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Full text of "Encyclopaedia Britannica Dict.A.S.L.G.I.11thEd.Chisholm.1910-1911-1922.33vols."

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THE 



ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA 



ELEVENTH EDITION 



FIRST 


edition, published in three volumes, 


1768— X77I. 


SECOND 


»! 


• > 


ten „ 


1777— X7&I. 


THIRD 


„ 


II 


eighteen „ 


1788— 1797. 


FOURTH 


II 


II 


twenty „ 


i8ox— 1810. 


FIFTH 


II 


II 


twenty „ 


1815—18x7. 


SIXTH 


•1 


II 


twenty t » 


X823— 18*4. 


SEVENTH 


1* 


II 


twenty-one lt 


X830— 1842. 


EIGHTH 


>l 


II 


twenty-two „ 


X853— 1860. 


NINTH 


II 


II 


twenty-five „ 


X87S— 1889. 


TENTH 


>t 


ninth edition and eleven 








supplementary volumes, 


xooa— xooj. 


ELEVENTH 


l> 


published! 


in twenty-nine volumes, 


19x0— 191 X, 



▼i INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 

A. W. W. Adolphus William Ward. Litt.D., LL.D. /*.— us, n— u a- +-u% 

See the biographical article. Ward, A. W. \ «!»* «»▼>■ u» W- 

B. A. W. R. Hon. Bertrand Arthur William Russell, M.A., F.R.S. f _ ,. ^ 

Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Author of Foundations of\ Geometry: VL (m fori). 

Geometry; Principles of Mathematics; &c. t 

B.8.P. Bertha Surtees Phujotts, M.A. (Dublin), -f CwmiHf: iirdfcottto*. 

Formerly Librarian of Girton College, Cambridge. ^uwtodj. iirowwrj. 

C. B.* Charles Bemont, LITT.D. (Oxon.). S Fnrtil Da (tallages; 

See the biographical article. Bbmomt. C. .If 



CI 



See the biographical article, Bbmomt, C 

r. Carroll Davidson Wright. 

Sea the biographical article, Wrioht, Hon. Carroll Daviosom, \ United States. 

Charles Everxtt, M.A- F.C.S., F.G.S., FJLA.S. I timmmoitom> m*** 

Sometime Scholar of Magdalen College, Oaford. \ W""*"! • flMtor 7- 



C.D.W. Hon. Carroll Davidson Wright. _ _ / ******& . So 5 tott8,s 



C F. A. Charles Francis Atkinson. 

Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Captain. 1st City of London ' 
(Royal Fusiliers). Author ol The Wilderness and CoU Harbour. 



Franco-German War 

(mp*rt\; 
Franca Revolutionary 

Wan: Military 

Operations; 
Germany: Army; 
Gibraltar. History, 



C H. Hn. Carlton Huntley Hayes. A.M., Ph.D. f 

Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City. Member < GtUsfUS 1L 
of the American Historical Association. . [ 

G. K. 8. Clement Kino Shorter, f 

Editor of The Sphere. Author of Sixty Years of Victorian Literature', Immortal* 
Memories; The Brontes, Life and Letters; Ac. I 

C. ML Cheoomxllr Mijatovich. . r 

Senator of the Kingdom of Servia. Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotea- J 
tiary of the King of Servia to the Court of St James's, 1895-1900 and 1902-1903. [ 

C. M. K. Sir Charles Malcolm Kennedy, K.C.M.G.. C.B. (1831-1908). 

Head, of Commercial Department, Foreign Office, 1872-1893. Lecturer on Inter- 
national Law, University College, BaktoL Commissioner ia the Levant, 1 870-1 87 1 , 
at Paris, 1 872- 1 886. Plenipotentiary, Treaty of the Hague, 1882. Editor' 
of Kennedy's Ethnological and Linguistic Essays; Diplomacy and International 



rTM Ports* 



C. PL Christian Ptister, D.-fcs.-L. I 

Professor at the Sorboane, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author J 
of Etudes surleregmtde Robert le Pienx; Le Duchi merovtngien d"Alsau et la le§ende\ 
de Soiuio-Odile. IGeimftDie LftWS, Baity. 

C. B. B. Charles Raymond Beazley, M.A.. D.Lrrr., F.R.G.S., FJLHBT.S. f 

Professor of Modern History In the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow 1 
of Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography. < Gertrd Of Clement* 
Lothian Priteman, Oxford, 1889. Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author of I 
Henry the Navigator; The Damn of Modern Geography; Ac. [ 

C. R. C. Claude Recnier Conder, LL.D. f «.•„.. #. Mutw/i , 

Colonel, Royal Engineers. Formerly in command of Survey of Palestine. Author i ^^ l f" r af1 l\ ^ 
of The City of Jerusalem; The Bible and the East; The HUtites and their Language; Ac. L Galilee, 8et> Of (m pari). 

G. T.* Rev. Charles Taylor, M.A., D.D., LL.D. (1840-1008). f 

Formerly Master of St John's College, Cambridge. Vice-Chancellor, Cambridge -j Geometrieftl Continuity. 
University, 1887-1888. Author of Geometrical Conies; Sec. \ 

G. We. Cecil Weatherly. 

Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. 

C. W. W, fin Charles William Wilson, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S. (1836-1907). 

Major-General, Royal Engineers. Secretary to the North American Boundary 
Commission, 1858-1862. British Commissioner on the Servian Boundary Com- 
mission. Director-General of the Ordnance Survey, 1886-1894. Director-General 
of Military Education, 1895-1898. Author of From.Korti to Khartoum; Life of 
Lord Gm, a\c 

D. C. Dooald> Clerk, M.Inst.C.E., F.R.S. f 

Director of the National Gas Engine Co., Ltd. Inventor of the Clerk Cycle Ga*«( Gas 
Engine. [ 

D. F. T. Donald Francis Tovey. r 

BaUlol College, Oxford. Author of Essay* in Musical Analysis, comprising The} •„(«• 
C lass i ca l Concerto, The Goldberg Variations, and analyses of many other classical 1 ' 
works. I 

D. fl. David Hannay. f French Rerohittonftry W* 

Formerly British Vice-cons*! at Barcelona. Author of Short History of Royal « Nasal Ooeratums. 
Navy, 1217-1688; Life of EmMo CosUtar; Ac. \ wyfrowaw*. 



fltft Of (in part). 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES tf 

B. Br. Einist Barker. M.A. 



mist Barker, M.A. f 

Fdbwof, and Lecturer ia Modern History at.St John's College, Oxford. Formerly i Folk, King of 
Fellow aod Tutor of Mcrton College. Craven Scholar, 1895. I 

win Bailey Elliott, M.A.. F.R.S., F.R.A.S. f 

Waynflete Professor of Pure Mathematics, and Fellow of Magdalen College. Oxford. J 
Formerly Fellow of Queen's College, Oxford. President of London Mathematical ] 
Society. 1896-1898. Author of Algebra of Quantks; Ac. I 



B. B. BL Edwin Bailey Elliott, M.A. t F.R.S., F.R.A.S^ 

_ ~ f _ _" _ J_~ _ "__"_ _" " -"——'-" "" ' ^ 

Society, '1896-189& "Author of Afgebra of Quantks; etc." 

B. 0. B. Right Rev. Edward Cuthbebt Butler, O.S.B., D.Lm. (Dublin). f 

Abbot of Etownside Abbey, Bath. Author of " The Lauaiac History of Pkliadius w 4 VtSMlssam; Friar. 



ia Cambridge Texts and Studies. 

M EaSTLAEE. 
See the biographical article, Eastlakb, Sir C L. 



B. B. Lady Bastlake. ______ _ _ . S 



B. 0. Edmund GOSSE, LL.D. Svmmlk. n»**»* J___. 

Sec the biographical article, Gosse, Edmund. ^"j*-^ _. •*■-» 

B. J. D. Edward Joseph Dent. M.A., Mus.Bac / 

Formerly Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. \ 

E. a* Edmund Owen, M.B., F.R.C.S., LL.D., tf.Sc. f 

Consulting Surgeon to St Mary's Hospital. London, and to the Children's Hospital, J ________ n__» 



great Ormond Street; late Examiner in Surgery at the Universities of Cambridge, 
urham and London. Author of A Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students. 



of Thrift; 

F. C. G. Frederick Cornwalus Conybeare, M.A. 

Fellow of the British 
Author of The Ancient 

F. C. M. Francis Charles Montague, M.A. 

Astor Professor of European History, university lonege, London. Formerly 1 ■______. 

Fellow of Oriel College/Oxford. -■■•■— ~» »--•'• -* '-*-"—* ''"--• --.— -i i KlOmi 
in Cambridge Modem History; Ac. 



B.Pr. Edoar Pbestage. f « _,»_. 

Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature in the University of Manchester. J G**po» 
Conu-endador Portuguese Order of S. Thiago. Corresponding Member of Lisbon 1 Garrett. 
Royal Academy of Sciences and Lisbon Geographical Society ; Ac I 

E. W. B. Sir Edward William Brabrook, CB-, F.S.A. f 
Barrister-at-Law, Lincoln** Inn. Chief Registrar of Friendly Societies, 1891-1904. J -_._-- _ ____!■_____ 
Author of Building Societies; Pro vid en t Societies and Industrial Welfare', Institutions ] RHMV lOssWslfc 

0/ TartyK; Ac I 

Conybeare. M.A., D.Tk. (Geissen). f 

Academy. Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. 4 
t Armenian Texts of Aristotle; Myth, Magic and Borah; etc. I 

Montague, M.A. f 

of European History, University Cothwe, London. Formerly J 
College, Oxford. Author of Limits of Individual Liberty; chapters | 
odern History; Ac. I 

F. F.* Sib James Fortescue-Flannery, Bart., M.P., M.Inst.CE. f 

Ex>Piesidcnt of the Institute of Marine Engineers. M.P. for the MaHoa Division-. Fost Xlnaf. 
of Essex, 1910. M.P. for the Shipley Division of Yorkshire, 1 895-1906. I 

F. G. K. B. Frederick George Meeson Beck, M.A. ffcenna-y: Ethnography and 

Fetfow and Lecturer in Classics, Clare College, Cambridge. \ Early History. 

F. H. B. Francis Henry Butler, M.A. Jw«_in«««fi«- o_o_. 

Worcestcr College, Oxford. Associate of Royal School of Mines. ^aiaawMoma-f, una*. 

F. J. H. Francis John Haverfield, M.A., LL.D., F.S.A. r 

Camden Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford. Fellow of I 
Bresenosc College. Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Censor, Student, \ GmL 
Tutor and Librarian of Christ Church, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1906-1907. 1 
Author of Monographs on Roman History, especially Roman Britain; Ac L 

F. H. H. Colonel Fbederic Natuscr Maude, C.B. f lYsaen-Garmsji War 

Lecturer in Military History, Manchester University. Author of War and thai ^T~7^T^ 
World's Policy; The Leiptig Campaign; The Jena Campaign. I "* *"">• 



fFwueh Congo; 
F. R. C. Frank R. Can*. J GarmaD But Africa; 

Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union. | Gtmsn Sooth-Watt 



{ 



F. R. H. Fbiedrich Robert Helmebt, Ph.D., D.Ino. f __„ /_» . A 

Professor of Geodesy, University of Berlin. \ G**«J W» **<>• 

{« 

( c 

l« 

G. B. Rev. George Edmundson, M.A., F.R.Hist.S. / # 

Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Brasenose College, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1909. ^ * 



F. S. Francis Storr. 

Editor of the Journal of Education, London. Officer d'Academie (Paris). 

F. W. B.« Fredcbicx Wiluam Rudlkr, LS.O., F.G.S. 

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London. 1879-1903. 
President of the Geologists' Association, 1887-1889. I Gem: L 



G. L. Geobo Lumge. 

See the biographical article, Lunge, G. 

G. 8a. George Saintsbury, D.C.L., LL.D. 

See the biographical artkla. Saintsbury, Gt 




Wl 



BHXZA2& AND HEADINGS OP ARTICLES 



G.W.T. 

H.B. 

H.B.W. 

ILCa, 

H.CL. 
H.F.BB, 

H.L.C. 

H.B.* 
H.B.W. 



H.K. 
H.R.M. 



H.W.C.D. 

H.W.S. 

LA. 

J.A.P. 

J.A.H. 

J.B.B. 
J.B.M0M. 

J.Ga. 
J.G.C.A. 

1.0.L 



Rev. Gufrths Wheeler Thatcher, M.A..B.D. 

Warden of Camden Gotten; Sydney. N.S.AV. Formerly Tutor la Hebrew and 
Old Testamcdt History at Mansfield College, Oxford. 

Hilary Bauermann, F.G.S. (d. 1909). 

Formeriy Lecturer 00 Metallurgy at the Ordnance College, Woolwich. Author of 
A Treatise on the Metallurgy of Iron. 

Horace Bolingbroke Woodward. F.R.S., F.CLS* 

Late Assistant Director, Geological Survey of England and Wales. WoHaston 
Medallikt. GeologfcaTSociety. Author of The History of the Geological Society of 
London; &c 

Hugh Chxshdlm, M.A. 

Formerly Scholar of Corpui Christ! College. Oxford. Editor of the tlth edition 
of the Encyclopaedia Britannica; Co-editor of the 10th edition. 

Hon. Henry Cabot Lodge. 

See the biographical article. Lodge, Henry Cabot. 

Henry Frederick Baker, M.A.. D.Sc., F.ILS. 

Fellow and Lecturer of St John's College, Cambridge. Cayfey Lecturer in 
Mathematics in the University. Author of AbsFs Theorem and the AUted Theory; &c. 

Hugh Lonobourne Cali 

Professor of Physics, Royal 
"" " " 1 MacGill ~ " ' 



Physics ia 1 



F.R.S.,LLD. 

, allege of Science, London. Formerly Profd 

College, Montreal, and in University College, London. 



Hugh, Mitchell. 

Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. 

H. Marshall Ward, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S. (d. 1 



_ Pmdent of the British Mycologies! 
Us Diseases; The Oak; Sach's Lecture* on 
Ac 



Gk 
tamhSaUL 

Gantry. 



Garnet!, Rkhard; . 
IV. {in parti* 



Function: Functions ef 



(in pari). 



Henry Nicol. 



Robert Mill, D.S&, LLJ>. 
of British Rainfall 



(in parti. 



French Lafiguag* (m park 



Director of British Rainfall Organisation. Editor of British Rainfall Formerly 
President of the Royal Meteorological Society. Hon. Member of Vienna Geographi- 
cal Society. Hon. Corresponding Member of Geographical Societies of Paris," 

. Berlin. Budapest. St Petersburg, Amsterdam. Ac Author of The Boalm of Nature; 

• The International Geography; Ac. 



Geography. 



Henry William Cables* Davis, M.A. 

Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Fellow of All Souls CoUege, Oxford, 
1895-1902. Author of England under the Normans and Angeoins; Charlemagne. 



r Geoffrey* Archbishop of 
York; 
Geoffrey of 1 



GervRaa of Cantafoory; 
of" 



H. Wickhah Steed. 

Ceneapondcnt of The Times at Rome (1897-1902) and Vienna. 

Israel Abrahams, M .A. 

Reader m Tatmudic and Rabbinic Literature in the University of Cambridge. j 
Formerly President. Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A Short ' 
History of Jewish Uteramre; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages; Judaism; Ac 



Frank, Jakob; 
Fraakel, Zeohartas; 
Frank!, Lndwig A.; 
rMedmann, Melr; 
Gaon; Gefgor (in pari); 



John Ambrose Fuemwo. M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. r 

Pender Professor of Electrical Engineering in the University of London. Fellow I 
oi University College. London. Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge, J 



and Lecturer on Applied Mechanics in the University. Author of Magnets and 
Electric Currents. ' 

John Allen Howe, B.Sc. 

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London. Author of 
The Geology of Building Stones. 

John Bagnall Bury, LL.D., D.C.L. 
. See the biographical article, Bury, J. B. 

John Bach McMaster, LL.D. 

Professor of American History in the University ef 
AB^eflUPeopUoftheUuuUStakv;&c. 

James Gaxrdner, LL.D., C.B. 

. Sea the bwgraphical article, Gajrdksr, J. 

Josh Geqroe Clark Anderson, M.A. 

Censor and Tutor of Christ Church, Oxford. Formeriy Fellow of Lincoln College; 
Craven Fellow, Oxford, 1896. Cooington Prizeman, 1893. 

' Jont Georoe Robertson, M.A., Ph.D. 

Piufim i J i of German, University of London. Author of History ef German totera- 
tun; Schiller after a Century; Ac 



Peonsylvaaia. Author el 



FaDar's.EBrttL 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



J 


T.Bt 


J. 


T.C. 


J. 


V. B. 


J. 


Ws. 


J. W. Ho 



J. Hn. Justus Hashagen, Ph.D J Frederick Augustas i. 

Privat-dorcnt in Medieval and Modern History, University of Bono. Author of 1 In II.; 

Das Rkeinland und die franxosische HerrschafL [ Frederick WQUam L 

J H. Or. John Hilton Grace, M.A., F.R.S. f 

Lecturer in Mathematics at Petcrhotue and Pembroke College, Cambridge. Fellow < Geometry, V. 

of Petcrhouse I. 

1. H. H. 



John Henry Hessels, M A. J p-.. 

Author of Gutenbcrt : an Historical Investigation \ ' ***** 



J. H. R. John Horace Round, M.A., LL.D. (Edin.) 

Author of Feudal England; Studies in Peerage and Family History; Peerage and] Geoffrey De Monthf*! 
Pedigree, &c. 

J. HI. R. John Holland Rose, M.A., Litt.D. 

Christ's College, Cambridge. Lcct _ 

University Local Lectures Syndicate. Author of Life of Napoleon /.; Napoleonic 
Studies; The Development oj the European Nations: The Life of Pitt; &c 



{- 

Christ's College, Cambridge. Lecturer on Modern HUtory to the Cambridge! , 
~ * " " "" ' Napoleon I.; Napoleonic} * 

J Mt. James Moffatt, M.A., D.D / r.i.M.n. *ni«tu «* «** 

Jowctt Lecturer. London. 1907 Author of Historical New Testament; to. \ G*»w«»i *P»» «> »•• 

J. P.-R James George Joseph Penderel-Brodhurst. -T Furniture. 

Editor of the Guardian (London). \ 

J, SI. James Sime, M.A. (1843-1805). ("Frederick the Great 

Author of A History of Germany; &c I (in pari). 

J. S. Bl John Sutherland Black, M.A., LL.D. f ftee Churan of Scotland 

Assistant Editor 9th edition Encyclopaedia Britanntca. Joint-editor of the i (,„ part). 
Encyclopaedia Biblica, I r- *• 

J. S. F. Johs Smith Flett. D.Sc. F.G.S f 

Petrographer to the Geological Survey Formerly Lecturer on Petrology in Edin- J Fulgurite; 
burgh University. Neil! Medallist of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Bigsby | Gabbro, 
Medallist of the Geological Society of London. I 

John T. Bealby. f __^_ *_,.,. _^ 

Joint-author of Stanford's Europe. Formerly Editor of the Scottish Geographical < Georgia (Russia), If* part}. 
Magazine. Translator of Sven Hedin's Through Asia. Central Asia and Tibet; &c I 

Joseph Thomas Cunningham, M.A., F.Z.S. 

Lecturer oh Zoology jp\ n the South- Western Polytechnic, London. _ m Formerly J Gastropoda. 



Fellow of University College, Oxford. Assistant Professor of Natural History 
the University of Edinburgh. Naturalist to the Marine Biological Association. 

James Vernon Bartlet, M.A., D.D. (St. Andrews). 

Professor of Church History, Mansfield College, Oxford. Author of The Apastoli 
Age; &c. 



John Weathers, F.R.H.S. i -_, # mwtA -i--^, wm»i*» 

Lecturer on Horticulture to the Middlesex County CounciL Author of Practical! ™? *»« ™*W finni** 
Guide to Garden Plants ; French Market Gardening ;&c [ VM . Part). 



/Fruit i 



James Wyclitte Headlam, M.A. 

Staff Inspector of Secondary Schools under the Board of Education. Formerly 
Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. Professor of Greek and Ancient History at 
Queen's College, London. Author of Bismarck and the Foundation of the German 

Empire; Sue. 



Frederick HL of Prussia; 
Germany: History (in p*tt)^ 



K. S. Kathleen Schlestngeh. i -, ,»__,. •»««.*-.. 

Author of The Instruments of the Orchestra; Ac. Editor of the Portfolio of Musical \ ™ **•* VWraior 

Archaeology. *~~ 



{: 

L. D. Louis Duchesne. f /^i-.i„. » 

See the biographical article, Duchesne, L. M. O. \ wtlauoi L 

L. H.* Louis Halphen, D.-is.-L. f Fulk Herra; 

Principal of the course of the Faculty of Letters in the University of Bordeaux, \ Geoffrey, Count of AaJOQ 
Author of Le Comti a" A njou au XI' Steele ; Recueil des acta angevines ', &c I Geoffrey Plantaganet 

L. 1. 8. Leonard James Spencer, M.A. 1 

Assistant in Department of Mineralogy, British Museum. Formerly Scholar J Galana. 
of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harknesa Scholar. Editor of the 1 vmmum 

Mineralogical Magazine \ 

L. V. Linda Mary Villari. J Frederick BL King of 

See the biographical article, Villari. Pasqualb. \ Sicily. 

H. G. Moses Caster, Ph.D. 

Chief Rabbi of the Sephardic communities of England. Vice- P res id ent. Zionist 
Congress, 1898, 1899, 1900. Uchester Lecturer at Oxford on Slavonic and Byxan- 
tine Literature. 1886 and 1891. President. Folk-lore Society of England. Vice- 
President, Anglo-Jewish Association. Author of History of Rumanian Popular 
Literature; A New Hebrew Fragment of Ben-Sira; The Hebrew Version of the 
Sccrctum Secrttorum of Aristotle. 

H. K. T. Marcus Nxebuh* Tod, M.A. f 

Fellow and Tutor of Oriel College, Oxford. University Lecturer in Epigraphy. < Gerousm. 
Jotitt-Mthor of Catalogue of the Sparta Museum. I 



Ghiea. 



ff.IL 


R.A& 


R.A.8.H. 


R.Ofc 


R.H.Q. 


R.L.* 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 

j> Barron, F.S.A. 
iitor of The Ancestor, 1909-190$. Ho 
Honourable Society of the Baronetage. 



0. Bl» Oswald Barbon, F.S.A. f 

Editor of^rk Ancestor, J9^i90$- Hon. Genealogist to Standing Council of the "j Genealogy: Modem. 



O. H. Olaus Maqnus Fueduch Henrici, Ph.D., LL.D„ F.R.S. r 

Profenor of Mechanics and Mathematics tn the Central Technical College of the J u^-.i- . „ mwtA m 
City and Guilds of London Institute. Author of Vectors and Rotors; Congruent | «MBMtiy f L, IL, and m. 
Figures; Ac. t 

P. A. Paul Daniel Alphandery. f 

Professor of the History of Dogma, Ecole pratique dee hautes elides, Sorbonne, J mwtlMlll 
Paris. Author of Les Idles morales cka Us Mttrodoxes latinos on dibut du XUP\ nsn0Mil * 
sQde. t 

P. A* A* Philip A. Askwobth, M.A., Doc. Juris, f 

New College, Oxford. Barristerat-Law. Translator of H. R. von Gneist's History! Germany: Geography, 
of the En/fish Constitution. I 

P. GL Peter Gttia, M.A., LL.D., Lm.D. f 

Fellow and Classical Lecturer of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and University J « 
Reader In Comparative Philology. Formerly Secretary of the Cambridge Philo- | ** 
logical Society. Author of Manual of Comparative Philology; &c L 

P. Lt. Philip Lake, M.A., F.G.S. f 

Lecturer on Physical and Regional Geography in Cambridge University. Formerly J tiMmmmmmm9 /* , _ 
of the Geological Survey oflndia. Author of Monograph of British Cambrian 1 G«™*W Geology. 
TrilobiUs. Translator and editor of Kayser's Comparative Geology. I 

PA ^Ae^phfcal article, Meyer. M. P. H. { Rinch *"***• fe Port). 

Robert Adamson, LL.D. /r.M«*iMii r;. MW i 

See the biographical article. Adamsow. Robert. \ ******* w» *>">• 

Robert Alexander Stewaet Macaliste*. M.A., F.S.A. f £■*"?* S^S^r • ( "^* , ? , 

St John's College, Cambridge. Director of Excavations for the Palestine Explore- J Q * w *h *** •» v»* Atfrfl; 
tkm Fund. 1 Genua; Geriilm; 



I Gaier; Gibeon. 



Robert Cabjluthrrs, LL.D. 



«1T UABJLUTHERS, LL..V. IX7GO-X878). f 

Editor of the Inverness Courier, 1828-1878. Part-editor of Chambers's Cyclopaedia I „._,_,„ «... ,. A A 
0/ £ng/isA Literature', Lecturer at the Philosophical Institution, Edinburgh. 1 Game*, Davia Un pari), 
Author of History of Huntingdon ; Lift of Pope. \ 

Rev. Robert Hebert Quick, M~A., (1831-1891). f 

Trinity College, Cambridge. Formerly Lecturer on Education, University of \ FtoebtL 
Cambridge. Author of Essays on Educational Reformers. I 

Richard Lydeexer, F.R~S., F.Z.S., F.G.S. f n«i«»* . c*UonithAftn** 

Member of the Staff of the Geological Survey of India, 1874-188*. Author of J flTrS«^!Afu5I!^" 
Catalogues of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in British Museum; The Deer] ™* onU ' Qtl * a *' 
of all Lands] &c I Gibbon. 

R.I.B. Robert Nisbet Baw (d. 1000). f iw*.HMr it *nj m «r 

Assistant Ubrarian, British Museum. 1883-1909. Author ofScandinavia, the Political J "J * ** «• i J*. IIL * 
History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 1 513-1900 ; The First Romanovs,i6tj UH72S ; ] Awnmark and Norway. 
Slavonic Europe, the Political History of Poland and Russia from 1469 to 1706; ate. I Gedymin. 

R, Vim Robert Priebsch, VjlD. f 

Professor of German Philology, University of London. Author of Deutsche HanM- { GfTBUUi F^T^ffti 
tchriflen in England; £. { E ^ 

R. P. & R Phene" Spiers, F.S.A.. F.R.LB.A. 

Formerly Master of the Architectural School, Royal Academy. London. Past 

President of Architectural Association. Associate and Fellow of King's College, J Gamier, J. 

London. Corresponding Member of the Institute of France. Editor of r ergusson's 

History of Architecture. Author of Architecture: East and West ; Ac 

R, W& Richard Webster, A.M. (Princeton). 

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iur Coos, M.A. e 

Palestine Exploration Fund. Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac, and . 

G€Mt|pgyj Biblical; 



0.A.& Stanley Arthur Cook, M.A. 

Editor for Palestine Exploration Fund. Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac, and 



lammurabi; Critical Notes on Old Testament History; Religion of Ancient Palestine, 

8& & Viscount St Cyres. 

See the biographical article, Iddbsleicb, ist Earx of. 

8. R. 0. Samuel Rawson Gardiner, LLJ)., D.CX. / George L, IL, m.; 

See the biographical article, Gardiner, S. R I George IV. (in pari), 

rFiaseafl Fregellae; 
f.Ai. Tbomas Ashby, JMLA^ DXttt. (Oxon.). FrascatJ; Fregellae; 

Director of British School of Archaeology at Rome. Formerly Scholar at Christ FuetnO, Lago Di; Fnlgllliafs 
Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow, 1897. Conington Prizeman, 1906. Member of Fusaro. Laro* Gahlii 
.the Imperial Gennan Archaeological Institute. £a^Oa&(Sl); 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



T.C.B. 
T.H.R 

T.G.S. 
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W.A.P. 

W.Ba, 
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w.a 

W.Cu. 
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W.Pr. 

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W.Ha. 

W.J.H. 
W.'L. F. 
W.L.O. 



flu Thomas Barclay, M.P. 

Member of the Institute of International Law. Member of the Supreme Coaacfl . 
of the Congo Free State. Officer of the Legion of Honour. Author of Pr ob lems 
of International Practice and Diplomacy: Ac M.P. for .Blackburn, 1910. 

Thomas Caxxan Hodson. 

Registrar. East London College, Unhcrnty of Uodooi Late Indian Clvfl Service. 
Author of The Metheis; Ac 

Thomas Eksxine Holland, K.C, D.GI*. LUX 

Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford. Professor of International Lew end Diplomacy 
in the University of Oxford, 1 874-1910. Fellow of the British Academy. Bencher. GentfL 
of Lincoln's Inn. Author of Studies in International Law, The Elements of Juris- 
prudence; Alberici GentiUs dejnrebeUi: The Lam of War en Land; Neutral Duties 
m» a Maritime War; Ac 

Thomas Gaszell Shearman (d. xooo). 

Author of The Single Tax; Natural Taxation; Distribution of Wealth; Ac 

Colonel Sir Thomas Hungerjord Holwch, K.C.M.G., K.CXE., D5& 

Superintendent Frontier Surveys, India, 1 807- 1808. Gold Medallist, R.G.S. 
(London), 1887. Author bf/7fe Indian Borderland; The Countries of the King' 
Award; India; Tibet; Ac. 

Hit. Thomas Martin Lindsay, D.D. f 

Prindpal^and Professor of Church History, United Free Chdrch C o lleg e,; Glasgow, i 



Genera Convention* 



LS.J 



Author of Life of Luther; Ac 

Vivian Btam Lewis, F.I.C., F.C.8. 

Professor of Chemistry. Royal Naval College, Greenwich. Chief Superintending ' 

Gas Examiner to City of London. 
Vernon Herbert Blackman, M.A., D.Sc. 

Professor of Botany in the University of Leeds. • Formerly FeOow of St John's 

College. Cambridge. 

Rev. William Augustus Brevoort Cooudce, M-A.,F.R.G.S.,.PhJ). (Bern). 
Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Professor of English History. St David's 
College, Lampeter, 1880-1881. Author of Guide du Haul Dauphin*-, The Ranee « 
of the Tbdi; Guide to GrindOwald; Guide to Switeertand; The Alps in Nature and m 
History; Ac Editor of The Alpine- Journal, 1880-1881 ; Ac 

Waltes Alison Phillips, MA. 

Formerly Exhibitioner of Merton College, and Senior Scholar of St John's College, 
Oxford. Author of Modem Europe; Ac, 



Genoa (i» party 



Fungi tin pari}. 

FrauenieW; Brains; 

Fribourg; 

Gap; Garda, Lake of; 

Gemml Piss; Genera; 

Geneva, Lake of. 



Frederick IL of 

(m pari); 



William Bacher, Ph.D. 

Professor of Biblical Science at the Rabbinical Seminary, Budapest, 

Sir Walter Besant. 

See the biographical article, Bbsant, Sir W. 

Six William Cxooxxs, F.R.S. 

See the biographical article, Cxooehs, Sir William. 

The Ven. William Cunningham, M.A., D.D. 

Archdeacon of Ely. Birkbeck Lecturer in Ecclesiastical History, Trinii 
Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy. Fellow of Trinity College, ' 
rof Growth '" ' ~-~ * 



Gents, Friedrleh; 

I History im fori) 



{oem. ArttfldaL 



Author < 



k of English Industry and Commerce; Ac 



nity College, J 
i, Cambridge. I 



Free 'milt, 



William Ernest Dalby, M.A., M.Inst.CE.. M.I.M.E. 

Professor of Civil and Mechanical Engineering At the City and Guilds of London 
Institute Central Technical College, South Kensington. Formerly University 
Demonstrator in the Engineering Department of Cambridge University. Author 
of The Balancing of Engines; Valves and Vake Gear Mechanism; Ac 

William Fream, LL.D. (d. 1906). 

Formerly Lecturer on Agricultural Entomology. University of Edinburgh, and 

Agricultural Correspondent of The Times. 
William Fetlden Crates, M.A. 

Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. Lecturer on Criminal Law, King's College. London. 

Editor of Archbold's Criminal Pleading (23rd edition). 

Rev. William Hunt, M.A.. Lrrr.D. 

President- of the Royal Historical Society 1905-1909. Author of History of English 
Church, 597-1066 \ The Church of England m the Middle Ages; Political History of 
England, 1760-1801; Ac 

William James Hughan. 

Past S.G.D. of the Grand Lodge of England. 
of Freemasonry. 

Waiter Lynwood Flemtno, A.M., Ph.D. 

Professor of History in Louisiana State University. 
History of Reconstruction ; Ac 

William Lawson Grant, MJL 

Professor .of Colonial History, Queen's University. Kingston, Canada. Formerly 
Beit Lecturer in Colonial History, Oxford University, editor of Acts of the Pruty 
Council (Canadian Series). 



rtfeflon (in port). 



Fruit ai 

(in pari). 

Game Laws; 



A.; 



Author of Origin of the English Rue i 



Author of Documentary 



Gait, Sfr Alexander T. 



*ii INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



W. 1L E William Michael Rossettl 

See the biographical article, Bossbtti, Davis G. 

W. B. Bl* Wiluam Badcond Bard, LLJX 

Authccoli/ajiiai/o/i4i*im<^Cbg^/ hi^ » tf^ ;ftc Editor of ft«£ft*rftcJe «. 

W. 8. P. Walte* Sutherland Parker. 

Deputy Chairman, Fur Section, London Chamber of Commerce* 



Qhlrlaadajo, 
GUriandaJo, 



{*«*, 



Irans Josef Land. 
Free Church Federation. 
Freneh Guinea. 
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Friedland. 



Fronde, Tbtw 



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Gentian. 



Galwaj. 



George, Saint 
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Getyifriirf, 
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ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA 



ELEVENTH EDITION 



VOLUME XI 



RANCISCANS (otherwise called Friars Minor, or Minorites; 
the Seraphic Order ; and in England Grey Friars, from the 
ur of the habit, which, however, is now brown rather than grey), 
ligious order founded by St Francis of Assisi (q.v.). It was 
206 that St Francis left his father's house and devoted himself 
life of poverty and to the service of the ooor, the sick and the 
rs; and in 1209 that he felt the call to add preaching to his 
sr ministrations, and to lead a life in the closest imitation of 
ist's life. Within a few weeks disciples began to join them- 
es to him; the condition was that they should dispose of 
heir possessions. When their number was twelve Francis 
ihe little flock to Rome to obtain the pope's sanction for their 
ertaking. Innocent III. received them kindly, but with 
e misgivings as to the feasibility of the proposed manner of 
these difficulties were overcome, and the pope accorded a 
visional approval by word of mouth: they were to become 
cs and to elect a superior. Francis was elected and made 
-omise of obedience to the pope, and the others promised 
lience to Francis. 

his formal inauguration of the institute was in 1209 or (as 
is more probable) 12 10. Francis and his associates were 
known as " Penitents of Assisi," and then Francis chose the 
of " Minors." On their return to Assisi they obtained from 
Benedictine abbey on Mount Subasio the use of the little 
>el of St Mary of the Angels, called the Portiuncula, in the 
a below Assisi, which became the cradle and headquarters of 
order. Around the Portiuncula they built themselves huts 
>ranches and twigs, but they had no fixed abode; they 
dcred in pairs over the country, dressed in the ordinary 
lies of the peasants, working in the fields to earn their daily 
d, sleeping in barns or in the hedgerows or in the porches of 
churches, mixing with the labourers and the poor, with the 
rs and the outcasts, ever joyous— the " joculatores " or 
lgleurs " of God— ever carrying out their mission of preaching 
be lowly and to the wretched religion and repentance and 
kingdom of God. The key-note of the movement was the 
ation of the public life of Christ, especially the poverty of 
1st. Francis and his disciples were to aim at possessing 
ling, absolutely nothing, so far as was compatible with life; 
r were to earn their bread from day to day by the work of their 
ds, and only when they could not do so were they lo.begj 
XI. 1 



they were to make no provision for the morrow, lay by no store, 
accumulate no capital, possess no land; their clothes should be 
the poorest and their dwellings the meanest; they were forbidden 
to receive or to handle money. On the other hand they were 
bound only to the fast observed in those days by pious Christians, 
and were allowed to eat meat— the rule said they should eat 
whatever was set before them; no austerities were imposed, 
beyond those inseparable from the manner of life they lived. 

Thus the institute in its original conception was quite different 
from the monastic institute, Benedictine or Canon Regular. 
It was a confraternity rather than an order, and there was no 
formal novitiate, no organisation. But the number of brothers 
increased with extraordinary rapidity, and the field of work 
soon extended itself beyond the neighbourhood of Assisi and even 
beyond Umbria— within three or four years there were settle- 
ments in Perugia, Cortona, Pisa, Florence and elsewhere, and 
missions to the Saracens and Moors were attempted by Francis 
himself. About 1217 Franciscan missions set out for Germany, 
France, Spain, Hungary and the Holy Land; and in 1219 a 
number of provinces were formed, each governed by a provincial 
minister. These developments, whereby the little band of 
Umbrian apostles had grown into an institute spread all over 
Europe and even penetrating to the East, and numbering 
thousands of members, rendered impossible the continuance of 
the original free organization whereby Francis's word and ex* 
ample were the sufficient practical rule of life for all: it was 
necessary as a condition of efficiency and even of existence and 
permanence that some kind of organization should be provided. 
From an early date yearly meetings or chapters had been held 
at the Portiuncula, at first attended by the whole body of friars; 
but as the institute extended this became unworkable, and after 
1 2 19 the chapter consisted only of the officials, provincial 
ministers and others. During Francis's absence in the East 
(1219-1220) a deliberate movement was initiated by the two 
vicars whom he had left in charge of the order, towards assimilat- 
ing it to the monastic orders. Francis hurried back, bringing 
with him Elias of Cortona, the provincial minister of Syria, 
and immediately summoned an extraordinary general chapter 
(September 1220). Before it met he had an interview on the 
situation with Cardinal Hugolino of Ostia (afterwards Gregory 
IX.), the great friend and supporter of both Francisand Dominic* 

2a 



FRANCISCANS 



and he went to Honorius III. at Orvieto and begged thatHugoIino 
should be appointed the official protector of the order. The 
request was granted, and a bull was issued formally approving 
the order of Friars Minor, and decreeing that before admission 
every one -must pass a year's novitiate, and that after profession 
it was.not lawful to leave the order. By this bull the Friars Minor 
were constituted an order in the technical sense of the word. 
When the chapter assembled, Francis, no doubt from a genuine 
feeling that he was not able to govern a great world-wide order, 
practically abdicated the post of minister-general by appointing 
a vicar, and the policy of turning the Friars Minor into a great 
religious order was consistently pursued, especially by Elias, 
who a year later became Francis's vicar. 

St Francis's attitude towards this change is of primary importance 
for the interpretation of Franciscan history. There can be little 
doubt that his affections never altered from his first love, and that 
be looked back regretfully on the " Umbrian idyll " that bad passed 
away; on the other hand, there seems to be no reason for doubting 
that he saw that the methods of the early days were now no longer 
possible, and that he acquiesced in tho inevitable. This seems to 
be Professor Goetz's view, who holds that Sabatier's picture of 
Francis's agonize< 
creation going on 
rejects tfc view 
his better judgmc 
at end of article 
Goctz holds that 
an unrealizable id 
But there docs set 
towards a depart i 
strict observance 
of his institute. 
in his Testament 
on these subjects, 
forbids any glossc 
it is to be taken « 
ence between th« 

Sneral. theory, ai 
ubt the First R 
picture of St Frar 
formed from the ( 
texts and the cdif 
almost verbally ii 

On Francis's death in 1226 the government of the order rested 
in the hands of Elias until the chapter of 1227. At this chapter 
Elias was not elected minister-general; the building of the great 
basilica and monastery at Assisi was so manifest a violation of 
St Francis's ideas and precepts that it produced a reaction, and 
John Parenti became St Francis's first successor. He held fast 
to "St Francis's ideas, but was not a strong man. At the chapter 
of 1230 a discussion arose concerning the binding force of St 
Francis's Testament, and the interpretation of certain portions 
of the Rule, especially concerning poverty, and it was determined 
to submit the questions to Pope Gregory IX., who had been St 
Francis's friend and had helped in the final redaction of the Rule. 
He issued a bull, Quo elongati, which declared that as the Testa- 
ment had not received the sanction of the general chapter it 
was not binding on the order, and also allowed trustees to hold 
and administer money for the order. John Parenti and those 
who wished to maintain St Francis's institute intact were greatly 
disturbed by these relaxations; but a majority of the chapter of 
1232, by a sort of coup d'ttat, proclaimed Elias minister-general, 
and John retired, though in those days the office was for life. 
Under Elias the order entered on a period of extraordinary 
extension and prosperity: the number of friars in all parts of the 
world increased wonderfully, new provinces were formed, new 
missions to the heathen organized, the Franciscans entered the 
universities and vied with the Dominicans as teachers of theology 
and canon law, and as a body they became influential in church 
and state. With all this side of Elias's policy the great bulk of 
the order sympathized; but his rule was despotic and tyrannical 
and his private life was lax — at least according to any Franciscan 
standard, for no charge of grave irregularity was ever brought 
against him. And so a widespread movement against his govern- 
ment arose, the backbone of which was the university element 
at Paris and Oxford, and at a dramatic scene in a chapter held 
iff the presence of Gregory IX. Elias was deposed ( 1 239). 



The story of these first years after St Francis's death is best told 
by Ed. Lempp, Frire Elie de Cortone (1901) (but see the warning 
at the end of the article Elias of Coxtona). 

At this time the Franciscans were divided into three parties: 
there were the Zealots, or Spirituals, who called for a literal 
observance of St Francis's Rule and Testament; they deplored 
all the developments since 1219, and protested against turning 
the institute into an order, the frequentation of the universities 
and the pursuit of learning; in a word, they wished to restore, 
the life to what it had been during the first few years— the 
hermitages and the huts of twigs, and the care of the lepers and 
the nomadic preaching. The Zealots were few in number but of 
great consequence from the fact that to them belonged most of 
the first disciples and the most intimate companions of St Franck 
They had been grievously persecuted under Elias — Br. Leo and 
others bad been scourged, several had been imprisoned, one 
while trying to escape was accidentally killed, and Br. Bernard, 
the " first disciple," passed a year in hiding in the forests and 
mountains hunted like a wild beast. At the other extreme was 
a party of relaxation, that abandoned any serious effort to practise 
Franciscan poverty and simplicity of life. Between these two 
stood the great middle party of moderates, who desired indeed 
that the Franciscans should be really poor and simple in their 
manner of life, and really pious, but on the other hand approved 
of the development of the Order on the lines of other orders, 
of the acquisition of influence, of the cultivation of theology and 
other sciences, and of the frequenting of the universities. 

The questions of principle at issue in these controversies is reason* 
ably and clearly stated, from the modern Capuchin standpoint, m 
the " Introductory Essay " to The Friars and how they came h 
England, by Fr. Cuthbert (1903). 

The moderate party was by far the largest, and embraced 
nearly all the friars of France, England and Germany. It was 
the Moderates and not the Zealots that brought about Elias's 
deposition, and the next general ministers belonged to this party. 
Further relaxations of the law of poverty, however, caused & 
reaction, and John of Parma, one of the Zealots, became rninister- 
gcncral, 1 247-1*357. Under him the more extreme of the Zealots 
look up and exaggerated the theories of the Eternal Gospel of 
the Calabrian Cistercian abbot Joachim of Fiore (Floris) ; some of 
their writings were condemned as heretical, and John of Parma, 
who was implicated in these apocalyptic tendencies, had toresign, 
He was succeeded by St Bonaventura (1257-1274), one of the 
best type of the middle party. . He was a man of high character, 
a theologian, a mystic, a holy man and a strong ruler. He set 
himself with determination to effect a working compromise; 
and proceeded with firmness against the extremists on beta 
sides. But controversy and recrimination and persecution had 
stiffened the more ardent among the Zealots into obstinate 
fanatics — some of them threw themselves into a movement 
that may best be briefly described as a recrudescence of Man* 
tanism (see £milc Gebhart's Italic mystique, 1809, cc v. 
and vi.), and developed into a number of sects, some on the 
fringe of Catholic Christianity and others beyond its pale*. But 
the majority of the Zealot party, or Spirituals, did not go so far, 
and adopted as the principle of Franciscan poverty the formula 
" a poor and scanty use " (usus pauper et tenuis) of earthly goods, 
as opposed to the " moderate use " advocated by the less strict 
party. The question thus posed came before the Council of 
Vienne, 1312, and was determined, on the whole, decidedly is 
favour of the stricter view. Some of the French Zealots were not 
satisfied and formed a scmi-schismatical body in Provence; 
twenty-five of them were tried before the Inquisition, and km 
were burned alive at Marseilles as obstinate heretics, 1318, After 
this the schism in the Order subsided. But the disintegrarjof 
forces produced by the Great Schism and by the other disorden 
of the 14th century caused among the 'Franciscans the sane 
relaxations and corruptions, and also the same reactions an) 
reform movements, as among the other orders. 

The chief of these reforms was that of the Observants, which 
began at Foligno about 1370. The Observant reform was a 
the basis of the " poor and scanty use " of worldly noon* 
but it was organized as an order and its members freely punta) 



FRANCK— FRANCK, C 



theological studies; thus it did not represent the position of the 
original Zealot party, nor was it the continuation of it. The 
Observant reform spread widely throughout Italy and into 
France, Spain and Germany. The great promoters of the move- 
ment were St Bernardine of Siena and St John Capistran. The 
council of Constance, 1415, allowed the French Observant 
friaries to be ruled by a vicar of their own, under the minister- 
general, and the same privilege was soon accorded to other 
countries. By the end of the middle ages the Observants had 
some 1400 houses divided into 50 provinces. This movement 
produced a "half -reform" among the Conventuals or friars of 
the mitigated observance; it also called forth a number of lesser 
imitations or congregations of strict observance. 

After many attempts had been made to bring about a working 
union among the many observances, in 1517 Leo X. divided the 
Franciscan order into two distinct and independent bodies, 
each with its own minister-general, it* own provinces and 
provincials and its own general chapter: (1) The Conventuals, 
who were authorized to use the various papal dispensation* in 
regard to the observance of poverty, and were allowed to possess 
property and fixed income, corporately, like the monastic orders: 
(2) The Observants, who were bound to as dose an observance 
of St Francis's Rule in regard to poverty and all else as was 
practically possible. 

At this time a great number of the Conventuals went over to 
the Observants, who have ever since been by far the more 
numerous and Influential branch of the order. Among the 
Observants in the course of the sixteenth century arose various 
reforms, each striving to approach more and more nearly to St 
Francis's ideal; the chief of these reforms were the Alcantarines 
in Spain (St Peter of Alcantara, St Teresa's friend, d. 1562), 
the Riformati in Italy and the Recollects in France: all of these 
were semi-independent congregations. The Capuchins (?.».), 
established c. 1525, who claim to be the reform which approaches 
nearest in its conception to the original type, became a distinct 
order of Franciscans in 1610. Finally Leo XIII. grouped the 
Franciscans into three bodies or orders— the Conventuals; the 
Observants, embracing all branches of the strict observance, 
except the Capuchins; and the Capuchins— which together 
constitute the " First Order." For the u Second Order," or the 
nuns, see Clara, St, and Clares, Poor; and for the " Third 
Order " see Tertiaries. Many of the Tertiarics live a fully 
monastic life in community under the usual vows, and are formed 
into Congregations of Regular Tertiaries, both men and women. 
They have been and are still very numerous, and give themselves 
up to education, to the care of the sick and of orphans and to 
good works of all kinds. 

No order has had so stormy an internal history as the Francis- 
cans; yet in spite of all the troubles and dissensions and strivings 
that have marred Franciscan history, the Friars Minor of every 
kind have in each age faithfully and zealously carried on St 
Francis's great woik of ministering to the spiritual needs of the 
poor. Always recruited in large measure fronramong the poor, 
they have ever been the order of the poor, and in their preaching 
ind missions and ministrations they have ever laid themselves 
>ut to meet the needs of the poor. Another great work of the 
Franciscans throughout the whole course of their history has 
jeen their missions to the Mahomrocdans, both in western Asia 
ind in North Africa, and to the heathens in China, Japan and 
India, and North and South America; a great number of the 
riars were martyred. The news of the martyrdom of five of 
lis friars in Morocco was one of the joys of St Francis's closing 
rears. Many of these missions exist to this day. In t he Uni ver- 
ities, too, the Franciscans made themselves felt alongside of 
he Dominicans, and created a rival school of theology, wherein,' 
is contrasted with the Aristotclianism of the Dominican school, 
he Platonism of the early Christian doctors has been perpetuated. 
The Franciscans came to England in 1224 and immediately 
nade foundations in Canterbury, London and Oxford; by the 
niddle of the century there were fifty friaries and over 1200 
riars in England; at the Dissolution there were some 66 Fran- 
ascan friaries, whereof some six belonged to the Observants 



(for list see Catholic Dictionary and F. A. Gasquct's English 
Monastic Life, 1004). Though nearly all the English houses 
belonged to what has been called the " middle party," as a 
matter of fact they practised great poverty, and the com- 
missioners of Henry VIII. often remark that the Franciscan 
Friary was the poorest of the religious houses of a town. The 
English province was one of the most remarkable in the order, 
especially in intellectual achievement; it produced Friar 
Roger Bacon, and, with the single exception of St Bona venture, 
all the greatest doctors of the Franciscan theological school- 
Alexander Hales, Duns Scotus and Occam. 

The Franciscans have always been the most numerous by. 

far of the religious orders; it is estimated that about the period 

of the Reformation the Friars Minor must have numbered 

nearly 100,000. At the present day the statistics arc roughly 

(including lay-brothers): Observants, 15,000, Conventuals, 

1500; to these should be added 9500 Capuchins, making the 

total number of Franciscan friars about 26,000. There are various 

houses of Observants and Capuchins in England and Ireland; and 

the old Irish Conventuals survived the penal times and still exist. 

There have been four Franciscan popes: Nicholas IV. (1288- 

1292), Sixtus IV. (1471-1484), Sixtus V. (1585-1500), Clement 

XIV. (1760-1774); the three last were Conventuals. 

The great source for Franciscan history is Wadding's Annates; 

id, and now extends in 25 vols. fol. 

ilso told by Helyot, Hist, des ordres 

foments, with references to recent 

Heimbucher, Orden und Kongrega- 

Wetzer und Weltc. Kirchenlexicon 

1.),° " Franciscancr orden " '(this 

of the inner history and the polity 

lenog, ReoJeneyklopddio (3rd ed.J, 

ilkst references to literature up to 

era critical studies on Franciscan 

es Minoritenordens und der Buss- 

is articles by F. Ehrle in Archie fir 

des Mittelalters and Zeilschrift fir 

ccial mention. Eccleston's cnarrn- 

>i the Friars Minor into England r 



who has prefixed an Introductory 



h bythc Capuchin Fr. Cuthbcrt, 

. - ory Essay giving by far the best 

account in English of " the Spirit and Genius of the Franciscan 
Friars " (The Friars and how they fame to England, 1903). Fuller in- 
formation on the English Franciscans will be found in A. G. Little's 
Grey Friars in Oxford (Oxford Hist. Soc., 1892). (E. C. B.) 

FRANCK. The name of Franck has been given indiscriminately 
but improperly to painters of the school of Antwerp who belong 
to the families of Francken (q.v.) and Vrancx (q.v.). One artist 
truly entitled to be called Franck is Gabriel, who entered the 
gild of Antwerp in 1605, became its president in 1636 and died 
in 1639. But his works cannot now be traced. 

FRANCK, CftSAR (1822-1800), French musical composer, a 
Belgian by birth, who came of German stock, was born at 
Liege on the 10th of December 1822. Though one of the most 
remarkable of modern composers, Cesar Franck laboured for 
many years in comparative obscurity. After some preliminary 
studies at Liege he came to Paris in 1837 and entered the con- 
servatoire. He at once obtained the first prize for piano, trans- 
posing a fugue at sight to the astonishment of the professors, 
for he was only fifteen. He won the prize for the organ in 184 1 , 
after which he settled down in the French capital as teacher 
of the piano. His earliest compositions date from this period, 
and include four trios for piano and strings, besides several 
piano pieces. Ruth, a biblical cantata was produced with 
success at the Conservatoire in 1846. An opera entitled Le 
Volet defcrme was written about this time, but has never been 
performed. For many years Franck led a retired life, devoting 
himself to teaching and to his duties as organist, first at Saint- 
Jean-Saint-Francois, then at Ste Clotilde, where he acquired 
s great reputation as an improviser. He also wrote a mass, 
heard in x 861, and a quantity of motets, organ pieces and other 
works of a religious character. 

Franck was appointed professor of the organ at the Paris 
conservatoire, in succession to Benoist, his old master, in 1872, 
and the following year he was naturalized a Frenchman. Until 
then he was esteemed as a clever and conscientious 1 



FRANCK, S.— FRANCKE 



Vat be was now about to prove his title to something more. 
A revival of bis early oratorio, Ruth, had brought his name 
•gain before the public, and this was followed by the production 
of Redemption, a- work for solo, chorus and orchestra, given 
under the direction of M. Colonne on the ioth of April 1873. 
The unconventionality of the music rather disconcerted the 
general public, but the work nevertheless made its mark, and 
Franck became the central figure of an enthusiastic circle of 
pupils and adherents whose devotion atoned for the comparative 
Indifference of the masses. His creative power now manifested 
itself in a series of works of varied kinds, and the name of Franck 
began gradually to emerge from its obscurity. The following 
is an enumeration of his subsequent compositions: Rebecca 
(1881), a biblical idyll for solo, chorus and orchestra; Let 
Beatitudes, an oratorio composed between 1870 and 1880, 
perhaps his greatest work; the symphonic poems, Les £olidts 
(1876), Le Chasseur maudit (1883), Les Djinns (1884), for piano 
and orchestra; Psyche (1888), for orchestra and chorus; 
symphonic variations for piano and orchestra (1885); symphony 
in D (1889); quintet for piano and strings (1880); sonata for 
piano and violin (1886); string quartet (1889); prelude, choral 
end fugue for piano (1884); prelude, aria and finale for piano 
(1880); various songs, notably "La Procession" and "Les 
Cloches du Soir." Franck also composed two four-act operas, 
Eulda and ChiseUe, both of which were produced at Monte 
Carlo after his death, which took place in Paris on the 8th of 
November 1800. The second of these was left by the master 
in an unfinished state, and the instrumentation was completed 
by several of his pupils. 

Cesar Franck's influence on younger French composers has 
•been very great. Yet his musk is German in character rather 
than French. A more sincere, modest, self-respecting composer 
probably never existed. In the centre of the brilliant French 
capital he was able to lead a laborious existence consecrated 
to his threefold career of organist, teacher and composer. He 
never sought to gain the suffrages of the public by unworthy 
concessions, but kept straight on his path, ever mindful of an 
ideal to be reached and never swerving therefrom. A statue 
was erected to the memory of Cesar Franck in Paris on the 
22nd of October 1004, the occasion producing a panegyric from 
Alfred Bruneau, in which he speaks of the composer's works as 
"cathedrals in sound." 

FRANCK, or Frank [latinized Francus], SEBASTIAN (c. 
1490-c. 1543)1 German freethinker, was born about 1409 at 
DonauwSrth, whence he constantly styled himself Franck von 
Word. He entered the university of Ingoldstadt (March 26, 
1515), and proceeded thence to the Dominican College, incor- 
porated with the university, at Heidelberg. Here he met his 
subsequent antagonists, Buccr and Freeh t, with whom he seems 
to have attended the Augsburg conference (October is 18) at 
which Luther declared himself a true son of the Church. He 
afterwards reckoned the Leipzig disputation (June- July 1519) 
and the burning of the papal bull (December 1520) as the begin- 
ning of the Reformation. . Having taken priest's orders, he held in 
1524 a cure in the neighbourhood of Augsburg, but soon (1525). 
went over to the Reformed party at Nuremberg and became 
preacher at Gustenfelden. His first work (finished September 
1527) was a German translation with additions (1528) of the first 
part of the Diailage, or Conciliate locorum Scripiurae, directed 
against Sacramentarians and Anabaptists by Andrew Althamcr, 
then deacon of St Sebald's at Nuremberg. On the 1 7th of March 
1528 he married Ottilie Beham, a gifted lady, whose brothers, 
pupils of Albrecht Diirer, had got into trouble through Anabaptist 
leanings. In the same year he wrote a very popular treatise 
against drunkenness. In 1529 he produced a free version 
•{Klagbriefder arnten DUrftigen in England) of the famous Supply- 
cacyon of the Bcggers, written abroad (1528?) by Simon Fish. 
Franck, in his preface, says the original was in English; else- 
where he says it was in Latin, the theory that his German was 
really the original is unwarrantable. Advance in his religious 
ideas led him to seek the freer atmosphere of Strassburg in the 
muttimn of 1529. To his translation (1530) of a Latin Chronicle 



and Description of Turkey, by a Transytvanian captive, which 
had been prefaced by Luther, he added an appendix holding up 
the Turks as in many respects an example to Christians, and 
presenting, in lieu of the restrictions of Lutheran, Zwingliu 
and Anabaptist sects, the vision of an invisible spiritual church, 
universal in its scope. To this ideal he remained faithful At 
Strassburg began his intimacy with Caspar Schwenkfeld, a con. 
genial spirit. Here, too, he published, in 1531, his most im- 
portant work, the Chronica, Zeitbuch und Geschichtsbibd, largely 
a compilation on the basis of the Nuremberg Chronicle (1403), 
and in its treatment of social and religious questions connected 
with the Reformation, exhibiting a strong sympathy with 
heretics, and an unexampled fairness to all kinds of freedom in 
opinion. It is too much to call him " the first of German 
historians "; he is a forerunner of Gottfried Arnold, with more 
vigour and directness of purpose. Driven from Strassburg by 
the authorities, after a short imprisonment in December 1531, 
he tried to make a living in 1532 as a soapboiler at EasKngen, 
removing in 1533 for a better market to Ulna, where (October 28. 
1534) he was admitted as a burgess. 

His Wdtbuch, a supplement to his Chronica, was printed 'it 
Ttibingen in 1534; the publication, in the same year, of ha 
Paradoxa at Ulm brought him into trouble with the authorities. 
An order for his banishment was withdrawn on his promise to 
submit future works for censure. Not interpreting this as apply- 
ing to works printed outside Ulm, he published in 1538 at Augs- 
burg his Guldin Arch (with pagan parallels to Christian sentiments) 
and at Frankfort his Ccrmaniae cftronuon, with the result that be 
had to leave Ulm in January 1 539. He seems henceforth to have 
had no settled abode. At Basel he found work as a printer, and 
here, probably, it was that he died in the winter of 1542-1543* 
He had published in 1539 his KriegbUchlein des Priedens (pseu- 
donymous), his Schrifftiiche und gam grUndlkhe Auslegung des 
64 Psalms, and his Das verbUtschierle mil sieben Siegeln aer» 
schlossene Buch (a biblical index, exhibiting the dissonance of 
Scripture); in 1541 his Spruchwdrter (a collection of proverbs, 
several times reprinted with variations); in 154s a new editioa 
of his Paradox*; and some smaller works. 

Franck combined the humanist's passion for freedom with the 
mystic's devotion to the religion of the spirit. His breadth oi 
human sympathy led him to positions which the comparative 
study of religions has made familiar, but for which his age 
was unprepared. Luther contemptuously dismissed him as t 
44 devil's mouth." Pastor Frecht of Nuremberg pursued him 
with bitter zeal. But his courage did not fail him, and in bis 
last year, in a public Latin letter, he exhorted his friend Jobs 
Campanus to maintain freedom of thought in face of the charge 
of heresy. 

See Hegler, in Hauck's Realencyldopadie (1899); C. A. Haae, 
Sebastian Franck von Word (1869); J. F. Smith, in Thoohgud 
Renew (April 1874) ; E. Tausch, Sebastian Franck von Donauuvrtk 
und seine Lehrer (1893). (A. Ga # ) 

FRANCKB, AUGUST HERMANN (1663-1727), German Pro- 
testant divine, was born on the 22nd of March 1663 at Lubeck. 
He was educated at the gymnasium in Gotha, and afterwards at 
the universities of Erfurt, Kiel, where he came under the influence 
of the pietist Christian Kortholt (1633-1604), and Leipzig. 
During his student career he made a special study of Hebrew and 
Greek; and in order to learn Hebrew more thoroughly, be for 
some time put himself under the instructions of Rabbi Em 
Edzardi at Hamburg. He graduated at Leipzig, where in 1685 . 
he became a Privatdozent. A year later, by the help of his friend 
P. Anton, and with the approval and encouragement of P. J. 
Spener, he founded the Collegium Philobibiicum, at which a 
number of graduates were accustomed to meet for the systemaifc 
study of the Bible, philologicadJy and practically. He next paori 
some months at Ltincburg as assistant or curate to the leaned 
superintendent, C. H. Sandhagen (1630-1697), and there ha 
religious life was remarkably quickened and deepened. Oh 
leaving LQneburg he spent some time in Hamburg, where be 
became a teacher in a private school, and made the acquaintance 
of Nikoiaus Lange (1650-17 20) After a long visit to Speaa, 



FRANCKEN 



who was at that time a court preacher in Dresden, he returned 
to Leipzig in the spring of 1689, and began to give Bible lectures 
of an exegetical and practical kind, at the same time resuming 
the Collegium Philobiblicum of earlier days. He soon became 
popular as a lecturer; but the peculiarities of his teaching almost 
immediately aroused a violent opposition on the part of the 
university authorities; and before the end of the year he was 
interdicted from lecturing on the ground of his alleged pietism. 
Thus it was that Francke's name first came to be publicly 
associated with that of Spener, and with pietism. Prohibited 
from lecturing in Leipzig, Francke in 1600 found work at Erfurt 
as " deacon " of one of the city churches. Here his evangelistic 
fervour attracted multitudes to his preaching, including Roman 
Cat holies, but at the same time excited the anger of his opponents; 
and the result of their opposition was that after a ministry of 
fifteen months he was commanded by the civil authorities 
(27th of September 1691) to leave Erfurt within forty-eight 
hours. The same year witnessed the expulsion of Spener from 
Dresden. 

In December, through Spener's influence, Francke accepted 
an invitation to fill the chair of Greek and oriental languages 
in the new university of Halle, which was at that time being 
organized by the elector Frederick HI. of Brandenburg; and at 
the same time, the chair having no salary attached to it, he was 
appointed pastor of Glaucha in the immediate neighbourhood 
of the town. He afterwards became professor of theology. Here, 
for the next thirty-six years, until his death on the 8th of June 
1727, he continued to discharge the twofold office of pastor and 
professor with rare energy and success. At the very outset of 
his labours he had been profoundly impressed with a sense of his 
responsibility towards the numerous outcast children who were 
growing up around him in ignorance and crime. After a number 
of tentative plans, he resolved in 1695 to institute what is often 
called a " ragged school," supported by public charity. A single 
room was at first sufficient, but within a year it was found 
necessary to purchase a house, to which another was added in 
1697. In 1698 there were 100 orphans under his charge to be 
clothed and fed, besides 500 children who were taught as day 
scholars. The schools grew in importance and are still known as 
the Francke' sche Stijtungen. The education given was strictly 
religious. Hebrew was included, while the Greek and Latin 
classics were neglected; the Homilies of Macarius took the place 
of Thucydides. The same principle was consistently applied in 
his university teaching. Even as professor of Greek he had given 
great prominence in his lectures to the study of the Scriptures; 
but he found a much more congenial sphere when in 1698, he 
was appointed to the chair of theology. Yet his first courses 
of lectures in that department were readings and expositions of 
the Old and New Testament; and to this, as also to hermeneutics, 
he always attached special importance, believing that for theology 
a sound exegesis was the one indispensable requisite. " Thco- 
logus nascitur in scripturis," he used to say; but during his 
occupancy of the theological chair he lectured at various times 
upon other branches of theology also. Amongst his colleagues 
were Paul Anton (1661-1 730), Joachim J. Brcithaupt ( 1658-1 732) 
and Joachim Lange (1670-1744), — men like-minded with him- 
self. Through their influence upon the students, Halle became 
a centre from which pietism (q.v.) became very widely diffused 
over Germany. 

rere: Manu- 
tones herme- 
rris et Novi 
1736). m The 
r the title A 
An account 
1709). which 
een partially 
Providence: 
ses of Faith. 
sheen 



7); Gustave 

1). 



Knui 



and Neve 
): article 
th. Die 



PRANCKEV. Eleven painters of this family cultivated their 
art in Antwerp during the 16th and 17th centuries. Several 
of these were related to each other, whilst many bore the same 
Christian name in succession. Hence unavoidable confusion in 
the subsequent classification of paintings not widely differing 
in style or execution. When Franz Francken the first found a 
rival in Franz Francken the second, he described himself as the 
"elder," in contradistinction to his son, who signed himself 
the " younger." But when Franz the second was threatened 
with competition from Franz the third, he took the name of 
" the elder/' whilst Franz the third adopted that of Franc " the 
younger." 

It is possible, though not by any means easy, to sift the works 
of these artists. The eldest of the Franckens, Nicholas of 
Herenthals, died at Antwerp in 1596, with nothing but the 
reputation of having been a painter. None of his works remain. 
He bequeathed his art to three children. Jerom Francken, the 
eldest son, after leaving his father's house, studied under Franz 
Floris, whom he afterwards served as an assistant, and wandered, 
about x 560, to Paris. In 1 566' he was one of the masters employed 
to decorate the palace of Fontainebleau, and in 1574 he obtained 
the appointment of court painter from Henry III., who had just 
returned from Poland and visited Titian at Venice. In 1603, 
when Van Mander wrote his biography of Flemish artists, Jerom 
Francken was still in Paris living in the then aristocratic 
Faubourg St Germain. Among his earliest works we should 
distinguish a " Nativity " in the Dresden museum, executed in co- 
operation with Franz Floris. Another of his important pieces 
is the " Abdication of Charles V." in the Amsterdam museum. 
Equally interesting is a "Portrait of a Falconer," dated 1558, in 
the Brunswick gallery. In style these pieces all recall Franz 
Floris. Franz,, the second son of Nicholas of Herenthals, is to 
be kept in memory, as Franz Francken the first. He was born 
about 1544, matriculated at Antwerp in 1567, and died there in 
1616. He, too, studied under Floris, and never settled abroad, 
or lost the hard and 'gaudy style which he inherited from his 
master. Several of his pictures are in the museum of Antwerp; 
one dated 1597 in the Dresden museum represents " Christ on 
the Road to Golgotha," and is signed by him as D. (Den ouden) 
F. Franck. Ambrose, the third son of Nicholas of Herenthals, 
has bequeathed to us more specimens of his skill than Jerom or 
Franz the first. He first started as a partner with Jerom at 
Fontainebleau, then he returned to Antwerp, where he passed 
for his gild in 1573, 'and he lived at Antwerp till 161 8. His 
best works axe the " Miracle of the Loaves and Fishes " and the 
" Martyrdom of St Crispin," both large and ambitious com- 
positions in the Antwerp museum. In both these pieces a fair 
amount of power is displayed, but marred by want of atmosphere 
and shadow or by hardness of line and gaudiness of tone. There 
is not a trace in the three painters named of the influence of the 
revival which took place under the lead of Rubens. Franz 
Francken the first trained three sons to his profession, the eldest 
of whom, though be practised as a master of gild at Antwerp 
from 1600 to 1610, left no visible trace of his labours behind. 
Jerom the second took service with his uncle Ambrose. He 
was born in 1578, passed for his gild in 1607, and in 1620 
produced that curious picture of " Horatius Codes defending 
the Sublician Bridge " which still hangs in the Antwerp museum. 
The third son of Franz Francken the first is Franz Francken 
the second, who signed himself in pictures till 16x6" the younger," 
from 1630 till his death " the elder " F. Francken. These 
pictures are usually of a small size, and arc found in considerable 
numbers in continental collections. Franz Francken the second 
was born in 1581. In 1605 he entered the gild, of which be 
subsequently became the president, and in 1642 he died. His 
earliest composition is the " Crucifixion " in the Belvedere at 
Vienna, dated 1606. His latest compositions as " the younger " 
F. Francken are the " Adoration of the Virgin " (161 6) in the 
gallery of Amsterdam, and the " Woman taken in Adulter" " 
(1628) in Dresden. From 1616 to 1630 many of his piecei 
signed F. Francken; then come the " Seven Works of Chari 
(1630) at Munich, signed " the elder F. F.," the " Prodigal J3 



FRANCOuGERMAN WAR 



(1633) at the Louvre, and other almost countless examples. 
It is in F. Francken the second's style that we first have evidence 
of the straggle which necessarily arose when the old customs, 
hardened by Van Orley and Floris, or Breughel and De Vos, 
were swept away by Rubens. But F. Francken the second, as 
before observed, always clung to small surfaces; and though 
he gained some of the freedom of the moderns, he lost but little 
of the dryness or gaudiness of the earlier Italo- Flemish revivalists. 
F. Francken the third, the last of his name who deserves to be 
recorded, passed in the Antwerp gild in 1639 an( * died at Antwerp 
in 1667. His practice was chiefly confined to adding figures to 
the architectural or landscape pieces of other artists. As Franz 
Pourbus sometimes put in the portrait figures for Franz Francken 
the second, so Franz Francken the third often introduced the 
necessary personages into the works of Pieter Neefs the younger 
(museums of St Petersburg, Dresden and the Hague). In a 
" Moses striking the Rock," dated 1654, of the Augsburg gallery, 
this last of the Franckens signs D. 6 (Den ouden) F. Franck. 
In the pictures of this artist' we most clearly discern the effects of 
Rubens's example. 

FRANCO-GERMAN WAR (1870-1871). The victories of 
Prussia in 1866 over the Austrians and their German allies (see 
Seven Weeks' Was) rendered it evident to the statesmen and 
soldiers of France that a struggle between the two nations could 
only be a question of time. Army reforms were at once under- 
taken, and measures were initiated in France to place the 
armament and equipment of the troops on a level with the 
requirements of the times. The chassepot, a new breech- 
loading rifle, immensely superior to the Prussian needle-gun, 
was issued; the artillery trains were thoroughly overhauled, 
and a new machine-gun, the mitrailleuse, from which much was 
expected, introduced. Wide schemes of reorganization (due 
mainly to Marshal Niel) were- set in motion, and, since these 
required time to mature, recourse was had to foreign alliances 
In the hope of delaying the impending rupture. In the first 
week of June 1870, General Lebrun, as a confidential agent of 
the emperor Napoleon III., was sent to Vienna to concert a 
plan of joint operations with Austria against Prussia. Italy 
was also to be included in the alliance, and it was agreed that 
in case of hostilities the French armies should concentrate in 
northern Bavaria, where the Austrians and Italians were to 
join them, and the whole immense army thus formed should 
march via Jena on Berlin. To what extent Austria and Italy 
committed themselves to this scheme remains uncertain, but 
that the emperor Napoleon believed in their b^tta fides is beyond 
doubt. 

Whether the plan was betrayed to Prussia is also uncertain, 
and almost immaterial, for Moltke's plans were based on an 
accurate estimate of the time it would take Austria to mobilize 
and on the effect of a series of victories on French soil. At any 
rate .Moltke was not taken into Bismarck's confidence in the 
affair of Ems in July 1870, and it is to be presumed that the 
chancellor had already satisfied himself that the schemes of 
operations prepared by the chief of the General Staff fully 
provided against all eventualities. These schemes were founded 
on Clausewitz's view of the objects to be pursued in a war against 
France— in the first place the defeat of the French field armies 
and in the second the occupation of Paris. On these lines plans 
for the strategic deployment of the Prussian army were prepared 
by the General Staff and kept up to date year by year as fresh 
circumstances (e.g. the co-operation of the minor German armies) 
arose and new means of communication came into existence. 
The campaign was actually opened on a revise of 1868-1860, 
to which was added, on the 6th of May 1870, a secret memo- 
randum for the General Staff. 

Under the German organization then existing the preliminary 
to all active operations was of necessity full and complete 
mobilization. Then followed transport by road and rail to the 
line selected for the " strategic deployment," and it was essential 
that no part of these operations should be disturbed by action 
on the part of the enemy. But no such delay imposed itself of 
necessity upon the French, and a vigorous offensive was so much 



in harmony with their traditions that the German plan had to 
be framed so as to meet such emergencies. On the whole, 
Moltke concluded that the enemy could not undertake 
this offensive before the eighth day after mobilization. 
At that date about five French army corps (150,000 
men) could be collected near Metz, and two corps 
(70,000) near Strassburg; and as it was six days' march 
from Metz to the Rhine, no serious attack could be 
delivered before the fourteenth day, by which day it could be met 
by superior forces near Kirchheirobolanden. Since, however, the 
transport of the bulk of the Prussian forces could not begin till the 
ninth day, their ultimate line of deirainment need not be fixed 
until the French plans were disclosed, and, as it was important 
to strike at the earliest moment possible, the deployment was 
provisionally fixed to be beyond the Rhine on the line Wittlich- 
Neunkirchen-Landau. Of the thirteen North German corps three 
had to be left behind to guard the eastern frontier and the 
coast, one other, the VIII., was practically on the ground already 
and could concentrate by road, and the remaining nine were 
distributed to the nine through railway lines available. These 
ten corps were grouped in three armies, and as the French might 
violate Belgian neutrality or endeavour to break into southern 
Germany, two corps (Prussian Guard and Saxon XII. corps) 
were temporarily held back at a central position around Mainz, 
whence they could move rapidly up or down the Rhine valley. 
If Belgian neutrality remained unmolested, the reserve would join 
the III. army on the left wing, giving it a two to one superiority 
over its adversary; all three armies would then wheel to the 
right and combine in an effort to force the French army into a 
decisive battle on the Saar on or about the twenty-third day. 
As in this wheel the army on the right formed the pivot and was 
required only to stand fast, two corps only were allotted to it; 
two corps for the present formed the III. army, and the remaining 
five were assigned to the II. army in the centre. 

When (i6th-i7tb July) the South German states decided to 
throw in their lot with the rest, their three corps were allotted to 
the III. army, the Guards and Saxons to the II. army, whilst 
the three corps originally left behind were finally distributed 
one to each army, so that up to the investment of Metz the order 
of battle was as follows: 

Headquarters : 
The king of Prussia (General v. Moltke. chief of staff). 
' " (I. corps, v. Maateuffd) 

VII. „ v. Zastrow 
I VIII. „ v. Goeben 
. (1st) and 3rd cavalry divisions 

Total . . 85,000 
' Guard Pr. August of WOrttem- 
berg 
(II. corps, v. Fransecky) 



The king of Prussia ( 
I. Army: f 

General v. Stcinmetz J 
(C. of S., v. Sperling) j ^ 



II. Army. 

Prince Frederick Charles 

(C. of S., v. Stichle) 



III. Army: 
crown prince of Prussia' 
(C. of S. t v. Blumenthal) 



III. ..' v. Alvcnsleben II. 

IV. „ v. Alvensleben I. 
IX. „ v. Manstein 

X. „ v. Voigts-Rhetz 
XII. „ (Saxons) crown prince 

of Saxony 
5th and 6th cavalry divisions 

Total « ■ . aio,o» 
V. corps, v. Ktrchbadi 
(VI.) ,, v. Tumpling 
XI. .. v. Bose 
I. Bavarian, v. der Tann 
II. „ v. Hartmann 

Wurttemberg div. > „ w~»t— 
Baden div. J v * Wcnler 

(2nd) and 4th cavalry divisions 

Total , . 180,000 



Grand Total . . 475*«» 
(The units within brackets were those at first retained in Germany.) 
On the French side no such plan of operations was in existence 
when on the night of the x 5th of July Krieg mobil was telegraphed 
all over Prussia. An outline scheme had indeed been rirTV- 
prepared as a basis for agreement with Austria and o/t*» 
Italy, but practically no details were fixed, and the J*** 
troops were without transport and supplies. Never- ***■* 
theless, since speed was the essence of the con t ract , the troops 



FRANCO-GERMAN WAR 



were hurried up without waiting for their reserves, and delivered, 
as Moltke had foreseen, just where the lie of the railways and 
convenience of temporary supply dictated, and the Prussian 
Intelligence Department was able to inform Moltke on the 22nd 
of July (seventh day of mobilization) that the French stood 
from right to left in the following order, on or near the frontier: 
1st corps . . 
5U1 corps . . 
2nd corps • . 
4th corps 



3rd coi 

Guard 

6th corps « . 

7th corps . . 

If therefore they began a forward movement on the 93rd 
(eighth day) the case foreseen by Moltke had arisen, and it became 
necessary to detrain the II. army upon the Rhine. Without 
waiting for further confirmation of this intelligence, Moltke, with 
the consent of the king, altered the arrangements accordingly, 
a decision which, though foreseen, exercised the gravest influence 
an the course of events. As it happened this decision was pre- 
mature, for the French could not yet move. Supply trains had 
to be organized by requisition from the inhabitants, and even 
arms and ammunition procured for such reserves as had succeeded 
in joining. Nevertheless, by almost superhuman exertions 
on the part of the railways and administrative services, all 
essential deficiencies were made good, and by the 28th of July 
(13th day) the troops had received all that was absolutely indis- 
pensable and might well have been led against the enemy, who, 
thanks* to Moltke's premature action, were for the moment at 
a very serious disadvantage. But the French generals were 
unequal to their responsibilities. It is now dear that, had the 
great Napoleon and his marshals been in command, they would 
have made light of the want of cooking pots, cholera belts, &c, 
and, by a series of rapid marches, would have concentrated 
odds of at least three to one upon the heads of the Prussian 
columns as they struggled through the defiles of the Hardt, and 
non a victory whose political results might well have proved 
decisive. 

To meet this pressing danger, which came to his knowledge 
during the course of the 29th, Moltke sent a confidential staff 
officer, Colonel v. Verdy du Vernois, to the III. army, to impress 
upon the crown prince the necessity of an immediate advance to 
distract the enemy's attention from the I. and II. armies; but, 
Ike the French generals, the crown prince pleaded that he could 
sot move until his trains were complete. Fortunately for the 
Germans, the French, intelligence service not only failed to 
inform the staff of this extraordinary opportunity, but it allowed 
itself to be hypnotized by the most amazing rumours. In 
imagination they saw armies of 100,000 men behind every forest, 
and, to guard against these dangers, the French troops were 
marched and counter-marched along the frontiers in the vain 
hope of discovering an ideal defensive position which should 
afford full scope to the power of their new weapons. 

As these delays were exerting a most unfavourable effect on 
public opinion not only in France but throughout Europe, the 
emperor decided on the xst of August to initiate a movement 
towards the Saar, chiefly as a guarantee of good faith to the 
Austrian* and Italians.. 

On this day the French corps held the following positions from 
right to left: 

N 1st corps . . Haecnau 

and corps . . Forbach 

3rd corps . . St Avoid 

4th corps . . Bouronville 

5th corps . . Bitcbe 

6th corps . . Chalons 

7th corps . . Bclfort and Colraar 

Guard . . . near Metz 

The French and corps was directed to advance on the following 
morning direct on Saarbrucken, supported on the flanks by two 
divisions from the 5th and 3rd corps. The order was duly carried 
ml, and the Prussians (one battalion, two squadrons and a 



battery), seeing the overwhelming numbers opposed to them, 
fell back fighting and vanished to the northward, having 
given a very excellent example of steadiness and dis- .^^ 
dpline to their enemy.* The latter contented them- JJJJ •* 
selves, by occupying Saarbrucken and its suburb St MkUu 
Johann, and here, as far as the troops were concerned, 
the incident closed. Its effect, however, proved far-reaching. 
The Prussian staff could not conceive that nothing lay behind 
tips display of five whole divisions, and immediately took steps 
to meet the expected danger. In their excitement, although they 
had announced the beginning of the action to the king's head- 
quarters at Mainz, they forgot to notify the close and its results, 
so that Moltke was not in possession of the facts till noon on the 
3rd of August. Meanwhile, Steinmetz, left without instructions 
and fearing for the safety of the II. army, the beads of whose 
columns were still in the defiles of the Hardt, moved the I. army 
from the neighbourhood of Merzig obliquely to his left front, so 
as to strike the flank of the French army if it continued its 
march towards Kaiserslautern, in which direction it appeared to 
be heading. 

Whilst this order was in process of execution, Moltke, aware 
that the II. army was behind time in its march, issued instructions 
to Steinmetz for the 4th of August which entailed MmUtBt 
a withdrawal to the rear, the idea being that both p^^ 
armies should, if the French advanced, fight a defensive Pndtrkk 
battle in a selected position farther back. Steinmetz gy** 
obeyed, though bitterly resenting the idea of retreat. .^ 
This movement, further, drew his left across the roads 
reserved for the right column of the II. army, and on receipt 
of a peremptory order from Prince Frederick Charles to evacuate 
the road, Steinmetz telegraphed for instructions direct to the 
king, over Moltke's head. In reply he received a telegram from 
Moltke, ordering him to clear the road at once, and couched 
in terms which he considered as a severe reprimand. An ex- 
planatory letter, meant to soften the rebuke, was delayed in 
transmission and did not reach him till too late to modify the 
orders he had already issued. It must be remembered that 
Steinmetz at the front was in a better position to judge the 
apparent situation than was Moltke at Mainz, and that all 
through the day of the 5th of August he had received intelli- 
gence indicating a change of attitude in the French army. 

The news of the German victory at Weissenburg on the 4th' 
(see below) had in fact completely paralysed the French head-] 
quarters, and orders were issued by them during the 
course of the 5th to concentrate the whole army of the BmtUt ■* 
Rhine on the selected position of Cadcnbronn. As a 
preliminary, Frossard's corps withdrew from Saar- 
brucken and began to entrench a position on the Spicheren 
heights, 3000 yds. to the southward. Steinmetz, therefore, being 
quite unaware of the scheme for a great battle on the Saar about 
the 1 2th of August, felt that the situation would best be met, 
and the letter of his instructions strictly obeyed, by moving hit 
whole command forward' to the line of the Saar, and orders to 
this effect were issued on the evening of the 5th. In pursuance 
of these orders, the advance guard of the 14th division (Lieutenant 
General von Kameke) reached Saarbrucken about 9 a.m. on 
the 6th, where the Germans found to their amazement that the 
bridges were intact. To secure this advantage was the obvious 
duty of the commander on the spot, and he at once ordered his 
troops to occupy a line of low heights beyond the town' to 
serve as a bridge-head. As the leading troops deployed on the 
heights Frossard's guns on the Spicheren Plateau opened fire, 
and the advanced guard battery replied. The sound of these 
guns unchained the whole fighting instinct carefully developed 
by a long course of Prussian manoeuvre training. Everywhere, 
generals and troops hurried towards the cannon thunder. 
Kameke, even more in the dark than Steinmetz as to Moltke's 
intentions and the strength of his adversaries, attacked at once,' 
precisely as he would have done at manoeuvres, and in half an 
hour his men were committed beyond recall. As each fresh unit 
reached the field it was hurried into action where its services 

1 This was the celebrated M bapteme de feu " of the prince imperial 



8 



FRANCO-GERMAN WAR 



were most needed, and each fresh general as he arrived took a 
new view of the combat and issued new orders. On the other 
side, Frossard, knowing the strength of his position, called on 
his neighbours for support, and determined to hold his ground. 
Victory seemed certain. There were sufficient troops within 
easy reach to have ensured a crushing numerical superiority. 
But the other generals had not been trained to mutual support, 
and thought only of their own immediate security, and their 
staffs were too inexperienced to act upon even good intentions; 
and, finding himself in the course of the afternoon left to his own 
devices, Frossard began gradually to withdraw, even before the 
pressure of the 13th German division on his left flank (about 
8 p.m.) compelled his retirement. When darkness ended the 
battle the Prussians were scarcely aware of their victory. Stein- 
metz, who had reached the field about 6 p.m., rode back to his 
headquarters without issuing any orders, while the troops 
bivouacked where they stood, the units of three army corps 
being mixed up in almost inextricable confusion. But whereas 
out of 42,000 Prussians with 120 guns, who in the morning lay 
within striking distance of the enemy, no fewer than 27,000, 
with 78 guns were actually engaged; of the French, out of 64,000 
with 210 guns only 24,000 with 00 guns took part in the action. 

Meanwhile on the German left wing the III. army had begun 
its advance. Early on the 4th of August it crossed the frontier 
and fell upon a French detachment under Abel Douay, 
^jjjjj^jf which had been placed near Weissenburg, partly to 
taqi cover the Pigeonnier pass, but principally to consume 
the supplies accumulated in the little dismantled 
fortress, as these could not easily be moved. Against this force 
of under 4000 men of all arms, the Germans brought into action 
successively portions of three corps, in all over 35,000 men with 
00 guns. After six hours' fighting, in which the Germans lost 
some 1500 men, the gallant remnant of the French withdrew 
deliberately and in good order, notwithstanding the death of 
their leader at the critical moment. The Germans were so elated 
by their victory over the enemy, whose strength they naturally 
overestimated, that they forgot to send cavalry in pursuit, and 
thus entirely lost touch with the enemy. 

Next day the advance was resumed, the two Bavarian corps 
moving via Mattstall through the foothills of the Vosges, the 
V. corps on their left towards Preuschdorf, and the XL farther 
to the left again, through the wooded plain of the Rhine valley. 
The 4th cavalry division scouted in advance, and army head- 
quarters moved to Sulx. About noon the advanced patrols 
discovered MacMahon's corps in position on the left bank of the 
Sauer (see W6rth: Battle of). As his army was dispersed over 
a wide area, the crown prince determined to devote the 6th to 
concentrating the troops, and, probably to avoid alarming the 
enemy, ordered the cavalry to stand fast. 

At night the outposts of the I. Bavarians and V. corps on the 
Sauer saw the fires of the French encampment and heard the 
noise of railway traffic, and rightly conjectured the approach 
of reinforcements. MacMahon had in fact determined to stand 
in the very formidable position he had selected, and he counted 
on receiving support both from the 7th corps (two divisions of 
which were being railed up from Colnuir) and from the 5th corps, 
which lay around Bitche. It was also quite possible, and the 
soundest strategy, to withdraw the bulk of the troops then 
facing the German I. and II. armies to his support, and these 
would reach him by the 8th. He was therefore justified in 
accepting battle, though it was to his interest to delay it as long 
as possible. 

At dawn on the 6th of August the commander of the V. corps 
outposts noticed certain movements in the French lines, and to 
^^ clear up the situation brought his guns into action. 
fjJjJJi. As at Spichcren, the sound of the guns set the whole 
machinery of battle in motion. The French artillery 
immediately accepted the Prussian challenge. The I. Bavarians, 
having been ordered to be ready to move if they beard artillery 
fire, immediately advanced against the French left, encountering 
presently such a stubborn resistance that parts of their line 
began to give way. The Prussians of pic V. corps felt that they 



could not abandon their allies, and von Kirchbach, calling on the 
XI. corps for support, attacked with the troops at hand. When 
the crown prince tried to break off the fight it was too late. 
Both sides were feeding troops into the firing line, as and where 
they could lay hands on them. Up to 2 p.m. the French fairly 
held their own, but shortly afterwards their right yielded to the 
overwhelming pressure of the XI. corps, and by 3.30 it was 
in full retreat. The centre held on for another hour, but in 
its turn was compelled to yield, and by 4.30 all organized 
resistance was at an end. The de'bris of the French army was 
hotly pursued by the German divisional squadrons towards 
Reichshofen, where serious panic showed itself. When at this 
stage the supports sent by de Failly from Bitche came on the 
ground they saw the hopelessness of intervention, and retired 
whence they had come. Fortunately for the French, the German 
4th cavalry division, on which the pursuit should have devolved, 
had been forgotten by tfie German staff, and did not reach the 
front before darkness fell. Out of a total of 82,000 within reach 
of the battlefield, the Germans succeeded in bringing into action 
77,500. The French, who might have had 50,000 on the field, 
deployed only 37,000, and these suffered a collective loss of 
no less than 20,100; some regiments losing up to 90% and still 
retaining some semblance of discipline and order. 

Under cover of darkness the remnants of the French army 
escaped. When at length the 4th cavalry division had succeeded 
in forcing a way through the confusion of the battlefield, 
all -touch with the enemy had been lost, and being without 
firearms the troopers were checked by the French stragglers 
in the woods and the villages, and thus failed to establish the 
true line of retreat of the French. Ultimately the latter, having 
gained the railway near Luneville, disappeared from the German 
front altogether, and all trace of them was lost until they were 
discovered, about the 26th of August, forming part of the army 
of Chalons, whither they had been conveyed by rail via Paris. 
This is a remarkable example of the strategical value of railways 
to an army operating in its own country. 

In the absence of all resistance, the III. army now proceeded 
to carry out the original programme of marches laid down in 
Moltkc's memorandum of the 6th of May, and marching on a 
broad front through a fertile district it reached the line of the 
Moselle in excellent order about the 17th of August, where it 
halted to await the result of the great battle of Gravelotte- 
StPrivat 

We return now to the L army at SaarbrCcken. Its position 
on the morning of the 7th of August gave cause for the gravest 
anxiety. At daylight a dense fog lay over the country, 
and through the mist sounds of heavy firing came JJjJJJJ** 
from the direction of Forbach, where French stragglers tkm Smn 
had rallied during the night. The confusion on the 
battlefield was appalling, and the troops in no condition to go 
forward. Except the 3rd, 5th and 6th cavalry divisions no 
closed troops were within, a day's march; hence Stehunets 
decided to spend the day in reorganizing his infantry, under 
cover of his available cavalry. But the German cavalry and 
staff were quite new to their task. The 6th cavalry division, 
which had bivouacked on the battlefield, sent on only ose 
brigade towards Forbach, retaining the remainder in re se rv e 
The 5th, thinking that the 6th had already undertaken sH 
that was necessary, withdrew behind the Saar, and the 3rd, 
also behind the Saar, reported that the country fin its front wis 
unsuited to cavalry movements, and only sent out a few offices' 
patrols. These were well led, but were too few in number, and 
their reports were consequently unconvincing. 

In the course of the day Steinmctz became very uneasy, and 
ultimately he decided to concentrate his army by retiring the 
VII. and. VIII. corps behind the river on to the I. (which had 
arrived. near Saarlouis), thus clearing the Saarbrucken-MeU 
road for the use of the II. army. But at this moment Prince 
Frederick Charles suddenly modified his views. During the 6th 
of August his scours had reported considerable French forces 
hear Bitche (these were the 5th, de FaiDy's corps), and early 
in the morning of the 7th he received a telegram from Moitkc 



FRANCO-GERMAN WAR 



informing him that MacMahon's beaten army was retreating 
on the tame place (the troops observed were in fact those which 
had marched to MacMahon's assistance). The prince forthwith 
deflected the march of the Guards, IV. and X. corps, towards 
Rohrhach, whilst the IX. and XII. closed up to supporting 
distance behind them. Thus, as Steinmetz moved away to the 
west and north, Frederick Charles was diverging to the south 
and east, and a great gap was opening in the very centre of the 
German front. This was closed only by the III. corps, still on 
the battle-field, and by portions of the X. near Saargemttnd, 1 
whilst within striking distance lay 130,000 French troops, 
prevented only by the incapacity of their chiefs from delivering 
a decisive counter-stroke. 

Fortunately for the Prussians, Moltke at Mainz took a different 
view. Receiving absolutely no intelligence from the front 
during the 7th, he telegraphed orders to the I. and II. armies 
(10.35 p.m.) to halt on the 8th, and impressed on Steinmetz 
the necessity of employing his cavalry to clear up the situation. 
The I. army had already begun the marches ordered by Stein- 
nets. It was now led back practically to its old bivouacs 
amongst the unburied dead. Prince Frederick Charles only 
conformed to Moltke's order with the IfL and X. corps; the 
remainder executed their concentration towards the south and 
east. 

During the night of the 7th of August Moltke decided that 
the French army must be in retreat towards the Moselle and 
forthwith busied himself with the preparation of fresh tables of 
march for the two armies, his object being to swing up the left 
wing to outflank the enemy from the south. This work, and 
the transfer of headquarters to Homburg, needed time, hence no 
fresh orders were issued to cither army, and neither commander 
would incur the responsibility of moving without any. The 
I. army therefore spent a fourth night in bivouac on the bat tie- 
field. But Constantin von Alvensleben, commanding the III. 
corps, a man of very different stamp from his colleagues, hearing 
at first hand that the French had evacuated St Avoid, set his 
corps in motion early in the morning of the 10th August down 
the St Avold-Metz road, reached St Avoid and obtained con- 
clusive evidence that the French were retreating. 

During the 9th the orders for the advance to the Moselle were 
issued. These were based, not on an exact knowledge of where 
the French army actually stood, but on the opinion 
JJ^J^"* Moltke had formed as to where it ought to have been 
B nl rift on military grounds solely, overlooking the fact that 
the French staff were not free to form military decisions 
but were compelled to bow to political expediency. 

Actually on the 7th of August the emperor had decided to 
attack the Germans on the 8th with the whole Rhine Army, 
bat this decision was upset by alarmist reports from the beaten 
army of MacMahon. He then decided to retreat to the Moselle, 
as Moltke had foreseen, and there to draw to himself the remnants 
of MacMahon's army (now near Luneville). At the same time 
he assigned the executive command over the whole Rhine Army 
to Marshal Bazaine. This retreat was begun during the course of 
the 8th and 9th of August; but on the night of the 9th urgent 
telegrams from Paris induced the emperor to suspend the move- 
neat, and during the xoth the whole army took up a strong 
position on the French Nied. 

Meanwhile the II. German army had received its orders to 
march in a line of army corps on a broad front in the general 
direction of Pont-a-Mousson, well to the south of Metz. The 
I. army was to follow by short marches in echelon on the right; 
oaly the III. corps was directed on Falkenberg, a day's march 
hrtber towards Met* along the St Avold-Metz road. The 
movement was begun on the xoth, and towards evening the 
French army was located on the right front of the III. corps. 
Tins entirely upset Moltke's hypothesis, and called for a complete 
aodification of his plans, as the III. corps alone could not be 
expected to resist the impact of Bazaine's five corps. The III. 
corps therefore received orders to stand fast for the moment, 
and the remainder of the II. army was instructed to wheel to the 
* The II. corps b*d not yet arrived from Germany. 



right and concentrate for a great battle to the east of Metz on 
the i6thor 17th. 

Before, however, these orders had been received the sudden 
retreat of the French completely changed the situation. The 
Germans therefore continued their movement towards the 
Moselle. On the 13th the French took up a fresh position 5 m. 
to the east of Metz, where they were located by the cavalry 
and the advanced guards of the I- army. 

Again Moltke ordered the I. army to observe and hold the 
enemy, whilst the II. was to swing round to the north. The 
cavalry was to scout beyond the Moselle and intercept - 
all communication with the heart of France (see Metz). *^j*^* 
By this time the whole German army had imbibed the Bww^ 
idea that the French were in full retreat and endeavour- 
ing to evade a decisive struggle. When therefore during the 
morning of the 14th their outposts observed signs of retreat 
in the French position, their impatience could no longer be 
restrained; as at Worth and Spicbcren, an outpost commander 
brought up his guns, and at the sound of their fire, every unit 
within reach spontaneously got under arms (battle of CoJorabey- 
Borny). In a short time, with or without orders, the I.,. VII., 
VIII. and IX. corps were in full march to the battle-field. But 
the French too turned back to fight, and an obstinate engage- 
ment ensued, at the close of which the Germans barely held 
the ground and the French withdrew under cover of the Metz 
forts. 

Still, though the fighting had been indecisive, the conviction 
of victory remained with the Germans, and the idea of a French 
retreat became an obsession. To this idea Moltke gave expression 
in his orders issued early on the 15th, in which he laid down 
that the " fruits of the victory " of the previous evening could 
only be reaped by a vigorous pursuit towards the passages of the 
Meuse, where it was hoped the French might yet be overtaken. 
This order, however, did not allow for the hopeless inability of 
the French staff to regulate the movement of congested masses 
of men, horses and vehicles, such as were now accumulated in the 
streets and environs of Metz. Whilst Bazaine.had come to no 
definite decision whether to stand and fight or continue to retreat, 
and was merely drifting under the impressions of the moment, 
the .Prussian leaders, in particular Prince Frederick Charles, 
saw in imagination the French columns in rapid orderly move- 
ment towards the west, and calculated that at best they could 
not be overtaken short of Verdun. 

In this order of ideas the whole of the II. army, followed on 
its right rear by two-thirds of the I. army (the I. corps being 
detached to observe the eastern side of the fortress), were pushed 
on towards the Moselle, the cavalry far in advance towards the 
Meuse, whilst only the 5th cavalry division was ordered to scout 
towards the Metz- Verdun road, and even that was disseminated 
over far too wide an area. 

Later in the day (15th) Frederick Charles sent orders to the 
III. corps, which was on the right flank of his long line of columns 
and approaching the Moselle at Corny and Noveant, to march 
via Gorze to Mars-la-Tour on the Metz- Verdun road; to the 
X. corps, strung out along the road from Thiaucourt to Pont- 
a-Mousson, to move to Jarny; and for the remainder to push on 
westward to seize the Meuse crossings. No definite information 
as to the French army reached him in time to modify these 
instructions. 

Meanwhile the 5th (Rhcinbaben's) cavalry division, at about 
3 P.M. in the afternoon, had come into contact with the French 
cavalry in trie vicinity of Mars-la-Tour, and gleaned intelligence 
enough to show that no French infantry had as yet reached 
Rezonville. The commander of the X. corps at Thiaucourt, 
informed of this, became anxious for the security of his flank 
during the next day's march and decided to push out a strong 
flanking detachment under von Caprivi, to support von Rhein- 
baben and maintain touch with the III. corps marching on his 
right rear. 

Von Alvensleben, to whom the 6th cavalry division had mean- 
while been assigned, seems to have received no local intelligence 
whatsoever; and at daybreak on the 16th be began his march 



10 



FRANCO-GERMAN WAR 



in two columns, the 6th division on Mars-la-Tour, the 5th 
towards the Rczonvillc-Vionville plateau. And shortly after 
9.15 a.m. he suddenly discovered the truth. The entire French 
BsttMo/ armv lay on n ^ right flank » and h* 5 nearest supports 
VtonKflfe. were almost a day's march distant. In this crisis he 
Mu%-u» made* up his mind at once to attack with every 
Toar ' available man, and to continue to attack, in the con- 
viction that his audacity would serve to conceal his weakness. 
All day long, therefore, the Brandenburgers of the III. corps, 
supported ultimately by the X. corps and part of the IX., 
attacked again and again. The enemy was thrice their strength, 
but very differently led, and made no adequate use. of bis 
superiority (battle of VionviJle-Mars-la Tour). 

Meanwhile Prince Frederick Charles, at Pont-a-Mousson, 
was still confident in the French retreat to the Meuse, and had 
even issued orders for the 17th on that assumption. Firing had 
been heard since 9.15 a.m., and about noon Alvenslcben's first 
report had reached him, but it was not till after 2 that he 
realized the situation. Then, mounting his horse, be covered 
the 15 m. to Flavigny over crowded and difficult roads within 
the hour, and on his arrival abundantly atoned for his strategic 
errors by his unconquerable determination and tactical skill. 
When darkness put a stop to the fighting, he considered the 
position. Cancelling all previous orders, he called all troops 
within reach to the battle-field and resigned himself to wait for 
them. The situation was indeed critical. The whole French 
army of five corps, only half of which had been engaged, lay in 
front of him. His own army by scattered over an area of 30 m. 
by ao, and only some 20,000 fresh troops— of the IX. corps— 
could reach the field during the forenoon of the 17th. 
JfJ^JjJf **e did not then know that Moltke had already inter- 
vened and had ordered the VU.,VIII. and II. corps 1 
to his assistance. Daylight revealed the extreme exhaustion of 
both men and horses. The men lay around in hopeless confusion 
amongst the killed and wounded, each where sleep had over- 
taken him, and thus the extent of the actual losses, heavy 
enough, could not be estimated. Across the valley, bugle 
sounds revealed the French already alert, and presently a long 
line of skirmishers approached the Prussian position. But they 
halted just beyond rifle range, and it was soon evident that they 
Were only intended to cover a further withdrawal. Presently 
came the welcome intelligence that the reinforcements were well 
on their way. 

About noon the king and Moltke drove up to the ground, 
and there was an animated discussion as to what the French 
would do next. Aware of their withdrawal from his immediate 
front, Prince Frederick Charles reverted to his previous idea 
and insisted that they were in full retreat towards the north, 
and that their entrenchments near Point du Jour and St Hubert 
(see map in article Metz) were at most a rearguard position. 
Moltke was inclined to the same view, but considered the alterna- 
tive possibility of a withdrawal towards Metz, and about 2 p.m. 
orders were issued to meet these divergent opinions. The 
whole army was to be drawn up at 6 a.m. on the 18th in an 
echelon facing north, so as to be ready for action in either 
direction. The king and Moltke then drove to Pont-a-Mousson, 
and the troops bivouacked in a state of readiness. The rest 
of the 17th was spent in restoring order in the shattered III. 
and X. corps, and by nightfall both corps were reported fit for 
action. Strangely enough, there were no organized cavalry 
reconnaissances, and no intelligence of importance was collected 
during the night of the X7th-i8th. 

Early on the 18th the troops began to move into position in 
the following order from left to right: XII. (Saxons), Guards, 
IX., VIII. and VII. The X. and III. were retained in reserve. 

The idea of the French retreat was still uppermost in the 
prince's mind, and the whole army therefore moved north. 
But between 10 and ix a.m. part of the truth— viz. that the 
French had their backs to Metz and stood in battle order 

1 Of the I. army the I. corps was retained on the east side of Metz. 
The II. corps belonged to the II. army, but had not yet reached the 
front. 



from St Hubert northwards— became evident, and the IL 
army, pivoting on the I., wheeled to the right and moved 
eastward. Suddenly the IX. corps fell right on the ffaWfc rf 
centre of the French line (Amanvillers), and a most ftudtrti 
desperate encounter began, superior control, as before, gff"*. 
ceasing after the guns had opened fire. Prince Frederick A/lJjt 
Charles, however, a little farther north, again asserted his tactical 
ability, and about 7 P.M. he brought into position no less than five 
army corps for the final attack. The sudden collapse of French 
resistance, due to the frontal attack of the Guards (St Privat) and 
the turning movement of the Saxons (Roncourt), rendered the 
use of this mass unnecessary, but the resolution to use it was 
there. On the German right (I. army), about Gravelotte, all 
superior leading ceased quite early in the afternoon, and at 
night the French still showed an unbroken front. Until midnight, 
when the prince's victory was reported, the suspense at bead- 
quarters was terrible. The I. army was exhausted, no steps 
had been taken to ensure support from the III. army, and the 
IV. corps (II. army) lay inactive 30 m. away. 

This seems a fitting place to discuss the much-disputed point 
of Bazaine's conduct in allowing himself to be driven back into 
Metz when fortune had thrown into his hands the great * iMh- 
opportunity of the 161b and 17th of August. He feJMli 
had been appointed to command on the 10th, but the 
presence of the emperor, who only left the front early on the 
16th, and their dislike of Bazaine, exercised a disturbing influence 
on the headquarters staff officers. During the retreat to Metz 
the marshal had satisfied himself as to the inability of his corps 
commanders to handle their troops, and also as to the ill-will 
of the staff. In the circumstances he felt that a battle in the 
open field could only end in disaster; and, since it was proved 
that the Germans could outmarch him, his army was sure to be 
overtaken and annihilated if he ventured beyond the shelter 
of the fortress. But near Metz he could at least inflict very 
severe punishment on his assailants, and in any case his presence 
in Metz would neutralize a far superior force of the enemy for 
weeks or months. What use the French government might 
choose to make of the breathing space thus secured was their 
business, not his; and subsequent events showed that, had they 
not forced MacMahon's hand, the existence of the latter 's 
nucleus army of trained troops might have prevented the 
investment of Paris. Bazaine was condemned by court-martial 
after the war, but if the case were reheard to-day it is certain 
that no charge of treachery could be sustained. 

On the German side the victory at St Privat was at once 
followed up by the headquarters. Early on the 19th the invest* 
ment of Bazaine's army in Metz was commenced. A new army, 
the Army of the Meuse (often called the IV.), was as soon as 
possible formed of all troops not required for the maintenance 
of the investment, and marched off under the command of the 
crown prince of Saxony to discover and destroy the remainder 
of the French field army, which at this moment was known to 
be at Chalons. 

The operations which led to the capture of MacMahon's array 
in Sedan call for little explanation. Given seven corps, each 
capable of averaging 15 m. a day for a week in succes- 
sion, opposed to four corps only, shaken by defeat JJJ 
and unable as a whole to cover more than 5 m. a day, 
the result could hardly be doubtful. But Moltke's method of J 
conducting operations left his opponent many openings which ^ 
could only be closed by excessive demands on the rnarduag a 
power of the men. Trusting only to his cavalry screen to 
secure information, he was always without any definite fixed 
point about which to manoeuvre, for whilst the reports of the y 
screen and orders based thereon were being transmitted, the ;" : 
enemy was free to move, and generally their movements were : " 
dictated by political expediency, not by calculable military *'- 
motives. ^ 

Thus whilst the German army, on a front of nearly 50 m., - — 
was marching due west on Paris, MacMahon, under political .^_ 
pressure, was moving parallel to them, but on a northerly route, I- 
to attempt the relief of Metz. 



FRANCO-GERMAN WAR 



ii 



So unexpected was this move and so uncertain the information 
which called attention to it, that Moltke did not venture to 
change at once the direction of march of the whole army, but 
he directed the Army of the Meuse northward on Damvillers 
and ordered Prince Frederick Charles to detach two corps from 
the forces investing Met* to reinforce it. For the moment, 
therefore, MacMabon's move had succeeded, and the opportunity 
existed for Bazaine to break out. But at the critical moment 
the hopeless want of real efficiency in MacMahon's army com- 
pelled the latter so to delay his advance that it became evident 
to the Germans that there was no longer any necessity for the 
m. army to maintain the direction towards Paris, and that 
the probable point of contact between the Meuse army and the 
French lay nearer to the right wing of the III. army than to 
Prince Frederick Charles's investing force before Metz. 

The detachment from the II. army was therefore counter- 
manded, and the whole III. army changed front to the north, 
while the Meuse army headed the French off from the east. 
The latter came Into contact with the head of the French columns, 
during the 29th, about Nouart, and on the 30th at Buzancy 
(battle of Beaumont); and the French, yielding to the force 
of numbers combined with superior moral, were driven north- 
westward upon Sedan (q.v.), right across the front of the III. 
army, which was now rapidly coming up from the south. 

During the 31st the retreat practically became a rout, and 
the morning of the 1st of September found the French crowded 
around the little fortress of Sedan, with only one line of retreat 
to the north-west still open. By n a.m. the XI. corps (HI. 
army) had already closed that line, and about noon the Saxons 
(Army of the Meuse) moving round between the town and the 
Belgian frontier joined hands with, the XI., and the circle of 
investment was complete. The battle of Sedan was closed 
about 4- 1 5 P.M. by the hoisting of the white flag. Terms were 
agreed upon during the night, and the whole French army, 
with the emperor, passed into captivity. (F. N. M.) 

Thus in five weeks one of the French field armies was im- 
prisoned in Metz, the other destroyed, and the Germans were free 
to march upon Paris. This seemed easy. There could 
jjjj^ be no organized opposition to their progress, 1 and Paris, 
»r~ if not so defenceless as in 18x4, was more populous. 

Starvation was the best method of attacking an over- 
crowded fortress, and the Parisians were not thought to be proof 
against the deprivation of their accustomed luxuries. Even 
Moltke hoped that by the end of October he would be " shooting 
hares at Creisau," and with this confidence the German III. and 
IV. armies left the vicinity of Sedan on the 4th of September. 
The march called for no more than good staff arrangements, and 
the two armies arrived before Paris a fortnight later and gradually 
encircled the place— the III. army on the south, the IV. on 
the north side— in the last days of September. Headquarters 
■ere established at Versailles. Meanwhile the Third Empire 
had fallen, giving place on the 4th of September to a republican 
Gevernmeht of National Defence, which made its appeal to, 
andevoked, the spirit of 1792. Henceforward the French nation, 
which had left the conduct of the war to the regular army and 
bd been little more than an excited spectator, took the burden 
spaa itself. 

The regular army, indeed, still contained more than 500,000 
men (chiefly recruits and reservists), and 50,000 sailors, marines, 
draaniera, &c, were also available. But the Garde Mobile, 
fanned by Marshal Niel in x86S, doubled this figure, and the 
addition of the Garde Nationale, called into existence on the 15th 
of September, and including all able-bodied men of from 31 to 
fo years of age, more than trebled it. The German staff had of 
coarse to reckon on the Garde Mobile, and did so beforehand, 
bat they wholly underestimated both its effective members and 
its willingness, while, possessing themselves a system in which 
iQ the military elements of the German nation stood close behind 

1 The 13th corps (Vinoy), which had followed MacMahon's army 
at some distance, was not involved in the catastrophe of Sedan, 
and by good luck as well as good management evaded the German 
purMut and returned safely to Paris. 



the troops of the active army, they ignored the potentialities 
of the Garde Nationale. 

Meanwhile, both as a contrast to the events that centred on 
Paris and because in point of time they were decided for the 
most part in the weeks immediately following Sedan, we must 
briefly allude to the sieges conducted by the Germans — Paris 
(q.v.), Metz (q.v.) and Belfort (q.v.) excepted. Old and ruined 
as many of them were, the French fortresses possessed consider- 
able importance in the eyes of the Germans. Strassburg, in 
particular, the key of Alsace, the standing menace to South 
Germany and the most conspicuous of the spoils of Louis XIV. 's 
Raubkritgc, was an obvious target. Operations were begun 
on the 9th of August, three days after Wdrth, General v. Werder's 
corps (Baden troops and Prussian Landwchr) making the siege. 
The French commandant, General Uhrich, surrendered after 
a stubborn resistance on the 28th of September. Of the smaller 
fortresses many, being practically unarmed and without garrisons, 
capitulated at once. Toul, defended by Major Huck with 2000 
mobiles, resisted for forty days, and drew upon itself the efforts 
of 13,000 men and 100 guns. Verdun, commanded by General 
Guerin de Waldcrsbach, held out till after the fall of Metz. Some 
of the fortresses lying to the north of the Prussian line of advance 
on Paris, e.g. Mezieres, resisted up to January 1872, though of 
course this was very largely due to the diminution of pressure 
caused by the appearance of new French field armies in October. 
On the 9th of September a strange incident took place at the 
surrender of Laon. A powder magazine was blown up by the 
soldiers in charge and 300 French and a few German soldiers were 
killed by the explosion. But as the Germans advanced, their 
lines of communication were thoroughly organized, and the belt 
of country between Paris and the Prussian frontier subdued and 
garrisoned. Most of these fortresses were small town enceintes, 
dating from Vauban's time, and open, under the new conditions 
of warfare, to concentric bombardment from positions formerly 
out of range, upon which the besieger could place as many guns 
as he chose to employ. In addition they were usually deficient 
in armament and stores and garrisoned by newly-raised troops. 
Belfort, where the defenders strained every nerve to keep the 
besiegers out of bombarding range, and Paris formed the only 
exceptions to this general rule. 

The policy of the new French government was defined by 
Jules Favre on the 6th of September. " It is for the king of 
Prussia, who has declared that he b making war on 7^ 
the Empire and not on France, to stay his hand; we "£•*■■*• 
shall not cede an inch of our territory or a stone of our ^JJJJ"" 
fortresses." These proud words, so often ridiculed ' 
as empty bombast, were the prelude of a national effort which 
re-established France in the eyes of Europe as a great power, even 
though provinces and fortresses were ceded in the peace that that 
effort proved unable to avert. They were translated into action 
by Leon Gambctta, who escaped from Paris in a balloon' on the 
7th of October, and established the headquarters of the defence 
at Tours, where already the i4 Delegation " of the central govern- 
ment — which had decided to remain in Paris— had concentrated 
the machinery of government. Thenceforward Gambetta and 
his principal assistant de Frcycinet directed the whole war in 
the open country, co-ordinating it, as best they could with the 
precarious means of communication at their disposal, with 
Trochu's military operations in and round the capital. Hit 
critics — Gambctta's personality was such as to ensure him 
numerous enemies among the higher civil and military officials, 
over whom, in the interests of La Palru, he rode rough-shod— 
have acknowledged the fact, which is patent enough in any case, 
that nothing but Gambctta's driving energy enabled France 
in a few weeks to create and to equip twelve army corps, repre- 
senting thirty-six divisions (600,000 rifles and 1400 guns), after 
all her organized regular field troops had been destroyed or 
neutralized. But it is claimed that by undue interference with 
the generals at the front, by presuming to dictate their plans 
of campaign, and by forcing them to act when the troops were 
unready, Gambctta and de Freycinet nullified the efforts of 
themselves and the rest of the nation and subjected France 



12 



FRANCO-GERMAN WAR 



to a humiliating treaty of peace. Wc cannot here discuss the 
justice or injustice of such a general condemnation, or even 
whether in individual instances Gambetta trespassed too far into 
the special domain of the soldier. But even the brief narrative 
given below must at least suggest to the reader the existence 
amongst the generals and higher officials of a dead weight of 
passive resistance to the Delegation's orders, of unnecessary 
distrust of the qualities of the improvised troops, and above 
all of the utter fear of responsibility that twenty years of literal 
obedience had bred. The closest study of the war cannot lead 
to any other conclusion than this, that whether or not 
Gambetta as a strategist took the right course in general or 
in particular cases, no one else would have taken any course 
whatever. 

On the approach of the enemy Paris hastened its preparations 
for defence to the utmost, while in the provinces, out of reach 
of the German cavalry, new army corps were rapidly organized 
out of the few constituted regular units not involved in the 
previous catastrophes, the depot troops and the mobile national 
guard. The first-fruits of these efforts were seen in Beaucc, 
where early in October important masses of French troops 
prepared not only to bar the further progress of the invader 
but actually to relieve Paris. The so-called " fog of war " — 
the armed inhabitants, francs-tireurs, sedentary national guard 
and volunteers — prevented the German cavalry from venturing 
far out from the infantry camps around Paris, and behind this 
screen the new 25th army corps assembled on the Loire. But 
an untimely demonstration of force alarmed the Germans, 
all of whom, from Moltke downwards, had hitherto disbelieved 
in the existence of the French new formations, and the still 
unready 15th corps found itself the target of an expedition of 
the I. Bavarian corps, which drove the defenders out of Orleans 
after a sharp struggle, while at the same time another expedition 
■wept the western part of Beauce, sacked Chateaudun as a 
punishment for its brave defence, and returned via Chartres, 
which was occupied. 

. After these events the French forces disappeared from German 
eyes for some weeks. D'Aurclle de Paladincs, the commander 
of the " Army of the Loire " (15th and 16th corps), improvised 
a camp of instruction at Salbris in Sologne, several marches out 
of reach, and subjected his raw troops to a stern regime of drill 
and discipline. At the same time an " Army of the West " began 
to gather on the side of Le Mans. This army was almost 
imaginary, yet rumours of its existence and numbers led the 
German commanders into the gravest errors, for they soon came 
to suspect that the main army lay on that side and not on the 
Loire, and this mistaken impression governed the German 
dispositions up to the very eve of the decisive events around 
Orleans in December. Thus when at last D'Aurclle took the 
offensive from lours (whither he had transported his forces, 
now 100,000 strong) against the position of the I. Bavarian corps 
near Orleans, he found his task easy. The Bavarians, out- 
numbered and unsupported, were defeated with heavy losses in 
the battle of Coulmicrs (November 9), and, had it not been for 
the inexperience, want of combination, and other technical 
weaknesses of the French, they would have been annihilated. 
What the results of such a victory as Coulmiers might have been, 
had it been won by a fully organized, smoothly working army 
of the same strength, it is difficult to overestimate. As it was, 
the retirement of the Bavarians rang the alarm bell all along the 
line of the German positions, and lliat was all. 

Then once again, instead of following up its success, the French 
army disappeared from view. The victory had emboldened 
the " fog of war " to make renewed efforts, and resistance to 
the pressure of the German cavalry grew day by day. The 
Bavarians were reinforced by two Prussian divisions and by all 
available cavalry commands, and constituted as an " army 
detachment " under the grand-duke Fricdrich Franz of Mecklcn- 
barg-Schwerin to deal with the Army of the Loire, the strength 
of which was far from being accurately known. Meantime the 
capitulation of Mctz on the 28th of October had set free the 
veterans of Prince Frederick Charles, the best troops in the 



German army, for field operations. The latter were at first 
misdirected to the upper Seine, and yet another opportunity 
arose for the French to raise the siege of Paris. But D'Aurelle 
utilized the time he had gained in strengthening the army and 
in imparting drill and discipline to the new units which gathered 
round the original nucleus of the 15th and x6th corps. All this 
was, however, unknown and even unsuspected at the German 
headquarters, and the invaders, feeling the approaching crisis, 
became more than uneasy as to their prospects of maintaining 
the siege of Paris. 

At this moment, in the middle of November, the genera) 
situation was as follows: the German III. and hfeuse armies, 
investing Paris, had bad to throw off important 
detachments to protect the enterprise, which they had JuJ mM 
undertaken on the assumption that no further field fiijifci 
armies of the enemy were to be encountered. The 
maintenance of their communications with Germany, relatively 
unimportant when the struggle took place in the circumstances 
of field warfare, had become supremely necessary, now that the 
army had come to a standstill and undertaken a great siege, 
which required heavy guns and constant replenishment of 
ammunition and stores. The rapidity of the German invasion 
had left no time for the proper organization and full garrisoning 
of these communications, which were now threatened, not merely 
by the Army of the Loire, but by other forces assembling on the 
area protected by Langres and Belfort. The latter, under 
General Cambriels, were held in check and no more by the Baden 
troops and reserve units (XIV. German corps) under General 
Wcrder, and eventually without arousing attention they were 
able to send 40,000 men to the Army of the Loire. This army, 
still around Orleans, thus came to number perhaps 150,000 
men, and opposed to it, about the 14th of November, the Ger- 
mans had only the Army Detachment of about 40,000, the II. 
army being still distant. It was under these conditions that the 
famous Orleans campaign took place. After many vicissitudes 
of fortune, and with many misunderstandings between Prince 
Frederick Charles, Moltke and the grand-duke, the Germans 
were ultimately victorious, thanks principally to the brilliant 
fighting of the X. corps at Beaune-la~Rolande(*8th of November), 
which was followed by the battle of Loigny-Poupry on the 2nd 
of December and the second capture of Orleans after heavy 
fighting on the 4th of December. 

The result of the capture of Orleans was the severance of the 
two wings of the French army, henceforward commanded 
respectively by Chanzy and Bourbaki. The latter fell back at 
once and hastily, though not closely pursued, to Bourges. 
But Chanzy, opposing the Detachment between Beaugency and 
the Forest of Marchenoir, was of sterner metal, and in the five 
days' general engagement around Beaugency (December 7-11) 
the Germans gained little or no real advantage. ' Indeed their 
solitary material success, the capture of Beaugency, was due 
chiefly to the fact that the French there were subjected to 
conflicting orders from the military and the governmental 
authorities. Chanzy then abandoned little but the field of 
battle, and on the grand-duke's representations Prince Frederick 
Charles, leaving a mere screen to impose upon Bourbaki (who 
allowed himself to be deceived and remained inactive), burned 
thither with the II. army. After that Chanzy was rapidly 
driven north-westward, though always presenting a stubborn 
front. The Delegation left Tours and betook itself to Bordeaux, 
whence it directed the government for the rest of the war. But 
all this continuous marching and fighting, and the growing 
severity of the weather, compelled Prince Frederick Charles 
to call a halt for a few days. About the 19th of December, 
therefore, the Germans (II. army and Detachment) were doted 
up in the region of Chartres, Orleans, Auxerre and Fontaine- 
bleau, Chanzy along the river Sarthe about Le Mans and Bourbaki 
still passive towards Bourges. 

During this, as during other halts, the French government 
and its generals occupied themselves with fresh plans of cam- 
paign, the former with an eager desire for results, the latter 
(Chanzy ex c ep t ed) with many misgivings. Ultimately, sad 



FRANCO-GERMAN WAR 



«3 



fatally, it wu decided that Bourbaki, whom nothing could move 
towards Orleans, should depart for the south-east, with a view 
to relieving Belfort and striking perpendicularly against the long 
line of the Germans' communications. This movement, bold 
to the point of extreme rashness judged by any theoretical rules 
of strategy, seems to have been suggested by de Freycinet. 
As the execution of it fell actually into incapable hands, it is 
difficult to judge what would have been the result had a Chanzy 
or a Faidherbe been in command of the French. At any rate 
it was vicious in so far as immediate advantages were sacrificed 
to hopes of ultimate success which Gambetta and de Freycinet 
did wrong to base on Bourbaki 's powers of generalship Late 
in December, for good or evil, Bourbaki marched off into Franche- 
Comt€ and ceased to be a factor in the Loire campaign. A 
mere calculation of time and space sufficed to show the German 
headquarters that the moment had arrived to demolish the 
stubborn Chanzy 

Prince Frederick Charles resumed the Interrupted offensive, 
pushing westward with four corps and four cavalry divisions 
I f Kamt which converged on Le Mans. There on the 10th, 
nth and 12th of January 1871 a stubbornly contested 
battle ended with the retreat of the French, who owed their 
defeat solely to the misbehaviour of the Breton mobiles. These, 
after deserting their post on the battlefield at a mere threat of 
the enemy's infantry, fled in disorder and infected with their 
terrors the men in the reserve camps of instruction, which broke 
op in turn. But Chanzy, resolute as ever, drew off his field army 
intact towards Laval, where a freshly raised corps joined him. 
The prince's army was far too exhausted to deliver another 
effective blow, and the main body of it gradually drew back into 
better quarters, while the grand duke departed for the north 
to aid in opposing Faidherbe Some idea of the strain to which 
the invaders had been subjected may be gathered from the fact 
that army corps, originally 30,000 strong, were in some cases 
reduced to 10,000 and even fewer bayonets. And at this moment 
Bourbaki was at the head of 120,000 men! Indeed, so threaten- 
iag seemed the situation on the Loire, though the French south 
of that river between Cien and Blois were mere isolated brigades, 
that the prince hurried back from Le Mans to Orleans to take 
personal command. A fresh French corps, bearing the number 
z>, and being the twenty-first actually raised during the war, 
appeared in the field towards Blois. Chanzy was again at the 
lead of 156,000 men He was about to take the offensive 
against the 40.000 Germans left near Le Mans when to his bitter 
disappointment he received the news of the armistice " We 
have still France," he had said to his staff, undeterred by the 
news of the capitulation of Pans, but now he had to submit, 
for even if his improvised army was still cheerful, there were 
many significant tokens that the people at large had sunk into 
apathy and hoped to avoid worse terms of peace by discontinuing 
the contest at once. 
' So ended the critical period of the " Defense rationale " It 
may be taken to have lasted from the day of Coulrruers to the 
last day of Le Alans, and its central point was the battle of 
Beaune-la-Rolande Its characteristics were, on the German 
side, inadequacy 0/ the system of strategy practised, which 
became palpable as soon as the organs of reconnaissance met 
with serious resistance, misjudgment of and indeed contempt 
far the fighting powers of " new formations," and the rise of a 
mint of ferocity in the man in the ranks, born of his resentment 
it the continuance of the war and the ceaseless sniping of the 
haac-tireur's rifle and the peasant's shot-gun. On the French 
wk the continual efforts of the statesmen to stimulate the 
grocrals to decisive efforts, coupled with actual suggestions as to 
tac plans of the campaign to be followed (in default, be it said, of 
u* generals themselves producing such plans), and the pro- 
icuonal soldiers* distrust of half-trained troops, acted and 
Kicted upon one another in such a way as to neutralize the 
powerful, if disconnected and erratic, forces that the war and 
the Republic had unchained As for the soldiers themselves, 
r ikar most conspicuous qualities were their uncomplaining 
T advance of fatigues and wet bivouacs, and in action their 



capacity for a single great effort and no more. But they were 
unreliable in the hands of the veteran regular general, because 
they were heterogeneous in recruiting, and unequal in experience 
and military qualities, and the French staff in those days was 
wholly incapable of moving masses of troops with the rapidity 
demanded by the enemy's methods of war, so that on the whole 
it is difficult to know whether to wonder more at their missing 
success or at their so nearly achieving it. 

The decision, as we have said, was fought out on the Loire 
and the Sarthe. Nevertheless the glorious story of the " Defense 
nationale " includes two other important campaigns— that of 
Faidherbe in the north and that of Bourbaki in the east. 

In the north the organization of the new formations was 
begun by Dr Testelin and General Farre. Bourbaki held the 
command for a short time in November before pro- p .^ 
ceeding to Tours, but the active command in field &*>** 
operations came into the hands of Faidherbe, a general *•■ i"f 
whose natural powers, so far from being cramped by 
years of peace routine and court repression, had been developed 
by a career of pioneer warfare and colonial administration. 
General Farre was his capable chief of staff. Troops were raised 
from fugitives from MeU and Sedan, as well as from depot troops 
and the Garde Mobile, and several minor successes were won by 
the national troops in the Seine valley, for here, as on the side 
of the Loire, mere detachments of the investing army round 
Paris were almost powerless. But the capitulation of Met* 
came too soon for the full development of these sources of 
military strength, and the German L army under Manteuffel, 
released from duty at Met*, marched north-eastward, capturing 
the minor fortresses on its way. Before Faidherbe assumed 
command, Farre had fought several severe actions near Amiens; 
but, greatly outnumbered, had been defeated and forced to 
retire behind the Somrae. Another French general, Briand, 
had also engaged the enemy without success near Rouen, 
Faidherbe assumed the command on the 3rd of December, and 
promptly moved forward. A general engagement on the little 
river Hallue (December 23), east-north-east of Amiens, was 
fought with no decisive results, but Faidherbe, feeling that his 
troops were only capable of winning victories in the first rush, 
drew them off on the 24th. His next effort, at Bapaume 
(January 2-3, 187 1), was more successful, but its effects were 
counterbalanced by the surrender of the fortress of Peronne 
(January 9) and the consequent establishment of the Germans 
on the line of the Somme. Meanwhile the Rouen troops had 
been contained by a strong German detachment, and there was 
no further chance of succouring Paris from the north. But 
Faidherbe, like Chanzy, was far from despair, and in spite of the 
deficiencies of his troops in equipment (50,000 pairs of shoes, 
supplied by English contractors, proved to have paper soles), 
be risked a third great battle at St Qucntin (January 19). This 
time he was severely defeated, though his loss in killed and 
wounded was about equal to that of the Germans, who were 
commanded by Gocben. Still the attempt of the Germans to 
surround him failed and he drew off his forces with his artillery 
and trains unharmed. The Germans, who had been greatly 
impressed by the solidity of his army, did not pursue him far, 
and Faidherbe was preparing for a fresh effort when he received 
orders to suspend hostilities. 

The last episode is Bourbaki's campaign in the east, with its 
mournful dose at Pontarlier Before the crisis of the last week 
of November, the French forces under General Crcmer, Cambricls' 
successor, had been so far successful in minor enterprises that, 
as mentioned above, the right wing of the Loire army, severed 
from the left by the battle of Orleans and subsequently held 
inactive at Bourges and Ncvers, was ordered to Franche Comte 
to take the offensive against the XIV corps and other German 
troops there, to relieve Belfort and to strike a blow across the 
invaders' h'nc of communications. But there were many delays 
in execution. The staff work, which was at no time satisfactory 
in the French armies of 1S70, was complicated by the snow, 
the bad state of the roads, and the mountainous nature of the 
country, and Bourbaki, a brave general of division in action, 



FRANCOIS DE NEUFCHATEAU 



but irresolute and pretentious as a commander in chief, was not 
the man to cope with the situation. Only the furious courage and 
patient endurance of hardships of the rank and file, and the good 
qualities of some of the generals, such as Clinchant, Cremer and 
Billot, and junior staff officers such as Major Brug&re (afterwards 
generalissimo of the French army), secured what success was 
attained. 

Werder, the German commander, warned of the imposing 
concentration of the French, evacuated Dijon and Dole just in 
m time to avoid the blow and rapidly drew together his 

nmma^n forces behind the Ognon above Vesoul. A furious 
*■ to* attack on one of his divisions at Villersexel (January 9) 
BasL cost him 2000 prisoners as well as his killed and 
wounded, and Bourbaki, heading for Bclfort, was actually nearer 
to the fortress than the Germans. But at the crisis more time 
was wasted, Werder (who had almost lost hope of maintaining 
himself and had received both encouragement and stringent 
instructions to do so) slipped in front of the French, and took up 
a long weak line of defence on the river Lisaine, almost within 
cannon shot of Belfort. The cumbrous French army moved up 
and attacked him there with 150,000 against 60,000 (January 
!5-i7i i&7t). It wasatlast repulsed, thanks chiefly to Bourbaki's 
inability to handle his forces, and, to the bitter disappointment 
of officers and men alike, he ordered a rotreat, leaving Belfort 
to its fate. 

Ere this, so urgent was the necessity of assisting Werder, 
Manteuffel had been placed at the head of a new Army of the 
South. Bringing two corps from the I army opposing Faidherbe 
and calling up a third from the armies around Paris, and a fourth 
from the II. army, Manteuffel hurried southward by Langres 
to the Saone. Then, hearing of Werde'r's victory on the Lisaine, 
he deflected the march so as to cut off Bourbaki's retreat, 
drawing off the left flank guard of the latter (commanded with 
much idol and little real effect by Garibaldi) by a sharp feint 
attack on Dijon. The pressure of Werder in front and Manteuffel 
in flank gradually forced the now thoroughly disheartened 
French forces towards the Swiss frontier, and Bourbaki, realizing 
at once the ruin of his army and his own incapacity to re-establish 
its efficiency, shot himself, though not fatally, on the 26th of 
January. Clinchant, his successor, acted promptly enough to 
remove the immediate danger, but on the 29th he was informed 
of the armistice without at the same time being told that Belfort 
and the eastern theatre of war had been on Jules Favre's demand 
expressly excepted from its operation. 1 Thus the French, the 
leaders distracted by doubts and the worn-out soldiers fully 
aware that the war was practically over, stood still, while 
Manteuffel completed his preparations for hemming them in. 
On the 1 st of February General Clinchant led his troops into 
Switzerland, where they were disarmed, interned and well cared 
for by the authorities of the neutral state The rearguard fought 
a last action with the advancing Germans before passing the 
frontier On the 16th, by order of the French government, 
Belfort capitulated, but it was not until the nth of March that 
the Germans took possession of Bitche, the little fortress on the 
Vosges, where in the early days of the war de Failly had illus- 
trated so signally the want of concerted action and the neglect 
of opportunities which had throughout proved the bane of the 
French armies. 

The losses of the Germans during the whole war were 28.000 
dead and 101,000 wounded and disabled, those of the French, 
156,000 dead (17,000 of whom died, of sickness and wounds, as 
prisoners in German hands) and 143,000 wounded and disabled. 
720,000 men surrendered to the Germans or to the authorities 
of neutral states, and at the close of the war there were still 
250,000 troops on foot, with further resources not immediately 
available to the number of 280,000 more. In this connexion, 
and as evidence of the respective numerical yields of the German 
system working normally and of the French improvised for 
the emergency, we quote from Berndt (Zohl in Kriege) the 
following comparative figures. — 

1 Jules Favre, it appears, neglected to inform Gambetta of the 
exception. ^ . . 



End of July French 250,000, (jermans 384.000 under 

Middle of November „ 600,000 M 425,000 „ 

After the surrender 

of Paris and the 

disarmament of 

Bourbaki's army . „ 534«0Ot» » 835,000 

The date of the armistice was the 28th of January, and that 
of the ratification of the treaty of Frankfurt the 23rd of May 
1871 

Bibliography.— -The literature of the war it ever increasing In 
volume, and the following list only includes a very short selection 
made amongst the most important works. 

General.— German official history, Der denlsck-jrane4s\uhe Krieg 
(Berlin, 1872-1881 , English and French translations) , monographs 
of the German general staff (Krtegsgesch. Etntelschrtpen) ; Moltke, 
Cesch. des dtutsch-franzds. Kneges (Berlin, 1891 English translation) 
and GesammelU Schrtften des G F M Grafen v. Moltke (Berlin, 
1900- ) , French official history, La Guerre de 1870-1871 (Paris, 
1902- ) (the fullest and most accurate account);; P Lehautcourt 
(General Palat), IlisL de la guerre de 1870-18/1 (Paris, 1 901-1907); 
v. Vcrdy du Vernois, Studten uber den Krteg anf Grundlagt 

1870-1871 (Berlin, 1892-1896); G. Cardinal von Widdern, Krtttxkt 
Tage 1870-1871 (French translation. Joumees critique*}. Events 
preceding the war are dealt with in v Bernhardi. Zunscken mm 
Krwten, Baron StofTcl. Rapports milttatres 1860-1870 (Paris, 1871; 
English translation); G. Lehmann, Die Mobilmackung 1870-1871 
(Berlin, 1905). 

For the war in Lorraine Prince Kraft of Hohenlohe-Ii 



Briefe uber Strategic (English translation, Letters an Strategy); F. 
Foch, Conduit* de la guerre, pt ii., H. Bonnal, Manoeuvre de Saint 
Pnvat (Paris, 1904-1906); Maistre, Spiekeren (Paris, 1908), v. 
Schell, Die Operations der I. Arme* unlet Gen. wen Stetnmets (Berlin, 
1872; English translation); F. Hoorug, Taktik der ZnkwnU (English 
translation), and 24 Stunden Moltke scken Strategte (Berlin, 1892; 
English and French translations). 

For the war in Alsace and Champagne* H Kunx, StUadU wen 

Worth (Berlin, 1891), and later works by the same author; H. 

FrdickwtiUr (Paris, 1899) , Hahnke, Die Opemttonen des 

nee bis Sedan (Berlin, 1873; French translation). 

the war in the Provinces: v. der Goltz, Leon Gambetta uni 

irmeen (Berlin, 1877), Die Operations der II. Armee an die 

(Berlin, 1875); Dte sieben Tage von Le Mans (Berlin, 1873); 

ng der fransds Provinmalkeereni en 

wince (Paris, 1871), L A. Hale, The 

04); Hoenig, Volkskrieg an He Loire 

rationen v. Sedan bis sum End* d. Knees 

Jation), v Schell, Dee Ope rnh on en der J. 

» (Berlin, 1873; English translation); 

f der Nordarmee unter Gem. v. Mautemjfa 



der Sudarmee (Berlin, 1872, English 
— * * , (Pariari872). 

Festungsknegs 

1899-1900), Goetxe, Tmiigkeit 



mpagne de I 'armee dn nord 
, Krtegsgesch. Betsptele d Ft 
[Berlin, 1 899-1900), Goets _ 
Berlin, 1871, English translation). 
The most useful bibliography is that of General Palat C P. 
Lehautcourt "). (C. F. A.) 



FRANCOIS DB NEUFCHATEAU, NICOLAS LOUIS, Comer 
(1750-1828), French statesman and poet, was born at Saffais 
near Roxiercsirj Lorraine on the 17th of April 1750, the son of a 
school-teacher. He studied at the Jesuit college of Neufchateau 
in the Vosges, and at the age of fourteen published a volume 
of poetry which obtained the approbation of Rousseau and of 
Voltaire. Neufchateau conferred on him its name, and he was 
elected member of some of the principal academies of France. 
In 1783 he was named procureur-gintral to the council of Santo 
Domingo. He had previously been engaged on a translation 
of Ariosto, which he finished before his return to France five 
years afterwards, but it perished during the shipwreck winch 
occurred during his voyage home. After the Revolution he 
was elected deputy suppliant to the National Assembly, was 
charged with the organization of the Department of the Vosges, 
and was elected later to the Legislative Assembly, of which he 
first became secretary and then president In 1793 he was 
imprisoned on account of the political sentiments, in reality 
very innocent, of his drama Pamela ou la wertu rtcampensk 
(Theatre de la Nation, 1st August 1793), but was set free a few 
days afterwards at the revolution of the oth ThermMor la 
1797 he became minister of the interior, in which office he 
distinguished himself by the thoroughness of his administration 
in all departments. It is to him that France owes its system 
of inland navigation. lie inaugurated the museum of the Louvre, 



FRANCONIA— FRANCS-TIREURS 



»5 



and mi one of the promoter* of the first universal exhibition 
of industrial products. From 1804 to 1806 he was president 
of the Senate, and in that capacity the duty devolved upon 
him of soliciting Napoleon to assume the title of emperor In 
1808 he received the dignity of count. Retiring from public 
life in 1814, be occupied himself chiefly in the study of agriculture, 
until his death on the 10th of January 1828. 

Francois de Neufchateau had very multifarious accomplish- 
ments, and interested himself in a great variety of subjects, but 
his fame rests chiefly on what he did as a statesman for the 
encouragement and development of the industries of France. 
His mature* poetical productions did not fulfil the promise of 
those of his early years, for though some of his verses have a 
superficial elegance, his poetry generally lacks force and originalit y. 
He had considerable qualifications as a grammarian and critic, 
as is witnessed by his editions of the Provinciates and Patsies 
of Pascal (Paris, 1822 and 1826) and Gil Bias (Paris, 1820) His 
principal poetical works are Potsies divcrscs (1765), Ode sur Us 
parUments (1771); Nouteaux Contes moraux (1781); Us Vosges 
(1796); Fables et conies (1S14), and Les Tropes, ou Us figures de 
mots (1817). He was also the author of a large number of 
works on agriculture 

See RecweU its Uttres, circulates, discours et autre* actes publics 
immuis dn Q* Francois pendant ses deux excrctces du mtntslere de 
Tinnrienr (Paris, An vii.-viii n 2 vols ) , tfoticc btjgrapktque sur M 
k com* Francois de SeufchAteau (1828). by A F dc Sillery; H 
Boaaelier, Ithnoires sur Francois de Ncufchdltau (Paris, 1829), 
J. Larooureux. Notice historique et ItUeraire sur la vie ti Us cents de 
Francois d* Neufchdtca* (Paris, 1843). E Mcaumc, Etude htstorique 
d b io grap ki qu* sur Us Lorrains rtvolutionnaires- Palitsot, Oregoire. 
Francois de NeufcMteau (Nancy, 1882). Ch Simian. Francois de 
Neujehdiomn at Us expositions (Paris, 1889) 

FRAMOOOTA (Ger Franken), the name of one of the stcm- 
duchies of medieval Germany It stretched along the valley of 
the Main from the Rhine to Bohemia, and was bounded on the 
north by Saxony and Thuringia, and on the south by Swabia 
and Bavaria It also included a district around Mainz, Spires 
and Worms, on the left bank of the Rhine The word Franconia, 
first used in a Latin charter of 1053, was applied like the words 
Francs, Francia and Franken, to a portion of the land occupied 
by the Franks. 

About the dose of the 5th century this territory was conquered 
by Oovis, king of the Salian Franks, was afterwards incorporated 
with the h* w g Aww of Austrasia, and at a later period came under 
the rule of Charlemagne. After the treaty of Verdun in 843 
it became the centre of the East Frankish or German kingdom, 
and in theory remained so for a long period, and was for a time 
the moat important of the duchies which arose on the ruins of the 
CtrwJiwtp mn empire. The land was divided into counties, or 
gaum, which were ruled by counts, prominent among whom 
were members of the families of Conradine and Babenberg, by 
whose feuds it was frequently devastated. Conrad, a member 
of the former family, who took the title of " duke in Franconia " 
about the year 000, was chosen German king in 9x1 as the 
representative of the foremost of the German races. Conrad 
handed over the chief authority in Franconia to his brother 
Eberhard, who remained on good terms with Conrad's successor 
Henry I the Fowler,, but rose against the succeeding king, Otto 
the Great, and was killed in battle in 939, when his territories 
were divided. The influence of Franconia began to decline 
under the kings of the Saxon house It lacked political unity, 
had no opportunities for extension, and soon became divided 
into Rhenish Franconia (Francia rhenenris, Gcr Rkeinfranien) 
tad Eastern Franconia (Francia oriental is, Ger Ost franken). 
The most influential family in Rhenish Franconia was that of 
the Saltans, the head of which early in the 10th century was 
Conrad the Red, duke of Lorraine, and son-in-law of Otto tbe 
Great. This Conrad, his son Otto and his grandson Conrad 
are sometimes called dukes of Franconia. and in 1024 his great- 
grandson Conrad, also duke of Franconia. was elected German 
king as Conrad II and founded the line of Francoman 01 Salian 
emperors, Rhenish Franconia gradually became a land of 
tree towns and lesser nobles, and under the earlier Franconian 



emperors sections passed to the count palatine of the Rhine, 
the archbishop of Mainz, the bishops of Worms and Spires 
and other clerical and lay nobles; and the name Franconia, 
or Francia orientalis as it was then called, was confined to the 
eastern portion of the duchy. Clerical authority was becoming 
predominant in this region, A series of charters dating from 
82a to 1025 had granted considerable powers to the bishops of 
Wiirxburg, who, by the time of the emperor Henry II., possessed 
judicial authority over the whole of eastern Franconia. The 
duchy was nominally retained by the emperors in their own 
hands until 11 15, when the emperor Henry V., wishing to curb 
the episcopal influence in this neighbourhood, appointed his 
nephew Conrad of Hohenstaufen as duke of Franconia. Conrad's 
son Frederick took the title of duke of Rothenburg instead of 
duke of Franconia, but in xio6, on the death of Conrad of 
Hohenstaufen, son of the emperor Frederick I., the title fell 
into disuse. Meanwhile the bishop of Wilrzburg had regained 
his former power in the duchy, and this was confirmed in 1168 
by the emperor Frederick I. 

Tbe title remained in abeyance until the early years of the 
15th century, when It was assumed by John II., bishop of Wurx- 
burg, and retained by his successors until the bishopric was 
secularized in 1802. The greater part of the lands were united 
with Bavaria, and the name Franconia again fell into abeyance 
It was revived in 1837, when Louis I., king of Bavaria, gave to 
three northern portions of bis kingdom the names of Upper, 
Middle and Lower Franconia. In 1633 Bcrnhard, duke of Saxe» 
Weimar, hoping to create a principality for himself out of tbe 
ecclesiastical lands, had taken the title of duke of Franconia, 
but his hopes were destroyed by his defeat at Ndrdlingen in 1634. 
When Germany was divided into circles by the emperor Maxi- 
milian I. in 1500, the name Franconia was given to that circle 
which included the eastern part of the old duchy. The lands 
formerly comprised in the duchy of Franconia are now divided 
between the kingdoms of Bavaria and Wurttemberg, the grand- 
duchies of Baden and Hesse, and the Prussian province of 
Hesse-Nassau. 



B8 V* 1 88 
Gewalt der "Bischofe von WUrdurg (WUrzburg, 1874). 

FRANCS-ARCHERS. The institution of the francs-archert 
was tbe first attempt at the formation of regular infantry in 
France. They were created by the ordinance of Mont ils-les-Tours 
on the 28th of August 1448, which prescribed that in each parish 
an archer should be chosen from among the most apt in the use 
of arms; this archer to be exempt from the tatile and certain 
obligations, to practise shooting with the bow on Sundays and 
feast-days, and to hold himself ready to march fully equipped 
at the first signal. Under Charles VII. the francs-archers dis- 
tinguished themselves in numerous battles with the English, 
and assisted the king to drive them from France. During the 
succeeding reigns the institution languished, and finally dis- 
appeared in the middle of the x6th century The francs-archers 
were also called francs-taupins. 

See Daniel, Histoire de la milice francaise (1721) ; and E. Boutaric, 
Institutions militaires de la France avant Usarmies permanentes (1 863) 

FRANCS-TIREURS ("Free-Shooters"), irregular troops, 
almost exclusively infantry, employed by the French in the war of 
1870-1871 They were originally rifle clubs or unofficial military 
societies formed in the east of France at the time of the Luxem- 
burg crisis of 1867. The members were chiefly concerned with 
the practice of rifle-shooting, and were expected in war to act 
as light troops. As under the then system of conscription the 
greater part of the nation's military energy was allowed to run 
to waste, the francs-tireurs were not only popular, but efficient 
workers in their sphere of action. As they wore no uniforms, 
were armed with the best existing rifles and elected their own 
officers, the government made repeated attempts to bring the 
societies, which were at once a valuable asset to the armed 
strength of France and a possible menace to internal order, 
under military discipline This was strenuously resisted by the 
societies, to their sorrow as it turned out, for tbe Germans treated 



i6 



FRANEKER— FRANKENTHAL 



captured francs-tireurs as irresponsible non-combatants found 
with arms in their hands and usually exacted the death penalty. 
In July 1870, at the outbreak of the war, the societies were brought 
under the control of the minister of war and organized for field 
service, but it was not until the 4th of November — by which 
time the levie en masse was in force — that they were placed under 
the orders of the generals in the field. After that they were 
sometimes organized in large bodies and incorporated in the mass 
of the armies, but more usually they continued to work in small 
bands, blowing up culverts on the invaders' lines of communica- 
tion, cutting off small reconnoitring parties, surprising small 
posts, &c It is now acknowledged, even by the Germans, that 
though the francs-tireurs did relatively little active mischief, 
they paralysed large detachments of the enemy, contested every 
step of his advance (as in the Loire campaign), and prevented 
him from gaining information, and that their soldierly qualities 
inproved with experience Their most celebrated feats were the 
blowing up of the Moselle railway bridge at Fontenoy on the 22nd 
of January 1871 (see Lcs Chasseurs des Vosges by Lieut.- Colonel 
St fttienne, Toul, 1006), and the heroic defence of Chateaudun 
by Lipowski's Paris corps and the francs-tireurs of Cannes and 
Nantes (October 18, 1870) It cannot be denied that the original 
members of the rifle clubs were joined by many bad characters, 
but the patriotism of the majority was unquestionable, for little 
mercy was shown by the Germans to those francs-tireurs who fell 
into their hands. The seventy ot the German reprisals is itself 
the best testimony to the fear and anxiety inspired by the presence 
of active bands of francs-tireurs on the flanks and in rear of the 
invaders. 

FRANEKER, a town in the province of Friesland, Holland, 
5 m E of Harlingcn on the railway and canal to Leeu warden 
Pop (1000) 7 187 It was at one time a favourite residence of the 
Frisian nobility, many of whom had their castles here, and it 
possessed a celebrated university, founded by the Frisian estates 
in 1585. This was suppressed by Napoleon I in 18x1, and the 
endowments were diverted four years later to the support of an 
athenaeum, and afterwards of a gymnasium, with which a 
physiological cabinet and a botanical garden are connected. 
Franckcr also possesses a town hall (1591), which contains a 
planetarium, made by one Eisc Eisinga in 1 774-1881 The 
fine observatory was founded about 1780. The church of St 
Martin (1420) contains several fine tombs of the 15th- 17th 
centuries. The industries of the town include silk-weaving, 
woollen-spinning, shipbuilding and pottery-making. It is also 
a considerable market for agricultural produce. 

FRANK, JAKOB (1726-1791), a Jewish theologian, who 
founded in Poland, in the middle of the 18th century, a sect 
which emanated from Judaism but ended by merging with 
Christianity The sect was the outcome of the Messianic 
mysticism of Sabbetai Zebi. It was an antinomian movement 
in which the authority of the Jewish law was held to be super- 
seded by personal freedom. The Jewish authorities, alarmed 
at the moral laxity which resulted from the emotional rites of 
the Frankists, did their utmost to suppress the sect. But the 
latter, posing as an anti-Talmudic protest in behalf of a spiritual 
religion, won a certain amount of public sympathy. There was, 
however, no deep sincerity in the tenets of the Frankists, for 
though in 1759 they were baptized en masse, amid much pomp, 
the Church soon became convinced that Frank was not a genuine 
convert. He was imprisoned on a charge of heresy, but on his 
release in 1763 the empress Maria Theresa patronized him, 
regarding him as a propagandist of Christianity among the Jews 
He thenceforth lived in state as baron of Offenbach, and on his 
death (1791) his daughter Eva succeeded him as head of the sect 
The Frankists gradually merged in the general Christian body, the 
movement leaving no permanent trace in the synagogue (I A.) 

FRANK-ALMOIGN (libera ekemosyna, free alms); in the English 
law of real property, a species of spiritual tenure, whereby a 
religious corporation, aggregate or sole, holds lands of the donor 
to them and their successors for ever. It was a tenure dating 
from Saxon times, held not on the ordinary feudal conditions, 
but discharged of all services except the trinoda necessilas 



But " they which hold in frank-almoign are bound of right before 
God to make orisons, prayers, masses and other divine services 
for the souls of their grantor or feoffor, and for the souls of their 
heirs which are dead, and for the prosperity and good life and 
good health of their heirs which are alive. And therefore they 
shall do no fealty to their lord, because that this divine service 
is better for them before God than any doing of fealty " (Lilt 
s. 135) . It was the tenure by which the greater number of the 
monasteries and religious houses held their lands, k was ex- 
pressly exempted from the statute 1 2 Car. II c 24 (1660) , by which 
the other ancient tenures were abolished, and it is the tenure by 
which the parochial clergy and many ecclesiastical and eleemosy- 
nary foundations hold their lands at the present day. As a form 
of donation, however, it came to an end by the passing of the 
statute Quia Emptores, for by that statute no new tenure of 
frank-almoign could be created, except by the crown. 

Sec Pollock and Maitland, History of English Law, where the history 
of frank-almoign is given at length 

FRANKEL, ZECHARIAS (1801-1875), Jewish theologian, one 
of the founders of the Breslau school of " historical Judaism." 
This school attempts to harmonize critical treatment of the docu- 
ments of religion with fidelity to traditional beliefs and observ- 
ances. For a time at least, the compromise succeeded in staying 
the disintegrating effects of the liberal movement in Judaism. 
Frankcl was the author of several valuable works, among then 
Sepluagtnt Studies, an Introduction to the Mishnah (1859), aad 
a similar work on the Palestinian Talmud ( 1 870) He also edited 
the Monatsschrtft, devoted to Jewish learning on modern lines. 
But his chief claim to fame rests on his headship of the Breslau 
Seminary This was founded in 1854 for the training of rabbis 
who should combine their rabbinic studies with secular courses 
at the university The whole character of the rabbinate has been 
modified under the influence of this, the first seminary of the 
kind. (I A.) 

FRANKENBERO, a manufacturing town of Germany, in the 
kingdom of Saxony, on the Zschopau, 7 m N E of Chemnitz, 
on the railway Niederwiesa-Rosswein. Pop ( 1905) 13,303. The 
principal buildings are the large Evangelical parish church, 
restored in 1874-1875, and the town-hall. Its industries include 
extensive woollen, cotton and silk weaving, dyeing, the manu- 
facture of brushes, furniture and cigars, iron-founding and 
machine building It is well provided with schools, including 
one of weaving. 

FRANKENHAUSEN, a town of Germany, in the principality 
of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, on an artificial arm of the Wipper, 
a tributary of the Saale. 36 m NNE of Gotha, Pop (1905) 
6534. It consists of an old and a new town, the latter mostl> 
rebuilt since a destructive fire in 1833, and has an old chateau 
of the princes of Schwarzburg, three Protestant churches, a 
seminary for teachers, a hospital and a modem town-hall. 
Its industries include the manufacture of sugar, cigars and 
buttons, and there are- brine springs, with baths, m the vicinity 
At Frankenhausen a battle was fought on the 15th of May 1525, 
in which the insurgent peasants under Thomas MUnxer were 
defeated by the a llied princes of Saxony and Hesse 

FRANKENSTEIN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province 
of Silesia, on the Paiisebach, 35 m. S. by W of Breslau Pop. 
(1905) 7800- It is still surrounded by its medieval walls, has two 
Evangelical and three Roman Catholic churches, among the 
latter the parish church with a cunous overhanging tower, and 
a monastery The industries include the manufacture of 
artificial manures, bricks, beer and straw hats. There are also 
mills for grinding the magnesite found in the neighbourhood. 

FRANKENTHAL, a town of Germany, in the Bavarian 
Palatinate, on the Isenach, connected with the Rhine by a 
canal 3 m in length, 6 m N W from Mannheim, and on the 
railways Ncunkirchen-Worms and Frankenthal-Grosskarlbach. 
Pop (1905) 18,191. It has two Evangelical and a Roman 
Catholic church, a fine medieval town-hall, two interesting old 
gates, remains of its former environing walls, several public 
monuments, including one to the veterans of the Napoleonic 
wars, and a museum. Its industries include the manufacture 



FRANKENWALD— FRANKFORT-ON-MAIN 



«7 



of machinery, casks, corks, soap, dolls and furniture, iron- 
founding and bell-founding— the famous " Kaiserglocke " of 
the Cologne cathedral was cast here. Frankenthal was formerly 
famous for its porcelain factory, established here in 1755 by Paul 
Anton Hannong of Strassburg, who sold it in 176a to the elector 
palatine Charles Theodore. Its fame is mainly due to the 
modellers Konrad Link (1732-1802) and Johann Peter Mckhior 
(d. 1706) (who worked at Frankenthal between 1779 and 1703). 
The best products of this factory are figures and groups repre- 
senting contemporary life, or allegorical subjects in the rococo 
taste of the period, and they are surpassed only by those of the 
more famous factory at Meissen. In 1795 the factory was sold 
to Peter von Reccum, who removed it to Grunstadt. 

Frankenthal (Franconodal) is mentioned as a village in the 
8th century. A house of Augustinian canons established here 
in 1 1 19 by Erkenbert, chamberlain of Worms, was suppressed 
in 156a by the elector palatine Frederick III., who gave its 
possessions) to Protestant refugees from the Netherlands. In 
1577 this colony received town rights from the elector John 
Casimir, whose successor fortified the place. From 1623 until 
1652, save for two years, it was occupied by the Spaniards, and 
in 1688-1689 it was stormed and burned by the French, the 
fortifications being raxed. In 1697 it was reconstituted as a town, 
and under the elector Charles Theodore it became the capital 
of the Palatinate. From 1 79S to 1814 it was incorporated in the 
French department of Mont Tonnerre. 

See Wille, Stadl u. Feslung Frankentkai wdkrend des dreissit- 
jakrimm Krugtx (Heidelberg, 1877); Hildcnbrand, Cesch. ia Stadt 
Fnmhemkal (1893). For the porcelain see Hcuscr, Frankenthakr 
Cnppem suss* Figure* (Spires, 1899). 

FRANKENWALD, a mountainous district of Germany, 
forming the geological connexion between the Fichtclgebirge 
and the Thuringian Forest. It is a broad well-wooded plateau, 
running for about 30 m. in a north-westerly direction, descending 
gently on the north and eastern sides towards the Saalc, but more 
precipitously to the Bavarian plain in the west, and attaining its 
highest elevation in the Kieferle near Steinheid (2900 ft.). Along 
the centre lies the watershed between the basins of the Main and 
the Saale, belonging to the systems of the Rhine and Elbe 
respectively. The principal tributaries of the Main from the 
Frankenwald are the Rodach and Hasslach, and of the Saale, 
theSdbits. 

See H. Schmid, Fuhrer dutch dm Franktnwald (Bamberg, 1 894); 
Meyer, Thurimgn und drr Franhcwwcld (15th ed. a Leipzig, 1900), 
and Gfirabel, Gevgnostisckc Besckrcibung da Fuhtetgtbirgcs mil dem 
Fnmk tnwald (Gotha, 1879). 

FRANKFORT, a dty and the county-seat of Clinton county, 
Indiana, U.S.A., 40 m. N.W. of Indianapolis. Pop. (1800) 
5919; (1900) 7x00 (144 foreign-born); (1910) 8634. Frankfort 
is served by the Chicago, Indianapolis & Louisville, the Lake Erie 
k Western, the Vandalia, and the Toledo, St Louis ft Western 
railways, and by the Indianapolis ft North -Western Traction 
Interurban railway (electric). The city is a division point on 
the Toledo, St Louis ft Western railway, which has large shops 
here. Frankfort is a trade centre for an agricultural and lumber- 
ing region; among its manufactures are handles, agricultural 
implements and foundry products. The first settlement in the 
neighbourhood was made in 1826; in 1830 the town was founded, 
and in 1875 it was chartered as a city. The city limits were 
considerably extended immediately after 1900. 

FRANKFORT, the capital city of Kentucky, U.S.A., and the 
county-seat of Franklin county, on the Kentucky river, about 
55 m. E. of Louisville. Pop. (1800) 7892; (1900) 9487, of whom 
3316 were negroes; (1910 census) 10,465. The city is served 
by the Chesapeake ft Ohio, the Louisville ft Nashville, and the 
Frankfort ft Cincinnati railways, by the Central Kentucky 
Traction Co. (electric), and by steamboat lines to Cincinnati, 
Louisville and other river ports. It is built among picturesque 
hills on both sides of the river, and is in the midst of the famous 
Kentucky "blue grass region" and of a rich lumber-producing 
region. The most prominent building is the Capitol, about 400 ft. 
long and 185 ft. wide, built of granite and white limestone in the 
Italian Renaissance style, with 70 large Ionic columns, and a 



dome 205 ft. above the terrace line, supported by 14 other 
columns. The Capitol was built in 1905-1907 at a cost of more 
than $2,000,000; in it are housed the state library and the 
library of the Kentucky State Historical Society. At Frankfort, 
also, are the state arsenal, the state penitentiary and the state 
home for feeble-minded children, and just outside the city 
limits is the state coloured normal school. The old capitol (first 
occupied in 1829) is still standing. In Franklin cemetery rest 
the remains of Daniel Boone and of Theodore O'Hara (1820- 
1867), a lawyer, soldier, Journalist and peel, who served in the 
U.S. army in 1846-1848 during the Mexican War, took part in 
filibustering expeditions to Cuba, served in the Confederate army, 
and is best known as the author of " The Bivouac of the Dead," 
a poem written for the burial in Frankfort of some soldiers 
who had lost their lives at Buena Vista. Here also are the 
graves of Richard M. Johnson, vice-president of the United 
States in 1837-1841, and the sculptor Joel T Hart (1810-1877). 
The city has a considerable trade with the surrounding country,,' 
in which large quantities of tobacco and hemp are produced; 
its manufactures include lumber, brooms, chairs, shoes, hemp 
twine, canned vegetables and glass bottles. The total value of 
the city's factory product in 1905 was $1,747,338, being 31*6% 
more than in 190a Frankfort (said to have been named after 
Stephen Frank, one of an early pioneer party ambushed here by 
Indians) was founded in 1786 by General James Wilkinson, then 
deeply interested in trade with the Spanish at New Orleans, and 
in the midst of his Spanish intrigues. In 179a the city was made 
the capital of the state. In 1862, during the famous campaign in 
Kentucky of General Braxton Bragg (Confederate) and General 
D. C. Buell (Federal), Frankfort was occupied for a short time 
by Bragg, who, just before being forced out by Buell, took part ia 
the inauguration of Richard J Hawes, chosen governor by the 
Confederates of the state. Hawes, however, never discharged 
the duties of his office. During the bitter contest for the governor- 
ship in 1000 between William Goebel (Democrat) and William S. 
Taylor (Republican), each of whom claimed the election, Goebel 
was assassinated at Frankfort. (See also Kentucky.) Frankfort 
received a city charter in 1839. 

FRANKFORT-ON-MAIN (Gcr. Frankfurt cm Main), a city 
of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau, prin- 
cipally on the right bank of the Main, 24 m. above its confluence 
with the Rhine at Mains, and i6m.N. from Darmstadt. Always 
a place of great trading importance, long the place of election 
for the German kings, and until 1866, together with Hamburg, 
Bremen and Lubeck, one of the four free cities of Germany, it 
still retains its position as one of the leading commercial centres 
of the German empire. Its si tuition in the broad and fertile 
valley of the Main, the northern horizon formed by the soft 
outlines of the Taunus range, is one of great natural beauty, 
the surrounding country being richly dad with orchard and 
forest. 

Frankfort is one of the most interesting, as it is also one of 
the wealthiest, of German cities. Apart from its commercial 
importance, its position, close to the fashionable watering-places 
of Homburg,. Nauhcim and Wiesbaden, has rendered it " cos- 
mopolitan " in the best sense of the term. The various stages in 
the development of the city are clearly indicated in its general 
plan and the surviving names of many of its streets. The line 
of the original 12th century walls and moat is marked by the 
streets of which the names end in -graben, from the Hirschgrabcn 
on the W. to the Wollgrabcn on the E. The space enclosed by 
these and by the river on the S. is known as the " old town " 
(Allsiadt). The so-called " new town " {Ncttstcdt), added in 1333, 
extends to the Aitlegen, the beautiful gardens and promenades 
laid out (1S06-1 812) on the site of the 17th century fortifications, 
of which they faithfully preserve the general ground plan. Of 
the medieval fortifications the picturesque Eschenhcimer Tor, a 
round tower 15s ft. high, dating from 1400 to 1428, the Renten- 
turm (1456) on the Main and the Kuhhirtenturm (c. 1490) in 
Sachsenhausen, are the sole remains. Since the demolition of 
the fortifications the city has greatly expanded. Sachsenhausen 
on the south bank of the river, formerly the seat of a commandery 



i8 



FRANKFORT-ON-MAIN 



of the Teutonic Order (by treaty with Austria in 184s all pro- 
perty and right* of the order in Frankfort territory were sold 
to the city, except the church and house), is now a quarter of 
the chy. In other directions also the expansion has been rapid; 
the village of Bornheim was incorporated in Frankfort in 1877, 
the former Hessian town of Bockenheim in 1895, and the suburbs 
of Niederrad, Oberrad and Seckbach in 1900. 

The main development of the city has been to the north of the 
river, which b crossed by numerous bridges and flanked by fine 
quays and promenades. The Altstadt, though several broad 
streets have been opened through it, still preserves many of its 
narrow alleys and other medieval features. The Judengasse 
(Ghetto), down to 1806 the sole Jews' quarter, has been pulled 
down, with the exception of the ancestral house of the Rothschild 
family — No. 148 — which has been restored and retains its 
ancient facade. As the Altstadt is mainly occupied by artisans 
and petty tradesmen, so the Neustadt is the principal business 
quarter of the city, containing the chief public buildings and the 
principal hotels. The main arteries of the city are the Zeil, a 
broad street running from the Friedberger Anlage to the Ross- 
markt and thence continued, by the Kaiserstrasse, through the 
fine new quarter built after 1872, to the magnificent principal 
railway station; and the Steinweg and Goethestrasse, which 
lead by the Bockenheimer Tor to the Bockenheimer Landstrasse, 
a broad boulevard intersecting the fashionable residential suburb 
to the N.W. 

Churches.— The principal ecclesiastical building in Frankfort 
is the cathedral (Dom). Built of red sandstone, with a massive 
tower terminating in a richly ornamented cupola and 300 ft. in 
height, it is the most conspictiousobject in the city. Thisbuilding, 
in which the Roman emperors were formerly elected and, since 
1 56 a, crowned, was founded in 85 2 by King Louis the German, and 
was later known as the Salvator Kirche. After its reconstruction 
(1 235-1239), it was dedicated to St Bartholomew. From this 
period date the nave and the side aisles; the choir was completed 
in 131 5-1338 and the long transepts in 1346-1354. The cloisters 
were rebuilt in 1348-1447, and the electoral chapel, on the south 
of the choir, was completed in 1355. The tower was begun in 
1415, but remained unfinished. On the 15th of August 1867 
the tower and roof were destroyed by fire and considerable 
damage was done to the rest of the edifice. The restoration 
was immediately taken in hand, and the whole work was finished 
in 1881, including the completion of the tower, according to the 
plans of the 15th century architect, Hans von Ingelbeim. In 
the interior is the tomb of the German king Gttnther of Schwarz- 
burg, who died in Frankfort in 1349, and that of Rudolph, the 
last knight of Sachsenhausetk, who died in 1371. Among the 
other Roman Catholic churches are the Leonhardskirche, the 
Ltebfrauenkirche (church of Our Lady) and the Deutschordens- 
kirche (14th century) in Sachsenhausen. The Leonhardskirche 
(restored in 1882) was begun in 1219, it is said on the site of the 
palace of Charlemagne. It was originally a three-aisled basilica, 
but is now a five-aisled Halltnkircke; the choir was added in 
1314. It has two Romanesque towers. The Liebfrauenkirche 
is first mentioned in 13x4 as a collegiate church; the nave was 
consecrated in 134a The choir was added in 1 506-1 509 and the 
whole church thoroughly restored in the second half of the 18th 
century, when the tower was built (1770). Of the Protestant 
churches the oldest is the Nikolaikirche, which dates from the 
13th century, the fine cast-iron spire erected in 1843 had to be 
taken down in 1001. The Paulskirche, the principal Evangelical 
(Lutheran) church, built between 1786 and 1833, is a red sand- 
stone edifice of no architectural pretensions, but interesting 
as the seat of the national parliament of 1848-1849. The 
Katharinenkirche, built 1678-1681 on the site of an older build- 
ing, is famous in Frankfort history as the place where the first 
Protestant sermon was preached in 1522. Among the more 
noteworthy of the newer Protestant churches are the Peterskirche 
(1892-1895) in the North German Renaissance style, with a 
tower 256 ft. high, standing north from the Zeil, the Cbristus- 
kirche (1883) and the Lutherkirche (1889-1893). An English 
church-,- in Early English Gothic style, situated adjacent to the * 



Bockenheimer Landstrasse, was completed and consecrated 
in 1906. 

Of the five synagogues, the chief (or Hauptsynagoge), lying 
in the Bdrnestrasse, is an attractive building of red sandstone 
in the Moorish-Byzantine style. 

Public Buildtngs.—Oi the secular buildings in Frankfort, the 
Roraer, for almost five hundred years the Rathaus (town hall) 
of the city, is of prime historical interest. It lies on the Rdmer- 
berg, a square flanked by curious medieval houses. It is first 
mentioned in 1322, was bought with the adjacent hostelry in 
1405 by the city and rearranged as a town ball, and has since, 
from time to time, been enlarged by the purchase of adjoining 
patrician houses, forming a complex oT buildings of various 
styles and dates surmounted by a clock tower. The facade was 
rebuilt (1896-1898) in late Gothic style. It was here, in the 
Wahlaimmer (or election-chamber) that the electors or their 
plenipotentiaries chose the German kings, and here in the 
Kaisersaal (emperors' hall) that the coronation festival was held, 
at which the new king or emperor dined with the electors after 
having shown himself from the balcony to the people. The 
Kaisersaal retained its antique appearance until 1843, when, 
as also again in 1004, it was restored and redecorated; it is now 
furnished with a series of modern paintings representing the 
German kings and Roman emperors from Charlemagne to 
Francis II., in all fifty-two, and a statue of the first German 
emperor, William I. New municipal buildings adjoining the 
" Rfimer " on the north side were erected in 1000-1903 in German 
Renaissance style, with a handsome tower 220 ft. high; beneath 
it is a public wine-cellar, and on the first storey a grand municipal 
hall. The palace of the princes of Thorn and Taxis in the 
Eschenhejmer Gasse was built (1732-1741) from the designs of 
Robert de Cotte, chief architect to Louis XIV. of France. From 
1806 to 1810 it was the residence of Karl von Dalbcrg, prince- 
primate of the Confederation of the Rhine, with whose dominions 
Frankfort had been incorporated by Napoleon. From 1816 to 
1866 it was the seat of the German federal diet. It is now 
annexed to the principal post office (built 1892-1894), which lies 
close to it on the Zeil. The Saalhof , built on the site of the palace 
erected by Louis the Pious in 822, overlooking the Main, has 
a chapel of the 12th century, the substructure dating from 
Carolingian times. This is the oldest building in Frankfort. 
The facade of the Saalhof in the Saalgasse dates from 1604, the 
southern wing with the two gables from 1715101717. Of numer- 
ous other medieval buildings may be mentioned theLeinwandhaus 
(linendrapers* hall), a 15th century building reconstructed in 
1892 as a municipal museum. In the Grosser Hrrschgraben is 
the Goethehaus, a 16th century building which came into the 
possession of the Goethe family in 1733. Here Goethe lived 
from his birth in 1749 until 1 775. In 1863 the house was acquired 
by the FreiesdeutscheHochstift and was opened to the public It 
has been restored, from Goethe's account of it in Dichtumg und 
Wahrheit, as nearly as possible to its condition in the poet's day, 
and is now connected with a Gocthemuseum (1897), with archives 
and a library of 25,000 volumes representative of the Goethe 
period of German literature. 

t Literary and Scientific Institutions.— Tew cities of the same 
size as Frankfort are so richly endowed with literary, scientific 
and artistic institutions, or possess so many handsome buildinp 
appropriated to their service. The opera-bouse, erected near the 
Bockenheimer Tor in 1873-1880, is a magnificent edifice in the 
style of the Italian Renaissance and ranks among the finest 
theatres in Europe. There are also a theatre (Schauspielkaus) 
in modern Renaissance style (1800-100 a), devoted especially 
to drama, a splendid concert hall (SaaJbau), opened in 1861, 
and numerous minor places of theatrical entertainment. The 
public picture gallery in the Saalhof possesses works by Haw 
Holbein, Grunewald, Van Dyck, Teniers, Van der Neer, Hats 
von Kulmbach, Lucas Cranach and other masters. The Slldd 
Art Institute (StMdel'sches Kunstinstitut) in Sachsenhausen, 
founded by the banker J. F. Stidd in 2816, contain* a picture 
gallery and a cabinet of engravings extremely rich in works of 
German art. The municipal library, with 300,000 



FRANKFORT-ON-MAIN 



*9 



boasts among its rarer treasures a Gutenberg Bible printed at 
Mains between 1450 and 1455, another on parchment dated 
1462, the InstihUiones Justiniani (Mains, 1468), the Tkcucrdank, 
with woodcuts by Hans Schaufelein, and numerous valuable 
autographs. It also contains a fine collection of coins. The 
Bethmann Museum owes its celebrity principally to Dannecker's 
" Ariadne/' but it also possesses the original plaster model of 
Tborwaldseo'B " Entrance of Alexander the Great into Babylon." 
There may also be mentioned the Industrial Art Exhibition of 
the Polytechnic Association and two conservatories of music 
Among the scientific institutions the first place belongs to the 
Sendtenbcrg'sckes naturkistoriscke Museum, containing valuable 
collections of birds and shells. Next must be mentioned the 
Kunstgewerbe (museum of arts and crafts) and the Musical 
Museum, with valuable MSS. and portraits. Besides the 
municipal library (Stadtbibliothek) mentioned above there are 
three others of importance, the Rothschild, the Senckenberg 
snd the Jewish library (with a well-appointed reading-room). 
There are numerous high-grade schools, musical and other learned 
societies and excellent hospitals. The last include the large 
■unkspal infirmary and the Scnckcnberg'sches Stift, a hospital 
and almshouses founded by a doctor, Johann C. Senckenberg 
(d. 177a). The Royal Institute for experimental therapeutics 
(KiuigiJnsitimtfUr erpcrimentdle Tlterapie), moved to Frankfort 
hi 1809, attracts numerous foreign students, and is especially 
concerned with the study of bacteriology and scrums. 

Bridges. — Seven bridges (of which two are railway) cross the 
Main. The most interesting of these is the Alte Mainbrucke, 
a red sandstone structure of fourteen arches, 815 ft. long, dating 
from the 14th century. On it arc a mill, a statue of Charlemagne 
and an iron crucifix surmounted by a gilded cock. The latter 
commemorates, according to tradition, the fowl which was the 
first Irving being to cross the bridge and thus fell a prey to the 
devil, who in hope of a nobler victim had sold his assistance 
to the architect. Antiquaries, however, assert that it probably 
marks the spot where criminals were in olden times flung into 
the river. Other bridges are the Obermainbrucke of five iron 
arches, opened in 1878; an iron foot (suspension) bridge, the 
Umermainbrucke; the Wilhelrosbrucke, a fine structure, which 
bom 1849 to 1890 served as a railway bridge and was then 
opened as a road bridge; and two new iron bridges at Gutleuthof 
and Niedemd (below the city), which carry the railway traffic 
from the south to the north bank of the Main, where all lines 
tou v er ge in a central station of the Prussian state railways. 
This station, which was built in 1885-1888 and has replaced 
thethree stations belonging to private companies, which formerly 
stood in juxtaposition on the Anlagen (or promenades) near the 
Mainxer Tor, bes some half-mile to the west. The intervening 
ground upon which the railway lines and buildings stood was 
arid for building sites, the sum obtained being more than sufficient 
Is cover the cost of the majestic central terminus (the third 
Ingest in the world), which, in addition to spacious and handsome 
sifts for passenger accommodation, has three glass-covered spans 
if 180 ft. width each. Yet the exigencies of traffic demand 
farther extensions, and another large station was in 1909 in 
process of construction at the east end of the city, devised to 
receive the local traffic of lines running eastward, while a through 
station for the north to south traffic was projected on a site 
farther west of the central terminus. 

Frankfort lies at the junction of lines of railway connecting 
it directly with all the important cities of south and central 
Germany. Here cross and unite the lines from Berlin to Basel, 
from Cologne to Wtirzburg and Vienna, from Hamburg and 
Casset, and from Dresden and Leipzig to France and Switzerland 
The river Main has been dredged so as to afford heavy barge 
lame with the towns of the upper Mam and with the Rhine, 
and cargo boats load and unload alongside its busy quays 
A well-devised. system of electric tramways provides for local 
ocamumcation within the city and with the outlying suburbs. 

Trade, Commerce and Industries — Frankfort has always 
ben more of a commercial than an industrial town, and though 
ef late years it has somewhat lost its pre-eminent position as 



a banking centre it has counterbalanced the loss in increased 
industrial development. The suburbs of Sachsenhausen and 
Bockenhcim have particularly developed considerable industrial 
activity, especially in publishing and printing, brewing and the 
manufacture of quinine. Other sources of employment are the 
cutting of hair for making hats, the production of fancy goods, 
type, machinery, soap and perfumery, ready-made dothing, 
chemicals, electro-technical apparatus, jewelry and metal wares. 
Market gardening is extensively carried on in the neighbourhood 
and cider largely manufactured. There are two great fairs held 
in the town, — thcOstermessc, or spring fair, and the Herbstmcsse, 
or autumn fair. The former, which was the original nucleus 
of all the commercial prosperity of the city, begins on the second 
Wednesday bcfore.Easter; and the latter on the second Wednes- 
day before the 8th of September. They last three weeks, and the 
last day save one, called the Nickdchestag, is distinguished by 
the influx of people from the neighbouring country. The trade in 
leather is of great and growing importance. A horse fair has 
been held twice a year since 1862 under the patronage of the 
agricultural society; and the wool market was reinstituted 
in 1872 by the German Trade Society (Deutschcr Handelsverein) 
Frankfort has long been famous as one of the principal banking 
centres of Europe, and is now only second to Berlin, in this 
respect, among German cities, and it is remarkable for the large 
business that is*done in government stock. In the 17th century 
the town was the seat of a great book-trade; but it has long 
been distanced in this department by Leipzig. The Frankfurter 
Journal was founded in 161 5, the Postseitung in 16x6, the Neue 
Frankfurter Zeitung in 1859, and the Frankfurter Fresse in 1866. 

Of memorial monuments the largest and most elaborate in 
Frankfort is that erected in 1858 in honour of the early German 
printers. It was modelled by Ed. von der Launitz and executed 
by Herr von Krcis. The statues of Gutenberg, Fust and 
Schoffer form a group on the top; an ornamented frieze presents 
medallions of a number of famous printers; below these are 
figures representing the towns of Mainz, Strassburg, Venice 
and Frankfort; and on the corners of the pedestal are allegorical 
statues of theology, poetry, science and industry. The statue 
of Goethe (1844) in the Goetheplatz is by Ludwig von Schwan- 
thaler. The Schiller statue, erected in 1863, is the work of a 
Frankfort artist, Johann Diclmann. A monument in the 
Bockcnheim Anlage, dated 1837, preserves the memory of 
Guiollett, the burgomaster, to whom the town is mainly indebted 
for the beautiful promenades which occupy the site of the old 
fortifications; and similar monuments have been reared to 
Senckenberg (1863), Schopenhauer, Klemens Brentano the poet 
and Samuel Thomas SOmmerring (1 755-1830), the anatomist and 
inventor of an electric telegraph. In the Opcrnplatz is an 
equestrian statue of the emperor Wilhelm I. by B use her. 

Cemeteries. — The new cemetery (opened in 1828) contains 
the graves of Arthur Schopenhauer and Fcuerbach, of Passavant 
the biographer of Raphael, Ballcnberger the artist, Hessemcr 
the architect, Stimmerring, and Johann Fricdnch Bdhmer 
the historian. The Bethmann vault attracts attention by 
three bas-reliefs from the chisel of Thorwaldsen; and the 
Rckhenbach mausoleum is a vast pile designed by Hessemer 
at the command of William II. of Hesse, arid adorned with 
sculptures by Zwcrger and von der Lausitz. In the Jewish 
section, which is walled off from the rest of the burying-ground, 
the most remarkable tombs are those of the Rothschild family. 

Parks.— In addition to the park in the south-western district, 
Frankfort possesses two delightful pleasure grounds, which 
attract large numbers of visitors, the Palmengarten in the 
west and the zoological garden in the cast of the city The 
former is remarkable for the collection of palms purchased in 
1868 from the deposed duke Adolph of Nassau. 

Government. — The present municipal constitution of the 
city dates from 1867 and presents some points of difference 
from the ordinary Prussian system. Bismarck was desirous of 
giving the city, in view of its former freedom, a more liberal 
constitution than is usual in ordinary cases. Formerly fifty-four 
representatives were elected, but provision was made (in the 



20 



FRANKFORT-ON-MAIN 



constitution) for increasing the number, and they at present 
number sixty -four, elected for six years. Every two years 
a third of the number retire, but they are eligible for re-election. 
These sixty-four representatives elect twenty town-councillors, 
ten of whom receive a salary and ten do not. The chief burgo- 
master (Oberburgcrmeister) is nominated by the emperor for 
twelve years, and the second burgomaster must receive the 
emperor's approval. 

Since 1885 the city has been supplied with water of excellent 
quality from the Stadtwald, Goldstein and Hinkebtein, and 
the favourable sanitary condition of the town is seen in the low 
death rate. 

Population. — The population of Frankfort has steadily 
increased since the beginning of the 19th century; it amounted 
in 1817 to 41,458; ('840) 55,269, (1864) 77.372; (187 1) 
59.^65, (1875) 103,136; (1890) 179.985, and (1905), including 
the incorporated suburban districts, J3 4,951, of whom 175,909 
were Protestants, 88,457 Roman Catholics and 21,974 Jews. 

History. — Excavations around the cathedral have incontest- 
ably proved that Fmnkfort-on-Main (Trajcctum ad Uocnum) 
was a settlement in Roman times and was probably founded 
in the 1st century of the Christian era. It may thus be accounted 
one of the earliest German — the so-called " Roman " — towns. 
Numerous places in the valley of the Main are mentioned in 
chronicles anterior to the time that Frankfort is first noticed. 
Disregarding popular tradition, which connects the origin of the 
town with a legend that Charlemagne, when retreating before 
the Saxons, was safely conducted across the river by a doe, it 
may be asserted that the first genuine historical notice of the 
town occurs in 793, when Einhard, Charlemagne's biographer, 
tells us that he spent the winter in the villa Frankonovurd. 
Next year there is mention more than once of a royal palace 
here, and the early importance of the place is indicated by the 
fact that in this year it was chosen as the seat of the ecclesiastical 
council by which image-worship was condemned. The name 
Frankfort is also found in several official documents of Charle- 
magne's reign; and from the notices that occur in the early 
chronicles and charters it would appear that the place was the 
most populous at least of the numerous villages of the Main 
district. During the Carolingian period it was the seat of no 
fewer than 16 imperial councils or colloquies. The town was 
probably at first built on an island in the river. It was originally 
governed by the royal officer or actor dotniukus, and down even 
to the close of the Empire it remained a purely imperial or 
royal town. It gradually acquired various privileges, and by 
the close of the 14th century the only mark of dependence was 
the payment of a yearly tax. Louis the Pious dwelt more 
frequently at Frankfort than his father Charlemagne had done, 
and about 823 he built himself a new palace, the basis of the later 
Saalhof In S22 and 823 two great diets were held in the palace, 
and at the former there were present deputies from the eastern 
Slavs, the Avars and the Normans. The place continued to 
be a favourite residence with Louis the German, who died there 
in .S76, and was the capital of the East Prankish kingdom. 
By the rest of the Carolingian kings it was less frequently visited, 
and this neglect was naturally greater during the period of the 
Saxon and. Salic emperors from 919 to 1137. Diets, however, 
were held in the town in 951, 1015, 1069 and 1109, and councils 
in 1000 and 1006 From a privilege of Henry IV , in 2074, 
granting the city of Worms freedom from tax in their trade 
with several royal cities, it appears that Frankfort was even 
then a place of some commercial importance. 

Under the Hohenstaufcns many brilliant diets were held 
within its walls. That of 1147 saw, also, the first election of a 
German king at Frankfort, in the person of Henry, son of Conrad 
HI. But as the father outlived the son, it was Frederick I , 
Barbarossa, who was actually the first reigning king to be 
elected here (in 1153). With the beginning of the 13th century 
the municipal constitution appears to have taken definite shape. 
The chief official was the royal bailiff (SchultJteiss), who is first 
mentioned in 1 193, and whose powers were subsequently enlarged 
by the abolition, in 1219, of the office of the royal Vogt or advo- 



catus. About this time a body of SchdJJen (»cabi*i, Jurats), 
fourteen in number, was formed to assist in the control of 
municipal affairs, and with their appointment the first step was 
taken towards civic representative government. Soon, however, 
the activity of the Schdffen became specifically confined to the 
determination of legal disputes, and in their place a new body 
(Collegium) of counsellors— Raltna*ntn—aho fourteen in number, 
was appointed for the general administration of local matters. 
In 1311, the two burgomasters, now chiefs of the municipality, 
take the place of the royal SdtuilMeiss. In the 13th century, 
the Frankfort Fair, which is first mentioned in 1x50, and the 
origin of which must have been long anterior to that date, is 
referred to as being largely frequented. No fewer than ro new 
churches were erected in the years from is 20 to 1370. It was 
about the same period, probably in 1240, that the Jews first 
settled in the town. In the contest which Louis the Bavarian 
maintained with the papacy Frankfort sided with the emperor, 
and it was consequently placed under an interdict for 20 years 
from 2329 to 1349. On Louis'.death it refused to accept the papal 
conditions of pardon, and only yielded to Charles IV., the papal 
nominee, when Gunlher of Schwarzburg thought it more prudent 
to abdicate in his favour. Charles granted the city a full amnesty, 
and confirmed its liberties and privileges. 

By the famous Golden Bull of 2356 Frankfort was declared 
the scat of the imperial elections, and it still preserves an official 
contemporaneous copy of the original document as the most 
precious of the eight imperial bulls in its possession. From the 
date of the bull to the close of the Empire Frankfort retained the 
position of " Wahlstadt," and only five of the two-and-lwenty 
monarchs who ruled during that period were elected elsewhere. 
In 1388-1389 Frankfort assisted the South German towns 
in their wars with the princes and nobles (the SUdtckrieg), 
and in a consequent battle with the troops of the Palatinate, 
the town banner was lost and carried to Kronberg, where it was 
long preserved as a trophy. On peace being concluded in 1391, 
the town had to pay 12,562 florins, and this brought it into 
great financial difficulties. In the course of the next 50 years 
debt was contracted to the amount of 126,772 florins. The diet 
at Worms in 1495 chose Frankfort as the seat of the newly 
instituted imperial chamber, or " RekkskommergerUht" and 
it was not till 1527 that the chamber was removed to Spires. 
At the Reformation Frankfort heartily joined the Protestant 
party, and in consequence it was hardly treated both by the 
emperor Charles V. and by the archbishop of Mains. It refused 
to subscribe the Augsburg Recess, but at the same time it was 
not till 1536 that it was persuaded to join the League of Schmal- 
kalden. On the failure of this confederation it opened its gates 
to the imperial general BUren on the 29th of December 1546, 
although he had passed by the city, which he considered too 
strong for the forces under his command. The emperor was 
merciful enough to leave it in possession of its privileges, but he 
inflicted a fine of 80,000 gold gulden, and until October 1547 
the citizens had to endure the presence of from 8000 to 10,000 
soldiers. This resulted in a pestilence which not only lessened 
the population, but threatened to give the death-blow to the great 
annual fairs; and at the close of the war it was found that it 
had cost the city no less than 228,931 gulden. In 1552 Frankfort 
was invested for three weeks by Maurice of Saxony, who was 
still in arms against the emperor Charles V., but it continued 
to hold out till peace was concluded between the principal 
combatants. Between 16 12 and 1616 occurred the great 
Fettmilch insurrection, perhaps the most remarkable episode 
in the internal history of Frankfort. The magistracy had beet 
acquiring more and more the character of an oligarchy; ail 
power was practically in the hands of a few closely-related 
families; and the gravest peculation and malversation took 
place without hindrance. The ordinary citizens were roused t» 
assert their rights, and they found a leader in Vincenz Fettmilcfc, 
who carried the contest, to dangerous excesses, but lacked 
ability to bring it to a successful issue. An imperial cornmisfion 
was ultimately appointed, and the three principal culprits and 
several of their associates were executed in 1616. It was not UK 



FRANKFORT-ON-ODER— FRANKINCENSE 



21 



1801 that the list mouldering head of the Fettmilch company 
dropped unnoticed from the Rententurm, tlie old tower near 
the bridge. In the words of Dr Kricgk, Gcsckkkte von Frankfurt, 
(1871), the insurrection completely destroyed the political 
power of the gilds, gave new strength to the supremacy of 
the patriciate, and brought no further advantage to the rest of 
the citizens than a few improvements in the organisation and 
administration of the magistracy. The Jews, who had been 
attacked by the popular party, were solemnly reinstated by 
imperial command in all their previous privileges, 'and received 
full compensation for their losses. 

During the Thirty Years' War Frankfort did not escape. 
In 163 1 Gustavus Adolphus garrisoned it with 600 men, who 
remained in possession till they were expelled four years later 
by the imperial general Lamboy. In 1792 the citizens had to 
pay 2,000,000 gulden to the French general C us Line; and in 
1796 KJeber exacted 8,000,000 francs. The independence of 
Frankfort was brought to an end in 1806, on the formation of 
the Confederation of the Rhine; and in 1810 it was made the 
capital of the grand-duchy of Frankfort, which had an area of 
3215 sq.m. with 302,100 inhabitants, and was divided into the 
four districts of Frankfort, Aschaffcnburg, Fulda and Hanau. 
Oa the rcconstitution of Germany in 181 5 it again became a free 
city, and in the following year it was decbrcd the scat of the 
German Confederation. In April 1S33 occurred what is known 
as the Frankfort Insurrection (Frankfurter Attentat), in which 
a number of insurgents led by Georg Bunscn attempted to break 
sp the diet. The city joined the German Zollverein in 1836. 
During the revolutionary period of 1848 the people of Frankfort, 
where the united German parliament held its sessions, took a 
chief part in political movements, and the streets of the town 
were more than once the scene of conflict. In the war of 1866 
they were on the Austrian side. On the 16th of July the Prussian 
troops, under General Vogel von Falkcnstein. entered the town, 
and on the 18th of October it was formally incorporated with 
the Prussian state. A fine of 6,000,000 florins was exacted. 
In 1871 the treaty which concluded the Franco-German War 
wis signed in the Swan Hotel by Prince Bismarck and Jules 
Favre, and it is consequently known as the peace of Frankfort. 



FRANKFORT-ON-ODER, a town of Germany, in the Prussian 

province of Brandenburg, 50 m. S.E. from Berlin on the main 

be of railway to Breslau and at the junction of lines to Custrin, 

rosea and Grossenhain. Pop. (1005) 64,943. The town proper 

is on the left bank of the river Oder and is connected by a stone 

lodge (replacing the old historical wooden structure) 900 ft. 

l—g, with the suburb of Damm. The town is agreeably situated 

tod has broad and handsome streets, among them the " Linden," 

1 spacious avenue. Above, on the western side, and partly lying 

am the site of the old ramparts, is the residential quarter, consisting 

nainly of villas and commanding a fine prosf>ect of the Oder 

valley. Between this suburb and the town lies the park, in 

wnkh is a monument to the poet Ew.ild Christian von Kleist, 

who died here of wounds received in the battle of Kuncrsdorf. 

DBg the more important public buildings must be noticed 
the Evangelical Marienkirchc (Obcrkirchc), a handsome brick 
edifice of the 13th century with five aisles, the Roman Catholic 
church, the Rathhaus dating from 1607, and bearing on its 
Sfuthem gable the device of a member of the Hanscatic League, 
the government offices and the theatre. The university of 
Frankfort, founded in 1506 by Joachim I., elector of Branden- 
barg. was removed to Breslau in 181 1, and the academical 
holdings are now occupied by a school. To compensate it for 
the Ion of us university, Frankfort-op-Oder was long the seat 



of the court of appeal for the province, but of this it was deprived 
in 1879. There arc several handsome public monuments, 
notably that to Duke Leopold of Brunswick, who was drowned 
in the Oder while attempting to save life, on the 27th of April 
17S5. The town has a large garrison, consisting of nearly all 
arms. Its industries are considerable, including the manufacture 
of machinery, metal ware, chemicals, paper, leather and sugar. 
Situated on the high road from Berlin to Silesia, and having an 
extensive system of water communication by means of the Oder 
and its canals to the Vistula and the Elbe, and being an important 
railway centre, it has a lively export trade, which is further 
fostered by its three annual fairs, held respectively at Reminisccre 
(the second Sunday in Lent), St Margaret's day and at Martin* 
mas. In the neighbourhood are extensive coal fields. 

Frankfort-on-the-Odcr owes its origin and name to a settle- 
ment of Franconian merchants here, in the 13th century, on 
land conquered by the margrave of Brandenburg from the Wends. 
In 1253 it was raised to the rank of a town by the margrave 
John I. and borrowed from Berlin the Magdeburg civic con- 
stitution. In 1379 it received from Ring Sigismund, then 
margrave of Brandenburg, the right to free navigation of the 
Oder, and from 1368 to about 1450 it belonged to the Hanseatic 
League. The university, which is referred to above, was 
opened by the elector Joachim I. in 1506, was removed in 1516 
to Kottbus and restored again to Frankfort in 1539, at which 
date the Reformation was introduced. It was dispersed during 
the Thirty Years' War and again restored by the Great Elector, 
but finally transferred to Breslau in iSii. 

Frankfort has suffered much from the vicissitudes of war 
In the 1 $th century it successfully withstood sieges by the 
Hussites (1429 and 1432), by the Poles (1450) and by the duke 
of Sagan (1477)- In the Thirty Years' War it was successively 
taken by Gustavus Adolphus (1631), by Wallenstcin (1633), by 
the elector of Brandenburg (1634). and again by the Swedes, 
who held it from 1640 to 1644. During the Seven Years' War 
it was taken by the Russians (1759) In 1812 it was occupied 
by the French, who remained till March 1813, when the Russians 
marched in 

See K. R Hausen, Gesckichte der Universitdt und Stadt Frankfurt 
(1806), and Bicdcr und Gurnik. Bitder aus da Geschichte der Stadt 
Frank) urt-an-der-Odcr (1898). 

FRANKINCENSE, 1 or Oljba.wm* (Gr. \i0arw6s, later 9ixA\ 
Lat., Ins or thus; Hcb., lebonak;* Ar., lulJn;* Turk., ghyunluk; 
Hind., ganda-birosa*), a gum-rosin obtained from certain species 
of trees of the genus Bosuillia, and natural order Burscraccae. 
The members of the genus are possessed of the following 
characters: — Bark often papyraceous; leaves deciduous, com- 
pound, alternate and imparipinnatc, with leaflets serrate or 
entire; flowers in racemes or panicles, white, green, yellowish 
or pink, having a small persistent, 5-dentatc calyx, 5 petals, 
10 stamens, a sessile 3 to 5-chambcrcd ovary, a long style, and 
a 3-lobcd stigma; fruit trigonal or pentagonal; and seed 
compressed. Sir George Bird wood {Trans. Lin. Soc. xxviL, 

1 Stephen Skinner, M.D {FAymologicon liiiguac Anglicanat, Lond., 
1671). pives the derivation : " h rankmccnse.Thus, q.d. Inccn?urn (i.e. 
Thus Libcre seu Liberalitcr, ut in sacri* officiis par est, adolcndum." 

■ " Sic olibanum dixerc pro thure ex Graeco 6 M0a*o! "(Salmasius, 
C. 5. Plinianae excrci tat tones, t. ii. p. 926, b. F., Traj. ad Rhcn.. 
1689 fol. J. So also Fuchs (Op. dtdact. pars. ii. p. 43, 1604 fol.), 
" Omcinis non sine risu cruditorum, Graeco articulo adjecto, Olibanus 
vocatur." The term olibauo was used in ecclesiastical l,af in as early 
as the pontificate of Benedict IX., in the nth century. (See Ferd. 
Ughellus, Italia sacra, torn. i. 108, D., Vcn., 1717 fol.) 

^So designated from its whiteness (J. G. Stuck! us, Saeror. ei 
sacrifu. gent, descrip., p. 79, Lucd. Bat., 1695, fol.: Kitto, CycL 
Bibl. Lit. ii. p. 806, 1870); cf. Lnben, the Somali name for cream 
(R. F. Burton, First Footsteps in E. Africa, p. 178. 1856). 

4 Written Launn by Garcwis da Horta (Aromat. et simpt. medica- 
ment, hist., C. Cinsii Atrebatis Exoticorum lib. sept., p. 1*7, 1605, 
fol.), and stated to have been derived by the Arabs from trie Greek 
name, the term less commonly used by them being Conder: cf. 
Sanskrit Kunda. According to Colcbrooke (in Asiatick Res. ix. 
P- 379. i$07), the Hindu writers on Materia Mcdica use for the resin 
of BosieeUia tkurifera the designation Cunduru. 

■ A term applied also to the resinous exudation of Pinus hngifolia 
(see Dr E- J. Waring, Pharmacopoeia of Iujiia, p. 52. Lond., 1868). 



22 



FRANKINCENSE 



1871) distinguishes five species of Boswellia: (A) B. thurifera, 
Colebr. (B. glabra and B. serrate, Roxb.), indigenous to the 
mountainous tracts of central India and the Coromandel coast, 
and B. papyri/era (Pldsslea ftoribunda, Endl.) of Abyssinia, 
which, though both thuriferous, are not known to yield any 
of the olibanura of commerce; and (6) B. Prereana (see 
Eleih, vol. x. p. 259), B. Bhua-Dajiana, and B. Carlerii, the 
" Yegaar," " Mohr Add," and " Mohr Madow " of the Somali 
country, in East Africa, the last species including a variety, the 
" Maghrayt d'Sheehaz " of Hadramaut, Arabia, all of which 
are sources of true frankincense or olibanum. The trees on the 
Somali coast are described by Captain G. 6. Kempthorne as 
growing, without soil, out of polished marble rocks, to which they 
are attached by a thick oval mass of substance resembling a 
mixture of lime and mortar: the purer the marble the finer 
appears to be the growth of the tree. The young trees, he 
states, furnish the most valuable gum, the older yielding merely 
a clear glutinous fluid resembling copal varnish. 1 To obtain 
the frankincense a deep incision is made in the trunk of the tree, 
and below it a narrow strip of bark 5 in. in length is peeled off. 
When the milk-like juice ("spuma pinguis," Pliny) which 
exudes has hardened by exposure to the atmosphere, the incision 
is deepened. In about three months the resin has attained the 
required degree of consistency. The season for gathering lasts 
from May until the first rains in September. The large clear 
globules are scriped off into baskets, and the inferior quality 
that has run do *n the tree is collected separately. The coast 
of south Arabia is yearly visited by parties of Somalis, who pay 
the Arabs for the privilege of collecting frankincense. 1 In the 
interior of the country about the plain of Dhofcr,* during the 
south-west monsoon, frankincense and other gums are gathered 
by the Beni Gurrah Bedouins, and might be obtained by them 
in much larger quantities; their lawlessness, however, and the 
lack of a safe place of exchange or sale are obstacles to the 
development of trade. (See C. Y. Ward, The Gulf of 'Aden Pilot, 
p. 117, 1863.) Much as formerly in the region of Sakhalites in 
Arabia (the tract between Ras Makalla and Ras Agab), 4 described 
by Arrian, so now on the sea-coast of the Somali country, the 
frankincense when collected is stored in heaps at various stations. 
Thence, packed in sheep- and goat-skins, in quantities of 20 to 
40 lb, it is carried on camels to Berbera, for shipment eithex to 
Aden, Makalla and other Arabian ports, or directly to Bombay. 1 
At Bombay, like gum-acacia, it is assorted, and is then packed 
for re-exportation to Europe, China and elsewhere.* Arrian re- 
lates that it was an import of Barbarike on the Sinthus (Indus). 
The idea held by several writers, including Niebuhr, that frank- 
incense was a product of India, would seem to have originated 
in a confusion of that drug with benzoin and other odoriferous 
substances, and also in the sale of imported frankincense with 
the native products of India. The gum resin of Boswellia 
thurifera was described by Colebrooke (in Asiatick Researches, 
ix. 381), and after him by Dr J. Fleming (lb. xL 158), as true 
frankincense, or olibanum; from this, however, it differs in its 
softness, and tendency to melt into a mass 7 (Birdwood, loc. cit. t 
p. 146). It is sold in the village bazaars of Khandeish in India 
under the name of Dup-Salai, ix. incense of the " Salai tree"; 
and according to Mr F. Porter Smith, M.B. (Contrib. towards 
the Mat. Med. and Nat. Hist, of China, p. 162, Shanghai, 187 1), 
is used as incense in China. The last authority also mentions 
1 See " Appendix," vol. i. p. 419 of Sir W. C. Harris's Highland 
of Aethiopia (2nd ed., Lond.. 1844) ; and Trans. Bombay Ceog. Soc. 



olibanum as a reputed natural product of China. Bernhard 
von Breydcnbach,' Ausonius, Floras and others, arguing, it 
would seem, from its Hebrew and Greek names, concluded that 
olibanum came from Mount Lebanon; and Chardin (Voyage 
en Perse, &c, 1711) makes the statement that the frankincense 
tree grows in the mountains of Persia, particularly Caramania. 

Frankincense, or olibanum, occurs in commerce in semi- 
opaque, round, ovate or oblong tears or irregular lumps, which 
are covered externally with a white dust, the result of their 
friction against one another. It has an amorphous internal 
structure, a dull fracture; is of a yellow to yellowish-brown hue, 
the purer varieties being almost colourless, or possessing a greenish 
tinge, and has a somewhat bitter aromatic taste, and a balsamic 
odour, which is developed by heating. Immersed in alcohol 
it becomes opaque, and with water it yields an emulsion. It 
contains about 72% of resin soluble in alcohol (Kurbatow); 
a large proportion of gum soluble in water, and apparently 
identical with gum arabie; and a small quantity of a colourless 
inflammable essential oil, one of the constituents of which is 
the body oliben, CioHi*. Frankincense burns with a bright 
white flame, leaving an ash consisting mainly of calcium car- 
bonate, the remainder being calcium phosphate, and the sulphate, 
chloride and carbonate of potassium (Braconnot).' Good 
frankincense, Pliny tells us, is recognized by its whiteness, size, 
brittleness and ready inflammability. That which occurs in 
globular drops is, he says, termed ' male frankincense " ; the 
most esteemed, he further remarks, is in breast-shaped drops, 
formed each by the union of two tears. 10 The best frankincense, 
as we learn from Arrian, 11 was formerly exported from the neigh- 
bourhood of Cape Elephant in Africa (the modern Ras Fiel); and 
A. von Kremer, in his description of the commerce of the Red 
Sea (Aegyptcn, &c, p. 185, ii. Theil, Leipzig, 1863), observes 
that the African frankincense, called by the Arabs " asli," is of 
twice the value of the Arabian " luban." Captain S. B. Miles 
(loc. cit. t p. 64) states that the best kind of frankincense, known 
to the Somali as " bedwi " or " sheheri," comes from the trees 
14 Mohr Add " and " Mohr Madow " (vide supra), and from a 
taller species of Boswellia, the " Boldo," and is sent to Bombay 
for exportation to Europe; and that an inferior " mayeti," the 
produce of the " Yegaar," is exported chiefly to Jeddah and 
Yemen ports." The latter may possibly be what Niebuhr alludes 
to as " Indian frankincense." M Gardaa da Horta, in asserting 
the Arabian origin of the drug, remarks that the term " Indian " 
is often applied by the Arabs to a dark-coloured variety. 14 

According to Pliny (Nat. Hist. xiv. 1; d. Ovid, Fasti -i. 337 

1 " Libanus igitur est mons redotattie ft sun me aromaticttatia> 
nam ibi herbe odorifere crescunt. ibi etiam arbores thurifere coal* 
scunt quarum gummi electum olibanum a medlds nuncupatur."— 
Perigrinatio, p. 53 (1502, foL). 

• See, on the chemistry of frankincense, Braconnot, A nm. da chimin , 
lxvui. (1808) pp. 60-69; Johnston, Phil. Trans. (1839), pp. 301-305; ,' 

ar 

erente 

S). One 
c-petfuiae," a 
ex work, as being 

dc Bretschnbdef, 

Oi the Arabs, Ac, 



;lacrvntt 
neof tbt 



*k= 



xui. (1857), p. 136. 

1 Cruttenden, Trans. Bombay Ceog. Soc. vii. (1846), p. 121 ; S. B. 
Miles, J. Ceog. Soc. (1872). 

' Or Dhafar. The incense of " Dofar " is alluded to by Camocns, 
Os Lusiadas, x. 201. 

• H. " ~ 

Arabtat 

p. 296; and Mailer, Ceog. Craeci Minores, i. p. 278 (Paris, 1853V. 

•J. Vaughan, Pharm. Journ. xii. (1853) pp. 227-229; and Ward, 
op. cti. p. 97. 

• Pereira, Elem. of Mat. Med. ii. pt. 2, p. 380 (4th ed., 1847). 
' " Boswellia thurifera." . . . says Waring (Pharm. of India, 

P- 5>)t " has been thought to yield East Indian olibanum, but there 
is no reliable evidence of ill so doing." 



r the Arabia * 
Li n, as realising *■ 

hi; exported Aran &■ 

Ai % is roeaticmd 3 

by Marco Polo, as also by Barbosa. (See Yule, op. ct/. ii. p. 377.) •»= 
J. Raymond Wellstcd ( Travels to the City of the Caliphs, p. 173, Lond, " 
4u r ^- ..>- . ^ , . „ . „ ~ ,8 4°) distinguishes two kinds of frankincense—" Afao/y," selling at ^" 

S' J; P Br S e, i Comparative Geog. of the South-East Coast of $4 per cwt., and an inferior article fetching 20% leas. t 

■ab», in J. Bombay Branch of R. Asiatic Soc. iii. {Jan. 1851). « " Es schcint, dass selbcr die Araber ihr eignes Rluehwerk aid* «_ 
**• «nH Mm!™- r.*». r.~,„. i#. MM . . « *.,a /n«— .o..\ hochschatzen;denndie Vomehraenin Jemen BrauchengemeioJrfitk .•_ 

indianisches Rauchwerk, ja eine grosse Menge Mastix von der ussl .^ 
Scio " (BcschreibuHg von Arabien, p. 143, Kopenh., 177a). 

M " De Arabibus minus minim, qui nigricantem colorem, quo Una a= 
Indicum praeditum esse vult Dioccoridea (lib. i. c 70], Iodaa ^_ 
plerumquc vocenf, ut ex Myrobalano nigro quern Indum ap 
patet " (op. sup. cit. p, 157). 



FRANKING— FRANKLAND 



23 



wtf, frankincense was not sacrifitiaUy employed in Trojan times. 
It «■ used by the ancient Egyptians in their religious rites, but, 
ss Herodotus teDs us (fi. 86), not in embalming. It constituted 
a fourth part of the Jewish incense of the sanctuary (Ex. xxx. 
54), and is frequently mentioned in the Pentateuch. With other 
spices h was stored in a great chamber of the house of God at 
Jerusalem (1 Chron. iz. 39, Neh. ziu. 5*9). On the sacrificial use 
and import of frankincense and similar substances see Incekse. 

In the Red Sea regions frankincense is valued not only for its 
sweet odour when burnt, but as a masticatory; and blazing 
lamps of it are not infrequently used for illumination instead of 
ol lamps. Its fumes are an excellent insectifuge. As a medicine 
it was in former times in high repute. Pliny (Nat. Hist. xxv. 82) 
mentions it as an antidote to hemlock. Avicenna (ed.. Plempii, 
fib. n. p. i6t, Lovanii, 1658, foL) recommends it for tumours, 
nieces of the head and ears, affections of the breast, vomiting, 
dysentery and fevers. In the East frankincense has been found 
emeaciona aa an external application in carbuncles, blind boils 
sad gangrenous sores, and as an internal agent is given in 
Bonorrhoea. In China it was an old internal remedy for leprosy 
and stroma, and is accredited with stimulant, tonic, sedative, 
astringent and vulnerary properties. It is not used in modern 
■wfirim, being destitute of any special virtues. (See Waring, 
Pkarm. of India, p. 443, &c; and F. Porter Smith, op. cit. t p. 162.) 

C o mmon frankincense or thus, Abictis resina, is the term 
applied to a resin which exudes from fissures in the bark of the 
Norway spruce fir, Abies aedsa, D.C.; when melted in hot 
strained it constitutes " Burgundy pitch," Pix 
The concreted turpentine obtained in the United States 
~ risions in the trunk of a species of pine, Pinus 
esasrolss, is also so designated. It is commercially known as 
M scrape," and is similar to the French " galipot " or " barras." 
f miwwi frtnMwr>n« i» *n ingredient in some ointments and 
plasters, and on account of its pleasant odour when burned 
has been used in incense as a substitute for olibanum. (See 
Rnckiger and Hanbury, Pharmacvgraphia.) The " black frankin- 
cense oil " of the Turks is staled by Hanbury (Science Papers, 
0. 14s, 1876) to be liquid storax. (F. H. B.) 

FBaWKIMO, a term used for the right of sending letters or 
fostal packages free (Fr. franc) of charge. The privilege was 
dtuned by the House of Commons in 1660 in " a Bill for erecting 
lad rstaWtahfng a Post Office," their demand being that all 
letters addressed to or sent by members during the session should 
he carried free. The clause embodying this claim was struck 
oat by the Lords, but with the proviso in the Act as passed 
far the free carriage of all letters to and from the king and the 
peat officers of state, and also the single inland letters of the 
■embers of that present parliament during that session only. 
It seems, however, that the practice was tolerated until 1764, 
when by an act dealing with postage it was legalized, every peer 
and each member of the House of Commons being allowed to 
send free ten letters a day, not exceeding an ounce in weight, 
to any part of the United Kingdom, and to receive fifteen. The 
act did not restrict the privilege to letters either actually written 
vy or to the member, and thus the right was very easily abused, 
ssembers lending and receiving letters for friends, all that was 
necessary being the signature of the peer or M.P. in the corner 
of the envelope. Wholesale franking grew usual, and*M.P.'s 
fTMTftirl their friends with envelopes already signed to be used 
at any time. In 1837 the scandal had become so great that 
stricter regulations came into force. The franker had to write 
the fan address, to which he had to add his name, the post-town 
•ad the day of the month; the letter had to be posted on the 
day written or the following day at the latest, and in a post-town 
net more than 20 m. from the place where the peer or M.P. was 
then living. On the 1 oth of January z 840 parliamentary franking 
wm abolished on the introduction of the uniform penny rate. 
■ Lithe United States the franking privilege was first granted in 

1 January 1776 to the soldiers engaged in the American War of 
M Independence. The right was gradually extended till it included 

3 assrly all officials and members of the public service. By special 

2 ids the privilege was bestowed on presidents and their widows. 



By an act of the 3rd of March 1845, franking was limited to the 
president, vice-president, members and delegates in Congress and 
postmasters, other officers being required to keep quarterly 
accounts of postage and pay it from their contingent funds. 
In 1 85 1 free exchange of newspapers was re-established. By an 
act of the 3rd of March 1863 the privilege was granted the 
president and his private secretary, the vice-president, chiefs of 
executive departments, such heads of bureaus and chief clerks 
as might be designated by the postmaster-general for official 
letters only; senators and representatives in Congress for all 
correspondence, senders of petitions to either branch of the 
legislature, and to publishers of newspapers for their exchanges. 
There was a limit as to weight. Members of Congress could also 
frank, in matters concerning the federal department of agricul- 
ture, " seeds, roots and cuttings," the weight to be fixed by the 
postmaster-generaL This act remained in force till the 31st of 
January 1873, when franking was abolished. Since 1875, by 
sundry acts, franking for official correspondence, government 
publications, seeds, &c, has been allowed to congressmen, ex- 
congressmen (for 9 months after the close of their term) , congress- 
men-elect and other government officials. By special acts of 
1881, 1886, 190s, 1009, respectively, the franking privilege was 
granted to the widows of Presidents Garfield, Grant, McKinley 
and Cleveland. 

FRAJTKL, LUDWIO AUGUST (1810-1804), Austrian poet. 
He took part in the revolution of 1848, and his poems on liberty 
had considerable vogue. His lyrics are among his best work. 
He was secretary of the Jewish community in Vienna, and did a 
lasting service to education by his visit to the Orient in 1856. 
He founded the first modern Jewish school (the Von Ltmmel 
Schule) in Jerusalem. His brilliant volumes Nock Jerusalem 
describing his eastern tour have been translated into English, 
as is the case with many of his poems. His collected poems 
appeared in three volumes in 1880. (I. A.) 

FRANKLAKD, SIR EDWARD (1825-1899), English chemist, 
was born at Churchtown, near Lancaster, on the z8th of January 
1825. After attending the grammar school at Lancaster he spent 
six years as an apprentice to a druggist in that town. In 1845 
he went to London and entered Lyon Playfair's laboratory, 
subsequently working under R. W. Bunsen at Marburg. In 
1847 he was appointed science-master at Queenwood school, 
Hampshire, where he first met J. Tyndall, and in 1851 first 
professor of chemistry at Owens College, Manchester. Return- 
ing to London six years later he became lecturer in chemistry 
at St Bartholomew's hospital, and in 1863 professor of chemistry 
at the Royal Institution. From an early age he engaged in 
original research with great success. 

Analytical problems, such as the isolation of certain organic 
radicals, attracted his attention to begin with, but he soon 
turned to synthetical studies, and he was only about twenty-five 
years of age when an investigation, doubtless suggested by the 
work of his master, Bunsen, on cacodyl, yielded the interesting 
discovery of the organo-metallic compounds. The theoretical 
deductions which he drew from the consideration of these bodies 
were even more interesting and important than the bodies 
themselves. Perceiving a molecular isonomy between them and 
the inorganic compounds of the metals from which they may be 
formed, he saw their true molecular type in the oxygen, sulphur 
or chlorine compounds of those metals, from which he held 
them to be derived by the substitution of an organic group for 
the oxygen, sulphur, &c. In this way they enabled him to over- 
throw the theory of conjugate compounds, and they further led 
him in 1852 to publish the conception that the atoms of each 
elementary substance have a definite saturation capacity, so 
that they can only combine with a certain limited number of 
the atoms of other elements. The theory of valency thus founded 
has dominated the subsequent development of chemical doctrine', 
and forms the groundwork upon which the fabric of modem 
structural chemistry reposes. 

In applied chemistry Frankland's great work was in connexion 
with water-supply. Appointed a member of the second royal 
commission on the pollution of rivers in 1868, he was provided 



24 

by the government with a completely-equipped laboratory, in 
which, for a period of six years, he carried on the inquiries 
necessary for the purposes of that body, and was thus the means 
of bringing to light an enormous amount of valuable information 
respecting the contamination of rivers by sewage, trade-refuse, 
&c, and the purification of water for domestic use. In 1865, 
when he succeeded A. W. von Hofmann at the School of Mines, 
he undertook the duty of making monthly reports to the registrar- 
general on the character of the water supplied to London, and 
these he continued down to the end of his life. At one time he 
was an unsparing critic of its quality, but in later years he became 
strongly convinced of its general excellence and wholesomeness. 
His analyses were both chemical and bacteriological, and his 
dissatisfaction with the processes in vogue for the former at 
the time of his appointment caused him to spend two years in 
devising new and more accurate methods. In 1859 he passed a 
night on the very top of Mont Blanc in company with John 
TyndalL One of the purposes of the expedition was to discover 
whether the rate of combustion of a candle varies with the 
density of the atmosphere in which it is burnt, a question which 
was answered in the negative. Other observations made by 
Frankland at the time formed the starting-point of a series of 
experiments which yielded far-reaching results. ^'He noticed 
that at the summit the candle gave a very poor light, and was 
thereby led to investigate the effect produced on luminous 
flames by varying the pressure of the atmosphere in which they 
are burning. He found that pressure increases luminosity, so 
that hydrogen, for example, the flame of which in normal 
circumstances gives no light, burns with a luminous flame under 
a pressure of ten or twenty atmospheres, and the inference he 
drew was that the presence of solid particles is not the only 
factor that determines the light-giving power of a flame. 
Further, he showed that the spectrum of a dense ignited gas 
resembles that of an incandescent liquid or solid, and he traced a 
gradual change in the spectrum of an incandescent gas under 
increasing pressure, the sharp lines observable when it is ex- 
tremely attenuated broadening out to nebulous bands as the 
pressure rises, till they merge in the continuous spectrum as the 
gas approaches a density comparable with that of the liquid 
state. An application of these results to solar physics in con- 
junction with Sir Norman Lockyer led to the view that at least 
the external layers of the sun cannot consist of matter in the 
liquid or solid forms, but must be composed of gases or vapours. 
Frankland and Lockyer were also the discoverers of helium. 
In 1868 they noticed in the solar spectrum a bright yellow line 
which did not correspond to any substance then known, and 
which they therefore attributed to the then hypothetical element, 
helium. 

Sir Edward Frankland, who was made a K.C.B. in 1897, died 
on the 9th of August 1809 while on a holiday at Golaa, Gud- 
brandsdalen, Norway. 

A memorial lecture delivered by Professor H. E. Armstrong before 
the London Chemical Society on the 31st of October 1901 contained 
many personal details of Frankland's life, together with a full 
discussion of his scientific work; and a volume of Autobiographical 
Sketches was printed for private circulation in 1902. His original 
papers, down to 1877, were collected and published in that year as 
Experimental Researches in Pure, Applied and Physical Chemistry. 

FRANKLIN, BENJAMIN (1706-1790), American diplomat, 
statesman and scientist, was born on the 17th of January 1706 
in a house in Milk Street, opposite the Old South church, Boston, 
Massachusetts. He was the tenth son of Josiah Franklin, and 
the eighth child and youngest son of ten children borne by 
Abiah Folgcr, his father's second wife. The elder Franklin was 
born at Ecton in Northamptonshire, England, where the 
strongly Protestant Franklin family may be traced back for 
nearly four centuries. He had married young and had migrated 
from Banbury to Boston, Massachusetts, in 1685. Benjamin 
could not remember when he did not know how to read, and 
when eight years old he was sent to the Boston grammar school, 
being destined by his father for the church as a tithe of his sons. 
He spent a year there and a year in a school for writing and 
arithmetic, and then at the age of ten he was taken from school 



FRANKLIN, BENJAMIN 



to assist his father in the business of a tallow-chandler and soap- 
boiler. In his thirteenth year he was apprenticed to his half- 
brother James, who was establishing himself in the printing 
business, and who in 1721 started the New England Courani, 
one of the earliest newspapers in America. 

Benjamin's tastes had at first been for the sea rather than the 
pulpit; now they inclined rather to intellectual than to other 
pleasures. At an early age he had made himself familiar with 
The Pilgrim's Progress, with Locke, On the Human Understanding, 
and with a volume of The Spectator. Thanks to his father's 
excellent advice, he gave up writing doggerel verse (much of 
which had been printed by his brother and sold on the streets) 
and turned to prose composition. His success in reproducing 
articles he had read in The Spectator led him to write an artidc 1 
for his brother's paper, which he slipped under 1 the door of the 
printing shop with no name attached, and which was printed and 1 
attracted some attention. After repeated successes of the same 1 
sort Benjamin threw off his disguise and contributed regularly i 
to the Courani. When, after various journalistic indiscretions, 1 
James Franklin in 1722 was forbidden to publish the Courani, 
it appeared with Benjamin's name as that of the publisher and 1 
was received with much favour, chiefly because of the cleverness 
of his articles signed " Dr Janus," which, like those previously 
signed "Mistress Silence Dogood," gave promise of "Poor 
Richard." But Benjamin's management of the paper, and 
particularly his free-thinking, displeased the authorities; the 
relations of the two brothers gradually grew unfriendly, possibly, 
as Benjamin thought, because of his brother's jealousy of his 
superior ability; and Benjamin determined to quit his brother's 
employ and to leave New England. He made his way first to 
New York City, and then (October 1723) to Philadelphia, where 
he got employment with a printer named Samuel Kramer. 1 

A rapid composer and a workman full of resource, Franklin 
was soon recognized as the master spirit of the shop. Sir William 
Keith ( 1 680-1 749), governor of the province, urged him to start 
in business for himself, and when Franklin had unsuccessfully 
appealed to his father for the means to do so, Keith promised 
to furnish him with what he needed for the equipment of a new 
printing office and sent him to England to buy the materials. 
Keith had repeatedly promised to send a letter of credit by the 
ship on which Franklin sailed, but when the Channel was reached 
and the ship's mails were examined no such letter was found. 
Franklin reached London in December 1724, and found employ' 
ment first at Palmer's, a famous printing house in Bartholomew 
Close, and afterwards at Watts's Printing House. At Palmer's 
he had set up a second edition of Wollaston's Religion of Nature 
Delineated. To refute this book and to prove that there could, 
be no such thing as religion, he wrote and printed a small pam- 
phlet, A Dissertation on Liberty and Necessity, Pleasure and Pain, 
which brought him some curious acquaintances, and of which 
he soon became thoroughly ashamed. After a year and a half 
in London, Franklin was persuaded by a friend named Deuham, 
a Quaker merchant, to return with him to America and engage 
in mercantile business; he accordingly gave up printing, but 
a few days before sailing he received a tempting offer to remain 
and give lessons in swimming— his feats as a swimmer having 
given him considerable reputation — and he says that he might 
have Consented " had the overtures been sooner made." He 
reached Philadelphia in October 1726, but a few months later 
Denham died, and Franklin was induced by large wages to 
return to his old employer Keimer; with Keimer he quarrelled 
repeatedly, thinking himself ill used and kept only to. train 
apprentices until they could in some degree take his place. 



of the 
a new 
diculed 
hday. 



romthe 
Keimer 



FRANKLIN, BENJAMIN 



la 1738 Franklin and Hugh Meredith, a fellow-worker at 
Earner's, set up in business for themselves; the capital being 
famished by Meredith's father. In 1730 the partnership was 
dissolved, and Franklin, through the financial assistance of two 
friends, secured the sole management of the printing house. 
In September 1729 he bought at a merely nominal price The 
Penm iyh a nia G&ttte, a weekly newspaper which Keimer had 
started nine months before to defeat a similar project of 
Franklin's, and which Franklin conducted until 1 765. Franklin's 
snperior management of the paper, his new type, " some spirited 
remarks " on the controversy between the Massachusetts 
assembly and Governor Burnet, brought his paper into immediate 
notice, and his success both as a printer and as a journalist was 
assved and complete. In 1731 he established in Philadelphia 
one of the earliest circulating libraries in America (often said to 
have been the earliest), and in 173a he published the first of his 
Almanacks, under the pseudonym of Richard Saunders. These 
" Poor Richard's Almanacks " were issued for the next twenty-five 
years with remarkable success, the annual sale averaging 10,000 
copies, and far exceeding the sale of any other publication in 
the colonies. 

Beginning in 1733 Franklin taught himself enough French, 
Italian, Spanish and Latin to read these languages with some 
ease. In 1736 he was chosen clerk of the General Assembly, 
and served in this capacity until 1751. In 1737 be had been 
appointed postmaster at Philadelphia, and about the same time 
he organised the first police force and fire company in the colonics; 
m 1749, after he bad written Proposals Relating to the Education 
of Youth im Pensihania, be and twenty-three other citizens of 
Philadelphia formed themselves into an association for the 
purpose of establishing an academy, which was opened in 1751, 
was chartered in 1753, and eventually became the University 
of Pennsylvania; in 1727 he organized a debating club, the 
M Junto," in Philadelphia, and later he was one of the founders of 
the American Philosophical Society (1743; incorporated 1780); 
he took the lead in the organization of a militia force, and in the 
paving of the city streets, improved the method of street lighting, 
and assisted in the founding of a city hospital (1751); in brief, 
he gave the impulse to nearly every measure or project for the 
welfare and prosperity of Philadelphia undertaken in his day. 
Is 1751 be became a member of the General Assembly of Penn- 
sylvania, in which he served for thirteen years. In 1753 he and 
Wifiiaxn Hunter were put in charge of the post service of the 
colonies, which he brought in the next ten years to a high 
state of efficiency and made a financial success; this position 
he held until 1774. He visited nearly every post office in the 
colonies and increased the mail service between New York 
and Philadelphia from once to three times a week in summer, 
sad from twice a month to once a week in winter. When 
ear with France appeared imminent in 1754, Franklin was 
sent to the Albany Convention, where he submitted his plan for 
colonial union (see Albany, N.Y.). When the home govern- 
neat sent over General Edward Braddock 1 with two regiments 
of British troops, Franklin undertook to secure the requisite 
anmber of horses and waggons for the march against Ft. 
Duquesae, and became personally responsible for payment to 
the Pennsyivanians who furnished them. Notwithstanding the 
alarm occasioned by Braddock's defeat, the old quarrel between 
the proprietors of Pennsylvania and the assembly prevented 
any adequate preparations for defence; " with incredible 
Meanness " the proprietors had instructed their governors to 
approve no act for levying the necessary taxes, unless the vast 
estates of the proprietors were by the same act exempted. So 
great was the confidence in Franklin in this emergency that early 
in 1756 the g ov e rnor of Pennsylvania placed him in charge of the 
north-western frontier of the province, with power to raise troops, 
issue commissions and erect blockhouses; and Franklin remained 
is the wilderness for over a month, superintending the building 

t The meeting between Franklin, the type of the shrewd, cool 
provincial, and Braddock, a blustering, blundering, drinking British 
•ofcfier. it dramatically portrayed by Thackeray in the oth chapter 
ef Hat Virginians. 



25 

of forts and watching the Indians. In February 1757 the 
assembly, " finding the proprietary obstinately persisted in 
manacling their deputies with instructions inconsistent not only 
with the privileges of the people, but with the service of the crown, 
resolvM to petition the king against them," and appointed 
Franklin as their agent to present the petition. He arrived in . 
London on the 97th of July 1757, and shortly afterwards, when, 
at a conference with Earl Granville, president of the council, 
the latter declared that " the King is the legislator of the colonies," 
Franklin in reply declared that the laws of the colonies were to be 
made by their assemblies, to be passed upon by the king, and 
when once approved were no longer subject to repeal or amend- 
ment by the crown. As the assemblies, said be, could not make 
permanent laws without the king's consent, " neither could he 
make a law for them without theirs." This opposition of views 
distinctly raised the issue between the home government and the 
colonies. As to the proprietors Franklin succeeded in 1760 in 
securing an understanding that the assembly should pass an 
act exempting from taxation the unsurveyed waste lands of the 
Penn estate, the surveyed waste lands being assessed at the usual 
rate for other property of that description. Thus the proprietors 
finally acknowledged the right of the assembly to tax their 
estates. 

The success of Franklin's first foreign mission was, therefore, 
substantial and satisfactory. During this sojourn of five years in 
England he had made many valuable friends outside of court 
and political circles, among whom Hume, Robertson and Adam 
Smith were conspicuous. In 1759, for his literary and more 
particularly his scientific attainments, he received the freedom 
of the city of Edinburgh and the degree of doctor of laws from 
the university of St Andrews. He had been made a Master of 
Arts at Harvard and at Yale in 1 7 53 , and at the college of William 
and Mary in 1756; and in 1762 he received the degree of D.CX. 
at Oxford. While in England he had made active use of his 
remarkable talent for pamphleteering. In the clamour for peace 
following the death of George II. (25th of October 1760), he was 
for a vigorous prosecution of the war with France; he bad 
written what purported to be a chapter from an old book written 
by a Spanish Jesuit, On the M cants of Disposing the Euenrie to 
Peace, which had a great effect; and in the spring of 1760 there 
had been published a more elaborate paper written by Franklin 
with the assistance of Richard Jackson, agent of Massachusetts 
and Connecticut in London, entitled The Interest of Great Britain 
Considered vrith Regard to Her Colonies, and the Acquisitions of 
Canada and Guadeloupe (1760). This pamphlet answered the 
argument that it would be unsafe to keep Canada because of the 
added strength that would thus be given to any possible move- 
ment for independence in the English colonies, by urging that 
so long as Canada remained French there could be no safety 
for the English colonies in North America, nor any permanent 
peace in Europe. Tradition reports that this pamphlet had 
considerable weight in determining the ministry to retain 
Canada. 

Franklin sailed again for America in August 1762, hoping to be 
able to settle down in quiet and devote the remainder of his life 
to experiments in physics. This quiet was interrupted, however, 
by the " Paxton Massacre " (Dec. 14, 1763) — the slaughter of a 
score of Indians (children, women and old men) at Lancaster, 
Pennsylvania, by some young rowdies from the town of Paxton, 
who then marched upon Philadelphia to kill a few Christian 
Indians there. Franklin, appealed to by the governor, raised 
a troop sufficient to frighten away the " Paxton boys," and for 
the moment there seemed a possibility of an understanding 
between Franklin and the proprietors. But the question of 
taxing the estates of the proprietors came up in a new form, 
and a petition from the assembly was drawn by Franklin, 
requesting the king " to resume the government " of Penn- 
sylvania. In the autumn election of 1764 the influence of the 
proprietors was exerted against Franklin, and by an adverse 
majority of 25 votes in 4000 he failed to be re-elected to the 
assembly. The new assembly sent Franklin again to England as 
its special agent to take charge of another petition for a change 



a6 



FRANKLIN, BENJAMIN 



el government, which, however, came to nothing. Mattel* 
el much greater consequence aoon demanded Franklin's 
attention. 

Early in 1764 Lord Grenville had informed the London agents 
of the American colonies that he proposed to lay a portion of the 
. burden left by the war with France upon the shoulders of the 
colonists by means of a stamp duty, unless some other tax 
equally productive and less inconvenient were proposed. The 
natural objection of the colonies, as voiced, for example, by the 
assembly of Pennsylvania, was that it was a cruel thing to tax 
colonies already taxed beyond their strength, and surrounded 
by enemies and exposed to constant expenditures for defence, 
and that it was an indignity that they should be taxed by a 
parliament in which they were not represented; at the same time 
the Pennsylvania assembly recognized it as "their duty to 
grant aid to the crown, according to their abilities, whenever 
required of them in the usual manner." To prevent the intro- 
duction of the Stamp Act, which he characterized as " the mother 
of mischief," Franklin used every effort, but the bill was easily 
passed, and it was thought that the colonists would soon be 
reconciled to it. Because be, too, thought so, and because he 
recommended John Hughes, a merchant of Philadelphia, for the 
office of distributor of stamps, Franklin himself was denounced 
— he was even accused of having planned the Stamp Act — and 
his family in Philadelphia was in danger of being mobbed. Of 
Franklin's examination, in February 1706, by the House in 
Committee of the Whole, as to the effects of the Stamp Act, 
Burke said that the scene reminded him of a master examined 
by a parcel of schoolboys, and George Whitefield said: " Dr 
Franklin has gained immortal honour by his behaviour at the 
bar of the House. His answer was always found equal to the 
questioner. He stood unappalled, gave pleasure to his friends 
and did honour to his country." x Franklin compared the position 
of the colonies to that of Scotland in the days before the union, and 
in the same year (1766) audaciously urged a similar union with 
the colonies before it was too late. The knowledge of colonial 
affairs gained from Franklin's testimony, probably more than all 
other causes combined, determined the immediate repeal of the 
Stamp Act. For Franklin this was a great triumph, and the news 
of it filled the colonists with delight and restored him to their 
confidence and affection. Another bill (the Declaratory Act), 
however, was almost immediately passed by the king's party, 
asserting absolute supremacy of parliament over the colonies, 
and in the succeeding parliament, by the Townshend Acts of 
1767, duties were imposed on paper, paints and glass imported 
by the colonists; a tax was imposed on tea also. The imposition 
of these taxes was bitterly resented in the colonies, where it 
quickly crystallized public opinion round the principle of " No 
taxation without representation." In spite of the opposition 
in the colonies to the Declaratory Act, the Townshend Acts 
and the tea tax, Franklin continued to assure the British ministry 
and the British public of the loyalty of the colonists. He tried 
to find some middle ground of reconciliation, and kept up his 
quiet work of informing England as to the opinions and conditions 
of the colonies, and of moderating the attitude of the colonies 
toward the home government; so that, as he said, he was accused 
in America of being too much an Englishman, and in England 
of being too much an American. He was agent now, not only of 
Pennsylvania, but also of New Jersey, of Georgia and of Massa- 
chusetts. Hillsborough, who became secretary of state for the 
colonies in 1768, refused to recognize Franklin as agent of 
Massachusetts, because the governor of Massachusetts had not 
approved the appointment, which was by resolution of the 
assembly. Franklin contended that the governor, as a mere 
agent of the king, could have nothing to do with the assembly's 
appointment of its agent to the king; that " the King, and not 
the King, Lords, and Commons collectively, is their sovereign; 
and that the King, with their respective Parliaments, is their only 
legislator." Franklin's influence helped to oust Hillsborough, 
and Dartmouth, whose name Franklin suggested, was made 

1 Many questions (about 20 of the first 25) were put by his friends 
to draw out what he wished to be known. 



secretary in 1772 and promptly recognised Franklin as the agent 
of Massachusetts. 

In 1773 there appeared in the Puttie Advertiser one of Franklin's 
cleverest hoaxes, " An Edict of the King of Prussia," proclaiming 
that the island of Britain was a colony of Prussia, having been 
settled by Angles and Saxons, having been protected by Prussia, 
having been defended by Prussia against France in the war just 
past, and never having been definitely freed from Prussia's 
rule; and that, therefore, Great Britain should now submit to 
certain taxes laid by Prussia— the taxes being identical with 
those laid upon the American colonies by Great Britain. In 
the same year occurred the famous episode of the Hutchinson 
Letters. These were written by Thomas Hutchinson, Governor 
of Massachusetts, Andrew Oliver (1706-1774), his lieutenant- 
governor, and others to William Whately, a member of Parlia- 
ment, and private secretary to George Grenville, suggesting an 
increase of the power of the governor at the expense of the 
assembly, " an abridgement of what are called English liberties," 
and other measures more extreme than those undertaken by the 
government. The correspondence was shown to Franklin by 
a mysterious " member of parliament " to back up the contention 
that the quartering of troops in Boston was suggested, not by 
the British ministry, but by Americans and Bostonians. Upon 
his promise not to publish the letters Franklin received permission 
to send them to Massachusetts, where they were much passed 
about and were printed, and they were soon republished in English 
newspapers. The Massachusetts assembly on receiving the 
letters resolved to petition the crown for the removal of both 
Hutchinson and Oliver. The petition was refused and was con- 
demned as scandalous, and Franklin, who took upon himself 
the responsibility for the publication of the letters, in the hearing 
before the privy council at the Cockpit on the 20th of January 
1774 was insulted and was called a thief by Alexander Wedder- 
burn (the solicitor-general, who appeared for Hutchinson and 
Oliver), and was removed from his position as head of the post 
office in the American colonies. 

Satisfied that his usefulness in England was at an end, Franklin 
entrusted his agencies to the care of Arthur Lee, and on the 
a 1 st of March 1775 again set sail for Philadelphia. During the 
last years of his stay in England there had been repeated attempts 
to win him (probably with an undcr-secretaryship) to the British 
service, and in these same years be had done a great work for 
the colonies by gaining friends for them among the opposition, 
and by impressing France with his ability and the excellence of 
his case. Upon reaching America, he heard of the fighting at 
Lexington and Concord, and with the news of an actual outbreak 
of hostilities his feeling toward England seems to have changed 
completely. He was no longer a peacemaker, but an ardent war- 
maker. On the 6th of May, the day after his arrival in Phila- 
delphia, he was elected by the assembly of Pennsylvania a 
delegate to the Continental Congress In Philadelphia. In October 
he was elected a member of the Pennsylvania assembly, but, as 
members of this body were still required to take an oath of 
allegiance to the crown, he refused to serve. In the Congress 
he served on as many as ten committees, and upon the organiza- 
tion of a continental postal system, he was made postmaster- 
general, a position he held for one year, when (in 1776) he was 
succeeded by his son-in-law, Richard Bache, who had been his 
deputy. With Benjamin Harrison, John Dickinson, Thomas 
Johnson and John Jay he was appointed in November 177s 
to a committee to carry on a secret correspondence with the 
friends of America " in Great Britain, Ireland and other parts of 
the world." He planned an appeal to the king of France for 
aid, and wrote the instructions of Silas Deane who was to convey 
it. In April 1776 he went to Montreal with Charles Carroll, 
Samuel Chase and John Carroll, as a member of the commission 
which conferred with General Arnold, and attempted without 
success to gain the co-operation of Canada. Immediately after 
his return from Montreal he was a member of the committee of 
five appointed to draw up the Declaration of Independence, 
but he took no actual part himself in drafting that instru- 
ment, aside from suggesting the change or insertion of a few 



FRANKLIN, BENJAMIN 



word* im Jsfierson's draft. From July 16 to September s8. he 
acted as president o! the Constitutional Convention of Penn- 
sylvania. 

With John Adams and Edward Rutkdge he was selected 
by Congress to discuss with Admiral Howe (September 1776, 
at Staten Island) the terms of peace proposed by Howe, who had 
arrived in New York harbour in July 1776, and who had been 
an intimate friend of Franklin; but the discussion was fruitless, 
as the American commissioners refused to treat " back of this 
step of independency." On the 36th of September in the same 
year Franklin was chosen as commissioner to France to join 
Arthur Lee, who was in London, and Silas Deane, who had 
arrived in France in June 1776. He collected all the money he 
could command, between £3000 and £4000, lent it to Congress 
before he set sail, and arrived at Paris on the sand of December. 
He found quarters at Fassy, 1 then a suburb of Paris, in a house 
belonging to Le Ray de Chaumont, an active friend of the 
American cause, who had influential relations with the court, 
and through whom he was enabled to be in the fullest communica- 
tion with the French government without compromising it in the 
eyes of Great Britain. 

At the time of Franklin's arrival in Paris he was already one 
of the moat talked about men in the world. He was a member 
of every important learned society in Europe; he was a member, 
and one of the managers, of the Royal Society, and was one of 
eight foreign members of the Royal Academy of Sciences in 
Paris. Three editions of his scientific works had already appeared 
m Paris, and a new edition had recently appeared in London. 
TO all these advantages he added a political purpose — the 
dismemberment of the British empire — which was entirely 
congenial to every citizen of France. " Franklin's reputation,' 1 
wrote John Adams with characteristic extravagance, " was more 
universal than that of Leibnitz or Newton, Frederick or 
Voltaire; and his character more esteemed and beloved than 
aO of them. . . . If a collection could be made of all the gazettes 
of Europe, for the latter half of the z8th century, a greater 
Bomber of panegyrical paragraphs upon le grand Franklin 
would appear, it is believed, than upon any other man that ever 
lived." " Franklin's appearance in the French salons, even 
before he began to negotiate," says FriedrichChristoph Schlosser, 
" was an event of great importance to the whole of Europe. . . . 
His dress, the simplicity of his external appearance, the friendly 
meekness of the old man, and the apparent humility of the 
Quaker, procured for Freedom a mass of votaries among the 
court circles who used to be alarmed at its coarseness and un- 
sophisticated truths. Such was the number of portraits, 1 busts 
sad medallions of him in circulation before he left Paris that he 
would have been recognised from them by any adult citizen 
to any part of the civilized world. 1 ' 

Franklin's position in France was a difficult one from the 
start, because of the delicacy of the task of getting French aid 
at a time when France was unready openly to take sides against 
Great Britain. But on the 6th of February 1778, after the 
news of the defeat and surrender of Burgoyne had reached 
Europe, a treaty of alliance and a treaty of amity and commerce 
b e twe en France and the United States were signed at Paris by 
Franklin, Deane and Lee. On the 28th of October this com- 
mission was discharged and Franklin was appointed sole pleni- 
potentiary to the French court. Lee, from the beginning of the 
minion to Paris, seems to have been possessed of a mania of 
jealousy toward Franklin, or of misunderstanding of his acts, 
and he tried to undermine his influence with the Continental 
Congress. John Adams, when he succeeded Deane (recalled 
from Paris through Lee's machinations) joined in the chorus of 
fault-finding against Franklin, dilated upon his social habits, 
his p—r*"* 1 slothfumess and his complete lack of business-like 
system; but Adams soon came to see that, although careless 
of details, Franklin was doing what no other man could have 



1 The bouse is famffiar from the drawing of It by Victor Hugo. 

a Maay of these portraits bore i n sc ripti ons, the most famous 
of which was Target's lme, " Eripuit fulmen coelo sceptrumque 
tyranjus. 



»7 

done, and he ceased bis harsher criticism. Even greater' than 
his diplomatic difficulties were Franklin's financial strait*, 
Drafts were being drawn on him by all the American agents in 
Europe, and by the Continental Congress at home. Acting as 
American • naval agent for the many successful privateers 
who harried the English Channel, and for whom he skilfully 
got every bit of assistance possible, open and covert, from the 
French government, he was continually called upon for funds 
in these ventures. Of the vessels to be sent to Paris with 
American cargoes which were to be sold for the liquidation of 
French loans to the colonies made through Beaumarchais, few 
arrived; those that did come did not cover Beaumarchais'a 
advances, and hardly a vessel came from America without 
word of fresh drafts on Franklin. After bold and repeated 
overtures for an exchange of prisoners— an important matter, 
both because the American frigates had no place in which to 
stow away their prisoners, and because of the maltreatment 
of American captives in such prisons as Dartmoor — exchanges 
began at the end of March 1779, although there were annoying 
delays, and immediately after November 1781 there was a long 
break in the agreement; and the Americans discharged from 
English prisons were constantly in need of money. Franklin, 
besides, was constantly called upon to meet the indebtedness 
of Lee and of Ralph Izard (1742-1804), and of John Jay, who 
in Madrid was being drawn on by the American Congress. In 
spite of the poor condition in Europe of the credit of the strugg- 
ling colonies, and of the fact that France was almost bankrupt 
(and in the later years was at war), and although Necker strenu- 
ously resisted the making of any loans to the colonies, France, 
largely because of Franklin's appeals, expended, by loan or gift 
to the colonies, or in sustenance of the French arms in America, 
a sum estimated at $60,000,000. 

In 1 781 Franklin, with John Adams, John Jay, Jefferson, 
who remained in America, and Henry Laurens, then a prisoner 
in England, was appointed on a commission to make peace with 
Great Britain. In the spring of 1782 Franklin had been inform- 
ally negotiating with Shclburne, secretary of state for the home 
department, through the medium, of Richard Oswald, a Scotch 
merchant, and had suggested that England should cede Canada 
to the United States in return for the recognition of loyalist 
claims by the states. When the formal negotiations began 
Franklin held closely to the instructions of Congress to its 
commissioners, that they should maintain confidential relations 
with the French ministers and that they were " to undertake 
nothing in the negotiations for peace or truce without their 
knowledge and concurrence," and were ultimately to be- governed 
by " their advice and opinion." Jay and Adams disagreed with 
him on this point, believing that France intended to curtail 
the territorial aspirations of the Americans for her own benefit 
and for that of her ally, Spain. At last, after the British govern- 
ment had authorized its agents to treat with the commissioners 
as representatives of an independent power, thus recognizing 
American independence before the treaty was made, Frankhn 
acquiesced ia the policy of Jay. The preliminary treaty was 
signed by the commissioners on the 30th of November 1782, 
the final treaty on the 3rd of September 1783. Franklin had 
repeatedly petitioned Congress for his recall, but his letters 
were unanswered or his appeals refused until the 7th of March 
1785, when Congress resolved that he be allowed to return to 
America; on the 10th of March Thomas Jefferson, who had 
joined him in August of the year before, was appointed to his 
place. Jefferson, when asked if be replaced Franklin, replied, 
" No one can replace him, sir; I am only his successor." Before 
Franklin left Paris on the 12th of July 1785 he had made 
commercial treaties with Sweden (1783) and Prussia (1785; 
signed after Franklin's departure by Jefferson and John Adams). 
Franklin arrived in Philadelphia on the 13th of September, 
disembarking at the same wharf as when he had first entered the 
dty. He was immediately elected a member of the municipal 
council of Philadelphia, becoming its chairman; and was chosen 
president of the Supreme Executive Council (the chief executive 
officer) of Pennsylvania, and was re-elected in 1786 and 1787, 



28 

serving from October 1785 to October 1788. In May 1787 he 
was elected a delegate to the Convention which drew up the 
Federal Constitution, this body thus having a member upon 
whom all could agree as chairman, should Washington be absent. 
He opposed over-centralisation of government and favoured the 
Connecticut Compromise, and after the work of the Convention 
was done used his influence to secure the adoption of the Con- 
stitution. 1 As president of the Pennsylvania Society for 
Promoting the Abolition of Slavery, Franklin signed a petition 
to Congress (xath February 1700) for immediate abolition of 
slavery, and six weeks later in his most brilliant manner parodied 
the attack on the petition made by James Jackson (1757-1806) 
Of Georgia, taking off Jackson's quotations of Scripture with 
pretended texts from the Koran cited by a member of the Divan 
of Algiers in opposition to a petition asking for the prohibition 
of holding Christians in slavery. These were his last public 
acts. His last days were marked by a fine serenity and calm; 
he died in his own house in Philadelphia on the 17 th of April 
1700, the immediate cause being an abscess in the lungs. He was 
buried with his wife in the graveyard (Fifth and Axch Streets) 
of Christ Church, Philadelphia. 

Physically Franklin was large, about 5 ft. xo in. tall, with a 
well-rounded, powerful figure; he inherited an excellent con- 
stitution from his parents—" I never knew," says he, " either 
my father or mother to have any sickness but that of which 
they dy'd, he at 89, and she at 85 years of age "—but injured it 
somewhat by excesses; in early life he had severe attacks of 
pleurisy, from one of which, in 1727, it was not expected that he 
would recover, and in his later years he was the victim of stone 
and gout. When he was sixteen he became a vegetarian for a 
time, rather to save money for books than for any other reason, 
and he always preached moderation in eating, though he was 
less consistent in his practice in this particular than as regards 
moderate drinking. He was always enthusiastically fond of 
swimming, and was a great believer in fresh air, taking a cold 
air bath regularly in the morning, when he sat naked in his 
bedroom beguiling himself with a book or with writing for a 
half-hour or more. He insisted that fresh, cold air was not the 
cause of colds, and preached zealously the " gospel of ventila- 
tion." He was a charming talker, with a gay humour and a 
quiet sarcasm and a telling use of anecdote for argument. Henri 
Martin, the French historian, speaks of him as " of a mind 
altogether French in its grace and elasticity." In 1730 he 
married Deborah Read, in whose father's house he had lived 
when he had first come to Philadelphia, to whom he had been 
engaged before his first departure from Philadelphia for London, 
and who in his absence had married a ne'er-do-well, one Rogers, 
who had deserted her. The marriage to Franklin is presumed 
to have been a common law marriage, for there was no proof 
that Miss Read's former husband was dead, nor that, as was 
suspected, a former wife, alive when Rogers married Miss Read, 
was still alive, and that therefore his marriage to Deborah was 
void. His " Debby," or his " dear child," as Franklin usually 
addressed her in his letters, received into the family, soon after 
her marriage, Franklin's illegitimate son, William Franklin 
(1729-1813),* with whom she afterwards quarrelled, and whose 
mother, tradition says, was Barbara, a servant in the Franklin 
household. Another illegitimate child became the wife of John 
Foxcroft of Philadelphia. Deborah, who was " as much dispos'd 
to industry and frugality as " her husband, was illiterate and 
shared none of her husband's tastes for literature and science; 

'Notably in a pamphlet comparing the Jews and the Anti- 
Federalists. 

1 William Franklin served on the Canadian frontier with Pennsyl- 
vania troops, becoming captain in 1750; was in the post-office in 
1754-1756; went to England with his father in 1758; was admitted 
to legal practice in 1758; in 1763, recommended by Lord Fairfax, 
became governor of New Jeraey; he left the Whig for the Tory 
party; and in the War of Independence was a faithful loyalist, 
much to the pain and regret of his father, who, however, was recon- 
ciled to him in part in 1784. He was held as a prisoner from 1776 
until exchanged in 1778; and lived four years in New York, and 
during the remainder of his life in England with an annual pension of 
£800 from the crown. 



FRANKLIN, BENJAMIN 



her dread of an ocean voyage kept her in Philadelphia during 
Franklin's missions to England, and she died in 1774, while 
Franklin was in London. She bore him two children, one a son, 
Francis Folger, " whom I have seldom since sees equal'd in 
everything, and whom to this day [thirty-six years after the 
child's death] I cannot think of without a sigh," who died (1736) 
when four years old of small-pox, not having been inoculated; 
the other was Sarah (1744-1808), who married Richard Bache 
(1737-1811), Franklin's successor in 1776-1782 as postmaster- 
general. Franklin's gallant relations with women alter his wife's 
death were probably innocent enough. Best known of his French 
amies were Mme Helvetius, widow of the philosopher, and the 
young Mme Brillon, who corrected her " Papa's " French and 
tried to bring him safely into the Roman Catholic Church. 
With him in France were his grandsons, William Temple 
Franklin, William Franklin's natural son, who acted as private 
secretary to his grandfather, and Benjamin Franklin Bache 
(1760-1798), Sarah's son, whom he sent to Geneva to be educated, 
for whom he later asked public office of Washington, and who 
became editor of the Aurora, one of the leading journals in the 
Republican attacks on Washington. 

Franklin early rebelled against New England Puritanism and 
spent his Sundays in reading and in study instead of attending 
church. His free-thinking ran its extreme course at the time of 
his publication in London of A Dissertation on Liberty ami 
Necessity, Pleasure and Pain (1725), which he recognised as one 
of the great errata of his life. He later called himself a deist, 
or theist, not discriminating between the terms. To bis favourite 
sister he wrote: " There are some things in your New England 
doctrine and worship which I do not agree with; but I do not 
therefore condemn them, or desire to shake your belief 01 
practice of them." Such was his general attitude. He did not 
believe in the divinity of Christ, but thought " his system of 
morals and his religion, as he left them to us, the best the world 
ever saw, or is like to see." His intense practical-mindedness 
drew him away from religion, but drove him to a morality of his 
own (the " art of virtue," he called it), based on thirteen virtues 
each accompanied by a short precept; the virtues were Temper- 
ance, Silence, Order, Resolution, Frugality, Industry, Sincerity, 
Justice, Moderation, Cleanliness, Tranquility, Chastity and 
Humility, the precept accompanying the last-named virtue 
being " Imitate Jesus and Socrates." He made a business-like 
little notebook, ruled off spaces for the thirteen virtues and the 
seven days of the week, " determined to give a week's strict 
attention to each of the virtues successively . . . [going] thro' 
a course compleate in thirteen weeks and four courses in a year," 
marking for each day a record of his adherence to each of the 
precepts. " And conceiving God to be the fountain of wisdom," 
he " thought it right and necessary to solicit His assistance for 
obtaining it," and drew up the following prayer for daily use: 
" O powerful Goodness 1 bountiful Father I merciful Guide t 
Increase in me that wisdom which discovers my truest interest 
Strengthen my resolution to perform what that wisdom dictates. 
Accept my kind offices to Thy other children, as the only return 
in my power for Thy continual favours to me." He was by no 
means prone to overmuch introspection, his great interest 
in the conduct of others being shown in the wise maxims of Poor 
Richard, which were possibly too utilitarian but were wonderfully 
successful in instructing American morals. His Art of Virtm 
on which he worked for years was never completed or published 
in any form. 

" Benjamin Franklin, Printer," was Franklin's own favourite 
description of himself. He was an excellent compositor and 
pressman; his workmanship, clear impressions, black ink and 
comparative freedom from errata did much to get him the 
public printing in Pennsylvania and New Jersey, and the printing 
of the paper money* and other public matters in Delaware. 
The first book with his imprint is The Psalms of David Imitated in 

* For the prevention of counterfeiting continental paper money 
Franklin long afterward* suggested the use oa the different de- 
nominations of different leaves, having noted the infinite variety of 
leaf venation. 



FRANKLIN, BENJAMIN 



Ik Language of the Ne* Testament and op ply' d to the Christian 
State and Worship. By I. Watts . . ., Philadelphia: Printed 
by B. P. and H. M. for Thomas Godfrey, and Sold at his Shop, 
ifoa. The first novel printed in America was Franklin's reprint 
is 1744 of Pamda; and the first American translation from 
the classics which was printed in America was a version by 
janes Logan (1674-1751) of Cato's Moral Dislicks (1735). In 
1744 he published another translation of Logan's, Cicero On Old 
Age, which Franklin thought typographically the finest book 
he had ever printed. In 1733 he had established a press in 
Charleston, South Carolina, and soon after did the same in 
Lancaster, Pa., in New Haven, Conn., in New York, in Antigua, 
ia Kingston, Jamaica, and in other places. Personally he had 
Htik connexion' with the Philadelphia printing office after 1748, 
when. David Hall became his partner and took charge of it. 
Bit in 1753 he was eagerly engaged in having several of his 
improvements incorporated in a new press, and more than 
twenty years after was actively interested in John Walter's 
scheme of " tocography." In France he had a private press in 
us house in Passy, on which he printed " bagatelles." Franklin's 
work as a publisher is for the most part closely connected with 
his work in issuing the Gazette and Poor Richard's Almanack 
(a summary of the proverbs from which appeared in the number 
tar 1 7 58, and has often been reprinted — under such titles as 
Father Abraham's Speech, and The Way to Wealth).* 

Of much of Franklin's work as an author something has 
already been said. Judged as literature, the first place belongs 
to his Autobiography, which unquestionably ranks among the 
lew great autobiographies ever written. His style in its sim- 
plicity, facility and clearness owed something to De Foe, 
something to Cotton Mather, something to Plutarch, more to 
Banyan and to his early attempts to reproduce the manner of 
the third volume of the Spectator; and not the least to his own 
careful study of word usage. From Xenophon's Memorabilia 
be learned when a boy the Socratic method of argument. Swift 
be resembled in the occasional broadness of his humour, in his 
briBiamly successful use of sarcasm and irony, 1 and in his 
mastery of the hoax. Balzac said of him that he " invented 
the lightning-rod, the hoax (' le canard ') and the republic." 
Among his more famous hoaxes were the " Edict of the King of 
Prussia " (1773), already described; the fictitious supplement 
to the Boston Chronicle, printed on his private press at Passy in 
176s, and containing a letter with an invoice of eight packs of 
954 cured, dried, hooped and painted scalps of rebels, men, 
women and children, taken by Indians in the British employ; 
and another fictitious Letter from the Count de Schaumbcrg to the 
Baron Hohtndorf commanding the Hessian Troops in America 
0;77) — the count's only anxiety is that not enough men will 
be killed to bring him in moneys he needs, and he urges his 
officer in command in America " to prolong the war ... for 
I have made arrangements for a grand Italian opera, and I 
de not wish to be obliged to give it up."* 

Closely related to Franklin's political pamphlets are his writ- 
ings on economics, which, though undertaken with a political 

1 " Seventy-five editions of it have been printed in English, fifty- 
ax ia French, eleven in German and nine in Italian. It has been 
tia— latrd into Spanish. Danish, Swedish, Welsh, Polish, Gaelic, 
Russian. Bohemian, Dutch, Catalan, Chinese, modern Greek and 
phonetic writing. It has been printed at least four hundred times, 
and n to-day as popular aa ever." — P. L. Ford, in The Many-Sided 
FnnHim (1890). 

• Both Swift and Franklin made sport of the typical astrologer 
aunanack-malcer. 

"Another hoax was Franklin's parable a 
eatm thrown into Scriptural form and quot 
ant chapter of Genesis. In a paper on a " 
of the Bible " be paraphrased a lew verses of 
making them a satiric attack on royal cover 
ssay well rank with these hoaxes, and evci 
been taken in by it, regarding it as a serious p 
md " version and decrying it as poor taste, 
eutopic, declared this an instance in which 1 
bis " imperturbable common sense "; and J. 
devoting several pages to its discussion, very „ 

* ha^a*»k 11 ■■ill ■— ■ ** 



29 

or practical purpose and not in a purely scientific spirit, rank him 
as the first American economist. He wrote in 1720 A Modest 
Enquiry into the Nature and Necessity of a Paper Currency, which 
argued that a plentiful currency will make rates of interest low 
and will promote immigration and home manufactures, and which 
did much to secure the further issue of paper money in Penn- 
sylvania. After the British Act of 1750 forbidding the erection 
or the operating of iron or steel mills in the colonies, Franklin 
wrote Observations concerning tlu Increase of Mankind and the 
Peopling of Countries (1751); its thesis was that manufactures 
come to be common only with a high degree of social development 
and with great density of population, and that Great Britain 
need not, therefore, fear the industrial competition of the 
colonies, but it is better known for the estimate (adopted by 
Adam Smith) that the population of the colonies would 
double every quarter-century; and for the likeness to Mallhus's 4 
" preventive check " of its statement: " The greater the common 
fashionable expense of any rank of people the more cautious they 
are of marriage." His Positions to be examined concerning 
National Wealth (1769) shows that he was greatly influenced 
by the French physiocrats after his visit to France in 1767. 
His Wail of a Protected Manufacturer voices a protest against 
protection as raising the cost of living; and he held that free 
trade was based on a natural right. He knew Karnes, Hume 
and Adam Smith, and corresponded with Mirabeau, " the friend 
of Man." Some of the more important of his economic theses, 
as summarized by W. A. Wetzel, are: that money as coin may 
have more than its bullion value; that natural interest is 
determined by the rent of land valued at the sum of money 
loaned— an anticipation of Turgot; that high wages are not 
inconsistent with a large foreign trade; that the value of an 
article is determined by the amount of labour necessary to 
produce the food consumed in making the article; that manu- 
factures are advantageous but agriculture only is truly pro- 
ductive; and that when practicable (as he did not think it 
practicable at the end of the War of Independence) state revenue 
should be raised by direct tax. 

Franklin as a scientist 9 and as an inventor has been decried 
by experts as an amateur and a dabbler; but it should be 
remembered that it was always his hope to retire from public 
life and devote himself to science. In the American Philo- 
sophical Society (founded 1743) scientific subjects were much 
discussed. Franklin wrote a paper on the causes of earthquakes 
for his Gaulle of the 15th of December 1737; and he eagerly 
collected material to uphold his theory that waterspouts and 
whirlwinds resulted from the same causes. In 1743. from the 
circumstance that an eclipse not visible in Philadelphia because 
of a storm had been observed in Boston, where the storm although 
north-easterly did not occur until an hour after the eclipse, he 
surmised that storms move against the wind along the Atlantic 
coast. In the year before (1742) he had planned the " Penn- 
sylvania fire-place," better known as the " Franklin stove," 
which saved fuel, heated all the room, and had the same principle 
as the hot-air furnace; the stove was never patented by Franklin, 
but was described in his pamphlet dated 1744. He was much 
engaged at the same time in remedying smoking chimneys, and 
as late as 1785 wrote to Jan Ingcnhousz, physician to the emperor 
of Austria, on chimneys and draughts; smoking street lamps 
he remedied by a simple contrivance. The study of electricity 
he took up in 1746 when he first saw a Leydcn jar, in the mani- 
pulation of which he became expert and which he improved by 
the use of granulated lead in the place of water for the interior 
armatures; he recognized that condensation is due to the 
dielectric and not to the metal coatings. A note in his diary, 
dated the 7th of November 1749, shows that he had then 

* Malthus quoted Franklin in his first edition, but it was not until 
the second that he introduced the theory of the " preventive check. 
Franklin noted the phenomenon with disapproval in his advocacy 
of increased population; Malthus with approval in his search for 
means to decrease population. 

* The title of philosopher as used in Franklin s lifetime referred 
neither in England nor in France to him as author of moral maxims, 
but to him as a scientist—a " natural philosopher. " 



30 FRANKLIN, SIR JOHN 



conjectured tl 
f citations; in < 
known as " F 
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sparing and sin 
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direct contribu 
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A summary < 
to America in I 
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his day, he dis 
varied abilities 
astically given 1 
Qibliocraph 
lifetime, and he 
and Obsereatiom 
French by Barl 
more complete 
Pieces (London 

after Franklin's , 

Works, as it was 
at London (6 v< 

ditional matter * 

(10 vols., Bosti .* 

contained fresh ^ 

edition of John 

and in that by AI r 

There are impc <fc 

possession of trie fc 

conveyed by th< , 

Other papers wh 

stable garret; tl ,8= 

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The others, it « *. 

and this import - k 

university of P« 

by Henry Stcvei ,r " 

collections were l 3= 

by A. H. Smyth. I 

private chronicle v- 

bringing the stoi ' "T 

governor during *■ 

the possession o ^ 

urged him to coi " M 

In 1788, when he r - 

more in 1790. 1 

Temple Franklin * 

making over intc &— 

So long was the t; 



FRANKLIN, SIR JOHN 



long interval, an object of national interest, and Lieutenant 
I Franklin was given the command of the " Trent " in the Arctic 
expedition, under the ordersof Captain Buchan in the " Dorot hea ". 
Dunnf a heavy storm the " Dorothea " was so much damaged 
by the pack-ice that her reaching England became doubtful, 
tad, much to the chagrin of young Franklin, the " Trent " 
m fomprilcd to convoy her home instead of being allowed 
to prosecute the voyage alone. This voyage, however, had 
brought Franklin into personal intercourse with the leading 
scientific men of London, and they were not slow in ascertaining 
fan peculiar fitness for the command of such an enterprise. 
To calmness in danger, promptness and fertility of resource, 
and excellent seamanship, he added an ardent desire to promote 
science for its own sake, together with a love of truth that led 
him to do full justice to the merits of his subordinate officers, 
without wishing to claim their discoveries as a captain's right. 
Furthermore, he possessed a cheerful buoyancy of mind, sustained 
by deep religious principle, which was not depressed in the most 
gloomy times. It was therefore with full confidence in his 
ability and exertions that, in .1819, he was placed in command 
of an expedition appointed to proceed overland from the Hudson 
Bay to the shores of the Arctic Sea, and to determine the trendings 
of that coast eastward of the Coppermine river. At this period 
the northern coast of the American' continent was known at 
two isolated points only,— this, the mouth of the Coppermine 
river (which, as Franklin discovered, was erroneously placed 
fear degress of latitude too much to the north), and the mouth 
of the Mackenzie far to the west of it. Lieutenant Franklin 
and his party, consisting of Dr Richardson, Midshipmen George 
Back and Richard Hood, and a few ordinary boatmen, arrived 
at the depot of the Hudson's Bay Company at the end of August 
iSio, and making an autumnal journey of 700 m. spent the first 
winter on the Saskatchewan. Owing to the supplies which 
had been promised by the North -West and Hudson's Bay 
Compa n ies not being forthcoming the following year, it was not 
until the summer of 182 1 that the Coppermine was ascended 
to its mouth, and a considerable extent of sea-coast to the 
eastward surveyed. The return journey led over the region 
known as the Barren Ground, and was marked by the most 
terrible sufferings and privations and the tragic death of 
Lieutenant Hood. The survivors of the expedition reached 
York Factory in the month of June 1822, having accomplished 
altogether 555° m. of travel. While engaged on this service 
Franklin was promoted to the rank of commander (1st of January 
ilai), and upon his return to England at the end of 1822 he 
obtained the post rank of captain and was elected a fellow of 
the Royal Society. The narrative of this expedition was pub- 
" in the following year and became at once a classic of travel, 
soon after he married Eleanor, the youngest daughter of 
Pordcn, an eminent architect. 
Early in 1825 he was entrusted with the command of a second 
overland expedition, and upon the earnest entreaty of his dying 
wife, who encouraged him to place his duty to his country before 
ha love for her, he set sail without waiting to witness her end. 

i Accompanied as before by Dr (afterwards Sir) John Richardson 
and Lieutenant (afterwards Sir) George Back, he descended the 
■firirmrir river in the season of 1826 and traced the North 
American coast asiar as 149° 37' W. long., whilst Richardson 
at the head of a separate party connected the mouths of the 
Copper min e and Mackenzie rivers. Thus between the years 1819 
sad 1827 he had added 1200 m. of coast-line to the American 
continent, or one-third of the whole distance from the Atlantic 
to the Pacific. These exertions were fully appreciated at home 
sad abroad. He was knighted in 1820, received the honorary 
degree of D.C.L. from the university of Oxford, was awarded the 
|nld medal of the Geographical Society of Paris, and was elected 
corresponding member of the Paris Academy of Sciences. The 
results of these expeditions are described by Franklin and Dr 
Richardson in two magnificent works published in 1824-1829. 
In 1828 he married his second wife, Jane, second daughter of 
John Griffin. His next official employment was on the Mediter- 
■ cancan station, in command of the " Rainbow," and his ship 



31 

soon became proverbial in the squadron for the happiness and 
comfort of her officers and crew. As an acknowledgment of 
the essential service which he rendered off Patras in the Greek 
War of Independence, he received the cross of the Redeemer of 
Greece from King Otto, and after his return to England he was 
created knight commander of the Guelphic order of Hanover. 

In 1836 be accepted the lieutenant-governorship of Van 
Diemen's Land (now Tasmania), and held that post till the 
end of 1843. His government was marked by several events 
of much interest, one of his most popular measures being the 
opening of the doors of the legislative council to the public. 
He also founded a college, endowing it largely from his private 
funds, and in 1838 established a scientific society at Hobart 
Town (now called the Royal Society of Tasmania), the meetings 
of which were held in Government House and its papers printed 
at his expense. In his time also the colony of Victoria was 
founded by settlers from Tasmania; and towards its close, 
transportation to New South Wales having been abolished, 
the convicts from every part of the British empire were sent to 
Tasmania. On an increase of the lieutenant-governor's salary 
being voted by the colonial legislature, Sir John declined to 
derive any advantage from it personally, while he secured the 
augmentation to his successors. He welcomed eagerly the various 
expeditions for exploration and surveying which visited Hobart 
Town, conspicuous among these, and of especial interest to 
himself, being the French and English Antarctic expeditions 
of Dumont d'Urville and Sir James C. Ross— the latter com- 
manding the " Erebus " and " Terror," with which Franklin's 
own name was afterwards to be so pathetically connected. A 
magnetic observatory fixed at Hobart Town, as a dependency 
of the central establishment under Colonel Sabine, was also 
an object of deep interest up to the moment of his leaving the 
colony. That his unflinching efforts for the social and political 
advancement of the colony were appreciated was abundantly 
proved by the affection and respect shown him by every section 
of the community on his departure; and several years after- 
wards, the colonists showed their remembrance of his virtues 
and services by sending Lady Franklin a subscription of £1700 
in aid of her efforts for the search and relief of her husband, 
and later still by a unanimous vote of the legislature for the 
erection of a statue in lionour of him at Hobart Town. 

Sir John found on reaching England that there was about to 
be a renewal of polar research, and that the confidence of the 
admiralty in him was undiminished, as was shown by his being 
offered the command of an expedition for the discovery of a 
North-West Passage to the Pacific. This offer he accepted. 
The prestige of Arctic service and of his former experiences 
attracted a crowd of volunteers of all classes, from whom were 
selected a body of officers conspicuous for talent and energy. 
Captain Crosier, who was second in command, had been three 
voyages with Sir Edward Parry, and had commanded the 
" Terror " in Ross's Antarctic expedition. Captain Fiujames, 
who was commander on board the " Erebus," had been five times 
gazetted for brilliant conduct in the operations of the first China 
war, and in a letter which he wrotefrom Greenland has bequeathed 
some good-natured but masterly sketches of his brother officers 
and messmates on this expedition. Thus supported, with crews 
carefully chosen (some of whom had been engaged in the whaling 
service), victualled for three years, and furnished with every 
appliance then known, Franklin's expedition, consisting of the 
" En:bus" and " Terror " (129 officers and men), with a transport 
ship to convey additional stores as far as Disco in Greenland, 
sailed from Greenhithe on the 19th of May 1845. The let ten 
which Franklin despatched from Greenland were couched in 
language of cheerful anticipation of success, while those received 
from his officers expressed their glowing hope, their admiration 
of the seamanlike qualities of their commander, and the happi- 
ness they had in serving under him. The ships were last seen 
by a whaler near the entrance of Lancaster Sound, on the 20th 
of July, and the deep gloom which settled down upon their 
subsequent movements was not finally raised till fourteen yean 
1 later. 



32 

Franklin's instructions were framed in conjunction with Sir 
John Barrow and upon his own suggestions. The experience 
of Parry had established the navigability of Lancaster Sound 
(leading westwards out of Baffin Bay), whilst Franklin's own 
surveys had long before satisfied him that a navigable passage 
existed along the north coast of America from the Fish river 
to Bering Strait. He was therefore directed to push through 
Lancaster Sound and its continuation, Barrow Strait, without 
loss of time, until he reached the portion of land on which 
Cape Walker is situated, or about long. 98 W., and from that 
point to pursue a course southward towards the American coast. 
An explicit prohibition was given against a westerly course 
beyond the longitude of 08° W., but he was allowed the single 
alternative of previously examining Wellington Channel (which 
leads out of Barrow Strait) for a northward route, if the naviga- 
tion here were open. 

In 1847, though there was no real public anxiety as to the fate 
of the expedition, preparations began to be made for the possible 
necessity of sending relief. As time passed, however, and no 
tidings reached England, the search began in earnest, and from 
1848 onwards expedition after expedition was despatched in 
quest of the missing explorers. The work of these expeditions 
forms a story of achievement which has no parallel in maritime 
annals, and resulted in the discovery and exploration of thousands 
of miles of new land within the grim Arctic regions, the develop- 
ment of the system of sledge travelling, and the discovery of a 
second North-West Passage in 1850 (see Polar Regions). 
Here it is only necessary to mention the results so far as the 
search for Franklin was concerned. In this great national under- 
taking Lady Franklin's exertions were unwearied, and she 
exhausted her private funds in sending out auxiliary vessels to 
quarters not comprised in the public search, and by her pathetic 
appeals roused the sympathy of the whole civilized world. 

The first traces of the missing ships, consisting of a few scattered 
articles, besides three graves, were discovered at Franklin's 
winter quarters (1 845-1 846) on Becchcy Island, by Captain 
(afterwards Sir) Era'smus Ommanncy of the " Assistance," in 
August 1851, and were brought home by the " Prince Albert," 
which had been fitted out by Lady Franklin. No further tidings 
were obtained until the spring of 1854, when Dr John Rae, then 
conducting a sledging expedition of the Hudson's Bay Company 
from Repulse Bay, was told by the Eskimo that (as was inferred) 
in r850 white men, to the number of about forty, had been seen 
dragging a boat southward along the west shore of King William's 
Island, and that later in the same season the bodies of the whole 
party were found by the natives at a point a short distance to the 
north-west of Back's Great Fish river, where they had perished 
from the united effects of cold and famine. The latter statement 
was afterwards disproved by the discovery of skeletons upon the 
presumed line of route; but indisputable proof was given that 
the Eskimo had communicated with members of the missing 
expedition, by the various articles obtained from them and 
brought home by Dr Rae. In consequence of the information 
obtained by Dr Rae, a party in canoes, under Messrs Anderson 
and Stewart, was sent by government ciown the Great Fish river 
in 1855, and succeeded in obtaining from the Eskimo at the mouth 
of the river a considerable number of articles which had evidently 
belonged to the Franklin expedition; while others were picked 
up on Montreal Island a day's march to the northward. It was 
dear, therefore, that a party from the " Erebus " and " Terror " 
had endeavoured to reach the settlements of the Hudson's Bay 
Company by the Fish river route, and that in making a southerly 
course it had been arrested within the channel into which the 
Great Fish river empties itself. The admiralty now decided to 
take no further steps to determine the exact fate of the expedition, 
and granted to Dr Rae the reward of £10,000 which had been 
offered in 1849 to whosoever should first succeed in obtaining 
authentic news of the missing men. It was therefore reserved 
for the latest effort of Lady Franklin to develop, not only the 
fate of her husband's expedition but also the steps of its progress 
up to the very verge of success, mingled indeed with almost 
unprecedented disaster. With all her available means, and 



FRANKLIN, SIR JOHN 



aided, as she had been before, by the subscriptions of sympathis- 
ing friends, she purchased and fitted out the little yacht " Fox/' 
which sailed from Aberdeen in July 1857. The command was 
accepted by Captain (afterwards Sir) Leopold M'Clintock, whose 
high reputation had been won in three of the government ex- 
peditions sent out in search of Franklin. Having been com- 
pelled to pass the first winter in Baffin Bay, it was not till the 
autumn of 1858 that the " Fox " passed down Prince Regent's 
Inlet, and put into winter quarters at Port Kennedy at the 
eastern end of Beilot Strait, between North Somerset and 
Boothia Felix. In the spring of 1859 three sledging parties went 
out, Captain (afterwards Sir) Allen Young to examine Prince of 
Wales Island, Lieutenant (afterwards Captain) Hobson the north 
and west coasts of King William's Island, and M'Clintock the 
cast and south coasts of the latter, the west coast of Boothia, and 
the region about the mouth of Great Fish river. This splendid 
and exhaustive search added 800 m. of new coast-line to the 
knowledge of the Arctic regions, and brought to light the course 
and fate of the expedition. From the Eskimo in Boothia many 
relics were obtained, and reports as to the fate of the ships and 
men; and on the west and south coast of King William's Island 
were discovered skeletons and remains of articles that told a 
terrible tale of disaster. Above all, in a cairn at Point Victory 
a precious record was discovered by Lieutenant Hobson that 
briefly told the history of the expedition up to April 25, 
1848, three years after it set out full of hope. In 1845-1846 
the " Erebus " and " Terror " wintered at Becchey Island on 
the S.W. coast of North Devon, in lat. 74° 43' 38* N., long. 
91° 39' 15* W., after having ascended Wellington Channel to 
lat. 77° and returned by the west side of Corn wallis Island. This 
statement was signed by Graham Gore, lieutenant, and Charles 
F. des Voeux, mate, and bore date May 28, 1847. These 
two officers and six men, it was further told, left the ships on 
May 34, 1847 (no doubt for an exploring journey), at which 
time all was well. 

Such an amount of successful work has seldom been accom- 
plished by an Arctic expedition within any one season. The 
alternative course permitted Franklin by his int ructions had 
been attempted but not pursued, and in the autumn of 1846 
he had followed that route which was specially commended 
to him. But after successfully navigating Peel and Franklin 
Straits on his way southward, his progress had been suddenly 
and finally arrested by the obstruction of heavy (" palaeocrystic ") 
ice, which presses down from the north-west through M'Clintock 
Channel (not then known to exist) upon King William's Island. 
It must be remembered that in the chart which Franklin carried 
King William's Island was laid down as a part of the mainland 
of Boothia, and he therefore could pursue his way only down its 
western coast. Upon the margin of the printed admiralty form 
on which this brief record was written was an addendum dated 
the 25th of April 1848, which extinguished all further hopes of a 
successful termination of this grand enterprise. The facts are 
best conveyed in the terse and expressive words in which they 
were written, and are therefore given verbatim: " April 25th, 
1848. H.M. Ships 'Terror' and 'Erebus' were deserted on 
sand April, five leagues N.N.W. of this, having been beset 
since 12th September 1846. The officers and crews, consisting 
of 105 souls under the command of Captain F. R. M. Croaer, 
landed in lat. 69 37' 42* N., long. 98° 41' W. This paper was 
found by Lieut. Irving . . . where it had been 'deposited by 
the late Commander Gore in June 1847. Sir John Franklin died 
on the nth June 1847; and the total loss by deaths in the 
expedition has been to this dale 9 officers and 15 men." The 
handwriting is that of Captain Fiojames, to whose signature is 
appended that of Captain Crozier, who also adds the words of 
chief importance, namely, that they would '* start on to-morrow 
26th April 1848 for Back's Fish river." A briefer record has 
never been told of so tragic a story. 

All the party had without doubt been greatly reduced through 
want of sufficient food, and the injurious effects of three winters 
in these regions. They had attempted to drag with them two 
boats, besides heavily laden sledges, and doubtless had soon 



FRANKLIN, W. B.— FRANKLIN 



33 



been compelled to abandon much of their burden, and leave one 
boat on the shore of King William'* Island, where it was found 
by M' Clin lock, near the middle of the west coast, containing 
two skeletons. The route adopted was the shortest possible, 
hot their strength and supplies had failed, and at that season 
of the year the snow-covered land afforded no subsistence 
An old Eskimo woman stated that these heroic men " fell down 
and died as they walked," and, as Sir John Richardson has well 
said, they " forged the last link of the North- West Passage with 
their Hves." From all that can be gathered, one of the ships 
must have been crushed in the ice and sunk in deep water, and 
the other, stranded on the shore of King William's Island, lay 
there for years, forming a mine of wealth for the neighbouring 
Eskimo. 

This is all we know of the fate of Franklin and his brave men. 
His memory is cherished as one of the most conspicuous of the 
naval heroes of Britain, and as one of the most successful and 
daring of her explorers, lie is certainly entitled to the honour 
of being the first discoverer of the North- West Passage; the 
point reached by the ships having brought him to within a few 
miles of the known waters of America, and on the monument 
erected to him by his country, in Waterloo Place, London, 
this honour b justly awarded to him and his companions, — a 
fact which was also affirmed by the president of the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society, when presenting their gold medal to Lady 
Franklin in i860. On the 96th of October 1852 Franklin had 
been promoted to the rank of rear-admiral. lie left an only 
daughter by his first marriage. Lady Franklin died in 1875 
at the age of eighty-three, and a fortnight after her death a fine 
monument was .unveiled in Westminster Abbey, commemorating 
the heroic deeds and fate of Sir John Franklin, and the insepar- 
able connexion of Lady Franklin's name with the fame of her 
husband. Most of the relics brought home by M'Clintock were 
presented by Lady Franklin to the United Service Museum, 
while those given by Dr Rac to the admiralty arc deposited in 
Greenwich hospital. In 1864-1869 the American explorer 
Captain Hall made two journeys in endeavouring to trace the 
remnant of Franklin's party, bringing back a number of addi- 
tional relics and some information confirmatory of that given 
by M'Clintock, and in 1878 Lieutenant F. Schwatka of the 
United States army and a companion made a final land search, 
but although accomplishing a remarkable record of travel 
discovered nothing which threw any fresh light on the history 
«f the expedition. 

See ILD. Traill, Life of Sir John Franklin (1896). 

FRANKLIN, WILLIAM BUEL (1823-1003), Federal general 
ia the American Civil War, was born at York, Pennsylvania, 
an the *7th of February 1823. He graduated at West Point, 
at the bead of his class, in 1843, was commissioned in the Engineer 
Corps, U.S.A., and served with distinction in the Mexican War, 
receiving the brevet of first lieutenant for his good conduct at 
Baena Vista, in which action be was on the staff of General 
Taylor. After the war he was engaged in miscellaneous engineer- 
ing work, becoming a first lieutenant in 1853 and a captain in 
1S57. Soon after the outbreak of the Civil War in 1S61 he was 
made colonel of a regular infantry regiment, and a few days 
later brigadier-general of volunteers. lie led a brigade in the 
first battle of Bull Run, and on the organization by McClcllan 
of the Army of the Potomac he received a divisional command. 
He commanded first a division and then the VI. Corps in the 
operations before Richmond in 1862, earning the brevet of 
brigadier-general in the U.S. Army; was promoted major- 
general. U.S.V., in July 1862; commanded the VI. corps at 
South Mountain and Antietam; and at Fredericksburg com- 

inded the " Left Grand Division " of two corps (I. and VI.). 
His part in the last battle led to charges of disobedience and 

gligence being preferred against him by the commanding 
general, General A. E. Burnsidc, on which the congressional 
committee on the conduct of the war reported unfavourably 
to Franklin, largely, it seems, because BurnsioVs orders to 
Franklin were not put in evidence. Burnside had issued on the 
13rd of January 1863 an order relieving Franklin from duty, 



and Franklin's only other service in the war was as commander 
of the XIX. corps in the abortive Red River Expedition of 1864. 
In this expedition he received a severe wound at the action of 
Sabine Cross Roads (April 8, 1864), in consequence of which he 
took no further active part in the war. He served for a time on 
the retiring board, and was captured by the Confederates on 
the nth of July 1864, but escaped the same night. In 1865 be 
was brevet ted major-general in the regular army, and in 1866 
he was retired. After the war General Franklin was vice- 
president of the Colt's Patent Firearms Manufacturing Company, 
was president of the commission to lay out Long Island City, 
N.Y. (1871-1872), of the commission on the building of the 
Connecticut state house (1872-1873), and, from 1880 to 1809, of 
the board of managers of the national home for disabled volunteer 
soldiers; as a commissioner of the United States to the Paris 
Exposition of 1880 he was made a grand officer of the Legion 
of Honour; and he was for a time a director of the Panama 
railway. He died at Hartford, Connecticut, on the 8th of March 
1003. He wrote a pamphlet, The Catling Gun for Service Ashore 
and Afloat (1874). 

See A Reply of Major-General William B. Franklin to Ike Report 
of the Joint Committee of Congress on the Conduct of the War (New 
York. 1863; 2nd cd., 1867). and Jacob L. Greene, Gen. W. B. 
Franklin and Ike Operations of the Left Wing at the Battle of Fredericks- 
burg (Hartford, 1900). 

FRANKLIN, an organized district of Canada, extending from 
the Arctic Circle to the North Pole. It was formed by order-in- 
council on the and of October 1895, and includes numerous 
islands and peninsulas, such as Banks, Prince Albert, Victoria* 
Wollaston, King Edward and Baffin Land, Melville, Bat hurst, 
Prince of Wales and Cockburn Islands. Of these, Baffin Land 
alone extends south of the Arctic Circle. The area is estimated 
at 500,000 sq. m., but the inhabitants consist of a few Indians, 
Eskimo and fur-traders. Musk-oxen, polar bears, foxes and 
other valuable fur-bearing animals are found in large numbers. 
The district is named after Sir John Franklin. 

FRANKLIN, a township of Norfolk county, Massachusetts, 
U.S.A., with an area of 29 sq. m. of rolling surface. Pop. (1000) 
50x7, of whom 1 250 were foreign-born; (1905, state census) 5244; 
(19x0 census) 564 1 . The principal village, also named Franklin, 
is about 27 m. S.W. of Boston, and is served by the New York, 
New Haven & Hartford railway. Franklin has a public library 
(housed in the Ray memorial building and containing 7700 
volumes in 1910) and b the seat of Dean Academy (Universalis^ 
founded in 1865), a secondary school for boys and girls. Straw 
goods, felt, cotton and woollen goods, pianos and printing presses 
are manufactured here. The township was incorporated in 
1778, previous to which it was a part of Wrentbam (1673). 
It was the first of the many places in the United States named 
in honour of Benjamin Franklin (who later contributed books 
for the public library). Horace Mann was born here. 

FRANKLIN, a city of Merrimack county, New Hampshire, 
U.S.A., at the confluence of the Pemigewasset and Winnepe- 
saukce rivers to form the Merrimac; about 95 m. N.N.W. of 
Boston. Pop. (1800) 4085; (1900) 5846 (1323 foreign-born); 
(19x0) 6132; area, about 14.4 sq. m. Franklin is served by 
the Concord Division of the Boston & Maine railway, with a 
branch to Bristol (13 m. N.W.) and another connecting at 
Tilton (about 5 m. E.) with the White Mountains Division. It 
contains the villages of Franklin, Franklin Falls, Webster Place 
and Lake City, the last a summer resort. The rivers furnish 
good water power, which is used in the manufacture of a variety 
of commodities, including foundry products, paper and pulp, 
woollen goods, hosiery, saws, needles and knitting machines, 
The water-works are owned and operated by the municipality. 
Here, in what was then a part of the town of Salisbury, Daniel 
Webster was born, and on the Webster farm is the New Hamp- 
shire orphans' home, established in 1 871 . The town of Franklin 
was formed in 1828 by the union of portions of Salisbury, 
Sanbornton, Andover and Northficld. The earliest settlement 
within its limits was made in 1748 in the portion taken from 
Salisbury. Franklin was incorporated as a city in 1895. 



36 



FRANZ 



soldier*; SalU seniores and Salii juniorcs are mentioned in the 
Notitie dignilaium, and Salii appear among the auxilia palaiina. 

At the end of the 4th century and at the beginning of the 5th, 
when the Roman legions withdrew from the banks of the Rhine, 
the Salians installed themselves in the district as an independent 
people. The place-names became entirely Germanic; the 
Latin language disappeared; and the Christian religion suffered 
a check, for the Franks were to a man pagans. The Salians 
were subdivided into a certain number of tribes, each tribe 
placing at its head a king, distinguished by his long hair and 
chosen from the most noble family (Hisloria Francorum, ii. 9). 

The most ancient of these kings, reigning over the principal 
tribe, who is known to us is Chlodio. 1 According to Gregory 
of Tours Chlodio dwelt at a place called Dispargum, which it is 
impossible to identify. Towards 43 1 he crossed the great Roman 
road from Bavay to Cologne, which was protected by numerous 
forts and had long arrested the invasions of the barbarians. He 
then invaded the territory of Arras, but was severely defeated at 
Hesdin4e-Vieux by Aetius, the commander of the Roman army 
in Gaul. Chlodio, however, soon took his revenge. He explored 
the region of Cambrai, seized that town, and occupied all the 
country as far as the Somme. At this time Tournai became the 
capital of the Salian Franks. 

After Chlodio a certain Meroveus (Merowech) was king of the 
Salian Franks. We do not know if he was the son of Chlodio; 
Gregory of Tours simply says that he belonged to Chlodio's stock 
— " de hujus stirpe quidam Merovechum regem fuisse adserunt," 
— and then only gives the fact at second hand. Perhaps the 
remarks of the Byzantine historian Priscus may refer to Meroveus. 
A king of the Franks having died, his two sons disputed the 
power. The elder journeyed into Pannonia to obtain support 
from Attila; the younger betook himself to the imperial court 
at Rome. "I have seen him," writes Priscus; "he was still 
very young, and we all remarked his fair hair which fell upon 
his shoulders." Aetius welcomed him warmly and sent him 
back a friend and focderatus. In any case, eventually, Franks 
fought (451) in the Roman ranks at the great battle of Mauriac 
(the Catalaunian Fields), which arrested the progress of Attila 
into Gaul; and in the Vita Lupi, which, though undoubtedly 
of later date, is a recension of an earlier document, the name 
of Meroveus appears among the combatants. Towards 457 
Meroveus was succeeded by his son Childeric At first ChOderic 
was a faithful focderatus of the Romans, fighting for them 
against the Visigoths and the Saxons south of the Loire; but 
he soon sought to make himself independent and to extend his 

conquests. He died in 481 and was succeeded by his son Clovis, ] 

who conquered the whole of Gaul with the exception of the ' 

kingdom of Burgundy and Provence. Clovis made his authority 5 

recognized over the other Salian tribes (whose kings dwelt at 7 

Cambrai and other cities), and put an end to the domination of *s 

the Ripuarian Franks. * 

These Ripuarians must have comprised a certain number of ftt 

Frankish tribes, such as the Ampsivarii and the Bructeri. They c* 

settled in the 5th century in compact masses on the left bank of j& 

the Rhine, but their progress was slow. It was not until the *j: 

Christian writer Salvian (who was born about 400) had already 2a 

reached a fairly advanced age Chat they were able to seize *l« 

Cologne. The town, however, was recaptured and was not •<% 

definitely in their possession until 463. The Ripuarians sub- 91 

sequently occupied all the country from Cologne to Trier. 2^ 

Aix'la-Chapelle, Bonn and Ziilpich were their principal centres, *$ 

and they even advanced southward as far asMetz, which appears u p 

to have resisted their attacks. The Roman civilization and the *$, 

Latin language disappeared from the countries which they ? s 

occupied; indeed it seems that the actual boundaries of the ^ 

German and French languages nearly coincide with those of :g 

their dominion. In their southward progress the Ripuarians : it _ 

1 The chronicler Fredegariut and the author of the Liber histcriae . t» 

Francorum make Sunno and Marcomeres his predecessors, but in .£T 

reality they were chiefs of other Frankish tribes. The author of the 

liber also claims that Chlodio was the son of Pharamund, but this f— 

personage is quite legendary. In the Ckronicon of Fredeaarias it is t— 

already affirmed that the Franks are descended from the Trojans. ?•- 



FRANZEN— FRANZ JOSEF LAND 



His future was then provided for by Liszt, Dr Joachim, 
Frau Magnus and others, who gave him the receipts of a concert 
tour, amounting to some 100,000 marks. Franz died on the 24th 
•f October 1892. On his seventieth birthday be published his 
fist and only pianoforte piece. It is easy to find here and there 
among his songs gems that are hardly less brilliant than the best 
•f Schumann's. Certainly no musician was ever more thoughtful 
tad more painstaking. In addition to songs he wrote a setting 
far double choir of the 117th Psalm, and a four-part Kyrie; 
at aho edit ed Astorga's Stabai Mater and Durante's Magnificat. 
RAMZabf. FRANS MIKAEL (1772-1847), Swedish poet, was 
bora at Uleaborg in Finland on the 9th of February 1772. 
At thirteen he entered the university of Abo, where he attended 
the lectures of H. G. Porthan ( 1 730-1804), a pioneer In the study 
of Finnish history and legend. He graduated in 1780, and 
became M doquentiae doceiis " in 1792. Three years later he 
itarted on a tour through Denmark, Germany, France and 
England, returning in 1796 to accept the office of university 
fibrarian at Abo. In 1801 he became professor of history and 
ethics, and In 1808 was elected a member of the Swedish Academy. 
On the cession of Finland to Russia, Franzcn removed to Sweden, 
where be was successively appointed parish priest of Kumla 
in the diocese of Strengnas (1810), minister of the Clara Church 
at Stockholm (1824) and bishop of Hcrnosand (1831). He died 
at Slbri parsonage on the 14th of August 1847. From the 
\ of 1793, when his Till en ung Flicka and Ifcnniskans 
r were inserted by Kellgren in the Stockholm* post, Franzen 
grew in popular favour by means of many minor poems of 
singular simplicity and truth, as Till Sclma, Den gamlc k nek ten, 
iiddar St Cdran, De Sm& blommorna, Modrcn vid vaggan, 
Nj&nmergonen and Stjernhimmclcn. His songs Coda gosse 
jkMl tfm, SSrj tj den gryendt da gen fdrut, Champagnctimi 
sad Bcv&ringss&ng were widely sung, and in 1797 he won the prize 
of the Swedish Academy by his Sing dfter grefvt Filip Creut:. 
Henceforth his muse, touched with the academic spirit, grew 
■ore reflective and didactic. His longer works, as Emit idler 
a aftom i Lnpplcnd, and the epics Srante Sture dlcr motet vid 
Ahasira, Koiumbus dlcr Amcrikas uppt&ckt and Gustaf Adolf i 
Tysiland (the last two incomplete), though rich in beauties of 
feau*, are far inferior to his shorter pieces. 
The poetical works of Franzcn are collected under the title Skalde- 
1 tfjclfli (7 vols.. X824-1861) ; nevtcd.,Samlade diklcr.w'uha. biography 
ty A. A. GralstrSm (1867-1869); also a selection (Valda dikter) 
a 2 vol*. (1871). His prose writings, Om stenska droit ningar (Abo, 
1 Ml; Oiebro, 1823), SkrifUr i obunden stil, vol. i. (1835). Predik- 

1 (5 vols., 1841-1845) and Minnestcckningar. nrcpaad for the 

r (3 vols.. 1848-1860). arc marked by faithful | «>rtraiturv and 
_J style. See B. E. Malmstrom, in the Handtingar of the 

1 Academy (1852. new series 1887), vol. ii.; S. A. Hollander, 

Kvme of F. Jl/. Franzcn (Orcbro. 1868); F. Cygnacus, Teckningar 
wF. M. Fratahu lefnad (Hclsingfors, 1S72) ; and Gustaf Ljunggrcn, 
Smukm vitUrkttau Mfdtr efler Gustaf ///.'« dod, vol. ii. (1*76). 

FRAHZENSBAD, or Kaiser-Fra^zensbad, a town and 
v1teriag-pL1.ce of Bohemia, Austria, 152 m. W.NWY. of Fr ague by 
nJL Pop. (1900) 2330. It is situated at an altitude of about 
ipso ft. between the spurs of the Fichtelgebirge, the Bohmerwald 
sad the Erzgebirge, and lies 4 m. N.W. of Egcr. It possesses 
a large kursaal, several bathing establishments, a hospital for 
poor patients and several parks. There arc altogether 12 
avacral springs with saline, alkaline and ferruginous waters, 
ei which the oldest and most important is the Franzcnsquellc. 
One of the springs gives of! carbonic acid gas and another contains 
a considerable proportion of lilhia salts. The waters, which 
hare an average temperature between 50*2° F. and 54-5 F-. 
sst oaed both internally and externally, and are efficacious in 
asts of anaemia, nervous disorders, sexual diseases, specially 
and heart diseases. Franzensbad is frequently 
to as an after-cure by patients from Carlsbad and 

IMMudad. Another important part of the cure is the so-called 
war or mud-baths, prepared from the peat of the Franzensbad 
■ash, which is very rich in mineral substances, like sulphates 
rftron, of soda and of potash, organic acids, salt, &c. 
The first information about the springs dates from the i6lh 
u>tnry 4 and an analysis of the waters-was made in 1565. They 



37 

were first used for bathing purposes In 1707. But the foundation 
of Franzensbad as a watering-place really dates from 1793, 
when Dr Adler built here the first Kurkaus, and the place 
received its name after the emperor Francis I. 

See Dr Loimann, Franzetubad (3rd ed., Vienna, 1900). 

FRANZ JOSEF LAUD, an arctic archipelago lying E. of 
Spitsbergen and N. of Kovaya Zemlya, extending northward 
from about 8o° to 82 N., and between 42 and 64 E. It is 
described as a lofty glacier-covered land, reaching an extreme 
elevation of about 2400 ft. The glaciers front, with a per- 
pendicular ice-wall, a shore of debris on which a few low plants 
are found to grow— poppies, mosses and the like. The islands 
are volcanic, the main geological formation being Tertiary or 
Jurassic basalt, which occasionally protrudes through the 
ice-cap in high isolated blocks near the shore. A connecting 
island-chain between Franz Josef Land and Spitzbergen is 
probable. The bear and fox are the only land mammals; insects 
are rare; but the avifauna is of interest, and the Jackson 
expedition distinguished several new species. 

August Pctermann expressed the opinion that Baffin may 
have sighted the west of Franz Josef Land in 1614, but the 
first actual discovery is due to Julius Payer, a lieutenant in the 
Austrian army, who was associated with Weyprecht in the 
second polar expedition fitted out by Count Wilczck on the 
ship "Tegctthof " in 1872. On the 13th of August 1873, the 
" Tcgetthof " being then beset, high land was seen to the north- 
west. Later in the season Payer led expeditions to Hochstclter 
and Wilczck islands, and after a second winter in the ice-bound 
ship, a difficult journey was made northward through Austria 
Sound, which was reported to separate two large masses of land, 
Wilczck Land on the east from Zichy Land on the west, to Cape 
I'ligcly. in 82 5* N., where Rawlinson Sound branched away to 
the north-east. Cape Fligcly was the highest latitude attained 
by Payer, and remained the highest attained in the Old World 
till 1895. Payer reported that from Cape Fligcly land (Rudolf 
Land) stretched north-cast to a cape (Cape Sherard Osborn), 
and mountain ranges were visible to the north, indicating lands 
beyond the 83rd parallel, to which the names King Oscar Land 
and Pctermann Land were given. In 1S79 De Bruyne sighted 
high land in the Franz Josef Land region, but otherwise it 
remained untouched until Leigh Smith, in the yacht " Eira," 
explored the whole southern coast from 42 to 54° E. in 1881 
and iS$2, discovering many islands and sounds, and ascertaining 
that the coast of Alexandra Land, in the extreme west, trended 
to north- west and north. 

After Leigh Smith came another pause, and no further mention 
is made of Franz Josef Land till 1804. In that year Mr Alfred 
Harms worth (afterwards Lord NorthclifTc) fitted out an expedi- 
tion in the ship " Windward " under the leadership of Mr F. 
G. Jackson, with the object of establishing a permanent base 
from which systematic exploration should be carried on for 
successive years and, if practicable, a journey should be made 
to the Pole. Mr Jackson and his party landed at " Elmwood " 
(which was named from Lord NorthcliftVs scat in the Isle of 
Thanct), near Cape Flora, at the western extremity of Xorthbrook 
Island, on the 7th of September. After a preliminary reconnais- 
sance to the north, which afterwards turned out to be vitally 
important, the summer of 1895 was spent in exploring the coast 
to the north-west by a boating expedition. This expedition 
visited many of the points seen by Leigh Smith, and discovered 
land, which it has been suggested may be the Gillies Land 
reported by the Dutch captain Gillies in 1707. In 1896 the 
Jackson-Harmsworth expedition worked northwards through 
an archipelago for about 70 m. and reached Cape Richlhofcn, 
a promontory 700 ft. high, whence an expanse of open water 
was seen to the northward, which received the name of Queen 
Victoria Sea. To the west, on the opposite side of a wide opening 
which was called the British Channel, appeared glacier-covered 
land, and an island by to the northward. The island was 
probably the King Oscar Land of Payer. To north and north- 
cast was the land which had been visited in the reconnaissance 
of the previous year, but beyond it a water-sky appeared in the 



S* 



FRANZOS— FRASER, A. C. 



supposed position of Petermann Land. Thus Zichy Land 
itself was resolved into a group of islands, and the outlying 
land sighted by Payer was found to be islands also. Meanwhile 
Nansen, on his southward journey, had approached Franz 
Josef Land from the north-east, finding only sea at the north 
end of Wilcxek Land, and seeing nothing of Payer's Rawiinson 
Sound, or of the north end of Austria Sound. Nansen wintered 
near Cape Norway, only a few miles from the spot reached by 
Jackson in 1895. He had finally proved that a deep oceanic 
basin lies to the north. On the 17 th of June 1806 the dramatic 
meeting of Jackson and Nansen took place, and in the same 
year the "Windward" revisited "Elmwood" and brought 
Nansen home, the work of the Jackson-Harmsworth expedition 
being continued for another year. As the non-existence of land 
to the north had been proved, the attempt to penetrate north- 
wards was abandoned, and the last season was devoted to a 
survey and scientific examination of the archipelago, especially 
to the west; this was carried out by Messrs Jackson, Armilage, 
R. Koettlitz, H. Fisher and W. S. Bruce. 

Further light wa% thrown on the relations of Franz Josef Land 
and Spitsbergen during 1897 by the discoveries of Captain 
Robertson of Dundee, and Wyche's Land was circumnavigated 
by Mr Arnold Pike and Sir Savile Crossley. The latter voyage 
was repeated in the following year by a German expedition 
under Dr Th. Lerner and Captain Rttdiger. In August 1S9S an 
expedition under Mr Walter Wellman, an American, landed at 
Cape Tegetthof. Beginning a northward journey with sledges 
at the end of the winter, Wellman met with an accident 
which compelled him to return, but not before some exploration 
had been accomplished, and the eastern extension of the archi- 
pelago fairly well denned. In June 1809 H.R.U. the duke of 
Abruzzi started from Christiania in his yacht, the " Stella 
Polare," to make the first attempt to force a ship into the newly 
discovered ocean north of Franz Josef Land. The " Stella 
Polare" succeeded in making her way through the British 
Channel to Crown Prince Rudolf Land, and wintered in Tcplitz 
Bay, in 8x° 33' N. lat. The ship was nearly wrecked in the 
autumn, and the party had to spend most of the winter on shore, 
the duke of Abruzzi suffering severely from frost-bite. In March 
1900 a sledge party of thirteen, under Captain Cagni, started 
northwards. They found no trace of Petermann Land, but with 
great difficulty crossed the ice to 86° 33' N. lat., 20 m. beyond 
Nausea's farthest, and 240 m. from the Pole. The party, with 
the exception of three, returned to the ship after an absence 
of 104 days, and the "Stella Polare" returned to Tromso 
in September 1900. In 1901-1902 the Baldwin-Zicgler expedi- 
tion also attempted a northward journey from Franz Josef 
Land. 

See Geographical Journal, vol. xi., February 1898; F. G. Jackson, 
A Thousand Pays in the Arctic (1899). 

FRANZOS, KARL EMIL (1848-1904), German novelist, was 
born of Jewish parentage on the 25th of October 1848 in Russian 
Podolia, and spent his early years at Czorlk6w in Galicia. His 
lather, a district physician, died early, and the boy, after attend- 
ing the gymnasium of Czcrnowitz, was obliged to teach in order 
to support himself and prepare for academic study. He studied 
law at the universities of Vienna and Graz, but after passing the 
examination for employment in the state judicial service 
abandoned this career and, becoming a journalist, travelled 
extensively in south-cast Europe, and visited Asia Minor and 
Egypt. In 1877 he returned to Vienna, where from 1884 to 
1886 he edited the Neue Ulustricrtc Zcitung. In 1887 he removed 
to Berlin and founded the fortnightly review Deutsche Dichtmig. 
Franzos died on the 28th of January 1904. His earliest collec- 
tions of stories and sketches, A us Halb-Asien, Land und Leute 
its dstlichen Euro pas (1876) and Die Judcn von Barium (1877) 
depict graphically the life and manners of the races of south- 
eastern Europe. Among other of his works may be mentioned 
the short stories, Junge Licbe (1878), Stille Geschichten (1880), 
and the novels Aloschko von Parma (1880), Ein Kampf urns 
Rccki (1882), Dcr PrUsident (1884), Judith Trachtenberg (1890), 
Dcr IVaJtrheitsucher (1894). 



FRASCATt, a town and episcopal see of Italy, In tin 
of Rome, 15 m. S.E. of Rome by rail, and also reached I 
tramway via Grottaferrata. Pop. (190a) 8453. Tb 
situated 1056 ft. above the sea-level, on the N. slopes of 
crater ring of the Alban Hills, and commands a very 
of the Campagna of Rome. The cathedral contains a 
tablet to Charles Edward, the Young Pretender, wl 
for some while rested here; his brother, Henry, Cardi 
owned a villa at Frascati. The villas of the Roman 
with their beautiful gardens and fountains, are the cU 
tion of Frascati. The earliest in date is the Villa I 
planned by Cardinal Rutnni before 1550; the most 1 
of the rest are the Villa Torlonia (formerly Conti), 1 
(formerly Piccolomini), Ruffinella (now belonging t 
Lanccllotti), Aldobrandini, Borghese and Mondragoa 
Jesuit school). The surrounding country, covered wit 
of ancient villas, is fertile and noted for its wine, 
seems to have arisen on the site of a very large ancj 
which, under Domitian at any rate, belonged to tki 
house about the 9th century, in which period we fii 
Liber Ponlificalis the names of four churches s* 
The medieval stronghold of the counts of Tuscuh 
which occupied the site of the ancient city, was dism 
the Romans in 1191, and the inhabitants put to the 
mutilated. Many of the fugitives naturally took 
Frascati The see of Tusculum had, however, alwaj 
cathedral church in Frascati. For the greater part of t 
ages Frascati belonged to the papacy. 

See G. Tomassetti, La Via Laiina lul medio evo (Rot 
170 seq.; T. Ashby in Papers of the British School at 
(London, 1907)* 4 

FRASER, ALEXANDER CAMPBELL (1819- ), 
philosopher, was born at Ardchattan, Argyllshire, 01 
of September 1819. He was educated at Glasgow and E< 
where, from 1846 to 1856, he was professor of Logi< 
College. He edited the North British Review from 1851 
and in 1856, having previously been a Free Church 
he succeeded Sir William Hamilton as professor of J 
Metaphysics at Edinburgh University. In 1859 h< 
dean of the faculty of arts. He devoted himself to 1 
of English philosophers, especially Berkeley, and pu 
Collected Edition of the Works of Bishop Berkeley mil 
lions, (re. (187 1 ; enlarged 1001), a Biography of Berkel 
an Annotated Edition of Locke's Essay (1894), the Phi 
Theism (1896) and the Biography of Thomas Re id (if 
contributed the article on John Locke to the £ncj 
Britanniea. In 1904 he published an autobiography 
Biographia philosophica, in which he sketched the prog: 
intellectual development. From this work and from h 
lectures we learn objectively what had previously beei 
from his critical works. After a childhood spent in an 
which stigmatized as unholy even the novels of Sir Wal 
he began his college career at the age of fourteen at a t 
Christopher North and Dr Ritchie were lecturing < 
Philosophy and Logic. His first philosophical adv 
stimulated by Thomas Brown's Cause and Eject, wh 
duccd him to the problems which were 10 occupy his 
From this point he fell into the scepticism of Hume. 
Sir William Hamilton was appointed to the chair of I 
Metaphysics, and Frascr became his pupil. He him 
" I owe more to Hamilton than to any other in flue 
was about this time also that he began his study of Ber 
Coleridge, and deserted his early phenomenalism for 
ccption of a spiritual will as the universal cause. In 
grophid this " Theistic faith " appears in its full dev 
(see the concluding chapter), and is especially imp 
perhaps the nearest approach to Kantian ethics made b 
English philosophy. Apart from the philosophical ii 
the Biographia. the work contains valuable pictures of 
of Lome and Argyllshire society in the early 19th ce 
university life in Glasgow and Edinburgh, and a histo 
North British Review. 



FRASER, J.— FRASERBURGH 



FRASnU JAMES (1818-188$), English bishop, was born at 
Prestbury, in Gloucestershire, on the 18th of August 181$, and 
was educated at Bridgnorth, Shrewsbury, and Lincoln College, 
Oxford. In 1839 he was Ireland scholar, and took a first class. 
In 1840 he gained an Oriel fellowship, and was for some lime 
tutor of the college, but did not take orders until 1846. He was 
successively vicar of Cholderton, in Wiltshire, and rector of 
Ufton Nervet, in Berkshire; but his subsequent importance was 
largely due to W. K. Hamilton, bishop of Salisbury, who recom- 
aended him as an assistant commissioner of education. His 
report on the educational condition of thirteen poor-law unions, 
made in May 1859, was described by Thomas Hughes as " a 
superb, almost a unique piece of work." In 1865 he was com- 
missioned to report on the stale of education in the United Slates 
and Canada, and his able performance of this task brought him 
an offer of the bishopric of Calcutta, which he declined, but in 
January 1870 he accepted the see of Manchester. The task 
before him was an arduous one, for although his predecessor, 
James Prince Lee, had consecrated no fewer than 130 churches, 
the enormous population was still greatly in advance of the 
machinery. Fraser worked with the utmost 
r, and did even more for the church by the liberality and 
geniality which earned him the title of " the bishop of all de- 
nominations." He was prominent in secular as well as religious 
works, interesting himself in every movement that promoted 
health, morality, or education; and especially serviceable as 
the friendly, nnomcious counsellor of all classes. His theology 
was that of a liberal high-churchman, and his sympathies were 
broad. In convocation he seconded a motion for the disuse of 
the Athanasian Creed, and in the House of Lords he voted for 
the abolition of university tests. He died suddenly on the 22nd 
of October 1885. 

A biography by Thomas Hughes was published in 1887, and an 
account of hi* Lancashire life by J. W. Digglc (1889), who also edited 
J vols, of Uusttrsity and Parochial Sermons (1887)* 

IJUSIR. JAMES BAILLIE (1783-1856), Scottish traveller 
and author, was born at Reelick in the county of Inverness on 
the nth of June 1783. He.was the eldest of the four sons of 
Edward Satchell Fraser of Reelick, all of whom found their way 
ta the East, and gave proof of their ability. In early life he 
west to the West Indies arid thence to India. In 181 5 he made 
t tour of exploration in the Himalayas, accompanied by his 
bother William (d. 1835). When Re*a Kuli Mirza and NcjcrT 
KaK Mirza, the exiled Persian princes, visited England, he was 
appointed to look after them during their stay, and on their 
■tarn he accompanied them as far as Constantinople. He was 
afterwards sent to Persia on a diplomatic mission by Lord 
Gkaeig, and effected a 'most remarkable journey on horseback 
through Asia Minor to Teheran. His health, however, was 
fapeired by the exposure. In 1S23 he married a daughter 
of Alexander Fraser Tytler, Lord Woodhouselce, a sister of the 
historian Patrick Fraser Tytler. He died at Reelick in January 
1856. Fraser is said to have displayed great skill in watcr- 
— £»— * and several of his drawings have been engraved; and 
the astronomical observations which he took during some of 
his journeys did considerable service to the cartography of Asia. 
The works by which he attained his literary reputation were 
tts of his travels and fictitious tales illustrative of Eastern 
In both he employed a vigorous and impassioned style, 
on the whole wonderfully effective in spite of minor 
bubs in taste and flaws in structure. 

Fma*r"s earliest writings are: Journal of a Tour through Part of 
J* Hwm&lA Mountains ana to the Sources oftlic Jumna and the Ganges 
tlftao); A Narrative of a Journey into khorasan in the Years 1821 
mmi jfor. including some Account of Ike Countries to the North-East 
4 Persia (1825) : and Travels and Adventures in the Persian Provinces 
m At Southern Banks of the Caspian Sea (1826). His romances 
fiadade The Kumsilbash, a Tale of Khorasan (1828). and its sequel. 
The Persian Adventurer (1830): Allee Nccmroo (1842): and The Dark 
Mean (1844). He al«o wrote A n Historical and Descriptive Account 

■J Persia (1834); A Winter's Journey {Tatar) from Constantinople 

W Teheran (1838): Travels in Koordistan, Mesopotamia. &c (1840); 

Kaopotamia and Assyria (1842); and Military Memoirs of Col. 

Jama Skinner (1851). 



39 

FRASER, SIR WILLIAM AUGUSTUS, Bart. (1826-1808), Eng- 
lish politician, author and collector, was born on the 10th of 
February 1826, the son of Sir James John Fraser, 3rd baronet, a 
colonel of the 7th Hussars, who had served on Wellington's staff 
at Waterloo. He was educated at Eton and at Christ Church, 
Oxford, entered the xst Life Guards in 1847, but retired with a 
captain's rank in 1852. He then set about entering parliament, 
and the ups and downs of his political career were rather remark- 
able. He was returned for Barnstaple in 1S52, but the election 
was declared void on account of bribery, and the constituency 
was disfranchised for two years. At the election of 1857 Sir 
William, who had meantime been defeated at Harwich, was 
again returned at Barnstaple. He was, however, defeated in 
1850, but was elected in 1863 at Ludlow. This seat he held for 
only two years, when he was again defeated and did not re-enter 
parliament until 1874, when be was returned for Kidderminster, 
a constituency he represented for six years, when he retired. He 
was a familiar figure at the Carlton Club, always ready with a 
copious collection of anecdotes of Wellington, Disraeli and 
Napoleon HI. He died on the 17th of August 1808. He was 
an assiduous collector of relics; and his library was sold for 
some £20,000. His own books comprise Words on Wellington 
(1880), Disraeli and his Day (1801), Hie el Ubique (1803), 
/fapoleon 111. (1806) and the Waterloo Ball (1807). 

FRASER, the chief river of British Columbia, Canada, rising 
in two branches among the Rocky Mountains near 52° 45' N.» 
xiS° 30' W. Length 740 m. It first flows N.W. for about 160 m. f 
then rounds the head of the Cariboo Mountains, and flows 
directly S. for over 400 m. to Hope,-where it again turns abruptly 
and flows W. for 80 m., falling into the Gulf of Georgia at New 
Westminster. After the junction of the two forks near its 
northern extremity, the first important tributary on its southern 
course is the Stuart, draining Lakes Stuart, Fraser and Francois. 
One hundred miles lower down the Quesnel, draining a large 
lake of the same name, flows in from the east at a town also so 
named. Farther on the Fraser receives from the west the 
Chilcotin, and at Lytton, about 180 m. from the sea, the Thomp- 
son, its largest tributary, flows in from the cast, draining 4 series 
of mountain lakes, and receiving at Kamloops the North 
Thompson, which flows through deep and impassable canyons. 
Below Hope the Lillooet flows in from the north. The Fraser 
is a typical mountain stream, rapid and impetuous through all 
its length, and like most of its tributaries is in many parts not 
navigable even by canoes. On its southern course between 
Lytton and Yale, while bursting its way through the Coast 
Range, it flows through majestic canyons, which, like those 
of the Thompson, were the scene of many tragedies during the 
days of the gold-rush to the Cariboo district. At Yale, about 
80 m. from its mouth, it becomes navigable, though its course 
is still very rapid. In the Cariboo district, comprised within the 
great bend of the river, near Tcte Jaune Cache, are many valuable 
gold deposits. With its tributaries the Fraser drains the whole 
province from 54° to 49° N., except the extreme south-eastern 
corner, which is within the basin of the Columbia and its tributary 
the Kootcnay. 

FRASERBURGH, a police burgh and seaport, on the N. coast 
of Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Pop. (1801), 7466; (1001), 9105. 
It is situated 47! m. by rail N. of Aberdeen, from which there 
is a branch line, of which it is the terminus, of the Great North 
of Scotland railway. It takes its name from Sir Alexander 
Fraser, the ancestor of Lord Saltoun, whose scat, Philorth 
House, lies 2 m. to the south. Sir Alexander obtained for it 
in 1613 a charter as a burgh of royalty, and also in 1592 a charter 
for the founding of a university. This latter project, however, 
was not carried out, and all that remains of the building in- 
tended for the college is a three-storeyed tower. The old castle 
of the Frasers on Kinnaird Head now contains a lighthouse, 
and close by is the Wine Tower, with a cave below. The 
town cross is a fine structure standing upon a huge hexagon, 
surmounted by a stone pillar 12 ft. high, ornamented by the 
royal and Fraser arms. The port is one of the leading stations 
of the herring fishery in the north of Scotland and the bead 



40 



FRASERVILLE— FRATERNITIES 



of a fishery district. During the herring season (June to Sep- 
tember) the population is increased by upwards of 10,000 per- 
sons. The fleet numbers more than 700 boats, and the annual 
value of the catch exceeds £200,000. The harbour, origin- 
ally constructed as a refuge for British ships of war, is one 
of the best on the east coast, and has been improved by the 
widening of the piers and the extension of the breakwaters. 
It has an area of upwards of eight acres, is easy of access, and 
affords anchorage for vessels of every size. 

FRASERVILLE (formerly Riviere du Loup en Bas),atown 
and watering-place in Temiscouata county, Quebec, Canada, 
207 m. (by water) north-east of Quebec, on the south shore of 
the St Lawrence river, and at the mouth of the Riviere du Loup, 
at the junction of the Intercolonial and Tcmiscouata railways. 
It contains a convent, boys' college, hospital, several mills, 
and is a favourite summer resort on account of the angling and 
shooting, and the magnificent scenery. Pop. (1001) 4569. 

FRATER, Frater House or Fratery, a term in architec- 
ture for the hall where the members of a monastery or friary 
met for meals or refreshment. The word is by origin the same as 
" refectory." The older forms, such as frcitur, fraylor and the 
like, show the word to be an adaptation of the O.Fr. fraiiour, 
a shortened form of refrailour, from the Med. Lat. refectorittm. 
The word has been confused with frater, a brother or friar, 
and hence sometimes confined in meaning to the dining-hall 
of a friary, while " refectory " is used of a monastery. 

FRATERNITIES, COLLEGE, a class of student societies 
peculiar to the colleges and universities of the United States and 
Canada, with certain common characteristics, and mostly 
named from two or three letters of the Greek alphabet; hence 
they arc frequently called " Greek Letter Societies." They are 
Organized on the lodge system, and each fraternity comprises 
a number of affiliated lodges of which only one of any one 
fraternity is connected with the same institution. The lodges, 
called " chapters," in memory of the convocations of monks of 
medieval times, are usually designated by Greek letters also. 
They are nominally secret, with one exception (Delia Upsilon). 
Each chapter admits members from the lowest or freshman 
dass, and of course loses its members as the students depart 
from college, consequently each chapter has in it at the same 
time members of all the four college classes and frequently those 
pursuing postgraduate studies. Where the attendance at a 
college is large the material from which fraternity members 
may be drawn is correspondingly abundant, and in some of the 
large colleges {e.g. at Cornell University and the University of 
.Michigan) there arc chapters of over twenty fraternities. All 
the fraternities aim to be select and to pick their members from 
the mass of incoming students. Where, however, the material 
to select from is not abundant and the rival fraternities are 
numerous, care in selection is impossible, and the chapters at any 
one college are apt to secure much the same general type of men. 
Many of the fraternities have, however, on account of a persistent 
selection of men of about the same tastes at different colleges, 
acquired a distinct character and individuality; for instance, 
Alpha Delta Phi is literary. 

The first of these fraternities was the Phi Beta Kappa, founded 
at the College of William and Mary at Williamsburg, Virginia, 
in 1776. It was a little 6ocial club of five students: John 
Heath, Richard Booker, Thomas Smith, Armistcad Smith and 
John Jones- Its badge was a square silver medal displaying 
the Greek letters of its name and a few symbols. In 1779 it 
authorized Elisha Parmelce, one of its members, to establish 
" meetings" or chapters at Yale and Harvard, these chapters being 
authorized to establish subordinate branches in their respective 
states. In 1 781 the College of William and Mary was closed, its 
buildings being occupied in turn by the British, French and 
American troops, and the society ceased to exist. The two 
branches, however, were established— that at Yale in 1780 and 
that at Harvard in 1781. Chapters were established at Dartmouth 
in 1 787. at Union in 1817, at Bowdoin in 1824 and at Brown in 1830. 
This society changed its character in 1826 and became non-sccrct 
and purely honorary in character, admitting to membership a 



certain proportion of the scholars of highest standing in each 
class (only in classical courses, usually and with few exceptions 
only in graduating classes). More recent honorary societies 
of similar character among schools of science and engineering 
arc Sigma Xi and Tau Beta Pi. 

In 1825, at Union College, Kappa Alpha was organized, 
copying in style of badge, membership restrictions and the like, 
its predecessor. In 1827 two other similar societies, Sigma Pki 
and Delta Phi, were founded at the same place. In 183 1 Sigma 
Phi placed a branch at Hamilton College and in 1832 Alpha 
Delta Phi originated there. In 1833 Psi Upsilon, a fourth 
society, was organized at Union. In 1835 Alpha Delta Phi 
placed a chapter at Miami University, and in 1839 Beta Theta Pi 
originated there, and so the system spread. These fraternities, 
it will be observed, were all undergraduate societies among the 
male students. In 1910 the total number of men's general 
fraternities was 32, with 1068 living chapters, and owning 
property worth many millions of dollars. In 1864 Theta Xi, 
the first professional fraternity restricting its membership to 
students intending to engage in the same profession, was organ- 
ized. There were in 1910 about 50 of these organizations 
with some 400 chapters. In addition there are about 100 
local societies or chapters acting as independent units. Some 
of the older of these, such as Kappa Kappa Kappa at Dartmouth, 
IKA at Trinity, Phi Nu Thcla at Wesleyan and Delta Psi at , 
Vermont, are permanent in character, but the majority of them 
are purely temporary, designed to maintain an organization j 
until the society becomes a chapter of one of the genera] fra- 
ternities. In 1870 the first women's society or " sorority," , 
the Kappa Alpha Thcla, was organized at De Pauw University. , 
There were in 1910, 17 general sororities with some 500 active 
chapters. , 

It is no exaggeration to say that these apparently insignificant 
organizations of irresponsible students have modified the college \ 
life of America and have had a wide influence. Members join 
in the impressionable years of their youth; they retain for their ' 
organizations a peculiar loyalty and affection, and freely contri- , 
bute with money and influence to ihcir advancement. 

Almost universally the members of any particular chapter ' 
(or part of them) live together in a lodge or chapter house. 
The men's fraternities own hundreds of houses and rent as many . 
more. The fraternities form a little aristocracy within the 
college community. Sometimes the line of separation is invisible, * 
sometimes sharply marked. Sometimes this condition militates 
against the college discipline and sometimes it assists it. Con- * 
fficls not infrequently occur between the fraternity and non- J 
fraternity element in a college. ' 

It can readily be understood how young men living together in * 
the intimate relationship of daily contact in the same house, * 
having much the same tastes, culture and aspirations would form * 
among themselves enduring friendships. In addition each 3e 
fraternity has a reputation to maintain, and this engenders an ' s 
esprit du corps which at times places loyalty to fraternity lsn 
interests above loyalty to college interest or the real advantage *'* 
of the individual. At commencements and upon other occasions *** 
the former members of the chapters return to their chapter ** 
houses and help to foster the pride and loyalty of the under- ^ 
graduates. The chapter houses are commonly owned by corpora- 77 
lions made up of the alumni. This brings the undergraduates fP. 
into contact with men of mature age and often of national fame, *' 
who treat their membership as a serious privilege. ^ '; 

The development of this collegiate aristocracy has led to '*&? 
jealousy and bitter animosity among those not selected for$$ 
membership. Some of the states, notably South Carolina and ^a 
Arkansas, have by legislation, cither abolished the fraternities it *» 
state-controlled institutions or seriously limited the privilege***^ 
of their members. The constitutionality of such legislation ha* * 
never been tested. Litigation has occasionally arisen out of l *t 
attempts on the part of college authorities to prohibit tte*ta 
fraternities at their several institutions. This, it has been held^ 1 '^ 
may lawfully be done at a college maintained by private endow- ^j 
menl but not at an institution supported by public funds. !■*■ 



I 



FRATICELLI 



4* 



the btter case all classes of the public are equally entitled to 
the same educational privileges and members of the fraternities 
Bay not be discriminated against. 

The fraternities are admirably organized. The usual system 
comprises a legislative body made up of delegates from the 
(Efferent chapters and an executive or administrative body 
elected by the delegates. Few of the fraternities have any 
judiciary. None is needed. The financial systems are sound, 
and the conventions of delegates meet in various parts of the 
United Slates, several hundred in number, spend thousands of 
dollars in travel and entertainment, and attract much public 
attention. Most of the fraternities have an inspection system 
by which chapters are periodically visited and kept up to a certain 
level of excellence. 

The leading fraternities publish journals usually from four to 
eight times during the college year. The earliest of these was 
the Beta Theta Pi, first issued in 1872. All publish catalogues 
of their members and the most prosperous have issued histories. 
They also publish song books, music and many ephemeral and 
local publications. 

The alumni of the fraternities are organized into clubs or associa- 
tions having headquarters at centres of population. These 
organizations are somewhat loose, but nevertheless are capable 
of much exertion and influence should occasion arise. 

The college fraternity system has no parallel among the students 
of colleges outside of America. One of the curious things about 
it, however, b that while it is practically uniform throughout 
the United States, at the three prominent universities of Harvard, 
Yale and Princeton it differs in many respects from its character 
elsewhere. At Harvard, although there are chapters of a few 
of the fraternities, their influence is insignificant, their place 
being taken by a group of local societies, some of them class 
organisations. At Yale, the regular system of fraternities 
obtains in the engineering or technical department (the Sheffield 
Scientific School), but in the classical department the fraternity 
chapters are called " junior " societies, because they limit their 
■emberahip to the three upper classes and allow the juniors 

1e»ch year practically to control the chapter affairs. Certain 
KBior societies, of which the oldest is the Skull and Bones, 
which are inter-fraternity societies admitting freely members of 
tk fraternities, are more prominent at Yale than the fraternities 
tkmselves. -Princeton has two (secret) literary and fraternal 
sneu'es, the American Whig and the Cliosophic, and various 
kcsl social dubs, with no relationship to organizations in other 
(Ages and not having Greek letter names. 

At a few universities (for instance, Michigan, Cornell and Vir- 
ginia), senior societiesorothcrintcr-fraternitysocietiesexert great 
nfuence and have modified the strength of the fraternity system. 
Of late years, numerous societies bearing Greek names and 
inhaling the externals of the college fraternities have sprung 
■p in the high schools and academics of the country, but have 
tacked the earnest and apparently united opposition of the 
aathorities of such schools. . 

See William Raimond Baird, American College Fraternities (6th 
Si. New York, 1905); Albert C. Stevens, Cyclopedia of Fraternities 
fFatenon, N. J., 1899); Henry D. Sheldon, Student Life and Customs 
(Xew York, 1901); Homer L. Patterson, Pattersons College and 
5d*et Directory (Chicago, 1004); H. K. Kellogg, College Secret 
Sixties (Chicago, 1874); Albert P. Jacobs, Creek Letter Societies 
(Detroit, 1879). (W. R. B.») 

PBATICBLLI (plural diminutive of Ital. frate, brother), the 
aarae given during the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries to a number 
of religious groups in Italy, differing widely from each other, but 
aD derived more or less directly from the Franciscan movement. 
Ira Salimbene says in his Chronicle (Parma ed., p. 108): " All 
> wished to found a new rule borrowed something from the 
Franciscan order, the sandals or the habit." As early as 1238 
Gregory IX., in his bull Quoniam abuttdavit iniquilas, condemned 
and denounced as forgers {tanquam Jalsarhs) all who begged or 
peached fn a habit resembling that of the mendicant orders, 
1 this condemnation was repeated by him or his successors. 
The term Fraticelli was used contemptuously to denote, not any 
particular sect, but the members of orders formed on the fringe 



of the church. Thus Giovanni Villani, speaking of the heretic 
Dolcino, says in his Chronicle (bk. viii. ch. 84): " He is not a 
brother of an ordered rule, but a JraticeUo without an order." 
Similarly, John XXII., in his bull Santla Romana et Universalis 
Ecclcsia (28th of December 1317)* condemns vaguely those 
" projanae multitwiinis viri commonly called Fraticelli, or 
Brethren of the Poor 'Life, or Bizocchi, or Beguincs, or by all 
manner of other names." 

Some historians, in their 'zeal for rigid classification, have 
regarded the Fraticelli as a distinct sect, and have attempted 
to discover its dogmas and its founder. Some of the con- 
temporaries of these religious groups fell into the same error, 
and in this way the vague term Fraticelli has sometimes been 
applied to the disciples of Arraanno Pongilupo of Fcrrara (d. 1269), 
who was undoubtedly a Calhar, and to the followers of Gerard 
Segarclli and Dolcino, who were always known among them- 
selves as Apostolic Brethren (Apostolici). Furthermore, it seems 
absurd to classify both the Dolcinists and the Spiritual Franciscans 
as Fraticelli, since, as has been pointed out by Ehrlc {Arch t -J. 
Lit. u. Kirchengesch. des Mittclaltcrs, ii. 107, &c), Angclo of 
Clarino, in his De sept em tribulalionibus, written to the glory of 
the Spirituals, does not scruple to stigmatize the Dolcinists as 
" disciples of the devil." It is equally absurd to include in the 
same category the ignorant Bizocchi and Scgarcllists and such 
learned disciples of Michael of Ccscna and Louis of Bavaria as 
William of Occam and Bonagratia of Bergamo, who have often 
been placed under this comprehensive rubric 

The name Fraticelli may more justly be applied to the most 
exalted fraction of Franciscanism. In 1322 some prisoners 
declared to the inquisitor Bernard Gui at Toulouse that the 
Franciscan order was divided into three sections — the Con- 
ventuals, who were allowed to retain their real and personal 
property; the Spirituals or Beguincs, who were at that time 
the objects of persecution; and the Fraticelli of Sicily, whose 
leader was Henry of Ccva (sec Gui's Prcctica Inquisitionis, v.). 
It is this fraction of the order which John XXII. condemned 
in his bull Cloriosam Erclcsiam (23rd of January 1318), but 
without calling them Fraticelli. Henry of Ceva had taken refuge 
in Sicily at the time of Pope Boniface VIII.'s persecution of the 
Spirituals, and thanks to the good offices of Frederick of Sicily, 
a little colony of Franciscans who rejected all property had soon 
established itself in the island. Under Pope Clement V., and 
more especially under Pope John XXII., fresh Spirituals joined 
them; and this group of exalted and isolated ascetics soon 
began to regard itself as the sole legitimate order of the Minorites 
and then .as the sole Catholic Church. After being excommuni- 
cated as "schismatics and rebels, founders of a superstitious 
sect, and propagators of false and pestiferous doctrines," they 
proceeded to elect a general (for Michael of Cescna had disavowed 
them) and then a pope called Cclcstinc (L. Wadding, Annates, 
at date 13 13). The rebels continued to carry on an active 
propaganda. In Tuscany particularly the Inquisition made, 
persistent efforts to suppress them; Florence afflicted them 
with severe laws, but failed to rouse the populace against them. 
The papacy dreaded their social even more than their dogmatic 
influence. At first in Sicily and afterwards throughout Italy 
the Ghibellines gave them a warm welcome; the rigorists and 
the malcontents who had either left the church or were on the 
point of leaving it, were attracted by these communities of 
needy rebels; and the tribune Ricnzi was at one time disposed 
to join them. To overcome these ascetics it was necessary to 
have recourse to other ascetics, and from the outset the reformed 
Franciscans, or Franciscans of the Strict Observance, under the 
direction of their first leaders, Paoluccio da Trinci (d. 1300), 
Giovanni Stronconi (d. 1405), and St Bcrnardinc of Siena, had 
been at great pains to restore the Fraticelli to orthodoxy. These 
early efforts, however, had little success. Alarmed by the 
number of the sectaries and the extent of their influence, Pope 
Martin V., who had encouraged the Observants, and particularly. 
Bcrnardinc of Siena, fulminated two bulls (141& and 1421) 
against the heretics, and entrusted different legates with the task 
of hunting them down. These measures failing, he decided, in 



4* 



FRAUD— FRAUENLOB 



1426, to appoint two Observants as inquisitors without territorial 
limitation to make a special crusade against the heresy of the 
Fraticelli. These two inquisitors, who pursued their duties 
under three popes (Martin V., Eugenius IV. and Nicholas V.) 
were Giovanni da Capistrano and Giacomo della Marca. The 
latter's valuable Dialogus contra FratkeUos .(Baluze and Mansi, 
Miscellanea, iv. 595-610) gives an account of the doctrines of 
'these heretics and of the activity of the two inquisitors, and shows 
that the Fraticelli not only constituted a distinct church but 
a distinct society. They had a pope called Rinaldo, who was 
elected in 1429 and was succeeded by a brother named Gabriel. 
This supreme head of their church they styled "bishop of 
Philadelphia/' Philadelphia being the mystic name of their 
community; under him were bishops, e.g. the bishops of 
Florence, Venice, &c; and, furthermore, a member of the 
community named Guglielmo Majoretto bore the title of 
" Emperor of the Christians." This organization, at least in 
so far as concerns the heretical church, had already been observed 
among the Fraticelli in Sicily, and in 1423 the general council 
of Siena affirmed with horror that at Peniscola there was an 
heretical pope surrounded with a college of cardinals who made 
no attempt at concealment. From 1426 to 1449 the Fraticelli 
were unremittingly pursued, imprisoned and burned. The sect 
gradually died out after losing the protection of the common 
people, whose sympathy was now transferred to the austere 
Observants and their miracle-worker Capistrano From 1466 
to 147 1 there were sporadic burnings of Fraticelli, and in 1471 
Tommaso di Scarlino was sent to Piombino and the littoral of 
Tuscany to track out some Fraticelli who had been discovered 
in those parts. After that date the name disappears from history. 
Sec F. Ehrlc, " Die Spiritualcn, ihr Verhaltnis zum Franzt«- 
kancrorden und zu den Fraticcllcn " and " Zur Vorgcschichtc des 
Concils von Vicnnc," in Archivfur LiUratur- und Kirckcngcschkhte 
des Mittelallcrs, vols. i.,ii., Hi.; Wetzcr and Wclte, Kirchenlexikon, 
s.v. " Fraticcllcn " ; H. C. Lea, History of the Inquisition of the Middle 
Ages, iii. 129-180 (London, 1888). (P. A.) 

FRAUD (Lat. frous, deceit), in its widest sense, a term which 
has never been exhaustively defined by an English court of law, 
and for legal purposes probably cannot usefully be defined. But 
as denoting a cause of action for which damages can be recovered 
in civil proceedings it now has a clear and settled meaning. In 
actions in which damages are claimed for fraud, the difficulties 
and obscurities which commonly arise are due rather to the 
complexity of modern commerce and the ingenuity of modern 
swindlers than to any uncertainty or technicality in the modern 
law. To succeed in such an action, the person aggrieved must 
first prove a representation of fact, made cither by words, by 
writing or by conduct, which is in fact untrue. Mere conceal* 
ment is not actionable unless it amounts not only to supprcssio 
vcri, but to suggestio falsi. An expression of opinion or of 
intention is not enough, unless it can be shown that the opinion 
was not really held, or that the intention was not really enter- 
tained, in which case it must be borne in mind, to use the phrase 
of Lord Bowen, that the state of a man's mind is as much a matter 
of fact as the state of his digestion. Next, h must be proved that 
the representation was made without any honest belief in its 
truth, that is, either with actual knowledge of its falsity or with 
a reckless disregard whether it is true or false. It was finally 
established, after much controversy, in the case of Deny v. 
Peek m 1889, that a merely negligent misstatement is not action- 
able. Further, the person aggrieved must prove that the 
offender made the representation with the intention that he 
should act on it, though not necessarily directly to him, and that 
he did in fact act in reliance on it. Lastly, the complainant 
must prove that, as the direct consequence, he has suffered 
actual damage capable of pecuniary measurement. 

As soon as the case of Perry v. Peek had established, as the 
general rule of law, that a merely negligent misstatement is not 
actionable, a statutory exception was made to the rule in the 
case of directors and promoters of companies who publish 
prospectuses and similar documents. By the Directors' Liability 
Act 1890, such persons are liable for damage caused by untrue 
statements in such documents, unless they can prove that they 



had reasonable grounds for believing the statements to be true, 
It is also to be observed that, though damages cannot be re* 
covered in an action for a misrepresentation made with an honest 
belief in its truth, still any person induce^ to enter into a con- 
tract by a misrepresentation, whether fraudulent or innocent, is 
entitled to avoid the contract and to obtain a declaration that 
it is not binding upon him. This is in accordance with the rule 
of equity, which since the Judicature Act prevails in all the 
courts. Whether the representation is fraudulent or innocent, 
the contract is not void, but voidable. The party misled must 
exercise his option to avoid the contract without delay, and 
before it has become impossible to restore the other party to the 
position in which he stood before the contract was made. If he 
is too late, he can only rely on his claim for damages, and in 
order to assert this claim it is necessary to prove that the mis- 
representation was fraudulent. Fraud, in its wider sense of 
dishonest dealing, though not a distinct cause of action, is often 
material as preventing the acquisition of a right, for which goocf 
faith is a necessary condition. Also a combination or conspiracy 
by two or more persons to defraud gives rise to liabilities not 
very clearly or completely defined. 

FRAUENBURG, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of 
Prussia, on the Frische Haff, v at the mouth of the Bande, 41 m. 
S.W. from Kdnigsberg on the railway to Elbing. Pop. 2500. 
The cathedral (founded 1329), with six towers, stands on a 
commanding eminence adjoining the town and surrounded by 
castellated walls and bastions. This is known as Dom-Fraucn* 
burg, and is the seat of the Roman Catholic bishop of Ermeland. 
Within the cathedral is a monument to the astronomer Copernicus 
bearing the inscription Astronomo celeberrimo, cujus nomen si , 
gloria utrumque impletit orbem. There is a small port with , 
inconsiderable trade. Frauenberg was founded in 1287 and 
received the rights of a town in 1310. j 

FRAUENFELDi the capital of the Swiss canton of Thurgau, 
27 m. by rail N.E. of Zurich or 14 J m. W. of Romansborn, : 
It is built on the Murg stream a little above its junction with the J 
Thur. It is a prosperous commercial town, being situated at , 
the meeting point of. several routes, while it possesses several „ 
industrial establishments, chiefly concerned with different j 
branches of the iron trade. In 1900 its population (including the M 
neighbouring villages) was 7761, mainly German-speaking, m 
while there iwere 5563 Protestants to 2188 Romanists. Frauen- a 
fcld is the artillery depot for North-East Switzerland. The upper 
town is the older part, and centres round the castle, of which the t 
tower dates from the 10th century, though the rest is of a latec „ 
period. Both stood on land belonging to the abbot of Reichenau, ~ 
who, with the count of Kyburg, founded the town, which is first 
mentioned in 1255. The abbot retained all manorial rights till ** 
1803, while the political powers of the Kyburgers (who were the JjJ 
" protectors " of Reichenau) passed to the Habsburgs in 1273,' .^ 
and were seized by the Swiss in 1460 with the rest of tat *j- 
Thurgau. In 1712 the town succeeded Baden in Aargau as the *?c 
meeting-place of the Federal Diet, and continued to be the capital .,> 
of the Confederation till its transformation in 1798. In 1709 it -fif 
was successively occupied ( by the Austrians and the French; •«{" 
The old Capuchin convent (1591-1848) is now occupied as a *fc 
vicarage by the Romanist priest. (W. A. B. C.) H, 

FRAUENLOB, the name by which Heinrxch von Meissen; i^" 
a German poet of the 13th century, is generally known. Hi i|H 
seems to have acquired the sobriquet because in a famtut^ 
Liederstreit with his rival Regenbogen he defended the use of tat 1 i L 
word Frau (i.e. frovwe f =>fody) instead of Weib (trip** woman), tfc B 
Frauenlob was born about 1250 of a humble burgher familj; 5^ 
His youth was spent in straitened circumstances, but he gnum* *^ 
ally acquired a -reputation as a singer at the various courts «f ^ . 
the German princes. In 1278 we find him with Rudolph l^ 
in the Marchfeld, in 1286 he was at Prague at the knighting .tf*^ 
Wcnceslaus (Wenzel) II., and in 131 1 he was present at a knight^ t^ 
festival celebrated by Waldemar of Brandenburg before Rostockjt^ 
After this he settled in Mainz, and there according to the popuhV. ta . 
account, founded the first school of Meistersingers (q.v.). Hh^ 
died in 13 18, and was buried in the cloisters of the cathedral 4^— 



FRAUNCE— FRAYSSINOUS 



+3 



Mains. His grave fa still marked by a copy made in 1783 of the 
original tombstone of 13x8; and in 1842 a monument by Schwan- 
ihakr was erected in the cloisters. Frauenlob's poems make a 
great display of learning; he delights in far-fetched metaphors, 
and his versification abounds in tricks of form and rhyme. 

Fmuenlob'a poetry was edited by L. Ettmtitler in 1843; a selection 
will be found in K. Bartsch, Deutsche Liederdickter des 12. bis ia. 
Jikrhumderts (3rd ed., 1893). " An English translation of Frauenlob s 
Ctntiea canHcorum, by A. E. Kroeger, with notes, appeared in 1877 
tt St Louis, VJSJi. See A. Boerkel, Frauenlob (2nd ed., 1881). 

PIAUHCB. ABRAHAM (c. 1558-1633), English poet, a native 
of Shropshire, was born between 1558 and 2560. His name was 
registered as a pupil of Shrewsbury School in January i 571/2, 
and he joined St John's College, Cambridge, in 1576, becoming a 
fellow in 1580/81. His Latin comedy of Victoria, dedicated to 
Sidney, was probably written at Cambridge, where he remained 
until he bad taken his M. A. degree in z 583. He was called to the 
bar at Gray's Inn in 1588, and then apparently practised as a 
barrister in the court of the Welsh marches. After the death of 
his patron Sir Philip Sidney, Fraunce was protected by Sidney's 
lister Mary, countess of Pembroke. His last work was published 
in 1591, and we have no further knowledge of him until 1633, 
when he is said to have written an Epilhalamium in honour 
of the marriage of Lady Magdalen Egcrton, 7th daughter of the 
carl of Bridgwater, whose service he may possibly have entered. 
His works are: The Lamentations of Amintas for the death 
ef Phyllis (1587), a version in English hexameters of his friend's, 
Thomas Watson's, Latin Amyntas; The Lawiers Logikc, exem- 
fUfymg ike P razee pis of Logikt by the practise of ' the common 
Lave (1588); Arcadian Rhetorike (1588); Abrahami Fransi 
IusigmiMM, Armarium . . . explicatio (1588); The Countess of 
Pembroke's Ttychurch (1591/2), containing- a translation of 
Tamo's Aminta, a reprint of his earlier version of Watson, 
11 The Lamentation of Corydon for the love of Alexis " (Virgil, 
edogoe ii.), a short translation from Hcliodorus, and, in the third 
part (1592) "Aminta's Dale," a collection of "conceited" 
tales supposed to be related by the nymphs of Ivychurch; 
lie Countess of Pembroke's Emanucll (1591); The Third Part 
if the Countess of Pembroke's Ivychurch, cnlitulcd Aminta's Dale 
(1592). His Arcadian Rhetorike owes much to earlier critical 
treatises, but has a special interest from its references to Spenser, 
ad Fraunce quotes from the Faerie Queene a year before the 
pibtication of the first books. In " Colin Clout's come home 
spin/* Spenser speaks of Fraunce as Corydon, on account of his 
taadations of Virgil's* second eclogue. His poems are written in 
(Btskal metres, and he was regarded by his contemporaries 
a the best exponent of Gabriel Harvey's theory. Even Thomas 
Xaihe had a good word for " sweete Master France." 

71* Countess of Pembroke's Etnanuell, hexameters on the nativity 
_jdpa.«sion of Christ, with versions of some psalms, were reprinted 
k* Dr A. B. Groaart in the third volume of his Miscellanies of the 
HMer Worthies Library (187a). Joseph Hunter in hit Chorus Vat urn 
stated that five of Frauncc's songs were included in Sidney's A strophel 
tni Stella, but it is probable that these should be attributed not to 
Favoce, but to Thomas Campion. Sec a life prefixed to the tran- 
nprson of a MS. Latin comedy by Fraunce, Victoria, by Professor 
G.C Moore Smith, published in Bang's Materialieu sur Kunde des 
attrrtn englischen Dramas, vol. xiv., 1906. 

FRAUsTHOFER, JOSEPH VON (1787-1826), German optician 

■ad physicist, was born at Straubing in Bavaria on the 6th ol 

1787, the. son of a glazier who died in 1798. He was 

" in 1 709 to Weichsclberger , a glass-polisher and looking- 

r. On the aist of July 1801 he nearly lost his life 

by the fall of the house in which he lodged, and the elector of 

Maximilian Joseph, who was present at his extrication 

ruins, gave him 18 ducats. With a portion of this sum 

hi obtained release from the last six months of his apprenticeship, 

ad with the rest he purchased a glass-polishing machine. He 

sow esapkryed himself in making optical glasses, and in engraving 

«i metal, devoting his spare time to the perusal of works on 

Uica and optics. In 1806 he obtained the place o< 

in the mathematical institute which in 1804 had been 

handed at Munich by Joseph von Utzschncider, G. Refcbenbacl 

ssd J. Iiebherr; and in 1807 arrangements were made b> 



Utzschncider for his instruction by Pierre Louis Guinand, a 
skilled optician, in the fabrication of flint and crown glass, ia 
which he soon became an adept (see R. Wolf, Gesch. da Wisscnsek. 
in Deutschl. bd. xvi. p. 586). With Reichenbach and Utz- 
schncider, Fraunhofer established in 1800 an optical institute 
at Benedictbeucrn, near Munich, of which he in 1818 became 
sole manager. The institute was in 1819 removed to Munich, 
and on Fraunhofcr's death came under the direction of G. Men. 

Amongst the earliest mechanical contrivances of Fraunhofer 
was a machine for polishing mathematically uniform spherical 
surfaces. He was the inventor of the stage-micrometer, and of 
a form of heliometer; and in 1816 he succeeded in constructing 
for the microscope achromatic glasses of long focus, consisting of 
a single lens, the constituent glasses of which were in juxta- 
position, but not cemented • together. The great reflecting 
telescope at Dorpat was manufactured by him, and so great was 
the skilly he attained in the making of lenses for achromatic 
telescopes that, in a letter to Sir David Brewster, he expressed 
his willingness to furnish an achromatic glass of 18 in. diameter. 
Fraunhofer is especially known for the. researches, published in 
the Dcnkschriften der MUnehener Akadcmie for 1814-1815, by 
which he laid the foundation of solar and stellar chemistry. 
The dark lines of the spectrum of sunlight, earliest noted by 
Dr W. H: Wollaston (Phil. Trans. t 1802, p. 378), were inde- 
pendently discovered, and, by means of the telescope of a 
theodolite, between which and a distant slit admitting the 
light a prism was interposed, were for the first time carefully 
observed by Fraunhofer, and have on that account been desig- 
nated " Fraunhofcr's lines." He constructed a map of as many 
as 576 of these lines, the principal of which he denoted by the 
letters of the alphabet from A to G; and by ascertaining their 
refractive indices he determined that their relative positions are 
constant, whether in spectra produced by the direct rays of the 
sun, or by the reflected light of the moon and planets. The 
spectra of the stars he obtained by using, outside the object-glass 
of his telescope, a large prism, through which the light passed 
to be brought to a focus in front of the eye-piece. He showed that 
in the spectra of the fixed stars many of the dark lines were 
different from those of the solar spectrum, whilst other well- 
known solar lines were wanting; and he concluded that it was 
not by any action of the terrestrial atmosphere upon the light 
passing through.it that the lines were produced. He further 
expressed the belief that the dark lines D of the solar spectrum 
coincide with the bright lines of the sodium flame. He was also 
the inventor of the diffraction grating. 

In 1823 he was appointed conservator of the physical cabinet 
at Munich, and in the following year he received from the king 
of Bavaria the civil order of merit. He died at Munich on the 7th 
of June 1826, and was buried near Reichenbach, whose decease 
had taken place eight years previously. On his tomb is the 
inscription " Approximavit sidera." 

See J. von Utzschneider, Kurwer Umriss der Lebensgesckichte des 
Herrn Dr J. von Fraunhofer (Munich, 1826) ; and G. Mcrz, Das Leben 
und Wirken Fraunhofer s (Landshut, 1865) 

FRAUSTADT (Polish, WsMowa), a town of Germany, in the 
Prussian province of Posen, in a flat sandy country dotted with 
windmills, 50 m. S.S.W. of. Posen, on the railway Lissa-Sagan. 
Pop. (including a garrison) 7500. It has three Evangelical 
and two Roman Catholic churches, a classical school and a 
teachers' seminary; the manufactures include woollen and 
cotton goods, hats, morocco leather and gloves, and there is a 
considerable trade in corn, cattle and wool. Fraustadt was 
founded by Silcsians in 1348, and afterwards belonged to the 
principality of Glogau. Near the town the Swedes under Charles 
XII. defeated the Saxons on the 13th of February 1706. 

FRAYSSINOUS, DENIS ANTOINE LUC, Coiite db (1765- 
1841), French prelate and statesman, distinguished as an orator 
and as a controversial .writer, was born of humble parentage 
at Curieres, in the department of Ayeyron, on the 9th of May 
1765. He owes his reputation mainly to the lectures on dog- 
matic theology, known as the " conferences " of Saint Sulpice, 
delivered in the church of Saint Sulpice, Paris,, from 1803 to 



44 



FRECHETTE— FREDERICIA 



i8og, to which admiring crowds were attracted by his lucid 
exposition and by his graceful oratory. The freedom of his lan- 
guage in 1809, when Napoleon had arrested the pope and de- 
clared the annexation of Rome to France, led to a prohibition 
of his lectures; and the dispersion of the congregation of Saint 
Sulpice in 181 x was followed by his temporary retirement from 
the capital He returned with the Bourbons, and resumed his 
lectures in 1814; but the events of the Hundred Days again 
compelled him to withdraw into private life, from which he did 
not emerge until February 18x6. As court preacher and almoner 
to Louis XVIII., he now entered upon the period of his greatest 
public activity and influence. In connexion with the con- 
troversy raised by the signing of the reactionary concordat of 
1817, he published in 1818 a treatise entitled Vrais Principes 
de Vtglise GaUicane sur la puissance ecdisuutiquc, which though 
unfavourably criticized by Lamennais, was received#with favour 
by the civil and ecclesiastical authorities. The consecration of 
Frayssinous as bishop of llermopolis " in partibus," his election 
to the.French Academy, and his appointment to the grand- master- 
ship of the university, followed in rapid succession. In 1824, 
on the accession of Charles X., he became minister of public in- 
struction and of ecclesiastical affairs under the administration 
of Villcle; and about the same time he was created a peer of 
France with the title of count. His term of office was chiefly 
marked by the recall of the Jesuits. In 1825 he published his 
lectures under the title Dlfcnse du ckrislianisme. The work 
passed through 15 editions within x8 years, and was translated 
into several European languages. In 1828 he, along with his 
colleagues in the Villele ministry, was compelled to resign office, 
and the subsequent revolution of July 1S30 led to his retire- 
ment to Rome. Shortly afterwards he became tutor to the duke 
of Bordeaux (Corate de Chambord) at Prague, where he con- 
tinued to live until 1838. He died at St Geniez on the. 12th of 
December 1841. 

See Bcrtrand, Bibl. Sulpicienne (t. ii. I35'sq.; iii. «$j) for biblio- 
graphy, and G. A. Henrion (Pari*, 2 vols., 1844) for biography. 

FRlCHETTB, LOUIS HONOR* (1830-xooS), French-Cana- 
dian poet, was born at Levis, Quebec, on the x6th of November 
1839, the son of a contractor. He was educated in his native 
province, and called to the Canadian bar in 1864. He started 
the Journal de Litis, and his revolutionary doctrines compelled 
him to leave Canada for the United States. After some years 
spent in journalism at Chicago, he was in 1874 elected as the 
Liberal candidate to represent Levis in the Canadian parliament. 
At the elections of 1S78 and 1882 he was defeated, and there- 
after confined himself to li terat ure. He edited La Patrie and other 
French papers in the Dominion; and in 1889 was appointed 
clerk of the Quebec legislative council. He was long a warm 
advocate of the political union of Canada and the United States, 
but in later life became less ardent, and in 1807 accepted the 
honour of C.M.G. from Queen Victoria. He was president of the 
Royal Society of Canada, and of the Canadian Society of Arts, 
and received numerous honorary degrees. His works include: 
Mes Loisirs (1863); La Voix d'un exili (1867), a satire against 
the Canadian government; P He-mile (1877); Lcs Fleurs 
boriales, and Lcs Oiseaux de nei'ge (1880), crowned by the French 
academy; La Ligende d'un peuple (1887); two historical 
dramas, Papineau (1880) and Felix Poulri (1880); La Noel au 
Canada (1000), and several prose works and translations. * An 
exponent of local French sentiment, be won the title of the 
" Canadian Laureate." He died on the xst of June 1008. 

FREDEGOND {Fredigundis) (d. 597), Frankish queen. Origin- 
ally a serving-woman, she inspired the Frankish king, Chilperic 
I., with a violent passion. At her instigation he repudiated his 
first wife Audovera, and strangled his second, Gal&wintha, 
Queen Brunhilda's sister. A few days after this murder Chilperic 
married Fredegond (567). This woman exercised a most per- 
nicious influence over him. She forced him into war against 
Austrasia, in the course of which she procured the assassination 
of the victorious king Sigebert (575); she carried on a malignant 
struggle against Chilperic's sons by his first wife, Theodcbert, 
Merwich and Clovis, who all died tragic deaths; and she per- 



sistently endeavoured to secure the throne for her own children. 
Her first son Thierry, however, to whom Bishop Ragnemod of 
Paris stood godfather, died soon after birth, and Fredegond 
tortured a number of women whom she accused of having 
bewitched the child. Her second son also died in infancy. Finally, 
she gave birth to a child who afterwards became king as Clotaire 
II. Shortly after the birth of this third son, Chilperic himself 
perished in mysterious circumstances (584). Fredegond has been 
accused of complicity in his murder, but with little show of 
probability, since in her husband she lost her principal supporter. 

Henceforth Fredegond did all in her power to gain the king- 
dom for her child. Taking refuge at the church of Notre Dame 
at Paris, she appealed to King Guntram of Burgundy, who 
took Clotaire under his protection and defended him against his 
other nephew, Childebcrt II., king of Austrasia. From that 
time until her death Fredegond governed the western kingdom. 
She endeavoured to prevent the alliance between King Guntram 
and Childebert, which was cemented by the pact of Andelot; , 
and made several attempts to assassinate Childebert by sending 1 
against him hired bravocs armed with poisoned scramasaxa 1 
(heavy single-edged knives). After the death of Childebert 1 
in 595 she resolved to augment the kingdom of Neustria at the 1 
expense of Austrasia,- and to this end seized some cities near 1 
Paris and defeated Theodcbert at the battle of LaxTaux, near j 
Soissons. Her triumph, however, was short-lived, as she died 1 
quietly in her bed in 597 soon after her victory. 1 

See V. N. Augustin Thierry, Ricits des temps mirovingiens (Brussels, 1 
1840); Ulysse. Chevalier, Bio-bibliographie (2nd ed.), sjo.^' " "" 



gonde." 



•Frede-* 
(C. PP.) 



FREDERIC, HAROLD (1856-1898), Anglo-American novelist, , 
was born on the 19th of August 1856 at Utica, N.Y., was edu- 1 
cated there, and look to journalism. He went to live in England - 
as London correspondent of the' New York Times in 1884, and 2 
was soon recognized for his ability both as a writer and as a p 
talker. He wrote several clever early stories/ but it was not x 
till he published Illumination (1896), followed by Gloria Mun& a 
(1898), that his remarkable gifts as a novelist were fully realized. .; 
He died in England on the 19th of October x8o3. r 

FREDERICIA (Friederioa), a seaport of Denmark, near' the ;~ 
S.E. corner of Jutland, on the west shore of the Little Belt - 
opposite the island of Filnen, Pop. (1001) 12,7x4. It has r 
railway communication with both south and north, and a steam a 
ferry connects with Middelfart, a seaside resort and railway j 
station on FQnen. There is a considerable shipp(nff trade, and . - 
the industries comprise the manufacture of tobacco, salt and ^ 
chicory, and of cotton goods and hats. A small fort was erected - 
on the site of Fredcricia by Christian IV. of Denmark, and hjf .^ 
successor, Frederick III., determined about 1650 to make it a ^. 
powerful fortress. Free exercise of religion was offered to all ^ 
who should settle in the new town, which- at first bore the namt^f 
of Frederiksodde, and only received its present designation fc^l 
1664. In 1657 it was taken by storm by the Swedish general^ 
Wrangel, and in 1659, after the fortress had been dismantled^ 
it was occupied by Frederick William of Brandenburg. It mC?!r 
not till 1 700-1 7 10 that the works were again put in a state «C 
defence. In 1848 no attempt was made by the Danes tpf 21 
oppose the Prussians, who entered on the 2nd of May, and mthv^^ 
tained their position against the Danish gunboats. During uV\ J 
armistice of 1848-1849 the fortress was strengthened, and srti^ 
afterwards it stood a siege of two months, which was bro*gkt5" 
to a glorious dose by a successful sortie on the 6th of July ifldCt^ 
In memory of the victory several monuments have been erected ir - 
the town and its vicinity, of which the roost noticeable are uV ^ 
bronze statue of the Danish Land Soldier by Btssen (one r* 7 
Thorvaldsen's pupils), and the great barrow over 500 Danes Jr^ 
the cemetery of the Holy Trinity Church, with a bas-relief fc^ - 
the same sculptor. On the outbreak of the war of 1864, tfc it= 
fortress was again strengthened by new works and an entrenchtf'^- 
carap; but the Danes suddenly evacuated it on the 28th of Apr W- 
after a siege of six weeks. The Austro-Prussian army pnl£;"tL 

destroyed the fortifications, and kept possessioa of the «W 

till the conclusion of peace. ' — " 



FREDERICK— FREDERICK I. 



45 



FBEDERICK (Mod. Ger. Friedruh; Ital. Fcdcrigo; Fr. 
Frtdtric and Ftdirk; M.H.G. F rider Uh\ O.H.G. FriduHh, 
" kins or lord of peace," from O.H.G. /iirf«, A.S. /ri///, " peace," 
and rik " rich," " a ruler," for derivation of which sec Henry), 
a Christian name borne by many European sovereigns and 
princes, the more important of whom are given below in the 
following order: — (i) Roman emperors and German kings; 
(a) other kings in the alphabetical order of their states; (3) 
other reigning princes in the same order. 

FREDERICK I. (c. 11 23-1 190), Roman emperor, sumamed 
" Barbaras* " by the Italians, was the son of Frederick II. of 
Hoaenstaufen, duke of Swabia, and Judith, daughter of Henry 
DC the Black, duke of Bavaria. The precise date and place of 
his birth, together with details of his early life, are wanting; but 
m 1143 ^ assisted his maternal uncle, Count Welf VI., in his 
attempts to conquer Bavaria, and by his conduct in several local 
fcuds earned the reputation of a brave and skilful warrior. When 
ha father died in 1x47 Frederick became duke of Swabia, and im- 
mediately afterwards accompanied his uncle, the German king 
Conrad III., on his disastrous crusade, during which he greatly 
distinguished himself and won the complete confidence of the 
king. Abandoning the cause of the Wclfs, he fought for Conrad 
against them, and in 1 152 the dying king advised the princes to 
choose Frederick as hi* successor to the exclusion of his own 
young son. Energetically pressing his candidature, he* was 
chosen German king at Frankfort on the 4th or 5th of March 
1152, and crowned at Aix-la-Chapcllc on the oth of the same 
month, owing his election partly to his personal qualities, and 
partly to the fact that he united in himself the blood of the rival 
families of Welf and Waiblingen. 

The new king was anxious to restore the Empire to the position 
it had occupied under Charlemagne and Otto the Great, and saw 
dearly that the restoration of order in Germany was a necessary 
preliminary to the enforcement of die imperial rights in Italy. 
Issuing a general order for peace, he was prodigal in his concessions 
to the nobles. Count Welf was made duke of Spolcto and mar- 
grave of Tuscany; Berthold VI., duke of Ziihringcn, was en- 
trashed with extensive rights in Burgundy; and the king's 
stphew, Frederick, received the duchy of Swabia. Abroad 
Frederick decided a quarrel for the Danish throne in favour of 
Svesd, or Peter as he is sometimes called, who did homage for 
in kingdom, and negotiations were begun with the East Roman 
emperor, Manuel Comnenus. It was probably about this time 
tkat the king obtained a divorce from his wife Adcla, daughter 
sf Dietpoki, margrave of Vohburg and Cham, on the ground 
•I consanguinity, and made a vain effort to obtain a bride 
bom the court .of Constantinople. On his accession Frederick 
had communicated the news of his election to Fope Eugcnius 
DL, but neglected to ask for the papal confirmation. In spite 
of this omission, however, and of some trouble arising from a 
doable election to the archbishopric of Magdeburg, a treaty was 
ojreroded between king and pope at Constance in March 1153, 
hy which Frederick promised in return for his coronation to make 
as peace with Roger I. king of Sicily, or with the rebellious 
Romans, without the consent of Eugcnius, and generally to help 
and defend the papacy. 

The journey to Italy made by the king in 11 54 was the pre- 

cnesor of five other expeditions which engaged his main energies 

lor thirty years, during which the subjugation of the peninsula 

was the central and abiding aim of his policy. Meeting the new 

pope, Adrian IV., near Kepi, Frederick at first refused to hold 

ah stirrup; but after some negotiations he consented and 

szcehrcd the kiss of peace, which was followed by his coronation 

ss emperor at Rome on the 18th of June 1155. As his slender 

a were inadequate to encounter the fierce hostility which 

he aroused, he left Italy in the autumn of 1155 to prepare for a 

and more formidable campaign. Disorder was again rampant 

is Germany, especially in Bavaria, but general peace was restored 

•7 Frederick's vigorous measures. Bavaria was transferred 

n Henry II. Jasomirgott, margrave of Austria, to Henry the 

lion, duke of Saxony; and the former was pacified by the 

ejection of his margraviate into a duchy, while Frederick's 



step-brother Conrad was invested with the Palatinate of the Rhine. 
On the oth of June 11 56 the king was married at Wurzburg 
to Beatrix, daughter and heiress of the dead count of Upper' 
Burgundy, Rcnaud III., when Upper Burgundy or Franche 
Comtek as it is sometimes called, was added to his possessions. 
An expedition into Poland reduced Duke Boleslaus IV. to an 
abject submission, after which Frederick received the homage of 
the Burgundian nobles at a diet held at Besancon in October 

1 1 57, which was marked by a quarrel between pope and emperor. 
A Swedish archbishop, returning from Rome, had been seized by 
robbers, and as Frederick had not punished the offenders Adrian 
sent two legates to remonstrate. The papal letter when trans- 
lated referred to the imperial crown as a benefice conferred by 
the pope, and its reading aroused great indignation. The 
emperor had to protect the legates from the fury of the nobles; 
and afterwards issued a manifesto to his subjects declaring that 
he held the Empire from God alone, to which Adrian replied that 
he had used the ambiguous word bencficia as meaning benefits, 
and not in its feudal sense. 

In June 1158 Frederick set out upon his second Italian ex- 
pedition, which was signalized by the establishment of imperial 
officers called poJcslas in the cities of northern Italy, the revolt 
and capture of Milan, and the beginning of the long struggle with 
pope Alexander HI., who excommunicated the emperor on the 
and of March 1160. During this visit Frederick summoned the 
doctors of Bologna to the diet held near Roncaglia in November 

1158, and as a result of their inquiries into the rights belonging 
to the kingdom of Italy he obtained a large amount of wealth. 
Returning to Germany towards the close of 1162, Frederick 
prevented a conllict between Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony, 
and a number of neighbouring princes, and severely punished the 
citizens of Mainz for their rebellion against Archbishop Arnold. 
A further visit to Italy in 11 63 saw his plans for the conquest 
of Sicily checked by the formation of a powerful league against 
him, brought together mainly by the exactions of the podcslas 
and the enforcement of the rights declared by the doctors of 
Bologna. Frederick had supported an anti-pope Victor IV. 
against Alexander, and on Victor's death in 11 63 a new anti- 
pope called Paschal III. was chosen to succeed him. Having 
tried in vain to secure the general recognition of Victor and 
Paschal in Europe, the emperor held a diet at Wurzburg in May 
1165; and by taking an oath, followed by many of the clergy 
and nobles, to remain true to Paschal and his successors, brought 
about a schism in the German church. A temporary alliance 
with Henry II., king of England, the magnificent celebration 
of the canonization of Charlemagne at Aix-la-Chapcllc, and the 
restoration of peace in the Rhincland, occupied Frederick's 
attention until October 1166, when he made his fourth journey 
to Italy. Having captured Ancona, he marched to Rome, stormed 
the Leonine city, and procured the enthronement of Paschal, and 
the coronation of his wife Beatrix; but his victorious career 
was stopped by the sudden outbreak of a pestilence which 
destroyed the German army and drove the emperor as a fugitive 
to Germany, where he remained for the ensuing six years. 
Henry the Lion was again saved from a threatening combination; 
conflicting claims to various bishoprics were decided; and the 
imperial authority was asserted over Bohemia, Poland and 
Hungary. Friendly relations were entered into with the emperor 
Manuel, and attempts made to come to a better understanding 
with Henry II., king of England, and Louis VII., king of France. 

In 1 1 74, when Frederick made his fifth expedition to Italy, 
the Lombard league had been formed, and the fortress of Ales- 
sandria raised to check his progress. The campaign was a com- 
plete failure. The refusal of Henry the Lion to bring help into 
Italy was followed by the defeat of the emperor at Legnano on 
the 29th of May 11 76, when he was wounded and believed to be 
dead. Reaching Pavia, he began negotiations for peace with 
Alexander, which ripened into the treaty of Venice in August 
1 1 77, and at the same time a truce with the Lombard league 
was arranged for six years. Frederick, loosed from the papal 
ban, recognized Alexander as the rightful pope, and in July 1 177 
knelt before him and kissed bis feet. The possession of the vast 



+6 



FREDERICK II. 



estates left by Matilda, marchioness of Tuscany, and claimed 
by both pope and emperor, was to be decided by arbitration, and 
in October 1x78 the emperor was again in Germany. Various 
small feuds were suppressed; Henry the Lion was deprived of his 
duchy, which was dismembered, and sent into exile; a treaty was 
made with the Lombard league at Constance in June 1183; 
and most important of all, Frederick's son Henry was betrothed 
in x 184 to Constance, daughter of Roger I., king of Sicily, and aunt 
and heiress of the reigning king, William II. This betrothal, 
which threatened to unite Sicily with the Empire, made it difficult 
for Frederick, when during his last Italian expedition in 11 84 
he met Pope Lucius III. at Verona, to establish friendly relations 
with the papacy. Further causes of trouble arose, moreover, 
and when the potentates separated the question of Matilda's 
estates was undecided; and Lucius had refused to crown 
Henry or to recognize the German clergy who had been ordained 
during the schism. Frederick then formed an alliance with 
Milan, where the citizens witnessed a great festival on the 27th 
of January 11 86. The emperor, who had been crowned king of 
Burgundy, or Aries, at Aries on the 30th of July 1178, had this 
ceremony repeated; while his son Henry was crowned king of 
Italy and married to Constance, who was crowned- queen of 
Germany. 

The quarrel with the papacy was continued with the new 
pope Urban III., and open warfare was begun. But Frederick 
was soon recalled to Germany by the news of a revolt raised by 
Philip of Heinsberg, archbishop of Cologne, in alliance with the 
pope. The German clergy remained loyal to the emperor, and 
hostilities were checked by the death of Urban and the election of 
a new pope as Gregory VIII. , who adopted a more friendly policy 
towards the emperor. In x 1 88 Philip submitted, and immediately 
afterwards Frederick took the cross in order to stop the victorious 
career of Saladin, who had just taken Jerusalem. After extensive 
preparations he left Regensburg in May 11 89 at the head of a 
splendid army, and having overcome the hostility of the East 
Roman emperor Isaac Angelus, marched into Asia Minor. On 
the xoth of June 1x90 Frederick was either bathing or crossing 
the river Calycadnus (Geuksu), near Seleucia (Selefke) in Cilida, 
when he was carried away by the stream and drowned. The 
place of his burial is unknown, and the legend which says he still 
sits in a cavern in the Kyffhftuser mountain in Thuringia waiting 
until the need of his country shall call him, is now thought to 
refer, at least in its earlier form, to his grandson, the emperor 
Frederick II. He left by his wife, Beatrix, five sons, of whom 
the eldest afterwards became emperor as Henry VI. 

Frederick's reign, on the whole, was a happy and prosperous 
time for Germany. He encouraged the growth of towns, easily 
suppressed the few risings against his authority, and took 
strong and successful measures to establish order. Even after 
the severe reverses which he experienced in Italy, his position in 
Germany was never seriously weakened; and in 1181, when, 
almost without striking a blow, he deprived Henry the Lion of 
his duchy, he seemed stronger than ever. This power rested upon 
his earnest and commanding personality, and also upon the sup- 
port which he received from the German church, the possession of 
a valuable private domain, and the care with which he exacted 
feudal dues from his dependents. 

Frederick I. is said to have taken Charlemagne as his model; 
but the contest in which he engaged was entirely different both 
in character and results from that in which his great predecessor 
achieved such a wonderful temporary success. Though Frederick 
failed to subdue the republics, the failure can scarcely be said to 
reflect either on his prudence as a statesman or his skill as a 
general, for his ascendancy was finally overthrown rather by the 
ravages of pestilence than by the might of human arms. In 
Germany his resolute will and sagacious administration subdued 
or disarmed all discontent, and he not only succeeded in welding 
the various rival interests into a unity of devotion to himself 
against which papal intrigues were comparatively powerless, 
but won for the empire a prestige such as it bad not possessed 
since the time of Otto the Great. The wide contrast between his 
German and Italian rule is strikingly exemplified in the fact that, 



while he endeavoured to overthrow the republics in Italy, h 
held in check the power of the nobles in Germany, by confemh 
municipal franchises and independent rights on the prindpi 
cities. Even in Italy, though his general course of action wa 
warped by wrong prepossessions, he in many instances manifest* 
exceptional practical sagacity in dealing with immediate diC 
culties and emergencies. Possessing frank and open mannen 
untiring and unresting energy, and a prowess which found it 
native element in difficulty and danger, he seemed the embodi 
ment of the chivalrous and warlike spirit of his age, and was 
the model of all the qualities which then won highest admiration 
Stern and ambitious he certainly was, but his aims can scarcer] 
be said to have exceeded his prerogatives as emperor; and thougl 
he had sometimes recourse when in straits to expedients alma* 
diabolically ingenious in their cruelly, yet his general conduct 
was marked by a clemency which in that age was exceptional 
His quarrel with the papacy was an inherited conflict, not re- 
flecting at all on his religious faith, but the inevitable con- 
sequence of inconsistent theories of government, which bad bea 
created and could be dissipated only by a long series of events. 
His interference in the quarrels of the republics was not only quit! 
justifiable from the relation in which he stood to them, but seemed 
absolutely necessary. From the beginning, however, he treated 
the Italians, as indeed was only natural, less as rebellious subjects 
than as conquered aliens; and it must be admitted that in regard 
to them the only effective portion of his procedure was, not Mi 
energetic measures of repression nor his brilliant victories, but, 
after the battle of Legnano, his quiet and cheerful acceptance of 
the inevitable, and the consequent complete change in his policy, 
by which if he did not obtain the great object of his ambition, 
he at least did much to render innoxious for the Empire hk 
previous mistakes. 

In appearance Frederick was a man of well-proportioned, 
medium stature, with flowing yellow hair and a reddish beard. 
He delighted in hunting and the reading of history, was zealota 
in his attention to public business, and his private life was un- 
impeachable. Cariyle's tribute to him is interesting: " No king 
so furnished out with apparatus and arena, with personal faculty 
to rule and scene to do it in, has appeared elsewhere. A mag- 
nificent, magnanimous man; holding the reins of the world, not 
quite in the imaginary sense; scourging anarchy down, and 
urging noble effort up, really on a grand scale. A terror to evil 
doers and a praise to well-doers in this world, probably beyoad 
what was ever seen since." 



Rahewin* a canon of Freising, and from 1 160 to 1 170 by an anon* 
mous author. The various annals and chronicles of the periaSf, 
among which may be mentioned the Chronica regia CoionienA 
and the Annates Magdeburgenses t are also important. Othei 
authorities for the different periods in Frederick's reign are Tagtsu 
of Passau, Descriptio expeditionis asiaticae Friierici /.; BurchaM 
Historic Friierici imperatoris mapii; Godfrey of Viterbo, CarmW 
de testis Friierici /., which are all found in the Monumenta German* 
historic*. Scriptores (Hanover and Berlin, 1826-1802); Ott» 
Morena of Lodi, Historic rerum Laudensium, continued by his tt% 
Acerbus, also in the Monumenta; Ansbert, Historic de expeddmm 
Friderict, 1187-1196, published in the Fontes rerum Austnacarmm 
Scriptores (Vienna, 1855 fol.). Many valuable documents are fousi 
in the Monumenta Germaniae-seiecta, Band iv., edited by M. Docbfjl 
(Munich, 1889-1890). 

The best modern authorities are J. Jastrow, Deutsche GesthkMi 
im Zeitalter der Hokenstaufen (Berlin, 1893); W. von Giesebrecftfe 
GeschichU der deutschen Kaiseneit % Band iv. (Brunswick, 187m 
H. von BQnau, Leben und Thaten Friedrichs J. (Leipzig, 1872); & 
Prutz, Kaiser Friedrich I. (Dantzig. 1871-1874); C. Peters, i 
Wahl Kaiser Friedrichs J. in the Forschunten zur deutschen GtscI ' 
Band xx. (Gftttingen, 1862-1886); W. Gundlach, Barbara: 

(Innsbruck, 1899). For a complete bibliography see Dal 

Waitz, QueUeukunde der deutschen GeschichU (Gottineen, 1894), 1 
U. Chevalier, Repertoire des sources historiques an moyen 1 
tome iii (Paris, 1904). 

FREDERICK II. (1 194-1250), Roman emperor, king of Sidfc 
and Jerusalem, was the son of the emperor Henry VI. and Ca£, 
stance, daughter of Roger I., king of Sicily, and therefore grasjfl 
son of the emperor Frederick I. and a member of the Hohenstaaf& 



FREDERICK II. 



47 



family. Born at Jcsi near Ancona on the 26th of December 
H94f he was baptized by the name of Frederick Roger, chosen 
German king at Frankfort in 1106, and after his father's death 
crowned king of Sicily at Palermo on the 17th of May 1198. 
Bis mother, who assumed the government, died in November 
lioS, leaving Pope Innocent III. as regent of Sicily and guardian 
of her son. The young king passed his early years amid the 
terrible anarchy in his island kingdom, which Innocent was 
powerless to check; but his education was not neglected, and 
sfc character and habits were formed by contact with men of 
fined nationalities and interests, while the darker traits of his 
nature were developed in the atmosphere of lawlessness in which 
at lived. In z 208 he was declared of age, and soon afterwards 
Innocent arranged a marriage, which was celebrated the following 
year, between him and Constance, daughter of Alphonso IL 
king of Aragon, and widow of Emerich or Imre, king of Hungary. 

The dissatisfaction felt in Germany with the emperor Otto IV. 
came to a climax in September x ai x, when a number of influential 
princes met at Nuremberg, declared Otto deposed, and invited 
Frederick to come and occupy the vacant throne. In spite of 
the reluctance of his wife, and the opposition of the Sicilian nobles, 
he accepted the invitation; and having recognized the papal 
supremacy over Sicily, and procured the coronation of his son 
Henry as its king, reached Germany after an adventurous journey 
in the autumn of 12x2. This step was taken with the approval 
of the pope, who was anxious to strike a blow at Otto IV. 

Frederick was welcomed in Swabia, and the renown of the 
Bohenstaufen name and a liberal distribution of promises made 
sis p r og r es s easy Having arranged a treaty against Otto with 
Louis, son of Philip Augustus, king of France, whom he met at 
Vaucoukurs, he was chosen German king a second time at Frank- 
fort on the 5th of December 12x2, and crowned four days later 
at Mainz. Anxious to retain the support of the pope, Frederick 
pomulgated a bull at Egcr on the 12th of July 1213, by which 
he renounced all lands claimed by the pope since the death of the 
eaperor Henry VI in 1197, gave up the right of spoils and all 
Btferierence in episcopal elections, and acknowledged the right 
sf appeal to Rome. He again affirmed the papal supremacy 
eier Sicily, and promised to root out heresy in Germany. The 
lietory of his French allies at Bouvincs on the 27th of July 1214 
tnstly strengthened his position, and a large part of the Rhine- 
had having fallen into his power, he was crowned German king 
M Axx-la-Chapellc on the 25th of July 1 2 1 5. His cause continued 
to prosper, fresh supporters gathered round his standard, and in 
kzy 1218 the death of Otto freed him from his rival and left him 
■disputed ruler of Germany. A further attempt to allay the 
fspe's apprehension lest Sicily should be united with the Empire 
kd been made early in 1216, when Frederick, in a letter to Inno- 
ftat, promised after his own coronation as emperor to recognize 
ss son Henry as king of Sicily, and to place him under the 
rafnty of Rome. Henry nevertheless was brought to Germany 
chosen German king at Frankfort in April 1220, though 
Frederick assured the new pope, Honorius III., that this step 
led been taken without his consent. The truth, however, seems 

£be that be had taken great trouble to secure this election, and 
'the p ur pose had won the support of the spiritual princes by 
ensm concessions. In August 1220 Frederick set out for 
Italy, and was crowned emperor at Rome on the 2 2 nd of November 
1, after which he repeated the undertaking he had entered 
into at Aix-Ia-Chapelle in 1 21 5 to go on crusade, and made lavish 
to the Church. The clergy were freed from taxation 
lay jurisdiction, the ban of the Empire was to follow 
of the Church, and heretics were to be severely punished. 
KegSecting his promise to lead a crusade, Frederick was 
" until 1225 in restoring order in Sicily. The island was 
with disorder, but by stern and sometimes cruel 
the emperor suppressed the anarchy of the barons, 
le power of the cities, and subdued the rebellious 
many of whom, transferred to the mainland and 
at Nocera, afterwards rendered him valuable military 
Meanwhile the crusade was postponed again and 
; until under a threat of excommunication, after the fall of 




Damietta in 1221, Frederick definitely undertook by a treaty 
made at San Germano in 1225 to set out in August 1227 or to 
submit to this penalty. His own interests turned more strongly 
to the East, when on the 9th of November x 225, after having been 
a widower since 1222, he married Iolande (Yolande or Isabella), 
daughter of John, count of Bricnne, titular king of Jerusalem. 
John appears to have expected that this alliance would restore 
him to his kingdom, but his hopes were dashed to the ground 
when Frederick himself assumed the title of king of Jerusalem. 
The emperor's next step was an attempt to restore the imperial 
authority in northern Italy, and for the purpose a diet was called 
at Cremona. But the cities, watchful and suspicious, renewed the 
Lombard league and took up a hostile attitude. Frederick's 
reply was to annul the treaty of Constance and place the cities 
under the imperial ban; but he was forced by lack of military 
strength to accept the mediation of Pope Honorius and the 
maintenance of the status quo. 

After these events, which occurred early in 1227, preparations 
for the crusade were pressed on, and the emperor sailed from 
Brindisi on the 8th of September. A pestilence, however, which 
attacked his forces compelled him to land in Italy three days 
later, and on the 29th of the same month he was excommunicated 
by the new pope, Gregory IX. The greater part of the succeeding 
year was spent by pope and emperor in a violent quarreL 
Alarmed at the increase in his opponent's power, Gregory de- 
nounced him in a public letter, to which Frederick replied in a 
clever document addressed to the princes of Europe. The reading 
of this manifesto, drawing attention to the absolute power 
claimed by the popes, was received in Rome with such evidences 
of approval that Gregory was compelled to fly to Viterbo. Having 
lost his wife Isabella on the 8th of May 1 228, Frederick again set 
sail for Palestine; where he met with considerable success, the 
result of diplomatic rather than of military skill. By a treaty 
made in February 1229 he secured possession of Jerusalem, 
Bethlehem, Nazareth and the surrounding neighbourhood. 
Entering Jerusalem, he crowned himself king of that city on the 
i8lh of March 1229. These successes had been won in spite of 
the hostility of Gregory, which deprived Frederick Of the assist* 
ance of many members of the military orders and of the clergy 
of Palestine. But although the emperor's possessions on the 
Italian mainland had been attacked in his absence by the papal 
troops and their allies, Gregory's efforts had failed to arouse 
serious opposition in Germany and Sicily; so that when Frederick 
returned unexpectedly to Italy in June 1229 he had no difficulty 
in driving back his enemies, and compelling the pope to sue for 
peace. The result was the treaty of San Germano, arranged in 
July 1230, by which the emperor, loosed from the ban, promised 
to respect the papal territory, and to allow freedom of election 
and other privileges to the Sicilian clergy. Frederick was next 
engaged in completing the pacification of Sicily. In 1231 a 
series of laws were published at Melfi which destroyed the 
ascendancy of the feudal nobles. Royal officials were appointed 
for administrative purposes, large estates were recovered for the 
crown, and fortresses were destroyed, while the church was 
placed under the royal jurisdiction and all gifts to it were pro- 
hibited. At the same time certain privileges of self-government 
were granted to the towns, representatives from which were 
summoned to sit in the diet. In short, by means of a centralized 
system of government, the king established an almost absolute 
monarchical power. 

In Germany, on the other hand, an entirely different policy was 
pursued. The concessions granted by Frederick in 1220, together 
with the Privilege of Worms, dated the 1st of May 1231, made 
the German princes virtually independent. All jurisdiction over 
their lands was vested in them, no new mints or toll-centres were 
to be erected on their domains, and the imperial authority was 
restricted to a small and dwindling area. A fierce attack was also 
made on the rights of the cities. Compelled to restore all their 
lands, their jurisdiction was bounded by their city-walls; they 
were forbidden to receive the dependents of the princes; all 
trade gilds were declared abolished; and all official appointments 
made without the consent of the archbishop or bishop were 



48 



FREDERICK II. 



annulled. A further attack on the Lombard cities at the diet of 
Ravenna in 1231 was answered by a renewal of their league, and 
was soon connected with unrest in Germany. About 1*31 a 
breach took place between Frederick and his elder son Henry, 
who appears to have opposed the Privilege of Worms and to have 
favoured the towns against the princes. After refusing to travel 
to Italy, Henry changed his mind and submitted to his father at 
Aquilcia in 1933; and. a temporary peace was made with the 
Lombard cities in June 1233. But on his return to Germany 
Henry again raised the standard of revolt, and made a league 
with the Lombards in December 1334. Frederick, meanwhile, 
having helped Pope Gregory against the rebellious Romans and 
having secured the friendship of France and England, appeared 
in Germany early in 1235 and put down this rising without 
difficulty. Henry was imprisoned, but his associates were treated 
leniently. In August 1235 a splendid diet was held at Mainz, 
during which the marriage of the emperor with Isabella (1214- 
1241), daughter of John, king of England, was celebrated. A 
general peace (Landfricden), which became the basis of all such 
peaces in the future, was sworn to; a new office, that of imperial 
justiciar, was created, and a permanent judicial record was first 
instituted. Otto of Brunswick, grandson of Henry the Lion, 
duke of Saxony, was made duke of Brunswick-Luneburg; and 
war was declared against the Lombards. 

Frederick was now at the height of his power. His second son, 
Conrad, was invested with the duchy of Swabia, and the claim 
of Wenceslaus, king of Bohemia, to some lands which had 
belonged to the German king Philip was bought off. The attitude 
of Frederick II. (the Quarrelsome), duke of Austria, had been 
considered by the emperor so suspicious that during a visk paid 
by Frederick to Italy a war against him was begun. Compelled 
to Tcturn by the ill-fortune which attended this campaign, the 
emperor took command of his troops, seized Austria, Styria 
and Carinthia, and declared these territories to be immediately 
dependent on the Empire. In January 1237 he secured the 
election of his son Conrad as German king at Vienna; and in 
September went to Italy to prosecute the war which had broken 
out with the Lombards in the preceding year. Pope Gregory 
attempted to mediate, but the cities refused to accept the insult- 
ing terms offered by Frederick. The emperor gained a great 
victory over their forces at Cortenuova in November 1237, but 
though he met with some further successes, his failure to take 
Brescia in October 1238, together with the changed attitude of 
Gregory, turned the fortune of war. The pope had become 
alarmed when the emperor brought about a marriage between the 
heiress of Sardinia, Adelasia, and his natural son Enzio, who 
afterwards assumed the title of king of Sardinia. But as his 
warnings had been disregarded, he issued a document after the 
emperor's retreat from Brescia, teeming with complaints against 
Frederick, and followed it up by an open alliance with the 
Lombards, and by the excommunication of the emperor on the 
20th of March 1239. A violent war of words ensued. Frederick, 
accused of heresy, blasphemy and other crimes, called upon all 
kings and princes to unite against the pope, who on his side made 
vigorous efforts to arouse opposition in Germany, where his 
emissaries, a crowd of wandering friars, were actively preaching 
rebellion. It was, however, impossible to find an anti-king. 
In Italy, Spolcto and Ancona were declared part of the imperial 
dominions, and Rome itself, faithful on this occasion to the 
pope, was threatened. A number of ecclesiastics proceeding to a 
council called by Gregory were captured by Enzio at the sea- 
fight of Meloria, and the emperor was about to undertake the 
siege of Rome, when the pope died (August x 241). Germany was 
at this time menaced by the Mongols; but Frederick contented 
himself with issuing directions for a campaign against them, 
until in 1242 he was able to pay a short visit to Germany, where 
he gained some support from the towns by grants of extensive 
privileges. 

The successor of Gregory was Pope Celestine IX. But this 

pontiff died soon after his election; and after a delay of eighteen 

mouths, during which Frederick marched against Rome on two 

occasion* mnd devastated the lands 0/ his opponents, one of his 



partisans, Sinibaldo Fiesco,was chosen pope, and took the name 
of Innocent IV. Negotiations for peace were begun, but the 
relations of the Lombard cities to the Empire could not be 
adjusted, and when the emperor began again to ravage the 
papal territories Innocent fled to Lyons. Hither he summoned a 
general council, which met in June 1245; but although Frederick 
sent his justiciar, Thaddeus of Suessa, to represent him, and 
expressed his willingness to treat, sentence of excommunication 
and deposition was pronounced against him. Once more an 
interchange of recriminations began, charged with all the violent 
hyperbole characteristic of the controversial style of the sge. 
Accused of violating treaties, breaking oaths, persecuting the 
church and abetting heresy, Frederick replied by an open letter 
rebutting these charges, and in equally unmeasured terms 
denounced the arrogance and want of faith of the clergy from 
the pope downwards. The source of all the evil was, he declared, 
the excessive wealth of the church, which, in retaliation for the 
sentence of excommunication, he threatened to confiscate. In 
vain the mediation of the saintly king of France, Louis IX., was 
invoked. Innocent surpassed his predecessors in the ferocity and 
unscrupulousness of his attacks on the emperor (see Innocent 
IV.). War soon became general in Germany and Italy. 
Henry Raspe, landgrave of Thuringia, was chosen German 
king in opposition to Frederick in May 1246, but neither he nor 
his successor, William II., count of Holland, was successful in 
driving the Hohenstaufen from Germany. In Italy, during the 
emperor's absence, his cause had been upheld by Enzio and 
by the ferocious Eccelino da Romano. In 1246 a formidable 
conspiracy of the discontented Apulian barons against the 
emperor's power and life, fomented by papal emissaries, was 
discovered and crushed with ruthless cruelty. The emperor's 
power seemed more firmly established than ever, when suddenly 
the news reached him that Parma, a stronghold of the imperial 
authority in the north, had been surprised, while the garrison was 
off its guard, by the Guelphs. To recover the city was a matter 
of prime importance, and m 1247 Frederick concentrated his 
forces round it, building over against it a wooden town which, 
in anticipation of the success that astrologers had predicted, 
he named Vittoria. The siege, however, was protracted, and 
finally, in February 1248, during the absence of the emperor on a 
hunting expedition, was brought to an end by a sudden sortie of 
the men of Parma, who stormed the imperial camp. The disaster 
was complete. The emperor's forces were destroyed or scattered; 
the treasury, witb the imperial insignia, together with Frederick's 
harem and some of the most trusted of bis ministers, fell into the 
hands of the victors. Thaddeus of Suessa was hacked to pieces by 
the mob; the imperial crown was placed in mockery on the head 
of a hunch-backed beggar, who was carried back in triumph into 
the city. 

Frederick struggled hard to retrieve his fortunes, and for a 
while with success. But his old confidence had left him, he had 
grown moody and suspicious, and his temper gave a ready handle 
to his enemies. Pier deila Vigna, accused of treasonable designs, " 
was disgraced; and the once all-powerful favourite and minister, \ m 
blinded now and in rags, was dragged in the emperor's train, as a ;" 
warning to traitors, till in despair he dashed out his brains. J 
Then, in May 1248, came the tidings of Enzio's capture by the ',' 
Bolognese, and of his hopeless imprisonment , the captors refusing ' 
all offers of ransom. This disaster to his favourite son broke the .'" 
emperor's spirit. He retired to southern Italy, and after a short 
illness died at Fiorentino on the 13th of December 1250, after 
having been loosed from the ban by the archbishop of Palermo. 
He was buried in the cathedral of that city, where his splendid 
tomb may still be seen. By his will he appointed his son Conrad 
to succeed him in Germany and Sicily, and Henry, his son by 
Isabella of England, to be king of Jerusalem or Aries, neither of 
which kingdoms, however, he obtained. Frederick left several 
illegitimate children: Enzio has already been referred to; 
Frederick, who was made the imperial vicar in Tuscany; and 
Manfred, his son by the beloved Bianca Lancia or Lanzia, who 
was legitimatized just before his father's death.and was appointed 
by his will prince of Tarento and regent of Sicily. 



FREDERICK. ID. 



49 



icier of Frederick Is one of extraordinary interest and 
and contemporary opinion is expressed in the words 
i el immutator mirabilis. Licentious and luxurious in 
, cultured and catholic in his tastes, he united in his 
lost diverse qualities. His Sicilian court was a centre 
lal activity. Michael Scott, the translator of some 

Aristotle and of the commentaries of Averroes, 
Pisa, who introduced Arabic numerals and algebra to 
id other scholars, Jewish and Mahommedan as well as 
rere welcome at his court. Frederick himself had a 
jf six languages, was acquainted with mathematics, 
and natural history, and took an interest in medicine 
:ture. In 1224 he founded the university of Naples, 
. a liberal patron of the medical school at Salerno, 
a menagerie of strange animals, and wrote a treatise 
(De arte venandi cum avibus) which is remarkable for 
: observation of the habits of birds. 1 It was at bis 
that — as Dante points out— Italian poetry had its 
della Vigna there wrote the first sonnet, and Italian 
ederick himself are preserved to us. His wives were 
cd in oriental fashion; a harem was maintained at 
. eunuchs were a prominent feature of his household. 
s ideas have been the subject of much controversy, 
rf M. Huillard-Brehollcs that he wished to unite to the 
emperor those of a spiritual pontiff, and aspired to be 
: of a new religion, is insufficiently supported by 
> be credible. Although at times he persecuted 
i great cruelty, he tolerated Mahdmmcdans and Jews, 
ts appear rather to have been the outcome of political 
ins than of religious belief. His jests, which were used 
ties as a charge against him, seem to have originated 
indifference, or perhaps in a spirit of inquiry which 
the ideas of a later age. Frederick's rule in Germany 
as a failure, but this fact may be accounted for by the 
f the time and the inevitable conflict with the papacy, 
r the enactments of 1220 and 1231 contributed to the 
m of the Empire and the fall of the Hohenstaufcn, 
ting interests made the government of Italy a problem 
tal difficulty. In Sicily Frederick was more successful, 
ilsordcr, and under his rule the island was prosperous 
ted. His ideas of government were those of an 
march, and he probably wished to surround himself 
f the pomp which had encircled the older emperors of 

chief claim to fame, perhaps, is as a lawgiver. .The 
1 which he gave to Sicily in 1231 bears the impress of 
ity, and has been described as " the fullest and most 
xly of legislation promulgated by any western ruler 
emagne." Without being a great soldier, Frederick 
kilf ul in warfare, but was better acquainted with the 
>macy. In person he is said to have been " red, bald 
righted," but with good features and a 1 pleasing 
e. It was seriously believed in Germany for about a 
;r his death that Frederick was still alive, and many 
ittemptcd to personate him. A legend, afterwards 
to Frederick Barbarossa, told how he sat in a cavern 
bausscr before a stone table through which his beard 
waiting for the time for him to awake and restore to 

the golden age of peace. 

mporary documents relating to the reign of Frederick II. 
merous. Among the most important are: Richard of 
o, Chronica regni Siciliae: Annates Placentini, (ribeUini; 
ade, Annates; Matthew Paris, Historia major Angiiae; 
hronicon Urspergense. AH these arc in the Monumenia 
\istorica. Scriptores (Hanover and Berlin, 1826-1802). 
Itaiicarum scriptores, edited by L. A. Muratori (Milan, 
contains Annates Mcdiolanenses; Nicholas of Jamsilla, 
ebus testis Friderici II., and Vita Gregorii IX. fontificis. 
lso the Efiistolarum libri of Peter della Vigna, edited 
;lin (Basel, 1740); and Salimbene of Parma s Chronik, 
t Parma (1857). Many of the documents concerning 
if the time arc found in the Historia diptomatiea Friderici 
by M. Huillard-Brehollcs (Paris, 1852-1861); Acta 

nted at Augsburg in 1596; a German edition was pub- 
rlin in 1896. 



Kaiser Friedrick II. (Leipzig, 1889); G. Blondcl, tludt snr la 
politique de Vempereur FrctLrrie II, en AUemagne (Paris, 189a); 
M. Halbc. Friedrick II. und der fdpstlicke Stuhl (Berlin, 1888); 
R. Rohricht, Die Kreuxfakri let Kaisers Friedrick II. (Berlin, 1874); 
C. Kohlcr, Das Vcrhaltnis Kaiser Friedrichs II. su den Papsten 
seiner Zeit (Brcslau, 1888); J. Fclten, Pabst Gregor IX. (Freiburg, 



(Turin, 1874); and K. Hampe, Kaiser Friedrick II. (Munich, 
1899). ^ (A.W.H.*) 

FREDERICK III. (1415-1493), Roman emperor,— as Frederick 
IV., German king, and as Frederick V., archduke of Austria, — 
son of Ernest of Habsburg, duke of Styria and Carinthia, was born 
at Innsbruck on the sist of September 141 5. After his father's 
death in 1424 he passed his time at the court of his uncle and 
guardian, Frederick IV., count of Tirol. In 1435, together with 
his brother, Albert the Prodigal, he undertook the government 
of Styria and Carinthia, but the peace of these lands was disturbed 
by constant feuds between the brothers, which lasted until, 
Albert's death in 1463. In 1439 the deaths of the German 
king Albert IL and of Frederick of Tirol left Frederick the 
senior member of the Habsburg family, and guardian of Sigis- 
mund, count of TiroL In the following year be also became 
guardian of Ladislaus, the posthumous son of Albert II., and heir 
to Bohemia, Hungary and Austria, but these responsibilities 
brought only trouble and humiliation in their train. On the 2nd 
of February 1440 Frederick was chosen German king at Frankfort, 
but, owing to his absence from Germany, the coronation was 
delayed until the 17th of June 1442, when it took place at Aix-la.- 
Chapclle. 

Disregarding the neutral- attitude of the German electors 
towards the papal schism, and acting under the influence of 
Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini, afterwards Pope Pius II., Frederick 
in 144 5 made a secret treaty with Pope Eugenius IV. This 
developed into the Concordat of Vienna, signed in 1448 with the 
succeeding pope, Nicholas V., by which the king, in return for a 
sum of money and a promise of the imperial crown, pledged the 
obedience of the German people to Rome, and so checked for a 
time the rising tide of liberty in the German church. Taking up 
the quarrel between the Habsburgs and the Swiss cantons, 
Frederick invited the Armagnacs to attack his enemies, but 
after meeting with a stubborn resistance at St Jacob on the 26th 
of August 1444, these allies proved faithless, and the king soon 
lost every vestige of authority in Switzerland. In 1451 Frederick, 
disregarding the revolts in Austria and Hungary, travelled to 
Rome, where, on the x6th of March 1452, his marriage with. 
Leonora, daughter of Edward, king of Portugal, was celebrated, 
and three days later he was crowned emperor by pope Nicholas. 
On his return he found Germany seething with indignation. 
His capitulation to the pope was not forgotten; his refusal to 
attend the diets, and his apathy in the face of Turkish aggressions, 
constituted a serious danger; and plans for his deposition failed 
only because the electors could not unite upon a rival king. In 
1457 Ladislaus, king of Hungary and Bohemia, and archduke of 
Austria, died; Frederick failed to secure either kingdom, but 
obtained lower Austria, from which, however, he was soon driven 
by his brother Albert, who occupied Vienna. On Albert's death 
in 1463 the emperor united upper and lower Austria under his 
rule, but these poneasjoM were c/iusttadN xvtosj&V} Q*$kjs> 



s° 



FREDERICK III.— FREDERICK II. 



Podtbrad, king of Bohemia, and by Matthias Corvinus, king of 
Hungary. A visit lo Rome in 1468 to discuss measures against 
the Turks with Pope Paul II. had no result, and in 1470 Frederick 
began negotiations for a marriage between his son Maximilian 
and Mary, daughter and heiress of Charles the Bold, duke of 
Burgundy. The emperor met the duke at Treves in 1473, when 
Frederick, disliking to bestow the title of king upon Charles, left 
the city secretly, but brought about the marriage after the duke's 
death in 1477. Again attacked by Matthias, the emperor was 
driven from Vienna, and soon handed over the government of his 
lands to Maximilian, whose election as king of the Romans he 
vainly opposed in i486. Frederick then retired to Linx, where he 
passed his time in the'study of botany, alchemy and astronomy, 
until his death on the 19th of August 1:493. 

Frederick was a listless and incapable ruler, lacking alike the 
qualities of the soldier and of the diplomatist, but possessing a 
certain cleverness in evading difficulties. With a fine presence, 
he had many excellent personal qualities, is spoken of as mild and 
just, and had a real love of learning. He had a great belief in the 
future greatness of his family, to which he contributed largely by 
arranging the marriage of Maximilian with Mary of Burgundy, 
and delighted to inscribe his books and other articles of value 
with the letters A.E.I.O.U. (Austriae est im per are orbi universo; 
or in German, AUes Erdreick ist Oesterreick inter than). His 
personality counts for very little in German history. One 
chronicler says: "He was a useless emperor, and the nation 
during his long reign forgot that she had a king/' His tomb, a 
magnificent work in red and white marble, is in the cathedral of 
St Stephen at Vienna. 

See Aeneas Sylvius Piocolomini. De rebus et testis Friderici III. 

J trans. Th. llgen, Leipzig, 1889); Jf. Chmel, GesckUhte Kaiser 
7 riedriChs IV. und seines Soknes Maximilians 1. (Hamburg, 1840); 
A. Bachmann, Deutsche Reichsgeschichte im Zeitalter Friedrichs III. 
und Maximilians I. (Leipzig, 1884); A. Hubcr, GeschichU Oster~ 
reichs (Gotha, 1885-1892); and L. M. Furet von Lichnowsky, 
Gesckickte des Hauses Habsburg (Vienna, 1836-1844) 

FREDERICK HI. (c. x 186-1330), surnamed " the Fair," 
German king and duke of Austria, was the second son of the 
German king, Albert I., and consequently a member of the 
Habsburg family. In 1298, when his father was chosen German 
king, Frederick was invested with some of the family lands, and 
in 1306, when his elder brother Rudolph became king of Bohemia, 
he succeeded to the duchy of Austria. In 1307 Rudolph died, 
and Frederick sought to obtain the Bohemian throne; but an 
expedition into that country was a failure, and his father's 
murder in May 1308 deprived him of considerable support. He 
was equally unsuccessful in his efforts to procure the German 
crown at this time, and the relations between the new king, 
Henry VIL, and the Habsburgs were far from friendly. Frederick 
asked not only to be confirmed in the possession of Austria, but to 
be invested with Moravia, a demand to which Henry refused to 
accede; but an arrangement was subsequently made by which the 
duke agreed to renounce Moravia in return for a payment of 
50,000 marks. Frederick then became involved in a quarrel with 
his cousin Louis IV., duke of Upper Bavaria (afterwards the 
emperor Louis IV.), over the guardianship of Henry II., duke 
of Lower Bavaria. Hostilities broke out, and on the 9th of 
November 1313 he was defeated by Louis at the battle of Gam* 
mclsdorf and compelled to renounce his claim. 

Meanwhile the emperor Henry VII. had died in Italy, and a 
stubborn contest ensued for the vacant throne. Alter a long 
delay Frederick was chosen German king at Frankfort by a 
minority of the electors on the 19th of October 1314, while a 
majority elected Louis of Bavaria. Six days later Frederick 
was crowned at Bonn by the archbishop of Cologne, and war 
broke out at Once between the rivals. During this contest, 
which was carried on in a desultory fashion, Frederick drew his 
chief strength from southern and eastern Germany, and was 
supported by the full power of the Habsburgs. The defeat of 
his brother Leopold by the Swiss at Morgarten in November 
X3 I 5 was a heavy blow to him, but he prolonged the struggle for 
•even years. On the 28th of September 1322 a decisive battle 
was fought at MUhldorf ; Frederick was defeated and sent as a 



prisoner to TrausniU. Here he was retained until three yean 
later a scries of events induced Louis to come to terms. By the 
treaty of Trausnilx, signed on the 13th of March 1325, Frederick 
acknowledged the kingship of Louis in return for freedom, and 
promised to return to captivity unless he could induce his brother 
Leopold to make a similar acknowledgment. As Leopold re- 
fused to take this step, Frederick, although released from hisoatk 
by Pope John XXII., travelled back to Bavaria, where he was 
treated by Louis rather as a friend than as a prisoner. A 
suggestion was then made that the kings should rule jointly, but 
as this plan aroused some opposition it was agreed that Frederick 
should govern Germany while Louis went to Italy for the imperial 
crown. But this arrangement did not prove generally acceptable, 
and the death of Leopold in 1326 deprived Frederick of a powerful 
supporter. In these circumstances he returned to Austria broken 
down in mind and body, and on the 13th of January 1330 he 
died at Gutenstein, and was buried at Mauerbach, whence bis 
remains were removed in 2783 to the cathedral of St Stephen at 
Vienna. He married Elizabeth, daughter of James I., king of 
Aragon, and left two daughters. His voluntary return into 
captivity is used by Schiller in his poem Deutsche Treue, and by 



son of Christian III., was born at Hadcrslcben on the xst of July 
1534. His mother, Dorothea of Saxe-Laucnburg, was the elder 
sister of Catherine, the first wife of Gustavus Vasa and the mother 
of Eric XIV. The two little cousins, born the same year, were 
destined to be lifelong rivals. At the age of two Frederick was 
proclaimed successor to the throne at the Rigsdag of Copenhagen 
(October 30th, 1536), and homage was done to him at Oslo for 
Norway in 1548. The choice of his governor, the patriotic 
historiographer Hans S vaning, was so far fortunate that it ensured 
the devotion of the future king of Denmark to everything 
Danish; but S vaning was a poor pedagogue, and the wild and 
wayward lad suffered all his life from the defects of his early j 
training. Frederick's youthful, innocent attachment to the 
daughter of his former tutor, Anna Hardenberg, indisposed him 
towards matrimony at the beginning of his reign (1558). After " 
the hands of Elizabeth of England, Mary of Scotland and Rcn&U ' 
of Lorraine had successively been sought for him, the council of 
State grew anxious about the succession, but he finally married 
his cousin, Sophia of Mecklenburg, on the 20th of July 1572. 

The reign of Frederick II. falls into two well-defined divisions: 
(x) a period of war, 1550-1570; and (2) a period of peace, 1570- 
1588. The period of war began with the Ditmarsh expedition, 
when the independent peasant-republic of the Ditmarshers of 
West Holstcin, which had stoutly maintained its independence 
for centuries against the counts of Holstein and the Danish kings, 
was subdued by a Dano-Holstein army of 20,000 men in 1559, 
Frederic^ and his uncles John and Adolphus, dukes of Holstein, 
dividing the land between them. Equally triumphant was 
Frederick in his war with Sweden, though here the contest was 
much more severe, lasting as it did for seven years; whence it a 
generally described in northern history as the Scandinavian 
Seven Years' War. The tension which had prevailed between 
the two kingdoms during the last years of Gustavus Vasa reached 
breaking point on the accession of Gustavus's eldest son Eric 
XIV. There were many causes of quarrel between the t«o 
ambitious young monarchs, but the detention at Copenhagen is 
x 563 of a splendid matrimonial embassy on its way to Germany, 



FREDERICK III. 



5* 



to negotiate a match between Eric and Christina of Hesse, which 
King Frederick for political reasons was determined to prevent, 
precipitated hostilities. During the war, which was marked by 
extraordinary ferocity throughout, the Danes were generally 
victorious on land owing to the genius of Daniel Rantzau, but 
at sea the Swedes were almost uniformly triumphant. By 1570 
the strife had degenerated into a barbarous devastation of border 
provinces; and in July of the same year both countries accepted 
the mediation of the Emperor, and peace was finally concluded 
at Stettin on Dec. 13, 1570- During the course of this 
Seven Years' War Frederick II. had narrowly escaped the fate 
of his deposed cousin Eric XIV. The war was very unpopular 
in Denmark, and the closing of the Sound against foreign shipping, 
in order to starve out Sweden, had exasperated the maritime 
powers and all the Baltic states. On New Year's Day 1570 
Frederick's difficulties seemed so overwhelming that he 
threatened to abdicate; but the peace of Stettin came in time 
to reconcile all parties, and though Frederick had now to re- 
linquish his ambitious dream of re-establishing the Union of 
Kalmar, he had at least succeeded in maintaining the supremacy 
of Denmark in the north. After the peace Frederick's policy 
became still more imperial. He aspired to the dominion of all 
the seas which washed the Scandinavian coasts, and before he 
died he succeeded in suppressing the pirates who so long had 
haunted the Baltic and the German Ocean. He also erected the 
stately fortress of Kronborg, to guard the narrow channel of the 
Sound. Frederick possessed the truly royal gift of discovering 
and employing great men, irrespective of personal preferences 
and even of personal injuries. With infinite tact and admirable 
self-denial he gave free scope to ministers whose superiority 
in their various departments he frankly recognized, rarely inter- 
fering personally unless absolutely called upon to do so. His 
influence, always great, was increased by his genial and unaffected 
manners as a host. He is also remarkable as one of the few 
kings of the house of Oldenburg who had no illicit liaison. 
He died at Antvorskov on the 4th of April 1588. No other' 
Danish king was ever so beloved by his people. 

See Lund (TtodsU Danmarks og Norges Historie i Slutningen of 
id XVI. Aark. (Copenhagen, i#7Q); Danmarks Rites llutorte 
(Copenhagen, 1 897-1905), vol. 3; Robert Niabet Bain, Scandinavia, 
cap. 4 (Cambridge, 1905). (R. N. B.) 

FREDERICK III. (1600-1670), king of Denmark and Norway, 
son of Christian IV. and Anne Catherine of Brandenburg, was 
born on the 18th of March 1609 at Hadersleben. His position 
as a younger son profoundly influenced his future career. In his 
youth and early manhood there was no prospect of his ascending 
the Danish throne, and he consequently became the instrument of 
his father's schemes of aggrandizement in Germany. While still 
a lad he became successively bishop of Bremen, bishop of Verden 
and coadjutor of Halberstadt, while at the age of eighteen he 
was the chief commandant of the fortress of Stade. Thus 
from an early age he had considerable experience as an adminis- 
trator, while his general education was very careful and thorough. 
He had always a pronounced liking for literary and scientific 
studies. On the isi of October 1643 Frederick wedded -Sophia 
Amelia of Brunswick Liincburg, whose energetic, passionate 
and ambitious character was profoundly to affect not "only 
Frederick's destiny but the destiny of Denmark, During the 
disastrous Swedish War of 1643-1645 Frederick was appointed 
generalissimo of the duchies by his father, but the laurels he won 
were scanty, chiefly owing to his quarrels with the Earl-Marshal 
Anders Bille, who commanded the Danish forces. This was 
Frederick's first collision with the Danish nobility, who ever 
afterwards regarded him with extreme distrust. The death of his 
elder brother Christian in June 1647 first opened to him the pros- 
pect of succeeding to the Danish throne, but the question was 
still unsettled when Christian IV. died on the 28th of February 
1648- Not till the 6th of July in the same year did Frederick III. 
receive the homage of his subjects, and only after he had signed 
a Haandfaestiung or charter, by which the already diminished 
royal prerogative was still further curtailed. It had been doubt- 
ful at not whether he would be allowed to inherit his ancestral 



throne at all; but Frederick removed the last scruples of the 
Rigsraad by unhesitatingly accepting the conditions imposed 
upon him. 

The new monarch was a reserved; enigmatical prince, who 
seldom laughed, spoke little and wrote less— a striking contrast 
to Christian IV. But if he lacked the brilliant qualities of bis 
impulsive, jovial father, he possessed in a high degree the com- 
pensating virtues of moderation, sobriety and self-controL 
But with all his good qualities Frederick was not the man to take 
a clear view of the political horizon, or even to recognize his own 
and his country's limitations. He rightly regarded the accession 
of Charles X. of Sweden (June 6th, 1654) as a source of danger to 
Denmark. He felt that temperament and policy would combine 
to make Charles an aggressive warrior-king: the only uncertainty 
was in which direction he would turn his arms first. Charles's 
invasion of Poland (July 1654) came as a distinct relief to the 
Danes, though even the Polish War was full of latent peril to 
Denmark. Frederick was resolved upon a rupture with Sweden 
at the first convenient opportunity. The Rigsdag which 
assembled on the 23rd of February 1657 willingly granted 
considerable subsidies for mobilization and other military 
expenses; on the 15th of April Frederick III. desired, and on 
the 23rd of April he received, the assent of the majority of the 
Rigsraad to attack Sweden's German provinces; in the beginning 
of May the still pending negotiations with that power were broken 
off, and on the xst of June Frederick signed the manifesto justify- 
ing a war which was never formally declared. The Swedish 
king traversed all the plans of his enemies by his passage of the 
frozen Belts, in January and February 1658 (see Ciuxles X. 
of Sweden). The .effect of this unheard-of achievement on the 
Danish government was crushing. Frederick III. at once sued 
for peace; and, yielding to the persuasions of the English and 
French ministers, Charles finally agreed to be content with 
mutilating instead of annihilating the Danish monarchy (treaties 
of Taastrup, February x8th, and of Roskilde, February 26th, 
1658). The conclusion of peace was followed by a remarkable 
episode. Frederick expressed the desire to make the personal 
acquaintance of his conqueror; and Charles X. consented to be 
his guest for three days (March 3-5) at the castle of Fredriksborg. 
Splendid banquets lasting far into the night, private and intimate 
conversations between the princes who had only just emerged 
from a mortal struggle, seemed to point to nothing but peace and. 
friendship in the future. But Charles's insatiable lust for con- 
quest, and his ineradicable suspicion of Denmark, induced him, 
on the 17th of July, without any reasonable cause, without a 
declaration of war, in defiance of all international equity, to 
endeavour to despatch an inconvenient neighbour. 

Terror was the first feeling produced at Copenhagen by the 
landing of the main Swedish army at Korsor in Zealand. None 
had anticipated the possibility of suchasudden and brutal attack, 
and every one knew that the Danish capital was very inadequately 
fortified and garrisoned. Fortunately Frederick had never been 
deficient in courage. " I will die in my nest " were the memor- 
able words with which he rebuked those counsellors who advised 
him to seek safety in flight. On the 8th of August representatives 
irom every class in the capital urged the necessity of a vigorous 
resistance; and the citizens of Copenhagen, headed by the great 
burgomaster Hans Nanscn (?.&), protested their unshakable 
loyalty to the king, and their determination to defend Copen- 
hagen to the uttermost. The Danes had only three days' warning 
of the approaching danger; and the vast and dilapidated line 
of defence had at first but aooo regular defenders. But the 
government and the people displayed a memorable and ex- 
emplary energy, under the constant supervision .of the king, 
the queen, and burgomaster Nansen. By the beginning of 
September all the breaches were repaired, the walls bristled with 
cannon, and 7000 men were under arms. So strong was the city 
by this time that Charles X., abandoning his original intention 
of carrying the place by assault, began a regular siege; but this 
also he was forced to abandon when, on the 29th of October, an 
auxiliary Dutch fleet, after reinforcing and reprovisioning the 
garrison, defeated, in conjunction with the Danish fleet, the 



5* 



FREDERICK VIII.— FREDERICK II. 



Swedish oavy of 44 liners in the Sound. Thus the Danish capital 
had saved the Danish monarchy. But it was Frederick 1IL 
who profited most by his spirited defence of the common interests 
of the country and the dynasty. The traditional loyalty of the 
Danish middle classes was transformed into a boundless enthusi- 
asm for the king personally, and for a brief period Frederick found 
himself the most popular man in his kingdom. He made use of 
his popularity by realizing the dream of a lifetime and converting 
an elective into an absolute monarchy by the Revolution of 1660 
(see Denmark: History). Frederick III. died on the 6th of 
February 1670 at the castle of Copenhagen. 

See R. Nisbet Bain, Scandinavia, caps. ix. and x (Cambridge, 
1905). (R- N. B.) 

FREDERICK VIII. (1843- ), king of Denmark, eldest son 
of King Christian DC, was born at Copenhagen on the 3rd of 
June 1843. As crown prince of Denmark he took part in the war 
of 1864 against Austria and Prussia, and subsequently assisted 
his father in the duties of government, becoming king on 
Christian's death in January 1906. In 1809 Frederick married 
Louise (b. 1851), daughter of Charles XV., king of Sweden, 
by whom he had a family of four sons and four daughters. His 
eldest son Christian, crown prince of Denmark (b. 1870), was 
married in 1808 to Alcxandrina (b. 1879), daughter of Frederick 
Francis III., grand-duke of Mecklcnburg-Schwerin; and his 
second son, Charles (b. 1872), who married his cousin. Maud, 
daughter of Edward VII. of Great Britain, became king of 
Norway as Haakon VII. in 1905. 

FREDERICK I. (1657-1713), king of Prussia, and (as Frederick 
III.) elector of Brandenburg, was the second son of the great 
elector, Frederick William, by his first marriage with Louise 
Henrictte, daughter of Frederick Henry of Orange. Born at 
Kttnigsberg on the nth of July 1657, he was educated and greatly 
influenced by Ebcrhard Danckelmann, and became heir to the 
throne of Brandenburg through the death of his elder brother, 
Charles Emil, in 1674. He appears to have taken some part in 
public business before the death of his father; and the court 
at Berlin was soon disturbed by quarrels between the young 
prince and his stepmother, Dorothea of Holstein-Glucksburg. 
In 1686 Dorothea persuaded her husband to bequeath outlying 
portions of his lands to her four sons; and Frederick, fearing 
he would be poisoned, left Brandenburg determined to prevent 
any diminution of his inheritance. By promising to restore 
Schwicbus to Silesia after his accession he won the support of the 
emperor Leopold I.; but eventually he gained his end in a peace- 
able fashion. Having become elector of Brandenburg in May 
x688, he came to terms with his half-brothers and their mother. 
In return for a sum of money these princes renounced their rights 
under their father's will, and the new elector thus secured the 
whole of Frederick William's territories. After much delay and 
grumbling he fulfilled his bargain with Leopold and gave up 
Schwiebus in 1695. At home and abroad Frederick continued 
the policy of the great elector. He helped William of Orange 
to make his descent on England; added various places, including 
the principality of Neuchatel, to his lands; and exercised some 
influence on the course of European politics by placing his large 
and efficient army at the disposal of the emperor and his allies 
(see Brandenburg). He was present in person at the siege of 
Bonn in 1689, but was not often in command of his troops. The 
elector was very fond of pomp, and, striving to model his court 
upon that of Louis XIV., he directed his main energies towards 
obtaining for himself the title of king. In spite of the assistance 
he had given to the emperor his efforts met with no success for 
some years; but towards 1700 Leopold, faced with the prospect 
of a new struggle with France, was inclined to view the idea more 
favourably. Having insisted upon various conditions, prominent 
among them being military aid for the approaching war, he gave 
the imperial sanction to Frederick's request in November 1700; 
whereupon the elector, hurrying at once to K&nigsberg, crowned 
himself with great ceremony king of Prussia on the 18th of 
January 1701. According to his promise the king sent help to 
the emperor; and during the War of the Spanish Succession the 
troops of Bnutdeoborg-TrmsiA rendered great assistance Co tha 



allies, fighting with distinction at Blenheim and elsewhere. 
Frederick, who was deformed through an injury to his spine, 
died on the 25th of February 1713. By his extravagance the king 
exhausted the treasure amassed by his father, burdened his 
country with heavy taxes, and reduced its finances to chaos. His 
constant obligations to the emperor drained Brandenburg of 
money which might have been employed more profitably at 
home, and prevented her sovereign from interfering in the politics 
of northern Europe. Frederick, however, was not an unpopular 
ruler, and by making Prussia into a kingdom he undoubtedly 
advanced it several stages towards its future greatness. Be 
founded the university of Halle, and the Academy of Sciences at 
Berlin; welcomed and protected Protestant refugees from France 
and elsewhere: and lavished money on the erection of public 
buildings. 

The king was married three times. His second wife, Sophie 
Charlotte (1668-1705), sister of the English king George I., was 
the friend of Leibnitz and one of the most cultured princesses of 
the age; she bore him his only son, his successor. King Frederick 
William L 



See W. Hahn, Friedrick /., Kdnig in Preusstn (Berlin, 1876); 
J. G. Droysen, GesckickU der prcussisehen Polttik, Band iv. (Leipzig, 
187a); E. Heyck, Friedrick I. und die Begriindung des frouuischm 
Kontglums (Bielefeld, 1901): C. Graf von Dohna, Mimoires ongi- 
naux sur U rirne el la eour de Fridiric I" (Berlin, 1 883); Austin 
Briefweckrei KSnig Friedrichs I. von Prenssen und seiner Fomitie 
(Berlin, 1901) ; and T. Carlyle, History of Frederick the Great, toL L 
(London, 1872). 

FREDERICK II. V known as " the Great " (1712*1786), king 
of Prussia, born on the 94th of January 17x2, was the eldest son 
of Frederick William I. He was brought up with extreme rigour, 
his father devising a scheme of education which was intended 
to make him a hardy soldier, and prescribing for him every 
detail of his conduct. So great was Frederick William's horror 
of everything which did not seem to bira practical, that he 
strictly excluded Latin from the list of his son's studies. 
Frederick, however, had free and generous impulses which could 
not be restrained by the sternest system. Encouraged by his 
mother, and under the influence of his governess Madame de 
Roucoulle, and of his first tutor Duhan, a French refugee, he 
acquired an excellent knowledge of French and a taste for litera- 
ture and music He even received secret lessons in Latin, 
which his father invested with all the charms of forbidden 
fruit. As he grew up be became extremely dissatisfied with the 
dull and monotonous life he was compelled to lead; and hh 
discontent was heartily shared by his sister. Wilhelmina, a bright 
and intelligent young princess for whom Frederick had a warn 
affection. 

Frederick WilKam, seeing his son apparently absorbed in 
frivolous and effeminate amusements, gradually conceived for 
him an intense dislike, which had its share in causing him to 
break off the negotiations for a double marriage between the 
prince of Wales and Wilhelmina, and the princess Amelia, 
daughter of George II., and Frederick; for Frederick had been 
so indiscreet as to carry on a separate correspondence with the 
English court and to vow that he would marry Amelia or no one. 
Frederick William's hatred of his son, openly avowed, displayed 
itself in violent outbursts and public insults, and so harsh was 
his treatment that Frederick frequently thought of running 
away and taking refuge at the English court. He at last resolved 
to do so during a journey which he made with the king to south 
Germany in 1730, when he was eighteen years of age. He was 
helped by his two friends, Lieutenant Katte and Lieutenant 
Keith; but by the imprudence of the former the secret was found 
out. Frederick was placed under arrest, deprived of his rank 
as crown prince, tried by court-martial, and imprisoned in the 
fortress of Ctlstrin. Warned by Frederick, Keith escaped; 
but Katte delayed his flight too long, and a court-martial decided 
that he should be punished with two years' fortress arrest. But 
the king was determined by a terrible example to wake Frederick 
once for all to a consciousness of the heavy responsibility of his 
position. He changed the sentence on Katte to one of death and 
ordered the execution to take place in Frederick's presence, 



FREDERICK II. 



S3 



himself arranging its every detail, Frederick's own fate would 
depend upon the effect of this terrible object lesson and the 
response he should make to the exhortations of the chaplain sent 
to reason with him. On the morning of the 7th of November 
Katte was beheaded before Frederick's window, after the crown 
prince had asked his pardon and received the answer that there 
was nothing to forgive. On Frederick himself lay the terror of 
death, and the chaplain was able to send to the king a favourable 
report of his orthodoxy and his changed disposition Frederick 
William, whose temper was by no means so ruthlessly Spartan 
as tradition has painted it.was overjoyed, and commissioned the 
clergyman to receive from the prince an oath of filial obedience, 
and in exchange for this proof of " his intention to improve in 
real earnest " his arrest was to be lightened, pending the earning 
of a full pardon. " The whole town shall be his prison," wrote 
the king; " I will give him employment, from morning to night, 
in the departments of war, and agriculture, and of the govern- 
ment, lie shall work at financial matters, receive accounts, 
read minutes and make extracts ... But if he kicks or rears 
again, he shall forfeit the succession to the crown, and even, 
according to circumstances, life itself " 

For about fifteen months Frederick lived in Custrin, busy 
according to the royal programme with the details of the Prussian 
administrative system. He. was very careful not to " kick or 
rear," and his good conduct earned him a further stage in the 
restoration to favour. During this period of probation he had 
been deprived of his status as a soldier and refused the right to 
wear uniform t while officers and soldiers were forbidden to give 
him the military salute; in 1732 he was made colonel in command 
of the regiment at Ncuruppin. In the following year he married, 
in obedience to the king's orders, the princess Elizabeth Christina, 
daughter of the duke of Brunswick-Bcvern. He was given the 
estate of Rheinsberg in the neighbourhood of Neuruppin, and 
there he lived until he succeeded to the throne. These years were 
perhaps the happiest of his life. He discharged his duties with so 
much spirit and so conscientiously that he ultimately gained 
the esteem of Frederick William, who no longer feared that he 
would leave the crown to one unworthy of wearing it. At the 
same time the crown prince was able to indulge to the full his 
personal tastes. He carried on a lively correspondence with 
Voltaire and other French men of letters, and was a diligent 
student of philosophy, history and poetry. Two of his best- 
known works were written at this time — Considtrations sur 
Vital pr£sent4u corps politique dc V Europe and his A nti-Macchiavcl. 
In the former be calls attention to the growing strength of 
Austria and France, and insists on the necessity of some third 
power, by which he clearly means Prussia, counterbalancing their 
excessive influence. The second treatise, which was issued by 
Voltaire in Hague in 1740, contains a generous exposition of 
some of the favourite ideas of the xSth-cenlury philosophers 
respecting the duties of sovereigns, which may be summed up 
in the famous sentence: " the prince is not the absolute master, 
but only the first servant of his people." 

On the 31st of May 1740 he became king. He maintained all 
the forms of government established by his father, but ruled 
in a far more enlightened spirit; be tolerated evtry fprm of re- 
ligious opinion, abolished the use of torture, was most careful 
to secure an exact and impartial administration of justice, and, 
while keeping the reins of government strictly in his own hands, 
allowed every one with a genuine grievance free access to his 
presence. The Potsdam regiment of giants was disbanded, but 
the real interests of the army were carefully studied, for Frederick 
realized that the two pillars of the Prussian state were sound 
finances and a strong army. On the 20th of October 1740 the 
emperor Charles VI. died. Frederick at once began to make 
extensive military preparations, and it was soon dear to all the 
world that he intended to enter upon some serious enterprise. 
He had made up his mind to assert the ancient claim of the house 
of Brandenburg to the three Silesian duchies, which the Austrian 
rulers of Bohemia had ever denied, but the Hohenzollerns had 
never abandoned. Projects for the assertion of this claim by 
force of arms had been formed by more than one of Frederick's 



predecessors, and the extinction of the male line of the house of 
Habsburg may well have seemed to him a unique opportunity 
for realizing an ambition traditional in his family. For this 
resolution he is often abused still by historians, and at the time 
he had the approval of hardly any one out of Prussia. He him- 
self, writing of the scheme in his Memoires, laid no claim to lofty 
motives, but candidly confessed that "it was a means of acquiring 
reputation and of increasing the power of the state." He 
firmly believed, however, in the lawfulness of his claims; and 
although his father had recognized the Pragmatic Sanction, 
whereby the hereditary dominions of Charles VI were to descend 
to his daughter, Maria Theresa, Frederick insisted that this 
sanction could refer only to lands which rightfully belonged to the 
house of Austria. He could also urge that, as Charles VI. had 
not fulfilled the engagements by which Frederick William's 
recognition of the Pragmatic Sanction had been secured, Prussia 
was freed from her obligation. 

Frederick sent an ambassador to Vienna, offering, in the event 
of his rights in Silesia being conceded, to aid Maria Theresa 
against her enemies. The queen of Hungary, who regarded the 
proposal as that of a mere robber, haughtily declined; whereupon 
Frederick immediately invaded Silesia with an army of 30,000 
men. His first victory was gained at Mollwitz on the 10th of 
April 174 1. Under the impression, in consequence of a furious 
charge of Austrian cavalry, that the battle was lost, he rode 
rapidly away at an early stage of the struggle — a mistake 
which gave rise for a time to the groundless idea that he lacked 
personal courage. A second Prussian victory was gained at 
Chotusitz, near Caslau, on the 17th May 1742; by this time 
Frederick was master of all the fortified places of Silesia. Maria 
Theresa, in the heat of her struggle with France and the elector 
of Bavaria, now Charles VII., and pressed by England to rid 
herself of Frederick, concluded with him, on the nth of June 
1 742, the peace of Brcslau, conceding to Prussia, Upper and Lower 
Silesia as far as the Oppa, together with the county of Glatz. 
Frederick made good use of the next two years, fortifying his new 
territory, and repairing the evils inflicted upon it by the war. 
By the death of the prince of East Friesland without heirs, he 
also gained possession of that country (1744). He knew well that 
Maria Theresa would not, if she could help it, allow him to 
remain in Silesia; accordingly, in 1744, alarmed by her victories, 
he arrived at a secret understanding with France, and pledged 
himself, with Hesse-Cassel and the palatinate, to maintain the 
imperial rights of Charles VII., and to defend his hereditary 
Bavarian lands. Frederick began the second Silesian War by 
entering Bohemia in August 1744 and taking Prague. By this 
brilliant but rash venture he put himself in great danger, and 
soon had to retreat; but in 1745 he gained the battles of Hohen- 
friedberg, Soor and Hcnnersdorf ; and Leopold of Dessau (" Der 
alte Dessauer ") won for him the victory of Kesselsdorf in Saxony. 
The latter victory was decisive, and the peace of Dresden 
(December 25, 1745) assured to Frederick a second time the. 
possession of Silesia. (See Austrian Succession, War of ihe.)i 

Frederick had thus, at the age of thirty-three, raised himself 4 , 
to a great position in Europe, and henceforth he was the most; 
conspicuous sovereign of his time. He was a thoroughly absolute] 
ruler, his so-called ministers being mere clerks whose business; 
was to give effect to his will. To use his own famous phrase,' 
however, he regarded himself as but " the first servant of the 
state"; and during the next eleven years he proved that the 
words expressed his inmost conviction and feeling. All kinds of 
questions were submitted to him, important and unimportant; 
and he is frequently censured for having troubled himself so 
much with mere details. But in so far as these details related 
to expenditure he was fully justified, for it was absolutely 
essential for him to have a large army, and with a small state 
this was impossible unless he carefully prevented unnecessary 
outlay. Being a keen judge of character, he filled the public 
offices with faithful, capable, energetic men, who were kept up 
to a high standard of duty by the consciousness that their work 
might at' any time come under his strict supervision. The 
Academy of Sciences, which had fallen into contemot during 



5+ 



FREDERICK It 



his father's reign, he restored, infusing into it vigorous life; and 
he did more to promote elementary education than any of his 
predecessors. He did much too for the economic development 
of Prussia, especially for agriculture; he established colonies, 
peopling them with immigrants, extended the canal system, 
drained and diked the great marshes of the Oderbruch, turning 
them into rich pasturage, encouraged the planting of fruit 
trees and of root crops; and, though in accordance with his 
ideas of discipline he maintained serfdom, he did much to lighten 
the burdens of the peasants. All kinds of manufacture, too, 
particularly that of silk, owed much to his encouragement. 
To the army he gave unremitting attention, reviewing it at 
regular intervals, and sternly punishing negligence on the part 
of the officers. Its numbers were raised to 160,000 men, while 
fortresses and magazines were always kept in a state of readiness 
for war. The influence of the king's example was felt far beyond 
the limits of his immediate circle. The nation was proud of his 
genius, and displayed something of his energy in all departments 
of life. Lessing, who as a youth of twenty came to Berlin in 
1749, composed enthusiastic odes in his honour, and Gleim, 
the Halberstadt poet, wrote of him as of a kind of demi-god. 
These may be taken as fair illustrations of the popular feeling 
long before the Seven Years' War. 

He despised German as the language of boors, although it is 
remarkable that at a later period, in a French essay on German 
literature, he predicted for it a great future. He habitually 
wrote and spoke French, and had a strong ambition to rank 
as a distinguished French author. Nobody can now read his 
verses, but his prose writings have a certain calm simplicity 
and dignity, without, however, giving evidence of the splendid 
mental qualities which he revealed in practical life. To this 
period belong bis Mimoires pour servir a I' his lair e de Brandebourg 
and his poem L'Art de la guerre. The latter, judged as literature, 
is intolerably dull; but the former is valuable, throwing as it 
does considerable light on his personal sympathies as well as on 
the motives of important epochs in his career. He continued to 
correspond with French writers, and induced a number of them 
to settle in Berlin, Maupertuis being president of the Academy. 
In 1753 Voltaire, who had repeatedly visited him, came at 
Frederick's urgent entreaty, and received a truly royal welcome. 
The famous Hirsch trial, and Voltaire's vanity and caprice, 
greatly lowered him in the esteem of the king, who, on his side, 
irritated his guest by often requiring him to correct bad verses, 
and by making him the object of rude banter. The publication 
of Doctor Akakia, which brought down upon the president of the 
Academy a storm of ridicule, finally alienated Frederick; while 
Voltaire's wrongs culminated in the famous arrest at Frankfort, 
the most disagreeable elements, of which were due to the mis- 
understanding of an order by a subordinate official. 

The king lived as much as possible in a retired mansion, to 
which he gave the name of Sanssouci — not the palace so called, 
which was built after the Seven Years' War, and was never a 
favourite residence. He rose regularly in summer at five, in 
winter at six, devoting himself to public business till about eleven. 
During part of this time, after coffee, he would aid his reflections 
by playing on the flute, of which iie was passionately fond/ 
being a really skilful performer. At eleven came parade, and an 
hour afterwards, punctually, dinner, which continued till two, 
or later, if conversation happened to be particularly attractive. 
After dinner he glanced through and signed cabinet orders written 
in accordance with his morning instructions, often adding 
marginal notes and postscripts, many of which were in a caustic 
tone. These disposed of, he amused himself for a couple of hours 
with literary work; between six and seven he would converse 
with his friends or listen to his reader (a post held for some time 
by La Mettric); at seven there was a concert; and at half-past 
eight he sat down to supper, which might go on till midnight. 
He liked good eating and drinking, although even here the cost 
was sharply looked after, the expenses of his kitchen mounting 
to no higher figure than £1800 a year. At supper he was always 
surrounded by a number of his most intimate friends, mainly 
frenchmen;, and he insisted on the conversation being perfectly 



free. His wit, however, was often cruel, and any one who re- 
sponded with too much spirit was soon made to fed that the 
licence of talk was to be complete only on one side. 

At Frederick's court ladies were seldom seen, a circumstance 
that gave occasion to much scandal for which there seems to have 
been no foundation. The queen he visited only on rare occasions. 
She had been forced upon him by his father, and he had never 
loved her; but he always treated her with marked respect, and 
provided her with a generous income, half of which she gave away 
in charity. Although without charm, she was a woman of many 
noble qualities; and, like her husband, she wrote French books, 
some of which attracted a certain attention in their day. She 
survived him by eleven years, dying in 1797. 

Maria Theresa had never given up hope that she would recover 
Silesia; and as all the neighbouring sovereigns were bitterly 
jealous of Frederick, and somewhat afraid of him, she had do 
difficulty in inducing several of them to form a scheme for his 
ruin. Russia and Saxony entered into it heartily, and France, 
laying aside her ancient enmity towards Austria, joined the 
empress against the common object of dislike. Frederick, 
meanwhile, had turned towards England, which saw in him a 
possible ally of great importance against the French. A con- 
vention between Prussia and Great Britain was signed in January 
1756, and it proved of incalculable value to both countries, 
leading as it did to a close alliance during the administration of 
Pitt. Through the treachery of a clerk in the Saxon foreign office 
Frederick was made aware of the future which was being prepared 
for him. Seeing the importance of taking the initiative, and 
if possible, of securing Saxony, he suddenly, on the 24th of 
August 1 756, crossed the frontier of that country, and shut in 
the Saxon army between Pima and Kdnigstcin, ultimately 
compelling it, after a victory gained over the Austrians at 
Lobositz, to surrender. Thus began the Seven Years' War, 
in which, supported by England, Brunswick and Hesse-Cassel, 
he had for a long time to oppose Austria, France, Russia, Saxony 
and Sweden. Virtually the whole Continent was in arms against 
a small state which, a fewyears before, had been regarded by most 
men as beneath serious notice. But it happened that this small 
state was led by a man of high military genius, capable of infusing 
into others his own undaunted spirit, while his subjects had 
learned both from him and his predecessors habits of patience, 
perseverance and discipline. In 1757, after defeating the 
Austrians at Prague, he was himself defeated by them at Kolin; 
and by the shameful convention of Clostcr-Seven, he was freely 
exposed to the attack of the French. In November 1757, how- 
ever, when Europe looked upon him as ruined, he rid himself of 
the French by his splendid victory over them at Rossbach, and 
in about a month afterwards, by the still more splendid victory 
at Lcuthen, he drove the Austrians from Silesia. From this time 
the French were kept well employed in the west by Prince 
Ferdinand of Brunswick, who defeated them at Crefeld in 1758, 
and at Minden in 1 759. In the former year Frederick triumphed, 
at a heavy cost, over the Russians at Zorndorf ; and although, 
through lack of his usual foresight, he lost the battle of Hoch- 
kirch, he prevented the Austrians from deriving any real 
advantage from their triumph, Silesia still remaining in his 
hands at the end of the year. The battle of Kunersdorf , fought 
on the 1 2th of August 1759, was the most disastrous to him in 
the course of the war. He had here to contend both with the 
Russians and the Austrians; and although at first he had some 
success, his army was in the end completely broken. " All is lost 
save the royal family," he wrote to his minister Friesenstein; 
" the consequences of this battle will be worse than the battle 
itself. I shall not survive the ruin of the Fatherland. Adieu for 
ever I " But he soon recovered from his despair, and in 1760 
gained the important victories of Llegnitz and Torgau. He had 
now, however, to act on the defensive, and fortunately for him, 
the Russians, on the death of the empress Elizabeth, not only 
withdrew in 176a from the compact against him, but for a time 
became his allies. On the 29th of October of that year he gained 
his last victory over the Austrians at Freiberg. Europe was by 
Chat time sick of war, every power being more or less exhausted. 



FREDERICK II. 



55 



The result was that, on the 15th of February 1763, a few days 
after the conclusion of the peace of Paris, the treaty of Hubertua- 
burg was signed, Austria confirming Prussia in the possession of 
Silesia. (See Seven Years' YVak.) 

It would be difficult to overrate the importance of the con- 
tribution thus made by Frederick to the politics of Europe. 
Prussia was now universally recognized as one of the great 
powers of the Continent, and she definitely took her place in 
Germany as the rival of Austria. From this time it was inevitable 
that there should be a final struggle between the two nations 
for predominance, and that the smaller German states should 
group themselves around one or the other. Frederick himself 
acquired both in Germany and Europe the indefinable influence 
which springs from the recognition of great gifts that have been 
proved by great deeds. 

His first care after the war was, as far as possible, to enable 
the country to recover from the terrific blows by which it had 
been almost destroyed; and he was never, either before or after, 
seen to better advantage than in the measures he adopted for 
this end. Although his resources had been so completely 
drained that he had been forced to melt the silver in his palaces 
and to debase the coinage, his energy soon brought back the 
national prosperity. Pomerania and Neumark were freed from 
taxation for two years, Silesia for six months. Many nobles 
whose lands had been wasted received corn for seed; his war 
horses were within a few months to be found on farms all over 
Prussia; and money was freely spent in the re-erection of houses 
which had been destroyed. The coinage was gradually restored 
to its proper value, and trade received a favourable impulse by 
the foundation of the Bank of Berlin. All these mattera were 
carefully looked into by Frederick himself, who, while acting 
as generously as his circumstances would allow, insisted on every- 
thing being done in the most efficient manner at the least possible 
cost. Unfortunately, he adopted the French ideas of excise, 
and the French methods of imposing and collecting taxes— a 
system known as the Regie. This system secured for him a 
large revenue, but it led to a vast amount of petty tyranny, 
whkh was all the more intolerable because it was carried out by 
French officials. It was continued to the end of Frederick's 
reign, and nothing did so much to injure his otherwise immense 
popularity. He was quite aware of the discontent the system ex- 
cited, and the good-nature with which he tolerated the criticisms 
directed against it and him is illustrated by a well-known incident. 
Riding along the Jager Strasse one day, he saw a crowd of people. 
" See what it is," he said to the groom who was attending him. 
" They have something posted up about your Majesty," said the 
groom, returning. Frederick, riding forward, saw a caricature of 
himself: " King in very melancholy guise," says Preuss (as 
translated by Carlyle), " seated on a stool, a coffee-mill between 
his knees, diligently grinding with the one hand, and with the 
other picking up any bean that might have fallen. ' Hang it 
lower/ said the king, beckoning his groom with a wave of the 
finger; 'lower, that they may not have to hurt their necks 
about it.' No sooner were the words spoken, which spread 
instantly, than there rose from the whole crowd one universal 
huzzah of joy. They tore the caricature into a thousand pieces, 
and rolled after the king with loud ' Le.be Uoch, our Frederick 
for ever/ as he rode slowly away." There are scores of anecdotes 
about Frederick, but not many so well authenticated as this. 

There was nothing about which Frederick took so much 
trouble as the proper administration of justice. He disliked the 
formalities of the law, and in one instance, " the miller Arnold 
case/' in connexion with which he thought injustice had been 
done to a poor man, he dismissed the judges, condemned them 
to a year's fortress arrest, and compelled them to make good out 
of their own pockets the loss sustained by their supposed victim— 
not a wise proceeding, but one springing from a generous motive. 
He once defined himself as " l'avocat du pauvre," and few things 
gave him more pleasure than the famous answer of the miller 
whose windmill stood on ground which was wanted for the king's 
garden. The miller sturdily refused to sell it. " Not at any 
price?" said the king's agent; "could not the king take it 



from you for nothing, if he chose?" "Have we not the 
Kammergericht at Berlin?" was the answer, which became a 
popular saying in Germany. Soon after he came to the throat 
Frederick began to make preparations for a new code. In 1747 
appeared the Codex Fridericianus, by which the Prussian judicial 
body was established. But a greater monument of Frederick's 
interest in legal reform was the AUgemeines preussisckes Land- 
recht, completed by the grand chancellor Count Johann H. C 
von Carreer (1721-1801) on the basis of the Project (Us Corporis 
Juris Fridericiani, completed in the year 1740-1751 by the 
eminent jurist Samuel von Cocceji ( 1 679-1 755). The Londretkt, 
a work of vast labour and erudition, combines the two systems 
of German and Roman law supplemented by the law of nature; 
it was the first German code, but only came into force in 1794, 
after Frederick's death. 

Looking ahead after the Seven Years' War, Frederick saw no 
means of securing himself so effectually as by cultivating the good* 
will of Russia. In 1764 he accordingly concluded a treaty of 
alliance with the empress Catherine for eight years. Six years 
afterwards, unfortunately for his fame, he joined in the first 
partition of Poland, by which he received Polish Prussia, without 
Danzig and Thorn, and Great Poland as far as the river Netze. 
Prussia was then for the first time made continuous with Branden- 
burg and Pomerania. 

The emperor Joseph II. greatly admired Frederick, and visited 
him at Neisse, in Silesia, in x 769, a visit which Frederick returned, 
in Moravia, in the following year. The young emperor was frank 
and cordial; Frederick was more cautious, for he detected 
under the respectful manner of Joseph a keen ambition that might 
one day become dangerous to Prussia. Ever after these inter- 
views a portrait of the emperor hung conspicuously in the rooms 
in which Frederick lived, a circumstance on which some oat 
remarked. " Ah yes," said Frederick, "lam obliged to keep 
that young gentleman in my eye." Nothing came of these 
suspicions till 1777, when, after the death of Maximilian Joseph, 
elector of Bavaria, without children, the emperor took possessioa 
of the greater part of his lands. The elector palatine, who 
lawfully inherited Bavaria, came to an arrangement, which was 
not admitted by his heir, Charles, duke of Zwcibrucken. Under 
these circumstances the latter appealed to Frederick, who, 
resolved that Austria should gain no unnecessary advantage, 
took his part, and brought pressure to bear upon the emperor. 
Ultimately, greatly against his will, Frederick felt compelled 
to draw the sword, and in July 1778 crossed the Bohemian 
frontier at the head of a powerful army. No general engagement 
was fought, and after a great many delays the treaty of Teschen 
was signed on the 13th of May 1779. Austria received the 
circle of Burgau, and consented that the king of Prussia should 
take the Franconian principalities. Frederick never abandoned 
his jealousy of Austria, whose ambition be regarded as the chief 
danger against which Europe had to guard. He seems to have 
had no suspicion that evil days were coming in France. It was 
Austria which had given trouble in his time; and if her pride 
were curbed, he fancied that Prussia at least would be safe. 
Hence one of the last important acts of his life was to form, in 
1785, a league of princes (the " Furstenbund ") for the defence 
of the imperial constitution, believed to be imperilled by Joseph's 
restless activity. The league came to an end after Frederick's 
death; but it is of considerable historical interest, as the first 
open attempt of Prussia to take the lead in Germany. 

Frederick's chief trust was always in his treasury and his 
army. By continual economy he left in the former the immense 
sum of 70 million t balers; the latter, at the time of his death, 
numbered 200,000 men, disciplined with all the strictness to 
which he had throughout life accustomed his troops. He died 
at Sanssoud on the 17th of August 1786; his death being 
hastened by exposure to a storm of rain, stoically borne, during 
a military review. He passed away on the eve of tremendous 
events, which for a time obscured his fame; but now that lie 
can be impartially estimated, he is seen to have been in many 
respects one of the greatest figures in modern history. 

He was rather below the middle size, in youth inclined to 



5* 



FREDERICK III. 



stoutness, lean in old age, but of vigorous and active habits. An 
expression of keen intelligence lighted up his features, and his 
large, sparkling grey eyes darted penetrating glances at every 
one who approached him. In his later years an old blue uniform 
with red facings was bis usual dress, and on his breast was gener- 
ally some Spanish snuff, of which he consumed large quantities. 
He shared many of the chief intellectual tendencies of his age, 
having no feeling for the highest aspirations of human nature, 
but submitting all things to a searching critical analysis. Of 
Christianity he always spoke in the mocking tone of the " en- 
lightened " philosophers, regarding it as the invention of priests; 
but it is noteworthy that after the Seven Years' War, the trials 
of which steadied his character, he sought to strengthen the 
church for the sake of its elevating moral influence. In his 
judgments of mankind he often talked as a misanthrope. He 
was once conversing with Sulzer, who was a school inspector, 
about education. Sulzer expressed the opinion that education 
had of late years greatly improved. " In former times, your 
Majesty," he said, " the notion being that mankind were natur- 
ally inclined to evil, a system of severity prevailed in schools; 
but now, when we recognize that the inborn inclination of men 
is rather to good than to evil, schoolmasters have adopted a 
more generous procedure." " Ah, my dear Sulzer," replied the 
king, " you don't know this damned race " (" Ach, mein lieber 
Sulaer, er kennt nicht diese verdammte Race "). This fearful 
saying unquestionably expressed a frequent mood of Frederick's; 
and he sometimes acted with great harshness, and seemed to 
take a malicious pleasure in tormenting his acquaintances. 
.Yet he was capable of genuine attachments. He was beautifully 
loyal to his mother and his sister Wflhelmina; his letters to 
the duchess of Got ha are full of a certain tender reverence; 
the two Keiths found him a devoted friend. But the true 
evidence that beneath his misanthropical moods there was an 
enduring sentiment of humanity is afforded by the spirit in 
which he exercised his kingly functions. Taking his reign as 
a whole, it must be said that he looked upon his power rather 
as a trust than as a source of personal advantage; and the trust 
was faithfully discharged according to the best lights of his day. 
He has often been condemned for doing nothing to encourage 
German literature; and it is true that he was supremely in- 
different to it. Before he died a tide of intellectual life was rising 
all about him; yet he failed to recognize it, declined to give 
Lessing even the small post of royal librarian, and thought Cdts 
von Berlichingen a vulgar imitation of vulgar English models. 
But when his taste was formed, German literature did not exist; 
the choice was between Racine and Voltaire on the one hand and 
Gottsched and Gellert on the other. He survived into the era 
of Kant, Goethe and Schiller, but he was not of it, and it would 
have been unreasonable to expect that he should in old age 
pass beyond the limits of his own epoch. As Germans now 
generally admit, it was better that he let their literature alone, 
since, left to itself, it became a thoroughly independent product. 
Indirectly he powerfully promoted it by deepening the national 
life from which it sprang. At a time when there was no real bond 
of cohesion between the different states, he stirred among tbem 
a common enthusiasm; and in making Prussia great he laid the 
foundation of a genuinely united empire. 

BlBUOOHAPHICAL NC 

Frederick the Great ar 
Leopold von Ranke, " d 
with the greatest possil 
an imperishable monurm 
edition of Frederick's c 
the instance of Fredcricl 
historian Johann D. E. f 
Of which »ix contain vei 
and three military, twe 
long as the various su 
historians relied upon tl 
belonging to this period 
efFredrrick IT. of Pru 
•Droyscn. Friedrich der C 

Brt V. of his GtithichU 
. Konig von Preusten 



FREDERICK III. (1831-1888), king of Prussia, and German 
emperor, was born at Potsdam on the 18th of October 1831, 
being the eldest son of Prince William of Prussia, afterwards 
first German emperor, and the princess Augusta, He was care- 
fully educated, and in 1840-1850 studied at the university of 
Bonn. The next years were spent in military duties and in 
travels, in which he was accompanied by Moltke. In 1851 he 
visited England on the occasion of the Great Exhibition, and in 
1855 became engaged to Victoria, princess royal of Great Britain, 
to whom he was married in London on the 25th of January 1858. 
On the death of his uncle in 1861 and the accession of his father. 
Prince Frederick William, as he was then always called, became 
crown prince of Prussia. Hit education, the influence of his 
mother, and perhaps still more that of his wife's father, the Prince 
Consort, had made him a strong Liberal, and he was much dis- 
tressed at the course of events in Prussia after the appointment 
of Bismarck as minister. He was urged by the Liberals to put 
himself into open opposition to the government; this he refused 
to do, but he remonstrated privately with the king. In June 1863, 
however, he publicly dissociated himself from the press ordinances 
which had just been published. He ceased to attend meetings 
of the council of state, and was much away from Berlin. The 
opposition of the crown prince to the ministers was increased 
during the following year, for be was a warm friend of the prince 
of Augustenburg, whose claims to Schleswig-Holstein Bismarck 
refused to support. During the war with Denmark he had his 
first military experience, being attached to the staff of Marshal 
von Wrangel; he performed valuable service in arranging the 
difficulties caused by the disputes between the field marshal and 
the other officers, and was eventually given a control ovti him. 
After the war he continued to support the prince of Augustenburg 
and was strongly opposed to the war with Austria. During the 
campaign of 1866 he received the command of an army con- 
sisting of four army corps; he was assisted by General von 
Blumenthal, as chief of the staff, but took a very active part 
in directing the difficult operations by which his army fought its 
way through the mountains rrom Silesia to Bohemia, fighting 
four engagements in three days, and showed that he possessed 
genuine military capacity. In the decisive battle of Kdniggratz 
the arrival of his army on the field of battle, after a march of 
nearly a© m., secured the victory. During the negotiations 
which ended the war he gave valuable assistance by persuading 
the king to accept Bismarck's policy as regards peace with Austria. 
From this time he was very anxious to see the king of Prussia 
unite the whole of Germany, with the title of emperor, and was 
impatient of the caution with which Bismarck proceeded In 1 860 
he paid a visit to Italy, and in the same year was present at the 
opening of the Suez Canal; on his way he visited the Holy Land. 

He played a conspicuous part in the year 1870-1871, being 
appointed to command the armies of the Southern States, 



FREDERICK III. 



57 



General Bluracnthat again being his chief of the staff; his troops 
won the victory of Worth, took an important part in the battle 
of Sedan, and later in the siege of Paris. The popularity he won 
was of political service in preparing the way for the union of 
North and South Germany, and he was the foremost advocate 
of the imperial idea at the Prussian court. During the years that 
followed, little opportunity for political activity was open to him. 
He and the crown princess took a great interest in art and 
industry, especially in the royal museums; and the excavations 
conducted at Olyznpia and Pcrgamon with such great results 
were chiefly due to him. The crown princess was a keen advocate 
of the higher education of women, and it was owing to her 
exertions that the Victoria Lyceum at Berlin (which was named 
after her) was founded. In 1878, when the emperor was in- 
capacitated by the shot of an assassin, the prince acted for some 
months as regent. His palace was the centre of all that was best 
in the literary and learned society of the capital. He publicly 
expressed his disapproval of the attacks on the Jews in 1878; 
and the coalition of Liberal parties founded in 1884 was popularly 
known as the " crown prince's party," but he scrupulously 
refrained from any act that might embarrass his father's govern- 
ment. For many reasons the accession of the prince was looked 
forward to with great hope by a large part of the nation. Un- 
fortunately he was attacked by cancer in the throat; he spent the 
winter of 1887-1888 at San Rcmo; in January 1888 the operation 
of tracheotomy had to be performed. On the death of his father, 
which took place on the 9th of March, he at once journeyed to 
Berlin; but his days were numbered, and he came to the throne 
only to die. In these circumstances his accession could not have 
the political importance which would otherwise have attached 
to it, though it was disfigured by a vicious outburst of party 
passion in which the names of the emperor and the empress were 
constantly misused. Wliilc the Liberals hoped the emperor 
would use his power for some signal declaration of policy, the 
Adherents of Bismarck did not scruple to make bitter attacks 
on the empress. The emperor's most important act was a severe 
reprimand addressed to Herr von Puttkaracr, the reactionary 
minister of the interior, which caused his resignation; in the 
distribution of honours he chose many who belonged to classes 
and parties hitherto excluded from court favour. A serious 
difference of opinion with the chancellor regarding the proposal 
for a marriage between Prince Alexander of Battenberg and the 
princess Victoria of Prussia was arranged by the intervention 
of Queen Victoria, who visited Berlin to see her dying son-in-law. 
He expired at Potsdam on the 1 5th of June 1888, after a reign of 
ninety-nine days. 

After the emperor's death Professor Geffcken, a personal friend, 
published in the Deutsche Rundschau extracts from the diary 
of the crown prince containing passages which illustrated his 
differences with Bismarck during the war of 1870. The object 
was to injure Bismarck's reputation, and a very unseemly dispute 
ensued. Bismarck at first, in a letter addressed to the new 
emperor, denied the authenticity of the extracts on the ground 
that they were unworthy of the crown prince. Geffcken was then 
arrested and imprisoned. He had undoubtedly shown that he 
wis an injudicious friend, for the diary proved that the prince, 
in his enthusiasm for German unity, had allowed himself to con- 
sider projects which would have seriously compromised the 
relations of Prussia and Bavaria. The treatment of the crown 
prince's illness also gave rise to an acrimonious controversy. 
It arose from the fact that as early as May 1887 the German 
physicians recognized the presence of cancer in the throat, but 
Sir Morell Mackenzie, the English specialist who was also con- 
sulted, disputed the correctness of this diagnosis, and advised 
that the operation for removal of the larynx, which they had 
recommended, should not be undertaken His advice was 
followed, and the differences between the medical men were made 
the occasion for a considerable display of national and political 
animosity. 

The empress Victoria, who, after the death of her husband, 
was known as the empress Frederick, died on the 5th of August 
1901 at the cattle of Friedrichskron, Cronberg, near Hamburg 



v. d. H., where she spent her last years. Of the emperor's 
children two, Prince Sigismund (1864-1866) and Prince Waldcmar 
(1860-1879), died in childhood. He left two sons, William, his, 
successor as emperor, and Henry, who adopted a naval career. 
Of his daughters, the princess Charlotte was married to Bernard, 
hereditary prince of Mciningcn; the princess Victoria to Prince 
Adolf of Schaumburg-Lippc; the princess Sophie to the duke 
of Sparta, crown prince of Greece; and the princess Margaretha 
to Prince Friedrich Karl of Hesse 

Authorities.— M. von Poschingcr, Kaiser Friedrich (3 vols* 
Berlin. 1898-iyoo). Adapted into English by Sidney Whitman, 
Life of the Emperor Frederick (1901 ). See also Bismarck. Reflection* 
and Reminiscences: Renncll Rodd, Frederick, Crown Prince and 
Emperor (1888); Gustav Frcytag, Der Kronprinz und die deutsche 
Katserkrone (1889; English translation, 1890); Otto Richtcr, 
Kaiser Friedrich III. (and ed., Berlin, 1903). For his illness, the 
official publications, published both in English and German: Die 
Krankheil Kaiser Frtedrichs III. (Berlin, 1888). and Morell Mac- 
kenzie, The Fatal Illness of Frederick the Noble (1888). Most of the 
copies of the Deutsche Rundschau containing the extracts from the 
crown prince's diary were co n fi s cated, but there is an English edition, 
published in 1889. (J. W. He.) 

FREDERICK in. (1272-1337), king of Sicily, third son of 
King Peter of Aragon and Sicily, and of Constance, daughter of 
Manfred. Peter died in 1285, leaving Aragon to his eldest son 
Alphonso, and Sicily to his second son James. When Alphonso 
died in 1291 James became king of Aragon, and left his brother 
Frederick as regent of Sicily. The war bet ween the Ange vins and 
the Aragonese for the possession of Sicily was still in progress, 
and although the Aragonese were successful in Italy James's 
position in Spain became very insecure to internal troubles 
and French attacks. Peace negotiations were begun with Charles 
II. of Anjou, but were interrupted by the successive deaths of 
two popes; at last under the auspices of Boniface VIII. James 
concluded a shameful treaty, by which, in exchange for being left 
undisturbed in Aragon and promised possession of Sardinia 
and Corsica, he gave up Sicily to the Church, for whom it was to 
be held by the Angcvins (1 295). The Sicilians refused to be made 
over once more to the hated French whom they had expelled in 
1282, and found a national leader in the regent Frederick. In 
vain the pope tried to bribe him with promises and dignities; 
he was determined to stand by his subjects, and was crowned 
king by the nobles at Palermo in 1 296. Young, brave and hand- 
some, he won the love and devotion of his people, and guided 
them through the long years of storm and stress with wisdom 
and ability. Although the second Frederick of Sicily, he called 
himself third, being the third son of King Peter. He reformed 
the administration and extended the powers of the Sicilian 
parliament, which was composed of the barons, the prelates 
and the representatives of the towns. 

His refusal to comply with the pope's injunctions led to a 
renewal of the war. Frederick landed in Calabria, where he 
seized several towns, encouraged revolt in Naples, negotiated 
with the GhibeUines of Tuscany and Lombardy, and assisted 
the house of Colonna against Pope Boniface. In the meanwhile 
James, who received many favours from the Church, married bis 
sister Yolanda to Robert, the third son of Charles II. Un- 
fortunately for Frederick, a part of the Aragonese nobles of 
Sicily favoured King James, and both John of Procida and 
Ruggiero di Lauria, the heroes of the war of the Vespers, went 
over to the Angcvins, and the latter completely defeated the 
Sicilian fleet off Cape Orlando. Charles's sons Robert and Philip 
landed in Sicily, but after capturing Catania were defeated by 
Frederick, Philip being taken prisoner (1209), while several 
Calabrian towns were captured by the Sicilians. For two years 
more the fighting continued with, varying success, until Charles 
of Valois, who had been sent by Boniface to invade Sicily, was 
forced to sue for peace, his army being decimated by the plague, 
and in August 130a the treaty of CaltabeUotta was signed, by 
which Frederick was recognized king of Trinacria (the name 
Sicily was not to be used) for his lifetime, and was to marry 
Eleonora, the daughter of Charles II.; at his death the king- 
dom was to revert to the Angevins (this clause was inserted 
chiefly to save Charles's face), and his children would receive 



5» 



FREDERICK I.— FREDERICK II. 



compensation elsewhere. Boniface tried to induce King Charles 
to break the treaty, but the latter was only too anxious for 
peace, and finally in May 1303 the pope ratified it, Frederick 
agreeing to pay him a tribute. 

For a few years Sicily enjoyed peace, and the kingdom was 
reorganized. But on the descent of the emperor Henry VII., 
Frederick entered into an alliance with him, and in violation 
of the pact of Caltabellotta made war on the Angcvins again 
(1313) and captured Reggio. He set sail for Tuscany to co- 
operate with the emperor, but on the biter's death (13 14) he 
returned to Sicily. Robert, who had succeeded Charles II. in 
1309, made several raids into the island, which suffered much 
material injury. A truce was concluded in 13x7, but as the 
Sicilians helped the north Italian Ghibcllines in the attack on 
Genoa, and Frederick seized some Church revenues for military 
purposes, the pope (John XXII.) excommunicated him and 
placed the island under an interdict (1321) which lasted until 
1335. An Angevin fleet and army, under Robert's son Charles, 
was defeated at Palermo by Giovanni da Chiaramonte in 1325, 
and in 1326 and 1327 there were further Angevin raids on the 
island, until the descent into Italy of the emperor Louis the 
Bavarian distracted their attention. The election of Pope 
Benedict XII. (1334), who was friendly to Frederick, promised 
a respite; but after fruitless negotiations the war broke out once 
more, and Chiaramonte went over to Robert, owing to a private 
feud. In 1337 Frederick died at Paternione, and in spite of the 
peace of Caltabellotta his son Peter succeeded. Frederick's 
great merit was that during his reign the Aragonese dynasty 
became thoroughly national and helped to weld the Sicilians 
into a united people. 

Bibliography. — G. M. Mira, Btbliografia SicUiana (Palermo, 
i fl 75); of the contemporary authorities N. Special's " Htstoria 
Sicula " (in Muratori's Script, rer. Hal. x.) is the most important ; 
for the first years of Frederick'* reign see M. Amari, La Guerra del 
Vespro Siciltano (Florence, 1876), and F. Lanzani, Storia dei Comuni 
italiani (Milan, 1882); for the latter years C. Cipolla, Storia detle 
rignorie Kalian* (Milan, x88l); also Testa, Vita di Federito di 
Skilia. (L.V.) 

FREDERICK I. (e. 1371-1440), elector of Brandenburg, 
founder of the greatness of the House of Hohenzollern, was a son 
of Frederick V., burgrave of Nuremberg, and first came into 
prominence by saving the life of Sigismund, king of Hungary, 
at the battle of Nicopolis in 1396. In 1397 he became burgrave 
of Nuremberg, and after his father's death in 1398 he shared 
Ansbach, Bayreuth, and the smaller possessions of the family, 
with his only brother John, but became sole ruler after his 
brother's death in 1420. Loyal at first to King Wenceslaus, 
the king's neglect of Germany drove Frederick to take part in 
his deposition in 1400, and in the election of Rupert III., count 
palatine of the Rhine, whom he accompanied to Italy in the 
following year. In 1401 he married Elizabeth, or Eka, daughter 
of Frederick, duke of Bavaria-Landshut (d. 1393), and after 
spending some time in family and other feuds, took service again 
with King Sigismund in 1409, whom he assisted in his struggle 
with the Hungarian rebels. The double election to the German 
throne in 14x0 first brought Frederick into relation with Branden- 
burg. Sigismund, anxious to obtain a other vote in the electoral 
college, appointed Frederick to exercise the Brandenburg vote 
on his behalf, and it was largely through his efforts that Sigis- 
mund was chosen German king. Frederick then passed some 
time as administrator of Brandenburg, where he restored a 
certain degree of order, and was formally invested with the 
electorate and margraviate by Sigismund at Constance on the 
i8lh of April 14x7 (see Brandevbubg). He took part in the war 
against the Hussites, but became estranged from Sigismund 
when in 1423 the king invested Frederick of Wettin, margrave 
of Meissen, with the vacant electoral duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg. 
In 1427 be sold his rights as burgrave to the town of Nuremberg, 
and he was a prominent member of the band of electors who 
sought to impose reforms upon Sigismund. After having been 
an unsuccessful candidate for the German throne in 1438, 
Frederick was chosen king of Bohemia in 1440, but declined the 
proffered honour. He took part in the election of Frederick UL 



as German king in 1440, and died at Radolzburg on the 21M of 
September in the same year. In 1 902 a bronze statue was erected 
to his memory at Friesack, and there is also a marble one of the 
elector in the ° Siegesallee " at Berlin. 

See A. F. Riedel, Zekn Jahrt aus der GeschickU der Aknkerrem in 
preussiscken Konigshauses (Berlin, 1851); E. Brandenburg, Konig 
Sigmund und Kurfurst Friedrick I. von Brandenburg (Berlin, 1891); 
and O. Franklin, Die deulscke Politik Friedricks f. Kurfursten worn 
Brandenburg (Berlin, 1851). 

FREDERICK I. (1425- 1476), elector palatine of the Rhine, 
surnamed " the Victorious," and called by his enemies " wicked 
Fritz," second son of the elector palatine Louis III., was born 
on the xst of August 1425. He inherited a part of the Palatinate 
on his father's death in 1439, but soon surrendered this inherit- 
ance to his elder brother, the elector Louis IV. On his brother's 
death in X449, however, he became guardian of the young elector 
Philip, and ruler of the land. In 1 4 5 1 he persuaded the nobles to 
recognize him as elector, on condition that Philip should be his 
successor, a scheme which was disliked by the emperor Frederick 
III. The elector was successful in various wars with neighbouring 
rulers, and was a leading member of the band of princes who 
formed plans to secure a more efficient government for Germany, 
and even discussed the deposition of Frederick III. Frederick 
himself was mentioned as a candidate for the German throne, 
but the jealousies of the princes prevented any decisive anion, 
and soon became so acute that in 1459 they began to fight amonf 
themselves. In alliance with Louis IX., duke of Bavaria- 
Landshut, Frederick gained several victories during the struggle, 
and in 1462 won a decisive battle at Seckenheim over Ulrich V., 
count of Wttrttemberg. In 147 2 the elector married Clara Tolt, 
or Dctt, the daughter of an Augsburg citizen, and by her he had 
two sons, Frederick, who died during bis father's lifetime, and 
Louis (d. 15 24), who founded the line of the counts of Ldwenstrin. 
He died at Heidelberg on the 12th of December 1476, and was 
succeeded, according to the compact, by his nephew Philip. 
Frederick was a cultured prince, and, in spite of his warlike 
career, a wise and intelligent ruler. He added largely to the 
area of the Palatinate, and did not neglect to further its internal 
prosperity. 

Sec N. Feeser, Friedrick der Siegreicke, Kurfirst ton der Pfak 
(Ncuburg, 1880); C. J. Kremer, GetekickU des Kurfursten Friedruks 
I. ponder Plait (Leipzig, 1 70s); and K. Menzel, KurfUrst Friedrick 
der Siegreicke von der PjaU (Munich, 1861). 

FREDERICK II. (1482-1556), surnamed M the Wise," elector 
palatine of the Rhine, fourth son of the elector Philip, was born 
on the oth of December J482. Of an active and adventurous 
temperament, he fought under the emperor Maximilian L in 1508, 
and afterwards served the Habsburgs loyally in other ways. He 
worked to secure the election of Charles, afterwards the emperor 
Charles V., as the successor of Maximilian in 1519; fought in 
two campaigns against the Turks; and being disappointed 
in his hope of obtaining the hand of one of the emperor's sisters, 
married in 1535 Dorothea (d. 1580), daughter of Christian IL, 
who had been driven from the Danish throne. The Hababurgi 
promised their aid in securing this crown for Frederick, but, like 
many previous promises made to him, this came to nothing. 
Having spent his time in various parts of Europe, and incurred 
heavy debts on account of his expensive tastes, Frederick became 
elector palatine by the death of his brother, Louis V., in March 
x 544. With regard to the religious troubles of Germany, he took 
up at first the role of a mediator, but in 1545 he joined the league 
of Schmalkalden, and in 1546 broke definitely with the older 
faith. He gave a Kttle assistance to the league in its war with 
Charles, but soon submitted to the emperor, accepted the 
Interim issued from Augsburg in May 2548, and afterwards 
acted in harmony with Charles. The elector died on the a6th of 
February 1556, and as he left no children was succeeded by his 
nephew. Otto Henry (1502-1559)- He was a great benefactor 
to the university of Heidelberg. 

Frederick's life, Annates de vita et rebus gestis Friderici //. elecUtis 
palatini (Frankfort, 1624), was written by his secretary Hubert 
Thomas Leodius; this has been translated into German by E. von 
Billow (Breslau, 1849). Sec also Rott, Friedrick //. von der Pfam 
mud die Reformation (Heidtiberg, 1904). 



FREDERICK III.— FREDERICK I. 



59 



FREDERICK III. (1515-1576), called "the Pious," elector, 
palatine of the Rhine, eMest ton of John II., count palatine of 
Simmern, was born at Simmern on the 14th of February 151s. 
In 1S37 he married Maria (d. 1567), daughter ol Casimir, prince 
ofBayreuth, and in 1 546, mainly as a result of this union, adopted 
the reformed doctrines, which had already made considerable 
progress in the Palatinate. He lived in comparative obscurity 
and poverty until 1557, when he became count palatine of 
Simmern by his father's death, succeeding his kinsman, Otto 
Henry (1502-1 550), as elector palatine two years later. Although 
inclined to the views of Calvin rather than to those of Luther, 
the new elector showed great anxiety to unite the Protestants; 
but when these efforts failed, and the breach between the 
followers of the two reformers became wider, he definitely 
adopted Calvinism. This form of faith was quickly established 
in the Palatinate; in its interests the " Heidelberg Catechism " 
was drawn up in 1563; and Catholics and Lutherans were 
persecuted alike, while the churches were denuded of all their 
ornaments. The Lutheran princes wished to root out Calvinism 
u the Palatinate, but were not willing to exclude the elector from 
the benefits of the religious peace of Augsburg, which were 
confined to the adherents of the confession of Augsburg, and the 
matter came before the diet in x 566. Boldly defending his posi- 
tion, Frederick refused to give way an inch, and as the Lutherans 
were unwilling to proceed to extremities the emperor Maximilian 
IL could only warn him to mend his ways. The elector was an 
ardent supporter of the Protestants abroad, whom, rather than 
the German Lutherans, he regarded as his co-religionists. He 
sided the Huguenots in France and the insurgents in the Nether- 
lands with men and money; one of bis sons, John Casimir 
(1 543-1 59a) , took a prominent part in the French wars of religion, 
while another, Christopher, was killed in 1574 fighting for the 
Dutch at Mooker Heath. In his later years Frederick failed 
b his efforts to prevent the election of a member of the Habsburg 
family as Roman king, to secure the abrogation of the " ecclesi- 
astical reservation " clause in the peace of Augsburg, or to 
obtain security for Protestants in the territories of the spiritual 
princes. He was assiduous in caring for the material, moral and 
educational welfare of bis electorate, and was a benefactor to 
the university of Heidelberg The elector died at Heidelberg on 
the 26th of October 1576, and was succeeded by his elder sur- 
viving son, Louis (1 530-1 583), who had offended his father by 
adopting Lutheranism. 

See A. Kluckhohn, Friedrich der Fromme (Nordlingen, 1877-1879) ; 
and Briefs Friedricks du Frommen, edited by Kluckhohn (Bruns- 
wick. 1868-1872). 

FREDERICK IV. (1 574-1610), elector palatine of the Rhine, 
only surviving son of the elector Louis VI., was born at Amberg 
on the 5th of March 1574* His father died in October 1583, 
when the young elector came under the guardianship of his 
uncle John Casimir, an ardent Calvinist, who, in spite of the 
wishes of the late elector, a Lutheran, had his nephew educated 
in his own form of faith. In January 1 592, on the death of John 
Casimir, Frederick undertook the government of the Palatinate, 
and continued the policy of his uncle, hostility to the Catholic 
Church and the Habsburgs, and co-operation with foreign 
Protestants. He was often in communication with Henry of 
Navarre, afterwards Henry IV. of France, and like him was 
unremitting in his efforts to conclude a league among the German 
Protestants, while he sought to weaken the Habsburgs by refusing 
aid for the Turkish War. After many delays and disappoint- 
ments the Union of Evangelical Estates was actually formed in 
May 1608, under the leadership of the elector, and he took a 
prominent part in directing the operations of the union until his 
death, which occurred on the 1 9th of September 1610. Frederick 
was very extravagant, and liked to surround himself with pomp 
and luxury. He married in 1593 Louise, daughter of William 
the Silent, prince of Orange, and was succeeded by Frederick, 
the elder of his two sons. 

See M. Ritter, Cesekkhle der dtutscken Union (Schaffhausen, 1867- 
1873): and L. Hauoer. Gesthichte der rheiniuken Pfaks (Heidelberg, 



FREDERICK V. (1 596-1632), elector palatine of the Rhine 
and king of Bohemia, son of the elector Frederick IV. by his wife, 
Louisa Juliana, daughter of William the Silent, prince of Orange, 
was born at Amberg on the 26th of August 1596. He became 
elector on his father's death in September 16x0, and was under 
the guardianship of his kinsman, John II., count palatine of 
Zweibrucken (d. 1635), until he was declared of age in July 1614. 
Having received a good education, Frederick had married 
Elizabeth, daughter of the English king James I., in February 
1613, and was the recognized head of the Evangelical Union 
founded by his father to protect the interests of the Protestants. 
In x 61 9 he stepped into a larger arena. Before this date the 
estates of Bohemia, Protestant in sympathy and dissatisfied with 
the rule of the Habsburgs, had been in frequent communication 
with the elector palatine, and in August 161 9, a few months after 
the death of the emperor Matthias, they declared bis successor, 
Ferdinand, afterwards the emperor Ferdinand II., deposed, 
and chose Frederick as their king. After some hesitation the 
elector yielded to the entreaties of Christian I., prince of Anhalt 
( 1 568-1630), and other sanguine supporters, and was crowned 
king of Bohemia at Prague on the 4th of November 161 9. By 
this time the emperor Ferdinand was able to take the aggressive, 
while Frederick, disappointed at receiving no assistance either 
from England or from the Union, had few soldiers and little 
money* Consequently on the 8th of November, four days after 
his coronation, his forces were easily routed by the imperial army 
under Tilly at the White Hill, near Prague, and his short reign in 
Bohemia ended abruptly. Soon afterwards the Palatinate was 
overrun by the Spaniards and Bavarians, and after a futile 
attempt to dislodge them, Frederick, called in derision the 
" Winter King." sought refuge in the Netherlands. Having 
been placed under the imperial ban his electorate was given in 
1623 to Maximilian I. of Bavaria, who also received the electoral 
dignity. 

The remainder of Frederick's life was spent in comparative 
obscurity, although his restoration was a constant subject of 
discussion among European diplomatists. He died at Mainz on 
the 29th of November 1632, having had a large family, among 
his children being Charles Louis (1617-1680), who regained the 
Palatinate at the peace of Westphalia in 1648, and Sophia, 
who married Ernest Augustus, afterwards elector of Hanover, 
and was the mother of George L, king of Great Britain. His 
third son was Prince Rupert, the hero of the English civil war, 
and another son was Prince Maurice (1620-1652), who also 
assisted his uncle Charles I. during the civil war. Having sailed 
with Rupert to the West Indies, Maurice was lost at sea in 
September 1652. 

In addition to the numerous works which treat of the outbreak 
of the Thirty Yean' War see A. Gindely. Friedrich V. von der PJaU 
(Prague, 1884); J. Krebs. Die Poltiik der evanielucken Union im 
Jakre 1618 (Brcslaa, 1 890-1901); M. Ritter, " Friedrich V., M in the 
AUgemeine deutscke Btoerapkie, Band vii. (Leipzig. 1878); and 
Deutsche Lieder amj den Winterktnit, edited by R. Wolkao (Prague, 
1899). 

FREDERICK I. (1360-1428), surnamed "the Warlike," 
elector and duke of Saxony, was the eldest son of Frederick 
" the Stern," count of Osterland, and Catherine, daughter and 
heiress of Henry VIII., count of Coburg. He was born at Alten- 
burg on the 29th of March 1369, and was a member of the family 
of Wettin. When his father died in 1381 some trouble arose 
over the family possessions, and in the following year an arrange- 
ment was made by which Frederick and his brothers shared 
Meissen and Thuringia with their uncles Balthasar and William. 
Frederick's brother George died in 1402, and his uncle William 
in 1407. A further dispute then arose, but in 14x0 a treaty was 
made at Naumburg, when Frederick and bis brother William 
added the northern part of Meissen to their lands; and in 
1425 the death of William left Frederick sole ruler. In the 
German town war of 1388 he assisted Frederick V. of Hohen- 
soDern, burgrave of Nuremberg, and in 1391 did the same for the 
Teutonic Order against Ladislaus V., king of Poland and prince 
of Lithuania. He supported Rupert III., elector pdatine of the 
Rhine, in his struggle with King Wenceslaus for the German 



6o 



FREDERICK II.— FREDERICK AUGUSTUS I. 



throne, probably because Wenceslaus refused to fulfil a promise 
to give him his sister Anna in marriage. The danger to Germany, 
from the Hussites induced Frederick to ally himself with thei" 
German and Bohemian king Sigismund; and he took a leading 
part in the war against them, during the earlier years of which, 
he met with considerable success. In the prosecution of this, 
enterprise Frederick spent large sums of money, for which he " 
received various places in Bohemia and elsewhere in pledge 
from Sigismund, who further rewarded him in January 1423 with 
the vacant electoral duchy of Saxe-Wittcnberg; and Frederick's 
formal investiture followed at Ofen on the 1st of August 1425. 
Thus spurred to renewed efforts against the Hussites, the elector- 
was endeavouring to rouse the German princes to aid him in 
prosecuting this war when the Saxon army was almost annihilated^ 
at Aussig on the 16th of August 1426. Returning to Saxony, m 
Frederick died at Altenburg on the 4th of January 1428, and was 
buried in the cathedral at Meissen. In 1402 he married Catherine _ 
of Brunswick, by whom he left four sons and two daughters. 
In 1409, in conjunction with his brother William, lie founded _ 
the university of Leipzig, for the benefit of German students who , 
had j ust left the universi ty of Prague. Frederick's importance as* ■ 
an historical figure arises from his having obtained the electorate 
of Saxe-Wittehberg for the house of Wettin, and transformed; - 
the margraviate of Meissen into the territory which afterwards - 
became the kingdom of Saxony. In addition to the king of - 
Saxony, the sovereigns of England and of the Belgians are his 
direct descendants. 

There is a life of Frederick by G. Spalatin in the Scriptores rtrum - 
Cermanicarum praecipue Saxonicarum, Band ii.. edited by I. B. 
Mencke (Leipzig, 1728-1730)- See also C. W. Bottiger and Th. 
Flathe, Ceschichte des Kurstaates und Konigreichs Sacksen (Gotha,» 
1 867- 1 873); and J. G. Horn, Lebens- una Ueldengeschichte Frit-* 
drichs des Streilbaren (Leipzig, 1733). A 

FREDERICK II. (1411-1464), called " the Mild," elector and . 
duke of Saxony, eldest son of the elector Frederick I., was born', 
on the 22nd of August 1411. He succeeded his father as elector' 
in 1428, but shared the family lands with his three brothers, 
and was at once engaged in defending Saxony against the attacks 
of the Hussites. Freed from these enemies about 1432, and 
turning his attention to increasing his possessions, he obtained 
the burgraviate of Meissen in 1430, and some part of Lower 
Lusatia after a struggle with Brandenburg about the same time. 
In 1438 it was decided that Frederick, and not his rival, Bernard 
IV., duke of Saxe-Lauenburg, was entitled to exercise the Saxon 
electoral vote at the elections for the German throne; and the 
elector then aided Albert II. to secure this dignity, performing 
a similar service for his own brother-in-law, Frederick, afterwards! 
the emperor Frederick III., two years later. Family affairs,! 
meanwhile, occupied Frederick's attention. One brother, 
Henry, having died in 1435, ana> another, Sigismund (d. 1463) , 
having entered the church and become bishop of WUrzburg, 
Frederick and his brother William (d. 1482) were the heirs of their I 
childless cousin, Frederick " the Peaceful," who ruled Thuringial 
and other parts of the lands of the Wettins. On his death in 
1440 the brothers divided Frederick's territory, but this arrange-" 
ment was not satisfactory, and war broke out between them in 
1446. Both combatants obtained extraneous aid, but after a! 
desolating struggle peace was made in January 145 1, when I 
William received Thuringia, and Frederick Altenburg and other 
districts. The remainder of the elector's reign was uneventful, 
and he died at Leipzig on the 7th of September 1464. By his 
wife, Margaret (d. i486), daughter of Ernest, duke of Styria, 
he left two sons and four daughters. In July 1455 occurred the 
celebrated Pr intent aub, the attempt of a knight named Kurtz von 
Kaufungen (d. 1455) to abduct Frederick's two sons, Ernest 
and Albert. Having carried them off from Altenburg, Kunz was! 
making his way to Bohemia when the plot was accidentally! 
discovered and the princes restored. 

Sec W. Schafer, Der ifontag vor Kiliani (18*5); J. Gcrsdorf, 
Einige AkUnstucke sur Geschukte des sachsischen PrintenraubesM 
(1855); and T. Carlylc, Critical and Miscellaneous Essays, vol. iv." 
(London, 1899). _ 

FREDERICK HI. (1463-1S25), called " the Wise," elector of- 
Saxony, eldest son of Ernest, elector of Saxony, and Elizabeth,! 



daughter of Albert, duke of Bavaria-Munich (d. rso8) t was- born 
at Torgau, and succeeded his father as elector in 1486. Retaining 
the government of Saxony in his own hands, he shared the other 
possessions of his family with his brother John, called " the 
Stedfast " (1468-1532). Frederick was among the princes who 
pressed the need of reform upon the German king Maximilian I. 
jn 1495, and in 1500 he became president of the newly-formed 
council of regency (Rekhsregiment). He took a genuine interest 
in learning; was a friend of Georg Spalatin; and in 1502 
founded the university of Wittenberg, where he appointed Luther 
and Melanchthon to professorships. In 1493 he had gone as a 
pilgrim to Jerusalem, and had been made a knight of the Holy 
Sepulchre; but, although he remained throughout Kfc an 
adherent of the older faith, he seems to have been drawn into 
sympathy with the reformers, probably through hb connexion 
with the university of Wittenberg. In 1520 he refused to put 
into execution the papal bull which ordered Luther's writings 
to be burned and the reformer to be put under restraint or sent 
to Rome; and in 1521, after Luther had been placed under the 
imperial ban by the diet at Worms, the elector caused him to be 
conveyed to his castle at the Wartburg, and afterwards protected 
him while he attacked the enemies of the Reformation. In 1519, 
Frederick, who alone among the electors refused to be bribed 
by the rival candidates for the imperial throne, declined to be a 
candidate for this high dignity himself, and assisted to secure 
the election of Charles V. He died unmarried at Langau, near 
Annaberg, on the 5th of May 1525. 

See G. Spalatin, Das Leben und die ZeitgeschkhU Pritdrichs Us 
Weisen, edited by C. G. Ncudcckcr and L. Preller Ueaa, i««i): 
M. M. Tutzschmann, Fried rich der Weise, Kurfiirst nan Sacksen 
(Grimtna, 1848); and T. Kolde, Fricdrichjder Weise und die Anfangc 
der Reformation (Erlangen, 1881). 

FREDERICK, a city and the county-seat of Frederick county, 
Maryland,U.S.A.,on Carroll's Creek, atributary of the Monocacy, 
61 m. by rail W. by N. from Baltimore and 45 m. N.W. from 
Washington. Pop. (1890) 8193; (1900) 9296, of whom 1535 
were negroes; (19 10 census) 10,411. It is served by the Balti- 
more & Ohio and the Northern Central railways, and by two 
interurban electric lines. Immediately surrounding it is the 
rich farming land of the Monocacy valley, but from a distance 
it appears to be completely shut in by picturesque hills and 
mountains; to the E., the Linga ore Hills; to the \V., Catoctin 
Mountain; and to the S., Siigar Loaf Mountain. It is buflr 
for the most part of brick and stone. Frederick is the seat of the 
Maryland school for the deaf and dumb and of the Woman's 
College of Frederick (1893; formerly the Frederick Female 
Seminary, opened in 1843), which in 1 907-1 908 had 212 students, 
1 2 1 of whom were in the Conservatory of Music Francis Scott 
Key and Roger Brooke Taney were buried here, and a beautiful 
monument erected to the memory of Key stands at the entrance 
to Mount Olivet cemetery. Frederick has a considerable 
agricultural trade and is an important 'manufacturing centre, 
its industries including the canning of fruits and vegetables, and 
the manufacture of flour, bricks, brushes, leather goods and 
hosiery. The total value of the factory product in 1905 was 
$ii937.92*i being 34-7% more than in 1900. The municipality 
owns and operates its water-works and electric-lighting plant. 
Frederick, so named in honour of Frederick Calvert, son and 
afterward successor of Charles, Lord Baltimore, was settled 
by Germans in 1733, and was laid out as a town in 1745, but was 
not incorporated until 181 7. Here in 1755 General Braddock 
prepared for his disastrous expedition against the French at 
Fort Duquesne (Pittsburg). During the Civil War the city was 
occupied on different occasions by Unionists and Confederates, 
and was made famous by Whitticr's poem " Barbara Frictchic." 

FREDERICK AUGUSTUS I. (1750-1827), king of Saxony. 
son of the elector Frederick Christian, was born at Dresden on 
the 23rd of December 1750. He succeeded his father under the 
guardianship of Prince Xavicr in 1763, and was declared of age 
in 1768. In the following year (January 17, 1769) he married 
Princess Maria Amelia, daughter of Duke Frederick of Zwei 
brticken, by whom he had only one child, Princess Augu&u 
(born June 21, 1782). One of his chief aims was the reduction 



FREDERICK AUGUSTUS II.— FREDERICK CHARLES 61 



of taxes and imposts and of the army. He was always extremely 
methodical and conscientious, and a good example to all his 
officials, whence his surname " the Just." On account of the 
claims of his mother on the inheritance of her brother, the elector 
of Bavaria, he sided with Frederick the Great in the short 
Bavarian succession war of 1778 against Austria. At the peace 
of Teschen, which concluded the war, he received 6 million florins, 
which he employed partly in regaining those parts of his kingdom 
which had been lost, and partly in favour of his relatives. In 
1785 he joined the league of German princes (Dcutsckar Fiirslen- 
bund) formed by Prussia, but without prejudice to his neutrality. 
Thus he remained neutral during the quarrel between Austria 
and Prussia in 1700. In the following year he declined the 
crown of Poland. He refused to join the league against France 
(February 7, 1792), but when war was declared his duty to the 
Empire necessitated his taking part in it. Even after the peace 
of Basel (April 5, 1795) he continued the war. But when the 
French army, during the following year, advanced into the heart 
of Germany, he was compelled by General Jourdan to retreat 
(August 13, 1796). He maintained his neutrality during the 
war between France and Austria in 1805, but in the following 
year he joined Prussia against France. After the disastrous 
battle of Jena he concluded a treaty of peace with Napoleon at 
Posen (December n, 1806), and, assuming the title of king, 
he joined the Confederation of the Rhine. But he did not alter 
the constitution and administration of his new kingdom. After 
the peace of Tilsit (July 9, 1807) he was created by Napoleon 
grand-duke of Warsaw, but his sovereignty of Poland was little 
more than nominal. There was a kind of friendship between 
Frederick Augustus and Napoleon. In 1809 Frederick Augustus 
fought with him against Austria. On several occasions (1807, 
181 3, 1813) Napoleon was entertained at Dresden, and when, 
on his return from his disastrous Russian campaign, he passed 
through Saxony by Dresden (December x6, 1812), Frederick 
Augustus remained true to his friend and ally. It was only during 
April 1813 that he made overtures to Austria, but he soon 
afterwards returned to the side of the French. He returned 
to Dresden on the 10th of May and was present at the terrible 
battle of August 26 and 27, in which Napoleon's army and his 
own were defeated. He fell into the hands of the Allies after their 
entry into Leipzig on the 19th of October 1813; and, although 
he regained his freedom after the congress of Vienna, he was 
compelled to give up the northern part — three-fifths— of his 
kingdom to Prussia (May 21, 18 14). He entered Dresden on 
the 7th of July, and was enthusiastically welcomed by his 
people. The remainder of his life was spent in repairing the 
damages caused by the Napoleonic wars, in developing the 
agricultural, commercial and industrial resources of his kingdom, 
reforming the administration of justice, establishing hospitals 
and other charitable institutions, encouraging art and science 
and promoting education. He had a special interest in botany, 
and originated the beautiful park at Pillnitz. His reign through- 
out was characterized by justice, probity, moderation and 
prudence. He died on the 5th of May 1827. 

Bibliography.— The earlier lives, by C. E. Weisse (18x1), A. L. 
Herrmann (1827), Politz (1830), are mere panegyrics. On the other 



side see Flat he in AUgcmeine dadsche Biograpkie, and Bot tiger- 
Flathe. History of Saxonv (2rd ed., 1867 ft.), vols. ii. and iii.; A. 
Bonnefons, Un Alltt de Napolion, Frtdi/ic August*, premier rot de 
Scxe . . . (Paris, 1902); Fritz Friedrich. Polttik Sacksens 1801- 
1803 (1808); P. Riihlmann, Offenilicke Meinunt . . . 1806-1813 
(190a). There are many pamphlet* bearing on the Saxon question 
and on Frederick Augustus during the years 1814 and 1815. (J- Hn.) 

FREDERICK AUGUSTUS II. (1707-1854), king of Saxony, 
eldest son of Prince Maximilian and of Caroline Maria Theresa 
of Parma, was born on the 18th of May 1797. The unsettled 
times in which his youth was passed necessitated his frequent 
change of residence, but care was nevertheless taken that his 
education should not be interrupted, and he also acquired, 
through his journeys in foreign states (Switzerland 1818, Monte- 
negro 1838, England and Scotland 1844) and his intercourse 
with men of eminence, a special taste for art and for natural 
science. He was himself a good landscape-painter and had a fine 



collection of engravings on copper. He was twice married— 
in x8io (October 7) to the duchess Caroline, fourth daughter 
of the emperor Francis I. of Austria (d. May 22, 1832), and in 
1833 (April 4) to Maria, daughter of Maximilian I. of Bavaria. 
There were no children of either marriage. During the govern- 
ment of his uncles (Frederick Augustus I. and Anthony) he 
took no part in the administration of the country, though he 
was the sole heir to the crown. In 1830 a rising in Dresden led 
to his being named joint regent of the kingdom along with King 
Anthony on the 13th of September; and in this position his 
popularity and his wise and liberal reforms (for instance, in 
arranging public audiences) speedily quelled all discontent. 
On the 6th of June 1836 he succeeded his uncle. Though he 
administered the affairs of his kingdom with enlightened liberality 
Saxony did not escape the political storms which broke upon 
Germany in 1848. He elected Liberal ministers, and he was at 
first in favour of the programme of German unity put forward 
at Frankfort, but he refused to acknowledge the democratic 
constitution of the German parliament. This attitude led to 
the insurrection at Dresden in May 1849, which was suppressed 
by the help of Prussian troops. From that time onward his 
reign was tranquil and prosperous. Later Count Beust, leader 
of the Austrian and feudal party in Saxony, became his principal 
minister and guided his policy on most occasions. His death 
occurred accidentally through the upsetting of his carriage 
near BrennbOhd, between Imst and Wcnns in Tirol (August 9, 
1854). Frederick Augustus devoted his leisure hours chiefly to 
the study of botany. He made botanical excursions into different 
countries, and Flora Marienbadensis, oder Pjlanzen und Gebirgs- 
arteu, gesammeU und beschricben, written by him, was published 
at Prague by Kedlcr, 1837. 

See Bfittigcr-Flathe, History of Saxony^ vol. Hi.; R. Freiherr von 
Fricscn, Ertnnerungen (2 vols., Dresden, 1881); F. F. Graf von 
Beust, Am drei-viertd Jakrhunierten (2 vols., 1887); Flat he, in 
AMg. deutscke Biogr. " (J. Hn.) 

FREDERICK CHARLES (FRIEDRICH KARL KIKOLAUS), 

Prince (1828-18S5), Prussian general field marshal, son of Prince 
Charles of Prussia and grandson of King Frederick William III., 
was born in Berlin on the 20th of March 1828. He was educated 
for the army, which he entered on his tenth birthday as second 
lieutenant in the 14th Foot Guards. He became first lieutenant 
in 1844, and in 1846 entered the university of Bonn, where he 
stayed for two years, being accompanied throughout by Major 
von Roon, afterwards the famous war minister. In 1848 he 
became a company commander in his regiment, and soon after- 
wards served in the Schleswig-Holstcin War on the staff of Marshal 
von Wrangcl, being present at the battle of Schleswig (April 23, 
1848). Later in 1848 he became Riltmcistcr in the Garde du Corps 
cavalry regiment, and in 1849 major in the Guard Hussars. 
In this year the prince took part in the campaign against the 
Baden insurgents, and was wounded at the action of Wiescnthal 
while leading a desperate charge against entrenched infantry. 
After this experience the wild courage of his youth gave place 
to the unshakable resolution which afterwards characterized 
the prince's generalship. In 1852 he became colonel, and in 
1854 major-general and commander of a cavalry brigade. In 
this capacity he was brought closely in touch with General von 
Reyher, the chief of the general staff, and with Moltkc. He 
married, in the same year, Princess Marie Anne of Anhalt. In 
1857 he became commander of the 1st Guard Infantry division, 
but very shortly afterwards, on account of disputes concerned 
with the training methods then in force, he resigned the appoint- 
ment. 

In 1858 he visited France, where he minutely investigated 
the state of the French army, but it was not long before he 
was recalled, for in 1859, in consequence of the Franco-Austrian 
War, Prussia mobilized her forces, and Frederick Charles was 
made a divisional commander in the II. army corps. In this 
post he was given the liberty of action which had previously been 
denied to him. About this time (i860) the prince gave a lecture 
to the officers of his command on the French army and its 
methods, the substance of which (Eine miliitiriscke Dtnksckrift 



6* 



FREDERICK HENRY— FREDERICK LOUIS 



von P. F.K., Frankfort on Main, i860) was circulated more widely 
than the author intended, and in the French translation gave 
rise to much indignation in France. In 1861 Frederick Charles 
became general of cavalry. He was then commander of the III. 
(Brandenburg) army corps. This post he held from i860 to 1870, 
except during the campaigns of 1864 and 1866, and in it he dis- 
played his real qualities as a troop leader. His self-imposed 
task was to raise the military spirit of his troops to the highest 
possible level, and ten years of his continuous and thorough 
training brought the III. corps to a pitch of real efficiency which 
the Guard corps alone, in virtue of its special recruiting powers, 
slightly surpassed. Prince Frederick Charles' work was tested 
to the full when von Alvensleben and the III. corps engaged the 
whole French army on the 16th of August 1870. In 1864 the 
prince once more fought against the Danes under his old leader 
" Papa " WrangeL The Prussian contingent under Frederick 
Charles formed a corps of the allied army, and half of it was 
drawn from the III. corps. After the storming of the DUppcl lines 
the prince succeeded Wrangel in the supreme command, with 
Lieutenant-General Freiherr von Moltke as his chief of staff. 
These two great soldiers then planned and brilliantly carried out 
the capture of the island of Alsen, after which the war came to an 
end. 

In 1866 came the Seven Weeks' War with Austria. Prince 
Frederick Charles was appointed to command the I. Army, 
which he led through the mountains into Bohemia, driving 
before him the Austrians and Saxons to the upper Elbe, where 
on the 3rd of July took place the decisive battle of Koniggritz or 
Sadowa. This was brought on by the initiative of the leader 
of the I. Army, which had to bear the brunt of the fighting until 
the advance of the II. Army turned the Austrian flank. After 
the peace he returned to the III. army corps, which he finally 
left, in July 1870, when appointed to command the II. German 
Army in the war with France. In the early days of the advance 
the prince's ruthless energy led to much friction between the 
I. and II. Armies (see Franco-German War) , wh Ue his strategical 
mistakes seriously embarrassed the great headquarters staff. 
The advance of the II. Army beyond the Saar to the Moselle 
and from that river to the Meuse displayed more energy than 
careful strategy, but herein at least the " Red Prince " (as be 
was called from the colour of his favourite hussar uniform) 
was in thorough sympathy with the king's headquarters on the 
one band and the feelings of the troops on the other. Then came 
the discovery that the French were not in front, but to the right 
rear of the II. Army (August 16). Alvensleben with the III. 
corps held the French to their ground at Vionville while the prince 
hurried together his scattered forces. He himself directed with 
superb tactical skill the last efforts of the Germans at Vionville, 
and the victory of St Privat on the 18th was due to his leadership 
(see Metz), which shone all the more by contrast with the failures 
of the I. Army at Gravclotte. The prince was left in command of 
the forces which blockaded Bazaine in Metz, and received the 
surrender of that place and of the last remaining field army of the 
enemy. He was promoted at once to the rank of general field 
marshal, and shortly afterwards the II. Army was despatched 
to aid in crushing the newly organized army of the French 
republic on the Loire. Here again he retrieved strategical errors 
by energy and tactical skill, and his work was in the end crowned 
by the victory of Le Mans on the 12th of January 1871. Of 
til the subordinate leaders on the German side none enjoyed a 
greater and a better deserved reputation than the Red Prince. 

He now became inspector-general of the 3rd "army inspection," 
and a little later inspector of cavalry, and in the latter post he was 
largely instrumental in bringing the German cavalry to the degree 
of perfection in manoeuvre and general training which it gradually 
attained in the years after the war. He never ceased to improve 
his own soldierly qualities by further study and by the conduct of 
manoeuvres on a laige scale. His sternness of character kept 
him aloof from the court and from his own family, and he spent 
his leisure months chiefly on his various country estates. In 
1872 and in 1882 he travelled in the Mediterranean and the Near 
East. He died on the 15th of June 1885 at Klein-Glienicke 



near Berlin, and was buried at the adjacent church of Nikolskoe, 
His third daughter. Princess Louise Margareta, was married, 
in March 1870, to the duke of Con naught. 

FREDERICK HENRY (1584-1647), prince of Orange, the 
youngest child of William the Silent, was born at Delft about 
six months before his father's assassination on the 29th of January 
1 584. His mother, Louise de Coligny, was daughter of the famous 
Huguenot leader, Admiral de Coligny, and was the fourth wife 
of William the Silent. The boy was trained to arms by his elder 
brother, Maurice of Nassau, one of the first generals of bis age. 
On the death of Maurice in 1625, Frederick Henry succeeded 
him in his paternal dignities and estates, and also in the stadt- 
holderates of the five provinces of Holland, Zceland, Utrecht, 
Overysel and Gelderland, and in the important posts of captain 
and admiral-general of the Union. Frederick Henry proved 
himself scarcely inferior to his brother as a general, and a far 
more capable statesman and politician. During twenty-two 
years he remained at the head of affairs in the United Provinces, 
and in his time the power of the stadtholderate reached its highest 
point. The " Period of Frederick Henry," as it is usually styled 
by Dutch writers, is generally accounted the golden age of the 
republic It was marked by great military and naval triumphs, 
by world-wide maritime and commercial expansion, and by a 
wonderful outburst of activity in the domains of art and literature. 
The chief military exploits of Frederick Henry were the siega 
and captures of Hertogenbosch in 1629, of Maastricht in 1632, 
of Breda in 1637, of Sas van Ghent in 1644, and of Hulst in 1645. 
During the greater part of his administration the alliance with 
France against Spain had been the pivot of Frederick Henry's 
foreign policy, but in his last years he sacrificed the French 
alliance for the sake of concluding a separate peace with Spain, 
by which the United Provinces obtained from that power all the 
advantages for which they had for eighty years been contending. 
Frederick Henry died on the 14th of March 1647, and was buried 
with great pomp beside his father and brother at Delft. The 
treaty of Miinster, ending the long struggle between the Dutch 
and the Spaniards, was not actually signed until the 30th of 
January 1648, the illness and death of the stadtholder having 
caused a delay in the negotiations. Frederick Henry was married 
in 1625 to Amalia von Solms, and left one son, William 1L of 
Orange, and four daughters. 

Frederick Henry left an account of his campaigns in his Mtwtoim 
de FridcrU Henrx (Amsterdam, 1743). See Cambridge Mod. Hist. 
vol. iv. chap. 24, and the bibliography on p. 931. 

FREDERICK LOUIS (1707-1751), prince of Wales, eldest son 
of George II., was born at Hanover on the 20th of January 1707. 
After his grandfather, George I., became king of Great Britain 
and Ireland in 1714, Frederick was known as duke of Gloucester 1 
and made a knight of the Garter, having previously been be- 
trothed to Wilhelmina Sophia Dorothea (1709-1758), daughter 
of Frederick William I., king of Prussia, and sister of Frederick 
the Great. Although he was anxious to marry this lady, the 
match was rendered impossible by the dislike of George II. and 
Frederick William for each other. Soon after his father became 
king in z 7 27 Frederick took up his residence in England and in 
1729 was created prince of Wales; but the relations between 
George II. and his son were very unfriendly, and there existed 
between them the jealousy which Stubbs calls the " incurable 
bane of royalty." The faults were not all on one side. The 
prince's character was not attractive, and the king refused to 
make him an adequate allowance. In 173 s .Frederick wrote, 
or inspired the writing of, the Hisloire du prince Titi, a book 
containing offensive caricatures of both king and queen; and 
losing no opportunity of irritating his father, " he made," says 
Lecky, " his court the special centre of opposition to the govern- 
ment, and he exerted all his influence for the ruin of Walpole." 
After a marriage between the prince and Lady Diana Spencer, 
afterwards the wife of John, 4th duke of Bedford, had been 
frustrated by Walpole, Frederick was married in April 1736 to 

1 Frederick was never actually created duke of Gloucester, and 
when he was raised tothe peerage in 1736 it wasasduke of Edinburgh 
only. See G. E. C(oluyne), Complete Peeratfi, sub " Gloucester." 



FREDERICK WILLIAM I. 



63 



Augusta (1 719-1772), daughter of Frederick II., duke of Saxe- 
Gotna, a union which was welcomed by his parents, but which 
led to further trouble between father and son. George proposed 

10 allow the prince £50,000 a year; but this sum was regarded 
is insufficient by the latter, whose appeal to parliament was 
unsuccessful. After the birth of his first child, Augusta, in 1 737, 
Frederick was ordered by the king to quit St James' Palace, and 
he foreign ambassadors were requested to refrain from visiting 
urn. The relations between the two were now worse than before, 
n 1 745 George II. refused to allow his son to command the British 
inny against the Jacobites. On the 20th of March 1751 the 
>rince died in London, and was buried in Westminster Abbey. 
ie left five sons and two daughters. The sons were George 
afterwards King George III.), Edward Augustus, duke of York 
md Albany (1 730-1767*, William Henry, duke of Gloucester 
nd Edinburgh (1743- 1805), Henry Frederick, duke of Cumber- 
and (1745-1700)1 and Frederick William (1 750-1765); the 
laughters were Augusta (1737-18x3)1 wife of Charles William 
r erdinand,dukeofBruns\*ick,andCarolineMatilda(i 751-1775), 
rife of Christian VII.. king of Denmark. 

See Lord Hcrvey of lckworth, Memoirs of the Retem of George II., 
tlited by J. W. Croker (London, 1884); Horace Walnolc, Memoirs 
f the Rett* oj George II. (London, 1847); and Sir N - W - Wraxall. 
\Iemoirs, edited by H. B. Wheat Icy, vol. i. (London, 1884). 

FREDERICK WILLIAM 1. (1688-1740). king of Prussia, son 
f Frederick I. by his second marriage was born on the 15th 
f August 1 638. He spent a considerable time in early youth at 
he court of his grandfather, the elector Ernest Augustus of 
lanover. On his return to Berlin he was placed under General 
on Dohna and Count Finkcnstcin, who trained liim to the 
nergetic and regular habits which ever afterwards characterized 
im. He was soon imbued wiih a passion for military life, and 
[lis was deepened by acquaintance wilh the dukcof Marlborough 
1709), Prince Eugene, whom he visited during the siege of 
ournai, and Prince Leopold of Anhalt (the " Old Dcssauer "). 
n nearly every respect he was the opposite of his father, having 
rugal, simple tastes, a passionate temper and a determined will, 
'hroughout his life he was always the proteclorof the church and 
f religion. But he detested religious quarrels and was very 
olerant towards his Catholic subjects, except the Jesuits, 
lis life was simple and puritanical, being founded on the teaching 
f the Bible. He was, however, fond of hunting and somewhat 
iven to drinking. He intensely disliked the French, and highly 
isapproved of the imitation of their manners by his father and 
is court. When he came to the throne (February 25, 17 13) his 
rst act was to dismiss from the palace every unnecessary official 
nd to regulate the royal household on principles of the strictest 
arsimony. The greater part of the beautiful furniture was 
)ld. His importance for Prussia is twofold: in internal politics 
e laid down principles which continued to be followed long after 
is death. This was a province peculiarly suited to his genius; 
e was one of the greatest administrators who have everwornthe 
Russian crown. His foreign policy was less successful, though 
nder his rule the kingdom acquired some extension of territory. 

Thus at the peace of Utrecht (April n, 17 13), after the War 
f the Spanish Succession, he acquired the greater part of the 
uchy of Geldurland. By the treaty of Schwedt, concluded with 
:ussia on the 6th of October, he was assured of an important 
ifiuence in the solution of the Baltic question, which during 
ie long absence of Charles XII. had become burning; and 
wedi&h Pomcrania.as far as the Peene,was occupied by Prussia, 
ut Charles XII. on his return* turned against the king, though 
ithout success, for the Pomeranian campaign of 1715 ended in 
ivour of Prussia (fall of Stralsund, December 22). This enabled 
rederick William I. to maintain a more independent attitude 
wards the tsar; he refused, for example, to provide him with 
-oops for a campaign (in Schonen) against the Swedes. When 
b the 28th of May 1 7 i8,in view of the disturbances in Mecklen- 
urg, he signed at Ha velberg the alliance with Russia, he con fined 
iznself to taking up a defensive attitude, and, on the other hand, 

11 the 14th of August 1719 he .also entered into relations with 
is former enemies, England and Hanover. And so, by the 
taty of Stockholm (February x, 1790), Frederick William 



succeeded In obtaining the consent of Sweden to the cession of 
that part of Pomerania which he had occupied (Usedom, Wollin, 
Stettin, Hither Pomerania, east of the Peene) in return for a 
payment of 2,000,000 thalers. 

While Frederick William I. succeeded in carrying his wishes 
into effect in this direction, he was unable to realize another 
project which he had much at heart, namely, the Prussian succes- 
sion to the Lower Rhine duchies of Jiilich and Berg. The treat y 
concluded in 1725 at Vienna between the emperor and Spain 
brought the whole of this question up again, for both sides had 
pledged themselves to support thePalatinate-Sulzbachsucccssion 
(in the event of the Palatinate-Neuberg line becoming extinct). 
Frederick William turned for help to the western powers, England 
and France, and secured it by the treaty of alliance signed at 
Herrenhausen on the 3rd of September 1 725 (League of Hanover). 
But since the western powers soon sought to use the military 
strength of Prussia for their own ends, Frederick again turned 
towards the east, strengthened aboveallhisrclat ions with Russia, 
which had continued to be good, and finally, by the treaty of 
Wilsterhauscn (October 12,1726; ratified at Berlin, December 23, 
1728), even allied himself with his former adversary, the court of 
Vienna; though this treaty only imperfectly safeguarded Prussian 
interests, inasmuch as Frederick William consented to renounce 
his claims to Juiich. But as in the following years the European 
situation became more and more favourable to the house of 
Habsburg, the latter began to try to withdraw part of the con- 
cessions which it had made to Frederick William. As early as 
1 7 28 Dusscldorf, the capital, was excluded from the guarantee of 
Berg. Nevertheless, in the War of the Polish Succession against 
France (1734-1735), Frederick William remained faithful to the 
emperor's cause, and sent an auxiliary force of 10,000 men. The 
peace of Vienna, which terminated the war, led to a reconciliat ion 
between France and Austria, and so to a further estrangement 
between Frederick William and the emperor. Moreover, in 1738 
the western powers,together with the emperor, insisted in identi- 
. cat notes on the recognition of the emperor's right to decide the 
question of the succession in the Lower Rhine duchies. A breach 
with the emperor was now inevitable, and this explains why 
in a last treaty (April 5, 1739) Frederick William obtained from 
France a guarantee of a part, at least, of Berg (excluding 
Dusscldorf). 

But Frederick William's failures in foreign policy were more 
than compensated for by his splendid services in the internal 
administration of Prussia. He saw the necessity of rigid economy 
not only in his private life but in the whole administration of the 
state. During his reign Prussia obtained for the first time a 
centralized and uniform financial administration. It wastheking 
himself who composed and wrote in the year 1722 the famous 
instruction for the general directory (Generaldirektorium) of 
war, finance and domains. When he died the income of the state 
was abou t seven million thalers (£1 ,050,000) . The consequence 
was that he paid off the debts incurred by his father, and left to 
his successor a well filled treasury. In the administration of 
the domains he made three innovations: (1) the private estates 
of the king were turned into domains of the crown (August 13, 
1713); (*) the freeing of the serfs on the royal domains (March 
22, 1710); (3) the conversion of the hereditary lease into a 
short-term lease on the basis of productiveness. His industrial 
policy was inspired by the mercantile spirit. On this account he 
forbade the importation of foreign manufactures and the export 
of raw materials from home, a policy which had a very good 
effect on the growl h of Prussian industries. 

The work of internal colonization he carried on with especial 
zeal. Most notable of all was his ritablisscmeni of East Prussia.to 
which he devoted six million thalers (c. £000,000). His policy in 
respect of the towns was motived largely by fiscal considerations, 
but at the same time he tried also to improve their municipal 
administration; for example, in the matter of buildings, of the 
letting of domain lands and of the collection of theezciseintowns. 
Frederick' William had many opponentsamong the nobles because 
ho pretted on the abolition of the old feudal rights, introduced 
uSast Pnusia and Lithuania a general land tax (the Garni- 



64 



FREDERICK WILLIAM II. 



kufertsckoss),.***! finally in 1739 attacked in a special edict the 
Lcgen, ijt. the expropriation of the peasant proprietors- He 
did nothing for the higher learning, and even banished the philo- 
sopher Christian Wolff at forty-eight hours' notice " on pain of 
the halter," for teaching, as he believed, fatalist doctrines. 
Afterwards he modified his judgment in favour of Wolff, and even, 
in 1739, recommended the study of his works. He established 
many village schools, which he often visited in person; and after 
the year 17 17 (October 23) all Prussian parents were obliged to 
send their children to school (Sckulzwong) . He was the especial 
friend of the Franckiidit Stiftungen at Halle on the Saale. 
Under him the people flourished; and although it stood in awe 
of his vehement spirit it respected him for his firmness, bis 
honesty of purpose and his love of justice. He was devoted 
also to his army, the number of which he raised from 38,000 
to 83,500, so that under him Prussia became the third military 
power in the world, coming next after Russia and France. There 
was not a more thoroughly drilled or better appointed force. 
The Potsdam guard, made up of giants collected from all parts 
of Europe, sometimes kidnapped, was a sort of toy with which 
be amused himself. The reviewing of his troops was his chief 
pleasure. But he was also fond of meeting his friends in the 
evening in what he called his Tobacco-College, where amid clouds 
of tobacco smoke he not only discussed affairs of state but heard 
the newest " guard-room jokes." He died on the 31st of May 
1 740, leaving behind him his widow, Sophia Dorothea of Hanover, 
whom he had married on the 26th of November 1 706. His son 
was Frederick the Great, who was the opposite of Frederick 
William. This opposition became so strong in 1730 that the 
crown prince fled from the court, and was later arrested and 
brought before a court-martial. A reconciliation was brought 
about, at first gradually. In later years the relations between 
father and son came to be of the best (see Frederick II., king 
of Prussia). 



FREDERICK WILLIAM II. (1744-1797), king of Prussia, 
son of Augustus William, second son of King Frederick William 
I. and of Louise Amalic of Brunswick, sister of the wife of 
Frederick the Great, was born at Berlin on the 2 5th of September 
1744, and became heir to the throne on his father's death in 1757. 
The boy was of an easy-going and pleasure-loving disposition, 
averse from sustained effort of any kind, and sensual by nature. 
His marriage with Elisabeth Christine, daughter of Duke Charles 
of Brunswick, contracted in 1765, was dissolved m 1769, and he 
soon afterwards married Frederika Louisa, daughter of the land- 



grave Louis IX. of Hesse-Darmstadt. Although he had a 
numerous family by his wife, be was completely under the in* 
fluence of his mistress, Wilhelmine Enke, afterward* created 
Countess Lichtenau, a woman of strong intellect and much 
ambition. He was a man of singularly handsome presence, not 
without mental qualities of a high order; he was devoted to the 
arts— Beethoven and Mozart enjoyed his patronage and his 
private orchestra had a European reputation. But an artistic 
temperament was hardly that required of a king of Prussia on 
the eve of the Revolution; and Frederick the Great, who bad 
employed him in various services — notably in an abortive con- 
fidential mission to the court of Russia in 1 780— openly expressed 
his misgivings as to the character of the prince and his sur- 
roundings. 

The misgivings were justified by the event. Frederick 
William's accession to the throne (August 17, 1786) was,. indeed, 
followed by a series of measures for lightening the burdens of the 
people, reforming the oppressive French system of tax-collecting 
introduced by Frederick, and encouraging trade by the diminu- 
tion of customs dues and the making of roads and canals. This 
gave the new king much popularity with the mass of the people; 
while the educated classes were pleased by his removal of 
Frederick's ban on the German language by the admission of 
German writers to the Prussian Academy, and by the active 
encouragement given to schools and universities. But these 
reforms were vitiated in their source. In 1 781 Frederick William, 
then prince of Prussia, inclined, like many sensual natures, to 
mysticism, had joined the Rosicrucians, and had fallen under the 
influence of Johann Christof Wollner (1 732-1 800), and by him 
the royal policy was inspired. Wollner, whom Frederick the 
Great had described as a " treacherous and intriguing priest," 
had started life as a poor tutor in the family of General vod 
Itzenplitz, a noble of the mark of Brandenburg, had, after the 
general's death and to the scandal of king and nobility, married 
the general's daughter, and with his mother-in-law's assistance 
settled down ona small estate. By his practical experiments and 
by his writings he gained a considerable reputation as an econo- 
mist; but his ambition was not content with this, and he sought 
to extend his influence by joining first the Freemasons and after- 
wards (1779) the Rosicrucians. Wollncr, with his impressive 
personality and easy if superficial eloquence, was just the man 
to lead a movement of this kind. Under his influence the order 
spread rapidly, and he soon found himself the supreme director 
(Obcrhauptiircktor) of some 26 " circles," which included in their 
membership princes, officers and high officials. As a Rosicrucian 
Wollner dabbled in alchemy and other mystic arts, but he also 
affected to be zealous for Christian orthodoxy, imperilled by 
Frederick II. 's patronage of ''enlightenment," and a few months 
before Frederick's death wrote to his friend the Rosicrucian 
Johann Rudolph von Bischoffswerdcr (1741-1803) that his 
highest ambition was to be placed at the head of the religious 
department of the state " as an unworthy instrument in the hand 
of Ormesus " (the prince of Prussia's Rosicrucian name) " for 
the purpose of saving millions of souls from perdition and bringing 
back the whole country to the faith of Jesus Christ." 

Such was the man whom Frederick William II., immediately 
after his accession, called to his counsels. On the 26th of August 
1786 he was appointed privy councillor for finance (Gchcintr 
Oberfinansratk), and on the end of October was ennobled. 
Though not in name, in fact he was prime minister; in all in- 
ternal affairs it was he who decided; and the fiscal and economic 
reforms of the new reign were the application of his theories. 
Bischoffswerder, too, still a simple major, was called into the 
king's counsels; by 1789 be was already an adjutant-general. 
These were the two men who enmeshed the king in a web of 
Rosicrucian mystery and intrigue, which hampered whatever 
healthy development of his policy might have been possible, 
and led ultimately to disaster. The opposition to Wollner was, 
indeed, at the outset strong enough to prevent his being entrusted 
with the department of religion; but this too in time was over- 
come, and on the 3rd of July 1788 he was appointed active 
privy councillor of state and of justice and head of the spiritual 



FREDERICK WILLIAM in. 



65 



department for Lutheran and Catholic affairs. War was at 
once declared on what — to use a later term— we may call 
the " modernists." The king, so long as Wollner was content 
to condone his immorality (which Bischoffswerder, to do him 
justice, condemned), was eager to help the orthodox crusade. 
On the olh of July was issued the famous religious edict, which 
forbade Evangelical ministers to teach anything not contained 
in the letter of their official books, proclaimed the necessity of 
protecting the Christian religion against the " cnlighteners " 
(Au/kldrer), and placed educational establishments under the 
supervision of the orthodox clergy. On the 18th of December 
a new censorship law was issued, to secure the orthodoxy of all 
published books, and finally, in 1791, a sort of Protestant 
Inquisition was established at Berlin (I mmediat- Examinations- 
commission) to watch over all ecclesiastical and scholastic 
appointments. In his zeal for. orthodoxy, indeed, Frederick 
William outstripped his minister, he even blamed Wollncr's 
" idleness and vanity " for the inevitable failure of the attempt 
to regulate opinion from above, and in 1794 deprived him of one 
of his secular offices in order that he might have more time 
" to devote himself to the things of God ", in edict after edict 
the king continued to lite end of his reign to make regulations 
" in order to maintain in his statesa true andactive Christianity, 
as the path to genuine fear of God." 

The effects of this policy of blind obscurantism faroutweighed 
any good that resulted from the king's well-meant efforts at 
economic and financial reform, and even this reform was but 
spasmodic and partial, and awoke ultimately more discontent 
than it allayed But far more fateful for Prussia was the king's 
attitude towards the army and foreign policy. The army was 
the very foundation of the Prussian state, a truth which both 
Frederick William I. and the great Frederick had fully realized; 
the army had been their first care, and its efficiency had been 
maintained by their constant personal supervision. Frederick 
William, who had no taste for military matters, put his authority 
as " War-Lord " into commission under a supreme college of 
war {Oberkricgs-Collcgtim) under the duke of Brunswick and 
General von Mbllcndorf. It was the beginning of the process 
that ended in 1806 at Jena. 

In the circumstances Frederick William's intervention in 
European affairs was not likely to prove of benefit to Prussia. 
The Dutch campaign of 1787, entered on for purely family 
reasons, was indeed successful, but Prussia received not even 
the cost of her intervention An attempt to intervene in the war 
of Russia and Austria against Turkey failed of its object, Prussia 
did not succeed in obtaining any concessions of territory from 
the alarms of the Allies, and the dismissal of Hertz berg in 
1791 marked the final abandonment of the anti-Austrian tradi- 
tion of Frederick the Great For, meanwhile, the French Revolu- 
tion had entered upon alarming phases, and in August 1791 
Frederick William, at the meeting at Pillnitz, arranged with the 
emperor Leopold to join in supporting the cause of Louis XVI. 
But neither the king's character, nor the confusion of the Prussian 
finances due to his extravagance, gave promise of any effective 
action. A formal alliance was indeed signed on the 71 h of 
February 179a, and Frederick William took part personally in 
the campaigns of 179a and 1793. He was hampered, however, 
by want of funds, and his counsels were distracted by the affairs 
of Poland, which promised a richer booty than was likely to be 
gained by the anti-revolutionary crusade into France. A subsidy 
treaty with the sea powers (April 19, 1794) filled his coffers, but 
the insurrection in Poland that followed the partition of 1793, 
ind the threat of the isolated intervention of Russia, hurried 
him into the separate treaty of Basel with the French Republic 
(April 5, 1795). which was regarded by the great monarchies as 
a betrayal, and left Prussia morally isolated in Europe on the 
eve of the titanic struggle between the monarchical principle 
ind the new political creed of the Revolution. Prussia had paid 
• heavy price for the territories acquired tt theexpenseof Poland 
in 1793 and 1795, and when, on the 16th of November 1797, 
Frederick William died, he left the state in bankruptcy and 
confusion, the army decayed and the monarchy discredited 



Frederick William II. was twice married: (1) in 1765 to 
Elizabeth of Brunswick (d. 1841), by whom he had a daughter, 
Frederika, afterwards duchess of York, and from whom be was 
divorced in 1769; (2) in 1769 to Frederika Louisa of Hesse- 
Darmstadt, by whom he bad four sons, Frederick William 111., 
Louis (d. 1706), Henry and William, and two daughters, Wilhel- 
mina, wife of William of Orange, afterwards William I., king of 
the Netherlands, and Augusta, wife of William II., elector of 
Hesse. Besides his relations with his tnaUresse en litre, the 
countess Lichtenau, the king— who was a frank polygamist— 
contracted two " marriages of the left hand " with FrKulein von 
Voss and the countess DOnhoff. 

See article by von Hartmann in AUgem. devlsche Bieg. (Leipzig, 
1878); Sudclmann, Preussens Kotune %m ihrer Talirkeit fur die 
Landcskultur.v<A. iii. " Fried rich Wilhclna 1 1." (Leipzig, 188O ; Paulig, 
Fricdrich Wiikdm //., setn Privaiteben u. seine Regterung (Frankfurt* 
an-der-Oder, 1896). 

FREDERICK WILLIAM III. (1770-1840), king of Prussia, 
eldest son of King Frederick William II., was born at Potsdam 
on the 3rd of August 1770. His father, then prince of Prussia, 
was out of favour with Frederick the Great and entirely under the 
influence of his mistress; and the boy, handed over to tutors 
appointed by the king, lived a solitary and repressed life which 
tended to increase the innate weakness of his character. But 
though his natural defects of intellect and will-power were not 
improved by the pedantic tutoring to which he was submitted, 
he grew up pious, honest and well-meaning; and had fate cast 
him in any but the most stormy times of his country's history 
he might well have left the reputation of a model king. As a 
soldier he received the usual training of a Prussian prince, 
obtained his lieutenancy in 1784, became a colonel commanding 
in 1790, and took part in the campaigns of 1792*94. In 1793 
he married Louise, daughter of Prince Charles of Mecklenburg- 
Strelita, whom he had met and fallen in love with at Frankfort 
(see Louise, queen of Prussia). He succeeded to the throne on 
'the 16th of November 1797 and at once gave earnest of his good 
intentions by cutting down the expenses of "the royal establish- 
ment, dismissing his father's ministers, and reforming the most 
oppressive abuses of the late reign. Unfortunately, however, 
he had all the Hohenzollern tenacity of .personal power without 
the Hohenzollern genius for using it. Too distrustful to delegate 
his responsibility to his ministers, he was too infirm of will to 
strike out and follow a consistent course for himself. 

The results of this infirmity of purpose are written large on the 
history of Prussia from the treaty of Lunfville in 1801 to the 
downfall that followed the campaign of Jena in 1806. By the 
treaty of Tilsit (July 9th, 1807) Frederick William had to 
surrender half his dominions, and what remained to him was 
exhausted by French exactions and liable at any moment to 
be crushed out of existence by some new whim of Napoleon. 
In the dark years that followed it was the indomitable courage 
of Queen Louise that helped the weak king not to despair of the 
state. She seconded the reforming efforts of Stein and the work 
of Scharnhorst and Gneisenau in reorganizing the army, by which 
the resurrection of Prussia became a possibility. When Stein 
was dismissed at the instance of Napoleon, Hardcnberg succeeded 
him as chancellor (June 1S10). In the following month Queen 
Louise died, and the king was left alone to deal with circum- 
stances of ever-increasing difficulty. He was forced to join 
Napoleon in the war against Russia; and even when the 
disastrous campaign of 181 2 had for the time broken the French 
power, it was not his own resolution, but the loyal disloyalty 
of General York in concluding with Russia the convention of 
Tauroggcn that forced him into line with the patriotic fervour 
of his people. 

Once committed to the Russian alliance, however, he became 
the faithful henchman of the emperor Alexander, whose fascinat- 
ing personality exercised over him to the last a singular power, 
and began that influence. of Russia at the court of Berlin which 
was to last till Frederick William IV.'s supposed Liberalism was 
to shatter the cordiality of the tntrnte. That during and after the 
settlement of 1815 Frederick William played a very secondary 
part in European affairs is explicable as well by his character as 



66 



FREDERICK WILLIAM IV. 



by the absorbing character of the internal problems of Prussia. 
He was one of the original co-signatories of the Holy Alliance, 
though, in common with most, he signed it with reluctance; 
and in the counsels of the Grand Alliance he allowed himself to 
be practically subordinated to Alexander and later to Metternich. 
In a ruler of his character it is not surprising that the Revolution 
and its developments had produced an unconquerable suspicion 
of constitutional principles and methods, which the Liberal 
agitations in Germany tended to increase. At the various 
congresses, from Aix-la-Chapelle (1818) to Verona (1822), there- 
lore, he showed himself heartily in sympathy with the repressive 
policy formulated in the Troppau Protocol. The promise of a 
constitution, which in the excitement of the War of Liberation 
he had made to his people, remained unfulfilled partly owing to 
this mental attitude, partly, however, to the all but insuperable 
difficulties in the way of its execution. But though reluctant 
to play the part of a constitutional king* Frederick William 
maintained to the full the traditionaLcharacterof " first servant 
of the state." Though he chastised Liberal professors and 
turbulent students, it was in .the spirit of a benevolent Landes- 
tater; and he laboured assiduously at the enormous task of 
administrative reconstruction necessitated by the problem of 
welding the heterogeneous elements of the new Prussian kingdom 
into a united whole. He was sincerely religious; but his well- 
meant efforts to unite the Lutheran and Reformed Churches, 
in celebration of the tercentenary of the Reformation (1817), 
revealed the limits of his paternal power; eleven years passed 
in vain attempts to devise common formulae; a stubborn 
Lutheran minority had to be coerced by military force, the con- 
fiscation of their churches and the imprisonment or exile of their 
pastors; not till 1834 was outward union secured on the basis of 
common worship but separate symbols, the opponents of the 
measure being forbidden to form communities of their own. 
With the Roman Church, too, the kiug came into conflict on 
the vexed question of " mixed marriages," a conflict in which 
the Vatican gained an easy victory (see Bunsen, C.C.J., Baron 
von). 

The revolutions of 1830 strengthened Frederick William in his 
reactionary tendencies; the question of the constitution was 
indefinitely shelved; and in 1831 Prussian troops concentrated 
on the frontier helped the task of the Russians in reducing the 
military rising in Poland. Yet, in spite of all, Frederick William 
was beloved by his subjects, who valued him for the simplicity 
of his manners, the goodness of his heart and the memories of 
the dark days after 1806. He died on the 7th of June 1840. 
In 1824 he had contracted a morganatic marriage with the 
countess August e von Harrach, whom he created Princess von 
Liegnitz. He wrote Luther in Bezug auf die Kircbcnagenda 
von 1822 und 1823 (Berlin, 1827), Raministenten aus der 
Kampagne 1792 in Frankrcick, and Journal meiner Brigade in 
der Kampagne am Rktin 1793. 

The correspondence (Briefvechsel) of King Frederick William III. 
and Queen Louise with the emperor Alexander I. has been published 
(Leipzig, looo) and also that between the king and queen (ib. 1903), 
both edited by P. Baillcu. See W. Hahn. Frudrick Wilhelm III. und 
Luis* (3rd ed., Leipzig. 1 877): M. W. Duncker, Aus der Zeit Frie- 
drichs des Crossen und Frudrick Wilhelms III. (Leipzig, 1876); 
Bishop R. F. Eylert. Charaktertugt aus dem Leben des Konigs von 
Prenssen Friedrich Wilhelm ///. (3 vols., Magdeburg, 1 843- 1846). 

FREDERICK WILLIAM IV. (1795-1861), king of Prussia, 
eldest son of Frederick William III., was born on the 15th of 
October 1 70s- From his first tutor, Johann DelbrUck, he imbibed 
a love of culture and art, and possibly also the dash of Liberalism 
which formed an element of his complex habit of mind. But after 
a time Delbrflck, suspected of inspiring his charge with a dislike 
of the Prussian military caste and even of belonging to a political 
secret society, was dismissed, his place being taken by the pastor 
and historian Friedrich Ancillon, while a military governor was 
also appointed. By Ancillon he was grounded in religion, in 
history and political science, his natural taste for the antique 
and the picturesque making it easy for his tutor to impress upon 
him his own hatred of the Revolution and its principles. This 
hatred was confirmed by the sufferings of his country and family 



in the terrible yean after 1806, and his first experience of active 
soldiering was in the campaigns thai ended in the occupation of 
Paris by the Allies in 18 14. In action his reckless bravery had 
earned him rebuke, and in Paris he was remarked for the exact 
performance of his military duties, though he found time to whet 
his appetite for art in the matchless collections gathered by 
Napoleon as the spoil of all Europe. On his return to Berlin 
he studied art under the sculptor Christian Daniel Rauch and 
the painter and architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel (1781-1841), 
proving himself in the end a good draughtsman, a born architect 
and an excellent landscape gardener. At the same time he was 
being tutored in law by Savigny and in finance by a series of 
distinguished masters. In 1873 he married the princess Elizabeth 
of Bavaria, who adopted the Lutheran creed. The union, 
though childless, was very happy. A long tour in Italy in 1828 
was the beginning of his intimacy with Bunsen and did much to 
develop his knowledge of art and love of antiquity. 

On his accession to the throne in 2840 much was expected 
of a prince so variously gifted and of so amiable a temper, and 
his first acts did not belie popular hopes. He reversed the 
unfortunate ecclesiastical policy of his father, allowing a wide 
liberty of dissent, and releasing the imprisoned archbishop of 
Cologne; he modified the strictness of the press censorship; 
above all he undertook, in the presence of the deputations of the 
provincial diets assembled to greet him on his accession, to carry 
out the long-deferred project of creating a central constitution, 
which he admitted to be required alike by the royal promises, 
the needs of the country and the temper of the times. The 
story of the evolution of the Prussian parliament belongs to the 
history of Prussia. Here it must suffice to notice Frederick 
William's personal share in the question, which was determined 
by his general attitude of mind. He was an idealist; but his 
idealism was of a type the exact reverse of that which the 
Revolution in arms had sought to impose upon Europe. The 
ideaof the sovereignty of the people was to him utterly abhorrent, 
and even any delegation of sovereign power on his own part would 
have seemed a betrayal of a God-given trust. " I will never," 
he declared, " allow to come between Almighty God and this 
country a blotted parchment, to rule us with paragraphs, and to 
replace the ancient, sacred bond of loyalty." His vision of the 
ideal 6tate was that of a patriarchial monarchy, surrounded and 
advised by the traditional estates of the realm — nobles, peasants, 
burghers— and cemented by the bonds of evangelical religion, 
but in which there should be no question of the sovereign power 
being vested in any other hands than those of the king by divine 
right. In Prussia, with its traditional loyalty and its old-world 
caste divisions, he believed that such a conception could be 
realised, and he took up an attitude half-way between those who 
would have rejected the proposal for a central diet altogether ass 
dangerous " thin end of the wedge," and those who would have 
approximated it more to the modern conception of a parliament. 
With a charter, or a representative system based on population, 
he would have nothing to do. The united diet which was opened 
on the 3rd of February 1847 was no more than a congregation 
of the diets instituted by Frederick William III. in the eight 
provinces of Prussia. Unrepresentative though it was — for the 
industrial working-classes had no share in it— it at once gave 
voice to the demand for a constitutional system. 

This demand gained overwhelmingly in force with the revolu- 
tionary outbreaks of 1848. To Frederick William these came 
as a complete surprise, and, rudely awakened from his medieval 
dreamings, heeven allowed himself to be carried away for a while 
by the popular tide. The loyalty of the Prussian army remained 
inviolate; but the king was too tender-hearted to use military 
force against his " beloved Berliners," and when the victory of 
the populace was thus assured his impressionable temper yielded 
to the general enthusiasm. He paraded the streets of Berlin 
wrapped in a scarf of the German black and gold, symbol of his 
intention to be the leader of the united Germany; and he even 
wrote to the indignant tsar in praise of " the glorious German 
revolution." The change of sentiment was, however, apparent 
rather than reaL The shadow of venerable institutions, past or 



FREDERICK WILLIAM OF BRANDENBURG 



67 



passing, still darkened bis counsels. The united Germany wl 
be was prepared to champion was not the democratic state wl 
the theorists of the Frankfort national parliament wereevoh 
on paper with interminable debate, but the old Holy R01 
Empire, the heritage of the house of Habsburg, of which he 
prepared to constitute himself the guardian so long as its lai 
possessors should not have mastered the forces of 'disordei 
which they were held captive. Finally, when Austria had t 
excluded from the new empire, he replied to the parliament 
deputation that came to offer him the imperial crown thai 
might have accepted it had it been freely offered to him by 
German princes, but that he would never stoop " to pick 1 
crown out of the gutter." 

Whatever may be thought of the manner of this refusal 
of its immediate motives, it was in itself wise, for the Gen 
empire would have lost immeasurably had it been the a 
rather than the result of the inevitable struggle with Aust 
and Bismarck was probably right when be said that, to t 
the heterogeneous elements of Germany into a united whole, w 
was needed was, not speeches and resolutions, but a poLic 
" blood and iron." In any case Frederick William, une 
enough as a constitutional king, would have been impossible 
a constitutional emperor. As it was, his refusal to play 
part gave the deathblow to the parliament and to all hop< 
the immediate creation of a united Germany. For Fredei 
William the position of leaderof Germany now meant theempl 
ment of the military force of Prussia to crush the scattc 
elements of revolution that survived the collapse of the natic 
movement. His establishment of the northern confederacy ' 
a reversion to the traditional policy of Prussia in opposii 
to Austria, which, after the emperor Nicholas had crushed 
insurrection in Hungary, was once more free to assert her da 
to dominance in Germany. But Prussia was not ripe fc 
struggle with Austria, even had Frederick William found it in 
conscience to turn his arms against his ancient ally, and there 
was the humiliating convention of Olmutz (November it 
1850), by which Prussia agreed to surrender her separa 
plans and to restore the old constitution of the confederati 
Yet Frederick William had so far profited by the lessons of z 
that he- consented to establish (1850) a national parliami 
though with a. restricted franchise and limited powers. ' 
House of Lorfls (Hcrrcnkaus) justified the king's insistence 
calling it into being by its support of Bismarck against the m 
popular House during the next reign. 

In religious matters Frederick William was also largely swa; 
by his love for the ancient and picturesque. In concert with 
friend Bunsen he laboured to bring about a rapprochem 
between the Lutheran and Anglican churches, the first-fruit 
which was the establishment of the Jerusalem bishopric un 
the joint patronage of Great Britain and Prussia; but the 
result of his efforts was to precipitate the secession of J. 
Newman and his followers to the Church of Rome. In gent 
it may be said that Frederick William, in spite of his talents i 
his wide knowledge, lived in a dream-land of hisown.outof toi 
with actuality. The style of his letters reveals a mind enthusia 
and ill-balanced. In the summer of 1857 he had a stroke 
paralysis, and a second in October. From this time, with 
exception of brief intervals, his mind was completely cloud 
and the duties of government were undertaken by his brot 
William (afterwards emperor), who on the 7th of October 1 
was formally recognized as regent. Frederick William died 
the 2nd of January 1861, 

Selections from the correspondence {Briefwttksef) of Fredei 
William IV. and Bunsen were edited by Rank* (Leipzig, 18; 
his proclamations, speeches, &c, from the 6th of March 1848 to 
3irt of May 1851 have been published (Berlin, 1851); also 
correspondence with Bettina, von Arnim, Bettina von A mint 
Friedrich WUhelm IV., vngedruckle Briefe und AktensUUke, ed 
Geifer (Frankfort-on-Main. 1902). See L. von Ranke, Fried 
Wiikdm IV., Kdnig ton Preussen (works 51, 5a also in AlU 
icmiuhe Biog. vol. vti.), especially for the king's education and 
inner history of the debates leading up to the united diet of ifl 
H. von Peteradorff, Konig Friedrich WUhelm IV. (Stuttgart, xo( 
F. Racblahl. Dmtscktomt Kim$ PntdHtk WOhetm IV. md 



Berliner Minraolution (Halle, 1901); H. von Poschinfer fed.). 
Unter Friedrich WUhelm IV. Denhwirdigkeiten dee Ministers Otte 
Frhr. ton Manlcuffel, 1848-1858 (3 vols., Berlin, 1000-1901); and 
Preussens ausv&rligo PoiUik, 1850-1858 (3 vols., to., 1002), docu- 
ments selected from those left By Manteuffel; E. Friedberg, Die 
Grundtagen der preussiuhen KuckenpoliHh unler Friedrich Wtlkdm 
IV. (Leipzig, 1882). 

FREDERICK WILLIAM (1620-1688), elector of Brandenburg, 
usually called the " Great Elector," was born in Berlin on the 
z6th of February 1620. His father was the elector George 
William, and his mother was Elizabeth Charlotte, daughter of 
Frederick IV., elector palatine of the Rhine. Owing to the dis- 
orders which were prevalent in Brandenburg he passed part of 
his youth in the Netherlands, studying at the university of 
Leiden and learning something of war and statecraft undei 
Frederick Henry, prince of Orange. During his boyhood a 
marriage had been suggested between him and Christina, after- 
wards queen of Sweden; but although the idea was jevived 
during the peace negotiations between Sweden and Brandenburg, 
it came to nothing, and in 1646 be married Louise Henrietta 
(d. 1 667), slaughter of Frederick Henry of Orange, a lady whose 
counsel was very helpful to him end who se co nded his efforts for 
the welfare of his country. 

Having become ruler otBrandenburg and Prussia by hisfather's 
death in December 1640, Frederick William set to work at once 
to repair the extensive damage wrought during the Thirty Years' 
War, still in progress. After some difficulty he secured hie 
investiture as duke of Prussia from Wladislaus, king of Poland, 
in October 1641, but was not equally successful in crushing the 
independent tendencies of the estates of' Cleves. It was ilk 
Brandenburg, however, that he showed his supreme skill as a 
diplomatist and administrator. His disorderly troops were 
replaced by an efficient and disciplined force; his patience and 
perseverance freed his dominions from the Swedish soldiers; 
and the restoration' of law and order was followed by a revival 
of trade and an increase of material prosperity. After a tedious 
struggle- he succeeded in centralizing the administration, and 
controlling and increasing the revenue, while no department o? 
public life escaped his sedulous care (see Brandenburo). The 
area of his dominions was largely increased at the peace of 
Westphalia in 2648, and this treaty and the treaty of OHva in 
1660 alike added to his power and prestige. By a clever but 
unscrupulous use of his intermediate position between Sweden 
and Poland he procured his recognition as independent duke of 
Prussia from both powers, and eventually succeeded in crushing* 
the stubborn and lengthened opposition which was offered to his 
authority by the estates of the duchy (see Pkxtssxa); After two 
checks he made his position respected in Cleves, and in 1666 his 
title to Cleves, Jttlich and Ravensbcrg was definitely recognized* 
His efforts, however, to annex the western part of the duchy 
of Fomerania, which he had conquered from the Swedes, failed 
owing to the insistence of Louis XIV. at the treaty of St'Germain- 
en-Laye in 1679, and he was unable to obtain the Silesian duchies 
of Liegnitz, Brieg and Wohlau from the emperor Leopold L 
after they had been left without e ruler in 2675. 

Frederick William played an important part for European 
politics. Although found once or twice on the side of France, 
he was generally loyal to the interests of the empire and the 
Habsburgs, probably because his political acumen scented danger 
to Brandenburg from the aggressive policy of Louis XIV. 
He was a Protestant in religion, but he supported Protestant 
interests abroad on political rather than on religious grounds, 
and sought, but without much success, to strengthen Branden- 
burg by allaying the fierce hostility between Lutherans end 
Calvinists. His success in founding and organizing the army 
of Brandenburg-Prussia was amply demonstrated by the great 
victory which he gained over the Swedes at Fehrbellin in June 
1675, and by the eagerness with which foreign.powers sought his 
support. He was also the founder of the Prussian navy. The 
elector assisted trade in every possible way. He made the canal 
which still bears his name between the Oder and the Spree; 
established s trading company rand founded colonies on the west 
coast of Africa, He encouraged Flemings to settle in Brmndenburg, 



68 



FREDERICK-LEMAITRE— FREDERICKSBURG 



and both before and after the revocation of the edict of 
Nantes in 16S3 welcomed large numbers of Huguenots, who 
added greatly to the welfare of the country. Education was not 
neglected; and if in this direction some of his plans were abortive, 
it was from lack of means and opportunity rather than effort 
and inclination. It is difficult to overestimate the services of the 
great elector to Brandenburg and Prussia. They can only be 
properly appreciated by those who compare the condition of his 
country in 1640 with its condition in 1688. Both actually and 
relatively its importance had increased enormously; poverty 
had given place to comparative wealth, and anarchy to a 
system of government which afterwards made Prussia the most 
centralized state in Europe. He had scant sympathy with local 
privileges, and in fighting them his conduct was doubtless 
despotic. His aim was to make himself an absolute ruler, as he 
regarded this as the best guarantee for the internal and external 
welfare of the state. 

The great elector died at Potsdam from dropsy on the 9th of 
May 1688, and was succeeded by his eldest surviving son, 
Frederick. His personal appearance was imposing, an*although 
he was absolutely without scruples when working for the interests 
of Brandenburg, he did not lack a sense of justice and generosity. 
At all events he deserves the eulogy passed upon him by Frederick 
the Great, " Messieurs; celui-ci a fait de granies ckoses" His 
second wife, whom he married in 1668, was Dorothea (d. 1689), 
daughter of Philip, duke of Holstein-Glucksburg, and widow 
of Christian Louis, duke of Brunswick-Ltincburg; she bore 
him four sons and three daughters. His concluding years were 
troubled by differences between bis wife and her step-son, 
Frederick; and influenced by Dorothea he bequeathed portions 
of Brandenburg to her four sons, a bequest which was annulled 
under his successor. 

See S. de Pufendorf, De rebus testis Frideriei Witkelmi Magni 
(Leipzig and Berlin, 1733); L. von Orlkh, Friedrich Wilhelm der 
grosse Kurfiirst (Berlin, 1836); K. H. S. Rodenbeck, Zur Gesckichte 
TriedrUk Wilkelms^des grosse* KurfursUn (Berlin,, 1851); B. 
" "" ~ ■* " ): )• G. 



Erdmannsddrffcr, Der grosse Kurfiirst (Leipzig, 
~ yscn, Gesckichte der prcussiscJu •»■•-•• " ' 
Philippson, Der grosse Kurfiirst 



Kurfiirst (Leipzig, 1870); J. G. 

ischen Politik (Berlin, 1855-1886); 

... „ . Urst (Berlin, 189 7- 1903) ; E. HcycK, 

Der posse Knrjiirsl (Bielefeld, 1902) ; Spahn. Per grosse Kurfu ' 

(Mainz, 1902); H. Landwehr, Die Ktrthcnpolitik des grosse* K\ 

fursten (Berlin, 1894); H. Prutz, A us des grossen KurfursUn let:< 



Kurfiirst 
ten Kur~ 

„ --,-,.. - ,...—.»• letzlcn 

Jahren (Berlin, 1 897) Also Urkunden und A ktenstiicke zur Gescktchle 
des Kurfdrsten Friedrich Wilhelm von Brandenburg (Berlin, 1864- 
1903), T Carlyle. History of Frederick the Great, vol i. (London, 
1858); and A Waddington, he Grand Etecteur et Louts XIV (Paris, 
1905). 

FR6D4RICK-LEMAlTRB,ANT0INE LOUIS PROSPER (1800- 
1876) French actor, the son of an architect, was born at Havre 
on the 28th of July 1800. He spent two years at the Con- 
servatoirc, and made his first appearance at a variety performance 
in one of the basement restaurants at the Palais Royal. At 
the Ambigu on the 1 2th of July 1823 he played the part of Robert 
Macaire in VA uberge des Adrils. The melodrama was played 
seriously on the first night and was received with little favour, 
but it was changed on the second night to burlesque, and thanks 
to him had a great success. All Paris came to see it, and from 
that day he was famous. He created a number of parts that 
added to his popularity, especially CardiUac, Cagliostro and 
Cartouche. His success in the last led to an engagement at the 
Porte St Martin, where in 1827 he produced TrenU ans, ou la 
vie d'un joueur, in which his vivid acting made a profound 
impression. Afterwards at the Odeon and other theatres he 
passed from one success to another, until he put the final touch 
to his reputation as an artist by creating the part of Ruy Bias 
in Victor Hugo's play. On bis return to the Porte St Martin he 
created the titlc-r61c in Balzac's Vautrin, which was forbidden 
a second presentation, on account, it is said, of the resemblance 
of the actor's wig to the well-known Umpei worn by Louis 
Philippe His last appearance was at this theatre in 1873 as the 
old Jew in if arte Tudor, and he died at Paris on the s6th of 
January 1876. 

FREDERICKSBURG, a city of Spottsylvania county, Virginia, 
U.S.A., on the Rappahannock river, at the head of tide-water 



navigation, about 60 m. N. of Richmond and about 55 m S.S.W 
of Washington. Pop. (1800) 4528; (1900) 5068 (162c negroes), 
(1910) 5874. It is served by the Potomac, Fredericksburg k 
Piedmont, and the Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac 
.railways, and by several coasting steamship lines. The city is 
built on a series of terraces between the river and hills of con- 
siderable height. The river is here spanned by iron bridges, 
and just above the city is a dam 900 ft long and 18 ft. high. 
By means of this dam and a canal good water-power is furnished, 
and the city's manufactures include llour, leather, shoes, woollens, 
silks, wagons, agricultural implements and excelsior (fine wood- 
shavings for packing or stuffing). The water-works, gas and 
electric-lighting plants are owned and operated by the munici- 
pality. At Fredericksburg are Fredericksburg College (founded 
in 1893; coeducational), which includes the Kenroorc school 
for girls and the Saunders memorial school for boys (both 
preparatory); a Confederate and a National cemetery (the 
latter on Marye's Heights), a monument (erected in 1006) to 
General Hugh Mercer (c. 1720-1777), whose home for several 
years was here and who fell in the baule of Princeton, and a 
monument to the memory of Washington's mother, who died here 
in 1789 and whose home is still standing. Other buildings of 
interest are the old Rising Sun Hotel, a popular resort during 
Washington's time, and " Kenmore," the home of Colonel 
Fielding Lewis, who married a sister of Washington. The city 
was named in honour of Frederick, father of George III., and 
was incorporated in 1727, long after its first settlement; in 1871 
it was re-chartered by act of the General Assembly of Virginia. 

The battle of Fredericksburg in the American Civil War was 
fought on the 13th of December 1862 between the Union forces 
(Army of the Potomac) under. Major-General A. E. Burnside 
and the Confederates (Army of Northern Virginia) under General 
R. E. Lee. In the middle of November, Burnside, newly ap- 
pointed to command the Army of the Potomac, had manoeuvred 
from the neighbourhood of Warren ton with a view to beginning 
an offensive move trom Fredericksburg and, as a preliminary, 
to seising a foothold beyond the Rappahannock at or near that 
place. On arriving near Falmouth, however, he found that the 
means of crossing that he bad asked for had not been forwarded 
from Washington, and he sat down to wait for them, while, 
on the other side, the Confederate army gradually assembled 
south of the Rappahannock in a strong position with the left 
on the river above Fredericksburg and the right near Hamilton's 
Crossing on the Richmond railway. On the 10th of December 
Burnside, having by now received his pontoons, prepared to 
cross the river and to attack the Confederate entrenched position 
on the heights beyond the town. The respective forces were 
Union 122,000, Confederate 79.000. Major-General E. V. 
Sumner, commanding the Federal right wing (II. and IX. 
corps), was to cross at Fredericksburg, Major-General W, B. 
Franklin with the left (I. and VI. corps) some miles below, while 
the centre (III. and V. corps) under Major-General Joseph 
Hooker was to connect the two attacks and to reinforce either 
at need. The Union artillery took position along the heights of 
the north bank to cover the crossing, and no opposition was 
encountered opposite Franklin's command, which formed up on 
the other side during the nth and 12th. Opposite Sumner, 
however, the Confederate riflemen, hidden in the gardens and 
houses of Fredericksburg, caused much trouble and considerable 
losses to the Union pioneers, and a forlorn hope of volunteers 
from the infantry had to be rowed across under fire before the 
enemy's skirmishers could be dislodged. Sumner's, two corps 
crossed on the 12th. The battle took place next morning. 

Controversy has raged round Burnside's plan of action and 
in particular round his orders to Franklin, as to which it can only 
be said that whatever chance of success there was in soformidable 
an undertaking as attacking the well-posted enemy was thrown 
away through roisunderslandings,and that nothing but misunder- 
standings could be expected from the vague and bcwilderioj 
orders issued by the general in command. The actual battle can 
be described in a few words. Jackson held the right of Lee's 
line, Longstreet the left, both entrenched. Franklin, tied by 



FREDERICTON^-FREE BAPTISTS 



69 



his instructions, attacked with one division -only, which a little 
later he supported by two more (I. corps, Major-General J. F. 
Reynolds) out of eight or nine available. His left flank was 
harassed by the Confederate horse artillery under the young and 
brilliant Captain John Pelham, and after breaking the first line 
of Stonewall Jackson's corps the assailants were in the end 
driven back with heavy losses. On the other flank, where part 
of Longstreet's corps held the low ridge opposite Fredericksburg 
called Marye's Heights, Burnside ordered in the II. corps under 
Major-General D. N. Couch about 1 1 a.m., and thenceforward 
division after division, on a front of little more than 800 yds., 
was sent forward to assault with the bayonet. The " Stone Wall ' ' 
along the foot of Marye's was lined with every rifle of Longstreet's 
corps that could find-room to fire, and above them the Confederate 
guns fired heavily on the assailants, whose artillery, on the height 
beyond the river, was too far off to assist them. Not a man of 
the Federals reached the wall, though the bravest were killed 
a few paces from it, and Sumner's and most of Hooker's brigades 
were broken one after the other as often as they tried to assault. 
At night the wrecks of the right wing were withdrawn. Burnsidc 
proposed next day to lead the IX. corps, which he had formerly 
commanded, in one mass to the assault of the Stone Wall, but his 
subordinates dissuaded him, and on the night of the 15th the 
Army of the Potomac withdrew to its camps about Falmouth. 
The losses of the Federals were 12,650 men, those of the Con- 
federates 4200, little more than a third of which fell on Long- 
street's corps; 

See F. W. Palfrey. Antidam and Fredericksburg (New York, 1881) ; 
G. W. Rcdway, Fredericksburg (London, 1906); and G. F. R. 
Henderson, Fredericksburg (London, 1889). 

•FREDERICK)!!, a city and port of entry of New Brunswick. 
Canada, capital of the province, situated on the St John river, 
84 m. from its mouth, and on the Canadian Pacific railway. 
It stands on a plain bounded on one side by the river, which is 
here \ m. broad, and on the other by a range of hills which almost 
encircle the town. It is regularly built with long and straight 
streets, and contains the parliament buildings, government 
house, the Anglican cathedral, the provincial university and 
several other educational establishments. Fredcricton is the 
chief commercial centre in the interior of the province, and has 
also a large trade in lumber. Its industries include canneries, 
tanneries and wooden ware factories. The river is navigable 
for large steamers up to the city, and above it by vessels of lighter 
draught. Two bridges, passenger and railway, unite the city 
with the towns of St Marye's and Gibson on the east side of the 
river, at its junction with the Nashwaak. The city was founded 
in 1785 by Sir Guy Carlclon.and made thccapitalof the province, 
in spile of the jealousy of St John, on account of its superior 
strategical position. Pop. (1901) 71 17. 

FREDONIA, a village of Chautauqua county, New York, 
U.S.A.. about 45 m. S.W. of Buffalo, and 3 m. from Lake Erie. 
Pop. (1900) 4127; (1005, state census) 5148; (19x0 census) 528$. 
Fredonia is served by the Dunkirk, Allegheny Valley & Pittsburg 
railway, which connects at Dunkirk, 3 m.tothe N.,wilhthe Erie, 
the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, the New York, Chicago & 
St Louis, and the Pennsylvania railways; and by electric 
railway to Erie, Buffalo and Dunkirk. It is the scat of a State 
Normal School. The Darwin R. Barker public library contained 
9700 volumes in 1908. Fredonia is situated in the grape-growing 
region of western New York, is an important shipping point for 
grapes, and has large grape-vine and general nurseries. The 
auking of wine and of unfcrmcnled grape- juice arc important 
industries of the village. Among other manufactures are canned 
goods, coal dealers' supplies, and patent medicines. The first 
settlement here was made in 1804, and the place was called 
Canandaway until 18 17, when the present name was adopted. 
The village was incorporated in 1829. Fredonia was one of the 
first places in the United States, if not the first, to make use of 
natural gas for public purposes. Within the village limits, near 
a creek, whose waters showed the presence of gas, a well was sunk 
io 1821, and the supply of gas thus tapped was sufficient to light 
the streets of the village. Another well was sunk within the 



village limits in 185S. About 1005 natural gas was againobtalned 
by deep drilling near Fredonia and came into general use for 
heat, light and power. In the Fredonia Baptist church on the 
14th of December 1873 a Woman's Temperance Union was 
organized, and from this is sometimes dated the beginning of the 
Woman's Christian Temperance Union movement. 

FREDRIKSHALD (Fkederikshald, Fhedriciishall), a 
seaport and garrison town of Norway, in Smaalencne. ana 
(county), 85 m. by rail S. by £. of Christiania. Pop. (xooo) 
1 1,048. It is picturesquely situated on both banks of theTistedal 
river at its outflow to the Idc fjord, surrounded by several 
rocky eminences. The chief of these is occupied by the famous 
fortress Fredriksten, protected on three sides by precipices, 
founded by Frederick HI.. (1661), and mainly showing, in its 
present form, the works of Frederick V. (1766) and Christian 
VII. (1808). Between it and the smaller Gyldenlove fort a 
monument marks the spot where Charles XII. was shot in the 
trenches while besieging the town (17x8). The siege, which was 
then raised, is further commemorated by a monument to the 
brave defence of the brothers Peter and Hans Kolbjornsen. 
Frcdrikshald is close to the Swedish frontier, and had previously 
(1660) withstood invasion, after which its name was changed 
from Halden to the present form in 1665 in honour of Frederick 
III. The town was almost totally destroyed by fire in 1759 
and 1826. The castle surrendered to the Swedish crown prince 
Bcrnadotte in 1814, and its capture was speedily followed by the 
conquest of the kingdom and its union with Sweden. Fredriks- 
hald is one of the principal ports of the kingdom for the export 
of timber. Marble of very fine quality and grain is extensively 
quarried and exported for architectural ornamentation and .for 
furniture-making. Wood-pulp is also exported. The industries 
embrace granite quarries, wood-pulp factories, and factories for 
sugar, tobacco, curtains, travelling-bags, boots, &c. There 
are railway communications with Gothenburg and all parts of 
Sweden and regular coastal and steamer services. 

FREDRIKSTAD (Frederikstad), a seaport and manufactur- 
ing town of Norway in Smaalcnenc ami (county), $8 m. S. by E. 
of Christiania by the Christiania-Gothenburg railway. Pop. 
(1000) 14,553. It MCS at tnc mouth and on the eastern shore of 
Christiania fjord, occupying both banks of the great river 
Glommen, which, descending from the richly- wooded district of 
Ostcrdal, floats down vast quantities of limber. The new town 
on the right bank is therefore a centre of the timber export trade, 
this place being the principal port in Norway for the export of 
pit-props, planed boards, and other varieties of timber. There 
is also a great industry in the making of red bricks, owing to the 
expansion of Christiania, Gothenburg and other towns. Granite 
is quarried and exported. Besides the large number of saw and 
planing mills, there are shipbuilding yards, engine and boiler 
works, cotton and woollen mills, and factories for acetic acid and 
napht ha. The harbour, which can be entered by vessels drawing 
14 ft., is kept open in winter by an ice-breaker. In the vicinity 
is the island Hanktt, the most fashionable Norwegian seaside 
resort. The old town on the left bank was founded by Frederick 
II. in 1567. It was for a long time strongly fortified, and in 
1716 Charles XII. of Sweden madea vain attempt to capture it. 

FREE BAPTISTS, formerly called (but no longer officially) 
Freewill Baptists, an American denomination holding ami- 
paedobaptist and anti-Calvinistic doctrines, and practically 
identical in creed with the General Baptists of Great Britain. 
Many of the early Baptist churches in Rhode Island and through- 
out the South were believers in " general redemption " (hence 
called " general " Baptists); and there was a largely attended 
conference of this Arminian branch of the church at Newport in 
1729. But the denomination known as " Frcc-willcrs " had its 
rise in 1779-1780, when anti-Calvinists in Loudon, Barrington 
and Canterbury, New Hampshire, seceded and were organized 
by Benjamin Randall (1 749-1808), a native of New Hampshire. 
Randall was an itinerant missionary, who had been preaching 
for two years before his ordination in 17S0; in the same year 
he was censured for " heterodox " teaching. The work of the 
church suffered a relapse after his death, and a movement to join 



7° 



FREEBENCH— FREE CHURCH OF ENGLAND 



the Freewill Baptists with the " Christians," who were led by 
Elias Smith (1769-1S46) and had been bitterly opposed by 
Randall, was nearly successful. Between 1820 and 1830 the 
denomination made considerable progress, especially in New 
England and the Middle West. The Freewill Baptists were 
joined in 1841 by many " open-communion Baptists " — those 
in the Carolinas who did not join the larger body distinguishing 
themselves by the name of Original Freewill Baptists— and soon 
afterwards by some of the General Baptists of North Carolina and 
some of the Six Principle Baptists of Rhode Island (who had 
ad(fed the " laying on of hands " to the Five Principles hitherto 
held); and the abbreviation of the denominational name to 
" Free Baptists " suggests their liberal policy— indeed open 
communion is the main if not the only hindrance to union with 
the " regular " Baptist Church. 

Colleges founded by the denomination, all co-educational, are: 
Hillsdale College, opened at Spring Harbor as Michigan Central 
College in 1844, and established at Hillsdale, Michigan, in 1855; 
Bates College, Le wist on, Maine, 1863, now non-sectarian; Rio 
Grande College, Rio Grande, Ohio, 1876; and Parker College, 
Winnebago City, Minnesota, opened in 1888. At the close of 
1000 there were 1294 ministers, 1303 churches, and 73,536 
members of the denomination in the United States. The Morn- 
ing Star of Boston, established in 1826, is the most prominent 
journal published by the church. In British North America, 
according to a Canadian census bulletin of 1002, there were, in 
1901, 24,229 Free Baptists, of whom 15,502 were inhabitants of 
New Brunswick, 8355 of Nova Scotia, 246 of Ontario, and 87 
of Quebec. The United Societies of Free Baptist Young People, 
an international organization founded in 1888, had in 1007 about 
15,000 members. At the close of 1007 the " Original Freewill 
Baptists " had 1 20 ministers, 167 churches, and 12,000 members, 
practically all in the Carolinas. 

See I. D. Stewart, History of the Free Will Baptists (Dover. N. H., 
1862) for 1780-1830, and his edition of the Minutes of the General 
Conference of the Free Will Baptist Connection (Boston, 1887) ; James 
B. Taylor, The Centennial Record of the Free Will Baptists (Dover, 
1 881); John Biiz2cll, Memoir of Eider Benjamin Randall (Parson- 
field, Maine, 1827); and P. Richardson. Randall and the Free 
Will Baptises*" in The Christian Review, vol. xxiii. (Baltimore, 1858). 

FREEBENCH, in English law, the interest which a widow has 
in the copyhold lands of her husband, corresponding to dower 
in the case of freeholds. It depends upon the custom of the 
manor, but as a general rule the widow takes a third for her life 
of the lands of which her husband dies seised, but it may be an 
estate greater or less than a third. If the husband surrenders 
his copyhold and the surrenderee is admitted, or if he contracts 
for a sale, it will defeat the widow's frcebench. As freebench is 
regarded as a continuation of the husband's estate, the widow 
does not (except by special custom) require to be admitted. 

FREE CHURCH FEDERATION, a voluntary association of 
British Nonconformist churches for co-operation in religious, 
social and civil work. It was the outcome of a unifying tendency 
displayed during the latter part of the 19th century. About 
1890 the proposal that there should be a Nonconformist Church 
Congress analogous to the Angbcan Church Congress was seriously 
considered, and the first was held in Manchester on the 7th of 
November 1892. In the following year it was resolved that the 
basis of representation should be neither personal (as in the 
Anglican Church Congress) nor denominational, but territorial. 
England and Wales have since been completely covered with a 
network of local councils, each of which elects its due proportion 
of representatives to the national gathering. This territorial 
arrangement eliminated all sectarian distinctions, and also the 
possibility of committing the different churches as such to any 
particular policy. The representatives of the local councils 
attend not as denominationalists but as Evangelical Free 
Churchmen. The name of the organization was changed from 
Congress to National Council as soon as the assembly ceased to 
be a fortuitous concourse of atoms, and consisted of duly 
appointed representatives from the local councils of every part 
of England. The local councils consist of representatives of the 
Congregational and Baptist Churches, the Methodist Churches, 



the Presbyterian Church of England, the Free Episcopal Churches, 
the Society of Friends, and such other Evangelical Churches as 
the National Council may at any time admit. The constitution 
states the following as the objects of the National Council: (0) 
To facilitate fraternal intercourse and co-operation among the 
Evangelical Free Churches; (b) to assist in the organization of 
local councils; (c) to encourage devotional fellowship and mutual 
counsel concerning the spiritual life and religious activities of the 
Churches; (</) to advocate the New Testament doctrine of the 
Church, and to defend the rights of the associated Churches; 
(e) to promote the application of the law of Christ in every 
relation of human life. Although the objects of the Free Church 
councils are thus in their nature and spirit religious rather than 
political, there are occasions on which action is taken on great 
national affairs. Thus a thorough-going opposition was offered 
to the Education Act of 1002, and whole-hearted support accorded 
to candidates at the general election of 1006 who pledged them- 
selves to altering that measure. 

A striking feature of the movement is the adoption of the 
parochial system for the purpose of local work. Each of the 
associated churches is requested to look after a parish, not of 
course with any attempt to exclude other churches, but as having 
a special responsibility for those in that area who are not already 
connected with some existing church. Throughout the United 
Kingdom local councils are formed into federations, some fifty 
in number, which are intermediate between them and the 
national council. The local councils do what is possible to prevent 
overlapping and excessive competition between the churches. 
They also combine the forces of the local churches for evangelistic 
and general devotional work, open-air services, efforts on behalf 
of Sunday observance, and the prevention of 'gambling. Services 
are arranged in connexion with workhouses, hospitals and other 
public institutions. Social work of a varied character forms a 
large part of the operations of the local councils, and the Free 
Church Girls' Guild has a function similar to that of the Anglican 
Girls' Friendly Society. The national council engages in mission 
work on a large scale, and a considerable number of periodicals, 
hymn-books for special occasions, and. works of different kinds 
explaining the history and ideals of the Evangelical Free 
Churches have been published. The churches represented 
in the National Council have 9066 ministers, 55,828 local 
preachers, 407,091 Sunday-school teachers, 3.4i°»377 Sunday 
scholars, 2,178,221 communicants, and sitting accommodation 
for 8,555,460. 

A remarkable manifestation of this unprecedented reunion 
was the fact that a committee of the associated churches prepared 
and published a catechism expressing the positive and funda- 
mental agreement of all the Evangelical Free Churches on the 
essential doctrines of Christianity (see The Contemporary Renew, 
January 1899). The catechism reprcsentssubstantially the creed 
of not less than 80,000,000 Protestants. It has been widely 
circulated throughout Great Britain, the British Colonies and 
the United States of America, and has also been translated into 
Welsh, French and Italian. 

The movement has spread to all parts of Australia, New 
Zealand, South Africa, Jamaica, the United States of America and 
India. It is perhaps necessary to add that it differs essentially 
from the Evangelical Alliance, inasmuch as' its unit is not an 
individual, private Christian, but a definitely organized and 
visible Church. The essential doctrine of the movement is a 
particular doctrine of churchmanship which, as explained in 
the catechism, regards the Lord Jesus Christ as the sole and 
Divine Head of every branch of the Holy Catholic Church 
throughout the world. For this reason those who do not accept 
the deity of Christ are necessarily excluded from the national 
council and its local constituent councils. 

FREE CHURCH OF ENGLAND, a Protestant episcopal church 
" essentially one with the established church of England, but 
free to go into any parish, to use a revised edition of the Book 
of Common Prayer, to associate the laity with the clergy in the 
government and work of the church, and to hold communion with 
Christians of other denominations." It was founded in 1844 



FREE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND 



7' 



in opposition to the Tractarian movement, and embodies the 
distinctively evangelical elements of the Reformation. It pre- 
serves and maintains to the letter all that is Protestant and 
evangelical in the liturgy and services of the Anglican church, 
while its free constitution and revised formularies meet the needs 
of members of that communion who resent sacerdotal and 
ritualistic tendencies. There are two dioceses (northern and 
southern) each with a bishop, about 30 churches and ministers, 
and about 1300 members. 

FREE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. In one sense the Free 
Church of Scotland dated its existence from the Disruption of 
1843, in another it claimed to be the rightful representative of 
the National Church of Scotland (see Scotland, Ciiubch or) 
as it was reformed in 1560. 1 In the ecclesiastical history of 
Scotland the Free Churchman sees three great reforming periods. 
In his view these deserve to be called reforming on many 
accounts, but most especially because in them the independence 
of the church, her inherent scriptural right to exercise a spiritual 
jurisdiction in which she is responsible to her Divine Head alone, 
was both earnestly asserted and practically maintained. The 
first reformation extended from 1560, when the church freely 
held her first General Assembly, and of her own authority acted 
on the First Book of Discipline, to 1592, when her Presbyterian 
order was finally and fully ratified by the parliament. The second 
period began in 1638, when, after 20 years of suspended anima- 
tion, the Assembly once more shook off Episcopacy, and termin- 
ated in 1640, when the parliament of Scotland confirmed the 
church in her liberties in a larger and ampler sense than before. 
The third period began in 1834, when the Assembly made use 
of what the church believed to be her rights in passing the Veto 
and Chapel Acts* It culminated in the Disruption of 1843. 

The fact that the Church, as led first by John Knox and after- 
wards by Andrew Melville, claimed an inherent right to exercise 
a spiritual jurisdiction is notorious. More apt to be overlooked 
is the comparative freedom with which that right was actually 
used by the church irrespective of state recognition. That recog- 
nition was not given until after the queen's resignation in 1567;* 
but, for several years before it came, the church had been holding 
her Assemblies and settling all questions of discipline, worship, 
and administration as they arose, in accordance with the first 
book of polity or discipline which had been drawn up in 1560. 
Further, in 1581 she, of her own motion, adopted a second book 
of a similar character, in which she expressly claimed an inde- 
pendent and exclusive jurisdiction or power in all matters 
ecclesiastical, " which flows directly from God and the Mediator 
Jesus Christ, and is spiritual, not having a temporal head on earth, 
but only Christ, the only king and governor of his church "; 
and this claim, though directly negatived in 1584 by the " Black 
Acts," which included an Act of Supremacy over estates spiritual 
and temporal, continued to be asserted by the Assemblies, 
until at last it also was practically allowed in the act of 1592.* 
this legislation of 1592, however, did not long remain in force. 
An act of parliament in 1606, which " reponcd, restored and 
reintegrated " the estate of bishops to their ancient dignities, 
prerogatives and privileges, was followed by several acts of 
various subservient assemblies, which, culminating in that of 
1618, practically amounted to a complete surrender of jurisdiction 
by the church itself. For twenty years no Assemblies whatever 
were held. This interval must necessarily be regarded from the 
Presbyterian point of view as having been one of very deep 
depression. But a second reformation, characterized by great 

1 " It it her being free, not her being established, that constitutes 
tbe real historical and hereditary identity of the Reformed National 
Church of Scotland." See Act and Declaration, &c, of Free Assembly, 
1851. 

'In the act Anrnt the true and holy Kirk, and of those that are 
declared not to be of the same. Thb act was supplemented by that of 
1579. Anent the Jurisdiction of the Kirk, 

* The Second Book of Discipline was not formally recognized in 
that act: but all former acts against " the jurisdiction and dis- 
cipline of the true Kirk as the same is used ana exercised within the 
realm" were abolished ; and all " liberties, privileges, immunities 
and freedoms whatsoever ** previously granted were ratified and 
approved. 



energy and vigour, began in 163&. The proceedings of the 
Assembly of that year, afterwards tardily and reluctantly 
acquiesced in by the state, finally issued in the acts of parliament 
of 1649, by which the Westminster standards were ratified, 
by-patronage was abolished, and the coronation oath itself 
framed in accordance with the principles of Presbyterian church 
•government. Another period of intense reaction soon set in. 
No Assemblies were permitted by Cromwell after 1653; and, 
soon after the Restoration, Presbytery was temporarily over* 
thrown by a series of rescissory acts. Nor was the Revolution 
Settlement of 1690 so entirely favourable to the freedom of the 
church as the legislation of 1 649 had been. Prelacy was abolished, 
and various obnoxious statutes were repealed, but the acts 
rescissory were not cancelled; prcsbyterianism was re-estab- 
lished, but the statutory recognition of the Confession of Faith 
took no notice of certain qualifications under which that docu- 
ment had originally been approved by the Assembly of 1647; 4 
the old rights of patrons were again discontinued, but the large 
powers which had been conferred on congregations by the act of 
1649 were not wholly restored. Nevertheless the great principle 
of a distinct ecclesiastical jurisdiction, embodied in the Con- 
fession of Faith, was accepted without reservation, and a Presby- 
terian polity effectively confirmed both then and at the ratifica- 
tion of the treaty of Union. This settlement, however, did not 
long subsist unimpaired. In 1 7 1 2 the act of Queen Anne, restor- 
ing patronage to its ancient footing, was passed in spite of the 
earnest remonstrances of the Scottish people. For many years 
afterwards (until 1784) the Assembly continued to instruct each 
succeeding commission to make application to the king and the 
parliament for redress of the grievance. But meanwhile a new 
phase of Scottish ecclesiastical politics commonly known as 
Moderatism had been inaugurated, during the prevalence of 
which the church became even more indifferent than the lay 
patrons themselves to the rights of her congregations with regard 
to the " calling " of ministers. From tbe Free Church point of 
view, the period from which the secessions under Ebenezer 
Erskine and Thomas Gillespie are dated was also characterized 
by numerous other abuses on the Church's part which amounted 
to a practical surrender of the most important and distinctive 
principles of her ancient Presbyterian polity. 1 Towards the 
beginning of the present century there were many circumstances, 
both within and without the church, which conspired to bring 
about an evangelical and popular reaction against this reign of 
" Moderatism." The result was a protracted struggle, which is 
commonly referred to as the Ten Years' Conflict, and which has 
been aptly described as the last battle in the long war which for 
nearly 300 years had been waged within the church itself, between 
the friends and the foes of the doctrine of an exclusive ecclesi- 
astical jurisdiction. That final struggle may be said to have 
begun with the passing in 1834 of the " Veto " Act, by which it 
was declared to be a fundamental law of the church that no pastor 
should be intruded on a congregation contrary to the will of the 
people,* and by which it was provided that the simple dissent 
of a majority of heads of families in a parish should be enough to 
warrant a presbytery in rejecting a presentee. The question of 
the legality of this measure soon came to be tried in the civil 
courts; and it was ultimately answered in a sense unfavourable 
to the church by the decision (1838) of the court of session in 
the Auchterarder case, to the effect that a presbytery had no right 
to reject a presentee simply because the parishioners protested 
against his settlement, but was bound to disregard the veto (see 
Chalmexs, Thomas). This decision elicited from the Assembly 

• The most important of these had reference to the full right of a 
constituted church to the enjoyment of an absolutely unrestricted 
freedom in convening Assemblies. This very point on one occasion 
at least threatened to be the cause of serious misunderstandings 
between William and the people of Scotland. The difficulties were 
happily smoothed, however, by the wisdom and tact of William 
Carstares. 

• See Act and Declaration of Free Assembly, 185 1. 

• Thb principle had been asserted even by an Assembly so late as 
that of 1736, and had been invariably presupposed in the " call," 
which had never ceased to be regarded as an indispensable pre* 
requisite for the settlement of n minister. 



72 



FREE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND 



of that year a new declaration of the doctrine of the spiritual 
independence of the church. The "exclusive jurisdiction of 
the civil courts in regard to the civil rights and emoluments 
secured by law to the church and the ministers thereof " was 
acknowledged without qualification; and continued implicit 
obedience to their decisions with reference to these rights and 
emoluments was pledged. At the same time it was insisted on 
" that, as is declared in the Confession of Faith of this National 
Established Church, ' the Lord Jesus Christ, as King and Head 
of the church, hath therein appointed a government in the hand 
of church officers distinct from the civil magistrate '; and that 
in all matters touching the doctrine, discipline and government 
of the church her judicatories possess an exclusive jurisdiction, 
founded on the Word of God, which power ecclesiastical " (in 
the words of the Second Book of Discipline) " flows immediately 
from God and the Mediator the Lord Jesus Christ, and is spiritual, 
not having a temporal head on earth, but only Christ, the only 
spiritual King and Governor of His Kirk." And it was resolved 
to assert, and at all hazards defend, this spiritual jurisdiction, 
and firmly to enforce obedience to the same upon the office- 
bearers and members of the church. The decision of the court 
of session having been confirmed by the House of Lords early in 
1839, it was decided in the Assembly of that year that the 
church, while acquiescing in the loss of the temporalities at 
Auchterarder, should reaffirm the principle of non-intrusion as 
an integral part of the constitution of the Reformed Church 
of Scotland, and that a committee should be appointed to confer 
with the government with a view to the prevention, if possible, 
of any further collision between the civil and ecclesiastical 
authorities. While the conference with the government had no 
better result than an unsuccessful attempt at compromise by 
means of Lord Aberdeen's Bill, which embodied the principle 
of a dissent with reasons, still graver complications were arising 
out of the Marnoch and other cases. 1 In the circumstances it 
was resolved by the Assembly of 1842 to transmit to the queen, 
by the hands of the lord high commissioner, a " claim, declara- 
tion, and protest," complaining of the encroachments of the court 
of session, 2 and also an address praying for the abolition of 
patronage. The home secretary's answer (received in January 
1843) gave no hope of redress. Meanwhile the position of the 

1 According to the Free Church " Protest " of 1843 it was in these 
cases decided (1) that the courts of the church were liable to be com- 



mon 1a I interests untouched. 

* The narrative and argument of this elaborate and able document 
cannot be reproduced here. In substance it is a claim " as of right " 
on behalf of the church and of the nation and people of Scotland that 



encroachments of the said court of session, and her people secured in 
their Christian and constitutional rights and liberties. This claim is 
followed by the "declaration " that the Assembly cannot intrude 
ministers on reclaiming congregations, or carry on the government 
of Christ's church subject to the coercion of the court of session; and 
by the " protest " that all acts of the parliament of Great Britain 
passed without the consent of the Scottish church and nation, in 
alteration or derogation of the government, discipline, rights and 
privileges of the church, as also all sentences of courts in contra- 
ventionof said government, discipline, rights and privileges, "are and 
shall be in themselves void and null, and of no legal force or effect." 



lical party had been further hampered by the decision of 
rt of session declaring the ministers of chapels of ease to 
ualified to sit in any church court. A final appeal to 
lent by petition was made in March 1843, when, by a 
y of 135 (21X against 76), the House of Commons declined 
npt any redress of the grievances of the Scottish Church. 1 
Srst session of the following General Assembly (s8th May 
lie reply of the non-intrusion party was made in a protest, 
jy upwards of 200 commissioners, to the effect that since, 
opinion, the recent decisions of the civil courts, and the 
>re recent sanction of these decisions by the legislature, 
de it impossible at that time to hold a free Assembly of 
rch as by law established, they therefore " protest that it 
1 lawful for us, and such other commissioners as may 
with us, to withdraw to a separate place of meeting, for the 
■ of taking steps for ourselves and all who adhere to tu- 
ning with us the Confession of Faith and standards of 
irch of Scotland as heretofore understood — for separating 
orderly way from the Establishment, and thereupon 
g such measures as may be competent to us, in humble 
•nee on God's grace and toe aid of His Holy Spirit, for 
ancement of His glory, the extension of the gospel of our 
d Saviour, and the administration of the affairs of Christ's 
rcording toHis.holy word." The reading of this document, 
owed by the withdrawal of the entire non-intrusion party 
ier place of meeting, where the first Assembly of the Free 
was constituted, with Dr Thomas Chalmers as moderator, 
sembly sat from the 18th to the 30th of May, and trans- 
large amount of important business. On Tuesday the 
06 4 ministers and professors publicly adhibited their 

the Act of Separation and deed of demission by which 
lounced all claim to the benefices they had held in con- 
vith the Establishment, declaring them to be vacant, and 
ing to their being dealt with as such. By this impressive 
ing the signatories voluntarily surrendered an annual 
amounting to fully £100,000. 

irst care of the voluntarily disestablished church was to 
incomes for her clergy and places of worship for her 
As early as 1841 indeed the leading principle of a 
itation fund " for the support of the ministry had been 
:ed by Dr Robert Smith Candlish; and at " Convocation," 
Le unofficial meeting of the members of the evangelical 
intrusion party held in November 1842, Dr Chalmers 
3ared with a carefully matured scheme according to which 
congregation should do its part in sustaining the whole, 
j whole should sustain each congregation." Between 
scr 1842 and May 1843, 647 associations had been 
and at the first Assembly it was announced that up- 
f £17,000 had already been contributed. At the close of 
financial year (1843-1844) it was reported that the fund 
eeded £61,000. It was participated in by 583 ministers; 
• drew the full equal dividend of £105. Each successive 
>wed a steady increase in the gross amount of the fund; 
ng to an almost equally rapid increase of the number of 
listerial charges participating in its benefits, the stipend 
to each minister did not for many years reach the sura 
which had been aimed at as a minimum. Thus in 1844- 
e fund bad risen to £76,180, but the ministers had also 
d to 627, and the equal dividend therefore was only £1 22. 
the first ten years the annual income averaged £84,057; 
he next decade £108,643; and during the third £130,246. 
limum of £150 was reached at last in 1868; and subsc- 
the balance remaining after that minimum had been 
i was treated as a surplus fund, and distributed among 
ninisters whose congregations have contributed at 
specified rates per member. In 1878 the total amount 

1 for this fund was upwards of £177,000; in this 1075 
■s participated. The full equal dividend of £157 was 

766 ministers; and additional grants of £36 and £18 

Scottish members voted with the minority in the proportion 
12. 
. number ultimately rose to 474. 



FREE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND 



73 



were paid out of the surplus fund to 632 and- 129 ministers 
respectively. 

To provide for the erection of the buildings which, it was 
foreseen, would be necessary, a general building fund, in which 
all should share alike, was also organized, and local building 
funds were as far as possible established in each parish, with the 
result that at the first Assembly a sum of £104,776 was reported 
as already available. By May 1844 a further sum of £123,060 
had been collected, and 470 churches were reported as completed 
or nearly so. In the following year £131,737 was raised and 
60 additional churches were built. At the end of four years 
considerably more than 700 churches had been provided. 

During the winter session 1843-1844 the divinity students 
who had joined the Free Church continued their studies under 
Dr Chalmers and Dr David Welsh (1793-1845); and at the 
Assembly of 1844 arrangements were made for the erection of 
suitable collegiate buildings. The New College, Edinburgh, 
was built in 1847 at a cost of £46,506; and divinity halls were 
subsequently set up also in Glasgow and Aberdeen. In 1878 
there were 13 professors of theology, with an aggregate of 330 
students, — the numbers at Edinburgh, Glasgow and Aberdeen 
respectively being 129, 69 and 32. 

A somewhat unforeseen result of the Disruption was the 
necessity for a duplicate system of elementary schools. At 
the 1843 Assembly it was for the first time announced by Dr 
Welsh that " schools to a certain extent must be opened to afford 
a suitable sphere of occupation for parochial and still more for 
private teachers of schools, who are threatened with deprivation 
of their present office on account of their opinions upon the church 
question." The suggestion was taken up with very great energy, 
with the result that in May 1845, 280 schools had been set up, 
while in May 1847 this number had risen to 5x3, with an attend- 
ance of upwards of 44,000 scholars. In 1869 it was stated in an 
authoritative document laid before members of parliament 
that at that time there were connected with and supported by 
the Free Church 598 schools (including two normal schools), 
with 633 teachers and 64,115 scholars. The school buildings 
had been erected at a cost of £220,000, of which the committee 
of privy council had contributed £35,000, while the remainder 
had been raised by voluntary effort. Annual payments made 
to teachers, &c, as at 1869, amounted to £16,000. In accordance 
with certain provisions of the Education Act of 1872 most of the 
schools of the Free Church were voluntarily transferred, without 
compensation, to the local school boards. The normal schools 
are now transferred to the state. 

It has been seen already that during the period of the Ten 
Years' Conflict the non-intrusion party strenuously denied 
that in any one respect it was departing from acknowledged 
principles of the National Church. It continued to do so after the 
Disruption. In 1846, however, it was found to have become 
necessary, " in consequence of the late change in the outward 
condition of the church," to amend the " questions and formula " 
to be used at the licensing of probationers and the ordination 
of office-bearers. These were amended accordingly; and at the 
same time it was declared that, " while the church firmly main- 
tains the same scriptural principles as to the duties of nations 
and their rulers in reference to true religion and the Church of 
Christ for which she has hitherto contended, she disclaims in- 
tolerant or persecuting principles, and docs not regard her 
Confession of Faith, or any portion thereof when fairly interpreted, 
as favouring intolerance or persecution, or consider that her 
office-bearers by subscribing it profess any principles inconsistent 
with liberty of conscience and the right of private judgment." 
The main difference between the " formula " of the Free Church 
sad that of the Established Church (as at the year xooo) was 
that the former referred to the Confession of Faith simply as 
" approven by General Assemblies of this Church," while the 
latter described it as " approven by the General Assemblies of this 
National Church, and ratified by law in the year 1690, and fre- 
quently confirmed by divers Acts of Parliament since that time." 
The former inserted an additional clause,—" I also approve of 
the general principles respecting the jurisdiction of the church. 



and her subjection to Christ as her only Head, which are con- 
tained in the Claim of Right and in the Protest referred to in the 
questions already put tome"; and also added the words which 
are here distinguished by italics,—" And I promise that through 
the grace of God I shall firmly and constantly adhere to the same, 
and to the utmost of my power shall in my station assert, 
maintain, and defend' the said doctrine, worship, discipline 
and government of this church by kirk-sessions, presbyteries, 
provincial synods, and general assemblies, together with the 
liberty and exclusive jurisdiction thereof; and that I shall, in my 
practice, conform myself to the said worship and submit to the 
said discipline [and] government, and exclusive jurisdiction, and 
not endeavour directly or indirectly the prejudice or subversion 
of the same." In the year 185 1 an act and declaration anent the 
publication of the subordinate standards and other authoritative 
documents of the Free Church of Scotland was passed, in which 
the historical fact is recalled that the Church of Scotland had 
formally consented to adopt the Confession of Faith, catechisms, 
directory of public worship, and form of church government agreed 
upon by the Westminster Assembly ; and it is declared that 
" these several formularies, as ratified, with certain explanations, 
by divers Acts of Assembly in the years 1645, 1646, and particu- 
larly in 1647, this church continues till* this day to acknowledge 
as her subordinate standards of doctrine, worship and govern- 
ment." 1 

In 1858 circumstances arose which, in the opinion of many, 
seemed fitted to demonstrate to the Free Church that her freedom 
was an illusion, and that all her sacrifices had been made in vain. 
John Macmillan, minister of Cardross, accused of immorality*, 
had been tried and found guilty by the Free Presbytery of 
Dumbarton. Appeal having been taken to the synod, an attempt 
was there made to revive one particular charge, of which he had 
been finally acquitted by the presbytery; and this attempt was 
successful in the General Assembly. That ultimate court of 
review did not confine itself to the points appealed, but went 
Into the merits of the whole case as it had originally come before 
the presbytery. The result was a sentence of suspension. 
Macmillan, believing that the Assembly had acted with some 
irregularity, applied to the court of session for an interdict 
against the execution of that sentence; and for this act he waa 
summoned to the bar of the Assembly to say whether or nojt 
it was the case that he had thus appealed. Having answered 
in the affirmative, he was deposed on the spot. Forthwith 
he raised a new action (his previous application for an interdict 
had been refused) concluding for reduction of the spiritual 
sentence of deposition and for substantial damages. The 
defences lodged by the Free Church were to the effect that the 
civil courts had no right to review and reduce spiritual sentences, 
or to decide whether the General Assembly of the Free Church 
had acted irregularly or not. . Judgments adverse to the defenders 
were delivered on these points; and appeals were taken to the 
House of Lords. But before the case could be heard there, 
the lord president took an opportunity in the court of session 
to point out to the pursuer that, inasmuch as the particular 
General Assembly against which the action was brought had 
ceased to exist, it could not therefore be made in any circum- 
stances to pay damages, and that the action of reduction of the 
spiritual sentence, being only auxiliary to the claim of damages, 
ought therefore to be dismissed. He further pointed out that 
Macmillan might obtain redress in another way, sh6uld he be 
able to prove malice against individuals. Very soon after this 
deliverance of the lord president, the case as it had stood against 
the Free Church was withdrawn, and Macmillan gave notice of 
an action of a wholly different kind. But this last was not per- 
severed in. The appeals which had been taken to the House of 
Lords were, in these circumstances, also departed from by 
the Free Church. The case did not advance sufficiently to show 

1 By this formal recognition of the qualifications to the Confession 
of Faith made in 1647 the scruples of the majority of the Associate 
Synod of Original Sccedcra were removed, and 27 ministers, alone 
with a considerable number of their people, joined the Free Church 
in the following year. 



74 



FREE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND 



how far the courts of law would be prepared to go in the direction 
of recognizing voluntary tribunals and a kind of secondary 
exclusive jurisdiction founded on contract. 1 But, whether 
recognized or not, the church for her part continued to beKeve 
that she had an inherent spiritual jurisdiction, and remained 
unmoved in her determination to act in accordance with that 
resolution " notwithstanding of whatsoever trouble or persecu- 
tion may arise." * 

In 1863 a motion was made and unanimously carried in the 
Free Church Assembly for the appointment of a committee to 
confer with a corresponding committee of the United Presby- 
terian Synod, and with the representatives of such other dis- 
established churches as might be willing to meet and deliberate 
with a view to an incorporating union. Formal negotiations 
between the representatives of these two churches were begun 
shortly afterwards, which resulted in a report laid before the 
following Assembly. From this document it appeared that the 
committees of the two churches were not at one on the question 
as to the relation of the civil magistrate to the church. While on 
the part of the Free Church it was maintained that he " may 
lawfully acknowledge, as being in accordance with the Word of 
God, the creed and jurisdiction of the church/' and that " it is 
his duty, when necessary and expedient, to employ the national 
resources in aid of the church, provided always that in doing so, 
while reserving to himself full control over the temporalities 
which are his own gift, he abstain from all authoritative inter- 
ference in the internal government of the church," it was declared 
by the committee of the United Presbyterian Church that, 
" inasmuch as the civil magistrate has no authority in spiritual 
things, and as the employment of force in such matters is opposed 
to the spirit and precepts of Christianity, it is not within his 
province to legislate as to what is true in religion, to prescribe 
a creed or form of worship to his subjects, or to endow the church 
from national resources." In other words, while the Free Church 
maintained that in certain circumstances it was lawful and even 
incumbent on the magistrate to endow the church and on the 
church to accept his endowment, the United Presbyterians main- 
tained that in no case was this lawful either for the one party or for 
the other. Thus in a very short time it had been made perfectly 
evident that a union between the two bodies, if accomplished 
at all, could only be brought about on the understanding that 
the question as to the lawfulness of state endowments should 
be an open one. The Free Church Assembly, by increasing 
majorities, manifested a readiness for union, even although 
unanimity had not been attained on that theoretical point. 
But there was a minority which did not sympathize in this 
readiness, and after ten years of fruitless effort it was in 1873 
found to be expedient that the idea of union with the United 
Presbyterians should for the time be abandoned. Other negotia- 
tions, however, which had been entered upon with the Reformed 
Presbyterian Church at a somewhat later date proved more 
successful; and a majority of the ministers of that church with 
their congregations were united with the Free Church in 1876. 

(J- S. Bl.) 

In the last quarter of the 19th century the Free Church con- 
tinued to be the most active, theologically, of the Scottish 
Churches. The College chairs were almost uniformly filled by 
advanced critics or theologians, inspired more or less by Professor 
A. B. Davidson. Dr A. B. Bruce, author of The Training of ike 
Twehe, &c, was appointed to the chair of apologetics and New 
Testament exegesis in the Glasgow College in 1875; Henry 
Drummond (author of Natural Law in the Spiritual World, &c.) 
was made lecturer in natural science in the same college in 1877 
and became professor in 1884; and Dr George Adam Smith 
(author of The Twelve Prophets, 8tc.) was called to the Hebrew 
chair in 1801. Attempts were made between 1800 and 1895 to 
bring all these professors except Davidson (similar attacks 
were also made on Dr Marcus Dods, afterwards principal of the 

1 See Taylor Innes, Law of Creeds in Scotland, p. 258 seq. 

* The language of Dr Buchanan, for example, in 1800 was (mutatis 
mutandis) the same as that which he had employed in 1838 in moving 
the Independence resolution already referred to. 



New College, Edinburgh) to the bar of the Assembly lor unsound 
teaching or writing; but in every case these were abortive, 
the Assembly never taking any step beyond warning the accused 
that their primary duty was to teach and defend the church's 
faith as embodied in the confession. In 1892 the Free Church, 
following the example of the United Presbyterian Church and 
the Church of Scotland (1889), passed a Declaratory Act relaxing 
the stringency of subscription to the confession, with the result 
that a small number of ministers and congregation*, mostly in the 
Highlands, severed their connexion with the church and formed 
the Free Presbyterian Church of Scotland, on strictly and 
strailly orthodox lines. In 1907 this body had twenty congrega- 
tions and twelve ministers. 

The Free Church always regarded herself as a National Church, 
and during this period she sought actively to be true to that 
character by providing church ordinances for the increasing 
population of Scotland and applying herself to the new problems 
of non-church-going, and of the changing habits of the people. 
Her Assembly's committee on religion and morals worked 
toward the same ends as the similar organization of the Estab- 
lished Church, and in her, as in the other churches, the standard 
of parochial and congregational activity was raised and new 
methods of operation devised. She passed legislation on the 
difficult problem of ridding the church of inefficient minister*. 
The use of instrumental music was sanctioned in Free Churches 
during this period. An association was formed in 1891 to pro- 
mote the ends of edification, order and reverence in the public 
services of the church, and published in 1898 A Nmo Directory 
for Public Worship which does not provide set forms of prayer, 
but directions as to the matter of prayer in the various services. 
The Free Church took a large share in the study of hymnology 
and church music, which led to the production of The Church 
Hynmary. From 1 885 to 1 895 much of the energy of all the Presby- 
terian churches was absorbed by the disestablishment agitation. 
In the former year the Free Church, having almost entirely 
shed the establishment principle on which it was founded, began 
to rival the United Presbyterian Church in its resolutions calling 
for the disestablishment of the Church of Scotland. In spite of 
the offers of the Establishment Assembly to confer with the 
dissenting churches about union, the assaults upon its status 
waxed in vigour, till In 1893 the Free Church hailed the result of 
the general election as a verdict of the constituencies in favour 
of disestablishment, and insisted upon the government of the day 
taking up Sir Charles Cameron's bill. 

During the last four or five years of the century the Free and 
United Presbyterian churches, which after the failure of their 
union negotiations in 1873 had been connected together by a 
Mutual Eligibility Act enabling a congregation of one church 
to call a minister from the other, devoted their energy to the 
arrangement of an incorporating union. The Synod of the 
United Presbyterian Church resolved in 1896 to u take steps 
towards union," and in the following year the Free Assembly 
responded by appointing a committee to confer with a committee 
of the other church. The joint committee discovered a "remark- 
able and happy agreement " between the doctrinal standards, 
rules and methods of the two bodies, and with very little con- 
cessions on either side a common constitution and common 
"questions and formula" for the admission of ministers and 
office-bearers were arranged. A minority, always growing 
smaller, of the Free Church Assembly, protested against the pro- 
posed union, and threatened if it were carried through to test 
its legality in the courts. To meet this opposition, the suggestion 
is understood to have been made that an act of parliament 
should be applied for to legalize the union; but this was not done, 
and the union was carried through on the understanding that 
the question of the lawfulness of church establishments should 
be an open one. 

The supreme courts of the churches met for the last time in 
their respective places of meeting on the 30th of October 1000, 
and on the following day the joint meeting took place at 
which the union was completed, and the United Free Church 
of Scotland («;.».) entered on its career; The protesting and 



FREEDMEN'S BUREAU— FREEHOLD 



75 



dissenting minority at once claimed to be the Free Church. They, 
met outside the Free Assembly Hall on the 31st of October, and, 
failing to gain admission to it, withdrew to another hall, where 
they elected Mr Conn Bannatyne their moderator and held the 
remaining sittings of the Assembly. It was reported that between 
16,000 and 1 7,000 names had been received of persons adhering to 
the anti-unionist principle. At the Assembly of 1001 it was 
stated that the Free Church had twenty-five ministers and at 
least sixty-three congregations. The character of the church is 
indicated by the fact that its office-bearers were the faithful 
survivors of the decreasing minority of the Old Free Church, 
which had protested against the disestablishment resolutions, 
against the relaxation of subscription, against toleration of the 
teaching of the Glasgow professors, and against the use m worship 
of organs or of human hymns. Her congregations were mostly 
in the Gaelic-speaking districts of Scotland. She was confronted 
with a very arduous undertaking; her congregations grew in 
number, but were far from each other and there were not nearly 
enough ministers. The Highlands were filled, by the Union, 
with exasperation and dispeace which could not soon subside. 
The church met with no sympathy or assistance at the hands 
of the United Free Church, and her work was conducted at first 
under considerable hardships, nor was her position one to appeal 
to the general popular sentiment of Scotland. But the little 
church continued her course with indomitable courage and 
without any compromise of principle. The Declaratory Act of 
1892 was repealed after a consultation of presbyteries, and the old 
principles as to worship were declared. A professor was obliged 
to withdraw a book he had written, in which the results of 
criticism, with regard to the Synoptic Gospels, had been accepted 
and applied. The desire of the Church of Scotland to obtain 
relaxation of her formula was declared to make union with her 
impossible. Along with this unbending attitude, signs of material 
growth were not wanting. The revenue of the church increased; 
the grant from the sustentation fund was in 1901 only £75, but 
from 1003 onwards it was £167. 

The decision of the House of Lords in 1004 did not bring the 
trials of the Free Church to an end. In the absence of any 
arrangement with the United Free Church, she could only gain 
possession of the property declared to belong to her by an 
application in each particular case to the Court of Session, and a 
series of law-suits began which were trying to all parties. In 
the year 1905 the Free Church Assembly met in the historic 
Free Church Assembly Hall, but it did not meet there again. 
Having been left by the awards of the commission without any 
station in the foreign mission field, the Free Church resolved to 
start a foreign mission of her own. The urgent task confronting 
the church was that of supplying ordinances to her congregations. 
The latter numbered 200 in 1907, and the church had as yet only 
74 ordained ministers, so that many of the .manses allocated to 
her by the commissioners were not yet occupied, and catechists 
and elders were called to conduct services where possible. The 
gallant stand this little church had made for principles which 
were no longer represented by any Presbyterian church outside 
the establishment attracted to her much interest and many 
hopes that she might be successful in her endeavours to do some- 
thing for the religious life of Scotland. 
See Scotland. Church of, for bibliography and statistks.(A.M.*) 
FREEDMEN'S BUREAU (officially the Bureau or Fxezdmen, 
Refugees and Abandoned Lands), a bureau created in the 
United States war department by an act of Congress, 3rd of March 
1865, to last one year, but continued until 187a by later acts 
passed over the president's veto. Its establishment was due 
partly to the fear entertained by the North that the Southerners 
if left to deal with the blacks would attempt to re-establish 
some form of slavery, partly to the necessity for extending relief 
to needy negroes and whites in the lately conquered South, 
and partly to the need of creating some commission or bureau 
to take charge of lands confiscated in the South. During the 
Civil War a million* negroes fell into the hands of the Federals 
and had to be cared for. Able-bodied blacks were enlisted in the 
army, and the women, children and old men were settled in large 



camps on confiscated Southern property, where they were cared 
for alternately by the war department and by the treasury 
department until the organization of the Freedmen's Bureau. 
At the bead of the bureau was a commissioner, General O. 0. 
Howard, and under him in each Southern state was an assistant 
commissioner with a corps of local superintendents, agents 
and inspectors. The officials had the broadest possible authority 
mall matters that concerned the blacks. The work of the bureau 
may be classified as follows: (x) distributing rations and medical 
supplies among the blacks; (a) establishing schools for them and 
aiding benevolent societies to establish schools and churches; 
(3) regulating labour and contracts; (4) taking charge of con- 
fiscated lands; and (5) administering justice in cases in which 
blacks were concerned. For several years the ex-slaves were 
under the almost absolute control of the bureau. Whether this 
control had a good or bad effect is still disputed, the Southern 
whites and many Northerners holding that the results of the 
bureau's work were distinctly bad, while others hold that much 
good resulted from its work. There is now no doubt,- however, 
that while most of the higher officials of the bureau were good 
men, the subordinate agents were generally without character 
or judgment and that their interference between the races caused 
permanent discord. Much necessary relief work was done, 
but demoralisation was also caused by it, and later the institution 
was used by its officials as a means of securing negro votes. 
In educating the blacks the bureau made some progress, but the 
instruction imparted by the missionary teachers resulted in 
giving the ex-slaves notions of liberty and racial equality that led 
to much trouble, finally resulting in the hostility of the whites to 
negro education. The secession of the blacks from the white 
churches was aided and encouraged by the bureau. The whole 
field of labour and contracts was covered by minute regulations, 
which, good in theory, were absurd in practice, and which failed 
altogether, but not until labour had been disorganised for several 
years. The administration of justice by the bureau agents 
amounted simply to a ceaseless persecution of the whites who bad 
dealings with the blacks, and bloody conflicts sometimes resulted. 
The law creating the bureau provided for the division of the 
confiscated property among the negroes, and though carried 



out only in parts of South Carolina, Florida and Georgia, it caused 
the negroes to believe that they were to be cared for at the 
expense of their former masters. This belief made them subject 
to swindling schemes perpetrated by certain bureau agents and 
others who promised to secure lands for them. When negro 
suffrage was imposed by Congress upon the Southern States, the 
bureau aided the Union League (q.v.) in organising the blacks into 
a political party opposed to the whites. A large majority of the 
bureau officials secured office through their control of the blacks. 
The failure of the bureau system and its discontinuance in the 
midst of reconstruction without harm to the blacks, and the 
intense hostility of the Southern whites to the institution caused 
by the irritating conduct of bureau officials, are indications that 
the institution was not well conceived nor wisely administered. 

See P. S. Pierce, The Freedmen's Bureau (Iowa City, 1904); 
Report of ike Joint Committee on Reconstruction (Washington, 1866); 
W. L. Fleming (fidX Documents relating to Reconstruction (Cleveland, 
O., 1906) ; W. L. Fleming, Civil War and Reconstruction in Alabama 
(New York, 1905); and James W. Garner, Reconstruction in Missis- 
sippi (New York, 1901). (W, L s F^ 

FREEHOLD, a town and the county-seat of Monmouth county, 
New Jersey, U.S.A., .in the township of Freehold, about 25 m. 
E. by N. of Trenton. Pop. (1800) 2932; (1900) 2934, of whom 
215 were foreign-born and 126 were negroes; (1905) 3064; (1910) 
1 3>33- . Freehold is served by the Pennsylvania and the Central 
of New Jersey railways. It is the trade centre of one of the most 
productive agricultural districts of the state and has various 
manufactures, including carriages, carpets and rugs, files, shirts, 
underwear, and canned beans and peas. The town is the seat 
of two boarding schools for boys: the Freehold Military School 
and the New Jersey Military Academy (chartered, 1000; 
founded in 1844 as the Freehold Institute). One of the resi- 
dences in the town dates from 1755. A settlement was made 
I in the township about 1650, and the township was incorporated 



7 6 



FREEHOLD— FREEMAN 



in 1693. In 17 1 5 the town was founded and wa 
seat; it was long commonly known (from the 
mouth Court-House, but afterwards took (fr 
the name Freehold, and in 1869 it was incorpo 
of Freehold. An important battle of the Waj 
known as the battle of Monmouth, was foug! 
house on the 28th of June 1778. A short dis 
court-house is a park in which there is a nu 
on the 13th of November 1884 in commemora 
the base is of Quincy granite and the shaft is o 
Surmounting the shaft is a statue repres 
Triumphant " (the height to the top of which 
The monument is adorned with five bronze re 
modelled by James £. Kelly (b. 1855); on 
represents " Molly Pitcher " (d. 1832), a nati 
when her husband (John C. Hays), an artille 
insensible during the battle, served the gun 
prevented its capture by the British. 1 Jc 
1888)-, governor of New Jersey in 1 863-1866 ai 
long a resident of Freehold, and the erection 
was largely due to his efforts. A bronze ta 
in front of the present court-house, commemon 
house, used as a hospital in the battle of Monnv 
in 1007. Freehold was the birthplace and hoi 
Henderson (1 743-1824), a Whig or Patriot lea< 
an officer in the War of Independence, and 
Continental Congress in 1770-1780 and of the 
Representatives in 1705-1 797. 

The name Freehold was first used of a Pi 
established about 1692 by Scottish exiles v, 
Jersey in 1682-1685 and built what was 
Scots' Church " near the present railway stal 
in Marlboro' township, Monmouth county. 
December 1706, John Boyd (d. 1709) was 
recorded Presbyterian ordination in America, 
the first regularly constituted Presbyterian c 
of the building now remains in the bury 
Boyd was interred, and where the Presbyteri 
Jersey in 1900 raised a granite monument U 
tombstone is preserved by the Presbyterian Hi 
Philadelphia. John Tennent (1706-1732) be< 
Freehold church in 1730, when a new church 
Old Scots congregation on White Hill in the p: 
Manalapan (then a part of Freehold township] 
station and village called Tennent; his broth' 
i777)i whose trance, in which he thought he 
heaven, was a matter of much discussion in hi 
in 1733-1777. In 1751-1753 thepresent " Old 
then called the Freehold Church, was erecte< 
same site as the building of 1730; in it White 
in the older building David Brainerd and his In< 
In 1859 this church (whose corporate name is " 
terian Church of the County of Monmouth ") 
of Tennent, partly to distinguish it from the Pi 
organized at Monmouth Court-House (now Fr 

See Frank % R. Symmcs, History of the Old Ti 
ed., Cranbury, New Jersey, 1904). 

FREEHOLD, in the English law of real pro] 
land, not being less than an estate for life. A 
of years, no matter how long, was considered 
to an estate for life, and unworthy of a freer 
" Some time before the reign of Henry II., b 
so early as Domesday, the expression liberm 
introduced to designate land held by a frcema: 
Thus freehold tenure is the sum of the rights 
constitute the relation of a free tenant to hi 

1 Her maiden name was Mary Ludwip. " M 
a nickname given to her by the soldiers tn refere 
water to soldiers overcome by heat in the battle 
married Hays in 1769: Hays died soon after the 
married one George McCaulcy. She lived fo 
years at Carlisle, Perm., where a monument 1 
memory in 1876. 

* Digby'a History of Ik* Law of Real Property * 



sense freehold is distinguished from copyhold, which b a tenure 
having its origin in the relation of lord and villein (see Copyhold). 
Freehold is also distinguished from leasehold, which is an estate 
for a fixed number of years only. By analogy the interest of a 
person who holds an office for life is sometimes said to be a freehold 
interest. • The term customary freeholds is applied to a kind of 
copyhold tenure in the north of England/ via. tenure by copy 
of court -roll, but not, as in other cases, expressed to be at the 
will of the lord. 

FREELAND, a borough of Luzerne county, Pennsylvania, 
U.S.A., about 20 m. S. of Wilkes-Barre, in the E. part of the state. 
Pop. (1800) 1730; (1900) 5254 (1339 foreign-born, many being 
Slavs); (1910) 6197. Freeland is served by the Lehigh 
Valley railway and by electric railway to Upper Lehigh (1 m. 
distant, served by the Central Railroad of New Jersey) and 
to other neighbouring places. The borough is built on Broad 
Mountain, nearly 2000 ft. above sea-level, and the chief industry 
is the mining of coal at the numerous surrounding collieries. 
Freeland is the seat of the Mining and Mechanical Institute 
of the Anthracite Region, chartered in 1894, modelled after the 
German Stdgersckulcn, with elementary and secondary depart- 
ments and a night school for workmen. The borough baa 
foundries and machine shops of considerable importance, 
and manufactures silk, overalls, beer and hames, Freeland 
was first settled about 1842, was laid out in 1870, and was 
incorporated in 1876. 

FREEMAN, EDWARD AUGUSTUS (1823-1892), English 
historian, was born at Harborne, Staffordshire, on the and of 
August 1823. He lost both his parents- in infancy, was brought 
up by a grandmother, and was educated at private schools and 
by a private tutor. He was a studious and precocious boy, more 
interested in religious matters, history and foreign politics than 
in boyish things. He obtained a scholarship at Trinity College, 
Oxford, and a second class in the degree examination, and was 
elected fellow of his college (1845) . While at Oxford he was much 
influenced by the High Church movement, and thought seriously 
of taking orders, but abandoned the idea. He married a daughter 
of his former tutor, the Rev. R. Gutch, in 1847, and entered 
on a life of study. Ecclesiastical architecture attracted him 
strongly. He visited many churches and began a practice, 
which he pursued throughout his life, of making drawings of 
buildings on the spot and afterwards tracing them over in ink 
His first book, save for his share in a volume of English verse, 
was a History of Architecture (1849). Though he had not then 
seen any buildings outside England, it contains a good sketch 
of the development of the art. It is full of youthful enthusiasm 
and is written in florid language. After some changes of residence 
he bought a house called Somerieaze, near Wells, Somerset, and 
settled there in i860. 

Freeman's life was one 0/ strenuous literary work. He wrote 
many books, and countless articles for reviews, newspapers and 
other publications, and was a constant contributor to the 
Saturday Renew until 1878, when he ceased to write for it for 
political reasons. His Saturday Review articles corrected many 
errors and raised the level of historical knowledge among the 
educated classes, but as a reviewer he was apt to- forget that a 
book may have blemishes and yet be praiseworthy. For some 
years he was an active county magistrate. He was deeply 
interested in politics, was a follower of Mr Gladstone, and 
approved the Home Rule Bill of 1886, but objected to the later 
proposal to retain the Irish members at Westminster. To be 
returned to Parliament was one of his few ambitions, and in x86S 
he unsuccessfully contested Mid-Somerset. Foreign rather than 
domestic politics had the first place with him. Historical and 
religious sentiment combined with his desteslation of all that was 
tyrannical to inspire him with hatred of the Turk and sympathy 
with the smaller and subject nationalities ot eastern Europe. 
He took a prominent part in the agitation which followed 
"the Bulgarian atrocities "; his speeches were intemperate, 
and he was accused of uttering the words " Perish India P 
at a public meeting in 1876. This, however, Was a misrepre- 
sentation of .his words. He was wari^ a knight commander 



FREEMAN 



77 



of the order of the Saviour by the king of Greece, and also 
received an order from the prince of Montenegro. 

Freeman advanced the study of history in England in two 
special directions, by insistence on the unity of history, and by 
teaching the importance and right use of original authorities. 
History is not, he urges, to be divided " by a middle wall of 
partition " into ancient and modern, nor broken into fragments 
as though the history of each nation stood apart. It is more 
than a collection of narratives; it is a science, " the science of 
man in his political character." The historical student, then, 
cannot afford to be indifferent to any part of the record of man's 
political being; but as his abilities for study are limited, he will, 
while reckoning all history to be within his range, have his own 
special range within which he will master every detail (Rede 
Lecture). Freeman's range included Greek, Roman and the 
earlier part of English history, together with some portions of 
foreign medieval history, and he had a scholarly though general 
knowledge of the rest of the history of the European work). 
He regarded the abiding life of Rome as " the central truth of 
European history," the bond of its unity, and he undertook his 
History of Sicily (1801-1804) partly because it illustrated this 
unity. Further, he urges that all historical study is valueless 
which does not take in a knowledge of original authorities, and 
he teaches both by example* and precept what authorities should 
be thus described, and how they are to be weighed and used. 
He did not use manuscript authorities, and for most of his work 
he had no need to do so. The authorities which lie needed were 
already in print, and his books would not have been better if 
he had disinterred a few more facts from unprinted sources. 

His reputation as a historian will chiefly rest on his History of 
the Norman Conquest (1867-1876), his longest completed book. 
In common with his works generally, it is distinguished by 
exhaustiveness of treatment and research, critical ability, 
a remarkable degree of accuracy, and a certain insight into the 
past which, he gained from his practical experience of men and 
institutions. He b almost exclusively a political historian. 
His saying that " history is past politics and politics arc present 
history " is significant of this limitation of his work, which left 
on one side subjects of the deepest interest in a nation's life. 
In dealing with constitutional matters he sometimes attaches 
too much weight to words and formal aspects. This gives certain 
of his arguments an air of pedantry, and seems to lead him to 
find evidences of continuity in institutions which in reality and 
spirit were different from what they once had been. As a rule 
his estimates of character arc remarkably able. It is true that 
he is sometimes swayed by prejudice, but this is the common lot 
of great historians; they cannot altogether avoid sharing in 
the feelings of the past, for they live in it, and Freeman did so to 
an extraordinary degree. Yet if he judges too favourably the 
leaders of the national party in England on the eve of the 
Norman Conquest, that is a small matter to set against the insight 
which he exhibits in writing of Aratus, Sulla, Nicias, William 
the Conqueror, Thomas of Canterbury, Frederick the Second 
and many more. In width of view, thoroughness of investiga- 
tion and honesty of purpose he is unsurpassed by any historian. 
He never conceals nor wilfully misrepresents anything, and he 
reckoned no labour too great which might help him to draw a 
truthful picture of the past. When a place had any important 
connexion with his work he invariably visited it. He travelled 
much, always to gain knowledge, and generally to complete his 
historical equipment. His collected articles and essays on places 
of historical interest are perhaps the most pleasing of his writings, 
but they deal exclusively with historical associations and 
architectural features. The quantity of work which he turned 
out is enormous, for the fifteen large volumes which contain his 
Norman Conquest, his unfinished History of Sicily, his William 
Rufut (188a), and his Essays (1872-1870), and the crowd of his 
smaller books, are matched in amount by his uncollected con- 
tributions to periodicals. In respect of matter his historical 
work is uniformly excellent. In respect of form and style the 
case is different. Though his sentences themselves are not wordy, 
he is extremely diffuse in treatment, habitually repeating an idea 



in successive sentences of much the same import. While this 
habit was doubtless aggravated by the amount of his journalistic 
work, it seems originally to have sprung from what may be called 
a professorial spirit, which occasionally appears in the tone of 
his remarks. He was anxious to make sure that his readers would 
understand his exact meaning, and to guard them against all 
possible misconceptions. His lengthy explanations are the more 
grievous because he insists on the same points in several of his 
books. His prolixity was increased by his unwillingness, when 
writing without prescribed limits, to leave out any detail, 
however unimportant. His passion for details not only swelled 
his volumes to a portentous size, but was fatal to artistic con- 
st ruction. The length of his books has hindered their usefulness. 
They were written for the public at large, but few save professed 
students, who can admire and value his exhaustiveness, will read 
the many hundreds of pages which he devotes to a short period 
of history. In some of his smaller books, however, be shows 
great powers of condensation and arrangement, and writes 
tersely enough. His style is correct, lucid and virile, but gener- 
ally nothing more, and his endeavour to use as far as possible 
only words of Teutonic origin limited his vocabulary and makes' 
his sentences somewhat monotonous. While Froude often 
strayed away from his authorities, Freeman kept his authorities 
always before his eyes, and his narrative is here and there little 
more than a translation of their words. Accordingly, while it has 
nothing of Froude's carelessness and inaccuracy, it has nothing 
of his charm of style. Yet now and again he rises to the level 
of some heroic event, and parts of hb chapter on the " Campaign 
of Hastings " and of his record of the wars of Syracuse and 
Athens, his reflections on the vbit of Basil the Second to the 
church of the Virgin on the Acropolis, and some other passages 
in his books, are fine pieces of eloquent writing. 

The high quality of Freeman's work was acknowledged by 
all competent judges. He was made D.C.L. of Oxford and LL.D. 
of Cambridge honoris causa, and when he visited the United 
States on a lecturing tour was warmly received at various places 
of learning. He served on the royal commission on ecclcsiast ical 
courts appointed in 1881. In 1884 he was appointed rcgius 
professor of modern history at Oxford. Hb lectures were thinly 
attended, for he did not care to adapt them to the requirements 
of the university examinations, and be was not perhaps well 
fitted to teach young men. But be exercised a wholesome in- 
fluence over the more earnest students of history among the 
resident graduates. From 1886 he was forced by ill-health to 
spend much of hb time abroad, and he died of smallpox at 
Alicante on the 16th of March 1893, while on a tour in Spain. 
Freeman had a strongly marked personality. Though impatient 
in temper and occasionally rude, he was tender-hearted and 
generous. Hb rudeness to strangers was partly caused by shy- 
ness and partly by a childlike inability to conceal hb feelings. 
Eminently truthful, he could not understand that some verbal 
insincerities are necessary to social life. He had a peculiar 
faculty for friendship, and hb friends always found him sym- 
pathetic and affectionate* In their society he would talk well 
and showed a keen sense of humour. He considered it his duty 
to expose careless and ignorant writers, and certainly enjoyed 
doing so. He worked hard and methodically, often had several 
pieces of work in hand, and kept a daily record of the time which 
he devoted to each of them. Hb tastes were curiously limited. 
No art interested him except architecture, which he studied 
throughout his life; and he cared little for literature which was 
not either historical or political. In later life he ceased to hold 
the theological opinions of hb youth, but remained a devout 
churchman. 

See W. R. W. Stephens, Life and Letters ofE.A. Freeman (London, 
1893); Frederic Harrison. Tennyson, Rusktn, Mill and other Literary 
Estimates (London, 1899); James Bryce, " E. A. Freeman," E*g. 
HuL Rev., July 1893. (W. Hu.) 

FREEMAN, primarily one who is free, as opposed to a slave or 
•erf (see Feudalism; Slavery). The term b more specifically 
applied to one who pos se s se s the freedom of a city, borough or 
company. Before the passing of tbe Municipal Corporations 



?8 



FREEMASONRY 



Act 1835, each English borough admitted freemen according tc 
its own peculiar custom and by-laws. The rights and privileges 
of a freeman, though varying in different boroughs, generally 
included the right to vote at a parliamentary election of the 
borough, and exemption from all tolls and dues. The act ol 
1835 respected existing usages, and every person who was then 
an admitted freeman remained one, retaining at the same time 
all his former rights and privileges. The admission of freemen 
is now regulated by the Municipal Corporations Act 1882. By 
section 301 of that act the term " freeman " includes any person 
of the class whose rights and interests were reserved by the 
act. of 1835 under the name either of freemen or of burgesses. 
By section 202 no person can be admitted a freeman by gift or 
by purchase; that is, only birth, servitude or, marriage are 
qualifications. The Honorary Freedom of Boroughs Act 1885, 
however, makes an exception, as by that act the council of every 
borough may from time to time admit persons of distinction 
to be honorary freemen of the borough. The town clerk of 
every borough keeps a list, which is called " the freeman's roll," 
and when any person claims to be admitted a freeman in respect 
of birth, servitude or marriage, the mayor examines the claim, 
and if it is established the claimant's name is enrolled by the 
town clerk. 

A person may become a freeman or freewoman of one of the 
London livery companies by (1) apprenticeship or servitude; 
(2) patrimony; (3) redemption; (4) gift. This last is purely 
honorary. The most usual form of acquiring freedom was by 
serving apprenticeship to a freeman, free both of a company and 
of the city of London. By an act of common council of 1836 
apprenticeship was permitted to freemen of the city who had not 
taken up the freedom of a company. By an act of common 
council of 18S9 the term of service was reduced from seven years 
to four years. Freedom by patrimony is always granted to 
children of a person who has been duly admitted to the freedom. 
Freedom by redemption or purchase requires the payment of 
certain entrance fees, which vary with the standing of the com- 
pany. In the Grocers' Company freedom by redemption does 
not exist, and in such companies as still have a trade, e.g. the 
Apothecaries and Stationers, it is limited to members of the trade. 

See W. C. Hazlitt, The Livery Companies of Ike City of London 
(1892). 

FREEMASONRY. According to an old " Charge " delivered 
to initiates, Freemasonry is declared to be an " ancient and 
honourable institution: ancient no doubt it is, as .having sub- 
sisted from time immemorial; and honourable it must be acknow- 
ledged to be, as by a natural tendency it conduces to make those 
so who are obedient to its precepts ... to so high an eminence 
has its credit been advanced that in every age Monarch* them- 
selves have been promoters of the -art, have not thought it 
derogatory from their dignity to exchange the sceptre for the 
trowel, have patronised our mysteries and joined in our 
Assemblies." For many years the craft has been conducted 
without respect to clime, colour, caste or creed. 

History. — The precise origin of the society has yet to be ascer- 
tained, but is not likely to be, as the early records are lost; 
there is, however, ample evidence remaining to justify the claim 
for its antiquity and its honourable character. Much has been 
written as to its eventful past, based upon actual records, but 
still more which has served only to amuse or repel inquirers, and 
led not a few to believe that the fraternity has no trustworthy 
history. An unfavourable opinion of the historians of the craft 
generally may fairly have been held during the 18th and early 
in the 19th centuries, but happily since the middle of the latter 
century quite a different principle has animated those brethren 
who have sought to make the facts of masonic history known 
to the brotherhood, as well as worth the study of students in 
general. The idea that it would require an investigator to be 
a member of the " mystic tie " in order to qualify as a reader of 
masonic history has been exploded. The evidences collected 
concerning the institution during the last five hundred years, 
or more, may now be examined and tested in the most severe 
jnanner by literary and critical experts (whether opposed or 



favourable to the body), who cannot fail to accept the claims 
made as to its great antiquity and continuity, as the lineal 
descendant of those craftsmen who raised the cathedrals and other 
great English buildings during the middle ages. 

It is only needful to refer to the old works on freemasonry, and 
to compare them with the accepted histories of the present time, 
to be assured that such strictures as above are more than justified. 
The premier work on the subject was published in London in 1723, 
the Rev. James Anderson being the author of the historical portion, 
introductory to the first " Book of Constitutions " of the original 
Grand Lodge of England. Dr Anderson gravely states that " Grand 
Master Moses often marshalled the Israelites into a regular and 
general lodge, whilst in the wilderness. . . . King Solomon was 
Grand Master of the lodge at Jerusalem. 1 . . Nebuchadnezzar became 
•he -Grand Master Mason," oe., devoting many more pages to similar 



In considering the early history of Freemasonry, from a 
purely matter-of-fact standpoint, it will be well to settle as a 
necessary preliminary what the term did and does now include 
or mean, and how far back the inquiry should be conducted, 
as well as on what lines. If the view of the subject herein taken 
be correct, it will be useless to load the investigation by devoting 
considerable space to a consideration of the laws and customs 
of still older societies which may have been utilized and imitated 
by the fraternity, but which in no sense can be accepted as the 
actual forbears of the present society of Free and Accepted 
Masons. They were predecessors, or possibly prototypes, but 
not near relatives or progenitors of the Freemasons.* 

The Mother Grand Lodge of the world is that of England, 
which was inaugurated in the metropolis on St John Baptist's 
day 171 7 by four or more old lodges, three of which still flourish. 
There were other lodges also in London and the country at the 
time, but whether they were invited to the meeting is not now 
known. Probably not , as existing records of the period preserve 
a sphinx-Kke silence thereon. Likewise there were many scores 
of lodges at work in Scotland, and undoubtedly in Ireland the 
craft was widely patronized. Whatever the ceremonies may have 
been which were then known as Freemasonry in Great Britain and 
Ireland, they were practically alike, and the venerable Old Charges 
or MS. constitutions, dating back several centuries, were rightly 
held by them as the title-deeds of their masonic inheritance. 

It was a bold thing to do, thus to start a governing body for 
the fraternity quite different in many respects to all preceding 
organizations, and to brand as irregular all lodges which declined 

1 If history be no ancient Fable 
Free Masons came from Tower of Babel. 
(*' The Freemasons; an Hudibrastic poem," London, 1723.) 
9 The Early History and Antiquities of Freemasonry and Medieval 
Builders, by Mr G. F. Fort (U.S.A.). and the Cathedral Builders: The 
Magestri Comacini, by " Leader Scott " (the late Mrs Baxter), take 
rather a different view on this point and ably present their argu- 
ments. The Rev. C. Kingsley in Roman and. Teuton writes of 
the Comacini, " Perhaps the original germ of the great society of 
Freemasons." 



FREEMASONRY 



79 



to accept such authority; but the very originality and audacity 
of its promoters appears to have led to its success, and it was not 
long before most of the lodges of the pre-Grand-Lodgeera joined 
and accepted " constitution " by warrant of the Grand Master. 
Not only so, but Ireland quickly followed the lead, so early as 
1725 there being a Grand Lodge for that country which must have 
been formed even still earlier, and probably by lodges started 
before any were authorized in the Englisn counties. In Scotland 
the change was not made until 1736, many lodges even then 
holding aloof from such an -organisation. Indeed, out of some 
hundred lodges known to have been active then, only thirty-three 
responded and agreed to fall into line, though several joined later; 
some, however, kept separate down to the end of the 19th century, 
while others never united. Many of these lodges have records 
of the 17th century though not then newly formed; one in 
particular, the oldest (the Lodge of Edinburgh, No. 1), possesses 
minutes so far back as the year x 509. 

It is important to bear in mind that all the regular lodge? 
throughout the world, and likewise all the Grand Lodges, directly 
or indirectly, have sprung from one or othei of the three governing 
bodies named; Ireland and Scotland following the example 
set by their masonic mother of England in having Grand Lodges 
of their own. It is not proved how the latter two became ac- 
quainted with Freemasonry as a secret society, guided more or 
less by the operative MS. Constitutions or Charges common to 
the three bodies, not met with elsewhere; but the credit of a 
Grand Lodge being established to control the lodges belongs to 
England. 

It may be a startling declaration, but it is well authenticated,' 
that there is no other Freemasonry, as the term is now understood, 
than what which has been so derived. In other words, the lodges 
and Grand Lodges in both hemispheres trace their origin and 
authority back to England for working what are known as the 
Three Degrees, controlled by regular Grand Lodges. That being 
so, a history of modern Freemasonry, the direct offspring of the 
British parents aforesaid, should first of all establish the descent 
of the three Grand Lodges from the Freemasonry of earlier days; 
such continuity, of five centuries or more, being a sine qua non 
of antiquity and regularity. 

It will be found that from the early part of the x8th century 
back to the 16th century existing records testify to the assemblies 
of lodges, mainly operative, but partly speculative, in Great 
Britain, whose guiding stars and common heritage were the Old 
Charges, and that when their actual minutes and transactions 
cease to be traced by reason of their loss, these same MS. Con- 
stiiuiions furnish testimony of the still older working of such 
combinations of freemasons or masons, without the assistance, 
countenance or authority of any other masonic body; conse- 
quently such documents still preserved, of the 14th and later 
centuries (numbering about seventy, mostly in form of rolls), 
with the existing lodge minutes referred to of the 16th century, 
down to the establishment of the premier Grand Lodge in 17 17, 
prove the continuity of the society. Indeed so universally has 
this claim been admitted, that in popular usage the term Frtt- 
mason is only now applied to those who belong to this particular 
fraternity, that of mason being applicable to one who follows 
that trade, or honourable calling, as a builder. 

There is no evidence that during this long period any other 
organisation of any kind, religious, philosophical, mystical or 
otherwise, materially or even slightly influenced the customs 
of the fraternity, though they, may have done so; but so far 
as is known the lodges were of much the same character through- 
out, and consisted really of operatives (who enjoyed practically 
a monopoly for some time of the trade as masons or freemasons), 
and, in part, of " speculatives," i.e. noblemen, gentlemen and 
men of other trades, who were admitted as honorary members. 

Assuming then that the freemasons of the present day are the 
sole inheritors of the system arranged at the so-called " Revival 
of 1717," which was a development from an operative body to 
one partly speculative, and thai, so far back as the MS. Records 
extend and furnish any light, they must have worked in Lodges 
in secret throughout the period noted, a history of Freemasonry 



should be mainly devoted to giving particulars, as far as possible, 
of the lodges, their traditions, customs and laws, based upon 
actual documents which can be tested and verified by members 
and non-members alike. 

It has been the rule to treat, more or less fully, of the influence 
exerted on the fraternity by the Ancient Mysteries, the Essenes, 
Roman Colleges, Culdees, Hermeticism, Fehm-Gerichte tt hoc 
genus »m*f, especially the Stdnmetxai, the Craft Gilds and the 
Companionage of France, &c; but in view of the separate and 
independent character of the freemasons, it appears to be quite 
unnecessary, and the time so employed would be better devoted 
to a more thorough search after additional evidences of the 
activity of the craft, especially during the crucial period overlap- 
ping the second decade of the 18th century, so as to discover in- 
formation as to the transmitted secrets of the medieval masons, 
which, after all, may simply have been what Gaspard Mong* 
felicitously entitles " Descriptive Geometry, or the Art and 
Science of Masonic Symbolism." 

The rules and regulations of the masons were embodied in 
what are known as the Old Charges; the senior known copy 
being the Regius MS. (British Museum Bibl. Reg. 17 A, L), 
which, however, is not so exclusively devoted to masonry as the 
later copies. David Casley, in his catalogue of the MSS. in the 
King's Library (1734), unfortunately styled the little gem 
A Poem of Moral Duties) and owing to this misdescription its 
troe character was not recognized until the year 1839, and then 
by a non-mason (Mr Halliwcll-Phillipps), who had it reproduced 
in 1840 and brought out an improved edition in 1844. Its date 
has been approximately fixed at 1300 by Casley and other 
authorities. 

The curious legend of the craft, therein made known, deals 
first of all with the number of unemployed in early days and 
t he necessity of finding work, " that they myght gete here lyvynge 
thcrby." Euclid was consulted, and recommended the " onest 
craft, of good masonry/' and the genesis of the society is found 
" yn Egypte lande." By a rapid transition, but " mony erys. 
afterwarde," we are told that the " Craft com ynto England yn 
tyme of good kynge Adelstonus (iEtbclstan) day," who called 
an assembly of the masons, when fifteen articles and as many more 
points were agreed to for the government of the craft, each being 
duly described. Each brother was instructed that — 

" He must love wel God, and holy Churche algatt 
And hys mayster also, that he ys wythe." 

" The thrydde poynt must be severle. 

With the prentes knowe hyt welc, 

Hys mayster cownsel he kepe and close, 

And hys felows by hys goode purpose ; 

The prevetyse of the chamber telle he no mott, 

Nv yn the loggc whatsevcr they done, 

Whatsevcr thou heryst, or syste hem do* 

Telle hyt no raon, whenever thou go." 
The rules generally, besides referring to trade regulations, are 
as a whole suggestive of the Ten Commandments in an extended 
form, winding up with the legend bf the Ars quatuor coronatorum, 
as an incentive to a faithful discharge of the numerous obligations. 
A second part introduces a more lengthy account of the origin 
of masonry, in which Noah's flood and the Tower of Babylon 
are mentioned as well as the great skill of Euclid, who— 

" Through hye grace of Crist yn heven. 
He commented yn the syens seven " ; 
The " seven sciences " are duly named and explained. The 
compiler apparently was a priest, line 629 reading " And, when 
ye gospel me rede sckai," thus also accounting' for the many 
religious injunctions in the MS.; the last hundred Hoes are 
evidently based upon UrbamtaUs (Cott. MS. Caligula A n.foL 88) 
and Instructions for a Parish Priest (Cott. MS. Claudius A 11, 
fol. 27), instructions such as lads and even men would need who 
were ignorant of the customs of polite society, correct deportment 
at church and in the presence of their social superiors. 

The recital Of the legend of the Quatuer Conmati has been held 
by Herr Findel in his History of Freemasonry (AUgemeine Ce- 
schichU der Frtimawcm, 1862; English editions, 1866-1869) 
to prove that British Freemasonry was derived from- Germany, 



8o 



FREEMASONRY 



but without any justification, the legend being met with in 
England centuries prior to the date of the Regius MS., and long 
prior to its incorporation in masonic legends on the Continent. 

The next MS., in order, is known as the " Cooke " (Ad. MS. 
33,198, British Museum), because Matthew Cooke published a 
fair reproduction of the document in 1861 ; and it is deemed by 
competent paleographers to date from the first part of the 15th 
century. There are two versions of the Old Charges in this little 
book, purchased for the British Museum in 1859. The compiler 
was probably a mason and familiar with several copies of these 
MS. Constitutions, two of which be utilizes and comments upon; 
he quotes from a MS. copy of the Policronicon the manner in 
which a written account of the sciences was preserved in the two 
historic stones at the time of the Flood, and generally makes 
known the traditions of the society as well as the laws which 
were to govern the members. 

Its introduction into England through Egypt is noted (where 
the Children of Israel " lernyd ye craft of Masonry "), also the 
" lande of behest " (Jerusalem) and the Temple of Solomon (who 
" confirmed ye chargys yt David his Fadir " had made). Then 
masonry in France is interestingly described; and St Alban and 
" j£thelstane with his yongest sone " (the Edwin of the later 
MSS.) became the chosen mediums subsequently, as with the 
other Charges, portions of the Old Testament are often cited in 
order to convey a correct idea to the neophyte, who is to hear the 
document read, as to these sciences which are declared to be free 
in themselves (fro in hem scifc). Of all crafts followed by man 
in this world " Masonry hathe the moste notabilite," as con- 
firmed by " Elders that were bi for us of masons [who] had these 
chargys wry ten," and " as is write and taught in ye boke of our 
charges." 

Until quite recently no representative or survival of this 
particular version had been traced, but in 1800 one was dis- 
covered of 1687 (since known as the William Watson MS.). 
Of some seventy copies of these old scrolls which have been 
unearthed, by far the greater proportion have been made public 
since i860. They have all much in common, though often 
curious differences are to be detected; are of English origin, 
no matter where used; and when complete, as they mostly are, 
whether of the xoth or subsequent centuries, are noteworthy 
for an invocation or prayer which begins the recital.— 
" The mighte of the flfather of heaven 

And the wysedome of the glorious Sonne 

through the grace and the goodnes of the holly 

ghoste yt been three p'sons and one God 

c ~ — '"*- " *—*— '-T and give us gn 

lyving that wee maye 



be with us at or beginning and give us grace 

so to gou'ne us here in orlyving that wee maj _ 

come to his blisse that nevr shall have ending. — Amen." 



(Grand Lodge MS. No. I, A.D. 1583.) 
They are chiefly of the 17th century and nearly all located 
in England; particulars may be found in Hughan 's Old Charges 
of the British Freemasons (1872, 1895 and supplement xooo). 1 
The chief scrolls, with some others, have been reproduced in 
facsimile in six volumes of the Quatuor Coronatorum Antigrapka; 
and the collection in Yorkshire has been published separately, 
either in the West Yorkshire Reprints or the Ancient York 
Masonic Rolls, Several have been transcribed and issued in 
other works. 

These scrolls give considerable information as to the tradi- 
tions and customs of the craft, together with the regulations 
for Its government, and were required to be read to. appren- 
tices long after the peculiar rules ceased to be acted upon, 
each lodge apparently having one or more copies kept for 
the purpose. The old Lodge of Aberdeen ordered in 1670 that 
the Charge was to be " read at ye entering of everie entered 
prenteise "; another at Alnwick in 1701 provided — 

" Noe Mason shall take any apprentice (but he must] 
Enter him and give him his Charge, within one whole 
year after " ; 

* The service rendered by Dr W. Begemann (Germany) in his 
" Attempt to Classify the Old Charges of the British Masons " 
(vol x Trans, of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge, London) has been very 
great, and the researches of the Rev. A. F. A. Woodford and G. w. 
Speth have also been of the utmost consequence. 



and still another at Swallwell (now No. 48 Gateshead) demanded 
that " the Apprentices shall have their Charge given at the time 
of Registering, or within thirty days after "; the minutes in- 
serting such entries accordingly even so late as 1754, nearly 
twenty years after the lodge bad cast in its lot with the Grand 
Lodge of England. 

Their Christian character is further emphasised by the " First 
Charge that you shall be true men to God and the holy Church "; 
the Yorh MS. No. 6 beseeches the brethren " at every meeting 
and assembly they pray heartily for all Christians "; the Melrose 
MS. No. 2 (1674) mentions " Merchants and all other Christian 
men," and the Aberdeen MS. (1670) terms the invocation 
44 A Prayer before the Meeting." Until the Grand Lodge era, 
Freemasonry was thus wholly Christian. The York MS. No. 4 
of 1693 contains a singular error in the admonitory lines: — 
" The [n] one of the elders takeing the Booke and that 
hee or shee that is to be made mason, shall lay their 
hands thereon and the charge shall be given. 
This particular reading was cited by Hughan in 1871, but was 
considered doubtful; Findcl,* however, confirmed it, on his 
visit to York under the guidance of the celebrated masonic 
student the late Rev. A. F. A. Woodford. The mistake was due 
possibly to the transcriber, who had an older roll before him, 
confusing " they," sometimes written " the," with " she," 
or reading that portion, which is often in Latin, as UU vel ilia, 
instead of Ule vel UU. 

In some of the Codices, about the middle of the 17th century, 
and later, New Articles are inserted, such as would be suitable 
for an organization similar to the Masons' Company of London, 
which had one, at least, of the Old Charges in its possession ac- 
cording to inventories of 1665 and 1676; and likewise in 1731, 
termed The Book of the Constitutions of the Accepted Masons'. 
Save its mention (" Book wrote on parchment ") by Sir Francis 
Palgrave in the Edinburgh Review (April 1839) as being in 
existence " not long since,"" this valuable document has been 
lost sight of for many years. 

That there were signs and other secrets preserved and used 
by the brethren throughout this mainly operative period may 
be gathered from discreet references in these old MSS. The 
Institutions in parchment (22nd of November 1696) of the 
Dumfries Kilwinning Lodge (No. 53, Scotland) contain a copy 
of the oath taken " when any man should be made ": — 

" These Charges which we now rcherse to you and all others ye 

secrets and misterys belonging to free masons you shall 

faithfully and truly keep, together with ye Counsell of ye 

assembly or lodge, or any other lodge, or brother, or fellow." 

" Then after ye oath taken and the book kissed " (i.e. the Bible) 

the " precepts" are read, the first being: — 

" You shall be true men to God and his holy Church, and that 

you do not countenance or maintaine any eror, faction, 

schism or herisey, in ye church to ye best of your under- 

standing." {History of No. S3, by James Smith.) 

The Grand Lodge MS. No. 2 provides that " You shall keepe 

secret ye obscure and intricate pts. of ye science, not disclosinge 

them to any but such as study and use ye same." 

The Harleian MS. No. 2054 (Brit. Mus.) is still more explicit, 
termed TkeJJre* Masons Orders and Constitutions, and is in the 
handwriting of Randle Holme (author of the Academic of 
Armory, 1688), who was a member of a lodge in Cheshire. Follow- 
ing the MS. Constitutions, in the same handwriting, about 1650, 
is a scrap of paper with the obligation:— 

" There is sevrall words and signes of a free Mason to be revatled 
to yu wch as yu will answr. before God at the Great and 
terrible day of judgmt. yu keep secret and not to revaile the 
same to any in the heares of any p'son, but to the Mrs and 
fellows of the Society of Free Masons, so hdpe me God, &c M 
(W. H, Rylands, Mas. Mag., 1882.) 

•Findel claims that his Treatise on the society was the cause 
which " first impelled England to the study of masonic history 
and ushered in the intellectual movement which resulted in the 
writings of Bros. Hughan, Lyon, Gould and others." Great credit 
was due to the late German author for Ins important work, but 
before Its advent the Rev. A. F. A. Woodford, D. Murray Lyon 
and others in Gnat Britain were diligent masonic students on sisnuar 



FREEMASONRY 



81 



It b not yet settled who were the actual designers or architects 
the grand old English cathedrals. Credit has been claimed 
: church dignitaries, to the exclusion more or less of the master 
Lsons, to whom presumably of right the distinction belonged, 
early days the title " architect " is not met with, unless the 
m " Ingenator " had that meaning, which is doubtful. As to 
is interesting question, and as to the subject of building 
nerally, an historical account of Master and Free Masons 
Hstemrses upon Architecture in England, by the Rev. James 
illaway, 1833), and Notts on Ike Superintendents of English 
tildings in the Middle Ages (by Wyatt Papworth, 1887), should 
consulted. Both writers were non-masons. The former 
serves: " The honour due to the original founders of these 
ifiees is almost invariably transferred to the ecclesiastics 
der whose patronage they rose, rather than to the skill and 
sign of the master mason, or professional architect, because the 
ly historians were monks. . . . They were probably not so 
11 versed in geometrical science as the master masons, for 
ithetnatics formed a part of monastic learning in a very limited 
pee." In the Journal of Proceedings R.l.B.A . vol. iv. (1887), 
ikilful critic (W.H. White) declares that Papworth, in that valu- 
le collection of facts, has contrived to annihilate all the profes- 
<nal idols of the century, set Ling up in their place nothing 
xpt the master mason. The brotherhood of Bridge-builders, 1 
it travelled far and wide to build bridges, and the travelling 
dies of Freemasons, 1 he believes never existed; nor was 
imam of Wykeham the designer of the colleges attributed to 
n. It seems well-nigh impossible to disprove the statements 
ide by Papworth, because they are all so well grounded on 
ested facts; and the attempt to connect the Abbey of Cluny, 
men trained at Cluny, with the original or preliminary designs 
the great buildings erected during the middle ages, at least 
ring the 12th and 13th centuries, is also a failure. The whole 
at ion is ably and fully treated in the History of Freemasonry 
Robert Frcke Gould (1886-1887), particularly in chapter vi. 
" Medieval Operative Masonry," and in his Concise History 
03). 
rhc lodge is often met with, either as the tabula turn domicialem 

00, at St Alban's Abbey) or actually so named in the Fabric 
Us of York Minster (1370), ye loge being situated close to the 
e in course of erection; it was used as a place in which the 
oes were prepared in private for the structure, as well as 
upied at meal- time, &c. Each mason was required to " swere 
mi ye boke yt he sail trewly andc bysyli at his power, hold and 
ie holy all ye poynles of yis forsayde ordinance" {Ordinacio 
nentanorum). 

Is to the term /ree-mason, from the 14th century, it is held 
some authorities that it described simply those men who 
rked " freestone," but there is abundant evidence to prove 
X, whatever may have been intended at first, /ree-mason soon 
1 a much wider signification, the prefix/res being also employed 
carpenters (1666), sewers (15th century, tailors at Exeter) and 
iers, presumably to indicate they were free to follow their 
des in certain localities. On this point Mr Gould well observes: 
rhe class of persons from whom the Freemasons of Warrington 
J46), Staffordshire (1686), Chester, York, London and their 
tgeners in the 17th century derived the descriptive title, 
ich became the inheritance of the Grand Lodge of England, 
re free men, and masons of Gilds or Companies " {History, 

1. ii. p. 160). Dr Brcntano may also be cited: " Wherever 
t Craft Guilds were legally acknowledged, we find foremost, 
at the right to exercise their craft, and sell their manufactures, 
pended upon the freedom of their city " {Development of 
aids, &c, p. 65). In like manner, the privilege of working 
a mason was not conferred before candidates had been " made 
*." The regular free-masons would not work with men, even 
they had a knowledge of their trade, " if ttufree," but styled 
1 It is not considered necessary to refer at length to the Fratres 
nlis, or other imaginary bodies of freemasons, as such questions 
iy well be left to the curious and interested student. 

■ " No distinct trace of the general employment of large migratory 
ads of masons, going from place to place as a guild, or company, 
brotherhood '* (Prof. T. Hayter-Lewis, Brit. Arch. Assoc., 1889). 

XI 2* 



them " Cowans," a course justified by the king's " Maister of 
Work,'.' William Schaw, whose Statutis and Ordmoneeis (28th 
December 1508) required that " Na maister or fellow of craft 
ressauc any cawanis to wirk in his societie or companye, nor send 
nane of his servants to wirk wt, cowanis, under the pane of 
t wen tie pounds." Gradually, however, the rule was relaxed, in 
time such monopoly practically ceased, and the word " cowan " 
is only known in connexion with speculative Freemasonry. 
Sir Walter Scott, as a member of Lodge St David (No. 36), was 
familiar with the word and used it in Reb Roy. In 1707 a cowan 
was described in the minutes of Mother Lodge Kilwinning, 
as a mason " without the word," thus one who was not a free 
mason {History of the Lodge of Edinburgh No. /, by D. Murray 
Lyon, 1000). 

In the New English Dictionary (Oxford, vol. iv., 1807) under 
" Freemason " it is noted that three views have been pro- 
pounded :— (x) "The suggestion that free-mason stands for 
free-stone-mason would appear unworthy of attention, but 
for the curious fact that the earliest known instances of any 
similar appellation are mestre mason defranche peer (Act 25 Edw. 
IIL, 1350), and sculptures lapidum liberorum, alleged to occur 
in a document of 1317; the coincidence, however, seems to be 
merely accidental. (2) The view most generally held is that 
freemasons were those who were free of the masons' guild. 
Against this explanation many forcible objections have been 
brought by Mr G. W. Speth, who suggests (3) that the itinerant 
masons were called free because they claimed exemption from . 
the control of the local guilds of the towns in which they 
temporarily settled. (4) Perhaps the best hypothesis is that the 
term refers to the medieval practice of emancipating skilled 
artisans, in order that they might be able to travel and render 
their services wherever any great building was in process of 
construction." The late secretary of the Quatuor Coronati 
Lodge (No. 2076, London) has thus bad his view sanctioned by 
" the highest tribunal in the Republic of Letters so far as 
Philology is concerned " (Dr W. J. Chetwode Crawley in Art 
Quatuor Coronaiorum, 1898). Still it cannot be denied that 
members of lodges in the xfjth and following centuries exercised 
the privilege of making free masons and denied the freedom 
of working to cowans (also called vM-freemen) who had not been 
so made free; " the Masownys of the luge " being the only ones 
recognized as freemasons. As to the prefix being derived from 
the word frert, a sufficient answer is the fact that frequent 
reference is made to " Brother /recmasons," so that no ground for 
that supposition exists (cf. articles by Mr Gould in the Freemason 
for September 1808 on " Free and Freemasonry "). 

There are numerous indications of masonic activity in the 
British lodges of the 17th century, especially in Scotland; 
the existing records, however, of the southern part of the United 
Kingdom, though few, arc of importance, some only having been 
made known in recent years. These concern the Masons' 
Company of London, whose valuable minutes and other docu- 
ments are ably described and commented upon by Edward 
Conder, jr., in his Hole Crafte and Fellowship of Masons (1894), 
the author then being the Master of that ancient company. It 
was incorporated in 1677 by Charles II., who graciously met the 
wishes of the members, but as a company the information " that 
is to be found in the Corporation Records at Guildhall proves very 
clearly that in 1376 the Masons' Company existed and was 
represented in the court of common council." The title then 
favoured was 4 ' Masons," the entry of the term " Freemasons " 
being crossed out. Herbert erroneously overlooked the correc- 
tion, and stated in his History of the Twelve Great Livery Com- 
panies (vol. i.) that the Freemasons returned two, and the Masons 
four members, but subsequently amalgamated; whereas the 
revised entry was for the " Masons " only. The Company 
obtained a grant of arms in 147 2 (1 ath year Hen. VIII.), one of the 
first of the kind, being thus described.'—" A feld of Sablys A 
Cheveron silver grailed thre Castellis of the same garnysshed wt. 
dores and wyndows of the feld in the Cheveron or Cumpas of 
Black of Blak "; it is the authority (if any) for all later armorial 
bearings having a chevron and castles, assnmrri by other masonic 



82 



FREEMASONRY 



organizations. This precious document was only discovered in 
187 1 , having been missing for a long time, thus doubtless account- 
ing for the erroneous representations met with, not having the 
correct blazon to follow. The oldest masonic motto known 
is " God is our Guide " on Kerwin's tomb in St Helen's church, 
Bishopgate, of 1504; that of " In the Lord is all our trust " 
not being traced until the next century. Supporters consisting 
of two done columns are mentioned in x688 by Randle Holme, 
but the Grand Lodge of England in the following century used 
Beavers as operative builders. Its first motto was " In the 
beginning was the Word " (in Greek), exchanged a few years on- 
ward for " Relief and Truth," the rival Grand Lodge (Atholl 
Masons) selecting " Holiness to the Lord " (in Hebrew), and the 
final selection at the " Union of December 1813 " being Audi 
Vide Tact. 

Mr Conder's discovery of a lodge of " Accepted Masons " being 
held under the wing of the Company was a great surprise, dating 
as the records do from 1620 to 1631 (the earliest of the kind yet 
traced in England), when seven were made masons, all of whom 
were free of the Company before, three being of the Livery; 
the entry commencing " Att the making masons." The meetings 
were entitled the " Acception," and the members of the lodge 
were called Accepted Masons, being those so accepted and initiated, 
the term never otherwise being met with in the Records. An 
additional fee had to be paid by a member of the Company to 
join the "Acception," and any not belonging thereto were 
mulct in twice the sum; though even then such " acceptance " 
did not qualify for membership of the superior body; the fees 
for the - Acception " being £1 and £1 respectively. In 163&- 
2630, when Nicholas Stone entered the lodge (he was Master 
of the Company 1633-1633) the banquet cost a considerable 
sum, showing that the number of brethren present must have 
been large. 

Elias Ashmole (who according to his diary was " made a Free 
Mason of Warrington with Colonel Henry Mainwaring," seven 
brethen being named as in attendance at the lodge, x6th of 
October 1646) states that he " received a summons to appear at 
a Lodge to be held next day at Masons' Hall, London." Accord- 
ingly on the xith of March 1682 he attended and saw six gentle- 
men " admitted into the Fellowship of Free Masons," of whom 
three only belonged to the Company; the Master, however, 
Mr Thomas Wise, the two wardens and six others being present 
on the occasion as members in their dual capacity. Ashmole 
adds: " We all dyned at the Halfe Moone Tavern in Cheapside 
at a noble dinner prepaired at the charge of the new-accepted 
Masons." 

It is almost certain that there was not an operative mason 
present at the Lodge held in 1646, and at the one which met 
in 1682 there was a strong representation of the speculative 
branch. Before the year 1654 the Company was known as that 
of the Freemasons for some time, but after then the old title 
of Masons was reverted to, the terms " Acception " and 
" Accepted " belonging to the speculative Lodge, which, however, 
in all probability either became independent or ceased to work 
soon after 1682. It is very interesting to note that subsequently 
(but never before) the longer designation is met with of " Free 
and Accepted Masons," and is thus a combination of operative 
and speculative usage. 

Mr Conder is of opinion thaf in the Records " there is no 
evidence of any particular ceremony attending the position of 
Master Mason, possibly it consisted of administering a different 
oath from the one taken by the apprentices on. being entered." 
There is much to favour this supposition, and it may provide 
the key to the vexata quaestio as to the plurality of degrees prior 
to the Grand Lodge era. The fellow-crafts were recruited from 
those apprentices who had served their time and had their essay 
(or sufficient trial of their skill) duly passed; they and the' 
Masters, by the Sckaw Statutes of 1598, being only admitted in 
the presence of " sex Maisteris and ttea tnteril prenteissis." As 
a rule a master mason meant one who was master of his trade, i.e. 
duly qualified; but it sometimes described employers as distinct 
from journeymen Freemasons; being also a compliment con- 



ferred on honorary members during the 17th century in 
particular. 

In Dr Plot's History of Staffordshire (1686) is a remarkable 
account of the " Society of Freemasons," which, being by an 
unfriendly critic, is all the more valuable. He states that the 
custom had spread " more or less all over the nation "; persons 
of the most eminent quality did not disdain to enter the Fellow- 
ship; they had " a large parchment volum containing the History 
and Rules of the Craft of Masonry "; St Amphibal, St Alban, 
King Athelstan and Edwin are mentioned, and these " charges 
and manners " were " after perusal approved by King Hen. 6 
and his council, both as to Masters and Fellows of this right 
Worshipfull craft." It is but fair to add that notwithstanding 
the service he rendered the Society by his lengthy description, 
that credulous historian remarks of its history that there is 
nothing he ever u met with more false or incoherent." 

The author of the Academic of Armory, previously noted, 
knew better what he was writing about in that work of 1688 in 
which he declares: " I cannot but Honor the Fellowship of 
the Masons because of its Antiquity; and the more, as being a 
member of that Society, called Free Masons " Mr Rylands states 
that in Harl. MS. 5Q55 is a collection of the engraved plates for a 
second volume of this important work, one being devoted to the 
Arms of the Society, the columns, as supporters, having globes 
thereon, from which possibly are derived the two pillars, with 
such ornaments or additions seen in lodge rooms at a later period. 

In the same year " A Tripos or Speech delivered at a, commence- 
ment in the University of Dublin held there July xx, 1688, by 
John Jones, then A.B., afterwards D.D.," contained " notable 
evidence concerning Freemasonry in Dublin." The Tripos was 
included in Sir Walter Scott's edition of Dean Swift's works 
(1814), but as Dr Chetwode Crawley points out, though noticed 
by the Rev. Dr George Oliver (the voluminous Masonic author), 
he failed to realize its historical importance. The satirical and 
withal amusing speech was partly translated from the Latin by 
Dr Crawley for his scholarly introduction to the Masonic Re- 
prints, &c, by Henry Sadler. " The point seems to be that 
Ridley (reputed to have been an informer against priests under 
the barbarous penal laws) was, or ought to have been, hanged; 
that his carcase, anatomized and stuffed, stood in the library; 
and that froth scouudreUtts discovered on his remains the Free- 
masons' Mark." The importance of the references to the craft in 
Ireland is simply owing to the year in which they were made, 
as illustrative of the influence of the Society at that time, of which 
records are lacking. 

It is primarily to Scotland, however, that we have to look 
for such numerous particulars of the activity of the fraternity 
from 1509 to the establishment of its Grand Lodge in 1736, 
for an excellent account of which we are indebted to Lyon, the 
Scottish masonic historian. As early as 1600 (8th of June) the 
attendance of John Boswell, Esq., the laird of Auchinleck, is 
entered in the minutes of the Lodge of Edinburgh; he' attested 
the record and added his mark, as did the other members; so 
it was not his first appearance. Many noblemen and other 
gentlemen joined this ancient aldier, notably Lord Alexander, 
Sir Anthony Alexander and Sir Alexander Strachan in 1634. 
the king's Master of Work (Herric Alexander) in 1638, General 
Alexander Hamilton in 1640, Dr Hamilton in 1647, and many 
other prominent and distinguished men later; "James Keilsooe, 
Master Sklaitter to His Majestic," who was " entered and post 
in the Lodge of Linlithgow, being elected a joining member,'' 
2nd March 1654. Quarter-Master General Robert Moray (or 
Murray) was initiated by members of the Lodge of Edinburgh, 
at Newcastle on the 20th of May 1641, while the Scottish amy 
was in occupation. On due report to their Alma Mater such 
reception was allowed, the occurrence having been considered 
the first of its kind in England until the ancient Records of the 
Masons' Company were published. 

The minute-books of a number of Scottish Lodges, which are 
still on the register, go back to the 17th century, and abundantly 
confirm the frequent admission of speculattves as members and 
officers, especially those of the venerable " Mother Lodge 



FREEMASONRY 



83 



Kilwinning," of which the earl of Casslllis was the deacon in 167a, 
who was succeeded by Sir Alexander Cunningham, and the earl 
of EglinLon, who like the first of the trio was but an apprentice. 
There were three Head Lodges according to the Scottish Code of 
1509, Edinburgh being " the first and principal!," Kilwinning 
" the sccund," and Stirling " the third ludge." 

The Aberdeen Lodge (No. x tris) has records preserved from 
1670, in which year what is known as the Mark Book begins, 
containing the oldest existing roll of members, numbering 49, 
all of whom have their marks registered, save two, though only 
ten were operatives. The names of the earls of Finlater, Erroll 
and Dunfermline, Lord Forbes, several ministers and professional 
men are on the list, which was written by a glazier, all of whom 
bad been enlightened as to the " benefit of the measson word," 
and inserted in order as they " were made fellow craft." The 
Charter {Old Charges) had to be read at the " entering of everie 
prenteise," and the officers included a master and two wardens. 

The lodge at Melrose (No. 1 bis) with records back to 1674 did 
not join the Grand Lodge until 1891, and was the last of those 
working (possibly centuries before that body was formed) to 
accept the modern system of government. Of the many note- 
worthy lodges mention should be made of that of " Canongatc 
Kilwinning No. 2," Edinburgh, the first of the numerous pendicles 
of" Mother Lodge Kilwinning, No. o," Ayrshire, started in 1677; 
and of the Journeymen No 8, formed in 1 707, which was a secession 
from the Lodge of Edinburgh; the Fellow Crafts or Journeymen 
not being satisfied with their treatment by the Freemen Masters 
of the Incorporation of Masons, &c. This action led to a trial 
before the Lords of Council and Session, when finally a " Decreet 
Arbitral " was subscribed to by both parties, and the junior 
organisation was permitted " to give the mason word as it is 
called " in a separate lodge. The presbytery of Kelso 1 in 1652 
sustained the action of the Rev. James Ainslie in becoming a 
Freemason, declaring that " there is neither sinne nor scandale 
in that word " {i.e. the " Mason Word "), which is often alluded 
to but never revealed in the old records already referred to. 1 
One Scottish family may be cited in illustration of the continuous 
working of Freemasonry, whose membership is enshrined in 
the records of the ancient Lodge of " Scoon and Perth No. 3 " 
and others. A venerable document, lovingly cared for by No. 3, 
bears date 1658, and recites how John Mylne came to Perth from 
the " North Countrie," and was the king's Master Mason and 
W.M. of the Lodge, his successor being his son, who entered 
" King James the sixt as fireman measone and fellow craft "; 
bis third son John was a member of Lodge No. x and Master 
Mason to Charles I., 1631-1636, and his eldest son was a deacon 
of No. 1 eleven times during thirty years. To him was 
apprenticed his nephew, who was warden in 1663-1664 and 
deacon several times. William Mylne was a warden in 1695, 
Thomas (eldest son) was Master in 173 s, and took part in the 
formation of the Grand Lodge of Scotland. Others of the family 
continued to join the Lodge No. 1, until Robert, the last of the 
Mylnes as Freemasons, was initiated in 1754, died in 181 1, and 
M was buried in St Paul's cathedral, having been Surveyor to 
that Edifice for fifty years," and the last of the masonic Mylnes 
for five generations. The " St John's Lodge," Glasgow (No. 3 
bis), has some valuable old records and a " Charter Cheat " 
with the words carved thereon " God save the King and Masons 
Craft, 1684." Loyalty and Charity are the watchwords of the 
Society. 

The Craft Gilds {Corps d'£iat) of France, and their progeny 
the Companionate, have been fully described by Mr Gould, 
and the Steinmetzen of Germany would require too detailed 
notice if we were to particularize its rules, customs and general 

•The Associate Synod which met at Edinburgh, March 1755, 
fast a century later, took quite an opposite view, deciding to depose 
from office any of their brethren who would not give up their masonic 
membership {Scots Mag., 1755, p. 158). Papal Bulls have also 
been issued against the craft, the first being in 1738; but neither 
interdicts nor anathemata have any influence with the fraternity, 
and fall quite harmless. 

* " We have the Mason Word and second sight. 
Things for to come wc can fortell aright. ' 
{The Muses Threnodic, by H. Adamson, Edin., 1638.) 



character, from about the 12th century onward. Much as there 
was in common between the Stonemasons of Germany and the 
Freemasons of Great Britain and Ireland, it must be conceded 
that the two societies never united and were all through this 
long period wholly separate and independent; a knowledge of 
Freemasonry and authority to hold lodges in Germany being 
derived from the Grand Lodge of England during the first half 
of the x8th century. The theory of the derivation of the Free- 
masons from the Steinmetxen was first propounded in 1779 by 
the abbe* Grandidier, and has been maintained by more modern 
writers, such as Fallou, Heideloff and Schneider, but a thorough 
examination of their statements has resulted in such an origin 
being generally discredited. Whether the Steinmetzen bad secret 
signs of recognition or not, is not quite clear, but that the Free- 
masons bad, for centuries, cannot be doubted, though precisely 
what they were may be open to question, and also what portions 
of the existing ceremonies are reminiscent of the craft anterior 
to the Revival of 17x7. Messrs Speth and Gould favour the 
notion that there were two distinct and separate degrees prior to 
the third decade of the x8lh century {Art Q.C., 1898 and 1903), 
while other authorities have either supported the One degree 
theory, or consider there is not sufficient evidence to warrant 
a decision. Recent discoveries, however, tend in favour of the 
first view noted, such as the Trinity College MS., Dublin (" Free 
Masonry, Feb. 17 11 "), and the invaluable' Chetwode Crawley 
MS, (Grand Lodge Library, Dublin); the second being read in 
connexion with the Haughfoot Lodge Records, beginning 1702 
{Hist, of Freemasonry, by W. F. Vernon, X893). 

Two of the most remarkable lodges at work during the period 
of transition (1717-1723), out of the many then existing in 
England, assembled at Alnwick and at York. The origin of the 
first noted is not known, but there are minutes of the meetings 
from 1703, the Rules are of 1701, signed by quite a number of 
members, and a transcript of the Old Charges begins the volume. 
In 1 708-1 709 a minute provided for a masonic procession, at 
which the brethren were 'to walk " with their aprons on and 
Comon Square." The Lodge consisted mainly of operative 
" free Brothers," and continued for many years, a code of by- 
laws being published in 1763, but it never united with the Grand 
Lodge, giving up the struggle for existence a few years further on. 

The other lodge, the most noteworthy of all the English 
predecessors of the Grand Lodge of England, was long held at 
York, the Mecca of English Freemasons. 4 Its origin is unknown, 
but there are traces of its existence at an early date, and possibly 
it was a survival of the Minster Lodge of the 14th century. 
Assuming that the Yorh MS. No. 4 of 1693 was the property 
of the lodge in that year (which Roll was presented by George 
Walker of Wetherby in 1777), the entry which concludes that 
Scroll is most suggestive, as it gives " The names of the Lodge " 
(members) and the " Lodge Ward(en)." Its influence most 
probably may be also noted at Scarborough, where " A private 
Lodge " was held on the xoth of July 1705, at which the president 
" William Thompson, Esq., and severall others brethren ffrce 
Masons " were present, and six gentlemen (named) " were then 
admitted into the said flraternity." These particulars are en- 
dorsed on the Scarborough MS. of the Old Charges, now owned 
by the Grand Lodge of Canada at Toronto. " A narrow folio 
manuscript Book beginning 7th March 1 705-1 706," which was 
quoted from in 1778, has long been missing, which is much to be 
regretted, as possibly it gave particulars of the lodge which 
assembled at Bradford, Yorkshire, " when 18 Gentlemen of the 
first families in that neighbourhood were made Masons." There 
is, however, another roll of records from 1712 to 1730 happily 
preserved of this " Ancient Honble. Society and Fraternity 
of Free Masons," sometimes styled " Company " or " Society of 
Free and Accepted Masons." 

Not to be behind the London fratres, the York brethren formed 
a Grand Lodge on the 1 27th of December 1725 (the " Grand 

» The Chetwode Crawley MS., by W. J. Huyhan (Are. Q.C. 1904). 

* The Yorh Grand Lodge, by Messrs. Hughan and Whytehead 
(Ars Q.C., 1900), and Masonic Sketches and Reprints (1871), by the 
former. 



84 



FREEMASONRY 



Lodge of eU England" wu its modest title), and was flourishing 
for years, receiving into their company many county men of great 
influence. Some twenty years later there was a brief period 
of somnolence, but in 1761 a revival took place, with Francis 
Drake, the historian, as Grand Master, ten lodges being chartered 
in Yorkshire, Cheshire and Lancashire, 1 762-1 700, and a Grand 
Lodge of England, south of the Trent, in 1779, at London, 
which warranted two lodges. Before the century ended all these 
collapsed or joined the Grand Lodge of England, so there was 
not a single representative of " York Masonry " left on the advent 
of the next century. 

The premier Grand Lodge of England soon began to constitute 
new Lodges in the metropolis, and to reconstitute old ones that 
applied for recognition, one of the earliest of 1720-1721 being 
still on the Roll as No. 6, thus having kept company ever since 
with the three " lime immemorial Lodges," Nos. 2, 4 and 12. 
Applications for constitution kept coming in, the provinces 
being represented from 1723 to 1724, before which time it is likely 
the Grand Lodge of Ireland 1 had been started, about which the 
most valuable Cacmtniaria Hibernica by Dr Chetwode Crawley 
may be consulted with absolute confidence. Provincial Grand 
Lodges were formed to ease the authorities at headquarters, 
and, as the society spread, also for the Continent, and gradually 
throughout the civilized globe. Owing to the custom prevailing 
before the i8th century, a few brethren were competent to form 
lodges on their own initiative anywhere, and hence the registers 
of the British Grand Lodges are not always indicative of the first 
appearance of the craft abroad. In North America 1 lodges were 
held before what is known as the first " regular " lodge was 
formed at Boston, Mass., in 1733, and probably in Canada 3 
likewise. The same remark applies to Denmark, France, Ger- 
many, Holland, Italy, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden and other 
countries. Of the many scores of military lodges, the first war- 
rant was granted by Ireland in 1732. To no other body of 
Freemasons has the craft been so indebted for its prosperity in 
early days as to their military brethren. There were rivals to 
the Grand Lodge of England during the x8th century, one of 
considerable magnitude being known as the Ancients or Atholl 
Masons, formed in 1751, but in December 1813 a junction was 
effected, and from that time the prosperity of the United Grand 
Lodge of England, with few exceptions, has been extraordinary 

Nothing but a volume to itself could possibly describe the 
main features of the English Craft from 17 17, when Anthony 
Sayer was elected the first Grand Master of a brilliant galaxy 
of rulers. The first nobleman to undertake that office was the 
duke of Montagu in 1721, the natural philosopher J. T. 
Desaguliers being his immediate predecessor, who has been 
credited (and also the Rev. James Anderson) with the honour of 
starting the premier Grand Lodge; but like the fable of Sir 
Christopher Wren having been Grand Master, evidence is entirely 
lacking. Irish and Scottish peers share with those of England 
the distinction of presiding over the Grand Lodge, and from 
1782 to 1813 their Royal Highnesses the duke of Cumberland, 
the prince of Wales, or the duke of Sussex occupied the masonic 
throne. From 1753 to 1813 the rival Grand Lodge had been 
busy, but ultimately a desire for a united body prevailed, and 
under the " ancient " Grand Master, H.R.H. the duke of Kent, 
it was decided to amalgamate with the original ruling organiza- 
tion, H.R.H. the duke of Sussex becoming the Grand Master of 
the United Grand Lodge. On the decease of the prince in 1843 
the earl of Zetland succeeded, followed by the marquess of Ripon 
in 1874, on whose resignation H.R.H. the prince of Wales 
became the Grand Master. Soon after succeeding to the throne, 

1 The celebrated ,( Lady Freemason," the Hon. Mrs Aldworth 
{net Miss St Lcger, daughter of Lord Doneraile), was initiated in 
Ireland, but at a much earlier date than popularly supposed; 
certainly not later than 17 13, when the venturesome lady was 
twenty. All early accounts ofthe occurrence must be received with 
caution, as there are no contemporary records of the event. 

* History of Freemasonry, by Dr A. G. Mackey (New York, 1 898), 
and the History of the Fraternity Publishing Company, Boston, 
Mass., give very full particulars as to the United States. 

• See History of Freemasonry in Canada (Toronto, 1899), by J. 
Ross Robertson. 



King Edward VII. ceased to govern the English craft, and was 
succeeded by H.R.H. the duke of Connaught. From 1737 to 
1007 some sixteen English princes of the royal blood joined the 
brotherhood. 

From 1723 to 1813 the number of lodges enrolled in England 
amounted to 1626, and from 1814 to the end of December 1909 
as many as 3352 were warranted, making a grand total of 4978, 
of which the last then granted was numbered 3x85. There were 
in 1009 still 2876 on the register, notwithstanding the many 
vacancies created by the foundation of new Grand Lodges in the 
colonics and elsewhere. 

Distribution and Organization. — The advantage of the cosmo- 
politan basis of the fraternity generally (ihough some Grand 
Lodges still preserve the original Christian foundation) has been 
conspicuously manifested and appreciated in India and other 
countries where the votaries of numerous religious systems 
congregate; but the unalterable basis of a belief in the Great 
Architect of the Universe remains, for without such a recognition 
there can be no Freemasonry, and it is now, as it always has been, 
entirely free from party politics. The charities of the Society in 
England, Ireland and Scotland are extensive and well organized, 
their united cost per day not being less than £500, and with (hose 
of other Grand Lodges throughout the world must amount to 
a very large sum, there being over two millions of Freemasons. 
The vast increase of late years, both of lodges and members, 
however, calls for renewed vigilance and extra care in selecting 
candidates, that numbers may not be a source of weakness 
instead of strength. 

In its internal organization, the working of Freemasonry 
involves an elaborate system of symbolic ritual,* as carried out 
at meetings of the various lodges, uniformity as to essentials 
being the rule. The members are classified in numerous degrees, 
of which the first throe arc " Entered Apprentice," ** Fellow 
Craft " and " Master Mason," each class of which, after initia- 
tion, can only be attained after passing a prescribed ordeal or 
examination, as a lest of proficiency, corresponding to the 
" essays " of the operative period. 

The lodges have their own by-laws for guidance, subject to 
the Book of Constitutions of their Grand Lodge, and the regula- 
tions of the provincial or district Grand Lodge if located in 
counties or held abroad. 

It is to be regretted that on the continent of Europe Free- 
masonry has sometimes developed on different lines from thai 
of the " Mother Grand Lodge " and Anglo-Saxon Grand Lodges 
generally, and through its political and anti-religious tendencies 
has come into contact or conflict with the state authorities 1 
or the Roman Catholic church. The " Grand Orient of France " 
(but not the Supreme Council 33*, and its Grand Lodge) is an 
example of this retrograde movement, by its elimination of 
the paragraph referring to a belief in the " Great Architect of 
the Universe " from its Slaluts et riglcmcnts gdnfraux. This 
deplorable action has led to the withdrawal of all regular Grand 
Lodges from association with that body, and such separation 
must continue until a return is made to the ancient and inviolable 
landmark of the society, which makes it impossible for an atheist 
cither to join or continue a member of the fraternity. 

The Grand Lodge of England constituted its first lodge in 
Taris in the year 1732, but one was formed still earlier on the 
continent at Gibraltar 1728-1729. Others were also opened in 
Germany 1733, Portugal 1735, Holland 1735, Switzerland 1740, 
Denmark 1745, Italy 1763, Belgium 1765, Russia 1771, and 

* The Masonic Records 1717-1894, by John Lane, and the ex- 
cellent Masonic Yearbook, published annually by the Grand Lodge 
of England, are the two standard works on Lodge enumeration, 
localization and nomenclature. For particulars of the Grand Lodges, 
and especially that of England, Gould's History is most useful and 
trustworthy; and for an original contribution to the history of the 
rival Grand Lodge or Atholl Masons, Sadler's Masonic Facts §nd 
Fictions, 

• " A peculiar system of Morality, veiled in Allegory and illus- 
trated by Symbols " (old definition of Freemasonry). 

•The British House of Commons in 1799 and 1817, in act* of 
parliament, specifically recognized the laudable character of the 
society and provided for its continuance on definite lines. 



FREEPORT— FREE PORTS 



»5 



Sweden 1773. In most of these countries Grand Lodges were 
subsequently created and continue to this date, save that in 
Austria (not Hungary) and Russia no masonic lodges have for 
some time been permitted to assemble. There is a union of Grand 
Lodges of Germany, and an annual Diet is held for the transaction 
of business affecting the several masonic organizations in that 
country, which works well. H.R.H. Prince Frederick Leopold 
was in 1009 Protector, or the " Wisest Master " (Vicarius 
Salomonis). King Gustav V. was the Grand Master + of the 
freemasons in Sweden, and the sovereign of the " Order of Charles 
X1IL," the only one of the kind confined to members of the 
fraternity. 

Lodges were constituted in India from 1730 (Calcutta), 1752 
(Madras), and 1758 (Bombay); in Jamaica 1742, Antigua 1738, 
and St Christopher 1739; soon after which period the Grand 
Lodges of England, Ireland and Scotland had representatives 
at work throughout the civilized world. 

In no part, however, outside Great Britain has the craft 
flourished so much as in the United States of America, where the 
first " regular " lodge (i.e. according to the new regime) was 
opened in 1733 at Boston, Mass. Undoubtedly lodges had 
been meeting still earlier, one of which was held at Philadelphia, 
Penna., with records from 1731, which blossomed into a Grand 
Lodge, but no authority has yet been traced for its proceedings, 
save that which may be termed " time immemorial right," 
which was enjoyed by all lodges and brethren who were at work 
prior to the Grand Lodge era (1 716-17 17) or who declined to 
recognize the autocratic proceedings of the premier Grand Lodge 
of England, just as the brethren did in the city of York. A 
" deputation " was granted to Daniel Coxe, Esq. of New Jersey, 
by the duke of Norfolk, Grand Master, 5th of June 1730, as 
Prov. Grand Master of the" Provinces of New York, New Jersey 
and Pensilvania," but there is no evidence that he ever constituted 
any lodges or exercised any masonic authority in virtue thereof. 
Henry Price as Prov. Grand Master of New England, and his 
lodge, which was opened on the 31st of August 1733, in the city 
of Boston, so far as is known, began " regular " Freemasonry in 
the United States, and the older and independent organization 
was soon afterwards " regularized." Benjamin Franklin (an 
Initiate of the lodge of Philadelphia) printed and published the 
Book of Constitutions, 1723 (of London, England), in the " City 
of Brotherly Love " in 1734, being the oldest masonic work in 
America. English and Scottish Grand Lodges were soon after 
petitioned to grant warrants to hold lodges, and by the end of 
the 1 8th century several Grand Lodges were formed, the Craft 
becoming very popular, partly no doubt by reason of so many 
prominent men joining the fraternity, of whom the chief was 
George Washington, initialed in a Scottish lodge at Fredericks- 
burg, Virginia, in 1752-1753. In 1007 there were fifty Grand 
Lodges assembling in the United States, with considerably over 
a million members. 

In Canada in 1909 there were eight Grand Lodges, having 
about 64,000 members. Freemasonry in the Dominion is be- 
lieved to date from 1740. The Grand Lodges are all of com- 
paratively recent organization, the oldest and largest, with 
40,000 members, being for Ontario; those of Manitoba, Nova 
Scotia and Quebec numbering about 5000 each. There are 
some seven Grand Lodges in Australia; South Australia coming 
first as a " sovereign body," followed closely by New South 
Wales and Victoria (of 1884-1889 constitution), the whole of 
the lodges in the Commonwealth probably having fully 50,000 
members on the registers. 

There are many additional degrees which may be taken or not 
(being quite optional), and dependent on a favourable ballot; 
the difficulty, however, of obtaining admission increases as pro- 
gress is made, the numbers accepted decreasing rapidly with each 
advancement. The chief of these are arranged in separate 
classes and are governed either by the " Grand Chapter of the 
Royal Arch," the " Mark Grand Lodge," the " Great Priory of 
Knights Templars " or the " Ancient and Accepted Rite," these 
being mutually complementary and intimately connected as 
respects England, and more or less so in Ireland, Scotland, 



North America and wherever worked on a similar basis; the 
countries of the continent of Europe nave also their own Hautes 
Grades. (W. J. H. •) 

FREEPORT, a city and the county-seat of Stephenson county, 
Illinois, in the N.W. part of the state, on the Pccatonka river, 
30 m. from its mouth and about 100 m. N.W. of Chicago. Pop. 
(1800) 10,189; (1000) 13,258, of whom 2264 were foreign-born; 
(1910 census) 17,567. The city is served by the Chicago & 
North-Western, the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul, and the 
Illinois Central railways, and by the Rock ford & Interurban 
electric railway. The Illinois Central connects at South Free- 
port, about 3 m. S. of Freeport, with the Chicago Great Western 
railway. Among Freeport 's manufactures are foundry and 
machine shop products, carriages, hardware specialties, patent 
medicines, windmills, engines, incubators, organs, beer and 
shoes. The Illinois Central has large railway repair shops here. 
The total value of the city's factory product in 1905 was 
$3,109,302, an increase of 14*8% since 1000. In the sur- 
rounding country cereals are grown, and swine and poultry are 
raised. Dairying is an important industry also. The city 
has a Carnegie library (1001). In the Court House Square is 
a monument, 80 ft. high, in memory of the soldiers who died 
in the Civil War. At the corner of Douglas Avenue and 
Mechanic Street a granite boulder commemorates the famous 
debate between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas, 
held in Freeport on the 27th of August 1858. In that debate 
Lincoln emphasized the differences between himself and the 
radical anti-slavery men, and in answer to one of Lincoln's 
questions Douglas declared that the people of a territory, through 
" unfriendly " laws or denial of legislative protection, could 
exclude slavery, and that " it matters not what way the Supreme 
Court may hereafter decide on the abstract question whether 
slavery may or may not go into a territory under the Constitu- 
tion." This, the so-called " Freeport doctrine," greatly weakened 
Douglas in the presidential election of i860. Freeport was 
settled in 1835, was laid out and named Winneshiek in 1836, 
and in 1837 under its present name was made the county-seat 
of Stephenson county. It was incorporated as a town in 1850 
and chartered as a city in 1855. 

FREE FORTS, a term, strictly speaking, given to localities 
where no customs duties arc levied, and where no customs super- 
vision exists. In these ports (subject to payment for specific 
services rendered, wharfage, storage, &c, and to the observance 
of local police and sanitary regulations) ships load* and unload, 
cargoes are deposited and handled, industries are exercised, 
manufactures are carried on, goods arc bought and sold, without 
any action on the part of fiscal authorities. Ports are likewise 
designated " free " where a space or zone exists within which 
commercial operations are conducted without payment of import 
or export duty, and without active interference on the part of 
customs authorities. The French and German designations 
for these two descriptions of ports are — for the former La Vitle 
franche, Freihafen; for the latter Le Port franc, Freibezirk or 
Frcilager. The English phrase free port applies to both. 1 The 
leading conditions under which free ports in Europe derived their 
origin were as follows: — (1) When public order became re- 
established during the middle ages, trading centres were gradually 
formed. Marts for the exchange and purchase of goods arose in 
different localities. Many Italian settlements, constituting free 
zones, were established in the Levant. The Hanseatic towns 
arose in the 12th century. Great fairs became recognized — 
the Leipzig charter was granted in 1268. These localities were 
free as regards customs duties, although dues of the nature of 
octroi charges were often levied. (2) Until the 19th century 
European states were numerous, and often of small size. Accord- 
ingly uniform customs tariffs of wide application did not exist. 

1 In China at the present time (1902) certain ports are designated 
" free and open." This phrase means that the ports in question are 
(1) open to foreign trade, and (2) that vessels engaged in oversea 
voyages may freely resort there. Exemption from payment of 
customs duties is not implied, which is a matter distinct from the 
permission granted under treaty engagements to foreign vessels to 
carry cargoes to and from the treaty ports." 



86 



FREE REED VIBRATOR 



Uniform rates of duty were fixed in England by the Subsidy Act 
of 1660. In France, before the Revolution (besides the free 
ports), Alsace and the Lorraine Bishoprics were in trade matters 
treated as foreign countries. The unification of the German 
customs tariff began in 1834 with the Steuerverein and the 
Zollvcrcin. The Spanish fiscal system did not include the Basque 
provinces until about 1850. The uniform Italian tariff dates from 
1 861. Thus until very recent times on the Continent free ports 
were compatible with the fiscal policy and practice of different 
countries. (3) Along the Mediterranean coast, up to the 19th 
century, convenient shelter was needed from corsairs. In other 
continental countries the prevalent colonial and mercantile 
policy sought to create trans-oceanic trade. Free ports were 

1 Europe, it is to be 
e never existed. In 
outharnpton on this 
quently the bonding 
(United Kingdom, 
tspectively free ports 

visit to the Austrian 
Tate a direct trade 
s made a free port, 
igcs, Brussels, Ghent 
tionary government 

about 150 acres at 
great facilities are 
ns in order that the 
Baltic trade may centre there. 

France. — Marseilles was a free port in the middle ages, and so 
was Dunkirk when it formed part of Flanders. In 1669 these privi- 
leges were confirmed, and extended to Dayonnc. In 1784 there was 
a fresh confirmation, and Lorient and St Jean dc Lux were included 
in the ordonnance. The National Assembly in 1790 maintained 
this policy, and created free ports in the French West Indies. In 
1795* however, all such privileges were abolished, but large bonding 
facilities were allowed at Marseilles to favour the Levant trade. The 
government of Louis XVI II. in 1814 restored, and in 1871 again 
revoked* the free port privileges of Marseilles. There are now no 
free ports in France or in French possessions; the bonding system 
is in force. 

Germany. — Bremen, Hamburg and LUbcck were reconstituted 
free towns and ports under the treaties of 1814-1815. Certain minor 
ports, and several landing-stages on the Rhine and The Ncckar, 

:ptcd 
trncd, 
area 
itrol, 
»ncr- 
Cux- 

>5SCSS 

itsidc 



cona, 
n (in 

har- 
1868, 
tuscs, 
uring 
> port 
I was 

was, 
1865, 

[for a 

ouses 

1 free. 

oods, 

were 

■ - .. m cnt 

for internal consumption, and also in transit to Persia. The tsar 

Alexis revoked this grant on the execution of Charles I. Free 

ports were opened in 1895 at Kola, in Russian Lapland. Dalny, 

adjoining Port Arthur, was a free port during the Russian occupation ; 

and Japan after the war decided to renew this privilege as soon as 

practicable. 

The number of free ports outside Europe has also lessened. The 
administrative policy of European countries has been gradually 
adopted in other parts of the world, and customs duties have become 
almost universal, conjoined with bonding and transhipment facilities. 
In British colonies and possessions, under an act of parliament 
passed in 1766, and repealed in 1867, two ports in Dominica and four 
in Jamaica were free, Malacca, Penang and Singapore have been 



free ports since 1824, Hong-Kong since 1842, and Weifcafwei since 
it was leased to Great Britain in 1898. Zanzibar was a free port 
during 1892-1899. Aden, Gibraltar, St Helena and St Thomas 
(West Indies) are sometimes designated free ports. A few duties 
are, however, levied, which arc really octroi rather than custom* 
charges. These places are mainly stations for coaling and awaiting 
orders. 

Some harbours in the Netherlands East Indies were free ports 
between 1829 and 1899 , but these privileges were withdrawn by lavs 
passed in 1898-1899, in order to establish uniformity of customs 
administration. Harbours where custom houses are not maintained 
will be practically closed to foreign trade, though the governor- 
general may in special circumstances vary the application of the 
new regulations. 

Macao has been a free port since 1845. Portugal has no other 
harbour of this character. 

The American Republics have adopted the bonding system. la 
1896 a free wharf was opened at New Orleans in imitation of the 
recent European plan. Livingstone (Guatemala) was a free port 
during the period 1 882-1 888. 

The privileges enjoyed under the old free port system benefited 
the towns and districts where they existed; and their aboli- 
tion has been, locally, injurious. These places were, however, 
" foreign " to their own country, and their inland intercourse 
was restricted by the duties levied on their products, and by the 
precautions adopted to prevent evasion of these charges. With 
fiscal usages involving preferential and deferential treatment 
of goods and places, the drawbacks thus arising did not attract 
serious attention. Under the limited means of communication 
within and beyond the country, in former times, these con- 
veniences were not much felt. But when finance departments 
became more completely organized, the free port system fell out 
of favour with fiscal authorities: it afforded opportunities for 
smuggling, and impeded uniformity, of action and practice. 
It became, in fact, out of harmony with the administrative and 
financial policy of later times. Bonding and entrepot facilities, 
on a scale commensurate with local needs, now satisfy trade 
requirements. In countries where high customs duties are levied, 
and where fiscal regulations arc minute and rigid, if an extensioa 
of foreign trade is desired, and the competition which it involves 
is a national aim, special facilities must be granted for this pur 
pose. In these circumstances a free zone sufficiently large to 
admit of commercial operations and transhipments on a scale 
which will fulfil these conditions (watched but not interfered with 
by the customs) becomes indispensable. The German govern- 
ment have, as we have seen, maintained a free zone of this nature 
at Hamburg. And when the free port at Copenhagen was opened, 
counter measures were adopted at Danzig and Stettin. An 
agitation has arisen in France to provide at certain ports free 
zones similar to those at Copenhagen and Hamburg, and to open 
free ports in French possessions. A bill to this effect was sub- 
mitted to the chamber of deputies on the 12th of April 1905. 
Colonial free ports, such as Hong-Kong and Singapore, do not 
interfere with the uniformity of the home customs and excise 
policy. These two harbours in particular have become great 
shipping resorts and distributing centres. The policy which led 
to their establishment as free ports has certainly promoted 
British commercial interests. 

Sec the Parliamentary Paper on " Continental Free Ports," 1904. 

(CM.K.) 

FREE REED VIBRATOR (Fr. anchc libre, Gcr. dureksckkgende 
Zunge, Ital. ancia or lingua libera), in musical instruments, a 
thin metal tongue fixed at one end and vibrating freely either 
in surrounding space, as in the accordion and concertina, or 
enclosed in a pipe or channel, as in certain reed stops of the 
organ or in the harmonium. The enclosed reed, in its typical 
and theoretical form, is fixed over an aperture of the same shape 
but just large enough to allow it to swing freely backwards and 
forwards, alternately opening and closing the aperture, when 
driven by a current of compressed air. We have to deal with 
air under three different conditions in considering the phenome- 
non of the sound produced by free reeds. (1) The stationary 
column or stratum in pipe or channel containing the reed, which 
is normally at rest. (2) The wind or current of air fed from the 
bellows with a variable velocity and pressure, which is broken 
up into periodic air puffs as its entrance into pipe or channel n 



FREESIA— FREE SOIL PARTY 



87 



alternately checked or allowed by the vibrator. (3) The disturbed 
condition of No. 1 when acted upon by the metal vibrator and 
by No 2, whereby the air within the pipe is forced into alternate 
pulses of condensation and rarefaction. The free reed is there- 
fore not the tone-producer but only the exciting agent, that is 
to say, the sound is not produced by the communication of 
the free reed's vibrations to the surrounding air, 1 as in the case 
of a vibrating string, but by the series of air puffs punctuated by 
infinitesimal pauses, which it produces by alternately opening 
and almost closing the aperture.' A musical sound is thus 
produced the pitch of which depends on the length and thick- 
ness of the metal tongue; the greater the length, the slower 
the vibrations and the lower the pitch, while on the contrary, 
the thicker the reed near the shoulder at the fixed end, the 
higher the pitch. It must be borne in mind that the periodic 
vibrations of the reed determine the pitch of the sound solely 
by the frequency per second they impose upon the pulses of 
rarefaction and condensation within the pipe. 

The most valuable characteristic of the free reed is its power 
of producing all the delicate gradations of tone between forte and 
piano by' virtue of a law of acoustics 
governing the vibration of free reeds, 
whereby increased pressure of wind pro- 
duces a proportional increase in the 
volume of lone. The pitch of any sound 
depends upon the frequency of the 
sound-waves, that is, the number per 
second which reach the ear; the fullness 
of sound depends upon the amplitude 
of the waves, or, more strictly speaking, 
of the swing of the transmitting particles 
Ftaa J B Biol. Tnkito of the medium— greater pressure in the 
tk9Htmr*xpirimniaU. a j r current (No. 2 above) which sets the 

Fie 1. — Grenie's vibrator in motion producing amplitude 
? rBa !L5 pe -K iUcd with °f vibration in the air within the rc- 

ATTa^n^ '' c <* tac,c < No - 3 abovc > Mrvin « " nion ' 

D, Free reed. ating medium. The sound produced by 

R, Recd-box. the free reed itsdf is weak and requires 

B.C, Feed DJpc with to ^ reinforced by means of an ad- 

t nS^if ~ na .: Mn . ditional stationary column or stratum of 
T, Fart of resonating _ . . * . , 

pipe, the upper end air - Free rce< * instruments are therefore 
with cap and vent classified according to the nature of the 
hole being shown resonant medium provided:— (1) Free 
separately at the reed, vibrating in pipes, such as the reed 
stops of church organs on the continent 
of Europe (in England the reed pipes are generally provided 
witk beating reeds, see Reed Instruments .and Clarinet), 
(j) Free reeds vibrating in reed compartments and reinforced 
by air chambers of various shapes and sizes as in the har- 
monium (q.v.). (3) Instruments like the accordion and con- 
certina having the free reed set in vibration through a valve, 
but having no reinforcing medium. 

The arrangement of the free reed in an organ pipe is simple, 
and does not differ greatly from that of the beating reed shown 
in fig. 2 for the purpose of comparison. The recd-box, a rect- 
angular wooden pipe, is closed at the bottom and covered on one 
face with a thin plate of copper having a rectangular slit over 
which is fixed the thin metal vibrating tongue or reed as described 
above. The rccd-boa, itself open at the top, is enclosed in a feed 
pipe having a conical foot pierced with a small hole through 
which the air current is forced by the action of the bellows. 
The impact of the incoming compressed air against the reed 
tongue sets h swinging through the slit, thus causing a disturb- 
ance or scries of pulsations within the reed-box. The air then 
finds an escape through the resonating medium of a pipe fitting 
over the recd-box and terminating in an inverted cone covered 
with a cap in the top of which is pierced a small hole or vent. 
The quality of tone of free reeds is due to the tendency of air set 
'See H. Helm holt z, DU Lehrc von den Tonempfindungen (Bruns- 
wick. 1877). n. 166. 

•See also Km* Hemrich and Wilhehn Webrr, WHUnlekr* 
(Leipzig. 1825). where a particularly lucid explanation of the pheno- 
awnon is given, pp. 526-530. 



h 



v 



F/, Tuning 1 
TV. Feed pipe. 
W, Conical foot. 
S, Hole through 

which compressed 

air is fed. 



in periodic pulsations to divide into aliquot vibrations or loops, 

producing the phenomenon known as 

harmonic overtones or upper partials, 

which may, in the highly composite 

clang of free reeds, be discerned as far 

as the 16th or 20th of the series. The 

more intermittent and interrupted the 

air current becomes, the greater the 

number of the upper partials produced. 1 

The power of the overtones and their 

relation to the fundamental note depend 

greatly upon the form of the tongue, its 

position and the amount of the clearance 

left as it swings through the aperture. 

Free reeds not associated with reson- Fig. 2.— Organ pipe 
ating media as in the concertina arc fitted with bcatuigreed. 
peculiarly rich in harmonics, but as the AL, Beating reed, 
higher harmonics lie very dose together, !*• 5°** box* 
disagreeable dissonances and a harsh 
tone result. The resonating pipe or 
chamber when suitably accommodated 
to the reed greatly modifies the tone by 
reinforcing the harmonics proper to itself, 
the others sinking into comparative insignificance. In order to 
produce a full rich tone, a resonator should be chosen whose 
deepest note coincides with the fundamental tone of the reed. 
The other upper partials will also be reinforced thereby, but to 
a less degree the higher the harmonics- 4 

For the history of the application of the free reed to keyboard 
instruments see Harmonium. (K. S.) 

FREESIA* in botany, a genus of plants belonging to the Iris 
family (Iridaceae), and containing a single species, F. rtfrada, 
native at the Cape of Good Hope. The plants grow from a corm 
(a solid bulb, as in Gladiolus) which sends up a tuft of long 
narrow leaves and a slightly branched stem bearing a few leaves 
and loose one-sided spikes of fragrant narrowly funnel-shaped 
flowers. Several varieties are known in cultivation, differing 
in the colour of the flower, which is white, cream or yellow. 
They form pretty greenhouse plants which are readily increased 
from seed. They are extensively grown for the market in 
Guernsey, England and America. By potting successively 
throughout the autumn a supply of flowers is obtained through 
winter and spring. Some very fine large-flowered varieties, 
including rose-coloured ones, are now being raised by various 
growers in England, and are a great improvement on the older 
forms. 

FREE SOIL PARTY, a political party in the United States, 
which was organized in 1847-1848 to oppose the extension of 
slavery into the Territories. It was a combination of the political 
abolitionists—many of whom had formerly been identified with 
the more radical Liberty party — the anti-slavery Whigs, and the 
faction of the Democratic party in the state of New York, called 
" Barnburners," who favoured the prohibition of slavery, in 
accordance with the " Wilmol Proviso " (see Wilmot, David), 
in the territory acquired from Mexico. The party was prominent 
in the presidential campaigns of 1848 and 1852. At the national 
convention held in Buffalo, N. Y., on the oth and iothof August 
1848, they secured the nomination to the presidency of ex- 
President Martin Van Burcn, who had failed to secure nomination 
by the Democrats in 1844 because of his opposition to the annexa- 
tion of Texas, and of Charles Francis Adams, of Massachusetts, 
for the vice-presidency, taking as their " platform "a Declaration 
that Congress, having " no more power to make a slave than to 
make a king," was bound to restrict slavery to the slave states, 
and concluding, " we inscribe on our banner 'Free Soil, Free 
Speech, Free Labor and Free Man,' and under it we will fight on and 
fight ever, until a triumphant victory shall reward our exertions." 
The Liberty party had previously, in November 1847, nominated 

•See Hclmholtz. op. ciL p. 167. 

4 These phenomena are clearly explained at greater length by 
Sedley Taylor in Sound and Mtunc (tandon. 1806). pp. 134-153 and 
pp. 74-86. See also Fricdrich Zamminer. Die Nusik und du muriko- 
htcken In t tr mm nte, Ac (Giessen, 1855), pC 261. 



88 



FREE-STONE— FREE TRADE 



John P. Hale and Leicester King as president and vice-president 
respectively, but in the spring of 1848 it withdrew its candidates 
and joined the "free soil" movement. Representatives of 
eighteen states, including Delaware, Maryland and Virginia, 
attended the Buffalo convention. In the ensuing presidential 
election Van Buren and Adams received a popular vole of 
291,263, of which 120,510 were cast in New York. They re- 
ceived no electoral votes, all these being divided between the 
Whig candidate, Zachary Taylor, who was elected, and the 
Democratic candidate, Lewis Cass. The " free soilera," however, 
succeeded in sending to the thirty-first Congress two senators 
and fourteen representatives, who by their ability exercised an 
influence out of proportion to their number. 

Between 1 848 and 185 2 the "Barnburners "and the "Hunkers," 
their opponents, became partially reunited, the former returning 
to the Democratic ranks, and thus greatly weakening the Free 
Soilers. The party held its national convention at Pittsburg, 
Pennsylvania, on the nth of August 1852, delegates being 
present from all the free states, and from Delaware, Maryland, 
Virginia and Kentucky; and John P. Hale, of New Hampshire, 
and George W. Julian of Indiana, were nominated for the 
presidency and the vice-presidency respectively, on a platform 
which declared slavery " a sin against God and a crime against 
man," denounced the Compromise Measures of 1850, the fugitive 
slave law in particular, and again opposed the extension of 
slavery in the Territories. These candidates, however, received 
no electoral votes and a popular vote of only 156,149, of 
which but 25,329 were polled in New York. By 1856 they aban- 
doned their separate organisation and joined the movement 
which resulted in the formation of the powerful Republican 
party (q.v.), of which the Free Soil party' was the legitimate 
precursor. 

FREE-STONE (a translation of the O. Fr.frotteke pert or Pierre, 
i.e. stone of good quality; the modern French equivalent is 
picrredetaille, and Ital. pictra metk), stone used in architecture 
for mouldings, tracery and other work required to be worked 
with the chisel. The oolitic stones arc generally so called, 
although in some countries soft sandstones arc used; in some 
churches an indurated chalk called " dunch " is employed for 
internal lining and for carving. 

FREETOWN, capital of the British colony of Sierra Leone, 
West Africa, on the south side of the Sierra Leone estuary, about 
5 m. from the cape of that name, in 8° 29' N., 13° 10' W. Pop. 
(1901) 34,463. About 500 of the inhabitants are Europeans. 
Freetown is picturesquely situated on a plain, closed in behind 
by a succession of wooded hills, the Sierra Leone, rising to a height 
of 1700 ft. As nearly every house is surrounded by a courtyard 
or garden, the town covers an unusually large area for the number 
of its inhabitants. It possesses few buildings of architectural 
merit. The principal are the governor's residence and govern- 
ment offices, the barracks, the cathedral, the missionary institu- 
tions, the fruit market, Wilberfofte Hall, courts of justice, 
the railway station and the grammar school. Several of these 
institutions are built on the slopes of the hills, and on the highest 
point, Sugar Loaf Mountain, is a sanatorium. The botanic 
gardens form a pleasant and favourite place of resort. The roads 
are wide bat badly kept. Horses do not live, and all wheeled 
traffic is done by manual labour— hammocks and sedan-chairs 
are the customary means of locomotion. Notwithstanding that 
Freetown possesses an abundant and pure water-supply, drawn 
from the adjacent hills, it is enervating and unhealthy, and it 
was particularly to the capital, often spoken of as Sierra Leone, 
that the designation " White Man's Grave" applied. Since the 
beginning of the 20th century strenuous efforts have been made 
to improve the sanitary condition by a new system of drainage, 
a better water service, the filling up of marshes wherein the 
malarial mosquito breeds, and in other directions. A light 
railway 6 m. long, opened in 1004, has been built to Hill Station 
(000 ft. high), where, on a healthy site, are the residences of the 
government officials and of other Europeans. As a consequence 
the public health has improved, the highest death-rate in the 
years 1 901-1007 being 296 pec 1000. The town is governed 



by a municipality (created in 1893) with a mayor and councillors, 
the large majority being elective. Freetown was the first place 
in British West Africa granted local self-government. 

Both commercially and strategically Freetown is a place of 
importance. Its harbour affords ample accommodation for the 
largest fleets, it is a coaling station for the British navy, the head- 
quarters of the British military forces in West Africa, the sea 
terminus of the railway to the rich oil-palm regions of Mendfland, 
and a port of call for all steamers serving West Africa. Its 
inhabitants are noted for their skill as traders; the town itself 
produces nothing in the way of exports. 

In consequence of the character of the original settlement 
(see Sierra Leone), 75% of the inhabitants are descended from 
non-indigenous Negro races. As many as 150 different tribes 
are represented in the Sierra Leonis of to-day. Thdr semi- 
Europeanization is largely the result of missionary endeavour. 
The only language of the lower class is pidgin-English— quite 
incomprehensible to the newcomer from Great Britain, — but 
a large proportion of the inhabitants are highly educated men 
who excel as lawyers, clergymen, clerks and traders. Many 
members of the upper, that is, the best-educated, class have 
filled official positions of great responsibility. The most noted 
citizens are Bishop Crowther and Sir Samuel Lewis, chief justice 
of Sierra Leone 1882-1894. Both were full-blooded Africans. 
The Kru-mcn form a distinct section of the community, Eving 
in a separate quarter and preserving their tribal customs. 

Since 1861-1862 there has been an independent Episcopal 
Native Church; but the Church Missionary Society, which in 
1804 sent out the first missionaries to Sierra Leone, still maintains 
various agencies. Furah Bay College, built by the society on 
the site of General Charles Turner's estate (1 \ m. E. of Freetown), 
and opened in 2828 with six pupils, one of wham was Bishop 
Crowther, was affiliated in 1876 to Durham University and has 
a high -class curriculum. The Wesleyans have a high school, a 
theological college, and other educative agencies. The Moslems, 
who are among the most law-abiding and intelligent citizens of 
Freetown, have several state-aided primary schools. 

FREE TRADE, an expression which has now come to be 
appropriated to the economic policy of encouraging the greatest 
possible commercial intercourse, unrestricted by " protective " 
duties (see Protection), between any one country and its neigh- 
bours. This policy was originally advocated in France, and it 
has had its adherents in many countries, but Great Britain 
stands alone among the great commercial nations of the world 
in having adopted it systematically from 1846 onwards as the 
fundamental principle of her economic policy. 

In the economic literature of earlier periods, it may be noted 
that the term " free trade " is employed in senses which have m 
relation to modern usage. The term conveyed no suggestion 
of unrestricted trade or national liberty when it first appeared 
in controversial pamphlets; 1 it stood for a freedom conferred 
and maintained by authority — like that of a free town. The 
merchants desired to have good regulations for trade so that they 
might be free from the disabilities imposed upon them by 
foreign princes or unscrupulous fellow-subjects. After 1640 the 
term seems to have been commonly current in a different sense. 
When the practice which had been banded down from the middle 
ages— -of organizing the trade with particular countries by means 
of privileged companies, which professed to regulate the trade 
according to the state of the market so as to secure its steady 
development in the interest of producers and traders— was 
seriously called in question under the Stuarts and at the Revolu- 
tion, the interlopers and opponents of the companies insisted 
on the advantages of a w Free Trade "; they meant by this 
that the various branches of commerce should not be confined 
to particular persons or limited in amount, but should be throws 
open to be pursued by any Englishman in the way ho thought 
most profitable himself.' Again, in the latter half of the i8tb 

1 E. Mistclden, Free Trade or the Meanes to make Trade Flemish 
(i6m), p. 68; G. Malyaes, The Matnienemce df Free Trade (i6ar), 



»■'%* 



Parker, Qf a Free Trade (164ft). p. fc 



FREE TRADE 



89 



century, tilt Pitt*» financial reforms * were brought into operation, 
the English customs duties on wine and brandy were excessive; 
and those who carried on a remunerative business by evading 
these duties were known as Fair Traders or Free Traders. 1 
Since 1846 the term free trade has been popularly used, in 
England, to designate the policy of Cobden (q.v.) and others who 
advocated the abolition of the tax on imported corn (see Corn 
Laws); this is the only one of the specialized senses of the term 
which is at all likely to be confused with the economic doctrine. 
The Anti-Corn Law movement was, as a matter of fact, a special 
application of the economic principle; but serious mistakes have 
arisen from the blunder of confusing the part with the whole, 
and treating the remission of one particular duty as if it were the 
essential element of a policy in which it was only an incident. 
W. E. Gladstone, in discussing the effect of improvements in 
locomotion on British trade, showed what a large proportion of 
the stimulus to commerce during the 19th century was to be 
credited to what he called the " liberalizing legislation " of the 
free-trade movement in the wide sense in which he used the term. 
" I rank the introduction of cheap postage for letters, docu- 
ments, patterns and printed matter, and the abolition of all taxes 
00 printed matter, in the category of Free Trade Legislation. 
Not only thought in general, but every communication, and every 
publication, relating to matters of business, was thus set free. 
These great measures, then, may well take their place beside the 
abolition of prohibitions and protective duties, the simplifying 
of revenue laws, and the repeal of the Navigation Act, as forming 
together the great code of industrial emancipation. Under this 
code, our race, restored to freedom in mind and hand, and braced 
by the powerful stimulus of open competition with the world, has 
upon the whole surpassed itself and every other, and has won for 
itself a commercial primacy more evident, more comprehensive, 
and more solid than it had at any previous time possessed."' 
In this large sense free trade may be almost interpreted as the 
combination* of the doctrines of the division of labour and of 
laissez-faire in regard to the world as a whole. The division of 
labour between different countries of the world— so that each 
concentrates its energies in supplying that for the production 
of which it is best fitted— appears to offer the greatest possi- 
bility of production; but this result cannot be secured unless 
trade and industry are treated as the primary elements in the 
welfare of each community, and political considerations are not 
allowed to hamper them. 

Stated in its simplest form, the principle which underlies the 
doctrine of free trade is almost a truism; it is directly deducible 
from the very notion of exchange (q.v.). Adam Smith and his 
successors have demonstrated that in every case of voluntary 
exchange each party gains something that is of greater value-in- 
use to him than that with which he parts, and that consequently 
ih every exchange, either between individuals or between 
nations, both parties are the gainers. Hence it necessarily 
follows that, since both parties gain through exchanging, the more 
facilities there are for exchange the greater will be the advantage 
to every individual all round. 4 There is no difficulty in translat- 
ing this principle into the terms of actual life, and stating the 
conditions in which it holds good absolutely. If, at any given 
moment, the mass of goods in the world were distributed among 
the consumers with the minimum of restriction on interchange, 
each competitor would obtain the largest possible share of the 
things he procures in the world's market. But the argument 
is less conclusive when the element of time ia taken into account; 
what is true of each moment separately is not necessarily true 
of any period in which the conditions of production, or the 
requirements of communities, may possibly change. Each 
individual is likely to act with reference to his own future, but 

1 (1787), S7 Geo. III.c. 13. 

' Sir Walter Scott, Guy Afannering, chapter v. 

* Gladstone. " Free Trade, Railways and Commerce," in Nine- 
tenth Century (Feb. 1880), vol. vii. p. 370. 

• Parker states a similar argument in the form in which It suited 
the special problem of his day. " If merchandise be good for the 
commonweal, then the more common it is made, the more open it is 
laid, the more good it will convey to us." Op, ck\ 30. 



it may often be wise for the statesman to look far ahead, beyond 
the existing generation. 4 Owing to t he neglect of this element of 
time, and the allowance which must be made for it, the reasoning 
as to the advantages of free trade, which is perfectly sound in 
regard to the distribution of goods already in existence, may 
become sophistical,' if it is put forward as affording a complete 
demonstration of the benefits of free trade as a regular policy. 
After ail, human society is very complex, and any attempt to 
deal with its problems off-hand by appealing to a simple principle 
raises the suspicion that some important factor may have been 
left out of account. When there is such mistaken simplification, 
the reasoning may seem to have complete certainty, and yet it 
fails to produce conviction, because it does not profess to deal 
with the problem in all its aspects. When we concentrate atten- 
tion on the phenomena of exchange, we are viewing society as a 
mechanism in which each acts under known laws and is impelled 
by one particular force— that of self-interest; now, society is, 
no doubt, in this sense a mechanism, but it is also an organism, 7 
and it is only for very short periods, and in a very limited way, 
that we can venture to neglect its organic character without 
running the risk of falling into serious mistakes. 

The doctrine of free trade maintains that in order to secure 
the greatest possible mass of goods in the world as a whole, and 
the greatest possibility of immediate comfort for the consumer, 
it is expedient that there should be no restriction on the exchange 
of goods and services either between individuals or communities. 
The controversies in regard to this doctrine have not turned on 
its certainty as a hypothetical principle, but on the legitimacy 
of the arguments based upon it. It certainly supplies a principle 
in the light of which all proposed trade regulations should be 
criticized. It gives us a basis for examining and estimating the 
expense at which any particular piece of trade restriction is 
carried out; but thus used, the principle does not necessarily 
condemn the expenditure; the game may be worth the candle 
or it may not, but at least it is well that we should know how 
fast the candle is being burnt. It was in this critical spirit that 
Adam Smith examined the various restrictions and encourage- 
ments to trade which were in vogue in his day; he proved of each 
in turn that it was expensive, but he showed that he was conscious 
that the final decision could not be taken from this standpoint, 
since he recognized in regard to the Navigation Acts that " defence' 
is more than opulence."* In more recent times, the same sort 
of attitude was taken by Henry Sidgwick,* who criticizes various 
protective expedients in turn, in the light of free trade, but does 
not treat it as conveying an authoritative decision on their merits. 

But other exponents of the doctrine have not been content 
to employ it in this fashion. They urge it in a more positive 
manner, and insist that free trade pure and simple is the founda- 
tion on which the economic life of the community ought to be 
based. By men who advocate it in this way, free trade is set 
forward as an ideal which it is a duty to realize, and those who 
hold aloof from it or oppose it have been held up to scorn as if 
they were almost guilty of a crime. 10 The development of the 
material resources of the world is undoubtedly an important 
clement in the welfare of mankind; it is an aim which is common 
to the whole race, and may be looked upon as contributing to the 
greatest happiness of the greatest number. Competition in the 
open market seems to secure that each consumer shall obtain the 
best possible terms; and again, since all men are consumers 
whether they produce or not, or whatever they produce, the 
greatest measure of comforts for each seems likely to be attainable 
on these lines. For those who are frankly cosmopolitan, and who 
regard material prosperity as at all events the prime object at 
which public policy should aim, the free-trade doctrine is readily 

•Schmolltr, Crundriss der aUgemeinen VoUtswirtschaftskkre 
(1904), U. 607. 

•Byles, Sophisms of Free Trade-, L. S. Amery, Fundamental 
Fallacies of Fret Trade, 13. 

1 W. Cunningham, Rise and Decline of the Free Trade Movement, 
pp. 5-1 1- 

• Wealth of Nations, book iv. chap. ii. 

• Prineipks of Political Economy, 483. 
N J. Morley, Life of Cobden. i. 230. 



90 



FREE TRADE 



transformed, from a mere principle of criticism, till it comes to 
be regarded as the harbinger of a possible Utopia. It was in this 
fashion that it was put forward by French economists and proved 
attractive to some leading American statesmen in the 1 8th century. 
Turgot regarded the colonial systems of the European countries 
as at once unfair to their dependencies and dangerous to the peace 
of the world. " It will be a wise and happy thing for the nation 
which shall be the first to modify its policy according to the new 
conditions, and be content to regard its colonics as if they were 
allied provinces and not subjects of the mother country." It 
will be a wise and happy thing for the nation which is the first 
to be convinced that the secret of " success, so far as commercial 
policy is concerned, consists in employing all its land in the 
manner most profitable for the proprietary, all the hands in the 
manner most advantageous to the workman personally, that is 
to say, in the manner in which each would employ them, if we 
could let him be simply directed by his own interest, and that 
all the rest of the mercantile policy is vanity and vexation of 
spirit. When the entire separation of America shall have forced 
the whole world to recognize this truth and purged the European 
nations of commercial jealousy there will be one great cause of 
war less in the world." 1 Pitt, under the influence of Adam 
Smith, was prepared to admit the United States to the benefit 
of trade with the West Indian Colonies; and Jefferson, accepting 
the principles of his French teachers, would (in contradistinction 
to Alexander Hamilton) have been willing to see his country re- 
nounce the attempt to develop manufactures of her own.' It 
seemed as if a long step might be taken towards realizing the free- 
trade ideal for the Anglo-Saxon race; but British shipowners 
insisted on the retention of their privileges, and the propitious 
moment passed away with the failure of the negotiations of 
1783.' Free trade ceased to be regarded as a gospel, even in 
France, till the ideal was revived in the writings of Bastiat, 
and helped to mould the enthusiasm of Richard Cobden. 4 
Through his zealous advocacy, the doctrine secured converts in 
almost every part of the world; though it was only in Great 
Britain that a great majority of the citizens became so far 
satisfied with it that they adopted it as the foundation of the 
economic policy of the country. 

It is not difficult to account for the conversion of Great Britain 
to this doctrine; in the special circumstances of the first half of 
the 19th century it was to the interest of the most vigorous 
factors in the economic life of the country to secure the greatest 
possible freedom for commercial intercourse. Great Britain had, 
through her shipping, access to all the markets of the world; 
she had obtained such a lead in the application of machinery to 
manufactures that she had a practical monopoly in textile 
manufactures and in the hardware trades; by removing every 
restriction, she could push her advantage to its farthest extent, 
and not only undersell native manufactures in other lands, 
but secure food, and the raw materials for her manufactures, on 
the cheapest possible terms. Free trade thus seemed to offer the 
means of placing an increasing distance between Britain and her 
rivals, and of rendering the industrial monopoly which she had 
attained impregnable. The capitalist employer had superseded 
the landowner as the mainstay of the resources and revenue 
of the realm, and insisted that the prosperity of manufactures 
was the primary interest of the community as a whole. The 
expectation, that a thoroughgoing policy of free trade would not 
only favour an increase of employment, but also the cheapening 
of food, could only have been roused in a country which was 
» >. w Memoire," 6 April 1776, in (Emres, viii. 460. 

'Jefferson, Notes on Vu&nia, 275. §ee also the 
JspFsasoN and Hamilton, Alexander. 

' One incidental effect of the failure to secure free trade was that ' 
the African clave trade, with West Indies as a depot for supplying 
the American market, ceased to be remunerative, and the opposition 
to the abolition of the trade was very much weaker than it would 
otherwise have been; see Hochstetter, " Die wirtschaftlichen und 

Clitischen Motive far die Abschaffung des britischen SJdavcn- 
ndels," in Schmoller, Stoats und Sosiahrissensckoftiicke For- 
uhungen, xxv. i. 37. 

4 J. Wclsford, " Cobden** Foreign Teacher," in National Reoiem 
(December 1905). 



obliged to import a considerable amount of corn. The exceptional 
weakness, as well as the exceptional strength, of Great Britain, 
among European countries, made it seem desirable to adopt the, 
principle of unrestricted commercial intercourse, not merely 
in the tentative fashion in which it had been put in operation 
by Huskisson, but in the thoroughgoing fashion in which 
it at last commended itself to the minds of Peel and Gladstone. 
The " Manchester men " saw clearly where their interest lay; 
and the fashionable political economy was ready to demonstrate 
that in pursuing their own interest they were conferring the 
benefit of cheap clothing on all the most poverty-stricken races 
of mankind. It seemed probable, in the 'forties and early 'fifties, 
that other countries would take a similar view of their own 
interests and would follow the example which Great Britain had 
set.* That they have not done so, is partly due to the fact that 
none of them had such a direct, or such a widely diffused, interest 
in increased commercial intercourse as existed in Great Britain; 
but their reluctance has been partly the result of the critititm 
to which the free-trade doctrine has been subjected. The 
principles expressed in the writings of Friedrich List have taken 
such firm hold, both in America and in Germany, that these 
countries have preferred to follow on the lines by which Great 
Britain successfully built up her industrial prosperity in the 17th 
and 18th century, rather than on those by which they have seen 
her striving to maintain it since 1846. 

Free trade was attractive as an ideal, because it appeared 
to offer the greatest production of goods to the world as a whole, 
and the largest share of material goods to each consumer; it is 
cosmopolitan, and it treats consumption, and the interest of the 
consumer, as such, as the end to be considered. Hence it lies 
open to objections which are partly political and partly economic. 

As cosmopolitan, free-trade doctrine is apt to be indifferent 
to national tradition and aspiration. In so tar indeed as 
patriotism is a mere aesthetic sentiment, it may be tolerated, 
but in so far as it implies a genuine wish and intention to preserve 
and defend the national habits and character to the exclusion 
of alien elements, the cosmopolitan mind will condemn ft as 
narrow and mischievous. In the first half of the 19th century 
there were many men who believed that national ambitions 
and jealousies of every kind were essentially dynastic, and that if 
monarchies were abolished there would be fewer occasions of 
war, so that the expenses of the business of government would 
be enormously curtailed. For Cobden and his contemporaries 
it was natural to. regard the national administrative institutions 
as maintained for the benefit of the " classes " and without much 
advantage to the " masses." But in point of fact, modern times 
have shown the existence in democracies of a patriotic sentiment 
which b both exclusive and aggressive; and the burden of 
armaments has steadily increased* It was by means of a civil 
war that the United States attained to a consciousness of national 
life; while such later symptoms as the recent interpretations 
of the Monroe doctrine, or the war with Spain, have proved that 
the citizens of that democratic country cannot be regarded as 
destitute of self-aggrandizing national ambition. 

In Germany the growth of militarism and nationalism have 
gone on side by side under constitutional government, and 
certainly in harmony with predominant public opinion. Neither 
of these communities is willing to sink its individual conception 
of progress in those of the world at large; each is jealous of the 
intrusion of alien elements which cannot be reconciled with its 
own political and social system. And a similar recrudescence 
of patriotic feeling has been observable in other countries, such 
as Norway and Hungary: the growth of national sentiment 
is shown, not only in the attempts to revive and popularize the 
use of a national language, but still more decidedly in the deter- 
mination to have a real control ever the economic life of the 
country. It is here that the new patriotism comes into direct 
conflict with the political principles of free trade as advocated 
by Bastiat and Cobden; for them the important point was that 
countries, by becoming dependent on one another, would be 
prevented from engaging in hostilities. The new nations art 
• Compatriot Club Uctnm (1905), p. 306. 



FREE TRADE 



9> 



determined that they will not allow other countries to have such 
control over their economic condition, as to be able to exercise 
a powerful influence on their political life. Each is determined 
to bo the master in his own house, and each has rejected free 
trade because of the cosmopolitanism which it involves. 

Economically, free trade lays stress on consumption as the 
chief criterion of prosperity. It is, of course, true that goods are 
produced with the object of being consumed, and it is plausible 
to insist on taking this test; but it is also true that consumption 
and production are mutually interdependent, and that in some 
ways production is the more important of the two. Consumption 
looks to the present, and the disposal of actual goods; production 
looks to the future, and the conditions under which goods can 
continue to be regularly provided and thus become available for 
consumption in the long run. As regards the prosperity of the 
community in the future it is important that goods should be 
consumed in such a fashion as to secure that they shall be replaced 
or increased before they are used up; it is the amount of pro- 
duction rather than the amount of consumption that demands 
consideration, and gives indication of growth or of decadence. 
In these circumstances there is much to be said for looking at 
the economic life of a country from the point of view which free- 
traders have abandoned or ignore It is not on the possibilities 
of consumption in the present, but on the prospects of production 
w the future, that the continued wealth of the community depends; 
and this principle is the only one which conforms to the modern 
conception of the essential requirements of sociological science 
in its wider aspect (see Sociology). This is most obviously true 
in regard to countries of which the lesources are very imperfectly 
developed. If their policy is directed to securing the greatest 
possible comfort for each consumer in the present, it is certain 
that progress will be slow; the planting of industries for which 
the country has an advantage may be a tedious process; and 
in order to stimulate national efficiency temporary protection- 
involving what is otherwise unnecessary immediate cost to the 
consumer — may seem to be abundantly justified. Such a free 
trader as John Stuart Mill himself admits that a case may be 
made out for treating "infant industries" as exceptions; 1 
and if this exception be admitted it is likely to establish a pre- 
cedent. After all, the various countries of the world are all in 
different stages of development; some are old and some are 
new; and even the old countries differ greatly in the progress they 
have made in distinct arts. The introduction of machinery 
has everywhere changed the conditions of production, so that 
some countries have lost and others have gained a special advan- 
tage. Most of the countries of the world are convinced that the 
wisest economy is to attend to the husbanding of their resources 
of every kind, and' to direct their policy not merely with a view 
to consumption in the present, but rather with regard to the 
possibilities of increased production in the future. 

This deliberate rejection of the doctrine of free trade between 
nations, both in its political and economic aspects, has not 
interfered, however, with the steady progress of free commercial 
Intercourse within the boundaries of a single though composite 
political community. " Internal free trade," though the name 
was not then current in this sense, was one of the burning questions 
in England in the 17th century; it was perhaps as important a 
factor as puritanism in the fall of Charles I. Internal free trade 
was secured in France in the 1 8th century; thanks to Hamilton,' 
it was embodied in the constitution of the United States; it 
was introduced into Germany by Bismarck; and was firmly 
established in the Dominion of Canada and the Commonwealth 
of Australia. It became in consequence, where practicable, a 
part of the modern federal idea as usually interpreted. There 
are thus great areas, externally self-protecting, where free trade, 
as between internal divisions, has been introduced with little, 
if any, political difficulty, and with considerable economic 
advantage. These cases are sometimes quoted as justifying 
the expectation that the same principle is likely to be adopted 
sooner or later in regard to external trading relations. There 

* J. 5. Mill, Principles of Political Economy, book v. chapter x. 1 1 . 
•F. S. Oliver, Alexander Hamilton. 14a. 



is some reason, however, for raising the question whether free 
trade has been equally successful, not only in its economic, but 
in its social results, in all the large political communities where 
it has been introduced. In a region like the United States of 
America, it is probably seen at its best; there is an iin«"»"f* 
variety of different products throughout that great zone of the 
continent, so that the mutual co-operation of the various ports 
is most beneficial, while the standard of habit and comfort is so 
far uniform' throughout the whole region, and the facilities for 
the change of employment are so many, that there is little in- 
jurious competition between different districts. In the British 
empire the conditions are reversed; but though the great self- 
governing colonies have withdrawn from the circle, in the hope 
of building up their own economic life in their own way, free 
trade is still maintained over a very large part of the British 
empire. Throughout this area, there are very varied physical 
conditions; there is also an extraordinary variety of races, each 
with its own habits, and own standard of comfort; and in these 
circumstances it may be doubted whether the free competition, 
involved in free trade, is really altogether wholesome. Within 
this sphere the ideal of Bastiat and his followers is being realized. 
England, as a great manufacturing country, has more than held 
her own; India and Ireland are supplied with manufactured 
goods by England, and in each case the population is forced to 
look to the soil for its means of support, and for purchasing 
power. In each case the preference for tillage, as an occupation, 
has rendered it comparatively easy to keep the people on the 
land; but there is some reason to believe that the law of diminish- 
ing returns is already making itself felt, at all events in India, 
and is forcing the people into deeper poverty. 4 It may be doubtful 
in the case of Ireland how far the superiority of England in in- 
dustrial pursuits has prevented the development of manufactures; 
the progress in the last decades of the iSth century was too short- 
lived to be conclusive; but there is at least a strong impression 
in many quarters that the industries of Ireland might have 
flourished if they had had better opportunities allowed them.* 
In the case of India we know that the hereditary artistic skill, 
which had been built ud in bygone generations, has been stamped 
out. It seems possible that the modern unrest in India, and the 
discontent in Ireland, may be connected with the economic 
conditions in these countries, on which free trade has been imposed 
without their consent. So far the population which subsists on 
the cheaper food, and has the lower standard of life, has been 
the sufferer; but the mischief might operate in another fashion. 
The self-governing colonies at all events feel that competition in 
the same market between races with different standards of comfort 
has infinite possibilities of mischief. It is easy to conjure up 
conditions under which the standard of comfort of wage-earners 
in England would be seriously threatened. 

Since the oth edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica was 
published it has become clear that the free-trade doctrines of 
Bastiat and Cobdcn have not been gaining ground in the world 
at large, and at the opening of the aoth century it could hardly 
•be said with confidence that the question was " finally settled " 
so far as England was concerned. As to whether the interests of 
Great Britain still demanded that she should continue on the 
line she adopted in the exceptional conditions of the middle of the 
10th century, expert opinion was conspicuously divided;* but 
there remained no longer the old enthusiasm for free trade as 

* The standard is, of course, lower among the negroes and mean 
whites in the South than in the North and West. 

* F. Beauclcrk, " Free Trade in India," in Economic Review 
(Jury 1907). xvii. 284. 

* A. £. Murray. History of the Commercial and Financial Relations 
between England and Ireland, 294. 

* For the tariff reform movement in English politics see the article 
on Chamberlain, J. Among continental writers G. Schmoller 
(Grundnss der aUgemeinen Volkswirtsckaftslekre, ii. 641) and A. 
Wagner (Preface to M. Schwab's Chamberlains Handelspalitik) 
pronounce in favour of a change, as Fuchs did by anticipation. 
Schulse-Gaevernitz (Britischcr Fmperialismus und englischer Fret- 
hand ft). Aubry (Etude critique de la politique commerciale de VAngle- 
terrt d rtgard de ses colonies), and Blondel (La politique ProtecHonnista 
en Angleterre un nouveau danger pour la France) are against it. 



92 



FREGELLAE— FREIBURG IM BREISGAU 



the harbinger of an Utopia. The old principles of the bourgeois 
manufacturers had been taken up by the proletariat and shaped 
to suit themselves. Socialism, like free trade, is cosmopolitan in 
its aims, and is indifferent to patriotism and hostile to militarism. 
Socialism, like free trade, insists on material welfare as the 
primary object to be aimed at in any policy, and, like free 
trade, socialism tests welfare by reference to possibilities of con- 
sumption. In one respect there is a difference; throughout 
Cobden's attack on the governing classes there are signs of his 
jealousy of the superior status of the landed gentry, but socialism 
has a somewhat wider range. of view and demands ''equality of 
opportunity " with the capitalist as well 

Bibliography. — Reference has already been made to the prin- 
cipal works which deal critically with the free-trade policy. Pro- 
fessor Fawcett's Free Trade is a good exposition of free-trade 
principles; so also is Professor Bastable's Commerce of Nations. 
Among authors who have restated the principles with special 
reference to the revived controversy on the subject may be .men- 
tioned Professor W. Smart, The Return to Protection, being a Re- 
statement of the Case for Free Trade (2nd ed., 1906), and A. C. Pigou, 
Protective and Preferential Import Duties (1906). (W. Cu.) 

FREGELLAE, an ancient town of Latium adiectum, situated 
on the Via Latina.i 1 m. W. N. W. of Aquinum, near the left branch 
of the Liris. It is said to have belonged in early times to the* 
Opici or Oscans, and later to the Volscians. It was apparently 
destroyed by the Samnites a little before 330 B.C., in which year 
the people of Fabrateria Vetus (mod. Ceccano) besought the help 
of Rome against them, and in 328 B.C. a Latin colony was estab- 
lished there. The place was taken in 320 B.C. by the Samnites, 
but re-established by the Romans in 313 B.C. It continued hence- 
forward to be faithful to Rome; by breaking the bridges over the 
Liris it interposed an obstacle to the advance of Hannibal on 
Rome in 212 B.C., and it was a native of-Fregellae who headed the 
deputation of the non-revolting colonies in 200 B.C. It appears to 
have been a very important and flourishing place owing to its 
command of the crossing of the Liris, and to its position in a 
fertile territory, and it was here that, after the rejection of the 
proposals of M. Fulvius Flaccus for the extension of Roman 
burgess-rights in 125' B.C., a revolt against Rome broke out. 
It was captured by treachery in the same year and destroyed; 
but its place was taken in the following year by the colony of 
Fabrateria Nova, 3 m. to the S.E. on the opposite bank of the 
Liris, while a post station Fregellanum (mod. Ceprano) is 
mentioned in the itineraries; Fregcllae itself, h6wcver, continued 
to exist as a village even under the empire. The site is clearly 
traceable about/ \ m. E. of Ceprano, but the remains of the city 
are scanty. 

See G. Colasanti, Ftegellae, sloria e topografta (1906). (T. As.) 

FREIBERG, or Freybexg, a town of Germany in the kingdom 
of Saxony, on the Munzbach, near its confluence with the Mulde, 
19 m. S.W.of Dresden on the railway to Chemnitz, with a branch 
to Nossen. Pop. (1005) 30,806. Its situation, on the rugged 
northern slope of the Erzgebirgc, is somewhat bleak and uninvit- 
ing, but the town is generally well built and makes a prosperous 
impression. A part of its ancient walls still remains; the other 
portions have been converted into public walks and gardens. 
Freiberg is the seat of. the general administration of the mines 
throughout the kingdom, and its celebrated mining academy 
(Bergakademie), founded in 1765, is frequented by students 
from -all parts of the world. Connected with it are extensive 
collections of minerals and models, a library of 50,000 volumes, 
and laboratories for chemistry, metallurgy and assaying. Among 
its distinguished scholars it reckons Abraham Gottlob Werner 
(1750-1817), who was also a professor there, and Alexander, von 
Humboldt. Freiberg has extensive manufactures of gold and 
silver lace, woollen cloths, linen and cotton goods, iron, copper 
and brass wares, gunpowder and white-lead. It has also several 
large breweries. In the immediate vicinity are its famous silver 
and lead mines, thirty in number, and of which the principal ones 
passed into the property of the state in 1886. The castle of 
Freudenstein or Freistein, as rebuilt by the elector Augustus 
in 1572, is situated in one of the suburbs and is now used as a 
military magazine. In its grounds a monument was erected 
to Werner in 1851. The cathedral, rebuilt in late Gothic style 



after its destruction by fire in 1484 and restored in 1893, was 
founded in the 12th century. Of the original church a magnifi- 
cent German Romanesque doorway, known as the Golden Gate 
(Golden* PJorU), survives. The church contains numerous 
monuments, among others one to Prince Maurice of Saxony. 
Adjoining the cathedral is the mausoleum (BegrdbniskapeUt), 
built in 1 594 in the Italian Renaissance style, in which are buried 
the remains of Henry the Pious and his successors down to John 
George IV., who died in 1694. Of the other four Protestant 
churches the most noteworthy is the Peterskirche which, 
with its three towers, is a conspicuous object on the highest 
point of the town. Among the other public buildings are the old 
town-hall, dating from the 1 5th century, the antiquarian museum, 
and the natural history museum. There axe a classical and 
modern, a commercial and an agricultural school, and numerous 
charitable institutions. 

Freiberg owes its origin to the discovery of its silver mines 
(c. X163). The town, with the castle of Freudenstein, was built 
by Otto the Rich, margrave of Meissen, in 1175, and its name, 
which first appears in 122 1, is derived from the extensive mining 
franchises granted to it about that time. In all the partitions of 
the territories of the Saxon house of Wet tin, from the latter part 
of the 13th century onward, Freiberg always remained common 
property, and it was not till 1485 (the mines not till 1537) that 
it was definitively assigned to the Albertine line. The Reforma- 
tion was introduced into Freiberg in 1536 by Henry the Pious, 
who resided here. The town suffered severely during the Thirty 
Years' War, and again during the French occupation from 1806 
to 1814, during which time it had to support an army of 7004000 
men and find forage for 200,000 horses. 

See H. Gerlach, Klein* Chronik von Freiberg (2nd ed., Fretberf, 
1898); H. Ennisch, Das Freiberger Stadtrechl (Leipzig, iftte); 
Ermisch and O. Posse, Urkmdenbuch der Stadt Freiberg, in Codes 
diplom. Sax, reg. (3 vols., Leipzig, 1 883-1891); Freibergs Berg- **d 
HQUenwesen, published by the Bergmlnnncher Verein (Freiberg, 
1883); Ledebur, Vber die BedeuUtng der Freiberger Bergmkademt* 
(ib. 1903); Steche, Ban- und KunsldenkmaJer der Amtthaupim*n+- 
sckaft Freiberg (Dresden, 1884). 

FREIBURG, a town of Germany in Prussian Silesia, on the 
Polsnitz, 35 m. S.W. of Breslau, on the railway to Halbstadt. 
Pop. (1905) 0917. It has an Evangelical and Roman Catholic 
church, and its industries include watch-making, linen- weaving 
and distilling. In the neighbourhood are the old and modem 
castles of the FUrstenstein family, whence the town is sometimes 
distinguished as Freiburg untcr dem FUrstenstein. At Freiburg, 
on the 22nd of July 1762, the Prussians defended themselves 
successfully against the superior forces of the Austriana. 
' FREIBURG III BREISGAU, an archiepiscopal see and city of 
Germany in the grand duchy of Baden, 12 m. E. of the Rhine, 
beautifully situated on the Dreisam at the foot of the Schlossberg, 
one of the heights of the Black Forest range, on the railway 
between Basel and Mannheim, 40 m. N. of the fotmerdiy. 
Pop. (1005) 76,285. The town is for the most part well built, 
having several wide and handsome streets and a number of 
spacious squares. It is kept clean and cool by the waters of 
the river, which flow through the streets in open channels; and 
its old fortifications have been replaced by public walks, and, 
what is more unusual, by vineyards. It possesses a famous 
university, the Ludovica Albertina, founded by Albert VI., 
archduke of Austria, in 1457, and attended by about 2000 
students. The library contains upwards of 2 50,000 volumes and 
600 MSS., and among the other auxiliary establishments are 
an anatomical hall and museum and botanical gardens. The 
Freiburg minster is considered one of the finest of all the Gothic 
churches of Germany, being remarkable alike for the symmetry 
of its proportions, for the taste of its decorations, and for the 
fact that it may more correctly be said to be finished than almost 
any other building of the kind. The period of its erection pro- 
bably lies for the most part between 1122 and 1252; but the 
choir was not built till 1513. The tower, which rises above the 
western entrance, is 386 ft. in height, and it presents a skilful 
transition from .a square base into an octagonal superstructure, 
which in its turn is surmounted by a pyramidal spire of the most 



FREIBURG IM BREISGAU 



93 



exquisite open work in stone. In the interior of the church are 
some beautiful stained glass windows, both ancient and modern, 
the tombstones of several of the dukes of Zihringen, statues of 
archbishops of Freiburg, and paintings by Holbein and by 
HansBaldung (c. 1470-1545), commonly called Grim. Among the 
other noteworthy buildings of Freiburg are the palaces of the 
grand duke and the archbishop, the old town-hall, the theatre, 
the Kaufkaus or merchants' hall, a 19th-century building with 
a handsome facade, the church of St Martin, with a graceful 
spire restored 1880-1881, the new town-ball, completed xooi, 
in Renaissance style, and the Protestant church, formerly the 
church of the. abbey of Thennenbach, removed hither in 1839. 
In the centre of the fish-market square is a fountain surmounted 
by a statue of Duke Berthold III. of Zihringen; in the Francis- 
kaner Plata there is a monument to Berthold Schwarz, the 
traditional discoverer here, in 1259, of gunpowder; the Rot tec k 
Plats takes its name from the monument of Karl Wenzeslaus 
von Rottcck (1775-1840), the historian, which formerly stood 
00 the site of the Schwarz statue; and in Kaiser Wilheim 
Strasse a bronze statue was erected in 1876. to the memory of 
Herder, who in the. early part of the 19th century founded in 
Freiburg an institute for draughtsmen, engravers and litho- 
graphers, and carried on a famous bookselling business. On the 
Schlossberg above the town there are massive ruins of two 
castles destroyed by the French in 1744; and about a m. 
10 the N.E. stands the castle of Zihringen, the original seat of 
the famous family of the counts of that name. Situated on the 
ancient road which runs by the H&Uenpass between the valleys 
of the Danube and the Rhine, Freiburg early acquired com- 
mercial importance, and it is still the principal centre of the 
trade of the Black Forest. It manufactures buttons, chemicals, 
starch, leather, tobacco, silk thread, paper, and hempen goods, 
u well as beer and wine. 

Freiburg is of uncertain foundation. In nao it became a 
free town, with privileges simikr to those of Cologne; but in 
1219 it fell into the hands of a branch of the family of Urach. 
After it had vainly attempted to throw off the yoke by force 
of arms, it purchased its freedom in 1366; but, unable to 
reimburse the creditors who had advanced the money, it was, 
in 136S, obliged to recognize the supremacy of the house of 
Hapsburg. In the f7th and 18th centuries it played a consider- 
able part as a fortified town. It was captured by the Swedes 
in 1632, 1634 and 1638; and in 1644 it was seized by the 
Bavarians, who shortly after, under General Mercy, defeated in 
the neighbourhood the French forces under Enghien and Turenne. 
The French were in possession from 1677 to 1697, and again in 
17 1 3-1 7 14 and 1744; and when they left the place in 1748, at 
the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, they dismantled the fortifications. 
The Baden insurgents gained a victory at Freiburg in 1848, and 
the revolutionary government took refuge in the town in June 
1849, but in the following July the Prussian forces took possession 
and occupied It until 1851. Since 1821 Freiburg has been the 
seat of an archbishop with jurisdiction over the sees of Mainz, 
Rottenberg and Limburg. 

See Schrdber, Gesckichte und Beuhreibung des Minsters sv Frei- 
burg (1820 and 1825); Gesckichte der Stadl und Universit&t Frei- 
burgs (1857-1859); Der Scklossberg bei Freiburg (i860); and Albert, 
Dm Gesdrichtssckreibung der Stadt Freiburg (190*). 

Baltics of Freiburg, jrd, $tk and 10th if August 2644.— During 
the Thirty Years' War the neighbourhood of Freiburg was the 
icene of a scries of engagements between the French under 
Louis de Bourbon, due d'Enghien (afterwards called the great 
Conde), and Henri de la Tour d'Auvergne, vicomte de Turenne, 
tod the Bavarians and Austrians commanded by Franz, Freiherr 
von Mercy. 

At the close of the campaign of 1643 the French " Army of 
Weimar," having been defeated and driven into Alsace by the 
Bavarians, had there been reorganized under the command of 
Turenne, then a young general of thirty-two and newly promoted 
to the marsbalate. In May 1644 ne opened the campaign by 
recrossing the Rhine and raiding the enemy's posts as far as 
Oberlingen on the lake of Constance and Donaueschingen on 



the Danube. The French then fell back with their booty and 
prisoners to Breisach, a strong garrison being left in Freiburg. 
The Bavarian commander, however, revenged himself by besieging 
Freiburg (June 27th), and Turenne's first attempt to relieve the 
place failed. During July, as the siege progressed, the French 
government sent the due d'Enghien, who was ten years younger 
still than Turenne, but had just gained his great victory of 
Rocroy, to take over the command. Enghien brought with, him 
a veteran army, called the " Army of France," Turenne remaining 
in command of the Army of Weimar. The armies met at Breisach 
on the 2nd of August, by which date Freiburg had surrendered. 
At this point most commanders of the time would have decided 
not to fight, but to manoeuvre Mercy away from Freiburg; 
Enghien, however, was a fighting general, and Mercy's entrenched 
lines al Freiburg seemed to him a target rather than an obstacle. 
A few hours after his arrival, therefore, without waiting for the 
rearmost troops of his columns, he set the combining armies in 
motion for Krozingen, a village on what was then the main road 
between Breisach and Freiburg. The total force immediately 
available numbered only 16,000 combatants. Enghien and 
Turenne had arranged that the Army of France was to move 
direct upon Freiburg by Wolfenweiter, while the Army of Weimar 
was to make its way by hillside tracks to Wittnau and thence 
to attack the rear of Mercy's lines while Enghien assaulted 
them in front. Turenne's march (August 3rd, 1644) was slow 
and painful, as had been anticipated, and late in the afternoon, 
on passing Wittnau, he encountered the enemy. The Weimarians 
carried the outer lines of defence without much difficulty, but 
as they pressed on towards Merzhausen the resistance became 
more and more serious. Turenne's force was little more than 
6000, and these were wearied with a long day of marching and 
fighting on the steep and wooded hillsides of the Black Forest. 
Thus the turning movement came to a standstill far short of 
Uffingen, the village on Mercy's line of retreat that Turenne 
was to have seized, nor was a flank attack possible against 
Mercy's main line, from which he was separated by the crest 
of the SchOnberg. Meanwhile, Enghien's army bad at the 
prearranged hour (4 p.m.) attacked Mercy's position on the 
Ebringen spur. A steep slope, vineyards, low stone walls and 
abatis had all to be surmounted, under a galling fire from the 
Bavarian musketeers, before the Army of France found itself, 
breathless and in disorder, in front of the actual entrenchments 
of the crest. A first attack failed, as did an attempt to find an 
unguarded path round the shoulder of the SchOnberg. The 
situation was grave in the extreme, but Enghien resolved on 
Turenne's account to renew the attack, although only a quarter 
of his original force was still capable of making an effort. He 
himself and all the young nobles of his staff dismounted and led 
the infantry forward again, the prince threw his baton into the 
enemy's lines for the soldiers to retrieve, and in the end, after 
a bitter struggle, the Bavarians, whose reserves had been taken 
away to oppose Turenne in the Merzhausen defile, abandoned 
the entrenchments arid disappeared- into the woods of the 
adjoining spur. Enghien hurriedly re-formed his troops, fearing 
at every moment to be hurled down the hill by a counlerstroke; 
but none came. The French bivouacked in the rain, Turenne 
making his way across the mountain to confer with the prince, 
and meanwhile Mercy quietly drew off his army in the dark to 
a new set of entrenchments on the ridge on which stood the 
Loretto Chapel. On the 4th of August the Army of France and 
the Army of Weimar met at Merzhausen, the rearmost troops of 
the Army of France came in, and the whole was arranged by 
the major-generals in the plain facing the Loretto ridge. This 
position was attacked on the 5th. Enghien had designed his 
battle even more carefully than before, but as the result of a 
series of accidents the two French armies attacked prematurely 
and straight to their front, one brigade after another, and though 
at one moment Enghien, sword in hand, broke the line of defence 
with his last intact reserve, a brilliant counlerstroke, led by 
Mercy's brother Kaspar (who was killed), drove out the assailants. 
It is said that Enghien lost half his men on this day and Mercy 
one-third of bis, so severe was the battle. But the result could 



9+ 



FREIDANK— FREILIGRATH 



not be gainsaid; it was lor the French a complete and costly 
failure. 

For three days after this the armies lay in position without 
fighting, the French well supplied with provisions and comforts 
from Breisach, the Bavarians suffering somewhat severely from 
want of food, and especially forage, as all their supplies had to 
be hauled from Villingen over the rough roads of the Blade 
Forest. Enghien then decided to make use of the Glotter Tal 
to interrupt altogether this already unsatisfactory line of supply, 
and thus to force the Bavarians either to attack him at a serious 
disadvantage, or to retreat across the hills with the loss of their 
artillery and baggage and the disintegration of their army by 
famine and desertion. With this object, the Army of Weimaj 
was drawn oil on the morning of the oth of August and marched 
round by Betzenhausen and Lehcn to Langen Denzling. The 
infantry of the Army of France, then the trains, followed, while 
Enghien with his own cavalry faced Freiburg and the Loretto 
position. 

Before dawn on the xoth the advance guard of Turenne's 
army was ascending the Glotter Tal. But Mercy had divined his 



adversary's plan, and leaving a garrison to hold Freiburg, the 
Bavarian army had made a night march on the o/ioth to the A bbcy 
of St Peter, whence on the morning of the xoth Mercy fell back 
to Graben, his nearest magazine in the mountains. Turenne's 
advanced guard appeared from the Glotter Tal only to find a 
stubborn rearguard of cavalry in front of the abbey. A sharp 
action began, but Mercy hearing the drums and fifes of the 
French infantry in the Glotter Tal broke it of! and continued his 
retreat in good order. Enghien thus obtained little material 
result from his manoeuvre. Only two guns and such of Mercy's 
wagons that were unable to keep up fell into the hands of the 
French. Enghien and Turenne did not continue the chase farther 
than Graben, and Mercy fell hack unmolested to Rothenburg on 
the Tauber. 

The moral results of this sanguinary fighting were, however, 
important and perhaps justified the sacrifice of so many valuable 
soldiers. Enghien's pertinacity had not achieved a decision 
with the sword, but Mercy had been so severely punished that 
he was unable to interfere with his opponent's new plan of cam- 
paign. This, which was carried out by the united armies and by 
reinforcements from France, while Turenne's cavalry screened 
them by bold demonstrations on the Tauber, led to nothing less 
than the conquest of the Rhine Valley from Basel to Coblenz, 
a task which was achieved so rapidly that the Army of France 
and its victorious young leader were free to return to France in 
two months from the time of their appearance in Turenne's 
qukrtea *t Breisach. 



FREIDANK (VrIdancJ, the name by which a Middle High 
German didactic poet of the early 13 th century is known. It has 
been disputed whether the word, which is equivalent to " free* 
thought," is to be regarded as the poet's real name or only as a 
pseudonym; the latter is probably the case. Little is known of 
Freidank's life. He accompanied Frederick II. on his crusade 
to the Holy Land, where, in the years 1228-1129, a portion at 
least of his work was composed; and it is said that on his tomb 
(if indeed it was not the tomb of another Freidank) at Treviso. 
there was inscribed, with allusion to the character of his style, 
" he always spoke and never sang." Wilhelm Grimm originated 
the hypothesis that Freidank was to be identified with Waltber 
von der Vogelweide; but this is no longer tenable. Freidank's 
work bears the name of Besckeidenhcil, i.e. " practical wisdom," 
" correct judgment," and consists of a collection of proverbs, 
pithy sayings, and moral and satirical reflections, arranged under 
general heads. Its popularity till the end of the 16th century is 
shown by the great number of MSS. extant. 

Sebastian Brant oublished the Bescheidenkeil in a modified form 
in 1508. Wilhelm Grimm's edition appeared in 1834 (2nd ed. i860). 
H. F. Bezzcnberger's in 1872. A later edition is by F. Sandvoa 
(1877). The old Latin translation, Fridangi Discretto, was printed 
by C. Lemcke in 1868; and there are two translations into modern 
German, A. Bacmeister's (1861) and K. Simrock's (1867). See also 
F. Pfciffcr, Ober Freidank (Zur deutschen LiUraturgescktckM, 1855), 
and H. Paul. Vber die ursprungliche Anordnuni von Freidmnhs Dt- 
sckeidenheit (1870). 

FRBIENWALDB, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of 
Prussia, on the Oder, sS m. N.E. of Berlin, on the Frankfort- 
AngermUnde railway. Pop. (1905) 7005. It has a small palace, 
built by the Great Elector, an Evangelical and a Roman Catholic 
church, and manufactures of furniture, machinery, ftc The 
neighbouring forests and its medicinal springs make it a favourite 
summer resort of the inhabitants of Berlin. A new tower com- 
mands a fine view of the Oderbruch (see Oder). Freaenwalde, 
which must be distinguished from the smaller town of the same 
name in Pomerania, first appears as a town in 1564. 

FREIESLEBENITE, a rare mineral consisting of snlphaati- 
monite of silver and lead, (Pb,Ag»)»Sb,Sn. The monodiiik 
crystals are prismatic in habit, with deeply striated prism and 
dome faces. The colour is steel-grey, and the lustre metallic; 
hardness 2}, specific gravity 62. It occurs with argentite, 
chalybite and galena in the silver veins of the HunroelsfQrst 
mine at Freiberg, Saxony, where it has been known since 1720. 
The. species was named after J. K. Freiesleben, who had earlier 
called it Sckilf-Glasen. Other localities are Htendelaencina 
near Guadalajara in Spain, Kapnik-Banya in Hungary, and 
Guanajuato in Mexico. A species separated from freieslebenite 
by V. von Zepharovich in 1871, because of differences in crystal- 
line form, is known as diaphorite (from fco4opa» " difference"); 
it is very similar to freieslebenite in appearance and has perhaps 
the same chemical composition (or possibly AgsPbSbjSi), but 
is orthorhombic in crystallization. A third mineral also very 
similar to freieslebenite in appearance is the orthorhombic 
andorite, AgPbSbjS*, which is mined as a silver ore at Oruro ia 
Bolivia. 

FREIGHT, (pronounced like " weight "; derived from the 
Dutch vrockt or vrcchl, in Fr. fret, the Eng. " fraught " being the - 
same word, and formerly used for the same thing, but no* 
only as an adjective «* " laden "), the lading or cargo of a ship, * 
and the hire paid for their transport (see Affreightmext); ■ 
from the original sense of water-transport of goods the word hu - 
also come to be used for land-transit (particularly in Anuria, - 
by railroad), and by analogy for any load or burden. 

FRRIUGRATH, FBRDLNAJTD (1810-1876), German poet, ^ 
was born at Detmold on the 1 7th of June 1810. He was educated 
at the gymnasium of his native town, and in his sixteenth year J 
was sent to Soest, with a view to preparing him for a commercial 
career. Here he had also time and opportunity to acquire t 
taste for French and English literature. The years from 1S31 
to 1836 he spent in a bank at Amsterdam, and 1837 to 1830 ia '_ 
\ business house at Barmen. In 1838 his Gedickie appeared 
snd met with such extraordinary success that he gave up the 



FREIND— FREISCHUTZ 



95 



Idea of a commercial life and retohred to devote bimtelf entirely 
to literature His repudiation of the political poetry of 1841 
and its revolutionary ideals attracted the attention of the king 
of Prussia, Frederick William IV., who, in 184a, granted him 
a pension of 300 talers a year. He married, and, to be near his 
friend Emanuel Geibel, settled at St-Goar. Before long, however, 
Freiligrath was himself carried away by the rising tide of liberal- 
ism. In the poem Bin Gaubensbekenntnis (1844) he openly 
avowed his sympathy with the political movement led by his old 
adversary, Georg Herwegh; the day, he declared, of his own 
poetic trifling with Romantic themes was over; Romanticism 
itself was dead. He laid down his pension, and, to avoid the 
inevitable political persecution, took refuge in Switzerland. 
As a sequel to the Claubensbekenntnis he published Qa iral (1846), 
which strained still further his relations with the German 
authorities. He fled to London, where he resumed the com- 
mercial life he had broken off seven years before. When the 
Revolution of 1848 broke out, it seemed to Freiligrath, as to all 
the liberal thinkers of the time, the dawn of an era of political 
freedom; and, as may be seen from the poems in his collection of 
Poliiiscke nnd satiate Cedichte (1840-1851), he welcomed it with 
unbounded enthusiasm. He returned to Germany and settled 
in Dflsseldorf; but it was not long before he had again called 
down upon himself the ill- will of the ruling powers by a poem, 
Die Toten an die Lebendcn (1848). He was arrested on a charge 
of lese-majcsti, but the prosecution ended in his acquittal. New 
difficulties arose; his association with the democratic movement 
rendered him an object of constant suspicion, and in 1851 he 
judged it more prudent to go back to London, where he remained 
until 1 868. In that year he returned to Germany, settling first in 
Stuttgart and in 1875 in the neighbouring town of Cannstatt, 
where he died on the 18th of March 1876. 

As a poet, Freiligrath was the most gifted member of the 
German revolutionary group. Coming at the very close of the 
Romantic age, his own purely lyric poetry re-echoes for the most 
part the familiar thoughts and imagery of his Romantic pre- 
decessors; but at an early age be had been attracted by the work 
of French contemporary poets, and he reinvigorated the German 
lyric by grafting upon it the orientalism of Victor Hugo. In this 
reconciliation of French and German romanticismlay Freiligrath's 
significance for the development of the lyric in Germany. His 
remarkable power of assimilating foreign literatures is also to 
be seen in his translations of English and Scottish ballads, of 
the poetry of Burns, Mrs Hemans, Longfellow and Tennyson 
{Bngfische Cedichte aus nenerer Zeit, 1846; The Rase, Thistle 
and Shamrock, 1853, 6th ed. 1887); he also translated Shake- 
speare's Cymbcline, Winter's Tale and Venus and Adonis, as well 
as Longfellow's Hiawatha (1857). Freiligrath is most original 
in his revolutionary poetry. His poems of this class suffer, 
it is true, under the disadvantage of all political poetry— purely 
temporary interest and the unavoidable admixture of much that 
has no claim to be called poetry at all— but the agitator Freili- 
grath, when he is at his best, displays a vigour and strength, a 
power of direct and cogent poetic expression, not to be found in 
any other political singer of the age. 

Freiligrath's Cedi e hie have pawed tl 
his Gtsammelte Dick tun gen, first pub! 
sixth edition (1808). Nachtelauetu 
Byron's Mazeppa) was published in 

Sith's best-known poems in English 
tighter. Mrs Freiligrath-Kroeker, ii 
fiMarv Epoch were translated by I. 
Schnudt-Weisscnfels, F. Freiligrath, 
Berliner. F. Freiligrath, tin Diehterle 
G. Freiligrath, Ennnemngcn an F. 
FreiUgraih (Paris. 1899); K. Rich 

FREIIID, JOHN (1675-17*8), English physician, younger 
brother of Robert Freind (1667-1751), headmaster of West- 
minster school, was born in 1675 ** Croton in Northamptonshire. 
He made great progress in classical knowledge under Richard 
Busby at Westminster, and at Christ Church, Oxford, under 
Pean Aldrich. and while still very young, produced, along with 
Peter Foulkcs, an excellent edition of the speeches of Aeschines 



and Demosthenes on the affair of Ctetfpfcoii. After this ho began 
the study of medicine, and having proved his scientific attain- 
ments by various treatises was appointed a lecturer on chemistry 
at Oxford in 1704. In the following year he accompanied the 
English army, under the earl of Peterborough, into Spain, and 
on returning home in 1707, wrote an account of the expedition, 
which attained great popularity. Two years later be published 
his Prdectiones chimicae, which he dedicated to Sir Isaac Newton. 
Shortly after his return in 1713 from Flanders, whither he had 
accompanied the British troops, he took up his residence in 
London, where he soon obtained a great reputation as a physician. 
In 17 16 he became fellow of the college of physicians, of which 
he was chosen one of the censors in 17x8, and Harvcian orator 
in 1720. In 172a he entered parliament as member for Launceston 
in Cornwall, but, being suspected of favouring the cause of the 
exiled Stuarts, he spent half of that year in the Tower. During 
his imprisonment he conceived the plan of his most important 
work, The History of Physic, of which the first part appeared 
in 1 725, and the second in the following year. In the latter year 
he was appointed physician to Queen Caroline, an office which he 
held till his death on the 26th of July 1738. 

A complete edition of his Latin works, with a Latin translation of 
the History of Physic, edited by Dr John Wigan, was published in 
London in 1732. 

FREMSHVJM [FraHSBEious], JOHAMH (1608-1600), German 
classical scholar and critic, was born at Ulm on the 16th of 
November 1608. After studying at the universities of Marburg, 
Giessen and Strassburg, he visited France, where he remained 
for three years. He returned to Strassburg in 1637, and in 
1642 was appointed professor of eloquence at Upsala. In 1647 
he was summoned by Queen Christina to Stockholm as court 
librarian and historiographer. In 16 so he resumed his professor- 
ship at Upsala, but early in the following year he was obliged 
to resign on account of ill-health. In 1656 he became honorary 
professor at Heidelberg, and died on the 31st of August 1660. 
Freinshdm's literary activity was chiefly devoted to the Roman' 
historians. He first introduced the division into chapters and 
paragraphs, and by means of carefully compiled indexes illus- 
trated the lexical peculiarities of each author. He is best known 
for his famous supplements to Quintus Curtius and Livy , contain- 
ing the missing books written by himself. He also published 
critical editions of Curtius and Floras. 

FREIRB, FRANCISCO JOSfi (1710-1773), Portuguese historian 
and philologist, was born at Lisbon on the 3rd of January 
17x9. He belonged to the monastic society of St Philip Nerl, 
and was a cealous member of the literary association known as 
the Academy of Arcadians, in connexion with which he adopted 
the pseudonym of Candido Lusitano. He contributed much 
to the improvement of the style of Portuguese prose literature, 
but his endeavour to effect a reformation in the national poetry 
by a translation of Horace's Ars poitica was less successful The 
work in which be set forth his opinions regarding the vicious 
taste pervading the current Portuguese prose literature is entitled 
MaximassobreaArle Oratorio (1745) and is preceded by a chrono- 
logical table forming almost a social and physical history of 
Portugal. His best known work, however, is his Vida do 
infante D. Henrique (1758), which has given him a place in the 
first rank of Portuguese historians, and has been translated into 
French (Paris, 1781). He also wrote a poetical dictionary 
(Diccionario portico) and a translation of Racine's Athalie (1762), 
and his inflexions sur la languc portugaise waa published in 1842 
by the Lisbon society for the promotion of useful knowledge. 
He died at Mafra on the 5th of July 1773. 

FRBISCHOTZ, in German folklore, a marksman who by a 
compact with the devil has obtained a certain number of bullets 
destined to bit without fail whatever object he wishes. As the 
legend is usually told, six of the Freihugeln or " free bullets " 
are thus subservient to the marksman's will, but the seventh Is 
at the absolute disposal of the devil himself. Various methods, 
were adopted in order to procure possession of the marvellous 
missiles. According to one the marksman, instead of swallowing 
the sacramental host, kt^\ \i von, fcsaA \V wv * vewt, fenx w\\. 



9 6 



FREISING— FRfcMIET 



and caused it to bleed great drops of blood, gathered the drops 
on a piece of doth and reduced the whole to ashes, and then with 
these ashes added the requisite virtue to the lead of which his 
bullets were made. Various vegetable or animal substances had 
the reputation of serving the same purpose. Stories about the 
Freischutx were especially common in Germany during the 14th, 
15th and 16th centuries; but the first time that the legend was 
turned to literary profit is said to have been by Apel in the 
Ctspensterbuch or " Book of Ghosts." It formed the subject 
of Weber's opera Dew Freischutx (1821), the libretto of which 
was written by Friedrich Kind, who had suggested Apel's story 
as an excellent theme for the composer. The name by which the 
Freischuts is known in French is Robin des Bois. 

See Kind, FnyscMsmhuh (Leipzig, 1843); Revue des deux monies 
(February 1855); Grasee, Die Quelle des Freischuts (Dresden, 1875). 

FREISING, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Bavaria, 
on the Isar, 16 m. by rail N.N.E. of Munich. Pop. (1005) 13,538. 
Among its eight Roman Catholic churches the most remarkable 
is the -cathedral, which dates from about 1160 and is famous for 
its curious crypt* Noteworthy also are the old palace of the 
bishops, now a clerical seminary, the theological lyceum and the 
town-halL There are several schools in .the town, and there is a 
statue to the chronicler, Otto of Freising, who was bishop here 
from 1x38 to 1 1 58. Freising has manufactures of agricultural 
machinery and of porcelain, while printing and brewing are carried 
on. Near the town is the site of the Benedictine abbey of 
Weihenstephan, which existed from 725 to 1803. This is now 
a model farm and brewery. Freising is a very ancient town and 
is said to have been founded by the Romans. After being 
destroyed by the Hungarians in 955 it was fortified by the emperor 
Otto II. in 976 and by Duke Welf of Bavaria in 1082. A bishopric 
was established here in 724 by St Corbinianus, whose brother 
Erimbert was consecrated second bbhop by St Boniface in 739. 
Later on the bishops acquired considerable territorial power 
and in the 17th century became princes of the Empire. In 
1802 the see was secularized, the bulk of its territories being 
assigned to Bavaria and the rest to Salzburg, of which Freising 
had been a suffragan bishopric In 1817 an archbishopric 
was established at Freising, but in the following year it was 
transferred to Munich. The occupant of the see is now called 
archbishop of Munich and Freising. 

See C. Meichelbeck, Historuu Frisingensis (Augsburg, 1724-1729, 
new and enlarged edition 1854). 

FRAJUS, a town in the department of the Var in S.E. France. 
Pop. (1006) 3430. It is 28} m. S.E. of Draguignan (the chief 
town of the department), and 22} ro. S.W. of Cannes by rail. It 
is only important on account of the fine Roman remains that it 
contains, for it is now a mile from the sea, its harbour having been 
silted up by the deposits of the Argens river. Since the 4th 
century it has been a bishop's see, which is in the ecclesiastical 
province of Aix en Provence. In modern times the neighbouring 
fishing village at St Raphael (2} m. by rail S.E., and on the sea- 
shore) has become a town of 4865 inhabitants (in 1 001); in 1799 
Napoleon disembarked there on his return from Egypt, and xe- 
embarked for Elba in 1814, while nowadays it is much frequented 
as a health resort, as is also Valescure (2 m. N.W. on the heights 
above). The cathedral church in part dates from the 1 2th cen- 
tury, but only Small portions of the old medieval episcopal palace 
are now visible, as it was rebuilt about 1823. The ramparts of 
the old town can still be traced for a long distance, and there 
are fragments of two moles, of the theatre and of a gate. The 
amphitheatre, which seated 12,000 spectators, is in a better state 
of preservation. The ruins of the great aqueduct which brought 
the waters of the Siagnole, an affluent of the Siagne, to the town, 
can still be traced for a distance of nearly 19 m. The original 
hamlet was the capital. of the tribe of the Oxybii, while the town 
of Forum Julii was founded on its site by Julius Caesar in order 
to secure to the Romans a harbour independent of that of 
Marseilles. The buildings of which ruins exist were mostly 
built by Caesar or by Augustus, and show that it was an important 
naval station and arsenal. But the town suffered much at the 
Juuds of tic Arabs, of Barbary pirates, and of its inhabitants, 



who constructed many of their dwellings out of the mined Roman 
buildings. The ancient harbour (really but a portion of the 
lagoons, which had been deepened) is now completely s&ted 
up. Even in early times a canal had to be kept open by perpetual 
digging, while about 1700 this was dosed, and now a sandy 
and partly cultivated waste extends between the town and the 
seashore. 

See J. A. Aubenas, HisUrirede Frtjus (Frejus, 1881); Ch. LentMrie. 
La Pretence Maritime ancienne et mederm (Paris, 1880). chap. viL 

(W. A. B. C) 

FREUNGHUYSEN. FREDERICK THEODORE (1817-1885), 
American lawyer and statesman, of Dutch descent, was bora at 
Millstone, New Jersey, on the 4th of August 1817. His grand- 
father, Frederick Frelinghuysen (1753-1804), was an eminent 
lawyer, one of the framers of the first New Jersey constitution, 
a soldier in the War of Independence, and a member (1778-1779 
and 1 782-1 783) of the Continental Congress from New Jersey, 
and in 1 793-1 796 of the United States senate; and his uncle, 
Theodore (1 787-1862), was attorney-general of New Jersey 
from 1817 to 1829, was a United States senator from New 
Jersey in 1820-1835, was the Whig candidate for vice-president 
on the Clay ticket in 1844, and was chancellor of the university 
of New York in 1 839-1 850 and president of Rutgers College 
in 1850-1862. Frederick Theodore, left an orphan at the age of 
three, was adopted by his uncle, graduated at Rutgers in 1836, 
and studied law in Newark with his uncle, to whose practice 
he succeeded in 1839, soon after his admission to the bar. He 
became attorney for the Central Railroad of New Jersey, the 
Morris Canal and Banking Company, and other corporations, 
and from 1861 to 1867 was attorney-general of New Jersey. 
In 1861 he was a delegate to the peace congress at Washington, 
and in 1866 was appointed by the governor of New Jersey, as 
a Republican, to fill a vacancy in the United States senate. 
In the winter of 1867 he was elected to fill the unexpired term, 
but a Democratic majority in the legislature prevented his 
re-election in 1869. In 1870 he was nominated by President 
Grant, and confirmed by the senate, as United States minister 
to England to succeed John Lothrop Motley, but declined the 
mission. From 1871 to 1877 he was again a member of the United 
Stales senate, in which he was prominent in debate and in com- 
mittee work, and was chairman of the committee on foreign 
affairs during the Alabama Claims negotiations. He was a strong 
opponent of the reconstruction measures of President Johnson, 
for whose conviction he voted (on most of the specific charges) 
in the impeachment trial. He was a member of the joint com- 
mittee which drew up and reported (1877) the Electoral Com- 
mission Bill, and subsequently served as a member of the com- 
mission. On the 1 2th of December 1881 he was appointed 
secretary of state by President Arthur to succeed James G. 
Blaine, and served until the inauguration of President Cleveland 
in 1885. Retiring, with his health impaired by overwork, to 
his home in Newark, he died there on the 20th of May, less than 
three months after relinquishing the cares of office. 

FREMANTLE, a seaport of Swan county, Western Australia, 
at the mouth of the Swan river, 12 m. by rail S.W. of Perth. 
It is the terminus of the Eastern railway, and is a town of 
some industrial activity, shipbuilding, soap-boiling, saw-milling, 
smelting, iron-founding, furniture-making, flour-milling, brewing _ 
and tanning being its chief industries. The harbour, by the - 
construction of two long moles and the blasting away of the rocks - 
at the bar, has been rendered secure. The English, French and 
German mail steamers call at the port. Fremantle became a 
municipality in 1871; but there are now three separate muniri- a 
palities— Fremantle, with a population in 1001 of 14.704; - 
Fremantle East (2494) ; and Fremantle North (3246). At Rott- -3 
nest Island, off. the harbour, there are government salt-worb * 
and a residence of the governor, also penal and reformatory * 
establishments. 

FRAmIET, EMMANUEL (1824- ), French sculptor, bom * 
in Paris, was a nephew and pupil of Rude; he chiefly devoted 
himself to animal sculpture and to equestrian statues in armour. 
His earliest work was in scientific lithography (osteology), and «- 



FREMONT 



97 



far a while he served in timet of adversity in the gramme office 
of M punter to the Morgue." In 1843 he lent to the Salon a 
study of a " Gazelle/' and after that date was very prolific in bis 
works. His " Wounded Bear " and " Wounded Dog " were 
produced in 1850, and the Luxembourg Museum at once secured 
this striking example of his work. From 1855 to 1859 Fremiet 
was engaged on a series of military statuettes for Napoleon III. 
He produced his equestrian statue of " Napoleon I." in 1868, 
and of " Louis d 'Orleans" in 1869 (at the Chateau de Pierrefonds) 
and in 1874 the first equestrian statue of " Joan of Arc/ 1 erected 
in the Place des Pyramides, Paris; this he afterwards (1889) 
replaced with another and still finer version. In the meanwhile 
he had exhibited his masterly " Gorilla and Woman " which won 
him a medal of honour at the Salon of 1887. Of the same 
character, and even more remarkable, is his " Ourang-Outangs 
and Borneo Savage " of 1895, a commission from the Paris 
Museum of Natural History. Fremiet also executed the statue 
of " St Michael " for the summit of the spire of the £glisc 
St Michel, and the equestrian statue of Velasquez for the Jardin 
de l'lnfante at the Louvre. He became a member of the 
Academic des Beaux-Arts in 1893, and succeeded Barye as 
professor of animal drawing at the Natural History Museum of 
Paris. 

FREMONT, JOHN CHARLES (18x3-1890), American explorer, 
soldier and political leader, was born in Savannah, Georgia, on 
the sist of January 1813. His father, a native of France, died 
when the boy was in his sixth year, and his mother, a member of 
an aristocratic Virginia family, then removed to Charleston, South 
Carolina. In 1828, after a year's special preparation, young 
Fremont entered the junior class of the college of Charleston, 
and here displayed marked ability, especially in mathematics; 
but his irregular attendance and disregard of college discipline 
led to his expulsion from the institution, which, however, conferred 
upon him a degree in 1836. In 1833 he was appointed teacher 
of mathematics on board the sloop of war " Natchez, " and was 
so engaged during a cruise along the South American coast 
which was continued for about two and a half years. Soon 
after returning to Charleston he was appointed professor of 
mathematics in the United States navy, but he chose instead to 
serve aa assistant engineer of a survey undertaken chiefly for 
the purpose of finding a pass through the mountains for a pro- 
posed railway from Charleston to Cincinnati. In July 1838 he 
was appointed second lieutenant of Topographical Engineers in 
the United States army, and for the next three years he was 
assistant to the French explorer, Jean Nicholas Nicollet (1786- 
1843), employed by the war department to survey and map a 
Urge part of the country lying between the upper waters of the 
Mississippi and Missouri river*. In 1841 Fremont surveyed, for 
the government, the lower course of the Des Moines river. In 
the same year he married Jessie, the daughter of Senator Thomas 
H. Benton of Missouri, and it was in no small measure through 
Benton's influence with the government that Fremont was 
enabled to accomplish within the next few years the exploration 
of much of the territory between the Mississippi Valley and the 
Pacific Ocean. 

When the claim of the United States to the Oregon territory 
was being strengthened by occupation, Fremont was sent, at 
his urgent request, to explore the frontier beyond the Missouri 
river, and especially the Rocky Mountains in the vicinity of the 
South Pass, through which the American immigrants travelled. 
Within four months (1842) he surveyed the Pass and ascended 
to the summit of the highest of the Wind River Mountains*, since 
known as Fremont's Peak, and the interest aroused by his 
descriptions was such that in the next year he was sent on a 
second expedition to complete the survey across the continent 
along the line of traveli rom Missouri to the mouth of the Columbia 
river. This time he not only carried out his instructions but, 
by further explorations together with interesting descriptions, 
dispelled general ignorance with respect to the main features of 
the country W. of the Rocky Mountains: the Great Salt Lake, 
the Great Basin, the Sierra Nevada Mountains, and the fertile 
river basins of the Mexican province of California. 



His report of this expedition upon his return to Washington, 
D.C., in 1844, aroused much solicitude for California, which, iL 
was feared, might, in the event of war then threatening between 
the United States and Mexico, be seized by Great Britain. In 
the spring of 1845 Fremont was despatched 00 a third expedition 
for the professed purposes of further exploring the Great Basin 
and the Pacific Coast, and of discovering the easiest lines of 
communication between them, as well as for the secret purpose 
of assisting the United States, in case of war with Mexico, to 
gain possession of California, He and his party of sixty-two 
arrived there in January 1846. Owing to the number of American 
immigrants who had settled in California, the Mexican 
authorities there became suspicious and hostile, and ordered 
Fremont out of the province. Instead of obeying he pitched 
his camp near the summit of a mountain overlooking Monterey, 
fortified his position, and raised the United States flag. A few 
days later he was proceeding toward the Oregon border when 
new instructions from Washington caused him to retrace his 
steps and, perhaps, to consider plana for provoking war. The 
extent of his responsibility for the events that ensued is not 
wholly clear, and has been the subject of much controversy; 
his defenders have asserted that he. was not responsible for the 
seizure of Sonoma or for the so-called " Bear-Flag War "; and 
that he played a creditable part throughout. (For an opposite 
view see California.) Commodore John D. Sloat, after seizing 
Monterey, transferred his command to Commodore Robert 
Field Stockton (1795-1866), who made Fremont major of a 
battalion; and by January 1847 Stockton and Fremont completed 
the conquest of California, In the meantime General Stephen 
Watts Kearny (1794-1848) had been sent by the Government 
to conquer it and to establish a government. This created a 
conflict of authority between Stockton and Kearny, both of 
whom were Fremont's superior officers. Stockton, ignoring 
Kearny, commissioned Fremont military commandant and 
governor. But Kearny's authority being confirmed about the 
1st of April, Fremont, for repeated acts of disobedience, was 
sent under arrest to Washington, where he was tried by court- 
martial, found guilty (January 1847) of mutiny, disobedience 
and conduct prejudicial to military discipline, and sentenced 
to dismissal from the service. President Polk approved of the 
verdict except as to mutiny, but remitted the penalty, whereupon 
Frimont resigned. 

With the mountain-traversed region he had been exploring 
acquired by the United States, Fremont was eager for a railway 
from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and in October 1848 he set out 
at his own and Senator Benton's expense to find passes for such 
a railway along a line westward from the headwaters of the Rio 
Grande. But he had not gone far when he was led astray by a 
guide, and after the loss of his entire outfit and several of his 
men, and intense suffering of the survivors from cold and hunger, 
he turned southward through the valley of the Rio Grande and 
then westward through the valley of the Gila into southern 
California. Late in the year 1853, however, he returned to the 
place where the guide had led him astray, found passes through 
the mountains to the westward between latitudes 37 and 38 
N., and arrived in San Francisco early in May 1854. From the 
conclusion of his fourth expedition until March 1855, when he 
removed to New York city, he lived in California, and in December 
1849 was elected one of the first two United States senators from 
the new state. But as be drew the short term, he served only 
from the xoth of September 1850 to the 3rd of March 1851. 
Although a candidate for re-election, he was defeated by the 
pro-slavery party. His opposition to slavery, however, together 
with his popularity— won by the successes, hardships and dangers 
of his exploring expeditions, and by his part in the conquest of 
California— led to his nomination, largely on the ground of 
" availability," for the presidency in 1856 by the Republicans 
(this being their first presidential campaign), and by the National 
Americans or " Know-Nothings." In the ensuing election he 
was defeated by James Buchanan by 174 to 114 electoral votes. 

Soon after the Civil War began, Fremont was e>ro&c&sA 
major-general and placed \n cjVBB&axvd, <A \2n& t*tsXKXfe. ta^xvo&xft. 



9 8 



FREMONT— FRENCH, D. C. 



with headquarters at St Louis, bat his lack of judgment and 
of administrative ability soon became apparent, the affairs of 
his department fell into disorder, and Fremont seems to have 
been easily duped by dishonest contractors whom he trusted. 
On the 30th of August 1861 he issued a proclamation in which 
he declared the property of Missourians in rebellion confiscated 
and their slaves emancipated. For this he was applauded by 
the radical Republicans, but his action was contrary to an act 
of congress of the 6th of August and to the policy of the Adminis- 
tration. On the xxth of September President Lincoln, who 
regarded the action as premature and who saw that it might 
alienate Kentucky and other border states, whose adherence he 
was trying to secure, annulled these declarations. Impelled by 
serious charges against Frlmont, the president sent Mont- 
gomery Blair, the postmaster-general, and Montgomery C. Meigs, 
the quartermaster-general, to investigate the department; they 
reported that Fremont's management was extravagant and 
inefficient ; and in November he was removed. Out of con- 
sideration for the " Radicals," however, Fremont was placed in 
command of the Mountain Department of Virginia, Kentucky 
and Tennessee. In the spring and summer of 1863 he co-operated 
with General N. P. Banks against " Stonewall " Jackson in the 
Shenandoah Valley, but showed little ability as a commander, was 
defeated by General Ewell at Cross Keys, and when his troops 
were united with those of Generals Banks and McDowell to form 
the Army of Virginia, of which General John Pope was placed 
in command, Frfmont declined to serve under Pope, whom he 
outranked, and retired from active service. On the 31st of May 
1864 he was nominated for the presidency by a radical faction 
of the Republican party, opposed to President Lincoln, but 
his following was so small that on the axst of September he with- 
drew from the contest. From 1878 to 1881 he was governor of 
the territory of Arizona, and in the last year of his life he was 
appointed by act of congress a major-general and placed on the 
retired list. He died in New York on the 13th of July 1800. 

See J. C. Fremont, Report of the Exploring Expedition to the Rocky 
Mountains, 1842, and to Oregon and North California, 1843-1844 
(Washington, 1845); Fremont's Memoirs of my Life (New York, 



1887); and J. Bigclow, Memoirs of the Life and Public Services 
of John C. Fremont (New York, 1856). 

FREMONT, a city and the county-seat of Dodge county, 
Nebraska, U.S.A., about 37 m. N.W. of Omaha, on the N. bank 
of the Platte river, which here abounds in picturesque bluffs 
and wooded islands. Pop. (1800) 6747; (xooo) 7741 (1303 
foreign-born) ; (1910) 87 18. It is on the main line of the Union 
Pacific railway, on a branch of the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy system, and on the main western line of the Chicago & 
North-Western railway, several branches of which (including the 
formerly independent Fremont, Elkhorn ft Missouri Valley and 
the Sioux City ft Pacific) converge here. The city has an attrac- 
tive situation and is beautifully shaded. It has a public library 
and is the seat of the Fremont College, Commercial Institute 
and School of Pharmacy (1875), & private institution. There is 
considerable local trade with the rich farming country of the 
Platte and Elkhorn valleys; and the wholesale grain interests arc 
especially important. Among the manufactures are flour, 
carriages, saddlery, canned vegetables, furniture, incubators 
and beer. The city owns and operates its electric-lighting plant 
and water- works. Fremont was founded in 1856, and became 
the county-seat in x 860. It was chartered as a city (second-class) 
in 1871, and became a city of the first class in 1901. 

FREMONT, a dty and the county-seat of Sandusky county; 
Ohio, U.S.A., on the Sandusky river, 30 m. S.E. of Toledo. 
Pop. (1800) 7141; (1000) 8439, of whom 1074 were foreign-born; 
(1910 census) 9939- Fremont is served by the Lake Shore ft 
Michigan Southern, the Lake Shore Electric, the Lake Erie 
ft Western, and the Wheeling ft Lake Erie railways. The river 
b navigable to this point. Spiegel Grove, the former residence of 
Rutherford B. Hayes, is of interest, and the city has a public 
library (1873) and parks, tn large measure the gifts of his uncle, 
Sardis Birchard. Fremont is situated in a good agricultural 
region; oil and natural gas abound in the vicinity; and the dty 
his various manufactures, including boilers, electro-carbons, 



cutlery, bricks, agricultural implements, stoves and ranges; 
safety razors, carriage irons, sash, doors, blinds, furniture, beet 
sugar, canned vegetables, malt eitract, garters and suspenders. 
The total factory product was valued at $3,833,385 in 1905, 
an increase of 23*4% over that of 1900. Fremont is on the site 
of a favourite abode of the Indians, and a tradkj post was at 
times maintained here; but the place is best known in history as 
the site of Fort Stephenson, erected during the War of 181 *, 
andon the and of August 18x3 gallantly and successfully defended 
by Major George Croghan (1 791-1849), with 160 men, against 
about xooo British and Indians under Brigadier-General Henry 
A. Proctor. In 1906 Croghan 's remains were re-interred on the 
site of the old fort. Until 1849, when the present name was 
adopted in honour of J. C. Fremont, the place was known as 
Lower Sandusky; it was incorporated as a village in 1829 
and was first chartered as a dty in 1867. 

FRftMY, EDMOND (18x4-1894), French chemist, was bora 
at Versailles on the 29th of February 1814. Entering Gay- 
Lussac's laboratory in 183 1, he became prtparaltur at the Scale 
Poly technique in 1834 and at the College de France in 1837. 
His next post was that of rSpiliteur at the £cole Polytechnique, 
where in 1846 he was appointed professor, and in 1850 he sue* 
ceeded Gay-Lussac in the chair of chemistry at the Museum 
d'Histoire Naturelle, of which he was director, in succession, to 
M. E. Chevreul, from 1879 to 1891. He died at Paris on the 3rd 
of February 1894. His work included investigations of oarnic 
add,- of the ferrates, stannates, plumbates, &c, and of ozone, 
attempts to obtain free fluorine by the electrolysis of fused 
fluorides, and the discovery of anhydrous hydrofluoric add and 
of a series of acides sulphazoUs, the precise nature of which long 
remained a matter of discussion. He also studied the colouring 
matters of leaves and flowers, the composition of bone, cerebral 
matter and other animal substances, and the processes of fer- 
mentation, in regard to the nature of which he was an opponent of 
Pasteur's views. Keenly alive to the importance of the technical 
applications of chemistry, he devoted special attention as a 
teacher to the training of industrial chemists. In this field he 
contributed to our knowledge of the manufacture of iron and steel, 
sulphuric add, glass and paper, and in particular worked at the 
saponification of fats with sulphuric add and the utilization of 
palmitic add for candle-making. In the later years of his life 
he applied himself to the problem of obtaining alumina in the 
crystalline form, and succeeded in making rubies identical with 
the natural gem not merely in chemical composition but also in 
physical properties. 

FRENCH, DANIEL CHESTER (1850- ), American sculptor, 
was born at Exeter, New Hampshire, on the 20th of April 1850, 
the son of Henry Flagg French, a lawyer, who for a time was 
assistant-secretary of the United States treasury. After a year 
at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, French spent a 
month in the studio of John Q. A. Ward, then began to work on 
commissions, and at the age of twenty-three received from the 
town of Concord, Massachusetts, an order for his well-known 
statue " The Minute Man," which was unveiled (April 19, 1875) 
on the centenary of the battle of Concord. Previously French 
had gone to Florence, Italy, where he spent a year with Thomas 
Ball. French's best-known work is " Death Staying the Hand of 
the Sculptor," a memorial for the tomb of the sculptor Martin 
Milmore, in the Forest Hills cemetery, Boston ; this recdved a 
medal of honour at Paris, in 1900. Among his other works are: 
a monument to John Boyle O'Reilly, Boston; " Gen. Cass," 
National Hall of Statuary, Washington; "*Dr Gallaudct and his 
First Deaf-Mute Pupil," Washington; the colossal "Statue 
of the Republic," for the Columbian Exposition at Chicago; 
statues of Rufus Choate (Boston), John Harvard (Cambridge, 
Mass.), and Thomas Starr King (San Francisco, California), a 
memorial to the architect Richard M. Hunt, in Fifth Avenue, 
opposite the Lenox library, New York, and a large "Alma 
Mater," near the approach to Columbia University, New York. 
In collaboratidn with Edward C. Potter he modelled the 
M Washington," presented to France by the Daughters of the 
American Revolution; the " General Grant " in Fairmount Park, 



FRENCH, N.— FRENCH CONGO 



99 



~* i_;_ i«*_ . 



Philadelphia, and the "General Joseph Hooker" in Boston. 
French became a member of the National Academy of Design 
(igox), the National Sculpture Society, the Architectural League, 
and the Accademia di San Luca, of Rome. 

FRENCH, NICHOLAS (i 604-1678), bishop of Ferns, was an 
Irish political pamphleteer, who was born at Wexford. He 
was educated at Lou vain, and returning to Ireland became a 
priest at Wexford, and before 1646 was appointed bishop of 
Ferns. Having taken a prominent part in the political disturb- 
ances of this period, French deemed it prudent to leave Ireland 
in 1651, and thr 
passed on the con 
as coadjutor to I 
de Cbrapostclla a 
of Ghent, and di 
August 1678. In 
on James Butlc 
entitled "The 1 
Men and True Fri 
"The Bleeding 
port ant of hisothc 
of the Earl of Cla 
Of Ireland " (Lou 

The Historical \ 
prising the three 
and some letter*. * 
at Dublin in 1841 
Writtrz of Ike 17U 
\ T. Gilbert, Omi 
', 1641-1652 



Carte, Lift of Jam 
Oxford, 1851). 

FRENCH CONG 
French possession: 
have an area estir 
a population, als 
10,000,000. The 
of whom 50a wc 
officially renamed 
in 1010, compris 
(2) the Middle C< 
Shari Circumscrir. 
scription. The W 
the Ubangi-Shari- 

The present ar 

as a unit. It a t „. .„ . 

h bounded W. by the Atlantic, N. by the (Spanish) Muni 
River Settlements, the German colony of Cameroon and the 
Sahara, E. by the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, and S. by Belgian 
Congo and the Portuguese territory of Kabinda, In the greater 
part of its length the southern frontier is the middle course of 
the Congo and the Ubangi and Mbomu, the chief northern 
affluents of that stream, but in the south-west the frontier 
keeps north of the Congo river, whose navigable lower course 
» partitioned between Belgium and Portugal The coast line, 
some 600 m. long, extends from 5 S. to x° N. The northern 
frontier, starting inland from the Muni estuary, after skirting the 
Spanish settlements follows a line drawn a little north of a° N. 
and extending east to 16 E. North of this line the country is 
part of Cameroon, German territory extending so far inland from 
the Gulf of Guinea as to approach within 130 m. of the Ubangi. 
From the intersection of the lines named, at which point French 
Congo is at its narrowest, the frontier runs north and then east 
until the Sbari is reached in io° 40' N. The Shari then forms the 
frontier up to Lake Chad, where French Congo joins the Saharan 
regions of French West Africa. The eastern frontier, separating 
the colony from the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, is the water-parting 
between the Nile and the Congo. The Mahommedan sultanates 
of Wadai and Bagirmi occupy much of the northern part of 
French Congo (see Wadai and Bagirmi). 

Physical Features. — The coast line, beginning in the north at 
Corisco Bay, is shortly afterwards somewhat deeply indented by 
the estuary of the Gabun, south of which the shore runs in a nearly 



straight line until the delta of the Ogowe is reached, where Cape 
Lopez projects N.W. From this point the coast trends unifornuy 
S.E. without presenting any striking features, though the Bay of 
Mayumba, the roadstead of Loango, and the Pointe Noire may be 
mentioned. A large proportion 01 the coast region is occupied by 
primeval forest, with trees rising to a height of 150 and 200 ft-, but 
there is a considerable variety of scenery — open lagoons, mangrove 
swamps, scattered clusters of trees, park-like reaches, dense walls of 
tangled underwood along the rivers, prairies of tall grass and patches 
of cultivation. Behind the coast region is a ridge which rises from 
3000 to 4500 ft., called the Crystal Mountains, then a plateau with 
an elevation varying from 1500 to 2800 ft., cleft with deep river- 



valleys, the walls of which are friable, almost vertical, and in some 
places 760 ft. high. 

The coast rivers flowing into the Atlantic cross four terraces. 
On the higher portion of the plateau their course is over bare sand; 
on the second terrace, from 1200 to 2000 ft. high, it is over wide 
grassy tracts; then, for some 100 m., the rivers pass through virgin 
forest, and, lastly, they cross the shore region, which is about 10 m. 
broad. The rivers which fall directly into the Atlantic are generally 
unnavigable. The most important, the Ogowe (?.».), is, however, 
navigable from its mouth to N'lole, a distance of 235 m. Rivers to 
the south of the Ogowe are the Nyanga, 120 m. long, and the Kwilu. 
The latter, 320 m. in length, is formed by the Kiasi and the Luetft; 
it has a very winding course, flowing by turns from north to south, 
from east to west, from south to north-west and from north to south- 
west. It is encumbered with rocks and eddies, and is navigable only 
over 38 m., and for five months in the year. The mouth is 1 100 ft. 
wide. The Muni river, the northernmost in the colony, is obstructed 
by cataracts in its passage through the escarpment to the coast. 

Nearly all the upper basin of the Shari (q.v.) as well as the right 
bank of the lower river is within French Congo. The greater part 
of the country belongs, however, to the drainage area of the Congo 
river. In addition to the northern banks of the Mbomu and Ubangi, 
330 m. of the north shore of the Congo itself are in the French pro- 
tectorate as well as numerous subsidiary streams. For some 100 m. 
however, the right bank of the Sanga, the most important of these 
subsidiary streams, is in German territory (see Congo). 

Ceotogy. — Three main divisions are recognized in the French 
Congo: — (x) the littoral tone, covered with alluvium and superficial 
deposits, and underlain by Tertiary and Cretaceous rocks; (2) the 
mountain sone of the Crystal Mountains, composed of granite, 
metamorphic and ancient sediments; (3) the plateau of the northern 
portion of the Congo basin, occupied by Karroo sandstones. The 
core of the Crystal Mountains consists of granite and schists. 



Infolded with them, and on die flanks, are three rock systems ascribed 
to the Silurian, Devonian and Carboniferous. These are unfossili- 
ferous, but fossils of Devonian age occur on the Congo (see Congo 
Freb State). Granite covers wide areas north-west of the Crystal 
Mountains. The plateau sandstones lie horizontally and consist 
of a lower red sandstone group and an upper white sandstone group. 
They have not yielded fossils. Limestones of Lower Cretaceous age, 
with Schloenbachia inflate, occur north of the Gabun and in the Ogowe 
basin. Marls and limestones with fossils of an Eocene fades over- 
lie the Cretaceous rocks on the Gabun. A superficial iron-cemented 
sand, erroneously termed latcrite, covers large areas in the littoral 
cone, on the flanks of the mountains and on the high plateau. 

Climate. — The whole of the country being in the equatorial region, 
the climate is everywhere very hot and dangerous for Europeans. 
On the coast four seasons are distinguished: the dry season (15th 
of May to 15th of September), the rainy season (15th of September 
to 15th of January), then a second dry season (isth of January to 
1st of March), and a second rainy season (ist of March to 15th of 
May). The rainfall at Libreville is about 96 in. a year. 

flora and Fauna. — The elephant, the hippopotamus, the crocodile 
and several kinds of apes — including the chimpanzee and the rare 
gorilla — are the most noteworthy larger animals; the birds are 
variouaand beautiful — grey parrots, shrikes, flycatchers, rhinoceros 
birds, weaver birds (often in large colonies on the palm-trees), ice- 
birds, from the CecyU Sharpii to the dwarfish Alctdo crisiata, butter- 
fly finches, and helmet-birds (Turacus giganieus), as well as more 
familiar types. Snakes are extremely common. The curious 
climbing-fish, which frequents the mangroves, the Protopterus or 
lung-fish, which lies in the mud in a state of lethargy during the dry 
season, the strange and poisonous Telrodon guttifer, and the herring- 
like Pellona africana, often caught in great shoals — are the more 
remarkable of the fishes. Oysters are got in abundance from the 
lagoons, and the huge Cardisoma armatum or heart -crab is fattened 
for tabic. Fireflies, mosquitoes and sandflies are among the most 
familiar forms of insect life. A kind of ant builds very striking 
bent-house or umbrella-shaped nests rising on the tree trunks one 
above the other. 

Among the more characteristic forms of vegetation are baobabs, 
silk-cotton trees, screw-pines and palms— especially Hyphaene 
guineensis (a fan-palm), Raphia (the wine-palm), and Elaeis guineen- 
sis (the oil-palm). Anonaceous plants (notably A nona senegalensis, 
and the pallabanda, an olive-myrtle-like tree, are common in the 
prairies; the papyrus shoots up to a height of 20 ft. along the rivers; 
the banks are fringed by the cottony Hibiscus tUiauus, ipomaeas 
and fragrant jasmines; and the thickets are bourid together in one 
inextricable mass by lianas of many kinds. In the upper Shari 
region and that of the Kotto tributary of the Ubangi, arc species of 
the coffee tree, one species attaining a height of over 60 ft. Its bean 
resembles that of Abyssinian coffee of medium quality. Among the 
fruit trces^arc the mango and the papaw, the orange and the lemon. 



FRENCH CONGO 



3,652,000, divided in districts as follows:— Gabun, 376,000; Middle 
Congo, 259,000; Ubangi-Shari, 2,130,000; Chad, 883,000. The 
country is peopled by diverse negro races, and, in the regions border- 
ing Lake Chad and in Wadai, by Fula, Hausa, Arabs and semi- 



cue Cameroon lrontier. 

Communications.— The rivers are the chief means of internal 
communication. Access to the greater part of the colony is ob- 
tained by ocean steamers to Matadi on the lower Congo, and thence 
round the falls by the Congo railway to Stanley Pool. From Brazza- 
ville on Stanley Pool there is 680 m. of uninterrupted steam navi- 
gation N.E. into the heart of Africa. 330 m. being on the Congo 
and 350 m. on the Ubangi. The farthest point reached is Zongo, 
where rapids block the river, but beyond that port there are several 
navigable stretches of the Ubangi, and for small vessels access to 
the Nile is possible by means of the Bahr-el-Ghazal tributaries. 
The Sanga, which joins the Congo, 270 m. above Brazzaville, can be 



navigated by steamers for 350 ra., it. up to and beyond the S.E. 
frontier of the German colony of Cameroon. The Shari is alio 
navigable for a considerable distance and by 'means of its affluent, 
the Logone, connects with the Benue and Niger, affording a waterway 
between the Gulf of Guinea and Lake Chad. Stores for government 
posts in the Chad territory are forwarded by this route. There it, 
however, no connecting link between the coast rivers — Gabun, 
Ogowe and Kwilu and the Congo system. A railway, about 500 m. 
long, from the Gabun to the Sanga is projected and the surveys for 
the purpose made. Another route surveyed for a railway is that 
from Loango to Brazzaville. A narrow-gauge line. 75 tn. long, from 
Brazzaville to Mindule in the cataracts region was begun in November 
1908, the first railway to be built in French Congo. The district 
served by the line is rich in copper and other minerals. From Wadai 
a caravan route across the Sahara leads to Bengasi on the shores of 
the Mediterranean. Telegraph lines connect Loango with Beam- 
ville and Libreville, there is telegraphic communication with Europe 
by submarine cable, and steamship communication between Loango 
and Libreville and Marseilles, Bordeaux, Liverpool and Hamburg. 

Trade and Agriculture. — The chief wealth of the colony consists in 
the products of its forests and in ivory. The natives, in addition to 
manioc, their principal food, cultivate bananas, ground nuts and 
tobacco. On plantations owned by Europeans coffee, cocoa and 
vanilla are grown. European vegetables are raised easily. Gold, 
iron and copper are found. Copper ores have been exported from 
Mindule -since 1905. The chief exports are rubber and ivory, next 
in importance coming palm nuts and palm oil, ebony and other 
woods, coffee, cocoa ana-copal. The imports are mainly cotton and 
metal goods, spirits and foodstuffs. In the Gabun and in the basin 
of the Ogowe the French customs tariff, with some modifications, 
prevails, out in the Congo basin, that is, in the greater part of the 
country, by virtue of international agreements, no discrimination 
can be made between French and other merchandise, whilst customs 
duties must not exceed jo% ad valorem. 1 In the Shari basin and in 
Wadai the Anglo-French declaration of March 1899 accorded for 
thirty years equal treatment to British and French goods. Tke 
value of the trade rose in the ten years 1896-1905 from £360.000 to 
£850,000, imports and exports being nearly equal. The bulk of the 
export trade is with Great Britain, which takes most of the rubber, 
France coming second and Germany' third. The imports are in about 
equal proportions from France. and foreign countries. 

Land Tenure. The Concessions Rtgime.— Land held by the 
natives is governed by tribal law, but the state only recognizes native 
ownership in land actually occupied by the aborigines. The greater 
part of the country is considered a state domain. Land held by 
Europeans is subject to the Civil Code of France except such estates 
as have been registered under the terms of a decree of the 28th of 
March 1899, when, registration having been effected, the title to the 
land b guaranteed by the state. Nearly the whole of the colony has 
been divided since 1899 into large estates held by limited liability 
companies to whom has been granted the sole right of exploiting the 
land leased to them. The companies holding concessions numbered 
in 1904 about forty, with a combined capital of over £2,000,000, 
whilst the concessions varied in size from 425 sq. m. to 54,000 sq. o. 
One effect of the granting of concessions was the rapid decline in the 
business of non-concessionaire traders, of whom the most importaat 
were Liverpool merchants established in the Gabun before the advent 
of the French. As by the Act of Berlin of 1885, to which all the 
European powers were signatories, equality of treatment in com- 
mercial affairs was guaranteed to all nations in the Congo basin, 
protests were raised against the terms of the concessions. The reply 
was that the critics confused the exercise of the right of proprietor- 
ship with the act of commerce, and that in no country was the 
landowner who farmed his land and sold the produce regarded as a 
merchant. Various decisions by the judges of the colony during 
1902 and 1903 and by the French cour de cassation in 1905 con- 
firmed that contention. The action of the companies was. however, 
in most cases, neither beneficial to the country nor financially 
successful, whilst the native cultivators resented the prohibition of 
their trading direct with their former customers. The case of the 
Liverpool traders was taken up by the British government and it 
was agreed that the dispute should be settled fry arbitration, in 
September 1908 the French government issued a decree reorganizing 
and rendering more stringent the contrql exercised by the local 
authorities over the concession companies, especially in maticn 
concerning the rights of natives and the liberty of commerce. 

History. — The Gabun was visited in the 15th century by the 
Portuguese explorers, and It became one of the chief seats of 
the slave trade. It was not, however, till well on in the 19th 
century that Europeans made any more permanent settlement 
than was absolutely necessary for the maintenance of their 
commerce. In 1839 Captain (afterwards Admiral) Boaft- 
Willaumez obtained for France the right of residence on the left 
bank, and in 1842 he secured better positions on the right bank. 
The primary object of the French settlement was to secure & 

» Berlin Act of 1885; Brussels conference of 1890 (see Afuca: 
History). 



FRENCH CONGO 



IOI 



poet wherein men-of-war could revictual. The chief establish- 
ment, Libreville, was founded in 1849, with negroes taken from 
a slave ship. The settlement in time acquired importance as a 
trading port. In 1867 the troops numbered about 1000, and the 
civil population about 5000, while the official reports about the 
same date claimed for the whole colony an area of 8000 sq. m. 
mad a population of 186,000. Cape Lopez had been ceded to 
France in 1862, and the colony's coast-line extended, nominally, 
to a length of 200 m. In consequence of the war with Germany 
the colony was practically abandoned in 1871, the establishment 
at Libreville being maintained as a coaling depot merely. In 
187s, however, France again turned her attention to the Gabun 
estuary, the hinterland of which had already been partly ex- 
plored. Paul du Chaillu penetrated (1855-1859 and 1863- 1S6 5) 
to the south of the Ogowe; Walker, an English merchant, 
explored the Ngunye, an affluent of the Ogowe, in 1866. In 
1872-1873 Alfred Marche, a French naturalist, and the marquis 
de Compiegne 1 explored a portion of the Ogowe basin, but it was 
not until the expedition of 1875-1878 that the country east of 
the Ogowe was reached. This expedition was led by Savorgnan 
de Brazza (q.v) t who was accompanied by Dr Noel Eugene 
Ballay < and, for part of the lime, by Marche. De Brazza 's 
expedition, which was compelled to remain for many months at 
several places, ascended the Ogowe over 400 m., and beyond the 
basin of that stream discovered the A lima, which was, though the 
explorers were ignorant of the fact, a tributary of the Congo. 
From the Alima. de Brazza and Balky turned north and finally 
readied the Gabun in November 1878, the journey being less 
fruitful in results than the time it occupied would indicate. 
Returning to Europe, de Brazza learned that H. M. Stanley had 
revealed the mystery of the Congo, and in his next journey, 
begun December 1879, the French traveller undertook to find a 
way to the Congo above the rapids via the Ogowe. In this he 
was successful, and in September 1880 reached Stanley Pool, 
on the north side of which Brazzaville was subsequently founded. 
Returning to the Gabun by the lower Congo, de Brazza met 
Stanley. Both explorers were nominally in the service of the 
International African Association (see Congo Free State), 
but de Brazza in reality acted solely in the interests of 
J* France and concluded treaties with Makoko, " king 

t , rti * of the Batekes," and other chieftains, placing very large 
areas under the protection of that country. The con- 
flicting claims of the Association (which became the Congo Free 
State) and France were adjusted by a convention signed in 
February 1885.* In the meantime de Brazza and Ballay had 
more fully explored the country behind the coast regions of Gabun 
and Loango, the last-named seaport being occupied by France 
in 188 j. The conclusion of agreements with Germany (December 
1885 and February-March 1804) and with Portugal (May 1886) 
secured France in the possession of the western portion of the 
colony as it now exists, whilst an arrangement with the Congo 
Free State in 1887 settled difficulties which had arisen in the 
Ubangi district. 

The extension of French influence, northward towards Lake Chad 
and eastward to the verge of the basin of the Nile followed, though 
not without involving the country in serious disputes 
with the other European powers possessing rights in 
those regions. By creating the posts of Bangi (1800), 
Wesso and Abiras (1891), France strengthened her 
hold over the Ubangi and the Sanga. But at the same 
time the Congo Free State passed the parallel of 4° N. — which, 
after the compromise of 1887, France had regarded as the southern 
boundary of her possessions — and, occupying the sultanate of 
Bangasso (north of the Ubangi river), pushed on as far as 9° N. 
The dispute which ensued was only settled in 1894 and after 

1 Louis Eugene Henri Dupont, marquis de Compiegne (1846- 
1877), on his return from the West coast replaced Georg Schwcin- 
furth at Cairo as president of the geographical commission. Arising 
out of this circumstance de Compiegne was killed in a duel by a 
German named Mayer. 

'A Franco- Belgian agreement of the 23rd of Dec. 1008 defined 
precisely the frontier in the lower Conga Bamu Island in Stanley 
Powl was recognized as French. 



the signature of the convention between Great Britain and the 
Congo State of the 12th of May of that year, against which both 
the German and the French governments protested, the last 
named because it erected a barrier against the extension of French 
territory to the NHe valley. By a compromise of the 14th of 
August the boundary was definitely drawn and, in accordance 
with this pact, which put the frontier back to about 4 N., 
France from 1895 to 1897 took possession of the upper Ubangi, 
with Bangasso, Rafai and Zemio. Then began the French 
encroachment on the Bahr-cl-Ghazal; the Marchand expedition, 
despatched to the support of Victor Liotard, the lieutenant- 
governor of the upper Ubangi, reached Tambura in July 1897 
and Fashoda in July 1898. A dispute with Great Britain arose, 
and it was decided that the expedition should evacuate Fashoda. 
The declaration of the 21st of March 1899 finally terminated the 
dispute, fixing the eastern frontier of the French colony as already 
stated. Thus, after the Franco-Spanish treaty of June 1900 
settling the limits of the Spanish territory on the coast, the 
boundaries of the French Congo on all its frontiers were deter- 
mined in broad outline. The Congo-Cameroon frontier was 
precisely defined by another Franco-German agreement in 
April 1908, following a detailed survey made by joint com- 
missioners in 1905 and 1906. For a comprehensive description 
of these international rivalries see Africa, § 5, and for the con- 
quest of the Chad regions see Bagiriu and Rabah Zobeir. In 
the other portions of the colony French rule was accepted by the 
natives, for the most part, peaceably. For the relations of France 
with Wadai see that article. 

Following the acquisitions for France of de Brazza, the ancient 
Gabun colony was joined to the Congo territories. From r886 
to 1889 Gabun was, however, separately administered. By 
decree of the 11th of December 1888 the whole of the French 
possessions were created one " colony " under the style of Congo 
francais, with various subdivisions; they were placed undcracom- 
missioncr- general (de Brazza) having his residence at Brazzaville. 
This arrangement proved detrimental to the economic develop- 
ment of the Gabun settlements, which being outside the limits 
of the free trade conventional basin of the Congo (see Africa, 
§ 5) enjoyed a separate tariff. By decree of the 29th of December 
1903 (which became operative in July 1904) Congo francais was 
divided into four parts as named in the opening paragraph. 
The first commissioner-general under the new scheme was Emile 
Gcntil, the explorer of the Shari and Chad. In 1905 de Brazza 
was sent out from France to investigate charges of cruelty and 
maladministration brought against officials of the colony, several 
of which proved well founded. De Brazza died at Dakar when 
on his way home. The French government, after considering 
the report he had drawn up, decided to retain Gentil as com- 
missioner-general, making however (decree of 15th of February 
1906) various changes in administration with a view to protect 
the natives and control the concession companies. Gentil, 
who devoted the next two years to the reorganization of the 
finances of the country and the development of its commerce, 
resigned his post in February 190S. He was succeeded by 
M. Merlin, whose title was changed (June 1908) to that of 
governor-general. 

Administration and Revenue. — The governor-general has control 

over the whole of French Congo, but does not directly administer 

any part of it, the separate colonies being under lieutenant-governors. 

The Gabun colony includes the Gabun estuary and the whole of the 

coast-line of French Congo, together with the basin of the Ogowe 

river. The inland frontier is so drawn as to include all the hinter- 

•- trade rone (the Chad district ex- 

s for its western frontier the Gabun 

mds inland to the easterly bend of 

j inscriptions extend cast and north 

i a general budget for the whole of 

also a separate budget and adminis- 

French colonies the legislative power 

but in the absence 01 specific legis- 

the force of law. A judicial service 

ists. but the district administrators 

Education is in the hands of the 

missionaries, upwards of 50 schools being established by 1909. 

The military force maintained consists of natives officered by 

Europeans. 



102 FRENCH GUINEA 

Revenue is derived from taxes on land, rent paid b] "* - ••- - — ..... . _ ^ . _^ 

companies, a capitation or hut tax on natives, and custo l- 

supplemcnted by a subvention from France. In additio « 

ing the military expenses, about £100,000 a year, a gran d 

yearly was made up to 1906 by the French chambers t 

civil expenses, la 1907 the budget of the Congo balanc e 

£250,000 without the aid of this subvention, fn 1909 tl s 

sanctioned a loan for the colony 0/ £840,000, guarantee! ) 

and to be applied to the establishment of administrat s 

and public works. t 

Bibliography. — Fernand Rouget, L' Expansion c t 

Congo Jrancais (Paris, 1906), a valuable monograph, f 

graphy and maps; A. Chevalier, L'Afrtque centralefran e 

1907). For special studies see Lacroix, Risultats mini I 

nootogiques des ricentes explorations de I'Afrique occidenh t 

si dela region du Tchad (Paris, 1905) ; M. Barrat, 5nr U ■ 

Congo franyais (Paris, 1895), and Ann. des mines, sir. q. t. 1 

J. Cornet, " Les Formations post-primaires du ba&sin 1 

Ann. soc, giol. betg. vol. xxi. (1895). The Paris Bulletin 1 

for 1003 and 1904 contains papers on the soology of t t 

For flora see numerous papers by A. Chevalier in Con 1 

de I'acadimie des sciences (1902-1904), and the Journal < 1 

pratique des pays chauds (1901, &c). For history, besid 

book, sec J. Ancel, " Etude historique. La formation d , 

du Congo francais, 1843-1882," containing an annot I 

graphy. in Bull. Com. I'AfriqueJrancaise, vol. xii. (1902) t 

cited under B razz a; and E. Gentil, La Chute de I'empt ; 

(Paris, 1902). Of earlier books of travels the most vali t 

Paul du Chaillu, Explorations and Adventures in Equal , 

(London, 1861); A Journey to Ashonga Land (London, r 

Sir R. Burton, Two Trips to Gorilla Land (London, 

later works see Mary H. Kingsley. Travels in West AJru I 

1897) ; A. B. de Mczieres, Rapport de mission sur le Han 1 

le M'Bomou el le Bahr-el-Chasal (Paris, 1903); and C. 

trovers fAfrique centrale du Congo au Niger, 1892-1891 (f i 

For the story of the concession companies see E. D. , 

British Case in French Congo (London, 1903). 1 

FRENCH GUINEA, a French colony in West Afric 
known as Rivieres du Sud. It is bounded W. by th \ 

N. by Portuguese Guinea and Senegal, E. by Upp 

and the Ivory Coast, and S. by Liberia and Sierra Le i 

a sea-board running N.N.W. andS.S.E. from 10*50' N > 

a distance, without reckoning the indentations, of 1 

colony extends eastward 450 m. in a straight line a , 

a maximum width N. to S. of nearly 300 m., covering f u 
sq. m., and containing a population estimated at 2, 
2,500,00a 

Physical Features. — Though in one or two places rock] ' 

jut into the sea. the coast is in general sandy, low, and m 
by rivers and deep estuaries, dotted with swampy islanc 
the appearance of a vast delta. In about 0° 30' N., off t 
Lory 01 Konakry, lie the Los Islands (?.».), forming part of 
The coast plain, formed of alluvial deposits, is succeeded 1 
inland by a line of cliffs, the Susu Hills, which form th 
in the terrace-like formation of the interior, culminai 
massif of Futa Jallon, composed chiefly of Arcbean a 
rocks. While the coast lands are either densely forested 
with savannas or park-like country, the Futa Jallon t 
mainly covered with short herbage. This tableland, 
graphic centre of West Africa, is most elevated in its soul 
where heights of 5000 ft. are found. Near the Sierra Le< 
this high land is continued westward to within 20 m. 
where Mount Kakulima rises over 3300 ft. East and soi 
Jallon the country slopes to the basin of the upper Niger, 
part of which is included in French Guinea. The south* 
is formed by the escarpments which separate the Niger 
those of the coast rivers of Liberia. Besides the Niger. C 
Senegal, all separately noticed, a large number of streai 
direct to the Atlantic rise in Futa Jallon. Among them ar 
and Little Scarries, whose lower courses arc in Sierra ; 
the Rio Grande which enters the sea in Portuguese Guii 
whose courses are entirely in French Guinea include the 
Componi), the Rio Nunez, the Fatalla (which reaches the 1 
an estuary named Rio Pongo), the Konkure, whose 
named Rio Bramaya, the Forekaria and the Mclakori. " 
Fatallah and Konkure are all large rivers which descen 
plateaus through deep, narrow valleys in rapids and cat 
are only navigable for a few miles from their mouth. 

Climate.— The climate of the coast district is hot, moi 
healthy, with a season of heavy rain lasting from May to 
during which time variable winds, calms and tornadoes s 
another. The mean temperature in the dry season. 
" harmattan " is frequent, is 62° Fahr., in the wet - 



Throughout the year the humidity of the air is very grea 
much rain in the Futa Jallon highlands, but the Niger ba< 
what drier. In that region and in the highlands the clutu 
healthy for Europeans and the heat somewhat less than ol 



FRENCH LANGUAGE 



103 



sport. Among minor product* art coffee, wax and ivory. Large 
Kfda of cattle and flocks of sheep are raised in Futa Jallon; these arc 
eat in considerable numbers to Sierra Leone, Liberia and French 
Umgg. The trade in hides is also of considerable value. The chief 
rajn raised is millet, the staple food of the people. The rubber is 
aainly exported to England, the palm products to Germany, and 
he ground-nuts to France. 

The principal imports are cotton goods, of which 80% come from 
jreat Britain, rice, kola nuts, chiefly from Liberia, spirits, tobacco, 
wilding material, and arms and ammunition, chiefly " trade guns." 
rhc average annual value of the trade for the period 1900-1907 was 
bout £1.250,000, the annual export of rubber alone being worth 
400,000 or more. The great bulk of the trade of the colony is with 
•ranee and Great Britain, the last-named country taking about 
&% of the total; Germany cos ---■*--' **'- * " 
47% has been imposed on all 1 

Communications. — The railw 
Curuasa, by the route chosen 
900, and from 1902 has been 
irst section to rundia. 93 m., 
ectioo. to near Timbo in Futa 
he rails reached Kurussa in 
tavigable at high water all the 
rhence there is communication 
rimbuktu. Besides the railwa 
R)p m. long, from Konakry to 
idng dose to the Sierra Leone 
rade from that British colon; 
teen built by the French, and 
ystcm, the lines having been 

History. — This part of the Guinea coast was made known by 
he Portuguese voyagers of the 15th century. In consequence, 
srgely, of the dangers attending its navigation, it was not visited 
rjr the European traders of the 1 6th- 18th centuries so frequently 
is other regions north and east, but in the Rio Pongo, at Mata- 
loag (a diminutive island near the mouth of the Forekaria), 
ind elsewhere, slave traders established themselves, and ruins of 
be strongholds they built, and defended with cannon, still exist. 
AShen driven from other parts of Guinea the slavers made this 
lifficult and little known coast one of their last resorts, and many 
mrracoons were built in the late years of the 18th century. It 
ros not until after the restoration of Goree to her at the close 
if the Napoleonic wars that France evinced any marked interest 
a this region. At that time the British, from their bases at the 
Gambia and Sierra Leone, were devoting considerable attention 
to these Rivieres du Sud (i.e. south of Senegal) and also to Futa 
Jallon. Rene* Cailiie, who started bis journey to Timbuktu from 
Boki in 1827, did much to quicken French interest in the district, 
ind from 1838 onward French naval officers, Bouet-Willaumex 
indhis successors, made detailed studies of the coast. About the 
time that the British government became wearied of its efforts 
to open up the interior of West Africa, General Faidherbe was 
ippointed governor of Senegal (1854), and under his direction 
vigorous efforts were made to consolidate French influence. 
Already in 1848 treaty relations had been entered into with the 
Nam, and between that date and 1865 treaties of protectorate 
were signed with several of the coast tribes. During 1 876-1 880 
new treaties were concluded with the chief tribes, and in 1881 
the almany (or emir) of Futa Jallon placed his country under 
French protection, the French thus effectually preventing the 
junction, behind the coast lands, of the British colonies of the 
Gambia and Sierra Leone. The right of France to the Kttoral as 
far south as the basin of the Melakori was recognized by Great 
BriUin in 1882; Germany (which had made some attempt to 
acquire a protectorate at Konakry) abandoned its claims in 1885, 
while in 1886 the northern frontier was settled in agreement with 
Portugal, which had ancient settlements in the same region (see 
Poetuccese Guinea). In 1809 the limits of the colony were 
extended, on the dismemberment of the French Sudan, to include 
the upper Niger districts. In 1904 the Los Islands were ceded by 
Great Britain to France, in part return for the abandonment 
of French fishing rights in Newfoundland waters. (See also 
Senegal: History.) 

French Guinea was made a colony independent of Senegal in 
1891, but in 1895 came under the supreme authority of the newly 
constituted governor-generalship of French West Africa. Guinea 
has a considerable measure of autonomy and a separate budget. 



It is administered by. a lieutenant-governor, assisted by a 
nominated, council. Revenue is raised principally from customs 
and a capitation tax, which has replaced a hut tax. The local 
budget for 1007 balanced at £205.000. Over the greater part 
of the country the native princes retain their sovereignty under 
the superintendence of French officials. The development of 
agriculture and education are objects of special solicitude to the 
French authorities. In general the natives are friendly towards 
their white masters. 

See M. Famechon. Not ice sttr la Cuinfe francaise (Paris. 1000): J. 
Chautard, Etude ftophysujue et tfotogique sur U Fouta-D jallon (Paris. 
1905); Andre Arcin, La Cuinee francaise (Paris. 1906). a valuable 
monograph ; J. Machat, Let Rivieres du Sud et la Fouta-D talton (Paris. 
1906), another valuable work, containing exhaustive bibliographies. 
Consult also F. Rouget, La Cuinee (Paris. 1908), an official publi- 
cation, the annual Reports on French West Africa, published by 
the British Foreign Office, and the Carte de la Guinee francaise 
by A. Meunicr in 4 sheets on the scale 1 : 500,000 (Paris, 1902). 

FRENCH LANGUAGE. I. Geography.— French is the general 
name of the north-north-western group of Romanic dialects, 
the modern Latin of northern Gaul (carried by emigration to 
some places— as lower Canada—out of France). In a restricted 
sense it is that variety of the Parisian dialect which is spoken 
by the educated, and is the general literary language of France. 
The region in which the native language is termed French 
consists of the northern half of France (including Lorraine) 
and parts of Belgium and Switzerland; its boundaries on the 
west are the Atlantic Ocean and the Celtic dialects of Brittany; 
on the north-west and north, the English Channel; on the north- 
east and east the Teutonic dialects of Belgium, Germany and 
Switzerland. In the south-east and south the boundary is to a 
great extent conventional and ill-defined, there being originally 
no linguistic break between the southern French dialects and the 
northern Provencal dialects of southern France, north-western 
Italy and south-western Switzerland. It is formed partly by 
spaces of intermediate dialects (some of whose features are 
French, others' Provencal), partly by spaces of mixed dialects 
resulting from the invasion of the space by more northern and 
more southern settlers, partly by lines where the intermediate 
dialects have been suppressed by more northern (French) and 
more southern (Provencal) dialects without these having mixed: 
Starting in the west at the mouth of the Girondc, the boundary 
runs nearly north soon after passing Bordeaux; a little north of 
Angoulerae it turns to the east, and runs in this direction into 
Switzerland to the north of Geneva. 

II. External History. — (a) Political. — By the Roman conquests 
the language of Rome was spread over the greater part of southern 
and western Europe, and gradually supplanted the native 
tongues. The language introduced was at first nearly uniform 
over the whole empire, Latin provincialisms and many more 
or less general features of the older vulgar language being 
suppressed by the preponderating influence of the educated 
speech of the capital. As legions became stationary, as colonics 
were formed, and as the natives adopted the language of their 
conquerors, this language split up into local dialects, the dis- 
tinguishing features of which are due, as far as can be ascertained 
(except, to some extent, as to the vocabulary), not to speakers 
of different nationalities misspeaking Latin, each with the 
peculiarities of his native language, but to the fact that linguistic 
changes, which are ever occurring, are not perfectly uniform 
over a large area, however homogeneous the speakers. As Gaul 
was not conquered by Caesar till the middle of the first century 
before our era, its Latin cannot have begun to differ from that of 
Rome till after that date; but the artificial retention of classical 
Latin as the literary and official language after the popular 
spoken language had diverged from it, often renders the chrono- 
logy of the earlier periods of the Romanic languages obscure. 
It is, however, certain that the popular Latin of Gaul bad become 
differentiated from that of central Italy before the Teutonic 
conquest of Gaul, which was not completed till the latter half 
of the 5th century; the invaders gradually adopted the language 
of their more civilized subjects, which remained unaffected, 
except in its vocabulary Probably by this time it bad diverged 



104 



FRENCH LANGUAGE 



so widely from the artificially preserved literary language that 
it could no longer be regarded merely as mispronounced Latin; 
the Latin documents of the next following centuries contain 
many clearly popular words and forms, and the literary and 
popular languages are distinguished as latino and romana. 
The term gallica, at first denoting the native Celtic language 
of Gaul, is found applied to its supplanter before the end of the 
9th century, and survives in the Breton sdUk, the regular term 
for " French." After the Franks in Gaul had abandoned their 
native Teutonic language, the term francisca, by which this 
was denoted, came to be applied to the Romanic one they 
adopted, and, under the iormfrancaist, remains its native name 
to this day; but this name was confined to the Romanic of 
northern Gaul, which makes it probable that this, at the lime 
of the adoption of the name francisca, had become distinct 
from the Romanic of southern Gaul. Francisca is the Teutonic 
adjective frankisk, which occurs in Old English in the form 
frencisc, this word, with its umlauted e from o with following 
i, survives under the form French, which, though purely Teutonic 
in origin and form, has long been exclusively applied to the 
Romanic language and inhabitants of GauL The German name 
frataose, with its accent on, and o in, the second syllable, comes 
from francois, a native French form older than francais, but 
later than the Early Old French franccis. The Scandinavian 
settlers on the north-west coast of France early in the 10th 
century quickly lost their native speech, which left no trace 
except in some contributions to the vocabulary of the language 
they adopted. The main feature since is the growth of the 
political supremacy of Paris, carrying with it that of its dialect ; 
in i S39 Francis I. ordered that all public documents should be 
in French (of Paris), which then became the official language 
of the whole kingdom, though it is still foreign to nearly hall its 
population. 

The conquest of England in 1066 by William, duke of 
Normandy, introduced into England, as the language of the rulers 
and (for a time) most of the writers, the dialects spoken in 
Normandy (see also Anglo-Norman Litebatuix). Confined in 
their native country to definite areas, these dialects, following 
their speakers, became mixed in England, so that their forms 
were used to some extent indifferently; and the constant com- 
munication with Normandy maintained during several reigns 
introduced also later forms of continental Norman. As the 
conquerors learned the language of the conquered, and as the 
more cultured of the latter learned that of the former, the Norman 
of England (including that of the English-speaking Lowlands of 
Scotland) became anglicized; instead of following the changes 
of the Norman of France, it followed those of English. The 
accession in 1 154 of Henry II. of Anjou disturbed the Norman 
character of Anglo-French, and the loss of Normandy under John 
in 1*04 gave full play to the literary importance of the French 
of Paris, many of whose forms afterwards penetrated to England. 
At the same time English, with a large French addition to its 
vocabulary, was steadily recovering its supremacy, and is 
officially employed (for the first time since the Conquest) in the 
Proclamation of Henry III., 1258. The semi-artificial result of 
this mixture of French of different dialects and of different periods, 
more or less anglicized according to the date or education of the 
speaker or writer, is generally termed " the Anglo-Norman 
dialect "; but the term is misleading for a great part of its 
existence, because while the French of Normandy was not a 
single dialect, the later French of England came from other 
French provinces besides Normandy, and being to a considerable 
extent in artificial conditions, was checked in the natural develop- 
ment implied by the term " dialect." The disuse of Anglo-French 
as a natural language is evidenced by English being substituted 
for it in legal proceedings in 1362, and in schools in 1387, but 
law reports were written in it up to about 1600, and, converted 
into modern literary French, it remains in official use for giving 
the royal assent to bills of parliament 

(o) Z.»krory .—Doubtless because the popular Latin of northern 
Gaul changed more rapidly than that of any other part of the 
, French was, of all the Romanic dialects, the first 10 be 



recognized as a distinct language, and the first to be used in 
literature; and though the oldest specimen now extant is prob- 
ably not the first, it is considerably earlier than any existing 
documents of the allied languages. In S13 the council of Tours 
ordered certain homilies to be translated into Rustic Roman or 
into German; and in 842 Louis the German, Charles the Bald, 
and their armies confirmed their engagements by taking oaths in 
both languages at Strassburg. These have been preserved to 
us by the historian Nithard (who died in 853); and though, in 
consequence of the only existing manuscript (at Paris) being 
more than a century later than the time of the author, certain 
alterations have occurred in the text of the French oaths, they 
present more archaic forms (probably of North-Eastcrn French) 
than any other document. The next memorials are a short poem, 
probably North-Eastcrn, on St Eulalia, preserved in a manuscript 
of the 10th century at Valenciennes, and some autograph frag- 
ments (also at Valenciennes) of a homily on the prophet Jonah, 
in mixed Latin and Eastern French, of the same period. To the 
same century belong a poem on Christ's Passion, apparently in 
a mixed (not intermediate) language of French and Provencal, 
and one, probably in South-Eastern French, on St Leger; both 
are preserved, in different handwritings, in a MS. at Clermont- 
Ferrand, whose scribes have introduced many Provencal forms. 
After the middle of the nth century literary remains are com- 
paratively numerous; the chief early representative of the main 
dialects are the following, some of them preserved in several 
MSS., the earliest of which, however (the only ones here men* 
tioned), are in several cases a generation or two later than the 
works themselves. In Western French are a verse life of St 
Alexius (Alexis), probably Norman, in an Anglo-Norman MS. 
at Hildesheim; the epic poem of Roland, possibly also Norman, 
in an A.-N. MS. at Oxford; a Norman verbal translation of the 
Psalms, in an A.-N. MS. also at Oxford; another later one, 
from a different Latin version, in an A.-N. MS. at Cambridge; 
a Norman translation of the Four Books of Kings, in a probably 
A.-N. MS. at Paris. The earliest work in the Parisian dialect is 
probably the Travels of Charlemagne, preserved in a late Anglo- 
Norman MS. with much altered forms. In Eastern French, of 
rather later date, there are translations of the Dialogues of Flops 
Gregory, in a MS. at Paris, containing also fragments of Gregory's 
Moralities, and (still later) of some Sermons of St Bernard, in 
a MS. also in Paris. From the end of the 12th century literary 
and official documents, often including local charters, abound is 
almost every dialect, until the growing influence of Paris caused 
its language to supersede in writing the other local ones. Tim 
influence, occasionally apparent about the end of the 1 7th century, 
was overpowering in the 15th, when authors, though often dis- 
playing provincialisms, almost all wrote in the dialect of the 
capital, the last dialect to lose its literary independence wis 
the North- Eastern, which, being the Romanic language «f 
Flanders, had a political life of its own, and (modified by Farinas) 
was used in literature after 1 40a 

III. Internal History.— Though much has been done in recent 
years, in the scientific investigation of the sounds, inflexions, and 
syntax of the older stages and dialects of French, much suH 
remains to be done, and it must suffice here to give a sketch, 
mainly of the dialects which were imported into England by tk 
Normans — in which English readers will probably take nmt 
interest, and especially of the features which explain the forms 
of English words of French origin. Dates and places are only 
approximations, and many statements are liable to be modified 
by further researches. The primitive Latin forms given ue 
often not classical Latin words, but derivatives from these; ind 
reference is generally made to the Middle English (Chaucerian) 
pronunciation of English words, not the modern. 

(a) Vocabulary— Tht fundamental part of the vocabohrj 
of French is the Latin imported into Gaul, the French words being 
simply the Latin words themselves, with the natural change 
undergone by all living speech, or derivatives formed at viriwa 
dates. Comparatively few words were introduced from the Cekk 
language of the native inhabitants (bee, Irene from the Celtic 
words given by Latin writers as beccut, Uuca), but the 1 



FRENCH LANGUAGE 



>°S 



adopted from the language of the Teutonic conqueror* of Gaul 
is large (guerre— werra-, laid—laidh; choisir—kausjan). The 
words were imported at different periods of the Teutonic supre- 
macy, and consequently show chronological differences in their 
sounds (ha\r — hatan; francais — frankisk, Screvisse — krebis; 
ickine—skina). Small separate importations of Teutonic words 
resulted from the Scandinavian settlement in France, and the 
commercial intercourse with the Low German nations on the 
North Sea {/riper- Norse hripa; ehaloupe- Dutch shop; est- 
Old English edst). In the meantime, as Latin (with considerable 
alterations in pronunciation, vocabulary, &c) continued in 
literary, official and ecclesiastical use, the popular language 
borrowed from time- to time various more or less altered classical 
Latin words; and when the popular language came to be used 
in literature, especially in that of the church, these importations 
largely increased (virginitet Eulalia — virginildtem; imagena 
Alexis— imdginem — the popular forms would probably have been 
ttrgedet, emain). At the Renaissance they became very abundant, 
and have continued since, stilling to some extent the develop- 
mental power of the language. Imported words, whether 
Teutonic, classical Latin or other, often receive some modifica- 
tion at their importation, and always take part in all subsequent 
natural phonetic changes in the language (Early Old French 
aitersarie, Modern French adversaire). Those French words 
which appear to contradict the phonetic laws were mostly intro- 
duced into the language after the taking place (in words already 
existing in the language) of the changes formulated by the laws 
in question; compare the late imported laique with the inherited 
foi, both from Latin laicum. In this and many other cases the 
language possesses two forms of the same Latin word, one 
descended from it, the other borrowed (meulie and mobile from 
mdinlem). Some Oriental and other foreign words were brought 
in by the crusaders (amiral from amir); in the 16th century, 
wars, royal marriages and literature caused a large number 
of Italian words (soldat—soldato; brave— hrato; caresser— 
earestare) to be introduced, and many Spanish ones (alcove— 
aleoba; hdbUr—hablar). A few words have been furnished by 
Provencal (abeille, codettas), and several have been adopted from 
other dialects into the French of Paris (esquher Norman or 
Picard for the Paris-French eschiver). German has contributed 
a few (blocus—bloch&s; choucroute—sHrkrut); and recently a 
considerable number have been imported from England (drain, 
ctnforlabUy fiirtcr). In Old French, new words are freely 
formed by derivation, and to a less extent by composition; in 
Modern French, borrowing from Latin or other foreign languages 
is the more usual course. Of the French words now obsolete 
tome have disappeared because the things they express are 
obsolete; others have been replaced by words of native forma- 
tion, and many have been superseded by foreign words generally 
of literary origin; of those which survive, many have undergone 
considerable alterations in meaning. A krge number of Old 
French words and meanings, now extinct in the language of 
Paris, were introduced into English after the Norman Conquest; 
and though some have perished, many have survived — strife 
from Old French eslrif (Teutonic strlt); quaint from cointe 
(cognitum); remember from remembrer (rememordre); chaplet 
(garland) from chapelct (Modern French "chaplet of beads"); 
appointment (rendezvous) from appointment (now "salary" ). 
Many also survive in other French dialects. 

(b) Dialects.— The history of the French language from the 
period of its earliest extant literary memorials is that of the 
diakcts composing it. But as the popular notion of a dialect 
as the speech of a definite area, possessing certain peculiarities 
confined to and extending throughout that area, is far from 
correct, it will be advisable to drop the misleading divisions into 
"Norman dialect," "Picard dialect" and the like, and take 
isstead each important feature in the chronological order (as 
bras can be ascertained) of its development, pointing out roughly 
the area in which it exists, and its present state. The local terms 
med are. intentionally vague, and it does not, for instance, at all 
follow that because " Eastern" and " Western" are used to 
denote the localities of more than one dialectal feature, the 



boundary line between the two divisions is the same in each case. 
It is, indeed, because, dialectal differences as they arise do not 
follow the same boundary lines (much less the political divisions 
of provinces), but cross one another to any extent, that to speak 
of the dialect of a large area as an individual whole, unless that 
area is cut off by physical or alien linguistic boundaries, creates 
only confusion. Thus the Central French of Paris, the ancestor 
of classical Modern French, agrees with a more southern form 
of Romanic (Limousin, Auvergnc, Forez, Lyonnais, Dauphine) 
in having Is, not tsh, for Latin k (c) before i and e;tsh, not h, for 
k (c) before a; and with the whole South in having gu, not v, 
for Teutonic v; while it belongs to the East in having oi for 
earlier ei; and to the West in having 4, not «*, for Latin a; and *', 
not ci, from Latin £+'. It may be well to denote that Southern 
French does not correspond to southern France, whose native 
language is Provencal " Modem French " means ordinary 
educated Parisian French. 

(c) Phonology.'— The history of the sounds of a language is, 
to a considerable extent, that of its inflections, which, no less 
than the body of a word, arc composed of sounds. This fact, 
and the fact that unconscious changes are much more reducible 
to law than conscious ones, render the phonology of a language 
by far the surest and widest foundation for its dialectology, the 
importance of the sound-changes in this respect depending, 
not on their prominence, but on the earliness of their date. For 
several centuries after the divergence between spoken and written 
Latin, the history of these changes has to be determined mainly 
by reasoning, aided by a little direct evidence in the misspellings 
of inscriptions the semi-popular forms in glossaries, and the 
warnings of Latin grammarians against vulgarities. With the 
rise of Romanic literature the materials for tracing the changes 
become abundant, though as they do not give us the sounds 
themselves, but only their written representations, much 
difficulty, and some uncertainty, of ten attach to deciphering the 
evidence. Fortunately, early Romanic orthography, that of 
Old French included (for which see next section), was phonetic, 
as Italian orthography still is; the alphabet was imperfect, as 
many new sounds had to be represented which were not provided 
for in the Roman alphabet from which it arose, but writers aimed 
at representing the sounds they uttered, not at using a fixed 
combination of letters for each word, however they pronounced it. 

The characteristics of French as distinguished from the alliei 
languages and from Latin, and the relations of its sounds, in- 
flections and syntax to those of the last-named language, belong 
to the general subject of the Romanic languages. It wUl be well, 
however, to mention here some of the features in which it agrees 
with the closely related Provencal, and some in which it differs. 
As to the latter, it has already been pointed out that the two 
languages glide insensibly into one another, there being a belt 
of dialects which possess some of the features of each. French 
and Provencal of the xoth century — the earliest date at which 
documents exist in both— agree to a great extent in the treatment 
of Latin final consonants and the vowels preceding them, a 
matter of great importance for inflections (numerous French 
examples occur in this section), (i) They reject all vowels, 
except a, of Latin final (unaccented) syllables, unless preceded 
by certain consonant combinations or followed by nt (here, 
as elsewhere, certain exceptions cannot be noticed); (2) they do 
not reject a similarly situated; (3) they reject final (unaccented) 
m; (4) they retain "final s. French and Northern Provencal 
also agree in changing Latin d from a labio-guttural to a labio- 
palatal vowel; the modern sound (German U) of the accented 
vowel of French lune, Provencal luna, contrasting with that in 
Italian and Spanish luna, appears to hav? existed before the 
earliest extant documents. The final vowel laws generally apply 
to the unaccented vowel preceding the accented syllable, if it is 
preceded by another syllable, and followed by a single consonant 
— matin (mdtutinum), dortoir (dormitdrium), with vowel dropped; 
canevas (cannabdeeum), armedure, later armiurt, now armure 
(armdturam), with e—9, as explained below. 

On the other hand, French differs from Provencal: (1) in 
uniformly preserving (jn Early Old French) Latin final /, whfc* 



io6 FRENCH LANGUAGE 



i 

fcjw 10 lonn s in inc wckwh uuucccs, wmic mc uncrn uvc cue peac€ ypau, pacum),jeonjau,jaaum) 



FRENCH LANGUAGE 107 



be tea — rot {rei, rigem), croix (cruis, crucem). Before nasals and 
palatal /, ei (now - b) was kept — wtw (vine), veilk (rfgi/d), and it 
everywhere survives unlabialized in Modern Norman—Guernsey 
HeUt {jttoilt, steJta) with i, set (soir, strum) with *. English shows 
generally ei (or at) fur original ei — strait (estreit) t prey (Zreie) ; but 
in several words the later Parisian oi — coy {cot, qyictum)7loyal {loyal. 
Jtg6fa«). (16) The splitting of the vowel-sound from accented 
Latin 9 or u not in position, represented in Old French by and u 
Indifferently, into u, (before nasals), and tu (the Utter at first a 
diphthong, now ^German <5), is unknown to. Western French till 
the I2th century 
century Normar 
(Modern Frcncl 
first written u, 
not quite w, as 
sound as Paris! 
tspuse {spdnsam 
French tpousc. 1 
%im,flUur. M 
before r— flour \ 
Old French 6— 
spouse, noun. fi< 
ntpkew with iu 
dates from the c 

r titer (cviiMre) 
In Walloon the t* is preserved — coudr (guar I), cuiUer; as is 
the case in English— quart, quit. The w of gw seems to have been 



important change began much earlier than the last; this is the loss j 

of many final consonants. In Early Old French every consonant l 

was pronounced as written; by degrees many of them disappeared ► 

when followed by another consonant, whether in the same word (ir , 

which case they were generally omitted in writing) or in a following . 
oae. This was the state of things in the !6th century; those fina 

consonants which are usually silent in Modern French were stil r 

sounded, if before a vowel or at the end of a sentence or a Km ' 
of poetry, but generally not elsewhere. Thus a large number ok v«u U w «»« iuwdv<><. wck. — 1, oiwu tU r * auu mm or n, a iux J 



io8 



FRENCH LANGUAGE 



and dk (soft ik)\ e for i, e, and 9; g for g and dxk; h was often 
written in words of Latin origin where not sounded; i (7) stood 
for i, y consonant, and dzk; for 6 (Anglo-Norman *) and d\ 
s for s and s; / for I and Ik; n (9) for 4 (Anglo-Norman u), y and 
v; y (rare) for /; s for dz and fc. Some new sounds had also 
to be provided for: where tsk had to be distinguished from non- 
final Is, ch— at first, as in Italian, denoting k before i and e (chi* 
ki from qxH) — was used for it; palatal / was represented by ill, 
which when final usually lost one /, and after s dropped iis >; 
palatal n by gn, ng or ngn, to which i was often prefixed; and 
the new letter w, originally uu (w), and sometimes representing 
merely uv or vu, was employed for the consonant-sound still 
denoted by it in English. All combinations of vowel-letters 
represented diphthongs; thus ai denoted a followed by i, on 
either 6u or on, ui cither 6i (Anglo-Norman ui) or yi, and similarly 
with the others — ei, cu, oi, iu, ie, ue {and oc), and the triphthong 
ieu. Silent letters, except initial k in Latin words, are very rare; 
though MSS. copied from older ones often retain letters whose 
sounds, though existing in the language of the author, had dis- 
appeared from that of the more modern scribe. The subsequent 
changes in orthography are due mainly to changes of sound, 
and find their explanation in the phonology. Thus, as Old 
French progresses, s, having become silent before voiced con- 
sonants, indicates only the length of the preceding vowel; e 
before nasals, from the change of e (nasal e) to d (nasal a), repre- 
sents fl; c, from the change of Is to s, represents s; qu 
and gu, from the loss of the w of kw and gw, represent 
k and g (hard); ai, from the change of ai to e, represents I; ou, 
from the change of du and 6u to u, represents u; ch and g, from 
the change of tsk and dsk to sh and th, represent sh and zh; eu 
and ue, originally representing diphthongs, represent a (German 
o)\%, from the change of Is and as to s and s, represents s and s. 
The new values of some of these letters were applied to words 
not originally spelt with them: Old French k before i and e 
was replaced by qu (evesque, eteske, Latin episcopum); Old 
French u and for 6, after this sound had split into eu and u, 
were replaced in the latter case by ou (rous, for ros or rus, Latin 
russum); s was accidentally inserted to mark a long vowel 
{paste, pale, Latin pallidum); eu replaced ue and oe (neuf, nucj, 
Latin novum and novem); s replaced s after 4 (net, ncs, nasum). 
The use of x for final s is due to an orthographical mistake; the 
MS. contraction of us being something like x was at last confused 
with it (iex for it us, ootids), and, its meaning being forgotten, « 
was inserted before the x iyeux) which thus meant no more than 
s, and was used for it after other vowels (voix for vois, vbeem). 
As literature came (o be extensively cultivated, traditional as 
distinct from phonetic spelling began to be influential; and in the 
r4th century, the close of the Old French period, this influence, 
though not overpowering, was strong— stronger than in England 
at that time. About the same period there arose etymological as 
distinct from traditional spelling. This practice, the alteration 
of traditional spelling by the insertion or substitution of letters 
which occurred (or were supposed to occur) in the Latin (or sup- 
posed Latin) originals of the French words, became very prevalent 
in the three following centuries, when such forms as debvoir 
(debire) for devoir, faulx (Jalsum) for faus, aulhcur (auddrcm, 
supposed to be authdrcm) for autcur, poids (supposed to be from 
pondus, really from pinsum) for pois, were the rule. But besides 
the etymological, there was a phonetic school of spelling (Ramus, 
in 1562, for instance, writes time, eimates— with e—t, e=>l, and 
(-9— for aimai, aimastcs), which, though unsuccessful on the 
whole, had some effect in correcting the excesses of the other, 
so that in the 17th century most of these inserted letters began to 
drop; of those which remain, some {flegme for fiemme or fleume, 
Latin pkUgma) have corrupted the pronunciation. Some im- 
portant reforms— as the dropping of silent s, and its replace- 
ment by a circumflex over the vowel when this was long; the 
frequent distinction of close and open e by acute and grave 
accents; the restriction of i and u to the vowel sound, otj and » 
to the consonant; and the introduction from Spain of the cedilla 
to distinguish c=s from c = * before a, u and 0— are due to the 
1 6th century. The replacement of oi, where it had assumed the 



value e, by ai, did not begin till the last century, and was not the 
rule till the present one. Indeed, since the 16th century the 
changes in French spelling have been small, compared with the 
changes of the sounds; final consonants and final e (unaccented) 
are still written, though the sounds they represent have dis- 
appeared. 

Still, a marked effort towards the simplification of French 
orthography was made in the third edition oi the Dictionary of 
the French Academy (1740), practically the work of the Abbe 
d'Olivet. While in the first (1604) and second (1 7x8) editions of 
this dictionary words were overburdened with silent letters, 
supposed to represent better the etymology, in the third edition 
the spelling of about 5000 words (out of about 18,000) was 
altered and made more in conformity with the pronunciation. 
So, for instance, c was dropped in beinfaicteur and object, e in 
scavoir, d in advocat, s in accroistre, atbastre, aspre and bastard, t in 
the past part, creu, deu, veu, and in such words as aUcure, so*&- 
leure; y was replaced by * in cecy, celuy, gayjoye, &c But those 
changes were not made systematically, and many pedantic 
spellings were left untouched, while many inconsistencies stiD 
remain in the present orthography (siffltr and persifter, sonfitr 
and boursoujler, &£.). The consequence of those efforts in con' 
trary directions is that French orthography is now quite ai 
traditional and unphonetic as English, and gives an even falser 
notion than this of the actual state of the language it is supposed 
to represent. Many of the features of Old French orthography, 
early and late, are preserved in English orthography; to it we" 
owe the use of c for s (Old English c-k only), o(j (s) for dsk, of 
v (n) for v (in Old English written/), and probably cfcAkxIsk 
The English w is purely French, the Old English letter beiDf 
the runic >. When French was introduced into England, kw had 
not lost its w, and the French qu, with that value, replaced the 
Old English <r> (queen for cf>en). In Norman, Old French * had 
become very like u, and in England went entirely into it; o % 
which was one of its French signs, thus came to be often used 
for u in English (come for cume), U, having often in Old French 
its Modern French value, was so used in England, and replaced 
the Old English y (busy for bysi, Middle English brud for ftrjtf), 
and y was often used for i (day for dat). In the 13th century, 
when ou had come to represent u in France, it was borrowed by 
English, and used for the long sound of that vowed (sour for *+)', 
and gu, which had come to mean simply g (hard), was occasion- 
ally used to represent the sound g before i and e (guess for jtur). 
Some of the Early Modern etymological spellings were imitated 
in England; fleam and autour were replaced by phlegm and 
outkour, the latter spelling having corrupted the pronundation. 

(e) Inflections.— In the earliest Old French extant, the in- 
fluence of analogy, especially in verbal forms, is very marked 
when these are compared with Latin (thus the present parUdnks 
of all conjugations take ant, the ending of the first, Latin <nkn), 
and becomes stronger as t he language progresses. Such isolated 
inflectional changes as saveil into savoit, which are cases of regular 
phonetic changes, are not noticed here. 

(i.) Verbs.— (1) In the oldest French texts the Latin pluperfect 
(with the sense of the perfect) occasionally occurs — owrtt ( hab mm t ), 
roveret (rogdveraJ); it disappears before the 1 2th century. 0) 
The u of the ending of the 1st pers. plur. mus drops in Old French, 
except in the perfect, where its presence (as *) is not yet aatMfactorflj 
explained — amoms (am&mus, influenced by sumtu). but 



the earliest documents, to all verbs— awe, reeeva, oa 

recipUis, auditis) like amez (amatis) ; such forms as diles, jWn 
(dicitis, facltis) being exceptional archaisms. This levelling of tk 
conjugation does not appear at such an early time in the fntue 
(formed from the infinitive and from kabetis reduced to His); m 
the Roland both forms occur, porlertit (portare habUis) aasnamt* 
ing on rei (roi, rigem), and the younger porlerex on rifle* (atf. 
ctoiUUem), but about the end of the 13th century the older torn 



•cu, -of's, is dropped, and -ez becomes gradually the uniform € _ 
for this 2nd person of the plural in the future tense. (4) In Eastern 
French the 1st plur., when preceded byt, has r. not 0, before the nasal, 
while Western French has « (or 0), as in the present: posti m n 
Iposse&mus) in the Jonah homily makes it probable that the latter 
is the older form — Ptcard anemes, Burgundian aliens. Nomas 



FRENCH LANGUAGE 



109 



miums (kabibdmus). (5) The subjunctive of the first conjugation 
has at first in the singular no final e, in accordance with the final 
vowel laws — plur, plurs. plurt (pldrem, pldris. plorel). The forms are 
gradually assimilated to tho>c of the other conjugations, which, 
deriving from Latin am, as, at. have e. es. e(t) . Modern Fn-nch pleure, 
pkures, pleure, like perde, per da, ptrde {per dam. perdds, per da i). 
(6) In Old French the present subjunctive and the i*t sing. pre*, 
ind. generally show the influence of the t or e of the Latin iam, com, 
td t e*— Old French mutrt or moerge {mortal for mortdtur), ticrne or 
ticntc (teneat), mutr or moerc (mono for mortor), tieng or Utnc (tenet)). 
By degrees these forms are levelled under the other present forms — 
Modern French meure and meurs following meurt (morit for montur), 
tienne and liens following tienl (tenet). A few of the older forms 
remain — the vowel of ate (kabeam) and ai (t,abeo) contrasting with 
that of a (kabet). (7) A levelling of which instances occur in the nth 
century, but which is not yet complete, is that of the accented and 
unaccented, stem-syllables of verbs. In Old French many verb- 
steins with shifting accent vary in accordance with phonetic laws— • 
porter (paraboldre), amer (amdre) have in the present indicative 
parol (paraboU), paroles (parahotds), parolet (parabola/), bariums 
Xpmraboldmus), parlez (paraholdtis), parole nl (parabolanl); aim 
i*mt), aimes (amds), aimet (amal), am urns (amdmut), amez (amdlis). 
o*ment (amant). In the first rase the unaccented, in the second 
the accented form has prevailed— Modern French parte, patter ; 
aim*, aimer. In several verbs, as tenir (tenire), the distinction is 
retained — liens, tuns, tienl, tenons, tenet, tiennent. <B) In Old 
French, as stated above, te instead of i trom a occurs after a palatal 
(which, if a consonant, often split into 1 with a dental): the diph- 
thong thus appears in several forms of many verbs of the i»t con- 
jugation — preier ("prei-ter, precdre), venper (rindtcdre), laiisier 
(tax&re), aidter (adjul&rc). At the close of the Old French period, 
those verbs in which the stem ends in a dental replace te by the e 
of other verbs — Old French latsster, aidier. taissiez (laxdtis). aidiez 
(adjuuUis); Modern French lamer, aider, latsscz. aide*, by analogy 
of aimer, aimet. The older forms generally remain in Picard— 
laissier, aidier. (9) The addition olr to the 1st sing, pres. ind. 
of all verbs of the first conjugation is rare before the 13th century, 
bat » usual in the 15th; it is probably due to the analogy of the 
third person — Old French ckanl (idntd), aim (ami*): Modern French 
ckante, aim*. (10) In the 13th century s is occasionally added to the 
1st pen. sing., except those ending in e ( »*) and ai. and to the 2nd 
sing, of imperatives; at the close of the 16th century this becomes 
the rule, and extends to imperfects and conditionals in ote after the 
loss of their e. It appears to be due to the inlluencc of the 2nd pcrs. 
sing.— Old French vend (vendd and vende), vendoie (vendibam), parti 
{par dot), ting (tenni); Modern French vends, tendais, partis. Urn; 
and donn* (don&) in certain cases becomes donnts. (11) The 1st and 
and plur. of the pres. subj.. which in Old French were generally 
similar to those of the indicative, gradually take an t before thorn, 
which is the rule after the 16th century— Old French perdons (per- 
ddmus), perde* (perd&tis) ; Modern French perdions, perdiez, appar- 
ently by analogy of the imp. ind. (12) The loss in Late Old French 
of anal s, t, &c, when preceding another consonant, caused many 
words to have in reality (though often concealed by orthography) 
double forms of inflection — one without termination, the other with. 
Thus in the 16th century the 2nd sing. pres. ind. dors (do mils) and 
the 3rd dart (dormit) were distinguished as dbrz and dbrt when before 
a vowel, as ddrs and dbrt at the end of a sentence or line of poetry, 
but ran together as dor when followed by a consonant. Still later, 
the loss of the el further 

reduced the a 1, so that 

the actual Frei 1 is shown 

by the custom of an im- 

mediately folic ly appear. 

Even here th< tificial or 

delusive, some ie popular 

language oftci iserting a 

dinerent one. naccented 

final syllables it not the 

distinctive for generally 

ditinguished a pert and 

pir*\ 

(u.) Substantives.— "(i) In Early Old French (as in Provencal) there 
are two main declensions, the masculine and the feminine; with a 
few exceptions the former ditinguishes nominative and accusative 
ia both numbers, the latter in neither. The nom. and ace. sing. 
aid ace. plur. mas. correspond to those of the Latin 2nd or ;jrd 
declension, the nom. plur. to that of the 2nd declension. The sing, 
fern, corresponds to the nom. and ace of the Latin 1st declension, 
or to the ace. of the 3rd ; the plur. fern, to the ace. of the 1st declcn- 
■00* or to the nom. and ace. of the 3rd. Thus masc tors (taurus), 
let* Qatr5); tor (taurum), laron (latrdnem); tor (taurl), laron (latrdnl 
for -nil); tors (taurds). larons (latrdnis); but fem. only ele (dta and 
tint), Mor (fldrem) ; eJes (dlds), fiors (flirts nom. and ace.). About 
the end of the nth century feminincs not ending in e~» take, by 
taalogy of the masculines, s in the nom. sing., thus distinguishing 
aom. Jtors from ace. flor. A century later, masculines without s 
m the nom. sing, take this consonant by analogy of the other mascu- 
fines, giving teres as nom. similar to tors. In Anglo-Norman the 
accusative forms very early begin to replace the nominative, and 



soon supersede them, the language following the tendency of con- 
temporaneous English. In continental French the declension-system 
was preserved murh longer, and did not break up till the 14th 
century, though ace. forms an* occasionally substituted for nom. 
(rarely nom. for ace.) In-fore that due. It must be noticed, however, 
that in the current language the reduction of the declension to one 
case (generally the arrusanve) per number appears much earlier 
than in the language of literature proper and poetry; Froissart, for 
instance, c. 1400, in his poetical works is much more careful of the 
declension than in his Chronicles. In the 15th century the modern 
system of one case is fully established: the form kept is almost 
always the accusative (ting, without s, plural with s), nut in a few 
words, such zsfils (fitius), sarur (soror), pastre (potior), ami in proper 
names such a» Georges, Cities, Ac, often used as vocative (therefore 
with the form of nom.): the nom. survives in the sing. Occasionally 
both forms e\i«.t, in different senses — sire (senior) and seigneur 
(seniorrm), on (homd) and komme (hominem). (2) Latin neuters are 
generally masculine in Old French, and inflected according to their 
analogy, as cuts (carl us for caelum num.), del (caelum ace), ciel (caell 
for eaela nom.), dels (carlos for caela ace); but in some cases the 
form of the Latin neuter is presrrved, as in eors, now corps, Lat. 
corpus: tens, now temps. Lit. tern pus. Many neuters I0-1O their 
singular form ami treat the plural as a feminine singular, as in the 
related languages — mervetlle (m\rCibilia),feuille (folia). Hut in a few 
words the neuter plural termination is used, as in Italian, in its 
primitive sen<e— earre (carta, which exists as well an catti), pair* 
UmI. pa rio); Modern French chars, paires. (3) In Old French the 
inflectional s often causes phonetic changes in the stem; thus palatal 
/ before s takes / after it, ami licromes dental /, which afterwards 
changes to a or drops—// (f ilium and fitii) with palatal /, htz (fitius 
and filiOs), afterwards fiz, with r»fs (preserved in Engliih titz), 
and then fis, as now (spelt .jiii). Many consonants before s, as the 
/ of Jiz, disappear, and / is vocalized— e// (vivum), mat (malum), 
nominative sing, and ace. plur. vis, ma us (earlier mats). These forms 
of the plural are retained in the loth century, though often ety- 
mologically spelt with the consonant of the singular, as in vifs, 
pronounced vis: but in Late Modern French many of them dis- 
appear, vifs. with f sounded as in the singular, being the plural 
01 vif. bats (formerly baux) that of bat. In many words, as ckanl 
(cant its) and champs (earn bis) with silent / and p (Old French chans 
in both rases), maux (Old French mats, sing, mat), veux (ocutos. 
Old French eriz, sing, ail) the old change in the stem is kept. Some- 
time*, as in acitx Uaeldx) and dels, the old traditional and the modern 
analogical forms coexist, with different meanings, (x) The modern 
lots of final s (except when kept as s before a vowel) has seriously 
modified the Frenrh declension, the singulars fort (fdr) ami forte 
(fort) being generally undistinguishable from their plurals forts and 
fortes. The subsequent loss of * in finals has not affected the relation 
between sing, and plur. forms; but with the frequent recoining of 
the plural forms on the singular present Modern French has very 
often no distinction between sing, and plnr., except before a vowel. 
Such plurals as maux have always been distinct from their singular 
mat; in those whose singular ends in s there never was any dis- 
tinction. Old French taz (now spelt lacs) corresponding to laqveus, 
laqveum, hovel and laqveds. 

(iii.) Adurtives. — (1) The terminations of the cases and numbers 



with their plurals amert and amtrts, have run together. 



no 



FRENCH LITERATURE 



(f) Derivation— tfosi' 6t the Old French prefixes and suffixes 
are descendants of Latin ones, but a few are Teutonic {ard —hard), 
and some arc later borrowings from Latin (arte, afterwards aire, 
from drium). In Modern French many old affixes are hardly used 
for forming new words; the inherited ier {drium) is yielding to 
the borrowed aire, the popular centre {contra) to the learned aiiti 
(Greek), and the native it (atom) to the Italian ode. The suffixes 
of many words have been assimilated to more common ones; 
thus sot filer {singtddrem) is now sanglicr. 

(g) Syntax. — Old French syntax, gradually changing from 
the loth to the 14th century, has a character of its own, distinct 
from that of Modern French; though when compared with 
Latin syntax it appears decidedly modern. 

;ij The general formal distinction between nominative and 
accusative is the chief feature which causes French syntax to re- 
semble that of Latin and differ from that of the modern language; 
and as the distinction had to be replaced by a comparatively fixed 
word-order, a serious loss of freedom ensued. If the forms are 
modernized while the word-order is kept, the Old French I'areketesque 
ue puetjWchir ii reis llenris (Latin arckiepiscopum non potest JUctere 
rex Uenricus) assumes a totally different meaning — I' or chew que ne 
peutfiichtr le roi Henri. (2) The replacement of the nominative form 
of nouns by the accusative is itself a syntactical feature, though 
treated above under inflection. A more modern instance is exhibited 
by the personal pronouns, which, when not immediately the subject 
of a verb, occasionally take even in Ok) French, and regularly in 
the 16th century, the accusative form ; the Old French je qut sui 
(ego qsl sum) becomes moi qui suis, though the older usage survives 
in the legal phrase je, sousstgni. ...(}) The definite article is now 
required in many cases where Old trench dispenses with it— j* 
cunquis Engleterre, suffrir mort (as Modern French avoir faint); 
Modern French I' A ngleterre, la mort. (4) Old French had distinct pro- 
nouns for " this " and " that " — test {cue istum) and eel {ecu ilium), 
with their cases. Both exist in the 16th century, but the present 
language employs cet as adjective, eel as substantive, in both mean- 
ings, marking the old distinction by affixing the adverbs ci and 16\ 
— cet homme-ci, cet homnte-la ; celui-ci, celut-id. (5) In Old French, 
the vertul terminations being clear, the subject pronoun is usually 
not expressed — si ferai {sic facere kabeo'), est durs (durus est), que 
{eras {quid facere habes)? In the 16th century the use of the pronoun 
» general, and is now universal, except in one or two impersonal 

8hra«es, as n'importe, pen s'en faut. (6) The present participle in 
ild French in its uninfected form coincided with the gerund {amant 
mamantem and amandd), and in the modern language has been re- 

g laced by the latter, except where it has become adjectival; the 
Id French complaingnans leur dolours (Latin plangentis) is now 
plaignant Irurs douleurs (Latin tlangtndd). The now extinct use of 
estre with the participle present lor the simple verb is not uncommon 
in Old French down to the 16th century— «*/ disans {sunt dicentes) — 
Modern French 1/5 disent (as English they are saying). (7) In present 
Modern French the preterite participle when used with avoir to form 
verb-tenses is invariable, except when the object precedes (an 
exception now vanishing in the conversational language)— j'ai 
icrit Us tettres, les lettres que j'ai (crites. In Old French down to the 
16th century, formal concord was more common (though by no 
means necessary), partly because the object preceded the parti- 
ciple much oftcner than now— ad la culur muie {habet coldrem mutd- 
tam), ad faite sa venjancc, les turs ad rend 
|ust quoted will serve as specimens of the 
word-order— the object standing either bef 
between them, or alter both. The predicai 
before or after the verb — halt sunt li put (I 
grant, fa) In Old French ne (Early Old 
suffices for the negation without pas {passi 
mie {mUam, now obsolete), though these 
ue sui lis sire {je ne suis pas ton seigneur) 
%' aura pas autre femme). In principal semer 
me by itself only in certain cases— je ne pi 
The slight weight as a negation usually at 
several originally positive word* to take a 

} Latin rem) now meaning " nothing " as we 
n Old French interrogation was expressed v 

pronouns by putting them after the verb— est Saul entre les pro- 
phetesf In Modern French the pronominal inversion (the sub- 
stantive being prefixed) or a verbal periphrasis must be used — Saul 
est-il t or est-ee que Saul est? 

(h) Summary.— Looking at the internal history of the French 
language as a whole, there is no such strongly marked division as 
exists between Old and Middle English, or even between Middle 
and Modern English. Some of the most important changes are 

Suite modern, and are concealed by the traditional orthography; 
nt, even making allowance for this, the difference between French 
of the f ith century and that of the 20th is less than that between 
English of the same dares. The most important change in itself 
and for it* effects ispmbahly that which is usually made the division 
oetweea Old and Modern French, the iocs 0/ the formal dtftinrtfo* 



L ip*ts» 
of the 
logyia 
isdfr 



ialects. 
dodera 
e other 

iphUo- 
nd the 
ionised 
ittered 
• many 
kw-i 

Paris, 
bangm 
1 useful 
ts Alt- 
'.IS*; 
est old 
lagehi 
fines i 

A.F. 



buqu'i 
ounds: 



! VOls. 



tbered 

MMOftt 

• 190a. 
2) was 



d's U 
Early 
>vols.. 



e ceo* 
I often 
French 

EZsssg* 



oral 
sy the 
e first, 
: ben 



((with 
i Zed- 
) and 

infer* 
Ktions 
illy in 

'the 



. The 
beisg 
: (die- 
: must 
patois 
n and 
haft 
MO 
reoeb 
lid to 
Dana* 
■tiny 
ndit 
leccrjr 
land 
atute 
intry, 
mta 

CC.M 

a few 
Lata 
«torj 
itsdf 



4SON5 DE CESTEJ 



FRENCH LITERATURE 



in 



icd a sufficiently independent form to deserve to be called 
- language. This time it is indeed impossible exactly to 
nine, and the period at which literary compositions, as 
guished from mere conversation, began to employ the new 
e is entirely unknown. As early as the 7th century the 
a Romana, as distinguished from Latin and from Teutonic 
U, is mentioned, and this Lingua Romana would be of 
ity used for purposes of clerical admonition, especially in 
>unlry districts, though we need not suppose that such 
sses had a very literary character. On the other hand, 
ention, at early dates, of certain cantilena* or songs com- 
in the vulgar language has served for basis to a super- 
ure of much ingenious argument with regard to the highly 
sting problem of the origin of the Chansons d* Geste, the 
it and one of the greatest literary developments of northern 
h. It is sufficient in this article, where speculation would 
: of place, to mention that only two such cantilenae actually 
and that neither is French. One of the 9th century, the 
of Saucourt," is in a Teutonic dialect ; the other, the " Song 
Faron," is of the 7th century, but exists only in Latin 
the construction and style of which present traces of trans- 
lation from a poetical and vernacular original. As far 
as facts go, the most ancient monuments of the written 
French language consist of a few documents of very 
various character, ranging in date from the oth to the 
century. The oldest gives us the oaths interchanged at 
burg in 842 between Charles the Bald and Louis the German, 
est probably in date and the first in literary merit is a short 
celebrating the martyrdom of St Eulalia, which may be 
as the end of the 9th century, and is certainly not younger 
he beginning of the 10th. Another, the Life of St Lcgcr, in 
ctosyliabic lines, is dated by conjecture about 975. The 
sion indeed of these short and fragmentary pieces is of 
philological than literary interest, and belongs rather to 
sad of French language. They are, however, evidence of 
ogress which, continuing for at least four centuries, built up 
wy instrument out of the decomposed and reconstructed 
of the Roman conquerors, blended with a certain limited 
it of contributions from the Celtic and Iberian dialects of 
iginal inhabitants, the Teutonic speech of the Franks, and 
iental tongue of the Moors who pressed upwards from Spain. 
I these foreign elements bear a very small proportion to the 
at of Latin; and as Latin furnished the greater part of the 
ulary and the grammar, so did it also furnish the principal 
• and helps to literary composition. The earliest French 
cation is evidently inherited from that of the Latin hymns 
church, and for a certain time Latin originate were followed 
choice of literary forms. But by the nth century it is 
bly certain that dramatic attempts were already being 
in the vernacular, that lyric poetry was largely cultivated, 
iws, charters, and such-like documents were written, and 
ommentators and translators busied themselves with re- 
t subjects and texts. The most important of the extant 
tents, outside of the epics presently to be noticed, has of 
late been held to be the Life of Saint Alexis, a poem 
of 625 decasyllabic lines, arranged in five-line stanzas, 
each of one assonance or vowel-rhyme, which may be 
ly as 1050. But the most important development of the 
cntury, and the one of which we are most certain, is that 
ch we have evidence remaining in the famous Chanson de 
i, discovered in a manuscript at Oxford and first published 
7. This poem represents the first and greatest development 
mch literature, the chansons de geste (this form is now 
red to that with the plural gestcs). The origin of these 
has been hotly debated, and it is only recently that the 
lance which they really possess has been accorded to them, 
ct the less remarkable in that, until about 1820, the epics 
ient France were unknown, or known only through late 
Isfigured prose versions. Whether they originated in the 
or the south is a question on which there have been more 
me or two revolutions of opinion, and will probably be 
still, but which need not be dealt with here. We possess 



in round numbers a hundred of these chansons. Three only of 
them are in Provencal. Two of these, Fcrabras and Bclonnet 
d'Hanstonne, arc obviously adaptations of French originals. 
The third, Girartx de Rossilho (Gerard de Roussillon), is un- 
doubtedly Provencal, and is a work of great merit and originality, 
but its dialect is strongly tinged with the characteristics of the 
Langue d'Oll, and its author seems to have been a native of the 
debatable land between the two districts. To suppose under 
these circumstances that the Provencal originals of the hundred 
others have perished seems gratuitous. It is sufficient to say 
that the chanson dc geste, as it is now extant, is the almost 
exclusive property of northern France. Nor is there much 
authority for a supposition that the early French poets merely 
versified with amplifications the stories of chroniclers. On the 
contrary, chroniclers draw largely from the chansons, and the 
question of priority between Roland and the pseudo-Turpin, 
though a hard one to determine, seems to resolve itself in favour 
of the former. At most we may suppose, with much probability, 
that personal and family tradition gave a nucleus for at least 
the earliest. 

Chansons de Geste. — Early French narrative poetry was 
divided by one of its own writers, Jean Bodel, under three head* 
—poems relating to French history, poems relating to -~^^ 
ancient history, and poems of the Arthurian cycle jj^SHS* 
(AfoJiires de France, de Brctagne, et de Rome). To the 
first only is the term chansons de geste in strictness applicable 
The definition of it goes partly by form and partly by matter 
A chanson dc geste must be written in verses either of ten or 
twelve syllables, the former being the earlier. These verses have 
a regular caesura, which, like the end of a line, carries with it 
the licence of a mute e. The lines are arranged, not in couplets 
or in stanzas of equal length, but in laisses or tirades, consisting 
of any number of lines from half a dozen to some hundreds. 
These are, in the earlier examples assonanced, — that is to say, 
the vowel sound of the last syllables is identical, but the con- 
sonants need not agree. Thns, for instance, the final words of a 
tirade of Amis et A miles (II. 190-206) are erbe, noitrellc, sclles, 
nouvdles, trover sent, arrestent, guerre, cortege. Sometimes the 
tirade is completed by a shorter line, and the later chansons are 
regularly rhymed. As to t he subject . a chanson dc gest e must be 
concerned with some event which is, or is supposed to be, 
historical and French. The tendency of the trouv&res was con- 
stantly to affiliate their heroes on a particular geste or family. 
The three chief gestes are those of Charlemagne himself, of Doon 
de Maycnce, and of Garin de Monglanc; but there arc not a 
few chansons, notably those concerning the Lorrainers, and the 
remarkable series sometimes called the Chcralur au Cygne, and 
dealing with the crusades, which lie outside these groups. By 
this joint definition of form and subject the chansons de geste 
are separated from the romances of antiquity, from the romances 
of the Round Table, which are written in octosyllabic couplets, 
and from the romans d'aventures or later fictitious tales, some of 
which, such as Brun de la Montaigne, are written in pure chanson 
form. 

Not the least remarkable point about the chansons de geste 
is their vast extent. Their number, according to the strictest 
definition, exceeds 100, and the length of each chanson v«faB» 
varies from 1000 lines, or thereabouts, to 20,000 or mm4 
even 30,000. The entire mass, including, it may be **%!Z*!£L 
supposed, the various versions and extensions of each tar ^ e * C9% 
chanson, is said to amount to between two and three million 
lines; and when, under the second empire, the publication of the 
whole Carolingian cycle was projected, it was estimated, taking 
the earliest versions alone, at over 300,000. The successive 
developments of the chansons de geste may be illustrated by the 
fortunes of Huon de Bordeaux, one of the most lively, varied 
and romantic of the older epics, and one which is interesting 
from the use made of it by Shakespeare, Wieland and Weber. 
In the oldest form now extant, though even this is probably not 
the original, Huon consists of over 10,000 lines. A subsequent 
version contains 4000 more; and lastly, in the, ia\S\ tw\wj > 
a later poet has ampUfved vnt Ywu& \a \tat «s\«uv <& v> ,c*»\\ww 



112 



FRENCH LITERATURE 



(ARTHURIAN ROKAMCBB 



When this point had been reached, Huon began to be turned into 
prose, was with many of his fellows published and republished 
during the 15th and subsequent centuries, and retains, in the 
form of a roughly printed chap-book, the favour of the country 
districts of France to the present day. It is not, however, in the 
later versions that the special characteristics of the chansons 
de geste are to be looked for. Of those which we possess, one and 
one only, the Chanson de Roland, belongs in its present form 
to the 1 1 th century. Their date of production extends, speaking 
roughly, from the nth to the 14th century, their palmy days were 
the nth and the 12th. After this latter period the Arthurian 
romances, with more complex attractions, became their rivals, 
and induced their authors to make great changes in their style 
and subject. But for a lime they reigned supreme, and no better 
instance of their popularity can be given than the fact that 
manuscripts of them exist, not merely in every French dialect, 
but in many cases in a strange macaronic jargon of mingled 
French and Italian. Two classes of persons were concerned in 
them. There was the trouvere who composed them, and the 
jongleur who carried them about in manuscript or in his memory 
from castle to castle amd sang them, intermixing frequent appeals 
to his auditory for silence, declarations of the novelty and the 
strict copyright character of the chanson, revilings of rival 
minstrels, and frequently requests for money in plain words. 
Not a few of the manuscripts which we now possess appear to 
have been actually used by the jongleur. But the names of the 
authors, the trouveres who actually composed them, are in very 
few cases known, those of copyists, continuators, and mere 
possessors of manuscripts having been often mistaken for them. 
The moral and poetical peculiarities of the older and more 
authentic of these chansons are strongly marked, though perhaps 
not quite so strongly as some of their encomiasts have contended, 
and as may appear to a reader of the most famous of them, the 
Chanson de Roland, alone. In that poem, indeed, war and 
religion are the sole motives employed, and its motto might 
be two lines from another of the finest chansons (Aliscans, 
161-162): — 

" Dist a Bertran : * N'avons mais nul losir. 
Tant kc vivons alons paiens ferir.' 

In Roland there is no love-making whatever, and the hero's 
betrothed " la belle Aude " appears only in a casual gibe of her 
brother Oliver, and in the incident of her sudden death at the 
news of Roland's fall. M. Leon Gautier and others have drawn 
the conclusion that this stern and masculine character was a 
feature of all the older chansons, and that imitation of the 
Arthurian romance is the cause of its disappearance. This 
seems rather a hasty inference. In Amis et A miles, admittedly 
a poem of old dale, the parts of Belliccnt and Lubias are 
prominent, and the former is demonstrative enough. In Aliscans 
the part of the Countess Guibourc is both prominent and heroic, 
and is seconded by that of Queen Blancheflor and her daughter 
Aelis. We might also mention Oriabel in J our dans de Blaivies 
and others. But it may be admitted that the sex which fights and 
counsels plays the principal part, that love adventures arc not 
introduced at any great length, and that the lady usually spares 
her knight the trouble and possible indignities of a long wooing. 
The characters of a chanson of the older style are somewhat 
uniform. There is the hero who is unjustly suspected of guilt or 
sore beset by Saracens, the heroine who falls in love with him, 
the traitor who accuses him or delays help, who is almost always 
of the lineage of Ganeion, and whose ways form a very curious 
study. There are friendly paladins and subordinate traitors; 
there is Charlemagne (who bears throughout the marks of the 
epic king common to Arthur and Agamemnon, but is not in the 
earlier chanson Ihc incapable and venal dotard which he becomes 
in the later), and with Charlemagne generally the duke Naimes 
of Bavaria, the cne figure who is invariably wise, brave, loyal 
and generous. In a few chansons there is to be added to these a 
very interesting class of personages who, though of low birth or 
condition, yet rescue the high-born knights from their enemies. 
Such are Rsunoan in Aliscans, Gautier in Gaydon, Robastre in 
Ttyrey, Vaivcher in Afocoire. These subjects, uniform rather 



than monotonous, are handled with great uniformity if not 
monotony of style. There are constant repetitions, and it some- 
times seems, and may sometimes be the case, that the teat ba 
mere cento of different and repeated versions. But the verse is 
generally harmonious and often stately. The recurrent asson- 
ances of the endless tirade soon impress the ear with a gmlehd 
music, and occasionally, and far more frequently than might be 
thought, passages of high poetry, such as the magnificent Gran 
dod par la mart de RoUant, appear to diversify the course of the 
story. The most remarkable of the chansons are Roland, 
Aliscans, Gerard de Roussillon, Amis el AmiUs, Raoul de Cambrei, 
Garin le Loheradn and its sequel Les quatre Fils Aymon, Let Saisnes 
(recounting the war of Charlemagne with Witckind), and lastly, 
Le Chevalier au Cygne, which is not a single poem but a terns, 
dealing with the earlier crusades. The most remarkable tramp h 
that centring round William of Orange, the historical or half- 
historical defender of the south of France against Mahommedaa 
invasion. Almost all the chansons of this group, from the lone- 
known Aliscans to the recently printed Chance* de Wtitame, 
are distinguished by an unwonted personality of interest, as well 
as by an intensified dose of the rugged and martial poetry which 
pervades the whole class. It is noteworthy that one chanson 
and one only, Floovont, deals with Merovingian times. But the 
chronology, geography, and historic facts of nearly all are, it is 
hardly necessary to say, mainly arbitrary. 

Arthurian Romances.— The second class of early French epics 
consists of the Arthurian cycle, the Ma tier e de Bretagne, the 
earliest known compositions of which are at least a century 
junior to the earliest chanson de geste, but which soon succeeded 
the chansons in popular favour, and obtained a vogue both wider 
and far more enduring. It is not easy to conceive a greater 
contrast in form, style, subject and sentiment than is presented 
by the two classes. In both the religious sentiment is prominent, 
but the religion of the chansons is of the simplest, not to any of the 
most savage character. To pray to God and to kill bis enemies 
constitutes the whole duty of man. In the romances the mystical 
element becomes on the contrary prominent, and furnishes, is 
the Holy Grail, one of the most important features. In the Carle- 
vingian knight the courtesy and clemency which we have leant 
to associate with chivalry are almost entirely absent The 
gentix ber contradicts, jeers at, and execrates his sovereign and 
his fellows with the utmost freedom. He thinks nothing of strike 
ing his cortoise moullier so that the blood runs down ber tier lis. 
If a servant or even an equal offends him, he will throw the 
offender into the fire, knock his brains out, or set his whisker* 
ablaze. The Arthurian knight is far more of the modern model 
in these respects. But his chief difference from his predecessor 
is undoubtedly in his amorous devotion to his beloved, who, 
if not morally superior to Bdlicent, Floripas, Esclairmonde, and 
the other Carlovingian heroines, is somewhat less forward. Eves 
in minute details the difference is strongly marked. The romances 
are in octosyllabic couplets or in prose, and their language is 
different from that of the chansons, and contains much fewer of 
the usual epic repetitions and stock phrases. A voluminous con- 
troversy has been held respecting the origin of these differences, 
and of the story or stories which were destined to receive suck 
remarkable attention. Reference must be made to the article 
Arthurian Legend for the history of this controversy and for 
an account of its present state. This state, however, and all 
subsequent states, are likely to be rather dependent upon opinica 
than upon actual knowledge. From the point of view of the 
general historian of literature it may not be improper here to give 
a caution against the frequent use of the word " proven " in such 
matters. Very little in regard to early literature, except the 
literary value of the texts, is ever susceptible of proof; although 
things may be made more or less probable. What we are at present 
concerned with, however, is a body of verse and prose composed 
in the latter part of the 12th century and later. The earliest 
romances, the Saint Graal, the Quite du Saint Craal, Josef* 
tVArimathie and Merlin bear the names of Walter Map and 
Robert de Borron. Artus and part at least of Lancelot du Let 
(the whole of which has been by turns attributed and denied to 



ROMANS D'AVENTURESJ 



FRENCH LITERATURE 



"3 



Walter Map) appear to be due to unknown authors. Tristan 
came later, and has a stronger mixture of Celtic tradition. At 
the same time as Walter Map, or a little later, Chretien (or 
Chrestien) de Troyes threw the legends of the Round Table 
Into octosyllabic verse of a singularly spirited and picturesque 
character. The chief poems attributed to him are the Chevalier 
an Lyon (Sir Ewain of Wales), the Clsetalicr a la Char die (one 
of the episodes of Lancelot), Eric el Enide, Tristan and Percitale. 
These poems, independently of their merit, which is great, had 
■a extensive literary influence. They were translated by the 
German minnesingers. Wolfram von Eschenbach, Gottfried of 
Strassburg, and others. . With the romances already referred 
to, which are mostly in prose, and which by recent authorities 
have been put later than the verse talcs which used to be post- 
puc-H ».j them, Chretien's poems complete the early forms of 
the Arthurian story, and supply the matter of it as it is best 
known to English readers in Malory's book. Nor docs that book, 
though far later than the original forms, convey a very false 
impression of the characteristics of the older romances. Indeed, 
the Arthurian knight, his character and adventures, are 50 much 
better known than the heroes of the Carlovingian chanson that 
there is less need to dwell upon them. They had, however, as has 
been already pointed out, great influence upon their rivals, and 
their comparative fertility of invention, the much larger number 
of their dramatis personac, and the greater variety of interests to 
which they appealed, sufficiently explain their increased popu- 
larity. The ordinary attractions of poetry are also more largely 
present in them than in the chansons; there is more description, 
more life, and less of the mere chronicle. They have been accused 
of relaxing morality, and there is perhaps some truth in the 
charge. But the change is after all one rather of manners than 
of morals, and what is lost in simplicity is gained in refinement. 
Doom de Hayenee is a late chanson, and Lancelot du Lac is an early 
romance. But the two beautiful scenes, in the former between 
Doon and Nicolctte, in the latter between Lancelot, Galahault, 
Guinevere, and the Lady of Malchaut, may be compared as 
instances of the attitude of the two classes of poets towards the 
sum subject. 

Romances of Antiquity. — There is yet a third class of early 
narrative poems, differing from the two former in subject, but 
agreeing, sometimes with one sometimes with the other in form. 
These are the classical romances — the Matiere de Rome — which 
are not much later than those of Charlemagne and Arthur. 
The chief subjects with which their authors busied themselves 
were the conquests of Alexander and the siege of Troy, though 
ether classical stories come in. The most remarkable of all is t he 
romance of Alixandre by Lambert the Short and Alexander of 
Bernay. It has been said that the excellence of the twelve- 
syllabled verse used in this romance was the origin of the term 
alexandrine. The Trojan romances, on the other hand, are 
chiefly in octosyllabic verse, and the principal poem which 
treats of them is the Roman de Troie of Benoit de Sainte More. 
Both this poem and Alixandre are attributed to the bat quarter 
of the 1 2th century. The authorities consulted for these poems 
were, as may be supposed, none of the best. Dares Phrygius, 
Dictys Cretensis, the pseudo-Callisthenes supplied most of them. 
But the inexhaustible invention of the trouvercs themselves was 
the chief authority consulted. The adventures of Medea, the 
wanderings of Alexander, the Trojan horse, the story of Thebes, 
were quite sufficient to spur on to exertion the minds which had 
been accustomed to spin a chanson of some 10,000 lines out of a 
casual allusion in some preceding poem. • It is needless to say 
that anachronisms did not disturb them. From first to last the 
writers of the chansons had not in the least troubled themselves 
with attention to any such matters. Charlemagne himself had 
Us life and exploits accommodated to the need of every poet 
who treats of him, and the same is the case with the heroes of 
antiquity. Indeed, Alexander is made in many respects a proto- 
type of Charlemagne. He is regularly knighted, he has twelve 
peers, he holds tournaments, he has relations with Arthur, and 
comes hi contact with fairies, he takes flights in the air, dives in 
the sea and so forth. There is perhaps more avowed imagination 
xi. 3 



in these classical stories than in cither of the other divisions of 
French epic poetry. Some of their authors even confess to the 
practice of fiction, while the trouvercs of the chansons invariably 
assert the historical character of their facts and personages, and 
the authors of the Arthurian romances at least start from facts 
vouched for, partly by national tradition, partly by the 
authority of religion and the church. The classical romances, 
however, are important in two different ways. In the first place, 
they connect the early literature of France, however loosely, and 
with links of however dubious authenticity, with the great history 
and literature of t he past. They show a certain amount of scholar- 
ship in their authors, and in their hearers they show a capacity 
of taking an interest in subjects which are nut merely those 
directly connected with the village or the tribe. The chansons 
de gesle had shown the creative power and independent character 
of French literature. There is. at least about the earlier ones, 
nothing borrowed, traditional or scholarly. • They smack of the 
soil, and they rank France among the very few countries which, in 
this matter of indigenous growth, have yielded more than folk- 
songs and fireside talcs. The Arthurian romances, less inde- 
pendent in origin, exhibit a wider range of view, a greater 
knowledge of human nature, and a more extensive command 
of the sources of poetical and romantic interest. The classical 
epics superadd the only ingredient necessary to an accomplished 
literature — that is to say, the knowledge of what has been done 
by other peoples and other literatures already, and the readiness 
to take advantage of the materials thus supplied. 

Romans a" A ventures. — These are the three earliest develop- 
ments of French literature on the great scale. They led, however, 
to a fourth, which, though later in date than all except their 
latest forms and far more loosely associated as a group, is so 
closely connected with them by literary and social considera- 
tions that it had best be mentioned here. This is the rotnan 
d'aventures, a title given to those almost avowedly fictitious 
poems which connect themselves, mainly and centrally, neither 
with French history, with the Round Table, nor with the heroes 
of antiquity. These began to be written in the 13th century, and 
continued until the prose form of fiction became generally pre- 
ferred. The later forms of the chansons de geste and the Arthurian 
poems might indeed be well called romans d'aventures them- 
selves. Ungues Capet, for instance, a chanson in form and class of 
subject, is certainly one of this latter kind in treatment; and 
there is a larger class of semi-Arthurian romance, which so to 
speak branches off from the main trunk. But for convenience 
sake the definition we have given is preferable. The style and 
subject of these romans d'aventures are naturally extremely 
various. Cuillaume de Polemic deals with the adventures of a 
Sicilian prince who is befriended by a wcre-wolf; Le Roman de 
Vescoufte, with a heroine whose ring is carried off by a sparrow- 
hawk {escouflc), like Prince Camaralzaman's talisman; Cuy of 
Warwick, with one of the most famous of imaginary heroes; 
Meraugis de PortUguex is a sort of branch or offshoot of the 
romances of the Round Table; CUomadcs, the work of the 
trouvcrc Adcnes le Roi, who also rchandled the old chanson 
subjects of Ogier and Bcrte aux grans pits, connects itself once 
more with the Arabian Nights as well as with Chaucer forwards 
in the introduction of a flying mechanical horse. There is, in 
short, no possibility of classifying their subjects. The habit of 
writing in gcslcs, or of necessarily connecting the new work with 
an older one, had ceased to be binding, and the instinct of fiction 
writing was free; yet those romans d'aventures do not rank quite 
as high in literary importance as the classes which preceded them. 
This undervaluation arises rather from a lack of originality and 
distinctness of savour than from any shortcomings in treatment. 
Their versification, usually octosyllabic, is pleasant enough; but 
there is not much distinctness of character about them, and their 
incidents often strike the reader with something of the sameness, 
but seldom with much of the nalvet6, of those of the older poems. 
Nevertheless some of them attained to a very high popularity, 
such, for instance, as the Parttncpex de Blois of Denis Pyramus, 
which has a motive drawn from the story of Cu pid and Psyche 
and the charming Flout et BUMcheJLcw, vjraitat ^» <& «. 

la, 



11+ 



FRENCH LITERATURE 



(FAHUAUI 



Christian prince and a Saracen slave-girL With them may be 
connected a certain number of early romances and fiction* of 
various dates in prose, none of which can vie in charm with 
Autos sin et NicoltlU (13th century), an exquisite literary pre- 
sentment of medieval sentiment in its most delightful form. 

In these classes may be said to be summed up the literature of 
feudal chivalry in France. They were all, except perhaps the last, 
- Mnt composed by one class of persons, the trouveres, and 
th*nsut+ performed by another, the jongleurs. The latter, 
Jtffc* •* indeed, sometimes presumed to compose for himself, 
**|y and was denounced as a Iroveor batard by the indignant 

members of the superior caste. They were all originally 
intended to be performed in the paints marberin of the baron to 
an audience of knights and ladies, and, when reading became 
more common, to be read by such persons. ' They dealt therefore 
chiefly, if not exclusively, with the class to whom they were 
addressed. The bourgeois and the villain, personages of political 
nonentity at the lime of their early composition, come in for 
far slighter notice, although occasionally in the few curious 
instances we have mentioned, and others, persons of a class 
inferior to the seigneur play an important part. The habit of 
private wars and of insurrection against the sovereign supply 
the motives of the chanson dc geste, the love of gallantry, 
adventure and foreign travel those of the romances Arthurian 
and miscellaneous None of these motives much affected the 
lower classes, who were, with the early developed temper of the 
middle- and lower-class Frenchman, already apt to think and 
speak cynically enough of tournaments, courts, crusades and 
the other occupations of the nobility. The communal system 
was springing up, the towns were receiving royal encouragement 
as a counterpoise to the authority of the nobles. The corruptions 
and maladministration of the church attracted the satire rather 
of the citizens and peasantry who suffered by them, than of the 

nobles who had less to fear and even something to gain. 
JjJUj*' On the other hand, the gradual spread of learning, 
itatt. inaccurate and ill-digested perhaps, but still learning, 

not only opened up new classes of subjects, but opened 
them to new classes of persons. The thousands of students who 
flocked to the schools of Paris were not all princes or nobles. 
Hence there arose two new classes of literature, the first consisting 
of the embodiment of learning of one kind or other in the vulgar 
tongue. The other, one of the most remarkable developments of 
sportive literature which the world has seen, produced the second 
indigenous literary growth of which France can boast, namely, 
the fabliaux, and the almost more remarkable work which is an 
immense conglomerate of fabliaux, the great beast-epic of the 
Roman de Renart. 

Fabliaux. — There are few literary products which have more 
originality and at the same time more diversity than the fabliau. 
The epic and the drama, even when they are independently 
produced, are similar in their main characteristics all the world 
over. But there is.nothing in previous literature which exactly 
corresponds to the fabliau. It comes nearest to the Aesopic fable 
and its eastern origins or parallels. But differs from these 
in being less allegorical, less obviously moral (though a moral 
of some sort is usually if not always enforced), and in having 
a much more direct personal interest. It is in many degrees 
further removed from the parable, and many degrees nearer to 
the novel. - The story is the first thing, the moral the second, 
and the latter is never suffered to interfere with the former. 
These observations apply only to the fabliaux, properly so called, 
but the term has been used with considerable looseness. The 
collectors of those interesting pieces, Barbazan, Meon, Le Grand 
d'Aussy, have included in their collections large numbers of 
miscellaneous pieces such as dils (rhymed descriptions of various 
objects, the most famous known author of which was Baudouin 
de Condi, 13th century), and dibais (discussions between two 
persons or contrasts of the attributes of two things), sometimes 
even short romances, farces and mystery plays. Not that the 
fable proper— the prose classical beast-story of " Aesop "— 
mas neglected. Marie de France — the poetess to be mentioned 
M£Min /or her more strictly poetical work— is the most literary 



of not a few writers who composed what were often, after the 
mysterious original poet, named Ysopets. Aesop', Pnaednu, 
Babrius were translated and imitated in Latin and in the verna- 
cular by this class of writer, and some of the best known of 
"fablers" date from this time. The fabliau, on the other 
hand, according to the best definition of it yet achieved, a 
" the recital, generally comic, of a real or possible incident 
occurring in ordinary human life/' The comedy, it may be added, 
is usually of a satiric kind, and occupies itself with every class 
and rank of men, from the king to the villain. There is no Unit 
to the variety of these lively verse-tales, which axe invariably 
written in eight-syllabled couplets. Now the subject is the mis- 
adventure of two Englishmen, whose ignorance of the French 
language makes them confuse donkey and lamb; now it is the 
fortunes of an exceedingly foolish knight, who has an amiable 
and ingenious mother-in-law; now the deserved sufferings of 
an avaricious or ill-behaved priest; now the bringing of as 
ungrateful son to a better mind by the wisdom of babes and 
sucklings. Not a few of the Canterbury Tales are taken directly 
from fabliaux; indeed, Chaucer, with the possible exception of 
Prior, is our nearest approach to a fabliau-writer. At the other 
end of Europe the prose novels of Boccaccio and other Italian 
tale-tellers are largely based upon fabliaux. But their influence 
in their own country was the greatest. They were the first 
expression of the spirit which has since animated the most 
national and popular developments of French literature. Simple 
and unpretending as they are in form, the fabliaux ^""ffffiyr 
not merely the Cent Nouvelles Nouvelles and the Heptamerom, 
L'Avocat PaUlin, and Ponia gruel, but also L' A pare and the 
Roman comique, Gil Bias and Candida, They indeed do more 
than merely prophesy the spirit of these great performances 
—they directly lead to them. The prose-tale and the farce are 
the direct outcomes of the fabliau, and the prose-tale and the 
farce once given, the novel and the comedy inevitably follow. 

The special period of fabliau composition appears to have been 
the rath and 13th centuries. ' It signifies on the one side the 
growth of a lighter and more sportive spirit than had j*^ 
yet prevailed, on another the rise in importance of saw* 
other and lower orders of men than the priest and the f*S* 
noble, on yet another the consciousness on the part 
of these lower orders of the defects of the two privileged « 
and of the shortcomings of the system of polity tin ' 
these privileged classes enjoyed their privileges. There is, how- 
ever, in the fabliau proper not so very much of direct satire, Urn 
being indeed excluded by the definition given above, and by the 
thoroughly artistic spirit in which that definition is observed. 
The fabliaux are so numerous and so various that ft is difficmU 
to select any as specially representative. We may, however, 
mention, both as good examples and as interesting from their 
subsequent history, Le Vair Paljroi, treated in F " g l; * h by Leigh 
Hunt and by Peacock; Le VUain Mire, the original consciously 
or unconsciously followed in Le Medeein malgr4 Im; La Rm 
d'Angleterre et le jongleur d'£li; La kouce partie; U Sat Cuemdm, 
an indecorous but extremely amusing story; Let deux bardems 
ribaus, a dialogue between two jongleurs of great literary interest, 
containing allusions to the chansons de geste and romances saox 
in vogue; and Le vilain qui conquisi paradis far plait, one of the 
numerous instances of what has unnecessarily puzzled modern, 
the association in medieval times of sincere and unfeigned faith 
with extremely free handling of its objects. This lightheartcd- 
ness in other subjects sometimes bubbled over into the /straw, 
an almost pure nonsense-piece, parent of the later ompkiganri, 

Roman de Renart.— If the fabliaux are not remarkable for 
direct satire, that element is supplied in more than compensat- 
ing quantity by an extraordinary composition which is closely 
related to them. Le Roman de Renart, or History of Reynard Ik 
Fox, is a poem, or rather series of poems, which, from the end of 
the 12th to the middle of the 14th century, served the ckiteo 
poets of northern France, not merely as an outlet for literary 
expression, but also as a vehicle of satirical comment, — now 00 
the general vices and weaknesses of humanity, now on the usual 
corruption* la church and state, now on the various historical 



KAKLV LVKIQ 



FRENCH LITERATURE 



"5 



events which occupied public attention from tine to time. The 
enormous popularity of the subject is shown by the long vogue 
which it had, and by the empire which it exercised over genera- 
tions of writers who differed from each other widely in style and 
temper. Nothing can be farther from the allegorical erudition, 
Che political diatribes and the sermonising moralities of the 
authors of Reuari le Centre-fail than the sly naivete 1 of the writers 
of the earlier branches. Yet these and a long and unknown 
series of intermediate bards the fox-king pressed into his service, 
and it is scarcely too much to say that, during the two centuries 
of his reign, there was hardly a thought in the popular mind 
which, as it rose to the surface, did not find expression in an 
addition to the huge cycle of Renart. 

We shall not deal with the controversies which have been 
raised as to the origin of the poem and its central idea. The 
latter may have been a travestie of real persons and actual 
events, or it may (and much more probably) have been an 
expression of thoughts and experiences which recur in every 
generation. France, the Netherlands and Germany have 
contended for the honour of producing Renart; French, Flemish, 
German and Latin for the honour of first describing him. It is 
sufficient to say that the spirit of the work seems to be more 
that of the borderland between France and Flanders than of any 
other district, and that, wherever the idea may have originally 
arisen, it was incomparably more fruitful in France than in 
any other country. The French poems which we possess on the 
subject amount in all to nearly 100,000 lines, independently 
of mere variations, but including the different versions of Renart 
le Centre-fail. This vast total is divided into four different 
poems The most ancient and remarkable is that edited by 
If eon under the title of Roman du Renart, and containing, with 
tome additions made by M. Chabaille, 37 branches and about 
32,000 lines. It must not, however, be supposed that this total 
forms a continuous poem Like the Aeneid or Paradise Lost.. Part 
was pretty certainly written by Pierre de Saint-Cloud, but he 
was not the author of the whole. On the contrary, the separate 
branches are the work of different authors, hardly any of whom 
are known, and, but for their community of subject and to some 
extent of treatment, might be regarded as separate poems. 
The history of Renart, his victories over Isengrim, the wolf, 
Brain, the bear, and his other unfortunate rivals, his family 
affection, his outwitting* of King Noble the Lion and all the 
rest, are too well known to need fresh description here. It is 
perhaps in the subsequent poems, though they are far less known 
sad much less amusing, that the hold which the idea of Renart 
had obtained on the mind of northern France, and the ingenious 
uses to whkh it was put, are best shown. The first of these 
s> be Courcnnetnenl Renart, a poem of between 3000 and 4000 
Sues, attributed, on no grounds whatever, to the poetess Marie 
de France, and describing how the hero by his ingenuity got 
himself crowned king. This poem already shows signs of direct 
moral application and generalizing. These are still more apparent 
hi Renart It Nouvd, a composition of some 8000 lines, finished 
in the year 1288 by the Fleming Jacquemart Gielee. Here the 
personification, of which, in noticing the Roman de la rose, we 
shall soon have to give extended mention, becomes evident. 
Instead of or at least beside the lively personal Renart who 
used to steal sausages, set Isengrim fishing with his tail, or make 
ate of Chanticleer's comb for a purpose for which it was certainly 
never intended, we have Renardie, an abstraction of guile and 
hypocrisy, triumphantly prevailing over other and better 
qualities. Lastly, as the Roman de la rose of William of Lorris 
is paralleled by Renart le Nouvel, so its continuation by Jean de 
Meting ** paralleled by the great miscellany of Renart le Contre- 
feM, which, even in its existing versions, extends to fully 50,000 
fines. Here we have, besides floods of miscellaneous erudition 
and discourse, political argument of the most direct and im- 
portant kind. The wrongs of the lower orders are bitterly urged. 
They are almost openly incited to revolt; and it is scarcely too 
ouch to say, as M. Lenient has said, that the closely following 
Jacquerie is but a practical carrying out of the doctrines of the 
anonymous satirists of Renart k Cmtn-JaiS, one 0/ whom (if 



indeed there was more than one) appears to have been a clerk 
of Troves. 

Early Lyric Poetry.— Side by side with these two forms of 
literature, the epics and romances of the higher classes, and the 
fabliau, which, at least in its original, represented rather the 
feelings of the lower, there grew up a third kind, consisting of 
purely lyrical poetry. The song literature of medieval France 
is extremely abundant and beautiful. From the 12th to the 
15th century it received constant accessions, some signed, some 
anonymous, some purely popular in their character, some the 
work of more learned writers, others again produced by members 
of the aristocracy. Of the latter class it may fairly be said that 
the catalogue of royal and noble authors boasts few if any names 
superior to those of Thibaut de Champagne, king of Navarre 
at the beginning of the 13th century, and Charles d'Orleans, the 
father of Louis XII., at the beginning of the 15th. Although 
much of this lyric poetry Is anonymous, the more popular part 
of it almost entirely so, yet M. Paulin Paris was able to enumerate 
some hundreds of French chansonniers between the nth and the 
13th century. The earliest song literature, chiefly known in the 
delightful collection of Bartsch {Altframosiscke Romansen und 
Pastourellen), is mainly sentimental in character. The collector 
divides it under the two heads of romances and pastourelles, 
the former being usually the celebration of the loves of a noble 
knight and maiden, and recounting how Belle Doette or Eglantine 
or Oriour sat at her windows or in the tourney gallery, or em- 
broidering silk and samite in her chamber, with her thoughts 
on Gerard or Guy or Henry,— the latter somewhat monotonous 
but narve and often picturesque recitals, very often in the first 
person, of the meeting of an errant knight or minstrel with a 
shepherdess, and his cavalier but not always successful wooing. 
With these, some of which date from the 12th century, may be 
contrasted, at the other end of the medieval period, the more 
varied and popular collection dating in their present form from 
the 15th century, and published in 1875 by M. Gaston Paris. 
In both alike, making allowance for the difference of their age 
and the state of the language, may be noticed a charming lyrical 
faculty and great skill in the elaboration of light and suitable 
metres. Especially remarkable is the abundance of refrains of 
an admirably melodious kind. It is said that more than 500 of 
these exist. Among the lyric writers of these four centuries 
whose names are known may be mentioned Audefroi le Bastard 
(1 ath century), the author of the charming song of Belle 
Idoine, and others no way inf erior,Quesnes de Bethune, i^JSartL 
the ancestor of Sully, whose song-writing inclines 
to a satirical cast in many instances, the Vidame de Chartres, 
Charles d'Anjou, King John of Bricnne, the chitelain de Coucy, 
Gace Brusle, Colin Muset, while not a few writers mentioned 
elsewhere— Guyot de Provins, Adam de la Halle, Jean Bodd 
and others — were also lyrists. But none of them, except perhaps 
Audefroi, can compare with Thibaut IV. (1201-1253), 
who united by his possessions and ancestry a connexion JJJj** 
with the north and the south, and who employed the psgm. 
methods of both districts but used the language of the 
north only. Thibaut was supposed to be the lover of Blanche 
of Castile, the mother of St Louis, and a great deal of his verse 
is concerned with his love for her. But while knights and nobles 
were thus employing lyric poetry in courtly and sentimental 
verse, lyric forms were being freely employed by others, both of 
high and low birth, for more general purposes. Blanche and 
Thibaut themselves came in for contemporary lampoons, and both 
at this time and in the times immediately following, a cloud of 
writers composed light verse, sometimes of a lyric sometimes of a 
narrative kind, and sometimes in a mixture of both. By far the 
most remarkable of these is Rutebceuf (a name which -^^^ 
is perhaps a nickname), the first of a long series of 
French poets to whom in recent days the title Bohemian has 
been applied, who passed their lives between gaiety and misery, 
and celebrated their lot in both conditions with copious verse. 
Rutebceuf is among the earliest French writers who tell us their 
personal history and make oecvmal vpojetV*. 'rtaxVttaR&x**. 
confine himseU lo Omss*. rU oi«cos**i>taYfcftAT<s *\\ae>>&sM* 



nb 



FRENCH LITERATURE [satiric and jmmcxk 



Upbraids the nobles for their desertion of the Latin empire of 
Constantinople, considers the expediency of crusading, inveighs 
against the religious orders, and takes part in the disputes 
between the pope and the king. lie composes pious poetry too, 
and in at least one poem takes care to distinguish between the 
church which he venerates and the corrupt churchmen whom 
he lampoons. Besides Rutcboeuf the most characteristic figure 
of his class and time (about the middle of the 13th century) is 
Adam de la Halle, commonly called the Hunchback 
2»Hm£ °* Arras. The earlier poems of Adam are of a senti- 
mental character, the later ones satirical and somewhat 
ill-tempered. Such, for instance, is his invective against his 
native city. But his chief importance consists in his jeux, the 
Jen de iafeuillie, the Jeu de Robin et Marion, dramatic composi- 
tions which led the way to the regular dramatic form. Indeed 
the general tendency of the 13th century is to satire, fable and 
farce, even more than to serious or sentimental poetry. We 
fjfc _ should perhaps except the his, the chief of which 

are known under the name of Marie de France. These 
lays arc exclusively Breton in origin, though not in application, 
and the term seems originally to have had reference rather to 
the music to which they were sung than to the manner or matter 
of the pieces. Some resemblance to these lays may perhaps be 
traced in the genuine Breton songs published by M. Luzel. The 
subjects of the lais are indifferently taken from the Arthurian 
cycle, from ancient story, and from popular tradition, and, at 
any rate in Marie's hands, they give occasion for some passionate, 
and in the modern sense really romantic, poetry. The most 
famous of all is the Lay of the Honeysuckle, traditionally assigned 
to Sir Tristram. 

Satiric and Didactic Works. — Among the direct satirists of 
the middle ages, one of the earliest and foremost is Guyot de 
Provins, a monk of Clairvaux and Cluny, whose Bible, as he calls 
it, contains an elaborate satire on the time (the beginning of the 
13th century), and who was imitated by others, especially 
Huguesde Br6gy. The same spirit soon betrayed itself in curious 
travesties of the romances of chivalry, and sometimes invades 
the later specimens of these romances themselves. One of the 
earliest examples of this travesty is the remarkable composition 
entitled A udigier. This poem, half fabliau and half romance, is 
not so much an instance of the heroi-coraic poems which after- 
wards found so much favour in Italy and elsewhere, as a direct 
and ferocious parody of the Carlovingian epic. The hero Audigier 
is a model of cowardice and disloyalty, his father and mother, 
Turgibus and Rainberge, are deformed and repulsive. The 
exploits of the hero himself are coarse and hideous failures, and 
the whole poem can only be taken as a counterblast to the spirit 
of chivalry. Elsewhere a trouverc, prophetic of Rabelais, 
describes a vast battle between all the nations of the world, 
the quarrel being suddenly atoned by the arrival of a holy man 
Rearing a huge flagon of wine. Again, we have the history of a 
solemn crusade undertaken by the citizens of a country town 
against the neighbouring castle. As erudition and the fancy for 
allegory gained ground, satire naturally availed itself of the 
opportunity thus afforded it; the disputes of Philippe le Bel 
with the pope and the Templars had an immense literary 
influence, partly in the concluding portions of the Renart, partly 
in the Roman de la rose, still to be mentioned, and partly in other 
satiric allegories of which the chief is the romance of Fauvcl, 
attributed to Francois de Rues. The hero of this is an allegorical 
personage, half man and half horse, signifying the union of bestial 
degradation with human ingenuity and cunning. Fauvel (the 
name, it may be worth while to recall, occurs in Langland) is 
a divinity in his way. All the personages of state, from kings and 
popes to mendicant friars, pay their court to him. 

But this serious and discontented spirit betrays itself also 
in compositions which are not parodies or travesties in form. 
One of the latest, if not absolutely the latest (for 
Cuvelier's still later Chroniquc de DuGuesdini$on\ya. 
most interesting imitation of the chanson form adapted 
to recent events), of the chansons de geste is Baudonin 
deS&mrt, one of the- members of the great romance or cyck ol 



romances dealing with the crusades, end entitled Le Chevalier as 
Cygne. Baudouin de Stbourc dates from the early years of the 
14th century. It is strictly a chanson de geste in form, and ako 
in the general run of its incidents. The hero is dispossesses of 
his inheritance by the agency of traitors, fights his battle with 
the world and its injustice, and at last prevails over his enemy 
Gaufrois, who has succeeded in obtaining the kingdom of Fries* 
land and almost that of France. Gaufrois has as bis assisUnu 
two personages who were very popular in the poetry of the 
time, — via^ the Devil, and Money, These two sinister figures 
pervade the fabliaux, tales and fantastic literature generally 
of the time. M. Lenient, the historian of French satire, has weO 
remarked that a romance as long as the Renort might be soon out 
of the separate short poems of this period which have the Devil 
for hero, and many of which form a very interesting transition 
between the fabliau and the mystery. But the Devil is in one 
respect a far inferior hero to Renart. He has an adversary in the 
Virgin, who constantly upsets his best-laid schemes, and who 
docs not always treat him quite fairly. The abuse of usury at 
the time, and the exactions of the Jews and Lombards, were 
severely felt, and Money itself, as personified, figures largely is 
the popular literature of the time. 

Roman de ia Rose. — A work of very different importance from 
all of these, though with seeming touches of the same spirit, 
a work which deserves to take rank among the most 
important of the middle ages, is the Roman de la rose, 
— one of the few really remarkable books which is 
the work of two authors, and that not in collaboration but in 
continuation one of the other. The author of the earlier part was 
Guillaume de Lorris,who lived in the first half of the 13th century; 
the author of the later part was Jean de Meung, who was bora 
about the middle of that century, and whose part in the Roman 
dates at least from its extreme end. This great poem exhibit* ia 
its two parts very different characteristics, which yet go to make 
up a not inharmonious whole. It is a love poem, and yet it is 
satire. But both gallantry and raillery are treated in an entirely 
allegorical spirit; and this allegory, while it makes the poem 
tedious to hasty appetites of to-day, was exactly what gave it 
its charm in the eyes of the middle ages. It might be described 
as an Ars amoris crossed with a Quodlibeta. This mixture 
exactly hit the taste of the time, and continued to hit it for two 
centuries and a half. When its obvious and gallant meaning was 
attacked by moralists and theologians, it was easy to quote the 
example of the Canticles, and to furnish esoteric explanations of 
the allegory. The writers of the x6th century were never tired 
of quoting and explaining it. Antoine de Baif , indeed, gave the 
simple and obvious meaning, and declared that " La rose e'est 
d'amours le guerdon gracieux "; but Marot, on the other hand, 
gives us the choice of four mystical interpretations, — the rose 
being either the state of wisdom, the state of grace, the state of 
eternal happiness or the Virgin herself. We cannot here analyse 
this celebrated poem. It is sufficient to say that the lover meets 
all sorts of obstacles in his pursuit of the rose* thongh he has for 
a guide the metaphorical personage Bel-AccueiL The early part, 
which belongs to William of Lorris, is remarkable for its gracious 
and fanciful descriptions. Forty years after Lorris 's 
death, Jean de Meung completed it in an entirely 
different spirit. He keeps the allegorical form, and 
indeed introduces two new personages of importance, Nature and 
Faux-semblant. In the mouths of these personages and of 
another, Raison, he puts the most extraordinary mixture of 
erudition and satire. At one time we have the history of classical 
heroes, at another theories against the hoarding of money, about 
astronomy, about the duty of mankind to increase and multiply. 
Accounts of the origin of loyalty, which would have cost the poet 
his head at some periods of history, and even communistic ideas, 
arc also to be found here. In Faux-semblant we have a real 
creation of the theatrical hypocrite. All this miscellaneous 
and apparently incongruous material in fact explains the success 
of the poem. It has the one characteristic which has at all times 
secured the popularity of great works of literature. It holds 
ibemu^otupnimiyasidluu^rUjiuage. As we find in Rabelais 



UtLY DRAMA] 



FRENCH LITERATURE 



"7 



ie characteristic* of' the Renaissance, in Montaigne those of 
e sceptical reaction from Renaissance and reform alike, in 
[aliere those of the society of France after Richelieu had tamed 
id levelled it, in Voltaire and Rousseau respectively the two 
pects of the great revolt,— so there are to be found in the Roman 

latest the characteristics of the later middle age, its gallantry, 
i mysticism, its economical and social troubles and problems, 
i scholastic methods of thought, its naive acceptance as science 

everything that is written, and at the same time its shrewd 
id indisc rimin a t e criticism of much that the age of criticism 
is accepted without doubt or question. The Roman de la rose, 

• might be supposed, set the example of an immense literature of 
legorical poetry, which flourished more and more until the 
mama nee. Some of these poems we have already mentioned,- 
one will have to be considered under the head of the 15th 
stturv. But, as usually happens in such cases and was certain 

1 happen in this case, the allegory which has seemed tedious to 
any, even in the original, became almost intolerable in the 
ajority of the imitations. 

We have observed that, at least in the later section of the 
idela rose, there is observable a tendency to import into 
the poem indiscriminate erudition. This tendency is 
now remote from our poetical habits; but in its own 
day it was only the natural result of the use of poetry 
for all literary purposes. It was many centuries 
sfore prose became recognised as the proper vehicle for instroc- 
on, and at a very early date verse was used as well for educa- 
ooal and moral as for recreative and artistic purposes. French 
as* was the first born of all literary mediums in modern Euro- 
•an speech, and the resources of ancient learning were certainly 

* less accessible in France than in any other country. Dante, 
1 his De ndgari cloquio, acknowledges the excellence of the 
idactic writers of the Langue d'OiL We have already alluded 
> the Bestiary of Philippe de Thaun, a Norman trouvdre who 
ved and wrote in England during the reign of Henry Bcaudcrc. 
esides the Bestiary, which from its dedication to Queen Adela 
ss been conjectured to belong to the third decade of the 12th 
»tury, Philippe wrote also in French a Liber de creaturis, both 
erks being translated from the Latin. These works of mystical 
nd apocryphal physics and zoology became extremely popular 
1 the succeeding centuries, and were frequently imitated. 
i moralizing turn was also given to them, which was much 
dped by the importation of several miscellanies of Oriental 
riajn, partly tales, partly didactic in character, the most celc- 
rated of which is the Roman des sept sages, which, under that 
itle and the variant of Dolopalhos, received repeated treatment 
com. French writers both in prose and verse. The odd notion 
{ an Ovide moralist used to be ascribed to Philippe de Vitry, 
tshop of Meaux (1 291 ^1391?), a person complimented by 
etrarch, but is now assigned to a certain Chretien Legonais. 
ut, too, soon demanded exposition in verse, as well as science, 
lie favourite pastime of the chase was repeatedly dealt with, 
otably in the Rot Modus (1325), mixed prose and verse; the 
Teiuits de la chasse (1387), of Gaston dc Foix, prose; and the 
Preset de Venerie of Hardouin (1304), verse. Very soon didactic 
trse extended itself to all the arts and sciences. Vegetius and 
is military precepts had found a home in French octosyllables 
s early as the 12th century; the end of the same age saw the 
ercmonies of knighthood solemnly versified, and napes (maps) 
!» mande also soon appeared. At last, in 1 245, Gautier of Metz 
ranslated from various Latin works into French verse a sort 
if encyclopaedia, while another, incongruous but known as 
VI magi du monde, exists from the same century. Profane 
taowledge was not the only subject which exercised didactic 
nets at this time. Religious handbooks and commentaries on 
he scriptures were common in the 13th and following centuries, 
ud, under the title of Casloiements, Enseignements and Doetri- 
\omx, moral treatises became common. The most famous of 
hese, the Castoiement d y un pcre a sonJUs, falls under the class, 
dready mentioned, of works due to oriental influence, being 
terived from the Indian Panchaiairtra. In the 14th century the 
auuence of the Roman de la rose helped to render moral verse 



frequent and popular. The same century, moreover, which 
witnessed these developments of well-intentioned if not always 
judicious erudition witnessed alsoaconsiderable change 
in lyrical poetry. Hitherto such poetry had chiefly ijfl? ^ 
been composed in (he melodious but unconstrained ytrJL 
forms of the romance and the pastourelle. In the 
14th century the writers of northern France subjected themselves 
to severer rules. In this age arose the forms which for so long 
a time were to occupy French singers,— the ballade, the rondeau, 
the rondel, the triolet, the chant royal and others. These 
received considerable alterations as time went on. We possess 
not a few Artes poUicae, such as that of Eustache Deschamps 
at the end of the 14th century, -that formerly ascribed to Henri 
de Croy and now to Molinet at the end of the 15th, and that 
of Thomas Sibilet in the 16th, giving particulars of them, and 
these particulars show considerable changes. Thus the term 
rondeau, which since Villon has been chiefly limited to a poem of 
IS lines, where the oth and x 5th repeat the first words of the first, 
was originally applied both to the rondel, a poem of 13 or 14 
lines, where the first two are twice repeated integrally, and to the 
triolet, one of 8 only, where the first line occurs three times 
and the second twice. The last is an especially popular metre, 
and is found where we should least expect it, in the dialogue 
of the early farces, the speakers making up triolets between them. 
As these three forms are closely connected, so are the ballade 
and the chant royal, the latter being an extended and more 
stately and difficult version of the former, and the characteristic 
of both being the identity of rhyme and refrain in the several 
stanzas. It is quite uncertain at what time these fashions were 
first cultivated, but the earliest poets who appear to have prac- 
tised them extensively were born at the close of the 13th and the 
beginning of the 14th centuries. Of these Guillaume de Machault 
(c. 1300-1380) is the oldest. He has left us 80,000 verses, 
never yet completely printed. Eustache Deschamps (c. 1340- 
c. 14x0) was nearly as prolific, but more fortunate as more 
meritorious, the Societedes anciens Textes having at last provided 
a complete edition of him. Froissart the historian (1333-14x0) 
was also an. agreeable and prolific poet. Deschamps, the most 
famous as a poet of the three, has left us nearly 1200 ballades 
and nearly 900 rondeaux, besides much other verse all manifest- 
ing very considerable poetical powers. Less known but not less 
noteworthy, and perhaps the earliest of all, is Jehannot de Lescure), 
whose personality is obscure, and most of whose works are lost, 
but whose remains are full of grace. Froissart appears to have 
had many countrymen in Hainault and Brabant who devoted 
themselves to the art of versification; and the Liwre des cent 
ballades of the Marshal Boucicauk (1366-142 1) and his friends — 
c. 1300— shows that the French gentleman of the 14th century 
was as apt at the ballade as his Elizabethan peer in England 
was at the sonnet. 

Early Drama. — Before passing to the prose writers of the 
middle ages, we have to take some notice of the dramatic 
productions of those times— productions of an ex- 
tremely interesting character, but, like the immense 4f«*vstt 
majority of medieval literature, poetic in form. The tntac**. 
origin or the revival of dramatic composition in France 
has been hotly debated, and it has been sometimes contended 
that the tradition of Latin comedy was never entirely lost, but 
was handed on chiefly in the convents by adaptations of the 
Terentian plays, such as those of the nun Hroswitha. There 
is no doubt that the mysteries (subjects taken from the sacred 
writings) and miracle plays (subjects taken from the legends of 
the saints and the Virgin) are of very early date. The mystery 
of the Foolish Virgins (partly French, partly Latin), that of 
Adam and perhaps that of Daniel, are of the 12th century, 
though due to unknown authors. Jean Bodcl and Ruteboeuf, 
already mentioned, gave, the- one that of Saint Nicolas at the 
confines of the 12th and 13th, the other that of Tktopkile later 
in the 13th itself. But the later moralities, soties, and farces 
•seem to be also in part a very probable development of the 
simpler and earlier forms of the fabliau and of the tenson or leu- 
parti, a poem in simple, aiifofpit iiro&'nsie&Y^Xtf^xxw^^aiaxfc 



n8 



FRENCH LITERATURE 



Ifsoss momr 



and trouveres. The fabliau has been sufficiently dealt with 
already. It chiefly supplied the subject; and some miracle- 
plays and farces are little more than fabliaux thrown into 
dialogue. Of the jeux-partis there are many examples, varying 
from very simple questions and answers to something like regular 
dramatic dialogue; even short romances, such as Aucassin el 
NicoUlte, were easily susceptible of dramatization. But the 
Jeu delafeuiUie (& JemilUe) of Adam de la Halle seems to be 
the earliest piece, profane in subject, containing something more 
than mere dialogue. The poet has not indeed gone far for his 
subject, for he brings in his own wife, father and friends, the 
interest being complicated by the introduction of stock characters 
(the doctor, the monk, the fool), and of certainfairies— personages 
already popular from the later romances of chivalry. Another 
piece of Adam's, Le Jeu de Robin et Marten, also already alluded 
to, is little more than a simple throwing into action of an ordinary 
pastoureUe with a considerable number of songs to music Never- 
theless later criticism has seen, and not unreasonably, in these 
two pieces the origin in the one case of farce, and thus indirectly 
of comedy proper, in the other of comic opera. 

For a long time, however, the mystery and miracle-plays 
remained the staple of theatrical performance, and until the 
13th century actors as well as performers were more or less taken 
from the clergy. It has, indeed, been well pointed out that the 
offices of the church were themselves dramatic performances, 
and required little more than development at the hands of the 
mystery writers. The occasional festive outbursts, such as the 
Feast of Fools, that of the Boy Bishop and the rest, helped on 
the development. The variety of mysteries and miracles was 
very great. A single manuscript contains forty miracles of the 
Virgin, averaging from 1200 to 1500 lines each, written in octo- 
syllabic couplets, and at least as old as the 14th century, most 
of them perhaps much earlier. The mysteries proper, or plays 
uken from the scriptures, are older stilt Many of these are 
exceedingly long. There is a Mystere de VAncien Testament, 
which extends to many volumes, and must have taken weeks 
to act in its entirety. The Mystere de la Passion, though not 
quite so long, took several days, and recounts the whole history 
of the gospels. The best apparently of the authors of these 
pieces, which are mostly anonymous, were two brothers, Arnoul 
and Simon Grehan (authors of the Actes des ap&tres, and in the 
first case of the Passion), c. 1450, while a certain Jean Michel 
(d. 1493) is credited with having continued the Passion from 
30,000 lines to 50,000. But these performances, though they 
held their ground until the middle of the 16th century and 
extended their range of subject from sacred to profane history — 
legendary as in the Destruction de Troie, contemporary as in the 
p^^^ Siege d'OrUans—mxt soon rivalled by the more profane 
c rmmSm performances of the moralities, the farces and the 
soties. The palmy time of all these three kinds is 
the 15th century, while the Confrerie de la Passion itself, the 
special performers of the sacred drama, only obtained the licence 
constituting it by an ordinance of Charles VI. in 1402. In order, 
however, to take in the whole of the medieval theatre at a glance, 
we may anticipate a little. The Confraternity was not itself 
the author or performer of the prof aner kind of dramatic perform- 
ance. This latter was due to two other bodies, the clerks of the 
Bazoche and the Enfans sans Soud. As the Confraternity was 
chiefly composed of tradesmen and persons very similar to Peter 
Quince and his associates, so the clerks of the Bazoche were 
members of the legal profession of Paris, and the Enfans sans 
Soud were mostly young men of family. The morality was the 
special property of the first, the sotie of the second. But as the 
moralities were sometimes decidedly tedious plays, though by 
no means brief, they were varied by the introduction of farces, 
of which the jeux already mentioned were the early germ, and of 
which L'Avocat PatoUn, dated by some about 1465 and certainly 
about aoo years subsequent to Adam de la Halle, is the most 
famous example. 

The morality was the natural result on the stage of the immense 
literary popularity of allegory in the Roman de la rose and its 
imitsuaoa. There is hardly an abstraction, a virtue, a vice, a 



disease, or anything else of the kind, which does not figure ia 
these compositions. There is Bien Advise and Mai Advise, the 
good boy and the bad boy of nursery stories, who fall jMig— ^^ 
in respectively with Faith, Reason and Humility, and 
with Rashness, Luxury and Folly. There is the hero Mange- 
Tout, who is invited to dinner by Banquet, and meets ana 
dinner very unpleasant company in Colique, Goutte and Hydre- 
pisie. Hbnte-de-dire-ses-Peches might seem an anti ci pa t ion of 
Puritan nomenclature to an English reader who did not re- 
member the contemporary or even earlier personae of Langhnd'a 
poem. Some of these moralities possess distinct dramatic merit; 
among these is mentioned Its Blospkimateurs, an early and re* 
markable presentation of the Don Juan story. But their general 
character appears to be gravity, not to say dullness. The Enfant 
sans Souci, on the other hand, were definitely aafiriral, and 
nothing if not amusing. The chief of the society was entitled 
Prince des Sots, and his crown was a hood decorated „ a 
-with asses' ears. The sotie was directly satirical, and 
only assumed the guise of folly as a stalking-borse for shooting 
wit. It was more Aristophanic than any other modem form of 
comedy, and like its predecessor, it perished as a result of us 
political application. Encouraged for a moment as a political 
engine at the beginning of the 16th century, it was soon absolutely 
forbidden and put down, and had to give place in one direction 
to the lampoon and the prose pamphlet, in another to forms of 
comic satire more general and vague in their scope. The farce, 
on the other hand, having neither moral purpose nor political 
intention, was a purer work of art, enjoyed a wider range of sub- 
ject, and was in no danger of any permanent extinction. Farcical 
interludes were interpolated in the mysteries themselves; short 
farces introduced and rendered palatable the moralities, while 
the sotie was itself but a variety of farce, and all the kinds were 
sometimes combined in a sort of tetralogy. It was a short 
composition, 500 verses being considered sufficient, while the 
morality might run to at least xooo verses, the miracle-play to 
nearly double that number, and the mystery to some 40*000 or 
50,000, or indeed to any length that the author could find ia Us 
heart to bestow upon the audience, or the audience In their 
patience to suffer from the author. The number of persons and 
societies who acted these performances grew to be very large, 
being estimated at more than 5000 towards the end of the 15th 
century. Many f a nt ast i c personages came to join the Prince da 
Sots, such as the Empereur de Galilee, the Princes de r&zffle, 
and des Nouveaux Maries, the Roi de ffipinette, the Recteur 
des Fous. Of the pieces which these societies represented one 
only, that of Mattre Patdin, is now much known; but 1 
are almost equally amusing. Patdin itself has an 
number of versions and editions. Other farces are too 1 
to attempt to classify; they bear, however, in their subjects, 
as in their manner, a remarkable resemblance to the fabhau, 
their source. Conjugal disagreements, the unpleasantness of 
mothers-in-law, the shifty or, in the earlier stages, clumsy valet 
and chambermaid, the mishaps of too loosely given ecclesiastics, 
the abuses of relics and pardons, the extortion, violence, and 
sometimes cowardice of the seigneur and the soldiery, the cor- 
ruption of justice, its delays and its pompous apparatus, supply 
the subjects. The treatment is rather narrative than dramatic 
in most cases, as might be expected, but makes up by the liveli- 
ness of the dialogue for the deficiency of elaborately planned 
action and interest. All these forms, it will be observed, are 
directly or indirectly comic. Tragedy in the middle ages is 
represented only by the religious drama, except for a brief period 
towards the decline of that form, when the " profane " mysteries 
referred to above came to be represented. These were, however, 
rather "histories," in the Elizabethan sense, than tragedies 
proper. 

Prose History.— In France, as- In all other countries of whose 
literary developments we have any record, literature in prose 
is considerably later than literature in verse. We have 
certain glosses or vocabularies possibly dating as far cSnmtkt. 
back as the 8th or even the 7th century; we have the 
Stsassburg oaths, akeedy described, of the oth.and.a commentary 



tJTft CENTURY] 



FRENCH LITERATURE 



"9 



on the prophet Jonas which fa probably as early. In the xoth 
century there are some charters and muniments In the verna- 
cular; of the nth the laws of William the Conqueror are the 
most important document; while the Assises de Jerusalem of 
Godfrey of Bouillon date, though not in the form in which we now 
possess them, from the same age. The 12th century gives us 
certain translations of the Scriptures, and the remarkable 
Arthurian romances already alluded to; and thenceforward 
French prose, though long less favoured than verse, begins to 
grow in importance. History, as is natural, was the first subject 
which gave it a really satisfactory opportunity of developing its 
powers. For a time the French chroniclers contented themselves 
with Latin prose or with French verse, after the fashion of Wace 
and the Belgian, Philippe Mouskes ( 1 3 r 5-1 283). These, after a 
fashion universal in medieval times, began from fabulous or 
merely literary origins, and just as Wyntoun later carries back 
the history of Scotland to the terrestrial paradise, so does 
Mouskes start that of France from the rape of Helen. But soon 
prose chronicles, first translated, then original, became common; 
the earliest of all is said to have been that of the pseudo-Turpin, 
which thus recovered in prose the language which had originally 
clothed it in verse, and which, to gain a false appearance of 
authenticity, it had exchanged still earlier for Latin. Then came 
French selections and versions from the great series of historical 
compositions undertaken by the monks of St Denys, the so-called 
Grandes Chroniques de France from the date of 1274, when they 
first took form in the hands of a monk styled Primat, to the reign 
of Charles V., when they assumed the title just given. But the 
first really remarkable author who used French prose as a vehicle 
of historical expression is Geoffroi de Villehardouin, marshal of 
Champagne, who was born rather after the middle of the 12th 
century, and died in Greece in 1 21 2. Under the title of ConquHe 

de ConstantinoUe Villehardouin has left us a history 
l^,^ of the fourth crusade, which has been accepted by all 

competent judges as the best picture extant of feudal 
chivalry in its prime. The ConquHe de Constantinople has been 
well called a chanson de geste in prose, and indeed in the sur- 
prising nature of the feats it celebrates, in the abundance of detail, 
and in the vivid and picturesque poetry of the narration, it 
equals the very best of- the chansons. Even the repetition of 
the same phrases which is characteristic of epic poetry repeats 
hself in this epic prose; and as in the chansons so in Villehardouin, 
few motives appear but religious fervour and the love of fighting, 
though neither of these excludes a lively appetite for booty and 
a constant tendency to disunion and disorder. Villehardouin 
was continued by Henri de Valenciennes, whose work is less 
remarkable, and has more the appearance of a rhymed chronicle 
thrown into prose, a process which is known to have been 
actually applied in some cases. Nor Is the transition from 
Villehardouin to Jean de Joinville (considerable in point of time, 
for Joinville was not born till ten years after Yillehardouin's 
death) in point of literary history immediate. The rhymed 
chronicles of Philippe Mouskes and Guillaume Guiart belong to 
this interval; and in prose the most remarkable works are the 
Ckronique de Reims, a well-written history, having the interesting 
characteristics of taking the lay and popular side, and the great 
compilation edited (in the modern sense) by Baudouin d'Avesnes 
^^^■^ (12x3-1289). Joinville (? 1 224-13x7), whose special 
*"••* subject is the Life of St Louis, is far more modern than 
even the half-century which separates him from Villehardouin 
would lead us to suppose, liicre is nothing of the knight- 
errant about him personally, notwithstanding his devotion to his 
hero. Our Lady of the Broken Lances is far from being his 
favourite saint. He is an admirable writer, but far less simple 
than Villehardouin; the good King Louis tries in vain to make 
him share his own rather high-flown devotion. Joinville is shrewd, 
practical, there is even a touch of the Voltaircan about him; 
but he, unlike his predecessor, has political ideas and antiquarian 
curiosity, and his descriptions are often very creditable pieces of 
deliberate literature. 

It is very remarkable that each of the three last centuries 
o) feudalism should have had one specially and extraordinarily 



gifted chronicler to describe it. What Villehardouin is to the 
1 2th and Joinville to the 13th century, that Jean Froissart 
0337-Uio) » to the 14th. His picture is the most - 
famous as it fa the most varied of the three, but it has "•"■■* 
special drawbacks as well as special merits. French critics have 
indeed been scarcely fair to Froissart, because of his early 
partiality to our own nation in the great quarrel of the time, 
forgetting that there was really no reason why he as a Hainaulter 
should take the French side. But there fa no doubt that if the 
duty of an historian fa to take in all the political problems of 
his time, Froissart certainly comes short of it. Although the 
feudal state in which knights and churchmen were alone of 
estimation was at the point of death, and though new orders of 
society were becoming important, though the distress and 
confusion of a transition state were evident to all, Froissart 
takes no notice of them. Society is still to him all knights and 
ladies, tournaments, skirmishes and feasts. He depicts these, 
not like Joinville, still less like Villehardouin, as a sharer in them, 
but with the facile and picturesque pen of a sympathizing literary 
onlooker. As the comparison of the ConquHe de Constantinople 
with a chanson de geste fa inevitable, so fa that of Frofasartt 
Chronique with a roman d'aventures. 

For Provencal Literature see the separate article under that 
beading. 

zpk Century.— The 15th century holds a peculiar and some- 
what disputed position in the history of French literature, as, 
indeed, it does in the history of the literature of all Europe, 
except Italy. It has sometimes been regarded as the final stage 
of the medieval period, sometimes as the earliest of the modern, 
the influence of the Renaissance in Italy already filtering through. 
Others again have taken the easy step of marking it as an age 
of transition. There is as usual truth in all these views. 
Feudality died with Froissart and Eustache Dcschamps. The 
modern spirit can hardly be said to arise before Rabelais and 
Ronsard. Yet the 15th century, from the point of view of 
French literature, fa much more .remarkable than its historians 
have been wont to confess. It has not the strongly marked and 
compact originality of some periods, and it furnishes only one 
name of the highest order of literary interest; but it abounds 
in names of the second rank, and the very difference which 
exists between their styles and characters testifies to the existence 
of a large number of separate forces working in their different 
manners on different persons. Its theatre we have already 
treated by anticipation, and to it we shall afterwards recur. It 
was the palmy time of the early French stage, and all the dramatic 
styles which we have enumerated then came to perfection. Of 
no other kind ot literature can the same be said. The century 
which witnessed the invention of printing naturally devoted 
itself at first more to the spreading of old literature than to the 
production of new. Yet as it perfected the early drama, so it 
produced the prose tale. Nor, as regards individual and single 
names, can the century of Charles d'Orlcans, of Alain Chartier, of 
Christine de Pisan, of Coquillart, of Cornines, and, above all, of 
Villon, be said to lack illustrations. 

First among the poets of the period falls to be mentioned the 
shadowy personality of Olivier Bassclin. Modern criticism 
has attacked the identity of the jovial miller, who 
was once supposed to have written and perhaps JJJ 
invented the songs called vaux de vire, and to have 
also carried on a patriotic warfare against the English. But 
though Jean le rToux may have written the poems published 
under Basselin's name two centuries later, it is taken as certain 
that an actual Olivier wrote actual vaux de vire at the beginning 
of the i$th century. About Christine de Pisan (1363-1430) and 
Alain Chartier (J392-C. 1430) there is no such doubt. Christine 
was the daughter of an Italian astrologer who was patronized by 
Charles V. She was born in Italy but brought up in France, and 
she enriched the literature of her adopted country __ 
with much learning, good sense and patriotism. She 
wrote history, devotional works and poetry; and 
though her literary merit is not of the highest, it fa vtrj fatfaRb. 
despicable. Alain Ctaxtoi » VsX Yaawu \& rotax*. ra&axsArt 



120 

the story of Margaret of Scotland's Kiss, was a writer of a some- 
what similar character. In both Christine and Chartier there is 
a great deal of rather heavy moralizing, and a great deal of rather 
pedantic erudition. But it is only fair to remember that the 
intolerable political and social evils of the day called for -a good 
deal of moralizing, and that it was the function of the writers 
of this time to fill up as well as they could the scantily filled 
vessels of medieval science and learning. A very different 
^ person is Charles d'Orlcans (1301-1465), one of the 

Jjjj&ia. greatest of grands seigneurs, for he was the father 

of a king of France, and heir to the duchies o£ Orleans 
and Milan. Charles, indeed, if not a Roland or a Bayard, was an 
admirable poet. He is the best-known and perhaps the best 
writer of the graceful poems in which an artificial versification 
is strictly observed, and helps by its recurrent lines and modulated 
rhymes to give to poetry something of a musical accompaniment 
even without the addition of music properly so called. His ballades 
are certainly inferior to those of Villon, but his rondels are un- 
equalled. For fully a century and a half these forms engrossed 
the attention of French lyrical poets. Exercises in them were 
produced in enormous numbers, and of an excellence which has 
only recently obtained full recognition even in France. Charles 
d'Orleans is himself sufficient proof of what can be done in them 
in the way of elegance, sweetness, and grace which some have 
unjustly called effeminacy. But that this effeminacy was no 
natural or inevitable fault of the ballades and the rondeaux 
was fully proved by the most remarkable literary figure of the 
15th century in France. To Francois Villon (1431-1463 ?), 
vaoMm as to other great single writers, no attempt can be 

made to do justice in this place. His remarkable 
life and character especially lie outside our subject. But he is 
universally .recognized as the most important single figure of 
French literature before the Renaissance. His work is very 
strange in form, the undoubtedly genuine part of it consisting 
merely of two compositions, known as the great and little 
Testament, written in stanzas of eight lines of eight syllables 
each, with lyrical compositions in ballade and rondeau form 
interspersed. Nothing in old French literature can compare 
with the best of these, such as the "Ballade des dames du 
temps jadis," the " Ballade pour sa mire," " La Grosse Margot," 
" Les Regrets de la belle Heaulmiere," and others; while the 
whole composition is full of poetical traits of the most extra- 
ordinary vigour, picturesqueness and pathos. Towards the end 
of the century the poetical production of the time became very 
large. The artificial measures already alluded to, and others 
far more artificial and infinitely less beautiful, were largely 
practised. The typical poet of the end of the 15th century is 
Guillaume Cr&in (d. 1525), who distinguished himself by writing 
verses with punning rhymes, verses ending with double or treble 
repetitionsof thesame sound, and many other tasteless absurdities, 
in which, as Pasquier remarks, " il perdit toutc la grace et la 
CriUUt liberte* de la composition." The other favourite 

direction of the poetry of the time was a vein of 
allegorical moralizing drawn from the Raman de la rose through 
the medium of Chartier and Christine, which produced " Castles 
of Love," " Temples of Honour,"and such like. The combination 
of these drifts in verse-writing produced a school known in 
literary history, from a happy phrase of the satirist Coquillart 
(v.t w/.}, as the " GrandsRhe'toriqueurs." Thechief of these besides 
Crltin were Jean Molinet (d. 1507); Jean Meschinot (c. 1420- 
1491), author of the Lunettes des princes', Florimond Robertet 
(d. 1522); Georges Chastcllain (1404-1475)1 to be mentioned 
again; and Octavien de Saint-Gelais (1466-1502), father of a 
better poet than himself. Yet some of the minor poets of the 
time arc not to be despised. Such are Henri Baude ( 1430-1490) , a . 
less pedantic writer than most, Martial d'Auvergne (1440-1508), 
whose principal work is VAmant rendu cordelier au service de 
Vamour, and others, many of whom formed part of the poetical 
court which Charles d'Orleans kept up at Blois after his release. 
While the serious poetry of the age took this turn, there was 
no lack of lighter and satirical verse. Villon, indeed, were it 
not Jar the depth and pathos of his poetical sentiment, might 



FRENCH LITERATURE 



(ignrCENTURY 



be claimed as a poet of the lighter order, and the patriotic 
diatribes against the English to which we have alluded easily 
passed into satire. The political quarrels of the latter part of 
the century also provoked much satirical composition. The 
disputes of the Bien Public and those between Louis XL and 
Charles of Burgundy employed many pens. The most remark- 
able piece of the light literature of the first is " Les Anes Volants," 
a ballad on some of the early favourites of Louis. The battles 
of France and Burgundy were waged on paper between Gilts 
des Ormes and the above-named Georges Chattels in, typical 
representatives of the two styles of 15th-century poetry already 
alluded to— Des Ormes being the lighter and more graceful 
writer, Chastelain a pompous and learned aUegorist, The most 
remarkable representative of purely light poetry outside the 
theatre is Guillaume Coquillart (1421-1510), a lawyer ca^ 
of Champagne, who resided for the greater part of his 2* 
life in Reims. This city, like others, suffered from the 
pitiless tyranny of Louis XI. The beginnings of the standing 
army which Charles VII. had started were extremely unpopular, 
and the use to which his son put them by no means removed 
this unpopularity. Coquillart described the military man of the 
period in his Monologue du gendarme cassS. Again, when the 
king entertained the idea of unifying the taxes and laws of the 
different provinces, Coquillart, who was named commissioner for 
this purpose, wrote on the occasion a satire called La Droits 
nouvcaux. A certain kind of satire, much less good-tempered 
than the earlier forms, became indeed common at this epoch. 
M. Lenient has well pointed out that a new satirical personifica- 
tion dominates this literature. It is no longer Renart with ha 
cynical gaiety, or the curiously travestied and almost amiable 
Devil of the Middle Ages. Now it is Death as an incident ever 
present to the imagination, celebrated in the thousand repetitions 
of the Danse Macabre, sculptured all over the buildings of the 
time, even frequently performed on holidays and in public With 
the usual tendency to follow pattern, the idea of the " dance ■ 
seems to have been extended, and we have a Dansi amx aweugla 
(1464) from Pierre Michaut, where the teachers are fortune, 
love and death, all blind. All through the century, too, anony- 
mous verse of the lighter kind was written, some of it of great 
merit.. The folk-songs already alluded to, published by Gaston 
Paris, show one side of this composition, and many of the pieces 
contained In M. de Montaiglon's extensive Recucil des anciennes 
poisies JranQaises exhibit others. 

The 1 5th century was perhaps more remarkable for its achieve- 
ments in prose than in poetry. It produced, indeed, no prose 
writer of great distinction, except Comines; but it witnessed 
serious, if not extremely successful, efforts at prose composition. 
The invention of printing finally substituted the reader for the 
listener, and when this substitution has been effected, the main 
inducement to treat unsuitable subjects in verse is gone. The 
study of the classics at first hand contributed to the same end. 
As early as 1458 the university of Paris had a Greek professor. 
But long before this time translations in prose had been made. 
Pierre Bercheure (Bersuire) (1290-1352) had already translated 
Livy. Nicholas Oresme (c. 1334-138 2), the tutor of Charles V., 
gave a version of certain Aristotel