines. (2) No general 
directions can be given as to the method of precipitation. Sometimes 
it is necessary to allow the solution to stand for a considerable time 
cither in the warm or cold or in the light or dark; to work with cold 
solutions and then boil; or to use boiling solutions of both the 
substance and reagent. Details will be found in the articles on 
particular metals. (3) The operation of filtration and washing is 
very important. If the substance to be weighed changes in com- 
position on strong heating, it is necessary to employ a tared filter, 
t*. a filter paper which has been previously heated to the temperature 
at which the substance i* to be dried until its weight is contlanl. 
If the precipitate settles readily, the supernatant liquor may he 
decanted through the filter paper, more water added to the pre- 
cipitate and again decanted. By this means most of (he wathing. 
tta. freeing from the other substance* in the solution, can be accom- 
plished in the precipitating vessel* If, however, the precipitate 
refuses to settle, it is directly trans/erred to the filter paper, the bit 
traces being removed by washing and rubbing the sides of the vcsh'I 
with a piece of rubber, and the liquid U allowed to drain through. 
It i* washed by ejecting a jet of water, ammemu or other prescribed 
liquid on to the side of the filter pn per until the paper is nearly full 
It can be shown that a, more efficient washing results from alternately 
filling and empty inK the funnel than by endeavouring to keep the 
funnel full. The washing is continued until the filtrate is free from 
salts or acids, (4) After washing, the funnel containing the filter paper 
is transferred to a drying ovrn. In the east of a tared filter it to 
weighed repeatedly until the weight suffer* no change ; then knowing 
the weight at the filter paper, the weight of the precipitate is obtained 
by subtraction. If the precipitate may be fen i ted, it is transferred! 
to a clean, weighed and recently Ignited; crucible, and the filter paper 
U burned srparatcly on the lid, the ash tranisferrvd to the crucible* 
and the whole ignited . + After ignition, k i& allowed to cuot In a 
desiccator end then weighed. Knowing the weight of the crucible 
and of the ash of the filler paper, the weight of the precipitate is 
deter mined. The calculation of the percentage uf the purl it idar cun- 
stituent is simple. Vie know the amount present in the precipitate, 
and since the fame amount is present in the quantity of substance 
experimented with, we have only to work out a sum in proportion. 

0) Volumetric. — This method is made up of three operations: 
— (1) preparation of a standard solution; (2) preparation of a 
l solution of the substance; (3) titration, or the determination of 
what volume of the standard solution will occasion a known 
and definite reaction with a known volume of the test solution. 

(1) In general analytical work the standard solution contains the 
equivalent weight of the substance in grammes dissolved in a litre 
of water. Such a solution is known as normal. Thus a normal 
solution of sodium carbonate contains 53 grammes per litre, of 
sodium hydrate 40 grammes, of hydrochloric acid 36-5 grammes, 
i and so on. By taking rVh or rlnth of these quantities, decinormal 
lor cenlinormai solutions arc obtained. We see therefore that I 
I cubic centimetre of a normal sodium carbonate solution will exactly 
I neutralize 0*040 gramme of sulphuric arid. 0-0365 gramme 01 
hydrochloric acid (i>. the equivalent quantities), and similarly for 
I decinormal and centinormal solutions. Unfortunately, the term 
1 normal is sometimes given to solutions which arc strictly decinormal; 
; for example, iodine, sodium thiosulphatc, &c. In technical analysis, 
1 where a solution is used for one process only, it may be prepared so 
that I cc. is equal to «oi gramme of the substance to be estimated. 
j This saves a certain amount of arithmetic, but when the solution 
is applied in another determination additional calculations are 
; necessary. Standard solutions arc prepared by weighing out the 
exact amount of the pure substance and dissolving it in water, or 
by forming a solution of approximate normality, determining its 
exact strength by gravimetric or other means, and then correcting 
it for any divergence. This may l>e exemplified in the case of 
alkalimetry. Pure sodium carbonate is prepared by igniting the 
bicarbonate, and exactly 53 grammes arc dissolved in water, forming 
a strictly normal solution. An approximate normal sulphuric acid is 
prepared from 30 cc«». of the pure acid (1*84 specific gravity) diluted 
to I litre. The solutionsarc titrated (sec below) and the acid solution 
I diluted until equal volumes arc exactly equivalent. A standard 
I sodium hydrate solution can be prepared by dissolving 42 grammes 
1 of sodium hydrate, making up to a litre, and diluting until one 
cubic centimetre is exactly equivalent to one cubic centimetre of tha 
sulphuric acid. Similarly, normal solutions of hydrochloric and nitric 
acids can be prepared. Where a solution is likely to change in 
I composition on keeping, such as potassium permanganate, iodine. 



sodium hydrate, &c, it is necessary to check or re-standardize ii 
periodica fly. 

(2) The preparation of the solution of the substance consists in 
dissolving an accurately determined weight, and miking up tha 
volume in a graduated cylinder or riask to a known volume. 

(3) The titration is conducted by running the standard solution 
from a burette into a known volume of the te*t solution, which b 
usually transferred from the s:ock-bctt!e to a beaker or basin by 
means of a pipette. V;ric"s ar.:n:es are employed to denote the 
end of the reaction. Tr-t-se nay be divided into two groups: (t) 
those in * hiih a charge in ap^earar-ce r JL the reacting mixture occurs; 
(7 i those ir: m'^i:b L u ^ece*Kar>- to use an indicator which, by its 
chaagt in apptiranr:-. shews tiat an excess of one reagent is present. 
Ic liit £rsi grjcp. we r-i-kt ir r.tace the titration of a cyanide with 
le-itr XL-tra.;*. wr-ir: a r.liL.&c-« ah>a » ham far the reaction has gone; 
iht t-tritjic -.< .--jr. mi^t pcrrr-ir.-icattf. when the faint pink colour 
siov-f lit: t* ir* ir:»=. Ls *\*'.:i*rl. In the second group, we may 
mrJii* ".'a i;C'j2.-ji-i ~ji L:=-s, drtiyl orange or phenolphthalein 
xx. *-ta.'..-a*rr*. wti-:i v.-t zdii :r a'JLLJse character of the solution 
cxi=M.n» tti* r:-:'_r wi_i:i it tx>.:":::*; starch paste, which forma 
t :».u* tun::*: ■_:•:. v-r: :".-*» l^;^=ir:->i:rr.ttr\"; potassium chromatc, 
wia'jr. j-j-ni' r»r; rr_ _ :— ar* ai'er all the hydrochloric acid is 
jm:::zti\i.'tri. it. b:i_rj. tj :c :.-. .riiis; and in the estimation of 
ie—t •.-jnrsjKZii* :-■ :i:c»*=:_- r.:>.r.^iate. the indicator, potassium 
fer-i7.ii.iai!. » ;ur_-; jz. zr:-s _- a porcelain plate, and the end of 
in* r\MT:rj: u lzm-.i- :-• *_-.* ii« =c: of a blue coloration when 
a ar.c a' ".:k tar so _-.,::. .» ir: „£-.: Lv.o contact with it. 

■» L.'-zr »::.-.: — 71 j =rf.h>d consists in decomposing a 
ki":v.i:<i :r 1 sl: :f :i» =-»ii by the electric current and weigh- 
auf -it saj! :■-.:■*::*■; a: lie caihode. 

!: ii :c*7 ":•. :m:--£ yr-at attention to the current density that 
f-o. .-t^w-i iri :i:ai.:-:v:. =i.-.ce metals other than that *oughl for may 
"Jt ijtzrjMJzL. '.: fci: ; c-:p_per solution*, mercury i*> dejioMted bcfiirc 
tit :.;r m r m +- \:-.z. nr.^i'2. it subsequently amalgamates; silver is 
tirvv. i-v- «..— .Icar^-maly; bismuth ap|>car* towards the end; 
arii i-"*»r 1.". •"-_* rapper has been precipitated, arsenic and antimony 
may be ~ -:;*.-. :-ed. Lead and manganese are partially separated 
as ptr.xi:-.-*. hut the remaining metal* are not de|K»sited from acid 
io*^::ou. It is therefore necessary that the solution should l«e free 
from metals which may vitiate the results, or special piccautions 
taken by which the impurities are rendered harmless. In such cases 
the simplicity of manipulation and the high degree of accuracy of 
the method have made it especially valuable. The eu\trol\>i* is 
generally conducted with platinum electrodes, of which the cathode 
takes the form of a piece of foil bent into a form, the 
necessary current being generated by one or more evils. 

(0) Color i metric. — This method is adopted when it is necessary 
to determine minute traces (as in the liquid obtained in the 
electrolytic separation of copper) of substances which afford 
well-defined colour reactions. 

The general procedure is to make a series of standard solutions 
containing definite quantities of the substance which it is di-Mrcd to 
estimate; such a scries will exhibit tints which deepen as the 
quantity of the substance is increased. A known weight ol the test 
substance is dissolved and a [tortion of the solution is placed in a 
tube similar to those containing the standard solution*. The colour- 
producing reagent is added and the tint-* compared. In the case of 
copper, the colour reaction> with p»ra**ium fcrnvyanidc or ammonia 
are usually employed; traces of ammonia are istimatrd with 
Kcsskr's reagent; sulphur in iron and sucl is determined by the 
tint assumed by a silver-copper plate f ufpt-nded in the gast-s liberated 
when the nv-ral is dt«jlveil in ^ulph'.irir acid (Eg^erta's test) (sec 
\V. Crookea, Select SfcttoJs in Anciyiutl Ciur:utry). 

Organic Analysis. 

The elements which play parts in organic com- 
pounds arc carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, chlorine, bromine, iodine, 
sulphur, phosphorus and oxygen. \\\- shall here consider the 
qualitative and quantitative dtiermir.ation of these elements. 

Qualilatiir. — Caibon is by tlie formation of carbon 
di'/xidv. whi'.h turns li:ne-*at'.r milky, and h>drog , - > n b> the forma- 
tion 'A wat'-r, whiiih comlon«e> on tlie tube, when t!»e ?ub»tance is 
hr.-ir^d with toprjtr oxide. Nitr-^^n mav be detcrted by the I 
«rr il-it ion of ammonia when the sub-.tanre i^' heated uith soda-lime. 
A rnor»- df-li-ar- th rhvJ is that due to J. L. Las>iigne and improved 
by (). Jafob...n and C. Graebe. Th'.- subitancc is heated uith 
nv'f.ill!'. VfJium or [/jij--.ium 'in exec.^ if <ulphur be present* to 1 
redn. . .. ih'- r..-,:due in 1" d inith water, Alt- n -1. and ferrous >>jlphate, 
f'-rri' t blond.: and hydnx:hl -^ric acid ad«i 1. A blue coloration 
ind.'.at-.-* mtro.:--n. ;,nd i, ti^ a, the form i* ion of jyjtab>i'jm lor 

tooiumj i-yun'rU- durir.v the f S( -i-jn. and s«* ;';.-r.t intera:tion I 

*"■' l »e iron -alts. I!.- halo^. n- mav lie son.-fi-n-.-* d-.-tccted by I 
fu*irig w:!h liim, ar-l •—tir.g the v.lution for a b-jmMi-. chloride I 
and 10. \A-. in the » a y. F. R. i|.ti:in determiw.* their pre*».nce I 
by^ rh«: iub-*ar..:t with p-jrr- cojrv.r oxii-.- on a platinum I 
win.- in the Rur.>i.n fla.-.i:.-; a grwn r . floral iun i»cb>urved if halo^en^ 1 
oe pn.scnt. Sulphur is detected by heating the wib.Uncc with * 


sodium, dissolving the product in water, and adding sodium iritro- 
prusside; a bluish-violet coloration indicates sulphur (H. VoM). 
Or we may use \. Hort«aczewski's method, uhich consists in boiling 
the substance with strong potash, saturating the cold solution with 
chlorine, adding hydrochloric acid, and boiling till no more chlorine is 
liberated, and then testing for sulphuric acid with barium chloride. 
Phosphorus is obtained as a soluble phosphate (which can be ex- 
amined in the usual wa> ) by lixiviating the product obtained when 
the substance is ignited with potassium nitrate and carbonate. 

Quantitative. — Larbon and hydrogen are generally estimated by 
the romhtf. 'iV*ii process, which consists in oxidizing the substance 
and absorbing the products of combustion in suitable carbmm ami 
apparatus. The oxidizing agent in commonest use '^kr^rmma, 
copper oxide, which must be freshly ignited before use on 
account of its hygroscopic nature. Lead chromate is sometimes 
used, and many other substances, such as platinum, manganese 
dioxide. &c. have been suggested. The procedure for a combustion 
is as follows: — 

Fie. 1. 
A hard glass tube slightly longer than the furnace and IS to 15 ram. 
in diameter is thoroughly cleansed and packed as shown in fig. 1. 
The space a must allow for the inclusion of a copper spiral if the 
sub-tance contains nitrogen, and a silver spiral if halogens be 
present, for otherwise nitrogen oxides and the halogens may be 
condense I in the absorption apparatus; b contains copper oxide; 
c is a>i\u e for the insertion of a porcelain or platinum boat containing 
a weighed quantity of the substance; d is a copper spiral. The end 
d is connected to an air or oxygen supply with an intermediate 
dr\ing apparatus. The other cud is connected with the absorption 
vc>«el*. which consist of a tube \e) containing calcium chloride, and 
a set of bulbs \f\ containing pota>h solution. Various forms of potash 
bull* are employed: fig. 2 w Liebig's. fig. 3 Mohr's or Gcissler's, 
fig. 4 is a more recent form, of which special variations have been 

Flu. 2. Fie. 3. FlG . 4. 

made bv»n. Gomberg. IXIisle and others. After having 
previously r.u>ted the tul>e and copper oxide, and reduced the 
copjy r >piral a. the weighed ca!.u:m chloride tube and potash bulbs 
are put in portion, the boat containing the substance b inserted 
\»» the ca«v* of a diiticuitly cvnbu>;ib»e substance it is desirable to 
mix it with cupnc oxide «^r lea.! chromate*. the copper spiral (d) 
replaced, and the air and oxygon supply connected up. The 
I apparatus is then tested for leaks. If all the connexions are sound, 
the loppcr oxide is gradually heated from the end a, the gas-jets 
under the s-piral d an* lighted, and a -slow current of oxygen is passed 
through the tu!«e. The success vi the c^ ration depends upon the 
slow burning of the substance. Toward* the end the heat and the 
oxygen Mipply are increased. When there is no more absorption 
in the pwta>h bulbs, the ovygen *u;»ply « cut off and air passed 
through. Having replaced the oxxgen m the abMrpiion vessels by- 
air, they are diiton«'ccud and weighed, after having cooled down 
to the tem[v. rat tire of the room. The increase in wcighi of the calcium 
I chloride tulv gives tht weight of water formed, and oi the potash 
bull's the carbon dioxide. 

I Liquid* are amenable to the same treatment, but especial care 
inu>t be taken so that i1k> volatilise slowly. Difficultly volatile 
liquids ma> Iw wtighnl diixvib ini . the ban; volatile liquids are 
weighed in thin hermetically seal, il bulb*, the necks of which are 
broken just before they are placed in the combustion tube. 

The length of time and other divid vantages attending the com- 
bustion method have cau>ed investigators to devise other processes. 
In i8« C. Brumit-r desvriUd a mcth..d for oxidizing the carbon 
to carbon dioxide, which could be estimated bv the usual methods, 
by heating the sul»stancc with i^ta-sium bichromate and sulphuric 
acid. This process ha> been co^iderablx developed bv J. Messinger, 
and we may hojw that with subsxpjent improvements it may be 
adapted to all cla»*e< of organic <.omr">uu>ls. The oxidation, which 
i? eff«-ctcd by chromic acid and sulphuric acid. i< conducted in a flask 
provided with a funnel ami escape tutie. and the carlKm dioxide 
f.;rn:r.J U swvpt by a current ».f dr> air. prcvio.isK frexd from carbon 
cli-jxile. through a dryiiii: lube to a set of puta>h bulbs and a tulie 
containing; soxla-lime; ii h.,Iog..-.N are present, a small wash bottle 
conn ini nc rxita-ssium i"lidv. and a y tube containing «lass wool 
moi-trucd with silver nitrate on one side and strong sulphuric acid 
pn the other, mu&t be inserted between the llas»k and the drying tube 
The incrcass in weight of the potash bulbs and soda-lime tube £i\cs 




the weight of carbon dioxide evolved. C. F. Cross and E. J. Bevan 
collected the carbon dioxide obtained in this way over mercury. 
They also showed that carbon monoxide was given off towards the 
end of the reaction, and oxygen was not evolved unless the tempera* 
ture exceeded 100°. 

Methods depending upon oxidation in the presence of a contact 
substance have come into favour during recent years. In that of 
M. Dennstedt, which was first proposed in 1902, the substance is 
vaporised in a tube containing at one end platinum foil, platinised 
quartz, or platinized asbestos. The platinum is maintained at a 
bright red heat, cither by a gas flame or by an electric furnace, and 
the vapour is passed over it by leading in a current of oxygen. If 
nit roge n be present, a boat containing dry lead peroxide and heated 
to ajo* is inserted, the oxide decomposing any nitrogen peroxide 
which may be formed. The same absorbent quantitatively takes 
up any halogen and sulphur which may be present. The process is 
therefore adapted to the simultaneous estimation of carbon, hydrogen, 
the halogens and sulphur. 

Nitrogen is estimated by (1) Dumas' method, which consists in 
ht a t«" g the substance with copper oxide and measuring the volume 
a mtm -- of nitrogen liberated; (2) by Will and Varrentrapp's 
* method, in which the substance is heated with soda-lime, 

and the ammonia evolved is absorbed in hydrochloric acid, and thence 
precipitated as ammonium chlorplatinate or estimated volumetric- 
ally; or (3) by KjeldahPs method, in which the substance is dissolved 
in concentrated sulphuric acid, potassium permanganate added, the 
liquid diluted and boiled with caustic soda, and the evolved ammonia 
absorbed in hydrochloric acid and estimated as in Will and 
Varrentrapp's method. 

Dumas' Method.— In this method the operation is carried out in a 
hard glass tube sealed at one end and packed as shown in fig. 5. 
The magnesite (a) serves for the generation of carbon dioxide which 
clears the tube of air before the compound (mixed with fine copper 
oxide (0)) is burned, and afterwards sweeps the liberated nitrogen 
into the receiving vessel (e), which contains a strong potash solution ; 
c is coarr~ rr?r?<*r <" ,vi ^e : Ttr.^ i n vrAv.rvA r^pr^r 
gauze spiral, heated in order to decompose amy 
nitrogen oxides. _ LUrich Kreuslcr generates the 
carbon dioxide in a separate apparatus, and 
in this caie the tube is drawn out to A capillary 
at the end (<iK This artifice is specially valuable 
when the substance decompose* or volatitiJcs 
in a warm current of carbon dioxide. Various 
forms of tne absorbing apparatus (f) have been 
discussed by M- Nin*ki (Btr, J7. p. 1 347.1 T who 
has also suggested the use of manganese car- 
bonate instead of magnetite since the change 
of colour enables one to fallow the detomposi- 

Fig. 3. 

tJon. Substances which hum with difficulty may be mixed with 

mercuric oride in addition to copper o*k}t. 

Will <md VQTTenttapff'i Hcihod. — This method, as originally pro- 
posed, is not in common, use, but has been superseded by Kjcldahl's 
method* since the nitrogen generally out too low. It is 
luTceptible of wider application by mixing reducing agents with the 
Md* lime; thus Goldberg {&tr r io, p t 3546) uses a mixture of 
wda>lime. stannous chloride and sulphur for nitro- and azo-com- 
poadds. and C. Arnold {Bet, iS, p r fjoo) a mixture containing 
•orfrum hyposulphite and sodium formate for nitrates. 

KjtMakrs AfrthnJ. — This iHeihnd rapidly came into favour on 
account of its simplicity, both of opttaimn and apparatus. Various 
substances other than potii^ium permanganate have been suggested 
for facilitating the operation; J. W. Gunning (Z. anal. Ckem., 1889, 
p. t&o) uses potawium sulphate; Lasaar-Cohn uses mercuric oxide. 
The applicability of the process has been examined by F. W. Dafert 
(Z. anal. Ckem., 1888, p. 224), who has divided nitrogenous bodies 
into two classes with respect to it. The first class includes those 
substances which require no preliminary treatment, and comprises 
the amides and ammonium compounds, pyridines, quinolincs, 
alkaloids, albumens and related bodies; the second class requires 
preliminary treatment and comprises, with few exceptions, the nitro-, 
aitroeo- azo-, diazo- and amidoazo-compounds, hydrazines, deriva- 
tives of nitric and nitrous acids, and probably cyanogen compounds. 
Other improvements have been suggested by Dyer (J.C.S. Trans. 
67, p. 811). For an experimental comparison of the accuracy of 
the Dumas, Will* Varrentrapp and Kjcldahl processes sec L. L'riote, 
C.R. 1889, p. 817. Debordeaux (C.R. 1904, p. 005) has obtained 
good results by distilling the substance with a mixture of potassium 
tatosulphatc and sulphide. 

The halogens may be estimated by ignition with quicklime, or by 
I with nitric acid and silver nitrate in a scaled tube. In the 

first method the substance, mixed with quicklime free from chlorine, 
is heated in a tube closed at one end in a combustion furnace. 
The product is dissolved in water, and the calcium »,,*-»-. 
haloid estimated in the usual way. The same decomposi- MuShmr 
tion may be effected by igniting with iron, ferric oxide and mtoa- * 
sodium carbonate (E. Kopp, Ber. 10, p. 290) ; the operation ^ttonn. 
is easier if the lime be mixed with sodium carbonate, or a 
mixture of sodium carbonate and potassium nitrate be used. With 
iodine compounds, iodic acid is likely to be formed, and hence the 
solution must be reduced with sulphurous acid before precipitation 
with silver nitrate. C. Zulkowsky (Ber. 18, R. 648) burns the 
substance in oxygen, conducts the gases over platinized sand, and 
collects the products in suitable receivers. The oxidation with, 
nitric acid in scaled tubes at a temperature of 150* to 2oo° for aliphatic 
compounds, and 250° to 260* for aromatic compounds, is in common 
use, for both the sulphur and phosphorus can be estimated, the 
former being oxidized to sulphuric acid and the latter to phosphoric 
acid. This method was due to L. Carius (Ann. 136, p. 129;. R. 
Klason (Ber 19, p. 1910) determines sulphur and the halogens by 
oxidizing the substance in a current of oxygen and nitrous fumes, 
conducting the vapours over platinum foil, and absorbing the vapours 
in suitable receivers. Sulphur and phosphorus can sometimes be 
estimated by Messinger's method, in which the oxidation is effected 
by potassium permanganate and caustic alkali, or by potassium 
bichromate and hydrochloric acid. A comparison of the various 
methods for estimating sulphur has been given by O. Hammarsten 
(Zeit. physiolog. Ckem. 9, p. 273), and by Holand (Chemiker Zritung, 
1893. P' 99')' H - H - P rin g*heim (Ber. 38, p. 1434) has devised a 
method in which the oxidation is effected by sodium peroxide; the 
halogens.phosphorusand sulphur can be determined by one operation. 

VI. Physical Chemistry 

We have seen how chemistry may be regarded as having for 
its province the investigation of the composition of matter, 
and the changes in composition which matter or energy may 
effect on matter, while physics is concerned with the general 
properties of matter. A physicist, however, does more than 
merely quantitatively determine specific properties of matter; 
he endeavours to establish mathematical laws which co-ordinate 
his observations, and in many cases the equations expressing such 
laws contain functions or terms which pertain solely to the 
chemical composition of matter. One example will suffice here. 
The limiting law expressing the behaviour of gases under varying 
temperature and pressure assumes the form £r=RT; so stated, 
this law is independent of chemical composition and may be 
regarded as a true physical law, just as much as the law of uni- 
versal gravitation is a true law of physics. But this relation is 
not rigorously true; in fact, it does not accurately express the 
behaviour of any gas. A more accurate expression (see Con- 
densation op Gases and Molecule) is (p+a/tf) (»— 6) «RT, in 
which a and b are quantities which depend on the composition 
of the gas, and vary from one gas to another. 

It may be surmised that the quantitative measures of most 
physical properties will be found to be connected with the 
chemical nature of substances. In the investigation of these 
relations the physicist and chemist meet on common ground; 
this union has been attended by fruitful and far-reaching results, 
and the correlation of physical properties and chemical composi- 
tion is one of the most important ramifications of physical 
chemistry. This branch receives treatment below. Of consider- 
able importance, also, arc the properties of solids, liquids and 
gases in solution. This subject has occupied a dominant position 
in physico-chemical research since the investigations of van't 
Hoff and Arrhenius. This subject is treated in the article 
Solution; for the properties of liquid mixtures reference should 
ilso be made to the article Distillation. 

Another branch of physical chemistry has for its purpose the 
quantitative study of chemical action, a subject which has 
brought out in clear detail the analogies of chemical and physical 
equilibrium (see Chemical Action). Another branch, related 
to energetics (q.v.) t is concerned with the transformation of 
chemical energy into other forms of energy-— heat, light, electri- 
city. Combustion is a familiar example of the transformation 
of chemical energy into heat and light; the quantitative measures 
of heat evolution or absorption (heat of combustion or combina- 
tion), and the deductions therefrom, arc treated in the article 
Thermochemistry. Photography (q.v.) is based on chemical 
action induced by luminous rays; apart from this practical 




application there are many other cases in which actinic ray 
occasion chemical actions; these are treated in the article 
Photochemistry. Transformations of electrical into chemical 
energy are witnessed in the processes of electrolysis (g.v.; se 
also Electrochemistry and Electrometallurgy). The con- 
verse is presented in the common electric celL 

Physical Properties and Composition. 

For the complete determination of the chemical structure o 
any compound, three sets of data are necessary: (i) the empirical 
chemical composition of the molecule; (2) the constitution, i.e. 
the manner in which the atoms are linked together; and (3) the 
configuration of the molecule, ix. the arrangement of the atoms 
in space. Identity in composition, but difference in constitution 
is generally known as "isomerism" (q.v.) t and compound* 
satisfying this relation differ in many of their physical properties 
If, however, two compounds only differ with regard to the spatial 
arrangement of the atoms, the physical properties may be (1) 
for the most part identical, differences, however, being apparent 
with regard to the action of the molecules on polarized light, as 
is the case when the configuration is due to the presence of an 
asymmetric atom (optical isomerism); or (2) both chemica] 
and physical properties may be different when the configuration 
is determined by the disposition of the atoms or groups attached 
to a pair of doubly-linked atoms, or to two members of a ring 
system (geometrical isomerism or aUo-isomerism). Three sets 
of physical properties may therefore be looked for: (1) depending 
on composition, (2) depending on constitution, and (3) depending 
on configuration. The first set provides evidence as to the 
molecular weight of a substance: these are termed " colligativc 
properties." The second and third sets elucidate the actual 
structure of the molecule: these are known as " constitutional 

In any attempts to gain an insight into the relations between 
the physical properties and chemical composition of substances, 
the fact must never be ignored that a comparison can only be 
made when the particular property under consideration is deter- 
mined under strictly comparable conditions, in other words, 
when the molecular states of the substances experimented upon 
are identical. This is readily illustrated by considering the pro- 
perties of gases — the simplest state of aggregation. According 
to the law of Avogadro, equal volumes of different gases under 
the same conditions of temperature and pressure contain equal 
numbers of molecules; therefore, since the density depends upon 
the number of molecules present in unit volume, it follows that 
for a comparison of the densities of gases, the determinations 
must be made under coincident conditions, or the observations 
reduced or re-computed for coincident conditions. When this 
b done, such densities are measures of the molecular weights 
of the substances in question. 

Volume Relations. 1 — When dealing with colligative properties 
of liquids it is equally necessary to ensure comparability of con- 
ditions. In the article Condensation of Gases (see also 
Molecule) it is shown that the characteristic equation of gases 
and liquids is conveniently expressed in the form (p -fa/**) (r— b) 
— RT. This equation, which is mathematically dcducible from 
the kinetic theory of gases, expresses the behaviour of gases, 
the phenomena of the critical state, and the behaviour of liquids; 
solids are not accounted for. If we denote the critical volume, 
pressure and temperature by V'*, Pt and T*, then it may be 
shown, either by considering the characteristic equation as a 
perfect cube in v or by using the relations that dp/dv=*o, 
d'f/dv'^o at the critical point, that ^ = 36, ? k =a/27b*, 
T*=8a/27&. Eliminating a and b between these relations, we 
derive P*V±/Tk=$R, a relation which should hold between the 
critical constants of any substance. Experiment, however, 
showed that while the quotient on the left hand of this equation 
was fairly constant for a great number of substances, yet its 
value was not f R but Vr R; this means that the critical density 
is, as a general rule, 3 7 times the theoretical density. Deviation 1 
from this rule indicates molecular dissociation or association. 

1 For the connexion between valency and volume, see Valency. 

By actual observations it has been shown that ether, alcohol, 
many esters of the normal alcohols and fatty acids, benzene, 
and its halogen substitution products, have critical constants 
agreeing with this originally empirical law, due to Sydney Young 
and Thomas; acetic acid behaves abnormally, pointing to 
associated molecules at the critical point 

The critical volume provides data which may be tested for additive 
relations. Theoretically the critical volume is three times the 
volume at absolute zero, ue, the actual volume of the .^-^^ 
molecules; this is obvious by considering the result of rj T" , J 
making T zero in the characteristic equation. Experi- ?Tr? f _ M 
mentally (by extrapolation from the" law of the rectilinear yy.ffl 
diameter ") the critical volume is four times the volume iJZ. 
at absolute zero (see Condensation of Gases). The ^^ 
most direct manner in which to test any property for additive 
relations is to determine the property for a number of elements, and 
then investigate whether these values hold for the elements in com- 
bination, want of data for the elements, however, restricts this 
method to narrow limits, and hence an indirect method is necessary. 
It is found that isomers have nearly the same critical volume, aid 
that equal differences in molecular content occasion equal differ- 
ences in critical volume. For example, the difference due to an 
increment of CH, is about 56*6, as is shown in the following table.— 


Methyl formate . . 
Ethyl formate * , 
Methyl acetate . * 
V ropy J formate ■ ", 
Ethyl j ■: c t j. r r . 
Methyl propionate . 
Propyl acetate - . 
Ethyl propionate - 
Methyl ri'Dutyrate . 
Methyl kohutyratc. 


CH,CO t CHj 



Cri t. Vol. 

5} *w 



W I 

337 J 



VoL per CH, 

55 >8 

57 4 

Since the critical volume of normal pentane C»Hn is v>7-2. we 

1 the data 

. . __ — . — _ „ 29, whereas the experimental 

value is 25. 

The researches of H. Kopp, begun in 1842, on the molecular 
volumes, i.e. the volume occupied by one gramme molecular weight 
of a substance, of liquids measured at their boiling-point VjmXmmmm 
under atmospheric pressure, brought to light a scries of if S?" ** 
additive relations which, in the case of carbon compounds, f*frj** 
render it possible to predict, in some measure, the com- *•"*■ 
position of the substance. I n practice it is generally more convenient 
to determine the density, the molecular volume being then obtained 
by dividing the molecular weight of the substance by the density. 
By the indirect method Kopp derived the following atomic volumes : 
C O. H. CI. Br. I. Sw 

11 122 55 228 278 37-5 aa-ei 
These values hold fairly well when compared with the experimental 
Values determined from other compounds, and also with the mole- 
cular volumes of the elements themselves. Thus the actually 
observed densities of liquid chlorine and bromine at the boiling- 
points are 1-56 and 2-96, leading to atomic volumes 22*7 and 26-9, 
which closely correspond to Kopp's values deduced from organic 

^ These values, however, require modification in certain casts, for 
discrepancies occur which can e*c fcc«*nrilcd in some cases by assuming 
that the atomic value of a polyvalent dement varies according to the 
distribution of its valencies. Thus a'i>ui Lie to ml of oxygen, as in the 
carbonyl group CO, requires a larger volume than a single bond, as 
in the hydroxy) group -OH, being about 13*2 in the first case and 
7*8 in the second. Similarly, an increase of volume is as-s iated 
with doubly and trebly linked carbon atoms. 

Recent researches have shown that the law originally proposed by 
Kopp — " That the specific volume of a Liquid compound {n\- •, cular 
volume) at its toiling point ii equal* rhe sum of the specific volumes 
rf its constituents (atomic volumes)* and that every element has a 
definite atomic value in its compounds " — U by no means exact, 
lor isomers have different specific volumes, and the volume for an 
increment of CHi in different homologous aeries is by no means 
constant ; for example, the difference among the esters of tl fatty 
acids is about 57, whereas Ji*r (he aliphatic aktchydea it is 40.. We 
may therefore conclude that the molecular volume depends more 
1 ipon the i n t trio I etructu re of t he moleoi lc 1 ha n i ts em pineal co n tent. 
W. Ostwald (Lekr. dtr allt* Chem.], after an exhaustive review of the 
material at hand, concfuded that oiraple additive relations did 
• Jtist but with considerable deviations, which, he ascribed to infer- 
ences in Mnjrture. la this connexion we may notice W. St Adds 





CH,BrCH,Cl . 





These differences do not disappear at the critical point, and hence 
the critical volumes arc not strictly additive. 

Theoretical considerations as to how far Kopp was justified in 
choosing the boiling-points under atmospheric pressure as being 
comparable states (or different substances now claim our attention. 
Van der Waal's equation (p+al&) {v — b) «■ RT contains two constants 
a and b determined by each particular substance. If we express 
the pressure, volume and temperature as fractions of the critical 
constants, then, calling these fractions the " reduced " pressure, 
volume and temperature, and denoting them by w, 4> and $ re- 
spectively , the characteristic equation becomes (r +3/4?) (3* — 1 ) - 80 ; 
which has the same form for all substances. Obviously, therefore, 
liquids are comparable when the pressures, volumes and tern- 
peratures are equal fractions of the critical constants. In view 
of the extremely slight compressibility of liquids, atmospheric 
pressure may be regarded as a coincident condition; also C. M. 
Uuldbcrg pointed out that for the most diverse substances the 
absolute ooiling-point is about two-thirds of the critical temperature. 
Hence within narrow limits Kopp's determinations were carried out 
under coincident conditions, and therefore any regularities presented 
by the critical volumes should be revealed in the specific volumes 

at the boiling-point. 

The connexion between the density and chemical composition of 

solids has not been investigated with the same completeness as in the 

case of gases and liquids. The relation between the atomic 

volumes and the atomic weights of the solid elements 

exhibits the periodicity which generally characterises the 

elements. The molecular volume is additive in certain 

, in particular of analogous compounds of simple constitution. 

For instance, constant differences are found between the chlorides, 

bromides and iodides of sodium and potassium : — 





Diff. I. & 11. 


KI -540 


Nal -435 



According to H. Schroeder the silver salts of the fatty acids 
exhibit additive relations; an increase in the molecule of CHi 
s an increase in the molecular volume of about 15*3. 

Thermal Relations. 

Specific Beat and Composition.— The nature and experi- 
mental determination of specific heats arc discussed in the 
article Caloumxtry; here will be discussed the relations exist- 
ing between the beat capacities of elements and compounds. 

In the article Thermodynamics it is shown that the amount 
of heat required to raise a given weight of a gas through a certain 
range of temperature is different according as the gas 
j^" is maintained at constant pressure, the volume in- 
jnii creasing.or at constant volume, the pressure increasing. 

A gas, therefore, has two specific heats, generally 
denoted by C, and C, when the quantity of gas taken as a unit 
is one gramme molecular weight, the range of temperature being 
i A C. It may be shown that <V-C,-R, where R is the gas- 
constant, i.e. R in the equation PV = RT. From the ratio C,/C, 
conclusions may be drawn as to the molecular condition of the 
gas. By considerations based on the kinetic theory of gases 
(aee Molecule) it may be shown that when no energy is utilized 
in separating the atoms of a molecule, this ratio is 5/3 •» 1-67. 
If. however, an amount of energy a is taken up in separating 
atoms, the ratio is expressible as C,/C,-(5+a)/(3+a), which 
is obviously smaller than 5/3, and decreases with increasing 
values of a. These relations may be readily tested, for the ratio 
<V/C V is capable of easy experimental determination. It is found 
that mercury vapour, helium, argon and its associates (neon, 
krypton, &c) have the value 1*67; hence we conclude that these 
gases exist as roonatomic molecules. Oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen 
and carbon monoxide have the value 1*4; these gases have 
diatomic molecules, a fact capable of demonstration by other 
means. Hence it may be inferred that this value is typical for 
diatomic molecules. Similarly, greater atomic complexity is 
reflected in a further decrease in the ratio C F /C,. The following 
table gives a comparative view of the specific heats and the 
ratio for molecules of variable atomic content 

The abnormal specific heats of the halogen elements may be due 
to a loosening of the atoms, a preliminary to the dissociation into 
monatomic molecules which occurs at high temperatures. In the 
more complex gases the specific heat varies considerably with 
temperature; only in the case of monatomic gases docs it remain 

Molecu hrCantent. 


' <V 


c r ;c. 

Monatomic . 
Tetf atomic , 

PenMtomtc 1 
Hejutomfc - . 

Hg F Zn h Cd,He.Ar,^. r 
i Hi, Oi. Ni (o*~awi*) , 
] Ck Eir f+ T, iu°~2oo ] . 
f HC1, HBr, HI, NO, CO 

HrO, HjS. N,0, COi . 

S An, P. 

JNHi, QH, . . , ; 

CHCI. . . . : . 

C,H lt C,H,Br . . , 

a 6 








t 66 



t *8 

1 175 


constant. Le Chatelier (Zed. /. £kys. Chem. i. 456) has given the 
formula C,-6-5+oT, where a is a constant depending on the 
complexity of the molecule, as an expression for the molecular heat 
at constant pressure at any temperature T (reckoned on the absolute 
scale). For a further discussion of the ratio of the specific heats see 

Specific Heats of Solids.— The development of the atomic 
theory and the subsequent determination of atomic weights 
in the opening decades of the 19th century inspired A. T. Petit 
and P. L. Dulong to investigate relations (if any) existing 
between specific heats and the atomic weight. Their obser- 
vations on the solid elements led to a remarkable generalization, 
now known as Dulong and Pe tit's law. This states that " the 
atomic heat (the product of the atomic weight and specific 
heat) of all elements is a constant quantity.' 1 The value 
of this constant when H-x is about 6-4; Dulong and Petit, 
using O- 1, gave the value '38, the specific heat of water being 
unity in both cases. This law— purely empirical in origin— was 
strengthened by Berzelius, who redetermined many specific 
heats, and applied the law to determine the true atomic weight 
from the equivalent weight. At the same time he perceived 
that specific heats varied with temperature and also with allo- 
types, e.g. graphite and diamond. The results of Berzelius were 
greatly extended by Hermann Kopp, who recognized that carbon, 
boron and silicon were exceptions to the law. He regarded these 
anomalies as solely due to the chemical nature of the elements, 
and ignored or regarded as insignificant such factors as the state 
of aggregation and change of specific heat with temperature. 

The specific heats of carbon, boron and silicon subsequently 
formed the subject of elaborate investigations by H. F. Weber, who 
showed that with rise of temperature the specific (and atomic) heat 
increases, finally attaining a fairly constant value; diamond, 
graphite and the various amorphous forms of carbon having the value 
about 56 at 1000*, and silicon 5-68 at 232°; while be concluded 
that boron attained a constant value of 5*5. Nilson and Pettcrsson's 
observations on beryllium and germanium have shown that the 
atomic heats of these metals increase with rise of temperature, 
finally becoming constant with a value 5-6. W. A. Tilden (PkiL 
Trans., 1900, p. 233) investigated nickel and cobalt over a wide 
range of temperature (from — 182-5° to ioo°); his results are:— 



From -182-5* to -78-4° . . 

- 78-4* to 15% . • 

15° to too* . . 



It is evident that the atomic heats of these intimately associated 
elements approach nearer and nearer as we descend in temperature, 
approximating to the value 4. Other metals were tested in order 
to determine if their atomic heats approximated to this value at low 
temperatures, but with negative results. 

It is apparent that the law of Dulong and Petit is not rigorously 
true, and that deviations are observed which invalidate the law as 
originally framed. Since the atomic heat of the same element 
vanes with its state of aggregation, it must be concluded that some 
factor taking this into account must be introduced; moreover, the 
variation of specific heat with temperature introduces another factor. 

We now proceed to discuss molecular heats of compounds, 
that is, the product of the molecular weight into the specific 
heat. The earliest generalization in this direction is associated 
with F. E. Neumann, who, in 1831, deduced from observations 
on many carbonates (calcium, magnesium, ferrous, zinc, barium 
and lead) that stoichiometric quantities (equimolecular weights) 
of compounds possess the some heat capacity. This is spoken of 
as " Neumann's law." Regnault confirmed Neumann's obser- 
vations, and showed that the molecular heat depended on the 
number of atoms present, equi atomic compounds having the 
same molecular heat. Kopp systematized the earlierobservations, 




and, having made many others, he was able to show that! 
the molecular heat was an additive property, i.e. each element 
retains the same heat capacity when in combination as in the 
free state. This has received confirmation by the researches 
of W. A. Tilden (Phil. Trans., 1904, 203 A, p. 139) for those 
elements whose atomic heats vary considerably with temperature. 

The specific heat of a compound may, in general, be calculated 
from the specific heats of its constituent elements. Conversely, if 
the specific heats of a compound and its constituent elements, j 
except one, be known, then the unknown atomic heat is readily I 
deducible. Similarly, by taking the difference of the molecular heats 
of compounds differing by one constituent, the molecular (or atomic) ' 
heat of this constituent is directly obtained. By this method it is 
shown that water, when present as " water of crystallization," 
behaves as if it were ice. 

Deductions from Dulong and PetiCs Law. — Denoting the 
atomic weight by W and the specific heat by s, Dulong and 
Petit's law states that 6*4 = Wj. Thus if s be known, an approxi- 
mate value of W is determinate. In the determination of the 
atomic weight of an element two factors must be considered: 
(z) its equivalent weight, i.e. the amount which is equivalent to 
one part of hydrogen ; and (2) a factor which denotes the number I 
of atoms of hydrogen which combines with or is equivalent to 
one atom of the particular element. This factor is termed the 
valency. The equivalent weight is capable of fairly ready 
determination, but the settlement of the second factor is some- 
what more complex, and in this direction the law of atomic heats 
is of service. To take an example: 38 parts of indium combine 
with 35*4 parts of chlorine; hence, if the formula of the chloride \ 
be InCi, InCls or InClt, indium has the atomic weights 38, 76 
or 114. The specific heat of indium is 0*057; and the atomic 
heats corresponding to the atomic weights 38, 76 and 1x4 are 
3*2, 4*3, 6*5. Dulong and Petit's law thus points to the value 
1x4, which is also supported by the position occupied by this 
element in the periodic classification. C. Winkler decided the 
atomic weight of germanium by similar reasoning. 

Boiling-Paint and Composition. — From the relation between 

the critical constants P* V*/T fc «^R or T fc /P*=3-7V*/R, and | 
since V* is proportional to the volume at absolute zero, the ratio 
Tft/P* should exhibit additive relations. This ratio, termed by 
Guye the critical coefficient, has the following approximate 

C H. CI. -0-. -0. N. N-. P. 82*£fi£ 
1*35 0*57 2-66 0-87 1-27 1-6 1-86 3-01 088 1-03 
Since at the boiling-point under atmospheric pressure liquids 
are in corresponding states, the additive nature of the critical 
coefficient should also be presented by boiling-points. It may 
be shown theoretically that the absolute boiling-point is pro- 
portional to the molecular volume, and, since this property is 
additive, the boiling-point should also be additive. 

These relations have been more thoroughly tested in the case of 
organic compounds, and the results obtained agree in some measure 
with the deductions from molecular volumes. In general, isomers 
boil at about the same temperature, as is shown by the isomeric 
esters CHwOi:— .... 

Methyl octoate . • xoao* Amyl butyrate . . 184-8* 
Ethyl heptoate . * 187-1° Heptyl acetate • . I9i'3* 
Propyl hexoate . . I85'5° Octyl formate . . lo8-l* 
Butyl pentoate . . 185-8° 

Equal increments in the molecule are associated with an equal 
rise ui the boiling-point, but this increment varies in different 
homologous series. Thus in the normal fatty alcohols, acids, esters, 
nitrites and ketones, the increment per CHi is 19 — 21 °; in the alde- 
hydes it is 26°— 27°. In the aromatic compounds there is no regu- 
larity between the increments due to the introduction of methyl 
groups into the benzene nucleus or side chains; the normal value 
of 20°— 21° is exhibited, however, by pyridine and its derivatives. 
The substitution of a hydrogen atom by the hydroxyl group generally 
occasions a rise in boiling-point at about 100 . The same increase 
accompanies the introduction of the amino group into aromatic nuclei. 
While certain additive relations hold between some homologous 
series, yet differences occur which must be referred to the constitution 
^ .,*-. of the molecule. As a general rule, compounds formed 
™" with a great evolution of heat have high boiling-points, 

y3L««^ and vice vers*. The introduction of negative groups into 
"»•«*«• a mo leculc alters the boiling-point according to the number 
of negative groups already present. This is shown in the case of th* 
chloracetic acids: 


CLCHrC0iH=l8s 6 
CUCH-CQ,H=t95* I0 " 

OiC CQ.H - I95*-joo° 3* 
According to van 't Hoff the substitution oi chlorine atoms into a 
methyl group occasions the following increments: — 
ClmCHi 66* 

CI ,. CH>Cl 39* 

a „chcii 13*. 

The introduction of chlorine, however, may involve a fall in the 
boiling- point, as is recorded by Henry in die case of the chlorinated 
acetonEtrilcn: — 


fii* 123" Ji-' 7 Bj" 

42° —it* -7V* 

The re place meat of one ncgat i ve erou p b v another *s <iccom pa nicd by 
a change in the tMiiling- point, which is independent of the compound 
in whit;h the substitution is effected, and solely conditioned by the 
nat utfe of the re placed and re plac i n r grou ps. Th u* bromi ne and tod ine 
replace chlorine with increments of about 32° and 50" respectively, 

A factor of considerable importance in determining boiling' point 1 
of isomers is the symmetry of the- molecule. KeJerring to the esters 
CtHttOi previously mentioned, it is seen that the highest boiling- 
points belong to methyl octoate and octyl formate, the least sym- 
metrical, while the minimum behngs to amyl butyrate, the most 
symmetrical. The isomeric pctitanes aUo exhibit a similar rela- 
tione Hi (CH,)*C Hi - 38*. CCrWIH C f Hi =30", (CHi)«C - 95*. Fora 
similar reason seconds ry alcohols boil at a lower temperature than 
the corresponding primary, the difference bring about to,". A. E. 
Larp {PU4+ J/ajf., 1893 fs|. 35h P- 45&> ha* shown that, while an 
increase in molecular weight is generally associated with a rise in 
the boil i repaint, yet the symmetry of the resulting molecule may 
e*crt such a lowering effect that the final result is a diminution in the 
boiling-point. The scries H^-tii", CH,5H=it°, (CHi)^S-^i* 
is an trample: in the first case the molecular weight is in- 
creased and the symmetry diminished, the increase of boiling-point 
being fla"; in the second case the molecular weight is again increased 
but the molecule assumes a more symmetrical configuration, hence 
the comparatively slight incir-ise of 20 *t A similar depression is 
presented by methyl alcohol 107°) and methyl ether ("~a\j B ); 

Among the aromatic di-*ubs(itutiun derivatives the artho com- 
pounds Save the highest boilinEpoint, and the mefa boil at a hirhrr, 
or about the same temperature as the p&w compounds. Of the 
tri-defivatives the sym metrical compounds boil at the lowest 
temperature, the asymmetric next, and the vicinal at the highest \ 

An tthylcnic or double carbon union in the aliphatic hydrocarbons 
has, apparently, the same effect on the boiling-point as two hydrogen 
atoms, since the compound* C*H: n4 «and C,fl h bo]) at about the 
same temperature. An acctyknic or triple linkage is associated 
with a rise in the boiling 'point ; for example, prcpargyl compounds 
boil about T^-g" higher than the corresponding, prop) I compound. 

Certain regularities attend the corresponding property of the 
melting- point. A rule applicable to organic compounds, due to 
Adolf v. Baeyer and supported by F. 5. Kipping {Jour. Cktm. St*t. t 
1*93* 6 3> P- 4 (, 5) states, that the melting-paint oi any odd member 
of a homologous series is lower than, the me I ting-point of the even 
member containing one carbon atom less. This is true of the fatty 
acid scries:, and the corresponding: ketones and alcohols, and also of 
the succinic acid series. Other regularities e»ist. but generally with 
many exceptions* It is to be potMf that although the correlation of 
melting-point with constitution has not been developed to such 
an extent as the chemical significance of other physical properties, 
the melting-point is the most valuable test of the purity of a sub* 
stance, a circumstance due in considerable measure to the fact that 
impurities always tend to lower the melting- point. 

If eat vf Combustion and Constitution,.— In the art tele TfrEitltO- 
cmumistrv a general account of heats at formation of rhemitaJ 
compounds is given, and it is there shown that this constant 
measures the stability of the compound. In organic chemistry 
it is more customary to deal with the " heat of combustion/ 1 
i.e. the heat evolved when an organic compound is completely 
burned in o*ygen; the heat of formation is deduced from the 
fact that it is equal to the hents of formation of the products 
of combustion less the observed heat of combustion* The 
tc^carc hes of Ju I i us Thomscn a nd 1 hers have shown Iha t in many 
cases definite conclusions regarding constitution can be drawn 
front quantitative measurements of the heats of combustion; 
andin this article * summary of the chief results will be Riven. 

from th^« y t h, f t c ^ f r r h r™ a ft! «/ toB * x *™ ™££ 

™™A* 1% lit C J" 4 * cf «™ bt, * ,ion of methane, ethane, 
E^TA "*, m methyl methane, and tetrameihvl methane have a 
constant diilercace ui the ord*r given, vii. i5S-6calori e » ' this r 





that the replacement or fl hydrogen stoni by a methyl group is 
attended by a constant increase in the heat of comb union. The 
same difference attends the introduction of the methyl group into 
many classes of compounds, for example, the psramns, ok fines, 
acetylenes* aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, Aldehydes, ketones 
and esters, while a slightly lower value (157-1) is. found in the case 
of the halogen compounds, uitrik*, amines, acids, ethers, sulphides 
and nitro compounds* It therefor? appears that the difference be- 
tween the heats of combustion of two adjacent members of a series 
of homologous compounds is practically a constant, and that this 
constant has two ajgsgs values, viz. 158-6 and 157-1. 

An important connexion between heats of combustion and 
constitution b found in the investigation of the effect of tingle, 
doable and triple carbon linkages on the ihermothemkal constants* 
If twelve grammes of amorphous carbon be burnt to carbon dioxide 
trader constant volume, the Nat evolved (96 -o6cal.) does not measure 
the entire thermal effect, but the difference between this and the 
heat required to break down the carbon molecule into atoms. 
If the number of atoms in the carbon molecule be denoted by n. 
and the heat required to spjlh off cieh atom from the molecule by d, 
then the total heat required to break dawn a carbon molecule 
completely into atoms is nd. It follows that the true heat of com- 
bustion of carbon, i.r. the heat of combustion of one gramme-atom, 
is 96-96+d. The value of d can lie by considering the 
*on of amorphous carbon to carbon monoxide and carbon 
In the first case the thermal effect of 5& l 5& calories actually 
must be increased by id to allow for the heat al^orbed in 
off two gramme-atoms of carbon; in the second ease the 
effect of 96-46 must be increa^-d by d as above, Now in 
es one gramme-molecule of oiygcn is decomposed , and the 
two oxygen atoms thus formed are combined witn two carbon 
valencies. It follows that the thermal effects staled above must be 
equal, •>. 58-58+2^=76 no ^ and iiHTcforc-rf^jg-jg. Theabsolutc 
beat of combustion of a cartoon alom is thcrrfon J 35 34 calorie*, 
and this is independent of the form uf the carbon burned. 

Consider now the combustion of a hydrocarbon of the general 
formula C*Hf.,. We a<uumc that each c^tboti atom and each 
hydrogen atom contributes equally to the thermal effect. If a. be 
the heat evolved by each carbmi atom, and & that bv each hydrogen 
atom, the thermal effect may be expressed .1*1 ll =sno-f 2mfl-A, 
where A is the heat required tu break the mok-eqle into its constituent 
atoms. If the hydrocarbon be saturated, i>. only contain single 
carbon linkages, then the numlier of such linkages is 2a-m l and if 
the thermal effect of such a linkage be X, thtmtbc term A is obviously 
equal to (2«-«i)X. The value of H then become* 11 ^jiq+2«^ 
(2u-m)X or M{+f»i?, where f and * are constants. Let double 
bonds be present, in number /», and let the energy due to such a 
bond be V. Then the number of single bond J is jh-mi-2^, and the 
beat of combustion becomes H, -Tfti+mq+pteX-Y)* If tfinle bonds, 
f in number, occur also, and the energy of such a bond be Z, the 
equation for H becomes 

H-nZ+m+P(zX-Y}+ 3 tiX-2). 
This is the general equation for calculating the heat of combustion 
of a hydrocarbon, it contains four independent constants; two 
of these may be calculated from the heats of combustion of 
saturated hydrocarbons, and the other two from the combustion of 
hydrocarbons containing double and iripk- linkages. By experiment 
it is found that the thermal effect of a double bond is much less than 
the effect of two single bond?, while a triple bond has a much smaller 
effect than three single bonds. J. Thomsen deduces the actual 
values of X, Y, Z to be 14*71, i.W? an d znti% the last value be 
considers to be in agreement with the labile equilibrium of acctylcnic 
compounds. One oil the most important applications of thc*c value* 
b found in the case of the constitution of benzene, where Thomsen 

1 in favour of the Claus formula, involving nine single carbon 
linkages, and rejects the Kckule. formula, which has three single 
and three double bonds (sec section IV.). 

The thermal effects of the common organic substituents have 
also been investigated. The thermal effect of the " alcohol " group 
C-OH may be determined by finding the heat of formation of the 
alcohol ana subtracting the thermal effects of the remaining Linkages 
in the molecule. The average value: for primary alcohols is 44-67 cal-, 
but many large differences from this value obtain in certain cascs- 
The thermal effects increase as one passes from primary to tertiary 
alcohols, the values deduced from propyl and isopropyl alcohols and 
tnmethy! carbinol being:— primary" 45-08, secondary -50 -39, ter- 
tiary <» 60-98. The thermal effect of the aldehyde group has the 
average value 64*88 calorics, i.e. considerably greater than the afcohol 
group. The ketone croup corresponds to a thermal effect of 53-52 
calories. It is remarkable that the difference in the heats of forma- 
tion of ketones and the paraffin containing one carbon atom less is 
67*94 calorics, which ttt the heat of formation of carbon monoxide 
at constant volume. It follows therefore that two hydrocarbon 
radicals arc bound to the carbon monoxide residue with the same 
strength as they combine to form a paraffin. The average value for 
the carboxyl group is 119-75 calories. i>, it is equal to the sum of 
the thermal effects of the aldehyde and carbon yl groups. 

The thermal effeci s of the halocens are : chlorine *■ r.v 13 calorics, 
bromine -708; iodine « -4-25 caWics. It is remark* We that the 

position of the halogen in the molecule has no effect on the heat of 
formation; for example, chlorpropylenc and allylchloridc. and also 
ethylene dichloride and ethyl idene dichloridc, have equal heats of 
formation. The thermal effect of the ether group has an average 
value of 34-31 calories. This value does not hold in the ca se of 

methylene oxide if we assign to it the formula HiC O-CHj, but 
if the formula HiC-O-CHt (which assumes the presence of two free 
valencies) be accepted, the calculated and observed heats of formation 
are in agreement. 

The combination of nitrogen with carbon may result in the 
formation of nitrites, cyanides, or primary, secondary or tertiary 
amines. Thomsen deduced that a single bond between a carbon and 
a nitrogen gramme-atom corresponds to a thermal effect of 277 
calories, a double bond to 544, and a treble bond to 8-31. From 
this he infers that cyanogen is C:N-N:Cand not N-C-C-N.that 
hydrocyanic acid is HC-N^ and acctonitrile CH,C | N. In the case 
of the amines he decides in favour of the formulae ' 

H,C:NH, h|c^NH« 5lc^ NHCH » 

primary, secondary, tertiary. 

These involve pcntavalcnt nitrogen. These formulae, however, only 
apply to aliphatic amines ; the results obtained in the aromatic series 
are in accordance with the usual formulae. 

Optical Relations. 

Refraction and Composition. — Reference should be made to 
the article Refraction for the general discussion of the pheno- 
menon known as the refraction of light. It is there shown that 
every substance, transparent to light, has a definite refractive 
index, which is the ratio of the velocity of light in vacuo to its 
velocity in the medium to which the refractive index refers. 
The refractive index of any substance varies with (1) the wave- 
length of the light; (2) with temperature; and (3) with the state 
of aggregation. The first cause of variation may be at present 
ignored; its significance will become apparent when we consider 
dispersion (tide infra). The second and third causes, however, 
are of greater importance, since they are associated with the 
molecular condition of the substance; hence, it is obvious that 
it is only from some function of the refractive index which is 
independent of temperature variations and changes of state 
(i.e. it must remain constant for the same substance at any 
'temperature and in any form) that quantitative relations between 
rcfractivity and chemical composition can be derived. 

The pioneer work in this field, now frequently denominated 
" spectro-chemistry," was done by Sir Isaac Newton, who, from 
theoretical considerations based on his corpuscular theory of light, 
determined the function (n*— 1), where n is the refractive index, 
to be the expression for the refractive power; dividing this 
expression by the density (d), he obtained (n*— i)/d, which he 
named the " absolute refractive power." To P. S. Laplace is 
due the theoretical proof that this function is independent of 
temperature and pressure, and apparent experimental confirma- 
tion was provided by Biot and Arago's, and by Dulong's obscrva- 
tions on gases and vapours. The theoretical basis upon which 
*his formula was devised (the corpuscular theory) was shattered 
early in the 19th century, and in its place there arose the modern 
wave theory which theoretically invalidates Newton's formula. 
-The question of the dependence of refractive index on tempera- 
ture was investigated in 1858 by J. H. Gladstone and the Rev. 
T. P. Dale; the more simple formula (n-i)[d, which lemained 
constant for gases and vapours, but exhibited slight discrepancies 
when liquids were examined over a wide range of temperature, 
being adopted. The subject was next taken up by Hans Landolt, 
who, from an immense number of observations, supported in 
$1 general way the formula of Gladstone and Dale. He introduced 
the idea of comparing the rcfractivity of cquimolecular quantities 
of different substances by multiplying the function («— i)/d 
by the molecular weight (M) of the substance, and investigated 
the relations of chemical grouping to rcfractivity. Although 
establishing certain general relations between atomic and 
molecular refractions, the results were somewhat vitiated by the 
inadequacy of the empirical function which he employed, since it 
was by no means a constant which depended only on the actual 
composition of the substance and was independent of its physical 
condition. A more accurate exocessuro. vjfr— "C^V^-Vi^ **c*a> 




suggested in 1880 independently and almost simultaneously by 
L. V. Lorcnz of Copenhagen and H. A. Lorcntz of Leiden, from 
considerations based on the Clausius-Mossotti theory of dielectrics. 
Assuming that the molecules are spherical, R. J. E. Clausius and 
O. F. Mossotti found a relation between the dielectric constant and 
the space actually occupied by the molecules, viz. K*= (1 +2a)/(i —a), 
or a-(K — i)/(K-f 2), where K is the dielectric constant and a the 
fraction of the total volume actually occupied by matter. According 
to the electromagnetic theory oi light K = Nt. where N is the 
refractive index lor rays of infinite wave-length. Making this 
substitution, and dividing by d, the density of the substance, we 
obtain a/d ■ (N* — 1 )/(N*-|-2)d. Since aid is the real specific volume 
of the molecule, it is therefore a constant; hence (N*— i)/(N*+2)<f 
is also a constant and is independent of all changes of temperature, 
pressure, and of the state of aggregation. To determine N 
recourse must be made to Cauchys formula of dispersion (g.v.), 
»«A + B/X , +C/X 4 +. . . from which, by extrapolation, X becoming 
infinite, wc obtain N-»A. In the case of substances possessing 
anomalous dispersion, the direct measurement of the refractive 
index for Hertzian waves of very long wave-length may be 

It is found experimentally that the Lorcnz and Lorcntz 
function holds fairly well, and better than the Gladstone and Dale 
formula. This is shown by the following observations of Riihl- 
mann on water, the light used being the D line of the spectrum: — 

either directly, by investigating the various elements, or indirectly, 
by considering differences in the molecular refractions of related 
compounds. The first method needs no explanation. The second 
method proceeds on the same lines as adopted for atomic volumes. 
By subtracting the value for CHj, which may be derived from two 
substances belonging to the same homologous scries, from the mole- 
cular refraction of methane, CH«, the value of hydrogen is obtained; 
subtracting this from CH 2 , the value of carbon is determined. 
Hydroxylic oxygen is obtained by subtracting the molecular refrac- 
tions of acetic acid and acetaldehyde. Similarly, by this method of 
differences, the atomic refraction of any element may be determined. 
It is found, however, that the same element has not always the same 
atomic refraction, the difference being due to the nature of the 
elements which saturate its valencies. Thus oxygen varies according 
as whether it is linked to hydrogen (hydroxyhc oxygen), to two 
atoms of carbon (ether oxygen), or to one carbon atom (carbonyl 
oxygen) ; similarly, carbon varies according as whether it is singly, 
doubly, or trebly bound to carbon atoms. 

A table of the atomic refractions and dispersions of the principal 
elements is here given : — 



(fl'-l)/(lf* + 2)c/. 



0-206 I 
0-2O6 1 

Eykmann's observations also support the approximate 
constancy of the Lorcnz-Lorcntz formula over wide temperature 
differences, but in some cases the deviation exceeds the errors 
of observation. The values arc for the Ha line: — 




Isosafrol, C»HioO> 

Diphenyl ethylene, CuHi* . . . 
Quinoline, C»HiN 

\ I7 'K 
I 141-1 

\ 22° 

J M3-4* 
K 16-2° 


The empirical formula (n*-i)/(n 8 +0'4)d apparently gives more 
constant values with change of temperature than the Lorenz- 
Lorentz form. The superiority of the Lorenz-Lorentz formula 
over the Gladstone and Dale formula for changes of state is 
shown by the following observations of Bruhl (Zeit.f. phys. Chcm., 
1891, 71, p. 4). The values are for the D line: — 


Hydr*jgcn . , , 

Oxygen, Jmhmyl . . 
t , ether . * , 
„ carbonyl , . 
Chlorine . , . . 
Bromine . . , r 1 
Iodine . . . + 

Carr«?n (singly bound) 
Double linkage of carbon 

Nitroecn, singly bound 
and only to carbon 




G Mf 

I '836 


* 76 

I -707 


1 '39 


9-21 1 










Gladstone and Dale. 

Lorcnz and Lorcntz. 





Water ... 
Carbon disulphide • . 
Chloroform .... 





01 796 

01 790 


Landolt and Gladstone, and at a later date J. W. Briihl, have 
investigated the relations existing between the refractive power 
and composition. To Landolt is due the proof that, 
in general, isomers, i.e. compounds having the same 
composition, have equal molecular refractions, and that 
equal differences in composition arc associated with equal differences 
in refractive power. This is shown in the following table (the values 
are for H.) : — 

Dispersion and Composition.— In the preceding section we have 
seen that substances possess a definite molecular (or atomic) refrac- 
tion for light of particular wave-length; the difference between the 
refractions for any two rays is known as the molecular (or atomic) 
dispersion. Since mole* uLr refraction*^, i ■ ■ pcra- 

ture and of the state of aggregation, it follows, rh^t molitulj dis- 
persions must be also independent oj these conditions; and hence 
quantitative measurement! should give an indication as to the 
chemical composition of substances. This subject hat been princi- 
pally investigated by Briihl; he found that molecular dii| sions 
of liquids and gases were independent of temperature, and fairly 
independent of the state of aggregation, but that no simple con 1 »xion 
exists between atomic refractions and dispersions (see pn riing 
table). He also showed how changes in constitution effected dis- 
persions to a far greater extent than they did refractions; thus, 
while the atomic dispersion of carbon ti 0"**39< the dupersions due 
to a double and treble linkage is o<3j and O-tn respectively. 

Colour and Constitution. — In this article a summary of the 
theories which have been promoted in order to connect the colour 
of organic compounds with their constitution 
will be given, and the reader is referred to the 
article Colour for the physical explanation of 
this property, and to Vision for the physiological 
and psychological bearings. A clear distinction 
must be drawn between colour and the property 
of dyeing; all coloured substances are not dyes, 
and it is shown in the article Dyeing that the property of 
entering into chemical or physical combination with fibres involves 
properties other than those essential to colour. At the same 
time, however, all dyestuffs are coloured substances. 
A survey of coloured substances led O. N. Witt in i876toformulate 
- " chromophore-auxochromc " theory. On this theory colour is 


regarded as due to the presence of a chromophore," and dyeing 
power to an "auxochrome"; the latter by itself 
cannot produce colour or dyeing power, but it is 
only active in the presence 01 a chromophore, when 
it intensifies the colour and confers the property 
of dyeing. The principal chromophores are the azo, 

— N=N— , azoxy, = NjO, nitro, — N0», nitroso, 

— NO, and carbonyl, => CO, groups. Theazo-group 
is particularly active, both the aliphatic and 
aromatic compounds being coloured. The simplest 
aliphatic compounds, such as diazo-methanc, diazo- 
cthane, and azo-formic acid, are yellow: the 
diamide of the latter acid is orange-red. Of the 

Additive relations undoubtedly exist, but many discrepancies occur 1 aromatic comjKuinds azo-benzene is bright orange-red, and o-azo- 
which may be assigned, as in the case of molecular volumes, to I naphthalene forms red needles or small steel-blue prisms. The azo- 
differences in constitution. Atomic refractions may be obtained | group, however, has little or no colouring effect when present in a 





Diff. for 

Ethylene chloride | rHr , 
Ethylidene chloride S C «"^ I « 
Fumaric acid (run 
Maleicacid i C « H «°« * ' 
o-Crcsol ) 

m«Crcsol [ CtH»0 • - . 
p-Crcsol } 

\ 2096 
? 2108 
? 7029 
( 3*'5* 
} 3'-56 

Acetic acid . . . 
Propionic acid . . 
Butyric acid . , , 

Acetaldehyde . . . 
Propionaldohydc . » 
Butylaldehyde . . 



{ 449 


! 459 




ring system, such as in clnnolene, phthalazine and tolazone. The 
nitro group has a very important action mainly on account of the 
readiness with which it can U: introduced into the molecule, but its 
effect is much less than that of the azo group. The colour produced 
is generally yellow, which, in accordance with a general rule, Is 
intensified with an increase in the number of groups; compare, for 
example, mono-, di- and tri-nitrobenzene. The nitroso group is 
lew important. The colour produced is generally of a greenish 
shade; for example, nitrosobenzene is green when fused orin solution 
(when crystalline, it is colourless), and dinitrosorcsorcin has been 
employee! as a dyestuff under the names " solid green " and 
" chlorine." The carbonyl group by itself does not produce colour, 
but when two adjacent groups occur in the mojccule, as for example 
in the «-dikctoncs (such as di-acctyl and benzil), a yellow colour is 
produced. It also acts as a chromogenic centre when double bonds 
or ethylente linkages are present, as in fluorcnc ketone or fluorenone. 
A more complex chromophoric group is the triple ethylcnic 

grouping ™p ^> C", the introduction of which wa* rendered neces- 
sary by the discovery of certain coloured hydrocarbon*. As a general 
rule, hydrocartwms are colourless; the exceptions include the golden 
yellow acenaphthylenc, the red bidipheny lene-cthylcnc, and the 

derivatives of fulvcne ~„ [ p.. >CIU, which have been discussed by 

J. Thielc (Ber., 1900, 3}, p. fif>6). This grouping is not always 
colour-producing, since diphenyl is colourless. 

The most important auxocriromis arc the hydroxyl (-0H) and 
amino (-NHi) groups. According to the modern theory of auxo- 
chromic action, the introduction of a group into the molecule is 
accompanied by some strain, and the alteration in colour produced 
is connected with the magnitude of the strain. The amino group is 
more powerful than the hydroxyl, and the substituted amino group 
more powerful still; the repeated substitution of hydroxyl groups 
sometimes causes an intensification and sometimes a diminution of 

We may here notice an empirical rule formulated by Nietzski in 
1879: — the simplest colouring substances arc in the greenish -yellow 
and yellow, and with increasing molecular weight the colour passes 
into orange, red, violet, blue and green. This rule, however, is by 
no means perfect. Examination of the absorpt ion spectra of coloured 
compounds shows that certain groupings displace the absorption 
bands in one direction, and other groupings in the other. If the 
bands be displaced towards the violet, involving a regression through 
the colours mentioned above, the group is said to be " hypso- 
chromk"; if the reverse occurs the group in " iKithochromic. It 
may be generally inferred that an increase in molecular weight is 
accompanied by a change in colour in the direction of the violet. 

Auxochromic groups generally aid one another, i.e. the tint 
deepens as the number of auxochromes increases. Also the relative 
position of the auxochromc to the chromophorc influences colour, 
the ortho-position being generally the most powerful. KaufTmann 
\Btr., 1900, 39, p. 1959) attempted an evaluation of the effects of 
auxochromic groups by means of the magnetic optical constants. 
The method is based on the supposition that the magnetic rotation 
measures the strain produced in the molecule by an auxochromc, 
and he arranges the groups in the following order: — 

•O-COCHi -OCH, -NHCOCH, NH, N(CH0« •N(C,H»), 
-0-260 1-459 .»-949 3-321 8-587 8-816 

The phenomena attending the salt formation of coloured and 
colouring substances arc important. The chromophoric groups arc 
rarely strongly acid or basic; on the other hand, the auxochromes 
are strongly acid or basic and form salts very readily. Notable 
differences attend the neutralization of the chromophoric and auxo- 
chromic groups. With basic substances, the chromophoric combina- 
tion with? a colourless acid is generally attended by a deepening in 
colour: auxochromic combination, on the other hand, with a learn- 
ing. Examples of the first case are found among the colourless 
acridities and quinoxalincs which give coloured salts. ; of the second 
case we may notice the colourless hydrochloride and sulphate of the 
deep yellow 0-aminobcnzophenonc. With acid substances, the com- 
bination with '* colourless " metals, i.e. metals producing colour- 
less salts with acids, is attended by colour changes contrary to those 
S'ven above, auxochromic combination being accompanied by a 
opening, and chromophoric by a lessening of the tint. 

Mention may be made of the phenomenon of halochromism, the 
name given to the power of colourless or faintly-coloured substances 
of combining with acids to form highly-coloured substances without 
the necessary production of a chromophoric croup. The researches 
of Adolf von Daeycr and Villiger, Kehrmann, KaufTmann and others, 
show that this property is^ possessed by very many and varied 
substances. In many cases it may be connected with basic oxygen, 
and the salt formation is assumed to involve the passage of divalent 
into tetravalent oxygen. It seems that intermofccular change also 
occurs, but further research is necessary before a sound theory can 
be stated. 

Quinone Theory of Colour . — A theory of colour Jn opposition to 
the Witt theory was proposed by Henry Armstrong in 1880 and 1892. 
TP»is assumed that all coloured substances were derivatives of ortho- 
or para-quinone (sec Quinones), and although at the time of its 

promotion little practical proof was given, yet the theory found 
wide acceptance on account of the researches of many other chemists. 
It follows on this theory that all coloured substances contain cither 
of the groupings 


the former being a para-quinonoid, the latter an ortho-quinonoid. 
While very many coloured substances must obviously contain this 
grouping, yet in many cases it is necessary to assume a simple 
intcrmolecularchange, while in others a more complex rearrangement 
of bonds is necessary. Quinone, which is light yellow in colour, is 
the simplest coloured substance on this theory. Hydrocarbon* 
of similar structure have been prepared by Thielc, for example, the 
orange-yellow tctraphenyl-Aflra-xylylene, which is obtained by 
boiling the bromide C«H 4 |Cbr(CcHi) : jj with benzene and molecular 
silver. The quinonoid structure of many coloured compounds has 
been proved experimentally, as, for example, by Hewitt for the 
benzene-azo-phennls, and Hantzsch for triaminotriphenyl methane 
and acridine derivatives; but, at the same time, many substances 
cannot be so explained. A notable example is provided by the 
phthalcins, which result by the condensation of phthalic anhydride 
with phenols. In the free state these substances arc colourless, 
and were assumed to have the formula shown in I. Solution in 
dilute alkali was supposed to be accompanied by the rupture of the 
lactone ring with the formation of the quinonoid salt shown in 2. 



Bacyer (Ber., 1905, 3S, p. 569) and Silbcrrad (Joiirn. Chem. Soe., 
1906, 89, p. 1767) have disputed the correctness of this explanation, 
and the latter has prepared mclliteins and pyromclliu-ins which are 
highly-coloured compounds produced from mcUiLic and pyromcllitic 
acids, and which cannot be formulated as quinones. Bacyer has 
suggested that the nine carbon atom system of xanthonc may act as a 
chromophorc. An alternative view, due to Green, is that the oxygen 
atom of the xanthonc ring is tetravalent, a supposition which permits 
the formulation of these substances as ortho-quinonoid*. 

The theories of colour have also been investigated by Hantzsch, 
who first considered the nitro-phcnols. On the chromophore- 
auxochrome theory (the nitro group being the chromophorc, and the 
hydroxyl the auxochromc) it is necessary in order to explain the high 
colour of the mctallicsalts and the colourlessalkylandaryl derivatives 
to assume that the auxochromic action of the hydroxyl group is only 
brought strongly into evidence by salt formation. Armstrong, on 
the other hand, assumed an tntermotccuUr change, thus;— 


U- N( 


RC ^NO» 

The proof of this was left for Hantzsch, who traced a connexion 
with the nitrolic acids of V. Meyer, which are formed when nitrous 
acid acts on primary aliphatic nitro coni[>ounds. Meyer formulated 
these compounds as nitroximes or nitro-isnitroso derivatives, viz. 
R'C(NO.)iXpH). Hantrsch explains the transformation of the 
colourless arid into red salts, whirh on standing yield more stable, 
colourless salts, by the following scheme: — 

NOH v RC<T}0 o.r^NOiNa 

\ N / -» RC <NO 

oS \ONa 

Colourless, stable. Coloured, labile. Colourless, stable. 
He has also shown that the nitrophcnols yield, in addition to the 
colourless trucnitrophcnol ctlu-r>, an isomeric series of rulourcd un- 
stable quinonoid ari-ethers, which have practically the same colour 
and yield the same absorption spectra as the coloured metallic 
salts. He suggests that the term " quinone " theory be abandoned, 
and replaced by the Umlancrunzs theory, since this term implies 
some intermolecular rearrangement, and does not connote simply 
benzenoid compounds as docs " quinonoid." 11. von Liebig (Ann., 
1908, 3°°i P* **8), from a very complete discussion of triphenyl- 

methane derivatives, concluded that the grouping a-A-A wastne 
only true organic chromophorr, colour production, however, re- 
quiring another condition, usually the closing of a ring. 

The views as to the question of colour and constitution may be 
summarized as follows: — (1) The quinone theory (Armstrong, 
Gombcrg, R. Meyer) regards all coloured substances as having 
a quinonoid structure. (2) The chromophorc-auxochrome 
theory (KaufTmann) regards colour as due to the entry of an 
" auxochrome " into a " chromophoric " molecule. (3) If a 
colourless compound gives a coloured one on solution or by 



salt-formation, the production of colour may be explained as & 
particular form of ionization (Baeycr), or by a molecular re- 
arrangement (Hantzsch). A dynamical theory due to £. C. C. 
Baly regards colour as due to " isorropesis " or an oscillation 
between the residual affinities of adjacent atoms composing the 

Fluorescence and Constitution. — The physical investigation 
of the phenomenon named fluorescence — the property of 
transforming incident light into light of different refrangibUity — 
is treated in the article Fluorescence. Researches in syntheti- 
cal organic chemistry have shown that this property of 
fluorescence is common to an immense number of substances, 
and theories have been proposed whose purpose is to connect 
the property with constitution. 

In ISM Kichaxd Meyer [Ztti. phyrik. Chtmie. 24, p. 465) submitted 
the \\e w that Quore&rence was due to the presence of certain " iluoro 
phor< " groups: such groupings are the pyrone ring and it* con- 
gene- 1 lhe centra! ring! in anthracene and acridine derivative*, 
and iht nam diamine ring in tafra nines, A novel theory, proposed 
by J . T, He wut in tqotj {Zc (7,/, physik, Ckemir, 34* P- 1 : B-4 ■ Report. 
1903, p. 62$, and later papers in the Journ, CteM.Svc.), regard 1 the 
property as occasioned by internal vibration* within the molecule 
condiiianf-rj by a symmetrical double lautomeriim, light ol one 
wavt -Tr-ngth being absorbed by one form, and emitted wit ha different 
wave- length by the other. 1 hi* oscillation may be rcprt&ciucd in 
the case of acridine and fluorescein as 

c&=ofi>ooo ^<&p*xftr 


This theory brings the property of fluorescence into relation with 
that of colour; the forms which cause fluorescence being the coloured 
modifications: ortho-quinonoid in the case of acridioc, para- 
quinonoid in the case of fluorescein. H. Kauffmann (Ber., 1900, 33, 
p. !73>: 1904. 35, P 394; 1905. 3B, p. 7&g; Ann », 1506, 344, p. 3a) 
suggested that the probity is due to the presence of fit least two 
groups. The first jgroup, named the "' Juminophore," is such that 
when excited by suitable aetherial vibrations emit* radiant energy; 
the other, named the " Uuoragtn." acts with the luminophore in 
some way or other to cause the fluorescence* This theory explain* 
thefluoresccnccof ant hranilie acid fc-aminohcnioic acid), by regard- 
ing the aniline residue as the luminophore. and the carboKyl group 
as the fluorogen, since, apparently, the introduction of the Tatter 
into the non-fluorescent andine molecule involves the production of 
a fluorescent substance. Although the theories of Meyer and 
Hewitt do not explain (in their present form) the behaviour of 
anthranilic acid, yet Hewitt ha* shown that his theory eoea far to 
explain the fluorescence of substance*, in which a double symmetrical 
tautomerism is possible. This tautomeric may be of a twofold 
nature: — (1) it may involve the mere oscillation of linkages, as in 
acridinc; or (2) it may involve the oscillaiion til atoms, as in fluor- 
escein. A theory of a physical nature, based primarily upon Sir 
h J. Thomson's theory of corpuscles, has been proposed by J. de 
Kowalfki (Compt. rem. 1907, 144, p. 266). We may notice that 
ethyl oxalosuccinonitrilc is the first case of a fluorescent aliphatic 
compound (sec W. Wisliccnus and P. Berg, Bcr. t 1908, 41, p. 3757).'* 

Capillarity and Surface Tension. — Reference should be made 
to the article Capillary Action for the general discussion of this 
phenomenon of liquids. It is there shown that the surface 
tension of a liquid may be calculated from its rise in a capillary 
tube by the formula 7 = \rhs, where 7 is the surface tension per 
square centimetre, r the radius of the tube, h the height of the 
liquid column, and s the difference between the densities of 
the liquid and its vapour. At the crit ical point liquid and vapour 
become identical, and, consequently, as was pointed out by 
Frankenhcim in 1841, the surface tension is zero at the critical 

McndclccfT endeavoured to obtain a connexion between surface 
energy and constitution ; more successful were the investigations 
Relation °^ Setoff, who found that the " molecular surface tension," 
fomoJocv which he defined as the surface tension divided by the 
Jar weight, molecular weight, is constant for isomers, and that two ' 
atoms of hydrogen were equal to one of carbon, three to j 
one of oxygen, and seven to one of chlorine; but these ratios were < 
by no means constant, and afforded practically no criteria as to the 1 
molecular weight of any substance. 

In 1886 R. Eotvds (\Vied. Ann. 27, p. 452), assuming that two I 
liquids may l>e compared when the ratios of the volumes of the ] 
liquids to the volumes of the saturated vapours are the same, 
deduced that 7V'(whcre y is the surface tension, and V the molecular 
volume 01 the liquid) causes all liquids to have the same temperature 1 


coefficients. This theorem was investigated by Sir W. Ramsay and 
J. Shields {Jenrn* €htm. Sot. 63, p r iobq; 65. p. 167), whose results 
have thrown considerable light on t lie subject of the molecular 
complexity of liquids. ftam&ay am] bihiclds suggested that there 
exists an equation lot the surface cncrKV of liquids, analogous to the 
volume-encVey equation of gnat-*, PV = RT. The relation they 
suspected to be of the form -jS ■» KT, where K is a constant analogous 
to K, and S the surface containing one gramme-molecule, y and T 
being the surface tension and temperature respectively. Obviously 
equ [molecular surface* are civen by (Mr)', where M is the molecular 
weight of the sutauince, for equi molecular volumes are Mr, and 
corresponding surfaces the two-thirds power of this. Hence S may 
be replaced by (Mv)4. Ramsay and Shields found from investiga- 
tions of the temperature coefficient of the surface energy thatTin the 
equation y (Mf )* » KT must be counted downwards from the critical 
tem perat a re r less ubou t 6 *, Their surface energy equation therefore 
assumes the form y (Mr) 1 - K(rH&*). Now the value of K, y being 
measured in dynes and M being the molecular weight of the substance 
as a gas, is in general 2- u 1 : this value is never exceeded, but in 
many rases it it less. This diminution implies an association of 
molecule*, the surface containing fewer molecules than it is supposed 
to. Suppose the coefficient of association be n, i.e. n is the mean 
number of molecules which associate to form one molecule, then by 
the normal equation we have >(Mot)^ = s 2-i2i(r— 6°); if the calcu- 
lated constant be Ki, then we have also «y(Mv)*«=Ki(r — 6°). By 
division we obtain w* -2*121 /[Ci, or r~(2«I2I/Kj)*, the coefficient 
of association being thus determined, 

The apparatus devised! by Ramsay and Shields consisted of a 
capillary tid«\ on one end of which was blown a bulb provided with 
a minute hole. Attached to the bulb was a glass rod and then a tube 
containing iron wire. This tube was placed in an outer tube contain- 
ing the liquid to be experimented with; the liquid is raised to its 
boiling-point* and then hermetically sealed. The whole is enclosed 
in a jacket connected with a boikr coutaining a liquid, the vapour 
of which scots to keep the inner tube at any desired temperature. 
The capillary lube can be raised or lowered at will by running a 
magnet outside the tube, and the heights of the columns are measured 
by a cathetotneter or micrometer microscope. 

N'otmal values of K were given by nitrogen peroxide, NiO«, sulphur 
chloride, SjCIj, silicon tetrachloride, SiCI«, phosphorus chloride, 
PCI, T phcpsphoryl chloride, POClj, nickel carbonyl, Ni(CO)«, carbon 
di sulphide, benzene, pyridine, tt her, methyl propyl ketone; associa- 
tion characterized many hydroxy lie compounds: for ethyl alcohol 
the factor of association was 2-74,-2 -43, (or n-propyl alcohol 2 -86-2* 72, 
acetic add 3/62—3*77, acetone J-2u, water 3-81 —2-32; phenol, 
nitric acid, sulphuricacid, oitroethjtne, and propionitril, also exhibit 

Crystalline Form and Composition. 

The development oT the theory of crystal structure, and the 
fundamental principles on which is based the classification of 
crystal forms, are treated in Lhe article Crystallography; in 
the same place will be found an account of the doctrine of iso- 
morphism, polymorphism and morphetropy. Here we shall 
treat the latter subjects in more del ail, viewed from the stand- 
point of the chemist. Isomorphism may be defined as the 
existence of two or more different substances in the same crystal 
form and structure, polymorphism ns the existence of the same 
substance m two or moie crystal modifications, and morphotropy 
(after P. von Grolh) as the change in crystal form due to altera- 
tions in (nt molecule of closely (chemically) related substances. 
Tn order to permit a comparison of crystal forms, from which 
wc hope to gain an insight into the prevailing molecular con- 
ditions, it is necessary that some unit of crystal dimensions must 
be chosen, A crystal may be regarded as built up of primitive 
paiallckpipcda, the edges of which are in the ratio of the 
crystallographic axes, and the angles the axial angles of the 
crystals* To reduce these figures lo a common standard, so 
that lhe volumes shall contain equal numbers of molecules, 
the notion of molecular volumes is introduced, the arbitrary 
values of the crystaJlngraphic ues {a, h, c) being replaced by the 
topic parameters 1 (x, ^ w) H which are such that, combined with 
the axial angles, they enclose volumes which contain equal 
numbers of molecules. The actual values of the topic para- 
meters can then readily be expressed in terms of the elements of 
the crystals (the axial ratios and angles), the density, and the 
molecular weight (see Groth, Phyiikjlische Krystallographie, or 
Chemical Cryitjlfagrvphy). 

'This was done simultaneously in 1894 by \V. Muthmann and 
A. fc. El. Tut ion, the latter receiving the idea from F. Bcckc (sec 
Joutn. Ckcm. Soc. t 1896, 69, p. 507; 1905, 87, p. 1183). 




Polymorphism. — On the theory that crystal form and i tructure 
are the result of the equilibrium between the atoms and molecules 
composing the crystals, it is probable, a priori, that the same 
substance may possess different equilibrium configurations of 
sufficient stability, under favourable conditions, to form different 
crystal structures. Broadly this phenomenon is termed poly- 
morphism; however, it is necessary to examine closely the diverse 
crystal modifications in order to determine whether they are 
really of different symmetry, or whether twinning has occasioned 
the apparent difference. In the article Crystallography the 
nature and behaviour of twinned crystals receives full treat- 
ment; here it is sufficient to say that when the planes and aces 
of twinning are planes and axes of symmetry, a twin would 
exhibit higher symmetry (but remain in the same crystal system) 
than the primary crystal; and, also, if a crystal approximates 
in its axial constants to a higher system, mimetic twinning 
would increase the approximation, and the crystal would be 

In general, polysymmetric and polymorphous modifications 
suffer transformation when submitted to variations in either 
temperature or pressure, or both. The criterion whether 
a pseudo-symmetric form is a true polymorph or not consists 
in the determination of the scalar properties {e.g. density, 
specific heat, &c.) of the original and the resulting modifica- 
tion, a change being in general recorded only when polymorphism 
exists. Change of temperature usually suffices to determine 
this, though in certain cases a variation in pressure is 
necessary; for instance, sodium magnesium uranyl acetate, 
NaMg(UO»)i(CiH J Oi),-9HjO shows no change in density unless 
the observations are conducted under a considerable pressure. 
Although many pseudo-symmetric twins are transformable into 
the simpler form, yet, in some cases, a true polymorph results, 
the change being indicated, as before, by alterations in scalar 
(as well as vector) properties. 

For example, boracite forms pseudo-cubic crystals which become 
truly cubic at 265°, with a distinct change in density; Ieucite 
behaves similarly at about 560*. Again, the pyroxenes, RSiOt 
(R— Fe, Mg, Mn, 9k..), assume the forms (1) monoclinic, sometimes 
twinned so as to become pseudo-rhombic; (2) rhombic, resulting 
from the pseudo-rhombic struct urfcof (1) becoming ultramicroscopic ; 
and (3) triclinic, distinctly different from (1) and (2); (1) and (2) 
are polysymmetric modifications, while (3) and the pair (1) and (2; 
are polymorphs. 

While polysymmetry is solely conditioned by the manner 
fn which the mimetic twin is built up from the single crystals, 
there being no change in the scalar properties, and the vector 
properties being calculable from the nature of the twinning, 
m the case of polymorphism entirely different structures present 
themselves, both scalar and vector properties being altered; 
and, in the present state of our knowledge, it is impossible to 
foretell the characters of a polymorphous modification. We may 
conclude that in polymorphs the substance occurs in different 
phases (or molecular aggregations), and the equilibrium between 
these phases follows definite laws, being dependent upon tempera- 
ture and pressure, and amenable to thermodynamic treatment 
(cf. Chemical Action and Energetics). The transformation 
of polymorphs presents certain analogies to the solidification 
of a liquid. Liquids may be cooled below their freezing-point 
without solidification, the metastable (after W. Ostwald) form 
so obtained being immediately solidified on the introduction 
of a particle of the solid modification; and supersaturated 
solutions behave in a similar manner. At the same time there 
may be conditions of temperature and pressure at which poly- 
morphs may exist side by side. 

The above may be illustrated by considering the equilibrium 
between rhombic and monoclinic sulphur. The former, which is 
deposited from solutions, is transformed into monoclinic sulphur 
at about 96*, but with great care it is possible to overheat it and 
even to fuse it (at 113-5°) without effecting the transformation. 
Monoclinic sulphur, obtained by crystallizing fused sulphur, melts 
at 1 19-5°, and admits of undercooling even to ordinary temperatures, 
but contact with a fragment of the rhombic modification spontane- 
ously brings about the transformation. From Reichcr's determina- 
tions, the exact transition point is 05-6°: it rises with increasing 
e about 0-05° for one atmosphere ; the density of the rhombic 


the elevation of the 
The overheating curve of 

F10. 6. 

form is greater than that of the moaodinic The equilibria of these 

modifications may be readily represented on a pressure-temperature 

'iagram. If OT, OP (fig. 6), be the axes of temperature and pressure, 

nd A corresponds to the transition point (95*6 ) of rhombic sulphur, 

we may follow out the line AB which 1 
transition point with increasing pressure, 
rhombic sulphur extends along the curve 
AC, where C is the melting-point of 
monoclinic sulphur. The line BC, repre- 
senting the equilibrium between mono-, 
clinic and liquid sulphur, is thermo- 
dynamicaily calculable; the point B is 
found to correspond to 131 and 400 
atmospheres. From B the curve of 
equilibrium (BD) between rhombic and 
liouid sulphur proceeds; and from C 
(along CE) the curve of equilibrium 
between liquid sulphur and sulphur 
vapour. Of especial interest is the 
curve BD: along Lhii line liquid and 
rhombic sulphur are in equilibrium, which 
tneanj that at above 131 and 400 atmosphere* the rhombic (and 
not the monoclinic) variety would frtparate from liquid sulphur. 

Mercuric iodide also exhibit* dimorphism. When precipitated 
from solutions it forms red tetragonal crystals, which, on careful 
heating* give a yellow rhombic form* also obtained by crystallization 
from the (used substance, or by sublimation. The transition point 
ts 1 2 6- j {VV : Sdi wart. Z*it.f. Krvit. x$> p 0)3), but both modifica- 
tions may exist in metastable I amis at higher and lower temperatures 
respectively; the rhombic form may be cooled down to ordinary 
temperature without changing, the transformation, however, being 
readily induced! by a trace of the red modification, or by friction. 
The density and specific heat of the tetragonal form are greater 
than thrwc of the yellow, 

Hexach lor ethane is trimorphous, forming rhombic, triclinic and 
cubic crystals; the successive changes occur at about 44* and 71*, 
and are attended by a decrease in density. 

Tetramorphism is exhibited by ammonium nitrate. According to 
O. Lehmann it melts at 168* (or at a slightly lower temperature in 
its water of crystallisation) and on cooling forms optically isotropic 
crystals; at I25-6* the mass becomes doubly refracting, and from 
a solution rhombohcdral (optically uniaxial) crystals are deposited; 
by further cooling acicular rhombic crystals are produced at 82*8*, 
and at 32*4° other rhombic forms are obtained, identical with the 
product obtained by crystallizing at ordinary temperatures. The 
reverse series of transformations occurs when this final modification 
is heated. M. Bcllatl and R. Romanese (ZeiL f. Kryst. 14, p. 78) 
determined the densities and specific heats of these modifications. 
The first and third transformations (reckoned in order with in- 
creasing temperature of the transition point) are attended by an 
increase in volume, the second with a contraction: the solubility 
follows the same direction, increasing up to 82*8*, then diminishing 
up to 125*6*, and then increasing from this temperature upwards. 

The physical conditions under which polymorphous modifica- 
tions are prepared control the form which the substance assumes. 
We have already seen that temperature and pressure exercise 
considerable influence in this direction. In the case of separation 
from solutions, either by crystallization or by precipitation by 
double decomposition, the temperature, the concentration of 
the solution, and the presence of other ions may modify the 
form obtained. In the case of sodium dihydrogen phosphate, 
NaHjPCVHiO, a stable rhombic form is obtained from warm 
solutions, while a different, unstable, rhombic form is obtained 
from cold solutions. Calcium carbonate separates as hexagonal 
calcite from cold solutions (below 30°), and as rhombic aragonite 
from solutions at higher temperatures; lead and strontium 
carbonates, however, induce the separation of aragonite at lower 
temperatures. From supersaturated solutions the form unstable 
at the temperature of the experiment is, as a rule, separated, 
especially on the introduction of a crystal of the unstable form; 
and, in some cases, similar inoculation of the fused substance 
is attended by the same result. Different modifications may 
separate and exist side by side at one and the same time from 
a solution; e.g. telluric add forms cubic and monoclinic crystals 
from a hot nitric acid solution, and ammonium fJuosilicate gives 
cubic and hexagonal forms from aqueous solutions between 
6° and 13 . 

A comparison of the transformation of polymorphs leads to 
a twofold classification: (1) polymorphs directly convertible 
in a reversible manner— termed " enantiotropk " by O. Lehmann 
and (2) polymorphs in which the transformation proceeds in 
one direction only— termed " monotropic." In the first, clam 




are included sulphur and ammonium nitrate; monotropy if 
exhibited by aragonite and calcite. 

It is doubtful indeed whether any general conclusions can yel 
be drawn as to the relations between crystal structure and scalar 
properties and the relative stability of polymorphs. As a 
general rule the modification stable at higher temperatures 
possesses a lower density; but this is by no means always the 
case, since the converse is true for antimonious and arsenious 
oxides, silver iodide and some other substances. Attempts to 
connect a change of symmetry with stability show equally a lack, 
of generality. It is remarkable that a great many polymorphous 
substances assume more symmetrical forms at higher tempera- 
tures, and a possible explanation of the increase in density of 
such compounds as silver iodide, &c., may be sought for in the 
theory that the formation of a more symmetrical configuration 
would involve a drawing together of the molecules, and conse- 
quently an increase in density. The insufficiency of this argu- 
ment, however, is shown by the data for arsenious and anti- 
monious oxides, and also for the polymorphs of calcium carbonate, 
the more symmetrical polymorphs having a lower density. 

Morphotropy. — Many instances have been recorded where sub- 
stitution has effected a deformation in one particular direction, 
the crystals of homologous compounds often exhibiting the same 
angles between faces situated in certain zones. The observations 
of Slavik (Zed. /. Kryst., 1902, 36, p. 268) on ammonium and 
the quaternary ammonium iodides, of J. A. Le Bel and A. Ries 
(Zeit.f. Kryst., 1902, 1004, et seq.) on the substituted ammonium 
Chlorplatinatcs, and of G. Mea (ibid., 1901, 35, p. 242) on 
substituted Ureas, illustrate this point 

Ammonium iodide assumes cubic forms with perfect cubic cleavage ; 
tetramechyl ammonium iodide is tetragonal with perfect cleavages 
parallel to |ioo) and 1 001}— a difference due to the lengthening of 
the a axes; tctraethyl ammonium iodide also assumes tetragonal 
forms, but docs not exhibit the cleavage of the tetramethyl com- 
pound ; while tetrapropyl ammonium iodide crystallizes in rhombic 
The equivalent volumes and topic parameters are tabulated : 











Froui these figures It ts Goviuui that the first three compounds 
form ■ morphotroptc series; the, equivalent volumes exhibit a 
regular prcgn^akm; the value* of x and M\ corresponding to the a 
axes, on* regularly increased, while the value of w, corresponding 
to the c axt*, ncmaijw practically unchanged, Thi* points to the 
conclusion that substitution has been effected fa one of the cube 
faces. We may therefore regard the nitrogen atoms at occupying 
the cer 1 1 1 e* of a c u bic space tat tie* com pc*ed of Iodine atoms, bet wee n 
which the hydrogen atoms are distributed on the tetrahedron face 
norma i>. Cophinar substitution in four hydrogen atom* would 
involv the pushing apart of the iodine atoms in four horizon La I 
direct! * n*. The magnitude of this separation would obviously 
depend on the magnitude ol the eubstiiucnt group, which may he 
so hug > tin this case propyl is sufficient} ns to cause unequal horizontal 
deforo jdon and at the samt time a change In the vertical direction. 

The measure of the loss of symmetry associated with the intro- 
duction of alkyl groups depends upon the relative magnitudes 
of the substituent group and the rest of the molecule; and the 
larger the molecule, the less would be the morphotropic effect 
of any particular substituent. The mere retention of the same 
crystal form by homologous substances is not a sufficient reason 
for denying a morphotropic effect to the substituent group; 
for, in the case of certain substances crystallizing in the cubic 
system, although the crystal form remains unaltered, yet the 
structures vary. When both the crystal form and structure are 
retained, the substances arc said to be isomorphous. 

Other substituent groups exercise morphotropic effects similar 
to those exhibited by the alkyl radicles; investigations have 
been made on halogen-, hydroxy-, and nitro-dcrivatives of 
benzene and substituted benzenes. To Jaeger is due the deter- 
mination of the topic parameters of certain haloid-derivatives, 1 
and, wh»lc showing that the morphotropic effects closely resemble 
those occasioned by methyl, he established the important fact ! 

[ that, in general, the crystal form depended upon the orientation 
of the subslituents in the benzene complex. 

Benzoic acid is pseudo-tetragonal, the principal axis being remark- 
ably long; there is no cleavage at right angles to this axis. Direct 
nitration gives (principally) m-nitrobenzoic acid, also pseudo- 
tetragonal with a much shorter principal axis. From this two 
chlornitrobenzoic acids [COOH-NOrCI « x . 3 . 6 and 1 . 3 . 4l may be 
obtained. These are also pscudotetragonal; the (1.3.6) acid has 
nearly the same values of x and <i> as benzoic acid, but t$ is increased ; 
compared with HMnitrobenzoic acid, x and ^ have been diminished, 
whereas i* is much increased; the (1.3.4) ac ^ ** more closely 
related to w-nirrobenzoic acid, * and f being increased, a diminished. 
The results obtained for the (r. 2) and (1. 4) chlorbenzok adds also 
illustrate the dependence of crystal form and structure on the 
orientation of the molecule. 

The hvdroxvt group also resembles the methyl group in its morpho- 
tropic effects, producing in many cases, no change in symmetry but 
a dimensional increase in one direct Ion. This holds for benzene and 
pheW, and is supported by the observations of Cossner on [1. 3.5I 
tri nitrobenzene and picric acid (1.3.5-trinitro, 2 oxybenzenej: 
these last two substances assume rhombic forms, and picric aad 
differs from trinitrobenzene in having « considerably greater, 
with x and ^ slightly less. A similar change, in one direction only, 
characterizes benzoic acid and salicylic acid. 

The nitro group behaves very similarly to the hydroxyl group. 
The effect of varying the position of the nitro group in the molecule 
is well marked, and conclusions may be drawn as to the orientation 
of the groups from a knowledge 01 the crystal form ; a change in 
the symmetry of the chemical molecule being often attended by a 
loss in the symmetry of the crystal. 

It may be generally concluded that the substitution of alkyl, 
nitro, hydroxyl, and haloid groups for hydrogen in a molecule 
occasions a deformation of crystal structure in one definite 
direction, hence permitting inferences as to the configuration 
of the atoms composing the crystal; while the nature and degree 
of the alteration depends (1) upon the crystal structure of the 
unsubstituted compound; (2) on the nature of the substituting 
radicle; (3) on the complexity of the substituted molecule; 
and (4) on the orientation of the substitution derivative. 

Isomorphism. — It has been shown that certain elements and 
groups exercise morphotropic effects when substituted in a 
compound; it may happen that the effects due to two or more 
groups are nearly equivalent, and consequently the resulting 
crystal forms are nearly identical. This phenomenon was first 
noticed in 1822 by £. Mitschcrlich, in the case of the add phos- 
phate and acid arsenate of potassium, KH»P(As)Qfc who adopted 
the term isomorphism, and regarded phosphorus and arsenic as 
isomorpbously related elements. Other isomorphously related 
elements and groups were soon perceived, and it has been shown 
that elements so related are also related chemically. 

Tutton's investigations of the morphotropic effects of the metals 
potassium, rubidium and caesium, in combination with the acid 
radicals of sulphuric and selcnic acids, showed that the replacement 
of potassium by rubidium, and this metal in turn by caesium.was 
accompanied by progressive changes in both physical and crystal- 
lographicai properties, such that the rubidium salt was always inter- 
mediate between the salts of potassium and caesium (see table: 
the space unit is taken as a pseudo-hexagonal prism). This fact finds 
a parallel in the atomic weights of these metals. 










4401 4-997 
4004 5237 
4M5 5519 

71-71 4-636 4-662 5-n8 
7995 4*7»5 4*8*6 5 ' 
9116 4-9 g 7 5-Q3S 5 


By taking appropriate differences the following facts will be 
observed: (I) the replacement of potassium by rubidium occasions 
an increase in the equivalent volumes by about eight units, and of rubi- 
dium by caesium by about eleven units; (2) replacement in the same 
order is attended by a general increase in the three topic parameters, a 
greater increase being met with in the replacement of rubidium by 
trae^ium; (3) the parameters x and ^ are about equally increased, 
while the increase in w is always the greatest. Now consider the 
effect of replacing sulphur by selenium. Jt will be seen that (1) the 
increase in equivalent volume is about 6-6: (2) all the topic para- 
meters arc increased; (3) the greatest increase is effected in the 
parameters \ and ^, which are equally lengthened. • 

These observations admit of ready explanation in the following 




manner. The ordinary structural formula of potassium sulphate is 

K-o-s-o-K. If the crystal structure be regarded as composed of 

three interpenetrating point systems, one consisting of sulphur 
atoms, the second of four times as many oxygen atoms, and the 
third of twice as many potassium atoms, the systems being soarranged 
that the sulphur system is always centrally situated with respect 
to the other two, and the potassium system so that it would affect 
the vertical axis, then it is obvious that the replacement of potassium 
by an element of greater atomic weight would specially increase the 
length of « (corresponding to the vertical axis), and cause a smaller 
increase in the horizontal parameters (jr. and 4>); moreover, the 
increments would advance with the atomic weight of the replacing 
metal. If, on the other hand, the sulphur system be replaced by a 
corresponding selenium system, an element of higher atomic weight, 
it would be expected that a slight increase would be observed in the 
vertical parameter, and a greater increase recorded equally in the 
horizontal parameters. 

Muthmann (Zeit.f. KrysU, 1804), in his researches on the tetragonal 
potassium and ammonium dihydrogen phosphates and arsenates. 
found that the replacement of potassium by ammonium was attended 
by an increase of about six units in the molecular volume, and of 
phosphorus by arsenic by about 4*6 units. In the topic parameters 
the following changes were recorded : replacement of potassium by 
ammonium was attended by a considerable increase in «, x and i> 
being equally, but only slightly, increased; replacement of phos- 
phorus by arsenic was attended by a considerable increase^ equally 
in x and y, while ta suffered a smaller, but not inconsiderable, increase. 
It is thus seen that the ordinary plane representation of the structure 
of compounds possesses a higher significance than could have been 
suggested prior to crystallographical researches. 

Identity, or approximate identity, of crystal form is not in 
itself sufficient to establish true isomorphism. If a substance 
deposits itself on the faces of a crystal of another substance 
of similar crystal form, the substances are probably isomorphous. 
Such parallel overgrowths, termed episomorphs, are very common 
among the potassium and sodium felspars; and K. von Hauer 
has investigated a number of cases in which salts exhibiting 
episomorphism have different colours, thereby clearly demonstrat- 
ing this property of isomorphism. For example, episomorphs 
of white potash alum and violet chrome alum, of white mag- 
nesium sulphate and green nickel sulphate, and of many other 
pairs of salts, have been obtained. More useful is the property 
of isomorphous substances of forming mixed crystals, which 
are strictly isomorphous with their constituents, for all variations 
in composition. In such 
crystals each component 
plays its own part in de- 
termining the physical pro- 
perties; in other words, 
any physical constant of a 
mixed crystal can be cal- 
anwi.-X culat J cd « additively com- 
posed of the constants of 
the two components. 

Fig. 7 represents the 
specific volumes of mixtures 
of ammonium and potassium 
sulphates; the ordinate* re- 
presenting specific volumes, 
and the abscissae the per- 
centage composition of the 
mixture. Fig. 8 6hows the 
v KAh.m-e\ variation of refractive index 

HA*.-.* tiajmmi-* of mixed crystals of potash 

FiO 8. alum and thallium alum with 

variation in composition. 
In these two instances the component crystals are miscible in all 
proportions; but this is by no means always the case. It may 
happen that the crystals do hot form double salts, and are only 
miscible in certain proportions. Two cases then arise: (1) the 
properties may be expressed as linear functions of the composition, 
the terminal values being identical with those obtained for the 
individual components, and there being a break in the curve corre- 
sponding to the absence of mixed crystals; or (2) similar to (1) except 
that different values must be assigned to the terminal values in order 
to preserve collinearity. Fig. 9 illustrates the first case : the ordi nates 
represent specific volumes, and the abscissae denote the composition 
of isomorphous mixtures of ammonium and potassium dihydrogen 
phosphates, which mutually take one another up to the extent of 
20% to form homogeneous crystals. The second! case is illustrated 
in fig. 10. Magnesium sulphate (orthorhombic) takes up ferrous 

sulphate (monoclinic) to the extent of 19%, forming Isomorphous 
orthorhombic crystals; ferrous sulphate, on the other hand, takes 
up magnesium sulphate to the extent of 54% to form monoclinic 
crystals. By plotting the specific volumes of these mixed crystals 
as ordi nates, it is found that they fall on two lines, the upper corre- 
sponding to the orthorhombic crystals, the lower to the monoclinic. 
From this we may conclude that these salts are isodimorphous: 
the upper line represents isomorphous crystals of stable orthorhombic 
magnesium sulphate and unstable orthorhombic ferrous sulphate, 
the lower line isomor- 
phous crystals of stable 
monoclinic ferrous sul- 
phate and unstable 
monoclinic magnesium 

An important distinc- 
tion separates true mixed 
crystals and crystallized 
double salts, for in the 
latter the properties are 
not linear functions of 
the properties of the 
components; generally 
there is a contraction in 
volume, while the re- 
fractive indices and other 
physical properties do 
not, in general, obey the 
additive law. _ 

Isomorphism is most i7 H,o=.~% 
clearly discerned be- 
tween elements of 
analogous chemical properties; and from the wide generality 
of such observations attempts have been made to form a classifica- 
tion of elements based on isomorphous replacements. The 
following table shows where isomorphism may be generally 
expected. The elements are arranged in eleven scries, and the 
series are subdivided (as indicated by semicolons) into groups; 
these groups exhibit partial isomorphism with the other groups 
of the same series (see W. Nernst, Theoretical Chemistry). 

Series 1: CI, Br, I. F; Mn (in permanganates). 

2. S, Se; Te (in tellundes); Cr, Mn, Te On the acids 

H,RO«) ; As, Sb Cm the glances MRO. 

3. As, Sb, Bi; Te (as an element); P, Vd (in salts); N, 
P (in organic bases). 

Fig. 7. 


Fig. 10. 

4. K,Na,Cs,Rb.Li; fl, Ag. 

5. Ca, Ba, Sr. Pb; Fc, Zn. Mn, Me; Ni, Co, Cu; Ce, La, 

Di, Er, Y, Ca; Cu, Hg, Pb; Cd, Be, In, Zn; Tl, Pb. 

6. Al, Fe, Cr, Mn; Ce, U (in sesauiorides). 

J. Cu, Ag (when monovalent); Au. 

. Pt, Ir, Pd, Rh. Ru, Os: Au, Fe. Ni; Sn, Te. 

9. C, Si. Ti, Zr, Th, Sn; Fe. Ti. 

10. Ta, Cb (Nb). 

11. Mo.W, Cr. 

For a detailed comparison of the isomorphous relations of the. 
elements the reader is referred to P. von Groth, Chemical Crystal- 
lography. Reference may also be made to Ida Freund, The Study 
of Chemical Composition-, and to the Annual Reports of the Chemical 

Society for 190K p. 25& . . 

Bibliography _ History. F. H«fer, Eistoire it la cktmte (and 
at, iSb6-iS6o); Hermann Kopu, Cesckichic der Chemie (1869), 
Entxrickclung dc? Chemie in d. neueren Zedt (1871-1874); £. von 
Meyer; Geschichle der Chemie (3rd ed M 1905. Edg. trans.); A. 
Ladenburg, Enrmchetttngipescliickte der Chemte (4th cd. F 1907); A* 
Stange, Die ZeitoJter der Chemie (loofl}. Reference may also be 
made toM.M. PaLtlson Muir. History of Chemical Theories and Laws 
C1907); Ida Freund, Study of Chtrmcal Composition (1904); T. E. 
Thorpe, Essayt in Historical Chemistry (»na ed., 1903) See also, 
the article ALCHEMY. 

Principles owd Physical.— W. Oswald, Principles of Inorganic 
Chemistry (3rd En*, cd., ioo8). Outlines of General Chemtstry, 
Lchrbvth det oltgenttwen Chemie: W. Nernet. ThevrMisehe Chemie 
<4t ti rd., 1907, Eng, tmna,) ' J. H, van't Hoft\ Letlvrts o« Theoretical 
and Physical Chemistry ■ J . Walter Introduction to FhyiimI Chemistry 
{4th ed., 1007) j H. C Jones, Outlines of Physical Chemistry (1903); 
D. MendcicefT, Principles of Chemistry {3rd ed., 1905). 

Inorganic. — Robcgc and Scliorlemmer, Inorganic Chemistry (3rd 
ed., Noivmetali, 1905; Mrtals,^ 1007)7 R. AbcRp T Eondbuch der 
anorganisfken Chemie; Gmelin-Kraut. Handbvch der anarganischen, 
Ckrmiei Q. Dammcr* flandbuch dtr aRorganischen Chemie; H* 
Moiasan, Chimie mineraie* 

Organic — F. Betlstein. Eandbvcb der organist hen Ch*mit\ M. M. 
Ric titer f Lniknn der KohirnitofftterbtTidungrn (these ore primarily 
works or reference) ; V. Meyer and I*. H. Jacobson, Lehrbuch der 
ortanischen Chemie\ Rkhter-Anschutz, Organische Chemie (l Ith ed., 



Vol. t, 1909, Eng, trans,); G* K, Schmidt. Kttrtes Lehrbuch der 
organitchfn Chzmte; A- Bernthsen> Org.tni.ithr ChemU [ting- trans, V. 
Practical methods are treated in Lassar-Cohn, Arbeitsmttkoden fur 
organiich-ikemisfke LahoTatotien (4th ed.. 1906-1907)4 Select chap- 

Cohen. Organic Chemistry U90HJ ; A, W* Stewart, Recent Advances in 
Organic Chemistry (tooS); and in a sent* of pamphlet* issued since 
1896 with the title Sammlvng ehtmischer and dmnisth'techmKtur 

ten are treated in A. Lachmann, Spirit <qf Organit Chemistry i J> 

Cohen. Org 

Organic Cn 

1896 with 


Analytical.— Vqt Blowpipe Analysis: C* F. V\&ttmr*Probirkarttt 
mit dem Lethrvhr, For General Analysis: C R. Ffcsenius, Qualita- 
tive and Quantity lite Analysis, Enjj. trans, by Q> E. Groves {Qualita- 
tive. 1887) and A* 1- Colin (Quantitative, 1903); F. R Tread well, 
Ktirtts Ltbrlrueh der anniytischen Chemie (1905): F* Julian, Textbook 
of Quonliialite Chemical Analysis (1004)^ A, Classen, Aitsgewahlie 
Mtthoden der analytisctus Chemie (1 901-1501) ; VV. Crookes, Select 
Methods in Chemical Analysis {1&94). Volumetric Analysis: 
F* 5utton> Systematic Handbook of Volumetric Analysis (1904}: 
F, Mohr* Lehrbuch der chemisch-aNalytiszhes Titrirmclkode [jn). 
Organic Analysis: Hans Meyer, Analyse uttd Ktmsffixtiejucrmittfunr 
organist ktr Verbindungen (1909) ; Wilhclm Vatibcl. Die physikalischen 
una chemischen Methoden der quanlitatiirn Bestimmung prganiichcr 
Verkindttngrn. For the historical development of thti proximate 
analysis of organic compound a see M* E* H- Dcrnitstedt. Die Enteric ke- 
Ittng der orgatiischen EicnunUtranalyit (1^99)* 

Encyclopaedias.— The early dictionaries nf Muspratt and Watts 
are out of date; there lb 4 brer edition of the latter by H< F, Morley 
and M. M. f\ Muir A,. Ladcnhunj, Hand^atterbuch der Chemie r 
A. \Vurt*, Diciicmnaire de chimie t and F. SeLuii. Ettcidapedia di 
chimica. are more valuable; the latter two are kept up lo date by supplements. (C- L. ") 

CHEMNITZ (or Kemnitz), MARTIN (1522-1586), German 
Lutheran theologian, third son of Paul Kemnitz, a cloth-worker 
of noble extraction, was born at Treuenbrietzen, Brandenburg, 
on the 9th of November 1522. Left an orphan at the age of 
eleven, he worked for a time at his father's trade. A relative at 
Magdeburg put him to school there (1530-1 542). Having made a 
little money by teaching, he went (1543) to the university of 
Frankfort-on-Oder; thence (1545) to that of Wittenberg. Here 
he heard Luther preach, but was more attracted by Mclanchthon, 
who interested him in mathematics and astrology. Mclanchthon 
gave him (1547) an introduction to his son-in-law, Georg Sabinus, 
at Kdnigsberg, where he was tutor to some Polish youths, and 
rector (1548) of the Kneiphof school He practised astrology; 
this recommended him to Duke Albert of Prussia, who made him 
his librarian (1550). He then turned to Biblical, patristic and 
kindred studies. His powers were first brought out in contro- 
versy with Osiander on justification by faith. Osiander, main- 
taining the infusion of Christ's righteousness into the believer, 
impugned the Lutheran doctrine of imputation; Chemnitz 
defended it with striking ability. As Duke Albert sided with 
Osiander, Chemnitz resigned the librarianship. Returning (1 553) 
to Wittenberg, he lectured on Melanchthon's Loci Communes, his 
lectures forming the basis of his own Loci Theologies (published 
posthumously, 1591), which constitute probably the best ex- 
position of Lutheran theology as formulated and modified by 
Melanchthon. His lectures were thronged, and a university career 
of great influence lay before him,when he accepted a call to become 
coadjutor at Brunswick to the superintendent, Joachim MOrlin, 
who had known him at Kdnigsberg. He removed to Brunswick 
on the 15th of December 1554, and there spent the remainder of 
his life, refusing subsequent offers of important offices from 
various Protestant princes of Germany. Zealous in the duties of 
his pastoral charge, he took a leading part in theological con- 
troversy. His personal influence, at a critical period, did much to 
secure strictness of doctrine and compactness of organization 
in the Lutheran Church. Against Crypto-Calvinists he upheld 
the Lutheran view of the eucharist in his Rcpclitio same doctrinae 
de Vera Pratsentia (1560; in German, 1561). To check the 
reaction towards the old religion he wrote several works of great 
power, especially his Theologize Jesuitarum praecipua capita 
(1562), an incisive attack on the principles of the society, and the 
Rxamcn concilii Tridentini (four parts, 1565-66-72-73), his 
greatest work. His Corpus doctrinae Prutenicum (1567), drawn 
up in conjunction with MOrlin, at once acquired great authority. 
In the year of its publication he became superintendent of 
Brunswick, and in effect the director of. his church throughout 
Lower Saxony. His tact was equal to his learning. In conjunc- 

Kunze in A. 
[1897); that by 
W. cash. (1858), 
(A. Go.*) 

tion with Andrea and Selnecker he induced the Lutherans of 
Saxony and Swabia to adopt the Formula Concordiae and so 
become one body. Against lax views of Sodnian tendency he 
directed his able treatise De duabus naturis in Ckristo (1570),. 
Resigning office in infirm health (1584) he survived till the 8th of 
April 1586. 

Lives of Chemnitz are numerous, e.g. by J. Gasmerus (1588). 
T. Presscl (1862), C. G. H. Lent* (1866), H. Hachfeld (186701. 
Scbmid in J. J. Herzog's Realencyklojpadie (-•-•* * «'--— *- * 
Hauck's ReoJencyklop. J£r prot. TheoC. und J 
Hausle, in I. Goschlers Diet, encyclopidique c 
gives a R oman Catholic view. 

CHEMNITZ, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Saxony, 
the capital of a governmental district, 50 m. W.S.W. of Dresden 
and 51 S.E. of Leipzig by rail. Pop. (1885) 110,817; (1895) 
161,0x7; (1005) 244,405. It lies 950 ft. above the sea, in a 
fertile plain at the foot of the Erzgcbirge, watered by the 
river Chemnitz, an affluent of the Mulde. It is the chief 
manufacturing town in the kingdom, ranks next to Dresden 
and Leipzig in point of population, and is one of the principal 
commercial and industrial centres of Germany. It is well 
provided with railway communication, being directly connected 
with Berlin and with the populous and thriving towns of the 
Erzgcbirge and Voigtland. Chemnitz is in general well built, 
the enormous development of its industry and commerce having 
of late years led to the laying out of many fine streets and 
to the embellishing of the town with handsome buildings. The 
centre is occupied by the market square, with the handsome 
medieval Rathaus, now superseded for municipal business by a 
modern building in the Post-strasse. In this square are monu- 
ments to. the emperor William L, Bismarck and Moltke. The 
old inner town is surrounded by pleasant promenades, occupying 
the site of the old fortifications, and it is beyond these that 
industrial Chemnitz lies, girdling the old town on all sides with a 
thick belt of streets and factories, and ramifying far into the 
country. Chemnitz has eleven Protestant churches, among 
them the ancient Gothic church of St James, with a fine porch, 
and the modern churches of St Peter, St Nicholas and St Mark. 
There are also a synagogue and chapels of various sects. The 
industry of Chemnitz has gained for the town the name of 
" Saxon Manchester." First in importance are its locomotive 
and engineering works, which give employment to some 20,000 
hands in 00 factories. Next come its cotton-spinning, hosiery, 
textile and glove manufactures, in which a large trade is done 
with Great Britain and the United States. It is also the seat 
of considerable dyeworks, bleachworks, chemical and woollen 
factories, and produces leather and straps, cement, small vehicles, 
wire-woven goods, carpets, beer and bricks. The town is well 
provided with technical schools for training in the various 
industries, including commercial, public, economic and agri- 
cultural schools, and has a chamber of commerce. There are 
also industrial and historical museums, and collections of paint- 
ing and natural history. The local communications are main- 
tained by an excellent electric tramway system. To the north- 
west of the town is the Gothic church of a former Benedictine 
monastery, dating from 1514-1525, with a tower of 1897. 
Chemnitz is a favourite tourist centre for excursions into the 
Erzgcbirge, the chain of mountains separating Saxony from 

Chemnitz (Kaminiii) was originally a settlement of the 
Sorbian Wends and became a market town in 1 143. Its municipal 
constitution dates from the 14th century, and it soon became the 
most important industrial centre in the mark of Meissen. A 
monopoly of bleaching was granted to the town, and thus a 
considerable trade in woollen and linen yarns was attracted to 
Chemnitz; paper was made here, and in the 16th century the 
manufacture of cloth was very flourishing. In x 539 the Reforma- 
tion was introduced, and in 1546 the Benedictine monastery, 
founded about 1136 by the emperor Lothair II. about 2 m. north 
of the town, was dissolved." During the Thirty Years' War 
Chemnitz was plundered by all parties and its trade was com- 
pletely ruined, but at the beginning of the 18th century it had 
begun to recover. Further progress in this direction was made 



during the 19th century, especially after 1834 when Saxony 
joined the German Zollvcrein. 

See Zollncr, Gtschickte der Fabrik- und TTandehstadt Chemnitz 
(1891) ; and Straumer, Die Fabrik- und Handehstadt Chemnitz (1892). 

CHEMOTAXIS (from the stem of " chemistry" and Gr. rd(t*, 
arrangement), a biological term for the attraction exercised on 
living or growing organisms or their members by chemical 
substances, e.g. the attraction of the male cells of ferns or 
mosses by an organic acid or sugar-solution. 

CHEHAB (the Greek Acesines), one of the " Five rivers " of the 
Punjab, India. It rises in the snowy Himalayan ranges of 
Kashmir, enters British territory in the Sialkot district, and flows 
through the plains of the Punjab, forming the boundary between 
the Rechna and the Jech Doabs. Finally it joins the Jhclum 
at Trimmu. 

The Chenab Colony, resulting from the great success of the 
Chenab Canal in irrigating the desert of the Bar, was formed out 
of the three adjacent districts of Gujranwala, Jhang, and 
Montgomery in 1892, and contained in roox a population of 
701,861. It lies in the Rechna Doab between the Chenab and 
Ravi rivers in the north-cast of the Jhang district, and is designed 
to include an irrigated area of 2 J million acres. The Chenab 
canal (opened 1887) is the largest and most profitable per- 
ennial canal in India. The principal town is Lyallpur, called after 
Sir J. Broadwood Lyall, lieutenant-governor of the Punjab 1887- 
1S92, which gives its name to a district created in 1004. 

French poet, was born at Vire (Calvados) on the 4th of November 
1769. He early showed a vocation for poetry, but the outbreak 
of the Revolution temporarily diverted his energy. Emigrating 
in 1 791, he fought two campaigns in the army of Conde*, and 
eventually found his way to Hamburg, where he met Anloinc de 
Rivarol, of whose brilliant conversation he has left an account. 
He also visited Mme de St ad in her retreat at Coppet. On his 
return to Paris in 1709 he met Chateaubriand and his sister 
Lucfle (Mme de Caud), to whom he became deeply attached. 
After her death in 1804, Chenedoll6 returned to Normandy, 
where he married and became eventually inspector of the 
academy of Caen (181 2-183 2). With the exception of occasional 
visits to Paris, he spent the rest of his life in his native province. 
He died at the chateau de Coisel on the 2nd of December 1833. 
He published his Genie de VHomme in 1807, and in 1820 his 
iiudes pottiques, which had the misfortune to appear shortly 
after the Meditations of Lamartine, so that the author did not 
receive the credit of their real originality. ChCnedolle' had many 
sympathies with the romanticists, and was a contributor to their 
organ, the Afusefrancaise. His other works include the Esprit de 
Rivarol (1808) in conjunction with F. J. M. Fayolle. 

The works of ChGnedollc* were edited in 1864 by Saintc-Bcuve, 
who drew portraits of him in his Chateaubriand et son groupe and in 
an article contributed to the Revue des deux mondet (June 1849). 
See alto E. Helland, Elude biographique el litUraire sur CkinedoiU 
(1S57); Cazin, Notice sur ChenedolU (1869). 

CHEHERY, THOMAS (1826-1884), English scholar and editor 
of The Times, was born in 1826 at Barbados. He was educated at 
Eton and Caius College, Cambridge. Having been called to the 
bar, he went out to Constantinople as The Times correspondent 
just before the Crimean War, and it was under the influence there 
of Algernon Smythe (afterwards Lord Strangford) that he first 
turned to those philological studies in which he became eminent. 
After the war he returned to London and wrote regularly for The 
Times for many years, eventually succeeding Dclane as editor in 
1877. He was then an experienced publicist, particularly well 
versed in Oriental affairs, an indefatigable worker, with a rapid 
and comprehensive judgment, though he lacked Dclane's 
intuition for public opinion. It was as an Orientalist, however, 
that he had meantime earned the highest reputation, his 
knowledge of Arabic and Hebrew being almost unrivalled and his 
gift for languages exceptional. In 1868 he was appointed Lord 
Almoner's professor of Arabic at Oxford, and retained his 
position until he became editor of The Times. He was one of the 
company of revisers of t he Old Testament. He was secretary foe 

some time to the Royal Asiatic Society, and published learned 
editions of the Arabic classic The Assemblies of Al- Hariri and of 
the Machberolk It hid. He died in London on the xith of 
February 1884. 

CHENG, Tscheng or Tschiang (Ger. Scheng), an ancient 
Chinese wind instrument, a primitive organ, containing the 
principle of the free reed which found application in the accordion, 
concertina and harmonium. The cheng resembles a tea-pot 
filled with bamboo pipes of graduated lengths. It consists of a 
gourd or turned wooden receptacle acting as wind reservoir, in 
the side of which is inserted an insufflation tube curved like a 
swan's neck or the spout of a tea-pot. The cup-shaped reservoir 
is closed by means of a plate of horn pierced with seventeen round 
holes arranged round the edge in an unfinished circle, into which 
fit the bamboo pipes. The pipes are cylindrical as far as they are 
visible above the plate, but the lower end inserted in the wind 
reservoir is cut to the shape of a beak, somewhat like the mouth- 
piece of the clarinet, to receive the reed. The construction of the 
free reed is very simple: it consists of a thin plate of metal — gold 
according to the Jesuit missionary Joseph Amiol, 1 but brass in 
the specimens brought to Europe — of the thickness of ordinary 
paper. In this plate is cut a rectangular flap or tongue which 
remains fixed at one end, while at the other the tongue is filed so' 
that, instead of closing the aperture, it passes freely through, 
vibrating as the air is forced through the pipe (see Free- Reed 
Vibrator). The metal plate is fastened with wax longitudinally 
across the diameter of the beak end of the pipe, a little layer of 
wax being applied also to the free end of the vibrating tongue for 
the purpose of tuning by adding weight and impetus. About 
half an inch above the horn plate a small round hole or stop is 
bored through the pipe, which speaks only when this hole is 
covered by the finger. A longitudinal aperture about an inch 
long cut in the upper end of the bamboo pipe serves to determine 
the length of the vibrating column of air proper to respond to the 
vibrations of the free reed. The length of the bamboo above this 
opening is purely ornamental, as arc also four or five of the 
seventeen pipes which have no reeds and do not speak, being 
merely inserted for the purposes of symmetry in design. The 
notes of the cheng, like those of the concertina, speak either by 
inspiration or expiration of air, the former being the more usual 
method. Mahillon states that performers on the cheng in China 
are rare, as the method of playing by inspiration induces in- 
flammation of the throat.* Amiot, who gives a description of the 
instrument with illustrations showing the construction, states 
that in the great Chinese encyclopaedia Eulh-ya, articles Yu and 
Ho, the Yu of ancient China was the large cheng with nineteen 
free reeds (twenty-four pipes), and the Ho the small cheng with 
thirteen reeds or seventeen pipes described in this article. The 
compass of the latter is given by him as the middle octave with 
chromatic intervals, the thirteenth note giving the octave of the 
first. Mahillon gives the compass of a modern cheng as follows: 

14 4 or 8 j j or 6 xa 

E. F. F. Chladni,' who examined a cheng sent from China to Herr 
Muller, organist of the church of St Nicholas, Leipzig, at the 
beginning of the 19th century, gives an excellent description of 
the -instrument, reproducing in illustration a plate from Giulio 
Fcrrario's work on costume. 4 Mutter's cheng. had the same 
compass as Mahillon's. Chladni's article was motived by the 
publication of an account of the exhibition of G. J. Grenie's 
Orgue expressif, invented about 1810, in the Conservatoire of 

» MC moire sur la musique des Chinois (Paris, 1779), pp. 78 and 8a, 
pi. vi., or Mf moire sur Us Chinois, tome vi. pi. vi. 

* Catalogue descriptif, vol. ii. (Ghent, 1896), p. 91; also vol. L 
(1880), pp. 29. 44, 154. 

a " Wcitere Nachrichten von dem . . . chinesischen Blasinstru* 
mente Ttcbeng oder Tschiang," in Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung 
(Leipai«. 1821). Bd. xxtii. No. 22, pp.369, 374 et seq., and illustration 

* P fzTc3NAnM Mffcfte • —demo (Milan. 1816). pL 66, vol. I 



Paris. 1 Grcntt's invention, perfected by Alexandre and Debain 
about 1840, produced the harmonium. Kratzenstein (see under 
Harmonium) of §t Petersburg was the first to apply the free 
reed to the organ in the second half of the 18th century. In- 
ventions of similar instruments, which after a short life were 
relegated to oblivion, followed at the beginning of the 19th 
century. An interesting reproduction of a Persian cheng dating 
from the xoth or nth century is to be seen on a Persian vase 
described and illustrated together with a shawm in the Gazette 
archiotogique (tome xi., 1886). (K. S.) 

CH&N-HAI [CmNHAi),a district town of China, in the province 
of Cheh-kiang, at the mouth of the Yung-kiang, 12 m. N.E. 
of Ningpo, in 29° 58' N., 1 2 1° 45' E. It lies at the foot of a hill on 
a tongue of land, and is partly protected from the sea on the N. 
by a dike about 3 m. long, composed entirely of large blocks of 
hewn granite. The walls are 20 ft. high and 3 m. in circumfer- 
ence. The defences were formerly of considerable strength, and 
included a well-built but now dismantled citadel on a precipitous 
cliff, 250 ft. high, at the extremity of the tongue of land on which 
the town is built. In the neighbourhood an engagement took 
place between the English and Chinese in 1841. 

CH&NIER, ANDRfi DE (1762-1794), French poet, was born at 
Constantinople on the 30th of October 1762. His father, Louis 
Chenier, a native of Langucdoc, after twenty years of successful 
commerce in the Levant as a cloth-merchant, was appointed to a 
position equivalent to that of French consul at Constantinople. 
His mother, Elisabeth Santi-Lomaca, whose sister was grand- 
mother of A. Thiers, was a Greek. When the poet was three 
years old his father returned to France, and subsequently from 
1 768 to 1 7 7 5 served as consul -general of France in Morocco. The 
family, of which Andr£ was the third son, and Marie- Joseph (see 
below) the fourth, remained in France; and after a few years, 
during which Andr6 ran wild with " la tante de Carcasonnc," he 
distinguished himself as a verse-translator from the classics at 
the College dc Navarre (the school in former days of Gerson and 
Bossuet) in Paris. In 1783 he obtained a cadet ship in a French 
regiment at Strassburg. But the glamour of the military life 
was as soon exhausted by Chenier as it was by Coleridge. He 
returned to Paris before the end of the year, was well received by 
his family, and mixed in the cultivated circle which frequented 
the salon of his mother, among them Lebrun-Pindare', Lavoisier, 
Lesucur, Dorat, Parmy, and a little later the painter David. He 
was already a poet by predilection, an idyllist and steeped in the 
classical archaism of the time, when, in 1784, his taste for the 
antique was confirmed by a visit to Rome made in the company 
erf two schoolfellows, the brothers Trudaine. From Naples, after 
visiting Pompeii, he returned to Paris, his mind fermenting with 
poetical images and projects, few of which he was destined to 
realize. For nearly three years, however, he was enabled to 
study and to experiment in verse without any active pressure or 
interruption from his family— three precious years in which the 
first phase of his art as a writer of idylls and bucolics, imitated to 
a large extent from Theocritus, Bion and the Greek anthologists, 
was elaborated. Among the poems written or at least sketched 
during this period were L'Oaristys, L'Aveugle, La J tunc Molade, 
Bacchus, Euphrosinc and La Jeunc Tarentine, the last a synthesis 
of his purest manner, mosaic though it is of reminiscences of at 
least a dozen classical poets. As in glyptic so in poetic art, the 
Hellenism of the time was decadent and Alexandrine rather than 
Attic of the best period. But Ch6nier is always far more than an 
imitator. La Jeunc Tarentine is a work of personal emotion and 
inspiration. The colouring is that of classic mythology, but the 
spiritual element is as individual as that of any classical poem by 
Milton, Gray, Keats or Tennyson. Apart from his idylls and his 
elegies, Chenier also experimented from early youth in didactic 
Mnd philosophic verse, and when he commenced his Hermes in 
1783 his ambition was to condense the Encyclopedic of Diderot 
into a poem somewhat after the manner of Lucretius. This poem 
was to treat of man's position in the Universe, first in an isolated 
state, and then in society. It remains fragmentary, and though 

1 See Allg. mus. Zt. (Leipzig, 1821), Bd. xxiii. Nos. 9 and io, pp. 
133 and 149 ct scq. 

some of the fragments are fine, its attempt at scientific exposition 
approximates loo closely to the manner of Erasmus Darwin to 
suit a modern ear. Another fragment called V Invention sums 
Chenier's Ars Poetic a in the verse " Sur des pensers nouvcaux, 
faisons des vers antiques." Suzanne represents the torso of a 
Biblical poem on a very large scale, in six cantos. 

In the meantime, Andre had published nothing, and some of 
these last pieces were in fact not yet written, when in November 
1787 an opportunity of a fresh career presented itself. The new 
ambassador at the court of St James's, M. de la Luzerne, was 
connected in some way with the Chenier family, and he offered to 
take Andrf with him as his secretary. The offer was too good to 
be refused, but the poet hated himself on the banks of thefiere 
Tamisc, and wrote in bitter ridicule of 

" Ces Anglais. 
Nation toutc a vend re a qui peut la payer. ( 
De contree en contree allant au monde enticr, 
Offrir sa joie ignoble et son faste grassier. " 

He seems to have been interested in the poetic diction of Milton 
and Thomson, and a few of his verses are remotely inspired by 
Shakespeare and Gray. To say, however, that he studied 
English literature would be an exaggeration. The events of 1 789 
and the startling success of his younger brother, Marie- Joseph, 
as political playwright and pamphleteer, concentrated all his 
thoughts upon France. In April 1 790 he could stand London no 
longer, and once more joined his parents at Paris in the rue 
de C16ry. 

The France that he plunged into with such impetuosity was 
upon the verge of anarchy. .A strong constitutionalist, Chenier 
took the view that the Revolution was already complete and that 
all that remained to be done was the inauguration of the reign of 
law. Moderate as were his views and disinterested as were his 
motives, his tactics were passionately and dangerously aggressive. 
From an idyllist and elegist we find him suddenly transformed 
into an unsparing master of poetical satire. His prose Avis au 
peuplc francfiis (August 24, 1790) was followed by the rhetorical 
Jeu de paume, a somewhat declamatory moral ode addressed 
" a Louis David, peintre." In the meantime he orated at the 
Feuillants Club, and contributed frequently to the Journal de 
Paris from November 1791 to July 1792, when he wrote his 
scorching Iambes to Collot d'Herbois, Sur Its Suisses reroltes du 
rtgiment de Ck&teauvicux. The 10th of August uprooted his party, 
his paper and his friends, and the management of relatives who 
kept him out of the way in Normandy alone saved him from the 
massacre of September. In the month following these events his 
democratic brother, Marie- Joseph, had entered the Convention. 
Andre's sombre rage against the course of events found vent in 
the line on the Maenads who mutilated the king's Swiss Guard, 
and in the Ode a Charlotte Corday congratulating France that 
" Un scellrat de moins rampc dans cette fange." At the express 
request of Maleshcrbes he furnished some arguments to the 
materials collected for the defence of the king. After the execu- 
tion he sought a secluded retreat on the Plateau dc Satory at 
Versailles and took exercise after nightfall. There he wrote the 
poems inspired by Fanny (Mme Laurent Lecoulteux), including 
the exquisite Ode a Versailles ; one of his freshest, noblest and 
most varied poems. 

His solitary life at Versailles lasted nearly a year. On the 7th 
of March 1794 he was taken at the house of Mme Piscatory at 
Passy. Two obscure agents of the committee of public safety 
were in search of a marquise who had flown, but an unknown 
stranger was found in the house and arrested on suspicion. 
This was Andre, who had come on a visit of sympathy. He was 
taken to the Luxembourg and afterwards to Saint-Lazare. 
During the 140 days of his imprisonment there he wrote the 
marvellous Iambes (in alternate lines of 12 and 8 syllables), which 
hiss and stab like poisoned bullets, and which were transmitted to 
his family by a venal gaoler. There he wrote the best known of 
all his verses, the pathetic Jeunc captive, a poem at once of 
enchantment and of despair. Suffocating in an atmosphere of 
cruelty and baseness, Chenier's agony found expression almost to 
the last in these murderous Iambes which he launched against the 



Convention. Ten days before the end, the painter J. B. Suvee 
executed the well known portrait. He might have been over- 
looked but for the well-meant, indignant officiousness of his 
father. Marie- Joseph had done his best to prevent this, but he 
could do nothing more. Robespierre, who was himself on the 
brink of the volcano, remembered the venomous sallies in the 
Journal de Paris. At sundown on the 25th of July 1794, the very 
day of his condemnation on a bogus charge of conspiracy, Andre 
Chenier was guillotined. The record of his last moments by La 
Toucbe is rather melodramatic and is certainly not above 

Incomplete as was his career — he was not quite thirty-two — 
his life was cut short in a crescendo of all its nobler elements. 
Exquisite as was already his susceptibility to beauty and his 
mastership of the rarest poetic material, we cannot doubt that 
Chenier was preparing for still higher flights of lyric passion and 
poetic intensity. Nothing that he had yet done could be said 
to compare in promise of assured greatness with the Iambes, the 
Odes and the J tune Captive. At the moment he left practically 
nothing to tell the world of his transcendent genius, and his 
reputation has had to be retrieved from oblivion page by page, 
and almost poem by poem. During his lifetime only his Jeu 
de paumc (1791) and Hymne sur Us Suisses (1792) had been 
given to the world. The Jeunc Captive appeared in the Decade 
pkilosopkiquc, Jan. 9, 1795; La J tune Tarentine in the Mercure 
of March 22, 1801 . Chateaubriand quoted three or four passages 
in his Cinie du christianisme. Fayette and Lefeuvre-Deuroier 
also gave a few fragments; but it was not until 18 19 that a 
first imperfect attempt was made by II. de la Touche to collect 
the poems in a substantive volume. Since the appearance of the 
editio prinups of Chenier's poems in La Touchc's volume, many 
additional poems and fragments have been discovered, and an 
edition of the complete works of the poet, collated with the MSS. 
bequeathed to the Bibliothcque Rationale by Mme Elisa de 
Chenier in 1892, has been edited by Paul Dimoft and published 
by Delagrave. During the same period the critical estimates 
of the poet have fluctuated in a truly extraordinary manner. 
Saintc-Beuve in his Tableau of 1828 sang the praises of Ch6nier 
as an heroic forerunner of the Romantic movement and a 
precursor of Victor Hugo. Chenier, he said, had " inspired and 
determined " Romanticism. This suggestion of modernity in 
Chenier was echoed by a chorus of critics who worked the idea 
to death; in the meantime, the standard edition of Chlnicr's 
works was being prepared by M. Becq de Fouquieres and was 
issued in 1862, but rearranged and greatly improved by the 
editor in 1872. The same patient investigator gave his New 
Documents on Andre* Chenier to the world in 1875. 

In the second volume of La Vie littiraire Anatole France 
contests the theory of Sainte-Bcuve. Far from being an initiator, 
he maintains that Chenier's poetry is the last expression of an 
expiring form of art. His matter and his form belong of right 
to the classic spirit of the 18th century. He is a contemporary, 
not of Hugo and Leconte de Lisle, but of Suard and Morellet. 
M. Faguet sums up on the side of M. France in his volume on the 
18th century (1890). Chenier's real disciples, according to the 
latest view, are Leconte de Lisle and M. de Hcrcdia, mosaistes 
who have at heart the cult of antique and pagan beauty, of 
" pure art " and of " objective poetry." Heredia himself 
reverted to the judgment of Sainte-Beuve to the effect that 
Chinicr was the first to make modern verses, and he adds, 
" I do not know in the French language a more exquisite fragment 
than the three hundred verses of the Bucoliqucs." Chenier's 
influence has been specially remarkable in Russia, where Pushkin 
imitated him, Kogloff translated La J tune Captive, La jeune 
Torcnline and other famous pieces, while the critic Vcsselovsky 
pronounces " II a re tab li le lyrisme pur dans la poesie francaise." 
The general French verdict on his work is in the main well 
Rummed by Morillot, when he says that, judged by the usual 
tests of the Romantic movement of the 'twenties (love for strange 
literatures of the North, medievalism, novelties and experiments), 
Chenier would inevitably have been excluded from the ctnaclc of 
1827. On the other hand, he exhibits a decided tendency to 

the world-ennui and melancholy which was one of the earlier 
symptoms of the movement, and he has experimented in French 
verse in a manner which would have led to his excommunication 
by the typical performers of the 18th century. What is univer- 
sally admitted is that Chenier was a very great artist, who like 
Ronsard opened up sources of poetry in France which had long 
seemed dried up. In England it is easier to feel his attraction 
than that of some far greater reputations in French poetry, for, 
rhetorical though he nearly always is, he yet reveals something 
of that quality which to the Northern mind has always been of 
the very essence of poetry, that quality which made Sainte- 
Beuve say of him that he was the first great poet " personnel 
et reveur " in France since La Fontaine. His diction is still very 
artificial, the poetic diction of Delille transformed in the direction 
of Hugo, but not very much. On the other hand, his descriptive 
power in treating of nature shows far more art than the Trianin 
school ever attained. His love of the woodland and his political 
fervour often remind us of Shelley, and his delicate perception of 
Hellenic beauty, and the perfume of Greek legend, give us 
almost a foretaste of Keats. For these reasons, among others, 
Chenier, whose art is destined to so many vicissitudes of criticism 
in his own country, seems assured among English readers of a 
place among the Dii Majores of French poetry. 

The Chenier literature of late years has become enormous. His 
fate has been commemorated in numerous plays, pictures and poems, 
notably in the fine epilogue of Sully Prudhomme, the Stella of A. de 
Vigny, the delicate statue by Puech in the Luxembourg, and the 
well-known portrait in the centre of the " Last Days of the Terror." 
The best editions are still those of Becq de Fouquieres (Paris, 1862. 
1872 and 1881), though these are now supplemented by those of 
L. Moland (2 vols., 18&9) and R. Guillard (2 vols., 1899). (T.Se.) 

poet, dramatist and politician, younger brother of Andre de 
Chenier, was born at Constantinople on the nth of February 
1764.* He was brought up at Carcassonne, and educated in 
Paris at the College de Navarre. Entering the army at seventeen, 
he left it two years afterwards; and at nineteen he produced 
Aztmire, a two-act drama (acted in 1786), and Edgar, ou le page 
supposi, a comedy (acted in 1785), which were failures. His 
Charles IX was kept back for nearly two years by the censor. 
Chenier attacked the censorship in three pamphlets, and the 
commotion aroused by the controversy raised keen interest in 
the piece. When it was at last produced on the 4th of November 
1789, it achieved an immense success, due in part to its political 
suggestion, and in part to Talma's magnificent impersonation of 
Charles IX. Camille Dcsmoulins said that the piece had done 
more for the Revolution than the days of October, and a con- 
temporary memoir-writer, the marquis de Ferriere, says that 
the audience came away " ivrc de vengeance ct tourmentc" d'unc 
soif de sang." The performance was the occasion of a split among 
the actors of the Corned ie Francaise, and the new theatre in the 
Palais Royal, established by the dissidents, was inaugurated 
with Henri VIII (1791)1 generally recognized as Chfnier's 
masterpiece; Jean Colas, ou Vtcole des juges followed in the 
same year. In 1792 he produced his Caius Gracchus, which was 
even more revolutionary in tone than its predecessors. It was 
nevei the less proscribed in the next year at the instance of the 
Montagnard deputy Albitte, for an anti-anarchical hemistich 
(Des his et non du sangl)\ F end on (1793) was suspended after 
a few representations; and in 1704 his Timolton, set to £tienne 
Mehul's music, was also proscribed. This piece was played 
after the fall of the Terror, but the fratricide of Timoleon became 
the text for insinuations to the effect that by his silence Joseph 
de Chenier had connived at the judicial murder of Andrl, whom 
Joseph's enemies alluded to as A bel. There is absolutely nothing 
to support the calumny, which has often been repeated since. 
In fact, after some fruitless attempts to save his brother, variously 
related by his biographers, Joseph became aware that Andre's 
only chance of safety lay in being forgotten by the authorities, 
and that ill-advised intervention would only hasten the end. 
Joseph Chenier had been a member of the Convention and of 

1 This is the date given by G. de Chenier in his La Viriti sur la 
famille de Chenier (1844). 



the Council of Five Hundred, and bad voted for the death of 
Louis XVI.; he had a seat in the tribunate; he belonged to 
the committees of public instruction, of general security, and of 
public safety. He was, nevertheless, suspected of moderate 
sentiments, and before the end of the Terror had become a 
marked man. His purely political career ended in 1802, when 
he was eliminated with others from the tribunate for his opposi- 
tion to Napoleon. In 1801 he was one of the educational jury 
for the Seine; from 1803 to 1806 he was inspector-general of 
public instruction. He had allowed himself to be reconciled 
with Napoleon's government, and Cyrus, represented in 1804, 
was written in his honour, but he was temporarily disgraced 
in 1806 for his £pttre d Voltaire. In 1806 and 1807 he delivered 
a course of lectures at the Athenee on the language and literature 
of France from the earliest years; and in 1808 at the emperor's 
request, he prepared his Tableau historique de Vital et du progrls 
de la lUUrature jrancaise depuis 1789 jusqu'd 1808, a book con- 
taining some good criticism, though marred by the violent 
prejudices of its author. He died on the 10th of January 18x1. 
The list of his works includes hymns and national songs — among 
others, the famous Chant du depart; odes, Sur la mart de 
Mirdbeau, Sur V oligarchic de Robespierre, &c ; tragedies which 
never reached the stage, Brutus et Cassius, Philippe deux, 
Tiber e\ translations from Sophocles and Leasing, from Gray 
and Horace, from Tadtus and Aristotle; with elegies, dithyr- 
ambics and Ossianic rhapsodies. As a satirist he possessed 
great merit, though he sins from an excess of severity, and is 
sometimes malignant and unjust. He is the chief tragic poet 
of the revolutionary period, and as Camille Desmoulins expressed 
it, he decorated Melpomene with the tricolour cockade. 

See the (Euvres computes de Joseph Chtnier (8 vols., Paris, 1823- 
1826), containing notices of the poet by Arnault and Daunou; 
Charles Labitte, Etudes litUraires (1846); Henri Welschingcr, Le 
ThMtre rhoiuiionncire, 1780-1709 (1881); and A. Lteby, Etude sur 
le tM&tre de Marie- Joseph Chtnier (1002). 

CHENILLE (from the Fr. chenille, a hairy caterpillar), a 
twisted velvet cord, woven so that the short outer threads 
stand out at right angles to the central cord, thus giving a 
resemblance to a caterpillar. Chenille is used as a trimming 
for dress and furniture. 

CHENONCEAUX, a village of central France, in the department 
of Indre-et-Loire, on the right bank of the Cher, 20 m. E. by S. 
of Tours on the Orleans railway. Pop. (1906) 216. Chenonceaux 
owes its interest to its chateau (see Architecture: Renaissance 
Architecture in France), a building in the Renaissance style 
on the river Cher, to the left bank of which it is united by a 
two-storeyed gallery built upon five arches, and to the right by 
a drawbridge flanked by an isolated tower, part of an earlier 
building of the 15th century. Founded in 1515 by Thomas 
Bohicr (d. 1523), financial minister in Normandy, the chateau 
was confiscated by Francis I. in 1535. Henry II. presented 
it to his mistress Diane de Poitiers, who on his death was forced 
to exchange it for Chaumont-sur-Loire by Catherine de' Medici. 
The latter built the gallery which leads to the left bank of the 
Cher. Chenonceaux. passed successively into the hands of 
Louise de Vaudemont, wife of Henry III., the house of Vend6me, 
and the family of Bourbon-Conde. In the 18th century it came 
into the possession of the farmer-general Claude Dupin (1684- 
1769), who entertained the most distinguished people in France 
within its walls. In 1864 it was sold to the chemist Theophile 
Pelouze, whose wife executed extensive restorations. It sub- 
sequently became the property of the Credit Foncier, and again 
passed into private occupancy. 

CHENOPODIUM , or Goose-foot, a genus of erect or prostrate 
herbs (natural order Chenopodiaceae), usually growing on the 
seashore or on waste or cultivated ground. The green angular 
stem is often striped with white or red, and, like the leaves, 
often more or less covered with mealy hairs. The leaves are 
entire, lobed or toothed, often more or less deltoid or triangular 
in shape. The minute flowers are bisexual, and borne in dense 
axillary or terminal clusters or spikes. The fruit is a membranous 
one-seeded utricle often enclosed by the persistent calyx. Ten 
species occur in Britain, one of which, C. Bonus-IIcnricus, Good 

King Henry, is cultivated as a pot-herb, in lieu of asparagus 
under the name mercury, and all-good. 

CHEOPS, in Herodotus, the name of the king who built the 
Great Pyramid in Egypt. Following on a period of good rule 
and prosperity under Rhampsinitus, Cheops closed the temples, 
abolished the sacrifices and made all the Egyptians labour for 
his monument, working in relays of 100,000 men every three 
months (see Pyramid). Proceeding from bad to worse, he 
sacrificed the honour of his daughter in order to obtain the money 
to complete his pyramid; and the princess built herself besides 
a small pyramid of the stones given to her by her lovers. Cheops 
reigned 50 years and was succeeded by his brother, Chephren, 
who reigned 56 years and built the second pyramid. During 
these two reigns the Egyptians suffered every kind of misery 
and the temples remained closed. Herodotus continues that 
in his own day the Egyptians were unwilling to name these 
oppressors and preferred to call the pyramids after a shepherd 
named Philition, who pastured his flocks in their neighbour- 
hood. At length Mycerinus, son of Cheops and successor of 
Chephren, reopened the temples and, although he built the Third 
Pyramid, allowed the oppressed people to return to their proper 

Cheops, Chephren and Mycerinus are historical personages 
of the fourth Egyptian dynasty, in correct order, and they built 
the three pyramids attributed to them here. But they are 
wholly misplaced by Herodotus. Rhampsinitus, the predecessor 
of Cheops, appears to represent Rameses III. of the twentieth 
dynasty, and Mycerinus in Herodotus is but a few generations 
before Psammetichus, the founder of the twenty-sixth dynasty. 
Manetho correctly places the great Pyramid kings in Dynasty IV. 
In Egyptian the name of Cheops (Chemmis or Chembisin Diodorus 
Siculus, Suphis in Manetho) is spelt Hwfw (Khufu), but the 
pronunciation, in late times perhaps Khdouf, is uncertain. 
The Greeks and Romans generally accepted the view that Hero- 
dotus supplies of his character, and moralized on the uselessness 
of his stupendous work; but there is nothing else to prove that 
the Egyptians themselves execrated his memory. Modern 
writers rather dwell on the perfect organization demanded by his 
scheme, the training of a nation to combined labour, the level 
attained here by art and in the fitting of masonry, and finally 
the fact that the Great Pyramid was the oldest of the seven 
wonders of the ancient world and now alone of them survives. 
It seems that representations of deities, and indeed any represen- 
tations at all, were rare upon the polished walls of the great 
monuments of the fourth dynasty, and Petrie thinks that he 
can trace a violent religious revolution with confiscation of 
endowments at this time in the temple remains at Abydos; 
but none the less the wants of the deities were then attended to 
by priests selected from the royal family and the highest in the 
land. Khufu's work in the temple of Bubastis is proved by a 
surviving fragment, and he is figured slaying his enemy at Sinai 
before the god Thoth. In late times the priests of Denderah 
claimed Khufu as a benefactor; he was reputed to have built 
temples to the gods near the Great Pyramids and Sphinx (where 
also a pyramid of his daughter Hcntsen is spoken of), and there 
are incidental notices of him in the medical and religious 
literature. The funerary cult of Khufu and KhafrS was practised 
under the twenty-sixth dynasty, when so much that had fallen 
into disuse and been forgotten was revived. Khufu is a leading 
figure in an ancient Egyptian story (Papyrus Wcstcar), but it 
is unfortunately incomplete. He was the founder of the fourth 
dynasty, and was probably born in Middle Egypt near Bcni 
Hasan, in a town afterwards known as " Khufu's Nurse," but 
was connected with the Memphite third dynasty. Two tablets 
at the mines of Wadi Maghara in the peninsula of Sinai, a 
granite block from Bubastis, and a beautiful ivory statuette 
found by Petrie in the temple at Abydos, are almost all that can 
be definitely assigned to Khufu outside the pyramid at Gixa 
and its ruined accompaniments. His date, according to Petrie, 
is 3960-3008 B.C., but in the shorter chronology of Meyer, 
Breasted and others he reigned (23 ye*rs) about a thousand years 
later, c. 2000 B.C. 



See Herodotus ii. 124: Diodorus Siculu* i. 64; Seihe in Pauly- 1 
Wissowa's RcaUncyclopadii. s.v.: W. M. F. Pctrie. History of Egypt, \ 
vol. i., and Abydos, part iL p. 4*; J- H. Breasted, History. 

(r . LL. O.) I 

CHEPSTOW, a market town and river-port in the southern | 
parliamentary division of Monmouthshire, England, on the Wye, 
2 m. above its junction with the Severn, and on the Great Western 
railway. Pop. of urban district (1001) 3067- It occupies the • 
slope of a hill on the western (left) bank of the river, and is 
environed by beautiful scenery. The church of St Mary, origin- 1 
ally the conventual chapel of a Benedictine priory of Norman j 
foundation, has remains of that period in the west front and | 
the nave, but a rebuilding of the chancel and transepts was 
effected in the beginning of the 19th century. The church , 
contains many interesting monuments. The castle, still a mag- 
nificent pile, was founded in the nth century by William 
Fitz-Osbern, carl of Hereford, but was almost wholly rebuilt 
in the 13th. There are, however, parts of the original building in 
the keep. The castle occupies a splendid site on the summit of 1 
a cliff above the Wye, and covers about 3 acres. The river is 1 
crossed by a fine iron bridge of five arches, erected in 1816, and 
by a tubular railway bridge designed by Sir Isambard Brunei. 
There is a free passage on the Wye for large vessels as far as the 
bridge. From the narrowness and depth of the channel the tide 
rises suddenly and to a great height, forming a dangerous bore. 
The exports are limber, bark, iron, coal, cider and millstones. 
Some shipbuilding is carried on. 

As the key to the passage of the Wye, Chepstow (Estrigkorel, 
Slriguil) was the site successively of British, Roman and Saxon 
fortifications'. Domesday Book records that the Norman castle 
was built by William Fitz-Osbern to defend the Roman road 
into South Wales. On the confiscation of his son's estates, 
the castle was granted to the earls of Pembroke, and after its 
reversion to the crown in 1306, Edward II. in 13 10 granted it 
to his half-brother Thomas de Brotherton. On the latter's 
death it passed, through his daughter Margaret, Lady Segrave, 
to the dukes of Norfolk, from whom, after again reverting to the 
crown, it passed to the earls of Worcester. It was confiscated 
by parliament and settled on Oliver Cromwell, but was restored 
to the earls in 1660. The borough must have grown up between 
1 3 10, when the castle and vill were granted to Thomas de 
Brotherton, and 1432, when John duke of Norfolk died seised 1 
of the castle, manor and borough of Struguil. In 1524 Charles, 
first earl of Worcester and then lord of the Marches, granted a 
new charter of incorporation to the bailiffs and burgesses of the 
town, which had fallen into decay. This was sustained until 
the reign of Charles II., when, some dispute arising between the 1 
earl of Bridgwater and the burgesses, no bailiff was appointed 
and the charter lapsed. Chepstow was afterwards governed by 1 
a board of twelve members. A port since early times, when the 
lord took dues of ships going up to the forest of Dean, Chepstow 
had no ancient market and no manufactures .but that of glass, 
which was carried on for a short time within the ruins of the 

CHEQUE, or Check, in commercial law, a bill of exchange 
drawn on a banker and signed by the drawer, requiring the 
banker to pay on demand a certain sum in money to or to the) 
order of a specified person or to bearer. In this, its most modern 
sense, the cheque is the outcome of the growth of the banking 
system of the 19th century. For details see Banks and Bank- 1 
ing: Law, and Bill of Exchange. The word check, 1 of which 
" cheque " is a variant now general in English usage, signified 
merely the counterfoil or indent of an exchequer bill, or any 
draft form of payment, on which was registered the particulars 
of the principal part, as a check to alteration or forgery. The 

1 The original meaning of " check " is a move in the game of chesi 
which directly attacks the king; the word comes through the Old 
Fr. esckec, eschac, from the Med. Lat. form uaccus of the Persian 

skdk, king, \jt. the king in the game of chess: cf. the origin of 
M mate " from the Arabic shah-mat, the king is dead. The won' 
early used in a transferred sense of a (stoppage or rebuff, and so is 

; word was 
. . _ . and so fe 

J to anything which stops or hinders a matter in progress, 01 
which controls or restrains anything, hence a token, ticket 01 
counterfoil which serves as a means of identification, &c 

early ust 
applied 1 

check or counterfoil parts remained in the hands of the banker, 
the portion given to the customer being termed a " drawn note " 
or " draft." From the beginning of the 19th century the word 
" cheque " gradually became synonymous with " draft " as 
meaning a written order on a banker by a person having money 
in the banker's hands, to pay some amount to bearer or to a 
person named. Ultimately, it entirely superseded the word 
" draft," and has now a statutory definition (Bills of Exchange 
Act 1883. s. 73)—" a bill of exchange drawn on a banker payable 
on demand." The word " draft " has come to have a wider 
meaning, that of a bill drawn by one person on another for a sum 
of money, or an order (whether on a banker or other) to pay 
money. The employment of cheques as a method of payment 
offering greater convenience than coin is almost universal in 
Great Britain and the United States. Of the transactions 
through the banks of the United Kingdom between 86 and 00% 
arc conducted by means of cheques, and an even higher propor- 
tion in the United States. On the continent of Europe the use 
of cheques, formerly rare, is becoming more general, particularly 
in France, and to some extent in Germany. 

CHER, a department of central France, embracing the eastern 
part of the ancient province of Berry, and parts of Bourbonnais, 
Nivcrnais and Orleanais, bounded N. by the department of 
Loire t, W. by Loir-et-Cher and Indre, S. by Allier and Creuse, 
and E. by Nievre. Pop. (1006) 343.484. Area a8io sq. m. 
The territory of the department is elevated in the south, where 
one point reaches 1654 ft., and in the east. The centre is occupied 
by a wide calcareous table-land, to the north of which stretches 
the plain of Sologne. The principal rivers, besides the Cher and 
its tributaries, arc the Grande Sauldre and the Petite Sauldre 
on the north, but the Loire and Allier, though not falling within 
the department, drain the eastern districts, and are available 
for navigation. The Cher itself becomes navigable when it 
receives the Anion and Yevre, and the communications of the 
department arc greatly facilitated by the Canal du Berry, which 
traverses it from east to west, the lateral canal of the Loire, 
which follows the left bank of that river, and the canal of the 
Sauldre. The climate is temperate, and the rainfall moderate. 
Except in the Sologne, the soil is generally fertile, but varies 
considerably in different localities. The most productive region 
is that on the cast, which belongs to the valley of the Loire; 
the central districts are tolerably fertile but marshy, being often 
flooded by the Cher; while in the south and south-west there 
is a considerable extent of dry and fertile land. Wheat and oats 
are largely cultivated, while hemp, vegetables and various 
fruits are also produced. The vine flourishes chiefly in the east 
of the arrondisscment of Sancerre. The department contains 
\ a comparatively large extent of pasturage, which has given rise 
to a considerable trade in horses, cattle, sheep and wool for the 
northern markets. Nearly one-fifth of the whole area consists 
of forest. Mines of iron are worked, and various sorts of slone 
are quarried. Brick, porcelain and glassworks employ large 
numbers of the inhabitants. There are also flour-mills, dis- 
tilleries, oil-works, saw-mills and tanneries. Bourges and Vierion 
are metallurgical and engineering centres. Coal and wine are 
leading imports, while cereals, timber, wool, fruit and industrial 
products are exported. The department is served by the Orleans 
railway, and possesses in all more than 300 m. of navigable 
waterways. It is divided into three arrondissements (29 cantons, 
292 communes) cognominal with the towns of Bourges, Saint- 
Amand-Mont-Rond, and Sancerre, of which the first is the 
capital, the seat of an archbishop and of a court of appeal and 
headquarters of the VIII. army-corps. The department 
belongs to the (educational division) of Paris. Bourges, 
Saint-Amand-Mont-Rond, Vierzon and Sancerre (q.v.) are the 
principal towns. M6hun-sur- Yevre (pop. 5227), a town with an 
active manufacture of porcelain, has a Romanesque church and 
a chateau of the 14th century. Among the other interesting 
churches of the department, that at St Satur has a fine choir 
of the 14th and 15th centuries; (hose of Dun-sur-Auron, 
, Plaimpied, Aix d'AngUlon and Jeanvrin are Romanesque in 
[ style, while Aubigny-Ville has a church of the iath^ ttfk axA 



15th centuries and a chateau of later date. Drevant, built on 
the site of a Roman town, preserves ruins of a large theatre and 
other remains. Among the megalithic monuments of Cher, 
the most notable is that at Villeneuve-sur-Cher, known as the 

CHERAT* a hill cantonment and sanatorium in the Peshawar 
district of the North-VVest Frontier Province, India, 34 rn. S.E. 
of Peshawar. It is situated at an elevation of 4500 ft., on the 
west of the Khattak range, which divides the Peshawar from the 
Kohat district. It was first used in 1861, and since then has 
been employed during the hot weather as a health station for 
the British troops quartered in the hot and malarious vale of 

CHERBOURG* a naval station, fortified town and seaport 
of north-westem France, capital of an arrondissement in the 
department of Manchc, on the English Channel, 232 m. W.N.W. 
of Paris on the Ouest-Etat railway. Pop. (1006) town, 35i7*o; 
commune, 43,827. Cherbourg is situated at the mouth of the 
Divettc, on a small bay at the apex of the indentation formed 
by the northern shore of the peninsula of Cotentin. Apart from 
a fine hospital and the church of La Trinite" dating from the 
15th century, the town has no buildings of special interest. A 
rich collection of paintings is housed in the h6tel de ville. A 
statue of the painter J. F. Millet, born near Cherbourg, stands 
in the public garden, and there is an equestrian statue of 
Napoleon I. in the square named after him. Cherbourg is a 
fortified place of the first class, headquarters of one of the five 
naval arrondissements of France, and the seat of a sub-prefect. 
It has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a chamber 
of commerce, a lycee and a naval school. The chief industries 
of the town proper are fishing, saw-milling, tanning, leather- 
dressing, ship-building, iron and copper-founding, rope-making 
and the manufacture of agricultural implements. There are 
stone quarries in the environs, and the town has trade in farm 

Cherbourg derives its chief importance from its naval and 
commercial harbours, which are distant from each other about 
half a mile. The former consists of three main basins cut out 
of the rock, and has an area of 55 acres. The minimum depth 
of water is 30 ft. Connected with the harbour are dry docks, 
the yards where the largest ships in the French navy are con- 
structed, magazines, rope walks, and the various workshops 
requisite for a naval arsenal of the first class. The works and 
town are carefully guarded on every side by redoubts and 
fortifications, and are commanded by batteries on the surround- 
ing hills. There is a large naval hospital close to the harbour. 
The commerical harbour at the mouth of the Divette com- 
municates with the sea by a channel 650 yds. long. It consists 
of two parts, an outer and tidal harbour 17} acres in extent, and 
an inner basin 15 acres in extent, with a depth on sill at ordinary 
spring tide of 25 ft. Outside these harbours is the triangular 
bay, which forms the roadstead of Cherbourg. The bay is 
admirably sheltered by the land on every side but the north. On 
that side it is sheltered by a huge breakwater, over 2 m. in length, 
with a width of 650 ft. at its base and 30 ft. at its summit, which 
is protected by forts, and leaves passages for vessels to the east 
and west. These passages are guarded by forts placed on islands 
intervening between the breakwater and the mainland, and 
themselves united to the land by breakwaters. The surface 
within these barriers amounts to about 3700 acres. Cherbourg 
is a port of call for the American, North German Lloyd and other 
important lines of transatlantic steamers. The chief exports 
are stone for road-making, butter, eggs and vegetables; the 
chief imports are coal, timber, superphosphates and wine from 
Algeria. Great Britain is the principal customer. 

Cherbourg is supposed by some investigators to occupy the 
site of the Roman station of Coriallum, but nothing definite is 
known about its origin. The name was long regarded as a 
corruption of Caesaris Burgus (Caesar's Borough). William 
the Conqueror, under whom it appears as Corusbur, provided 
it with a hospital and a church; and Henry II. of England on 
several occasions chose it as his residence. In 1295 it was 

pillaged by an English fleet from Yarmouth, and in the 14th 
century It frequently suffered during the wars against the 
English. Captured by the English in 1418 after a four months' 
siege, it was recovered by Charles VII. of France in 1450. An 
attempt was made under Louis XIV. to construct a military port; 
but the fortifications were dismantled in 168S, and further 
damage was inflicted by the English in 1758. In 1686 Vauban 
planned harbour-works which were begun under Louis XVI. 
and continued by Napoleon I. It was left, however, to Louis 
Philippe, and particularly to Napoleon III., to complete them, 
and their successful realization was celebrated in 1858, in the 
presence of the queen of England, against whose dominions they 
had at one lime been mainly directed. At the close of 1857, 
£8,000,000, of which the breakwater cost over £2,500,000, bad 
been expended on the works; in 1889 a further sum of £680,000 
was voted by the Chamber of Deputies for the improvement of 
the port. 

CHERBUUEZ, CHARLES VICTOR (1820-1809), French 
novelist and miscellaneous writer, was born on the 19th of July 
1829, at Geneva, where his father, Andre* Cherbuliez (1795-1874), 
was a classical professor at the university. He was descended 
from a family of Protestant refugees, and many years later 
Victor Cherbuliez resumed his French nationality, taking 
advantage of an act passed in the early days of the Revolution. 
Geneva was the scene of his early education; thence he proceeded 
to Paris, and afterwards to the universities of Bonn and Berlin. 
He returned to his native town and engaged in the profession of 
teaching. After his resumption of French citizenship he was 
elected a member of the Academy (188 1), and having received 
the Legion of Honour in 1870, he was promoted to be officer of 
the order in 1892. He died on the 1st of July 1809. Cherbuliez 
was a voluminous and successful writer of fiction. His first book, 
originally published in i860, reappeared in 1864 under the title 
of Un Cheval de Phidias: it is a romantic study of art in the 
golden age of Athens. He went on to produce a series of novels, 
of which the following are the best known "i—Le Comte Kostia 
(1863), Le Prince Vitale (1864), Le Roman d'une konnite fenme 
(1866), VAventure de Ladislas Bolski (1869), Miss Hotel (1875), 
Samuel Brohl tt Cie (1877), L'Idie de Jean Tllbrol (1878), Noirs 
el rouges (1881), La Vocation du ComU Ghislain (1888), Une 
Gageure (1890), Lc Secret du pricepteur (1893), Jacquinc Vanes se 
(1898), &c. Most of these novels first appeared in the Revue its 
deux mondes, to which Cherbuliez also contributed a number 
of political and learned articles, usually printed with the pseu- 
donym G. Valbert. Many of these have been published in 
collected form under the titles L'Allemagne politique (1870), 
VEspagne politique (1874), Profits Grangers (1889), VArl el la 
nature (1 £92), &c. The volume £iudesdclitt£raturectd'art(i&?$) 
includes articles for the most part reprinted from Lc Temps. 
The earlier novels of Cherbuliez have been said with truth to 
show marked traces of the influence of George Sand; and in 
spite of modification, his method was that of an older school. 
He did not possess the sombre power or the intensely analytical 
skill of some of his later contemporaries, but his books are 
distinguished by a freshness and honesty, fortified by cosmo- 
politan knowledge and lightened by unobtrusive humour, which 
fully account for their wide popularity in many countries besides 
his own. His genius was the reverse of dramatic, and attempts 
to present two of his stories on the stage have not succeeded. 
His essays have all the merits due to liberal observation and 
thoroughness of treatment; their style, like that of the novels, 
is admirably lucid and correct. (C.) 

CHERCHEL, a seaport of Algeria, in the arrondissement and 
department of Algiers, 55 m. W. of the capital. It is the centre 
of an agricultural and vine-growing district, but is commercially 
of no great importance, the port, which consists of part only of 
the inner port of Roman days, being small and the entry difficult. 
The town is chiefly noteworthy for the extensive ruins of former 
cities on the same site. Of existing buildings the most remarkable 
is the great Mosque of the Hundred Columns, now used as a 
military hospital. The mosque contains 89 columns of dioritc, 
surmounted by a variety of capitals brought from other buildings. 



The population of the town in 1906 was 4733; of the commune 
of which Chcrchel is the centre 11,088. 

Cherchel was a city of the Carthaginians, who named it Jol. 
Juba 1L (25 b.c.) made it the capital of the Mauretanian king- 
dom under the name of Cacsarea. Juba's tomb, the so-called 
Tombeau de la Chretienne (see Algeria), is i\ m. E. of the, town. 
Destroyed by the Vandals, Cacsarea regained some of its im- 
portance under the Byzantines. Taken by the Arabs it was 
renamed by them Cherchel. Khair-ed-Diri Barbarossa captured 
the city in 1520 and annexed it to his Algerian pashalik. In 
the early years of the 18th century it was a commercial dty 
of some importance, but was laid in ruins by a terrible earthquake 
in 1738. In 1840 the town was occupied by the French. The 
ruins suffered greatly from vandalism during the early period 
of French rule, many portable objects being removed to 
museums in Paris or Algiers, and most of the monuments 
destroyed for the sake of their stone. Thus the dressed stones 
of the ancient theatre served to build barracks; the material 
of the hippodrome went to build the church; while the portico 
of the hippodrome, supported by granite and marble columns, 
and approached by a fine flight of steps, was destroyed by 
Cardinal Lavigerie in a search for the tomb of St Marciana. The 
fort built by Arouj Barbarossa, elder brother of Khair-ed-Din, 
was completely destroyed by the French. There are many 
fragments of a while marble temple. The ancient cisterns still 
supply the town with water. The museum contains some of 
the finest statues discovered in Africa. They include colossal 
figures of Aesculapius and Bacchus, and the lower half of a 
seated Egyptian divinity in black basalt, bearing the cartouche 
of Tethmosis (Thothmcs) I. This statue was found at Cherchel, 
and is held by some archaeologists to indicate an Egyptian 
settlement here about 1500 b.c 

See Africa, Roman, and the description of the museum by 
P. Gaucklcr in the Musics el collections arch&ologiques de FAlgirie. 

CHERCHEN, a town of East Turkestan, situated at the 
northern foot of the Altyn-tagb, a range of the Kuen-lun, in 
85° 35' E., and on the Cherchcn-darya, at an altitude of 4100 ft. 
It straggles mostly along the irrigation channels that go off from 
the left side of the river, and in 1900 had a population of about 
sooo. The Cherchcn-darya, which rises in the Arka-tagh, a more 
southerly range of the Kuen-lun, in 87 E. and 36° 20' N., flows 
north until it strikes the desert below Chcrchcn, after which it 
turns north-east and meanders through a wide bed (300-400 ft.), 
beset with dense reeds and flanked by older channels. It is 
probable that anciently it entered the disused channel of the 
Ettek-tarim, but at present it joins the existing Tarim in the 
lake of Kara-buran, a sort of lacustrine " ante-room " to the 
Kara-koshun (N. M. Przhcvalsky's Lop-no r). At its entrance 
into the former lake the Cherchen-darya forms a broad delta. 
The river is frozen in its lower course for two to three months 
in the winter. From the foot of the mountains to the oasis of 
Cherchen it has a fall of nearly 4000 ft., whereas in'thc 300 m. 
or so from Cherchen to the Kara-buran the fall is 1400 ft. The 
total length is 500-600 m., and the drainage basin measures 
6000-7000 sq. m. 

See Sven Hedin, Scientific Results of a Journey in Central Asia, 
1899-1902, vols. i. and ii. (1905-1906); also Takla-Makan. 

CHEREMISSES, or Tcheremisses, a Finnish people living in 
isolated groups in the governments of Kazan, Viatka, Novgorod, 
Perm, Kostroma and Ufa, eastern Russia. Their name for 
themselves is Mori or Mari (people), possibly identifiable with the 
ancient Merians of Suzdalia. Their language belongs to the 
Finno-Ugrian family. They number some 240,000. There are 
two distinct physical types: one of middle height, black-haired, 
brown skin and flat- faced; the other short, fair-haired, white 
skinned, with narrow eyes and straight short noses. Those 
who live on the right bank of the Volga are sometimes known 
as Hill Chcremis, and are taller and stronger than those who 
inhabit the swamps of the left bank. They are farmers and herd 
horses and cattle. Their religion is a hotchpotch of Shamanism, 
Mahoramedanism and Christianity. They are usually mono- 
gamous. The chief ceremony of marriage is a forcible abduction 

of the bride. The women, naturally ugly, are often disfigured 
by sore eyes caused by the smoky atmosphere of the huts. They 
wear a head-dress, trimmed with glass jewels, forming a hood 
behind stiffened with metal. On their breasts they carry a 
breastplate formed of coins, small bells and copper disks. 

See Smirinov, Mordres et Tcheremisses (Paris, 1895); J- Aber- 
cromby, Pre- and ProLo-kistoric Finns (London, 1898). 

CHERIBON, a residency of the island of Java, Dutch East 
Indies, bounded S. and W. by the Prcanger regencies, N.W. by 
Krawang, N. by the Java Sea, and E. by the residencies of Tegal 
andBanyumas. Pop. (1897) 1,577,521, including 867 Europeans, 
21,108 Chinese, and 2016 Arabs and other Asiatic foreigners. The 
natives consist of Middle Javanese in the north and Sundanese 
in the south. Cheribon has been for many centuries the centre 
of Islamism in western Java, and is also the seat of a fanatical 
Mahommedan sect controlled from Mecca. The native population 
is on the whole orderly and prosperous. The northern half of the 
residency is flat and marshy in places, especially in the north- 
western corner, while the southern half is mountainous. In the 
middle stands the huge volcano Chcrimai, clad with virgin 
forest and coffee plantations, and surrounded at its foot by rice 
fields. South-south-west of Chcrimai on the Preangcr border is 
the Sawal volcano, at whose foot is the beautiful Penjalu lake. 
Sulphur and salt springs occur on the slopes of Chcrimai, and 
near Palimanan there is a cavernous hole called Guwagalang (or 
Payagalang), which exhales carbonic add gas, and is considered 
holy by the natives and guarded by priests. There is a similar 
hole in the Preangei. The principal products of cultivation arc 
sugar, coffee, rice and also tea and pulse (rochang), the planta- 
tions being for the most part owned by Europeans. The chief 
towns are Cheribon, a seaport and capital of the residency, the 
seaport of Indramaya, Palimanan, Majalcngka, Kuningan and 
Chiamis. Cheribon has a good open roadstead. The town is 
very old and irregularly built, and the climate is unhealthy; 
nevertheless it has a livery export trade in sugar and coffee and 
is a regular port of call. In 1008 the two descendants of the old 
sultans of Cheribon still resided there in their respective Kratons 
or palaces, and each received an annual income of over £1500 for 
the loss of his privileges. A country residence belonging to one; 
of the sultans is situated dose to Cheribon and is much visited 
on account of its fantastic architecture. Indramaya was a 
considerable trading place in the days of the early Portuguese 
and Dutch traders. Kuningan is famous for a breed of small 
but strong horses. 

CHBRKASY (Polish, Cxerkasy), a town of Russia, in the 
government of Kiev, 96 m. S.E. of Kiev, on the right bank of the 
Dnieper. Pop. (1883) 15,74°; (1897) 26,619. The inhabitants 
(Little Russians) are mostly employed in agriculture and garden- 
ing; but sugar and tobacco arc manufactured and spirits distilled. 
Cherkasy was an important town of the Ukraine in the 15th 
century, and remained so, under Polish rule, until the revolt 
of the Cossack heiman Chmielnicki (1648). It was annexed by 
Russia in 1795. 

CHERNIGOV, a government of Utile Russia, on the left bank 
of the Dnieper, bounded by the governments of Mogilev and 
Smolensk on the N., Orel and Kursk on the E., Poltava on the 
S., and Kiev and Minsk on the W. Area, 20,233 &Q- m. Its 
surface is an undulating plain, 650 to 750 ft. high in the north 
and 370 to 600 ft. in the south, deeply grooved by ravines and 
the valleys of the rivers. In the north, beyond the Desna river, 
about one-third of the area is under forest (rapidly disappearing), 
and marshes occur along the courses of the rivers; while to the 
south of the Desna the soil is dry and sometimes sandy, and 
gradually it assumes the characters of a steppe-land as one 
proceeds southward. The government is drained by the Dnieper, 
which forms its western boundary for 180 m., and by its tributary 
the Desna, The latter, which flows through Chernigov for 
nearly 350 m., is navigable, and timber is brought down its 
tributaries. The climate is much colder in the wooded tracts 
of the north than in the south; the average yearly temperature 
at the city of Chernigov is 44*4° F. (January, 23 ; July 68«5°). 

The population reached 1,096,350 in 1883, 2,3x6,818 in 2897, 



and 2,746,300 (estimate) in 1906. It is chiefly Little Russian 
(85-6%); but Great Russians (61%), mostly Raskolniks, 
i.e. nonconformists, and White Russians (5-6%) inhabit the 
northern districts. There are, besides, some Germans, as well 
as Greeks, at Nyezhin. Agriculture is the principal occupation ; 
in the north, however, many of the inhabitants are engaged in 
the timber tracje, and in the production of tar, pitch, wooden 
wares, leather goods and so forth. Cattle-breeding is carried 
on in the central districts. Beet is extensively cultivated. The 
cultivation of tobacco is increasing. Hemp is widely grown in 
the north, and the milder climate of the south encourages 
gardening. Bee-keeping is extensively carried on by the Raskol- 
niks. Limestone, grindstones, china-clay and building-stone 
are quarried. Manufactures have begun to develop rapidly of 
late, the most important being sugar-works, distilleries, cloth- 
mills and glass-works. The government is divided into fifteen 
districts, their chief towns being Chernigov (q.v.), Borzna (pop. 
12,458 in 1897), Glukhov (14,856), Gorodnya (4197), Konotop 
(*3,o83), Kozcleta (5160), Krolevcts (10,375), Mglin (7631), 
Novgorod-Syeversk (9185), Novozybkov (15,480), Nyezhin 
(32,481), Ostcr (5384), Sosnitsa (2507), Starodub (12,451) and 
Surazh (4004). 

CHERNIGOV, a town of Russia, capital of the above govern- 
ment, on the right bank of the Desna, nearly half a mile 
from the river, 141 m. by rail N.E. of Kiev on a branch line. 
Pop. (1897) 27,006. It is an archicpiscopal see and possesses a 
cathedral of the nth century. In 907 the city is mentioned 
in the treaty of Olcg as next in importance to Kiev, and in the 
nth century it became the capital of the principality of Syevcrsk 
and an important commercial city. The Mongol invasion put 
an end to its prosperity in 1239. Lithuania annexed it in the 
14th century, but it was soon seized by Poland, which held it until 
the 1 7th century. In 1686 it was definitely annexed to Russia. 

CHEROKEE (native Tsalagi, " cave people "), a tribe of North 
American Indians of Iroquoian stock. Next to the Navaho they 
are the largest tribe in the United States and live mostly in 
Oklahoma (formerly Indian territory). Before their removal 
they possessed a large tract of country now distributed among 
the states of Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, Tennessee and the 
west of Florida. Their chief divisions were then settled around 
the head-waters of the Savannah and Tennessee rivers, and 
were distinguished as the Elati Tsalagi or Lower Cherokees, 
i.e. those in the plains, and Alali Tsalagi or Upper Cherokees, 
i.e. those on the mountains. They were further divided into 
seven exogamous clans. Fernando dc Soto travelled through 
their country in 1540, and during the next three centuries they 
were important factors in the history of the south. They 
attached themselves to the English in the disputes and contests 
which arose between the European colonizers, formally recog- 
nized the English king in 1730, and in 1755 ceded a part of 
their territory and permitted the erection of English forts. 
Unfortunately this amity was interrupted not long after; 
but peace was again restored in 1761. When the revolutionary 
war broke out they sided with the royalist party. This led 
to their subjugation by the new republic, and they had to 
surrender that part of their lands which lay to the south of the 
Savannah and cast of the Chattahoochee. Peace was made in 
1781, and in 1785 they recognized the supremacy of the United 
States and were confirmed in their possessions. In 1820 they 
adopted a civilized form of government, and in 1827, as a 
" Nation," a formal constitution. The gradual advance of white 
immigration soon led to disputes with the settlers, who desired 
their removal, and exodus after exodus took place; a small part 
of the tribe agreed (1835) to remove to another district, but 
the main body remained. An appeal was made by them to 
the United States government; but President Andrew Jackson 
refused to interfere. A force of 2000 men, under the command 
of General Win field Scott, was sent in 1838, and the Cherokees 
were compelled to emigrate to their present position. After 
the settlement various disagreements between the eastern and 
western Cherokees continued for some time, but in 1839 a union 
was effected. In the Civil War they all at first sided with the 

South; but before long a strong party joined the North, and 
this led to a disastrous internecine struggle. On the close of the 
contest they were confirmed in the possession of their territory, 
but were forced to give a portion of their lands to their eman* 
cipated slaves. Their later history is mainly a story of hopeless 
struggle to maintain their tribal independence against the white* 
man. In 1892 they sold their western territory known as the 
" Cherokee outlet." Until 1006, when tribal government 
virtually ceased, the " nation " had an elected chief, a senate and 
house of representatives. Ma ny of them have become Christiana; 
schools have been established and there is a tribal press. Those 
in Oklahoma still number some 26,000, though most are of mixed 
blood. A group, known as the Eastern Band, some 1400 strong, 
are on a reservation in North Carolina. Their language consists 
of two dialects— a third, that of the " Lower " branch, having 
been lost. The syllabic alphabet invented in 1821 by George 
Guess (Sequoyah) is the character employed. 

See also Handbook of American Indians (Washington, 1907); 
T. V. Parker. Cherokee Indians (N. Y.,1909); and Indians, Noam 

CHEROOT, or Sheroot (from the Tamil word " shuruttu," 
a roll), a agar made from tobacco grown in southern India and 
the Philippine Islands. It was once esteemed very highly for 
its delicate flavour. A cheroot differs from other cigars in having 
both ends cut square, instead of one being pointed, and one end 
considerably larger than the other. 

CHERRAPUNJI. a village in the Khasi hills district of Assam. 
It is notable as having the heaviest known rainfall in the world. 
In 1 86 1 it registered a total of 905 in., and its annual average 
is 458 in. This excessive rainfall is caused by the fact that 
Chcrrapunji stands on the edge of the plateau overlooking the 
plains of Bengal, where it catches the full force of the monsoon 
as it rises from the sea. There is a good coal-seam in the vicinity. 

CHERRY. As a cultivated fruit-tree the cherry is generally 
supposed to be of Asiatic origin, whence, according to Pliny, it 
was brought to Italy by Lucullus after his defeat of Mithradates, 
king of Pontus, 68 B.C. As with most plants which have been 
long and extensively cultivated, it is a matter of difficulty, if not 
an impossibility, to identify the parent stock of the numerous 
cultivated varieties of cherry; but they are generally referred 
to two species: Prunus Ccrasus, the wild or dwarf cherry, the 
origin of the morello, duke and Kentish cherries, and P. Avium, 
the gean, the origin of the geans, hearts and bigarreaus. Roth 
species grow wild through Europe and western Asia to the 
Himalayas, but the dwarf cherry has the more restricted range 
of the two in Britain, as it does not occur in Scotland and b rare 
in Ireland. The cherries form a section Ccrasus of the genus 
Prunus; and they have sometimes been separated as a distinct 
genus from the plums proper; both have a stone-fruit or drupe, 
but the drupe of the cherry differs from that of the plum in not 
having a waxy bloom; further, the leaves of the plum are rolled 
(convolute) in the bud, while- those of the cherry are folded (con- 

The cherries are trees of moderate size and shrubs, having 
smooth, serrate leaves and white flowers. They are natives 
of the temperate regions of both hemispheres; and the cultivated 
varieties ripen their fruit in Norway as far as 63° N. The geans 
are generally distinguished from the common cherry by the 
greater size of the trees, and the deeper colour and comparative 
insipidity of the flesh in the ripe fruit, which adheres firmly 
to the " nut " or stone; but among the very numerous cultivated 
varieties specific distinctions shade away so that the fruit 
cannot be ranged under these two heads. The leading varieties 
are recognized as bigarreaus, dukes, morcllos and geans. Several 
varieties are cultivated as ornamental trees and on account 
of their flowers. 

The cherry is a well-flavoured sub-add fruit, and is much 
esteemed for dessert. Some of the varieties are particularly 
selected for pies, tarts, &c, and others for the preparation of 
preserves, and for making cherry brandy. The fruit is also very 
extensively employed in the preparation of the liqueurs known 
as kjrscbwaaser, ratafia and maraschino. Kirschwasscr is made 



chiefly on the upper Rhine from the wild blick gean, and in 
the manufacture the entire fruit-flesh and kernels are pulped up 
and allowed to ferment. By distillation of the fermented pulp 
the liqueur is obtained in a pure, colourless condition. Ratafia 
is similarly manufactured, also by preference from a gean. 
Maraschino, a highly valued liqueur, the best of which is produced 
at Zara in Dalmatia, differs from these in being distilled from 
a cherry called marasca, the pulp of which is mixed with honey, 
honey or sugar being added to the distillate for sweetening. 
It is also said that the flavour is heightened by the use of the 
leaves of the perfumed cherry, Primus Makaleb, a native of 
central and southern Europe. 

The wood of the cherry tree is valued by cabinetmakers, 
and that of the gean tree is largely used in the manufacture 
of tobacco pipes. The American wild cherry, Prumus serotina, 
h much sought after, its wood being compact, fine-grained, not 
liable to warp, and susceptible of receiving a brilliant polish. 
The kernels of the perfumed cherry, P. Makaleb, are used in 
confectionery and for scent. A gum exudes from the stem of 
cherry trees similar in its properties to gum arabic. 

The cherry is increased by budding on the wild gean, obtained 
by sowing the stones of the small black or red wild cherries. To 
secure very dwarf trees the Prunus Makaleb has been used for 
the May duke, Kentish, morello and analogous sorts, but it is 
not adapted for strong-growing varieties like the bigarreaus. 
The stocks are budded, or, more rarely, grafted, at the usual 
seasons. The cherry prefers a free, loamy soil, with a well- 
drained subsoil. Stiff soils and dry gravelly subsoils are both 
unsuitable, though the trees require a large amount of moisture, 
particularly the large-leaved sorts, such as the bigarreaus. For 
standard trees, the bigarreau section should be planted 30 ft. 
apart, or more, in rich soil, and the May duke, morello and 
similar varieties 20 or 2s ft. apart; while, as trained trees agninst 
walls and espaliers, from 20 to 24 ft. should be allowed for the 
former, and from x 5 to 20 ft. for the latter. In forming the stems 
of a standard tree the temporary side-shoots should not be 
allowed to attain too great a length, and should not be more 
than two years old when they are cut close to the stem. The 
first three shoots retained to form the head should be shortened 
to about 15 in., and two shoots from each encouraged, one at the 
end, and the other 3 or 4 in. lower down. When these have 
become established, very little pruning will be required, and 
that chiefly to keep the principal branches as nearly equal in 
strength as possible for the first few years. Espalier trees 
should have the branches about a foot apart, starting from the 
stem with an upward curve, and then being trained horizontally. 
In summer pruning the shoots on the upper branches must be 
shortened at least a week before those on the lower ones. After 
a year or two clusters of fruit buds will be developed on spurs 
along the branches, and those spurs will continue productive 
for an indefinite period. For wall trees any form of training 
may be adopted; but as the fruit is always finest on young 
spurs, fan-training is probably the most advantageous. A 
succession of young shoots should be laid in every year. The 
morello, which is of twiggy growth and bears on the young wood, 
must be trained in the fan form, and care should be taken to 
avoid the very common error of crowding its branches. 

Forcing.— The cherry will not endure a high temperature nor 
close atmosphere. A heat of 45° at night will be sufficient at 
starting, this being gradually increased during the first few 
weeks to 55°, but lowered again when the blossom buds are about 
to open. After stoning the temperature may be again gradually 
raised to 6o°, and may go up to 70 by day, or 75° by sun beat, 
and 6o° at night. The best forcing cherries are the May duke 
and the royal duke, the duke cherries being of more compact 
growth than the bigarreau tribe and generally setting better; 
nevertheless a few of the larger kinds, such as bigarreau Napoleon, 
black tartarian and St Margaret's, should be forced for variety. 
The trees may be either planted out in tolerably rich soil, or 
grown in large pots of good turfy friable calcareous loam mixed 
with rotten dung. If the plants are small, they may be put into 
ia-in. pots in the first instance, and after a year shifted into 

15-in. pots early in autumn, and plunged in some loose or even 
very slightly fermenting material. The soil of the pots should 
be protected from snow-showers and cold rains. Occasionally 
trees have been taken up in autumn with balls, potted and 
forced in the following spring; but those which have been 
established a year in the pots are to be preferred. Such only as 
are well furnished with blossom-buds should be selected. The 
trees should be removed to the forcing house in the beginning 
of December, if fruit be required very early in the season. During 
the first and second weeks it may be kept nearly close; but, as 
vegetation advances, air becomes absolutely necessary during 
the day, and even at night when the weather will permit. If 
forcing is commenced about the middle or third week of December, 
the fruit ought to be ripe by about the end of March. After the 
fruit is gathered, the trees should be duly supplied with water 
at the root, and the foliage kept well syringed till the wood is 
mature. (See also Fruit and Flower Farming.) 

CHERRYVALE, a city of Montgomery county, Kansas, U.S.A., 
about 140 m. S.S.E. of Kansas City. Pop. (1890) 2104; (1000) 
3472, including 180 negroes; (1005, state census) 5089; (19x0) 
4304. It is served by the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, and the 
main line and a branch (of which it is a terminus) of the St Louis 
& San Francisco railways. It is in a farming district and in the 
Kansas natural-gas and oil-field, and has large zinc smelters, an 
oil refinery, and various manufactures, including vitrified brick, 
flour, glass, cement and ploughs. Cherryvalc was laid out in 
1871 by the Kansas City, Lawrence & South Kansas Railway 
Company (later absorbed by the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Ft). 
The main part of the town was destroyed by fire in 1873, but 
was soon rebuilt, and in 1880 Cherryvale became a city of the 
third and afterwards of the second class. Natural gas, which 
is used as a factory fuel and for street and domestic lighting, 
was found here in 1889, and oil several years later. 

CHERRY VALLEY, a village of Otsego county, New York, 
USA., in a township of the same name, 68 m. N.W. of Albany. 
Pop. (1890) 685; (1900) 772; (1905) 746; (1910) 792; of the 
township (1910) 1706. It is served by the Delaware & 
Hudson railway. Cherry Valley is in the centre of a rich farming 
and dairying region, has a chair factory, and is a summer resort 
with sulphur and lithia springs. It was the scene of a terrible 
massacre during the War of Independence. The village was 
attacked on the nth of November 1778 by Walter Butler 
(d. 1 781 ) and Joseph Brant with a force of 800 Indians and Tories, 
who killed about 50 men, women and children, sacked and 
burned most of the houses, and carried off more than 70 prisoners, 
who were subjected to the greatest cruelties and privations, 
many of them dying or being tomahawked before the Canadian 
settlements were reached. Cherry Valley was incorporated 
in 1812. 

CHERSIPHRON, a Cretan architect, the traditional builder 
(with his son Metagenes) of the great Ionic temple of Artemis 
at Ephesus set up by the Greeks in the 6th century. Some 
remains of this temple were found by J. T. Wood and brought 
to the British Museum. In connexion with the pillars, which 
are adorned with archaic reliefs, a fragmentary inscription has 
been found, recording that they were presented by King Croesus, 
as indeed Herodotus informs us. This temple was burned on 
the day on which Alexander the Great was born. 

CHERSO, an island in the Adriatic Sea, off the cast coast 
of Istria, from which it is separated by the channel of Farasina. 
Pop. (1900) 8274. It is situated in the Gulf of Quarnero, and is 
connected with the island of Lussin, lying on the S.W. by a 
turn bridge over the small channel of Ossero, and with the 
island of Veglia, lying on the E. by the Canale di Mezco. These 
three are the principal islands of the Quarnero group, and form 
together the administrative district of Lussin in the Austrian 
crownland of Istria. Cherso is an elongated island about 40 m. 
long, 1 J to 7 m. wide, and has an area of 1 50 sq. m. It is traversed 
by a range of mountains, which attain in the peak of Syss an 
altitude of 2000 ft. and form natural terraces, planted with vines 
and olive trees, specially in the middle and southern parts of 
the island. The northern part is covered with bushes of laurel 



and mastic, but there are scarcely any large trees. There is a 
scarcity of springs, and the houses are generally furnished with 
cisterns for rain water. In the centre of the island is an interesting 
lake called the Vrana or Crow's Lake, situated at an altitude of 
40 ft. above the level of the sea, 3} m. long, 1 m. wide and 184 
ft. deep. This lake is in all probability fed by subterranean 
sources. The chief town of the island is Cherso, situated on 
the west coast. It possesses a good harbour and is provided 
with a shipwright's wharf. 

CHERSONESE, Chersonesus, or Cherronesus (Gr. xtfxm, 
dry, and vrjaos, island), a word equivalent to " peninsula." 
In ancient geography the Chersonesus Thracica, Chersonesus 
Taurica or Scythica, and Chersonesus Cimbrica correspond to 
the peninsulas of the Dardanelles, the Crimea and Jutland; and 
the Golden Chersonese is usually identified with the peninsula 
of Malacca. The Tauric Chersonese was further distinguished 
as the Great, in contrast to the Heraclcotic or Little Chersonese 
at its S.W. corner, where Sevastopol now stands. 

The Tauric Chersonese 1 (from and century a.d. called 
Cherson) was a Dorian colony of Heraclea in Bithynia, founded 
in the 5th century B.C. in the Crimea about 2 m. S. of the 
modern Sevastopol. After defending itself against the kingdom 
of Bosporus (?.«.), and the native Scythians and Tauri, and even 
extending its power over the west coast of the peninsula, it 
was compelled to call in the aid of Mithradatcs VI. and his 
general Diophantus, c. no B.C., and submitted to the Pontic 
dynasty. On regaining a nominal independence, it came more 
or less under the Roman suzerainty. In the latter part of the 
1st century a.d., and again in the succeeding century, it received 
a Roman garrison and suffered much interference in its internal 
affairs. In the time of Constantine, in return for assistance 
against the Bosporans and the native tribes, it regained its 
autonomy and received special privileges. It must, however, 
have been subject to the Byzantine authorities, as inscriptions 
testify to restorations of its walls by Byzantine officials. Under 
Thcophilus the central government sent out a governor to take 
the place of the elected magistrate. Even so it seems to have 
preserved a measure of self-government and may be said to 
have been the last of the Greek city states. Its ruin was brought 
about by the commercial rivalry of the Genoese, who forbade 
the Greeks to trade there and diverted its commerce to Caffa 
and Sudak. Previous to this it had been the main emporium 
of Byzantine commerce upon the N. coast of the Euxinc. 
Through it went the communications of the empire with the 
Pctchenegs and other native tribes, and more especially with 
the Russians. The commerce of Cherson is guaranteed in the 
early treaties between the Greeks and Russians, and it was in 
Cherson, according to Ps. Nestor's chronicle, that Vladimir was 
baptized in 988 after he had captured the city. The constitution 
of the city was at first democratic under Damiorgi, a senate and 
a general assembly. Latterly it appears to have become aristo- 
cratic, and most of the power was concentrated in the hands of 
the first archon or Proteuon, who in time was superseded by 
the strategus sent out from Byzantium. Its most interesting 
political document is the form of oath sworn to by all the citizens 
in the 3rd century B.C. 

The remains of the city occupy a space about two-thirds of a 
mile long by half a mile broad. They are enclosed by a Byzantine 
wall. Foundations and considerable remains of a Greek wall 
going back to the 4th century B.C. have been found beneath 
this in the eastern or original part of the site. Many Byzantine 
churches, both cruciform and basilican, have been excavated. 
The latter survived here into the 13th century when they had 
long been extinct in other Grcck-spcaking lands. The churches 
were adorned with frescoes, wall and floor mosaics, some well 
preserved, and marble carvings similar to work found at Ravenna. 
The fact that the site has not been inhabited since the 14th 
century makes it important for our knowledge of Byzantine 
life. The city was used by the Romans as a place of banishment : 
St Clement of Rome was exiled hither and first preached the 

1 In Pliny " Heraclea Chersonesus," probably owing to a confusion 
with the name of the mother city. 

Gospel; another exile was Justinian II., who is said to have 
destroyed the city in revenge. We have a considerable series 
of coins from the 3rd century B.C. to about aj>. 200, and also 
some of Byzantine date. 

See B. Koehnc, Beitrdge tur Geschichle von Cherronesus in Tauritn 
(St Petersburg. 1848) ; art. " Cherso nesos " (20) by C. G. Brandis in 
Pauly-Wissowa, Realencydopadie, vol. iii. 221; A. A. Bobrinskoj, 
Chersonesus Taunca (St Petersburg, 1905) (Russian) ; V. V. Uty- 
shev. Inscrr. Orae Septentr. Ponti Euxini, vols. i. and rv. Report* of ex- 
cavations appear in the Compte rendu of the Imperial Archaeological 
Commission of St Petersburg from 1888 and in its Bulletin. See 
E. H. Minns, Scythians and Creeks (Cambridge, 1907). (E. H. M.) 

CHERTSEY, a market town in the Chertsey parliamentary 
division of Surrey, England, 22 m. W.S.W. from London by 
the London & South -West cm railway. Pop. of urban district 
(1001) 12,762. It is pleasantly situated on the right bank of 
the Thames, which is crossed by a bridge of seven arches, built 
of Purbeck stone in 1785. The parish church, rebuilt in 1808, 
contains a tablet to Charles James Fox, who resided at St 
Anne's Hill in the vicinity, and another to Lawrence Tomson, a 
translator of the New Testament in the 17th century. Hardly 
any remains arc left of a great Benedictine abbey, whose buildings 
at one time included an area of 4 acres. They fell into almost 
complete decay in the 17th century, and a " fair house " was 
erected out of the ruins by Sir Nicholas Carew of Beddington. 
The ground-plan can be traced; the fish-ponds are complete; 
and carved stones, coffins and encaustic tiles of a peculiar 
manufacture are frequently exhumed. Among the abbots the 
most famous was John de Rutherwyk, who was appointed in 
1307, and continued, till his death in 1346, to carry on a great 
system of alteration and extension, which almost made the abbey 
a new building. The house in which the poet Cowley spent the 
last years of his life remains, and the chamber in which he 
died is preserved unaltered. The town is the centre of a large 
residential district. Its principal trade is in produce for the 
London markets. 

The first religious settlement in Surrey, a Benedictine abbey, 
was founded in 666 at Chertsey (Cerotesei, Ccrtesey), the manor 
of which belonged to the abbot until 1539, since when it has been 
a possession of the crown. In the reign of Edward the Confessor 
Chertsey was a large village and was made the head of Godley 
hundred. The increase of copyhold under Abbot John de 
Rutherwyk led to discontent, the tenants in 1381 rising and 
burning the rolls. Chertsey owed its importance primarily to 
the abbey, but partly to its geographical position. Ferries over 
the Rcdewynd were subjects of royal grant in 1340 and 1390; 
the abbot built a new bridge over the Bourne in 1333, and 
wholly maintained the bridge over the Thames when it replaced 
the 14th century ferry. In 14 10 the king gave permission to 
build a bridge over the Rcdewynd. As the centre of an agri- 
cultural district the markets of Chertsey were important and are 
still held. Three days' fairs were granted to the abbots in 1129 
for the feast of St Peter ad Vincula by Henry III. for Holy Rood 
day; in 1282 for Ascension day; and a market on Mondays 
was obtained in 1 282. In 1590 there were many poor, for whose 
relief Elizabeth gave a fair for a day in Lent and a market on 
Thursdays. These fairs still survive. 

Sec Lucy Wheeler, Chertsey Abbey (London, 1905); Victoria 
County History, Surrey. 

CHERUBIM, the Hebrew plural of "cherub" {kfrtb), 
-imaginary winged animal figures of a sacred character, referred 
to in the description of Solomon's temple (1 Kings vi. 23-35, 
vii. 29, viii. 6, 7), and also in that of the ark of the tabernacle 
(Ex. xxv. 18-22, xxvi. 1, 31, xxxvii. 7-9). The cherub-images, 
where such occur, represent to the imagination the supernatural 
bearers of Yahwch's throne or chariot, or the guardians of His 
abode; the cherub-carvings at least symbolize His presence, 
and communicate some degree of His sanctity. In Gen. iii. 24 
the cherubim arc the guards of Paradise; Ezck. xxviii. 14, 16 
cannot be mentioned here, the text being corrupt We also find 
(1 Sam. iv. 4; a. Sam. vi. 2) as a divine title " that sitteth upon 
the cherubim "; here it is doubted whether the cherubim are 
the material ones in the temple, or those which faith assumes and 



the artist tries to represent — the supernatural steeds upon which 
Yahweh issues forth to interfere in human -affairs. In a poetic 
thtophany (Ps. xviii. 10) we find " upon a cherub " parallel to 
" upon the wings of the wind " (cp. Isa. xix. x ; Ps. civ. 3). 
One naturally infers from this that the " cherub " was sometimes 
viewed as a bird. For the clouds, mythologically, are birds. 
" The AJgonkins say that birds always make the winds, that they 
create the waterspouts, and that the clouds arc the spreading 
and agitation of their wings." " The Sioux say that the thunder 
is the sound of the cloud-bird flapping his wings." If so, Ps. xviii. 
uisa solitary trace of the archaic view of the cherub. The 
bird, however, was probably a mythic, extra-natural bird. At 
any rate the cherub was suggested by and represents the storm- 
cloud, just as the sword in Gen. iii. 24 corresponds to the lightning. 
In Ezek. L the four visionary creatures are expressly connected 
with a storm-wind, and a bright cloud (ver. 4). Elsewhere 
(xli. 18) the cherub has two faces (a man's and a bird's), but 
in i. 10 and x. 14 each cherub has four faces, a view tastefully 
amplified in the Johannine Apocalypse (Rev. iv. 7). 

It is best, however, to separate Ezckicl from other writers, 
since he belongs to what may be called a great mythological 
revival. Probably his cherubim arc a modification of older 
ones, which may well have been of a more sober type. His own 
accounts, as we have seen, vary. Probably the cherub has 
passed through several phases. There was a mythic bird-cherub, 
and then perhaps a winged animal-form, analogous to the winged 
figures of bulls and lions with human faces which guarded 
Babylonian and Assyrian temples and palaces. Another analogy 
is furnished by the winged genii represented as fertilizing the 
sacred tree — the date-palm (Tylor); here the body is human, 
though the face is sometimes that of an eagle. It is perhaps even 
more noteworthy that figures thought to be cherubs have been 
found at ZcnjirU, within the ancient North Syrian kingdom of 
Ya'di (see Jeremias, Das Allc Testament im Lickte des Alten 
Orients, pp. 350 f.); wc may combine this with the fact that one 
of the great gods of this kingdom was called Rakab'el or Rekub'el 
(also perhaps Rakab or Rekub). A Sabacan (S. Arabian) 
name Karab'cl also exists. The kcrubim might perhaps be 
symbolic representatives of the god Rakab'el or Rekub'el, 
probably equivalent to Hadad, whose sacred animal was the bull. 
That the figures symbolic of Rakab or Hadad were compounded 
or amalgamated by the Israelites with those symbolic of Nergal 
(the lion-god) and Ninib (the eagle-god), is not surprising. 

See further " Cherubim," in Ency. Bib. and Hast. D.B. ; Cheyne, 
Genesis; Tylor. Proc. Soc Bibl. Arch. xii. 383 ff.; Zimmcrn, Die 
Keilinschriften und das Alte Testament, pp. 529 f., 631 f. ; Dibclius, 
Die Lade Jakves (1906), pp. 72-86. (T. K. C.) 


(1760-184.O, Italian musical composer, was born at Florence 
on the 14th of September 1760, and died on the 15th of March 
1842 in Paris. His father was accompanist {Maestro al Cembalo) 
at the Pergola* theatre. Chcrubini himself, in the preface of his 
autograph catalogue of his own works, states, " I began to learn 
music at six and composition at nine, the former from my father, 
the latter from Bartolomeo and Alessandro Felici, and, after 
their death, from Bizzarri and J Castrucci." By the time he 
was sixteen he had composed a great deal of church music, and 
in 1777 he went to Bologna, where for four years he studied under 
Sard. This deservedly famous master well earned the gratitude 
which afterwards impelled Chcrubini to place one of his double 
choruses by the side of his own El Vilam Venturi as the crown 
of his Treatise on Counterpoint and Fugue, though the juxta- 
position is disastrous for Sarti. But besides grounding Chcrubini 
in the church music for which he had early shown so special a 
bent, Sarti also trained him in dramatic composition; some- 
times, like the great masters of painting, entrusting his pupil 
vith minor parts of his own works. From 1780 onwards for the 
next fourteen years dramatic music occupied Chcrubini almost 
entirely. His first complete opera, Quinto Fabio, was produced 
in 1780, and was followed in 1782 by Arntida, Adriano in Siria, 
and other works. Between 1782 and 1784 the successful pro- 
duction of five operas in four different towns must have secured 

Chcrubini a dignified position amongst his Italian contemporaries; 
and in 1784 he was invited to London to produce two works for 
the Italian opera there, one of which, La Finta Principessa, was 
favourably received, while the other, Giulio Sabino, was, accord- 
ing to a contemporary witness, "murdered " by the critics. 

In 1786 he left London for Paris, which became his home after 
a visit to Turin in 1787-1788 on the occasion of the production 
there of his I fi tenia in Aulide. With Chcrubini, as with some 
other composers first trained in a school where the singer reigned 
supreme, the influence of the French dramatic sensibility proved 
decisive, and his first French opera, Demopkon (1788), though 
not a popular success, already marks a departure from the 
Italian style, which Chcrubini still cultivated in the pieces he 
introduced into the works of Anfossi, Paisiello and Cimarosa, 
produced by him as director of the Italian opera in Paris (estab- 
lished in 1789). As in Paris Cluck realized his highest ambitions, 
and even Rossini awoke to a final effort of something like dra- 
matic life in GuUlautne Tell, so in Paris Chcrubini became a 
great composer. If his melodic invention had been as warm as 
Gluck-'s, his immensely superior technique in every branch of 
the art would have made him one of the greatest composers that 
ever lived. But his personal character shows in quaint exaggera- 
tion the same asceticism that in less sour and more negative 
form deprives even his finest music of the glow of that lofty 
inspiration that fears nothing. 

With Lodoiska (1791) the series of Cberubini's masterpieces 
begins, and by the production of Mtdle (1797) his reputation was 
firmly established. The success of this sombre classical tragedy, 
which shows Cherubim's genius in its full power, is an honour to 
the Paris public If Cherubini had known how to combine his 
high ideals with an urbane tolerance of the opinions of persons of 
inferior taste, the severity of his music would not have prevented 
his attaining the height of prosperity. But Napoleon Bonaparte 
irritated him by an enthusiasm for the kind of Italian music 
against which his whole career, from the time he became Sarti 's 
pupil, was a protest. When Cherubini said to Napoleon, " Citoyen 
General, I perceive that you love only that music which does not. 
prevent you thinking of your politics," he may perhaps have been 
as firmly convinced of his own conciliatory manner as he was 
when many years afterwards he •" spared the feelings " of a 
musical candidate by " delicately " telling him that he had " a 
beautiful voice and great musical intelligence, but was too ugly for 
a public singer." Napoleon seems to have disliked opposition in 
music as in other matters, and the academic offices held by 
Chcrubini under him were for many years far below his deserts. 
But though Napoleon saw no reason to conceal his dislike of 
Cherubini, his appointment of Lesucur in 1804 as his chapel- 
master must not be taken as an evidence of his hostility. Lesucur 
was not a great genius, but, although recommended for the post 
by the retiring chapelmaster, Paesiello (one of Napoleon's 
Italian favourites), he was a very meritorious and earnest 
Frenchman whom the appointment saved from starvation. 
Cberubini's creative genius was never more brilliant than at this 
period, as the wonderful two-act ballet, Anacreon, shows; but 
his temper and spirits were not improved by » series of dis- 
appointments which culminated in the collapse of his prospects of 
congenial success at Vienna, where he went in 1805 in compliance 
with an invitation to compose an opera for the Imperial theatre. 
Here he produced, under the title of Der WasscrtrUgcr, the great 
work which, on its first production on the 7th of January 1801 
(26 Nivdse, An 8) as Lcs Deux Journies, had thrilled Paris with the 
accents of a humanity restored to health and peace. It was 
by this time an established favourite in Austria. On the 25th 
of February Cherubini produced Faniska, but the war between 
Austria and France had broken out immediately after his 
arrival, and public interest in artistic matters was checked by 
the bombardment and capitulation of Vienna. Though the 
meeting between Cherubini and the victorious Napoleon was 
not very friendly, he was called upon to direct the music at 
Napoleon's soirees at Schonbrunn. But this had not been his 
object in coming to Vienna, and he soon returned to a retired 
and gloomy life in Paris. 



Hit stay at Vienna is memorable for his intercourse with 
Beethoven, who had a profound admiration for him which he 
could neither realize nor reciprocate. It is too much to expect 
that the mighty genius of Beethoven, which broke through all 
rules in vindication of the principles underlying them, would 
be comprehensible to a mind like Cherubim's, in which, while 
the creative faculties were finely developed, the critical faculty 
was atrophied and its place supplied by a mere disciplinary 
code inadequate even as a basis for the analysis of his own 
works. On the other hand, it would be impossible to exaggerate 
the influence La Deux Jo urn its had on the lighter parts of 
Beethoven's Fidelity. Cherubini's librettist was also the author 
of the libretto from which Fidclio was adapted, and Cherubini's 
score was a constant object of Beethoven's study, not only 
before the production of the first version of Fidelia as Leon ore, 
but also throughout Beethoven's life. Cherubini's record of 
his impressions of Beethoven as a man is contained in the 
single phrase, " II Itait toujours brusque," which at least shows 
a fine freedom from self-consciousness on the part of the man 
whose only remark on being told of the death of Brod, the famous 
oboist, was, " Ah, he hadn't much tone " (" Ah, petit son "). 
Of the overture to Leonore Cherubini only remarked that he 
could not tell what key it was in, and of Beethoven's later 
style he observed, " It makes me sneeze." Beethoven's brusque- 
ness, notorious as it was, did not prevent him from assuring 
Cherubini that he considered him the greatest composer of the 
age and that he loved him and honoured him. In 1806 Haydn 
had just sent out his pathetic " visiting card " announcing that 
he was past work; Weber was still sowing wild oats, and Schubert 
was only nine years old. We need not, then, be surprised at 
Beethoven's judgment. And though we must regret that 
Cherubini's disposition prevented him from understanding 
Beethoven, it would be by no means true to say that he was 
uninfluenced at least by Ae sheer grandeur of the scale which 
Beethoven had by that time established as the permanent 
standard for musical art. Grandeur of proportion was, in fact, 
eminently characteristic of both composers, and the colossal 
structure of such a movement as the duet Ferfides ennemis in 
M idee is almost inconceivable without the example of Beethoven's 
C minor trio, op. 1, No. 3, published two years before it; while 
the cavatina Eierno iddio in Faniska is not only worthy of 
Beethoven but surprisingly like him in style. 

After Cherubini's disappointing visit to Vienna he divided 
his time between teaching at the conservatoire and cutting up 
playing-cards into figures and landscapes, which he framed and 
placed round the walls of his study. Not until 1809 was he 
aroused from this morbid indolence. He was staying in retire- 
ment at the country seat of the prince de Chimay, and his 
friends begged him to write some music for the consecration of 
a church there. After persistent refusals he suddenly surprised 
them with a mass in F for three-part chorus and orchestra. 
With this work the period of his great church music may be said 
to begin; although it was by no means the end of his career 
as an opera writer, which, in fact, lasted as late as his seventy- 
third year. This third period is also marked by some not un- 
important instrumental compositions. An early event in the 
annals of the Philharmonic Society was his invitation to London 
in 1815 to produce a symphony, an overture and a vocal piece. 
The symphony (in D) was afterwards arranged with a new slow 
movement as the string quartet in C (1829), a fact which, taken 
in connexion with the large scale of the work, illustrates Cheru- 
bini's deficient sense of style in chamber music. Nevertheless all 
the six string quartets written between 1814 and 1837 are 
interesting works performed with success at the present day, 
though the last three, discovered in 1889, are less satisfactory 
than the earlier ones. The requiem in C minor (18 17) caused 
Beethoven to declare that if he himself ever wrote a requiem 
Cherubini's would be his model. 

At the eleventh hour Cherubini received recognition from 
Napoleon, who, during the Hundred Days, made him chevalier of 
the Legion of Honour. Then, with the restoration of the Bour- 
baas, the very fact that Cherubini had not been persona grata 

with Napoleon brought him honour and emoluments. He 
was appointed, jointly with Lesucur, as composer and conductor 
1 to the Chapel Royal, and in 1822 he obtained the permanent 
directorship of the conservatoire. This brought him into con- 
tact, for the most part unfriendly, with all the most talented 
musicians of the younger generation. It is improbable that 
Berlioz would have been an easy subject for the wisest and 
kindest of spiritual guides; but no influence, repellent or 
attractive, could have been more disastrous for that passionate, 
quick-witted and yet eminently puzzle-headed mixture of 
Philistine and genius, than the crabbed old martinet whose 
regulations forbade the students access to Cluck's scores in the 
library, and whose only theory of art (as distinguished from his 
practice) is accurately formulated in the following passage from 
Berlioz's Grande TraiU de ^instrumentation et d' orchestration: 
" It was no use for the modern composer to say, ' But do just 
listen I See how smoothly this is introduced, how well motived, 
how deftly connected with the context, and how splendid it 
sounds 1' He was answered, 'That is not the point. This 
modulation is forbidden; therefore it must not' be made.'" 
The lack of really educative teaching, and the actual injustice 
for which Cherubini's disciplinary methods were answerable, 
did much to weaken Berlioz's at best ill-balanced artistic sense, 
and it is highly probable that, but for the kindliness and com- 
parative wisdom of his composition master, Lesueur, he would 
have broken down from sheer lack of any influence which could 
command the respect of an excitable youth starving in the 
pursuit of a fine art against the violent opposition of his family. 
Only when Mendelssohn, at the age of seventeen, visited Paris 
in 182$, did Cherubini startle every one by praising a young 
composer to his face. 

In 1833 Cherubini produced his last work for the stage, AH 
Baba, adapted (with new and noisy features which excited 
Mendelssohn's astonished disgust) from a manuscript opera, 
Koukourgi, written forty years earlier. It is thus, perhaps, not 
a fair illustration of the vigour of his old age; but the requiem 
in D minor (for male voices), written in 1836, is one of his greatest 
works, and, though not actually his last composition, is a worthy 
close to the long career of an artist of high ideals who, while 
neither by birth nor temperament a Frenchman, must yet be 
counted with a still greater foreigner, Gluck, as the glory of 
French classical music. In this he has no parallel except his 
friend and contemporary, Mehul, to whom he dedicated Midte, 
and who dedicated to him the beautiful Ossiank one-act opera 
Uthal. The direct results of his teaching at the conservatoire 
were the steady, though not as yet unhealthy, decline of French 
opera into a lighter style, under the amiable and modest Boieldieu 
and the irresponsible and witty Auber; for, as we have seen, 
Cherubini was quite incapable of making his ideals intelligible 
by any means more personal than his musk; and the crude 
grammatical rules which he mistook for the eternal principles 
of his own and of all music had not the smallest use as a safeguard 
against vulgarity and pretentiousness. 

Lest the passage above quoted from Berlioz should be suspected 
of bias or irrelevance, we cite a few phrases from Cherubini's 
Treatise on Counterpoint and Fugue, of which, though the letter- 
press is by his favourite pupil, Halevy, the musical examples 
and doctrine are beyond suspicion his own. Concerning the 
16th-century idiom, incorrectly but generally known as the 
" changing note " (an idiom which to any musical scholar is as 
natural as " attraction of the relative " is to a Greek scholar), 
Cherubini remarks, " No tradition gives us any reason why the 
classics thus faultily deviated from the rule." Again, he dis- 
cusses the use of " suspensions " in a series of chords which 
without them would contain consecutive fifths, and after making 
all the observations necessary for the rational conclusion that 
the question whether the fifths are successfully disguised or not 
depends upon the beauty and force of the suspensions, he merely 
remarks that " The opinion of the classics appears to me 
erroneous, notwithstanding that custom has sanctioned it, for, 
on the principle that the discord is a mere suspension of the 
chord, it should not affect the nature of the chord. But since 



the classics have pronounced judgment we must of course 
submit." In the whole treatise not one example is given from 
Palest rina or any other master who handled as a living language 
what are now the forms of contrapuntal discipline. As a dead 
language Cherubini brought counterpoint up to date by abandon- 
ing the church modes; but in true severity of principle, as 
in educational stimulus, his treatise shows a deplorable falling 
off from the standard set a hundred years before in Fux's Gradus 
at Parnassian with its delightful dialogues between master and 
pupO and its continual appeal to artistic experience. Whatever 
may have been Cherubim's success in imparting facility and 
certainty to his light-hearted pupils who established 19th-century 
French opera as a refuge from the terrors of serious art, there 
can be no doubt that his career as a teacher did more harm than 
good. In it the punishment drill of an incompetent schoolmaster 
was invested with the authority of a great composer, and by it 
the false antithesis between the " classical " and the " romantic " 
was erected into a barrier which many critics still find an insuper- 
able obstacle to the understanding of the classical spirit. And 
yet as a composer Cherubini was no pseudo-classic but a really 
great artist, whose purity of style, except at rare moments, just 
failed to express the ideals he never lost sight of, because in his 
bve of those ideals there was too much fear. 

His principal works are summarized by Fetis as thirty-two operas, 
twenty-nine church compositions, four cantatasand several instru- 
mental pieces, besides the treatise on counterpoint and fugue. 

Good modern full scores of the two Requiems and of Les Deux 
Jaurnees (the latter unfortunately without the dialogue, which, 
h o wev e r, is accessible in its fairly good German translation in the 
fUdam Bibtiotiuk), and also of ten opera overtures, are current in 
the Peters edition. Vocal scores of some of the other operas are not 
difficult to get. The great Credo is in the Peters edition, but is 
becoming scarce. The string quartets are in Payne's Miniature 
Scores, It b very desirable that the operas, from Demophon onwards, 
should be republished in full score. 

See also E. Bellasis, Cherubini (1874) '• and an article with personal 
reminiscences by the composer Ferdinand Hiller, in MacmiUans 
Magawine (1875). A complete catalogue of his compositions (1773" 
1841) was edited by Bottee du Toulmon. (O. F. T.) 

CHERUEL, PIERRE ADOLPHE (1800-1891), French historian, 
was born at Rouen on the 17th of January 1809. He was 
educated at the Ecole Normale Superieure, and became a fellow 
{agrirt) in 1830. His early studies were devoted to his native 
town. His Histoire de Rouen sous la domination anglaise au 
XV' siecle (1840) And. Histoire de Rouen pendant Vtpoque com- 
munalc, 1150-1382 (Rouen, 1843-1844), are meritorious pro- 
ductions for a time when the archives were neither inventoried 
nor classified, and contain useful documents previously un- 
published- His theses for the degree of doctor, Dc l' adminis- 
tration da Louis XIV d'apres les Mimoires intdiis d' Olivier 
fOrmesson and De Maria Sluarta et Henrico III. (1849), led 
him to the study of general history. The former was expanded 
afterwards under the title His&ire de I' administration monarchique 
em France depuis I'avenemenl de Philippe- Augusta jusqu'd la 
mart de Louis XIV (1855), and in 1855 he also published his 
Dkiionnaire /nstorique des institutions, nuzurs et eoutumes de 
la France, of which many editions have appeared. These works 
may still be consulted for the 17th century, the period upon 
which Cheruel concentrated all his scientific activity. He edited 
successively the Journal d'Oiitier Lefetre d'Ormesson ( 1860-1862) , 
interesting for the history of the parlement of Paris during the 
minority of Louis XIV.; Lettres du cardinal Mazarin pendant 
son ministere (6 vols., 1870-1891), continued by the vicomte 
G. d'Aveuel; and Mimoires du due de Saint-Simon, published 
for the first time according to the original MSS. (2 editions, 
1856-1858 and 1878-1881). To Saint-Simon also he devoted 
two critical studies, which are acute but not definitive: Saint- 
Simon consider t comma kislorien de Louis XIV (1865) and 
Notice sur latieetsur les mimoires du due de Saint-Simon ( 1876). 
The latter may be considered as an introduction to the famous 
Mimoires, Among his later writings may be mentioned the 
Histoire de la France pendant la minoriti de Louis XI V (4 vols., 
1880) and Histoire de la Prance sous le ministere de Matarin 
(3 vols., 1883-1883). These two works are valuable for abund- 
ance of facts, precision of details, and dear and intelligent 

arrangement, but are characterized by a slightly frigid style. 
In their compilation Cheruel used a fair number of unpublished 
documents. To the student of the second half of the 1 7th century 
in France the works of Cheruel are a mine of information. He 
died in Paris on the 1st of May 1891. 

CHERUSCI, an ancient German tribe occupying the basin 
of the Weser to the north of the Chatti. Together with the 
other tribes of western Germany they submitted to the Romans 
in 1 1-9 b.c, but in aj>. 9 Arminius, one of their princes, rose in 
revolt, and defeated and slew the Roman general Quintilius 
Varus with his whole army. Gcrmanicus Caesar made several 
unsuccessful attempts to bring them into subjection again. By 
the end of the 1st century the prestige of the Cherusci had 
declined through unsuccessful warfare with the Chatti. Their 
territory was eventually occupied by the Saxons. 

Tacitus, Annals, I 2, n, 12, 13; Cermania, 36; Strabo, p. 291 f.; 
E. Devrient, in Neue Jahrb.f. a\ Mass. Alter. (1900), p. 517. 

CHESELDEN, WILLIAM (1688-1752), English surgeon, was 
born at Somerby, Leicestershire, on the 19th of October 1688. 
He studied anatomy in London under William Cowper (1666- 
1709), and in 17 13 published his Anatomy of the Human Body, 
which achieved great popularity and went through thirteen 
editions. In 17 18 he was appointed an assistant surgeon at 
St Thomas's hospital (London), becoming full surgeon in the 
following year, and he was also chosen one of the surgeons to 
St George's hospital on its foundation in 1733. He retired from 
St Thomas's in 1738, and died at Bath on the 10th of April 
1752. Chcsclden is famous for his " lateral operation for the 
stone," which he first performed in 1727. He also effected a 
great advance in ophthalmic surgery by his operation of iridec- 
tomy, described in 1728, for the treatment of certain forms of 
blindness by the production of an " artificial pupil." He at- 
tended Sir Isaac Newton in his last illness, and was an intimate 
friend of Alexander Pope and of Sir Hans Sloane. 

CHESHAM, a market town in the Aylesbury parliamentary 
division of Buckinghamshire, England, 26 m. W.N.W. of London 
by the Metropolitan railway. Pop. of urban district (1901) 
7245. It is pleasantly situated in the narrow valley of the river 
Chess, closely flanked by low wooded hills. The church of St 
Mary is cruciform and mainly Perpendicular. Some ancient 
frescoes and numerous monuments are preserved. All sorts of 
small dairy utensils, chairs, malt-shovels, &c, are made of 
beech, the growth of which forms a feature of the surrounding 
country. Shoemaking is also carried on. In Waterside hamlet, 
adjoining the town, are flour-mills, duck farms, and some of the 
extensive watercress beds for which the Chess is noted, as it is 
also for its trout-fishing. 

CHESHIRE, a north-western county of England, bounded N. 
by Lancashire, N.E. by Yorkshire and Derbyshire, S.E. by 
Staffordshire, S. by Shropshire, W. by Denbighshire and Flint, 
and N.W. by the Irish Sea. Its area is 1027*8 sq. m. The 
coast-line is formed by the estuaries of the Dee and the Mersey, 
which are separated by the low rectangular peninsula of WirraL 
The estuary of the Dee is dry at low tide on the Cheshire shore, 
but that of the Mersey bears upon its banks the ports of Liverpool 
(in Lancashire) and Birkenhead (on the Wirral shore). The 
Dee forms a great part of the county boundary with Denbigh* 
shire and Flint, and the Mersey the boundary along the whole 
of the northern side. The principal river within the county is 
the Weaver, which crosses it with a north-westerly course, and, 
being joined by the Dane at Northwich, discharges into the 
estuary of the Mersey south of Runcorn. The surface of Cheshire 
is mostly low and gently undulating or flat; but the broken 
line of the Peckforton hills, seldom exceeding 600 ft. in height, 
runs north and south flanking the valley of the Weaver on the 
west. A low narrow gap in these hills is traversed by the small 
river Gowy, which rises to the cast but has the greater part of 
its course to the west of them. Commanding this gap on the 
west, the Norman castle of Beeston stands on an isolated 
eminence. The northern part of the hills coincides approxi- 
mately with the district still called Delamere Forest, formerly 
a chase of the earls of Chester, and finally disXrasMAAw v%\*» 

9 o 


In certain sequestered parts the forest has not wholly lost its 
anrirnt character. On the east Cheshire includes the western 
fare of the broad belt of high land which embraces the Peak 
dfatrict of Derbyshire; these hills rise sharply to the east of 
Cough'ton, Macclesfield and Hyde, reaching a height of about 
i Moo ft. within Cheshire. Distributed over the county, but 
principally in the eastern half, are many small lakes or meres, 
such as Comtarmcrc, Tat ton, Rosthcrne, Tabley, Doddington, 
Marlmry and Merc, and it was a common practice among the 
gentry of the county to build their mansions on the banks of 
these waters. The meres form one of the most picturesque 
features of the county. 

Cfuloty. — Wilh the exception of a small area of Carboniferous 
nicks tin the cittern bonier, and a small patch of Lower Lias near 
Audlcm, the whole country is occupii-d by Triaxsie strata. The 
great central pl.iin is covered by red ami mottled Kcuper Marls. 
From the«e marl* salt is obtained; there are many beds of rock- 
*.»!(, mostly thin; two are much thicker than the others, being from 
75 ft. to over too ft. thick. Thin bed* and veins of gypsum are 
common in the marls. The striking features of the Pec kf or ton Hills 
are due to the repeated faulting of the Lower Keupcr Sandstone, 
which lies n^m bed* of Hunter Sandstone. Besides forming this 
* ell -marked ridec. the Lower Kcuper Sandstones or " Waterstones " 
form ridges north-west of Macclesfield and appear alone 
iih»*t of the northern borders of the county and inthe neighbourhood 
of New Brighton and Birkenhead. The Lower Kcuper Sandstone is 
<|u.uricd near the last-named place, also at Storeton, Delamere and 
Ma nicy. This i* a good building stone and an important water- 
bearing stratum: it is often ripple- marked, ami bears the footprints 
of the Ckfirtfhrrimm. At Aklerley Edge ores of copper, lead and 
coUilt are found. West of the lYckforton ridge, Buntcr Sandstones 
ami ix'bhlc bed* extend to the border. They also form low foothills 
between Cheudlc ami Macclesfield. They fringe the northern bound- 
ary and appear on the south-eastern boundary as a narrow strip 
of hilly ground near YYoorc. The oklest rock exposed in the county 
is the small faulted anticline of Carboniferous limestone at Aslbury 

followed in regular succession eastward by 
limestone* and sandstones of the Pcndle*ide 

the shale, and thin 
de series. These rocks 
extend from Congleton Kdge to near Macclesfield, where the outcrop 
hrnd* »W|>U i.^ivk.mi ami runs up the Goyt valley. Some h.inl 
quarttitr* in the fWdWule series, known kxallv a* " Crowstones," 
hat* contributed to the formation of the high Boslcv M in and neigh- 
bouring h*U*- I Jif of Uotlcy Min, on either side of the Goyt valley, 
ate the MilUftw Cirfts ami Shales, forming the elevated moorland 
tntitt Cloud 1 HitL a striking feature near Congleton, is capped by 
the " TfcW Grit," on* of the Millstone Grit aeries. From Maccles- 
4eU noftfewanl ihfwigh Stockport is a narrow tongue of Lower and 
Middle Co*rMe**<i(v^-ai\ extension of the Lancashire coalfield. 
Coal i* mined if Ne*ton »n the Wirral perdiiMila from N'm-ath the 
Triat; it is a ewirwrrina link between the Lancashire and Flintshire 
coaMeUs. Glacial dfifi i» ihicklv thread over all the lower ground: 
Uni<tuted red Hjytv *a**l clav with nonhern erratics ami lenticular 
sand iv.isv* with o»va>i.'nal giaxeU, are the common tvpes. At 
I'rewe tSe Jmi i» oxer jax» It. thick Patches of IVilt Kind, with 
ru-.^i' nS-'!* aviii on the high giotind east of Macvlcsrteld at an 
tl.'Uli.':! oi i.*xo it. 



.".*••• .»:,:* JxfVoj.-* --The ttimate is temperate and 
■«p; tin* soil »> ar.d ii regular, but a large prxv- 

po-.v."-* ;n a tV.:v. ^kr.isv.! «la\ Move than four fifths of the total 
a:vi .> -.."t-c; e*.;'.:ixa: on I'hc nop of wheat i* eomparalixely 
:r<-g" : ,wt . but a Luge tpiantitx ol oats i< grown, and a Rrc.H el tVe * i.''.i> ated land i* in pcini.uicnt pasture. VJie 
x v "..w o: >::.-b jvp. :■.".> » entic* a> 1 >xci|svl and Manchester. ,i> 
»c« a> tV s:\c:al \Mft to««» wnhm the countv, n % ake« *att!c 
a-, 1 , c.vrx tarn*. '.-a: p^v.-Mr t>cc»v of excellent o.uaIh> i> 
p-.v\ved. sbe n«rw c: t v .e count x being gixen to a pattuul.u 
c-a-v. ..see PwsV IVtatev* a:v bx tat the moM ini|v;t.:tu 
g~.*.~. c-v : » Y'.:.". grow::*^ ■.< tamed on m xome pi*!*, evjv* i.ilU 
:\c ...': »a p . o™. e »:o-e \:\ i ar.d j-».v.c ;*•«■*** .I.wivm-.*. while 
:v •..,-i»N:-x \\ ; > -ear l"aitt. , .» v t a'ld lL-'.t .vs. ^Ut'iaicxl In 
: v .* r.-s: v jl". o ; '.'•c :c?V. *xv*:«i\ tV tw..! , ,m e: agtiii.'sve 
• C v .-s.*. -e »rt • .* v. v :.■».' > Nu- V w at x : . . a **.d . ■! 1 S .x x i S .s*« t Sc 
•v. -:» >. *.--.- : » ■. * r^xv \\ *cxv.;:\ isv.'* ax* , ..i , .n»", ot \.\t:\t 
. .*v> o" *-'."■. V a~v..""i»\l to '/.s*^" :*"a • , V . N ,\\» 
^ .^ • » : .* .-*■ :a- -i :• e—. i V,- i s ,v **■.■.'. x a '..\.\ .-. »» 

'■-■J .- a^ . ■ * jn 
; --o .xv c- : v c *.- 
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W. *.-.V X v.* . v * 
g\XX- -.•».. .,n- u ;X. 

*\".'Sx> ■.*,%■ .Nv.v 



..- <v a \ i.. 

The industries of the county are various and impa 
manufacture of cotton goods extends from its seat ir 
into Cheshire, at the town of Stockport and else* 
north -cast. Macclesfield and Congleton are cen 
manufacture. At Crewe are situated the great work 
London & North -Western railway company, the iz 
which actually brought the town into being. Anotbe; 
the modern creation of a town by an individual 
corporation is seen in Port Sunlight on the Mency 
soap-works of Messrs Lever are situated. On the li 
are shipbuilding yards, and machinery and iron wc 
important manufactures are those of tools, chemic 
and hats, and there are printing, bleaching and dye 
metal foundries. Much sandstone is quarried, but 
wealth of the county lies in coal and salt. The 
specially important product. Some rock-salt is i 
Northwich and Winsford, but most of the salt is ext 
brine both here and at Lawton, Wheclock and Midd 
Northwich and other places in the locality curio? 
frequently occur owing to the sinking of the soil after 
pumped out; walls crack and collapse, and nous 
leaning far out of the perpendicular. A little copp 
are found. 

Communications. — The county is well served wil 
The main line of the London & North-Wcstcrn raflw 
north from Crewe to Warrington in Lancashire, sen 
town, but from Crewe branches diverge fan wise to 1 
Chester, North Wales and Shrewsbury. The Ck 
railway, wilh a line coming northward from Wrcxha 
access through Cheshire to Liverpool and Manchester, 
companies jointly work the Birkenhead railway fr 
to Birkenhead. The heart of the county is travel 
Cheshire Lines, serving the salt district, and reach 
from Manchester by way of Delamere Forest. In i 
Midi a mi and Great Central systems enter the coun 
North Staffordshire line serves Macclesfield. The 3 
South Junction & Altrincham and the Wirral railwaj 
systems serving the localities indicated by their ni 
river Weaver is locked as far up as Winsford. and the I 
salt is thus expedited. The profits of the navigation 
originally undertaken in i ; :o by a few Cheshire squi 
to the county, and are paid annually to the relief of 
tates. In the salt dUtrict through which the Wea 
subsidence of the land has resulted in the formation 
considerable extent, which act as reservoirs to 
na\ ion. There arc further means of inland navigj 
Grand Trunk, Shropshire I'r.ion and other canals, 
small steamers are in use. The Manchester Ship C 
through a section ei r.o::h Cheshire, being entered 
estuary of the Mersey by leek* r.Ar East ham, and I 
southern shore up to Rur.corn. aster which it takes a \ 
course than the river 

/V.riu'.Ti.vT ,:«:J J ./■*." ■.:;>.: .:'.«:.— The ancient count 
a countv palat :ne. has -n area o: o ; - .-> : acres, with a 
tn i So i \>i ;^o.OnS a::d in i.v; o: Si 5. coo. Chesbit 
deM'i sbed a> a suburb or l.\ iTjw'.. Manchester and tl 
ot St.ifl.«ix!Nb.w. and ir.a:i\ o: ; s :o*e whese business! 
centres h.wc *o*.*rs.:ed >v.»h »:s;r : .c:» .*.s Mowdon, Ak 
and Ma:pV V..-.:^S*!er. :V W.rral. and Alsi 
MaA««td>>9fe !v..\r «■ :.i :>.c« I...;'.::^s have come 
Iheiuhei >.-Vus!xa::» , -»:::.-iso-. I Or. the short 
the Win. 11 ate 10.: -.d i>.e rvv_\;r :.»s::ts o: New Bi 
II ox ' a kc V > is it'.ev c rr. » ■-.: :. :.,' : w. _■> - : : .: :\ce c fits indi 
S\.-a the »v.:r:v a x •>: •«:• .•:»■**? o: ;>■.•.■*.-,: .en in mo 
li iS'i tSc jsv-Ia :..»■-. « .- »."-...*c:. rc.r. :>c: until 
' id \ .: , i v -. »e»; 1 o i "' , 1 ** e . . ! v .1 f : > c i .: r* :-.: .-; rativ 
» % . 1 .< ■ x a, : v* The " ,; ' x - v * ■ ■* " ~ v.r. clrcis Th 
■'o- .* , .^>* .i 1 v I* . ■ "x .■ -. V . . ■ . . v ^ ; . c ; \ z . Chestei 
vo-vVu-^.o-e x ^-». ,.•-. ?;A-.:^:8.i 
.«• -.v» M^x'-c*:.-'-- ■••.' x S..M-. ."jk .:-*7jjV 

»vh»»vX K*xM«^ •••i li-Ae«Vxad *:..! Suvkp,>ri a 



boroughs. The other urban districts with their populations are 
as follows- — 


Aldrrky Edge (a) 
Ahnncham {a) 
Ash t on-ii pon- Mem 
BoUingtH) (a) 

Bowdoa {») « 

Bradbury and Romiky (a), 
Broiubarough (fl) , 

Bitclawton (Cortgtrton V 
QieadJe and Gailcv (a) . 
CocrtpitalWa) • ..'*. 
Ellesmer* Port and Whitby (ft) 

Hak la) 

Handforth W . , 
Hazel Cmve and BramhalJ (b) 
HiaHcf BcbJngtoJi (ft) 
HoUinrikQftli ',-; i . * . 
HooUlChcitcr) „ - . 

J -597 


7.9 ^ 


1 loyhkc and West Kirby (*) 

Knutsford 1 ll/ 

Lower Bubinjjton (ft) ,, 

Lymm (a) . , # 

ManiH (a) , „ , 4 


Mottram-in^LonpJcndalc [p) 

S.W.lWi: k .... 

Ncarcn and ParkBate {ft) 
North with . 

Kuncom m • ^ * 

Sak OT « * « « 

Sjndbich . , « . 

Tarporky „ 

Wafbscy (ft) . * ■ 

Witmhluw (tf) * « 
Win staid ... 
Ycardsky-cutn- Whale y (a) 






U p oBH 

? S5S 






Of the townships in this tabic, those marked (a) are within a radius 
of about 15 m. from Manchester (Knutsford bcinR taken as the 
limit), while those marked (ft) are in the Wirral. The localities of 
densest population .are thus clearly illustrated. 

The county is In the North Wales and Chester circuit, and 
assizes are held at Chester. It has one court of quarter sessions, 
and is divided into fourteen petty sessional divisions. The 
boroughs already named, excepting Duk infield, have separate 
commissions of the peace, and Birkenhead and Chester have 
separate courts of quarter sessions. There are 464 civil parishes. 
Cheshire is almost wholly in the diocese of Chester, but small 
parts are in those of Manchester, St Asaph or Lichfield. There 
are 26S ecclesiastical parishes or districts wholly or in part 
within the county. There are eight parliamentary divisions, 
namely, Macclesfield, Crewe, Eddisbury, Wirral, Knutsford, 
Altrincham, Hyde and North wich, each returning one member; 
the county also includes the parliamentary borough of Birkenhead 
returning one member, and parts of the borough of Stockport, 
which returns two members, and of Ashton-under-Lync, Chester, 
Staly bridge, and Warrington, which return one member 

History — The earliest recorded historical fact relating to the 
district which is now Cheshire is the capture of Chester and 
destruction of the native Britons by the Northumbrian king 
iEthelfrith about 614. After a period of incessant strife between 
the Britons and their Saxon invaders the district was subjugated 
by Ecgbert in 830 and incorporated in the kingdom of Mercia. 
During the oth century /Ethelwulf held his parliament at Chester, 
and received the homage of his tributary kings from Berwick to 
Kent, and in the 10th century jElhclflsrd rebuilt the city, and 
erected fortresses at Eddisbury and Runcorn. Edward the 
Elder garrisoned Thelwall and strengthened the passages of the 
Mersey and the Irwell. On the splitting up of Mercia in the 
roth century the dependent districts along the Dee were made a 
shire for the fortress of Chester. The shire is first mentioned in 
the Abingdon Chronicle, which relates that in 980 Cheshire was 
plundered by a fleet of Northmen. At the time of the Domesday 
Survey the county was divided into twelve hundreds, exclusive 
of the six hundreds between the Ribble and the Mersey, now 
included in Lancashire, but then a part of Cheshire. These 
divisions have suffered great modification, both in extent and 
in name, and of the seven modern hundreds Bucklow alone 
retains its Domesday appellation. The hundreds of Atiscross 
and Exestan have been transferred to the counties of Flint and 
Denbigh, with the exception of a few townships now in the 
hundred of Broxton. The prolonged resistance of Cheshire to 
the Conqueror was punished by ruthless harrying and sweeping 
confiscations of property, and no Englishman retained estates 
of importance after the Conquest. In order that the shire 
might be relieved of all obligations beyond the ever-pressing 
necessity of defending its borders against the inroads of hostile 
neighbours, it was constituted a county palatine which the earl 
of Chester " held as freely by his sword as the king held England 
by his crown." The county had its independent parliament 

I consisting of the barons and clergy, and courts, and all lands 
I except those of the bishop were held of the earl. The court of 
exchequer was presided over by a chamberlain, a 
vice-chamberlain, and a baron of the exchequer. 
It was principally a court of revenue, but prob- 
ably a court of justice also, before that of the 
justiciary was established, and had besides the 
functions of a chancery court, with an exclusive 
jurisdiction in equity. Other officers of the 
palatinate were the constable, high-steward and 
the Serjeants of the peace and of the forests. 
The abbots of St Wcrburgh and Combermere 
and all the eight barons held courts, in any of 
which cases of capital felony might be tried. 

During the 12th and 13th centuries the county 
was impoverished by the constant inroads of the 
Welsh. In 1264 the castle and city of Chester 
were granted to Simon de Mont fort, and in 1267 
the treaty of Shrewsbury procured a short interval of peace. 
Richard II., in return for the loyal support furnished him by 
the county, made it a principality, but the act was revoked in 
the next reign. In 1403 Cheshire was the headquarters of 
Hotspur, who roused the people by telling them that Richard 
II. was still living. At the beginning of the Wars of the Roses 
Margaret collected a body of supporters from among the Cheshire 
gentry, and Lancastrian risings occurred as late as 1464. At 
the time of the Civil War feeling was so equally divided that 
an attempt was made to form an association for preserving 
internal peace. In 1643, however, Chester was made the head* 
quarters of the royalist forces, while Nantwich was garrisoned 
for the parliament, and the county became the scene of con- 
stant skirmishes until the surrender of Chester in 1646 put an 
end to the struggle. 

From the number of great families with which it has been 
associated Chester has been named " the mother and nurse of 
English gentility." Of the eight baronies of the earldom none 
survives, but the title of that of Kinder ton was bestowed in 176s 
on George Venables- Vernon, son of Anne, sister of Peter Venables, 
last baron of Kinderton, from whom the present Lord Vernon 
of Kinderton is descended. Other great Domesday proprietors 
were William FitzNigcl, baron of Hal ton, ancestor of the Lacys; 
Hugh dc Mara, baron of Mont alt, ancestor of the Ardens; 
Ranulph, ancestor of the Mainwarings; and Hamo de Mastey. 
The Davenports, Leighs and Warburtons trace their descent 
back to the 12th century, and the Grosvcnors are descended 
from a nephew of Hugh Lupus. 

In the reign of Henry VIII. the distinctive privileges of 
Cheshire as a county palatine were considerably abridged. The 
right of sanctuary attached to the city of Chester was abolished; 
justices of the peace were appointed as in other parts of the 
kingdom, and in 1542 it was enacted that in future two knights 
for the shire and two burgesses for the city of Chester should be 
returned to parliament. After the Reform Act of 1832 the 
county returned four members from two divisions, and Maccles- 
field and Stockport returned two members each. Birkenhead 
secured representation in 1859. From 1868 until the Redistribu- 
tion Act of 1885 the county returned six members from three 

From earliest times the staple products of Cheshire have been 
salt and cheese. The salt-pits of Nantwich, Middlewich and 
Northwich were in active operation at the time of Edward the 
Confessor, and at that date the mills and fisheries on the Dee 
also furnished a valuable source of revenue. Twelfth century 
writers refer to the excellence of Cheshire cheese, and at the 
time of the Civil War three hundred tons at £33 per ton were 
ordered in one year for the troops in Scotland. The trades of 
tanners, skinners and glove-makers existed at the time of 
the Conquest, and the export trade in wool in the 13th and 
14th centuries was considerable. The first bed of rock-salt 
was discovered in 1670. Weaving and wool-combing were 
introduced in 1674. 
Antiquities. — The main interest in the architecture of the 

9 2 


county lies in the direction of domestic buildings rather than 
ecclesiastical. Old half-timbered houses are common in almost 
every part of the county; many of these add to the picturesque- 
ness of the streets in the older towns, as in the case of the famous 
Rows in Chester, while in the country many ancient manor- 
houses remain as farm-houses. Among the finest examples 
are Bramhall Hall, between Stockport and Macclesfield, and 
Moreton Old Hall, near Congleton (see House, Plate IV., fig. 13). 
The first, occupying three sides of a quadrangle (formerly 
completed by a fourth side), dates from the 13th and 14th 
centuries, and contains a splendid panelled hall and other rooms. 
Of Moreton Hall, which is moated, only three sides similarly 
remain; its date is of the 16th century. Other buildings of the 
Elizabethan period are not infrequent, such as Brercton and 
Dorfold Halls, while more modern mansions, set in fine estates, 
are numerous. Crewe Hall is a modern building on an ancient 
site, and Vale Royal near Winsford incorporates fragments of a 
Cistercian monastery founded in 1277. A noteworthy instance 
of the half-timbered style applied to an ecclesiastical building 
is found in the church of Lower Peovcr near Knutsford, of which 
only the tower is of stone. The church dates from the 13 th 
century, and was carefully restored in 1852. Cheshire has no 
monastic remains of importance, save those attached to the 
cathedral of Chester, nor are its village churches as a rule of 
special interest. There is, however, a fine late Perpendicular 
church (with earlier portions) at Astbury near Congleton, and 
of this style and the Decorated the churches of Bunbury and 
Malpas may be noticed as good illustrations. In Chester, besides 
the cathedral, there is the massive Norman church of St John; 
and St Michael's church and the Rivers chapel at Macclesfield 
are noteworthy. No more remarkable religious monuments 
remain in the county than the two sculptured Saxon crosses in 
the market-place at Sandbach. Ruins of two Norman castles 
exist in Beeston and Halton. 

Authorities. — Sir John Doddridge, History of the Ancient and 
Modern Siiiti of the Principality of Wales, Duchy of Cornwall, and 
Earldom of Chester (London, 1630; 2nd ed., 17*4); D. King, The 
VoJe-Royalt of England, or ihc County Palatine of Cheshire Illustrated, 
4 part 4 (London, 1056) ; L> and S. Lysons, Magna Britannia, vol. ii. 
pt. ti. (London. 1810J ; J. H- llanshafi, History of the County Palatine 
fit Chester (Chester, 1S1 7-1823); J. O. Ha Hi well. Palatine Anthology 
[LoodoDi itt,£oj; G. QrcneriM, History of the County Palatine and 
Ctty of Clutter (London, 1&19; new ed., London. 1875-1882); 
J. P. E&rwaktr, Eait Cheshire (a vols., London, 1877); R. Wilbraham, 
denary (London, i-.-^ r jnd cd., London, 1826); and Glossary 
founded an tyilfrraham by E, Leigh (London, 1877); J. Croston. 
Hiiicrir Si in oj Cheshire (Manchester, 1883) ; and County Families of 
Chfihtrt (Manchester, tMj); W. E. A. Axon, Cheshire Cleanings 
(Manchester, 1884) ; Holland, Glossary of Words used in the County 
of Cheshire (London, 1884-1886); N. G. Philips, Views of Old Halls 
tn Cheshire (London, 1893) ; Victoria County History, Cheshire. 
See also various volumes of the Chetham Society and of the Record 
Society of Manchester, as well as the Proceedings of the Cheshire 
Antiquarian Society, and Cheshire Notes and Queries. 

CHESHUNT, an urban district in the Hertford parliamentary 
division of Hertfordshire, England, on the Lea, 14 m. N. of 
London by the Great Eastern railway. Pop. (1891) 9620; 
(1001) 12,292. The church of St Mary is Perpendicular and 
has been enlarged in modern times. A college was founded, 
for the education of young men to the ministry of the Connexion, 
by Selina countess of Huntingdon in 1768 at Trcvccca-isaf near 
Talgarth, Brecknockshire. In 1792 it was moved to Cheshunt, 
and became known as Cheshunt College. In 1904, as it was 
felt that the college was unable properly to carry on its work 
under existing conditions, it was proposed to amalgamate it 
with Hackney College, but the Board of Education refused to 
sanction any arrangement which would set aside the require- 
ments of the deed of foundation, namely that the officers, and 
students of Cheshunt College should subscribe the fifteen articles 
appended to the deed, and should take certain other obligations. 
In 1905 it was decided by the board to reorganize the college 
and remove it to Cambridge. 

Nursery and market gardening, largely under glass, brick- 
making and saw-mills are the chief industries of Qhcshunt. 
Roman coins and other remains have been found at this place, 
mod MnumappcAn built into the wall of an inn. A Romano- 

British village or small town is indicated. There was a Bene- 
dictine nunnery here in the 13th century. Of several interestinf 
mansions in the vicinity one, the Great House, belonged t< 
Cardinal VVolsey, and a former Pcngelly House was the residenci 
of Richard Cromwell the Protector after his resignation. Theo 
balds Park was built in the 18th century, but the origina 
mansion was acquired by William Cecil, Lord Burghley, it 
1 561; being taken in 1607 by James I. from Robert Cecil, first 
earl of Salisbury, in exchange for Hatfield House. James diet 
here in 1625, and Charles I. set out from here for Nottingham ii 
1642 at the outset of the Civil War. One of the entrances t< 
Theobalds Park is the old Temple Bar, removed from Fleel 
Street, London, in 1878. 

CHESIL BANK (A.S. ceosol, pebble bank), a remarkabk 
beach of shingle on the coast of Dorsetshire, England. It u 
separated from the mainland for 8 m. by an inlet called the Fleet 
famous for its swannery, and continues in all for 18 m. south 
eastward from Abbot sbury, terminating at the so-called Ish 
of Portland. The height of the bank at the Portland end h 
35 ft. above spring-tide level, and its breadth 200 yds. The 
greater height at this end accords with the general movement 
of shingle along this coast from west to east; and for the same 
reason the pebbles of the bank decrease in size from x to 3 in 
in diameter at Portland to the size of peas at the western end 
where the breadth is only 170 yds. 

politician, was born at Orthez in the department of the Basses- 
Pyrenees, on the 14th of April 1820. In 1848 he proclaimed 
himself a Republican; but after the establishment of the Seconc 
Empire he changed his views, and in 1865 was returned to th< 
chamber as the official candidate for his native place. He at 
once became conspicuous, both for his eloquence and for nil 
uncompromising clericalism, especially in urging the necessit) 
for maintaining the temporal power of the papacy. In 1869 1m 
was again returned, and, devoting himself with exceptional 
ability to financial questions, was in 1870 appointed to report 
the budget. During and after the war, for which he voted, he 
retired for a while into private life; but in 2872 he was again 
elected deputy, this time as a Legitimist, and took his seal 
among the extreme Right. He was the soul of the reactionary 
opposition that led to the fall of Thiers; and in 1873 it was he 
who, with Lucien Brun, carried to the comte de Chambord the 
proposals of the chambers. Through some misunderstanding, 
he reported on his return that the count had accepted all the 
terms offered, including the retention of the tricolour flag, and 
the count published a formal dcniaL Chesnelong now devoted 
himself to the establishment of Catholic universities and to the 
formation of Catholic working-men's clubs. In 1876 he was 
again returned for Orthez, but was unseated, and then beaten 
by the republican candidate. On the 24th of November, how- 
ever, he was elected to a seat in the senate, where he continued 
his vigorous polemic against the progressive attempts of the 
republican government to secularize the educational system of 
France until his death in 1894. 

CHESNEY, CHARLES CORNWALL!* (1826-1876), British 
soldier and military writer, the third son of Charles CornwaUb 
Chesney, captain on the retired list of the Bengal Artillery, and 
nephew of General F. R. Chesney, was born in Co. Down, Irelandi 
on the 29th of September 1826. Educated at BlundelTs school, 
Tiverton, and afterwards at the Royal Military Academy, 
Woolwich, he obtained his first commission as second lieutenant 
of engineers in 1845, passing out of the academy at the head of 
his term. His early service was spent in the ordinary course 
of regimental duty at home and abroad, and he was stationed 
in New Zealand during the Crimean War. Among the various 
reforms in the British military system which followed from that 
war was the impetus given to military education; and in 1858 
Captain Chesney was appointed professor of military history 
at Sandhurst. In 1864 he succeeded Colonel (afterwards Sir 
Edward) Hamley in the corresponding chair at the Staff College. 
The writings of these two brilliant officers had a great influence 
not only at home, but on the continent and in America. CheaMgr*l 



first published work (1863) was an account of the Civil War in 
Virginia, which went through several editions. But the work 
which attained the greatest reputation was his Waterloo Lectures 
(1868), prepared from the notes of lectures orally delivered at 
the Staff College. Up to that time the English literature on the 
Waterloo campaign, although voluminous, was made up of 
personal reminiscences or of formal records, useful materials 
for history rather than history itself; and the French accounts 
had mainly taken the form of fiction. In Chesney's lucid and 
vigorous account of the momentous struggle, while it illustrates 
both the strategy and tactics which culminated in the final 
catastrophe, the mistakes committed by Napoleon arc laid bare, 
and for the first time an English writer is found to point out that 
the dispositions of Wellington were far from faultless. And in 
the Waterloo Lectures the Prussians are for the first time credited 
by an English pen with their proper share in the victory. The 
work attracted much attention abroad as well as at home, and 
French and German translations were published. 

Chesney was for many years a constant contributor to the 
newspaper press and to periodic literature, devoting himself 
for the most part to the critical treatment of military operations, 
and professional subjects generally. Some of his essays on 
military biography, contributed mainly to the Edinburgh Review, 
were afterwards published separately (1874). In 1868 he was 
appointed a member of the royal commission on military educa- 
tion, under the presidency first of Earl Dc Grey and afterwards 
of Lord Dufferin, to whose recommendations were due the 
improved organization of the military colleges, and the develop- 
ment of military education in the principal military stations 
of the British army. In 187 1, on the conclusion of the Franco- 
German War, he was sent on a special mission to France and 
Germany, and furnished to the government a series of valuable 
reports on the different siege operations which had been carried 
out during the war, especially the two sieges of Paris. These 
reports were published in a large volume, which was issued 
confidentially. Never seeking regimental or staff preferment, 
Colonel Chesney never obtained any, but he held at the time of 
his death a unique position in the army, altogether apart from 
and above his actual place in it. He was consulted by officers 
of all grades on professional matters, and few have done more 
to raise the intellectual standard of the British officer. Con- 
stantly engaged in literary pursuits, he was nevertheless laborious 
and exemplary in the discharge of his public duties, while 
managing also to devote a large part of his time to charitable 
and religious offices. lie was abstemious to a fault; and, 
overwork of mind and body telling at last on a frail constitution, 
he died after a short illness on the 10th of March 1876. He had 
become lieutenant-colonel in 1873, and at the time of his death 
he was commanding Royal Engineer of the London district. 
He was buried at Sandhurst. 

CHESNEY, FRANCIS RAWDON (1780-1872), British general 
and explorer, was the son of Captain Alexander Chesney, an 
Irishman of Scottish descent who, having emigrated to South 
Carolina in 1772, did brilliant service under Lord Rawdon 
(afterwards marquess of Hastings) in the War of Independence, 
and subsequently received an appointment as coast officer at 
Annalong, Co. Down, Ireland. There F. R. Chesney was born 
on the 16th of March 1 789. Lord Rawdon gave the boy a cadet- 
ship at Woolwich, and he was gazetted to the Royal Artillery 
in 1805. But though he rose to be lieutenant-general and 
colonel-commandant of the 14th brigade Royal Artillery (1864), 
and general In 1868, Chesney's memory lives not for his military 
record, but for his connexion with the Suex Canal, and with the 
exploration of the Euphrates valley, which started with his being 
sent out to Constantinople in the course of his military duties 
in 1829, and his making a tour of inspection in Egypt and Syria. 
His report in 1830 on the feasibility of making the Suez Canal 
was the original basis of Lcsseps' great undertaking (in 1869 
Lesseps greeted him in Paris as the "father" of the canal); 
and in 1831 he introduced to the home government the idea of 
opening a new overland route to India, by a daring and ad- 
venturous journey (for the Arabs were hostile and he was ignorant 

of the language) along the Euphrates valley from Anah to the 
Persian Gulf. Returning home, Colonel Chesney (as he then 
was) busied himself to get support for the latter project, to 
which the East India Company's board was favourable; And 
in 1835 he was sent out in command of a small expedition, for 
which parliament voted £20,000, in order to test the navigability 
of the Euphrates. After encountering immense difficulties, from 
the opposition of the Egyptian pasha, and from the need of 
transporting two steamers (one of which was lost) in sections 
from the Mediterranean over the hilly country to the river, 
they successfully arrived by water at Bushirc in the summer of 
1836, and proved Chesney's view to be a practicable one. In 
the middle of 1837 he returned to England, and was given the 
Royal Geographical Society's gold medal, having meanwhile 
been to India to consult the authorities there; but the preparation 
of his two volumes on the expedition (published in 1850) was 
interrupted by his being ordered out in 1843 t0 command the 
artillery at Hong Kong. In 1847 his period of service was 
completed, and he went home to Ireland, to a life of retirement; 
but both in 1856 and again in 1862 he went out to the East to 
take a part in further surveys and negotiations for the Euphrates 
valley railway scheme, which, however, the government would 
not take up, in spite of a favourable report from the House of 
Commons committee in 187 1. In 1868 he published a further 
volume of narrative on his Euphrates expedition. He died on 
the 30th of January 1872. 

His Life, edited by Stanley Lane Poole, appeared in 1885. 

CHESNEY, SIR GEORGE TOHKTNS (1830-1895), English 
general, brother of Colonel C. C. Chesney, was born at Tiverton, 
Devonshire, on the 30th of April 1830. Educated at BIundelTs 
school, Tiverton, and at Addiscombe, he entered the Bengal 
Engineers as second lieutenant in 1848. He was employed for 
some years in the public works department and, on the outbreak 
of the Indian Mutiny in 1857, joined the Ambala column, was 
field engineer at the battle of Badli-ke-serai, brigade-major of 
engineers throughout the siege of Delhi, and was severely 
wounded in the assault (medal and clasp and a brevet majority). 
In i860 he was appointed head of a new department in connexion 
with the public works accounts. His work on Indian Polity 
(i868),dealingwith the administration of the several departments 
of the Indian government, attracted wide attention and remains 
a permanent text-book. The originator of the Royal Indian 
Civil Engineering College at Cooper's Hill, Staines, he was also 
its first president (1871-1880). In 187 1 he -contributed to 
Blackwood's Magazine, "The Battle of Dorking," a vivid 
account of a supposed invasion of England by the Germans 
after their victory over France. This was republished in many 
editions and translations, and produced a profound impression. 
He was promoted lieutenant-colonel, 1869; colonel, 1877; 
major-general, 1886; lieutenant-general, 1887; colonel-com- 
mandant of Royal Engineers, 1800; and general, 1892. From 
1881 to 1886 he was secretary to the military department of 
the government of India, and was made a C.S.I, and a CLE. 
From 1886 to 1892, as military member of the governor-general's 
council, he carried out many much-needed military reforms. 
He was made a C.B. at the jubilee of 1887, and a K.C.B. on 
leaving India in 1892. In that year he was returned to parlia- 
ment, in the Conservative interest, as member for Oxford, and 
was chairman of the committee of service members of the House 
of Commons until his death on the 3 1st of March 1895. He wrote 
some novels, The Dilemma, The Private Secretary, The Lester s t 
&c, and was a frequent contributor to periodical literature. 

CHESS, once known as " checker," a game played with certain 
" pieces " on a special " board " described below. It takes its 
name from the Persian word shah, a king, the name of one of the 
pieces or men used in the game. Chess is the most cosmopolitan 
of all games, invented in the East (see History, below), intro- 
duced into the West and now domiciled in every part of the 
world. As a mere pastime chess is easily learnt, and a very 
moderate amount of study enables a man to become a fair player, 
but the higher ranges of chess-skill arc only attained by persistent 
labour. The real proficient or " master " not merely must know 



the subtle variations in which the game abounds, but must be able 
to apply his knowledge in the face of the enemy and to call to his 
aid, as occasion demands, all that he has of foresight, brilliancy 
and resource, both in attack and in defence. Two chess players 
fighting over the board may fitly be compared to two famous 
generals encountering each other on the battlefield, the strategy 
and the tactics being not dissimilar in spirit. 

The Board, Pieces and Moves.— The chessboard is divided 
(sec accompanying diagrams) into sixty-four chequered squares. 
In diagram x, the pieces, or chess-men, arc arranged for the 
beginning of a game, while diagram a shows the denomination of 
the squares according to the English and German systems of 
notation. Under diagram i arc the names of the various " pieces " 
—each side, White or Black, having a King, a Queen, two Rooks 
(or Castles), two Knights, and two Bishops. The eight men in 
front are called Pawns. At the beginning of the game the queen 
always stands upon a square of her own colour. The board is so 
set that each player has a white square at the right hand end of 
the row nearest to him. The rook , knight and bishop on the right 
of the king arc known as King's rook, King's knight, and King's 
bishop; the other three as Queen's rook, Queen's knight, and 
Queen's bishop. 

Briefly described, the powers of the various pieces and of the 
pawns are as follows. 

The king may move in any direction, only one square at a time, 

except in castling. Two kings can never be on adjacent squares. 

BLACK The queen moves in any dircc- 

■ i — - — tt= — -i tion square or diagonal, whether 

S^ijfc d" t? &!ft£|! forward or backward. There is 

j no limit to her range over vacant 

If i fix IV. X squares; an opponent she may 

I take; a piece of her own colour 

J stops her. She is the most power- 

ful piece on the board, for her 

action is a union of those of the 

rook and bishop. The rooks (from 

the Indian rukh and Persian rokh, 

meaning a soldier or warrior) 

move in straight lines — forward 

* or backward— but they cannot 

white. diagonally. Their range is 

Diagram i. — Showing the ... A . *» * .. ., , ...... 

arrangement of the nieces at *» kc lhe queen's, unlimited, with 
the commencement of a game, the same exceptions. 

The bishops move diagonally 
in any direction whether backward or forward. They have 
an unlimited range, with the same exceptions. 

The knights' moves are of an absolutely different kind. They 
move from one corner of any rectangle of three squares by two to 
the opposite corner; thus, in diagram 3, the white knight can 
move to the square occupied by the black one, and vice versa, or a 
knight could move from C to D, or D to C. The move may be 
made in any direction. It is no obstacle to the knight's move if 
squares A and B are occupied. It will be perceived that the 
knight always moves to a square of a different colour. 

The king, queen, rooks and bishops may capture any foeman 
which stands anywhere within their respective ranges; and the 
knights can capture the adverse men which stand upon the 
squares to which they can leap. The piece which takes occupies 
the square of the piece which is taken, the latter being removed 
from the board. Hie king cannot capture any man which is 
protected by another man. 

The moves and capturing powers of the pawns are as follows:— 
Each pawn for his first move may advance cither one or two 
squares straight forward, but afterwards one square only, and 
this whether upon starting he exercised his privilege of moving 
two squares or not. A pawn can never move backwards. He can 
capture only diagonally — one square to his right or left front. A 
pawn moves like a rook, captures like a bishop, but only one 
square at a time. When a pawn arrives at an eighth square, 
viz. at the extreme limit of the board, he may, at the option of 
bis owner, be exchanged for any other piece, so that a player 
may, e.g., have two or more queens on the board at once. 

" Check and Checkmate." The king can never be captured, but 
when any piece or pawn attacks him. he is said to be " in check," 
and the fact of his being so attacked should be announced by the 






eyD ?jWO 29b 


KB & KK r 8 KR5 

?a>i zmm £y>i 



Qft7 QK f 7 QB7; 



K87 KK r 7 KR7 

QR6 QK'6 QB6 

'jyp *ih6 7 aft 



KB 6 KK f 6 KR£ 

QR5 QK r 5 QE5 



KB 5 KK f S KR5 

QR4 QK'jJ QB4 
9«b 9^0 9Qtl 



K&i KK*4 m< 
9QM SjMW saw 




QR3 0K f 3 QB3 
QR2 gtfa QB2 




LBX L$W !■>*>»' 
KB£ KK r 2 KR3 

abed eft h 


Diagram 2.— Showing English and German Methods of Notation. 

adverse player saying " check," whereupon the king must move 
from the square he occupies, or be screened from check by the 
interposition of one of his own men, or the attacking piece must 
be captured. If, however, when the king is in check, none of 
these things can be done, it is " checkmate " (Persian, skak mat, 
the king is dead), known generally as " mate," whereupon the 
game terminates, the player whose king has been thus check- 
mated being the loser. When the adversary has only his king 
left, it is very easy to checkmate him with only a queen and 
king, or only a rook and king. The problem is less easy with 
king and two bishops, and still less easy with king, knight and 
bishop, in which case the opposing king has to be driven into a 
corner square whose colour corresponds with the bishop's, mate 
being given with the bishop. A king and two knights cannot 
mate. To mate with king and rook the opposing king must be 
driven on to one of the four side files and kept there with the 
rook on the next file, till it is held by the other king, when the 
rook mates. 

The pawn gives check in the same way as he captures, viz. 
diagonally. One king cannot give check to another, nor may a 
king be moved into check. 

" Check by discovery " is given when a player, by moving one 
of his pieces, checks with another of them. "Double check" 
means attacking the king at once with two 
pieces — one of the pieces in this case giving 
check by discovery. 

" Perpetual check " occurs when one player, 
seeing that he cannot win the game, finds the 
men so placed that he can give check ad 
infinitum, while his adversary cannot possibly 
avoid it. The game is then drawn. A game is 
also drawn " if, before touching a man, the , 

player whose turn it is to play, claims that the Km 8 ht * mov€ - 
game be treated as drawn, and proves that the existing position 
existed, in the game and at the commencement of his turn of play, 
twice at least before the present turn." 

" Stalemate." When a king is not in check, but his owner has 
no move left save such as would place the king in check, it is 
" stalemate," and the game is drawn. 

" Castling." This is a special move permitted to the king once 
only in the game. It is performed in combination with either 
rook, the king being moved two squares laterally, while the rook 
towards which he is moved (which must not have previously 






moved from its square) is placed next him on the other side; the 
king must be touched first. The king cannot castle after having 
been once moved, nor when any piece stands between him and 
the rook, nor if he is in check, nor when he has to cross a square 
commanded by an adverse piece or pawn, nor into check. It will 
be perceived that after castling with the king's rook the latter 
will occupy the KB square, while the king stands on the KKt 
square, and if with the queen's rook, the latter will occupy the 
queen's square while the king stands on the QB square. 

" Taking en passant" This is a privilege possessed by any 
of the pawns under the following circumstances. — If a pawn, 
say of the white colour, stands upon a fifth square, say upon K5 
counting from the white tide, and a black pawn moves from Qa 
or KB a to Q4 or KB4 counting from the black side, the white 
pawn can take the black pawn en passant. For the purposes of 
such capture the latter is dealt with as though he had only moved 
to Qj or KB 3, and the white pawn taking him diagonally then 
occupies the square the captured pawn would have reached had 
he moved but one square. The capture can be made only 
on the move immediately succeeding that of the pawn to be 

" Drawn Game." This arises from a stalemate (noticed 
above), or from either player not having sufficient force where- 
with to effect checkmate, as when there are only two kings 
left on the board, or king and bishop against king, or king with 
one knight, or two knights against king, or from perpetual 
check. One of the players can call upon the other to give check- 
mate in fifty moves, the result of failure being that the game is 
drawn. But, if a pawn is moved, or a piece is captured, the 
counting must begin again. 

A " minor piece " means cither a knight or a bishop. ** Winning 
the exchange" signifies capturing a rook in exchange for a 
minor piece. A " passed pawn " is one that has no adverse 
pawn either in front or on either of the adjoining files. A 
" file " is simply a line of squares extending vertically from 
one end of the board to the other. An " open file " is one on 
which no piece or pawn of either colour is standing. A pawn 
or piece is en prise when one of the enemy's men can capture it. 
u Gambit " is a word derived from the Ital. gambeUo, a tripping 
up of the heels; it is a term used to signify an opening in which 
a pawn or piece is sacrificed at the opening of a game to obtain 
an attack. An " opening," or dibut, is a certain set method 
of commencing the game. When a player can only make one 
legal move, that move is called a " forced move." 

Value of the Pieces.— The relative worth of the chess-men 
cannot be definitely stated on account of the increase or decrease 
of their powers according to the position of the game and the 
pieces, but taking the pawn as the unit the following will be 
an estimate near enough for practical purposes: — pawn 1, 
bishop 3*25, knight 3* 2 5, rook 5, queen 9- 50. Three minor pieces 
may more often than not be advantageously exchanged for the 
queen. The knight is generally stronger than the bishop in the 
end game, but two bishops are usually stronger than two knights, 
more especially in open positions. 

Laws. — The laws of chess differ, although not very materially, 
in different countries. Various steps have been taken, but as 
yet without success, to secure the adoption of a universal code. 
In competitions among English players the particular laws to 
be observed are specially agreed upon, — the regulations most 
generally adopted being those laid down at length in Staunton's 
Chess Praxis, or the modification of the Praxis laws issued in 
the name of the British Chess Association in 1862. 

First Move and Odds. — To decide who moves first, one player 
conceals a white pawn in one hand and a black pawn in the 
other, his adversary not seeing in which hand the different pawns 
are put. The other holds out his hands with the pawns concealed, 
and his adversary touches one. If that contains the white pawn, 
he takes the white men and moves first. If he draws the black 
pawn his adversary has the first move, since white, by convention, 
always plays first. Subsequently the first move is taken alter- 
nately. If one player, by way of odds, " gives " his adversary 
a pawn or piece, that piece is removed before play begins. If 

the odds are " pawn and move," or " pawn and two," a black 
pawn, namely, the king's bishop's pawn, is removed and white 
plays one move, or any two moves in succession. " Pawn and 
two " is generally considered to be slightly less in point of odds 
than to give a knight or a bishop; to give a knight and a bishop 
is to give rather more than a rook; a rook and bishop less than 
a queen; two rooks rather more than a queen. The odds of 
" the marked pawn" can only be given to a much weaker player. 
A pawn, generally KB's pawn, is marked with a cap of paper. 
If the pawn is captured its owner loses the gamo; he can also 
lose by being checkmated in the usual way, but he cannot give 
mate to his adversary with any man except the marked pawn, 
which may not be moved to an eighth square and exchanged 
for a piece. 

Rules.— It a player touch one of his men he must move it, 
unless he sxysfadoube (I adjust), or words of a similar meaning, 
to the effect that he was only setting it straight on its square. 
If he cannot legally move a touched piece, he must move bis 
king, if he can, but may not castle; if not, there is no penalty. 
He must say fadoubc before touching his piece. If a player 
touch an opponent's piece, he must take it, if he can. if not, 
move his king. If he can do neither, no penalty. A move is 
completed and cannot be taken back, as soon as a player, having 
moved a piece, has taken his hand off it. If a player is called 
upon to mate under the fifty-move rule, " fifty moves " means 
fifty moves and the forty-nine replies to them. A pawn that 
reaches an eighth square must be exchanged for some other piece, 
the move not being complete until this is done; a second king 
cannot be selected. 

Modes of Notation.— The English and German methods of 
describing the moves made in a game are different. According to 
the English method each player counts from his own side of 
the board, and the moves are denoted by the names of the files 
and the numbers of the squares. Thus when a player for his 
first move advances the king's pawn two squares, it is described 
as follows:— " 1. P- K4." The following moves, with the aid 
of diagram 2, will enable the reader to understand the principles 
of the British notation. The symbol X is used to express 
" takes "; a dash - to express " to." 

White. Black. 

1. P-K4 1. P-K4 

2. KKt-KB 3 2. QKt-QB3 

(i.e. King's Knight to the (i.e. Queen's Knight to the 
third square of the King's third square of the Queen's 
Bishop's file) Bishop's file) 

3. KB-QB4 3. KB-QB4 

(King's Bishop to the fourth 

equarc of the Queen's 

Bishop's file) 
4 P-QB3 a. KKt-KB3 

5- P-Q4 5- P takes P (or PXP) 

(King's pawn takes White's 
Queen's pawn) 
6. P takes P (or PXP) 6. KB-QKt5 (ch. ( i.e. check) 

(Queen's Bishop's pawn 

takes pawn: no other pawn 

has a pawn en prise) 

It is now usual to express the notation as concisely as possible; 
thus, the third moves of White and Black would be given as 
3. B - B4, because it is clear that only the fourth square of the 
queen's bishop's file is intended. 

The French names for the pieces are, King, Rot; Queen, Dame; 
Rook, Tour; Knight, Cavalier; Pawn, Pion; for Bishop the 
French substitute Fou, a jester. Chess is Les £ckecs. 

The German notation employs the alphabetical characters 
a, b, c, d, e, /, g and A, proceeding from left to right, and the 
numerals z, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8, running upwards, these being 
always calculated from the white side of the board (see diagram 
2). Thus the White Queen's .Rook's square is ai, the White 
Queen's square is di; the Black Queen's square, 48; the 
White King's square, ei ; the Black King's square, eS, and so 
with the other pieces and squares. The German names of the 
pieces are as follows: — King, Kbnig; Queen, Dame; Rook, 
Turm; Bishop, L&ufer; Knight, Springer; Pawn, Bauer; 
Chess, Schach. 



ProbUnu.^k diets problem * has been described as " merely 
a position supposed to have occurred in a game of chess, being 
none other than the critical point where your antagonist announces 
checkmate in a given number of moves, no matter what defence 
you play," but the above description conveys no idea of the 
Position by B. Honoitz. 




As a rule the game should be 
drawn. Supposing by a scries of 
checks White were to compel Black 
to abandon the pawn, he would 
move K-R8j QXP and Black is 
stale-mate. Therefore the ingenious 
way to win is: — 

i. K-B4, P-B8-Q ch; K- 
Kt3 and wins. Or 1. . . . K- 
R8 (threatening P-B8-Kt); then 
2. Q-Q2 preliminary to K-Kt3 
now wins. 

Position by B. Horoitu 

Without Black's pawn White 
could only draw. The pawn being 
ea the board, White wins as 
follows :— 

1. Kt-B4. K-Kt sq; 2. 
Kt (B4)-K3. K-R sq; 3. 
K-Kt* K-Kt sq; 4. K - R3, 
K-Rsq; 5. Kt-B*. K-Kt sq; 
6\ Kt (B 4 )-Q2, K-R sq; 7. 
Kt-Kt3 ch, K-Kt sq; 8. 
Kt— B3 mate. 

Position by B. Horwitt. 


S flB H 




* i - 

White wins with two pieces against 
one — a rare occurrence. 

1. Kt-K6, B-R3; 2. B-Q4 
ch, K-R2; 3. B-B3. B moves 
anywhere not en prise; 4. B — Kt7 
and Kt mates. 

Position by 0. Schubert. 



White wins as follows:— 

1. P-Kl5 r Ki-Kij; 3. K-B3, 
Kr-K*.; 3- B-K6, Kt-B8; 4. 
BXP* Kt-Q? ^ 5- K-Kt4, 
KtXP; 6, P-Kt6. K1-B3. ch; 
7. K-KI5. P-Ks; S. KxKt. 
P-K6; 9. B-Bj r KxB; 10. 
P-Kt7, P-K7: "■ P-Kt8-Q 
c4, as>d win* by the simple process 
of a scries of checks so timed that 
the kins may approach systematic- 
#ffy. Tne fine poin(* in this instruc- 
tive emiirid art the two bishop's 
moves, 3. B-K^, and 9. B — 64, 
the latter move enabling White to 
queen the pawn with a chock. white. 

degree to which problem -composing has become a specialized 
study. Owing its inception, doubtless, to the practice of recording 
critical phases from actual play, the art of problem composition 
has so grown in favour as to earn the title of the " poetry " of 
the game. 

1 The earliest known problem is ascribed to an Arabian caliph of 
the oth century. The first known collection is in a manuscript (in 
the British Museum) of King Alphonso of Castile, dated 1250; it 
contains 103 problem*. The collection of Nicolas of Lombardy. 
dated 1300, comprises 192 problems. 

A good chess problem exemplifies chess strategy idealized and 
concentrated. In examples of actual play there will necessarily 
remain on the board pieces immaterial to the issue (checkmate), 
whereas in problems the composer employs only indispensabU 
force so as to focus attention on the idea, avoiding all material 
Position by P. Amelung. 

White with the inferior position 
saves the game as follows: — 

1. P-R6. PXP; 2. K-Bi dis. 
ch, K moves; 3. R-R2, or Kt2 ch, 
KXR; 4. K-Kt2 and draw, as 
Black has to give up the rook, and 
the RP cannot be queened, the Black 
bishop having no power on the 
White diagonal. Extremely subtle. 

The main idea being to checkmate 
with the bishop, this is accomplished 
thus:— 1. B-K4 ch, K-R4; 2. 
QXR, QXQ; 3- K-B7, Q-B sq 
en; 4.1<XQ. BXP; 5. K-B7, 
BXP;6. B--Kt6matc 

Position by B. Horarit*. 






■ u 


® . '1 


Position by A. Troittky. 




%t ia 

I ' 


White wins as follows: — 

I. P-R8-Q, R-Kt7 ch; J. 
K-Kt5, RXQ; 3. Kt-Q7 ch, 
K-Kt2; 4. P-B6 ch, K-Rsj 
5- QPXKt. R-R sq; 6. Kt-Bj 
ch, RXKt; 7. PXR-Kt mate. 

Position by ff offer. 

> . , , black. 

A position from actual pUv, 
White plays 1. R-B5 threaten a 
to win a piece. Black repli with 
the powerful Kt — Kt«$, threatening 
two mates, and finally White (Mr 
Hotter) finds an ingenious sacrifice 
of the Queen — the saving clause. 

The following are the move* ;— 

i. R-B5. Kt-Kt5; 2. Q-Kta 
ch, K-Kt3; 3. Q-K6 ch, R-Ri. 
4. Q — Kt8 ch, and drawn by per* 1 
petual check, as Black cannot cap- 
ture the Queen with K or R without 
losing the game. 


which would tend to "obscure the issue." Hence the first 
object in a problem is to extract the maximum of finesse with a 
sparing use of the pieces, but " economy of force " must be 
combined with " purity of the mate." A very common mistake, 
until comparatively recent years, was that of appraising the 
" economy " of a position according to the slendcmess of the 
force used, but economy is not a question of absolute values. The 
true criterion is the ratio of the force employed to the skill 
demanded. The earliest composers strove to give their produc- 
tions every appearance of real play, and indeed their compositions 








9 6 


The initials only of the pieces are given, the pawn* (Baucrn) 
being understood* The Germans u*e the following signs in their 
noutioti, vtt.:—Jor di«k (t); " checkmate " It); " takes " 
(:)- t M castles oh king's side (o-o); "castles on queen's side " 
(emj-o); for best mov* a note of admiration (I); for '* weak 
move f ' a note of interrogation (?). The opening moves just given 
in the English will now be given in the German notation: — 

White. Black. 

1. e2-e4 i. e7-es 

2. Sgi-f3 2. Sb8-c6 

3. L11-C4 3. Lf8-c5 

4. C2-C3 4. Sg8-f6! 

f. d2-d4 5. e5-d4: 

. C3~d4: 6. Lcs-btf 
In both notations the moves are often given in a tabular form, 

I. £""ift 1. c f ~ c j . the moves above the line being White's 
r — K4 C7— e$ 

and below the line Black s. 

Illustrative Cairns. — The text-books should be consulted by 
students who wish to improve their game. The following arc 
some of the leading openings: — 

Giuoco Piano. 



1. P-K4 



2. KKt-B3 


8V J 


3. B-B4 


t P~B 3 


I: W 



BXB (ch) 

7. B-Q2 

8. QKtXB 

9. PXP 





10, Q-Kt3 

11. Castles (K* 

s side) 




Ruy Lopez. 



I. P-K4 



2. KKt-B3 


QKt-B 3 

3. B-Kt5 


4. B-R4 


Kt-B 3 

t $--% 



7. Castles 



8. R-Ksq 



9. BXKt 



10. KtXP 


11. Kt-QB3 





Scotch Gambit. 



I. P-K4 



2. KKt-B3 


^* P - B3 

3- P-Q4 

4- B-QB4 




§• P-B3 
6. PXP 


The position here arrived at is 

the same as in the Giuoco Piano 

opening above. 

Evans Gamdit. 



1. P-K4 



2. KKt-B3 


§V 3 

3- B-B4 


4- P"QKt 4 

5- P-B3 

6. P-O4 

7. Castles 

8. PXP 







White has for its ninth move three approved continuations, viz. 
B - Ku, P - Q5, and Kt - B3. To take one of them :— 
9 P-Q5 9- Kt-R4 

10. B-Kt2 10. Kt-K2 

11. B-O} II. Castles 

12. Kt-B3 12. Kt-Kt3 

13. Kt-1<2 13. P-QB4 

14. Q-Q2 14. P-B3 

15. K-Rsq 15. B-B2 

16. QR-Bsq 16. R-Kt sq 
This game may be considered about even. 

Kino's Knight's Gambit (Proper). 

White. Black. 

1. P-K4 1. P-K4 

2. P-KB4 2. PXP 

3. KKt-B3 3. P-KK14 

4. B-B4 4 B-Kta 

5. Castles 5. P-Q3 

6. P-Q4 6. P-KR3 

7. P-B3 7. Kt-K2 

Black has the advantage. 

Allgaier-Kiesf.ritzki Gambit. 

White. Black. 

1. P-K4 1. P-K4 

2. P-KB4 2. PXP 

3. Kt-KB3 3. P-KKt4 

4. P-KR4 4. P-Kts 

5. Kt-K 5 5. KKt-%3 

6. B-B4 6. P-Q4 

7. PXP 7- B-kt2 

8. P-Q4 8. Castles 

9. BXP 9- KtXP 

10. BXKt 10. OXB 

11. Castles 11. P-QB4 

Black has the better game. 

King's Bishop's Gambit. 



1. P-K4 

2. P-KB4 

1. P-K4 

2. PXP 

3. B-B4 

3. P-Q4 

4- BXP 

5. K-Bsq 

6. KKt-B3 

8. P-KR3 

8.' P-KR4 

9. Kt-B3 

9. Kt-Ka 

10. K-Kt sq 

10. P-Kt5 

11. Kt-K5 

11. BXKt 

12. PXB 

ia. QXKP 
13. P-B6 

13. Q-B sq 

14. P-P 

14. Q-Kt6(ch) 

IS- Q-Kt2 

Drawn game. 

Salvio Gambit. 



1. P-K4 

2. P-KB4 

3. KKt-B3 

1. P-K4 

2. PXP 

3. P-KKt4 

4/ B-Ba 
5- JJ«-*5 

4- P-Kt5 

5. Q-R.s (ch) 

6. Kt-KRr 

6. K-Bsq 

I. Kt"-$B3 
9. Kt-Q3 

7. P-B6 

8. P-Q3 

9. PxP(ch) 

10. KXP 

10. B — Kt2 

11. Kt-KB4 

11. Kt-B3 

12. B-K3 

12. Castles 

13. QKt-Q5 

14. P-B3 

13. Q-Qsq 

White has a slight advantage. 

Muzio Gambit. 

•• ?=g >• 

P-KB4 . KKt-B3 . B-B4 
PXP 3 \P-KKt 4 4 * f-Kts 



5. Castles 

6. QXP 

7. P-K 5 

5. PxKt 

6. Q-B3 

7. QXP 

9. B-Qa 

10. Kt-B3 

11. QR-Ksq 

12. R-K4 

8. B-Ri 
•9. Kt-Ka 

10. QKt-B3 

11. Q-KB4 

12. CaMlcs 

13- QBXP 

13. B-Kt2 

14. Q-K2 

15. BXBP 

,4 - E"~8* 
15 Q-Kt4 

16. Q-Kt3 

17. KtXKt 

16. P-KR4 

17. KtXP 

18. BXKt 

18. B-B4 

19. QR-KB4 

20. BXB 

19. B-K3 

20. PXB 

21. R-K4 

21. RXRfch) 

22. R-Bsq(ch) 

22. KXR 

23. K-Kt sq 

23- Kt-Q5 

And Black has the better game. 


I. P- 

3. P 

3- P --, 

4. BXP 

5. PXP 

6. Kt-KB 3 

7. Castles 
i P-KR3 
9. Kt-QB3 

Queen's Gambit. 


a. PXP 
4. PXP 

7. Castles 

8. P-KR3 

9. P-QB3 

The game is about equal, though White has a somewhat freer 

The following is a selection of noteworthy games played by 
great masters:— 

King's Bishop's Gambit. 


a! P-KB4 

3. B-B4 

4. K-Bsq 

5. BxKtP 

6. Kt-F 

I. fe* 



9. Kt-B« 

10. P-KKtA 

11. R-Ktsq 

12. P-KR4 

** K-5 5 

15, BXP 
i£ Kt-B3 

17. Kt-~ 

18. B- 

19. K- 

20. P-K5 

White mates in three moves. 


1. P-K4 

2. PXP 

5. Kt-XB3 

i Q-KtJ 
9. P-QB3 

10. Kt-B3 

11. PxB 

12. Q-Kt3 

13. Q-Kt 4 

14. Kt-Kt sq 


17. QXKtP 

18. QXR(ch) 

19. BXR 

20. Kt-QR3 


I. P-K4 
a. Kt-KB3 


5. Kt-Kt5 

6. P-K6 

7. Kt-B 7 

8. B-Kt 

9. B-KKt5 

10. KtXR 

11. B-B4 

12. Kt-B7 

13. R-B sq 

14. P-KB3 

16. BXB 

17. QXKt 

18. Castles 

19. B-Kt3 

20. K— Ktsq 
ai. Kt-K5 

22. Kt-03 

23. KtXB 

Piiilidor's Defence. 

And White resigns. 



I. P-K4 

* l^h 

4. BPXP 

t B-QB4 
7. Q-B3 

9 8~H 4 

10. QxB 

11. Kt-QB3 

12. QXP 

13. Kt-Bt 

14. Kt-QRt 5 

15. BXP 

16. Kt-Q6(ch) 

17. PXQ 

18. BXKt 

19. P-Q7 (ch) 

20. B-B4 
ai. K-Bsq 
aa. R-Ksq 
a3- QXR 

White. Black. 
Charousek. Tchigorin. 
f. P-Ka P-K4 
a. P-K64 PXP 
3. B-B4 Kt-QB3 
I P-Q4 £1-63 

t £=»■ 



I Rt-^R3 Kt-Kt5 

^ Kt-R3 


9. Q-QB3 
la Castles 

II. B-R4(ch)P-B3 
la. BxP(ch) PXB 

This pretty game was played 
the Budapest tournament, 1896. 

's Gambit. 


13. QXP (ch) 

14. KtXP 

15. BXKt 

16. Kt-B3 

17. P-K6 

18. B-B7 

19. BxQ(ch) 

20. Q-Rt7 (ch) 

21. R-B7(ch) 

22. QXR (ch) 

23. R-Ksq 

24. P-QKt3 
in the tie' match for 

first prize at 

Queen's Gambit Declined. 

White. Black. 
IV. Steislt*. Dr E. Lasker. 

9. K1-B3 

\V. Stein j"«, 
31 Kt-B3 
aa, QXP 
*y PxKt 
24- QxP 

27- B-K4 

28. P-B4 

29. B-Kia 


32. R-B3 

33- KXR 

34- K-Ra 

35. K-Kta 

36. K-Ra 

37. g-QKtsq 

38. R-Kts 
39- P-R3 


This game was played in the St Petersburg tournament, l895 ? a 
fine specimen of Lasker 's style. The final attack, beginning with 
21. with Kt-Q5, furnishes a gem of an ending. 

Rice Gambit. 




1. P-Ka 

2. P-KBa 

3. Kt-KB 3 

4. P-KR4 
5 Kt-K5 

6. B-B4 

7. PXP 

8. Castles 

9. R-Ksq 
10. P-B3 

13. Kt-63 






IS- Q-R3 

16. RXB (ch) 

17. K-Bsq 

18. Kt-Kt sq 

19. PxKt 

20. B-Kt5 

21. K-Ksq 

22. K-Qa 

23. K-Q3 

24. PxB(ch) 
as- Q-K7 (ch) 

26. Q-Q8 (ch) 

27. BXQand mates 





14. Q-R4(ch)P-B3 

The Rice Gambit (*o called after it* inventor, Prof. Isaac L. Rice 
of New York), whether right or not. is only possible if Black plays 
t* B-Oj" Paulsen 1 ! 7, B-KtJ is better, and avoids unnecessary 
complications. 8, P-Q4 i* the usual move. Leaving the knight 
** ptii£, followed by 9., R-Ksq, constitutes the Rice Gambit. 
The interesting point* in the game are that White subjects himself 
to a most violent attack with impunity, fur in the end Black could 
not save? the game by aa, P-B8 claiming a second queen with a 
discovered check, nor by claiming a knight with double check, as 
it is equally harmless to White, 

Giuoco Piano. 









1. P-K4 

2. Kt-KB3 

3. B-B4 

Kt-dB 3 

14. R-Ksq 
IS- Q-Ka 
16. OR-Bsq 

\t. Kt~-<5 4 
19. Kt-R6 



4. P-B3 


5. P-Q4 

6. PXP 



B-Kt5 (ch) 


7. Kt-B 3 


20. Q-Kt4 

21. Rt-Kt5(ch) 

22. RxKt (ch) 

23. R-B 7 (cM 

24. R-KtT.(ch) 

25. RXP (ch) 

8. PXP 



9. Castles 



10. B-KKt5 



11. BXKt 



12. KtXB 

13. BXB 


As a matter of fact, Bardcleben left the board here, and lost the 
game by letting his clock run out the time-limit; but Steinitz, 
who remained at the board, demonstrated afterwards the following 
variation leading to a forced win : — 

White. Black. 

Steinitz. Bardcleben. 

25 K-Ktsq 

26. R-Kt7(ch) K-Rsq 

27. Q-R4 (ch) KXR 

28. O-R7 (ch) K-Bsq 

29. 0-R8 (ch) K-K2 

30. Q-Kt7(ch) K-Ksq 
This game was awarded the prize for " brilliancy " at the Hastings 

tournament, 1895. 

35- Q-Q6mate. 


tradition about Irene's chessmen. With respect to Harun al- 
Rashid, among the various stories told which connect him with 
chess, there is one that at first sight may seem entitled to some 
degree of credit. In the annals of the Moslems by Abulfeda ( Abu'l 
Fida), there is given a copy of a letter stated to be " From 
Niccphorus, emperor of the Romans, to Harun, sovereign of 
the Arabs," which (using Professor Forbes's translation) after 
the usual compliments runs thus:—" The empress (Irene) into 
whose place I have succeeded, looked upon you as a Rukh and 
herself as a mere Pawn; therefore she submitted to pay you a 
tribute more than the double of which she ought to have exacted 
from you. All this has been owing to female weakness and 
timidity. Now, however, I insist that you, immediately on 
reading this letter, repay to me all the sums of money you ever 
received from her. If you hesitate, the sword shall settle our 
accounts." Harun's reply, written on the back of the Byzantine 
emperor's letter, was terse and to the point. " In the name of 
God the merciful and gracious. From Harun, the commander 
of the faithful, to the Roman dog Nicephorus. I have read thine 
epistle, thou son of an infidel mother; my answeT to it thou 
shalt see, not hear." Harun was as good as his word, for he 
marched immediately as far as Heraclea, devastating the Roman 
territories with fire and sword, and soon compelled Nicephorus 
to sue for peace. Now the points which give authority to this 
narrative and the alleged correspondence are that the relations 
which they assume between Irene and Nicephorus on the one 
hand and the warlike caliph on the other are confirmed by the 
history of those times, while, also, the straightforward brevity 
of Harun's reply commends itself as what one might expect 
from his soldier-like character. Still, the fact must be remem- 
bered that Abulfeda lived about five centuries after the time to 
which he refers. Perhaps we may assume that it is not improb- 
able that the correspondence is genuine; but that the words 
rukh and pawn may have been substituted for other terms of 
comparison originally used. 

As to how chess was introduced into western and central 
Europe nothing is really known. The Spaniards very likely 
received it from their Moslem conquerors, the Italians not 
improbably from the Byzantines, and in either case it would pass 
northwards to France, going on thence to Scandinavia and 
England. Some say that chess was introduced into Europe at 
the time of the Crusades, the theory being that the Christian 
warriors learned to play it at Constantinople. This is nega- 
tived by a curious epistle of St Peter Damian, cardinal bishop 
of Ostia, to Pope Alexander II., written about a.d. io6i, which, 
assuming its authenticity, shows that chess was known in Italy 
before the date of the first crusade. The cardinal, as it seems, 
had imposed a penance upon a bishop whom he had found 
diverting himself at chess; and in his letter to the pope he 
repeats the language he had held to the erring prelate, viz. 
" Was it right, I say, and consistent with thy duty, to sport away 
thy evenings amidst the vanity of chess, and defile the hand 
which offers up the body of the Lord, and the tongue that 
mediates between God and man, with the pollution of a sacri- 
legious game ? " Following up the same idea that statutes of the 
church of Elna, in the 3rd vol. of the Councils of Spain, say, 
" Clerks playing at dice or chess shall be ipso facto excommuni- 
cated." Eudes de Sully, bishop of Paris under Philip Augustus, 
is stated in the Ordonn. des Rois de France to have forbidden 
clerks to play the game, and according to the Hist. Ecclts. of 
Fleury, St Louis, king of France, imposed a fine on all who 
should play it. Ecclesiastical authorities, however, seemed to 
have differed among themselves upon the question whether 
chess was or was not a lawful game according to the canons, and 
Peirino {De Proelai. chap. 1) holds that it was permissible for 
ecclesiastics to play thereat. Among those who have taken 
an unfavourable view of the game may be mentioned John Huss, 
who, when in prison, deplored his having played at chess, whereby 
he had lost time and run the risk of being subject to violent 
passions. Among authentic records of the game may be quoted 
the Alexiad of the princess Anna Comnena, in which she relates 
how her father, the emperor Alexius, used to divert his mind 


from the cares of state by playing at chess with his relatives. 
This emperor died in 11 18. 

Concerning chess in England there is the usual confusion 
between legend and truth. Snorre Sturleson relates that as 
Canute was playing at chess with Earl Ulf, a quarrel arose, which 
resulted in the upsetting of the board by the latter, with the 
further consequence of his being murdered in church a few days 
afterwards by Canute's orders. Carlyle, in The Early Kings of 
Norway, repeats this tale, but van der Linde treats it as a myth. 
The Ramsey Chronicle relates how bishop Utheric, coming to 
Canute at night upon urgent business, found the monarch and 
his courtiers amusing themselves at dice and chess. There is 
nothing intrinsically improbable in this last narrative; but 
Canute died about 1035, and the date, therefore, is suspiciously 
early. Moreover, allowance must be made for the ease with 
which chroniclers described other games as chess. William the 
Conqueror, Henry I., John and Edward I. arc variously stated 
to have played at chess. It is generally supposed that the 
English court of exchequer took its name from the doth, figured 
with squares like a chess-board, which covered the table in it 
(see Exchequer). An old writer says that at the coronation 
of Richard I. in n 89, six earls and barons carried a chess-board 
with the royal insignia to represent the exchequer court. Accord- 
ing to Edmonson's Heraldry, twenty-six English families bore 
chess rooks in their coats of arms. 

As regards the individual pieces, the king seems to have had 
the same move as at present; but it is said he could formerly be 
captured. His " castling " privilege is a European invention; 
but he formerly leaped two and even three squares, and also to 
his Kt 2nd. Castling dates no farther back than the first half of 
the 1 6th century. The queen has suffered curious changes in 
name, sex and power. In shatranj the piece was called fan or 
fin (also farzan, fartin and forzi), signifying a " counsellor/' 
" minister " or " general." This was latinized into fania or 
fercia. The French slightly altered the latter form into fierce, 
fierge, and as some say, vierge, which, if true, might explain its 
becoming a female. Another and much more probable account 
has it that whereas formerly a pawn on reaching an eighth square 
became &farzin, and not any other piece, which promotion was 
of the same kind as at draughts (in French, dames), so she became 
a dame or queen as in the latter game, and thence damn, donna, 
&c. There are old Latin manuscripts in which the terms fertia 
and regina are used indifferently. The queen formerly moved 
only one square diagonally and was consequently the weakest 
piece on the board. The immense power she now possesses 
seems to have been conferred upon her so late as about the middle 
of the 15th century. It will be noticed that under the old 
system the queens could never meet each other, for they operated 
on diagonals of different colours. The bishop's scope of action 
was also very limited formerly; he could only move two squares 
diagonally, and had no power over the intermediate square, 
which he could leap over whether it was occupied or not. This 
limitation of their powers prevailed in Europe until the 15th 
century. This piece, according to Forbes, was called among the 
Persians pil, an elephant, but the Arabs, not having the letter 
p in their alphabet, wrote it fit, or with their definite article 
al-fil, whence alphilus, alfinus, alifiere, the latter being the word 
used by the Italians; while the French perhaps get their fd 
and fou from the same source. The pawns formerly could move 
only one square at starting; their powers in this respect were 
increased about the early part of the 16th century. It was 
customary for them on arriving at an eighth square to be ex- 
changed only for a farzin (queen), and not any other piece; 
the rooks (so called from the Indian rukh and Persian rokh, 
meaning " a soldier ") and the knights appear to have always 
had the same powers as at present. As to the chessboards, they 
were formerly uncoloured, and it is not until the 13th century 
that we hear of checkered boards being used in Europe. 

Development in Play. — The change of shatranj into modern 
chess took place most probably first in France, and thence made 
its way into Spain early in the 15th century, where the new game 
was called Axedret de la dama, being also adopted by the Italians 



under the name of scacci alia rabiosa. The time of the first im- 
portan t w riter on modern chess, the Spaniard Ruy Lopez de Segura 
(1561), is also the period when the latest improvement, castling, 
was introduced, for his book (Libro de la invention liberal y arte 
deljuego del Axedrcz), though treating of it as already in use, 
also gives the old mode of play, which allowed the king a leap 
of two or three squares. Shortly afterwards the old shatranj 
disappears altogether. Lopez was the first who merits the name 
of chess analyst. At this time flourished the flower of the Spanish 
and Italian schools of chess — the former represented by Lopez, 
Ceron, Santa Maria, Busnardo and Avalos; the latter by 
Giovanni Leonardo da Cutri (il Puttino) and Paolo Boi (il 
Syracusano). In the years 1562-1575 both Italian masters 
visited Spain and defeated their Spanish antagonists. During 
the whole 17th century we find but one worthy to be mentioned, 
Giacchino Greco (il Calabrcsc). The middle of the 18th century 
inaugurates a new era in chess. The leading man of this time 
was Francois Andre Danican Philidor. He was born in 1726 
and was trained by M. de Kermur, Sire de Legal, the star of 
the Cafi de la Rigenee in Paris, which has been the centre of 
French chess ever since the commencement of the 18th century. 
In 1747 Philidor visited England, and defeated the Arabian 
player, Phillip Stamma, by 8 games to 1 and x draw. In 1 749 
he published his Analyse des tehees, a book which went through 
more editions and was more translated than any other work 
upon the game. During more than half a century Philidor 
travelled much, but never went to Italy, the only country where 
he could have found opponents of first-rate skill. Italy was 
represented in Philidor's time by Ercolc del Rio, Lolli and 
Ponziani. Their style was less sound than that of Philidor, 
but certainly a much finer, and in principle a better one. As 
an analyst the Frenchman was in many points refuted by 
Ercole del Rio ("the anonymous Modcncsc"). Blindfold 
chess-play, already exhibited in the nth century by Arabian 
and Persian experts, was taken up afresh by Philidor, who 
played on many occasions three games simultaneously without 
sight of board or men. These exhibitions were given in London, 
at the Chess Club in St James's Street, and Philidor died in that 
city in 1795. As eminent players of this period must be men- 
tioned Count Ph. J. van Zuylcn van Nycvelt (1 743-1 826), 
and the German player, J. Allgaicr (1763-1823), after whom a 
well-known brilliant variation of the King's Gambit is named. 
Philidor was succeeded by Alexandre Louis Honore Lcbrcton 
Deschapelles (1780-1847), who was also a famous whist player. 
The only player who is known to have fought Deschapelles not 
unsuccessfully on even terms is John Coclirane. He also lost 
a match (1821) to W. Lewis, to whom he conceded the odds of 
" pawn and move," the Englishman winning one and drawing the 
two others. Deschapelles' greatest pupil, and the strongest player 
France ever possessed, was Louis Charles Mahc de laBourdonnais, 
who was born in 1797 and died in 1840. His most memorable 
achievement was his contest with the English champion, 
Alexander Macdonncll, the French player winning in the pro- 
portion of three to two. 

The English school of chess began about the beginning of the 
19th century, and Sarratt was its first leader. He flourished from 
1808 to 1821, and was followed by his great pupil, W. Lewis, 
who will be principally remembered for his writings. His 
literary career belongs to the period from 1818 to 1848 and he 
died in 1869. A. Macdonncll (1 798-1835) has been already 
mentioned. To the same period belong also Captain Evans, 
the inventor of the celebrated " Evans Gambit " (182S), who 
died at a very advanced age in 1873; Pcrigal, who participated 
in the correspondence matches against Edinburgh and Paris; 
George Walker, for thirty years chess editor of Bell's Life in 
London; and John Cochrane, who met every strong player from 
Deschapelles downwards. In the same pcriodGermany possessed 
but one good player, J. Mcndhcim of Berlin. The fifth decade 
of the 19th century is marked by the fact that the leadership 
passed from the French school to the English. After the death 
of la Bourdonnais, Fournie dc Sainl-Amant became the leading 
player in France; he visited England in the early part of 1843, 

and successfully met the beat English players, including Howard 
Staunton (q.v.)\ but the latter soon took his revenge, for in 
November and December 1843 a great match between Staunton 
and Saint-Amant took place in Paris, the English champion 
winning by 1 1 games to 6 with 4 draws. During the succeeding 
eight years Staunton maintained his reputation by defeating 
Popert, Horwitz and Harrwitz. Staunton was defeated by 
Anderssen at the London tournament in 1851, and this con- 
cluded his match-playing career. Among the contemporaries of 
Staunton may be mentioned Henry Thomas Buckle, author 
of the History of Civilization, who defeated Riescritzki, Anderssen 
and Lowenthal. 

In the ten years 1 830-1840 a new school arose in Berlin, the 
seven leaders of which have been called " The Pleiades." These 
were Blcdow (1 795-1 846), Bilguer (1815-1840), Hanstcin (1810- 
1850), Mayet (1810-1868), Schorn (1802-1850), B. Horwitt 
(b. 1809) and von Hcydebrandt und der Lasa, once German 
ambassador at Copenhagen. As belonging to the same period 
must be mentioned the three Hungarian players, Grimm, Szen 
and J. Lowenthal. 

Among the great masters since the middle of the 19th century 
Paul Morphy (183 7-1 884), an American, has seldom been sur- 
passed as a chess player. His career was short but brilliant. 
Born in New Orleans in 1837, he was taught chess by his father 
when only ten years of age, and in two years' time became a strong 
player. When not quite thirteen he played three games with 
Lowenthal, and won two of them, the other being drawn. He 
was twenty years of age when he competed in the New York 
congress of 1857, where he won the first prize. In 1858 he visited 
England, and there defeated Boden, Medley, Mongredicn, Owen, 
Bird and others. He also beat LSwcnthal by 9 games to 3 
and 2 drawn. In the same year he played a match at Paris with 
Harrwitz, winning by 5 to 2 and x drawn; and later on he 
obtained a victory over Anderssen. On two or three occasions 
he played blindfold against eight strong players simultaneously, 
each time with great success. He returned to America in 1859 
and continued to play, but with decreasing interest in the game, 
until 1866. He died in 1884. 

Wilhclm Steinitz (b. 1836) took the sixth prize at the London 
congress of 1862. He defeated Blackburne in a match by 

7 to 1 and 2 drawn. In 1866 he beat Anderssen in a match by 

8 games to 6. In 1868 he carried off the first prize in the British 
Chess Association handicap, and in 1872 in the London grand 
tourney, also defeating Zukertort in a match by 7 games to x 
and 4 drawn. In 1873 ne carried off the first prize at the Vienna 
congress; and in 1876 he defeated Blackburne, winning 7 games 
right off. In 1872-1874, in conjunction with W. N. Potter, 
he conducted and won a telegraphic correspondence match for 
London against Vienna. In Philidor's age it was considered 
almost incredible that he should be able to play three simultaneous 
games without seeing board or men, but Paulsen, Blackburne 
and Zukertort often played 10 or 12 such games, while as many 
as 14 and 15 have been so played. 

In 1876 England was in the van of the world's chess army. 
English-born players then were Boden, Burn, Macdonncll, Bird, 
Blackburne and Potter; whilst among naturalized English 
players were Lowenthal, Steinitz, Zukertort, who died in 1888, 
and Horwitz. This illustrious contingent was reinforced in 
1878 by Mason, an Irish-American, who came over for the 
Paris tournament; by Gunsberg, a Hungarian; and later by 
Tcichmann, who also made England his home. English chess 
flourished under the leadership of these masters, the chief prizes 
in tournaments being consistently carried off by the English 

To gauge the progress made by the game since about 1875 
it will suffice to give the following statistics. In London Simpson's 
Divan was formerly the chief resort of chess players; the 
St George's Chess Club was the principal chess club in the West 
End, and the City of London Chess Club in the cast. About 
a hundred or more clubs arc now scattered all over the city. 
Formerly only the British Chess Association existed; after its 
dissolution the now defunct Counties' Chess Association took 



its place, and this was superseded by the re-establishment by 
Mr Hoffer of the British Chess Association, which again fell 
into abeyance after having organized three international tourna- 
ments—London, 1886; Bradford, 1888; and Manchester, 1890 
— and four national tournaments. There were various reasons 
why the British Chess Association ceased to exercise its functions, 
one being that minor associations did not feel inclined to merge 
their identity in a central association. The London League 
was established, besides the Northern Chess Union, the Southern 
Counties' Chess Union, the Midland Counties' Union, the Kent 
County Association; and there are associations in Surrey, 
Sussex, Essex, Hampshire, Wiltshire, Gloucestershire, Somerset- 
shire, Cambridgeshire, Herefordshire, Leicestershire, North- 
amptonshire, Staffordshire, Worcestershire and Lancashire. ( 
All these associations are supported by the affiliated chess clubs 
of the respective counties. Scotland (which has its own associa- 
tion), Wales and Ireland have also numerous clubs. 

Still, England did not produce one new eminent player between ! 
1875 and 1005. First-class chess remained in the hands of the I 
veterans Bum, Blackburne, Mason and Bird. The old amateurs 
passed away, their place being taken by a new generation of 
powerful amateurs, so well equipped that Great Britain could 
hold its own in an amateur contest against the combined forces 
of Germany, Austria, Holland and Russia. The terms master 
and amateur are not used in any invidious sense, but simply 
as designating, in the former case, first-class players, and in the 
latter, those just on the borderland of highest excellence. The 
professional element as it existed in the heydey of Simpson's 
Divan almost disappeared, the reason being the increased number 
of chess clubs, where enthusiasts and students might indulge 
in their favourite pastime to their heart's Content, tournaments 
with attractive prizes being arranged during the season. The 
former occupation of the masters vanished in consequence; the 
few who remained depended upon the passing visitors from the 
provinces who were eager to test their strength by the standard 
of the master. Blackburne visited the provinces annually, 
keeping the interest in first-class chess alive by his simultaneous 
play and his extraordinary skill as a blindfold player — unsur- 
passed until the advent of Harry Nelson Pillsbury (187 2-1906), 
the leading American master since Morphy. 

Germany has produced great chess players in Tarrasch, 
E. Lasker, Lipke, Fritz, Bardeleben, Walbrodt and Miescs, 
besides a goodly number of amateurs. Austria produced 
Max Weiss, Schlechtcr, Marco and Hruby, to say nothing of 
such fine players as the Fleissigs, Dr Mertner, Dr Kaufmann, 
Fahndrich, Jacques Schwarz and others. Hungary was worthily 
represented by Maroczy, Makovetz and Brody, Maroczy being 
the best after Charousck's death. Russia, having lost Jaenisch, 
Petroff and Schumoff, discovered Tchigorin, Janowsky, 
Schiffcrs, Alapin, Winawer and Taubenhaus. France showed 
a decline for many years, having only the veteran M. Arnous 
de Rividrc and the naturalized M. Rosenthal left, followed by 
Goetz and two good amateurs, MM. Didier and Billccard. 
Italy had only Signor Sal viol i, although Signor Rcggio came to 
the fore. Holland had a fair number of players equal to the» 
English amateurs, but no master since the promising young 
van Lennep died. 

The first modern International Chess Tournament held in 
London in 185 1 was the forerunner of various similar contests 
of which the following is a complete table: — 

1851. London. 1 Andcrssen, 2 Wyvill, 3 Williams. 
1857. Manchester. I Lowenthal, 2 Andcrssen. 

1857. New York. 1 Morphy, 2 L. Paulsen. 

1858. Birmingham. X Lowenthal, 2 Falkbeer.- 

1860. Cambridge. 1 Kolisch, 2 Stanley. 

1861. Bristol. .1 L. Paulsen, 2 Bodcn. 

1862. London. 1 Andcrssen, 2 L. Paulsen, 3 Owen. 

1865. Dublin. I Stcinitz, 2 MacDonnell. 

1866. Rcdcar. Dc Vcre. 

1866. English Championship Cup. Dc Vcre. 

1866. British Chess Association. 1 Steinitz, 2 Green. 

1867. Paris. 1 Kolisch, 2 Winawer, 3 Stcinitz. 

1S67. Dundee. 1 Neumann, 2 Steinitz, 3 De Vere and MacDonnell. 

1868. English Championship Cup. t Blackburne, a De Vere. 
1868. British Chess Association Handicap. I Steinitz, 2 Wisker, 

3 Blackburne. 
1870. Baden-Baden.. I Anderssen, 2 Steinitz, 3 Blackburne and 

1870. English Championship Cup. I Wisker, 2 Burn. 
1 870-1 87 1. City of London Handicap. 1 Potter, 2 De Vere. 
1871-1872. City of London Handicap. I Steinitz, 2 Keats. 
1872. London. 1 Steinitz, 2 Blackburne, 3 Zukertort. 

1872. English Championship Cup. 1 Wisker (becoming permanent 

holder of the cup), 2 De Vere. 

1873. Vienna. I Steinitz, 2 Blackburne, 3 Anderssen: 
1870. London. I Blackburne, 2 Zukcrtort. 3 Potter. 

1878. Paris. 1 Zukcrtort, 2 Winawer (after a tie with Zukertort). 
3 Blackburne. 

1880. Wiesbaden. 1, 2, and 3, a tie between Blackburne, Englisch 

and A. Schwarz. 

1 88 1 . Berlin. I Blackburne, 2 Zukertort , 3 Tchigorin a nd Winawer. 

Tchigorin made his first public appearance in this contest. 

1882. Vienna. X Steinitz and Winawer, 3 Mason. 

1883. London. X Zukertort, 2 Steinitz, 3 Blackburne. 

1883. Nuremberg. 1 Winawer, 2 Blackburne, 3 Mason. This 
tournament is a milestone in modern chess history. The 
prizes being comparatively small, it was thought that it 
necessarily must be a failure, the munificently endowed 
London tournament having just been completed. But, 
strange to say, whilst in London fourteen players competed, 
there were nineteen entries in Nuremberg. Winawer, not 
placed in the former, won the first prize in the latter. 

1885. Hamburg. 1 Gunsberg; the next prizes were divided by 
Blackburne, Mason, Englisch, Tarrasch and Weiss. 

1885. Hereford. 1 Blackburne, 2 and 3 Bird and Schallopp. 

1886. London, x Blackburne, 2 Burn, 3 Gunsberg and Taubenhaus. 

1886. Nottingham. X Burn, 2 Schallopp, 3 Gunsberg and Zukcrtort. 

1887. Frankfort. X Mackenzie, 2 Blackburne and Weiss. 

1 888. Bradford. X Gunsberg, 2 Mackenzie, 3 Mason and Bardeleben. 

1889. New York. 1 Tchigorin and Weiss, 3 Gunsberg*. 

1889. Breslau. I Tarrasch, 2 Burn, 3 Weiss. 

1890. Amsterdam. 1 Burn, 2 Lasker, 3 Mason. There were only 

nine competitors, Lasker unexpectedly losing to van VUet 

by a trap. 
1890. Manchester. X Tarrasch, 2 Blackburne. 3 Bird and Mackenzie. 
1892. Dresden, x Tarrasch, 2 Makovetz and Porges. Blackburne 

received a special prize. 

1894. Leipzig. X Tarrasch, 2 Lipke arid Teichmann. 

1895. Hastings, x Pillsbury, 2 Tchigorin, 3 Lasker. This tourna- 

ment is historical for the first appearance of Pillsbury, the 
American champion, and Maroczy, the Hungarian champion. 

1896. Nuremberg. 1 Lasker, 2 Maroczy, 3 Pillsbury and Tarrasch. 

1896. Budapest. I Tchigorin, 2 Charousek, 3 Pillsbury. 

1897. Berlin. 1 Charousek, 2 Walbrodt, 3 Blackburne. Englisch 

had to abandon the tournament and return to Vienna ill. 
He never recovered and died a few weeks later. 

1898. Vienna. X Tarrasch, 2 Pillsbury, 3 Janowsky. Tarrasch 

achieved a remarkable victory in this important tournament. 
Pillsbury's chances were better than his, but he managed 
to run him neck and neck and beat him in the tie match 
which followed. 

1898. Cologne. I Burn, 2 Charousek. Cohn and Tchigorin. 

1899. London. X Lasker, 2 Janowsky, Maroczy and Pillsbury. 

Janowsky sacrificed the second prize by trying to win a 
game against Steinitz when with an easy draw in hand he 
could have secured the second place for himself alone. 

1900. Munich. Tie between Maroczy, Pillsbury and Schlechtcr for 

three chief prizes. 

1900. Paris. 1 Lasker, 2 Pillsbury, 3 Maroczy and Marshall. 

1901. Monte Carlo. 1 Janowsky, 2 Schlechtcr, 3 Schcvc and 

Tchigorin. A novel rule was introduced at this tournament, 
viz. the first drawn game to count i to each player, to be 
replayed, and in case of a draw again to count i each, and 
in case of win i to the winner. Theoretically this seems 
logical, but in practice it did not work well. 

1902. Monte Carlo. 1 Pillsbury and Maroczy, 3 Janowsky. 
1902. Hanover. X Janowsky, 2 Pillsbury, 3 Atkins. 

I9<>3« Monte Carlo. I Tarrasch, 2 Maroczy, 3 Pillsbury. 
1904. Monte Carlo. I Maroczy, 2 Schlechtcr, 3 Marshall. 

1904. Cambridge Springs, x Marshall, 2 Laakcr and Janowsky. 

1905. Ostcnd. X Maroczy, 2 Tarrasch and Janowsky. 

1905. Schcvcningcn. 1 Marshall, 2 Lcusscn, 3 Spiclmann. 

1906. Stockholm. 1 Schlechtcr and Bernstein, 3 Miescs. 
1906. Ostcnd. 1 SchJcchter, 2 Maroczy, 3 Rubenstcin. 

1906. Nuremberg. 1 Marshall, 2 Duras, 3 Schlechtcr and Flcisch* 


1907. Vienna, x Micses, 2 Duras, t-Maroczy and Vidmarc. 
1907. Ostcnd. 1 Bernstein and Rubenstcin. 3 Miescs. 

1907. Ostcnd. 1 Tarrasch, 2 Schlechtcr, 3 Janowsky and Marshall. 
1907. Carlsbad. 1 Rubenstcin, 2 Maroczy, 3 Nicmzowitch and 

; In the absence of any recognized authority to confer the title 



of chess champion of the world, it has usually been appropriated 
by the most successful competitor in tournaments. On this 
ground Tarrasch claimed the title in 1007, although Laskcr, who 
had twice beaten Steinitz, the previous champion, in champion- 
ship matches, in addition to such masters as Bird, Blackburne, 
Mieses and Marshall, was well qualified to assume it. Accord- 
ingly in arranging the programme for the tournament at Ostcnd 
in 1007 it was agreed that the winner of this contest should 
receive the title of tournament champion, and should play a 
match with Laskcr for the championship of the world. Tarrasch 
having proved successful at Ostend, the match between him 
aod Lasker was played at Munich in September 1008, and re- 
sulted in the victory of Lasker by 8 games to 3 and 5 draws. 

Chess has developed various schools of play from time to time. 
The theory of the game, however, did not advance in proportion 
to the enormous strides in its popularity. Formerly the theory 
of play had been enriched by such enthusiasts as Dr Max Lange, 
Louis Paulsen. Professor Anderssen, Neumann, Dr Suhle, 
FaOtbeer, Kiescritzki, Howard Staunton, Dr Zukertort, W. N. 
Potter and Steinitz, foremost amongst them being Louis Paulsen. 
The openings were thoroughly overhauled, new variations dis- 
covered and tested in practical play over the board. These 
are now things of the past. The masters who find flaws in old 
variations and discover new ones bring them to light only in 
matches or tournaments, as new discoveries have now a market 
value and may gain prizes in matches or tournaments. The 
old " romantic " school consequently became extinct, and the 
eliminating process resulted in the retention of a small repertoire 
only, sufficient for practical purposes in important contests. 
Gambits and kindred openings containing elements of chance 
were avoided, and the whole stock which a first-class player 
requires is a thorough knowledge of the " Ruy Lopez," the 
*' Queen's Pawn Openings," and the " French " and " Sicilian 
Defences " — openings which contain the Jeast element of chance. 
The ripertoire being restricted it necessarily follows that the 
scope for grand combinations is also diminished and only 
strategy or position play remains. The "romantic" school 
invariably aimed at an attack on the king's position at any cost; 
nowadays the struggle is to obtain a minute advantage, and the 
whole plan consists in finding or creating a weak spot in the 
opponent's arrangement of forces; such is the theory of the 
modern school, conceived and advocated by Steinitz. But it is 
a curious fact that Steinitz founded the modern school rather 
late in life. He felt his powers of combination waning, and being 
the world's champion and eager to retain that title, he started 
the new theory. This novel departure revolutionized chess 
entirely. The attacking and combination style was sacrificed 
to a sound, sober and dry method; but Steinitz, strange to say, 
was not even the best exponent of his own theory, this position 
falling to younger players, Siegbert Tarrasch, SchkChter, Amos 
Burn and Emanuel Lasker. Pillsbury and Janowsky adhered 
to both styles, the former in a high degree, and so did Zukertort 
and Charousek; Tchigorin being a free-lance with a style of his 
own. The old charm of the game disappeared — in match and 
tournament play at least — and beauty was sacrificed to exact 
calculation and to scoring points. This is to be regretted, for 
the most beautiful games still occur when a player resorts to 
the gambits. One of the finest games in the Hastings tourna- 
ment was played by Tchigorin against Pillsbury, and this was 
a " King's Gambit Declined." Charousek won a " Bishop's 
Gambit " against Dr Lasker in the Nuremberg tournament; 
and some brilliant games occur in the " Queen's Gambit De- 
clined," if either White or Black sacrifices the KP. Another 
reason why gambits should be adopted by players in tourna- 
ments is that competitors would necessarily be readily prepared 
for the regulation openings, so that the gambits might take them 
I by surprise. After all, the new school is a natural consequence 
of the progress of the game. Paulsen, Anderssen and Tchigorin 
devoted a lifetime to the Evans Gambit, volumes of analyses 
were written on it, and then Lasker revives an obsolete defence, 
and the Evans Gambit disappears I Zukertort achieved a great 
with " 1. Kt to KB3" in the London tournament, 1883, 

and this, or the kindred " 1. P to Q4 " opening, has since become 
the trusty weapon in serious encounters. Lasker wrote Common 
Sense in Chess, and gave the best defences of the Ruy Lopez (a 
certain form of it); but the " common sense " was demolished^ 
in the Paris and Nuremberg tournaments, and old forms of that 
remarkable opening have to be refurbished. These instances will 
suffice to show the reason for the cautious style 'of modern times. 
The Moltkes have replaced the Napoleons. 

The old versatility of style could be revived if club tournaments 
were organized differently. The players might be compelled 
to adopt one single opening only in a two-round contest, each 
player thus having attack and defence in turn. The next season 
another opening would form the programme, and so on. Even 
in international tournaments this condition might be imposed; 
the theory would be enriched; full scope would be given to 
power of combination and ingenuity; whilst the game would be 
more interesting. 

There are still amateurs who devote their energies to the 
theory of the game; but so long as innovations or new dis- 
coveries are not tested by masters in serious games, they are of 
no value, Steinitz used to keep a number of new discoveries 
ready to be produced in masters' contests, the result being that 
his novelties were regularly demolished when it came to a 
practical test. The mistake was that he did not try his novelties 
over the board with an opponent of equal strength, instead of 
trusting to his own judgment alone. 

The British Chess Federation was instituted in 1904, its 
first congress being held at Hastings in that year, when a British 
championship, a ladies' championship and a first-class amateur 
tournament were played. These competitions have been con- 
tinued annually at the congresses of the federation, with the 
following results: — 

British Championship. 

1904. Hastings. 1 H. E. Atkins and W. E. Napier, 3 J. H. Black- 


1905. Southport. 1 H. E. Atkins, 2 G. E. H. Bcllingham and 

J. H. Blackburne. 

1906. Shrewsbury. 1 H. E. Atkins, 2 R. P. Michell, 3 G. E. Wain- 


1907. Crystal Palace. I H. E. Atkins, 2 J. H. Blackburne, R. P. 

Michell, E. G. Sergeant and G. E. Wainwright. 

Ladies* Championship. 

1904. Hastings. 1 Miss Finn, 2 Mrs Anderson and Mrs Herring. 

1905. Southport. I Miss Finn. 2 Mrs Anderson and Mrs Houlding. 

1906. Shrewsbury. 1 Mrs Herring, 2 Mrs Anderson, 3 Miss Ellisand 

Mrs Houlding. 

1907. Crystal Palace, 1 Mrs Herring and Mrs Houlding, 3 Mrs 


First Class Amateur Tournament. 

'Section A. 1 W. H. Gunston, 2 H. F. Cheshire 
.__, u»-»:««- . an d F - Brown. 

1904. Hastings SectUm B , G E \Vainwright and C H. 

Sherrard, 3 W. P. M'Bean. 
Section A. 1 Dr Holmes, 2 J. Mortimer, 3 H. G. 
,905. SouU^ ^ fc ^utLEfft. Bn)wn T 

I Kelly and C. H. Wall work. 

1906. Shrewsbury. 1 G. Shories, J. F. Allcock, P. W. Fairwcathcr 
and E. D. Palmer. 

In 1896 and following years matches between representative 
players of Great Britain and the United States respectively 
were played by cable, with the following results: — 

1896. America 

1897. Great Britain 

1898. Great Britain 

1899. America 

1900. America 

1901. Drawn 

1902. America 

1903. America 
1007. Great Britain 

1908. America 

1909. Great Britain 

won by 4} games to 3! 

.1 ,! 

Since 1809 cable matches have also been played annually 
between representatives of English and American universities; 
of the first six three were won by England, the remaining three 



being drawn. In England chess matches nave Ven played 
annually since 1S73 between the universities of Oxford and 
Cambridge, seven pbycrs on each side, Up to 1007 Oxford 
won eleven matches, Cambridge twenty-one, and three were 

LirEJtAft'RE ow TtJEGAifE. — The nm known writer on chess was 
Jacobus de Cessolis. (Jacopo Dacciesok 1 ), whose main object, how- 
ever, though lit gives the moves, &c„ was to teach mwats mi her 
than ch'.H*. He was a Dominican friar, and his treatise. Solatium 
Ludi ScaC(harum t scilicet, Libetlus de Moribus Homimtm et Qjfitiis 
NobMum, was written before the year 1200, Tt was afterwards 
translated into French, and in the year IJ74 Caxton* under He tSdf 
of The Game and Playc of Chcsst, printed an English translation of 
the French version. 

In J49O we have the G^tlingcr HandsehriU, a work containing nine 
different openings and fifty problems. The author of this manure: ri pt 
is not known* Thin comes Vieent* a Spanish writer, whose book 
bears date 1495- Only the title-page has been preserved, the rest 
of the work having been tost in the first Ca rlist war* 01 Lurena t 
another Spanish author who wrote in or about 1497, we are better 
informed. His treatise, Repetition da A meres y Arte de Axtdres, 
comprises various, practical chess nutters, including 150 positions* 
Illustrated by too well -executed woodcut b- Various of ibe*c 
positions ft ft identical with those in the G&ttinger tfandsehrift. In 
the ibth century works upon the game wrre written by Damiano, 
Ruy Lopez and Horatio Giartutio dclla Mantia; in the mh ternary 
by Salvto, Pulcrio, Guitavu& Selenus, Carrera, Greco, Fr* Antonio 
and the authors of the Tratfi de Lausanne] in the 18th century by 
Bert in, 5ranvma H ErtoU? del Fio, Lolli, Cojio, PhiUdor* Poniiam, 
Stein, fan Nyevek*. Allgaicr and Peter Prati , in Lhe 10th century 
by J^ F. W* Koch and L"* F. Koch, Sarratt, John Cochrane, Win* 
Lewis, Silberschmidt, Ghuliin Kj^im and Tames Cochrane* George 
Walker* A, MacDnnnelll, Jaenisch, Peiroff, von Bilguer, von der 
Lasa, Staunton, KSini? and Horwitz, Bledow, Dubois, Kiescrit/lti. 
Max Lance, Lo wen thai, Dufrewie, Neumann, Suhlc, Zukertort. Preti 
and others 

English chess owes much to W. Lewis and George Walker. But 
to Howard Staunton must be ascribed the most important flhare in 
creating the later popularity which the eame achieved in England* 
• Staunton's first wurk. The Chess Player s Handbook, was published 
in 1847, and again (revised J in 1848, For want of further adequate 
revision many of its variations are now out of date; but taking the 
handbook as it was when issued, very high praise must be bestowed 
upon the author. His other works are; J** Chess Player's Text- 
Book and 7"** Chess Player** Companion (t8*jo) (the latter being a 
collection of his own games), the Chess Praxis 1.1*60), republished in. 
loot, hip posthumous work. Chess Theory and Praetke, edited by 
K . S. Wormald 876) , and vario us sma Her trea t ises. The laws of t he 
rami' as laid down in the Praxis formed the basis of the rules adopted 
By the Briutii Chess Association in t86j. Besides editing The 
Chess Ptayet*s Chronicle and The Chess World, he was the chess 
editor of The Illustrated London Arte) from 1*44 till his death in 

Among continental chest authorities von Heydebrandt und der 
Lasa (mot* usually known by his second title) flood pre-eminent* 
The German Hanahueh wa* com pitted in 1843 by von Biljruer. who 
d led before t he first edition was completed . The seco nd , th 1 ml , f ounh 
aod fifth editions (the last published in 1674) were edited and revised 
by von der Lata. 

Among the more important modem works the following may 
be mentioned: Vasquel, El Ajedres de memorial La Qdtsea tie 
Pablo Aforpky {Havana, 1893): Bauer H Schaehlrxittm (Leipzig* 
1693); Jean Dufresne, K feints Ukrbttch des Sckachsjxets (6th ed*. 
Leipzig, tflo^); E. Frecborough and Rev. C. E. Rankcn, Ghtss 
Openings, Ancient and bi*dern\ Arnelung* Baltiscke Schachblatier, 
fife (Btflin. 1803); Bach man, Geistreiche Sthachpariien (containing 
a number of brilliant games) (Ansbach. 1803-1899}: H, H- flird. 
Chess Hillary and Rcmini seenees (London. iS»iv); The Ststniiz- 
lAsker Uaick (1S94); Cheji Nowiliej (1895); Max Lange, P*td 
MttrpMy (1604); C\ Bardeltbrn and L Mieses, Lthrbueh des 
SckJuhspieli (vcri' useful) ; Jai. Masion, The Principles nf Chess in 
Theory artd Practice ((894); The Ah af Chess (1895): Social Chess 
(Horace Cos, London) ; Dr Tajrrasch, Dreikundert Sfhathparliert 
(Leipzig* 1895); Dr Eugen V- Schmidt, Sysirmaiische Anordunivan 
SchacheroJ? nuji$en (Veit & Co., Leipzig, 1895): Numa Preti, ABC 
dei echcci (Part*, 1^5}: C. SAlvioC fevrii gmci-ale del xivoto d*iH 
Scacchi {Livorno. 180.5); W, Stciniti, Modern Chess Instruettrr [New 
York, 1895}: L- HofW, Chest (Ftouiledee); E. Freeborouph, 5ftftl 
Chess End-Games (Lrrndon, rS^5 J ; Euchd, The. Chess Endinf Kin$ 
and Queen a-taimt Ktnt js«d icD*t (London, tSftS): Ta«ilo von 
Heydcbrandc und der Lasa, Leisfadea des Sihathpiels and Zur 
Gesebiikte and Literatur des Sfkaihspitt'ii LeipEig r 1*07) * ^r, L^ker, 
Cimrrufn Sense in Chess (London, 1^96}; Oacar CordcL Nruester 
Leiifaden des Sthachipiels ( Berlin , i*kj6j- and a vast number of 
ot he r oubl ica [ ion*. 

Furthcr, The London Tournament ff<w* {»BSj); Twite Tourna- 
ment Books of she. German Chess Association (Veil 4 Co., Lcipiic): 
The Hastinis Tournament Booh (London* 1896); The Vienna 

Tournament Book, by Halprin and Marco (1900); The Nurtmbert 
Tournament Book, by Dr Tarrasch; The Book of th* London 
Congress, by L. HotTer (Longman. 1899); The Pans Tournament 
Book (Paris, 1900), by Robenthal, Sic. 

The following arc some of the best works in English on cheat 
probtema— " J. B." ol Itridport. CAor Strategy (1865;; F. Hcalcy, 
A CoHcaion of ^00 Chess Problems (1866): Enrlisk Chess Problems. 
cdned by James and W* T. Pierce (1876); H. J. C. Andrews, E. N. 
Frankenstein, B. G. Laws, and C. Planck, The Chess Problem Text- 
Book (1887), A. F. Mackenzie, Chess: its Poetry and its Pros* 
(Jamaica, 1SS7): J- A- Miles. Chess Stars (self-mates), (1888): 
jnmea Ray act, Che is Problems (1890); B. G. Laws, The Two- M09* 
Chess Problem (1H90)* The Chess Bouquet, compiled by F. R. 
Giuiu* (1H97) * Mr and Mrs T. B. Rowland, The Problem Art (and 
cd-, tSoS); E. B. Cook. T. Hencry and C. A. Gilberg. American 
Chess-Nuts (1S68), Samuel Loyd, Chess Strategy (1878); W. H. 
Lyons. Chess- Nttl Burr s and how to open them (1886) ; C. A. Gilberg. 
Crumbs from the Chess Board (1890); Canadian Chess Problems, 
ediied by C. F. Stubbs (1890): W: Puliuer. Chess Harmonies (1894); 
G. E. Carpenter {Si. Frcii of Paris), 200 Chess Problems (1900). 

CHEST (Gr. darn, Lat. cista, O. Eng. cist, cest, &c), a large 
box of wood or metal with a hinged lid. The term is also used 
of a variety of kinds of receptacle; and in anatomy is transferred 
to the portion of the body covered by the ribs and breastbone 
(see Respiratory System). In the more ordinary meaning 
chests are, next to the chair and the bed, the most ancient articles 
of domestic furniture. The chest was the common receptade 
for clothes and valuables, and was the direct ancestor of the 
" chest of drawers," which was formed by enlarging the chest 
and cutting up the front. It was also frequently used as a seat. 
Indeed, in its origin it took in great measure the place of the 
chair, which, although familiar enough to the ancients, had 
become a luxury in the days when the chest was already an 
almost universal possession. The chief use of chests was as 
wardrobes, but they were also often employed for the storing of 
valuables. In the early middle ages the rich possessed them in 
profusion, used them as portmanteaux, and carried them about 
from castle to castle. These portable receptacles were often 
covered with leather and emblazoned with heraldic designs. 
As houses gradually became less sparsely furnished, chests and 
beds and other movables were allowed to remain stationary, 
and the chest lost its covered top, and took the shape in which we 
best know it — that of an oblong box standing upon raised feet 
As a rule it was made of oak, but it was sometimes of chestnut 
or other hard wood. 

There are, properly speaking, three types of chest— the 
domestic, the ecclesiastical and the strong box or coffer. Old 
domestic chests still exist in great number and some variety, 
but the proportion of those earlier than the latter part of the 
Tudor period is very small; most of them are Jacobean in date. 
Very frequently they were made to contain the store of house- 
linen which a bride took to her husband upon her marriage. 
In the 1 7th century Boulle and his imitators glorified the marriage- 
coffer until it became a gorgeous casket, almost indeed a sarco- 
phagus, inlaid with ivory and ebony and precious woods, and 
enriched with ormolu, supported upon a stand of equal magnifi- 
cence. The Italian marriage-chests (cassone) were also of a 
richness which was never attempted in England. The main 
characteristics of English domestic chests (which not infrequently 
are carved with names and dates) are panelled fronts and ends, 
the feet being formed from prolongations of the "stiles' 1 or side 
posts. There were, however, exceptions, and a certain number 
of 17th-century chests have separate feet, either circular or 
shaped after the indications of a somewhat later style. There 
is usually a strong architectural feeling about the chest, the front 
being divided into panels, which are plain in the more ordinary 
examples, and richly carved in the choicer ones. The plinth 
and frieze are often of well-de6ned guilloche work, or are carved 
with arabesques or conventionalized flowers. Architectural 
detail, especially the detail of wainscoting, has indeed been 
followed with considerable fidelity, many of the earlier chests 
being carved in the lincnfold pattern, while the Jacobean 
examples are often mere reproductions of the pilastered and 
recessed oaken mantelpieces of the period. Occasionally a 
chest is seen which is inlaid with coloured woods, or with 



geometrical parquetry. Perhaps the most elaborate type of 
English parquetry chest is that named after the vanished Palace 
of Nonesuch. Such pieces are, however, rarely met with. The 
entire front of this type is covered with a representation of the 
palace in coloured woods. Another class of chest is incised, some- 
times rather roughly, but often with considerable geometrical 
skilL The more ordinary variety has been of great value to the 
forger of antique furniture, who has used its carved panels for 
conversion into cupboards and other pieces, the history of 
which is not easily unravelled by the amateur who collects old 
oak without knowing much about it. Towards the end of the 
17th century chests were often made of walnut, or even of exotic 
woods such as cedar and cypress, and were sometimes clamped 
with large and ornamental brass bands and hinges. The chests 
of the iSth century were much larger than those of the preceding 
period, and as often as not were furnished with two drawers at 
the bottom — an arrangement but rarely seen in those of the 17th 
century — while they were often fitted with a small internal box 
fixed across one end for ready access to small articles. The chest 
was not infrequently impanelled and unornamented, and in the 
latter period of its history this became the ruling type. It will 
not have been forgotten that it was in an old oak chest that the 
real or mythical heroine of the pathetic ballad of " The Mistletoe 
Bough " concealed herself, to her undoing. 

Ecclesiastical chests appear to have been used almost entirely 
as receptacles for vestments and church plate, and those which 
survive are still often employed for the preservation of parish 
documents. A considerable variety of these interesting and 
often exceedingly elaborate chests are still left in English 
churches. They arc usually of considerable size, and of a length 
disproportionate to their depth. This no doubt was to facilitate 
the storage of vestments. Most of them arc of great antiquity. 
Many go back to the 14th century, and here and there they are 
even earlier, as in the case of the coffer in Stoke d'Abernon 
church, Surrey, which is unquestionably 13th-century work. 
One of the most remarkable of these early examples is in Newport 
church, Essex. It is one of the extremely rare painted coffers 
of the 13th century, the front carved with an upper row of shields, 
from which the heraldic painting has disappeared, and a lower 
row of roundels. Between is a belt of open tracery, probably of 
pewter, and the inside of the lid is decorated with oil paintings 
representing the Crucifixion, the Virgin Mary, St Peter. St John 
and St Paul The well-known " jewel chest " in St Mary's, 
Oxford, is one of the earliest examples of 14th century work. 
Many of these ecclesiastical chests are carved with architectural 
motives — traceried windows most frequently, but occasionally 
with the linenfold pattern. There is a whole class of chests 
known as " tilting coffers," carved with representations of 
tournaments or feats of arms, and sometimes with a grotesque 
admixture of chivalric figures and mythical monsters. Only 
five or six examples of this type are known still to exist in 
England, and two of them are now in the Victoria and Albert 
Museum. It is not certain that even these few are of English origin 
—indeed, very many of the chests and coders of the 1 6th and 17th 
centuries are of foreign make. They were imported into England 
chiefly from Flanders, and were subsequently carved by native 
artisans, as was the case with other common pieces of furniture 
of those periods. The hue he or " hutch " was a rough type of 
household chest. 

The word "coffer" is properly applied to a chest which was 
intended for the safe keeping of valuables. As a rule the coffer 
is much more massive in construction than the domestic chest; 
itis clamped by iron bands, sometimes contains secret receptacles 
opening with a concealed spring, and is often furnished with an 
elaborate and complex lock, which occupies the whole of the 
underside of the lid. Pieces of this type are sometimes described 
as Spanish chests, from the belief that they were taken from 
ships belonging to the Armada. It is impossible to say that this 
may not sometimes have been the case, but these strong boxes 
are frequently of English origin, although the mechanism of the 
locks may have been due to the subtle skill of foreign locksmiths. 
A typical example of the treasure chest is that which belonged 

to Sir Thomas fiodley, and is preserved in the Bodleian library at 
Oxford. The locks of this description of chest are of steel, and 
are sometimes richly damascened. It was for being implicated 
in the breaking open and robbing of just such a chest as this, 
to which the College de Navarre had confided coin to the value of 
500 ecus, that Francois Villon was hanged on the gibbet of 

CHESTER, EARLS OF. The important palatine earldom of 
Chester was first held by a certain Fleming named Gherbod 
(fl. 1070), and then by Hugh of Avranches (d. 1101), a son of 
Richard, viscount of Avranches. Hugh, who was probably one 
of William the Conqueror's companions, was made carl of Chester 
in 107 1 ; he had special privileges in his earldom, and he hdd 
land in twenty counties. He was called Le Grot on account of 
his great bulk and Lupus on account of his ferocity. However, 
he regarded St Ansclm as his friend, and he showed the customary 
liberality to religious houses. His life was mainly spent in 
fighting the Welsh and in Normandy, and he died on the 27th 
of July 1101. Hugh's only son Richard, who was childless, 
was drowned in the White Ship in November 1 1 20. Among sub* 
sequent holders were Ralph, or Randulph, de Gernon (d. 1153), 
who took a prominent part in the civil wars of the reign of 
Stephen, fighting first on one side and then on the other; and 
his son Hugh de Kevelioc (1147-1181), who shared in the rising 
against Henry II. in n 73. But perhaps the most celebrated of 
the early earls was Ralph, Ranulf, or Randulph, de BlundcviU 
(c. 1 1 72-1 232), who succeeded his father Hugh de Kevelioc as 
earl in 1181, and was created carl of Lincoln in 1217. Ranulf 
married Constance, widow of Henry II. 's son, Geoffrey of Brittany, 
and is sometimes called duke of Brittany and carl of Richmond. 
He fought in Wales, was on the side of John during his struggle 
with the barons over Magna Carta, and was one of this king's 
executors; he also fought for the young king Henry III. against 
the French invaders and their allies. In 1 2 18 he went on crusade 
to the Holy Land and took part in the capture of Damietta; 
then returning to England he died at Wallingford in October 
1 232. After speaking of Ranulf 's unique position in the kingdom, 
which " fitted him for the part of a leader of opposition to royal 
or ministerial tyranny," Stubbs sums up his character in these 
words: "On more than one occasion he refused his consent to 
taxation which he deemed unjust; his jealousy of Hubert (de 
Burgh), although it led him to join the foreign party in 1223, 
did not prevent him from more than once interposing to prevent 
his overthrow. He was, moreover, almost the last relic of the 
great feudal aristocracy of the Conquest." Although twice 
married he left no children, and his immense possessions passed 
to his four sisters. The carl's memory remained green for a long 
time, and in the Vision of Piers Plowman his name is linked with 
that of Robin Hood. In November 1232 the earldom of Chester 
was granted to his nephew John the Scot, carl of Huntingdon 
(c. 1207-1237), and in 1246, nine years after John had died 
childless, it was annexed to the English crown " lest so fair a 
dominion should be divided among women." 

In 1254 Prince Edward, afterwards King Edward I., was created 
earl of Chester, and since this date the earldom has always been 
held by the heirs apparent to the English crown with the single 
exception of Simon de Montfort. carl of Leicester* Since 1399 
the earls of Chester have been also princes of Wales, although 
the act of -Richard II. (130S), which created Chester into a prin- 
cipality to be held by the king's eldest son, was revoked by 
Henry IV. 

CHESTER, an episcopal city and county of a city, municipal, 
county and parliamentary borough, and the county town of 
Cheshire, England. 170 m. N. W. of London. Pop. ( 1001 ) 38,309. 
It lies in a low plain on the Dec, principally on the north (right) 
bank, 6 m. above the embouchure of the river into its wide, 
shallow estuary. It is an important railway centre, the principal 
lines serving it being the London & North -Western, Great 
Western, Cheshire Lines and Great Central. The city is divided 
into four principal blocks by the four principal streets — North- 
gate Street, Eastgate Street, Bridge Street and Watergate Street, 
which radiate at right angles from the Cross, and fetuuu*ft.*'UL 



the four gates. These four streets exhibit in what are called 
*' the Rows " a characteristic feature of the city. Their origin 
is a mystery, and has given rise to much controversy. In East- 
gate Street, Bridge Street and Watergate Street, the Rows 
exist on each side of the street throughout the greater part of 
its length, and may be described as continuous galleries open 
to the street, over and under which the houses lining the streets 
project, and which are formed as it were out of the front first- 
floor of the houses, approached by flights of steps from the 
roadway. The Rows are flagged or boarded under foot and ceiled 
above, thus forming a covered way, standing in the same relation 
to the shops, which are at their back, as the foot pavement 
does in other towns. In Northgate Street, on the other hand, 
the Row on the west side is formed as it were out of the ground 
floor of the houses, having cellars beneath, while on the east side 
the Row is formed at the same elevation as in the other three 
principal streets. In these streets are several examples of old 
timbered houses and some good modern imitations of them, — 
all combining to give a picturesque and individual character 
to the city. Among the most interesting of the ancient houses are 
Derby House, bearing the date 1501, Bishop Lloyd's house, and 
God's Providence House in Watergate Street, and the Bear and 
Billet in Lower Bridge Street; the three last date from the 17th 
century. There is also a chamber with stone groined roof of the 
14th century in the basement of a house in Eastgate Street, and 
another of a similar character in Watergate Street. A mortuary 
chapel of the early part of the 13th century exists in the basement 
of a house in Bridge Street. 

Chester is the only city in England that still possesses its walls 
perfect in their entire circuit of 2 m. The gateways have all been 
rebuilt at various dates; the north and east gates on the site of 
the Roman gates. The Grosvenor bridge, a single span of stone 
200 ft. in length, said to be the largest save one in Europe, 
carries the road to Wrexham and Shrewsbury over the Dee on the 
south-west; while the old bridge of seven arches is interesting 
on account of its antiquity and picturesquencss. The castle, 
with the exception of " Caesar's Tower," and a round tower with 
adjacent buildings, in the upper ward, was taken down towards 
the end of the 18th century, and replaced by a gateway, barracks, 
county hall, gaol and assize courts. 

The cathedral church of Christ and the Virgin Mary, which 
stands towards the north of the city within the walls, rose on the 
site of a church of extreme antiquity. It appears that the 
dedication of this church was altered, perhaps in the reign of 
Athelstan, from St. Peter and St Paul to St Werburgh and 
St Oswald, St Werburgh being a niece of St Etheldreda of Ely. 
In 1093 Hugh Lupus, carl of Chester, richly endowed the founda- 
tion as a Benedictine monastery. The bishops of Mercia had 
apparently a seat at Chester, but the city had ceased to be epis- 
copal, until in 1075 Peter, bishop of Lichfield, removed his seat 
thence to Chester, having for his cathedral the collegiate church 
of St John. The seat of the sec, however, was quickly removed 
again to Coventry (1103), but Cheshire continued subject to 
Lichfield until in 154 1 Chester was erected into a bishopric by 
Henry VIII., the church of the dissolved abbey of St Werburgh 
becoming the cathedral. The diocese covers nearly the whole 
of Cheshire, with very small portions of Lancashire and Stafford- 
shire. The cathedral does not rank among the most splendid 
English churches, but possesses certain details of the highest 
interest, and gains in beauty from the tones of its red sandstone 
walls and the picturesque close in which it stands. It is cruciform 
with a central tower 127 ft. high. The south transept is larger 
than the north. The nave is short (145 ft), being of six bays; 
the southern arcade is Decorated, while the northern, which 
differs in detail, is of uncertain date. The basement of the north- 
western toweir — all that remains of it, now used as a baptistery — 
is Norman, and formed part of Hugh Lupus' church; and the 
fabric of the north wall is also of this period. The north transept 
also retains Norman work, and its size shows the original plan, 
as the existence of the conventual buildings to the north probably 
rendered its extension undesirable. The south transept has 
aisles with Decorated and Perpendicular windows. The fine 

organ stands on a screen across the north transept; but some 
of its pipes are upon the choir screen,, both screens being the 
work of Sir Gilbert Scott. The style of the choir is transitional 
from Early English to Decorated, and its length is 125 ft. It 
is a fine example, and its beauty is enhanced by the magnificent 
series of ancient carved wooden stalls unsurpassed in England. 
The Lady Chapel, east of the choir, is of rich Early English 
workmanship. Of the conventual buildings the cloisters are 
Perpendicular. The chapter-house, entered by a beautiful 
vestibule from the east cloister, and lined with cases containing 
the chapter library, is Early English (c. 1240). The refectory, 
adjoining the north cloister, is of the same period, with Perpen- 
dicular insertions; it has been curtailed in size, but retains its 
beautiful Early English lector's pulpit. An early Norman 
chamber, with massive pillars and vaulting, adjoins the west 
cloister, and may be the substructure of the abbot's house. The 
abbey gateway is of the 14th century. 

Within the walls there are several churches of andent founda- 
tion; thus St Peter's is said to occupy the site of a church erected 
by jEthelflad, queen of Mercia, and St Mary's dates from 
the 1 2th century. None, however, is of any special interest; 
but the church of St John, outside the walls, which as already 
stated became the cathedral in 1075, is a massive early Norman 
structure, with later additions, and, especially as regards the 
exterior, considerably restored in modern times. Its fine tower 
fell in 188 1 . It was a collegiate church until 1 547, and there are 
some remains of the adjoining buildings. Among numerous 
modern churches there may be mentioned St Mary's without the 
walls, built in 1887 by the duke of Westminster, of red sandstone, 
with a fine spire and peal of bells. 

Among the chief secular buildings, the town hall replaced in 
i860 the old exchange, which had been burnt down in 1862. 
.The Grosvenor Museum and School of Art, the foundation of 
which was suggested by Charles Kingsley the novelist, when 
canon of Chester cathedral, contains many local antiquities, 
along with a fine collection of the fauna of Cheshire and the 
neighbourhood. The King's school was founded by Henry VIII. 
(1541). who provided that twenty-four poor scholars should be 
taught free of cost. It was reorganized as a public school in 
1873, and possesses twelve king's scholarships tenable in the 
school, and close scholarships tenable at the universities. Among 
other schools may be mentioned the blue-coat school (1700), 
the Queen's school for girls (1878), the girls' school attached to 
the Roman Catholic convent, and the diocesan training college 
for schoolmasters. For recreation provision is made by the New 
Grosvenor Park, presented to the city in 1867 by the marquess 
of Westminster; Handbridge Park, opened in 1892; and the 
Roodee, a level tract by the river at the base of the city wall, 
appropriated as a race-course. An annual race-meeting is held 
in May and attended by thousands. The chief event is the race 
for the Chester Cup, which dates from 1 540, when a silver bell 
was given as the prize by the Saddlers' Company. Pleasure 
vessels ply on the Dee in summer, and an annual regatta is held, 
at which all the principal northern rowing-clubs arc generally 
represented. The town gains in prosperity from its large number 
of visitors. The principal industries are carried on without the 
walls, where there are lead, shot and paint works, leather and 
tobacco factories, and iron foundries. The trade gilds number 
twenty-four. There is a considerable amount of shipping on the 
Dee, the navigation having been much improved in modern 
times. The parliamentary borough returns one member. The 
municipal council consists of a mayor, zo aldermen and 30 
councillors. Area, 2862 acres. 

History. — Setting aside the numerous legends with regard to, 
the existence of a British city on the site now occupied by 
Chester, the earliest authentic information relating to its history 
is furnished by the works of Ptolemy and Antoninus. As the 
Roman station of Deva it was probably founded about a.d. 48 
by Ostorius Scapula, and from its advantageous position, both 
as the key to communication with Ireland and as a bulwark 
against the hostile tribes of the north, it became a military and 
commercial centre of considerable Importance. In a.d. 78-79 



it was the winter-quarters of Agricola , and later became illustrious 
as the permanent headquarters of Legio XX. Valeria Victrix. 
Many inscriptions and remains of the Roman military occupation 
have been found, and the north and east walls stand in great 
part on Roman foundations. The Saxon form of the name 
was Leganceaster. About 614 the city was captured and 
destroyed by jEthclfrith, and henceforth lay in ruins until 
£thelfl*9d in 907 rebuilt the walls, restored the monastery of St 
Werburgh, and made the city " nigh two such as it was before." 
In the reign of JEthelstan a mint was set up at Chester, and in 
973 it was the scene of Edgar's truimph when, it is said, he was 
rowed on the Dee by six subject kings. Chester opposed a deter- 
mined resistance to the Conqueror, and did not finally surrender 
until 1070. On the erection of Cheshire to a county palatine 
after the Conquest, Chester became the seat of government of the 
palatine earls. The Domesday account of the city includes a 
description of the Saxon laws under which it had been governed 
in the time of Edward the Confessor. All the land, except the 
bishop's borough, was held of the earl, and assessed at fifty 
aides. There were seven mint-masters and twelve magistrates, 
and the city paid a fee-farm rent of £45. It had been much 
devastated since the time of Edward the Confessor, and the 
number of houses reduced by 205. 

The earliest extant charter, granted by Henry II. in 1160, 
empowered the burgesses to trade with Durham as freely as they 
had done in the reign of Henry I. From this date a large collec- 
tion of charters enumerates privileges granted by successive earls 
and later sovereigns. One from Ralph or Ranulf dc Blundevill, 
granted between 1100 and 121 1, confirms to the citizens a gild 
merchant and all liberties and free customs, and three from 
John protect their privilege of trading with Ireland. Edward I. 
empowered the citizens to elect coroners and to hold courts of 
justice, and granted them the fee-farm of the city at a yearly 
rent of £100. In the 14th century Chester began to lose its 
standing as a port through the gradual silling up of the estuary 
of the Dee, and the city was further impoverished by the inroads 
of the Welsh and by the necessity of rebuilding the Dec bridge, 
which had been swept away by an unusually high tide. In con- 
sideration of these misfortunes Richard II. remitted part of the 
fee-farm. Continued misfortunes led to a further reduction of 
the farm to £50 for a term of fifty years by Henry VI., who also 
made a grant for the completion of a new Dee bridge. Henry 
VTL reduced the fee-farm to £20, and in 1506 granted to the 
citizens what is known as " the Great Charter." This charter 
constituted the city a county by itself, and incorporated the 
governing body under the style of a mayor, twenty-four aldermen 
and forty common council men; it also instituted two sheriffs, 
two coroners and a recorder, and the mayor, the ex-mayors 
and the recorder were appointed justices of the peace. This 
charter was confirmed by James I. and Charles II. A charter of 
George III. in 1804 instituted the office of deputy-mayor. The 
charter of Hugh Lupus to the abbey of St Werburgh includes 
a grant of the tolls of the fair at the feast of St Werburgh 
for three days, and a subsequent charter from Ranulf 
de Blundevill (12th century) licensed the abbot and monks 
to held their fairs and markets before the abbey gates. A 
charter of John the Scot, earl of Chester, mentions fairs at the 
feasts of the Nativity of St John Baptist and St Michael. For 
many centuries the rights claimed by the abbot in connexion 
with the fairs gave rise to constant friction with the civic 
authorities, which lasted until, in the reign of Henry VIII., 
it was decreed that the right of holding fairs was vested ex- 
clusively in the citizens. Charles II. in 1685 granted a cattle- 
fair to be held on the first Thursday in February. 

In 1553 Chester first returned two members to parliament, 
having hitherto been represented solely in the parliament of 
the palatinate. By the Redistribution Act of 1885 the representa- 
tion was reduced to one member. The trades of tanners, skinners 
and glove-makers existed at the time of the Conquest, and the 
importation of marten skins is mentioned in Domesday. In 
the 14th century the woollen trade was considerable, and in 1674 
weavers and wool-combers were introduced into Chester from 

Norwich. The restoration of the channel of the Dee opened 
up a flourishing trade in Irish linen, which in 1786 was at its 
height, but from that date gradually diminished. 

See Victoria County History, Cheshire, R. H. Morris, Chester in 
the Plantagcnet and Tudor Reigns (Chester, 1894); Joseph Heming- 
way, History of the City of Chester (2 vols., Chester, 1831). 

CHESTER, a city of Delaware county, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., 
on the Delaware river, about 13 m. S.W. of Philadelphia. Pop. 
(1800) 20,226; (1900) 33,088, of whom 5074 were foreign-born 
and 4403 were negroes; (U. S. census, 1910) 38,537. It is served 
by the Baltimore & Ohio and the Philadelphia & Reading 
railways, by the Philadelphia, Baltimore & Washington division 
of the Pennsylvania system, and by steamboat lines. Chester has 
several interesting buildings dating from early in the 18th century 
— among them the city hall (1724), one of the oldest public 
buildings in the United States, and the house (1683) occupied 
for a time by William Penn. It is the seat of the Pennsylvania 
Military College (1862); and on the border of Chester, in the 
borough of Upland (pop. in 1000, 213 1), is the Crozcr Theological 
Seminary (Baptist), which was incorporated in 1867, opened in 
1868, and named after John P. Crozcr (1793-1866), by whose 
family it was founded. Chester has a large shipbuilding industry, 
and manufactories of cotton and worsted goods, iron and 
steel, the steel-casting industry being especially important, and 
large quantities of wrought iron and steel pipes being manu- 
factured. Dye-stuffs and leather also arc manufactured. The 
value of the city's factory products in 1905 was $16,644,842. 
Chester is the oldest town in Pennsylvania. It was settled by 
the Swedes about 1645, was called Upland and was the seat of the 
Swedish courts until 1682, when William Penn, soon after his 
landing at a spot in the town now marked by a memorial stone, 
gave it its present name. The first provincial assembly was 
convened here in December of the same year. After the battle 
of Brandywine in the War of Independence, Washington re- 
treated to Chester, and in the "Washington House," still 
standing, wrote his account of the battle. Soon afterwards 
Chester was occupied by the British. In 1701 it was incorporated 
as a borough; in 1795 and again in 1850 it received a new 
borough charter; and in 1866 it was chartered as a city. For 
a long time it was chiefly a small fishing settlement, its population 
as late as 1820 being only 657; but after the introduction of 
large manufacturing interests in 1850,. when its population was 
only r667, its growth was rapid. 

See H. G. Ashmcad, Historical Sketch of Chester (Chester, 1883). 

OP (1694-1773), son of Philip Stanhope, third carl (1673- 
1 726), and Elizabeth Savile, daughter of George Savilc, marquess 
of Halifax, was born in London on the 22nd of September 1694; 
Philip, the first earl (1584-1656), son of Sir John Stanhope of 
Shclford, was a royalist who in 1616 was created Baron Stanhope 
of Shclford, and in 1628 earl of Chesterfield; and his grandson 
the 2nd carl (1633-1714) was grandfather of the 4th earl. De- 
prived at an early age of his mother, the care of the boy devolved 
upon his grandmother, the marchioness of Halifax, a lady of 
culture and connexion, whose house was frequented by the 
most distinguished Whigs of the epoch. He soon began to 
prove himself possessed of that systematic spirit of conduct 
and effort which appeared so much In his life and character. 
His education, begun under a private tutor, was continued 
(171 2) at Trinity Hall, Cambridge; here he remained little 
more than a year and seems to have read hard, and to have 
acquired a considerable knowledge of ancient and modern 
languages. The great orators of all times were a special object 
of study with him, and he describes his boyish pedantry pleas- 
antly enough, but by no means without a touch of sclf-satisfac 
tion in the memory. His university training was supplemented 
( 1 7 1 4) by a continental tour, untrammelled by a governor; 
at the Hague his ambition for the applause awarded to adventure 
made a gamester of him, and at Paris he began, from the same 
motive, that worship of the conventional Venus, the serious 
inculcation of which has earned for him the largest and most 
unenviable part of his reputation. 



The death of Anne and the accession of George I. opened up 
a career for him and brought him back to England. His relative 
James Stanhope (afterwards first Earl Stanhope), the king's 
favourite minister, procured for him the place of gentleman of 
the bedchamber to the prince of Wales. In 1715 he entered 
the House of Commons as Lord Stanhope of Shclford and 
member for St Germans, and when the impeachment of James, 
duke of Ormonde, came before the House, he used the occasion 
(5th of August 1 71 5) to put to proof his old rhetorical studies. 
His maiden speech was youthfully fluent and dogmatic; but 
on its conclusion the orator was reminded with many compli- 
ments, by an honourable member, that he wanted six weeks of 
his majority, and consequently that he was amenable to a fine 
of £500 for speaking in the House. Lord Stanhope quitted the 
Commons with a low bow and started for the continent. From 
Paris he rendered the government important service by gathering 
and transmitting information respecting the Jacobite plot; 
and in 1716 he returned to England, resumed his seat, and took 
frequent part in the debates. In that year came the quarrel 
between the king and the heir apparent. Stanhope, whose 
politic instinct obliged him to worship the rising rather than the 
setting sun. remained faithful to the prince, though he was too 
cautious to break entirely with the king's party. He was on 
friendly terms with the prince's mistress, Henrietta Howard, after- 
wards countess of Suffolk. He maintained a correspondence with 
this lady which won for him the hatred of the princess of Wales 
(afterwards Queen Caroline) . In 1 7 23 a vote for the governmen t 
got him the place of captain of the Gentlemen Pensioners. In 
January 1725, on the revival of the Bath, the red riband was 
offered to him, but was declined. 

In 1726 his father died, and Lord Stanhope became earl of 
Chesterfield. He took his scat in the Upper House, and his 
oratory, never effective in the Commons by reason of its want 
of force and excess of finish, at once became a power. In 1728 
Chesterfield was sent to the Hague as ambassador. In this place 
his tact and temper, his dexterity and discrimination, enabled 
htm to do good service, and he was rewarded with Walpolc's 
friendship, a Garter and the place of lord high steward. In 1732 
there was born to him, by a certain Mile du Bouchct, the son, 
Philip Stanhope, for whose advice and instruction were after- 
wards written the famous Letters. He negotiated the second 
treaty of Vienna in 1731, and in the next year, being somewhat 
broken in health and fortune, he resigned his embassy and re- 
turned to England. 

A few months' rest enabled him to resume his seat in the Lords, 
of which he was one of the acknowledged leaders. He supported 
the ministry, but his allegiance was not the blind fealty Walpole 
exacted of his followers. The Excise Bill, the great premier's 
favourite measure, was vehemently opposed by him in the Lords, 
and by his three brothers in the Commons. Walpole bent before 
the storm and abandoned the measure; but Chesterfield was 
summarily dismissed from his stewardship. For the next two 
years he led the opposition in the Upper House, leaving no stone 
unturned to effect Walpolc's downfall. In 1741 he signed the 
protest for Walpolc's dismissal and went abroad on account of 
his health. He visited Voltaire at Brussels and spent some 
time in Paris, where he associated with the younger Crebillon, 
Fontcnelle and Montesquieu. In 1742 Walpole fell, and Carteret 
was his real, though not his nominal successor. Although 
Walpolc's administration had been overthrown largely by 
Chesterfield's efforts the new ministry did not count Chesterfield 
cither in its ranks or among its supporters. He remained in 
opposition, distinguishing himself by the courtly bitterness of his 
attacks on George II., who learned to hate him violently. In 
1743 a new journal, Old England; or, the Constitutional Journal 
appeared. For this paper Chesterfield wrote under the name of 
" Jeffrey Broadbottom." A number of pamphlets, in some of 
which Chesterfield had the help of Edmund Waller, followed. 
His energetic campaign against George II. and his government 
won the gratitude of the dowager duchess of Marlborough, who 
Jcft him £20,000 as a mark of her appreciation. In 1744 the king 
tras compel/cd to abandon Carteret, and the coalition or " Broad ' 

Bottom" party, led by Chesterfield and Pitt, came into office 
In the troublous state of European politics the earl's conduct 
and experience were more useful abroad than at home, and lu 
was sent to the Hague as ambassador a second time. The object 
of his mission was to persuade the Dutch to join in the War of the 
Austrian Succession and to arrange the details of their *ssj*tai*rt. 
The success of his mission was complete; and on his return a 
few weeks afterwards he received .the lord-lieutenancy of Ireland 
— a place he had long coveted. 

Short as it was, Chesterfield's Irish administration was of great 
service to his country, and is unquestionably that part of his 
political life which does him most honour. To have conceived 
and carried out a policy which, with certain reservations, Burke 
himself might have originated and owned, is indeed no small regard. The earl showed himself finely capable in practice 
as in theory, vigorous and tolerant, a man to be feared and a 
leader to be followed; he took the government entirely into Ins 
own hands, repressed the jobbery traditional to the office, 
established schools and manufactures, and at once conciliated 
and kept in check the Orange and Roman Catholic factions. 
In 1746, however, he had to exchange the lord-lieutenancy for 
the place of secretary of state. With a curious respect for those 
theories his familiarity with the secret social history of France had 
caused him to entertain, he hoped and attempted to retain a 
hold over the king through the influence of Lady Yarmouth, 
though the futility of such means had already been demonstrated 
to him by his relations with Queen Caroline's " ma bonne Howard." 
The influence of Newcastle and Sandwich, however, was too 
strong for him; he was thwarted and over-reached; and in 
1748 he resigned the seals, and returned to cards and his books 
with the admirable composure which was one of his most striking 
characteristics. He declined any knowledge of the Apology for 
a late Resignation, in a Letter from an English Gentleman to his 
Friend at The //<i£itf, which ran through four editions in 1748, 
but there is little doubt that he was, at least in part, the 

The dukedom offered hira by George II., whose ill-will his 
fine tact had overcome, was refused. He continued for some 
years to attend the Upper House, and to take part in its proceed- 
ings. In 1 75 1, seconded by Lord Macclesfield, president of the 
Royal Society, and Bradley, the eminent mathematician, he 
distinguished himself greatly in the debates on the calendar, and 
succeeded in making the new style a fact. Deafness, however, 
was gradually affecting him, and he withdrew little by little 
from society and the practice of politics. In 1755 occurred 
the famous dispute with Johnson over the dedication to the 
English Dictionary. In 1 747 Johnson sent Chesterfield, who was 
then secretary of state, a prospectus of his Dictionary, which 
was acknowledged by a subscription of £10. Chesterfield appar- 
ently took no further interest in the enterprise, and the book 
was about to appear, when he wrote two papers in the World in 
praise of it. It was said that Johnson was kept waiting in the 
anteroom when he called while Cibber was admitted. In any 
case the doctor had expected more help from a professed patron 
of literature, and wrote the earl the famous letter in defence 
of men of letters. Chesterfield's " respectable Hottentot," now 
identified with George, Lord Lyttelton, was long supposed, 
though on slender grounds, to be a portrait of Johnson. During 
the twenty years of life that followed this episode, Chesterfield 
wrote and read u great deal, but ucnt little into society. 

In 1768 died Philip Stanho|K» t the child of so many hopes. 
The constant care bestowed by hi* father on his education 
resulted in an honourable but not }v»rlicularly distinguished 
career for young Stanhope. Ilia death was an overwhelming 
grief to Chesterfield, and the discovery that he had long been 
married to a lady of humble origin must have been galling in the 
extreme to his father after hi* careful instruction in' worldly 
wisdom. Chesterfield, who had no children by his wife, Melusina 
von Schulcmbcrg, illegitimate daughter of George L, whom 
he married in 1733, adopted his godson, a distant cousin, named 
Philip Stanhope (i755-i8«5)i *• heir to the title and estates. 
His famous jest (which even Johnson allowed to have merit)— 



* Tyrawley and I have been dead these two yean, but we don't 
choose to have it known "—is the best description possible of his 
honour and condition during the latter part of this period of 
decline; To the deafness was added blindness, but his memory 
and his fine manners only left him with life; his last words 
(" Give DayroDes a chair ") prove that he had neither forgotten 
his friend nor the way to receive .him. He died on the 24th of 
March 1773 

Chesterfield was selfish, calculating and contemptuous; he 
was not naturally generous, and he practised dissimulation till 
it became part of his nature. In spite of his brilliant talents 
and of the admirable training he received, his life, on the whole, 
cannot be pronounced a success. His anxiety and the pains he 
took to become an orator have been already noticed, and Horace 
Walpole, who had heard all the great orators, preferred a speech 
of Chesterfield's to any other; yet the earl's eloquence is not to be 
compared with that of Pitt. Samuel Johnson, who was not 
perhaps the best judge in the world, pronounced his manners to 
have been" exquisitely elegant "; yet as a courtier he was utterly 
worsted by Robert Walpole, whose manners were anything but 
refined, and even by Newcastle. He desired to be known as a 
protector of letters and literary men; and his want of heart or 
head over the Dictionary dedication, though explained and ex- 
cused by Croker, none the less inspired the famous change in a 
famous lire — " Toil, envy, want, the patron, and the jail. " 
His published writings have had with posterity a very indifferent 
success; his literary reputation rests on a volume of letters never 
designed to appear in print. The son for whom he worked 
so hard and thought so deeply failed especially where his father 
had most desired he should succeed. 

As a politician and statesman, Chesterfield's fame rests on his 
short but brilliant administration of Ireland. As an author he 
was a dever essayist and epigrammatist. But he stands or falls 
by the Letters to his Son, first published by Stanhope's widow 
in 1774, and the Letters to his Godson (1800). The Letters arc 
brilliantly written — full of elegant wisdom, of keen wit, of 
admirable portrait-painting, of exquisite observation and deduc- 
tion. Against the charge of an undue insistence on the external 
graces of manner Chesterfield has been adequately defended by 
Lord Stanhope (History, iii. 34). Against the often iterated 
accusation of Immorality, it should be remembered that the 
Letters reflected the morality of the age, and that their author 
only systematized and reduced to writing the principles of 
conduct by which, deliberately or unconsciously, the best and 
the worst of his contemporaries were governed. 

The earldom of Chesterfield passed at his death to his godson, 
already mentioned, as 5th carl, and so to the Litter's son and 
grandson. On the death of the latter unmarried in 1871, it 
passed in succession to two collateral heirs, the 8th and 9th 
earls, and so in 1887 to the lattcr's son as 10th earl. 

See Chesterfield's Miscellaneous Works (London, 1777, 2 vols. 4*0) ; 
Letters to his Son, &c, edited by Lord Mahon (London, 1 845-1 853, 

5 vols.); and Letters to his Godson (1890^ (edited by the carl of 
Carnarv< *"" 

l.Br. , ,_ ,„.,. 

1 biography, including numerous letters first published from 
the Newcastle Papers, was issued by Mr W. Ernst; and in 1007 

Carnarvon). There are also editions of the first series of letters 
by J. Bradshaw (3 vols., 1892) and Mr C. Strachcy (2 vols., 1901), 
" * ' phy, including numerous letters first published fr 

In 1803 a 

the Newcastle Tapers, was issued by Mr W. fernst; and in 190; 

appeared an elaborate Life by W. U. Craig. (A. D.) 

CHESTERFIELD, a market town and municipal borough in 
the Chesterfield parliamentary division of Derbyshire, England, 
24 m. N. by E. of Derby, on the Midland and the Great Central 
railways. Pop. (1891) 22,009; (1901) 27,185. It lies at the 
junction of two streams, the Rother and Hipper, in a populous 
industrial district. It is irregularly built, with narrow streets, 
but has a spacious market-place. The church of St Mary and All 
Saints is a large and beautiful cruciform building principally of 
the Decorated period. Its central tower carries a remarkable 
twisted spire of wood covered with lead, 230 ft. high; the dis- 
tortion has evidently taken place through the use of unseasoned 
timber and consequent warping of the woodwork. The church, 
which contains numerous interesting monuments, possesses also 
the unusual feature of an apsidal Decorated chapel. There is an 
nple of flamboyant tracery in one of the windows. Among 

public buildings, the Stephenson memorial hall (1 879) , containing 
a free library, art and science class-rooms, a theatre and the 
rooms of the Chesterfield Institute, commemorates George 
Stephenson, the engineer, who resided at Tapton House, close 
to Chesterfield, in his later life; he died here in 1848, and was 
buried in Trinity church. Chesterfield grammar school was 
founded in 1574. The industries of the town include manu- 
factures of cotton, silk, earthenware, machinery and tobacco, 
with brass and iron founding; while slate and stone arc quarried, 
and there are coal, iron and lead mines in the neighbourhood. 
The town is governed by a mayor, 6 aldermen and 1 8 councillors. 
Area, 12 16 acres. In the immediate neighbourhood of Chester- 
field on the west is the urban district of Brampton and Walton 
(pop. 2698), to the south-east is Hasland (7427), and to the 
north-east Brimington (4569). 

In spite of the Roman origin suggested by its name, so few 
remains have been found here that it is doubtful whether Chester- 
field was a Roman station. Chesterfield (Cestrcfdd) owes its 
present name to the Saxons. It is mentioned in Domesday only 
as a bailiwick of Newbold belonging to the king, and granted to 
William Peverell. In 1204 John gave the manor to William 
Bruere and granted to the town all the privileges of a free 
borough which were enjoyed by Nottingham and Derby; but 
before this it seems to have had prescriptive borough rights. 
Later charters were granted by various sovereigns, and it was 
incorporated by Elizabeth in 1508 under the style of a mayor, 
6 brethren and x 2 capital burgesses. This charter was confirmed 
by Charles II. (1662), and the town was so governed till the 
Municipal Act 1835 appointed a mayor, 3 aldermen and 12 
councillors. In 1204 John granted two weekly markets, on 
Tuesday and Saturday, and an annual fair of eight days at the 
feast of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross (Sept. 14). This fair, 
which b still held, and another on Palm Tuesday, are mentioned 
in the Quo Warranto roll of 1330. The Tuesday market has long 
been d iscont inued. That Chesterfield was early a thriving centre 
is shown by the charter of John Lord Wake, lord of the manor, 
granting a gild merchant to the town. In 1 266 the town was the 
scene of a battle between the royal forces and the barons, when 
Robert de Ferrers, earl of DcTby, was taken prisoner. In 1586 
there was a terrible visitation of the plague; and the parlia- 
mentarian forces were overthrown here in the Civil War. With 
the development of cotton and silk industries the town has 
increased enormously, and is now second in importance only to 
Derby among the towns of the county. There is no record 
that it ever returned representatives to parliament. 

Sec Stephen Glover, History and Gazetteer of tlie County of Derby 
(Derby, 1831-1833); I. Pym Yeatman. Records of the Borourh of 
Chesterfield (Chesterfield and Sheffield, 1884) ; Thomas Ford, Iltstory 
of Chesterfield (London, 1839). 

CHESTER-LE-STREET, a town in the Chcster-lc-Street 
parliamentary division of Durham, England, near the river 
Wear, 6 m. N. of the city of Durham on the North-Eastern 
railway. Pop. (1901) 11,753. The parish church of St Mary 
and St Cuthbert is an interesting building, formerly collegiate, 
with a tower 156 ft. high, and a remarkable series of monumental 
tombs of the Lumley family, collected here from Durham 
cathedral and various ruined monasteries, and in some cases