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Full text of "Encyclopaedia Britannica Dict.A.S.L.G.I.11thEd.Chisholm.1910-1911-1922.33vols."

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THE 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA 



ELEVENTH EDITION 



FIRST edit 


ion, published in three volumes, 1768 — 1771. 


SECOND , 


, ,, ten , 


1777— 1784. 


THIRD , 


, „ eighteen , 


1788— 1797, 


FOURTH , 


, „ twenty , 


, 1801 — 1810. 


FIFTH 


, „ twenty , 


, 1815— 1817. 


SIXTH 


, „ twenty , 


, 1823— 1824. 


SEVENTH , 


, „ twenty-one , 


, 1830— 1842. 


EIGHTH , 


, ., twenty-two , 


1853—1860. 


NINTH , 


, „ twenty-five , 


1875— 1889. 


TENTH , 


, ninth edition and eleven 






supplementary volumes. 


1902— 1003. 


ELEVENTH 


, published in twenty-nine volume 


js, 1910 — 1911. 



COPYRIGHT 

in all countries subscribing to the 

Bern Convention 

by 

THE CHANCELLOR, MASTERS AND SCHOLARS 

of the 
UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE 



All rights reserved 



THE 



ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA 



A 



DICTIONARY 



OF 



ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL 

INFORMATION 



ELEVENTH EDITION 



VOLUME XII 

GICHTEL to HARMONIUM 





Cambridge, England: 

at the University Press 

New York, 35 West 32nd Street 
1910 



AE 

5 
£36 

G99902 

v.t2 

Copy 2 



Copyright, in the United States of America, 1910, 

by 

The Encyclopaedia Britannica Company 



INITIALS USED IN VOLUME XII. TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL 

CONTRIBUTORS, 1 WITH THE HEADINGS OF THE 

ARTICLES IN THE VOLUME SO SIGNED. 



A. A. R.* 


A. C. Se. 


A. F. P. 


A. Go.* 


A. G. B.* 


A. H.-S. 


A. He. 


A. H. S. 


A. J. G. 



■{' 



Arthur Alcock Rambaut, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 

Radcliffe Observer, Oxford. Professoi of 'Astronomy in the University of Dublin -\ Grant, Robert. 
and Royal Astronomer of Ireland, 1 892-1 897. 

Albert Charles Seward, M.A., F.R.S. [ 

Professor of Botany in the University of Cambridge. Hon. Fellow of Emmanuel 1 Gynuiosperms. 
College, Cambridge. President of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, 19 10. I 

Albert Frederick Pollard, M.A., F.R.Hist.S. f 

Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford. Professor of English History in the University J ft-fnj-i 
of London. Assistant Editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, 1 803-1 901. ] urmaw - 
Author of England under the Protector Somerset; Life of Thomas Cranmer; «c. . I 

Rev. Alexander Gordon, M.A. fGrynaous, Simon; 

Lecturer on Church History in the University of Manchester. I Haetzer. 

Hon. Archibald Graeme Bell, M.Inst.CE. f 

Director of Public Works and Inspector of Mines, Trinidad. Member of Executive i Guiana. 
and Legislative Councils, Inst.C.E. I 

Sir A. Houtum-Schindler, CLE. / Gflan; w^m^ttii, 

General in the Persian Army. Author of Eastern Persian Irak, I 

Arthur Hervey. f 

Formerly Musical Critic to Morning Post and Vanity Fair. Author of Masters 1 Gounod. 
of French Music; French Music in the XIX. Century. [ 

Rev. A. H. Sayce, D.D. / Grammar; Gyges. 

See the biographical article, Sayce, A. H. \ w »" uu * r > «/*<»• 

Rev. Alexander James Grieve, M.A., B.D. f 

Professor of New Testament and Church History at the United Independent College, J Waggai | / . A flr /\ 
Bradford. Sometime Registrar of Madras University and Member of Mysore! n **»* 1 ^ n r a )• 
Educational Service. I 



Harmonium {in part). 



A. J. H. Alfred James Hepkins. 

Formerly Member of Council and Hon. Curator of Royal College of Music. Member 
of Committee of the Inventions and Music Exhibition, 1885; of the Vienna 
Exhibition, 1892 ; and of the Paris Exhibition, 1900. Author of Musical Instruments ; 
A Description and History of the Pianoforte; 8cc. 

A.L. Andrew Lang. JGurney, Edmund. 

See the biographical article, Lang, Andrew. L .' 

A.M.C. Agnes Mary Clerke. -[Halley Hansen. 

See the biographical article, Clerke, A. M. I 

Goatsucker; Godwit; 
Golden-eye; 
Goldfinch; Goose; 
Gos-Hawk; Graokle; 
Grebe; Greenfinch; 
Greenshank; Grosbeak; 
Grouse; Guacharo; Guan; 
Guillemot; Guinea-Fowl; 
Gull; Hammer-Kop. 

A. Me. Alexander Nesbitt, F.S.A. f rlM _. «■ . " „ f 

Author of the Introduction to A Descriptive Catalogue of the Glass Vessels in South J UJ T7 # Mt$tar y °J 
Kensington Museum. [ Manufacture (m part). 

A. S. C. Alan Summerly Cole, C.B. r 

Assistant Secretary for Art, Board of Education, 1900-1908. Author of Ancient < Gold and Silver Thread. 
Needle Point and Pillow Lace ; Embroidery and Lace ; Ornament in European Silks ; &c. [ 

A.Sy. Arthur Symons. pGoncourt, De; 

See the biographical article, Symons, A. \ Hardy, Thomas. 

1 A complete list, snowing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume. 



A. H. Alfred Newton, F.R.S. • 

See the biographical article, Newton, Alfred. 



VI 




A.W. 


H.* 


A.W. 


R. 


A.W. 


W. 


C.F. i 


\. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



CGr. 

C.H.* 
C. H. G. 
C. H. Ha. 

C.J.L. 
C. L.* 

C. La K. 

C. M. 

cm. 
c. m. w. 

C.Pf. 
C. R. B. 

C. We. 
G. W. E. 

D. C. To. 
D. F. *. 

D. G. H. 
D.H. 



Arthur William Holland. 

Formerly Scholar of St John's College, Oxford. 



Bacon Scholar of Gray's Inn, 1900. 
Editor of Encyclopaedia of the 



Alexander Wood Renton, M.A., LL.B. 

Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court of Ceylon, 
Laws of England. 

Adolphus William Ward, LL.D., Litt.D. 
See the biographical article, Ward. A. W. 

Charles Francis Atkinson. 

Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Captain, 1st City of London (Royal 
Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cpfy Harbour. . r 

Charles Gross, A.M., Ph.D., LL.D. (1857-1909). 

Professor of History at Harvard University, 1 888-1909. 
Merchant; Sources and Literature of English History] &c. 

Sir C. Holroyd. * '.♦..■• ' • 

See the biographical article, Holroyd, Sir C. 

Charles H. Coote. 

Formerly of Map Department, British Museum. 

Carlton Huntley Hayes, A.M., Ph.D. 

- Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City, 
of the American Historical Association. 



/Godfrey of Viterbo; 
1 Golden Bull; Habsburg. 

f Ground Rent; 
\ Handwriting. 



\ Greene, Robert. 

[Grand Alliance, War of the; 
Grant, Ulysses 5. (in part); 
Grcbt BflfWPfta. 



Author of The GOdl Gfldft. 



Member 



Sir Charles James Lyall, K.C.S.I., C.I.E., LL.D (Edin.) 

Secretary, Judicial and Public Department, India Office. Fellow of King's Collegie, 
London. Secretary to Government of India in Home Department, 1889-1894. * 
Chief Commissioner, Central Provinces, India, 1895-1898. Author of Translations 
of Ancient Arabic Poetry; &c. 

Charles Lapworth, M.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Professor of Geology and Physiography in the University of Birmingham. Editor - 
of Monograph on British Graptolites, Palaeontographical Society, 1900-1908. 

Charles Lethbridge Kingsford, M.A., F.R.Hist.S., F.S.A. 

Assistant Secretary to the Board of Education. Author of Life of Henry V. . 
Editor of Chronicles of London, and Stow's Survey of London. ' 

Carl Theodor Mirbt, D.Th. 

Professor of Church History in the University of Marburg. Author of Publitistik - 
itn Zeitalter Gregor VII.; Quellen zur Geschichte des Pdpstthums; &c. 

Chedomille Mijatovich. 

Senator of the Kingdom of Servia. Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleni- 
potentiary of the King of Servia to the Court of St James', 1.895-1900 and 1902- 
1903. 

Sir Charles Moore Watson, K.C.M.G., C.B. 

Colonel, Royal Engineers. Deputy- Inspector-General of Fortifications, 1896*1902. 
Served under General Gordon in the Soudan, 1874-1875. 



Haden, Sir F. G. 

Hakluyt (in part). 

Gregory! Popes, VIII. to 
XII.; Guibert. 

Hamba. 



Graptolites. 

Gtendower, Owen; 
Gloucester, Humphrey, 

Duke of; 
Hallam, Bishop; 
Hardyng, John. 

Gregory VII. 



Barrister-at-Law. 



Christian Pfister, D.-es-L. 

Professor at the Sor bonne, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author 
of Etudes sur le regne de Robert le Pieux. 

Charles Raymond Beazley, M.A., D.Litt., F.R.G.S., F.R.Hist.S. 

Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow 
of Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography. 
Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1889. Lowell Lecturer, Boston,- 1908. Author of 
Henry the Navigator; The Dawn of Modern Geography; &c. 

Cecil Weatherly. 

Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. 

Charles William Eliot. 

See the biographical article, Eliot, C. W. 

4 
Rev. Duncan Crookes Tovey, M.A. 

Editor of The Letters of Thomas Gray; &c. 

Donald Francis Tovey. 

Author of Essays in Musical Analysis: comprising The Classical Concerto, The 
Goldberg Variations, and analysis of many other classical works. 

David George Hogarth, M.A. 

Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. 
Fellow of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naucratis, 1899 and 
1903; Ephesus, 1904-1905; Assiut, 1906-1907; Director, British School at Athens, 
1 897-1 900; Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899. 



J Gundulioh. 

-j Gordon, General 

f Gregory, St, of Tours; 
1 Gunther of Schwarzburg. 



Gomez; Hakluyt 

(in part). 



I Graffito. 
j Gray, Asa. 
j Gray, Thomas. 



Gluck; Handel. 



HaUcarnassus. 



David Hannay. 

Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. 
1 217-1688; Life of Emilio Castelar; &c. 



Author of Short History of Royal Navy^ 



Gondomar, Count; 
Grand Alliance, War of 

th8: Naval Operations: 
Guichen; Hamilton, Emma. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



Yll 



D. LLT. 
D.Hiu 

D. M. W. 

E.A.F. 

E. A. J. 

E. B.* 
E.Br. 

E. C. B. 



E. C. Sp. 


E. F. G. 


E. F. S. D, 


E.6. 


E. H. P. 


E. J. P. 



Ed. M. 

E. M. W« 
E.O.* 

B.Pr. 

E.R. 
E. S. 6* 
F« C. G* 

F» G. M. B. 



Daniel Lletjfer Thomas. 

Barrister-at-Law, Lincoln's Inn. 
Rhondda. 



Stipendiary Magistrate at Pontypridd andi Glamorganshire; Gower, 



{• 



{ 



Glas, John; 
Glasites. 



Giers; Gorehakov. 



J Goths (in part). 



Rev. Dugald Macpadyen, M.A. 

Minister of South Grove Congregational Church, Highgate. Author of Constructive 
Congregational Ideals; &c. 

Six Donald Mackenzie Wallace, K.C.I.E., K.C.V.O. 

Extra Groom-in- Waiting to H.M. King George V. Director of the Foreign Depart' 
ment of The Times, 1 891-1899. Member of Institut de Droit International and * 
Officier de 1' Instruction Pubfique of France. Joint-editor of new volumes (10th 
edition) of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Author of Russia; Egypt and the Egyptian 
Question; The Web of Empire; &c. 

Edward Augustus Freeman, LL.D. 

See the biographical article, Freeman, E. A. 

E. Alfred Jones. 

Author of Old English Gold Plate; Old Church Plate of the Isle of Man; Old Silver 

Sacramental Vessels of Foreign Protestant Churches in England; Illustrated Catalogue i Golden Rose (in pari). 

of Leopold de Rothschild's Collection of Old Plate; A Private Catalogue of The Royal 

Plate at Windsor Castle; &c. 

Ernest Charles Francois Babelon. 

Professor at the College de France. Keeper of the department of Medals and 

Antiquities at the Bibliotheque Nationale. Member of the Acad6mie des Inscrip- J Hadrumetum 

tions et Belles Lettres, Pans. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of^ ^^* 

Descriptions historiques des monnaies de la rSpublique romaine; Traitis des monnaies 

grecques et romaines; Catalogue des camUs de la bibliotheque nationale, 

Ernest Barker, M.A. < f 

Fellow and Lecturer in Modern History at St John's College, Oxford. Formerly 4 Godfrey of Bouillon. 
Fellow and Tutor of Merton College. Craven Scholar, 1 895. [ 



M.A., D.Litt. (Dublin). 

1 The Lausaic History of Palladius " 



Gilbert of Sempringham, 

St; 
. Grandmontines; Groot 



Grey, 2nd Earl 



Gotarzes. 



Rt. Rev. Edward Cuthbert Butler, O.S.B., 
Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath. Author of 
in Cambridge Texts and Studies, vol. vi. 

Rev. Edward Clarke Spicer, M.A. 

New College, Oxford. Geographical Scholar, 1900. 

Edwin Francis Gay, Ph.D. 

Professor of Economics and Dean of the Graduate School of Business Administration, 
Harvard University. 

Lady Dilke. 

See the biographical article, Dilkb, Sir C. W., Bart. 

Edmund Gosse, LL.D. 

See the biographical article, Gosse, E. 

Edward Henry Palmer, M.A. 

See the biographical article, Palmer, E. H. 

Edward John Payne, M.A. (1844-1904). 

Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. Editor of the Select Works of 
Burke. Author of History of European Colonies; History of the New World called " 
America; The Colonies, in the " British Citizen " Series; &c. 

Eduard Meyer, Ph.D., D.Litt. (Oxon). LL.D. (Chicago). 

Professor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. Author of Geschichte 
des Alterthums ; Geschichte des alien Aegyptens ; Die Israeliten und ihre Nachbarstamme. 

Rev. Edward Mewburn Walker, M.A. 

Fellow, Senior Tutor and Librarian of Queen's College, Oxford. 

Edmund Owen, M.B., F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.Sc. 

Consulting Surgeon to St Mary's Hospital, London, and to the Children's Hospital, 
Great Ormond Street, London. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Late 
Examiner in Surgery at the Universities of Cambridge, London and Durham. Author 
of A Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students. 

Edgar Prestage. 

Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature in the University of Manchester. 
Examiner in Portuguese in the Universities of London, Manchester, &c. Commen- , 
dador, Portuguese Order of S. Thiago. Corresponding Member of Lisbon Royal "* 
' Academy of Sciences, Lisbon Geographical Society, &c. Editor of Letters of a 
Portuguese Nun; Azurara's Chronicle of Guinea; &c. 

Lord Lochee of Gowrie (Edmund Robertson), P.C., LL.D., K.C. f 

Civil Lord of the Admiralty, 1892-1895. Secretary to the Admiralty, 1905-1908. < Hallam, Henry. 
M.P. for Dundee, 1885-1908. Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. I 

Edwin Stephen Goodrich, M.A., F.R.S. f 

Fellow and Librarian of Merton College, Oxford. Aldrichian Demonstrator of-< Haplodrili. 
Comparative Anatomy, University Museum, Oxford. [ 

Frederick Cornwallis Conybeare, M.A., D.Th. (Giessen). r 

Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. J Gregory the Illuminator. 




f Greece: History , Ancient, 
\ to 146 B.C. 



146 
Goitre; Haemorrhoids. 



Goes, DamlSo De; 
Gonzaga. 



Author of The Ancient Armenian Texts of Aristotle; Myth, Magic and Morals; &c. 

Frederick George Meeson Beck, M.A. 

Fellow and Lecturer in Classics, Clare College, Cambridge. 



/Goths (in part). 



viii INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 

F. 6. S. F. G. Stephens. f 

Formerly Art Critic of the Athenaeum. Author of Artists at Home; George Cruik- J /mik««* «*. t^Iim 
shank; Memorials of W. Mulrcady; French and Flemish Pictures; Sir E. Landseer; | UUTOr H sur * olu *- 
T. C.Hook f RA.;&c. I 

F. H. D, Rev. Frederick Homes Dudden, D.D. f 

Fellow, Tutor and Lecturer in Theology, Lincoln College, Oxford. Author of "j Gregory L 
Gregory the Great, his Place in History ana Thought; Sec. I 

Franklin Henry Hooper. / wmuuu* wi«h*m c^** 

Assistant Editor of the Century Dictionary. \ Hancock, WInfleld Scott 

Francis Tohn Haverfield, M.A., LL.D., F.S.A. 

Camden Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford. Fellow of J Graham's Dyke* 
Brasenose College. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of Monographs on ' 
Roman History, especially Roman Britain; &c. 

Fridtjof Nansen. 

See the biographical article, Nansen, Fridtjof. 

Frank R. Cana. 

Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union. 

Francis Samuel Philbrick, A.M., Ph.D. 

Formerly Scholar and Resident Fellow of Harvard University. Member of -{ Hamilton. AlAratiftar 
American Historical Association. ' n * ulll * uu » ™ uuuw * 

Frederick William Rudler, I.S.O., F.G.S. 

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1879-1902. -\ Gypsum; Haematite. 
President of the Geologists' Association, 1887-1889. 



F* H» xk» 


F. J. H. 


P.M. 


F. R.C. 


F.8.P. 


F. W. R.* 


G. A. Or. 




George Abraham Grierson, C.I.E., Ph.D., D.Litt. (Dublin). 

Member of the Indian Civil Service, 1873-1903. In charge of Linguistic Survey of 
India, 1898-1902. Gold Medallist, Royal Asiatic Society, 1909. Vice-President 
of the Royal Asiatic Society. Formerly Fellow of Calcutta University. Author 
of The Languages of India; &c. 



Gujaratf and Rajasthani. 



Gyroscope and Gyrostat. 



G.C.HL George Campbell Macatjlay, M.A. f 

Lecturer in English in the University of Cambridge. Formerly Professor of English J Gower John. 
Language and Literature in the University of Wales. Editor of the Works of John ] ' 

Gower; &c. I. 

G. C. W. George Charles Williamson, Litt.D. f 

Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Portrait Miniatures; Life of Richard J Greeo, EL 
Cosway, R.A.; George Entfeheart; Portrait Drawings; &c. Editor of new edition of ] 
Bryan's Dictionary of Painters and Engravers. v- 

G. F. Z. George Frederick Zimmer, A.M.Inst.C.E. f 0-^*-^. 

Author of Mechanical Handling of Material. \ u ™ 1 *™*' 

G. G. Sir Alfred George Greenhill, M.A., F.R.S. 

Formerly Professor of Mathematics in the Ordnance College, Woolwich. Examiner 
in the University of Wales. Member of the Aeronautical Committee. Author 
of Notes on Dynamics; Hydrostatics; Differential and Integral Calculus, with Applica- 
tions; &c. 

G. SiL Grant Showerman, A.M., Ph.D. r 

Professor of Latin in the University of Wisconsin. Member of the Archaeological I Great Mother of the Gods. 

Institute of America. Member of American Philological Association. Author of ] 
With the Professor ; The Great Mother of the Gods ; 8cc. I 

G, S. C. Sir George Sydenham Clarke, G.C.M.G., G.C.I.E., F.R.S. ( 

Governor of Bombay. Author of Imperial Defence; Russia 1 s Great Sea Power ;\ Greco-Turkish War, 1897. 
The Last Great Naval War; &c. I 

G. W. E. It Rt. Hon. George William Erskine Russell, P.C., M.A., LL.D. f 

Under-Secretary of State for the Home Department, 1894- 1895; for India, 1892- J Gladstone. W. E. 
1894. M.P. for Aylesbury, 1 880-1885; for North Beds., 1892-1895. Author of 
Life of W. E. Gladstone; Collections ana Recollections; &c. I 

G. W. T. Rev. Griffiths Wheeler Thatcher, M.A., B.D. \ J?**? 1 ? 5 Km" * **" 1 ? 

Warden of Camden College, Sydney, N.S.W. Formerly Tutor in Hebrew and Old 1 Handani; Hammad 
Testament History at Mansfield College, Oxford. [ ar-R&Wiya; Hariri. 

H. A. de C. Henry Anselm de Colyar, K.C. f n„.r»ntA« 

Author of The Law of Guarantees and of Principal and Surety; &c. \ l*"*™" 00 - 

H. B. Wo. Horace Boungbroke Woodward, F.R.S., F.G.S. f 

Formerly Assistant Director of the Geological Survey of England and Wales. Presi- -J Halalnger, W. K. 
dent, Geologists' Association, 1893-1894. Wollaston Medallist, 1908. t 

f Goschen, 1st Viscount; 

H. CIl Hugh Chisholm, MA. Granville, 2nd Earl; 

Formerly Scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Editor of the nth edition of J Hamilton, Alexander 
the Encyclopaedia Britannica; co-editor of the *oth edition. (^ n A^rf); 

Hareourt, Sir William. 

H. De. Hippolyte Delehaye, S. J. f 

Assistant in the compilation of the Bollandist publications: Analecta Bollandiana 1 QUes, St; Hagiology. 
and Acta sanctorum. [ 

H. G. H. Horatio Gordon Hutchinson. [ 

Amateur Golf Champion, 1886-1887. Author of Hints on Golf; Golf (Badminton * Golf. 
Library) ; Book of Golf and Golfers ; &c I 



H.L.H. 


II* M. C* 


H.M. Wo. 


H.B. 


H. Sw. 


H. S.-K. 


H. W. C. D. 



Harmonic Analysis. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES ix 

H. J, P. Harry James Powell, F.C.S. 

Of Messrs James Powell & Sons, Whitefriars Glass Works, London. Member of 
Committee of six appointed by Board of Education to prepare the scheme for the re- i Glass. 
arrangement of the Art Collection of the Victoria and Albert Museum. Author 
of Glass Making ; &c. 

H. Lb. Horace Lamb, M.A., LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Professor of Mathematics, University of Manchester. Formerly Fellow and 
Assistant Tutor of Trinity College, Cambridge. Member of Council of Royal 4 
Society, 1 894-1 896. Royal Medallist, 1902. President oi London Mathematical 
Society, 1 902-1904. Author of Hydrodynamics; &c. 

Harriet L. Hennessy, L.R.C.S.I., L.R.C.P.I., M.D. (Brux.) Gynaecology. 

Hector Munro Chadwicx, M.A. J/wu.. n ,i.- r 

Librarian and Fellow of Clare College, Cambridge. Author of Studies on Anglo- 1 GoUls * UotHlc ^nguage. 
Saxon Institutions. *■ 

Harold Mellor Woodcock, D.Sc. f 

Assistant to the Professor of Proto-Zoology, London University. Fellow of J nromrinac* Haam/keiuwidia 
University College, London Author of Haemoflagellates in Sir E. Ray Lankes- ] ^^P 1 ™ 88 ' naemosponoia. 
ter's Treatise of Zoology t and of various scientific papers. I 

Henry Reeve, D.C.L. f Gnl - ot ( in ^ r/ x 

See the biographical article, Reeve, Henry. \ GWXo; Ktn *° r ^ 

Henry Sweet, M.A., Ph.D., LL.D. f 

University Reader in Phonetics, Oxford. Member of the Academies of Munich, I Grimm, J. L. C; 
Berlin, Copenhagen and Helsingifors. Author of A History of English Sounds since 1 Grimm, Wilhelm Carl. 
the Earliest Period ; A Handbook of Phonetics ; &c. I 

Sir Henry Seton-Karr, C.M.G., M.A. /Gun 

M.P. for St. Helen's, 1885-1906. Author of My Sporting Holidays; &c. \ 

Henry William Carless Davis, M.A. f Gilbert, Pollot; 

Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford, -J Gloucester, Robert, Earl of; 
1 895-1 902. Author of England under the Normans and Angevins; Charlemagne. [ Grosseteste. 

H. W. R.* Rev. Henry Wheeler Robinson, M.A. f 



Professor of Church History in Rawdon College, Leeds. Senior Kennicott Scholar, J rj-u-viniV 
Oxford University, 1901. Author of Hebrew Psychology in Relation to Pauline | t *» D * KKUK « 
Anthropology (in Mansfield College Essays); &c. I 

L A. Israel Abrahams, M.A. f Graetz; Habdala; 

Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature, University of Cambridge. President, J Halakha* Halevi* 
Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A Short History of Jewish Litera- \ u mwt A m ' ty a .i.i * 
ture; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages. I Haptara, HarlzL 

J. A. P. M. John Alexander Fuller Maitland, M.A., F.S.A. f 

Musical Critic of The Times. Author of Life of Schumann; The Musician's Pilgrim- j t % WM ^ ca _ «- .-^ 
age; Masters of German Music; English Mustc in the Nineteenth Century; The Age ( urove » sir wOrge. 
of Bach and Handel. Editor of new edition of Grove's Dictionary of Music; &c. I 

J. A. H. John Allen Howe, B.Sc. f (y^ioi period* 

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London. Author <** < • 



-{: 



The Geology of Building Stones. ' [ Greensand. 

J. A. S. John Addington Symonds, LL.D. J 

See the biographical article, Symonds, J. A. \ Guarilll. 

J. BL James Blyth, M.A., LL.D. f 

Formerly Professor of Natural Philosophy, Glasgow and West of Scotland Technical 1 Graduation. 
College. Editor of Ferguson's Electricity. I 

J. Bt James Bartlett. f 

Lecturer on Construction, Architecture, Sanitation, Quantities, &c, King's College, J Glazing. 
London. Member of Society of Architects, Institute of Junior Engineers, Quantity | 
Surveyors' Association. Author of Quantities. I 

J. D. B. James David Bourchier, M.A., F.R.G.S. f Greece: Geography and 

King's College, Cambridge. Correspondent of The Times in South-Eastern Europe. J History: Modern; 
Commander of the Orders of Prince Danilo of Montenegro and of the Saviour of 1 Greek literature: III. 
Greece, and Officer of the Order of St Alexander of Bulgaria. t Modern. 

J. E. S.* John Edwin Sandys, M.A., Litt.D., LL.D. f 

Public Orator in the University of Cambridge. Fellow of St John's College, Cam- J Greek Law. 
bridge. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of History of Classical Scholar- 1 
ship; &c. I 

See the biographical article, Fiske, J. I ijwes 

J. G. C. A. John George Clark Anderson, M.A. f 

Censor and Tutor of Christ Church, Oxford. Formerly Fellow of Lincoln College, i Gordium. 
Craven Fellow (Oxford), 1896. Conington Prizeman, 1893. I 

J. G. R. John George Robertson, M.A., Ph.D. r 

Professor of German Language and Literature, University of London. Author of J r A a«i%a> rriiinoiMrAi* 
History of German Literature; Schiller after a Century; &c. Editor of the Modern 1 uoeine > ^nnparaer. 
Language Journal. I 

J. H. P. John Henry Freese. M. A. f Gracchus; Gratian; 

Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge. \ Hadrian (in part). 



x INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF< ARTICLES 

J. H. H. John Henry Hessels, M.A. f fl . , «w«ii*«r 

Author of Gutenberg: an Historical Investigation. \ OW8S » GUtenDerg. 

J. H. P. John Henry Poynting, D.Sc, F.R.S. f 

Professor of Physics and Dean of the Faculty of Science in the University of Bir- J Gravitation (in part). 
mingham. Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Joint-author of Text- | r 

Book of Physics. L 

J. HI. R. John Holland Rose, M~A., LitxD. f . 

Lecturer on Modern History to the Cambridge University Local Lectures Syndicate. J fs^m—and Karon 
Author of Life of Napoleon I. ; Napoleonic Studies ; The Development of the European ] WU1 6» WU > «"««• 
Nations ; The Life of Pitt ; &c. L 

J. L. W. Miss Jessie Laidlay Weston. S Grail, The Holy; 

Author of Arthurian Romances unrepresented in Malory. \ Guenevere. 

J. M. M. John Malcolm Mitchell. f Grote; 

Sometime Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Lecturer in Classics, East London < Hamilton, Sir William, 
College (University of London). Joint-editor of Grate's History of Greece. I Bart, (in part); Harem. 

J. S.F. John Smith Flett, D.Sc., F.G.S. f Glauconite; Gneiss; 

Petrographer to the Geological Survey. Formerly Lecturer on Petrology in Edin- J rr*n\i*' rramilita* 

burgh University. Neill Medallist of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Bigsby ] Jj ra ,' U , ^.* _^w 

Medallist of the Geological Society of London. I Gravel; Greisen; Grey waefce. 

J. T. Be. John T. Bealby. f 

Joint author of Stanford's Europe. Formerly Editor of the Scottish Geographical 1 Gobi. 
Magazine. Translator of Sven Hedin's Through Asia, Central Asia and Tibet; &c. I 

(Golden Rose (in p&rl); 
Goliad; 
Guizot' (in tart) 

K. G. J. Kingsley Garland Jayne. \ 

Sometime Scholar of Wadham College, Oxford. Matthew Arnold Prizeman, 1903. "j Goa. 
Author of Vasco da Gama and his Successors. I 

K. Kp. Karl Krumbacher. J Greek Literature: 

See the biographical article, Krumbacher, Carl. \ U. Byzantine. 



K. S. Miss Kathleen Schlesinger. 

Editor of the Portfolio of Musical Archaeology. Author of The Instruments of the 
Orchestra; &c. 



Goniometer; Gdthite; 
Graphite (in part); 
Greenock! te. 



Glockenspiel; Gong; 
Guitar; Guitar Fiddle; 
Gusia; Harmonica; 
Harmonichord; 
.Harmonium (in part). 

L. D.* Louis Duchesne. r ¥ _ 

See the biographical article, Duchesne, L. M. O. | Gregory: Popes, IIwVI. 

L. F. D. , Lewis Foreman Day, F.S.A. (1845-1909). f 

Formerly Vice-President of the Society of Arts* Past Master qf the Art Workers' ^ Glass, Stained. 
Gild. Author of Windows, a book about Stained Glass; &c. [ 

L. F. V.-IL Leveson Francis Vernon-Harcourt, M.A., M.Inst.C.E. (1830-1907). f 

Formerly Professor of Civil Engineering at University College, London. Author J Harbour. 
of Rivers and Canals ; Harbours and Docks ; Civil Engineering as applied in Con- 1 
struction; &c. I 

L. J. S. Leonard James Spencer, M.A. 

Assistant in the Department of Mineralogy, British Museum. Formerly Scholar „ 
of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. Editor of the 

Mineralogical Magazine. 

L. R. F. Lewis Richard Farnell, M.A., Litt.D. f 

Fellow and Senior Tutor of Exeter College, Oxford ; University Lecturer in Classical J Greek Religion. 
Archaeology; Wilde Lecturer in Comparative Religion. Author of Cults of the\ 
Greek States ; Evolution of Religion. I 

M. . Lord Macaulay. roAMcmith. oiimr 

See the biographical article, Macaulay, T. B. M., Baron. \ uoiusnuic, uiiyw, 

ML G. Moses Gaster, Ph.D. 

Chief Rabbi of the Sephardic Communities of England. Vice-President, Zionist 
Congress, 1898, 1899, 1900. Ilchester Lecturer at Oxford on Slavonic and Byzantine - 
Literature, 1 886 and 1 89 1. President, Folk-lore Society of England. Vice-President, 
Anglo- Jewish Association. Author of History of Rumanian Popular Literature; &c. 

M. H. S. Marion H. Spielmann, F.S.A. 

Formerly Editor of the Magazine of Art. Member of Fine Art Committee of Inter- 
< national Exhibitions of Brussels, Paris, Buenos Aires, Rome and the Franco- 

British Exhibition, London. Author of History of "Punch"; British Portrait' 
Painting to the opening of the Nineteenth Century; Works of G. F. Watts, R.A. 
British Sculpture and Sculptors of To-day; Henriette Ronner; &c. 

M. Ja. Morris Jastrow, Jun., Ph.D. f Gn« ameS K ed!c f . 

Professor of Semitic Languages, University of Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Author of i ""Bames"* F v > 
Religion of the Babylonians and Assyrians; &c [ Gula. 

M. M. Max Arthur Macaulltfe. r 

Formerly Divisional Judge in the Punjab. Author of The Sikh Religion, its Gurus, J Q ra nft| # 
Sacred Writings and Authors; &c. Editor of Life of Guru Nanak, in the Punjabi j 
language. I 



Gipsies. 



Gilbert, Alfred; 
Greenaway, Kate 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES xi 



H* 0* B. C* 


M.P. 


M.P.* 


O.Ba. 


P. A. 


P. A. A. 



P. G. T. 


P. La. 


P.MeC. 


&. A. Wa 


R. A* S* H« 


R. C.J. 



•{• 



vald Barron, F.S.A. f 

Editor of The Ancestor, 1902-1905. Hon. Genealogist to Standing Council of the i Girdle. 
Honourable Society of the Baronetage. I 



M. M. T. Marcus Niebuhr Tod, M.A. 

Fellow and Tutor of Oriel College, Oxford. University Lecturer in Epigraphy, "j GytMum. 
Joint-author of Catalogue of the Sparta Museum. 

(Greece: History: 
146 B.C. 1800 AM.; 
Hamiloar Barca* 
Hannibal. ' 

Mark Pattison. Jftrotiiis 

See the biographical article, Pattison, Mark. \ «*««•». 

Leon Jacques Maxime Prinet. f 

Formerly Archivist to the French National Archives. Auxiliary of the Institute i wOUffler; Harcourt. 
of France (Academy of Moral and Political Sciences). I 

Oswald Barron, F.S.A. 

Editor of The Ancesto\ . , 
Honourable Society of the Baronetage. 

Paul Daniel Alphand£ry. f 

Professor of the History of Dogma, ficole Pratique des Hautes fitudes, Sorbonne, -j GonzalO de Bereeo. 
Paris. Author of Les lakes morales chez les hStSrodoxeslatinesaudibutduXIIIesikcle. I 

Philip A. Ashworth, M.A., Doc. Juris. f 

New College, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. Translator of H. R. von Gneist's History i Gnelst. 
of the English Constitution. I 

P. C. Y. Philip Chesney Yorke, M.A. J £™P° wd ? r 4 P i° t; 

Magdalen College, Oxford. 1 Halifax, 1st Marquess of ; 

I Hamilton, 1st Duke of. 

P. G. Percy Gardner, M.A. f q^^ £& 

See the biographical article, Gardner, Percy. \ 

P. GL Peter Giles, M.A., LL.D., Litt.D. f 

Fellow and Classical Lecturer of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and University J Greek Language; 
Reader in Comparative Philology. Formerly Secretary of the Cambridge Philo- | H. 
logical Society. Author. of Manual of Comparative Philology. I 

P. G. K. Paul George Konody. [ 

Art Critic of the Observer and the Daily Mail. Formerly Editor of The Artist. < Hals, Frans. 
Author of The Art of Walter Crane; Velasquez, Life and Work; &c. I 

Peter Guthrie Tait, LL.D. J Hamilton, Sir William 

See the biographical article, Tait, Peter Guthrie. ^ Rowan. 

Philip Lake, M.A., F.G.S. r 

Lecturer on Physical and Regional Geography in Cambridge University. Formerly J rMMn , rw™, 
of the Geological Survey ot India. Author of Monograph of British Cambrian 1 ureeoe - irtoiogy. 
Trilobites. Translator and Editor of Kayseir's Comparative Geology. {, 

Primrose McConnell, F.G.S. f -, A n , A 

. Member of the Royal Agricultural Society. Author of Diary of a Working Farmer ; &c. j Grass * M GrMSiaM » 

Colonel Robert Alexander Wahab, C.B., C.M.G., CLE. f 

Formerly H. M. Commissioner, Aden Boundary Delimitation. Served with Tirah J uj^y-mij* 
Expeditionary Force, 1897-1898, and on the Anglo-Russian Boundary Commission, | *»**K»mui. 
Pamirs, 1895. * I 

Robert Alexander Stewart Macalister, M.A., F.S.A. f Gilead* Gilgal* 

St John's College, Cambridge. Director of Excavations for the Palestine Explora- i ^^u ' ' 

tionFund. j^ Goshen. 

Sir Richard Claverhouse Jebb, L.L.D., D.C.L. /Greek Literature: 

See the biographical article, Jebb, SirR. C. "| I Ancient 

"Gowrie, 3rd Earl of; 

Gratton, Henry; 

Green Ribbon Club; 

Gymnastics; 

Harcourt, 1st Viscount; 

Hardwicke, 1st Earl of. 

R. L.* Richard Lydekker, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S. f Giraffe* Glutton; 

Member of the Staff of the Geological Survey of India, 1874-1882. Author of J n\*m+Jirtr*- r M /. 
Catalogues of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in British Museum; The Deer of\ „***„ „' UO f ' „ 
all Lands; The Game Animals of Africa; &c. [ Gorilla; Hamster; Hare. 

Golitsuin, Boris, Dmitry, 

and Vastly; 
Golovln, Count; 
Golovkin, Count; 
Gortz, Baron von; 
Griffenfeldt, Count; 
Gustavus I., and IV. 
Gyllenstjerna; 
Hall, C. C. 



R. J. ML Ronald John McNeill, M.A. 

Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. Formerly Editor of the St James's 
Gazette, London. 



R. H. B. Robert Nisbet Bain (d. 1900). 

Assistant Librarian, British Museum, 1883-1909. Author of Scandinavia, the 
Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, if 13-1 900 ; The First Romanovs, 
1613-172$ ; Slavonic Europe, the Political History of Poland and Russia from 1469 
to 1769; &c. 



R. S. T. Ralph Stockman Tarr, 



ph Stockman Tarr. « /Grand Canyon. 

Professor of Physical Geography. Cornell University. \ 



Xll 
R. We. 

S.A.C. 



S.BL 
S. C. 
St. a 
S.N. 
T. As. 

T.A.J. 
T.Ba. 

T.E.H. 

T. P. C. 
T. H. HL* 

T.Se. 

V. H. S. 
W. A. B. C. 

W. A, P. 

W. Bo. 
W. Bu. 

w. p. a 

W. G. ML 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



Editor of The Elegies 



Richard Webster, A.M. (Princeton). 

Formerly Fellow in Classics, Princeton University. 
Maximianus ; &c. 

Stanley Arthur Cook, M.A. 

Editor for Palestine Exploration Fund. Lecturer in Hebrew and Svriac, and 
formerly Fellow, Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Examiner in Hebrew and 
Aramaic, London University, 1 904-1908. Author of Glossary of Aramaic Inscrip- 
tions; The Laws of Moses ana the Code of Hammurabi; Critical Notes on Old Testament 
History; Religion of Ancient Palestine; &c 

Sigfus Bl6ndal. 

Librarian of the University of Copenhagen. 

Sidney Colvin, LL.D. 

See the biographical article, Colvin, Sidney. 

Viscount St. Cyres. 

See the biographical article, Iddesleigh, ist Earl OF. 

Simon Newcomb, LL.D., D.Sc. 

See the biographical article, Newcomb, Simon. 

Thomas Ashby, M.A., DXitt., F.S.A. 

Director of the British School of Archaeology at Rome. Corresponding Member 
of the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Formerly Scholar of Christ 
Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow, Oxford, 1897. Author of The Classical Topo- 
graphy of the Roman Campagna ; &c. 



o/JGl 



Great Awakening- 



Gideon. 



j HaUgrimsson. 
•f Giorgione; Giotto. 



/ Guy on, 
/Gravitation (in part). 



Girgenti; Gnatfa; 
Grottaferrata; 
Grumentum; Gubbio; 
Hadrla; Halaesa. 



■{■ 



Thomas Athol Joyce, M.A. 

Assistant in Department of Ethnography, British Museum. Hon. Sec, Royal -j Hamitio Races (I.). 
Anthropological Institute. 

Sir Thomas Barclay, M.P. ( 

Member of the Institute of International Law. Member of the Supreme Council J t%nmmm j mm 
of the Conjgo Free State. Officer of the Legion of Honour. Author of Problems | l*™*™ 1 *- 
of International Practice and Diplomacy; &c. M.P. for Blackburn, 1910. I 

Thomas Erskine Holland, K.C., D.C.L., LL.D. 

Fellow of the British Academy. Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford. Professor 
of International Law in the University of Oxford, 1874-19 10. Bencher of Lincoln's „ 
Inn. Author of Studies in International Law; The Elements of Jurisprudence; 
Alberici Gentilis dejure belli ; The Laws of War on Land ; Neutral Duties in a Maritime 
War; &c. 



Hall, William E. 



{Gregory: Popes, 
XIIL— XV. 



* 



I Hadrian (in part). 



Theodore Freylinghuysen Collier, Ph.D. 

Assistant Professor of History, Williams College, Williamstown, Mass., U.S.A. 

Sir Thomas Hungerpord Holdich, K.C.M.G., K.C.I.E., D.Sc, F.R.G.S. . 

Colonel in the Roval Engineers. Superintendent Frontier Surveys, India, 1892- J Gugit; 
1898. Gold Medallist, R.G.S. (London), 1887. H.M. Commissioner for the Persa- | Hari-Rud. 
Beluch Boundary, 1896. Author of The Indian Borderland; The Gates of India; &c. 

Thomas Kirkdp, M.A., LL.D. 

Author of An Inquiry into Socialism; Primer of Socialism; &c. 

Thomas Seccombe, M.A. 

Lecturer in History, East London and Birkbeck Colleges, University of London. 
Stanhope Prizeman, Oxford, 1887. Formerly Assistant Editor of Dictionary of* 
National Biography, 1891-1901. Author of The Age of Johnson; &c. ; Joint-author 
of The Bookman History of English Literature. 

Rev. Vincent Henry Stanton, M.A., D.D 

Ely Professor of Divinity in the University of Cambridge. Canon of Ely and Fellow j gum^i 
of Trinity College, Cambridge. Author of The Gospels as Historical Documents; | WW * W1 * 
The Jewish and the Christian Messiahs; &c. L 

Rev. William Augustus Brevoort Coolidge, M.A., F.R.G.S., Ph.D. (Bern), f Glarus; Goldast Ab 

Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Professor of English History, St David's 
College, Lampeter, 1 880-1 881. Author of Guide du Haul DauphinS; The Range of 
the Tddi; Guide to Grindelwald; Guide to Switzerland; The Alps in Nature and in 
History; &c. Editor of The Alpine Journal, 1880-1889; &c. 



Gilbert, Sir W. S. 



■1, 



Halminsfeld; 
Grasse; Grenoble; 
Grindelwald; Grisona; 
Gruner, G. S.; Gruyere. 



Walter Alison Phillips, M.A. f Girondists; Goethe: 

Formerly Exhibitioner of Merton College and Senior Scholar of St John's College, < Descendants of; 
Oxford. Author of Modern Europe; &c. [ Greek Independence, War Of. 

WlLHELM BOUSSET, D.Th. 

Professor of New Testament Exegesis in the University of Gottingen. Author < 
Das Wesen der Religion; The Antichrist Legend; &c. 

William Burnside, M.A., D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Professor of Mathematics, Royal Naval College, Greenwich. Hon. Fellow 
Pembroke College, Cambridge. Author of The Theory of Groups of Finite Order* 

William Feilden Craies, M.A. r 

Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. Lecturer on Criminal Law, King's College, J Habeas Corpus; 
London. Author of Craies on Statute Law. Editor of Archbold's Criminal Pleading j Hanging. 
(23rd edition). I 

Walter George McMillan, F.C.S., M.I.M.E. (d. 1904). j y Jr—AH. (s~ j»~a 

Formerly Secretary of the Institute of Electrical Engineers and Lecturer on Metal- S urapnue Ktn pari). 
lurgy, Mason College, Birmingham. Author of A Treatise on Electro- Metallurgy. ( 



ofi 

' of{ 



Gnosticism. 



Groups, Theory of. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



xin 



W.Hu. 



W. H. Be. 


W. H. F.* 


W. J. F. 


W. McD. 


W.M.M. 


Wf • JR. MM* 


W.P.A. 



W.P.R. 

W.R. 
W.RL 

W. Rn. 
W. R. D. 

^v • ft. Eto \m» 

W. R.S. 

W. JR. 5* H. 

W. W. IL* 



Green, J. R. 



Gomer; Ham. 



Rev. William Hunt, M.A., Litt.D. f 

President of Royal Historical Society. 1 905-1 009. Author of History of English J 
Church, 597-1906; The Church of England tn the Middle Ages; Political History of] 
England 1760-1801. I 

William Henry Bennett, M.A., D.D., D.Litt. (Cantab.). f 

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis in New and Hackney Colleges, London. 
Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge. Lecturer in Hebrew at Firth 
College, Sheffield. Author of Religion of the Post-Exilic Prophets ; &c I 

William Henry Fatrbrother, M.A., ' f 

Formerly Fellow and Lecturer, Lincoln College, Oxford. Author of Philosophy] Green, Thomas HUL 
of Thomas Hill Green. I 

William Justice Ford (d. 1004). f 

Formerly Scholar of St John s College, Cambridge. Headmaster of Leamington < Grace, W. G. 
College. t 

William McDougall, M.A. f 

Reader in Mental Philosophy in the University of Oxford. Author of A Primer < Hallucination. 
of Physiological Psychology; An Introduction to Social Psychology; &c. [ 



W. Max MttLLER, Ph.D. 

Professor of Exegesis in the R.E. Seminary, Philadelphia. Author of Asien und - 
Europe nach den Aegptischen Denkm&lern ; &c. 

William Michael Rossetti. 

See the biographical article, Rossetti, Dante G. 

LlEUT.-COLONEL WlLLIAM PATRICK ANDERSON, M.InST.C.E., F.R.G.S. 

Chief Engineer, Department of Marine and Fisheries of Canada. Member of the ' 
Geographic Board of Canada. Past President of Canadian Society of Civil Engineers. 

Hon. William Pember Reeves. 

Director of London School of Economics. Agent-General and High Commissioner 
for New Zealand, 1896- 1009. Minister of Education, Labour and Justice, New ' 
Zealand, 1 891-1896. Author of The Long White Cloud: a History of New Zealand; 
&c. 

Whitelaw Reid, LL.D. 

See the biographical article, Reid, Whitblaw. 

William Ridgeway, M.A., D.Sc 

Professor of Archaeology, Cambridge University, and Brereton Reader in Classics. 
Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy. - 
President of Royal Anthropological Institute, 1908. President of Anthropological 
Section, British Association, 1908. Author of The Early Age of Greece; &c. 

W. ROSENHATN, D.Sc. 

Superintendent of the Metallurgical Department, National Physical Laboratory. 

Wyndham Rowland Dunstan, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., F.C.S. f 

Director of the Imperial Institute. President of the International Association of Tropical -( 
Agriculture. Member of the Advisory Committee for Tropical Agriculture, Colonial Office. [ 

William Richard Eaton Hodgkinson, Ph.D., F.R.S. (Edin.), F.C.S. 

Professor of Chemistry and Physics, Ordnance College, Woolwich. Formerly., 
Professor of Chemistry and Physics, R.M.A., Woolwich. Part-author of Valentin- 
Hodgkinson's Practical Chemistry; &c. 

William Robertson Smith, LL.D. 

See the biographical article, Smith, William Robertson. 

William Ralston Shedden-Ralston, M.A. 

Assistant in the Department of Printed Books, British Museum. 
Folk Tales; && 



Hamitie Races: 
II. Languages. 

Glulio Romano; Gozioli; 
Guido RenL 

Great Lakes. 



{ 



Author of Russian - 



William Walker Rockwell, D.Ph. f 

Assistant Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, New York. \ 



Grey, Sir George. 

Greeley, Horace. 

Hallstatt. 

Glass (in part). 

Gutta-percha. 

Gun Cotton; 
Gunpowder. 

Haggal (in pari). 
GogoL 
Gregory XVL 



PRINCIPAL UNSIGNED ARTICLES 



Gliding. 


Goat. 


Griqualand East and 


Gwalior. 


Ginger. 


Gold. 


West 


Haddingtonshire* 


Glronde. 


GoMbeating. 


Guanches. 


Hair. 


Gladiators. 


Gotland. 


Guards. 


Haiti. 


Glasgow. 


Gourd. 


Guatemala. 


Halo. 


Glastonbury. 


Government. 


Guelphs and GhlbeDines. 


Hamburg. 


Gloucestershire. 


Grain Trade. 


Guiacum. 


Hamlet. 


Glove. 


Granada. 


Guillotine. 


Hampshire. 


Glucose. 


Grasses. 


Guise, House of 


Hampton Roads. 


Glue. 


Great Salt Lake. 


Gum. 


Hanover. 


Glycerin. 









ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA 



ELEVENTH EDITION 



VOLUME XII 



GICHTEL, JOHANN GEORG (1638-1710), German mystic, 
was born at Regensburg, where his father was a member of 
senate, on the 14th of March 1638. Having acquired at school 
an acquaintance with Greek, Hebrew, Syriac and even Arabic, 
he proceeded to Strassburg to study theology; but finding 
the theological prelections of J. S. Schmidt and P. J. Spener 
distasteful, he entered the faculty of law. He was admitted 
an advocate, first at Spires, and then at Regensburg; but 
having become acquainted with the baron Justinianus von 
WelU (1621-1668), a Hungarian nobleman who cherished 
schemes for the reunion of Christendom and the conversion 
of the world, and having himself become acquainted with 
another world in dreams and visions, he abandoned all interest 
in his profession, and became an energetic promoter of the 
" Ckristerbatdiche Jesusgesettschaft" or Christian Edification 
Society of Jesus. The movement in its beginnings provoked at 
least no active hostility; but when Gichtel began to attack the 
teaching of the Lutheran clergy and church, especially upon the 
fundamental doctrine of justification by faith, he exposed him- 
self to a prosecution which resulted in sentence of banishment 
and confiscation (1665). After many months of wandering and 
occasionally romantic adventure, he reached Holland in January 
1667, and settled at Zwolle, where he co-operated with Friedrich 
Breckling (1629-1711), who shared his views and aspirations. 
Having become involved in the troubles of this friend, Gichtel, 
after a period of imprisonment, was banished for a term of years 
from Zwolle, but finally in 1668 found a home in Amsterdam, 
where he made the acquaintance of Antoinette Bourignon 
(1616-1680), and in a state of poverty (which, however, never 
became destitution) lived out his strange life of visions and 
day-dreams, of prophecy and prayer. He became an ardent 
disciple of Jakob Boehme, whose works he published in 1682 
(Amsterdam, 2 vols.) ; but before the time of his death, on the 
2 1st of January 17 10, he had attracted to himself a small band 
of followers known as Gichtelians or Brethren of the Angels, who 
propagated certain views at which he had arrived independently 
of Boehme. Seeking ever to hear the authoritative voice of 
God within them, and endeavouring to attain to a life altogether 
free frorn carnal desires, like that of " the angels in heaven, who 
neither marry nor are given in marriage," they claimed to 
exercise a priesthood " after the order of Melchizedek," appeasing 
the wrath of God, and ransoming the souls of the lost by sufferings 
endured vicariously after the example of Christ. While, however, 
Boehme " desired to remain a faithful son of the Church," the 



Gichtelians became Separatists (cf. J. A. Dorner, History of 
Protestant Theology, ii. p. 185). 

Gichtel's correspondence was published without his knowledge 
by Gottfried Arnold, a disciple, in 1701 (2 vols.), and again in 1708 
(3 vols.). It has been frequently reprinted under the title Theosophia 
practica. The seventh volume of the Berlin edition (1768) contains 
a notice of Gichtel's life. See also G. C. A. von Harless, Jakob 
Bohme und die Alchimisten (1870, 2nd ed. 1882); article in AIL 
gemeinc deutsche Biograpkie. 

GIDDINGS, JOSHUA REED (1795-1864), American statesman, 
prominent in the anti-slavery conflict, was born at Tioga Point, 
now Athens, Bradford county, Pennsylvania, on the 6th of 
October 1795. ? n x 8°6 bis parents removed to Ashtabula 
county, Ohio, then sparsely settled and almost a wilderness. 
The son worked on his father's farm, and, though he received 
no systematic education, devoted much time to study and 
reading. For several years after 18 14 he was a school teacher, 
but in February 182 1 he was admitted to the Ohio bar and soon 
obtained a large practice, particularly in criminal cases. From 
183 1 to 1837 he was in partnership with Benjamin F. Wade. 
He served in the lower house of the state legislature in 1826-1828, 
and from December 1838 until March 1859 was a member of 
the national House of Representatives, first as a Whig, then 
as a Free-soiler, and finally as a Republican. Recognizing that 
slavery was a state institution, with which the Federal govern- 
ment had no authority to interfere, he contended that slavery 
could only exist by a specific state enactment, that therefore 
slavery in the District of Columbia and in the Territories was un- 
lawful and should be abolished, that the coastwise slave-trade in 
vessels flying the national flag, like the international slave-trade, 
should be rigidly suppressed, and that Congress had no power to 
pass any act which in any way could be construed as a recognition 
of slavery as a national institution. His attitude in the so-called 
" Creole Case " attracted particular attention. In 1841 some 
slaves who were being carried in the brig " Creole " from 
Hampton Roads, Virginia, to New Orleans, revolted, killed the 
captain, gained possession of the vessel, and soon afterwards 
entered the British port of Nassau. Thereupon, according to 
British law, they became free. The minority who had taken an 
active part in the revolt were arrested on a charge of murder, 
and the others were liberated. Efforts were made by the United 
States government to recover the slaves, Daniel Webster, then 
secretary of state, asserting that on an American ship they were 
under the jurisdiction of the United States and that they were 
legally property. On the 21st of March 1842, before the case 

xn. 1 



GIDEON— GIERS 



was settled, Giddings introduced in the House of Representatives 
a series of resolutions, in which he asserted that " in resuming 
their natural rights of personal liberty " the slaves ' ' violated no law 
of the United States." For offering these resolutions Giddings 
was attacked with rancour, and was formally censured by the 
House. Thereupon he resigned, appealed to his constituents, 
and was immediately re-elected by a large majority. In 
1859 ne was not renominated, and retired from Congress after 
a continuous service of more than twenty years. From 1861 
until his death, at Montreal, on the 27th of May 1864, he 
was U.S. consul-general in Canada. Giddings published a series 
of political essays signed " Pacificus " (1843); Speeches in 
Congress (1853); The Exiles of Florida (1858); and a History 
of the Rebellion: Its. Authors and. Causes (1804). 

See The Life of Joshua Jt. GiddmgS; .(Chicago, 189*),. by his son-in* 
law, George Washington Julia* (1317-1399)". a Free-soil leader and a 
representative in Congress in 1849-1851,3 Republican representative 
in Congress in 1861-1871, a Liberal Republican in the campaign of 
1872, and afterwards a Democrat. 

GIDEON (in Hebrew, perhaps "hewer " or ' * waj-rio}: "), 
liberator, reformer and " judge " of Israel, wai the son of jdash, 
of the Manassite clan of Abiezer, and had his home at Ophrah 
near Shechem. His name occurs in Heb. xi. 32, in a list of those 
who became heroes by faith; but, except in Judges yi.-viii^ 
is not to be met with elsewhere in the Old Testament. He lived' 
at a time when the nomad tribes of the south and east made 
inroads upon Israel, destroying all that they could not carry 
away. Two accounts of his deeds are preserved (see Judges). 
According to one (Judges vi. 11-24) Yahweh appeared under 
the holy tree which was in the possession of Joash and summoned 
Gideon to undertake, in dependence on supernatural direction 
and help, the work of liberating his country from its long oppres- 
sion, and, in token that he accepted the mission, he erected in 
Ophrah an altar which he called u Yahweh-Shalom " (Yahweh 
is peace). According to another account (vi. 55-32) Gideon was 
a great reformer who was commanded by Yahweh to destroy 
the altar of Baal belonging to his father and the asherah or 
sacred post by its side. The townsmen discovered the sacrilege 
and demanded his death. His father, who, as guardian of the 
sacred place, was priest of Baal, enjoined the men not to take 
up Baal's quarrel, for " if Baal be a god, let him contend (rib) for 
himself." Hence Gideon received the name Jerubbaal. 1 From 
this latter name appearing regularly in the older narrative 
(cf. ix.), and from the varying usage in vi.-viii., it has been held 
that stories of two distinct heroes (Gideon and Jerubbaal) have 
been fused in the complicated account which follows. 2 

The great gathering of the Midianites and their allies on the 
north side of the plain of Jezreel; the general muster first of 
Abiezer, then of all Manasseh, and lastly of the neighbouring 
tribes of Asher, Zebulun and Naphtali; the signs by which the 
wavering faith of Gideon was steadied; the methods by which 
an unwieldy mob was reduced to a small but trusty band of 
energetic and determined men; and the stratagem by which 
the vast army of Midian was surprised and routed by the handful 
of Israelites descending from " above Endor," are indicated 
fully in the narratives, and need not be detailed here. The 
difficulties in the account of the subsequent flight of the Midian- 
ites appear to have arisen from the composite character of 
the narratives, and there are signs that in one of them Gideon 
was accompanied only by his own clansmen, (vi. 34). So, when 
the Midianites are put to flight, according to one representation, 
the Ephraimites are called out to intercept them, and the two 
chiefs, 0*eb (" raven ") and ZeSb (" wolf "), in making for the 
fords of the Jordan, are slain at " the raven's rock" and " the 
wolf's press " respectively. As the sequel of this we are told 
that the Ephraimites quarrelled with Gideon because their 
assistance had not been invoked earlier, and their anger was 

1 " Baal contends " (or Jeru-baal, " Baal founds," cf. Jeru-el), 
but artificially explained in the narrative to mean " let Baal contend 
against him, ' or " let Baal contend for himself," v. 31. In 2 Sam. 
xi. 21 he is called Jerubbesheth, iri accordance with the custom 
explained in the article Baal. 

*See, on this, Cheyne, Ency. 2ft&. col. 1719 seq.; Ed- Meyer, Die 
Israeliten, pp f 482 seq. . , 



only appeased by his tactful reply (viii. 1-3; contrast xii. 1-6). 
The other narrative speaks of the pursuit of the Midianite chiefs 
Zebah and Zalmunna 8 across the northern end of Jordan, past 
Succoth and Penuel to the unidentified place ^ar^or. Having 
taken relentless vengeance on the men of Penuel and Succoth, 
who had shown a timid neutrality when the patriotic struggle 
was at its crisis, Gideon puts the two chiefs to death to avenge 
his brothers whom they had killed at Tabor. 4 The overthrow 
of Midian (cf. Is. ix. 4, x. 26; Ps. lxxxiii. 9-12) induced " Israel" 
to offer Gideon the kingdom. It was refused — out of religious 
scruples (viii. 22 seq.; cf. 1 Sam. viii. 7, x. 19, xii. 12, 17, 19), and 
the ephod idol which he set up at Ophrah in commemoration 
of the victory was regarded by a later editor (v. 27) as a cause 
of apostasy to the people and a snare tQ pideoja and his house; 
see, however, Ephod. Gideon's achievements jfsould fiaturally 
give him a more than merely local autnority/arid after his death 
the attempt was made by one of his sons to set himself up as 
chief (see Abimelech). 

i See further Jews, section 1 ; and the literature to the book of 
Judges. (S.A.C.) 

GIEBEL, CHRISTOPH GOTTFRIED ANDREAS (1820-1881), 
German zoologist and palaeontologist, was born on the 13 th of 
September . 1820 at Quedlinburg in Saxony, and educated at 
the university of Halle, where he graduated Ph. D. in 1845. I& 
1858 he became professor of zoology and director of the museum 
in the university of Halle. He died at Halle on the 14th of 
November 1881. His chief publications were Palaozoologie 
(1846); Fauna der Vorwelt (1847-1856); Deutschlands Petre- 
facten (1852); Odontograpkie (3$&)r L&rlmk der Zwfagie 
(1857) ; Thesaurus ornithologiae (1872-1877). 

GIEN, a town of central France, capital of an arrondissement 
in the department of Loiret, situated on the. right bank of the 
Loire, 39 m. E.S*E. of Orleans by rail, JPpp* (1906) G325* Gien 
is a picturesque and interesting town and has many curious old 
houses. The Loire is here crossed by a stone bridge of twelve 
arches, built by Anne de Beaujeu, daughter of Louis XI., about 
the end of the 15th century. N$ar it stands, a statue of Ver- 
cingetorix. The principal building is« the old castle used as a 
law-court, constructed of brick and stone arranged in geometrical 
patterns, and built in 1494 by Anne de Beaujeu. The church 
of St Pierre possesses a square tower dating from the end of the 
15th century. Porcelain is manufactured. 

GIERS, NICHOLAS KARLOVICH DE (18 20- 1895), Russian 
statesman, was born on the 21st of May 1820. Like his pre- 
decessor, Prince Gorchakov, he was educated at the lyceum of 
Tsarskoye Selo, near St Petersburg, but his career was much less 
rapid, because he had no influential protectors, and was hanqUr 
capped by being a Protestant of Teutonic origin. At the age 
of eighteen he entered the service of the Eastern department 
of the ministry of foreign affairs, and spent more than twenty 
years in subordinate posts, chiefly in south-eastern Europe, 
until he was promoted in 1863 to the post of minister pleni- 
potentiary in Persia. Here, he remained for six years, and, 
after serving as a minister in Switzerland and Sweden, he was 
appointed in 1875 director of the Eastern department and 
assistant minister for foreign affairs under Prince Gorchakov, 
whose niece he had married. No sooner had he entered on his 
new duties than his great capacity for arduous work was put 
to a severe test. Besides events in central Asia, to which he 
had to devote much attention, the Hexzegovinian insurrection 
had broken out, and he could perceive from secret official papers 
that, the incident had far-reaching ramifications unknown to 
the general public. Soon this became apparent to all the world. 
While the Austrian officials in Dalmatia, with hardly a pretence 
of concealment, were assisting the insurgents, Russian volunteers 
were flocking to Servia with the connivance of the Russian and 
Austrian governments, and General Ignatiev, as ambassador in 

* The names are vocalized to suggest the fanciful interpretations 
" victim " and " protection withheld.". 

4 As the account of this has been lost and the narrative is concerned 
not with the plain of Jezreel but rather with Shechem, it has been 
inferred that the episode implies the existence of a distinct story 
wherein Gideon's pursuit is such an apt, of vengeance. „ 



GlESE&RECttlF-^GlESBLER 



Constantinople, was urging his government to take advantage 
of the palpable weakness of Turkey for bringing about a radical 
solution of the Eastern question. Prince Gorchakov did not want 
a radical solution involving a great European war, but he was too 
fond of ephemeral popularity to stem the current of popular 
excitement. Alexander II., personally averse from tfar, was 
not insensible to the patriotic enthusiasm, and halted between 
two opinions. M. de Giers was one of the few who gauged the 
situation accurately. As an official and a man of non-Russian 
extraction he had to be extremely reticent, but to his intimate 
friends he condemned severely the ignorance and fight-hearted 
recklessness of those around him. The event justified his sombre 
previsions, but did not cure the recklessness of the so-called 
patriots. They wished to defy Europe in order to maintain 
intact the treaty of San Stefano, and again M. de Giers found 
himself in an unpopular minority. He had to remain in the back- 
ground, but all the influence he possessed was thrown into the 
scale of peace. His views, energetically supported by Count 
Shuvalov, finally prevailed, and the European congress assembled 
at Berlin. He was not present at the congress, and consequently 
escaped the popular odiuin for the concessions which Russia 
had to make to Great Britain and Austria. From that time he 
was practically minister of foreign affairs, for Prince Gorchakov 
was no longer capable of continued intellectual exertion, and 
lived mostly abroad. On the death of Alexander H. in 1881 it 
was generally expected that M. de Giers would be dismissed 
as deficient in Russian nationalist feeling, for Alexander III: 
was credited with strong anti-German Slavophil tendencies 
In reality the young tsar had no intention of embarking on wild 
political adventures, and Was fully determined not to let his hand 
be forced by men less cautious than himself. What he wanted 
was a minister of foreign affairs who would be at once vigilant 
and prudent, active and obedient, and who would relieve him 
from the trouble and worry of routine work while allowing him 
to control the main nneS, and occasionally the details, of the 
national policy. M. de Giers was exactly what he wanted, 
and accordingly the tsar not only appointed him minister of 
foreign affairs on the retirement of Prince Gorchakov in 1882, 
but retained tiirii to the end of his reign in 1894. In accordance 
with the desire of his august master, M. de Giers followed system- 
atically a pacific policy. Accepting as &fait accompli the existence 
of the triple alliance, created by Bismarck for the purpose of 
resisting any aggressive action on the part of Russia and France, 
he sought to establfeh more friendly relations with the cabinets 
of Berlin, Vienna arid Rome. To the advances of the French 
government he at first turned a deaf ear, but when the rapproche- 
ment between the two countries was effected with little or no 
co-operation on his part, he utilized it for restraining France and 
promoting Russian interests. He died on the 26th of January 
1895, soon after the accession of Nicholas II. (D. M. W.) 

GIBSBBRECHT, WILHBLM YON (18 14-1889), German 
historian, was a son of Karl Giesebrecht (d. 1832), and a nephew 
of the poet Ludwig Giesebrecht (1792-1873). Born in Berlin 
on the 5th of March 1814, he studied under Leopold von Ranke, 
and his first important work, Geschichie Ottos 1 /., was contributed 
to Rankers Jakrbiicher des deutschen Reichs unter dem s&chsischen 
Hause (Berlin, 1837-1840). In 1841 he published his Jakrbiicher 
des Klosters Altaick, a reconstruction of the lost Annates Alta- 
henses, a medieval source of which fragments only were known 
to be extant, and these were obscured in other chronicles. The 
brilliance of this performance was shown in 1867, when a copy 
of the original chronicle was found, and it was seen that Giese- 
brecht's text was substantially correct. In the meantime he had 
been appointed Oberlekrer in the Joachimsthaler Gymnasium 
in Berlin; had paid a visit to Italy, and as a result of his re- 
searches there had published De litterarum studiis apud Italos 
prints medii aevi seculis (Berhn, 1845), a study upon the survival 
of culture in Italian 1 cities during the middle ages, and also 
several critical essays upon the sources for the early history of 
the popes. In 185 1 appeared his translation of the Historiae 
of Gregory 6f Tours, which is the standard German translation. 
Four years later appeared the first volume of his great work, 



Geschichie der deutschen Kaiserzeit] the fifth volume of which 
was published hi 1888. This work was the first in which the 
results of the scientific methods of research were thrown open to 
the world at large. Largeness of style and brilliance of portrayal 
were joined to an absolute mastery of the sources in a way 
hitherto unachieved by any German historian. Yet later 
German historians have severely criticized his glorification of 
the imperial era with its Italian entanglements, in which the 
interests of Germany were sacrificed for idle glory. Giesebrecht's 
history, however, appeared when the new German empire was 
in the making, and became popular owing both to its patriotic 
tone and its intrinsic merits. In 1857 he went to Konigsberg as 
professor ordinarius, and in 1862 succeeded H. von Sybel as 
professor of history in the university of Munich. The Bavarian 
government honoured him in various ways, and he died at Munich 
on the 17th of December 1889. In addition to the works already 
mentioned, Giesebrecht published a good monograph on Arnold 
of Brescia (Munich, 1873), a collection of essays under the title 
Deutsche Reden (Munich, 1871), and was an active member 
of the group of scholars who took over the direction of the 
Monumenta Getmomae historica in 1875. In 1895 B. von 
Simson added a sixth volume to the Geschichte der deutschen 
Kaiserteit, thu9 bringing the work down to the death of the 
emperor Frederick I. in 1190. 

See S. Riefcler, Geddchtnisrede auf WitheUn von Giesebrecht (Munich, 
1 891); and Lord Acton in the English Historical Review, vol. v. 
(London, 1890). 

GIBSELER, JOHANN KARL LUDWIG (1792-1854), German 
writer on church history, was born on the 3rd of March 1792 at 
Petershagen, near Minden, where his father, Georg Christof 
Friedrichi was preadher. In his tenth year he entered the 
orphanage at Halle, whence he duly passed to the university, 
his studies being interrupted, however, from October 1813 till 
the peace of 181 5 by a period of military service, during which 
he was enrolled as a volunteer in a regiment of chasseurs. On 
the conclusion of peace (181 5) he returned to Halle, and, having 
in 1817 taken: his, degree in philosophy, he in the same year 
became assistant head master {Conrector) in the Miiiden gym- 
nasium, and in 1818 was appointed director of tha gymnasium 
at Cleves. Here he published his earliest work (Historisck- 
kritischer Versucfi ilber die Entstehung u* die jriikesten Schicksak 
der sckriftiicken Evangdien), a. treatise which had considerable 
influence on subsequent investigations as to the origin of the 
gospels.. In 181 9. Gieseler was appointed a professor ordinarius 
in theology in the newly founded university of Bonn, where, 
besides lecturing on church history, he made important con- 
tributions to the literature of that subject in Ernst RosenmuMler's 
Rjepertorium, JiL F. Staudlin and H. G. Tschirner's Archiv, 
and in various university " programs." The first part of the 
first volume of his well-known Church History appeared in 1824. 
In 1 813 1 he accepted a call to Gbttingen as successor to J. G. 
Planet He lectured on church history, the history of dogma, and 
dogmatic theology. In 1837 he was appointed a Consistorial- 
rath, and shortly afterwards was created a knight of the Guelphic 
order. He died on the 8th of July 1854. The fourth and fifth 
volumes of the Kirchengeschichte, embracing the period sub- 
sequent to 1814, were published posthumously in 1855 by E. R. 
Redepenning (1810-1883); and they were followed in 1856 by 
a Dogmengeschichte, which is sometimes reckoned as the sixth 
volume of the Church History. Among church historians 
Gieseler continues to hold a high place. Less vivid and pictur- 
esque in style than Karl Hase, conspicuously deficient in 
Neander's deep and sympathetic insight into the more spiritual 
forces by which church life is pervaded, he excels these and all 
other contemporaries in the fulness and accuracy of his informa- 
tion. His Lekrbuch der Kirchengeschichte, with its copious 
references to original authorities, is of great value to the student: 
" Gieseler wished that each age should speak for itself, since 
only by this means can the peculiarity of its ideas be fully 
appreciated " (Otto Pfleiderer, Development of Theology, p. 284). 
The work, which has passed through several editions in Germany, 
has partially appeared also in two English translations. That 



GIESSEN— GIPFORD, R. S. 



published in New York (Text Book of Ecclesiastical History, 
5 vols.) brings the work down to the peace of Westphalia, while 
that published in " Clark's Theological Library " {Compendium 
of Ecclesiastical History, Edinburgh, 5 vols.) closes with the 
beginning of the Reformation. Gieseler was not only a devoted 
student but also an energetic man of business. He frequently 
held the office of pro-rector of the university, and did much 
useful work as a member of several of its committees. 

GIESSEN, a town of Germany, capital of the province of 
Upper Hesse, in the grand-duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt, is situated 
in a beautiful and fruitful valley at the confluence of the Wieseck 
with the Latin, 41 m. N.N.W. of Frankfort-on-Main on the 
railway to Cassel, and at the junction of important lines to 
Cologne and Cobienz. Pop. (1885) 18,836; (1005) 29,149. In 
the old part of the town the streets are narrow and irregular. 
Besides the university, the principal buildings are the Stadt- 
kirche, the provincial government offices, comprising a portion 
of the old castle dating from the 12th century, the arsenal (now 
barracks) and the town-hall (containing an historical collection). 
The university, founded in 1607 by Louis V., landgrave of Hesse, 
has a large and valuable library, a botanic garden, an observatory, 
medical schools, a museum of natural history, a chemical 
laboratory which was directed by Justus von Liebig, professor 
here from 1824 to 1852, and an agricultural college. The 
industries include the manufacture of woollen and cotton cloth 
of various kinds, machines, leather, candles, tobacco and beer. 

Giessen, the name of which is probably derived from the streams 
which pour (giessen) their waters here into the Lahn, was formed 
in the 12th century out of the villages Selters, Aster and 
Kxoppach, for whose protection Count William of Gleiberg built 
the castle of Giessen. Through marriage the town came, in 1 203, 
into the possession of the count palatine, Rudolph of Tubingen, 
who sold it in 1265 to the landgrave Henry of Hesse. It was 
surrounded with fortifications in 1530, which were demolished 
in 1547, but rebuilt in 1560. In 1805 they were finally pulled 
down, and their site converted into promenades. 

See O. Buchner, Fuhrer fOr Giessen und das Lahntal (189 1); and 
Aus Giessens Vcrgangenheit (1885). 

GIFFARD, GODFREY (c. 1235-1302), chancellor of England 
and bishop of Worcester, was a son of Hugh Giffard of Boyton, 
Wiltshire. Having entered the church he speedily obtained 
valuable preferments owing to the influence of his brother 
Walter, who became chancellor of England in 1265. I& I2 ^ 
Godfrey became chancellor of the exchequer, succeeding Walter 
as chancellor of England when, in the same year, the latter was 
made archbishop of York. In 1268 he was chosen bishop of 
Worcester, resigning the chancellorship shortly afterwards; 
and both before and after 1279, when he inherited the valuable 
property of his brother the archbishop, he was employed on 
public business by Edward I. His main energies, however, 
were devoted to the affairs of his see. He had one long dispute 
with the monks of Worcester, another with the abbot of West- 
minster, and was vigilant in guarding his material interests. 
The bishop died on the 26th of January 1302, and was buried 
in his cathedral. Giffard, although inclined to nepotism, was 
a benefactor to his cathedral, and completed and fortified the 
episcopal castle at Hartlebury. 

See W. Thomas, Survey of Worcester Cathedral; Episcopal Registers ; 
Register of Bishop Godfrey Giffard, edited by J. W. Willis-Bund 
(Oxford, 1 898-1 899); and the Annals of Worcester in the Annates 
monastics, vol. iv. t edited by H. R. Luard (London, 1869). 

GIFFARD, WALTER (d. 1279), chancellor of England and 
archbishop of York, was a son of Hugh Giffard of Boyton, 
Wiltshire, and after serving as canon and archdeacon of Wells, 
was chosen bishop of Bath and Wells in May 1264. 1° August 
1265 Henry III. appointed him chancellor of England, and he 
was one of the arbitrators who drew up the dictum de Kenilworth 
in 1266. Later in this year Pope Clement IV. named him arch- 
bishop of York, and having resigned the chancellorship he was 
an able and diligent ruler of his see, although in spite of his 
great wealth he was frequently in pecuniary difficulties. When 



Henry III. died in November 1272 the archbishopric of Canter- 
bury was vacant, and consequently the great seal was delivered 
to the archbishop of York, who was the chief of the three regents 
who successfully governed the kingdom until the return of 
Edward I. in August 1274. Having again acted in this capacity 
during the king's absence in 1275, Giffard died in April 1279, 
and was buried in his cathedral 

See Fasti Eboracenses, edited by J. Raine (London, 1863). Giffard's 
Register from 1266 to 1279 h* 3 been edited for the Surtees Society by 
W. Brown. 

GIFFARD, WILLIAM (d. 1129), bishop of Winchester, was 
chancellor of William II. and received his see, in succession to 
Bishop Walkelin, from Henry I. (1 100). He was one of the bishops 
elect whom Anselm refused to consecrate (1101) as having been 
nominated and invested by the lay power. During the investi- 
tures dispute Giffard was on friendly terms with Anselm, and 
drew upon himself a sentence of banishment through declining 
to accept consecration from the archbishop of York (1 103) . He 
was, however, one of the bishops who pressed Anselm, in 1106, 
to give way to the king. He was consecrated after the settle- 
ment of 1 107. He became a close friend of Anselm, aided the 
first Cistercians to settle in England, and restored Winchester 
cathedral with great magnificence. 

See Eadmer, Historia novorum, edited by M. Rule (London, 
1884) ; and S. H. Cass, Bishops of Winchester (London, 1827). 

GIFFEN, SIR ROBERT (1837-1910), British statistician and 
economist, was born at Strathaven, Lanarkshire. He entered 
a solicitor's office in Glasgow, and while in that city attended 
courses at the university. He drifted into journalism, and after 
working for the Stirling Journal he went to London in 1862 and 
joined thestaff of the Globe. He also assisted Mr John (afterwards 
Lord) Morley, when the latter edited the Fortnightly Review. 
In 1868 he became Walter Bagehot's assistant-editor on the 
Economist; and his services were also secured in 1873 as city- 
editor of the Daily News, and later of The Times. His high 
reputation as a financial journalist and statistician, gained in 
these years, led to his appointment in 1876 as head of the 
statistical department in the Board of Trade, and subsequently 
he became assistant secretary (1882) and finally controller- 
general (1892), retiring in 1897. In connexion with his position 
as chief statistical adviser to the government, he was constantly 
employed in drawing up reports, giving evidence before commis- 
sions of inquiry, and acting as a government auditor, besides 
publishing a number of important essays on financial subjects. 
His principal publications were Essays on Finance (1879 and 
1884), The Progress of the Working Classes (1884), The Growth 
of Capital (1800), The Case against Bimetallism (1892), and 
Economic Inquiries and Studies (1904). He was president of the 
Statistical Society (1882-1884); and after being made a C.B. 
in 189 1 was created K.CJB. in 1895. I& l &9* ne w2iS elected a 
Fellow of the Royal Society. Sir Robert Giffcn continued in 
later years to take a leading part in all public controversies 
connected with finance and taxation, and his high authority 
and practical experience were universally recognized. He died 
somewhat suddenly in Scotland on the 12th of April 1910. 

GIFFORD, ROBERT SWAIN (1840- 1905), American marine 
and landscape painter, was born on Naushon Island, Massa* 
chusetts, on the 23rd of December 1840. He studied art with 
the Dutch marine painter Albert van Beest, who had a studio 
in New Bedford, and in 1864 he opened a studio for himself in 
Boston, subsequently settling in New York, where he was elected 
an associate of the National Academy of Design in 1867 and an 
academician in 1878. He was also a charter member of the 
American Water Color Society and the Society of American 
Artists. From 1878 until 1896 he was teacher of painting 
and chief master of the Woman's Art School of Cooper 
Union, New York, and from 1896 until his death he was director* 
Gifford painted longshore views, sand dunes and landscapes 
generally, with charm and poetry. He was an etcher of consider- 
able reputation, a member of the Society of American Etchers, 
and an honorary member of the Society of Painter-Etchers of 
London. He died in New York on the 13th of January 1905. 



GIFFORD, S. R.-^GIGLIO 



5 



GIFFORD, SANDFORD ROBINSON (1823-1880), American 
landscape painter, was born at Greenfield, New York, on the 10th 
of July 1823. He studied (1842-1845) at Brown University, then 
went to New York, and entered the art schools of the National 
Academy of Design,, of which organization he was elected an 
associate in 1851, and an academician in 1854. Subsequently 
he studied in Paris and Rome, He was one of the best known 
of the Hudson River school group, though it was at Lake George 
that he found most of his themes. In his day he enjoyed an 
enormous popularity, and his canvases are in many well-known 
American collections. He died in New York City on the 29th of 
August 1880. 

GIFFORD, WILUAM (17 56-1 826), English publicist and man 
of letters, was bom at Ashburton, Devon, in April 1756. His 
father was a glazier of indifferent character, and before he 
was thirteen William had lost both parents. The business was 
seized by his godfather, on whom William and his brother, a 
child of two, became entirely dependent* For about three 
months William was allowed to remain at the free school of the 
town. He was then put to follow the plough, but after a day's 
trial he proved unequal to the task, and was sent to sea with the 
Brixham fishermen. After a year at sea his godfather, driven 
by the opinion of the townsfolk, put the boy to school once more. 
He made rapid progress, especially in mathematics, and began 
to assist the master. In 1 77 2 he was apprenticed to a shoemaker, 
and when he wished to pursue his mathematical studies, he was 
obliged to work his problems with an awl on beaten leather. 
By the kindness of an Ashburton surgeon, William Cooksley, 
a subscription was raised to enable him to return to school. 
Ultimately he proceeded in his twenty-third year to Oxford, 
where he was appointed a Bible clerk in Exeter College. Leaving 
the university shortly after graduation in 1 782, he found a generous 
patron in the first Earl Grosvenor, who undertook to provide 
for him, and sent him on two prolonged continental tours in the 
capacity of tutor to his son, Lord Belgrave. Settling in London, 
Gifford published in 1794 his first work, a clever satirical piece, 
after Persius, entitled the Baviad, aimed at a coterie of second- 
rate writers at Florence, then popularly known as the Delia 
Cruscans, of which Mrs Piozzi was the leader. A second satire 
of a similar description, the Maeviad, directed against the corrup- 
tions of the drama, appeared in 1795. About this time Gifford 
became acquainted with Canning, with whose help he in August 
1797 originated a weekly newspaper of Conservative politics 
entitled the Anti-Jacobin, which, however, in the following 
year ceased to be published. An English version , of Juvenal, 
on which he had been fox many years engaged, appeared in 1802; 
to this an autobiographical notice of the translator, reproduced 
in Nichol's Illustrations of Literature, was prefixed. Two years 
afterwards Gifford published an annotated edition of the plays 
of Massinger; and in 1809, when the Quarterly Review was 
projected, he was made editor. The success which attended the 
Quarterly from the outset was due in no small degree to the 
ability and tact with which Gifford discharged his editorial 
duties. He took, however, considerable liberties with the 
articles he inserted, and Southey, who was one of his regular 
contributors, said that Gifford looked on authors as Izaak 
Walton did on worms. His bitter opposition to Radicals and 
his onslaughts on new writers, conspicuous among which was 
the article on Keats's Endymion, called forth Hazlitt's Letter 
to W. Gifford in 1 819. His connexion with the Review continued 
until within about two years of his death, which took place in 
London on the 31st of December 1826. Besides numerous 
contributions to the Quarterly during the last fifteen years of his 
life, he wrote a metrical translation of Persius, which appeared 
in 1821. Gifford also edited the dramas of Ben Jonson in 1816, 
and his edition of Ford appeared posthumously in 1827. His 
notes on Shirley were incorporated in Dyce's edition in 1833. 
His political services were acknowledged by the appointments 
of commissioner of the lottery and paymaster of the gentle- 
man pensioners. He left a considerable fortune, the bulk 
of which went to the son of his first benefactor, William 
Cooksley. 



GIFT (a common Teutonic word, cf. Ger, die Gift, gift, das 
Gift, poison, formed from the Teut. stem gab-, to give, cf . Dutch 
geven, Ger. geben; in O. Eng. the word appears with initial y, 
the guttural of later English is due to Scandinavian influence), a 
general English term for a present or thing bestowed, i.e. an 
alienation of property otherwise than for a legal consideration, 
although in law it is often used to signify alienation with or 
without consideration. By analogy the terms "gift" and 
" gifted " are also used to signify the natural endowment of 
some special ability, or a miraculous power, in a person, as being 
not acquired in the ordinary way. The legal effect of a gratuit- 
ous gift only need be considered here. Formerly in English 
law property in land could be conveyed by one person to another 
by a verbal gift of the estate accompanied by delivery of posses- 
sion. The Statute of Frauds required all such conveyances to 
be in writing, and a later statute (8 & 9 Vict; c. 106) requires 
them to be by deed. Personal property may be effectually 
transferred from one person to another by a simple verbal gift 
accompanied by delivery. If A delivers a chattel to B, saying 
or signifying that he does so by way of gift, the property passes, 
and the chattel belongs to B. But unless the actual thing is 
bodily handed over to the donee, the mere verbal expression pf 
the donor's desire or intention has no legal effect whatever. 
The persons are in the position of parties to an agreement which 
is void as being without consideration. When the nature of 
the thing is such that it cannot be bodily handed over, it will 
be sufficient to put the donee in such a position as to enable him 
to deal with it as the owner. For example, when goods are in a 
warehouse, the delivery of the key will make a verbal gift of 
them effectual; but it seems that part delivery of goods which 
are capable of actual delivery will not validate a verbal gift of 
the part undelivered. So when goods are in the possession of a 
warehouseman, the handing over of a delivery order might, by 
special custom (but not otherwise, it appears), be sufficient to 
pass the property in the goods, although delivery of a bill of 
lading for goods at sea is equivalent to an actual delivery of the 
goods themselves. 

GIFU (ImaIzumi), a city of Japan, capital of the ken (govern- 
ment) of Central Nippon, which comprises the two. provinces 
of Mino and Hida. Pop. about 41,000. It lies E. by N. of Lake 
Biwa, on the Central railway, on a tributary of the river Kiso, 
which flows to the Bay of Miya Uro. Manufactures of silk and 
paper goods are carried on. The ken has an area of about 
4000 sq. m. and is thickly peopled, the population exceeding 
1 ,000,000. The whole district is subject to frequent earthquakes. 

GIG r apparently an onomatopoeic word for any light whirling 
object, and so used of a top, as in Shakespeare's Love's Labour's 
Lost, v. i. 70 (" Goe whip thy gigge "), or of a revolving lure 
made of feathers for snaring birds. The word is now chiefly 
used of a light two-wheeled cart or carriage for one horse, and 
of a narrow, light, ship's boat for oars or sails, and also of a 
clinker-built rowing-boat used for rowing on the Thames. 
" Gig " is further applied, in mining, to a wooden chamber or 
box divided in the centre and used to draw miners up and down 
a pit or shaft, and to a textile machine, the " gig-mill " or 
" gigging machine," which raises the nap on cloth by means 
of teazels. A " gig " or " fish-gig " (properly " fiz-gig," possibly 
an adaptation of Span, fisga, harpoon) is an instrument 
used for spearing fish. 

GIGLIO (anc. Igilium), an island of Italy, off the S.W. coast 
of Italy, in the province of Grosseto, n m. to the W. of Monte 
Argentario, the nearest point on the coast. It measures about 
5 m. by 3 and its highest point is 1634 ft. above sea-level. Pop. 
(1901) 2062. It is partly composed of granite, which was 
quarried here by the Romans, and is still used; the island is 
fertile, and produces wine and fruit, the cultivation of which has 
taken the place of the forests of which Rutilius spoke (Itin. I 
325, " eminus Igilii silvosa cacumina miror "). Julius Caesar 
mentions its sailors in the fleet of Domitius Ahenobarbus. In 
Rutilius's time it served as a place of refuge from the barbarian 
invaders. Charlemagne gave it to the abbey of Tre Fontane at 
Rome. In the 14th century it belonged to Pisa, then to Florence, 



gij<5n— gilbart 



then, after being seised by the Spanish fleet, it was ceded to 
Antonio Piecolomini, nephew of Pius II. In 1558 it was 
•old to the wife of Cosimo L of Florence. 

See Archduke Ludwig Salvator, Die Insel GigHo (Prague, 1900). 

GIJ6N. a seaport of northern Spain, in the province of Oviedo; 
on the Bay of Biscay, and at the terminus of railways from 
Avil6s, Oviedo and Langreo. Pop. (1000) 47,544- The older 
parts of Gij6n, which are partly enclosed by ancient walls, 
occupy the upper slopes of a peninsular headland, Santa Catalina 
Point ; while its more modern suburbs extend along the shore 
to Cape Torres, on the west, and Cape San Lorenzo, on the east. 
These suburbs contain the town-hall, theatre, markets, and a 
bull-ring with seats for 1 9,000 spectators. Few of the buildings 
of GiJ6n are noteworthy for any architectural merit, except 
perhaps the 15th-century parish church of San Pedro, which 
has a triple row of aisles on each side, the palace of the mar- 
quesses of Rcvillajigedo (or Revilla Gigedo), and the Asturian 
Institute or Jovellanos Institute. The last named has a very 
fine collection of drawings by Spanish and other artists, a good 
library and classes for instruction in seamanship, mathematics 
and languages. It was founded in 1707 by the poet and states- 
man Gaspar Melchor dt Jovellanos (1744-1811). Jovellanos, 
a native of Gijon, is buried in San Pedro. 

The Bay of Gij6n is the most important roadstead on the 
Spanish coast between Ferrol and Santander. Its first quay 
was constructed by means of a grant from Charles V. in 1552- 
1554; and its arsenal, added in the reign of Philip II. (1556- 
1508), was used in 1588 as a repairing station for the surviving 
ships of the Invincible Armada. A new quay was built in 
1706-1768, and extended in 1850; the harbour was further 
improved in 1804, and after 1802, when the Musel harbour of 
refuge was created at the extremity of the bay. It was, how- 
ever, the establishment of railway communication in 1884 which 
brought the town its modern prosperity, by rendering it the chief 
port of shipment for the products of Langreo and other mining 
centres in (>viedo. A rapid commercial development followed. 
Besides large tobacco, glass and porcelain factories, Gijon 
(tossesscs iron foundries and petroleum refineries; while its 
minor industries include fisheries, and the manufacture of pre- 
served foods, soap, chocolate, candles and liqueurs. In 1003 
the harbour accommodated .it So vessels of 358.375 tons. In 
the same year the imports, consisting chiefly of machinery, iron, 
wood and food-stufts. were valued at £ooo,SSo; while the 
exports, comprising sine, copper, iron and other minerals, with 
fish, nuts and farm produce, were valued at £ 1 00,04 1. 

Gijon is usually identified with the Gigia of the Romans, which, 
however, occupied the site of the adjoining suburb of Cima 
de Villa. Rariy in the Sth century Gijon was captured and 
strengthened by the Moors, who used the stones of the Roman 
city tor their tot ificat tans, but were expelled by King Pelayo 
p x*-\o\ In $44 Gijon successfully resisted a Xorman raid; in 
1305 it was burned down; but thenceforward it gradually rose 
to comwiefcial importance 

QlLiK vGmi v\\ GvuakV one of the three small but important 
Caspian provinces of rersia. lying along the south-western shore 
of the Caspian Sea between 4$* 50* and 50* 30' E* with a breadth 
varying from 15 to 50 wu It has an area of about 5000 
sq. m. and a imputation of about £50.000* It is separated from 
Russia by the li::le river Astanu whkh flows into the Caspian, 
and Knifed \\\ by Aaert*$iR. $. by Kaivin and E. by Masan- 
daran, Vhv greater pocv.oe. of the province is a lowland region 
e\?endi:\g fcvand tram the «* ;o the base of the mountains of the 
K'.bur* r»njee ar*i thoqph ;he Set5d Rod (White river), which is 
ttu*.<\i K*V.i Vttia :» :ts epper course and has its principal 
soutves :a the h:l& of FVr&tst Runhstan. is the only river of any 
swe. the rr\>vsr*f » aN:>iar.:Ly watered by many streams 
and an eJKvf^KvaCy $?*»: rainfall vin some years 50 in.V 

TV vejKUtvc b wry rrtoch like that of southern Europe, 
but in <\>ctaft?aefiot of the great humidity and the rr.iid climate 
afoft** trop^ai:> harrria:*:. and the forests :t\me the shore of 
the sea t^ :o a* ah ~ude of r*\tT*y 5000 ft. oa the mountain " 
sH^s Uc*.r^ ;be set& are as der.s* as an Incisn jungle. The * 



prevailing types of trees are the oak, maple, hornbeam, beech, 
ash and elm. The box tree comes to rare perfection, but in 
consequence of indiscriminate cutting for export during many 
years, is now becoming scarce. Of fruit trees the apple, pear, 
plum, cherry, medlar, pomegranate, fig, quince, as well as two 
kinds of vine, grow wild; oranges, sweet and bitter, and other 
Aurantiaceae thrive well in gardens and plantations. The fauna 
also is well represented, but tigers which once were frequently 
seen are now very scarce; panther, hyena, jackal, wild boar, 
deer (Cenms moral) are common; pheasant, woodcock, ducks, 
teal, geese and various waterfowl abound; the fisheries are very 
productive and are leased to a Russian firm. The ordinary 
cattle of the province is the small humped MrUi,.Jfcr indkus, 
and forms an article of export to Russia? the humps, smoked, 
being much in demand as a delicacy. Rice of a kind not much 
appreciated in Persia, but much esteemed in Gilan and Russia, 
is largely cultivated and a quantity valued at about £120,000 
was exported to Russia during 1004-1005. Tea plantations, 
with seeds and plants from Assam, Ceylon and the Himalayas, 
were started in the early part of 1000 on the slopes of the hills 
south of Resht at an altitude of about 1000 ft. The results were 
excellent and very good tea was produced in 1004 and 1005, 
but the Persian government gave no support and the enterprise 
was neglected. The olive thrives well at Rudbai and Manjfl 
in the Seffd Rtid valley and the oil extracted from it by a Pro- 
vencal for some years until 1896, when he was murdered, was of 
very good quality and found a ready market at Baku. Since 
then the oil has been, as before, only used for the manufacture of 
soap. Tobacco from Turkish seed, cultivated since 1875, grows' 
well, and a considerable quantity of it is exported. The most 
valuable produce of the province is silk. In i860 it was valued 
at £743,000 and about two-thirds of it was exported. The silk- 
worm disease appeared in 1864 and the crops decreased in con- 
sequence until 1893 when the value of the silk exported was no 
more than £6500. Since then there has been a steady improve- 
ment, and in 1005-1906 the value of the produce was estimated 
at £300,000 and that of the quantity exported at £200,000. 
The eggs of the silk- worms, formerly obtained from Japan, are 
now imported principally from Brusa by Greeks under French 
protection and from France. 

There is only one good road in the province, that from Enseli 
to Kazvin by way of Resht; in other parts communication is 
by narrow and frequently impassable lanes through the thick 
forest, or by intricate pathways through the dense undergrowth. 

The province is divided into the following administrative 
districts: Resht (with the capital and its immediate neighbour- 
hood), Fnmen (with Tularn and Mesnla, where are iron mines), 
Gesker, Talish (with Shandarman, Kerganrud, Asalim, G0- 
Dulab, Talish-Dulab). Enseti (the port of Resht), Sheft, Manjfl 
(with Rahmetabad and Amariu), Lahijan (with Langarud, 
Rudsar and Ranehknh), Oilman and I«ashtnisha. The revenue 
derived from taxes and customs is about £80,000. The crown 
lands have been much neglected and the revenue from them 
amounts to hardly £3000 per annum. The value of the exports 
and imports from and into Gflan, much of them in transit, as 
dose upon £2,000.000. 

Gilan was an independent khanate until 1567 when Khan 
Ahmed, the last of the Kargia dynasty, which had reigned 
905 years, was deposed by Tahmasp I., the second Safawid shah 
of Persia (1524-1576^. It was occupied by a Russian force in 
the early part of 1723: and Tahmasp HI., the tenth Safawid shah 
(1 7 22-1 73 1 \ then without a throne and his country occupied 
by the Afghans, ceded it. together with Mazandaran and Astara- 
bad. to Peter the Great by a treaty of the 12th of September of 
the same year. Russian troops remained in Gdan until 1734. 
when they were compelled to evacuate it. 

The derivation of the name Gilan from the modern Persian 
word g& meaning mud 1 hence ** land of mud ' n is incorrect. 
I: probably means ~ land of the Gil." an ancient tribe which 
classes! writers mention as the Gelae. fA-H--S.> 

GILBAKT, JAMBS WILLIAM • : -04-186 ;\ English writer on 
h*r:k:r.g. was born in London on :he ns: of March 1704. From 



GILBERT/. ALEKED^GaSEKT, SIR H. 



s8i3<to .18*5 he was derkdnjk> London bank. - 'Affer-ri twtagrearGr' 
residence inBian$Lngham, he wais: appointed manager -of the 
Kilkenny -branchrof the Provincial Rapk of Ireland, and in 1S29 
he was promoted to the. Waterjord branchi In 1834 he became 
manager of the London and Westminster Bank; and be did much . 
to develop' the system' of joint-stock banking. On more thaln 
one occasion he Tendered valuable services to the joint-stock 
hanks by his evidence before committees of the House of 
Commons; and, on the renewal of the bank charter in 1844, 
he procured the insertion, of a clause granting: to joint-stock 
banks the power of suing by their pubhc officer, and also the 
right of accepting balls at less than six months' date. In 1 846 he 
was elected a fellow of the Royal Society. He died in London on 
the &th of August 1863. The Gilbart .lectures on banking at 
King's College are called after him. 

The following, are his principal works on banking, most of which 
have parsed through more than one edition : Practical Treatise on 
Banking (i$27)- ffo History and Principles of Banking (1854); 
The History of Banking in America (1837); Lectures an the History 
and Principles of Ancient Commerce (1847) ; Logic for the Million 
{iS$i)%wiJ^&f of Banking (t&S7h . 

GILBSR'rV ALFRED (1854- , ),. British sculptor and 
goldsmith, boxM in London, was the son of Alfred Gilbert,' 
musician,' He* received his education mainly in Paris (ficole 
des Beaux-Aorta, under rCaveher), and studied in Rome and 
Florence where the significance of the Renaissance < made a 
lasting impression upon him and his art. He also worked in 
the studio of Sir J. Edgar Boehm, RjV. His first work of 
importance was the charming group of the f * Mother and Child," 
then "• The Kiss of Victory," followed by " Perseus Arming " 
(1883), produced directiy/uride^th^h^Biehce^'the Florentine 
masterpieces he had studied Its success was great, and Lord 
Leighton forthwith commissioned " Icarus," which was ex- 
hibited at the Royal Academy in 1884, along with a remarkable 
" Study* of a Head,") and was received with general applause. 
Then followed *' The Enchanted Chair," which, along with many 
other works: deemed by the artist incomplete or unworthy of 
his powers, Was ultimately broken by the sculptor's own hand. 
The next year Mr Gilbert was occupied with the Shaftesbury 
Memorial Fountain, in Piccadilly, London, a work of great 
originality and beauty, yet shorn of sonde of the intended effect 
through restrictions put upon the artist. In 1888 was produced 
the statue of H.M. Queen Victoria, set up at Winchester, in its 
main design and in the details of its ornamentation the most 
remarkable work of its kind produced in Great Britain, and 
perhaps, it may be added, in any other country in modern times. 
Other statues of great' beauty, at once novel' in treatment and 
fine in design, are those set up to Lord Reay in Bombay, and 
John Howard at Bedford (1898), the highly original pedestal 
of which did much to direct into a better channel what are 
apt to be the eccentricities of what is called the " New Art " 
School. The sculptor rose to the full height of his powers in his 
" Memorial to the Duke of Clarence," and his fast developing 
fancy and imagination, which are the main characteristics of all 
his work, are seen in his "Memorial Candelabrum to Lord Arthur 
Russell " and " Memorial Font to the son of the 4th Marquess of 
Bath. ' ' Gilbert's sense of decoration is paramount in* all he does, 
and although in addition to the work already cited he pro- 
duced busts of extraordinary excellence of Cyril Flower, John 
R. Clayton (since broken up by the artist — the fate of much of 
his admirable work), G. F. Watts, Sir Henry Tate, Sir George 
Birdwood, Sir Richard Owen, Sir George Grove and various 
others, it is on his goldsmithery that the artist would rest his 
reputation;. on his mayoual chain for Preston, the epergne for 
Queen Victoria, the figurines of " Victory " (a statuette designed 
for the orb in the hand of the Winchester statue), " St Michael " 
and "St George," as well' as smaller objects such as seals, keys 
and the like. Mr Gilbert was chosen associate of the Royal 
Academy in 1887, full member in 1892 (resigned 1009), and 
professor of sculpture (afterwards resigned) in 1900. In 1889 he 
won the Grand Prix at the Paris International Exhibition. He 
was created a member of the Victorian Order in 1897. (See 
Sculpture.;) 



-,, Sf&Fhe&ifeand; Wnk tiAVyt Wberfy^^M,V>Q^C^.ky 
Josepj^rjatton (Art Journal. Office, 1903). , , $C,.rt *§.)/ 

GIUJtERT, ANN (1821-1904), American actress,. was born at 
Rochdale, Lancashire, on the 21st of October 18 21, her maiden 
najne being Hartley. : At fifteen she was a pupil at the 
ballet school connected with the Haymarket theatre, conducted 
by Paul Taglioni, and became a dancer on the stage. In 1846 
she married George H. Gilbert (d. 1866), a performer in the 
company of which she was a member. Together they filled 
many engagements in English theatres, moving to America in 
1849. Mrs Gilbert's first success in a speaking part was in 1857 
as Wichavenda in Brougham's Pocahontas. In 1869 she joined 
Daly's company, playing for rnany years wives to James Lewis's 
husbands, and old women's parts, in which she had no equal. 
Mrs. Gilbert held a unique position on the American stage., on 
account of the admiration, esteem and affection which she 
enjoyed both in front and behind the footlights. She died at 
Chicago on the 2nd of December 1904. 

See Mrs Gilbert's Stage Reminiscences (1901). 

GILBERT, GROVE KARL (1843- , ), American geologist, 
was born at Rochester, N.Y., on the 6th of May 1843. In 1869 
he was attached to the Geological Survey of Ohio and in 
1879 he became a member of the United States Geological 
Survey, being engaged on parts of the Rocky Mountains, in 
Nevada, Utah, California and Arizona. He is distinguished 
for his researches on mountain-structure and on the Great Lakes, 
as well as on glacial phenomena, recent earth movements, and 
on topographic features generally. His report on the Geology 
of the Henry Mountains (1877), in which the volcanic structure 
kn6wn 'as a laccolite was first described; his History of the 
Niagara River (1800) and Lake Bonneville (1.891 — the first of 
the Monographs issued by the United States Geological Survey) 
are specially important. He was awarded the Wollaston medal 
by the Geological Society of London in 1900. 

GILBERT, SIR HUMPHREY {c. 1539-1583), English soldier, 
navigator and pioneer colonist in America, was the second son of 
Otho Gilbert, of Compton, near Dartmouth, Devon, and step- 
brother of Sir Walter Raleigh. He was educated at Eton and 
Oxford; intended for the law; introduced at court by Raleigh's 
aunt, Catherine Ashley, and appointed (July 1566) captain in 
the army of Ireland under Sir Henry Sidney. In April 1566 
he had already joined with Antony Jenkinson. in a petition 
to Elizabeth for the discovery of the North-East > Passage; in 
November following he presented an independent petition for 
the " discovering of a passage by the north to go to Cataia." In 
October 1569 he became governor of Munster; on the 1st of 
January 1570 he was knighted; in 1571 he was returned M.P. 
for Plymouth; in 1572 he campaigned in the Netherlands 
against Spain without much success; from 1573 to 1578 he 
lived in retirement at Limehouse, devoting himself especially 
to the advocacy of a North- West Passage (his famous Discourse 
on this subject was published in 1576). Gilbert's arguments, 
widely circulated even before 1575, were apparently of weight 
in promoting the Frobisher enterprises of 1 576-1 578. On the 
nth of June 1578, Sir Humphrey obtained his Jong-coveted 
charter for North- Western discovery and colonization, authoriz- 
ing him, his heirs and assigns, to discover, occupy and possess 
such remote " heathen lands not actually possessed of any 
Christian prince or people, as should seem good to him or them." 
Disposing not only of his patrimony but also of the estates in 
Kent which he had through his wife, daughter of John Aucher 
of Ollerden, he fitted out an expedition which left Dartmouth 
on the 23rd of September 1578, and returned in May 1579, 
having accomplished nothing. In 1579 Gilbert aided the 
government in Ireland; and in 1583, after many struggles — 
illustrated by his appeal to Walsingham on the nth of July 
1582, for the payment of moneys due to him from government, 
and by his agreement with the Southampton venturers — he 
succeeded in equipping another fleet for " Western Planting." 
Oh the nth of June 1583, he sailed from Plymouth with five 
ships and the queen's blessing; on the 13th of July the " Ark 
Raleigh," built and manned at his brother's expense, deserted 



« 



GILBERT, J.— GILBERT, MARIE 



the fleet; on the 30th of July he was off the north coast of 
Newfoundland; on the 3rd of August he arrived off the present 
St John's, and selected this site as the centre of his operations; 
on the 5th of August he began the plantation of the first English 
colony in North America. Proceeding southwards with three 
vessels, exploring and prospecting, he lost the largest near Cape 
Breton (29th of August); immediately after (31st of August) 
he started to return to England with the " Golden Hind " and 
the " Squirrel," of forty and ten tons respectively. Obstinately 
refusing to leave the " frigate " and sail in his " great ship," 
he shared the former's fate in a tempest off the Azores. " Monday 
the 9th of September," reports Hayes, the captain of the " Hind," 
" the frigate was near cast away, . . . .yet at that time recovered; 
and, giving forth signs of joy, the general, sitting abaft with a 
book in his hand, cried out unto us in the * Hind/ ' We are as near 
to heaven by sea as by land.'. . . . The same Monday night, about 
twelve, the frigate being ahead of us in the ' Golden Hind,' 
suddenly her lights were out, .... in that moment the frigate 
was devoured and swallowed up of the sea." 

See Hakluyt, Principal Navigations (1599), vol. iii. pp. 135-181 ; 
Gilbert's Discourse of a Discovery for a New Passage to Cataia, pub- 
lished by George Gascoigne in 1576, with additions, probably 
without Gilberts* authority; Hooker's Supplement to Holinsheds 
Irish Chronicle; Roger Williams, The Actions of the Low Countries 
(1618); State Papers, Domestic (1577-1583); Wood's Athenae 
Oxonienses; North British Review, No. 45; Fox Bourne's English 
Seamen under the Tudors; Carlos Slafter, Sir H. Gylberte and his 
Enterprise (Boston, 1903), with all important documents. Gilbert's 
interesting writings on the need of a university for London, anticipat- 
ing in many ways not only the modern London University but also 
the British Museum library and its compulsory sustenance through 
the provisions of the Copyright Act, have been printed by Furnivall 
(Queen Elizabeth's Achaaemy) in the Early English Text Society 
Publications, extra series, No. viii. 

• GILBERT, JOHN (1810-1889), American actor, whose real 
name was Gibbs, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, on the 
27th of February 1810, and made his first appearance there 
as Jamer in Venice Preserved. He soon found that his true vein 
was in comedy, particularly in old-men parts. When in London 
in 1847 he was well received both by press and public, and played 
with Macready. He was the leading actor at Wallack's from 
1861-1888. He died on the 17th of June 1889. 

See William Winter's Life of John Gilbert (New York, 1890). 

GILBERT, SIR JOHN (1817-1897), English painter and 
illustrator, one of the eight children of George Felix Gilbert, 
a member of a Derbyshire family, was born at Blackheath on 
the 21st of July 181 7. He went to school there, and even in 
childhood displayed an extraordinary fondness for drawing and 
painting. Nevertheless, his father's lack of means compelled 
him to accept employment for the boy in the office of Messrs 
Dickson & Bell, estate agents, in Charlotte Row, London. 
Yielding, however, to his natural bent, his parents agreed that 
he should take up art in his own way, which included but little 
advice from others, his only teacher being Haydon's pupil, George 
Lance, the fruit painter. This artist gave him brief instructions 
in the use of colour. In 1836 Gilbert appeared in public for 
the first time. This was at the gallery of the Society of British 
Artists, where he sent drawings, the subjects of which were 
characteristic, being " The Arrest of Lord Hastings/* from 
Shakespeare, and "Abbot Boniface," from The Monastery of 
Scott. " Inez de Castro " was in the same gallery in the next 
year; it was the first of a long series of works in the same 
medium, representing similar themes, and was accompanied, 
from 1837, by a still greater number of works in oil which were 
exhibited at the British Institution. These included "Don 
Quixote giving advice to Sancho Panza," 1841; "Brunette 
and Phillis," from The Spectator, 1844; "The King's Artillery 
at Marston Moor," i860; and " Don Quixote comes back for 
the last time to his Home and Family," 1867. In that year the 
Institution was finally closed. Gilbert exhibited at the Royal 
Academy from 1838, beginning with the " Portrait of a Gentle- 
man," and continuing, except between 1851 and 1867, till his 
death to exhibit there many of his best and more ambitious 
works. These included such capital instances as "Holbein 



painting the Portrait of Anne Boleyn," " Don Quixote^ tot 
Interview with the Duke and Duchess," 1842, " Charlemagne 
visiting the Schools," 1846. "Touchstone and the Shepherd/* 
and " Rembrandt," a very fine piece, were both there in 1867; 
and in 1873 " Naseby," one of his finest and most picturesque 
designs, was also at the Royal Academy. Gilbert was elected 
A.R.A. 29th January 1872, and R.A. 29th June 1876. Besides 
these mostly large and powerful works, the artist's true arena 
of display was undoubtedly the gallery of the Old Water Colour 
Society, to which from 1852, when he was elected an Associate 
exhibitor, till he died forty-five years later, he contributed not 
fewer than 270 drawings, most of them admirable because of the 
largeness of their style, massive coloration, broad chiaroscuro, 
and the surpassing vigour of their designs. These qualities 
induced the leading critics to claim for him opportunities for 
painting mural pictures of great historic themes as decorations of 
national buildings. " The Trumpeter,"" The Standard-Bearer," 
" Richard II. resigning his Crown " (now at Liverpool), " The 
Drug Bazaar at Constantinople," " The Merchant of Venice " 
and " The Turkish Water-Carrier " are but examples of that 
wealth of art which added to the attractions of the gallery in 
Pall Mall. There Gilbert was elected a full Member in 1855, 
and president of the Society in 187 1, shortly after which he was 
knighted. As an illustrator of books, magazines and periodicals 
of every kind he was most prolific To the success of the 
Illustrated London News his designs lent powerful aid, and he 
was eminently serviceable in illustrating the Shakespeare of Mr 
Howard Staunton. He died on the 6th of October 1897. 

(F.G.S.) 

GILBERT, SIR JOSEPH HENRY (1817-1001), English 
chemist, was born at Hull on the ist of August 1817. He 
studied chemistry first at Glasgow under Thomas Thomson; 
then at University College, London, in the laboratory of A. T. 
Thomson (177&-1840), the professor of medical jurisprudence, 
also attending Thomas Graham's lectures; and finally at Giessen 
under Liebig. On his return to England from Germany he 
acted for a year or so as assistant to his old master A. T. Thomson 
at University College, and in 1843, after spending a short time in 
the study of calico dyeing and printing near Manchester, accepted 
the directorship of the chemical laboratory at the famous 
experimental station established by Sir J. B. Lawes at 
Rothamsted, near St Albans, for the systematic and scientific 
study of agriculture. This position he held for fifty-eight years, 
until his death on the 23rd of December 1001. The work which 
he carried out during that long period in collaboration with 
Lawes was of a most comprehensive character, involving the 
application of many branches of science, such as chemistry, 
meteorology, botany, animal and vegetable physiology, and 
geology; and its influence in improving the methods of practical 
agriculture extended all over the civilized world. Gilbert was 
chosen a fellow of the Royal Society in i860, and in 1867 was 
awarded a royal medal jointly with Lawes. In 1880 he presided 
over the Chemical Section of the British Association at its 
meeting at Swansea, and in 1882 he was president of the London 
Chemical Society, of which he had been a member almost from 
its foundation in 184 1. For six years from 1884 he filled the 
Sibthorpian chair of rural economy at Oxford, and he was also 
an honorary professor at the Royal Agricultural College, Ciren- 
cester. He was knighted in 1893, the year in which the jubilee 
of the Rothamsted experiments was celebrated. 

GILBERT, MARIE DOLORES ELIZA ROSANNA ["Lola 
Montez "J (1818-1861), dancer and adventuress, the daughter 
of a British army officer, was born at Limerick, Ireland, in 181 8. 
Her father dying in India when she was seven years old, and her 
mother marrying again, the child was sent to Europe to be 
educated, subsequently joining her mother at Bath. In 1837 
she made a runaway match with a Captain James of the Indian 
army, and accompanied him to India. In 1842 she returned 
to England, and shortly afterwards her husband obtained a 
decree nisi for divorce. She then studied dancing, making an 
unsuccessful first appearance at Her Majesty's theatre, London, 
in 1843, billed as " Lola Montez, Spanish dancer." Subsequently 



GILBERT, N; J, L.^GILBEET, SIR W. S. 



sift appeared with considerable success in Germany, Poland and 
Russia. Thence she went /to Paris, and in 1847 appeared at 
Munich, where she became the mistress of the old king of Bavaria, 
Ludwig I.; she was naturalized, created comtesse de Landsfetd, 
and given an income of £2000 a year. She soon proved herself 
the real ruler of Bavaria, adopting a liberal and anti- Jesuit 
policy. Her political opponents proved, however, too strong 
for her, and in 1848 she was banished. In 1849 she came to 
England, and in the- saime year was married to George Heald, a 
young officer id the Guards, Her husband's guardian instituted 
a prosecution for bigamy against her on the ground that her 
divorce from Captain James had not been made absolute, and 
she fled with Heald to Spain. In 1853, she appeared at the 
Broadway theatre, New York, and in the following yew at 
the Walnut Street theatre, Philadelphia. In 1853 Heald was 
drowned at Lisbon, and in the same year she married the 
proprietor of a San Francisco newspaper, but did not live long 
with him. Subsequently she appeared in Australia, but returned, 
in 1857, to act in America, and to lecture on gallantry. Her 
health having broken down, she devoted the rest of her life to 
visiting the outcasts of her own sex in New York, where, 
stricken with paralysis, she died on the 17th of January 1861. 
See E, B. D'Auvergne, Lola Montez (New York, 1909), 
GILBERT, NICOLAS JOSEPH LAURENT (1751-1780), French 
poet, was born at Fontenay-le-Chateau in Lorraine in 17 51. 
Having completed his education at the college of Dole, he 
devoted himself for a time to a half-scholastic, half-literary life 
at Nancy, but in 1774 he found his way to the capital. As an 
opponent of the Encyclopaedists and a panegyrist of Louis 
XV., he received considerable pensions. He died in Paris on 
the 1 2th of November 1780 from the results of a fall from his 
horse. The satiric force of one or two of his pieces, as M on 
Apologie (1778) and Le Dix-huiiihme Steele (1775), would alone 
be sufficient to preserve his reputation, which has been further 
increased by modern writers, who, like Alfred de Vigny in his 
Stello (chaps. 7-13), considered him a victim to the spite of his 
philosophic opponents. His best-known verses are the Ode 
imtie* de phisieurs psaumes, usually entitled Adiem & la vie. 

Among his other works may be mentioned Les Families de Darius 
ei d'Ertdame, Jiistoire per sane (1770), Le Carnaval des auteurs 
(i773)» Odes nouvelles et patriotiques (1775). Gilbert's CEuvres 
completes were first published in 1788, and they have since been 
edited by Mastrella (Paris, 1823), by Charles Nodier (1817 or 1825), 
and by M. de Lescure (1882)4 

GILBERT (or Gylberde), WILLIAM (1544-1603), the most 
distinguished man of science in England during the reign of 
Queen Elizabeth,- and the father of electric and magnetic science, 
was a member of an ancient Suffolk family, long resident in 
Clare, and was born on the 24th of May 1544 at Colchester, 
where his father, Hierome Gilbert, became recorder. Educated 
at Colchester school, he entered St John'«s College, Cambridge, 
in 1558, and after taking the degrees of B. A. and M.A. in due 
course, graduated M.D. in 1569, in which year he was elected 
a senior fellow of his college. Soon afterwards he left Cambridge, 
and alter spending three years in Italy and other parts of Europe, 
settled hi 1573 in London, where he practised as a physician with 
" great success and applause." He was admitted to the College 
of Physicians probably about 1576, and from 1581 to 1500 was 
one of the censors. In 1587 he became treasurer, holding the 
office till 1592, and in 1589 he was one of the committee appointed 
to superintend the preparation of the Pharmacopoeia Londinensis 
which the college in that year decided to issue, but which did not 
actually appear till 1618. In 1597 he was again chosen treasurer, 
becoming at the same time consiliarius, and in 1599 he succeeded 
to the presidency. Two years later he was appointed physician 
to Queen Elizabeth, with the usual emolument of £100 a year. 
After this time he seems to have removed to the court, vacating 
his residence, Wingfield House, which was on Peter's Hill, 
between Upper Thames Street and little Knightrider Street, 
and close to the house of the College of Physicians. On the death 
of the queen in 1603 he was reappointed by her successor; but 
he did not long enjoy the honour, for he died, probably of the 
plague, on jthe 30th of November (10th of December, N.S-) 



1603, either in London or in Colchester. He was buried in the 
latter town, in the chancel of Holy Trinity church, where a 
monument, was erected to his memory. To the College of 
Physicians he left his books, globes, instruments and minerals, 
but they were destroyed in the great fire of London. 

Gilbert's, principal work is his treatise on magnetism, entitled 
De magnete, magneticisque corporibus, et de magno magnete 
tellure (London, 1600; later editions— Stettin, 1628, 1633; 
Frankfort, 1029, 1638). This work, which embodied the results 
of many, years' research, was distinguished by its strict adherence 
to the scientific method of investigation by experiment, and by 
the originality of its matter, containing, as it does, an account 
of the author's experiments on magnets and magnetic*! bodies 
and on electrical attractions, and also his great conception that 
the earth is nothing but a large magnet, and that it is this which 
explains, not only the direction of the magnetic needle north and 
south, but also the variation and dipping or inclination of the 
needle. Gilbert's is therefore not merely the first, but the most 
important, systematic contribution to the sciences of electricity 
and magnetism. A posthumous work of Gilbert's was edited 
by his brother, also called William, from two MSS. in the posses- 
sion of Sir William Boswell; its title is De mundo nostro 
sublunari philosophia nova (Amsterdam, 1651). He is the 
reputed inventor besides of two instruments to enable sailors 
" to find out the latitude without seeing of sun, moon or stars," 
an account of which is given in Thomas Blondeville's Theoriques 
of the Planets (London, 1602). He was also the first advocate 
of Copernican views in England, and he concluded that the fixed 
stars are not all at the same distance from the earth. 

It is a matter of great regret for the historian of chemistry 
that Gilbert left nothing on that branch of science, to which he 
was deeply devoted," attaining to great exactness therein." So 
at least says Thomas Fuller, who in his Worthies of England pro- 
phesied truly how he would be afterwards known: " Mahomet's 
tomb at Mecca," he says, "is said strangely to hang up, 
attracted by some invisible loadstone; but the memory of this 
doctor will never fall to the ground, which his incomparable 
book De magnete will support to eternity." 

An English translation of the De magnete was published by P. F. 
Mottelay in i8j>3» and another, with notes by S. r. Thompson, was 
issued by the Gilbert Club of London in 1900. 

GILBERT, SIR WILLIAM SCHWBNK (1836- ), English 
playwright and humorist, son of William Gilbert (a descendant 
of Sir Humphrey Gilbert), was born in London on the 18th of 
November 1 836. His father was the author of a number of novels, 
the best-known of which were Shirley Hall Asylum (1863) and 
Dr Austin's Guests (1866). Several of these novels — which were 
characterized by a singular acuteness and lucidity of style, by 
a dry, subacid humour, by a fund of humanitarian feeling and by 
a considerable medical knowledge, especially in regard to the 
psychology of lunatics and monomaniacs — were illustrated by 
his son, who developed a talent for whimsical draughtsmanship; 
W. S. Gilbert was educated at Boulogne, at Ealing and at King's 
College, graduating B.A. from the university of London in 1856, 
The termination of the Crimean War was fatal to his project of 
competing for a commission in the Royal Artillery, but he 
obtained a post in the education department of the privy council 
office (1857-X861). Disliking the routine work, he left the Civil 
Service, entered the Inner Temple, was called to the bar in 
November 1864, and joined the northern circuit. His practice 
was inconsiderable, and his military and legal ambitions were 
eventually satisfied by a captaincy in the volunteers and appoint- 
ment as a magistrate for Middlesex (June 1891). In 186 1 the. 
comic journal Fun was started by H. J. Byron, and Gilbert 
became from the first a valued contributor. Failing to obtain an 
entrle to Punchy he continued sending excellent comic verse 
to Fun, with humorous illustrations, the work of his own pen, 
over the signature of " Bab." A collection of these lyrics, in 
which deft craftsmanship unites a titillating satire on the 
deceptiveness of appearances with the irrepressible nonsense 
of a Lewis Carroll, was issued separately in 1869 under tjie title 
of Bab Ballads, and was followed by More Bab Ballads. The 

xn. 1 a 



10 



y ■>' i&ILBERTlUE) LAJ PORREE < : U i ) 



two cottertionsfand Songs of a Savoyard were united iuafvohuhe 
issued in 1898, with many new illustrations. The best of the 
old cuts, such as> those depicting the "Bishop of Rum-riiFoo" 
and the " Discontented Sugar Broker/' were preserved intact. 

While remaining a staunch supporter of Fun, Gilbert was soon 
imniersed in other journalistic work, and Ms position as dramatic 
critic to the Illustrated Times turned his attention to the stage. 
He had not to wait long for an opportunity. Early in December 
i£66 T. W. Robertson was asked by Miss Herbert, lessee of the St 
James's theatre, to find some one who could turn out a bright 
Christmas piece in a fortnight, and suggested Gilbert; the latter 
promptly produced Dulcamara, a burlesque of VElisire d' amort, 
written in ten days, rehearsed in a week, and duly performed at 
Christmas. He sold the piece outright for £30, a piece of rashness 
which he had cause to regret, for it turned out a commercial 
success. In 1870 he was commissioned by Buckstone to write a 
blank verse fairy comedy, based upon Le Palais de la veriti, 
the novel by Madame de Genlis. The result was The Palace 
of Truth v a fairy drama, poor in structure but clever in workman- 
ship, which served the purpose of Mr and Mrs Kendal in 1870 
at the Haymarket. This was followed in 187 1 by Pygmalion 
and Galatea, another three-act " mythological comedy," a clever 
and effective but artificial piece. Another fairy comedy, The 
Wicked World, written for Buckstone and the Kendals, was 
followed in March 1873 by a burlesque version, in collaboration 
with Gilbert A Beckett, entitled The Happy Land. Gilbert's 
next dramatic ventures inclined more to the conventional 
pattern, combining sentiment and a cynical humour in a manner 
strongly reminiscent of his father's style. Of these pieces, 
Sweethearts was given at the Prince of Wales's theatre, 7th 
November 1874; Tom Cobb at the St James's, 24th April 
1875; Broken Hearts at the Court, 9th December 1875; Dan'l 
Druce (a drama in darker vein, suggested to some extent by 
SUas Marner) at the Haymarket, nth September 1876; and 
Engaged 2X the Haymarket, 3rd October 1877. The first and 
last of these proved decidedly popular. Gretchen, a verse draitia 
in four acts, appeared in 1879. A one-act piece, called Comedy 
and Tragedy, was produced at the Lyceum, 26th January, 1884. 
ISvo dramatic trifles of later date were Foggerty's Fairy and 
Rozenkrantz and Guildenstem, a travesty of Hamlet, performed 
at the Vaudeville in June 1891. Several of these dramas were 
based upon short stories by Gilbert, a number of which had 
appeared from tirne to time in the Christmas numbers of various 
periodicals. The best of them have been collected in the volume 
entitled Foggerty's Fairy, and other Stories. In the autumn of 
1 87 1 Gilbert commenced his memorable collaboration (which 
lasted over twenty years) with Sir Arthur Sullivan. The first 
two comic operas, Thespis; of The Gods grown Old (26th 
September 187 1) and Trial by Jury (Royalty, 25th March 1875) 
were merely essays. Like one or two of their successors, they 
were, as regards plot, little more than extended " Bab Ballads." 
Later (especially in the Yeomen of the Guard), much more elabora- 
tion Was attempted. The next piece was produced at the Opera 
Comique (17th November 1877) as The Sorcerer. At the same 
theatre were successfully given HM.S. Pinafore (25 th May 
1878), The Pirates of Penzance; or The Slave of Duty (3rd April 
1880), and Patience; or Bunthorrvfs Bride (23rd Aprii 1881). In 
October 1881 the successful Patience was removed to a new 
theatre, the Savoy, specially built for the Gilbert and Sullivan 
operas by Richard D'Oyly Carte. Patience was followed, on 
25th November 1882, by Iolanlhe; or The Peer and the Peri; 
and then came, on 5th January 1884, Princess Ida; or 
Castle Adamant, a re-cast of a charming and witty fantasia 
which Gilbert had written some years previously, and had then 
described as a " respectful perversion of Mr. Tennyson's exquisite 
poem." The impulse reached its fullest development in the 
operas that (Followed next in order — The Mikado; or The Town 
of Titipu (14th March 1885); Ruddigore (22nd January 1887); 
The Yeomen of the Guard (3rd October 1888); and The Gondoliers 
(7th December 1889). After the appearance of The Gondoliers 
a coolness occurred between the composer and librettist, owing 
to Gilberts considering' that Sullivan had not supported nim in 



a business disagreement with D'Oyly Carte, But the estrange- 
ment was only temporary. Gilbert wrote several mare libretto* 1 , 
and of these Utopia Limited (1893V and the exceptionally witty 
Gfand> Duke (1896) were written in conjunction with SullivaxU 
As a master of metre Gilbert had *hown himself consummate, 
as a dealer in quips ami paradoxes and ludicrous dilemma*, 
unrivalled* Even for the music of the opJeras he deserves jsbme 
credit, for the rhythms were frequently fate own (as mf c I haJve<a 
Song to Sing, O ■"), and the inetre* were io- many cases invented 
by himself. One or two of his librettos, 'such as that of Patience*. 
are virtually flawless. Enthusiasts are divided only as to the 
comparative merit of the operas. Princess Ida and Patience 
are in some respects the daintiest. There is a genuine vein of 
poetry in The Yeomen of the Guard. Some of the drollest songs 
are in Pinafore and Ruddigore. The Gondoliers shows the most 
charming lightness of touch, while with the general public The 
Mikado proved the favourite. The enduring popularity of the 
Gilbert and Sullivan operas was! abundantly proved by later 
revivals. Among the birthday honours in June 1907 Gilbert was 
given a knighthood. In 1909 his Fallen Fairies (music by 
Edward German) was produced at the 'Savoy. (T. Sb.) 

GILBERT DE LA PORKER, frequently known as Gilbertus 
Porretanus or Pictaviensis (1070-1154), scholastic logician and 
theologian, was bora at Poitiers. He Was educated under 
Bernard of Chartres and Anselm of Laon. After teaching for 
about twenty years in Chartres, he lectured on dialectics and 
theology in Paris (from 1137) and in ri'41 returned to Poitiers, 
being elected bishop in the following year. His heterodox 
opinions regarding the doctrine of the Trinity drew upon his 
works the condemnation of the church. The synod of Reims 
in 1 148 procured papal sanction for four propositions opposed 
to certain of Gilbert's tenets, and his works were condemned 
until they should be corrected in accordance with the principles 
of the church. Gilbert seems to have submitted quietly to this 
judgment; he yielded assent to the four propositions, and 
remained on friendly terms with his antagonists till his death 
on the 4th of September 1154. Gilbert is almost the only 
logician of the 12th century who is quoted by the greater 
scholastics of the succeeding age. His chief logical work, the 
treatise De sex principiis, was regarded with a reverence almost 
equal to that paid to Aristotle, and furnished matter for numerous 
commentators, amongst them Albertus Magnus* Owing to the 
fame of this work, he is mentioned by Dante as the Magister 
sex principiorum. The treatise itself is a discussion of the 
Aristotelian categories, specially of the six subordinate modes. 
Gilbert distinguishes in the ten categories two ^classes, one 
essential, the other derivative. Essential x>r inhering (format 
inhaerentes) in the objects themselves are only substance, quantity, 
quality and relation in the stricter sense of that term. The 
remaining six, when, where, action, passion, position and habit, 
are relative and subordinate (format assistentes). This suggestion 
has some interest, but is of no great value; either in logic or in 
the theory of knowledge. More' important in' the* 'history of 
scholasticism are the theological consequences to winch Gilbert's 
realism led bfm. In the commentary on the treatise De Trinitate 
(erroneously attributed to BoStius) he proceeds from the 
metaphysical notion that pure or abstract being is prior in nature 
to that which is. This pure being is God, and must be distin- 
guished from the triune God as known to us. God is incompre- 
hensible, and the categories cannot be applied to determine his 
existence. In God there is no distinction or difference, whereas 
in all substances ot things there is duality, arising: from the 
element of matter. Between pure being and substances stand 
the ideas or forms* which subsist, though they are not substances. 
These forms, when materialized, are called formae substantiates 
or formae nativae; they are the essences t>f things, and in them- 
selves have* no relation to the accidents of things* Things are 
temporal, the ideas perpetual, God eternal. The pure form 
of existence^ that by which God is God, must be distin- 
guished from the three persons who are God by participation 
in this form. The form or esseflc*' is one, the persons or 
substances threei It was this distinction between Deitas of 



GILBERT OF SEMPRINGHAM— GILBE Y 



ii 



Divinitaa and Deu^ that led to the condemnation of Gilbert's 
doctrine. . 

De sex principOs and commentary on the De Trinitate in Migne, 
Patrologia Latina, lxiv. 1255 and clxxxviii. 1257; see also Abbe 
Berthaud, Gilbert de la Porrte (Foitiers, 1892); B. Haureau, 
De la philosophic scolastique, pp. 204-318; R. SchmidV article 
44 Gilbert Porretanus" in Herzog-Hauck, Realettcyk. f. pretest 
Theol. (vol. 6, 1809); Prantl, Geschichte d. Logik, ii. 215; Bach, 
Dogmengeschichte, ii. 133 ; article Scholasticism. 

GILBERT OF SEMPRINGHAJI, ST, founder of the Gilbertines, 
the only religious order of English origin, was born at Sempring- 
ham in Lincolnshire, & 1083-1089* He was educated in France, 
and ordained in 1123, being presented by his father to the living 
of Sempringham. About 113 5 he established there a convent for 
nuns; and to perform the heavy work and cultivate the fields 
he formed a number of labourers into a society of lay brothers 
attached to the convent. Similar establishments were founded 
elsewhere, and in 1x47 Gilbert tried to get them incorporated in 
the Cistercian order. Failing in this, he proceeded to form 
communities of priests and clerics i to perform the spiritual 
ministrations needed by the nuns. The women lived according 
to the Benedictine rule as Interpreted by the Cistercians; the 
men according to the rule of St Augustine, and were canons 
regular. The special constitutions of the order were largely 
taken from those of the Premonstratensian canons and of the 
Cistercians. Like Fontevrault (q.v.) it was a double order, the 
communities of men and women living side by side; but, though 
the property all belonged to the nuns, the superior of the canons 
was the head of the whole establishment, and the general superior 
was a canon, called " Master of Sempringham." The general 
chapter was a mixed assembly composed of two canons and two 
nuns from each house; the nuns had to travel to the chapter 
in closed carts. The office was celebrated together in the church, 
a high stone screen separating the two choirs of canons and nuns. 
The order received papal approbation in n 48. By Gilbert's 
death (1189) there were nine double monasteries and four of 
canons only, containing about 700 canons and 5 1000 nuns in all. 
At the dissolution there were some 25 monasteries, whereof 4 
ranked among the greater monasteries (see list in F. A. Gasquet's 
English Monastic Life) . The order never spread beyond England, 
The habit of the Gilbertines was black, with a white cloak. 

See Bollandist9' Acta Sanctorum (4th of Feb.) ; William Dugdale, 
Manas tic on (1846);, Helybt, Hist, des ordres religteux (1714), 
ii. c. 29. The best modern account is St Gilbert of Setnpringkam t 
and (he Gilbertines, by Rose Graham (1901). The art. in Dictionary 
of National Biography gives abundant information on St Gilbert, 
but is unsatisfactory on the order, as it might easily convey the 
impression that the canons and nuns lived together, whereas they 
were most carefully separated ; and altogether undue prominence is 
given to a single scandal . M ies Graham declares that the reputation 
of the order waa good until the end. (E. C. B.) 

GILBERT FOUOT (d. . 1187), bishop of Hereford, and of 
London, is first mentioned as a monk of Cluny, whence he was 
called in 1 136, to plead the cause of the empress Matilda against 
Stephen at the Roman court. Shortly afterwards he became 
prior of Cluny; then prior of Abbeville, a house dependent upon 
Cluny. In 1*39 he was elected abbot of Gloucester. The 
appointment was confirmed by Stephen, and from the ecclesi* 
astical point of view was unexceptionable. But the new abbot 
proved himself a valuable ally of the empress* and her, ablest 
controversialist. Gilbert's reputation grew rapidly. He was 
respected at Rome; and he acted as the representative of the 
primate, Theobald, in the supervision of the Welsh church* In 
1148, on being nominated by the pope to the see of Hereford, 
Gilbert with characteristic wariness sought confirmation both 
from Henry of Anjou and from Stephen. But he was an 
Angevin at heart, and after 1x54 was treated by Henry II. with 
every mark of consideration.; He was Becket's rival for the 
primacy, and the only bishop who protested against the. king's 
choice. Becket, with rare forbearance, endeavoured to win his. 
friendship by procuring for him the. see of Lqndon (1163). But 
Gilbert evaded the customary profession of obedience to the 
primate, and apparently aspired to make his see independent 
of Canterbury,. On the questions raised by the Constitutions 
of Clarendon he sided with the king, whose confessor he had now 



become. He urged Becket to yield, and, when this advice was 
rejected, encouraged his fellow-bishops to repudiate the authority 
of the archbishop. In the years of controversy which followed 
Becket's flight the king depended much upon the bishop's 
skill as a disputant and diplomatist. Gilbert was twice ex- 
communicated by Becket, but both on these and on other occasions 
he showed great dexterity in detaching the pope from the cause 
of the exile. To him it was chiefly due that Henry avoided an 
open conflict with Rome of the kind which John afterwards 
provoked. Gilbert was one of the bishops whose excommunica-. 
tion in 1x70 provoked the king's knights to murder Becket; 
but he cannot be reproached with any share in the crime. His 
later years were uneventful, though he enjoyed great influence 
with the king and among his fellow-bishops. Scholarly, dignified, 
ascetic in his private life, devoted to the service of the Church, 
he was nevertheless more respected than loved. His nature was 
cold; he made few friends; and the taint of a calculating 
ambition runs through his whole career. He died in the spring 
of 1 187. • -. 

See Gilbert's Letters, ed. J. A. Giles (Oxford, 1845); Materials 
for the History of Thomas Becket, ed. J. C. Robertson (Rolls series, 
1 875-1 885); and Miss K. Norgate's England under the Angevin 
Kings (1887). . ~(H. W. C. D.) , 

GILBERT (KiNGSimx) ISLANDS, an extensive archipelago 
belonging to Great Britain in the mid-western Pacific Ocean,, 
lying N. and S. of the equator, and between 170 and 180 E* 
There are sixteen islands, all coral reefs or atolls, extending in 
crescent form over about five degrees of latitude. The principal 
is Taputenea or Drummond Island. The soil, mostly of coral 
.sand, is productive of little else than the coco-nut palm, and the 
chief source of food supply is the sea, The population of these 
islands presents a remarkable phenomenon; in spite of adverse 
conditions of environment and complete barbarism it is exceed- 
ingly dense, in strong contradistinction to that of many other 
more favoured islands. The land area of the group is only 166 m., 
yet the population is about 30,000. The Gilbert islanders are 
a dark and coarse type of the Polynesian race, and show signs 
of much crossing. They are tall and stout, with an average height 
of 5 ft. 8 in., and are of a vigorous, energetic temperament. 
They are nearly always naked, but wear a conical hat of pandanus 
leaf* In war they have an armour of plaited coco-nut fibres. 
They are fierce fighters, their chief weapon being a sword armed 
with sharks' teeth. Their canoes are well made of coco-nut wood 
boards sewn neatly together and fastened on frames. British 
and American missionary work has been prosecuted with some 
success. The large population led to the introduction of natives 
from these islands into Hawaii as labourers in 187 8-1 884, but 
they were not found satisfactory. The islands were discovered 
by John Byron in 1765 (one of them bearing his name) ; Captains 
Gilbert and Marshall visited them in 1788; and they were 
annexed by Great Britain in 1892. 

GILBEY, SIR WALTER, 1ST Bart. (1831- ), English 
wine-merchant, was bom at Bishop Stortford, Hertfordshire, 
in 1 83 1. His father, the owner and frequently the driver of the 
daily coach between Bishop Stortford and London, died when 
he was eleven years old, and young Gilbey was shortly afterwards 
placed in the office of an estate agent at Tring, subsequently 
obtaining a clerkship in a firm of parliamentary agents in London. 
On the outbreak of the Crimean War, Walter Gilbey and his 
younger brother, Alfred, volunteered for civilian service at the 
front, and were employed at a convalescent hospital on the 
Dardanelles. Returning to London on the declaration of peace, 
Walter and Alfred Gilbey, on the advice of their eldest brother, 
Henry Gilbey, a wholesale wine-merchant, started in the retail 
wine and spirit trade. The heavy duty then levied by the 
British government on French, Portuguese and Spanish wines 
was prohibitive of a sale among the English middle classes, and 
: especially lower middle classes, whose usual alcoholic beverage 
was accordingly beer. Henry Gilbey was of opinion that these 
classes would gladly drink wine if they could get it at a moderate 
price, and by his advice Walter and Alfred determined to push 
the sales of colonial, and particularly of Cape, wines, on which 



12 



GILDAS— -GILDERSLEEVE 



the duty was comparatively light. Backed by capital obtained 
through Henry Gilbey, they accordingly opened in 1857 a small 
retail business in a basement in Oxford Street, London. The 
Cape wines proved popular, and within three years the brothers 
had 20,000 customers on their books. The creation of the 
off-licence system by Mr Gladstone, then chancellor of the 
exchequer, in i860, followed by the large reduction in the duty 
on French wines effected by the commercial treaty between 
England and France in 1861, revolutionized their trade and 
laid the foundation of their fortunes. Three provincial grocers, 
who had been granted the new off-licence, applied to be appointed 
the Gilbeys' agents in their respective districts, and many 
similar applications followed. These were granted, and before 
very long a leading local grocer was acting as the firm's agents 
in every district in England. The grocer who dealt in the 
Gilbeys' wines and spirits was not allowed to sell those of any 
other firm, and the Gilbeys in return handed over to him all 
their existing customers in his district. This arrangement was 
of mutual advantage, and the Gilbeys' business increased so 
rapidly that in 1864 Henry Gilbey abandoned his own under- 
taking to join his brothers. In 1867 the three brothers secured 
the old Pantheon theatre and concert hall in Oxford Street for 
their headquarters. In 1875 the firm purchased a large claret- 
producing estate in M6d6c, on the banks of the Gironde, and 
became also the proprietors of two large whisky-distilleries in 
Scotland. In 1893 the business was concerted, for family 
reasons, into a private limited liability company, of which Walter 
Gilbey, who in the same year was created a baronet, was chair- 
man. Sir Walter Gilbey also became well known as a breeder 
of shire horses, and he did much to improve the breed of English 
horses (other than race-horses) generally, and wrote extensively 
on the subject. He became president of the Shire Horse Society, 
of the Hackney Horse Society, and of the Hunters' Improve- 
ment Society, and he was the founder and chairman of the 
London Cart Horse Parade Society. He was also a practical 
agriculturist, and president of the Royal Agricultural Society. 

GILDAS, or Gildus (c. 516-570), the earliest of British 
historians (see Celt: Literature, " Welsh"), surnamed by some 
Sapiens, and by others Badonicus, seems to have been born in 
the year 516. Regarding him little certain is known, beyond 
some isolated particulars that may be gathered from hints 
dropped in the course of his work. Two short treatises exist, 
purporting to be lives of Gildas, and ascribed respectively to the 
nth and 12th centuries; but the writers of both are believed to 
have confounded two, if not more, persons that had borne the 
name. It is from an incidental remark of his own, namely, that 
the year of the siege of Mount Badon — one of the battles fought 
between the Saxons and the Britons — was also the year of his 
own nativity, that the date of his birth has been derived; tho 
place, however, is not mentioned. His assertion that he was 
moved to undertake his task mainly by "zeal for God's house and 
for His holy law," and the very free use he has made of quotations 
from the Bible, leave scarcely a doubt that he was an ecclesiastic 
of some order or other. In addition, we learn that he went 
abroad, probably to France, in his thirty-fourth year, where, 
after 10 years of hesitation and preparation, he composed, about 
560, the work bearing his name. His materials, he tells us, 
were collected from foreign rather than native sources, the 
latter of which had been put beyond his reach by circumstances. 
The Cambrian Annals give 570 as the year of his death. 

The writings of Gildas have come down to us under the title 
of Gildae SapietUis de excidio Britanniae liber querulus. Though 
at first written consecutively, the work is now usually divided 
into three portions, — a preface, the history proper, and ah 
epistle, — the last, which is largely made up of passages and 
texts of Scripture brought together for the purpose of condemning 
the vices of his countrymen and their rulers, being the least 
important, though by far the longest of the three. In the second 
he passes in brief review the history of Britain from its invasion 
by the Romans till his own times. Among other matters refer- 
ence is made to the introduction of Christianity in the reign of 
Tiberius; the persecution under Diocletian; the spread of the 



Arian heresy; the election of Maximus as emperor by the legions 
in Britain, and his subsequent death at Aquileia; the incursions 
of the Picts and Scots into the southern part of the island; the 
temporary assistance rendered to the harassed Britons by the 
Romans; the final abandonment of the island by the latter; 
the coming of the Saxons and their reception by Guortigern 
(Vortigern); and, finally, the conflicts between the Britons, led 
by a noble Roman, Ambrosius Aurelianus, and the new invaders. 
Unfortunately, on almost every point on which he touches, the 
statements of Gildas are vague and obscure. With one excep- 
tion already alluded to, no dates are given, and events are not 
always taken up in the order of their occurrence. These faults 
are of less importance during the period when Greek and Roman 
writers notice the affairs of Britain; but they become more 
serious when, as is the case from nearly the beginning of the- 5th 
century to the date of his death, Gildas's brief narrative is our 
only authority for most of what passes current as the history of 
our island during those years. Thus it is on his sole, though in 
this instance perhaps trustworthy, testimony that the famous 
letter rests, said to have been sent to Rome in 446 by the despair- 
ing Britons, commencing: — " To AgLtius (Aetius), consul for 
the third time, the groans of the Britons." 

Gildas's treatise was first published in 1525 by Polydore Vergil, 
but with many avowed alterations and omissions. In ij>68 John 
Josseline, secretary to Archbishop Parker, issued a new edition of it 
more in conformity with manuscript authority; and in 1691 a 
still more carefully revised edition appeared at Oxford by Thomas 
Gale. It was frequently reprinted on the Continent during the 
1 6th century, and once or twice since. The next English edition, 
described by Potthast as editio pessima, was that published by the 
English Historical Society in 1838, and edited by the Rev. J. Steven- 
son. The text of Gildas founded on Gale's edition collated with 
two other MSS., with elaborate introductions* is included in the 
Monumenta historica Britannica t edited by Petrie and Sharpe 
(London, 1848). Another edition is in A. W. Haddan and W. 
Stubbs, Councils and Eccles. Documents relating to Great Britain 
(Oxford, 1869); the latest edition is that by Theodor Mommsen in 
Monum. Germ. hist. auct. antiq. xiii. (Chronica min. iii.), 1894. 

GILDER, RICHARD WATSON (1844-1009), American editor 
and poet, was born in Bordentown, New Jersey, on the 8th of 
February 1844, a brother of William Henry Gilder (183 8-1 900), 
the Arctic explorer. He was educated at Bellevue Seminary, 
an institution conducted by his father, the Rev. William Henry 
Gilder (181 2-1864), in Flushing, Long Island. After three years 
(1865-1868) on the Newark, New Jersey, Daily Advertiser, he 
founded, with Newton Crane, the Newark Morning Register. In 
1869 he became editor of Hours at Homey and in 1870 assistant 
editor of Scribner f s Monthly (eleven years later re-named The 
Century Magazine), of which he became editor in 188 1. He was 
one of the founders of the Free Art League, of the International 
Copyright League, and of the Authors 1 Club; was chairman of 
the New York Tenement House Commission in i8t)4; and wad a 
prominent member of the National Institute of Arts and Letters, 
of the Council of the National Civil Service Reform League, and 
of the executive committee of the Citizens' Union of New York 
City. His poems, which are essentially lyrical, have been collected 
in various volumes, including Five Books of Song (1894), In 
Palestine and other Poems (1898), Poems and Inscriptions(igoi), 
and In the Heights (1005). A complete edition of his poems was 
published in 1908. He also edited "Sonnets from the Portuguese " 
and other Poems by Elizabeth } Barrett Browning; "One Word 
More" and other Poems by Robert Browning (1905). He died in 
New York on the 18th of November * 909. His wife, Helena 
de Kay, a grand-daughter of Joseph Rodman Drake; assisted, 
with Saint Gaudens and others, in founding the Society of 
American Artists, now merged in the National Academy, 
and the Art Students' League of New York. She translated 
Sensier's biography of Millet, and painted, before her marriage 
in 1874, studies in flowers and ideal heads, much admired for 
their feeling and delicate colouring. 

GILDERSLEEVE, BASIL LANNEAU (1831- ), American 
classical scholar, was born in Charleston, South Carolina, on thd 
23rd of October 1831, son of Benjamin Gildersleeve(i 791-1875,) 
a Presbyterian evangelist, and editor of the Charleston Christian 
Observer in 1826-1845, of the Richmond (Va.) Watchman and 



GILDING 



1 3 



Observer in 1845-1856, and of The Central Presbyterian m 1856- 
i860. The son graduated at Princeton in 1849, studied under 
Franz in Berlin, under Friedrich Ritschl at Bonn and under 
Sdmeidewin at Gottingen, where he received his doctor's degree 
in 1853. From 1856 to 1876 he was professor of Greek in the 
University of Virginia, holding the chair of Latin also in 1861- 
1866; and in 1876 he became professor of Greek in the newly 
founded Johns Hopkins University. In 1880 The American 
Journal of Philology, a quarterly published by the Johns Hopkins 
University, was established under his editorial charge, and his 
strong personality was expressed in the department of the Journal 
headed " Brief Report " or " Lanx Saturn," and in the earliest 
years of its publication every petty detail was in his hands. 
His style in it, as elsewhere, is in striking contrast to that of the 
typical classical scholar, and accords with his conviction that the 
true aim of scholarship is " that which is." He published a 
Latin Grammar (1867; revised with the co-operation of Gonzalez 
B. Lodge, 1894 and 1899) and a Latin Series for use in secondary 
schools (1875), hot* 1 marked by lucidity of order and mastery of 
grammatical theory and methods. His edition of Persius (1875) 
is of great value. But his bent was rather toward Greek than 
Latin. His special interest in Christian Greek was partly the 
cause of his editing in 1877 The Apologies of Justin Martyr, 
" which " (to use his own words) " I used unblushingly as a 
repository for my syntactical formulae." Gildersleeve's studies 
under Franz had no doubt quickened his interest in Greek 
syntax, and his logic, untrammelled by previous categories, and 
his marvellous sympathy with the language were displayed in 
this most unlikely of places. His Syntax of Classic Greek (Part I., 
1900, with C. W. E. Miller) collects these formulae. Gildersleeve 
edited in 1885 The Olympian and Pythian Odes of Pindar, with 
a brilliant and valuable introduction. His views on the function 
of grammar were summarized in a paper on The Spiritual Rights 
of Minute Research delivered at Bryn Mawr on the 16th of June 
1 89 5 . His collected contributions to literary periodicals appeared 
in 1890 under the title Essays and Studies Educational and 
Literary. 

GILDING, the art of spreading gold, either by mechanical 
or by chemical means, over the surface of a body for the purpose 
of ornament. The art of gilding was known to the ancients. 
According to Herodotus, the Egyptians were accustomed to gild 
wood and metals ; and gilding by means of gold plates is frequently 
mentioned in the Old Testament. Pliny informs us that the first 
gilding seen at Rome was after the destruction of Carthage, under 
the censorship of Lucius Mummius, when the Romans began to 
gild the ceilings of their temples and palaces, the Capitol being the 
first place on which this enrichment was bestowed. But he adds 
that luxury advanced on them so rapidly that in a little time you 
might see all, even private and poor persons, gild the walls, vaults, 
and other parts of their dwellings. Owing to the comparative 
thickness of the gold-leaf used in ancient gilding, the traces of it 
which yet remain are remarkably brilliant and solid. Gilding 
has in all times occupied an important place in the ornamental 
arts of Oriental countries; and the native processes pursued in 
India at the present day may be taken as typical of the arts as 
practised from the earliest periods. For the gilding of copper, 
employed in the decoration of temple domes and other large 
works, the following is an outline of the processes employed. 
The metal surface is thoroughly scraped, cleaned and polished, and 
next heated in a fire sufficiently to remove any traces of grease or 
other impurity which may remain from the operation of polishing. 
It is then dipped in an acid solution prepared from dried unripe 
apricots, and rubbed with pumice or brick powder. Next, the 
surface is rubbed over with mercury which forms a superficial 
amalgam with the copper, after which it is left some hours in clean 
water, again washed with the acid solution, and dried. It is 
now ready for receiving the gold, which is laid on in leaf, and, on 
adhering, assumes a grey appearance from combining with the 
mercury, but on the Application of heat the latter metal volatilizes, 
leaving the gold a dull greyish hue. The colour is brought up 
by means of rubbing with agate burnishers. The weight of 
mercury used in this process is double that of the gold laid on, 



and the thickness of the gilding is regulated by the circumstances 
or necessities of the case. For the gilding of iron or steel, the 
surface is first scratched over with chequered lines, then washed 
in a hot solution of green apricots, dried and heated just short 
of red-heat. The gold-leaf is then laid on, and rubbed in with 
agate burnishers, when it adheres by catching into the prepared 
scratched surface. 

Modern gilding is applied to numerous and diverse surfaces 
and by various distinct processes, so that the art is prosecuted 
in many ways, and is part of widely different ornamental and 
useful arts. It forms an important and essential part of frame- 
making (see Carving and Gelding); it is largely employed 
in connexion with cabinet-work, decorative painting and house 
ornamentation; and it also bulks largely in bookbinding and 
ornamental leather work. Further, gilding is much employed 
for coating baser metals, as in button-making, in the gilt toy trade, 
in electro-gilt reproductions and in electro-plating; and it is 
also a characteristic feature in the decoration of pottery, porcelain 
and glass. The various processes fall under one or other of two 
heads — mechanical gilding and gilding by chemical agency. 

Mechanical Gilding embraces all the operations by which gold- 
leaf is prepared (see GoldBeating), and the several processes 
by which it is mechanically attached to the surfaces it is intended 
to cover. It thus embraces the burnish or water-gilding and the 
oil-gilding of the carver and gilder, and the gilding operations of 
the house decorator, the sign-painter, the bookbinder, the paper- 
stainer and several others. Polished iron, steel and other metals 
are gilt mechanically by applying gold-leaf to the metallic surface 
at a temperature just under red-heat, pressing the leaf on with a 
burnisher and reheating, when additional leaf may be laid on. 
The process is completed by cold burnishing. 

Chemical Gilding embraces those processes in which the sold 
used is at some stage in a state of chemical combination. Of these 
the following are the principal : — 

Cold Gildtng.^-ln this process the gold is obtained in a state of 
extremely fine division, and applied by mechanical means. Cold 
gilding on silver is performed by a solution of gold in aqua-regia. 
applied by dipping a linen rag into the solution, burning it, and 
rubbing the black and heavy ashes on the silver with the finger 
or a piece of leather or cork. Wet gilding is effected by means of 
a dilute solution of chloride of gold with twice its quantity of ether. 
The liquids are agitated and allowed to rest, when the ether separates 
and floats on the surface of the acid. The whole mixture is then 
poured into a funnel with a small aperture, and allowed to rest 
for some time, when the acid is run off and the ether separated. 
The ether will be found to have taken up all the gold from the acid, 
and may be used for gilding iron or steel, for which purpose the 
metal is polished with the finest emery and spirits of wine. The 
ether is then applied with a small brush, and as it evaporates it 
deposits the gold, which can now be heated and polished. For 
small delicate figures a pen or a fine brush may be used for laying 
on the ether solution. Fire-gilding or Wash-gilding is a process by 
which an amalgam of gold is applied to metallic surfaces, the mercury 
being subsequently volatilized, leaving a film of gold or an amalgam 
containing from 13 to 16% of mercury. In the preparation of the 
amalgam the gold must first be reduced to thin plates or grains, 
which are heated red hot, and thrown into mercury previously heated, 
till it begins to smoke. Upon stirring the mercury with an iron 
rod, the gold totally disappears. The proportion of mercury to 
gold is generally as six or eight to one. When the amalgam is 
cold it is squeezed through chamois leather for the purpose of 
separating the superfluous mercury; the gold, with about twice 
its weight of mercury, remains behind, forming a yellowish silvery 
mass of the consistence of butter. When the metal to be gilt is 
wrought or chased, it ought to be covered with mercury before 
the amalgam is applied, that this may be more easily spread; but 
when the surface of the metal is plain, the amalgam may be applied 
to it direct. When no such preparation is applied, the surface to be 
gilded is simply bitten and cleaned with nitric acid. A deposit of 
mercury is obtained on a metallic surface by means of " quicksilver 
water, a solution of nitrate of mercury, — the nitric acid attacking 
the metal to which it is applied, and thus leaving a film of free 
metallic mercury. The amalgam being equally spread over the 
prepared surface of the metal, the mercury is then sublimed by a 
heat just sufficient for that purpose; for, if it is too great, part of 
the gold may be driven off, or it may run together and leave some 
of the surface of the metal bare. When the mercury has evaporated, 
which is known by the surface having entirely become of a dull 
yellow colour, the metal must undergo other operations, by which the 
fine gold colour is given to it. First, the gilded surface is rubbed 
with a scratch brush of brass wire, until its surface be smooth ; then 
it is covered over with a composition called " gilding wax," and 
again exposed to the fire until the wax is burnt off. This wax is 
composed of beeswax mixed with some of the following substances, 



I* 



GILD8 



viz. red ochre, verdigris, copper scales, alum, vitriol, borax. By 
this operation the colour of the gilding' is heightened; and the 
effect seems to be produced by a perfect dissipation of some mercury 
remaining after the former operation. Toe dissipation is well 
effected by this equable application of heat. The gilt surface is then 
covered over with nitre, alum or other salts, ground together, and 
mixed up into a paste with water or weak ammonia. The piece of 
metal thus covered is exposed to a certain degree of heat, and then 
quenched in water. By this method its colour is further improved 
and brought nearer to that of gold, probably by removing any 
particles of copper that may have been on the gilt surface. This 
process, when skilfully carried out, produces gilding of great solidity 
and beauty; but owing to the exposure of the workmen to mercurial 
fumes, it is very unhealthy, and further there is much loss of mercury. 
Numerous contrivances have been introduced to obviate these serious 
evils. Gilt brass buttons used for uniforms are gilt by this process, 
and there is an act of . parliament (1796) yet unrepealed which pre- 
scribes 5 grains of gold as the smallest quantity that may be used 
for the gilding of 12 dozen of buttons 1 in. in diameter. 

Gilding of Pottery and Porcelain. — The quantity of gold consumed 
for these purposes is very large. The gold used is dissolved in aqua- 
regia, and the acid is driven off by heat, or the gold may be precipi- 
tated by means of sulphate of iron. In this pulverulent state the 
gold is mixed with Ath of its weight of oxide of bismuth, together 
with a small quantity of borax and gum water. The mixture is 
applied to the articles with a camel's hair pencil, and after passing 
through the fire the gold is of a dingy colour, but the lustre is brought 
out by burnishing with agate and bloodstone, and afterwards 
cleaning with vinegar or white-lead. 

GILDS, or Guilds. Medieval gilds were voluntary associations 
formed for the mutual aid and protection of their members. 
Among the gildsmen there was a strong spirit of fraternal co- 
operation or Christian brotherhood, with a mixture of worldly 
and religious ideals — the support of the body and the salvation of 
the soul. Early meanings of the root gild or geld were expiation, 
penalty, sacrifice or worship, feast or banquet, and contribution 
or payment; it is difficult to determine which is the earliest 
meaning, and we are not certain whether the gildsmen were 
originally those who contributed to a common fund or those who 
worshipped or feasted together. Their fraternities or societies 
may be divided into three classes: religious or benevolent, 
merchant and craft gilds. The last two categories, which do not 
become prominent anywhere in Europe until the 12th century, 
had, like all gilds, a religious tinge, but their aims were primarily 
worldly, and their functions were mainly of an economic character. 

1. Origin. — Various theories have been advanced concerning 
the origin of gilds. Some writers regard them as a continuation of 
the Roman collegia and sodalitates, but there is little evidence to 
prove the unbroken continuity of existence of the Roman and 
Germanic fraternities. A more widely accepted theory derives 
gilds wholly or in part from the early Germanic or Scandinavian 
sacrificial banquets. Much influence is ascribed to this heathen 
element by Lujo Brentano, Karl Hegel, W. E. Wilda and other 
writers. This view does not seem to be tenable, for the old 
sacrificial carousals lack two of the essential elements of the gilds, 
namely corporative solidarity or permanent association and the 
spirit of Christian brotherhood. Dr Max Pappenheim has 
ascribed the origin of Germanic gilds to the northern " foster- 
brotherhood " or " sworn-brotherhood," which was an artificial 
bond of union between two or more persons. After intermingling 
their blood in the earth and performing other peculiar ceremonies, 
the two contracting parties with grasped hands swore to avenge 
any injury done to either of them. The objections to this 
theory are fully stated by Hegel (Sttidtc und Gilden, i. 250-253). 
The foster-brotherhood seems to have been unknown to the 
Franks and the Anglo-Saxons, the nations in which medieval 
gilds first appear; and hence Dr Pappenheim's conclusions, 
if tenable at all, apply only to Denmark or Scandinavia. 

No theory on this subject can be satisfactory which wholly 
ignores the influence of the Christian church. Imbued with the 
idea of the brotherhood of man, the church naturally fostered 
the early growth of gilds and tried to make. them displace the 
old heathen banquets. The work of the church was, however, 
directive rather than creative. Gilds were a natural manifesta- 
tion of the associative spirit which is inherent in mankind. The 
same needs produce in different ages associations which have 
striking resemblances, but those of each age have peculiarities 



which indicate a spontaneous growth.. It is not necessary to 
seek the germ of gilds in any antecedent age or institution. 
When the old kin-bond or maegth was beginning to weaken or 
dissolve, and the state did not yet afford adequate protection to 
its citizens, individuals naturally united for mutual help. 

Gilds are first mentioned in the. Carolingian capitularies of 
779 and 789, and in the enactments ina4e by the synod of Nantes 
early in the 9th century, the text of which has been preserved, 
in the ecclesiastical ordinances of Hincmar of Rheims (A.D.852). 
The capitularies of 805 and 821 also contain vague references 
to sworn unions of some sort, and a capitulary of 884 prohibits 
villeins from forming associations " vulgarly called gilds " 
against those who have despoiled them. The Carolingians 
evidently regarded such " conjurations " as "conspirations ", 
dangerous to the state. The gilds of Norway, Denmark and 
Sweden are first mentioned in the nth, 12th and 14th centuries 
respectively; those of France and the Netherlands in the 
nth. 

Many writers believe that the earliest references to gilds come 
from England. The laws of Ine speak of gegildan who help each 
other pay the wergeld, but it is not entirely certain that they 
were members of gild fraternities in the later sense. These are 
more clearly referred to in England in the second half of the 
9th century,, though we have little information concerning 
them before the nth century. To the first half of that century 
belong the statutes of the fraternities of Cambridge, Abbotsbury 
and Exeter. They are important because they form the oldest 
body of gild ordinances extant in Europe. The thanes' gild at 
Cambridge afforded help in blood-feuds, and provided for the 
payment of the wergeld in case a member killed any one. The 
religious element was more prominent in Orcy's gild at Abbots- 
bury and in the fraternity at Exeter; their ordinances exhibit 
much solicitude for the salvation of the brethren's souls. The 
Exeter gild also gave assistance when property was destroyed 
by fire. Prayers for the dead, attendance at funerals of gildsmen, 
periodical banquets, the solemn entrance oath, fines for neglect 
of duty and for improper conduct, contributions to a common 
purse, mutual assistance in distress, periodical meetings in the 
gildhall, — ;in short, all the characteristic features of the later 
gilds already appear in the statutes of these Anglo-Saxon 
fraternities. Some continental writers, in dealing with the 
origin of municipal government throughout western Europe, 
have, however, ascribed too much importance to the Anglo-Saxon 
gilds, exaggerating their prevalence and contending that they 
form the germ of medieval municipal government. This view 
rests almost entirely on conjecture; there is no good evidence 
to show that there was any organic connexion between gilds 
and municipal government in England before the coming of the 
Normans. It should also be noted that there is no trace of the 
existence of either craft or merchant gilds in England before' 
the Norman Conquest. Commerce and industry were not yet 
sufficiently developed to call for the creation of such associations. 

2. Religious Gilds after the Norman Conquest. — Though we 
have not much information concerning the religious gilds in 
the 1 2th century, they doubtless flourished under the Anglo- 
Norman kings, and we know that they were numerous, especially 
in the boroughs, from the 13th century onward. In 1388 
parliament ordered that every sheriff in England should call 
upon the masters and wardens of all gilds and brotherhoods 
to send to the king's council in Chancery, before the 2nd of 
■ February 1389, full returns regarding their foundation, ordin- 
ances and property. Many of these returns were edited by 
J. Toulmin Smith (18 16-1869), and they throw much light on the 
functions of the gilds. Their ordinances are similar to those of 
the above-mentioned Anglo-Saxon fraternities. Each member 
took an oath of admission, paid ah entrance-fee, and made a 
small annual contribution to the common fund. The brethren 
* were aided in old age, sickness and poverty, often also in cases 
of loss by robbery, shipwreck and conflagration; for example, 
any member of the gild of St Catherine, Aldersgate, was to be 
assisted if he " fall into poverty or be injured through age, or 
through fire of water, thieves or sickness.*' Alms were often ; 



&&m 



** 



given even to r nbn^Jfl{fstn'eni lignts were supporteil at certain 
altars; feasts and ; prbcessions were held periodically; the 
funerals of brethren were 'attended; and Masses for the dead 
were provided from the common purse or from special contribu- 
tions made by the 1 gildsnien. Some of -\ the religious gilds 
supported schools, or helped to maintain roads, bridges and 
town-walls, or even came, in course of time, to be closely con- 
nected w!th the government of the borough; but, as a rule, 
they were simply private societies with a limited sphere of 
activity. They are important because they played a prominent 
r61e in the social life of England, especially as eleemosynary 
institutions, .down to the time of their suppression in 1547. 
Religious gilds, closely resembling those of England, also 
flourished on. the continent during the middle ages. 

3. The Gild Merchant. — The merchant and craft fraternities 
are particularly interesting to students of economic and municipal 
history. The gild merchant came into existence in England 
soon after the Norman Conquest, as a result of the increasing 
importance of trade, and it may have been transplanted from 
Normandy. Until clearer evidence of foreign influence is found, 
it may, however, be safer to regard it simply as a new application 
of the old gild principle, though this new application may have 
been stimulated by continental example. The evidence seems 
to indicate the pre-existence of the gild merchant in Normandy, 
but it is not mentioned anywhere on the continent before the 
nth century. It spread rapidly in England, and from the 
reign of John onward we have evidence of its existence in many 
English boroughs. But in some prominent towns, notably 
London, Colchester, Norwich and the Cinque Ports, it seems 
never to have been adopted. In fact it played a more conspicuous 
r61e in the small boroughs than in the large ones. It was regarded 
by the townsmen as one of their most important privileges. 
Its chief function was to regulate the trade monopoly conveyed 
to the borough by the royal grant of gilda mercatoria. A grant 
of this sort implied that the gildsmen had the right to trade 
freely in the town, and to impose payments and restrictions 
upon others who desired to exercise that privilege. The ordin- 
ances of a gild merchant thus aim to protect the brethren from 
the commercial competition of strangers or non-gildsmen. 
More freedom of trade was allowed at all times in the selling of 
wares by wholesale, and also in retail dealings during the time 
of markets and fairs. The ordinances were enforced by an 
alderman with the assistance" of two or more deputies, or by one 
or two masters, wardens or keepers. The Morwenspeches were 
periodical meetings at which the 1 brethren feasted, revised their 
ordinances, admitted hew members, elected officers and trans- 
acted other business. 

It has often been asserted that the gild merchant and the 
borough were identical, and' that the former was the basis of the 
whole municipal constitution. But recent research has dis- 
credited this theory both in England' and on the continent. 
Much evidence has been producedto show that gild and borough, 
gildsmen arid burgesses, were originally ^distinct Conceptions, 
and that they continued to be discriminated in most towns 
throughout the middle ages. Admission to the gQd wa(s not 
restricted to burgesses; nor did the brethren form an aristocratic 
body having control over the whole municipal polity. No good 
evidence has, moreover, been advanced to prove that this or 
any other kind of gild was the germ of the municipal constitution. 
On the other hand, the gild merchant was certainly an official 
organ or department of the borough administration, and it 
exerted considerable influence upon the economic and corporative 
growth of the English municipalities. 

Historians have expressed divergent views regarding the 
early relations of the craftsmen and their fraternities to the gild 
merchant. One of the main questions in dispute is whether 
artisans were excluded from the gild merchant. Many of them 
seem to have been admitted to membership. They were regarded 
as merchants, for they bought raw material and sold the manu- 
factured comrifodity; no sharp line of demarcation was drawn 
between the two classes in the 1 2th and 13th centuries. Separate 
societies of craftsmen Were formed in England soon after the 



gild lierelianf ; caTrie'int6 existence^ Suit at irst : they were few 
in ntimbet. The gHtL merchant did not give birth to craft 
fraternities or have anything to do with their brigin; nor die! 
it delegate its authority to them. In fact, there seems to have 
been little or ho organic connexion between the two classes of 
gilds. As has* already been intimated, however; many artisans 
probably belonged both ta their own craft fraternity and to the gild 
merchant, and the latter, owing to its great power in the town, 
may have exercised some sort of supervision oyer the craftsmen 
and their societies. When the king bestowed upon the tanners 
or weavers or any other body of artisans the right to have a 
gild, they secured the monopoly of working and trading in their 
branch of industry. Thus with every creation of a craft fraternity 
the gild merchant was weakened and its sphere of activity was 
diminished, though the new bodies were subsidiary to the older 
and larger fraternity. The greater the commercial and industrial 
prosperity of a town, the more rapid was the multiplication of 
craft gilds, which was a natural result of the ever-increasing 
division of labour. The old gild merchant remained longest 
intact and powerful in the smaller boroughs, in which, owing 
to the predominance of agriculture, few or no craft gilds were 
formed. In some of the larger towns the crafts Were prominent 
already in the 13th century, but they became much more pro- 
minent in the first half of the 14th century. Their increase in 
number and power was particularly rapid in the time of Edward 
III., whose reign marks an era of industrial progress. Many 
master craftsmen now became wealthy employers of labour, 
dealing extensively in the wares which they produced. TTie class 
of dealers or merchants, as distinguished from trading artisans, 
also greatly increased and established separate fraternities. 
When these various unions of dealers and of craftsmen embraced 
all the trades and branches of production in the town, little or 
no vitality remained in the old gild merchant; it ceased to have 
an independent sphere of activity. The tendency was for the 
single organization, with a general monopoly of trade, to be 
replaced by a number of separate organizations representing 
the various trades- and handicrafts. In short, the function of 
guarding and supervising the trade monopoly split up into 
various fragments, the aggregate of the crafts superseding the 
old general gild merchant. This transference of the authority 
of the latter to a number of distinct bodies and the consequent 
disintegration of the old organization was a gradual spontaneous 
movement, — a process of slow displacement, or natural growth 
and decay, due to the play of economic f orces,-*-which, generally 
speaking, may be assigned to the 14th and 15th centuries, the 
very period in which the craft gilds attained the zenith of their 
power. While in' tnost towns the name and the old Organization 1 
of the gild merchant thus disappeared arid the institution wafe 
displaced by the aggregate of the crafts towards the close of thte 
middle ages, in some places it survived long after the 15 th 
century either as a religious fraternity, shorn of its old functions,' 
or as a periodical feast, or as a vague term applied to the whole 
municipal corporation. 

Oh the continent of Europe the medieval gild merchant played 
a less important r6ie than in England. In Germany, Frante 
arid the Netherlands it occupies a less prominent place in the 
town charters and in the municipal polity, and often corresponds" 
to the later fraternities of English dealers established either td 
carry on foreign commerce or to regulate a particular part of the 
local trade monopoly. l 

4. Craft Gilds.— A craft gild usually comprised all the artisans 
in a singje branch of industry in a particular town. Such a 
fraternity was commonly called a " mistery " or " company M 
in the 15th and 16th centuries, though the old term "gild** 
was not yet obsolete. "Gild" was also a common designation 
in north Germany, while the correspbnding term in south 
Germany was Zunft, and in France mitier. These societies are 
not clearly visible in England or oh the continent before the early 
part of the 12th century. With the expansion of trade and 
industry the number of artisans increased, and they banded 
together for mutual protection: S6me German writers have 
maintained that these craft organizations emanated from 



i6 



GILDS 



manorial groups of workmen, but strong arguments have been 
advanced against the validity of this theory (notably by F. 
Keutgen). It is unnecessary to elaborate any profound theory 
regarding the origin of the craft gilds. The union of men of the 
same occupation was a natural tendency of the age. In the 
13th century the trade of England continued to expand and 
the number of craft gilds increased. In the 14th century they 
were fully developed and in a flourishing condition; by that time 
each branch of industry in every large town had its gild. The 
development of these societies was even more rapid on the con- 
tinent than in England. 

Their organization and aims were in general the same through- 
out western Europe. Officers, commonly called wardens in 
England, were .elected by the members, and their chief function 
was to supervise the quality of the wares produced, so as to 
secure good and honest workmanship. Therefore, ordinances 
were made regulating the hours of labour and the terms of 
admission to the gild, including apprenticeship. Other ordin- 
ances required members to make periodical payments to a 
common fund, and to participate in certain common religious 
observances, festivities and pageants. But the regulation of 
industry was always paramount to social and religious aims; 
the chief object of the craft gild was to supervise the processes 
of manufacture and to control the monopoly of working and 
dealing in a particular branch of industry. 

We have already called attention to the gradual displacement 
of the gild merchant by the craft organizations. The relations 
of the former to the latter must now be considered more in 
detail. There was at no time a general struggle in England 
between the gild merchant and the craft gilds, though in a few 
towns there seems to have been some friction between merchants 
and artisans. There is no exact parallel in England to the conflict 
between these two classes in Scotland in the 16th century, or to 
the great continental revolution of the 13th and 14th centuries, 
by which the crafts threw off the yoke of patrician government 
and secured more independence in the management of their own 
affairs and more participation in the civic administration. The 
main causes of these conflicts on the continent were the monopoly 
of power by the patricians, acts of violence committed by them, 
their bad management of the .finances and their partisan admini- 
stration of justice. In some towns the victory of the artisans 
in the 14th century was so complete that the whole civic con- 
stitution was remodelled with the craft fraternities as a basis. 
A widespread movement of this sort would scarcely be found in 
England, where trade and industry were less developed than on 
the continent, and where the motives of a class conflict between 
merchants and craftsmen were less potent Moreover, borough 
government in England seems to have been mainly democratic 
until the 14th or 15th century; there was no oligarchy to be 
depressed or suppressed. Even if there had been motives for 
uprisings of artisans such as took place in Germany and the 
Netherlands, the English kings would probably have intervened. 
True, there were popular uprisings in England, but they were 
usually conflicts between the poor and the rich; the crafts as 
such seldom took part in these tumults. While many continental 
municipalities were becoming more democratic in the 14th 
century, those of England were drifting towards oligarchy, 
towards government by a close 4 * select body." As a rule the 
craft gilds secured no dominant influence in the boroughs of 
England, but remained subordinate to the town government. 
Whatever power they did secure, whether as potent subsidiary 
organs of the municipal polity for the regulation of trade, or as 
the chief or sole medium for the acquisition of citizenship, or as 
integral parts of the common council,, was, generally speaking, 
the logical sequence of a gradual economic development, and 
not the outgrowth of a revolutionary movement by which 
oppressed craftsmen endeavoured to throw off the yoke of an 
arrogant patrician gild merchant. 

Two new kinds of craft fraternities appear in the 14th century 
and become more prominent in the 15th, namely, the merchants' 
and the journeymen s companies. The misteries or companies 
of merchants traded in one or more kinds of wares. They were 



pre-eminently dealers, who sold what others produced. Hence 
they should not be confused with the old gild merchant, which 
originally comprised both merchants and artisans, and had the 
whole monopoly of the trade of the town. In most cases, the 
company of merchants was merely one of the craft organizations 
which superseded the gild merchant. 

In the 14th century the journeymen or yeomen began to set 
up fraternities in defence of their rights. The formation of these 
societies marks a cleft within the ranks of some particular class 
of artisans — a conflict between employers, or master artisans, 
and workmen. The journeymen combined to protect their 
special interests, notably as regards hours of work and rates of 
wages, and they fought with the masters over the labour question 
in all its aspects. The resulting struggle of organized bodies 
of masters and journeymen was widespread throughout western 
Europe, but it was more prominent in Germany than in France or 
England. This conflict was indeed one of the main features of 
German industrial life in the 15th century. In England the 
fraternities of journeymen, after struggling a while for complete 
independence, seem to have fallen under the supervision and 
control of the masters' gilds; in other words, they became 
subsidiary or affiliated organs of the older craft fraternities. 

An interesting phenomenon in connexion with the organiza- 
tion of crafts is their tendency to amalgamate, which is occasion* 
ally visible in England in the 15th century, and more frequently 
in ;the 16th and 17th. A similar tendency is visible in the 
Netherlands and in some other parts of the continent already 
in the 14th century. Several fraternities — old gilds or new 
companies, with their respective cognate or heterogeneous 
branches of industry and trade — were fused into one body. In 
some towns all the crafts were thus consolidated into a single 
fraternity; in this case a body was reproduced which regulated 
the whole trade monopoly of the borough, and hence bore some 
resemblance to the old gild merchant. 

In dealing briefly with the modern history of craft gilds, we may 
confine our attention to England. In the Tudor period the 
policy of the crown was to bring them under public or national 
control. Laws were passed, for example in 1503, requiring that 
new ordinances of " fellowships of crafts or misteries " should be 
approved by the royal justices or by other crown officers; and 
the authority of the companies to fix the price of wares was thus 
restricted. The statute of 5 Elizabeth, c. 4, also curtailed their 
jurisdiction over journeymen and apprentices (see Apprentice- 
ship). 

The craft fraternities were not suppressed by the statute of 
1547 (i Edward VI.). They were indeed expressly exempted 
from its general operation. Such portions of their revenues as 
were devoted to definite religious observances were, however, 
appropriated by the crown. The revenues confiscated were those 
used for " the finding, maintaining or sustentation of any priest 
or of any anniversary, or obit, lamp, light or other such things." 
This has been aptly called " the disendowment of the religion 
of the misteries." Edward VI.'s statute marks no break of 
continuity in the life of the craft organizations. Even before the 
Reformation, however, signs of decay had already begun to 
appear, and these multiplied in the 16th and 17th centuries. The. 
old gild system was breaking down under the action of new 
economic forces. Its dissolution was due especially to the 
introduction of new industries, organized on a more modern 
basis, and to the extension of the domestic system of manufacture. 
Thus the companies gradually lost control over the regulation of 
industry, though they still retained their old monopoly in the 
17th century, and in many cases even in the 18th. In fact, many 
craft fraternities still survived in the second half of the 18th 
century, but their usefulness had disappeared. The medieval 
form of association was incompatible with the new ideas of in- 
dividual liberty and free competition, with the greater separation 
of capital and industry, employers and workmen, and with the 
introduction of the factory system. Intent only on promoting 
their own interests and disregarding the welfare of the community, 
the old companies had become an unmitigated evfl. Attempts 
have been made to find in them the progenitors of the trades 



. GJLE AP—GDLES, ST^ 



) 



n 



unions, but there, seems to be up immjediate connexion between 
the latter and the craft gilds. The privileges of the old frater- 
nities, were not formally abolished until 1835; and the sub- 
stantial remains or spectral forms of some are still visible in othe^ 
towns besides London. 

Bibliography.— W. E. Wilda, Das Gildenwesen im MitUlalter 
(Halle, 1 831); E. Levasseur, Bistoire des classes ouvrieres en Prance 
(2 vols.. Paris, 1859, new ed. 1900); Gustav von Schonberg, ** Zur 
wirthscaaftlichen bedeutung des deutschen Zunftwesens im Mittel- 
alter," in JahrbxUher far Nationaldkonontie una 1 Statistic ed. B. 
Hildebrand, vol. ix. pp. 1-72, 97-169 (Jena, 1867); Joshua Toulmin 
Smith, English Gilds, with Lujo Brentano's introductory essay on 
the History and Development of Gilds (London, 1870) ; Max Pappen- 
heim, Die altd&nischen Schutsgilden (Breslau, 1885); W. J. Ashley, 
Introduction to English Economic History (2 vols., London, 1888- 
1893; 3rd ed. of vol. i„ 1894); C. Gross, The. Gild Merchant (2 vols., 
Oxford, 1890); Karl Hegel, Stadte und Gilden der germanischen 
V biker (2 vols., Leipzig, 1 891); J. Malet Lambert, Two Thousand 
Years of Gild Life (Hull, 1891); Alfred Doren, Untersuchungen zur 
Geschichte der Kaufmannsgilden (Leipzig, 1893) ; H. Vander Linden, 
Les Gildes marchandes dans les Pays-Bas au moyen dge (Ghent, 
1896); E. Martin Saint-Leon, Hisioire des corporations de metiers 
(Paris, 1897) ; C. Nyrop, Danmarki Gilde- og Lavsskraaer fra middel- 
alderen (2 vols., Copenhagen, 1 899-1 904) ; F. Keutgen, Amter und 
Z&nfte (Jena, 1903) ; George Unwin, Industrial Organization in the 
Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries (Oxford, 1004). For biblio- 
graphies of gilds, see H. Blanc, Bibliographic des corporations 
ouvrieres (Pans, 1885); G. Gonetta, Bibhografia delle corpordiioni 
& arti e mestieri (Rome, 1891); C. Gross, Bibliography of British 
Municipal History, including Gilds (New York, 1897); W. Stieda, 
in Handwdrterbuch der Staatswissenschaften, ed. J. Conrad (2nd ed., 
Jena, 1901, under " Zunftwesen "). (C. Gr.) 

GILEAD {i.e. " hard " or " rugged/' a name sometimes used, 
both in earlier and in later writers, to denote the whole of the 
territory occupied by the Israelites eastward of Jordan, extending 
from the Arnon to the southern base of Hermon (Deut. xxxiv. 1; 
Judg. xx. 1; Jos. AnU xii. 8. 3, 4). More precisely, however, 
it was the usual name of that picturesque hUl country which is 
bounded on the N by the Hieromax (Yarmuk), on the W. by 
the Jordan, on the §. by the Arnon, and on the £. by a line which 
may be said to follow the meridian of Amman (Philadelphia or 
Rabbath-Ammon). It thus lies wholly within 31° 25' and 32 
42' N. lat. and 35 34' and 36 E. long., and is cut in two by the 
Jabbok. Excluding the narrow strip of low-lying plain along 
the Jordan, it has an average elevation of 2500 ft. above the 
Mediterranean; but, as seen from the west,, the relative height 
is very much increased by the depression of the Jordan valley. 
The range from the same point of view presents a singularly uni- 
form outline, having the appearance of an unbroken wall; in 
reality, however, it is traversed by a number of deep ravines 
(wadis), of which the most important are the Yabis, the Ajlun, 
the Rajib, the Zerka (Jabbok), the Hesban, and the Zerka Ma'In. 
The &:eat mass of the Gilead range is fprmed of Jura limestone, 
the base slopes being sandstone partly covered by white marls. 
The eastern slopes are comparatively bare of trees; but the 
western are well supplied with oak, terebinth and pine* The 
pastures are everywhere luxuriant, and the wooded heights and 
winding glens, in which the tangled shrubbery is here and there 
broken up by open glades and flat meadows of green turf, exhibit 
a beauty of vegetation such as is hardly to be seen. in any other 
district of Palestine. 

The. first biblical j mention , of "Mount Gilead" occurs in 
connexion with the reconcilement of Jaopb and Laban (Genesis 
xxxi.). The composite nature of the story makes an identifica- 
tion of the exact site difficult, but one of the narrators (E) seems 
to have in «nind the ridge of what is now known as Jebel Ajlun, 
probably not far from Mabneh (Mahanaim)i, near the head of the 
wadi Yabis. Some investigators incline to Suf, or to the Jebel 
Kafkafa. At the period of the Israelite conquest the portion of 
Gilead northward qi the Jabbpk (Zerfca) belonged to the dominions 
of Og, king of Bashan, while the southern half was ruled by Sihon, 
king of the Amorites, having been at an earlier date wrested from 
Moab (Numb. xxi r , 24; Deut. iii. 12-16).. These two sections 
were allotted respectively to Manasseh and to Reuben and Gad, 
both districts being peculiarly suited to the pastoral and nomadic 
character of these tribes. A somewhat wild Bedouin disposition, 
fostered by their surroundings, was retained by the Israelite in- 



habitants of Gilead to a late period of their history, and seems 
to be to some extent discernible in what we read alike of Jephthah, 
of David's Gadites, and of the prophet. Elijah. As the eastern 
frontier of Palestine, Gilead bore the first brunt of, Syrian and 
Assyrian attacks. 

After the close of the 6ld Testament history the word Gilead 
seldom occurs. It seems to have soon passed out of use as a 
precise geographical designation; for though occasionally 
mentioned by Apocryphal writers, by Josephus, and by Eusebrus, 
the allusions are all vague, and show that those who made them 
had no definite knowledge of Gilead proper. In Josephus and 
the New Testament the name Peraea or repay rov \lopbb\vov is 
most frequently used; and the. country is sometimes spoken 
of by Josephus as divided into small provinces called after the 
capitals in which Greek colonists had established themselves 
during the reign of the Seleucidae. At present Gilead south of 
the Jabbok alone is known by the .name of Jebel Jilad (Mount 
Gilead), the northern portion between the Jabbok and the 
Yarmuk being called Jebel Ajlun. Jebel Jilad includes Jebel 
Osha, and has for its capital the town of Es-Salt. The 
cities of Gilead expressly mentioned in ithe Old Testament are 
Ramoth, Jabesh and Jazer. The first of these has been, variously 
identified with Es-Salt, with, Reimun, with Jerash or Gerasa,' 
with er-Remtha, and with Salbad. Opinions are also 'divided, 
on the question of its identity with Mizpeh-Gilead (see Encyc. 
Biblica, art. " Ramoth-Gilead "). Jabesh is perhaps to be 
found at Meriamin, less probably at ed-Deir; Jazer, at Yajuz. 
near Jogbehah, rather than at Sar. The city named Gilead (Judg. 
x. 17, xii. 7; Hos. vi. 8, xii. n) has hardly been satisfactorily 
explained; perhaps the text has suffered. 

The " balm " (Heb. sori) for which Gilead was so noted 
(Gen. xlvii. 11; Jer. viii. 22, xlvi. n; Ezek. xxvii. 17), is probably 
to be identified with mastic (Gen. xxxvii. 25, R.V. marg.) i.e. 
the resin yielded by the Pistachia LenHscus. The modern 
" balm of Gilead " or " Mecca balsam," an aromatic gum 
produced by the Balsamodendron opobalsamum, is more likely 
the Hebrew tndr, which the English Bible wrongly renders 
" myrrh." 

See G. A. Smith* Hist. Geog. xxiv. foil. (R. A. S. M.) 

GILES (Gil, Gilles), ST, the name given to an abbot whose 
festival is celebrated on the 1st of September, According to 
the legend, he was an Athenian (Alyi&ux, Aegidius) of royal 
descent. After the death of his parents he distributed his 
possessions among the poor, took ship, and landed at Marseilles. 
Thence he went to Aries, where he remained for two years with 
St Caesarius. He then retired into a neighbouring desert, 
where be lived upon herbs and upon the milk of a hind which 
came to him at stated hours. He was discovered there one day. 
by Flavins, the king of the Goths, who built a monastery on the 
place, of which he was the first abbot. Scholars are very much 
divided as to the date of his life, some holding that he lived in 
the 6th century, others in the 7th or 8th. It may be regarded 
as certain that St Giles was buried in the hermitage which he 
had founded in a spot which was afterwards the town of St- 
Gilles (diocese of Nimes, department of Gard). His reputation 
for sanctity attracted many pilgrims. Important gifts were 
made to the church which contained his body, and a monastery 
grew up hard by. It is probable that the Visigothic princes who 
were in possession of the country protected and enriched this' 
monastery, and that it was destroyed by the Saracens at the 
time of their invasion in 721. But there are no authentic data 
before the oth century concerning his history. In 808 Charle- 
magne took the abbey of St-Gilles under his protection, and 
it is mentioned among the monasteries from which only prayers 
for the prince and the state were due. In the 12th century the 
pilgrimages to St-Gilles are cited as among the most celebrated 
of the time. The cult of the saint, who came to be regarded as 
the special patron of lepers, beggars and cripples, spread very 
extensively over Europe, especially in England, Scotland, 
France, Belgium, and Germany. The church of St Giles, 
Gripplegate, London, was built about 1090, while the hospital for 
lepers at St Giles-in-the-Fields (near New Oxford Street) was 



f8 



GILMli?A^<3&GMJgSH 



? 



foun&tA by Qiij&ti M&k f in ; Tc5fi7J« r In "Efitfand aldnethere 
are about' 150 churches dedicated (6 this saint. In Edinburgh 
the church of St Giles could boast the possession 6f an arm-feorie 
of its patron!' ftekresentations of St Giles are very frequently 
met with in early French and German art, but ate touch less 
common fa Itafy and Spam.*' '"' -' , : v ' "' 

See Acta Sancfofitm(&pttm\yer),i. ^$4-^99; Devic atod Vaissete, : 
Histoire g&ttirak<Se Languedbc, pp. 514-52*2 (Toulouse, i8?6)'; 
E. Rembry, Sdint. GiMs\ m \ne\ $*s retinues, son culle en Belgique et. 
dans le nord dc la France (Bruges, 18&1) ; p. Arnold-Forster, Studies 
in Church , Dedications, or England's Patron Saints, ii. 46-51, iii. 15, 
£3-365 (1899); A. Jameson, Satred and Legendary Art, 768-770 
1896) ; A. Bell, Libes and Legends of the English Bishops and Kings, 
Medieval Monks* and; other, later Saints, pp. 61, 70, 74-78, 84, 197 
(190*). ( H - v**) 

GILFILLAN, GEORGE (1813-1878), Scottish author, was 
born on the 30th of January 181 3, at Cbmrie, Perthshire, where 
his rather, the ReV„ Samuel Gilfillan, the author of some theo- 
logical works, was for many years minister of a Secession con- 
gregation. After ah education at Glasgow University, in March 
1836 he was ordained pastor of a Secession congregation in J 
Dundee. He published a volume of his discourses in 1839, 
and shortly afterwards another sermon on "Hades," which 
brought* him under ! the' scrutiny 'of his co-presbyters, and was 
ultimately withdrawn from circulation. Gilfillan next contri-' 
buted a "Series of sketches of celebrated contemporary authors 
to the Dumfries Herald, then edited by Thomas Aird; and these, 
with several new ones, formed his first Gallery of Literary Portraits, 
which appeared in 1846, and had a wide circulation. It waS 
quickly followed by a Second and'a Third Gallery. In 1851 his 
most successful work, the Bards of the Bible, appeared. His 
aim was that it should be " a poem on the Bible "; and it was 
far more rhapsodical than critical. His Martyrs and Heroes of 
the ScotHsh Covenant appeared in 183*2, and in 1856 he produced 
a partly autobiographical, partly fabulous, History of a Man, 
For thirty years he was engaged upon a long poem, on Night, 
which was published in 1867, but its theme was too vast, vague 
and unmanageable, and the result was a failure. He also 
edited an edition of the British Poets. As a lecturer and as a 
preacher he drew large crowds, but his literary reputation has 
not proved permanent. He died on the 13 th of August 1S78. 
He had just finished a new life of Burns designed to accompany 
a new edition of the works of that poet. 

GILGAL (Heb. for "circle" of sacred stones), the name of 
several places in 1 Palestine, mentioned in the Old Testament. 
The name is not found east of the Jordan. 

1. The first and most important was situated "in the east 
border of Jericho'" (Josh, iV; i#), on the bbrder between 
Judah and" fienjamin (Josh, xvl' 7). Josephus {Ant. v. 1. 4) 
places it 50 stadia from Jordan and 10 from Jericho (the 
New'Testamentsfte).' Jerome (Onvmasticon, s.V. " Galgal ") 
places Gilgal ^ Rdman* miles from Jericho, and speaks of it 
as a deserted place held in wonderful veneration (" miro cultu " ) 
by the natives: This site, which in the middle ages appears to 
have been lost— Gilgal being shown farther north 1 — was in 
1 86^' recovered by a German traveller (Hermann Zschokke), 
and' fixed 1 by the English survey party, though not beyond 
dispute. : It is about 2 m. east of the site of Byzantine 
Jericho, and 1 m. from modern er-Riha. A fine tamarisk, 
traces of a Church (which is mentioned in the 8th century), and 
a large reserv6ir, now filled up with mud, remain. The place is 
called JiljQlieh, and its position north of the valley of Achor 
(Wacfif Kelt) and east of Jericho agrees well with the biblical 
indications above mentioned. A tradition connected with the 
fall of Jericho is attached to the site (see C. R. Conder, Tent 
Work, 203 ff.). This sanctuary and camp of Israel held a high 
place in the national regard, and is often mentioned in Judges 
and Samuel. But whether this is the Gilgal spoken of by Amos 
and Hosea in connexion with Bethel is by no means certain 
[see (3) below}. 

2. Gilgal, mentioned in Josh, xli; 23 in connexion with Dor, 
appears to have been situated 'in the maritime plain. Jerome' 
(Onoikastkon; s.v;'* Gelgel") speaks of a toWn of the name 



6' TlbmW 1 ^ [Ttis W 

apparently the thoderi ' Katltflia, blit about 4 m. north 6fAnti-| 
patris is a farge Village called 'Jiljtilieh, which is more probably 
the bibhcal town: ' ; ; ' ' ' ' ! ! ' • ! ■ - 

3. The third Gilgal (2 Kings iv f< 38) Was in the mountaW 
(compare 1 Sarn. Vii. itoV 2 i ;'^ng4 , iL l,, i,- ( 3)_ near Bethel. Jeroftm 
mentions this place also (QnatnMiicQn v sLv. " Galgala '% , l Ju 
appears to be the present village of Jiljilia, about 7 Enghsh- 
miles north of Beitin (Bethel): It may have absorbed the olft 
shrine of Shiloh aiid been the sanctuary famous in the days o£ 
Amos and Hosea,, . - « »• •• » , . . ( ' '^ 

4. Deut. xi. 30 seems to imply a Gilgal near Gerizim, and there 
is still a place called Juleijil on the plain of Makhna, 2* m.S. E. 
of Shechem. this may have been Amos's Gilgal and was 
alpaost certainly that of 1 Mace!, ix. 2. . .'/\ 

5. The Gilgal described in Josh. xv. ;7 is the same as the 
Beth-Gilgal of Neh. xii. 29; its site is not known. (R. A. S. M.) 

GILGAMESH, EPIC GF, the title given to one of the most 
important literary products of Babylonia, from the name of the 
chief personage in the series of tales of which it is composed. 

Though the Gilgamesh Epic is khown to us chiefly from the 
fragments 'fouiid in the royal collection of tablets made by 

! Assur-bani-pal, the king of Assyria (668-626 n/c.) for his palace 

: at Nineveh, internal evidence points to the high antiquity of at 
least some portions of it, and the discover^ of a fragment of the 
epic in the 1 older form of the Babylonian script, which can be 
dated as 2000 B.C., confirms this view. Equally certain is a 1 
second observation of a general character that the epic originating 
as the greater portion of the literature in Assur-bani-paPs collec- 
tion in Babylonia is a composite product, that is to say, it consists 
of a number of independent stories or myths originating at 
different times, and united to form a continuous narrative with 
Gilgamesh as the central figure. This view, naturally raises the 
question whether the independent stories Were all told 6f 
Gilgamesh or, as almost always happens in t he 1 cage of ancient 
tales, were transferred to Gilgamesh as a favourite popular, 
hero. Internal evidence again comes to our aid to lend its 1 

1 Weight to the latter theory. * 

While the existence of such a personage as Gilgamesh may 
be' admitted, he belongs t6 an age that could only have preserved 
a dim recollection of his achievements and adventures through 

! oral traditi6ns. The name 1 is not Babylonian, and wha.t ! 
evidence as to his origin there is points to his having come from 1 
Elam, to the east of Babylonia. ' He ma^ have belonged to the 
people known as the Kassites who at the beginning of the i 8th 
century B.C. entered Babylonia from Elam, and obtained control 
of the Euphrates valley. Why arid how he came to bt a popular \ 
hero in Babylonia cannot with our present 1 material be deter- 
mined, but' the epic indicates that he came as a Conqueror ani 
established himself at £rech. :: In so far we have embodied- m 
the first rjart of the epic dim' recollections rif actual events, but" 
we soon leave the solid ground of fact and fmd ourselves soaring : 
to 1 the heights of genuine myth. Gilgamesh becomes a god, arid, 
in certain portions 6f the epic clearly plays the part of the sun- : 
god of the spring-time, taking the place apparently of TammUs/ 
or Adonis, the youthful sun-god, though the story shows traits 
that differentiate it from the I, 6rdiriat l y* Taim4iu£ myths'.' 'A 
separate stratum in the Gilgamesh epic isfbrmed by the story of * 
Eabani — introduced as the friend of Gi%arnesh, who joins him' 
in his adventures. There cafa be no doubt that Eabani, who | 
symbolizes primeval man, was a figure originally entirely fn(le- ' 
pendent of Gilgamesh, but his story was incorporated into the* 
epic by that natural process to be observed in the national efjics 
of other peoples, which tends to corinect the favourite hero With'' 
all kinds of tales that for one reason or the other become etii- 
bedded in the popular mfrid. Another stratum is represented 
by the story of a favourite of the gods known as TJt-Napishtmv' 
who is saved from a destructive storiri and flood that destroys 

1 The name of the hero, written always, ideograpbically. Was foil a : 
long, time provisionally read Izdu^bar; but a, tablet discovered by 
T^ &. Pinches gave the* equivalent Gilgamesh (s$eJ3istroy{, Religion. of ' 
Babylonia and Assyria, p. 468). " ' ' 



GILGIT 



19 



his fellow-citizens of Shurippak, Qilgarnesh ,ja< artificially 
brought into contact with Ut-Napishtim, to whom he pay? a 
visit for the purpose of learning the secret of immortal life and 
perpetual youth which he enjoys. During the visit Ut-Napishtim 
tells Gilgamesh the /story of the flood, and pf his miraculous 
escape. Nature myths have been entwined with other episodes 
in the epic and finally the theologians took up the combined 
stories and made them {he medium for illustrating the truth 
and force of certain doctrines of the Babylonian religion. In 
its final form, the outcome of an extended and complicated 
literary process, the Gilgamesh Epic covered twelve tablets, 
each tablet devoted to one adventure in which the hero plays 
a direct or indirect part, and- the whole covering' according to the 
most plausible estimate about 3000 lines. Of all twelve tablets 
portions have been found among the remains of Assur-bani-paTs 
library, but some of the tablets are so incomplete as to leave 
even thek general contents in some doubt. The fragments do 
not all belong to one copy. Of some tablets portions of two, 
and of some tablets portions of as many as four, copies have 
turned up, pointing therefore to the great popularity of the 
production. The best preserved are Tablets VI. and XI., and 
of the? total about 1506, lines are now known, wholly or in part, 
while of those partially preserved quite a number can be restored. 
A brief summary of the contents of the twelve may be. indicated 
as follows: 

In the rst tablet, after a general survey of the adventures of 
Gilgamesh, his rule at Erech is described, where he enlists the 
services of all the young able-bodied men in the building of the 
great wall of the city. The people sigh under the burden im- 
posed, and call upon the goddess Arum to create a being who 
might act as a rival to Gilgamesh, curb his strength, and dispute 
his tyrannous control. The goddess consents, and creates 
Eabani, who is described as a wild man, living with the gazelles 
and the beasts of the field. Eabani, whose name, signifying 
" Ea creates," points to the tradition which made Ea (q,v.) the 
creator of humanity, symbolizes primeval man.. Through a 
hunter, Eabani and Gilgamesh are brought together, but 
instead of becoming rivals, they are joined in friendship. Eabani 
is induced by the snares of a maiden to abandon his life with the 
animals and to proceed to Erech, where Gilgamesh, who ha* 
been told in several dreams of the coming of Eabani, awaits him. 
Together they proceed upon several adventures, which are 
related in the following four tablets. At first, .indeed, Eabani 
curses the fate which led him away from his former life, and 
Gilgamesh is represented as bewailing Eabani's dissatisfaction. 
The 1 sum-god Shamash calls upon Eabani to remain with Gilga- 
mesh, who pays him aU honours in his palace at Erech. With 
the decision of the two friends to proceed to the forest of cedars 
in which the goddess Irnina-r^a form of Ishtar— dwells, and 
which is guarded by Khumbaba, the 2nd tablet ends. In the 
3rd tablet, very imperfectly preserved, Gilgamesh appeals 
through a Shamash priestess Rimat-Belit to the sun-god Shamash 
for his aid in the proposed undertaking. The 4th tablet contains 
a description of the formidable Khumbaba, the guardian of 
the cedar forest. In the 5th tablet Gilgamesh and Eabani reach 
the forest. Encouraged by dreams, they proceed against 
Khumbaba, and despatch him near a specially high cedar over 
which he held guard. This adventure against Khumbaba belongs 
to the Eabani stratum 1 of the epic, into which Gilgamesh is 
artificially introduced. The basisof the 6th tablet is. the familiar 
nature-myth of the change of; seasons, in which Gilgamesh 
plays the part of the youthful sqjatf god of the springtime, who 
is wooed by the goddess of fertility, Ishtar. Gilgamesh, recalling 
to the goddess the sad fate of t^ose who fall a victim to her 
charms, rejects the offer. In the course of his recital snatches 
of other myths are referred to, including the famous Tammua- 
Adonis tale, in which Tammuz, the youthful bridegroom, is 
slain by his consort Ishtar. TJie goddess, enraged at the insult, 
ask* her father Anu to avenge her. A divine bull is sent to wage 
^contest against Gilgamesh, who is assisted by his friend Eabani.'' 
This scene of the fight with the buff is often depicted on seal 
cv^o!^/ .The two, friends- jby ]thqr J ,unite4 for.ce. succeed, in 



kilting the bull,, and then alter .performing certain votive and 
purification rites return to Erech, where they are hailed with joy. 
In this adventure it is dearly Eabani who is artificially intro- 
duced in order to maintain the association with Gilgamesh. 
The. 7th tablet continues the Eabani stratum. The hero is 
smitten with sore disease, but the fragmentary condition of 
this, and the succeeding tablet is such as to envelop in doubt the 
accompanying circumstances, including the cause and nature 
of his disease. The 8th tablet records the death of Eabani. 
The 9th and 10th tablets, exclusively devoted to Gilgamesh, 
describe his wanderings in quest of Ut-Napishtim, from whom 
he hopes to learn how he may escape the fate that has overtaken 
his friend Eabani. He goes through mountain passes and 
encounters lions* At the entrance to the mountain Mashu, 
scorpion-men stand guard, from one of whom he receives advice 
as to how to pass through the Mashu district. He succeeds in 
doing, so, and finds himself, in a wonderful park, which lies along 
the sea coast. In the 10th tablet the goddess Sabitu, who, as 
guardian of the sea, first bolts her gate against Gilgamesh, after. 
Learning of his quest, helps him to pass in a ship across the sea 
to the "waters of death." The ferry-man of Ut-Napishtim 
brings him safely through these waters, despite the difficulties 
and dangers of the voyage, and at last the hero finds himself 
face to face with Ut-Napishtim. In the 1 1 th tablet, Ut-Napish- 
tira tells the famous story of the Babylonian flood, which is 
so patently attached to Gilgamesh in a most artificial manner. 
Ut-Napishtim and his wife are anxious to help Gilgamesh to new 
life. He is sent to a place where he washes himself clean from 
imparity. He is told of a weed which restores youth to the one 
grown old. Scarcely has he obtained the weed whenit is snatched 
away from him, and the tablet closes somewhat obscurely with 
the prediction of the destruction of Erech, In the nth tablet 
Gilgamesh succeeds in obtaining a view of Eabani's shade, and 
learn* through him. of the sad fate endured by the dead. With 
this description, in which care of the dead is inculcated as the 
only mean* of. making their existence in Axalu, where the dead 
axe gathered, bearable, the epic, so far as we have it, closes. 

The reason why the flood episode and the interview with the 
dead Eabani are introduced is quite cleat. Both are intended/ 
as illustrations of doctrines taught in the schools of Babylonia," 
the former .to explain that only the favourites of the gods can 
hope under exceptional circumstances to enjoy life everlasting; 
\ the latter , to. emphasize the impossibility for ordinary mortals 
to escape from the inactive shadowy existence led by the dead, 
and to inculcate the duty of proper care for the dead. That the 
;astro-theqlogical system is also introduced into the epic is clear 
from the division into twelve tablets, which correspond to the* 
yearly course of the sun, while throughout there are indications 
that all the adventures of Gilgamesh and Eabani, including 
those, which have an historical background, have been submitted 
to the influence of this system and projected on to the heavens. 
This interpretation of the popular tales, according to which the 
career of the hero can be followed in its entirety and in detail 
in the movements in the heavens, in time, with the growing 
predominance of the astral-mythological system, overshadowed 
the other factors involved, and it is in this form, as an astral 
myth, that it passes through the ancient world and leaves its 
traces in the folk-tales and myths of Hebrews, Phoenicians, 
Syrians, Greeks and Romans throughout AsJa Minor and even 
in India. 

Bibliography.— The complete edition of the Gilgamesh Epic by ' 
Paul Haupt under the tide Das babyionische Ndmrodipos (Leipzig, 
,1884-1891), with the 12th tablet in the Beitra& sur Assyriologte, 
!i. 48-79; German translation by Peter Jensen in vol vi. of 
! Schroder's KeilinschrifUiche Bibliothek (Berlin, 1900), pp. 116-273. 
! See also the same author's comprehensive work, Das Gilgamesch- 
\ Epos in iter WeUHtorMu* (vol. i. 1906, . vol. h; to -follow). An 
'English translation of the chief portions in Jastrow, Religion of 
'Babylonia and Assyria (Boston, 1898), ch. xxiii. (M. Ja.) 

GIUHT, an outlying province in the extreme. north-west of 
! India, over .which. Kashmir has reasserted her sovereignty. 
; Only a part of the basin of the river Gilgit b included within 
jita political boundaries. . There is an intervening width of 



%2 



GILLES DB ROYE-^GILLIE 



one-fourt)i of a pint. The word comes through the 0. Ft* gelle,, 
from Low Lat. gello or gillo, a measure fox wine. It is thus con- 
nected with " gallon." The g is soft. (3) An abbreviation of the 
feminine name Gillian, also often spelled Jill, as it is pronounced. 
Like Jack for a boy, with which it is often coupled, as in the 
nursery rhyme, it is used as a homely generic:, name for a girl. 

GILLES DE ROYE, or Egidius de Rqya (d. 1478), Flemish 
chronicler, was born probably at Montdidier, and became a 
Cistercian monk. He was afterwards professor of theology in 
Paris and abbot of the monastery of Royaumont at Asnieres- 
sur-Oise, retiring about 1458 to the convent of Notre Dame des 
Dunes, near Furnes, and devoting his time to study. Gilles 
wrote the Chronicon Dunense or Annales Belgici, a resume" and 
continuation of the work of another monk, Jean Brandon (d. 
1428), which deals with the history of Flanders, and also with 
events in Germany, Italy and England from 792 to 1478. 

The Chronicle was published by F. R. Sweert in the Rerum Bel&- 
carum annales (Frankfort, 1620) ; and the earlier part of it by C. B. 
Keryyn de Lettenhove in the Chroniques relatives b Vkistoire de la 
Belgique (Brussels, 1870). 

GILLES LI MUISIS, or lb Muiset (c. 1272-1352), French 
chronicler, was born probably at Tournai, and in 1289 entered 
the Benedictine abbey of St Martin in his native city, becoming 
prior of this house in 1327, and abbot four years later. He only 
secured the latter position after a contest with a competitor, 
but he appears to have been a wise ruler of the abbey. Gilles 
wrote two Latin chronicles, Chronicon majus and Chronicon 
minus, dealing with the history of the world from the creation 
until 1349. This work, which was continued by another writer 
to 1352, is valuable for the history of northern France, and 
Flanders during the first half of the 14th century. It is published 
by J. J. de Senet in the Corpus chronicorutn Flandriae, tome ii. 
(Brussels, 1841). . Gilles also wrote some French poems, and 
these Patsies de Gilles li Muisis have been published by Baron 
Kervyn de Lettenhove (Louvain, 1882). 

See A. Molinier, Les Sources de rhistoire de France, tomeiii. (Paris, 
1903). 

GILLESPIE, GEORGE (1613-1648), Scottish divine, was born 
at Kirkcaldy, where his father, John Gillespie, was parish 
minister, on the 21st of January 161 3, and entered the university 
of St Andrews* as a " presbytery bursar " in 1629. On the 
completion of a brilliant student career, he became domestic 
chaplain to John Gordon, 1st Viscount Kenmure (d. 1634), 
and afterwards to John Kennedy, earl of Cassillis, his conscience 
not permitting him to accept the episcopal ordination which 
was at that time in Scotland an indispensable condition of 
induction to a parish. While with the earl of Cassillis he wrote 
his first work, A Dispute against the English Popish Ceremonies 
obtruded upon the Church, of Scotland, which, opportunely pub- 
lished shortly after the " Jenny Geddes " incident (but without 
the author's name) in the summer of 1637; attracted considerable 
attention, and within a few months had been found by the 
privy council to be so damaging that by their orders all available 
copies were called in and burnt. In April 1638, soon after the 
authority of the bishops had been set aside by the nation, 
Gillespie was ordained minister of Wemyss (Fife) by the 
presbytery of Kirkcaldy, and in the same year was a member 
of the famous Glasgow Assembly, before which he preached 
(November 21st) a sermon against royal interference in matters 
ecclesiastical so pronounced, as to call for some remonstrance 
on the part of Argyll, the lord high commissioner. In 1642 
Gillespie was translated to Edinburgh; but the brief remainder 
of his life was chiefly spent in the conduct of public business 
in London. Already, in 1640, he had accompanied the commis- 
sioners of the peace to England as one of their chaplains; and 
in 1643 he was appointed by the Scottish Church one of the four 
commissioners to the Westmins er Assembly. Here, though, 
the youngest member of tJde Assembly, he took a prominent 
part in almost all the protracted discussions on hurch govern- 
ment, discipline and worship, supporting Presbyterianism by ; 
numerous controversial writings, as well as by an unusual 
fluency and readiness in, debate. Tradition long. preserved and 
probably enhanced. the record of his victories in debate, , and 



especially of his encounter, with John Selden on Matt, zviii. 
15-17. In 1645 he returned to Scotland, and is said to have 
drawn the act of assembly sanctioning the directory of public 
worship. On his return to London he had a hand in drafting 
the Westminster confession of faith, especially chap, L . Gillespie 
was elected moderator of the Assembly in 1648, but the laborious 
duties of that office (the court continued to sit from the 12th 
of July to the 12th of August) told fatally on an overtaxed 
constitution; he fell into consumption, and, after many weeks 
of great weakness, he died at Kirkcaldy on the 17th of December 
1648. In acknowledgment of his great public services, a sum 
of £1000 Scots was voted, though destined never to be paid, to 
his widow and children by the committee of estates. A simple 
tombstone, which had been erected to his memory in Kirkcaldy 
parish church, was in 166 1 publicly broken at the cross by the 
hand of the common hangman, but was restored in 1746. 

His principal publications were controversial and chiefly against 
Erastianism : Three sermons against Thomas Coleman; A Sermon 
before the House of Lords (August 27th), on Matt. iii. 2, Nihil Re- 
spondent and Male Audis; Aaron's Rod Blossoming, or the Divine 
Ordinance of Church-government vindicated (1646X which is de- 
servedly regarded as a really able statement of the case for an 
exclusive spiritual jurisdiction in the church; One Hundred and 
Eleven Propositions concerning the Ministry and Government of the 
Church (Edinburgh, 1647). The following were posthumously 
published by his brother: A Treatise of Miscellany Questions (1649) ; 
The Ark of the New Testament (2 vols., 1661-1667); Notes of Debates 
and Proceedings of the Assembly of Divines at Westminster t from 
February 1644 to January 1645. See Works, with memoir, published 
by Hetherington (Edinburgh, 1 843-1 846). 

GILLESPIE, THOMAS (1708-1774), Scottish divine, was born 
at Clearburn, in the parish of Duddingston, Midlothian, in 
1708. He was educated at the university of Edinburgh, and 
studied divinity first at a small theological seminary at Perth, 
and afterwards for a brief period under Philip Doddridge at 
Northampton, where he received ordination in January 1741. 
In September of the same year he was admitted minister of the 
parish of Carnock, Fife, the presbytery of Dunfermline agreeing 
not only to sustain as valid the ordination he had received in 
England, but also to allow a qualification of his subscription 
to the church's doctrinal symbol, so far as it had reference to the 
sphere of the civil magistrate in matters of religion. Having 
on conscientious grounds persistently absented himself from the 
meetings of presbytery held for the purpose of ordaining one 
Andrew Richardson, an unacceptable presentee, as minister of 
Inverkeithing, he was, after an unobtrusive but useful ministry 
often years, deposed by the Assembly of 1752 for maintaining 
that the refusal of the local presbytery to act in this case was 
justified. He continued, however, to preach, first at Carnock, 
and afterwards in Dunfermline, where a large congregation 
gathered round him. His conduct under the sentence of deposi- 
tion produced a reaction in his favour, and an effort was made 
to have him reinstated; this he declined unless the policy of the 
church were reversed. In 1761, in conjunction with Thomas 
Boston of Jedburgh and Collier of Colinshorgh, he formed a dis- 
tinct communion under the name of " The Presbytery of Relief ," 
— relief, that is to say, " from the yoke of patronage and the 
tyranny of the church courts." The Relief Church eventually 
became one of the communions combining to form the United 
Presbyterian Church. He died on the 10th of January; 1774, 
His only literary efforts were an Essay on the Continuation of 
Immediate Revelations in the Church, and a. Practical Treatise on 
Temptation. Both works appeared posthumously (1774). In 
the former he argues that immediate revelations are no longer 
vouchsafed to the church, in the latter he traces temptation to 
the work of a personal devil. 

See Lindsay's Life and Times of the Rev. Thomas Gillespie; 
Smithers's History of the Relief Church; for the Relief Church see 
United Presbyterian Church. 

GILLIE (from the Gael. giUe, Irish gille or giolla, a servant 
or boy), an attendant on a Gaelic chieftain; in this sense its use, 
save historically, is rare. The name js,now applied in the 
Highlands of Scotland to the man-servant who attends a sports- 
man in shooting or fishing. A gillie-wetfoot, a term now obsolete 
(a translation of giUit-casfiiuch, from the Gaelic cas 9 foot, and 



MA^iiJLt^m^^iiftXfno 




flinch, wet), was "ttie gillie fthose dutVj it ^was to c,a^y,Jbis, maitier 
over ^r^'ajns^ h ft. became a ,t$rrn ^f jqqnt^mpt.^mpng . ther-XWo 
landers • for . the .' ' tail ' ' t (as his ' -attendants. - wier* • called) of a 
Highland chief . ^-' • ■; •" ■ ' - f V - ■•' ' v ■••". ' '••' 

GILLIES, JQHH $.747-193$) ,! Scottish . W^toHan and /classic? t 
scholar, was born*#i B^chiii, in, Forfarshire, on tfee ^Stfc <& 
January 1 747. . He ftfaa educated at Glasgow University, where^ 
at the age of twenty, he acted fctf a short time as substitute lor 
the professor of Qreek: In 1^4 he completed his, ttislor^ of 
Ancient Greece, Us, .Colonies' and Conquests (publisneii 17,86)! 
This work> valuable, at a time when the study of Greek history 
was in its infancy, and translated' into > French and German, 
was written from a strong Whijg bias, and is now entirely super- 
seded (see Greece: Ancient History, "Authorities "), On the 
death of William Robertson (1721-1793)! Gillies was appointed 
historiographer^royal for. Scotland. In his old age he retired to 
Clapham, where he died on the 15th of February 1836. 

Of his 6t!her works', none of which are much read, the principal 
are: View of' the Reign of Preieric II. of Prussia, with a ParcUlel 
between that Prince and Philip II. of Macedon (1789), rather a pane- 
gyric than .-.-«•- • ....... -, 

(1823) an<f 

Lysiasand 

to Augustus (1807), which, 'although deficient in style, was com 

mended for its learning and 

GILLINGHAM, a market town in the northern parliamentary 
division of Dorsetshire, England, 105 m. W.S.W. from London 
by the London & South-Western railway. Pop. (1001) 3386. 
The church of St Mary the Virgin has a Decorated chancel. 
There is a large 'agricultural trade, and manufactures of bricks 
and tiles, cord, sacking and silk, brewing and tracon-curing are 
carried on. The rich undulating district in which Gillingham 
is situated was a forest preserved by King John and his successors, 
and the site of their lodge is traceable near the town. 

GILLIN6HAM, a municipal borough of Kent, England, in 
the parliamentary borough of Chatham and the mid-division 
of the county, on the Medwdy immediately east of Chatham, 
on the South-Eastern & Chatham railway. Fop. (1891) 27,809; 
(1901) 42,5304 Its population is largely industrial, employed 
in the Chatham dockyards, and in cenient and brick works in the 
neighbourhood. The church ctf St Mary Magdalene ranges in date 
from Early English to Perpendicular, retaining also traces of 
Norman work and some* early brasses. A great battle between 
Edmund Ironside and Canute, c. 1016, is placed here; and there 
was forme* fy a palace of the archbishops of Canterbury, Gilling-. 
ham was incorporated in 1903, and is governed by a mayor, 6 
aldermen and 1$ councillors. The borough-includes the populous 
districts of Brotnpton and New BrotaptOti. Area, 4355 acres 5 .' 
* Of LLOT r > CLAUDE (16:73-1722), French painter, best known 
as the master of Watteau and Lancfet; was born at Langres. 
His sportive mythological, landscape-pieces, with such titles 
as " Feast of Pan " and "Feast of Bacchus," opened the Academy 
of Painting »*i>Pa*fc t& Mm in 1715; and 1 he' then adapted hw 
art to thq fashkttable tastes of the day, and' introduced the 
decorative/^ay chmipkr'esifa which he-was afterwards surpassed- 
by his pu^ila He was alsb closely connected with the opera 
and theatre as a designer of scenery and costfemes: ' 

GILLOTT, JOSEPH (1700-1873}, English' peri-maker, wasborri 
at Sheffield on the rrth of October 1799; :: ^ or some time he was 
a working cutler there, but in* 182 1 removed to Birmingham, 
where he found employment in the "steel toy ^ trade, the 
technical name for the manufacture of steel buckles^ cliains and 
light ornamental steel- work generally. About 1830 he turned 
his attention to the manufacture of steel pens by machinery, 
and in 183 1 patented a process for placing elongated points oil 
the nibs of pens. Subsequently he invented other improvements, 
getting rid of the hardness and lack of flexibility, which had been 
a serious defect in nibs, by cutting, in addition to the centTe slit, 
side slits, and cross grinding the points. By 1S59 he had built up 
a -very large business. Gillott was a liberal art-patron, and 
one of the first to recognize the merits of J. M. Vt. Turner. He 
died iat Birmingham on the = 5th of January 1873: His collection 
of pictures; sold after his de*at*h>, realized f^^odo.*' 



*§ 



GILLOW, ROBERT (d. ffft), 'the ftuntfer at' tancastef 
of a distinguished firm of English rabinetj-naajters and furniture 
desigrieys whose' books Begin 1 m 173 i. He wafs succeeded by his 
eldest 1 s^h *^ictar^ (x'73i4-:iirf), Who after being educated at the 
feornan Catholic seminary at JDbuaj was, taken into partnership 
about rV^r^efi 'trie nhri : became Gillow!& Barton, and his 1 
lounge* sonslfebert and Thomas, and tihe business was continued 
by his grandson Richard (1778-1866). In 4 iti earty days the firm 
of GiUptftyere architects as well as; cabihet-rnakers, and the first, 
Richard Gilltfw designed thie classical Cust'om House at Lancaster. 
In the ihidtBe of the 1 8th century the business was e*tendecl to 
London, and about 1 761 premises were opened in Oxford Street 
dn a site whicli was continuously occupied Until 1906.' ifor.a 
lortg period the Gillbws were the best-known makers of foiglisn 
furniture-^Sheraton and Heppelwhite both designed for them, 
and replicas are still made of pieces from the drawings of Robert 
Adam. Between 1760 and 1770 they 1 invented the original 
form' of ' the bilKard-table; ' they were the patentees (about 
1806) of the telescopic dining-table which has long been universal 
in English houses; for a Captain Davenport they made, if they 
did not invent, the first writing-table of that name. Their vogue 
is indicated fey references t0 them in the works of Jane Austen, 
Thacikeray and. the first %ord Lyttoif; and more recently in one 
of Gilbert arid Sullivan's cornib operas. ' : 

GILLRAY, JAMES (1757-1815), English caricaturist, was born 
at Chelsea in 1757. His father, a native of Lanark, ,had served 
as a soldier, losing an anri at Fbntenoy, arid was adiiitted first 
as an inmate, and afterwards as an outdoor pensioner, at Chelsea 
hospital. Gillray commenced life by learning letter-engraving,' 
in which he soon became an adept. This employment, however, 
proving irksome, he wandered about for a time with a company 
of strolling players. After a very checkered experience he 
returned to London, arid was admitted a student in the Royal 
Academy, supporting himself by engraving, and probably issuing 
a considerable number of caricatures ' linder fictitious names. 
Hogarth's works were the delight and study of his early years.: 
" Paddy pn Horseback*" which appeared in 1779, is the first 
caricature which is certainly his. Two caricatures on Rodney^s 
naval victory, issued in 1782, were among the first of the rriemorf 1 
able series of >is political sketches. The name of Gillray's. 
publisher and prifltseller, Jtfiss Humphrey— whose shop* was first' 
at 227 Strand* then in New Bond Street, then in Old Bond Street, 
and finally in St Jattiesjs Street — is inextricably associated with' 
that of the caricaturist. Gillary. lived with Miss (often called 
Mrs) Humphrey during all: thei period of his fome. Itis believed 
thatihe several times, thought 1 of marrying ber, and 1 that tin. one 
occasion the pafr were on their way to the church, whela Gillfayj 
said: "This is. a foolish afi^r./iriethinksy Miss \3jumt>hrey r ; 
We f l}Ye very n comfortably tpgetW.;:we had tetfieffilct we}l. 
alDne^ ' There is no evidence^ however, to • support 'the ^storiesi 
I w^ich scandalhiongers invented ar^out tjierr irelatiohi. ' Gill^ay's'; 
plktes- were' exposed in rjuinplprey's sliop window, .where eager 
crowds examined tbejn. . A number of jhis roost trenchant aatires : 
are directed against George III., whoy after examiifing some of 1 
Gillray's sketches, said, with characteristic ignoratfteund blind-, 1 
riess to merit, "1 don't understand these caricatures." . Gillray : 
revenged himself for this utterance by has splendid caricature' 
entitled, ." A -Connoisseur Examining a Cooper^ which he is 
doing by means of i candle ori a " save-all ") so tln\t the sketch ' 
satirizes at price the king's pretensions. to. knowledge of art and' 
his miserly, habits- ; 

The excesaea of the French Revolution made Gillray conserva- 
tive; and he issued caricature after caricature, ridiculing the 
French and Napoleon,' and glorifying John fiulL Bte is not,, 
however, to bethought of as a keep political- adherent of either 
the Whig or tJae Tory .party; he dealt his blows pretty freely 
all round. , Hfer last work, ' from : a design by ' Buriburyi ' is 
entitled " Interiot 1 of a Barber's Sbpri iri Assize t'im'e/' and. 
isdatepl 1811- While he w^ls .engaged : on it he became 
mad, although he had occasional intervals of sanity, which he' 
employed- onjhis/ last, work. The approach of mfaducss must 
have'lfeeTl liasteried by his intfemperate'liabits: ' Gillray died on 



2+ 



GILLyifLQWER-^ILMAN 



the ist of June 1815, and was buried in St James's churchyard, 
Piccadilly, 

The times in which Gillray lived were peculiarly favourable 
to the growth of a great school of caricature. Party warfare was 
carried on with great vigour and not a little bitterness; and 
personalities were freely indulged in on both sides. Gillray's 
incomparable wit and humour, knowledge of life, fertility of 
resource, keen sense of the ludicrous, and beauty of execution, 
at once gave him the first place among caricaturists. He is 
honourably distinguished in the history of caricature by the fact 
that his sketches are real works of art. The ideas embodied in 
some of them are sublime and poetically magnificent in their 
intensity of meaning; while the coarseness by which others are 
disfigured is to be explained by the general freedom of treatment 
common in all intellectual departments in the 18th century. 
The historical value of Gillray's work has been recognized by 
accurate students of history. As has been well remarked: 
" Lord Stanhope has turned Gillray to account as a veracious 
reporter of speeches, as well as a suggestive illustrator of events." 
His contemporary political influence is borne witness to in a letter 
from Lord Bateman, dated November 3, 1798. " The Opposi- 
tion," he writes to Gillray, " are as low as we can wish them. 
You have been of infinite service in lowering them, and making 
them ridiculous." Gillray's extraordinary industry may be 
inferred from the fact that nearly 1000 caricatures have been 
attributed to him; while some consider him the aufhor of 1600 
or 1700. He is invaluable- to the student of English manners 
as well as to the political student. He attacks the social follies 
of the time with scathing satire; and nothing escapes his notice, 
not even a trifling change of fashion in dress. The great tact 
Gillray displays in hitting on the ludicrous side of any subject 
is only equalled by the exquisite finish of his sketches — the finest 
of which reach an epic grandeur and Miltonic sublimity of con- 
ception. 

Gillray's caricatures are divided into two classes, the political 
series and the social. The political caricatures form really the best 
history extant of the latter part of the reign of George III. They 
were circulated not only over Britain but throughout Europe, 
and exerted a powerful influence. In this series, George III., the 
queen, the prince of Wales, Fox, Pitt, Burke and Napoleon are the 
most prominent figures. In 1788 appeared two fine caricatures by 
Gillray. 4< Blood on Thunder foramg the Red Sea " represents 
Lord Thurlow carrying Warren Hastings through a sea of gore: 
Hastings looks very comfortable, and is carrying two large bags of 
money. " Market-Day " pictures the ministerialists of the time as 
horned cattle for sale. Among Gillray's best satires on the king 
are: " Farmer George and his Wife," two companion plates, iu one of 
which the king is toasting muffins for breakfast, and in the other 
the queen is frying sprats; " The Anti-Saccharites," where the royal 



_ Dying a frugal Meal"; " Koyal Attabiiity ' 
Apple Dumplings " ; and " The Pigs Possessed. Among his other 
political caricatures may be mentioned: " Britannia between Scylla 
and Charybdis,' r a picture in which Pitt, so often Gillray's butt, 
figures in a favourable light; " The Bridal Night "; " The Apothe- 
osis of Hoche," which concentrates the excesses of the French 
Revolution in one view; " The Nursery with Britannia reposing in 
Peace " ; " The First Kiss these Ten Years " (1803), another satire 
on the peace, which is said to have greatly amused Napoleon ; " The 
Handwriting upon the Wall"; "The Confederated Coalition," a 
fling at the coalition which superseded the Addington ministry; 
"Uncorking Old Sherry"; "The Plum-Pudding in Danger'*; 
11 Making Decent," i.e. " Broad-bottomites getting into the Grand 
Costume " ; " Comforts of a Bed of Roses " ; View of the Hustings 
in Covent Garden " ; " Phaethon Alarmed " ; and " Pandora 
opening her Box. ' ' The miscellaneous series of caricatures, although 
they have scarcely the historical importance of the political series, 
are more readily intelligible, and are even more amusing. Among 
the finest are: 4< Shakespeare Sacrificed "; " Flemish Characters 
(two plates); "Twopenny Whist"; "Oh! that this too solid 
flesh would melt " ; " Sandwich Carrots " ; " The Gout " ; " Comfort 
to the Corns "; " Begone Dull Care "; " The Cow-Pock," which 
gives humorous expression to the popular dread of vaccination; 

Dilletanti Theatricals"; and "Harmony before Matrimony" 
and " Matrimonial Harmonics " — two exceedingly good sketches in 
violent contrast to each other. 

A selection of Gillray's works appeared in parts in 181 8; but 
the first good edition was Thomas M'Lean's, which was published, 
with a key, in 1830. A somewhat bitter attack, not only on Gillray's 
character, but even on his genius, appeared in the Athenaeum tor 



October I, 1831, which was successfully refuted by J. Landseer 
in the Athenaeum a fortnight later. In 1851 Henry G. Bohn put 
out an edition, from the original plates, in a handsome folio, the 
coarser sketches being published in a separate volume. For this 
edition Thomas Wright and R. H. Evans wrote a valuable com* 
mentary, which is a good history of the times embraced by the 
caricatures. The next edition, entitled The Works of James GUlrav, 
the Caricaturist: with the Story of his Life and Times (Chatto & 
Windus, 1874), was the work of Thomas Wright, and, by its popular 
exposition and narrative, introduced Gillray to a very large circle 
formerly ignorant of him. This edition, which is complete in one 
volume, contains two portraits of Gillray, and upwards of 400 
illustrations. Mr J. J. Cartwright, in a letter to the Academy (Feb. 
28, 1874), drew attention to the existence of a MS. volume, in the 
British Museum, containing letters to and from Gillray, and other 
illustrative documents. The extracts he gave were used in a valuable 
article in the Quarterly Review for April 1874. See also the Academy 
for Feb. 21 and May 16, 1874. 

There is a good account of Gillray in Wright's History of Cari- 
cature and Grotesque in Literature and Art (1865)* See also the 
article Caricature. 

, GILLYFLOWER, a popular name applied to various flowers, 
but principally to the clove, DiatUhus CaryophyUus, of which 
the carnation is a cultivated variety, and to the stock, MaUhiola 
incana, a well-known garden favourite. The word is sometimes 
written gilliflower or gilloflower, and is reputedly a corruption 
of July-flower, " so called from the month they blow in." Henry 
Phillips (1775-1838), in his Flora historica, remarks that Turner 
(1568) " calls it gelouer, to which he adds the word stock, as 
we would say geiouers that grow on a stem or stock, to distin- 
guish them from the clove-gelouers and the wall-gelouers. Gerard, 
who succeeded Turner, and after him Parkinson, calls it gillo- 
flower, and thus it travelled from its original orthography until 
it was called July-flower by those who knew not whence it was 
derived." Dr Prior, in his useful volume on the Popular Names 
of British Plants, very distinctly shows the origin of the name. 
He remarks that it was " formerly spelt gyllofer and gilofre 
with the long, from the French giroflie, Italian garofalo (M. Lat. 
gariofilum), corrupted from the Latin Caryopkyllum, and referring 
to the spicy odour of the flower, which seems to have been used 
in flavouring wine and other liquors to replace the more costly 
clove of India. The name was originally given in Italy to plants 
of the pink tribe, especially the carnation, but has in England 
been transferred of late years to several cruciferous plants." 
The gillyflower of Chaucer and Spenser and Shakespeare was, 
as in Italy, Dianthus Caryopkyllus; that of later writers and of 
gardeners, Matthiola, Much of the confusion in the names of 
plants has doubtless arisen from the vague use of the French 
terms girojUe^ teillet and violette, which were all applied to 
flowers of the pink tribe, but in England were subsequently 
extended and finally restricted to very different plants. The 
use made of the flowers to impart a spicy flavour to ale and wine 
is alluded to by Chaucer, who writes: 

" And many a clove gilofre 
To put in ale"; 

also by Spenser, who refers to them by the name of sops in wine, 
which was applied in consequence of their being steeped in the 
liquor. In both these cases, however, it is the clove-gillyflower 
which is intended, as it is also in the passage from Gerard, in 
which he states that the conserve made of the flowers with sugar 
" is exceeding cordiall, and wonderfully above measure doth 
comfort the heart, being eaten now and then." The principal 
other plants which bear the name are the wallflower, Cheirantkus 
Cheiri, called wall-gillyflower in old books; the dame's violet, 
Hesperis matronalis, called variously the queen's, the rogue's 
and the winter gillyflower; the r&gged-iobin, Lychnis Flos-cuculi, 
called marsh-gillyflower and cuckoo-gillyflower; the water- 
violet, Hottonia palustris, called water-gillyflower; and the 
thrift, Artneria vulgaris, called sea-gillyflower. As a separate 
designation it is nowadays usually applied to the wallflower. 

OILMAN, DANIEL COIT (1831-1008), American education- 
ist, was born in Norwich, Connecticut, on the 6th of July 1831. 
He graduated at Yale in. 1852, studied in Berlin, was assistant 
librarian of Yale in 1856-1858 and librarian in 1858-1865, and 
was professor of physical and political geography in the Sheffield 
Scientific School of Yale University and a member of the 



1 

1 

i 

: i 

. c 

I 

I; 

( 

1 

i 

1 i 

1 i 



GILMORE— GILPIN 



25 



Governing Board of this School in 1S63-1872. From 1856 to 
i860 he was a member of the school board of New Haven, and 
from August 1865 to January 1867 secretary of the Connecticut 
Board of Education. In 1872 he became president of the 
University of California at Berkeley. On the 30th of December 
1874 he was elected first president of Johns Hopkins University 
(9.9.) at Baltimore. He entered upon his duties on the 1st of 
May 1875, and was formally inaugurated on the 2 2nd of February 
1876. This post he filled until 1901. From 1001 to 1904 he 
was the first president of the Carnegie Institution at Washington, 
D.C. He died at Norwich, Conn., on the 13th of October 1008. 
He received the honorary degree of LL.D. from Harvard, St 
John's, Columbia, Yale, North Carolina, Princeton, Toronto, 
Wisconsin and Clark Universities, and William and Mary College. 
His influence upon higher education in America was great, 
especially at Johns Hopkins, where many wise details of ad- 
ministration, the plan of bringing to the university as lecturers 
for a part of the year scholars from other colleges, the choice of 
a singularly brilliant and able faculty, and the marked willing- 
ness to recognize workers in new branches of science were all 
largely due to him. To the organization of the Johns Hopkins 
hospital, of which he was made director in 1889, he contributed 
greatly. He was a singularly good judge of men and an able 
administrator, and under him Johns Hopkins had an immense 
influence, especially in the promotion of original and productive 
research. He was always deeply interested in the researches 
of the professors at Johns Hopkins, and it has been said of him 
that his attention as president was turned inside and not outside 
the university. He was instrumental in determining the policy 
of the Sheffield Scientific School of Yale University while he 
was a member of its governing board; on the 28th of October 
1897 he delivered at New Haven a semi-centennial discourse 
on the school, which appears in his University Problems, He was 
a prominent member of the American Archaeological Society 
and of the American Oriental Society; was one of the original 
trustees of the John F. Slater Fund (for a time he was secretary, 
and from 1893 until his death was president of the board); 
from 1 89 1 until his death was a trustee of the Peabody Educa- 
tional Fund (being the vice-president of the board); and was 
an original member of the General Education Board (1902) 
and a trustee of the Russell Sage Foundation for Social Better- 
ment (1907). In 1 896-1 897 he served on the Venezuela Boundary 
Commission appointed by President Cleveland. In 1901 he 
succeeded Carl Schurz as president of the National Civil Service 
Reform League and served until 1907. Some of his papers 
and addresses are collected in a volume entitled University 
Problems in the United States (1888). He wrote, besides, James 
Monroe (1883), in the American Statesmen Series; a Life of 
James D. Dana, the geologist (1899); Science and Letters at 
Yale (1901), and The Launching of a University (1906), an 
account of the early years of Johns Hopkins. 

GILMORE, PATRICK SARSFIBLD (1820-1892), American 
bandmaster, was born in Ireland, and settled in America about 
1850. He had been in the band of an Irish regiment, and he had 
great success as leader of a military band at Salem, Massachu- 
setts, and subsequently (1859) in Boston. He increased his 
reputation during the Civil War, particularly by organizing a 
monster orchestra of massed bands for a festival at New Orleans 
in 1864; and at Boston in 1869 and 1872 he gave similar per- 
formances. He was enormously popular as a bandmaster, and 
composed or arranged a large variety of pieces for orchestra. 
He died at St Louis on the 24th of September 1892 

GILPIN, BERNARD (1517-1583), the " Apostle of the North," 
was descended from a Westmorland family, and wa$ born at 
Kentmere in 1517. He was educated at Queen's College, 
Oxford, graduating B.A. in 1540, M.A. in 1542 and B.D. in 1549. 
He was elected fellow of Queen's and ordained in 1542; subse- 
quently he was elected student of Christ Church. At Oxford he 
first adhered to the conservative side, and defended the doctrines 
of the church against Hooper; but his confidence was somewhat 
shaken by another public disputation which he had with Peter 
Martyr. In 1552 he preached before King Edward VI. a sermon 



on sacrilege, which was duly published, and displays the high 
ideal which even then he had formed of the clerical office; and 
about the same time he was presented to the vicarage of Norton, 
in the diocese of Durham, and obtained a licence, through 
William Cecil, as a general preacher throughout the kingdom 
as long as the king lived. On Mary's accession he went abroad 
to pursue his theological investigations at Louvain, Antwerp 
and Paris; and from a letter of his own, dated Louvain, 1554, 
we get a glimpse of the quiet student rejoicing in an " excellent 
library belonging to a monastery of Minorites." Returning to 
England towards the close of Queen Mary's reign, he was invested 
by his mother's uncle, Tunstall, bishop of Durham, with the 
archdeaconry of Durham, to which the rectory of Easington 
was annexed. The freedom of his attacks on the vices, and 
especially the clerical vices, of his times excited hostility against 
him, and he was formally brought before the bishop on a charge 
consisting of thirteen articles. Tunstall, however, not only 
dismissed the case, but presented the offender with the rich 
living of Houghton-le-Spring; and when the accusation was 
again brought forward, he again protected him. Enraged at 
this defeat, Gilpin's enemies laid their complaint before Bonner, 
bishop of London, who secured a royal warrant for his apprehen- 
sion. Upon this Gilpin prepared for martyrdom; and, having 
ordered his house-steward to provide him with a long garment, 
that he might " goe the more comely to the stake," he set out 
for London. Fortunately, however, for him, he broke his leg 
on the journey, and his arrival was thus delayed till the news 
of Queen Mary's death freed him from further danger. He at 
once returned to Houghton, and there he continued to labour 
till his death on the 4th of March 1583. When the Roman 
Catholic bishops were deprived he was offered the see of Carlisle; 
but he declined this honour and also the provostship of Queen's, 
which was offered him in 1560. At Houghton his course of life 
was a ceaseless round of benevolent activity. In June 1560 he 
entertained Cecil and Dr Nicholas Wotton on their way to 
Edinburgh. His hospitable manner of living was the admiration 
of all. His living was a comparatively rich one, his house was 
better than many bishops' palaces, and his position was that 
of a clerical magnate. In his household he spent " every 
fortnight 40 bushels of corn, 20 bushels of malt and an ox, 
besides a proportional quantity of other kinds of provisions." 
Strangers and travellers found a ready reception; and even 
their horses were treated with so much care that it was humor- 
ously said that, if one were turned loose in any part of the country, 
it would immediately make its way to the rector of Houghton. 
Every Sunday from Michaelmas till Easter was a public day 
with Gilpin. For the reception of his parishioners he had three 
tables well covered — one for gentlemen, the second for husband- 
men, the third for day-labourers; and this piece of hospitality 
he never omitted, even when losses or scarcity made its continu- 
ance difficult. He built and endowed a grammar-school at a 
cost of upwards of £500, educated and maintained a large number 
of poor children at his own charge, and provided the more 
promising pupils with means of studying at the universities. 
So many young people, indeed, flocked to his school that there 
was not accommodation for them in Houghton, and he had to fit 
up part of his house as a boarding establishment. Grieved at 
the ignorance and superstition which the remissness of the clergy 
permitted to flourish in the neighbouring parishes, he used 
every year to visit the most neglected parts of Northumberland, 
Yorkshire, Cheshire, Westmorland and Cumberland; and that 
his own flock might not suffer, he was at the expense of a constant 
assistant. Among his parishioners he was looked up to as a 
judge, and did great service in preventing law-suits amongst 
them. If an industrious man suffered a loss, he delighted to 
make it good; if the harvest was bad, he was liberal in the 
remission of tithes. The boldness which he could display at 
need is well illustrated by his action in regard to duelling. Find- 
ing one day a challenge-glove stuck up on the door of a church 
where he was to preach, he took it down with his own hand, and 
proceeded to the pulpit to inveigh against the unchristian 
custom. His theological position was not in accord with any of 



26 



;^^$ONITiEt^jGm; 



,th*?; re^giou^parties^of Jus «ag$, ancj Gladstone, thought that 
•the catholfci^ of tfre Anglican Chuxcfc was better exemplified 
Ui hi^ career thaji pi those of more prominent ecclesiastics 
{pref^to A. W. Hutton's edition of S. JJL ^Jaitland's Essays 
on the Reformatio*). He was not satisfied with the Elizabethan 
settlement* had great respect for s the Fathers, a^<J was with 
difficulty inoluced, to subscribe. Archbishop Sandys' views on 
the Eucharist horrified him; but on the other band he main : 
tained friendly relations with Bishop Pilkington and Thomas 
Lever, and the Puritans had some hope of his support. 

A life of Bernard Gilpin, written by George Carleton, bishop of 
Chichester, who had been a pupil of Gilpin's at Houghton, will be 
found in Bates's Vitae selectorum aliquot virorum, &c. (London, 
168:1). A translation of this sketch by William Freake, minister, 
was published at London, 1629; and in 1852 it was reprinted in 
Glasgow, with an introductory essay by Edward Irving. It forms 
one of the lives in Christopher Wordsworth's Ecclesiastical Biography 
(vol. iii., 4th ed.), having been compared with Carleton 's Latin 
text. Another biography of Gilpin, which, however, adds little to 
Bishopi Carleton's, was written by William Gilpin, MA, prebendary 
of An>bu*y (London, I75$,and 1854). See also Diet., ifo*. Biog. 
., GILS0N1TE (so named after S. H. Gilson of Salt J-ake City), 
or Uintahjte, or Uintaite, a description of asphalt occurring in 
masses several inches, in diameter in the Uinta (or Uintah) 
valley, near Fort Duchesne, Utah. It is of black colour; its 
fracture is conchoidal, and it has a lustrous surface. When 
warmed it becomes pjastic,.and on further heating fuses perfectly. 
It hap a specific gravity of 1-065 to 1-079. It dissolves freely 
in hot, oil of turpentine^ The output amounted to 10,916 short 
tons, for the year 1905, and the value was $4-31 per ton. 

GILYAKS, a hybrid people, originally widespread, throughout 
the Lower Amur district, Jmt now confined to the Amur delta 
and the north of Sakhalin. They have been affiliated by some 
authorities to the Ainu of Sakhalin and Yezo; but they are more 
probably a mongrel people, and Dr A. Anuchin states, that 
there are two types, a Mongoloid with sparse beard, high cheek- 
bones and flat face, and, a Caucasic with bushy beard and more 
regular features. The Chinese call them Yupitatse, " Fish-skin- 
clad people," from their wearing a peculiar dress made from 
salmon skin. 

See E. G. Ravenstein, The Russians on the Amur (1861); Dr A. 
Anuchin, Mem. Imp. Soc. Nat. Sc. xx., Supplement (Moscow, 1877) ; 
H. von Siebold, Vber die Aino (Berlin, 1881); J. Deniker in Revue 
d'ethnographie (Paris, 1884); L. Schrenck, Die Volher des Amur- 
landes (St Petersburg, 1891). 

GIMBAL, a mechanical device for hanging some object so 
that it should keep a horizontal and constant position, while 
the body from which it is suspended is in free motion, so that 
the motion of the supporting body is not communicated to it. 
It is thus used particularly for the suspension of compasses or 
chronometers and lamps at sea, and usually consists of a ring 
freely moving on an axis, within which the object swings on an 
axis at right angles to the ring. 

The word is derived from the 0. Fr. gemel, from Lat. gemellus, 
diminutive of gepiinus, a twin,. and appears also in gimmel or 
jimbel and as gemel, especially as a term for a ring formed of two 
hoops linked together and capable of separation, used in the 
16th and 17th centuries as betrothal and keepsake rings. They 
sometimes were made of three or more hoops linked together. 

GIMLET (from the 0. Fr. guimbelet, probably a diminutive 
of the O.E. wimble, and the Scandinavian wammle, to bore or 
twist; .the modern French is gibelet), a tool used for boring small 
holes.. It is made of steel, with a shaft having a hollow side, 
and a screw at the $nd for boring the wood; the handle of wood 
is fixed transversely to the shaft. A gimlet is always a small 
tool. A similar tool of large size is called an " auger " (see 
Tool). 

CfclMU, in Scandinavian mythology, the great hall of heaven 
whither the righteous will go to spend eternity. 

GIMP* or Gymp. (i), (Of somewhat doubtful origin, but prob- 
ably a nasal form of the Fr. guipure, from guiper, %o cover or 
" whip " a cord over with silk), a stiff trimming made of silk 
or cotton woven, around a firm cord,, of ten further ornamented 
by a> metal cord running through it. It is also sometimes 
covered with bugles, beads or other glistening ornaments. The ' 



trimming, employed by upjiojstsrjers, to,e^ r cijr^*3, <^ape#e«, 
the seats of cbpirs, &c., is also called, gunp^.and in lace work • 
it is the firmer or coarser thread whici outlines the pattern and 
strengthens the material, (2) A sbortenecj form of' gimple (the 
0,E, wimple), the kerchief worn. by $ nun around her throat, 
sometimes also applied to a nun's stomacher. 

GIN, an aromatized or compounded potable spirit,, the char- 
acteristic flavour pi which is derived, frorn. the juniper berry. 
The word " gin " is an abbreviation of Geneva, both being 
primarily derived from the Fr. genievre (Juniper), The use of 
the juniper for flavouring alcoholic beverages may be traced to 
the invention, or perfecting, by Count de JVJprret, son of Henry 
IV- of France, of juniper wine. It was the custom in the early 
days of the spirit industry, in distilling spirit from fermented 
liquors, to add in the working some aromatic ingredients, such 
as ginger, grains of paradise, &c, f to take off the. nauseous, 
flavpur of the crude spirits then made. • The invention of juniper 
wine, no doubt, led some one. Xp try the juniper berry for this 
purpose, and as this flavouring agent was found, not only to 
yield an agreeable beverage, but also to impart a valuable 
medicinal quality to the spirit, it was generally made use. of by 
makers of aromatized^ spirits thereafter. It is probable that the 
use of grains of. paradise, pepper and so on, in the early days of 
spirit manufacture, i^r, the object mentioned, above, indirectly 
gave rise to the statements which are still found in current text- 
books and works of reference as to the use of Cayenne pepper, 
cooculus indicus, sulphuric acid and so on, for the purpose of 
adulterating spirits, jt is quite certain that such materials are 
not used nowadays, and it would indeed, in view of modern 
conditions, of manufacture and of public taste, be hard to find a 
reason for their use* The same applies to the suggestions that 
such, substances as acetate of lead, alum or sulphate of zinc are 
employed for the fining of gin. 

, There are two distinct types of gin, namely, the Dutch geneva 
or Hollands and the British gin. Each of these types exists in 
the shape of numerous sub-varjeties. Broadly speaking, British 
gin is prepared with a highly rectified spirit, whereas in the 
manufacture of Dutch gin a preliminary rectification is not an 
integral part of the process. The old-fashioned Hollands is 
prepared much after the following fashion. , A mash consisting 
of about one-third of malted barley or here and two-thirds rye- 
meal is prepared, and infused at a somewhat high temperature. 
After cooling, the whole is set to ferment with a small quantity 
of yeast. After two to three days the attenuation is complete, 
and the wash so obtained is distilled, and the resulting distillate 
(the low wines) is redistilled, with the addition of the flavouring 
matter (juniper berries, &c.) and a little salt. Originally the 
juniper berries were ground with the malt, but this practice no 
longer obtains, but some distillers, it is belfeved, still mix the 
juniper berries with the wort and subject the whole to fermenta- 
tion. When the redistillation over juniper is repeated, the 
product is termed double (geneva, &c). There are numerous 
variations in the process described, wheat being frequently 
employed in lieu of rye. In the manufacture of British gin, 1 
a highly rectified spirit (see Spirits) is redistilled in the presence 
of the flavouring matter (principally juniper and coriander), 
and frequently this operation is repeated several times. The 
product so obtained constitutes the " dry " gin of commerce. 
Sweetened or cordialized gin is obtained by adding sugar and 

1 The precise origin of the term " Old Tom," as applied to un- 
sweetened gin, appears to be somewhat obscure. In the English 
case of Boord & Son v* Huddart (1903), in which the plaintiff s estab- 
lished their right tp the " Cat Brand " trade-mark, it was proved 
before Mr Justice Swinfen Eady that this firm had first adopted 
about 1840 the punning association of the picture of a Tom cat 
on a barrel with the name of " Old Tom " ; and it was at one time 
supposed that this was due to a tradition that a cat had fallen into 
one of the vats, the gin from which was highly esteemed. But the 
term " Old Tom " had been known before that, and Messrs Boord & 
Son inform us that previously " Old Tom " had been a man, namely 
11 old Thomas Chamberlain of Hodge's distillery"; an old label 
book in their possession (1909) shows a- label and bill-head with a 
picture of " Old Tom " the man on it, and another label shows a 
picture of a sailor lad on shipboard described as " Young Tom." 



GINDELY— GINGER 



#7 



flavouring matter (juniper, coriander, angelica, &c.) to the dry 
variety. Inferior qualities of gin are made by simply adding 
essential oils to plain spirit, the distillation process being omitted. 
The essential oil of juniper is a powerful diuretic, and gin is 
frequently prescribed in affections of the urinary organs. 

GINDELY, ANTON (1820-189 2), German historian, was the 
son of a German father and a Slavonic mother, and was born at 
Prague on the 3rd of September 1829. He studied at Prague 
and at Olmtitz, and, after travelling extensively in search of 
historical material, became professor of history at the university 
of Prague and archivist for Bohemia in 1862. He died at 
Prague on the 24th of October 1892. Gindely's chief work is 
his Geschickte des dreissigj&krigen Krieees (Prague, 1869-1880), 
which has been translated into English (New York, 1884); 
and his historical work is mainly concerned with the period of the 
Thirty Years' War. Perhaps the most important of his numerous 
other works are: Geschickte der bokmischen Briider (Prague, 
1857-1858); Rudolf II. und seine Zeit (1862-1868), and a criti- 
cism of Wallenstein, Waldstein wdhrend seines erslen Generalats 
(1886). He wrote a history of Bethlen Gabor in Hungarian, 
and edited the Monument a historiae Bokemica. Gindely's 
posthumous work, Geschickte der Gegenreformation in Bdhmen, 
was edited by T. Tupetz (1894). 

See the AUgemeine aeulsche Biograpliie, Band 49 (Leipzig, 1904). 

GINGALL, or JinCai (Hindostani janjat), a gun used by the 
natives throughout the East, usually a light piece mounted on 
a swivel; it sometimes takes the form of a heavy musket fired 
from a rest. 

GINGER (Fr. gingembre, Ger. Ingiver), the rhizome or under- 
ground stem of Zingiber officinale (nat. ord. Zingiberaceae), a 
perennial reed-like plant growing from 3 to 4 ft. high. The 
flowers and leaves are borne on separate, stems, those of the 
former being shorter than those of the latter, and averaging from 
6 to 12 in. The flowers themselves are borne at the apex of the 
stems in dense ovate-oblong cone-like spikes from 2 to 3 in. long, 
composed of obtuse strongly-imbricated bracts with membranous 
margins, each bract enclosing a single small sessile flower. The 
leaves are alternate and arranged in two rows, bright green,, 
smooth, tapering at both ends, with very short stalks and long 
sheaths which stand away from the stem and end in two small 
rounded auricles. The plant rarely flowers and the fruit is 
unknown. Though not found in a wild state, it is considered 
with very good reason to be a native of the warmer parts of Asia, 
over which it has been cultivated from an early period and the 
rhizome imported into England. From Asia the plant has^pread 
into the West Indies, South America, western tropical Ainca, 
and Australia. It is commonly grown in botanic gardens in 
Britain. 

The use of ginger as a spice has been known from very early 
times; it was supposed by the Greeks and Romans to be a 
product of southern Arabia, and was received by them by way 
of the Red Sea; in India it has also been known from a very 
remote period, the Greek and Latin names being derived from 
the Sanskrit. Fluckiger and Hanbury, in, their Pharmacographia, 
give the following notes on the history of ginger. On the 
authority of Vincent's Commerce and Navigation of the Ancients , 
it is stated that in the list of imports from the Red Sea into 
Alexandria, whicji in the second century of our era were there 
liable to the Roman fiscal duty, ginger occurs among other 
Indian spices. So frequent is the mention of ginger in similar 
lists during the middle ages, that it evidently constituted an 
important item in the commerce between Europe and the East. 
It thus appears in the tariff of duties levied at Acre in Palestine 
about 1 1 73, in that of Barcelona in 1221, Marseilles in 1228 
and Paris in 1296. Ginger seems to have been well known in 
England even before the Norman Conquest, being often referred 
to in the Anglo-Saxon leech-books of the nth century. It was 
very common in the 13th and 14th centuries, ranking, next in 
value to pepper, which was then the commonest of all spices, 
and costing on an average about is. yd. per lb. Three kinds of 
ginger were known among the merchants of Italy about the 
middle of the 14th century: (1) Bettedi or Baladi, an Arabic 



name, which, as applied 'to ginger, would signify country or 
Wild, and denotes common ginger* {2) Colombino, which refers 
to Columbian, Kolam or Quilon, a 1 port in Travancore, fre- 
quently mentioned in the middle ages; and (3) Micchinb, a 
name which denoted that the spice had been brought from or 
by way of Mecca. Marco Polo seems to have seen the ginger 
plant both in India and China between 1280 and 1200. John of 
Montecorvino, a missionary friar wlio visited India about 1292, 
gives a description of the plant, and refers to the fact of the root 
being dug up and transported. Nicolo 61 Conto, ' a Venetian 
merchant in the* early part of the 15th century, also describes 
the plant and the collection of the root, as seen by him in India. 
Though the Venetians received ginger by way of Egypt, s6me of 
the superior kinds were taken from India overland by the Black 
Sea. The spice is said to have been introduced into America 




From Bentley & Trimen's Medicinal Plants, by permission of J.& A. Churphfll. * 

Ginger (Zingiber officinale), half nat. size, with leafy and flowering 

stem; the former cut off short. 

1. Flower. /, Labellum, representing two 

2. Flower in vertical section, barren stamens. 

3. Fmile stamen, enveloping the st, Fertile stamen, 
style which projects above it. y, Staminode. 

4. Piece of leafy stem. 1-3 x t Tip of style bearing the 

enlarged. srigma. 

s, Sepals. ".< 2, Style. 

p, Petals. gt, Honey-secreting glands., 

by Francisco de Mencioca, who took it from the East Indies to 
New Spain. It seems to have been shipped for commercial pur- 
poses from San Domingo as early as 1585, and from Barbados 
in 1654; so early as 1547 considerable quantities were sent from 
the West Indies to Spain. 

Ginger is known in commerce in two distinct forms, termed 
respectively coated and uncoated ginger, as having or wanting 
the epidermis. For the first, the pieces, which are called " races " 
or " hands," from their irregular palmate form, are washed and 
simply dried in the sun. In this form ginger presents a brown, 
more or less irregularly wrinkled or striated surface, and when 
broken shows a dark brownish fracture, hard, and sometimes 
horny and resinous. To produce uncoated ginger the rhizomes 
are washed, scraped and sun-dried, and are often subjected 
to a system of bleaching, either from the fumes of burning 
sulphur or by immersion for a short time in a solution of chlorin- 
ated limo. The whitewashed appearance that much of the 
ginger has, as seen in the shops, is due to the fact of its being 
washed in whiting and water, or even coated with sulphate of 



*3 



GINGHAM— GINKEL 



Jime. This artificial coating is supposed by some to give the 
ginger a better appearance; it often, however, covers an inferior 
quality, and can readily be detected by the ease with which it 
rubs off, or by its leaving a white powdery substance at the bottom 
of the jar in which it is contained. Uncoated ginger, as seen 
in trade, varies from single joints an inch or less in length to 
flattish irregularly branched pieces of several joints, the " races " 
or " hands," and from 3 to 4 in. long; each branch has a depres- 
sion at its summit showing the former attachment of a leafy 
stem. , The colour, when not whitewashed, is a pale buff; it is 
somewhat rough or fibrous, breaking with a short mealy fracture, 
and presenting on the surfaces of the broken parts numerous short 
bristly fibres. 

The principal constituents of ginger are starch, volatile oil (to 
which the characteristic odour of the spice is due) and resin (to 
which is attributed its pungency). Its chief use is as a condiment 
or spice, but as an aromatic and stomachic medicine it is also used 
internally. " The stimulant, aromatic and carminative properties 
render it of much value in atonic dyspepsia, especially if accom- 
panied with much flatulence, and as an adjunct to purgative medi- 
cines to correct griping." Externally applied as a rubefacient, it 
has been found to relieve headache and toothache. The rhizomes, 
collected in a young green state, washed, scraped and preserved in 
syrup, form a delicious preserve, which is largely exported both 
from the West Indies and from China. Cut up into pieces like 
lozenges and preserved in sugar, ginger also forms a very agreeable 
sweetmeat. 

GINGHAM, a cotton or linen cloth, for the name of which 
several origins are suggested. It is said to have been made at 
Guingamp, a town in Brittany; the New English Dictionary 
derives the word from Malay ging-gang, meaning " striped." 
The cloth is now of a light or medium weight, and woven of dyed 
or white yarns either in a single colour or different colours, and 
in stripes, checks or. plaids. It is made in Lancashire and 
in Glasgow, and also to a large extent in the United States. 
Imitations of it are obtained by calico-printing. It is used for 
dresses, &c. 

GINGI, or Gingee, a rock fortress of southern India, in the 
South Arcot district of Madras. It consists of three hills, con- 
nected by walls enclosing an area of 7 sq. m., and practically 
impregnable to assault. The origin of the fortress is shrouded 
in legend. When occupied by the Mahrattas at the end of the 
1 7th century, it withstood a siege of eight years against the armies 
of Aurangzeb. In 1750 it was captured by the French, who held 
it with a strong force for eleven years. It surrendered to the 
English in 1761, in the words of Orme, " terminated the long 
hostilities between the two rival European powers in Coromandel, 
and left not a single ensign of the French nation avowed by the 
authority of its government in any part of India." 

GINGUEN& PIERRE LOUIS (1748-1815), French author, 
was born on the 27th of April 1748 at Rennes, in Brittany. He 
was educated at a Jesuit college in his native town, and came 
to Paris in 1772. He wrote criticisms for the Mercure de France, 
and composed a comic opera, Pomponin (1777). The Satire des 
satires (1778) and the Confession de Zulmt (1779) followed. 
The Confession was claimed by six or seven different authors, and 
though the value of the piece is not very great, it obtained great 
success. His defence of Piccini against the partisans of Gluck 
made him still more widely known. He hailed the first symptoms 
of the Revolution, joined Giuseppe Cerutti, the author of the 
Mlmoire pour le peuple franqais (1788), and others in producing 
the Feuille villageoise, a weekly paper addressed to the villages 
of France. He also celebrated in an indifferent ode the opening 
of the states-general. In his Lettres sur les confessions de J. -J. 
Rousseau (1791) he defended the life and principles of his author. 
He was imprisoned during the Terror, and only escaped with 
life by the downfall of Robespierre. Some time after his release 
he assisted, as director-general of the " commission ex6cutive 
de Tinstruction publique," in reorganizing the system of public 
instruction, and he was an original member of the Institute of 
France. In 1797 the directory appointed him minister pleni- 
potentiary to the king of Sardinia. After fulfilling his duties 
for seven months, very little to the satisfaction of his employers, 
Ginguen6 retired for a time to his country house of St Prix, in 



the valley of Montmorency. He was appointed a member of 
the tribunate, but Napoleon, finding that he was not sufficiently 
tractable, had him expelled at the first " purge," and Ginguen£ 
returned to his literary pursuits. He was one of the commission 
charged to continue the Histoire litteraire de la France, and he 
contributed to the volumes of this series which appeared in 1814, 
18 1 7 and 1820. Ginguene's most important work is the Histoire 
litteraire d 9 Italie (14 vols., 1811-1835). He was putting the 
finishing touches to the eighth and ninth volumes when he died 
on the nth of November 1815, The last five volumes were 
written by Francesco Salfi and revised by Pierre Daunou. 

In the composition of his history of Italian literature he was 
guided for the most part by the great work of Girolamo Tiraboschi, 
but he avoids the prejudices and party views of his model. 
^ Ginguene" edited the Decade philosophique, politique et littiraire 
till it was suppressed by Napoleon in 1807. He contributed largely 
to the Biographic universetle, the Mercure de France and the] En- 
cyclopedic mithodique; and he edited the works of Chamfort and of 
Lebrun. Among his minor productions are an opera, Pomponin 
ou le tuteur mystijtt (1777); La Satire des satires (1778); De 
VautoriU de Rabelais dans la revolution brtsente (1791); De M. 
Neckar (179$); Fables nouvelles (1810); Fables inidites (1814). See 
" Eloge de Ginguene" " by Dacier, in the Menurires de Vtnstitut, torn, 
vii.; Discours " by M. Daunou, prefixed to the 2nd ed. of the 
Hist. lilt, d'ltalie; |D. J. Garat, Notice sur la vie et les ouvrages de 
P. L. Guingeni, prefixed to a catalogue of his library (Paris, 181 7). 

GIKKEL, GODART VAN (1630-1703), 1st earl of Athlone, 
Dutch general in the service of England, was born at Utrecht 
in 1630. He came of a noble family, and bore the title of Baron 
van Reede, being the eldest son of Godart Adrian van Reede, 
Baron Ginkel. In his youth he entered the Dutch army, and in 
1688 he followed William, prince of Orange, in his expedition to 
England. In the following year he distinguished himself by 
a memorable exploit — the pursuit, defeat and capture of a Scottish 
regiment which had mutinied at Ipswich, and was marching 
northward across the fens. It was the alarm excited by this 
mutiny that facilitated the passing of the first Mutiny Act. In 
1690 Ginkel accompanied William III. to Ireland, and com- 
manded a body of Dutch cavalry at the battle of the Boyne. 
On the king's return to England General Ginkel was entrusted 
with the conduct of the war. He took the field in the spring of 
1 691, and established his headquarters at Mullingar. Among 
those who held a command under him was the marquis of 
Ruvigny, the recognized chief of the Huguenot refugees. Early in 
June Ginkel took the fortress of Ballymore, capturing the whole 
garrison of 1000 men. The English lost only 8 men. After 
reconstructing the fortifications of Ballymore the army marched 
to Athlone, then one of the most important of the fortified towns 
of Ireland. The Irish defenders of the place were commanded 
by a distinguished French general, Saint-Ruth. The firing 
began on June 19th, and on the 30th the town was stormed, 
the Irish army retreating towards Galway, and taking up their 
position at Aughrim. Having strengthened the fortifications 
of Athlone and left a garrison there, Ginkel led the English, 
on July 12th, to Aughrim. An immediate attack was resolved 
on, and, after a severe and at one time doubtful contest, the 
crisis was precipitated by the fall of Saint- Ruth, and the 
disorganized Irish were defeated and fled. A horrible slaughter 
of the Irish followed the struggle, and 4000 corpses were left 
unburied on the field, besides a multitude of others that lay 
along the line of the retreat. Galway next capitulated, its 
garrison being permitted to retire to Limerick. There tlje viceroy 
Tyrconnel was in command of a large force, but his sudden death 
early in August left the command in the hands of General Sars- 
field and the Frenchman D'Usson. The English came in sight of 
the town on the day of Tyrconners death, and the bombardment 
was immediately begun. Ginkel, by a bold device, crossed the 
Shannon and captured the camp of the Irish cavalry. A few days 
later he stormed the fort on Thomond Bridge, and after difficult 
negotiations a capitulation was signed, the terms of which were 
divided into a civil and a military treaty. Thus was completed 
the conquest or pacification of Ireland, and the services of the 
Dutch general were amply recognized and rewarded. He re- 
ceived the formal thanks of the House of Commons, and was 



, GiNSBURG— GIOBERTI 



29 



created by the king xst earl of Athlone and baron of Aughrim, 
The immense forfeited estates of the earl of Limerick were given 
to him, but the grant was a few years later revoked by the English 
parliament. The earl continued to serve in the English army, 
and accompanied the king to the continent in 1693. He fought 
at the sieges of Namur and the battle of Neerwinden, and 
assisted m destroying the French magazine at Givet. In 1702, 
waiving his own, claims to the position of commander-in-chief, 
he commanded the Dutch serving under the duke of Marlborough. 
He died at Utrecht on the iith of February 1703, and was 
succeeded by his son the 2nd edrl (1668-1719), a distinguished 
soldier in the reigns of William III. and Anne. On the death 
of the 9th earl without issue in 1844, the title became extinct. 

GINSBURG, CHRISTIAN DAVID (1831- ), Hebrew scholar, 
was born at Warsaw on the 05 th of December 183 1 . Coming to 
England shortly after the completion of his education in the 
Rabbinic College at Warsaw, Dr Ginsburg continued his study 
of the Hebrew Scriptures, with special attention to the Megilloth. 
The first result of these studies was a translation of the Song 
of Songs, with a commentary historical and critical, published 
in 1857. A similar translation . of Ecclesiastes, followed by 
treatises on the Karaites, on the Essenes and on the Kabbala, 
kept the author prominently before biblical students while he 
was preparing the first sections of his magnum opus, the critical 
study of the Massorah.. Beginning in 1867 with the publication 
of Jacob ben Cbajim's Introduction to the Rabbinic Bible, 
Hebrew and English, with notices, and the Massoreth Ha- 
Massoreth of Elias Levita, in Hebrew, with translation and 
commentary, Dr tiinsburg took rank as an eminent Hebrew 
scholar. In 1870 he was appointed one of the first members 
of the committee for the revision of the English version of the 
Old Testament. His life-work culminated in the publication 
of the Massorah, in three volumes folio (1 880-1886), followed 
by the Masoretico-critical edition of the Hebrew Bible (1894), 
and the elaborate introduction to it (1897). Dr Ginsburg had 
one predecessor in the field, the learned Jacob ben Chajim, who 
in 1524-1525 published the second Rabbinic Bible, containing 
what has ever since been known as the Massorah; but neither 
were the materials available nor was criticism sufficiently 
advanced for a complete edition. Dr Ginsburg took up the 
subject almost where it was left by those early pioneers, and 
collected portions of the Massorah from the countless MSS. 
scattered throughout Europe and the East. More recently 
Dr Ginsburg has published Facsimiles of Manuscripts of the 
Hebrew Bible (1897 and 1898), and The Text of the Hebrew Bible 
in Abbreviations (1903), in addition to a critical treatise " on the 
relationship of the so-called Codex Babylonicus of a.d. 916 to 
the Eastern Recension of the Hebrew Text " (1899, for private 
circulation). In the last-mentioned work he seeks to prove that 
the St Petersburg Codex, for so many years accepted as the 
genuine text of the Babylonian school, is in reality a Palestinian 
text carefully altered so as to render it conformable to the 
Babylonian recension. He subsequently undertook the prepara- 
tion of a new edition of the Hebrew Bible for the British and 
Foreign Bible Society. He also contributed many articles to 
J. Kitto's Encyclopaedia, W. Smith's Dictionary of Christian 
Biography and the { Encyclopaedia Britannica. 

GINSENG, the root of a species of Panax (P. Ginseng), native of 
Manchuria and Korea, belonging to the natural order Araliaceae, 
used in China as a medicine. Other roots are substituted for it, 
notably that of Panax quinquefotium, distinguished as American 
ginseng, and imported from the United States. At one time 
the ginseng obtained from Manchuria was considered to be the 
finest quality, and in consequence became so scarce that an 
imperial edict was issued prohibiting its collection. That 
prepared in Korea is now the most esteemed variety. The root of 
the wild plant is preferred to that of cultivated ginseng, and the 
older the plant the better is the quality of the root considered to 
be. Great care is taken in the preparation of the drug. The 
account given by Koempfer of the preparation of nindsin, the 
root of Sium ninsi, in Korea, will give a good idea of the prepara- 
tion of ginseng, ninsi being a similar drug of supposed weaker 



virtue, obtained from a different plant, and often confounded 
with ginseng. " In the beginning of winter nearly all th$ 
population of Sjansai turn out to collect the root, and make 
preparations for sleeping in the fields. The root, when collected* 
is macerated for three days in fresh water, or water in which 
rice has been boiled twice; it is then suspended in a closed 
vessel over the fire, and afterwards dried, until from the base to 
the middle it assumes a hard, resinous and translucent appear- 
ance, which is considered a proof of its good quality." 

Ginseng of good quality generally occurs in hard, rather 
brittle, translucent pieces, about the size of the little finger, 
and varying in length from 2 to 4 in. The taste is mucilaginous, 
sweetish and slightly bitter and aromatic. The root is frequently 
forked, and it is probably owing to this circumstance that 
medicinal properties were in the first place attributed to it, 
its resemblance to the body of a man being supposed to indicate 
that it could restore virile power to the aged and impotent. 
In price it varies from 6 or 1 2 dollars to the enormous sum of 
300 or 400 dollars an ounce. 

Lockhart gives a graphic description of a visit to a ginseng mer- 
chant. Opening the outer box, the merchant removed several paper 
parcels which appeared to fill the box, but under them was a second 
box, or perhaps two small boxes, which, when taken out, showed 
the bottom of the large box and all the intervening space filled with 
more paper parcels. These parcels, he said, " contained quicklime, 
for the purpose of absorbing any moisture and keeping the boxes 
quite dry, the lime being packed in paper for the sake of cleanliness. 
The smaller box, which held the ginseng, was lined with sheet-lead ; 
the ginseng further enclosed in silk wrappers was kept in little silken- 
covered boxes. Taking up a piece, he would request his visitor not 
to breathe upon it, nor handle it; he would dilate upon the many 
merits of the drug and the cures it had effected. The cover of the 
root, according to its quality, was silk, either embroidered or plain; 
cotton cloth or paper." In China the ginseng is often sent to 
friends as a valuable present; in such cases, " accompanying the 
medicine is usually given a small, beautifully-finished double kettle, 
in which the ginseng is prepared as follows. The inner kettle is 
made of silver, and between this and the outside vessel, which is a 
copper jacket, is a small space for holding water. The silver kettle, 
which fits on a ring near the toi> of the outer covering, has a cup-like 
cover in which rice is placed with a little water; the ginseng is put 
in the inner vessel with water, a cover is placed over the whole, and 
the apparatus is put on the fire. When the rice in the Cover is suffi- 
ciently cooked, the medicine is ready, and is then eaten by the 
patient, who drinks the ginseng tea at the same time." The dose 
of the root is from 60 to 90 grains. During the use of the drug tea- 
drinking is forbidden for at least a month, but no other change is* 
made in the diet. It is taken in the morning before breakfast, from 
three to eight days together, and sometimes it is taken in the evening 
before going to bed. 

The action of the drug appears to be entirely psychic, and com- 
parable to that of the mandrake of the Hebrews. There is no 
evidence that it possesses any pharmacological or therapeutic 
properties. 

See Porter Smith, Chinese Materia Medica, p. 103; Reports on 
Trade at the Treaty Ports of China (1868), p. 63; Lockhart, Med. 
Missionary in China (2nd ed.), p. 107; Bill, de la SociitS Imperiale 
de Nat. de Moscou (1865), No. 1, pp. 70-76; Pharmaceutical Journal 
(2), vol. iii. pp. 197, 333, (2), vol. ix. p. 77; Lewis, Materia Medica t 
p. 324; Geoffrey, Tract, de maHere meuicale, t. ii. p. 112; Kaempfer, 
Amoenitates exoticae, p. 824. , 

GIOBERTI, VINCENZO (1801-1852), Italian philosopher, 
publicist and politician, was born in Turin on the 5th of April 
r8oi. He was educated by the fathers of the Oratory with a 
view to the priesthood and ordained in 1825. At first he led a 
very retired life; but gradually took more and more interest 
in the affairs of his country and the new political ideas as well 
as in the literature of the day. Partly under the influence of 
Mazzini, the freedom of Italy became his ruling motive in life, — 
its emancipation, not only from foreign masters, but from modes 
of thought alien to its genius, and detrimental to its European 
authority. This authority was in his mind connected with 
papal supremacy, though in a way quite novel — intellectual 
rather than political. This must be remembered in considering 
nearly all his writings, and also in estimating his position, both 
in relation to the ruling clerical party — the Jesuits — and also 
to the politics of the court of Piedmont after the accession of 
Charles Albert in 183 1. He was now noticed by the king and 
made one of his chaplains. His popularity and private influence, 
however, were reasons enough for the court party to mark him 



3© 

for exile; he wjii not one of them, and could not be depended on. 
Knowing thin, he resigned hi* office in 1833, but wa* suddenly 
arreted on a charge of conspiracy, and, after an imprisonment of 
four months, was banished without a trial. Gioberti first went 
to Paris, and, a year later, to Hrussels, where he remained till 
1H45, teaching philosophy, and assisting a friend In the work 
of a private school. He nevertheless found time to write many 
works of philosophical Importance, with special reference to his 
country ami its position. An amnesty having been declared 
by Charles Albert In 1846, Gioberti (who was again in Paris) 
was at liberty to return to Italy, but refused to do so till the end 
of 1847, On his entrance Into Turin on the 39th of April 1848 
he was received with the greatest enthusiasm. Fie refused the 
dignity of senator offered him by Charles Albert, preferring to 
represent his native town in the Chamber of Deputies, of which 
he was soon elected president. At the close of the same year, 
a new ministry was formed, headed by Gioberti; but with the 
accession of Victor Kmmanuel in March 1840, his active life 
came to an end. For a short time indeed he held a seat in the 
cabinet 1 though without a portfolio; but an irreconcilable 
disagreement soon followed, and his removal from Turin was 
accomplished by his appointment on a mission to Paris, whence 
he never returned, There, refusing the pension which had been 
offered him ami all ecclesiastical preferment, he lived frugally, 
and spent his days and nights as at Brussels in literary labour. 
He died suddenly, of apoplexy, on the 26th of October 185a. 

GloberUV writing* aw more Important than his political career* 
In the atmoial hUuuv of luurooosn philosophy they atand apart. As 
t)\« spocuUtUma of Ro*miui»Scrbati» aguinnt which he wrote, have 
Iveen called \\w Uurt link added to medieval thought 90 the system of 
(UoUhUi known as " Ontolotiism," more especially in his greater 
and earlfor works, Is unrelated to other modem «chools of thought. 
It *huw* a harmony with the Roman Catholic faith which caused 
Cou*iu to devluiv that "Italian philo*ophy was still in the bond* of 
theology*" and that l%lot>orti was no philosopher. Method is with 
him a *ynthetict subjevtiv? ami i*ycnolo£ical instrument. He re- 
c\m»trueu. as he declare*, ontology* and begins with the " ideal 
fcmmiUi" the K*$ create* *v nihil* the existent." God is the only 
hrina (fWW all othvr thing* are merely exigences* God is the 
origin ot all human kiuwtalge iwlled /VJW. thought)* which is one 
and *o to *ay Identical with C»od himself. It is directly beheld 
linuuicAO bv re**on> but in order to be of use it ha* to lie reflected 
on, ami thi* bv mean* of language* A knowledge of being and 
exUteuvW <wncrete» ttot abstract) and their mutual relations, is 
nvveKKU v a* the tagxmrin* of phihvmphy. Gioberti is in some 
re«iHVU a rUtoni*t« He idetttitW* reUgiou with ctvtluatton, and in 
hU t\\Mti*e /VJ f**m#to mwU # cfruV dt$fi Itnlitmi arrives at the 
cwtchnastn that the church is the <oi* on which the ?rcll~beiag of 

tiunuin Ute rvvolw** In it he athrm* the idea of the supremacy of 
Ul\ » lu\Hight about bv the re*t\M^tkvn of the papacy a* a moral 
\Ivm\\\uhm\ n founded o« religion and public opinion. In hi* later works, 
the K««<MVvt«i*«K» ami the fVwW*«a % he i* thought by some to have 
thittvd hi* gixHitnl umler the iuuuenee of event** Hi* nrst work, 
vt titter when he \\a* tfcirtv Steven* had a personal reason for its 
«svU*vnv\\ A >\>ung v MUn>^e\iW and friend* l\*ol* F&llia, having 
nv*w\ vKhUh* ami inWgtvii^^ a* to the reality of revelation am) a 
(uunv Wtvs v^oWut at wv* **t to work with La JVt*rioa «W ww»« 
•k»;*»Ni; v \ whWh wa* hi* t\r*t tmhhcattou v»*\V>\ After this* phtkt- 
*^hiwd tie*tv«e* followed in ra$>id *ucve*sivMU The rrcrua wa* 
toiWod bv i*MN/f ****** a£v» $**ahf 4V&1 *i^w<a in three volumes 
V*\*v> t*C|o\ In thi* work he *tate* hi* reasom for requiring a new 
mc*ho%l aavl «ew te*«itnok>£\\ Mere he httug* out the doctrine 
that ivltgiott i* the duvet e\^^v^ku\ v>f ^he was in thi* life* and k 
ouv wuh ttue ci\4*x*ativMX in hWtotx* Civtiisatkxi i* a cooditknied 
ws\tute teusknw to eetffvtk*n, to which cehgkxi t* the £nal com* 
|vKhkhi it vwt Wd out J it ** the end of the second evete tatprtwed by 
the ^>\xftKt tomuW the Kn» rcdoeuft* exwtence^ l£ss*y$ i*ot |Xilv> 
UxVd »,,a \^ s |0' x v>tt the Ugh tec anvl tuvxv |v^n;Ur subjects fW\irV 
a^ *\k >w*^\ K^t^wwl tV T<*viiitM^i^. Z\fi frt»w.V mjnzi* r 
,*i ..V jst*' * -nCww atKt the ^VMf^»»r%i to the *swe. and wa after* 
want* hk> cuu^-hvAttt ex|>o*ure oi the ,!***&** iV t^wwAi w m 4 i *w * 
no \KmaU haatewvl the t^»>ter of ruV trean viencal tv^ ci\il ksnd*. 
It w«*» tbtc iv^ttUiux s>t ti&st* $ettu^vxlx:val wv>rk^ itvrea^evl by 
v s Vh v\ym v u, ;v»- , iv % at jt?^vk^ a^» \** Xt.«%mn«rwx> ^^fr-W' i'^'Ju-V*^ 
tKi^ v \u '^\* v-KWt^ tv* be wehvcttexi w*th *«ch ettthit^i**m or hit* 
reu*m k- Sis* t\iti\e cxHMHrx. AU the*e wx>rk* were perfectiv *3«- 
thvskxv aiKi ax*{vl >w v^^^tt^ tW t^oerat ckc$y iacc» ;Sf w&k>xxe«*ew 
w>x^ h*^ ix^ ,v\; ^swv his. rljase ia ;V u-v.5cack*tt v^ Ualv. Vbe 
Jc*^ ^>» W*\ v \v« . s\v<\ : . :w x ; :V vvN.>r ^nyv a:*^*\ A fc :er V.s re<urtt 
tv^ KsV»v Av 

aw^r-l aa« *ei»*m ^^*k t^>^ r>f reutrai xvt o* >^> %ocss*, est>evt» 

a .> .^ *w«^hi ***** Kcw-^cmr x v ; v rV^^ytf. i*>^ >»??«*;^re 



dlblOSA-lIONICA— GfOjA 



views on many point*. The Entire writings of Gidbe-rti/ indodiihg 
those left in manuscript, have been edited by Giuasppe Massan 
(Turin. 1 $56-1 $6 1 ). , 

Sec MassarL Vita de V. Gioberti (Florence, 1848) ; A. f Rosmini- 
Serbati, V. Gioberti 6 # panteismo (Milan, 1848); C.V. Smyth, 
Christian Metaphysics (1851); B. Spavehta, La FUosofib di Gioberti 
(Naples* 1854;); A. Mauri, Delia vita e dstie open di V. Gioberti 




sit iiancmscnc \rnuosopnte aes rp. imnmun&enx, u- V1005; ; appenoix 
o Uoberweg'e Hist, of Philosophy {EngMtrJ^art- in Brqwu&on's 
Quarterly Review (Boston, Mas*!), xxi,f K* Mariano, La Pbilosophie 
ontemporatne en Italic 1 (1866); K. Seydel's exhaustive article in 



* k ■, V ^*v* v :< vnX v «*T'> w?\:t*$* ^xrre *Sjfccev* ort the 



de la philosophte en Italic ail XIX* sAkde (Paris, 1869) ; C. Werner, 
Die italienische Philosophic des fy. \Jahrkunfort*% it- (1885)^ appendix 
to Uoberweg'e Hist. 
C?« ;." ' '~ 

contemporaxne ......... , , ,. . 

Ersch and Gruber's AUzemeirie UncyclopHdie. The centenary of 
Gioberti called forth several morogrsiphfc-ln Italy; ' t 

GIOIOSA-IONICA, a town of Calabria 1 , 'Italy, in the province 
of Reggio Calabria, from which it is 65 in. N.E. by rail, and 38 m,. 
direct, 492 ft. above sea-level. Pop, (1961) town, 907 2 ; commune, 
11,200. Near the station, which is on the E. coast of Calabria 
3 m. below the town to the SJE'., the remains of a theatre 
belonging to the Roman period were discovered in 1883; the 
orchesta was 46 ft. in diameter (Notizie degli scavi, 1883, p. 423). 
The ruins of an ancient building called' the Naviglio, the nature 
of which does not seem clear, are described' (#." 1884, p. 252). 

GIOJA, MELCHIORRE (1 767-1829), Italian Writer on phito- 
sophy and political economy, was born at Piacenza, on the 20th 
of September 1 767. Originally intended for the church, he todk 
orders, but renounced them in 1796 and went to Milan, where be 
devoted himself to the study of political economy. Having 
obtained the prize for an essay on " the kind of free government 
best adapted to Italy '* he decided upon the career of a publicist. 
The arrival of Napoleon in Italy drew him into public life. 
He advocated a republic under the dominion of the French in 
a pamphlet J Tedeschi, i Frances*, cd i Russi in Lombardia t and 
under the Cisalpine Republic he was named historiographer 
and director of statistics. He was several times imprisoned, 
once for eight months in 1820 on a charge of being implicated 
in a conspiracy with the Carbonari. After the fall of Napoleon 
he retired into private life, and does not appear to have held 
office again. He died on the 2nd of January 1829. Gioja's 
fundamental idea is the value of statistics or the collection of 
facts. Philosophy itself is with him classification and consideration 
of ideas. Logic he regarded as a practical art, and his Esercizsoni 
logic* has the further title, Art of deriving benefit from ill-con- 
strueted books. In ethics Gioja follows Bentham generally, and 
his large treatise Del merito e delle recompense (1 Si 8) is a clear 
and systematic view of social ethics from the utilitarian principle. 
In political economy this avidity for facts produced better fruits. 
The. .Ymw Prospetlo delle sciense economic he (1815-1S17), 
although long to excess, and overburdened with classifications 
and tables, contains much valuable material. Hie author 
prefers large properties and large commercial undertakings to 
small ones, and strongly favours association as a means of pro- 
duction. He defends a restrictive policy and insists on the 
necessity of the action of the state as a regulating power in the 
industrial world. He was an opponent of ecclesiastical domina- 
tion. He must be credited with the finest and most original 
treatment of division of labour since the Wealth of X^Jicn*. 
Much of what Babbage taught later on the subject of combined 
work is anticipated by Gieja. His theory of production is a5so 
deserving of attention from the fact that it takes into accocni 
and gives due prominence to immaterial goods. Ttrocg^wt 
t he wvrk there is cone inuous opposition t o Adam Smith- Gfc ;jl S 
latest work Fw^w J*£<2 steiisf&rj r 2 voIs_ 1S26: 4 vo?s>. iSrc- 
1$^ contains in brief compass the essence of his ideas en hnmas 
life* and arorvis the clearest insight into hb aim and metbed ~i 
phikeopity both theoretical and practical. 

See tssxw^raphs bv G^ D. RjfWTxxa .iS^o\ R Fa!co t^6c^: 

in Ersch jlto GmVer's A-gt+wte Excyc ir f a i ae z Scr GacntV redb- 
aoe^<\ L. Ferri. £*» saeVteanfcr «r U pkic ja+ue cm Jtalm mm 
XiX* s*xi* 
arcecclx aL ; A. R> 
..sv^ctAi^b^ aa attack 



Vt^QQ': leoprwe^* 






^c ^st;*a * 



fcr ais pc i irrj t 



GIOLITTfe<39SiP IONE 



economy, list of works in J. Conrad's Handrpdrterbuch der Stoats- 
wisntocteflen (ifeo)?!* Gdssav T ^awrfi'lo'F»/^E»>fl: f '(Erig: tra«s„ 1 
P-4*S)4 : G&ja's-^qmpteta works wei^ publidbfch at L*gft&od8$fc- 
1849),. He was. one of tlje founders of \be>finna^i^niucrsalj,di 
sfaiislica. ' . , ", " 

QIOLrfn^CttOVANril (1842- ' ;) r Italian 'statesman, was 
born at Mbndbvf on the 27th of October 1842. After a rapid 
career in the financial administration he was, in 1882^ appointed 
councillor of state and elected to parliament. )' As deputy he 
chiefly' acquired 'prominence by attacks on' Magiiani, treasury 
minister in the Depretis cabinet, and on the 9th of March 1889 
was himself selected as treasury minister by Crispi. On the faU 
of the RudinI cabinet in May 1892, Giolitti, with the help of a 
court clique, succeeded to the premiership. His term of office 
was marked by misfortune and misgovernment. The building 
crisis and the commercial rupture with France had impaired the 
situation of the state banks, of which one, the Banca Romana, 
had been further undermined by maladministration. A bank 
law, passed by Giolitti failed to effect an improvement. More- 
over, he irritated public opinion by raising to senatorial rank the 
director-general' or the Banca Romana, Signor Tanlongo, whose 
irregular practices had become a byword. The senate declined 
to admit Tanlongo, whom Giolitti, in consequence of an inter- 
pellation in parliament upon the condition of the. Banca Romana, 
was obliged to arrest and prosecyte. During' the prosecution 
Giolitti abused his position as premier to abstract documents 
bearing on the case. Simultaneously a parliamentary commission 
of inquiry investigated the condition of thq state banks. Its 
report, though, acquitting Giolitti of personal dishonesty, proved 
disastrous to bis political position, and obliged him to resign. 
His fail left the finances of the state disorganized,, the pensions 
fund depleted, diplomatic relations with France strained in 
consequence of the. massacre of Italian workmen at Aigues- 
Mortes, and Sicily and the Lunigiana in a state of revolt, which 
he had proved impotent to suppress. After his resignation he 
was impeached for abuse of power as minister, but the supreme 
court quashed the impeachment by denying the competence of 
the ordinary tribunals to judge ministerial acts. For several 
years he was compelled to play a passive part, having lost all 
credit. But by keeping in the background and giving public 
opinion time to forget his past, as well as by parliamentary 
intrigue, he gradually regained much of his former influence, 
He made capital of the Socialist agitation and of the repression 
to which other statesmen resorted, and gave the agitators to 
understand that were he premier they would be allowed a free 
hand. Thus he gained their favour, and on the fall of the 
Pelloux cabinet he became minister of the Interior in Zanardelli's 
administration, of which he was the real head. His policy of 
never interfering in strikes and leaving even violent demonstra- 
tions undisturbed at first proved successful, but indiscipline 
and disorder grew to such a pitch that Zanardelli, already in 
bad health, resigned, and Giolitti succeeded him as prime minister 
(November 1903). But during his tenure of office he, too, had to 
resort to strong measures in repressing some serious disorders in 
various parts of Italy, and thus he lost the favour of the Socialists. 
In March 1905, feeling himself no longer secure, he resigned, 
indicating Fortis as his successor. When Sonnino became 
premier in February 1906, Giolitti did not openly oppose him, 
but his followers did, and Sonnino was defeated in May, Giolitti 
becoming prime minister once more. 

GIORDANO, LUCA (163 2-1 705), Italian painter, was born in 
Naples, son of a very indifferent painter, Antonio, who imparted 
to him the first rudiments of drawing. Nature predestined him 
for the art, and at the age of eight he painted a cherub into one 
of his father's pictures, a feat which was at once noised abroad, 
and induced the viceroy of Naples to recommerid the child to 
Ribera, His father afterwards took him to Rome f to study under 
Pietro da Cortona. . He acquired the nickname of Luca Fa-presto 
(Luke Work-fast). One might suppose this nickname to be 
derived merely from the almost miraculous celerity with which 
from an early age and throughout his life he handled the brush"; 
but it is said to have had a more express origin. The father, 
we are told, poverty-stricken and greedy of gain, was perpetually 



3.* 

urging hiSj boy, to exertion with, the phrase^ ,." £uca., fa ({ preeto." 
The youth pbeyeoVhis parent to the tetter;, an4 would actually 
not .so much as pause to snatch a hasty inpal, but received into 
his inouth, while he still worked on., the food which Ins father's 
hand supplied. He copied nearly twenty times the," Battle o£ 
Constantine" by Julio Romano, and with proportionate frequency 
several of the grea,t works of Ijtaphael and Michelangelo. His 
rapidity, which belonged as much to invention as to mere handi- 
work, and his versatility, which enabled him to imitate other 
painters deceptively, earned for him two other epithets, " The 
Thunderbolt " (Fulmine) , and " The Proteus," of Painting. He 
shortly visited all the main seats of the Italian school of art, 
and formed for himself a style combining in a certain measure 
the ornamental pomp of Paul Veronese and the contrastingcom- 
positions and large schemes of chiaroscuro of Pietro da Cortona. 
He was noted also for lively and showy colour. Returning to 
Naples, and accepting every sort of commission by which money 
was to be made, he practised his art with so much applause that 
Charles II. of gpain towards ; i687 invited him over to Madrid, 
where he remained thirteen years. Giordano was very popular 
at the Spanish court, being a sprightly talker along with his other 
marvellously facile gifts, and the king created, him a cavaliere. 
One anecdote of his rapidity of work is that' the queen of Spain 
having one day made some inquiry a,bout his. wife, he at once 
showed Her Majesty what the lady was like by painting her 
portrait into the picture on which he was engaged. Soon after 
the death of Charles in 1700 Giordano, gprged with wealth, 
returned to Naples. He spent large sums in acts of munificence j 
and was particularly liberal to his poorer brethren .of J.he art* He 
again visited various parts of It<aly, ^ncl, dieel in Naples on the 
12th of January 1705, his last words being " O I^apoli, sospiro 
mio " (0 Naples, my heart's love!). One of his maxims was that 
the good painter is the one whom the public like, and that the 
public are attracted more by colour than by design. 

Giordano had an astonishing readiness and facility, in spite 
of the general commonness and superficiality of h^ performances. 
He left many works in Rome, and far more in Naples. Of the 
latter one of the most renowned is " Christ expellijng the Traders 
from the Temple," in the church of the Padri Girolamini, a 
colossal work, full of expressive lazzaroni; also the frescoes 
of S. Martino, and those in the Tesoro della Certosa, including 
the subject of " Moses and the Brazen Serpent " ; and the cupola- 
paintings in the Church of S. Brigida, which contains the artist's 
own tomb. In Spain he executed a surprising number of works* 
— continuing in the Escorial the series commenced by Carobiasi, 
and painting frescoes of the " Triumphs of the Church," the 
" Genealogy and Life of the Madonna," the stories of Moses* 
Gideon, David and Solomon, and, the " Celebrated Women of 
Scripture," all works of large dimensions. His pupils, Aniello 
Rossi and Matteo Pacelli, assisted him in Spain. In Madrid hie 
worked more in oil-colour, a Nativity there being one of his best 
productions. Other superior examples are the " Judgment of 
Paris " in the Berlin Museum, and " Christ with the Doctors in 
the Temple," in the Corsini Gallery of Rome. In Florence, in 
his closing days, he painted the Cappella Corsini, the Galleria 
Riccardi and other works. In youth he etched with considerable 
skill some of his own paintings, such as the " Slaughter of the 
Priests of Baal." He also painted much on the crystal borderings 
of looking-glasses, cabinets, &c, seen in many Italian palaces, and 
was, in this form of art, the master of Pietro Garofolo. His best 
pupil, in painting of the ordinary kind, was Paolo de Matteis. 

Bellori, in his Vite de 1 pittori moderni, is a leading authority 
regarding Luca Giordano, r. Benvenuto (1882) has written a work 
on the Riccardi paintings. 

GIORGIONB (1477-1510), Italian painter, was born at Castel- 
franco in $47 7. In contemporary documents he is always calle4 
(according to the Venetian manner of pronunciation and spelling) 
Zorzi, Zorzo or Zorzon of Castelfranco. A tradition, having 
its origin in the 17 th century, represented him as the natural 
son of some member of the great local family of. the Barbarelli, 
by a peasant girl of the neighbouring village of Vedelago; 
consequently he is commonly referred to jn histories . ant} 



32 



GIORGIONE 



catalogues under the name of Giorgio Barbarelli or Barbarella. 
This tradition has, however, on close examination been proved 
baseless. On the other hand mention has been found in a 
contemporary document of an earlier Zorzon, a native of 
Vedelago, living in Castelfranco in 1460. Vasari, who wrote 
before the Barbarella legend had sprung up, says that Giorgione 
was of very humble origin. It seems probable that he was 
simply the son or grandson of the afore-mentioned Zorzon the 
elder; that the after-claim of the Barbarelli to kindred with him 
was a mere piece of family vanity, very likely suggested by the 
analogous case of Leonardo da Vinci; and that, this claim once 
put abroad, the peasant-mother of Vedelago was invented on 
the ground of some dim knowledge that his real progenitors 
came from that village. 

Of the facts of his life we are almost as meagrely informed as 
of the circumstances of his birth. The little city, or large 
fortified village, for it is scarcely more, of Castelfranco in the 
Trevisan stands in the midst of a rich and broken plain at some 
distance from the last spurs of the Venetian Alps. From the 
natural surroundings of Giorgione's childhood was no doubt 
derived his ideal of pastoral scenery, the country of pleasant 
copses, glades, brooks and hills amid which his personages love 
to wander or recline with lute and pipe. How early in boyhood 
he went to Venice we do not know, but internal evidence 
supports the statement of Ridolfi that he served his apprentice- 
ship there under Giovanni Bellini; and there he made his fame 
and had his home. That his gifts were early recognized we 
know from the facts, recorded in contemporary documents, 
that in 1500, when he was only twenty-three (that is if Vasari 
gives rightly the age at which he died), he was chosen to paint 
portraits of the Doge Agostino Barberigo and the condottiere 
Consalvo Ferrante; that in 1504 he was commissioned to paint 
an altarpiece in memory of Matteo Costanzo in the cathedral 
of his native town, Castelfranco; that in 1507 he received at the 
order of the Council of Ten part payment for a picture (subject 
not mentioned) on which he was engaged for the Hall of the 
Audience in the ducal palace; and that in 1 507-1 508 he was 
employed, with other artists of his own generation, to decorate 
with frescoes the exterior of the newly rebuilt Fondaco dei 
Tedeschi or German merchants' hall at Venice, having already 
done similar work on the exterior of the Casa Soranzo, the Casa 
Grimani alii Servi and other Venetian palaces. Vasari gives 
also as an important event in Giorgione's life, and one which had 
influence on his work, his meeting with Leonardo da Vinci on 
the occasion of the Tuscan master's visit to Venice in 1500. In 
September or October 15 10 he died of the plague then raging 
in the city, and within a few days of his death we find the great 
art-patroness and amateur, Isabella d'Este, writing from Mantua 
and trying in vain to secure for her collection a night-piece by 
his hand of which the fame had reached her. 

All accounts agree in representing Giorgione as a personage 
of distinguished and romantic charm, a great lover, a great 
musician, made to enjoy in life and to express in art to the 
uttermost the delight, the splendour, the sensuous and imaginative 
grace and fulness, not untinged with poetic melancholy, of the 
Venetian existence of his time. They represent him further as 
having made in Venetian painting an advance analogous to that 
made in Tuscan painting by Leonardo more than twenty years 
before; that is as having released the art from the last shackles 
of archaic rigidity and placed it in possession of full freedom 
and the full mastery of its means. He also introduced a new 
range of subjects. Besides altarpieces and portraits he painted 
pictures that told no story, whether biblical or classical, or if 
they professed to tell such, neglected the action and simply 
embodied in form and colour moods of lyrical or romantic 
feeling, much as a musician might embody them in sounds. 
Innovating with the courage and felicity of genius, he had for 
a time an overwhelming influence on his contemporaries and 
immediate successors in the Venetian school, including Titian, 
Sebastian del Piombo, the elder Palma, Cariani and the two 
Campagnolas, and not a little even on seniors of long-standing 
fame such as Giovanni Bellini. His name and work have 



exercised, and continue to exercise, no less a spell on posterity. 
But to identify and define, among the relics of his age and school, 
precisely what that work is, and to distinguish it from the 
kindred work of other men whom his influence inspired, is a 
very difficult matter. There are inclusive critics who still 
claim for Giorgione nearly every painting of the time that at 
all resembles his manner, and there are exclusive critics who pare 
down to some ten or a dozen the list of extant pictures which 
they will admit to be actually his. 

To name first those which are either certain or command 
the most general acceptance, placing them in something like 
an approximate and probable order of date. In the Uffizi at 
Florence are two companion pieces of the " Trial of Moses " 
and the " Judgment of Solomon," the latter the finer and 
better preserved of the two, which pass, no doubt justly, as 
typical works of Giorgione's youth, and exhibit, though not yet 
ripely, his special qualities of colour-richness and landscape 
romance, the peculiar facial types of his predilection, with the 
pure form of forehead, fine oval of cheek, and somewhat close-set 
eyes and eyebrows, and the intensity of that still and brooding 
sentiment with which, rather than with dramatic life and 
movement, he instinctively invests his figures. Probably the 
earliest of the portraits by common consent called his is the 
beautiful one of a young man at Berlin. His earliest devotional 
picture would seem to be the highly finished " Christ bearing 
his Cross " (the head and shoulders only, with a peculiarly 
serene and high-bred cast of features) formerly at Vicenza and 
now in the collection of Mrs Gardner at Boston. Other versions 
of this picture exist, and it has been claimed that one in private 
possession at Vienna is the true original: erroneously in the 
judgment of the present writer. Another " Christ bearing the 
Cross," with a Jew dragging at the rope round his neck, in the 
church of San Rocco at Venice, is a ruined but genuine work, 
quoted by Vasari and Ridolfi, and copied with the name of 
Giorgione appended, by Van Dyck in that master's Chatsworth 
sketch-book. (Vasari gives it to Giorgione in his first and to 
Titian in his second edition.) The composition of a lost early 
picture of the birth of Paris is preserved in an engraving of the 
" Teniers Gallery " series, and an old copy of part of the same 
picture is at Budapest. In the Giovanelli Palace at Venice 
is that fascinating and enigmatical mythology or allegory, 
known to the Anonimo Moreliiano, who saw it in 1 530 in the house 
of Gabriel Vendramin, simply as " the small landscape with 
the storm, the gipsy woman and the soldier "; the picture is 
conjecturally interpreted by modern authorities as illustrating 
a passage in Statius which describes the meeting of Adrastus 
with Hypsipyle when she was serving as nurse with the king of 
Nemea. Still belonging to the earlier part of the painter's 
brief career is a beautiful, virginally pensive Judith at St Peters- 
burg, which passed under various alien names, as Raphael, 
Moretto, &c, until its kindred with the unquestioned work of 
Giorgione was in late years firmly established. The great 
Castelfranco altarpiece, still, in spite of many restorations, 
one of the most classically pure and radiantly impressive works 
of Renaissance painting, may be taken as closing the earlier 
phase of the young master's work (1504). It shows the Virgin 
loftily enthroned on a plain, sparely draped stone structure with 
St Francis and a warrior saint (St Liberate) standing in attitudes 
of great simplicity on either side of the foot of the throne, a 
high parapet behind them, and a beautiful landscape of the 
master's usual type seen above it. Nearly akin to this master- 
piece, not in shape or composition but by the type of the Virgin 
and the very Bellinesque St Francis, is the altarpiece of the 
Madonna with St Francis and St Roch at Madrid. Of the 
master's fully ripened time is the fine and again enigmatical 
picture formerly in the house of Taddeo Contarini at Venice, 
described by contemporary witnesses as the "Three Philosophers," 
and now, on slender enough grounds, supposed to represent 
Evander showing Aeneas the site of Troy as narrated in the 
eighth Aeneid. The portrait of a knight of Malta in the Uffizi at 
Florence has more power and authority, if less sentiment, than 
the earlier example at Berlin, and may be taken to be of the 



GIOTTINO 



33 



master's middle time. Most entirely central and typical of all 
Giorgione's extant works is the Sleeping Venus at Dresden, 
first recognized by Morelli, and now universally accepted, as 
being the same as the picture seen by the Anonimo and later 
by Ridolfi in the Casa Marcello at Venice. An exquisitely pure 
and severe rhythm of line and contour chastens the sensuous 
richness of the presentment: the sweep of white drapery on 
which the goddess lies, and of glowing landscape that fills the 
space behind her, most harmoniously frame her divinity. It is 
recorded that the master left this piece unfinished and that 
the landscape, with a Cupid which subsequent restoration has 
removed, were completed after his death by Titian. The picture 
is the prototype of Titian's own Venus at the Uffizi and of many 
more by other painters of the school; but none of them attained 
the quality of the first exemplar. Of such small scenes of mixed 
classical mythology and landscape as early writers attribute in 
considerable number to Giorgione, there have survived at least 
two which bear strong evidences of his handiwork, though the 
action is in both of unwonted liveliness, namely the Apollo and 
Daphne of the Seminario at Venice and the Orpheus and Eurydice 
of Bergamo. The portrait of Antonio Grocardo at Budapest 
represents his fullest and most penetrating power in that branch 
of art. In his last years the purity and relative slenderness of 
form which mark his earlier female nudes, including the Dresden 
Venus, gave way to ideals of ampler mould, more nearly approach- 
ing those of Titian and his successors in Venetian art; as is 
proved by those last remaining fragments of the frescoes on the 
Grand Canal front of the Fondaco dei Tedeschi which were seen 
and engraved by Zanetti in 1760, but have now totally dis- 
appeared. Such change of ideal is apparent enough in the 
famous " Concert " or " Pastoral Symphony " of the Louvre, 
probably the latest, and certainly one of the most characteristic 
and harmoniously splendid, of Giorgione's creations that has 
come down to us, and has caused some critics too hastily to 
doubt its authenticity. 

We pass now to pictures for which some affirm and others 
deny the right to bear Giorgione's name. As youthful in style 
as the two early pictures in the Uffizi, and closely allied to them 
in feeling, though less so in colour, is an unexplained subject 
in the National Gallery, sometimes called for want of a better 
title the " Golden Age "; this is officially and by many critics 
given only to the " school of " Giorgione, but may not unreasonably 
be claimed for his own work (No .1173). There is also in England 
a group of three paintings which are certainly by one hand, 
and that a hand very closely related to Giorgione if not actually 
his own, namely the small oblong " Adoration of the Magi " 
in the National Gallery (No. n 60), the "Adoration of the 
Shepherds " belonging to Lord Allendale (with its somewhat 
inferior but still attractive replica at Vienna), and the small 
" Holy Family " in the collection of Mr R. H. Benson. The 
type of the Madonna in all these three pieces is different from 
that customary with the master, but there seems no reason why 
he should not at some particular moment have changed his 
model. THe sentiment and gestures of the figures, the cast of 
draperies, the technical handling, and especially, in Lord Allen- 
dale's picture, the romantic richness of the landscape, all incline 
us to accept the group as original, notwithstanding the deviation 
of type already mentioned and certain weaknesses of drawing 
and proportion which we should have hardly looked for. Better 
known to European students in general are the two fine pictures 
commonly given to the master at the Pitti gallery in Florence, 
namely the " Three Ages " and the " Concert." Both are very 
Giorgionesque, the " Three Ages " leaning rather towards the 
early manner of Lorenzo Lotto, to whom by some critics it is 
actually given. The " Concert " is held on technical grounds 
by some of the best judges rather to bear the character of Titian 
at the moment when the inspiration of Giorgione was strongest 
on him, at least so far as concerns the extremely beautiful and 
expressive central figure of the monk playing on the clavichord 
with reverted head, a very incarnation of musical rapture and 
yearning — the other figures are too much injured to judge. 

There are at least two famous single portraits as to which 



critics will probably never agree whether they are among the 
later works of Giorgione or among the earliest of Titian under 
his influence: these are the jovial and splendid half-length of 
Catherine Cornaro (or a stout lady much resembling her) with 
a bas-relief, in the collection of Signor Crespi at Milan, and the 
so-called " Ariosto " from Lord Darnley's collection acquired 
for the National Gallery in 1904. Ancient and half-effaced 
inscriptions, of which there is no cause to doubt the genuineness, 
ascribe them both to Titian; both, to the mind of the present 
writer at least, are more nearly akin to such undoubted early 
Titians as the " Man with the Book " at Hampton Court and 
the " Man with the Glove " at the Louvre than to any authen- 
ticated work of Giorgione. At the same time it should be 
remembered that Giorgione is known to have actually enjoyed 
the patronage of Catherine Cornaro and to have painted her 
portrait. The Giorgionesque influence and feeling, to a degree 
almost of sentimental exaggeration, encounter us again in another 
beautiful Venetian portrait at the National Gallery which has 
sometimes been claimed for him, that of a man in crimson velvet 
with white pleated shirt and a background of bays, long attributed 
to the elder Palma (No. 636). The same qualities are present 
with more virility in a very striking portrait of a young man 
at Temple Newsam, which stands indeed nearer than any other 
extant example to the Brocardo portrait at Budapest. The 
full-face portrait of a woman in the Borghese gallery at Rome 
has the marks of the master's design and inspiration, but in its 
present sadly damaged condition can hardly be claimed for his 
handiwork. The head of a boy with a pipe at Hampton Court, 
a little over life size, has been enthusiastically claimed as Gior- 
gione's workmanship, but is surely too slack and soft in handling 
to be anything more than an early copy of a lost work, analogous 
to, though better than, the similar copy at Vienna of a young 
man with an arrow, a subject he is known to have painted. 
The early records prove indeed that not a few such copies of 
Giorgione's more admired works were produced in his own time 
or shortly afterwards. One of the most interesting and un- 
mistakable such copies still extant is the picture formerly in the 
Manfrin collection at Venice, afterwards in that of Mr, Barker in 
London, and now at Dresden, which is commonly called " The 
Horoscope," and represents a woman seated near a classic ruin 
with a young child at her feet, an armed youth standing looking 
down at them, and a turbaned sage seated near with compasses, 
disk and book. Of important subject pictures belonging to the 
debatable borderland between Giorgione and his imitators are the 
large and interesting unfinished " Judgment of Solomon " at 
Kingston Lacy, which must certainly be the same that Ridolfi 
saw and attributed to him in the Casa Grimani at Venice, but 
has weaknesses of design and drawing sufficiently baffling to 
criticism; and the " Woman taken in Adultery " in the public 
gallery at Glasgow, a picture truly Giorgionesque in richness of 
colour, but betraying in its awkward composition, the relative 
coarseness of its types and the insincere, mechanical animation 
of its movements, the hand of some lesser master of the school, 
almost certainly (by comparison with his existing engravings 
and woodcuts) that of Domenico Campagnola. It seems un- 
necessary to refer, in the present notice, to any of the numerous 
other and inferior works which have been claimed for Giorgione 
by a criticism unable to distinguish between a living voice and its 
echoes. 

Bibliography. — Morelli, Notizie, &c. (ed. Frizzoni, 1884) ; Vasari 
(ed. Milanesi), vol. iv.; Ridolfi, he Maraviglie delV arte, vol. i. ; 
Zanetti, VariePitture (1760) ; Crowe-Cavalcaselie, History of Painting 
in North Italy, Morelli, Kunstkritische Studien; Gronau, Zorzon da 
Castelfranco, la sua origine, &c. (1894); Herbert Cook, Giorgione (in 
" Great Masters " series, 1900) ; Ugo Monneret de Villard, Giorgione 
da Castelfranco (1905). The two last-named works are critically 
far too inclusive, but useful as going over the whole ground of 
discussion, with full references to earlier authorities, &c. (S. C.) 

GIOTTINO (1324-1357), an early Florentine painter. Vasari 
is the principal authority in regard to this artist; but it is not by 
any means easy to bring the details of his narrative into harmony 
with such facts as can now be verified. It would appear that there 
was a painter of the name of Tommaso (or Maso) di Stefano. 

xn. 2 



34 



GIOTTO 



termed Giottino; and the Giottino of Vasari is said to have been 
born in 1,324, and to have died early, of consumption, in 1357, — 
dates which must be regarded as open to considerable doubt. 
Slefano, the father of Tommaso, was himself a celebrated painter 
in the early revival of art; his naturalism was indeed so highly 
appreciated by contemporaries as to earn him the appellation of 
" Seimia della Natura " (ape of nature). He, it seems, instructed 
his son, who, however, applied himself with greater predilection 
to studying the works of the great Giotto, formed his style on 
theac, and hence was called Giottino. It is even said that 
(iiottino was really the son (others say the great-grandson) of 
Giotto. To this statement little or no importance can be attached. 
To Muho di Slefano, or Giottino, Vasari and Ghiberti attribute 
the frescoes in the chapel of S. Silvestro (or of the Bardi family) 
In the Florentine church of S. Crocc; these represent the miracles 
of Pope S. Silvestro as narrated in the " Golden Legend," one 
conspicuous subject being the sealing of the lips of a malignant 
dragon. These works are animated and firm in drawing, with 
naturalism carried further than by Giotto. From the evidence 
of style, some modern connoisseurs assign to the same hand the 
paintings in the funeral vault of the Strozzi family, below the 
Cappella degli Spagnuoli in the church of S. Maria Novella, 
representing the crucifixion and other subjects. Vasari ascribes 
also to his Giottino the frescoes of the life of St Nicholas in the 
lower church of Assisi. This series, however, is not really in that 
part of the church which Vasari designates, but is in the chapel of 
the Sacrament; and the works in that chapel are understood 
to be by Giotto di Stefano, who worked in the second half of 
the 14th century -very excellent productions of their period. 
They are much damaged, and the style is hardly similar to that of 
the Sylvester frescoes. It might hence be inferred that two 
different men produced the works which are unitedly fathered 
upon the half-legendary " Giottino/' the consumptive youth, 
solitary and melancholic, but passionately devoted to his art. 
A large number of other works have been attributed to the same 
hand; we need only mention an " Apparition of the Virgin to 
St Bernard," in the Florentine Academy; a lost painting, very 
popular in its day, commemorating the expulsion, which took 
place in U43, of the duke of Athens from Florence; and a 
marble statue erected on the Florentine campanile. Vasari 
particularly praises Giottino for well-blended chiaroscuro.' 

GIOTTO [Giotto 01 Bondonr 1 ] (1267 ?-i337), Italian painter, 
was born at Ycspignano in the Mugello, a few miles north of 
Florence, according to one account in 1276, and according to 
another, which from the few known circumstances of his life seems 
more likely to be correct , in 1 2t>b or 1 267. His father was a land- 
owner at Colle in the commune of Ycspignano, described in a 
contemporary document as vir prwhirus, but by biographers 
both early and late as a poor peasant; probably therefore a 
peasant proprietor of no large possessions but of reputable stock 
and descent. It is impossible to tell whether there is any truth 
In the legend of Giotto's boyhood which relates how he first 
showed his disposition for art, and attracted the attention of 
Cimabue, by being found drawing one of his father's sheep with 
a sharp stone on the face of a smooth stone or slate. With his 
father's consent, the story goes on, Cimabue carried off the boy 
to be his apprentice, and it was under Cimabue's tuition that 
Giotto look his first steps in the art of which he was afterwards 
to be the great emancipator and renovator. The place where 
these early steps can still, according to tradition, be traced, is 
in the first and second, reckoning downwards, of the three 
courses of frescoes which adorn the walls of the nave in the Upper 
Church of St Francis at Assisi, These frescoes represent subjects 
of the tMd and New Testament, and great labour, too probably 
futile, has been spent in trying to pick out those in which the 
youthful handiwork of Giotto can be discerned, as it is imagined, 
among that of Cimabue and his other pupils. But the truth 
is that the figureof Cimabue himself, in spite of Dante's testimony 
to his having lwn the foremost painter of Italy until Giotto 
arose, has under the search-light of modern criticism melted into 

1 Not 10 be confused with Giotto di Buondone, a contemporary 
citUvu *nd ivJUkiin of Siena. 



almost mythical vagueness. His accepted position as Giotto's 
instructor and the pioneer of reform in his art has been attacked 
from several sides as a mere invention of Florentine writers for 
the glorification of their own city. One group of critics maintain 
that the real advance in Tuscan painting before Giotto was the 
work of the Sienese school and not of the Florentine. Another 
group contend that the best painting done in Italy down to the 
last decade of the 13th century was not done by Tuscan hands at 
all, but by Roman craftsmen trained in the inherited principles 
of Italo-Byzantine decoration in mosaic and fresco, and that 
from such Roman craftsmen alone could Giotto have learnt 
anything worth his learning. The debate thus opened is far 
from closed, and considering how scanty, ambiguous and often 
defaced are the materials existing for discussion, it is perhaps 
never likely to be closed. But there is no debate as to the general 
nature of the reform effected by the genius of Giotto himself. 
He was the great humanizer of painting; it is his glory to have 
been the first among his countrymen to breathe life into wall- 
pictures and altar-pieces, and to quicken the dead conventional- 
ism of inherited practice with the fire of natural action and 
natural feeling. Upon yet another point there is no question; 
and that is that the reform thus effected by Giotto in painting 
had been anticipated in the sister art of sculpture by nearly 
a whole generation. About the middle of the 13th century 
Nicola Pisano had renewed that art, first by strict imitation of 
classical models, and later by infusing into his work a fresh 
spirit of nature and humanity, perhaps partly caught from the 
Gothic schools of France. His son Giovanni had carried the same 
re- vitalising of sculpture a great deal further; and hence to some 
critics it would seem that the real inspirer and precursor of Giotto 
was Giovanni Pisano the sculptor, and not any painter or wall- 
decorator, whether of Florence, Siena or Rome. 

In this division of opinion it is safer to regard the revival of 
painting in Giotto's hands simply as part of the general awaken- 
ing of the time, and to remember that, as of all Italian com- 
munities Florence was the keenest in every form of activity 
both intellectual and practical, so it was natural that a son of 
Florence should be the chief agent in such an awakening. And 
in considering his career the question of his possible participation 
in the primitive frescoes of the upper courses at Assisi is best left 
out of account, the more so because of the deplorable condition 
in which they now exist. But with reference to the lowest 
course of paintings on the same walls, those illustrating the life 
of St Francis according to the narrative of St Bonaventura, 
no one has any doubt, at least in regard to nineteen or twenty 
of the twenty-eight subjects which compose the series, that Giotto 
himself was their designer and chief executant. In these, sadly 
as they too have suffered from time and wholesale repair, there 
can nevertheless be discerned the unmistakable spirit of the 
young Florentine master as we know him in his other works — 
his shrewd realistic and dramatic vigour, the deep sincerity and 
humanity of feeling which he knows how to express in every 
gesture of his figures without breaking up the harmony of their 
grouping or the grandeur of their linear design, qualities in- 
herited from the earlier schools of impressive but lifeless hieratic 
decoration. The " Renunciation of the Saint by his Father," 
the u Pope's Dream of the Saint upholding the tottering Church," 
the " Saint before the Sultan," the " Miracle of the Spring of 
Water," the " Death of the Nobleman of Celano," the " Saint 
preaching before Pope Honorius " — these are some of the most 
noted and best preserved examples of the painter's power in this 
series. Where doubt begins again is as to the relations of date 
and sequence which the series bears to other works by the master 
executed at Assisi and at Rome in the same early period of his 
career, that is, probably between 1295 and 1300. Giotto's 
remaining undisputed works at Assisi are the four celebrated 
allegorical compositions in honour of St Francis in the vaulting 
of the Lower Church, — the " Marriage of St Francis to Poverty," 
the "Allegory of Chastity," the " Allegory of Obedience" 
and the " Vision of St Francis in Glory." These works are 
scarcely at all retouched, and relatively little dimmed by time; 
they are of a singular beauty, at once severe and tender, both 



GIOTTO 



35 



m colour and design; the compositions, especially the first three, 
fitted with admirable art into the cramped spaces of the vaulting, 
the subjects, no doubt in the main dictated to the artist by his 
Franciscan employers, treated in no cold or mechanical spirit 
but with a full measure of vital humanity and original feeling. 
Had the career and influence of St Francis had no other of their 
vast and far-reaching effects in the world than that of inspiring 
these noble works of art, they would still have been entitled 
to no small gratitude from mankind. Other works at Assisi 
which most modern critics, but not all, attribute to Giotto him- 
self are three miracles of St Francis and portions of a group of 
frescoes illustrating the history of Mary Magdalene, both in the 
Lower Church; and again, in one of the transepts of the same 
Lower Church, a series of ten frescoes of the Life of the Virgin 
and Christ, concluding with the Crucifixion. It is to be remarked 
as to this transept series that several of the frescoes present not 
only the same subjects, but with a certain degree of variation 
the same compositions, as are found in the master's great series 
executed in the Arena chapel at Padua in the fullness of his 
powers about 1306; and that the versions in the Assisi transept 
show a relatively greater degree of technical accomplishment 
than the Paduan versions, with a more attractive charm and 
more abundance of accessory ornament, but a proportionately 
less degree of that simple grandeur in composition and direct 
strength of human motive which are the special notes of Giotto's 
style. Therefore a minority of critics refuse to accept the 
modern attribution of this transept series to Giotto himself, 
and see in it later work by an accomplished pupil softening and 
refining upon his master's original creations at Padua. Others, 
insisting that these unquestionably beautiful works must be 
by the hand of Giotto and none but Giotto, maintain that in 
comparison with the Paduan examples they illustrate a gradual 
progress, which can be traced in other of his extant works, from 
the relatively ornate and soft to the austerely grand and simple. 
This argument is enforced by comparison with early work of the 
master's at Rome as to the date of which we have positive 
evidence. In 1298 Giotto completed for Cardinal Stefaneschi 
for the price of 2200 gold ducats a mosaic of Christ saving St 
Peter from the waves (the celebrated " Navicella ") ; this is 
still to be seen, but in a completely restored and transformed 
state, in the vestibule of St Peter's. For the same patron he 
executed, probably just before the " Navicella," an elaborate 
ciborium or altar-piece for the high altar of St Peter's , for which 
he received 800 ducats. It represents on the principal face a 
colossal Christ enthroned with adoring angels beside him and 
a kneeling donor at his feet, and the martyrdoms of St Peter and 
St Paul on separate panels to right and left; on the reverse is 
St Peter attended by St George and other saints, receiving from 
the donor a model of his gift, with stately full-length figures of 
two apostles to right and two to left, besides various accessory 
scenes and figures in the predellas and the margins. The* 
separated parts of this altar-piece are still to be seen, in a quite 
genuine though somewhat tarnished condition, in the sacristy 
of St Peter's. A third work by the master at Rome is a repainted 
fragment at the Lateran of a fresco of Pope Boniface VIII. 
proclaiming the jubilee of 1300. The " Navicella " and the 
Lateran fragment are too much ruined to argue from; but the 
ciborium panels, it is contended, combine with the aspects of 
majesty and strength a quality of ornate charm and suavity 
such as is remarked in the transept frescoes of Assisi. The 
sequence proposed for these several works is accordingly, first 
the St Peter's ciborium, next the allegories in the vaulting of the 
Lower Church, next the three frescoes of St Francis* miracles 
in the north transept, next the St Francis series in the Upper 
Church; and last, perhaps after an interval and with the help 
of pupils, the scenes from the life of Mary Magdalene in her 
chapel in the Lower Church. This involves a complete reversal 
of the prevailing view, which regards the unequal and sometimes 
clumsy compositions of this St Francis series as the earliest 
independent work of the master. It must be admitted that 
there is something paradoxical in the idea of a progress from 
the manner of the Lower Church transept series of the life of 



Christ to the much ruder manner of the Upper Church series 
of St Francis. 

A kindred obscurity and little less conflict of opinion await 
the inquirer at almost all stages of Giotto's career. In 1841 
there were partially recovered from the whitewash that had 
overlain them a series of frescoes executed in the chapel of the 
Magdalene, in the Bargello or Palace of the Podesta at Florence, 
to celebrate (as was supposed) a pacification between the Black 
and White parties in the state effected by the Cardinal d'Acqua- 
sparta as delegate of the pope in 1302. In them are depicted a 
series of Bible scenes, besides great compositions of Hell and 
Paradise, and in the Paradise are introduced portraits of Dante, 
Brunetto Latini and Corso Dona to. These recovered fragments, 
freely " restored " as soon as they were disclosed, were acclaimed 
as the work of Giotto and long held in especial regard for the 
sake of the portrait of Dante. Latterly it has been shown that 
if Giotto ever executed them at all, which is doubtful, it must 
have been at a later date than the supposed pacification, and 
that they must have suffered grievous injury in the fire which 
destroyed a great part of the building in 1332, and been after- 
wards repainted by some well-trained follower of the school. 
To about 1302 or 1303 would belong, if there is truth in it, the 
familiar story of Giotto's O. Pope Benedict XL, the successor 
of Boniface VIII. , sent, as the tale runs, a messenger to bring 
him proofs of the painter's powers. Giotto would give no other 
sample of his talent than an O drawn with a free sweep of the 
brush from the elbow; but the pope was satisfied and engaged 
him at a great salary to go and adorn with frescoes the papal 
residence at Avignon. Benedict, however, dying at this time 
(1305), nothing came of this commission; and the remains of 
Italian 14th-century frescoes still to be seen at Avignon are now 
recognized as the work, not, as was long supposed, of Giotto, 
but of the Sienese Simone Martini and his school. 

At this point in Giotto's life we come to the greatest by far of 
his undestroyed and undisputed enterprises, and one which can 
with some certainty be dated. This is the series of frescoes 
with which he decorated the entire internal walls of the chapel 
built at Padua in honour of the Virgin of the Annunciation by a 
rich citizen of the town, Enrico Scrovegni, perhaps in order to 
atone for the sins of his father, a notorious usurer whom Dante 
places in the seventh circle of hell. The building is on the site 
of an ancient amphitheatre, and is therefore generally called 
the chapel of the Arena. Since it is recorded that Dante was 
Giotto's guest at Padua, and since we know that it was in 1306 
that the poet came from Bologna to that city, we may conclude 
that to the same year, 1306, belongs the beginning of Giotto's 
great undertaking in the Arena chapel. The scheme includes a 
Saviour in Glory over the altar, a Last Judgment, full of various 
and impressive incident, occupying the whole of the entrance wall, 
with a series of subjects from the Old and New Testament and 
the apocryphal Life of Christ painted in three tiers on either side 
wall, and lowest of all a fourth tier with emblematic Virtues and 
Vices in monochrome; the Virtues being on the side of the chapel 
next the incidents of redemption in the entrance fresco of the 
Last Judgment, the Vices on the side next the incidents of perdi- 
tion. A not improbable tradition asserts that Giotto was helped 
by Dante in the choice and disposition of the subjects. The 
frescoes, though not free from injury and retouching, are upon 
the whole in good condition, and nowhere else can the highest 
powers of the Italian mind and hand at the beginning of the 14th 
century be so well studied as here. At the close of the middle 
ages we find Giotto laying the foundation upon which all the 
progress of the Renaissance was afterwards securely based. 
In his day the knowledge possessed by painters of the human 
frame and its structure rested only upon general observation 
and not upon detailed or scientific study; while to facts other 
than those of humanity their observation had never been closely 
directed. Of linear perspective they possessed but elementary 
and empirical ideas, and their endeavours to express aerial per- 
spective and deal with the problems of light and shade were rare 
and partial. As far as painting could possibly be carried under 
these conditions, it was carried by Giotto. In its choice of 



36 



GIOTTO 



subjects, his art Is entirely subservient to the religious spirit of 
his age. Even in its mode of conceiving and arranging those 
subjects it is in part still trammelled by the rules and consecrated 
traditions of the past. Many of those truths of nature to which 
the painters of succeeding generations learned to give accurate 
and complete expression, Giotto was only able to express by way 
of imperfect symbol and suggestion. But among the elements of 
art over which he has control he maintains so just a balance that 
his work produces in the spectator less sense of imperfection 
than that of many later and more accomplished masters. In 
some particulars his mature painting, as we see it in the Arena 
chapel, has never been surpassed— in mastery of concise and 
expressive generalized line and of inventive and harmonious 
decorative tint; in the judicious division of the field and massing 
and scattering of groups; in the combination of high gravity 
with complete frankness in conception, and the union of noble 
dignity in the types with direct and vital truth in the gestures 
of the personages. 

The frescoes of the Arena chapel must have been a labour 
of years, and of the date of their termination we have no proof. 
Of many other works said to have been executed by Giotto at 
Padua, all that remains consists of some scarce recognizable traces 
in the chapter-house of the great Franciscan church of St Antonio. 
For twenty years or more we lose all authentic data as to Giotto's 
doings and movements. Vasari, indeed, sends him on a giddy 
but in the main evidently fabulous round of travels, including a 
sojourn in France, which it is certain he never made. Besides 
Padua, he is said to have resided and left great works at Ferrara, 
Ravenna, Vrbino, Rimini, Faenza, Lucca and other cities; in 
some of them paintings of his school are still shown, but nothing 
which can fairly be claimed to be by his hand. It is recorded 
also that he was much employed in his native city of Florence; 
but the vandalism of later generations has effaced nearly all that 
he did there. Among works whitewashed over by posterity 
were the frescoes with which he covered no less than five chapels 
in the church of Santa Croce. Two of these, the chapels of the 
Ranti and the Perujuti families, were scraped in the early part 
of the 10th century, and very important remains were uncovered 
and immediately subjected to a process of restoration which 
has robbed them of half their authenticity. But through the 
ruins of time we can trace in some of these Santa Croce frescoes 
all the qualities of Giotto's work at an even higher and more 
mature development than in the best examples at Assisi or Padua. 
The f rescues of the Uarvii chapel tell again the story of St Francis, 
to which so much of his best power had already been devoted; 
those of the Peru«ti chapel deal with the lives of St John the 
Baptist and St John the Kvangclist* Such scenes as the Funeral 
of St Francis, the Dance of Hcrodias s Daughter* and the Re- 
surrevtivMi of St John the Evangelist, which have to some extent 
escaped the disfigurements of the rest orer* axe among acknow- 
ledged classics of the world's art. The only clues to the dates 
of any of those works are to be found in the tacts that among the 
figures in the Rarvii chapel occurs that of Si Louis of Toulouse, 
*ho xx as not canonised till 1^17, therefore the painting must be 
subsequent to that \ear. and that the " Dance of Salome " must 
have boon painted before i s v>i% when it was copied by the Loren- 
#ci ; i at Siena. The only ox her extant wvrksof Giotto at Florence 
are a tine " Otueinv** not undisputed* at San Marco, and the 
nux>tv but s\xmex\ha; heav\ ahar-pjeceof the Madonna, prob- 
ably an ea:*y wvrk* mfcich is placed in the Academy beside a 
more prr.v,,;\ve Madonna supposed :o be the work of Cimabue. 

low arvis the end ot vl»;to\s life we escape again from confused 
legend* and treta the :an:alu;r^ record of works which have 
no; surviwxi for us to ver.fx . :r;c the region of authentic docu- 
nvn t a nd t act . It a : x ;x s at* : hi : O 20: t o had come under the notice 
ot Duke Curves ot vV.ahr«JL sxx: oc King Robert of Naples, during 
tho \ vsus oc the duke to F.ccesc* which took place between 
V*.v and t^x^x ;n * h:\rh x?.tr he died. Soon afterwards Giotto 
tv;*>; haw jone to k.r<£ SL\SfTt s court at Naples, where he was 
e* % tv.y.od as an V-o^^rsc $%s^ and member of the household by 
a rexal div^ree *i*;^ :S? .vch of January i,u°- Another docu- 
i*c;*; sSo** h ^ ;c hv»e been slUl at Naples two years later. 



Tradition says much about the friendship of the king for the 
painter and the freedom of speech and jest allowed him; much 
also of the works he carried out at Naples in the Castel Nuovo, 
the Castel deir Uovo, and the church and convent of Sta Chiara. 
Not a trace of these works remains; and others which later 
criticism have claimed for him in a hall which formerly belonged 
to the convent of Sta Chiara have been proved not to be his. 

Meantime Giotto had been advancing, not only in years and 
worldly fame, but in prosperity. He was married young, and 
had, so far as is recorded, three sons, Francesco, Niccola and 
Donato, and three daughters, Bice, Caterina and Lucia. He 
had added by successive purchases to the plot of land inherited 
from his father at Vespignano. His fellow-citizens of all occupa- 
tions and degrees delighted to honour him. And now, in his sixty- 
eighth year (if we accept the birth-date 1266/7), on his return 
from Naples by way of Gaeta, he received the final and official 
testimony to the esteem in which he was held at Florence. By 
a solemn decree of the Priori on the 12th of April 1334, he was 
appointed master of the works of the cathedral of Sta Reparata 
(later and better known as Sta Maria del Fiore) and official 
architect of the city walls and the towns within her territory. 
What training as a practical architect his earlier career had 
afforded him we do not know, but his interest in the art from 
the beginning is made clear by the carefully studied architectural 
backgrounds of many of his frescoes. Dying on the 8th of 
January 1336 (old style 1337), Giotto only enjoyed his new 
dignities for two years. But in the course of them he had found 
time not only to make an excursion to Milan, on the invitation 
of Azzo Visconti and with the sanction of his own government, 
but to plan two great architectural works at Florence and 
superintend the beginning of their execution, namely the west 
front of the cathedral and its detached campanile or bell-tower. 
The unfinished enrichments of the cathedral front were stripped 
away in a later age. The foundation-stone of the Campanile was 
laid with solemn ceremony in the presence of a great concourse 
of magistrates and people on the 18th of July 1334. Its lower 
courses seem to have been completed from Giotto's design, and 
the first course of its sculptured ornaments (the famous series of 
primitive Arts and Industries) actually by his own hand, before 
his death. It is not clear what modifications of his design were 
made by Andrea Pisano, who was appointed to succeed him, 
or again by Francesco Talenti, to whom the work was next 
entrusted; but the incomparable structure as we now see it 
stands justly in the world's esteem as the most fitting monument 
to the genius who first conceived and directed it. 

The art of painting, as re-created by Giotto, was carried 
on throughout Italy by his pupils and successors with little 
change or development for nearly a hundred years, until a new 
impulse was given to art by the combined influences of naturalism 
and classicism in the hands of men like Donatello and Masaccio. 
Most of the anecdotes related of the master are probably in- 
accurate in detail, but the general character both as artist and 
man which tradition has agreed in giving him can never be 
assailed. He was from the first a kind of popular hero. He is 
celebrated by the poet Petrarch and by the historian Villain. 
He is made the subject of tales and anecdotes by Boccaccio 
and by Franco Sacchetti. From these notices, as well as from 
Vasari, we gain a distinct picture of the man, as one whose 
nature was in keeping with his country origin; whose sturdy 
frame and plain features corresponded to a character rather 
distinguished for shrewd and genial strength than for sublimer 
or more ascetic qualities; a master craftsman, to whose strong 
combining and inventing powers nothing came amiss; conscious 
of his own deserts, never at a loss either in the things of art or in 
the things of life, and equally ready and efficient whether he has 
to design the scheme of some great spiritual allegory in colour 
or imperishable monument in stone, or whether he has to show 
his wit in the encounter of practical jest and repartee. From his 
own hand we have a contribution to literature which helps to 
substantiate this conception of his character. A large part of 
Giotto's fame as painter was won in the service of the Franciscans, 
and in the pictorial celebration of the life and ordinances of 



GIPSIES 



37 



their founder. As is well known, it was a part of the ordinances 
of Francis that his disciples should follow his own example in 
worshipping and being Vedded to poverty, — poverty idealized 
and personified as a spiritual bride and mistress. Giotto, having 
on the commission of the order given the noblest pictorial 
embodiment to this and other aspects of the Franciscan doctrine, 
presently wrote an ode in which his own views on poverty are 
expressed; and in this he shows that, if on the one hand his 
genius was at the service of the ideals of his time, and his imagina- 
tion open to their significance, on the other hand his judgment 
was shrewdly and humorously awake to their practical dangers 
and exaggerations. 

Authorities. — Ghiberti, Commentari; Vasari, Le Vile, vol. i.; 
Crowe-Cavalcaselle, History of Painting in Italy, ed. Langton 
Douglas (1903); H. Thode, Giotto (1809); M. G. Zimmermann, 
Giotto und die Kunst Italiens im MiUeUdter (1899); B. Berenson, 
Florentine Painters of the Renaissance \ F, Mason Perkin, Giotto 
(in " Great Masters " series) (1902) ; Basil de Se'lincourt, Giotto 

(1905). (S. C.) 

GIPSIES, or Gypsies, a wandering folk scattered through 
every European land, over the greater part of western Asia 
and Siberia; found also in Egypt and the northern coast of 
Africa, in America and even in Australia. No correct estimate 
of their numbers outside of Europe can be given, and even in 
Europe the information derived from official statistics is often 
contradictory and unreliable. The only country in which the 
figures have been given correctly is Hungary. In 1893 there 
were 274,940 in Transleithania, of whom 243,432 were settled, 
20,406 only partly settled and 8938 nomads. Of these 91,603 
spoke the Gipsy language in 1890, but the rest had already been 
assimilated. Next in numbers stands Rumania, the number 
varying between 250,000 and 200,000 (1895). Turkey in Europe 
counted 117,000 (1903), of whom 51,000 were in Bulgaria and 
Eastern Rumelia, 22,000 in the vilayet of Adrianople and 2500 in 
the vilayet of Kossovo. In Asiatic Turkey the estimates vary 
between 67,000 and 200,000. Servia has 41,000; Bosnia and 
Herzegovina, 18,000; Greece, 10,000; Austria (Cisleithania), 
16,000, of whom 13,500 are in Bohemia and Moravia; Germany, 
2000; France, 2000 (5000?); Basque Provinces, 500 to 700; 
Italy, 32,000; Spain, 40,000; Russia, 58,000; Poland, 15,000; 
Sweden and Norway, 1500; Denmark and Holland, 5000; 
Persia, 15,000; Transcaucasia, 3000. The rest is mere guesswork. 
For Africa, America and Australia the numbers are estimated 
between 135,000 and 166,000. The estimate given by Miklosich 
(1878) of 700,000 fairly agrees with the above statistics. No 
statistics are forthcoming for the number in the British Isles. 
Some estimate their number at 12,000. 

> The Gipsies are known principally by two names, which 
have been modified by the nations with whom they came in 
contact, but which can easily be traced to either the one or the 
other of these two distinct stems. The one group, embracing 
the majority of Gipsies in Europe, the compact masses living 
in the Balkan Peninsula, Rumania and Transylvania and 
extending also as far as Germany and Italy, are known by the 
name Atzigan or Alsigan } which becomes in time Tshingian 
(Turkey and Greece), Tsigan (Bulgarian, Servian, Rumanian), 
Czigany (Hungarian), Zigeuner (Germany), Zingari (Italian), 
and it is not unlikely that the English word Tinker or Tinkler 
(the latter no doubt due to a popular etymology connecting the 
gaudy gipsy with the tinkling coins or the metal wares which 
he carried on his back as a smith and tinker) may be a local 
transformation of the German Zigeuner. The second name, 
partly known in the East, where the word, however, is used as an 
expression of contempt, whilst Zigan is not felt by the gipsies 
as an insult, is Egyptian; in England, Gipsy; in some German 
documents of the 16th century Aegypter\ Spanish Gitano; 
modern Greek Gyphtos. They are also known by the parallel 
expressions Faraon (Rumanian) and Phdrao Nephka (Hungarian) 
or Pharaoh's people, which are only variations connected with 
the Egyptian origin. In France they are known as BohSmiens, 
a word the importance of which will appear later. To the same 
category belong other names bestowed upon them, such as 
Walachi, Saraceni, Agareni, Nubiani, &c. They were also known 



by the name of Tartars, given to them in Germany, or as 
" Heathen," Heydens. All these latter must be considered as 
nicknames without thereby denoting their probable origin. 
The same may have now been the case with the first name 
with which they appear in history, Atzigan. Much ingenuity 
has been displayed in attempts to explain the name, for it was 
felt that a true explanation might help to settle the question of 
their origin and the date of their arrival in Europe. Here 
again two extreme theories have been propounded, the one 
supported by Bataillard, who connected them with the Sigynnoi 
of Herodotus and identified them with the Komodromoi of the 
later Byzantine writers, known already in the 6th century. 
Others bring them to Europe as late as the 14th century; and 
the name has also been explained by de Goeje from the Persian 
Chang, a kind of harp or zither, or the Persian Zang, black, 
swarthy. Rienzi (1832) and Trumpp (1872) have connected 
the name with the Changars of North-East India, but all have 
omitted to notice that the real form was Atzigan or (more correct) 
Atzingan and not Tsigan. The best explanation remains that sug- 
gested by Miklosich, who derives the word from the Athinganoi, 
a name originally belonging to a peculiar heretical sect living 
in Asia Minor near Phrygia and Lycaonia, known also as the 
Melki-Zedekites. The members of this sect observed very strict 
rules of purity, as they were afraid to be defiled by the touch 
of other people whom they considered unclean. They therefore 
acquired the name of Athinganoi (i.e, " Touch-me-nots "). 

Miklosich has collected seven passages where the Byzantine 
historians of the 9th century describe the Athinganoi as sooth- 
sayers, magicians and serpent-charmers. From these descrip- 
tions nothing definite can be proved as to the identity of the 
Athinganoi with the Gipsies, or the reason why this name was 
given to soothsayers, charmers, &c. But the inner history of the 
Byzantine empire of that period may easily give a clue to it 
and explain how it came about that such a nickname was given 
to a new sect or to a new race which suddenly appeared in the 
Greek Empire at that period. In the history of the Church we 
find them mentioned in one breath with the Paulicians and other 
heretical sects which were transplanted in their tens of thousands 
from Asia Minor to the Greek empire and settled especially in 
Rumelia, near Adrianople and Philippopolis. The Greeks called 
these heretical sects by all kinds of names, derived from ancient 
Church traditions, and gave to each sect such names as first struck 
them, on the scantiest of imaginary similarities. One sect was 
called Paulician, another Melki-Zedekite; so also these were 
called Athinganoi, probably being considered the descendants 
of the outcast Samer, who, according to ancient tradition, was 
a goldsmith and the maker of the Golden Calf in the desert. 
For this sin Samer was banished and compelled to live apart 
from human beings and even to avoid their touch (Athinganos: 
" Touch-me-not "). Travelling from East to West these heretical 
sects obtained different names in different countries, in accord- 
ance with the local traditions or to imaginary origins. The 
Bogomils and Patarenes became Bulgarians in France, and so 
the gypsies Bohemiens, a name which was also connected with 
the heretical sect of the Bohemian brothers (Bdhmische Briider). 
Curiously enough the Kutzo-Vlachs living in Macedonia (q.v.) 
and Rumelia are also known by the nickname Tsintsari, a word 
that has not yet been explained. Very likely it stands in close 
connexion with Zingari, the name having been transferred from 
one people to the other without the justification of any common 
ethnical origin, except that the Kutzo-Vlachs, like the Zingari, 
differed from their Greek neighbours in race, as in language, 
habits and customs; while they probably followed similar 
pursuits to those of the Zingari, as smiths, &c. As to the other 
name, Egyptians, this is derived from a peculiar tale which the 
gipsies spread when appearing in the west of Europe. They 
alleged that they had come from a country of their own called 
Little Egypt, either a confusion between Little Armenia and 
Egypt or the Peloponnesus. 

Attention may be drawn to a remarkable passage in the Syriac 
version of the apocryphal Book of Adam, known as the Cave of 
Treasures and compiled probably in the 6th century: "And 



3« 



GIPSIES 



<of the seed of Canaan were as I said the Aegyptians; and, lo, 
they were scattered all over the earth and served as slaves of 
slaves " (ed. Bezold, German translation, p. 25). No reference 
to such a scattering and serfdom of the Egyptians is mentioned 
anywhere else. This must have been a legend, current in Asia 
Minor, and hence probably transferred to the swarthy Gipsies. 

A new explanation may now be ventured upon as to the name 
which the Gipsies of Europe give to themselves, which, it must 
be emphasized, is not known to the Gipsies outside of Europe. 
Only those who starting from the ancient Byzantine empire 
have travelled westwards and spread over Europe, America and 
Australia call themselves by the name of Rom, the woman being 
Romni and a stranger Gail. Many etymologies have been sug- 
gested for the word Rom. Paspati derived it from the word 
Droma (Indian), and Miklosich had identified it with Poma or 
Pomba, a " low caste musician," rather an extraordinary name 
for a nation to call itself by. Having no home and no country 
of their own and no political traditions and no literature, they 
would naturally try to identify themselves with the people in 
whose midst they lived, and would call themselves by the same 
name as other inhabitants of the Greek empire, known also as 
the Empire of New Rom, or of the Romaioi, Romeliots, Romanoi, 
as the Byzantines used to call themselves before they assumed 
the prouder name of Hellenes. The Gipsies would therefore 
call themselves also Rom, a much more natural name, more 
flattering to their vanity, and geographically and politically 
more correct than if they called themselves "low caste 
musicians." This Greek origin of the name would explain why 
it is limited to the European Gipsies, and why it is not found 
among that stock of Gipsies which has migrated from Asia 
Minor southwards and taken a different route to reach Egypt 
and North Africa, 

Appearance in Europe, — Leaving aside the doubtful passages 
in the Byzantine writers where the Athinganoi are mentioned, 
the first appearance of Gipsies in Europe cannot be traced 
positively further back than the beginning of the 14th century. 
Some have hitherto believed that a passage in what was errone- 
ously called the Rhymed Version of Genesis of Vienna, but which 
turns out to be the work of a writer before the year 11 22, 
and found only in the Klagenf urt manuscript (edited by Ditmar, 
1862), referred to the Gipsies. It runs as follows: Gen. xiii. 15 — 
" Hagar had a son from whom were born the Chaltsmide. When 
Hagar had that child, she named it Ismael, from whom the 
Ismaelites descend who journey through the land, and we call 
them Chaltsmide, may evil befall them! They sell only things 
with blemishes, and for whatever they sell they always ask more 
than its real value. They cheat the people to whom they sell. 
They have no home, no country, they are satisfied to live in 
tents, they wander over the country, they deceive the people, 
they cheat men but rob no one noisily." 

This reference to the Chaltsmide (not goldsmiths, but very 
likely ironworkers, smiths) has wrongly been applied to the 
Gipsies. For it is important to note that at least three centuries 
before historical evidence proves the immigration of the genuine 
Gipsy, there had been wayfaring smiths, travelling from country 
to country, and practically paving the way for their successors, 
the Gipsies, who not only took up their crafts but who probably 
have also assimilated a good proportion of these vagrants of 
the west of Europe. The name given to the former, who pro- 
bably were Oriental or Greek smiths and pedlars, was then 
transferred to the new-comers. The Komodromoi mentioned 
by Theophanes (758-818), who speaks under the date 554 of one 
hailing from Italy, and by other Byzantine writers, are no 
doubt the same as the Chaltsmide of the German writer of the 
1 2th century translated by Ducange as Chaudroneurs. We 
are on surer ground in the 14th century. Hopf has proved the 
existence of Gipsies in Corfu before 1326. Before 1346 the 
empress Catherine de Valois granted to the governor of Corfu 
authority to reduce to vassalage certain vagrants who came 
from the mainland; and in 13S6, under the Venetians, they 
formed the Feudum Acindanorum, which lasted for many 
centuries. About 1378 the Venetian governor of Nauplia 



confirmed to the " Acingani " of that colony the priu&ges 
granted by his predecessor to their leader John. It is even 
possible to identify the people described by Friar Simon in his 
Itinerarium, who, speaking of his stay in Crete in 1322,, says: 
" We saw there a people outside the city who declare themselves 
to be of the race of Ham and who worship according to the Greek 
rite. They wander like a cursed people from place to place, not 
stopping at all or rarely in one place longer than thirty days; 
they live in tents like the Arabs, a little oblong black tent." 
But their name lis not mentioned, and although the similarity 
is great between these " children of Ham " and the Gipsies, 
the identification has only the value of an hypothesis* By the 
end of the 15th century they must have been settled for a 
sufficiently long time in the Balkan Peninsula and the countries 
north of the Danube, such as Transylvania and Walachia, to have 
been reduced to the same state of serfdom as they evidently 
occupied in Corfu in the second half of the 14th century. The 
voivode Mircea I. of Walachia confirms the grant made by his 
uncle Vladislav Voivode to the monastery of St Anthony of 
Voditsa as to forty families of " Atsigane," for whom no taxes 
should be paid to the prince. They were considered crown 
property. The same gift is renewed in the year 1424 by the 
voivode Dan, who repeats the very same words (i Acig&ne, m, 
celiudi. da su slobodni ot vstkih rabot i dankov) (Hajd&u, 
Arhiva, i. 20). At that time there must already have been 
in Walachia settled Gipsies treated as serfs, and migrating 
Gipsies plying their trade as smiths, musicians, dancers, sooth- 
sayers, horse-dealers, &c, for we find the voivode Alexander of 
Moldavia granting these Gipsies in the year 1478 " freedom of 
air and soil to wander about and free fire and iron for their 
smithy. " But a certain portion, probably the largest, became 
serfs, who could be sold, exchanged, bartered and inherited. 
It may be mentioned here that in the 17th century a family 
when sold fetched forty Hungarian florins, and in the 18th 
century the price was sometimes as high as 700 Rumanian 
piastres, about £8, 10s. As late as 1845 an auction of 200 
families of Gipsies took place in Bucharest, where they were sold 
in batches of no less than 5 families and offered at a " ducat " 
cheaper per head than elsewhere. The Gipsies followed at least 
four distinct pursuits in Rumania and Transylvania, where they 
lived in large masses. A goodly proportion of them were tied 
to the soil; in consequence their position was different from that 
of the Gipsies who had started westwards and who are nowhere 
found to have obtained a permanent abode for any length of 
time, or to have been treated, except for a very short period, 
with any consideration of humanity. ** 

Their appearance in the West is first noted by chroniclers 
early in the 1 5th century. In 1414 they are said to have already 
arrived in Hesse. This date is contested, but for 141 7 the reports 
are unanimous of their appearance in Germany. Some count 
their number to have been as high as 1400, which of course is 
exaggeration. In 1418 they reached Hamburg, 1419 Augsburg, 
1428 Switzerland. In 1427 they had already entered France 
(Provence). A troupe is said to have reached Bologna in 1422, 
whence they are said to have gone to Rome, on a pilgrimage 
alleged to have been undertaken for some act of apostasy. After 
this first immigration a second and larger one seems to have 
followed in its wake, led by Zumbel. The Gipsies spread over 
Germany, Italy and France between the years 1438 and 15 12. 
About 1500 they must have reached England. On the 5th of 
July 1505 James IV. of Scotland gave to " Antonius Gaginae," 
count of Little Egypt, letters of recommendation to the king of 
Denmark; and special privileges were granted by James V. 
on the 15th of February 1540 to " oure louit johnne Faw Lord 
and Erie of Litill Egypt," to whose son and successor he granted 
authority to hang and punish all Egyptians within the realm 
(May 26, 1540). 

It is interesting to hear what the first writers who witnessed 
their appearance have to tell us; for ever since the Gipsies 
have remained the same. Albert Krantzius (Krantz), in his 
Saxonia (xi. 2), was the first to give a full description, which was 
afterwards repeated by Munster in his Cosmograpkia (iii. 5). 



GIPSIES 



39 



He says that in the year 141 7 there appeared for the first time 
in Germany a people uncouth, black, dirty, barbarous, called 
in Italian " Ciani," who indulge specially in thieving and cheat- 
ing. They had among them a count and a few knights well 
dressed, others followed afoot. The women and children 
travelled in carts. They also carried with them letters of safe- 
conduct from the emperor Sigismund and other princes, and they 
professed that they were engaged on a pilgrimage of expiation 
for some act of apostasy. 

The guilt of the Gipsies varies in the different versions of the 
story, but all agree that the Gipsies asserted that they came from 
their own country called " Litill Egypt," and they had to go 
to Rome, to obtain pardon for that alleged sin of their fore- 
fathers. According to one account it was because they had not 
shown mercy to Joseph and Mary when they had sought refuge 
in Egypt from the persecution of Herod (Basel Chronicle). 
According to another, because they had forsaken the Christian 
faith for a while (Rkaetia, 1656), &c. But these were fables, 
no doubt connected with the legend of Cartaphylus or the 
Wandering Jew. 

Rrantz's narrative continues as follows: This people have 
no country and travel through the land. They live like dogs and 
have no religion although they allow themselves to be baptized 
in the Christian faith. They live without care and gather unto 
themselves also other vagrants, men and women. Their old 
women practise fortune-telling, and whilst they are telling men 
of their future they pick their pockets. Thus far Krantz. It 
is curious that he should use the name by which these people 
were called in Italy, ' i Ciani. ' ' Similarly Crusius, the author of the 
Annates Suevici, knows their Italian name Zigani and the French 
Bohemians. Not one of these oldest writers mentions them 
as coppersmiths or farriers or musicians. The immunity which 
they enjoyed during their first appearance in western Europe 
is due to the letter of safe-conduct of the emperor. As it is of 
extreme importance for the history of civilization as well as the 
history of the Gipsies, it may find a place here. It is taken from 
the compilation of Felix Oefelius, Rerum Boicarum scriptores 
(Augsburg, 1763), ii. 15, who reproduces the " Diarium 
sexennale" of "Andreas Presbyter," the contemporary of the 
first appearance of the Gipsies in Germany. 
* " Sigismundus Dei gratia Romanorum Rex semper Augustus, 
ac Hungariae, Bohemiae, Dalmatiae, Croatiae, &c. Rex 
Fidelibus nostris universis Nobilibus, Militibus, Castellanis, 
Offidalibus, Tributariis, civitatibus liberis, opidis et eorum 
iudicibus in Regno et sub domino nostro constitutis ex existenti- 
bus salutem cum dilectione. Fideles nostri adierunt in prae- 
sentiam personaliter Ladislaus Wayuoda Ciganorum cum aliis ad 
ipsum spectantibus, nobis humilimas porrexerunt supplicationes, 
hue in sepus in nostra praesentia supplicationum precum cum 
instantia, ut ipsis gratia nostra uberiori providere dignaremur. 
Unde nos illorum supplicatione illecti eisdem hanc libertatem 
duximus concedendam, qua re quandocunque idem Ladislaus 
Wayuoda et sua gens ad dicta nostra dominia videlicet civitates 
vel oppida pervenerint, ex tunc vestris fidelitatibus praesentibus 
firmiter committimus et mandamus ut eosdem Ladislaum 
Wayuodam et Ciganos sibi subiectos omni sine impedimento ac 
perturbatione aliquali fovere ac conservare debeatis, immo 
ab omnibus impetitionibus seu offensionibus tueri velitis: Si 
autem inter ipsos aliqua Zizania seu perturbatio evenerit ex 
parte, quorumcunque ex tunc non vos nee aliquis alter vestrum, 
sed idem Ladislaus Wayuoda iudicandi et liberandi habeat 
facultatem. Praesentes autem post earum lecturam semper 
reddi iubemus praesentanti. 

"Datum in Sepus Dominica die ante festum St Georgii Martyris 
Anno Domini MCCCCXXIIL, Regnorum nostrorum anno 
Hungar. XXXVI., Romanorum vero XII., Bohemiae tertio." 

Freely translated this reads: " We Sigismund by the grace 
of God emperor of Rome, king of Hungary, Bohemia, &c. unto 
all true and loyal subjects, noble soldiers, commanders, castellans, 
open districts, free towns and their judges in our kingdom 
established and under our sovereignty, kind greetings. Our 
faithful voivode of the Tsigani with others belonging to him has 



humbly requested us that we might graciously grant them our 
abundant favour. We grant them their supplication, we have 
vouchsafed unto them this liberty. Whenever therefore this 
voivode Ladislaus and his people should come to any part of our 
realm in any town, village or place, we commit them by these 
presents, strongly to your loyalty and we command you to pro- 
tect in every way the same voivode Ladislaus and the Tsigani 
his subjects without hindrance, and you should show kindness 
unto them and you should protect them from every trouble and 
persecution. But should any trouble or discord happen among 
them from whichever side it may be, then none of you nor any- ' 
one else belonging to you should interfere, but this voivode 
Ladislaus alone should have the right of punishing and pardoning. 
And we moreover command you to return these presents always 
after having read them. Given in our court on Sunday the day 
before the Feast of St George in the year of our Lord 1423. The 
36th year of our kingdom of Hungary, the 12 th of our being 
emperor of Rome and the 3rd of our being king of Bohemia." 

There is no reason to doubt the authenticity of this document, 
which is in no way remarkable considering that at that time the 
Gipsies must have formed a very considerable portion of the 
inhabitants of Hungary, whose king Sigismund was. They may 
have presented the emperor's grant of favours to Alexander 
prince of Moldavia in 1472, and obtained from him safe-conduct 
and protection, as mentioned above. 

No one has yet attempted to explain the reason why the Gipsies 
should have started in the 14th and especially in the first half 
of the 15th century on their march westwards. But if, as has 
been assumed above, the Gipsies had lived for some length of 
time in Rumelia, and afterwards spread thence across the Danube 
and the plains of Transylvania, the incursion of the Turks into 
Europe, their successive occupation of those very provinces, 
the overthrow of the Servian and Bulgarian kingdoms and the 
dislocation of the native population, would account to a remark- 
able degree for the movement of the Gipsies: and this movement 
increases in volume with the greater successes of the Turks and 
with the peopling of the country by immigrants from Asia Minor. 
The first to be driven from their homes would no doubt be the 
nomadic element, which felt itself ill at ease in its new surround- 
ings, and found it more profitable first to settle in larger numbers 
in Walachia and Transylvania and thence to spread to the western 
countries of Europe. But their immunity from persecution did 
not last long. 

Later History. — Less than fifty years from the time that they 
emerge out of Hungary, or even from the date of the Charter of 
the emperor Sigismund, they found themselves exposed to the 
fury and the prejudices of the people whose good faith they had 
abused, whose purses they had lightened, whose barns they had 
emptied, and on whose credulity they had lived with ease and 
comfort. Their inborn tendency to roaming made them the 
terror of the peasantry and the despair of every legislator who 
tried to settle them on the land. Their foreign appearance, their 
unknown tongue and their unscrupulous habits forced the legis- 
lators of many countries to class them with rogues and vagabonds, 
to declare them outlaws and felons and to treat them with 
extreme severity. More than one judicial murder has been com- 
mitted against them. In some places they were suspected as 
Turkish spies and treated accordingly, and the murderer of a 
Gipsy was often regarded as innocent of any crime. 

Weissenbruch describes the wholesale murder of a group of 
Gipsies, of whom five men were broken on the wheel, nine perished 
on the gallows, and three men and eight women were decapitated. 
This took place on the 14th and 15th of November 1726. Acts 
and edicts were issued in many countries from the end of the 
15th century onwards sentencing the " Egyptians " to exile under 
pain of death. Nor was this an empty threat. In Edinburgh 
four "Faas" were hanged in 161 1 "for abyding within the 
kingdome, they being Egiptienis," and in 1636 at Haddington 
the Egyptians were ordered " the men to be hangied and the 
weomen to be drowned, and suche of the weomen as hes children 
to be scourgit throw the burg and burnt in the cheeks." The 
burning on the cheek or on the back was a common penalty, 



4 o 



GIPSIES 



In 1692 four Estremadura Gipsies caught by the Inquisition were 
charged with cannibalism and made to own that they had eaten 
a friar, a pilgrim and even a woman of their own tribe, for which 
they suffered the penalty of death. And as late as 1782, 45 
Hungarian Gipsies were charged with a similar monstrous crime, 
and when the supposed victims of a supposed murder could not be 
found on the spot indicated by the Gipsies, they owned under 
torture and said on the rack, " We ate them." Of course they 
were forthwith beheaded or hanged. The emperor Joseph II., 
who was also the author of one of the first edicts in favour of the 
Gipsies, and who abolished serfdom throughout the Empire, 
ordered an inquiry into the incident; it was then discovered that 
no murder had been committed, except that of the victims of 
this monstrous accusation. 

The history of the legal status of the Gipsies, of their treatment 
in various countries and of the penalties and inflictions to which 
they have been subjected, would form a remarkable chapter in 
the history of modern civilization. The materials are slowly 
accumulating, and it is interesting to note as one of the latest 
instances, that not further back than the year 1907 a " drive " 
was undertaken in Germany against the Gipsies, which fact may 
account for the appearance of some German Gipsies in England 
in that year, and that in 1004 the Prussian Landtag adopted 
unanimously a proposition to examine anew the question of 
granting peddling licences to German Gipsies; that on the 17th 
of February 1906 the Prussian minister issued special instructions 
to combat the Gipsy nuisance; and that in various parts of 
Germany and Austria a special register is kept for the tracing of 
the genealogy of vagrant and sedentary Gipsy families. 

Different has been the history of the Gipsies in what originally 
formed the Turkish empire of Europe, notably in Rumania, 
i.e. Walachia and Moldavia, and a careful search in the archives 
of Rumania would offer rich materials for the history of the 
Gipsies in a country where they enjoyed exceptional treatment 
almost from the beginning of their settlement. They were 
divided mainly into two classes, (1) Robi or Serfs, who were 
settled on the land and deprived of all individual liberty, being 
the property of the nobles and of churches or monastic establish- 
ments, and (2) the Nomadic vagrants. They were subdivided 
into four classes according to their occupation, such as the 
Lingurari (woodcarvers; lit. "spoomnakers"), Caldarari (tinkers, 
coppersmiths and ironworkers), Ursari (lit. " bear drivers ") 
and Rudari (miners), also called Aurari (gold- washers), who used 
formerly to wash the gold out of the auriferous river-sands 
of Walachia. A separate and smaller class consisted of the 
Gipsy L&eshi or V&trashi (settled on a homestead or " having 
a fireplace " of their own). Each shatra or Gipsy community 
was placed under the authority of a judge or leader, known in 
Rumania as jude, in i Hungary as aga\ these officials were 
subordinate to the bulubasha or voivod, who was himself under 
the direct control of the yuzbasha (or governor appointed by the 
prince from among his nobles). The yuzbasha was responsible 
for the regular income to be derived from the vagrant Gipsies, 
who were considered and treated as the prince's property. 
These voivodi or yuzbashi who were not Gipsies by origin often 
treated the Gipsies with great tyranny. In Hungary down to 
1648 they belonged to the aristocracy. The last Polish Krolcstvo 
cyganskie or Gipsy king died in 1790. The Robi could be bought 
and sold, freely exchanged and inherited, and were treated, 
as the negroes in America down to 1856, when their final freedom 
in Moldavia was proclaimed. In Hungary and in Transylvania 
the abolition of servitude in 1 781-1782 carried with it the 
freedom of the jGipsies. In the 18th and 19th centuries many 
attempts were made to settle and to educate the roaming Gipsies; 
in Austria this was undertaken by the empress Maria Theresa 
and the emperor Francis II. (1 761-1783), in Spain by Charles III. 
(1788). In Poland (1791) the attempt succeeded. In England 
(1827) and in Germany (1830) societies were formed for the 
reclamation of the Gipsies, but nothing was accomplished in 
either case. In other countries, however, definite progress was 
made. Since 1866 the Gipsies have become Rumanian citizens, 
and the latest official statistics no longer distinguish between 



the Rumanians and the Gipsies, who are becoming thoroughly 
assimilated, forgetting their language, and being slowly absorbed 
by the native population. In Bulgaria the Gipsies were declared 
citizens, enjoying equal political rights in accordance with the 
treaty of Berlin in 1878, but through an arbitrary interpretation 
they were deprived of that right, and on the 6th of January 1906 
the first Gipsy Congress was held in Sofia, for the purpose of 
claiming political rights for the Turkish Gipsies or Gopti as they 
call themselves. Ramadan Alief, the tzari-bashi (i.e. the head 
of the Gipsies in Sofia), addressed the Gipsies assembled; they 
decided to protest and subsequently sent a petition to the 
Sobranye, demanding the recognition of their political rights. 
A curious reawakening, and an interesting chapter in the 
history of this peculiar race. 

Origin and Language of the Gipsies. — The real key to their 
origin is, however, the Gipsy language. The scientific study 
of that language began in the middle of the 19th century with 
the work of Pott, and was brought to a high state of perfection 
by Miklosich. From that time on monographs have multiplied 
and minute researches have been carried on in many parts of 
the world, all tending to elucidate the true origin of the Gipsy 
language. It must remain for the time being an open question 
whether the Gipsies were originally a pure race. Many a strange 
element has contributed to swell their ranks and to introduce 
discordant elements into their vocabulary. Ruediger (1782), 
Grellmann (1783) and Marsden (1783) almost simultaneously 
and independently of one another came to the same conclusion, 
that the language of the Gipsies, until then considered a thieves' 
jargon, was in reality a language closely allied with some Indian 
speech. Since then the two principal problems to be solved 
have been, firstly, to which of the languages of India the 
original Gipsy speech was most closely allied, and secondly, by 
which route the people speaking that language had reached 
Europe and then spread westwards. Despite the rapid increase 
in our knowledge of Indian languages, no solution has yet been 
found to the first problem, nor is it likely to be found. For the 
language of the Gipsies, as shown now by recent studies of the 
Armenian Gipsies, has undergone such a profound change and 
involves so many difficulties, that it is impossible to compare 
the modern Gipsy with any modern Indian dialect owing to the 
inner developments which the Gipsy language has undergone 
in the course of centuries. All that is known, moreover, of the 
Gipsy language, and all that rests on reliable texts, is quite 
modern, scarcely earlier than the middle of the 19th century. 
Followed up in the various dialects into which that language 
has split, it shows such a thorough change from dialect to dialect^ 
that except as regards general outlines and principles of inflexion, 
nothing would be more misleading than to draw conclusions 
from apparent similarities between Gipsy, or any Gipsy dialect, 
and any Indian language; especially as the Gipsies must have 
been separated from the Indian races for a much longer period 
than has elapsed since their arrival in Europe and since the forma- 
tion of their European dialects. It must also be borne in mind 
that the Indian languages have also undergone profound changes 
of their own, under influences totally different from those to 
which the Gipsy language has been subjected. The problem 
would stand differently if by any chance an ancient vocabulary 
were discovered representing the oldest form of the common 
stock from which the European dialects have sprung; for there 
can be no doubt of the unity of the language of the European 
Gipsies. The question whether Gipsy stands close to Sanskrit 
or Prakrit, or shows forms more akin to Hindi dialects, specially 
those of the North- West frontier, or Dardestan and Kafiristan, 
to which may be added now the dialects of the Pis&ca language 
(Grierson, 1906), is affected by the fact established by Fink that 
the dialect of the Armenian Gipsies shows much closer resem- 
blance to Prakrit than the language of the European Gipsies, 
and that the dialects of Gipsy spoken throughout Syria and Asia 
Minor differ profoundly in every respect from the European 
Gipsy, taken as a whole spoken. The only explanation possible 
is that the European Gipsy represents the first wave of the 
Westward movement of an Indian tribe or caste which, dislocated 



GIPSIES 



4i 



at a certain period by political disturbances, had travelled 
through Persia, making a very short stay there, thence to Armenia 
staying there a little longer, and then possibly to the Byzantine 
Empire at an indefinite period between 11 00 and 1200; and that 
another clan had followed in their wake, passing through Persia, 
settling in Armenia and then going farther down to Syria, Egypt 
and North Africa. These two tribes though of a common 
remote Indian origin must, however, be kept strictly apart 
from one another in our investigation, for they stand to each 
other in the same relation as they stand to the various dialects 
in India. The linguistic proof of origin can therefore now not 
go further than to establish the fact that the Gipsy language 
is in its very essence an originally Indian dialect, enriched in its 
vocabulary from the languages of the peoples among whom 
the Gipsies had sojourned, whilst in its grammatical inflection 
it has slowly been modified, to such an extent that in some 
cases, like the English or the Servian, barely a skeleton has 
remained. 

Notwithstanding the statements to the contrary, a -Gipsy 
from Greece or Rumania could no longer understand a Gipsy 
of England or Germany, so profound is the difference. But the 
words which have entered into the Gipsy language, borrowed as 
they were from the Greeks, Hungarians, Rumanians, &c, are not 
only an indication of the route taken — and this is the only use 
that has hitherto been made of the vocabulary — but they are 
of the highest importance for fixing the time when the Gipsies 
had come in contact with these languages. The absence of Arabic 
is a positive proof that not only did the Gipsies not come via 
Arabia (as maintained by De Goeje) before they reached Europe, 
but that they could not even have been living for any length of 
time in Persia after the Mahommedan conquest, or at any rate 
that they could not have come in contact with such elements of 
the population as had already adopted Arabic in addition to 
Persian. But the form of the Persian words found among 
European Gipsies, and similarly the form of the Armenian words 
found in that language, are a clear indication that the Gipsies 
could not have come in contact with these languages before 
Persian had assumed its modern form and before Armenian had 
been changed from the old to the modern form of language. 
Still more strong and clear is the evidence in the case of the Greek 
and Rumanian words. If the Gipsies had lived in Greece, as some 
contend, from very ancient times, some at least of the old Greek 
words would be found in their language, and similarly the Slavonic 
words would be of an archaic character, whilst on the contrary 
we find medieval Byzantine forms, nay, modern Greek forms, 
among the Gipsy vocabulary collected from Gipsies in Germany 
or Italy, England or France; a proof positive that they could not 
have been in Europe much earlier than the approximate date 
given above of the nth or 12th century. We then find from a 
grammatical point of view the same deterioration, say among the 
English or Spanish Gipsies, as has been noticed in the Gipsy 
dialect of Armenia. It is no longer Gipsy, but a corrupt English 
or Spanish adapted to some remnants of Gipsy inflections. The 
purest form has been preserved among the Greek Gipsies and 
to a certain extent among the Rumanian. Notably through 
Miklosich's researches and comparative studies, it is possible 
to follow the slow change step by step and to prove, at any rate, 
that, as far as Europe is concerned, the language of these Gipsies 
was one and the same, and that it was slowly split up into a 
number of dialects (13 Miklosich, 14 Colocci) which shade off 
into one another, and which by their transitional forms mark 
the way in which the Gipsies have travelled, as also proved by 
historical evidence. The Welsh dialect, known by few, has 
retained, through its isolation, some of the ancient forms. 

Religion, Habits and Customs. — Those who have lived among 
the Gipsies will readily testify that their religious views are a 
strange medley of the local faith, which they everywhere embrace, 
and some old-world superstitions which they have in common 
with many nations. Among the Greeks they belong to the Greek 
Church, among the Mahommedans they are Mahommedans, in 
Rumania they belong to the National Church. In Hungary they 
are mostly Catholics, according to the faith of the inhabitants of 



that country. They have no ethical principles and they do not 
recognize the obligations of the Ten Commandments. There is 
extreme moral laxity in the relation of the two sexes, and on the 
whole they take life easily, and are complete fatalists. At the 
same time they are great cowards, and they play the rdle of the 
fool or the jester in the popular anecdotes of eastern Europe. 
There the poltroon is always a Gipsy, but he is good-humoured 
and not so malicious as those Gipsies who had endured the 
hardships of outlawry in the west of Europe. 

There is nothing specifically of an Oriental origin in their 
religious vocabulary, and the words Devla (God), Bang (devil) 
or Trushul (Cross), in spite of some remote similarity, must be 
taken as later adaptations, and not as remnants of an old Sky- 
worship or Serpent-worship. In general their beliefs, customs, 
tales, &c. belong to the common stock of general folklore, and 
many of their symbolical expressions find their exact counterpart 
in Rumanian and modern Greek, and often read as if they were 
direct translations from these languages. Although they love 
their children, it sometimes happens that a Gipsy mother will hold 
her child by the legs and beat the father with it. In Rumania 
and Turkey among the settled Gipsies a good number are carriers 
and bricklayers; and the women take their full share in every 
kind of work, no matter how hard it may be. The nomadic 
Gipsies carry on the ancient craft of coppersmiths, or workers in 
metal; they also make sieves and traps, but in the East they are 
seldom farriers or horse-dealers. They are far-famed for their 
music, in which art they are unsurpassed. The Gipsy musicians 
belong mostly to the class who originally were serfs. They were 
retained at the courts of the boyars for their special talent in 
reciting old ballads and love songs and their deftness in playing, 
notably the guitar and the fiddle. The former was used as an 
accompaniment to the singing of either love ditties and popular 
songs or more especially in recital or heroic ballads and epic 
songs; the latter for dances and other amusements. They 
were the troubadours and minstrels of eastern Europe; the 
largest collection of Rumanian popular ballads and songs was 
gathered by G. Dem. Teodorescu from a Gipsy minstrel, Petre 
Sholkan; and not a few of the songs of the guslars among the 
Servians and other Slavonic nations in the Balkans come also 
from the Gipsies. They have also retained the ancient tunes 
and airs, from the dreamy " doina " of the Rumanian to the 
fiery " czardas " of the Hungarian or the stately " hora " of the 
Bulgarian. Liszt went so far as to ascribe to the Gipsies the origin 
of the Hungarian national music. This is an exaggeration, as 
seen by the comparison of the Gipsy music in other parts of south- 
east Europe; but they undoubtedly have given the most 
faithful expression to the national temperament. Equally famous 
is the Gipsy woman for her knowledge of occult practices. She 
is the real witch; she knows charms to injure the enemy or to 
help a friend. She can break the charm if made by others. 
But neither in the one case nor in the other, and in fact as little 
as in their songs, do they use the Gipsy language. It is either 
the local language of the natives as in the case of charms, or a 
slightly Romanized form of Greek, Rumanian or Slavonic. The 
old Gipsy woman is also known for her skill in palmistry and 
fortune-telling by means of a special set of cards, the well-known 
Tarokof the Gipsies. They have also a large stock of fairy tales 
resembling in each country the local fairy tales, in Greece agreeing 
with the Greek, and in Rumania with the Rumanian fairy tales. 
It is doubtful, however, whether they have contributed to the 
dissemination of these tales throughout Europe, for a large 
number of Gipsy tales can be shown to have been known in 
Europe long before the appearance of the Gipsies, and others are 
so much like those of other nations that the borrowing may be 
by the Gipsy from the Greek, Slav or Rumanian. It is, however, 
possible that playing-cards might have been introduced to 
Europe through the Gipsies. The oldest reference to cards is 
found in the Chronicle of Nicolaus of Cavellazzo, who says that 
the cards were first brought into Viterbo in 1379 from the land 
of the Saracens, probably from Asia Minor or the Balkans. 
They spread very quickly, but no one has been able as yet to trace 
definitely the source whence they were first brought. Without 

xii. 2 a 



42 



GIPSIES 



entering here into the history of the playing-cards and of the 
different forms of the faces and of the symbolical meaning of the 
different designs, one may assume safely that the cards, before 
they were used for mere pastime or for gambling, may originally 
have had a mystical meaning and been used as sortes in various 
combinations. To this very day the oldest form is known by the 
hitherto unexplained name of Tarock, played in Bologna at the 
beginning of the 15th century and retained by the French under 
the form Tarot, connected direct with the Gipsies, " Le Tarot des 
Bohemiens." It was noted above that the oldest chronicler 
(Presbyter) who describes the appearance of the Gipsies in 1416 
in Germany knows them by their Italian name " Cianos," 
so evidently he must have known of their existence in Italy 
previous to any date recorded hitherto anywhere, and it is there- 
fore not impossible that coming from Italy they brought with 
them also their book of divination. 

Physical Characteristics, — As a race they are of small stature, 
varying in colour from the dark tan of the Arab to the whitish 
hue of the Servian and the Pole. In fact there are some white- 
coloured Gipsies, especially in Servia and Dalmatia, and these 
are o*ten not easily distinguishable from the native peoples, 
except that they are more lithe and sinewy, better proportioned 
and more agile in their movements than the thick-set Slavs and 
the mixed race of the Rumanians. By one feature, however, 
they are easily distinguishable and recognize one another, viz. 
by the lustre of their eyes and the whiteness of their teeth. Some 
are well built; others have the features of a mongrel race, due 
no doubt to intermarriage with outcasts of other races. The 
women age very quickly and the mortality among the Gipsies 
is great, especially among children; among adults it is chiefly 
due to pulmonary diseases. They love display and Oriental 
showiness, bright-coloured dresses, ornaments, bangles, &c; 
red and green are the colours mostly favoured by the Gipsies 
in the East. .Along with a showy handkerchief or some shining 
gold coins round their necks, they will wear torn petticoats and 
no covering on their feet. And even after they have been 
assimilated and have forgotten their own language they still 
retain some of the prominent features of their character, such 
as the love of inordinate display and gorgeous dress; and their 
moral defects not only remain for a long time as glaring as among 
those wl\o live the life of vagrants, but even become more pro- 
nounced. The Gipsy of to-day is no longer what his fore- 
fathers have been. The assimilation with the nations in the 
near East and the steps taken for the suppression of vagrancy 
in the West, combine to denationalize the Gipsy and to make 
" Romani Chib " a thing of the past. 

Bibliography. — The scientific study of the Gipsy language and 
its origin, as well as the critical history of the Gipsy race, dates 
(with the notable exception of Grellmann) almost entirely from 
rott's researches in 1844. 

I. Collections of Documents* to.— Lists of older publications 
appeared in the books of Pott, Miklosich and the archduke Joseph; 
Pott adds a critical appreciation of the scientific value of the books 
enumerated. See also Verzeicknis von Werken und Aufsateen . . . 
uber die Geschichte und Sprache der Zigeuner, to., 248 entries (Leipzig, 
1886); J, Tipray, " Adalelcok a cziganyokrol sz616 irodalomhoz," in 
Magyar KOnyeswemle (Budapest, 1877); Ch. G. Leland, A Collection 
of Cuttings . . . relaHng to Gypsies (1874-1891), bequeathed by 
him to the British Museum. See also the Orientalischer Jahresbericht, 
ed. Muller (Berlin, 1887 ff.). 

II. History. — (a) The first appearance of the Gipsies in Europe. 
Sources: A. F. Oe/eWus, Rerum Boicarum scriptores, to. (Augsburg, 
1763); M. Freher, Andreae Presbyteri . . . chronicon de ducibus 
Bopariae . . . (1602); S. Munster, Cosmographia ... to. (Basel, 
1545); t. Thurmaier, Annalium Boicrumlibri jeptem, ed. T. Zie- 
gierus (ln| 



cd. J. Nasmith (Cambridge, 1778). (&) Origin and spread of the 
Gipsies: H. M. G. Grellmann, Die Zigeuner, to (1st ed., Dessau and 
Leipiig, 1783; and ed., Gottingen, 1787); English by M. Roper 
^London, 1787; 2nd ed., London, 1807), entitled Dissertation on the 
Gipsies, to.; Carl von Heister, Etknoerapkische . . . Notizen uber 
die Zigeuner (Kdnigsberg, 1842), a third and neatly improved 
edition of Grellmann and the best book of its kind up to that date; 
A, F. Pott, Die Zigeuner in Europa und Asien (2 vols,, Halle, 1844- 
1845), the first scholarly work with complete and critical biblio- 
graphy, detailed grammar, etymological dictionary and important 



texts; C. Hopf, Die Einwanderung der Zigeuner in Europa (Gotha, * 
1870); F. von Miklosich, " Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Zigcuner- 
Mundarten," i.-iv., in Sitzungsber. d. Wiener Akad. d. Wissenschaften 
(Vienna, 1874-1878), " Ober die Mundarten und die Wanderungen 
der Zigeuner Europas," i.-xii., in Denkschriften d. Wiener Akad. d. 
Wissenschaften (1 872-1 880); M. J. de Goeje, Bijdrage tot de ge- 
schiedenis der Zigeuner s (Amsterdam, 1875), English translation by 
Mac Ritchie, Account of the Gipsies of India (London, 1886); Zedler, 
Universal-Lexicon, vol. lxii., s.v. Zigeuner," pp. 520-544 con- 
taining a rich bibliography; many publications of F\ Bataillard 
from 1844 to 1885; A, Colocci, Storia oV un popolo err ante t with 
illustrations, map and Gipsy-Ital. and Ital.-Gipsy glossaries (Turin, 
1889); F. H. Groome, " The Gypsies," in E. Magnusson, National 
Life and Thought (1891), and art. " Gipsies " in Encyclopaedia 
Britannica (9th ed., 1879); C. Amero, Bohemiens, Tsiganes et 
Gypsies (Paris, 189O; M. Kogalnitschan, Esquisse sur Vhistoire, Us 
mesurs et la langue des Cigains (Berlin, 1837; German trans., Stutt- 

fjart, 1840) — valuable more for the historical part than for the 
inguistic; J. Czacki, Dziela, vol. iii. (1 844-1 845) — for historic data 
about Gipsies in Poland; I. Kopernicki and J. Mover, Ckaraktery- 
styka fizyczna ludroici galicyjskiSj (1876) — for the history and 
customs of Galician gipsies; Ungarische statistische MitteUungen, 
vol. ix. (Budapest, 1895), containing the best statistical information 
on the Gipsies; V. Dittrich, A nagy-idai czigdnyok (Budapest, 
1898); T. H. Schwicker, "Die Zigeuner in Ungarn u. Sieben- 
bttrgen," in vol. xii. of Die Volker Osterreich-Ungarns (Vienna," 
1883), and in MitteUungen d. K. K. geographischen Gesellschaft 
(Vienna, 1896) ; Dr J. Polek, Die Zigeuner in der Bukowina (Czerno- 
witz, 1908) ; Ficker, " Die Zigeuner der Bukowina," in Statist. 
Monatschrift, v. 6, Hundert Jahre i77$-i&7$: Zigeuner in d. Buko- 
wina (Vienna, 1875), Die Volkerstdmme der dsterr.-ungar. Monarchic, 
to. (Vienna, 1869); V. S. Morwood, Our Gipsies (London, 1885); 
D. MacRitchie, Scottish Gypsies under the Stewarts (Edinburgh, 1804) ; 

F. A. Coelho, " Os Ciganos de Portugal," in Bol. Soc. Geog. (Lisbon, 
1 892 ); A. Dumbarton, Gypsy Life %n the Mysore Jungle (London, 
1902). 

III. Linguistic. — [Armenia], F. N. Finck, " Die Sprache der arme- 
nischen Zigeuner," in Memoires de VAcad. Imp. des Sciences, viii. 
(St Petersburg, 1907). [Austria-HungaryJ, R. von Sowa, Die 
Mundart der slovakischen Zigeuner (Gottingen, 1887), and Die 
mdhrische Mundart der Romsprache (Vienna, 1893) J A. J, Puchmayer, 
Romdni Cib (Prague, 1821); P. Josef Jesina, Komdfti Cib (in Czech, 
1880; in German, 1886); G. Ihnatko, Czigdny nyelvtan (Losoncon, 
1877); A. Kalina, La Langue des Tsiganes slovaques (Posen, 1882); 
the archduke Joseph, Czigdny nyelvtan (Budapest, 1888); H. von 
Wlislocki, Die Sprache der transsuvanischen Zigeuner (Leipzig, 1884). 
[Brazil], A. T. de Mello Moraes, Os ciganos no Brazil (Rio de Janeiro, 
1886). [France, the Basques], A. Saudrimont, Vocabulaire de la 
langue des Bohemiens habitant les pays basques-francais (Bordeaux, 
1862). [Germany], R. Pischel, Beitrage zur Kenntnis der deutschen 
Zigeuner (Halle, 1894) ; R. von Sowa, " Wdrterbuch des Dialekts der 
deutschen Zigeuner, in Abhandlungen f. d. Kunde d. Morgenlandes, 
xi. 1, very valuable (Leipzig, 1898); F. N. Finck, Lehrbuch des 
Dialekts der deutschen Zigeuner — very valuable (Marburg, 1903). 
[Great Britain, &c], Ch. G. Leland, The English Gipsies and their 
Language (London and New York, 1873; 2nd ed., 1874), The Gipsies 
of Russia, Austria, England, America, to. (London, 1882) — the 
validity of Leland's conclusions is often doubtful; B. C. Smart and 
H. J. Crofton, The Dialect of the English Gypsies (2nd ed., London, 
1875); G. Borrow, Romano lavo-lil (London, 1874, 1905), Lavengro, 
ed. F. H. Groome (London, 1899). [Rumania], B. Constantinescu, 
Probe de Limba si literatura tiganilor din Romdnia (Bucharest, 
1878). [Russia, Bessarabia], O. Boethlingk, Uber die Sprache der 
Zigeuner in Russland (St Petersburg, 1852; supplement, 1854). 
[Russia, Caucasus], K. Badganian, Cygany. NZskoliko slovu o nartti- 
jahu zakavkazskihu cyganH (St Petersburg, 1887); Istomin, Cieanskij 
JazykH (1900). [Spain], G. H. Borrow, The Zincali, or an Account 
of the Gipsies of Spain (London, i8ai, and numerous later editions) ; 
K. Campuzano, Origen . . . de los Gitanos, y diccionario de su 
dialecto (2nd ed., Madrid, 1857); A. de C, Diccionario del dialecto 
gitano, to. (Barcelona, 1851); M. de Sales y Guindale, Historia, 
cosiumbres y dialecto de los Gitanos (Madrid, 1870); M. de Sales, 
El Gilanismo (Madrid, 1870); J. Tineo Rebolledo, " A ChipicaUi " 
la lengua gitana: diccionario gitano-espafiol (Granada, 1900). 
[Turkey], A. G. Paspati, £tudes sur les Tchin^hianes, ou Bohemiens 
de V empire ottoman (Constantinople, 1870), with grammar, vocabu- 
lary, tales and French glossary; very important. [General], John 
Sampson, " Gypsy Language and Origin," in Journ. Gypsy Lore Soc. 
vol. 1. (2nd ser., Liverpool, 1907) ; J. A. Decourdemanche, Gram- 
tnaire du Tchinganf, to. (Paris, 1908)— fantastic in some of its 
philology; F. Kluge, Rotaelsche Quellen (Strassbur|:, 1901); L. 
Gunther, Das Rotwelsch des deutschen Gauners (Leipzig, 1905), for 
the influence of Gipsy on argot; L. Besses, Diccionario de argot 
espanol (Barcelona); G. A. Grierson, The Pfstica Languages of 
North-Western India (London, 1906), for parallels in Indian dialects; 

G. Borrow, Criscote e majarS Lucas . . . El eeangdto segun S. 
Lucas . . . (London, 1837; 2nd ed., 1872)— this is the only complete 
translation of any one of the gospels into Gipsy. For older fragments 
of such translations, see Pott ii. 464-521. 

I IV. Folklore, Tales, Songs, to.— Many songs and tales are found 



GIRAFFE— GIRALDI, G. G. 



43 



in the books enumerated above, where they are mostly accompanied 
by literal translations. See also Ch. G. Leland, £. H. Palmer and 
T. Tuckey, English Gipsy Songs in Romany, with Metrical English 
Translation (London, 1875); G. Smith* Gipsy Life, &c. (London, 
1880); M. Rosenfcild, Liederder Zigeuner (1882); Ch. G. Leland, 
The Gypsies (Boston, Mass* 1882), Gypsy Sorcery and Fortune- 
TcUing (London, i$oi); H. von Wlislocki, Mdrchea und Sagen der 
transstlvanischen Ztgeuner (Berlin, 1886) — containing 6% tales, 
very freely translated; Volksdichtungen der siebenbiirgischen und 
sudtmgarischen Ztgeuner (Vienna, 1890) — songs, ballads, charms, 
proverbs and 100 tales; Vom wandernden Zigeunermolke (Hamburg, 
1890) ; Wesen und Wirkunwskreis der Zauberfrauen bei den sieben- 
burgischen Zigeuner (1891) ; Aus dem inneren Leben der Zigeuner," 
in EOtnologische Mittetlungen (Berlin, 1892); R. Pischel, Bericht 
uber Wlislocki vom wandernden Zigeunervelke (Gdttmgen, 1890) — a 
strong criticism of Wlislocki's jnethod, &c; F. H. Groome, Gypsy 
Folk- Tales (London, 1 899) , with historical introduction and a complete 
and trustworthy collection of 76 gipsy tales from many, countries; 
Katada, Conies gUanos (Logrono, 1907); M. Gaster, Zigeuner - 
mdrchen aus Rumdnien (1881); " Tiganii, &c," in Revista pentru 
Istorie,&c, i. p. 469 ff. (Bucharest, I883); " Gypsy Fairy-Tales " in 
Folklore, The Journal of the Gipsy-Lore Society (Edinburgh, 1888- 
1892) was revived in Liverpool in 1907. 

V- Legal Status. — A few of the books in which the legal status of 
the Gipsies (either alone or in conjunction with "vagrants ") is 
treated from a juridical point of view are here mentioned, also the 
history erf the trial in 1726. J. B. Weissenbruch, Ausfuhrliche 
Relation von der famosen Zigeuner-Diebes-Mord und Rduber (Frank- 
furt and Leipzig, 1727); A. Ch- Thomasius, Tractatio juridica de 
vagabmndoi &c. (Leipzig, 1731) ; F. Ch. B. Ave-Lallemant, Das 
deulsche Gaunertum, &c (Leipzig, 1 858-1 862); V. de Rochas, Les 
Farias de France et d'Espagne (Paris, 1876); P. Chuchul, Zum 
Kampfe gegen Landstreicktr und Bettier (Kassel, 1881) ; R. Breithaupt, 
Die Zigeuner und der deutsche Stoat (Wurzburg, 1907); G. Stem- 
hausen. Geschichte der deutschen Kultur (Leipzig and Vienna, 1904). 

(M. G.) 

GIRAFFE, a corruption of Zardfah, the Arabic name for the 
tallest of all mammals, and the typical representative of the 
family Giraffi&ae, the distinctive characters of which are given 
in the article Pecora, where the systematic position of the 
group is indicated. The classic term " camelopard," probably 
introduced when these animals were brought from North 
Africa to the Roman amphitheatre, has fallen into complete 
disuse. 

In common with the okapi, giraffes have skin-covered horns 
on the head, but in these animals, which form the genus Giraffa, 
these appendages are present in both sexes; and there is often 
an unpaired one in advance of the pair on the forehead. Among 
other characteristics of these animals may be noticed the great 
length of the neck and limbs, the complete absence of lateral 
toes and the long and tufted tail. The tongue is remarkable 
for its great length, measuring about 17 in. in the dead animal, 
and for its great elasticity and power of muscular contraction 
while living. It is covered with numerous large papillae, and 
forms, like the trunk of the elephant, an admirable organ for 
the examination and prehension of food. Giraffes are inhabit- 
ants of open country, and owing to their length of neck and long 
flexible tongues are enabled to browse on tall trees, mimosas 
being favourites. To drink or graze they are obliged to straddle 
the fore-legs apart; but they seldom feed on grass and are 
capable of going long without water. When standing among 
mimosas they so harmonize with their surroundings that they 
are difficult of detection. Formerly giraffes were found in large 
herds, but persecution has reduced their number and led to their 
extermination from many districts. Although in late Tertiary 
times widely spread over southern Europe and India, giraffes are 
now confined to Africa south of the Sahara. 

Apart from the distinct Somali giraffe (Giraffa reticulata), 
characterized by its deep liver-red colour marked with a very 
coarse network of fine white lines, there are numerous local forms 
of the ordinary giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis). The northern 
races, such as the Nubian G. c. typica and the Kordofan G. c. 
antiquorutn, are characterized by the large frontal horn of the 
bulls, the white legs, the network type of coloration and the pale 
tint. The latter feature is specially developed in the Nigerian 
G. c. peralta, which is likewise of the northern type s The Baringo 
G. c. rothschildi also has a large frontal horn and white legs, but 
the spots in the bulls are very dark and those of the females 
jagged. In the Kilimanjaro G. c. tippelskirchi the frontal horn 



is often developed in the bulls, but the legs are frequently spotted 
to the fetlocks. Farther south the frontal horn tends to dis- 
appear more or less completely, as in the Angola G. c. angolensis, 
the Transvaal G.c. wardi and the Cape G. c. capensis, while the 
legs are fully spotted and the colour-pattern on the body 
(especially in the last-named) is more of a blotched type, that 




The North African or Nubian Giraffe {Giraffa camelopardalis). 

is to say, consists of dark blotches on a fawn ground, instead of 
a network of light lines on a dark ground. 

For details, see a paper on the subspecies of Giraffa camelopardalis, 
by R. Lydekker in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 
for 1904. (R. L.*) 

GIRALDI, GIGLIO GREGORIO [Lilius Gregorius Gyral- 
dus] (1479-1552), Italian scholar and poet, was born on the 
14th of June 1479, at Ferrara, where he early distinguished 
himself by his talents and acquirements. On the completion 
of his literary course he removed to Naples, where he lived on 
familiar terms with Jovianus Pontanus and Sannazaro; and 
subsequently to Lombardy, where he enjoyed the favour of the 
Mirandola family. At Milan in 1507 he studied Greek under 
Chalcondylas; and shortly afterwards, at Modena, he became 
tutor to Ercole (afterwards Cardinal) Rangone. About the year 
1 5 14 he removed to Rome, where, under Clement VII., he held 
the office of apostolic protonotary; but having in the sack of that 
city (1527), which almost coincided with the death of his patron 
Cardinal Rangone, lost all his property, he returned in poverty 
once more to Mirandola, whence again he was driven by the 
troubles consequent on the assassination of the reigning prince in 
1533. The rest of his life was one long struggle with ill-health, 
poverty and neglect; and he is alluded to with sorrowful regret 
by Montaigne in one of his Essais (i. 34) , as having, like Sebastian 
Castalio, ended his days in utter destitution. He died at Ferrara 
in February 1552; and his epitaph makes touching and graceful 
allusion to the sadness of his end. Giraldi was a man of very 



4+ 



GIRALDI, G. B.— GIRARD, J. B. 



extensive erudition; and numerous testimonies to his profundity 
and accuracy have been given both by contemporary and by 
later scholars. His Historia de diis gentium marked a distinctly 
forward step in the systematic study of classical mythology; 
and by his treatises De annis et mensibus, and on the Calen- 
darium Romanum et Graecum, he contributed to bring about the 
reform of the calendar, which was ultimately effected by Pope 
Gregory XIII. His Progymnasma adversus liter as et liter atos 
deserves mention at least among the curiosities of literature; 
and among his other works to which reference is still occasionally 
made are Historiae poltarum Graecorum ac Latinorum; De 
poitis suorum temporum\ and De sepultura ac vario sepeliendi 
ritu. Giraldi was also an elegant Latin poet. 
llin Opera omnia were published at Leiden in 1696. 

GIRALDI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA (1504-1573)1 surnamed 
Cynthujs, Cinthio or Cintio, Italian novelist and poet, born 
at Ferrara in November 1504, was educated at the university 
of his native town, where in 1525 he became professor of natural 
philosophy, and, twelve years afterwards, succeeded Celio 
Calcagnini in the chair of belles-lettres. Between 1542 and 1560 
he acted as private secretary, first to Ercole II. and afterwards 
to Alphonso II. of Este; but having, in connexion with a literary 
quarrel in which he had got involved, lost the favour of his 
patron in the latter year, he removed to Mondovi, where he 
remained as a teacher of literature till 1568. Subsequently, 
on the invitation of the senate of Milan, he occupied the chair 
of rhetoric at Pa via till 1573, when, in search of health, he 
returned to his native town, where on the 30th of December he 
died. Besides an epic entitled Ercole (1557), in twenty-six 
cantos, Giraldi wrote nine tragedies, the best known of which, 
Orbecche, was produced in 1541. The sanguinary and disgusting 
character of the plot of this play, and the general poverty of 
its style, are, in the opinion of many of its critics, almost fully 
redeemed by occasional bursts of genuine and impassioned 
poetry; of one scene in the third act in particular it has even 
been affirmed that, if it alone were sufficient to decide the 
question, the Orbeccke would be the finest play in the world. 
Of the prose works of Giraldi the most important is the Hecatom- 
mithi or Ecatomiti, a collection of tales told somewhat after the 
manner of Boccaccio, but still more closely resembling the novels 
of Giraldi's contemporary Bandello, only much inferior in work- 
manship to the productions of either author in vigour, liveliness 
and local colour. Something, but not much, however, may be 
said in favour of their professed claim to represent a higher 
standard of morality. Originally published at Monteregale, 
Sicily, in 1565, they were frequently reprinted in Italy, while a 
French translation by Chappuys appeared in 1583 and one in 
Spanish in 1500. They have a peculiar interest to students of 
English literature, as having furnished, whether directly or in- 
directly, the plots of Measure for Measure and Othello. That 
of the latter, which is to be found in the Hecatommithi (iii. 7), 
is conjectured to have reached Shakespeare through the French 
translation; while that of the former (HecaL viii. 5) is probably 
to be traced to Whetstone's Promos and Cassandra (1578), an 
adaptation of CintmVs story, and to his Heplamerone (1582), 
which contains a direct English translation. To Giraldi also 
must be attributed the plot of Beaumont and Fletcher's Custom 
of the Country* 

GIRALDUS CAMBRKNSIS (1146^-1220), medieval historian, 
also called G fraud de Barri, was born in Pembrokeshire. He 
was the son of William de Barri and Augharat, a daughter of 
Gerald, the ancestors of the Fitzgeralds and the Welsh princess, 
Nest a, formerly mistress of King Henry I. Falling under the 
influence of his uncle, David Fitzgerald, bishop of St David's, 
he determined to enter the church. He studied at Paris, and his 
works show that he had applied himself closely to the study of 
the Latin poets. In 117 a he was appointed to collect tithe in 
Wales, and showed such vigour that he was made archdeacon. 
In 1 1 70 an attempt was made to elect him bishop of St David's, 
but Henry II. was unwilling to see any one with powerful native 
connexions a bishop in Wades. In n 80, after another visit to 
Paris, he was appointed commissiary to the bishop of St David's, 



who had ceased to reside. But Giraldus threw up his post, 
indignant at the indifference of the bishop to the welfare of his 
see. In n 84 he was made one of the king's chaplains, and was 
elected to accompany Prince John on his voyage to Ireland. 
While there he wrote a Topographia Hibernica, which is full of 
information, and a strongly prejudiced history of the conquest, 
the Expugnatio Hibernica. In n 86 he read his work with great 
applause before the masters and scholars of Oxford. In 11 88 
he was sent into Wales with the primate Baldwin to preach 
the Third Crusade. Giraldus declares that the mission was 
highly successful; in any case it gave him the material for his 
Itinerarium Cambrense, which is, after the Expugnatio, his best 
known work. He accompanied the archbishop, who intended 
him to be the historian of the Crusade, to the continent, with the 
intention of going to the Holy Land. But in 11 89 he was sent 
back to Wales by the king, who knew his influence was great, 
to keep order among his countrymen. Soon after he was absolved 
from his crusading vow. According to his own statements, 
which often tend to exaggeration, he was offered both the sees of 
Bangor and Llandaff, but refused them. From 1192 to 1198 
he lived in retirement at Lincoln and devoted himself to literature. 
It is probably during this period that he wrote the Gemma 
ecclesiastica (discussing disputed points of doctrine, ritual, &c.) 
and the Vita S. Remigii. In 1198 he was elected bishop of St 
David's. But Hubert Walter, the archbishop of Canterbury, 
was determined to have in that position no Welshman who 
would dispute the metropolitan pretensions of the English 
primates. The king, for political reasons, supported Hubert 
Walter. For four years Giraldus exerted himself to get his 
election confirmed, and to vindicate the independence of St 
David's from Canterbury. He went three times to Rome. 
He wrote the De jure Meneviensis ecclesiae in support of the 
claims of his diocese. He made alliances with the princes of 
North and South Wales. He called a general synod of his diocese. 
He was accused of stirring up rebellion among the Welsh, and 
the justiciar proceeded against him. At length in 1202 the pope 
annulled all previous elections, and ordered a new one. The 
prior of Llanthony was finally elected. Gerald was immediately 
reconciled to the king and archbishop; the utmost favour was 
shown to him; even the expenses of his unsuccessful election 
were paid. He spent the rest of his life in retirement, though 
there was some talk of his being made a cardinal. He certainly 
survived John. 

The works of Giraldus are partly polemical and partly historical 
His value as a historian is marred by his violent party spirit; 
some of his historical tracts, such as the Liber de instructions 
principum and the Vita Galfridi . Archiepiscopi Eborecensis, 
seem to have been designed as political pamphlets. Henry H., 
Hubert Walter and William Longchamp, the chancellor of 
Richard I., are the objects of his worst invectives. His own 
pretensions to the see of St David are the motive of many of his 
misrepresentations. But he is one of the most vivid and witty 
of our medieval historians. 

See the Rolls edition of his works, ed. J. S. Brewer, J. F. Dimock 
and G. F. Warner in 8 vols. (London, 1861-1891), some of which 
have valuable introductions. 

GIRANDOLE (from the Ital. girandola), an ornamental 
branched candlestick of several lights. It came into use about 
the second half of the 17th century, and was commonly made 
and used in pairs. It has always been, comparatively speaking, 
a luxurious appliance for lighting, and in the great 18th-century 
period of French house decoration the famous ciselcurs designed 
some exceedingly beautiful examples. A great variety of metals 
has been used for the purpose — sometimes, as in the case of the 
candlestick, girandoles have been made in hard woods. Gilded 
bronze has been a very frequent medium, but for table purposes 
silver is still the favourite material. 

GIRARD, JEAN BAPTISTE [known as " Le Pere Girard " 
or" LePereGregoire "](i 765-1850), French-Swiss educationalist, 
was born at Fribourg and educated for the priesthood at Lucerne. 
He was the fifth child in a family of fourteen, and his gift for 
teaching was early shown at home in helping his mother with the 



GIRARD, P. H. DE— GIRARD, S. 



45 



younger children; and after passing through his noviciate he 
spent some time as an instructor in convents, notably at Wurz- 
burg (i 785-1 788). Then for ten years he was busy with 
religious duty. In 1798, full of Kantian ideas, he published an 
essay outlining a scheme -of national Swiss education; and in 
1804 he began his career as a public teacher, first in the elementary 
school at Fribourg (1805-1823), then (being driven away by 
Jesuit hostility) in the gymnasium at Lucerne till 1834, when 
he retired to Fribourg and devoted himself with the production 
of his books on education, De V enseignement rlgulier de la 
langue maternelle (1834, oth ed. 1894; Eng. trans, by Lord 
Ebrington, The Mother Tongue, 1847), and Cours iducatif (1844- 
1 846) . Father Girard's reputation and influence as an enthusiast 
in the cause of education became potent not only in Switzerland, 
where he was hailed as a second Pestalozzi, but in other countries. 
He had a genius for teaching, his method of stimulating the 
intelligence of the children at Fribourg and interesting them 
actively in learning, and not merely cramming them with rules 
and facts, being warmly praised by the Swiss educationalist 
Francois Naville (1 784-1 846) in his treatise on public education 
(1832). His undogmatic method and his Liberal Christianity 
brought him into conflict with the Jesuits, but his aim was, 
in all his teaching, to introduce the moral idea into the minds of 
his pupils by familiarizing them with the right or wrong working 
of the facts he brought to their attention, and thus to elevate 
character all through the educational curriculum. 

GIRARD, PHILIPPE HENRI DE (1775-1845), French 
mechanician, was born at Lourmarin, Vaucluse, on the 1st of 
February 1775. He is chiefly known in connexion with flax- 
spinning machinery. Napoleon having in 1810 decreed.a reward 
of one million francs to the inventor of the best machine for 
spinning flax, Girard succeeded in producing what was required. 
But he never received the promised reward, although in 1853, 
after his death, a comparatively small pension was voted to his 
heirs, and having relied on the money to pay the expenses of 
his invention he got into serious financial difficulties. He was 
obliged, in 181 5, to abandon the flax mills he had established 
in France, and at the invitation of the emperor of Austria 
founded a flax mill and a factory for his machines at Hirtenberg. 
In 1825, at the invitation of the emperor Alexander I. of Russia, 
he went to Poland, and erected near Warsaw a flax manufactory, 
round which grew up a village which received the name of 
Girardow. In 181 8 he built a steamer to run on the Danube. 
He did not return to Paris till 1844, where he still found some 
of his old creditors ready to press their claims, and he died in 
that city on the 26th of August 1845. He was also the author 
of numerous minor inventions. 

GIRARD, STEPHEN (17 50-1831), American financier and 
philanthropist, founder of Girard College in Philadelphia, was 
born in a suburb of Bordeaux, France, on the 20th of May 1750. 
He lost the sight of his right eye at the age of eight and had little 
education. His father was a sea captain, and the son cruised 
to the West Indies and back during 1 764-1 773, was licensed 
captain in 1773, visited New York in 1774, and thence with the 
assistance of a New York merchant began to trade to and from 
New Orleans and Port au Prince. In May 1776 he was driven 
into the port of Philadelphia by a British fleet and settled there as 
a merchant; in June of the next year he married Mary (folly) 
Lum, daughter of a shipbuilder, who, two years later, after 
Girard's becoming a citizen of Pennsylvania (1778), built for him 
the " Water Witch," the first of a fleet trading with New Orleans 
and the West Indies — most of Girard's ships being named after 
his favourite French authors, such as " Rousseau," " Voltaire," 
" Helv6tius " and " Montesquieu." His beautiful young wife 
became insane and spent the years from 1790 to her death in 
181 5 in the Pennsylvania Hospital. In 1810 Girard used about 
a million dollars deposited by him with the Barings of London 
for the purchase of shares of the much depreciated stock of 
the Bank of the United States — a purchase of great assistance 
to the United States government in bolstering European confi- 
dence in its securities. When the Bank was not rechartered the 
building and the cashier's house in Philadelphia were purchased 



at a third of the original cost by Girard, who in May 181 2 
established the Bank of Stephen Girard. He subscribed in 
1814 for about 95% of the government's war loan of $5,000,000, 
of which only $20,000 besides had been taken, and he generously 
offered at par shares which upon his purchase had gone to a 
premium. He pursued his business vigorously in person until 
the 1 2th of February 1830, when he was injured in the street 
by a truck; he died on the 26th of December 1831. His public 
spirit had been shown during his life not only financially but 
personally; in 1793, during the plague of yellow fever in Phil- 
adelphia, he volunteered to act as manager of the wretched 
hospital at Bush Hill, and with the assistance of Peter Helm 
had the hospital cleansed and its work systematized; again 
during the yellow fever epidemic of 1 797-1 798 he took the lead 
in relieving the poor and caring for the sick. Even more was his 
philanthropy shown in his disposition by will of his estate, 
which was valued at about $7,500,000, and doubtless the greatest 
fortune accumulated by any individual in America up to that 
time. Of his fortune he bequeathed $116,000 to various 
Philadelphia charities, $500,000 to the same city for the im- 
provement of the Delaware water front, $300,000 to Pennsyl- 
vania for internal improvements, and the bulk of his estate to 
Philadelphia, to be used in founding a school or college, in 
providing a better police system, and in making municipal 
improvements and lessening taxation. Most of his bequest 
to the city was to be used for building and maintaining a school 
" to provide for such a number of poor male white orphan 
children ... a better education as well as a more comfortable 
maintenance than they usually receive from the application of 
the public funds." His will planned most minutely for the 
erection of this school, giving details as to the windows, doors, 
walls, &c; and it contained the following phrase: "I enjoin 
and require that no ecclesiastic, missionary or minister of any 
sect whatsoever, shall ever hold or exercise any duty whatsoever 
in the said college; nor shall any such person ever be admitted 
for any purpose, or as a visitor, within the premises appropriated 
to the purposes of the said college. ... I desire to keep the 
tender minds of orphans . . . free from the excitements which 
clashing doctrines and sectarian controversy are so apt to 
produce." Girard's heirs-at-law contested the will in 1836, and 
they were greatly helped by a public prejudice aroused by the 
clause cited; in the Supreme Court of the United States in 1844 
Daniel Webster, appearing for the heirs, made a famous plea, 
for the Christian religion, but Chief Justice Joseph Story handed . 
down an opinion adverse to the heirs (Bidal v. Girard 9 s Executors). 
Webster was opposed in this suit by John Sergeant and Horace 
Binney. Girard specified that those admitted to the college 
must be white male orphans, of legitimate birth and good 
character, between the ages of six and ten; that no boy was 
to be permitted to stay after his eighteenth year; and that as 
regards admissions preference was to be shown, first to orphans 
born in Philadelphia, second to orphans born in any other part of 
Pennsylvania, third to orphans born in New York City, and 
fourth to orphans born in New Orleans. Work upon the build- 
ings was begun in 1833, and the college was opened on the 1st 
of January 1848, a technical point of law making instruction 
conditioned upon the completion of the five buildings, of which 
the principal one, planned by Thomas Ustick Walter (1804-1887), 
has been called " the most perfect Greek temple in existence." 
To a sarcophagus in this main building the remains of Stephen 
Girard were removed in 185 1. In the 40 acres of the college 
grounds there were in 1909 18 buildings (valued at $3,350,000), 
1 513 pupils, and a total " population," including students, 
teachers arid all employes, of 1907. The value of the Girard 
estate in the year 1907 was $35,000,000, of which $550,000 
was devoted to other charities than Girard College. The control 
of the college was under a board chosen by the city councils 
until 1869, when by act of the legislature it was transferred to 
trustees appointed by the Common Pleas judges of the city of 
Philadelphia. The course of training is partly industrial — for 
a long time graduates were indentured till they came of age — 
but it is also preparatory to college entrance. 



4 6 



GIRARDIN, D. DE— GIRART DE ROUSSILLON 



See H. A. Ingram, The Life and Character of Stephen Girard 
(Philadelphia, 1884), and George P. Rupp, " Stephen Girard — 
Merchant and Mariner," in 1 848-1 898: Semi- Centennial of Girard 
College (Philadelphia, 1898). 

GIRARDIN, DELPHINE DE (1804-1855), French author, 
was born at Aix-la-Chapelle on the 26th of January 1804. Her 
mother, the well-known Madame Sophie Gay, brought her up 
in the midst of a brilliant literary society. She published two 
volumes of miscellaneous pieces, Essais poitiques (1824) and 
Nouveaux Essais poitiques (1825). A visit to Italy in 1827, 
during which she was enthusiastically welcomed by the literati 
of Rome and even crowned in the capitol, was productive of 
various poems, of which the most ambitious was Napoline (1833). 
Her marriage in 1831 to fimile de Girardin (see below) opened 
up a new literary career. The contemporary sketches which 
she contributed from 1836 to 1839 to the feuilleton of La Presse, 
under the nom de plume of Charles de Launay, were collected 
under the title of Lettres parisiennes (1843), anc * obtained a 
brilliant success. Contes oVune vieille fille & ses neveux (1832), 
La Canne de Monsieur de Balzac (1836) and II nefaut pas jouer 
avec la douleur (1853) are among the best-known of her romances; 
and her dramatic pieces in prose and verse include L'£cole des 
journalistes (1840), Judith (1843), CISopdtre (1847), Lady Tartufe 
(1853), and the one-act comedies, Cest lafaute du mari (1851), 
La Joiefait peur (1854), Le Ckapeau d J un horloger (1854) and Une 
Femme qui diteste son mari, which did not appear till after the 
author's death. In the literary society of her time Madame 
Girardin exercised no small personal influence, and among the 
frequenters of her drawing-room were Th6ophile Gautier and 
Balzac, Alfred de Musset and Victor Hugo. She died on the 
29th of June 1855. Her collected works were published in six 
volumes (1 860-1 861). 

See Sainte-Beuve, Causeries du lundi, t. iii.; G. de Molenes, 
" Les Femmes poetes," in Revue des deux mondes (July 1842); 
Taxile Delord, Les MatinSes UttSraires (i860); L' Esprit de Madame 
Girardin f avec une preface par Af. Lamartine (1862); G. d'Heiily, 
Madame de Girardin, sa vie et ses ceuvres (1868) ; Imbert de Saint 
Amand, Mme de Girardin (1875). 

GIRARDIN, fiMILE DE (1802-1881), French publicist, was 
born, not in Switzerland in 1806 of unknown parents, but (as 
was recognized in 1837) in Paris in 1802, the son of General 
Alexandre de Girardin and of Madame Dupuy, wife of a Parisian 
advocate. His first publication was a novel, £mile, dealing 
with his birth and early life, and appeared under the name of 
Girardin in 1827. He became inspector of fine arts under the 
Martignac ministry just before the revolution of 1830, and 
was an energetic and passionate journalist. Besides his work 
on the daily press he issued miscellaneous publications which 
attained an enormous circulation. His Journal des connais- 
sances utiles had 120,000 subscribers, and the initial edition of 
his Almanack de France (1834) ran to a million copies. In 1836 
he inaugurated cheap journalism in a popular Conservative 
organ, La Presse t the subscription to which .was only forty 
francs a year. This undertaking involved him in a duel with 
Armand Carrel, the fatal result of which made him refuse satis- 
faction to later opponents. In 1839 he was excluded from the 
Chamber of Deputies, to which he had been four times elected, 
on the plea of his foreign birth, but was admitted in 1842. He 
resigned early in February 1847, and on the 24th of February 
1848 sent a note to Louis Philippe demanding his resignation and 
the regency of the duchess of Orleans. In the Legislative 
Assembly he voted with the Mountain. He pressed eagerly in 
his paper for the election of Prince Louis Napoleon, of whom he 
afterwards became one of the most violent opponents. In 1856 
he sold La Presse f only to resume it in 1862, but its vogue was 
over, and Girardin started a new journal, La LiberU, the sale 
of which was forbidden in the public streets. He supported 
fimile Ollivier and the Liberal Empire, but plunged into vehement 
journalism again to advocate war against Prussia. Of his 
many subsequent enterprises the most successful was the purchase 
of Le Petit Journal, which served to advocate the policy of Thiers, 
though he himself did not contribute. The crisis of the 16th 
of May 1877, when Jules Simon fell from power, made him 



resume his pen to attack MacMahon and the party of reaction 
in La France and in Le Petit Journal, fimile de Girardin married 
in 1 83 1 Delphine Gay (see above), and after her death in 1855 
Guillemette Jos6phine Brunold, countess von Tieffenbach, 
widow of Prince Frederick of Nassau. He was divorced from 
his second wife in 1872. 

The long list of his social and political writings includes: De la 
presse pirtodique au XIX* Steele (1837); De V instruction publique 
(1838); &tudes politiques (1838); De la libertS de la presse et du 
journalisme (1842) ; Le Droit au travail au Luxembourg eta I 1 Assembled 
Rationale (2 vols., 1848); Les Cinquante-deux (1849, &c), a series 
of articles on current parliamentary questions; La Politique uni- 
verseUe, dicrets de Vavenir (Brussels, 1852); Le Condamni du 6 mars 
(1867), an account of his own differences with the government in 
1867 when he was fined 5000 fr. for an article in La LibertS; he 
Dossier de la guerre (1877), a collection of official documents; Ques- 
tions de mon temps, 1836 a 1856, articles extracted from the daily 
and weekly press (12 vols., 1858). 

GIRARDON, FRANCOIS (1628-1715), French sculptor, was 
born at Troyes on the 17th of March 1628. As a boy he had for 
master a joiner and wood-carver of his native town, named 
Baudesson, under whom he is said to have worked at the chateau 
of Liebault, where he attracted the notice of Chancellor Seguier. 
By the chancellor's influence Girardon was first removed to 
Paris and placed in the studio of Francois Anguier, and afterwards 
sent to Rome. In 1652 he was back in France, and seems at 
once to have addressed himself with something like ignoble 
subserviency to the task of conciliating the court painter Charles 
Le Brun. Girardon is reported to have declared himself incap- 
able of composing a group, whether with truth or from motives of 
policy it is impossible to say. This much is certain, that a very 
large proportion of his work was carried out from designs by 
Le Brun, and shows the merits and defects of Le Bran's manner — 
a great command of ceremonial pomp in presenting his subject, 
coupled with a large treatment of forms which if it were more 
expressive might be imposing. The court which Girardon paid 
to the " premier peintre du roi " was rewarded. An immense 
quantity of work at Versailles was entrusted to him, and in 
recognition of the successful execution of four figures for the 
Bains d'Apollon, Le Brun induced the king to present his protege 
personally with a purse of 300 louis, as a distinguishing mark 
of royal favour. In 1650 Girardon was made member of the 
Academy, in 1659 professor, in 1674 " adjoint au recteur," 
and finally in 1695 chancellor. Five years before (1690), on the 
death of Le Brun, he had also been appointed " ihspecteur 
g6neral des ouvrages de sculpture " — a place of power and profit. 
In 1699 he completed the bronze equestrian statue of Louis 
XIV., erected by the town of Paris on the Place Louis le Grand. 
This statue was melted down during the Revolution, and is 
known to us only by a small bronze model (Louvre) finished 
by Girardon himself. His Tomb of Richelieu (church of the 
Sorbonne) was saved from destruction by Alexandre Lenoir, 
who received a bayonet thrust in protecting the head of the 
cardinal from mutilation. It is a capital example of Girardon 's 
work, and the theatrical pomp of its style is typical of the funeral 
sculpture of the reigns of Louis XIV. and Louis XV. ; but amongst 
other important specimens yet remaining may also be cited the 
Tomb of Louvois (St Eustache), that of Bignon, the king's 
librarian, executed in 1656 (St Nicolas du Chardonneret), and 
decorative sculptures in the Galerie d'Apollon and Chambre du 
roi in the Louvre. Mention should not be omitted of the group, 
signed and dated 1699, " The Rape of Proserpine " at Versailles, 
which also contains the " Bull of Apollo." Although chiefly 
occupied at Paris Girardon never forgot his native Troyes, the 
museum of which town contains some of his best works, including 
the marble busts of Louis XIV. and Maria Theresa. In the 
h6tel de ville is still shown a medallion of Louis XlV./and in the 
church of St R6my a bronze crucifix of some importance — both 
works by his hand. He died in Paris in 17 15. 

See Corrard de Breban, Notice sur la vie et les auvres de Girardon 
(1850). 

GIRART DE ROUSSILLON, an epic figure of the Carolingian 
cycle of romance. In the genealogy of romance he is a son of 
Doon de Mayence, and he appears in different and irreconcilable 



CIRAUD— GIRDLE 



47 



circumstances in many of the chansons de geste. The legend of 
Girart de Roussillon is contained in a Vita Girardi de Roussillon 
(ed. P. Meyer, in Romania, 1878), dating from the beginning 
of the 1 2 th century and written probably by a monk of the abbey 
of PothiSres or of Vezelai, both of which were founded in 860 by 
Girart; in Girart de Roussillon, a chanson de geste written early 
in the 12th century in a dialect midway between French and 
Provencal, and apparently based on an earlier Burgundian 
poem; in a 14th century romance in alexandrines (ed. T. J. A. P. 
Mignard, Paris and Dijon, 1878); and in a prose romance by 
Jehan Wauquelin in 1447 (ed. L. de Montille, Paris, 1880). The 
historical Girard, son of Leuthard and Grimildis, was a 
Burgundian chief who was count of Paris in 837, and embraced 
the cause of Lothair against Charles the Bald. He fought at 
Fontenay in 841, and doubtless followed Lothair to Aix. In 
855 he became governor of Provence for Lothair's son Charles, 
king of Provence (d. 863). His wife Bertha defended Vienne 
unsuccessfully against Charles the Bald in 870, and Girard, 
who had perhaps aspired to be the titular ruler of the northern 
part of Provence, which he had continued to administer under 
Lothair H. until that prince's death in 869, retired with his wife 
to Avignon, where he died probably in 877, certainly before 879. 
The tradition of his piety, of the heroism of his wife Bertha, 
and of his wars with Charles passed into romance; but the 
historical facts are so distorted that in Girart de Roussillon the 
trouvere makes him the opponent of Charles Martel, to whom 
he stands in the relation of brother-in-law. He is nowhere 
described in authentic historic sources as of Roussillon. The 
title is derived from his castle built on Mount Lassois, near 
Chatillon-sur-Seine. Southern traditions concerning Count 
Girart, in which he is made the son of Garin de Monglane, are 
embodied in Girart de Viane (13th century) by Bertrand de 
Bar-siir-l'Aube, and in the Aspramonte of Andrea da Barberino, 
based on the French chanson of Aspremont , where he figures as 
Girart de Frete or de Fratte. 1 Girart de Viane is the recital of 
a siege of Vienne by Charlemagne, and in Aspramonte Girart de 
Fratte leads an army of infidels against Charlemagne. Girart de 
Roussillon was long held to be of Provengal origin, and to be 
a proof of the existence of an independent Provengal epic, 
but its Burgundian origin may be taken as proved. 

See F. Michel , Gerard de Rossillon . . . publti en francais et en 
provengal d'aprhs les MSS. de Paris et de Londres (Pans, 1856); 
P. Meyer, Girart de Roussillon (1884), a translation in modern French 
with a comprehensive introduction. For Girart de Viane (ed. P. 
Tarbe*, Reims, 1850) see L. Gautier, Upopees frangaises, vol. iv.; 
F. A. WuHF, Notice sur les sagas de Magus et de Geirard (Lund, 1874). 

GIRAUD, GIOVANNI, Count (1776-1834), Italian dramatist, 
of French origin, was born at Rome, and snowed a precocious 
passion for the theatre. His first play, L'Onestd non si vince, 
was successfully produced in 1798. He took part in politics 
as an active supporter of Pius VI., but was mainly occupied with 
the production of his plays, and in 1809 became director-general 
of the Italian theatres. He died at Naples in 1834. Count 
Giraud's comedies, the best of which are Gelosie per equivoco 
(1807) an< l V Ajonell f imbarazzo (1824), were bright and amusing 
on the stage, but of no particular literary quality. 

His collected comedies were published in 1823 and his Teatro 
domestico in 1825. 

GIRDLE (O. Eng. gyrdel, from gyrdan, to gird; cf. Ger. GUrtel, 
Dutch gordel y from gilrten and gorden ; " gird " and its doublet 
" girth " together with the other Teutonic cognates have been 
referred by some to the root ghar — to seize, enclose, seen in 
Gr. x*'P> hand, Lat. hortus, garden, and also English yard, 
garden, garth, &c), a band of leather or other material worn 
round the waist, either to confine the loose and flowing outer 
robes so as to allow freedom of movement, or to fasten and 
support the garments of the wearer. Among the Romans it 
was used to confine the tunica, and it formed part of the dress 
of the soldier; when a man quitted military service he was said, 

1 It is of interest to note that Freta was the old name for the 
town of Saint Remy, and that it is close to the site of the ancient 
town of Glanum, the name of which is possibly preserved in Garin 
de Monglane, the ancestor of the heroes of the cycle of Guillaume 
d'Orange. 



cingulum deponere, to lay aside the girdle. Money being carried 
in the girdle, zonam perdere signified to lose one's purse, and, 
among the Greeks, to cut the girdle was to rob a man of his 
money. 

Girdles and girdle-buckles are not often found in Gallo-Roman 
graves, but in the graves of Franks and Burgundians they are 
constantly present, often ornamented with bosses of silver or 
bronze, chased or inlaid. Sidonius Apollinaris speaks of the 
Franks as belted round the waist, and Gregory of Tours in the 
6th century says that a dagger was carried in the Frankish 
girdle. 

In the Anglo-Saxon dress the girdle makes an unimportant 
figure, and the Norman knights, as a rule, wore their belts under 
their hauberks. After the Conquest, however, the artificers 
gave more attention to a piece whose buckle and tongue invited 
the work of the goldsmith. Girdles of varying richness are seen 
on most of the western medieval effigies. That of Queen Beren- 
garia lets the long pendant hang below the knee, following a 
fashion which frequently reappears. 

In the latter part of the 13th century the knight's surcoat 
is girdled with a narrow cord at the waist, while the great belt, 
which had become the pride of the well-equipped cavalier, 
loops across the hips carrying the heavy sword aslant over the 
thighs or somewhat to the left of the wearer. 

But it is in the second half of the following century that the 
knightly belt takes its most splendid form. Under the year 
1356 the continuator of the chronicle of Nangis notes that the 
increase of jewelled belts had mightily enhanced the price of 
pearls. The belt is then worn, as a rule, girdling the hips at 
some distance below the waist, being probably supported by 
hooks as is the belt of a modern infantry soldier. The end of the 
belt, after being drawn through the buckle, is knotted or caught 
up after the fashion of the tang of the Garter. The waist girdle 
either disappears from sight or as a narrow and ornamented 
strap is worn diagonally to help in the support of the belt. A 
mass of beautiful ornament covers the whole belt, commonly 
seen as an unbroken line of bosses enriched with curiously 
worked roundels or lozenges which, when the loose strap-end 
is abandoned, meet in a splendid morse or clasp on which the 
enameller and jeweller had wrought their best. About 1420 
this fashion tends to disappear, the loose tabards worn over 
armour in the jousting-yard hindering its display. The belt 
never regains its importance as an ornament, and, at the beginning 
of the 1 6th century, sword and dagger are sometimes seen hanging 
at the knight's sides without visible support. 

In civil dress the magnificent belt of the 14th century is 
worn by men of rank over the hips of the tight short-skirted 
coat, and in that century and in the 15th and 16th there are 
sumptuary laws to check the extravagance of rich girdles worn 
by men and women whose humble station made them unseemly. 
Even priests must be rebuked for their silver girdles with baselards 
hanging from them. Purses, daggers, keys, penners and inkhorns, 
beads and even books, dangled from girdles in the 15th and 
early 16th centuries. Afterwards the girdle goes on as a mere 
strap for holding up the clothing or as a sword-belt. At the 
Restoration men contrasted the fashion of the court, a light 
rapier hung from a broad shoulder-belt, with the fashion of the 
countryside, where a heavy weapon was supported by a narrow 
waistbelt. Soon afterwards both fashions disappeared. Sword- 
hangers were concealed by the skirt, and the belt, save in certain 
military and sporting costumes, has no more been in sight in 
England. Even as a support for breeches or trousers, the use 
of braces has gradually supplanted the girdle during the past 
century. 

In most of those parts of the Continent — Brittany, for example 
— where the peasantry maintains old fashions in clothing, the 
belt or girdle is still an important part of the clothing. Italian 
non-commissioned officers find that the Sicilian recruit's main 
objection to the first bath of his life-time lies in the fact that he 
must lay down the cherished belt which carries his few valuables. 
With the Circassian the belt still buckles on an arsenal of pistols 
and knives. 



+8 



GIRGA— GIRONDE 



Folklore and ancient custom are much concerned with the 
girdle. Bankrupts at one time put it off in open court; French 
law refused courtesans the right to wear it; Saint Guthlac 
casts out devils by buckling his girdle round a possessed man; 
an earl is " a belted earl " since the days when the putting on 
of a girdle was part of the ceremony of his creation; and fairy 
tales of half the nations deal with girdles which give invisibility 
to the wearer. (O. Ba.) 

GIRGA, or Girgeh, a town of Upper Egypt on the W. bank 
of the Nile, 313 m. S.S.E. of Cairo by rail and about 10 m. N.N.E. 
of the ruins of Abydos. Pop. (1907) 19,893, of whom about 
one-third are Copts. The town presents a picturesque appearance 
from the Nile, which at this point makes a sharp bend. A 
ruined mosque with a tall minaret stands by the river-brink. 
Many of the houses are of brick decorated with glazed tiles. 
The town is noted for the excellence of its pottery. Girga is 
the seat of a Coptic bishop. It also possesses a Roman Catholic 
monastery, considered the most ancient in the country. As 
lately as the middle of the 18th century the town stood a quarter 
of a mile from the river, but is now on the bank, the intervening 
space having been washed away, together with a large part of 
the town, by the stream continually encroaching on its left 
bank. 

GIRGENTI (anc. Agrigentum, q.v.), a town of Sicily, capital 
of the province which bears its name, and an episcopal see, on 
the south coast, 58 m. S. by E. of Palermo direct and 84} m. by 
rail. Population (1901) 25,024. The town is built on the 
western summit of the ridge which formed the northern portion 
of the ancient site; the main street runs from E. to W. on 
the level, but the side streets are steep and narrow. The cathedral 
occupies the highest point in the town; it was not founded till 
the 13th century, taking the place of the so-called temple of 
Concord. The campanile still preserves portions of its original 
architecture, but the interior has been modernized. In the 
chapter-house a famous sarcophagus, with scenes illustrating 
the myth of Hippolytus, is preserved. There are other scattered 
remains of 13th-century architecture in the town, while, in the 
centre of the ancient city, close to the so-called oratory of 
Phalaris, is the Norman church of S. Nicolo. A small museum 
in the town contains vases, terra-cottas, a few sculptures, &c. 
The port of Girgenti, 5} m. S.W. by rail, now known as Porto 
Empedocle (population in 1901, 11,529), as the principal place 
of shipment for sulphur, the mining district beginning immedi- 
ately north of Girgenti. (T. As.) 

GIRISHK, a village and fort of Afghanistan. It stands on 
the right bank of the Helmund 78 m. W. of Kandahar on the 
road to Herat; 3641 ft. above the sea. The fort, which is 
garrisoned from Kandahar and is the residence of the governor 
of the district (Pusht-i-Rud), has little military value. It 
commands the fords of the Helmund and the road to Seistan, 
from which it is about 190 m. distant; and it is the centre of a 
rich agricultural district. Girishk was occupied by the British 
during the first Afghan War; and a small garrison of sepoys, 
under a native officer, successfully withstood a siege of nine 
months by an overwhelming Afghan force. The Dasht-i-Bakwa 
stretches beyond Girishk towards Farah, a level plain of consider- 
able width, which tradition assigns as the field of the final 
contest for supremacy between Russia and England. 

GIRNAR, a sacred hill in Western India, in the peninsula 
of Kathiawar, 10 m. E. of Junagarh town. It consists of 
five peaks, rising about 3500 ft. above the sea, on which are 
numerous old Jain temples, much frequented by pilgrims. 
At the foot of the hill is a rock, with an inscription of Asoka 
(2nd century B.C.), and also two other inscriptions (dated 150 
and 455 aj>.) of great historical importance. 

GIRODET DE ROUSSY, ANNE LOUIS (1 767-1824), French 
painter, better known as Girodet-Trioson, was born at Montargis 
on the 5th of January 1767. He lost his parents in early youth, 
and the care of his fortune and education fell to the lot of his 
guardian, M. Trioson, " mtdecin de mesdames," by whom he was 
in later life adopted. After some preliminary studies under a 
painter named Luquin, Girodet entered the school of David, 



and at the age of twenty-two he successfully competed for the 
Prix de Rome. At Rome he executed his " Hippocrate refusant 
les presents d'Artaxerxes "and" Endymion dormant " (Louvre), 
a work which was hailed with acclamation at the Salon of 1792. 
The peculiarities which mark Girodet's position as the herald 
of the romantic movement are already evident in his " Endymion. " 
The firm-set forms, the grey cold colour, the hardness of the 
execution are proper to one trained in the school of David, but 
these characteristics harmonize ill with the literary, sentimental 
and picturesque suggestions which the painter has sought to 
render. The same incongruity marks Girodet 's " Danae " and his 
" Quatre Saisons," executed for the king of Spain (repeated for 
Compiegne), and shows itself to a ludicrous extent in his " Fingal " 
(St Petersburg, Leuchtenberg collection), executed for Napoleon 
I. in 1802. This work unites the defects of the classic and 
romantic schools, for Girodet's imagination ardently and ex- 
clusively pursued the ideas excited by varied reading both of 
classic and of modern literature, and the impressions which he 
received from the external world afforded him little stimulus or 
check; he consequently retained the mannerisms of his master's 
practice whilst rejecting all restraint on choice of subject. The 
credit lost by 'Tingal" Girodet regained in 1806, when he exhibited 
" ScSne de Deluge " (Louvre), to which (in competition with the 
"Sabines" of David) was awarded the decennial prize. This success 
was followed up in 1808 by the production of the " Reddition de 
Vienne " and " Atala au Tombeau " — a work which went far to 
deserve its immense popularity, by a happy choice of subject, 
and remarkable freedom from the theatricality of Girodet *s 
usual manner, which, however, soon came to the front again in 
his " Revolte de Caire " (1810). His powers now began to fail, 
and his habit of working at night and other excesses told upon 
his constitution; in the Salon of 181 2 he exhibited only a 
" T£te de Vierge " ; in 1810 " Pygmalion et Galatee " showed a still 
further decline of strength; and in 1824 — the year in which he 
produced his portraits of Cathelineau and Bonchamps — Girodet 
died on the 9th of December. 

He executed a vast quantity of illustrations, amongst which may 
be cited those to the Didot Virgil (1798) and to the Louvre Racine 
(1801-1805). Fifty-four of his designs for Anacreon were engraved 
by M . Chatillon. Girodet wasted much time on literary composition, 
his poem Le Peintre (a string of commonplaces), together with poor 
imitations of classical poets, and essays on Le GStne and La Gr&ce, 
were published after his death (1829), with a biographical notice 
by his friend M. Coupin de la Couperie; and M. Delecluze, in his 
Louis David et son temps, has also a brief life of Girodet. 

GIRONDE, a maritime department of south-western France, 
formed from four divisions of the old province of Guyenne, viz. 
Bordelais, Bazadais, and parts of Perigord and Agenais. Area, 
4140 sq. m. Pop. (1906) 823,925. It is bounded N. by the 
department of Charente-Interieure, E. by those of Dordogne 
and Lot-et-Garonne, S. by that of Landes, and W. by the Bay 
of Biscay. It takes its name from the river or estuary of the 
Gironde formed by the union of the Garonne and Dordogne. 
The department divides itself naturally into a western and an 
eastern portion. The former, which is termed the Landes (?.v.), 
occupies more than a third of the department, and consists 
chiefly of morass or sandy plain, thickly planted with pines and 
divided from the sea by a long line of dunes. These dunes are 
planted with pines, which, by binding the sand together with 
their roots, prevent it from drifting inland and afford a barrier 
against the sea. On the east the dunes are fringed for some 
distance by two extensive lakes, Carcans and Lacanau, communi- 
cating with each other and with the Bay of Arcachon, near the 
southern extremity of the department. The Bay of Arcachon 
contains numerous islands, and on the land side forms a vast 
shallow lagoon, a considerable portion of which, however, has 
been drained and converted into arable land. The eastern 
portion of the department consists chiefly of a succession of hill 
and dale, and, especially in the valley of the Gironde, is very 
fertile. The estuary of the Gironde is about 45 m. in length, 
and varies in breadth from 2 to 6 m. It presents a succession of 
islands and mud banks which divide it into two channels and 
render navigation somewhat difficult. It is, however, well 



GIRONDISTS 



49 



buoyed and lighted, and has a mean depth of 21 ft. There are 
extensive marshes on the right bank to the north of Blaye, and 
the shores on the left are characterized, especially towards the 
mouth, by low-lying polders protected by dikes and composed 
of fertile salt marshes. At the mouth of the Gironde stands the 
famous tower of Cordouan, one of the finest lighthouses of the 
French coast. It was built between the years 1585 and 161 1 
by the architect and engineer Louis de Foix, and added to 
towards the end of the 18th century. The principal affluent of 
the Dordogne in this department is the Isle. The feeders of the 
Garonne are, with the exception of the Dropt, all small. West 
of the Garonne the only river of importance is the Leyre, which 
flows into the Bay of Arcachon. The climate is humid and 
mild and very hot in summer. Wheat, rye, maize, oats and 
tobacco are grown to a considerable extent. The corn produced, 
however, does not meet the wants of the inhabitants. The 
culture of the vine is by far the most important branch of industry 
carried on (see Wine) , the vineyards occupying about one-seventh 
of the surface of the department. The wine-growing districts 
are the M6doc, Graves, C6tes, Palus, Entre-deux-Mers and 
Sauternes. The Medoc is a region of 50 m. in length by about 
6 m. in breadth, bordering the left banks of the Garonne and the 
Gironde between Bordeaux and the sea. The Graves country 
forms a zone 30 rh. in extent, stretching along the left bank of 
the Garonne from the neighbourhood of Bordeaux to Barsac. 
The Sauternes country lies to the S.E. of the Graves. The 
C6tes lie on the right bank of the Dordogne and Gironde, 
between it and the Garonne, and on the left bank of the Garonne. 
The produce of the Palus, the alluvial land of the valleys, and of 
the Entre-deux-Mers, situated on the left bank of the Dordogne, 
is inferior. Fruits and vegetables are extensively cultivated, 
the peaches and pears being especially fine. Cattle are exten- 
sively raised, the Bazadais breed of oxen and the Bordelais breed 
of milch-cows being well known. Oyster-breeding is carried on 
on a large scale in the Bay of Arcachon. Large supplies of resin, 
pitch and turpentine are obtained from the pine woods, which 
also supply vine-props, and there are well-known quarries of 
limestone. The manufactures are various, and, with the general 
trade, are chiefly carried on at Bordeaux (g.v.), the chief town 
and third port in France. Pauillac, Blaye, Libourne and Arcachon 
are minor ports. Gironde is divided into the arrondissements of 
Bordeaux, Blaye, Lesparre, Libourne, Bazas and La Reole, 
with 49 cantons and 554 communes. The department is served 
by five railways, the chief of which are those of the Orleans and 
Southern companies. It forms part of the circumscription of 
the archbishopric, the appeal-court and the acadimie (educational 
division) of Bordeaux, and of the region of the XVIII. army 
corps, the headquarters of which are at that city. Besides 
Bordeaux, Libourne, La Reole, Bazas, Blaye, Arcachon, St 
Emilion and St Macaire are the most noteworthy towns and 
receive separate treatment. Among the other places of interest 
the chief are Cadillac, on the right bank of the Garonne, where 
there is a castle of the 16th century, surrounded by fortifications 
of the 14th century; LabrSde, with a feudal chateau in which 
Montesquieu was born and lived; Villandraut, where there is a 
ruined castle of the 13th century; Uzeste, which has a church 
begun in 13 10 by Pope Clement V.; Mazeres with an imposing 
castle of the 14th century; La Sauve, which has a church 
(nth and 12th centuries) and other remains of a Benedictine 
abbey; and Ste Foy-la- Grande, a bastide created in 1255 and 
afterwards a centre of Protestantism, which is still strong there. 
La Teste (pop. in 1906, 5699) was the capital in the middle ages 
of the famous lords of Buch. 

GIRONDISTS (Fr. Girondins), the name given to a political 
party in the Legislative Assembly and National Convention 
during the French Revolution (1791-1793). The Girondists 
were, indeed, rather a group of individuals holding certain 
opinions and principles in common than an organized political 
party, and the name was at first somewhat loosely applied to 
them owing to the fact that the most brilliant exponents of their 
point of view were deputies from the Gironde. These deputies 
were twelve in number, six of whom — the lawyers Vergniaud, 



Guadet, GensonnS, Grangeneuve and Jay, and the tradesman 
Jean Francois Ducos— sat both in the Legislative Assembly 
and the National Convention. In the Legislative Assembly these 
represented a compact body of opinion which, though not as yet 
definitely republican, was considerably more advanced than the 
moderate royalism of the majority of the Parisian deputies. 
Associated with these views was a group of deputies from other 
parts of France, of whom the most notable were Condorcet, 
Fauchet, Lasource, Isnard, Kersaint, Henri Larividre, and, 
above all, Jacques Pierre Brissot, Roland and Potion, elected 
mayor of Paris in succession to Bailly on the 16th of November 
1 79 1. On the spirit and policy of the Girondists Madame Roland, 
whose salon became their gathering-place, exercised a powerful 
influence (see Roland); but such party cohesion as they 
possessed they owed to the energy of Brissot (q.v.), who came 
to be regarded as their mouthpiece in the Assembly and the 
Jacobin Club. Hence the name Brissotins, coined by Camille 
Desmoulins, which was sometimes substituted for that of 
Girondins, sometimes closely coupled with it. As strictly party 
designations these first came into use after the assembling of the 
National Convention (September 20th, 1792), to which a large 
proportion of the deputies from the Gironde who had sat in the 
Legislative Assembly were returned. Both were used as terms 
of opprobrium by the orators of the Jacobin Club, who freely 
denounced " the Royalists, the Federalists, the Brissotins, the 
Girondins and all the enemies of the democracy " (F. Aulard, 
Soc. des Jacobins, vi. 531). 

In the Legislative Assembly the Girondists represented the 
principle of democratic revolution within and of patriotic 
defiance to the European powers without. They were all- 
powerful in the Jacobin Club (see Jacobins), where Brissot's 
influence had not yet been ousted by Robespierre, and they 
did not hesitate to use this advantage to stir up popular passion 
and intimidate those who sought to stay the progress of the 
Revolution. They compelled the king in 1 792 to choose a ministry 
composed of their partisans — among them Roland, Dumouriez, 
ClaviSre and Servan; and it was they who forced the declaration 
of war against Austria. In all this there was no apparent 
line of cleavage between " La Gironde " and the Mountain. 
Montagnards and Girondists alike were fundamentally opposed 
to the monarchy; both were democrats as well as republicans; 
both were prepared to appeal to force in order to realize their 
ideals; in spite of the accusation of " federalism " freely brought 
against them, the Girondists desired as little as the Montagnards 
to break up the unity of France. Yet from the first the leaders 
of the two parties stood in avowed opposition, in the Jacobin 
Club as in the Assembly. It was largely a question of tempera- 
ment. The Girondists were idealists, doctrinaires and theorists 
rather than men of action; they encouraged, it is true, the 
" armed petitions " which resulted, to their dismay, in the 
imeute of the 20th of June; but Roland, turning the ministry of 
the interior into a publishing office for tracts on the civic virtues, 
while in the provinces riotous mobs were burning the chateaux 
unchecked, is more typical of their spirit. With the ferocious 
fanaticism or the ruthless opportunism of the future organizers 
of the Terror they had nothing in common. As the Revolution 
developed they trembled at the anarchic forces they had helped 
to unchain, and tried in vain to curb them. The overthrow 
of the monarchy on the 10th of August and the massacres of 
September were not their work, though they claimed credit 
for the results achieved. 

The crisis of their fate was not slow in coming. It was they 
who proposed the suspension of the king and the summoning 
of the National Convention; but they had only consented to 
overthrow the kingship when they found that Louis XVI. was 
impervious to their counsels, and, the republic once established, 
they were anxious to arrest the revolutionary movement which 
they had helped to set in motion. As Daunou shrewdly observes 
in his Mimoires, they were too cultivated and too polished to 
retain their popularity long in times of disturbance, and were 
therefore the more inclined to work for the establishment 
of order, which would mean the guarantee of their own 



5° 



GIRONDISTS 



power. 1 Thus the Girondists, who had been the Radicals of the 
Legislative Assembly, became the Conservatives of the Conven- 
tion. But they were soon to have practical experience of the fate 
that overtakes those who attempt to arrest in mid-career a revolu- 
tion they themselves have set in motion. The ignorant populace, 
for whom the promised social millennium had by no means 
dawned, saw in an attitude seemingly so inconsistent obvious 
proof of corrupt motives, and there were plenty of prophets 
of misrule to encourage the delusion — orators of the clubs and 
the street corners, for whom the restoration of order would have 
meant well-deserved obscurity. Moreover, the Septembriseurs — 
Robespierre, Danton, Marat and their lesser satellites — realized 
that not only their influence but their safety depended on keeping 
the Revolution alive. Robespierre, who hated the Girondists, 
whose lustre had so long obscured his own, had proposed to 
include them in the proscription lists of September; the Mountain 
to a man desired their overthrow. 

The crisis came in March 1793. The Girondists, who had 
a majority in the Convention, controlled the executive council 
and filled the ministry, believed themselves invincible. Their 
orators had no serious rivals in the hostile camp; their system 
.was established in the purest reason. But the Montagnards 
made up by their fanatical, or desperate, energy and boldness 
for what they lacked in talent or in numbers. They had behind 
them the revolutionary Commune, the Sections and the National 
Guard of Paris, and they had gained control of the Jacobin club, 
where Brissot, absorbed in departmental work, had been super- 
seded by Robespierre. And as the motive power of this formid- 
able mechanism of force they could rely on the native suspicious- 
ness of the Parisian populace, exaggerated now into madness by 
famine and the menace of foreign invasion. The Girondists 
played into their hands. At the trial of Louis XVI. the bulk 
of them had voted for the " appeal to the people," and so laid 
themselves open to the charge of " royalism "; they denounced 
the domination of Paris and summoned provincial levies to their 
aid, and so fell under suspicion of " federalism," though they 
rejected Buzot's proposal to transfer the Convention to Versailles. 
They strengthened the revolutionary Commune by decreeing 
its abolition, and then withdrawing the decree at the first sign 
of popular opposition; they increased the prestige of Marat by 
prosecuting him before the Revolutionary Tribunal, where his 
acquittal was a foregone conclusion. In the suspicious temper 
of the times this vacillating policy was doubly fatal. Marat 
never ceased his denunciations of the "faction des kommes 
d'£tat" by which France was being betrayed to her ruin, and 
his parrot cry of "Nous sommes trahis!" was re-echoed from 
group to group in the streets of Paris. The Girondists, for 
all their fine phrases, were sold to the enemy, as Lafayette, 
Dumouriez and a hundred others — once popular favourites — 
had been sold. 

The hostility of Paris to the Girondists received a fateful 
advertisement by the election, on the 15th of February 1793, 
of the ex-Girondist Jean Nicolas^Pache (1746-1823) to the 
mayoralty. Pache had twice been minister of war in the 
Girondist government; but his incompetence had laid him open 
to strong criticism, and on the 4th of February he had been 
superseded by a vote of the Convention. This was enough to 
secure him the suffrages of the Paris electors ten days later, 
and the Mountain was strengthened by the accession of an ally 
whose one idea was to use his new power to revenge himself 
on his former colleagues. Pache, with Chaumette, procureur of 
the Commune, and Hubert, deputy procureur, controlled the 
armed organization of the Paris Sections, and prepared to 
turn this against the Convention. The abortive imeute of the 
10th of March warned the Girondists of their danger, but the 
Commission of Twelve appointed on the 18th of May, the arrest 
of Marat and H6bert, and other precautionary measures, were 
defeated by the popular risings of the 27th and 31st of May, 
and, finally, on the 2nd of June, Hanriot with the National 

1 Daunou, " Memoires pour servir a Thist. de la Convention 
Nationale," p. 409, vol. xii. of M. Fr. Barriere, Bibl. des m&m. rel a 
Vhist. de la Prance, &c. (Paris, 1863). 



Guards purged the Convention of the Girondists. Isnard's 
threat, uttered on the 25th of May, to march France upon Paris 
had been met by Paris marching upon the Convention. 

The list drawn up by Hanriot, and endorsed by a decree 
of the intimidated Convention, included twenty-two Girondist 
deputies and ten members of the Commission of ^Twelve, who 
were ordered to be detained at their lodgings" under the safe- 
guard of the people." Some submitted, among them Gensonn6, 
Guadet, Vergniaud, P6tion, Birotteau and Boyer-Fonfrede. 
Others, including Brissot, Louvet, Buzot, Lasource, Grangeneuve, 
Larivtere and Bergoing, escaped from Paris and, joined later 
by Guadet, P6tion and Birotteau, set to work to organize a 
movement of the provinces against the capital. This attempt 
to stir up civil war determined the wavering and frightened 
Convention. On the 13th of June it voted that the city of 
Paris had deserved well of the country, and ordered the imprison- 
ment of the detained deputies, the filling up of their places in 
the Assembly by their suppliants, and the initiation of vigorous 
measures against the movement in the provinces. The excuse 
for the Terror that followed was the imminent peril of France, 
menaced on the east by the advance of the armies of the Coalition, 
on the west by the Royalist insurrection of La Vendee, and the 
need for preventing at all costs the outbreak of another civil 
war. The assassination of Marat by Charlotte Corday (q.v.) 
only served to increase the unpopularity of the Girondists 
and to seal their fate. On the 28th of July a decree of the 
Convention proscribed, as traitors and enemies of their country, 
twenty-one deputies, the final list of those sent for trial comprising 
the names of Antiboul, Boilleau the younger, Boyer-Fonfrede, 
Brissot, Carra, Duchastel, the younger Ducos, Dufriche de 
ValazS, Duprat, Fauchet, Gardien, Gensonn6, Lacaze, Lasource, 
Lauze-Deperret, Lehardi, Lesterpt-Beauvais, the elder Minvielle, 
Sillery, Vergniaud and Viger, of whom five were deputies from 
the Gironde. The names of thirty-nine others were included in 
the final acte d f accusation, accepted by the Convention on the 
24th of October, which stated the crimes for which they were 
to be tried as their perfidious ambition, their hatred of Paris, 
their " federalism " and, above all, their responsibility for the 
attempt of their escaped colleagues to provoke civil war. 

The trial of the twenty-one, which began before the Revolu- 
tionary Tribunal on the 24th of October, was a mere farce, the 
verdict a foregone conclusion. On the 31st they were borne 
to the guillotine in five tumbrils, the corpse of Dufriche de 
Valaz6 — who had killed himself — being carried with them. 
They met death with great courage, singing the refrain " Plutdt 
la mort que Vesclavagel " Of those who escaped* to the provinces 
the greater number, after wandering about singly or in groups, 
were either captured and executed or committed suicide, among 
them Barbaroux, Buzot, Condorcet, Grangeneuve, Guadet, 
Kersaint, Petion^ Rabaut de Saint-fitienne and Rebecqui. 
Roland had killed himself at Rouen on the 15th of November, 
a week after the execution of his wife. Among the very few 
who finally escaped was Jean Baptiste Louvet, whose MSmoires 
give a thrilling picture of the sufferings of the fugitives. In- 
cidentally they prove, too, that the sentiment of France was 
for the time against the Girondists, who were proscribed even 
in their chief centre, the city of Bordeaux. The survivors of 
the party made an effort to re-enter the Convention after the 
fall of Robespierre, but it was not until the 5th of March 1795 
that they were formally reinstated. On the 3rd of October 
of the same year (11 Vend6miaire, year III.) a solemn fete in 
honour of the Girondist " martyrs of liberty " was celebrated 
in the Convention. See also the article French Revolution 
and separate biographies. 

Of the special works on the Girondists Lamartine's Histoire des 
Girondins (2 vols., Paris, 1847, new ed. 1902, in 6 vols.) is rhetoric 
rather than history and is untrustworthy ; the Histoire des Girondins, 
by A. Gramier de Cassagnac (Paris, i860) led to the publicaton of a 
Protestation by J. Guadet, a nephew of the Girondist orator, which 
was followed by his Les Girondins, leur vie privte, leur vie imblique, 
leur proscription et leur mort (2 vols., Paris, 1861, new ea. 1890); 
with which cf. Alary, Les Girondins par Guadet (Bordeaux, 1863); 
also Charles Vatel, Charlotte de Corday et les Girondins: pieces 
classees et annotSes (3 vols., Paris, 1 864-1 872); Recherches historiques 



GIRTIN— GISBORNE 



5i 



sur les Girondins (2 vols., ib. 1873) ; Ducos, Les Trots Girondines 
(Madame Roland, Charlotte Corday, Madame Bouquey) ei les 
Girondins (ib. 1896) ; Edmond Bire\ La Ligende des Girondins (Paris, 
1881, new ed. 1896); also Helen Maria Williams, State of Manners 
and Opinions in the French Republic towards the dose of the 18th 
Century (2 vols., London, 1801). Memoirs or fragments of memoirs 
also exist by particular Girondists, e.g. Barbaroux, Potion, Louvet, 
Madame Roland. See, further, the bibliography to the article 
French Revolution. (W. A. P.) 

GIRTIN, THOMAS (1775-1802), English painter and etcher, 
was the son of a well-to-do cordage maker in Southwark, London. 
His father died while Thomas was a child, and his widow married 
Mr Vaughan, a pattern-draughtsman. Girtin learnt drawing 
as a boy, and was apprenticed to Edward Doyes (1 763-1804), 
the mezzotint engraver, and he soon made J. M. W. Turner's 
acquaintance. His architectural and topographical sketches 
and drawings soon established his reputation, his use of water- 
colour for landscapes being such as to give him the credit of 
having created modern water-colour painting, as opposed to 
mere " tinting." His etchings also were characteristic of his 
artistic genius. His early death from consumption (9th of 
November 1802) led indeed to Turner saying that " had Tom 
Girtin lived I should have starved." From 1794 to his death 
he was an exhibitor at the Royal Academy; and some fine 
examples of his work have been bequeathed by private owners 
to the British Museum and the Victoria and Albert Museum. 

GIRVAN, a police burgh, market and fishing town of Ayrshire, 
Scotland, at the mouth of the Girvan, 21 m. S.W. of Ayr, and 
63 m. S.W. of Glasgow by the Glasgow & South-Western railway. 
Pop. (1001) 4024. The principal industry was weaving, but the 
substitution of the power-loom for the hand-loom nearly put 
an end to it. • The herring fishery has developed to considerable 
proportions, the harbour having been enlarged and protected 
by piers and a breakwater. Moreover, the town has grown in 
repute as a health and holiday resort, its situation being one of 
the finest in the west of Scotland. There is excellent sea- 
bathing, and a good golf-course. The vale of Girvan, one of 
the most fertile tracts in the shire, is made so by the Water of 
Girvan, which rises in the loch of Girvan Eye, pursues a very 
tortuous course of 36 m. and empties into the sea. Girvan is 
the point of communication with Ailsa Craig. About 13 m. 
S.W. at the mouth of the Stinchar is the fishing village of 
Ballantrae (pop. 511). 

GIRY (Jean Mame Joseph), ARTHUR (184&-1899), French 
historian, was born at Trevoux (Ain) on the 29th of February 
1848. After rapidly completing his classical studies at the lycie 
at Chartres, he spent some time in the administrative service 
and in journalism. He then entered the £cole des Chartes, 
where, under the influence of J. Quicherat, he developed a strong 
inclination to the study of the middle ages. The lectures at the 
ficole des Hautes fitudes, which he attended from its foundation 
in 1 863, revealed his true bent; and henceforth he devoted 
himself almost entirely to scholarship. He began modestly by 
the study of the municipal charters of St Omer. Having been 
appointed assistant lecturer and afterwards full lecturer at the 
£cole des Hautes Etudes, it was to the town of St Omer that he 
devoted his first lectures and his first important work, Histoire 
de la mile de Saint-Omer et de ses institutions jusqu'au XIV 9 
siede (1877). He, however, soon realized that the charters of 
one town can only be understood by comparing them with those 
of other towns, and he was gradually led to continue the work 
which Augustin Thierry had broadly outlined in his studies on 
the Tiers £tat. A minute knowledge of printed books and a 
methodical examination of departmental and communal archives 
furnished him with material for a long course of successful 
lectures, which gave rise to some important works on municipal 
history and led to a great revival of interest in the origins and 
significance of the urban communities in France. Giry himself 
published Les £tablissements de Rouen (1883-1885), a study, based 
on very minute researches, of the charter granted to the capital 
of Normandy by Henry II., king of England, and of the diffusion 
of similar charters throughout the French dominions of the 
Plantagenets; a collection of Documents sur les relations de 



la royauU avec les villes de France de 1180 & IJ14 (1885); and 
£tude sur les origines de la commune de Saint-Quenlin (1887). 

About this time personal considerations induced Giry to 
devote the greater part of his activity to the study of diplomatic, 
which had been much neglected at the ficole des Chartes, but 
had made great strides in Germany. As assistant (1883) and 
successor (1885) to Louis de Mas Latrie, Giry restored the study 
of diplomatic, which had been founded in France by Dom Jean 
Mabillon, to its legitimate importance. In 1894 he published 
his Manuel de diplomatique, a monument of lucid and well- 
arranged erudition, which contained the fruits of his long 
experience of archives, original documents and textual criticism; 
and his pupils, especially those at the ficole des Hautes fitudes, 
soon caught his enthusiasm. With their collaboration he under- 
took the preparation of an inventory and, subsequently, of a 
critical edition of the Carolingian diplomas. By arrangement 
with E. Miihlbacher and the editors of the Monumenta Germaniae 
historica, this part of the joint work was reserved for Giry. 
Simultaneously with this work he carried on the publication 
of the annals of the Carolingian epoch on the model of the German 
Jahrbiicher, reserving for himself the reign of Charles the Bald. 
Of this series his pupils produced in his lifetime Les Derniers 
Carolingiens (by F. Lot, 1891), Eudes, comic de Paris et roi de 
France (by E. Favre, 1893), and Charles le Simple (by Eckel, 
1899). The biographies of Louis IV. and Hugh Capet and the 
history of the kingdom of Provence were not published until 
after his death, and his own unfinished history of Charles the 
Bald was left to be completed by his pupils. The preliminary 
work on the Carolingian diplomas involved such lengthy and 
costly researches that the Academie des Inscriptions et Belles- 
Lettres took over the expenses after Giry's death. 

In the midst of these multifarious labours Giry found time 
for extensive archaeological researches, and made a special 
study of the medieval treatises dealing with the technical 
processes employed in the arts and industries. He prepared 
a new edition of the monk Theophilus's celebrated treatise, 
Diversarum artium schedula, and for several years devoted his 
Saturday mornings to laboratory research with the chemist 
Aime Girard at the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers, the results 
of which were utilized by Marcellin Berthelot in the first volume 
( 1 894) of his Chimie au moyen dge. Giry took an energetic part in 
the Collection de textes relatifs & Vhistoire du moyen dge, which 
was due in great measure to his initiative. He was appointed 
director of the section of French history in La Grande Encyclo- 
pidie, and contributed more than a hundred articles, many of 
which, e.g. " Archives " and " Diplomatique," were original 
works. In collaboration with his pupil Andre* Reville, he wrote 
the chapters on " L'fimancipation des villes, les communes et les 
bourgeoisies " and " Le Commerce et Pindustrie au moyen age " 
for the Histoire gSnerale of Lavisse and Rambaud. Giry took 
a keen interest in politics, joining the republican party and 
writing numerous articles in the republican newspapers, mainly 
on historical subjects. He was intensely interested in the Dreyfus 
case, but his robust constitution was undermined by the anxieties 
and disappointments occasioned by the Zola trial and the Rennes 
court-martial, and he died in Paris on the 13th of November 1S99. 

For details of Giry's life and works see the funeral orations pub- 
lished in the BibHotneque de I'Ecole des Chartes, and afterwards in a 
pamphlet (1890). See also the biography by Ferdinand Lot in the 
Annuaire de V&cole des Hautes Htudes for 190 1 ; and the bibliography 
of his works by Henry Maistre in the Correspondence historique et 
archfologique (1899 and 1900). 

GISBORNE, a seaport of New Zealand, in Cook county, 
provincial district of Auckland, on Poverty Bay of the east 
coast of North Island. Pop. (1901) 2733; (1906)5664. Wool, 
frozen mutton and agricultural produce are exported from the 
rich district surrounding. Petroleum has been discovered in 
the neighbourhood, and about 40 m. from the town there are 
warm medicinal springs. Near the site of Gisborne Captain 
Cook landed in 1769, and gave Poverty Bay its name from his 
inability to obtain supplies owing to the hostility of the natives. 
Young Nick's Head, the southern horn of the bay, was named 
from Nicholas Young, his ship's boy, who first observed it. 



52 



GISLEBERT— GIULIO ROMANO 



GISLEBERT (or Gilbert) OF MONS (c. 1150-1225), Flemish 
chronicler, became a clerk, and obtained the positions of provost 
of the churches of St Germanus at Mons and St Alban at Namur, 
in addition to several other ecclesiastical appointments. In 
official documents he is described as chaplain, chancellor or 
notary, of Baldwin V., count of Hainaut (d. 1 195), who employed 
him on important business. After 1200 Gislebert wrote the 
Chronic on Hanoniense, a history of Hainaut and the neighbouring 
lands from about 1050 to 1105, which is specially valuable for 
the latter part of the 12th century, and for the life and times of 
Baldwin V. 

The chronicle is published in Band xxi. of the Monumenta Ger- 
maniae historica (Hanover, 1826 fol.); and separately with intro- 
duction by W. Arndt (Hanover, 1869). Another edition has been 
published by L. Vandcrkindcrc in the Recueil de textes pour servir a 
VHude de Vhistoire de Belgique (Brussels, 1904) ; and there is a French 
translation by G. Mcnilglaise (Tournai, 1874). 

Sec W. Meyer, Das Werk des Kanzlers Gislebert von Mons als 
verfassungsgeschichtliche Quelle (K6nigsber$, 1888); K. Huygcns, 
Sur la valeur historique de la chronique Gislebert de Mons (Ghent, 
1889); and \V. Wattenbach, Deulschlands Geschichtsquellen, Band ii. 
(Berlin, 1894). 

GISORS, a town of France, in the department of Eure, situated 
in the pleasant valley of the Epte, 44 m. N.W. of Paris on the 
railway to Dieppe. Pop. (1006) 4345. Gisors is dominated by 
a feudal stronghold built chiefly by the kings of England in the 
nth and 1 2th centuries. The outer enceinte, to which is attached 
a cylindrical donjon erected by Philip Augustus, king of France, 
embraces an area of over 7 acres. On a mound in the centre of 
this space rises an older donjon, octagonal in shape, protected 
by another enceinte. The outer ramparts and the ground they 
enclose have been converted into promenades. The church of 
St Gcrvais dates in its oldest parts — the central tower, the choir 
and parts of the aisles — from the middle of the 13th century, 
when it was founded by Blanche of Castile. The rest of the 
church belongs to the Renaissance period. The Gothic and 
Renaissance styles mingle in the west facade, which, like the 
interior of the building, is adorned with a profusion of sculptures; 
the fine carving on the wooden doors of the north and west 
portals is particularly noticeable. The less interesting buildings 
of the town include a wooden house of the Renaissance era, 
an old convent now used as an h6tcl de ville, and a handsome 
modern hospital. There is a statue of General de Blanmont, 
born at Gisors in 1770, Among the industries of Gisors are 
felt manufacture, bleaching, dyeing and leather-dressing. 

In the middle ages Gisors was capital of the Vexin. Its 
position on the frontier of Normandy caused its possession to 
be hotly contested by the kings of England and France during 
the iith century, at the end of which it and the dependent 
fortresses of Ncauflcs and Dangu were ceded by Richard Cceur 
de Lion to Philip Augustus. During the wars of religion of the 
1 Oth century it was occupied by the duke of Mayenne on behalf 
of the League, and in the 17th century* during the Fronde, by 
the duke of Longuovillc. Gisors was given to Charles Auguste 
Fouquet in 171$ in exchange for Belle-Ile-en-Mer and made a 
duchy in 174^. It afterwards came into the possession of the 
count of Ku and the duke of Penthievre. 

GISSINQ, GEORGE ROBERT (1857-1003), English novelist, 
was born at Wakefield on the 22nd of November 1857. He was 
educated at the Quaker boarding-school of Alderley Edge and 
at Owens College, Manchester, His life, especially its earlier 
period, was spent in great poverty, mainly in London, though 
he was for a time also in the United States, supporting him- 
self chiefly by private teaching. He published his first novel. 
Workers 1* tkt Pjw, in t:fcfcx The CnJ<2S$cd U&&0 and Isabel 
CfontJsn (iSSo> followed. Drmns {\SSb\ a novel dealing with 
socialistic ideas, was. however, the first to attract attention. It 
was followed by a series of novels remarkable for their pictures 
of lower middle dass life, Gissing's own experiences had pre- 
occupied him with poverty and its brutalizing effects on char- 
acter. He made no attempt at popular writing, and for a long 
time the sincerity of his w»rk was appreciated only by a limited 
public, Arrs>r<g his more characteristic novels were: Thyrsa 
U$S*\ * LrVs Mjm:\c w$$$\ Ths AV;fer WorX [i$$$\ AVar 



Grub Street (1891), Born in Exile (1892), The Odd Women (1893), 
In the Year of Jubilee (1894), The Whirlpool (1897). Others, 
e.g. The Town Traveller (1901), indicate a humorous faculty, 
but the prevailing note of his novels is that of the struggling 
life of the shabby-genteel and lower classes and the conflict 
between education and circumstances. The quasi-autobio- 
graphical Private Papers of Henry Ryecroft (1003) reflects 
throughout Gissing's studious and retiring tastes. He was a 
good classical scholar and had a minute acquaintance with the 
late Latin historians, and with Italian antiquities; and his 
posthumous Veranilda (1004), a historical romance of Italy in 
the time of Theodoric the Goth, was the outcome of his favourite 
studies. Gissing's powers as a literary critic are shown in his 
admirable study on Charles Dickens (1898). A book of travel. 
By the Ionian Sea, appeared in 1001. He died at St Jean de 
Luz in the Pyrenees on the 28th of December 1003. 

See also the introductory essay by T. Seccombe to The House of 
Cobwebs (1906), a posthumous volume of. Gissing's short stories. 

GITSCHIN (Czech JiHn), a town of Bohemia, Austria, 65 m. 
N.E. of Prague by rail. Pop. (1000) 9700, mostly Czech. The 
parish church was begun by Wallenstein after the model of 
the pilgrims' church of Santiago de Compostela in Spain, but 
not completed till 1655. The castle, which stands next to the 
church, was built by Wallenstein and finished in 1630. It was 
here that the emperor Francis I. of Austria signed the treaty of 
1 81 3 by which he threw in his lot with the Allies against Napoleon. 
Wallenstein was interred at the neighbouring Carthusian mon- 
astery, but in 1639 the head and right hand were taken by 
General Baner to Sweden, and in 1702 the other remains were 
removed by Count Vincent of Waldstein to his hereditary 
burying ground at Munchengratz. Gitschin was originally the 
village of Zidineves and received its present name when it was 
raised to the dignity of a town by Wenceslaus II. in 1302. The 
place belonged to various noble Bohemian families, and in the 
17th century came into the hands of Wallenstein, who made it 
the capital of the duchy of Friedland and did much to improve 
and extend it. His murder, and the miseries of the Thirty 
Years' War, brought it very low; and it passed through several 
hands before it was bought by Prince Trauttmannsdorf, to 
whose family it still belongs. On the 29th of June 1866 the 
Prussians gained here a great victory over the Austrians. This 
victory made possible the junction of the first and second 
Prussian army corps, and had as an ultimate result the Austrian 
defeat at Koniggr&tz. 

GIUDICI, PAOLO EMIUANO (1812-1872), Italian writer, 
was born in Sicily. His History of Italian Literature (1844) 
brought him to the front, and in 1848 he became professor of 
Italian literature at Pisa, but after a few months was deprived 
of the chair on account of his liberal views in politics. On the 
re-establishment of the Italian kingdom he became professor of 
aesthetics (resigning 1862) and secretary of the Academy of 
Fine Arts at Florence, and in 1867 was elected to the chamber 
of deputies. He held a prominent place as an historian, his 
works including a Storia del teatro (i860), and Storia dei comuni 
italiani (1861), besides a translation of Macaulay's History of 
England (1856). He died at Tonbridge in England, on the 8th of 
September 1872. 

A Life appeared at Florence in 1874. 

GIULIO ROMANO* or Giutjo Pippi (c. 1492-1546), the head 
of the Roman school of painting in succession to Raphael. 
This prolific painter, modeller, architect and engineer receives 
his common appellation from the place of his birth — Rome, 
in the Macello de' Corbi. His name in full was Giulio di Pietro 
de Filippo de' Giannuzzi — Giannuzzi being the true family name, 
and Pippi (which has practically superseded Giannuzzi) being 
an abbreviation from the name of his grandfather Filippo. 
The date of Giulio's birth is a little uncertain. Vasari (who 
knew him personally) speaks of him as fifty-four years old at 
the date of his death, 1st November 1546; thus he would have 
been born in 1492. Other accounts assign 1498 as the date of 
birth. This would make Giulio young indeed in the early and 
in such case most precocious stages of his artistic career, and 



GIULIO ROMANO 



53 



would show him as dying, after an infinity of hard work, at the 
comparatively early age of forty-eight. 

Giulio must at all events have been quite youthful when he 
first became the pupil of Raphael, and at Raphael's death in 
1520 he was at the utmost twenty-eight years of age. Raphael 
had loved him as a son, and had employed him in some leading 
works, especially in the Loggie of the Vatican; the series there 
popularly termed " Raphael's Bible " is done in large measure 
by Giulio, — as for instance the subjects of the " Creation of Adam 
and Eve," " Noah's Ark," and " Moses in the Bulrushes." In 
the saloon of the " Incendio del Borgo," also, the figures of 
" Benefactors of the Church " (Charlemagne, &c.) are Giulio's 
handiwork. It would appear that in subjects of this kind 
Raphael simply furnished the design, and committed the execu- 
tion of it to some assistant, such as Giulio, — taking heed, however, 
to bring it up, by final retouching, to his own standard of style 
and type. Giulio at a later date followed out exactly the same 
plan; so that in both instances inferiorities of method, in the 
general blocking-out and even in the details of the work, are not 
to be precisely charged upon the caposcuola. Amid the multitude 
of Raphael's pupils, Giulio was eminent in pursuing his style, and 
showed universal aptitude; he did, among other things, a large 
amount of architectural planning for his chief. Raphael be- 
queathed to Giulio, and to his fellow-pupil Gianfrancesco Penni 
("II Fattore"), his implements and works of art; and upon 
them it devolved to bring to completion the vast fresco-work of 
the " Hall of Constantine " in the Vatican — consisting, along 
with much minor matter, of the four large subjects, the " Battle of 
Constantine," the " Apparition of the Cross," the " Baptism of 
Constantine " and the " Donation of Rome to the Pope." The 
two former compositions were executed by Pippi, the two latter 
by Penni. The whole of this onerous undertaking was com- 
pleted within a period of. only three years, — which is the more 
remarkable as, during some part of the interval since Raphael's 
decease, the Fleming, Adrian VI., had been pope, and his anti- 
aesthetic pontificate had left art and artists almost in a state of 
inanition. Clement VII. had now, however, succeeded to the 
popedom. By this time Giulio was regarded as the first painter 
in Rome; but his Roman career was fated to have no further 
sequel. 

Towards the end of 1524 his friend the celebrated writer 
Baldassar Castiglione seconded with success the urgent request 
of the duke of Mantua, Federigo Gonzaga, that Giulio should 
migrate to that city, and enter the duke's service for the purpose 
of carrying out his projects in architecture and pictorial decora- 
tion. These projects were already considerable, and under 
Giulio 's management they became far more extensive still. 
The duke treated his painter munificently as to house, table, 
horses and whatever was in request; and soon a very cordial 
attachment sprang up between them. In Pippi's multifarious 
work in Mantua three principal undertakings should be noted. 
(1) In the Castello he painted the " History of Troy," along with 
other subjects. (2) In the suburban ducal residence named 
the Palazzo del Te (this designation being apparently derived 
from the form of the roads which led towards the edifice) he 
rapidly carried out a rebuilding on a vastly enlarged scale, — 
the materials being brick and terra-cotta, as there is no local 
stone, — and decorated the rooms with his most celebrated 
works in oil and fresco painting — the story of Psyche, Icarus, 
the fall of the Titans, and the portraits of the ducal horses and 
hounds. The foreground figures of Titans are from 12 to 14 ft. 
high; the room, even in its structural details, is made to subserve 
the general artistic purpose, and many of its architectural 
features are distorted accordingly. Greatly admired though these 
pre-eminent works have always been, and at most times even 
more than can now be fully ratified, they have suffered severely 
at the hands of restorers, and modern eyes see them only through 
a dull and deadening fog of renovation. The whole of the work 
on the Palazzo del Te, which is of the Doric order of architecture, 
occupied about five years. (3) Pippi recast and almost rebuilt the 
cathedral of Mantua; erected his own mansion, replete with 
numerous antiques and other articles of vertu; reconstructed 



the street architecture to a very large extent, and made the city, 
sapped as it is by the shallows of the Mincio, comparatively 
healthy; and at Marmiruolo, some 5 m. distant from Mantua, 
he worked out other important buildings and paintings. He 
was in fact, for nearly a quarter of a century, a sort of Demiurgus 
of the arts of design in the Mantuan territory. 

Giulio's activity was interrupted but not terminated by the 
death of Duke Federigo. The duke's brother, a cardinal who 
became regent, retained him in full employment. For a while he 
went to Bologna, and constructed the fagade of the church of 
S. Petronio in that city. He was afterwards invited to succeed 
Antonio Sangallo as architect of St Peter's in Rome, — a splendid 
appointment, which, notwithstanding the strenuous opposition 
of his wife and of the cardinal regent, he had almost resolved 
to accept, when a fever overtook him, and, acting upon a con- 
stitution somewhat enfeebled by worry and labour, caused his 
death on the 1st of November 1 546. He was buried in the church 
of S. Barnaba in Mantua. At the time of his death Giulio 
enjoyed an annual income of more than 1000 ducats, accruing 
from the liberalities of his patrons. He left a widow, and a son 
and daughter. The son, named Raffaello, studied painting, 
but died before he could produce any work of importance; the 
daughter, Virginia, married Ercole Malatesta. 

Wide and solid knowledge of design, combined with a prompti- 
tude of composition that was never at fault, formed the chief 
motive power and merit of Giulio Romano's art. Whatever 
was wanted, he produced it at once, throwing off, as Vasari says, 
a large design in an hour; and he may in that sense, though not 
equally so when an imaginative or ideal test is applied, be called 
a great inventor. It would be difficult to name any other artist 
who, working as an architect, and as the plastic and pictorial 
embellisher of his architecture, produced a total of work so fully 
and homogeneously his own; hence he has been named " the 
prince of decorators." He had great knowledge of the human 
frame, and represented it with force and truth, though some- 
times with an excess of movement; he was also learned in other 
matters, especially in medals, and in the plans of ancient buildings. 
In design he was more strong and emphatic than graceful, and 
worked a great deal from his accumulated stores of knowledge, 
. without consulting nature direct. As a general rule, his designs 
are finer and freer than his paintings, whether in fresco or in oil 
— his easel pictures being comparatively few, and some of them 
the reverse of decent; his colouring is marked by an excess of 
blackish and heavy tints. 

Giulio Romano introduced the style of Raphael into Mantua, 
and established there a considerable school of art, which surpassed 
in development that of his predecessor Mantegna, and almost ' 
rivalled that of Rome. Very many engravings — more than 
three hundred are mentioned — were made contemporaneously 
from his works; and this not only in Italy, but in France and 
. Flanders as well. His plan of entrusting principally to assistants 
the pictorial execution of his cartoons has already been referred 
to; Primaticcio was one of the leading coadjutors. Rinaldo 
Mantovano, a man of great ability who died young, was the 
chief executant of the " Fall of the Giants "; he also co-operated 
with Benedetto Pagni da Pescia in painting the remarkable 
series of horses and hounds, and the story of Psyche. Another 
pupil was Fermo Guisoni, who remained settled in Mantua. 
The oil pictures of Giulio Romano are not generally of high 
importance; two leading ones are the " Martyrdom of Stephen," 
in the church of that saint in Genoa, and a "Holy Family" 
in the Dresden Gallery. Among his architectural works not 
already mentioned is the Villa Madama in Rome, with a fresco 
of Polyphemus, and boys and satyrs; the Ionic fagade of this 
building may have been sketched out by Raphael. 

Vasari gives a pleasing impression of the character of Giulio. 
He was very loving to his friends, genial, affable, well-bred, 
temperate in the pleasures of the table, but liking fine apparel 
and a handsome scale of living. He was good-looking, of 
middle height, with black curly hair and dark eyes, and an 
ample beard; his portrait, painted by himself, is in the 
Louvre. 



54 



GIUNTA PISANO— GIUSTINIANI 



Bcwidcfi Vasari, Lanzi and other historians of art, the following 
works may be mentioned: C. D. Arco, Vita di G. Pipjn (1828); 
(). C von Murr, Notice sur les estampes gravies apres desstns de Jules 
Romain (1865); R. Sanzio, two works on Etchings and Paintings 
(1800, 1836). (W. M. R.) 

GIUNTA PISANO, the earliest Italian painter whose name is 
found inscribed on an extant work. He is said to have exercised 
his art from 1202 to 1236. He may perhaps have been born 
towards 1180 in Pisa, and died in or soon after 1236; but other 
accounts give 1202 as the date of his birth, and 1258 or there- 
abouts for his death. There is some ground for thinking that 
his family name was Capiteno. The inscribed work above 
referred to, one of his earliest, is a " Crucifix," long in the kitchen 
of the convent of St Anne in Pisa. Other Pisan works of like 
date are very barbarous, and some of them may be also from 
the hand of Giunta. It is said that he painted in the upper 
church of Assisi, — in especial a "Crucifixion " dated i236,with a 
figure of Father Elias, the general of the Franciscans, embracing 
the foot of the cross. In the sacristy is a portrait of St Francis, 
also ascribed to Giunta; but it more probably belongs to the 
close of the 13th century. He was in the practice of painting 
upon cloth stretched on wood, and prepared with plaster. 

GIURGEVO (Giurgiu), the capital of the department of 
Vlashca, Rumania; situated amid mud-fiats and marshes on 
the left bank of the Danube. Pop. (1900) 13,977. Three small 
islands face the town, and a larger one shelters its port, Smarda, 
2 J m. E. The rich corn-lands on the north are traversed by a 
railway to Bucharest, the first line opened in Rumania, which 
was built in i86q and afterwards extended to Smarda. Steamers 
ply to Rustchuk, 2} m. S.W. on the Bulgarian shore, linking 
the Rumanian railway system to the chief Bulgarian line north 
of the Balkans (Rustchuk-Varna). Thus Giurgevo, besides 
having a considerable trade with the home ports lower down 
the Danube, is the headquarters of commerce between Bulgaria 
and Rumania, It exports timber, grain, salt and petroleum; 
importing coal, iron and textiles. There are also large saw-mills. 

Giurgevo occupies the site of Theodorapolis, a city built 
by the Roman emperor Justinian (a.d. 483-565). It was 
founded in the 14th century by Genoese merchant adventurers, 
who established a bank, and a trade in silks and velvets. They 
called the town, after the patron saint of Genoa, San Giorgio 
(St George); and hence comes its present name. As a fortified 
town, Giurgevo figured often in the wars for the conquest of the 
lower Danube; especially in the struggle of Michael the Brave 
(1 503-1601) against the Turks, and in the later Russo-Turkish 
Wars. It was burned in 1659. In 1829, its fortifications were 
finally razed, the only defence left being a castle on the island of 
Slobosia, united to the shore by a bridge. 

GIUSTI, GIUSEPPE (180Q-1850), Tuscan satirical poet, was 
born at Monsummano, a small village of the Valdinievole, on 
the 1 2th of May iSoq. His father, a cultivated and rich man, 
accustomed his son from childhood to study, and himself taught 
him, among other subjects, the first rudiments of music. After* 
wards, in order to curb his too vivacious disposition, he placed 
the boy under the charge of a priest near the village, whose 
severity did perhaps more evil than good. At twelve Giusti 
was sent to school at Florence, and afterwards to Pistoia and to 
Lucca; and during those years he wrote his first verses. In 
1826 he went to study law at Pisa; but, disliking the study, 
he spent eight years in the course, instead of the customary four. 
He lived gaily, however, though his father kept him short of 
money, and learned to know the world, seeing the vices of 
society, and the folly of certain laws and customs from which 
his count ry was suffering. The experience thus gained he turned 
to good account in the use he made of it in his satire. 

His father had in the meantime changed his place of abode 
to Pescia; but Giuseppe did worse there, and in November 
i S3 3, his father having paid his debts, he returned to study at 
Pisa, seriously enamoured of a woman whom he could not marry, 
but now commencing to write in real earnest in behalf of his 
country. With the poem called La Gkigliotiina (the guillotine), 
Giusti began to strike out a path for himself, and thus revealed 
his great genius. From this time he showed himself the Italian 



Beranger, and even surpassed the Frenchman in richness of 
language, refinement of humour and depth of satirical conception. 
In B6ranger there is more feeling for what is needed for popular 
poetry. His poetry is less studied, its vivacity perhaps more 
boisterous, more spontaneous; but Giusti, in both manner and 
conception, is perhaps more elegant, more refined, more pene- 
trating. In 1834 Giusti, having at last entered the legal profes- 
sion, left Pisa to go to Florence, nominally to practise with the 
advocate Capoquadri, but really to enjoy life in the capital of 
Tuscany. He fell seriously in love a second time, and as before 
was abandoned by his love. It was then he wrote his finest 
verses, by means of which, although his poetry was not yet 
collected in a volume, but for some years passed from hand to 
hand, his name gradually became famous. The greater part 
of his poems were published clandestinely at Lugano, at no 
little risk, as the work was destined to undermine the Austrian 
rule in Italy. After the publication of a volume of verses at 
Bastia, Giusti thoroughly established his fame by his GingillinOj 
the best in moral tone as well as the most vigorous and effective 
of his poems. The poet sets himself to represent the vileness 
of the treasury officials, and the base means they used to conceal 
the necessities of the state. The Gingillino has all the character 
of a classic satire. When first issued in Tuscany, it struck all 
as too impassioned and personal. Giusti entered heart and soul 
into the political movements of 1847 and 1848, served in the 
national guard, sat in the parliament for Tuscany; but finding 
that there was more talk than action, that to the tyranny of 
princes had succeeded the tyranny of demagogues, he began to 
fear, and to express the fear, that for Italy evil rather than 
good had resulted. He fell, in consequence, from the high 
position he had held in public estimation, and in 1848 was 
regarded as a reactionary. His friendship for the marquis 
Gino Capponi, who had taken him into his house during the last 
years of his life, and who published after Giusti's death a volume 
of illustrated proverbs, was enough to compromise him in the 
eyes of such men as Guerrazzi, Montanelli and Niccolini. On 
the 31st of May 1850 he died at Florence in the palace of his 
friend. 

The poetry of Giusti, under a light trivial aspect, has a lofty 
civilizing significance. The type of his satire is entirely original, 
and it had also the great merit of appearing at the right moment, 
of wounding judiciously, of sustaining the part of the comedy 
that " castigat ridendo mores." Hence his verse, apparently 
jovial, was received by the scholars and politicians of Italy in 
all seriousness. Alexander Manzoni in some of his letters showed 
a hearty admiration of the genius of Giusti; and the weak 
Austrian and Bourbon governments regarded them as of the 
gravest importance. 

His poems have often been reprinted, the best editions being those 
of Le Monnier, Carducci (1859; 3rd ed., 1879), Fioretti (1876) and 
Bragi (1890). Besides the poems and the proverbs already men- 
tioned, we have a volume of select letters, full of vigour and written 
in the best Tuscan language, and a fine critical discourse on Giuseppe 
Parini, the satirical poet. In some of his compositions the elegiac 
rather than the satirical poet is seen. Many of his verses have been 
excellently translated into German by Paul Heyse. Good English 
translations were published in the Athenaeum by Mrs T. A. Trollope, 
and some by W. D. Howells are in his Modern Italian Poets (1887). 

GIUSTINIANI, the name of a prominent Italian family which 
originally belonged to Venice, but established itself subsequently 
in Genoa also, and at various times had representatives in 
Naples, Corsica and several of the islands of the Archipelago. 
In the Venetian line the following are most worthy of mention : — 
1. Lorenzo (1380-1465), the Laurentius Justinianus of the 
Roman calendar, at an early age entered the congregation of 
the canons of St George in Alga, and in 1433 became general 
of that order. About the same time he was made by Eugenius 
IV. bishop of Venice; and his episcopate was marked by con- 
siderable activity in church extension and reform. On the 
removal of the patriarchate from Grado to Venice by Nicholas V. 
in 145 1, Giustiniani was promoted to that dignity, which he 
held for fourteen years. He died on January 8, 1465, was 
canonized by Pope Alexander VIII., his festival (semi-duplex) 



GIUSTO DA GUANTO 



55 



being fixed by Innocent XII. for September 5th, the anni- 
versary of his elevation to the bishopric. His works, consisting 
of sermons, letters and ascetic treatises, have been frequently 
reprinted, — the best edition being that of the Benedictine 
P. N. A. Giustiniani, published at Venice in 2 vols, folio, 1751. 
They are wholly devoid of literary merit. His life has been 
written by Bernard Giustiniani, by Maffei and also by the 
Bollandists. 

2. Leonardo (1388-1446), brother of the preceding, was for 
some years a senator of Venice, and in 1443 was chosen procurator 
of St Mark. He translated into Italian Plutarch's Lives of 
Cinna and Lucullus, and was the author of some poetical pieces, 
amatory and religious — strambotti and canzoneUi — as well as 
of rhetorical prose compositions. Some of the popular songs 
set to music by him became known as Giustiniani. 

3. Bernardo (1408-1480), son of Leonardo, was a pupil of 
Guarino and of George of Trebizond, and entered the Venetian 
senate at an early age. He served on several important diplo- 
matic missions both to France and Rome, and about 1485 
became one of the council of ten. His orations and letters 
were published in 1492; but his title to any measure of fame 
he possesses rests upon his history of Venice, De origine urbis 
Venetiarum rebusque ab ipsa gestis historia (1492), which was 
translated into Italian by Domenichi in 1545, and which at the 
time of its appearance was undoubtedly the best work upon the 
subject of which it treated. It is to be found in vol. i. of the 
Thesaurus of Graevius. ** 

4. Pietro, also a senator, lived in the 16th century, and 
wrote on Historia rerum Venetarum in continuation of that of 
Bernardo. He was also the author of chronicles De gestis Petri 
Mocenigi and De bello Venetorum cum Carolo VIII. The latter 
has been reprinted in the Script, rer. Hal. vol. xxi. 

Of the Genoese branch of the family the most prominent 
members were the following: — 

5. Paolo, di Moniglia (1444-1502), a member of the order 
of Dominicans, was, from a comparatively early age, prior of 
their convent at Genoa. As a preacher he was very successful, 
and his talents were fully recognized by successive popes, by 
whom he was made master of the sacred palace, inquisitor- 
general for all the Genoese dominions, and ultimately bishop 
of Scio and Hungarian legate. He was the author of a number of 
Biblical commentaries (no longer extant), which are said to 
have been characterized by great erudition. 

6. Agostino ( 1 470-1 536) was born at Genoa, and spent 
some wild years in Valencia, Spain. Having in 1487 joined the 
Dominican order, he gave himself with great energy to the 
study of Greek, Hebrew, Chaldee and Arabic, and in 15 14 
began the preparation of a polyglot edition of the Bible. As 
bishop of Nebbio in Corsica, he took part in some of the earlier 
sittings of the Lateran council (1516-1517), but, in consequence 
of party complications, withdrew to his diocese, and ultimately 
to France, where he became a pensioner of Francis I., and was 
the first to occupy a chair of Hebrew and Arabic in the university 
of Paris. After an absence from Corsica for a period of five 
years, during which he visited England and the Low Countries, 
and became acquainted with Erasmus and More, he returned 
to Nebbio, about 1522, and there remained, with comparatively 
little intermission, till in 1536, when, while returning from a 
visit to Genoa, he perished in a storm at sea. He was the 
possessor of a very fine library, which he bequeathed to the 
republic of Genoa. Of his projected polyglot only the Psalter 
was -published (Psalterium Hebraeum, Graecum, Arabicutn, et 
Chaldaicum, Genoa, 1616). Besides the Hebrew text, the LXX. 
translation, the Chaldee paraphrase, and an Arabic version, it 
contains the Vulgate translation, a new Latin translation by 
the editor, a Latin translation of the Chaldee, and a collection 
of scholia. Giustiniani printed 2000 copies at his own expense, 
including fifty in vellum for presentation to the sovereigns of 
Europe and Asia; but the sale of the work did not encourage 
him to proceed with the New Testament, which he had also 
prepared for the press. Besides an edition of the book of Job, 
containing the original text, the Vulgate, and a new translation, 



he published a Latin version of the Moreh Nevockim of Maimonides 
(Director dubitantium aut perptexorum, 1520), and also edited in 
Latin the Aureus libellus of Aeneas Platonicus, and the Timaeus 
of Chalcidius. His annals of Genoa (Castigatissimi annali di 
Geneva) were published posthumously in 1537. 
The following are also noteworthy: — 

7. Pompeio (1 560-1616), a native of Corsica, who served under 
Alessandro Farnese and the marquis of Spinola in the Low 
Countries, where he lost an arm, and, from the artificial substitute 
which he wore, came to be known by the sobriquet Bras de Fer. 
He also defended Crete against the Turks; and subsequently was 
killed in a reconnaissance at Friuli. He left in Italian a personal 
narrative of the war in Flanders, whjch has been repeatedly 
published in a Latin translation (Bellum Belgicum, Antwerp, 
1609). 

8. Giovanni (1513-1556), born in Candia, translator of 
Terence's Andria and Eunuchus, of Cicero's In V err em, and of 
Virgil's Aeneid, viii. 

9. Orsatto (i 538-1603), Venetian senator, translator of the 
Oedipus Tyrannus of Sophocles and author of a collection of 
Rime, in imitation of Petrarch. He is regarded as one of the 
latest representatives of the classic Italian school. 

10. Geronimo, a Genoese, flourished during the latter half 
of the 16th century. He translated the Alcestis of Euripides 
and three of the plays of Sophocles; and wrote two original 
tragedies, Jephte and Christo in Passione. 

11. Vincenzo, who in the beginning of the 17th century 
built the Roman palace and made the art collection which are 
still associated with his name (see Galleria Giustiniana, Rome, 
163 1). The collection was removed in 1807 to Paris, where it 
was to some extent broken up. In 181 5 all that remained of it, 
about 170 pictures, was purchased by the king of Prussia and 
removed to Berlin, where it forms a portion of the royal museum. 

GIUSTO DA GUANTO [Jodocus, or Justus, of Ghent] 
(fl. 1465-147 5), Flemish painter. The public records of the city 
of Ghent have been diligently searched, but in vain, for a clue 
to the history of Justus or Jodocus, whom Vasari and Guicciardini 
called Giusto da Guanto. Flemish annalists of the 16th century 
have enlarged upon the scanty statements of Vasari, and described 
Jodocus as a pupil of Hubert Van Eyck. But there is no source 
to which this fable can be traced. The registers of St Luke's 
gild at Ghent comprise six masters of the name of Joos or 
Jodocus who practised at Ghent in the 15th century. But none 
of the works of these masters has been preserved, and it is 
impossible to compare their style with that of Giusto. It was 
between 1465 and 1474 that this artist executed the " Communion 
of the Apostles " which Vasari has described, and modern critics 
now see to the best advantage in the museum of Urbino. It 
was painted for the brotherhood of Corpus Christi at the bidding 
of Frederick of Montefeltro, who was introduced into the picture 
as the companion of Caterino Zend, a Persian envoy at that 
time on a mission to the court of Urbino. From this curious 
production it may be seen that Giusto, far from being a pupil of 
Hubert Van Eyck, was merely a disciple of a later and less 
gifted master, who took to Italy some of the peculiarities of his 
native schools, and forthwith commingled them with those of 
his adopted country. As a composer and draughtsman Giusto 
compares unfavourably with the better-known painters of 
Flanders; though his portraits are good, his ideal figures are 
not remarkable for elevation of type or for subtlety of character 
and expression. His work is technically on a level with that of 
Gerard of St John, whose pictures are preserved in the Belvedere 
at Vienna. Vespasian, a Florentine bookseller who contributed 
much to form the antiquarian taste of Frederick of Montefeltro, 
states that this duke sent to the Netherlands for a capable artist 
to paint a series of " ancient worthies " for a library recently 
erected in the palace of Urbino. It has been conjectured that 
the author of these •" worthies," which are still in existence 
at the Louvre and in the Barberini palace at Rome, was Giusto. 
Yet there are notable divergences betweeen these pictures and the 
" Communion of the Apostles." Still, it is not beyond the range 
of probability that Giusto should have been able, after a certain 



56 



GIVET— GLACIAL PERIOD 



time, to temper his Flemish style by studying the masterpieces 
of Santi and Melozzo, and so to acquire the mixed manner of the 
Flemings and Italians which these portraits of worthies display. 
Such an assimilation, if it really took place, might justify the 
Flemings in the indulgence of a certain pride, considering that 
Raphael not only admired these worthies, but copied them in 
the sketch-book which is now the ornament of the Venetian 
Academy. There is no ground for presuming that Giusto ad 
Guanto is identical with Justus d'Allamagna who painted the 
" Annunciation " (1451) in the cloisters of Santa Maria di Castello 
at Genoa. The drawing and colouring of this wall painting 
shows that Justus d'Allamagna was as surely a native of south 
Germany as his homonym at Urbino was a born Netherlander. 

GIVET, a town of northern France, in the department of 
Ardennes, 40 m. N. by E. of M6zidres on the Eastern railway 
between the town and Namur. Pop. (1906) town, 5110; 
commune, 7468. Givct lies on the Meuse about 1 m. from the 
Belgian frontier, and was formerly a fortress of considerable 
importance. It is divided into three portions — the citadel 
called Charlcmont and Grand Givet on the left bank of the river, 
and on the opposite bank Petit Givct, connected with Grand 
Givct by a stone bridge of five arches. The fortress of Charle- 
mont, situated at the top of a precipitous rock 705 ft. high, was 
founded by the emperor Charles V. in the 16th century, and 
further fortified by Vauban at the end of the 17th century; it 
is the only survival of the fortifications of the town, the rest 
of which were destroyed in 1892. In Grand Givet there are a 
church and a town-hall built by Vauban, and a statue of the 
composer fitienne Mlhul stands in the fine square named after 
him. Petit Givct, the industrial quarter, is traversed by a 
small tributary of the Meuse, the Houille, which is bordered by 
tanneries and glue factories. Pencils and tobacco-pipes are 
also manufactured. The town has considerable river traffic, 
consisting chietly of coal, copper and stone. There is a chamber 
of arts and manufactures. 

GIVORS, a manufacturing town of south-eastern France, in 
the department of Rhone, on the railway between Lyons and 
St fitiennc, 14 m. S. of Lyon. Pop. (iqo6) 11,444. It is situated 
on the right bank of the Rhone, here crossed by a suspension 
bridge, at its confluence with the Gier and the canal of Givors, 
which starts at Grand Croix on the Gier, some 13 m. distant. 
The chief industries are metal-working, engineering-construction 
and glass- working. There are coal mines in the vicinity. On the 
hill overlooking the town are the ruins of the ch&teau of St 
Gerald and of the convent of St Ferrtol, remains of the old 
town destroyed in 1504. 

GJALLAR, in Scandinavian mythology, the horn of Heimdall, 
the guardian of the rainbow bridge by which the gods pass and 
repass between earth and heaven. This horn had to be blown 
whenever a stranger approached the bridge. 

GLABRIO* x. Manivs Aciuvs Glabrio, Roman statesman 
and general, member of a plebeian family. When consul in 
tot B.C. he defeated Antiochus the Great of Syria at Thermopylae, 
and compelled him to leave Greece. He then turned his attention 
to the Aetolians, who had persuaded Antiochus to declare war 
against Rome, and was only prevented from crushing them by 
the intercession of T. Quinctius Flamininus. In 189 Glabrio 
was a candidate for the censorship, but was bitterly opposed 
by the nobles. He was accused by the tribunes of having 
concealed a portion of the Syrian spoils in his own house; his 
legate gave evidence against him, and he withdrew his candi- 
dature. It is probable that he was the author of the law which 
left it to the discretion of the pontiffs to insert or omit the 
intercalary month of the year. 

Ccnavrinus. IV Jit *ri*i. xx.: Macrobius, Saturnalia^ i. 13; 
index to Livy: AppLuu ,Sv*\ 17-^1. 

j. Manivs Aciuvs Guumuo. Roman statesman and general, 
grandson of the famous jurist P. Mucins Scaevola* When 
praetor urtv&nus v*s B.cO he presided at the trial of Verres. 
According to Dio Cassius vsxxvi. 5$\ in conjunction with 
L. Calpurnius Pisvv hi* colleague in the consulship <6;\ he 
brought forward a severe law \Lex Acilia Calpurnia) against 



illegal canvassing at elections. In the same year he was ap- 
pointed to supersede L. Lucullus in the government of Cilicia 
and the command of the war against Mithradates, but as he did 
absolutely nothing and was unable to control the soldiery, 
he was in turn superseded by Pompey according to the provisions 
of the Manilian law. Little else is known of him except that 
he declared in favour of the death punishment for the CatiUnarian 
conspirators. 

Dio Cassius xxxvi. 14, 16. 24; Cicero, Pro lege Manilia, 2. 9; 
Appian, Mithrid. 90. 

GLACE BAY, a city and port of entry of Cape Breton county, 
Nova Scotia, Canada, on the Atlantic Ocean, 14 m. E. of Sydney, 
with which it is connected both by steam and electric railway. 
It is the centre of the properties of the Dominion Coal Company 
(founded 1893), which produce most of the coal of Nova Scotia. 
Though it has a fair harbour, most of the shipping is done from 
Sydney in summer and from Louisburg in winter. Pop. (1892) 
2000; (1901) 6945; (1906) 13,000. 

GLACIAL PERIOD* in geology, the name usually given, by 
English and American writers, to that comparatively recent 
time when all parts of the world suffered a marked lowering 
of temperature, accompanied in northern Europe and North 
America by glacial conditions, not unlike those which now 
characterize the Polar regions. This period, which is also 
known as the " Great Ice Age " (German Die Eiszeit), is 
synchronous with the Pleistocene period, the earlier of the Post- 
Tertiary or Quaternary divisions of geological time. Although 
" Glacial period " and " Pleistocene " (q.v.) are often used 
synonymously it is convenient to consider them separately, 
inasmuch as not a few Pleistocene formations have no causal 
relationship with conditions of glaciation. Not until the begin- 
ning of the 19th century did the deposits now generally recog- 
nized as the result of ice action receive serious attention; the 
tendency was to regard such superficial and irregular material 
as mere rubbish. Early ideas upon the subject usually assigned 
floods as the formative agency, and this view is still not without 
its supporters (see Sir H. H. Howorth, The Glacial Nightmare 
and the Flood). Doubtless this attitude was in part due to the 
comparative rarity of glaciers and ice-fields where the work of 
ice could be directly observed. It was natural therefore that the 
first scientific references to glacial action should have been 
stimulated by the Alpine regions of Switzerland, which called 
forth the writings of J. J. Scheuchzer, B. F. Kuhn, H. B. de 
Saussure, F. G. Hugi, and particularly those of J. Venetz, J. G. 
von Charpentier and L. Aggasiz. Canon Rendu, J. Forbes 
and others had studied the cause of motion of glaciers, while 
keen observers, notably Sir James Hall, A. Brongniart and 
J. Playfair, had noted the occurrence of travelled and scratched 
stones. 

The result of these efforts was the conception of great ice-sheets 
flowing over the land, grinding the rock surfaces and transporting 
rock debris in the manner to be observed in the existing glaciers. 
However, before this view had become established Sir C. Lydl 
evolved the " drift theory " to explain the widely spread pheno- 
menon of transported blocks, boulder clay and the allied deposits; 
in this he was supported by Sir H. de la Beche, Charles Darwin, 
Sir R. I. Murchison and many others. According to the drift 
theory, the transport and distribution of " erratic blocks," &c., 
had been effected by floating icebergs; this view naturally 
involved a considerable and widespread submergence of the 
land, an assumption which appeared to receive support from 
the occasional presence of marine shells at high levels in the 
" drift *' deposits. So great was the influence of those who 
favoured the drift theory that even to-day it cannot be said to 
have lost complete bold; we still speak of " drift " deposits in 
England and America* and the belief in one or more great sub- 
mergences during the Glacial period is still held more firmly 
by certain geologists than the evidence would seem to warrant. 
The case against the drift theory was most clearly expressed 
by Sir A. C Ramsay for England and Scotland, and by the 
Swedish scientist Ot to Torell. Since then the labours of Professor 
James Geikie, Sir Archibald Geikie, Professor P. Kendall and 



GLACIAL PERIOD 



57 



others in England; von Verendt, H. Credner, de Geer, E. 
Geinitz, A. Helland, Jentzsch, K. Keilhack, A. Penck, H. 
Schroder, F. Wahnschaffe in Scandinavia and Germany; T. C. 
Chamberlin, W. Upham, G. F. Wright in North America, have 
all tended to confirm the view that it is to the movement of 
glaciers and ice-sheets that we must look as the predominant 
agent of transport and abrasion in this period. The three stages 
through which our knowledge of glacial work has advanced 
may thus be summarized: (i) the diluvial hypothesis, deposits 
formed by floods; (2) the drift hypothesis, deposits formed 
mainly by icebergs and floating ice; (3) the ice-sheet hypothesis, 
deposits formed directly or indirectly through the agency of 
flowing ice. 

Evidences. — The evidence relied upon by geologists for the 
former existence of the great ice-sheets which traversed the 
northern regions of Europe and America is mainly of two kinds: 
(1) the peculiar erosion of the older rocks by ice and ice-borne 
stones, and (2) the nature and disposition of ice-borne rock 
debris. After having established the criteria by which the work 
of moving ice is to be recognized in regions of active glaciation, 
the task of identifying the results of earlier glaciation elsewhere 
has been carried on with unabated energy. 

1. Ice Erosion. 1 — Although there are certain points of difference 
between the work of glaciers and broad ice-sheets, the former 




Map showing the 

majcimum ex tern- on at the 

In Sheets in the 

Glacial Period / 



I I A rtas i\ { (if ft e teti heft xtrema gtaniat'on 

5 = Th§ SeafrdtnQiua* Crntrr 

C = Tht Cardi Herat Cwtr* 

K ^ Th*\ jhnmrtl CtttrM 

L m Tht Lohmdur or Lcrurvfitui* Cantrt 

Arrow ladioot* th* direction of Icr-ftow 



being more or less restricted laterally by the valleys in which 
they flow, the general results of their passage over the rocky 
floor are essentially similar. Smooth rounded outlines are 
imparted to the rocks, markedly contrasting with the pinnacled 
and irregular surfaces produced by ordinary weathering; where 
these rounded surfaces have been formed on a minor scale the 
well-known features of roches moutonnies (German Rundhdcker) 
are created; on a larger scale we have the erosion-form known 
as " crag and tail," when the ice-sheet has overridden ground 
with more pronounced contours, the side of the hill facing the 
advancing ice being rounded and gently curved (German 
Stossscite), and the opposte side (Leeseite) steep, abrupt and 
much less smooth. Such features are never associated with the 
erosion of water. The rounding of rock surfaces is regularly 
accompanied by grooving and striation (German Schrammen, 
SMijfe) caused by the grinding action of stones and boulders 
embedded in the moving ice. These " glacial striae " are of 
great value in determining the latest path of the vanished ice- 
sheets (see map). Several other erosion-features are generally 
associated with ice action; such are the circular-headed valleys, 
" cirques " or " corries " (German Zirkus) of mountain districts; 
the pot-holes, giants' kettles (StrudeUdcher 9 Riesentopfe) , familiarly 
exemplified in the Gletschergarten near Lucerne; the "rock- 
basins " (Felsseebecken) of mountainous regions are also believed 
to be assignable to this cause on account of their frequent 
association with other glacial phenomena, but it is more than 
probable that the action of running water (waterfalls, &c.) — 



influenced no doubt by the disposition of the ice — has had much 
to do with these forms of erosion. As regards rock-basins, 
geologists are still divided in opinion: Sir A. C. Ramsay, J. 
Geikie, Tyndall, Helland, H. Hess, A. Penck, and others have 
expressed themselves in favour of a glacial origin; while A. 
Heim, F. Stapff, T. Kjerulf, L. Rtitimeyer and many others 
have strongly opposed this view. 

2. Glacial deposits may be roughly classified in two groups: 
those that have been formed directly by the action of the ice, 
and those formed through the agency of water flowing under, 
upon, and from the ice-sheets, or in streams and lakes modified 
by the presence of the ice. To differentiate in practice between 
the results of these two agencies is a matter of some difficulty 
in the case of unstratified deposits; but the boulder clay may 
be taken as the typical formation of the glacier or ice-sheet, 
whether it has been left as a terminal moraine at the limit of 
glaciation or as a ground moraine beneath the ice. A stratified 
form of boulder clay, which not infrequently rests upon, and is 
therefore younger than, the more typical variety, is usually 
regarded as a deposit formed by water from the material 
(englacialy innenmorUn) held in suspension within the ice, and 
set free during the process of melting. Besides the innumerable 
boulders, large and small, embedded in the boulder clay, isolated 
masses of rock, often of enormous size, have been borne by ice- 
sheets far from their original home and stranded when the ice 
melted. These " erratic blocks," " perched blocks " (German 
Findlinge) are familiar objects in the Alpine glacier districts, 
where they have frequently received individual names, but they 
are just as easily recognized in regions from which the gladers 
that brought them there have long since been banished. Not 
only did the ice transport blocks of hard rock, granite and the 
like, but huge masses of stratified rock were torn from their 
bed by the same agency; the masses of chalk in the cliffs near 
Cromer are well known; near Berlin, at Firkenwald, there is a 
transported mass of chalk estimated to be at least 2,000,000 
cubic metres in bulk, which has travelled probably 15 kilometres 
from its original site; a block of Lincolnshire oolite is recorded 
by C. Fox-Strangways near Melton in Leicestershire, which is 
300 yds. long and 100 yds. broad if no more; and instances of a 
similar kind might be multiplied. 

When we turn to the " fluvio-glacial " deposits we find a 
bewildering variety of stratified and partially bedded deposits 
of gravel, sand and clay, occurring separately or in every 
conceivable condition of association. Some of these deposits 
have received distinctive names; such are the " Karnes " of 
Scotland, which are represented in Ireland by " Eskers," and in 
Scandinavia by " Asar." Another type of hillocky deposit is 
exemplified by the " drums " or " drumlins. ,, Everywhere 
beyond the margin of the advancing or retreating ice-sheets 
these deposits were being formed; streams bore away coarse and 
fine materials and spread them out upon alluvial plains or upon 
the floors of innumerable lakes, many of which were directly 
caused by the damming of the ordinary water-courses by the ice. 
As the level of such lakes was changed new beach-lines were 
produced, such as are still evident in the great lake region of 
North America, in the parallel roads of Glen Roy, and the 
" Strandlinien " of many parts of northern Europe. 

Viewed in relation to man's position on the earth, no geological 
changes have had a more profound importance than those of the 
Glacial period. The whole of the glaciated region bears evidence 
of remarkable modification of topographic features; in parts 
of Scotland or Norway or Canada the old rocks are bared of 
soil, rounded and smoothed as far as the eye can see. The old 
soil and subsoil, the product of ages of ordinary weathering, 
were removed from vast areas to be deposited and concentrated 
in others. Old valleys were filled— often to a great depth, 
300-400 ft.; rivers were diverted from their old courses, never 
to return; lakes of vast size were caused by the damming of old 
outlets (Lake Lahontan, Lake Agassiz, &c, in North America), 
while an infinite number of shifting lakelets— with their deposits 
— played an important part along the ice-front at all stages 
of its career. The influence of this period upon the present 



58 



GLACIAL PERIOD 



distribution of plant and animal life in northern latitudes can 
hardly be overestimated. 

Much stress has been laid upon supposed great changes in 
the level of the land in northern regions during the Glacial 
period. The occurrence of marine shells at an elevation of 
1350 ft. at Moel Tryfaen in north Wales, and at 1200 ft. near 
Macclesfield in Cheshire, has been cited as evidence of profound 
submergence by some geologists, though others see in these 
and similar occurrences only the transporting action of ice-sheets 
that have traversed the floor of the adjoining seas. Marine 
shells in stratified materials have been found on the coast of 
Scotland at 100 ft. and over, in S. Scandinavia at 600 to 800 ft., 
and in the " Champlain " deposits of North America at various 
heights. The dead shells of the " Yoldia clay " cover wide areas 
at the bottom of the North Atlantic at depths from 500 to 1300 
fathoms, though the same mollusc is now found living in Arctic 
seas at the depth of 5 to 15 fathoms. This has been looked upon 
as a proof that in the N.W. European region the lithosphere 
stood about 2600 ft. higher than it does now (Brogger, Nansen, 
&c), and it has been suggested that a union of the mainland of 
Europe with that of North America — forming a northern con- 
tinental mass, " Prosarctis " — may have been achieved by way 
of Iceland, Jan Mayen Land and Greenland. The pre-glacial 
valleys and fjords of Norway and Scotland, with their deeply 
submerged seaward ends, are regarded as proofs of former 
elevation. The great depth of alluvium in some places (236 
metres at Bremen) points in the same direction. Evidences of 
changes of level occur in early, middle and late Pleistocene 
formations, and the nature of the evidence is such that it is on 
the whole safer to assume the existence only of the more moderate 
degree of change. 

The Cause of the Glacial Period. — Many attempts have been 
made to formulate a satisfactory hypothesis that shall conform 
with the known facts and explain the great change in climatic 
conditions which set in towards the close of the Tertiary era, 
and culminated during the Glacial period. Some of the more 
prominent hypotheses may be mentioned, but space will not 
permit of a detailed analysis of theories, most of which rest 
upon somewhat unsubstantial ground. The principal facts 
to be taken into consideration are (1) the great lowering of 
temperature over the whole earth; (2) the localization of 
extreme glaciation in north-west Europe and north-east America; 
and (3) the local retrogression of the ice-sheets, once or more 
times repeated. 

Some have suggested the simple solution of a change in the 
earth's axis, and have indicated that the pole may have travelled 
through some 15 to 20 of latitude; thus, the polar glaciation, 
as it now exists,might have been in this way transferred to include 
north-west Europe and North America; but modern views on 
the rigidity of the earth's body, together with the lack of any 
evidence of the correlative movement of climatic zones in other 
parts of the world, render this hypothesis quite untenable. 
On similar grounds a change in the earth's centre of gravity is 
unthinkable. Theories based upon the variations in the obliquity 
of the ecliptic or eccentricity of the earth's orbit, or on the 
passage of the solar system through cold regions of space, or 
upon the known variations in the heat emitted by the sun, are 
all insecure and unsatisfactory. The hypothesis elaborated by 
James Croll {Phil. Mag., 1864, 28, p. 121; Climate and Time, 
1875; and Discussion on Climate and Cosmology , 1889) was 
founded upon the assumption that with the earth's eccentricity 
at its maximum and winter in the north at aphelion, there would 
be a tendency in northern latitudes for the accumulation of snow 
and ice, which would be accentuated indirectly by the formation 
of fogs and a modification of the trade winds. The shifting of 
the thermal equator, and with it the direction of the trade winds, 
would divert some of the warm ocean currents from the cold 
regions, and this effect was greatly enhanced, he considered, 
by the configuration of the Atlantic Ocean, Croll's hypothesis 
was supported by Sir R. Ball (The Cause of the Great Ice Age, 
1893), and it met with very general acceptance; but it has 
been destructively criticized by Professor S. Newcomb (Phil. 



Mag., 1876, 1883, 1884) and by E. P. Culverwell (Phil. Mag., 
1894, p. 541, and Geol. Mag., 1895, pp. 3 and 55). The difficulties 
in the way of Croll's theory are: (1) the fundamental assump- 
tion, that midwinter and midsummer temperatures are directly 
proportional to the sun's heat at those periods, is not in accord- 
ance with observed facts; (2) the glacial periods would be 
limited in duration to an appropriate fraction of the precessional 
period (21,000 years), which appears to be too short a time for 
the work that was actually done by ice agency; and (3) Croll's 
glacial periods would alternate between the northern and 
southern hemispheres, affecting first one then the other. Sir 
C. Lyell and others have advocated the view that great elevation 
of the land in polar regions would be conducive to glacial condi- 
tions; this is doubtless true, but the evidence that the Glacial 
period was primarily due to this cause is not well established. 
Other writers have endeavoured to support the elevation theory 
by combining with it various astronomical and meteorological 
agencies. More recently several hypotheses have been advanced 
to explain the glacial period as the result of changes in the 
atmosphere; F. W. Harmer (" The Influence of Winds upon the 
Climate during the Pleistocene Epoch," Q.J.G.S., 1901, 57, 
p. 405) has shown the importance of the influence of winds in 
certain circumstances; Marsden Manson (" The Evolution of 
Climate," American Geologist, 1899, 24, p. 93) has laid stress 
upon the influence of clouds; but neither of these theories 
grapples successfully with the fundamental difficulties. Others 
again have requisitioned the variability in the amount of the 
carbon dioxide in the atmosphere — hypotheses which depend 
upon the efficiency of this gas as a thermal absorbent. The 
supply of carbon dioxide may be increased from time to time, 
as by the emanations from volcanoes (S. Arrhenius and A. G. 
Hogbom), or it may be decreased by absorption into sea- water, 
and by the carbonation of rocks. Professor T. C. Chamberlin 
based a theory of glaciation on the depletion of the carbon 
dioxide of the air (" An Attempt to frame a Working Hypothesis 
of the cause of Glacial Periods on an Atmospheric Basis," J I. 
Geol., 1899, vii. 752-771; see also Chamberlin and Salisbury, 
Geology, 1906, ii. 674 and iii. 432). The outline of this 
hypothesis is as follows: The general conditions for glaciation 
were (1) that the oceanic circulation was interrupted by the 
existence of land; (2) that vertical circulation of the atmosphere 
was accelerated by continental and other influences; (3) that 
the thermal blanketing of the earth was reduced by a depletion 
of the moisture and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, and that 
hence the average temperature of the surface of the earth and 
of the body of the ocean was reduced, and diversity in the 
distribution of heat and moisture introduced. The localization 
of glaciation is assignable to the two great areas of permanent 
atmospheric depression that have their present centres near 
Greenland and the Aleutian Islands respectively. The periodici ty 
of glacial advances and retreats, demanded by those who believe 
in the validity of so-called " interglacial " epochs, is explained 
by a series of complicated processes involving the alternate 
depletion and completion of the normal charge of carbon dioxide 
in the air. 

Whatever may be the ultimate verdict upon this difficult 
subject, it is tolerably clear that no simple cause of glacial 
conditions is likely to be discovered, but rather it will appear 
that these conditions resulted from the interaction of a compli- 
cated series of factors; and further, until a greater degree of 
unanimity can be approached in the interpretation of observed 
facts, particularly as regards the substantiality of interglacial 
epochs, the very foundations of a sound working hypothesis 
are wanting. 

Classification of Glacial Deposits — Interglacial Epochs. — Had 
the deposits of glaciated regions consisted solely of boulder 
clay little difficulty might have been experienced in dealing 
with their classification. But there are intercalated in the boulder 
clays those irregular stratified and partially stratified masses 
of sand, gravel and loam, frequently containing marine or 
freshwater shells and layers of peat with plant remains, which 
have given rise to the conception of " interglacial epochs " — 



GLACIAL PERIOD 



59 



pauses in the rigorous conditions of glaciation, when the ice- 
sheets dwindled almost entirely away, while plants and animals 
re-established themselves on the newly exposed soil. Glacialists 
may be ranged in two schools: those who believe that one or 
more phases of milder climatic conditions broke up the whole 
Glacial period into alternating epochs of glaciation and "de- 
glaciation "; and those who believe that the intercalated 
deposits represent rather the localized recessional movements 
of the ice-sheets within one single period of glaciation. In 
addition to the stratified deposits and their contents, important 
evidence in favour of interglacial epochs occurs in the presence 
of weathered surfaces on the top of older boulder clays, which 
are themselves covered by younger glacial deposits. 

The cause of the interglacial hypothesis has been most ardently 
championed in England by Professor James Geikie ; who has en- 
deavoured to show that there were in Europe six distinct glacial 
epochs within the Glacial period, separated by five epochs of more 
moderate temperature. These are enumerated below: 

6th Glacial epoch, Upper Turbarian, indicated by the deposits of 
peat which underlie the lower raised beaches. 
5th Interglacial epoch, Upper Forestian. 

5th Glacial epoch, Lower Turbarian, indicated by peat deposits 
overlying the lower forest-bed, by the raised beaches and carse- 
clays of Scotland, and in part by the Littorina-clays of Scandinavia. 
4th Interglacial epoch. Lower Forestian, the lower forests under 
peat beds, the Ancylus-beds of the great freshwater Baltic lake and 
the Littorina-clays of Scandinavia. 

4th Glacial epoch, Mecklenburgian, represented by the moraines 
of the last great Baltic glacier, which reach their southern limit in 
Mecklenburg; the ioo-ft. terrace of Scotland and the Yoldia-beda of 
Scandinavia. 

3rd Interglacial epoch, Neudeckian, intercalations of marine and 

freshwater deposits in the boulder clays of the southern Baltic coasts. 

3rd Glacial epoch, Poland ian, glacial and flu vio-glacial formations 

of the minor Scandinavian ice-sheet; and the " upper boulder clay" 

of northern and western Europe. 

2nd Interglacial epoch, Helvetian, interglacial beds of Britain and 
lignites of Switzerland. 

2nd Glacial epoch, Saxonian, deposits of the period of maximum 
glaciation when the northern ice-sheet reached the low ground of 
Saxony, and the Alpine glaciers formed the outermost moraines. 
1st Interglacial epoch, Tforfolkian, the forest-bed series of Norfolk. 
1st Glacial epoch, Scanian, represented only in the south of Sweden, 
which was overridden by a large Baltic glacier. The Chillesford 
clay and Weybourne crag of Norfolk and the oldest moraines and 
fluvio-glacial gravels of the Arctic lands may belong to this epoch. 

In a similar manner Professor Chamberlin and other American 
geologists have recognized the following stages in the glaciation of 
North America: 

The Cham plain, marine substage. 
The Glacio-lacustrine substage. 
The later Wisconsin (6th glacial). 
The fifth interglacial. 
The earlier Wisconsin (5th glacial). 
The Peorian (4th interglacial). 
The Iowan (4th glacial). 
The Sangamon (3rd interglacial). 
The Illinoian (3rd glacial). 
The Yarmouth or Buchanan (2nd interglacial). 
The Kansan (2nd glacial). *'--t N .,„ , r • 

The Aftonian (ist interglacial). ' r * 

The sub- Aftonian or Jerseyan (ist glacial). 
Although it is admitted that no strict correlation of the European 
and North American stages is possible, it has been suggested that 
the Aftonian may be the equivalent of the Helvetian; the Kansan 
may represent the Saxonian; the Iowan, the Polandian; the 
Jerseyan, the Scanian; the early Wisconsin, the Mecklenburgian. 
But considering how fragmentary is much of the evidence in favour 
of these stages both in Europe and America, the value of such 
attempts at correlation must be infinitesimal. This is the more 
evident when it is observed that there are other geologists of equal 
eminence who are unable to accept so large a number of epochs 
after a close study of the local circumstances; thus, in the sub- 
joined scheme for north Germany, after H. W. Munthe, there are 
three glacial and two interglacial epochs. 

[The Mya time « beech-time. 
Post-Glacial epoch A The Littorina times oak-time. 

LThe Ancylus time =pine- and birch-time. 

(Including the upper boulder clay, 
" younger Baltic moraine " with the 
Yoldia or Dryas phase in the retro- 
gressive stage. 
2nd Interglacial epoch including the Cyprina-clay. 
2nd Glacial epoch, the maximum glaciation. 
1st Interglacial epoch. 
ist Glacial epoch, " older boulder clay." 



Again, in the Alps four interglacial epochs have been recognized ; 
while in England there are many who are willing to concede one 
such epoch, though even for this the evidence is not enough to satisfy 
all Racialists (G. W. Lamplugh, Address, Section C, Brit. Assoc, 
York, 1906). 

This great diversity of opinion is eloquent of the difficulties of the 
subject ; it is impossible not to see that the discovery of interglacial 
epochs bears a close relationship to the origin of certain hypotheses 
of the cause of glaciation; while it is significant that those who 
have had to do the actual mapping of glacial deposits have usually 
greater difficulty in finding good evidence of such definite ameliora- 
tions of climate, than those who have founded their views upon the 
examination of numerous but isolated areas. 

Extent of Glacial Deposits. — From evidence of the kind cited above, 
it appears that during the glacial period a series of great ice-sheets 
covered enormous areas in North America and north-west Europe. 
The area covered during the maximum extension of the ice has been 
reckoned at 20 million square kilometres (nearly 8 million sq. m.) 
in North America and 6} million square kilometres (about 2} million 
sq. m.) in Europe. 

In Europe three great centres existed from which the ice-streams 
radiated; foremost in importance was the region of Fennoscandia 
(the name for Scandinavia with Finland as a single geological region) ; 
from this centre the ice spread out far into Germany and Russia and 
westward, across the North Sea, to the shores of Britain. The 
southern boundary of the ice extended from the estuary of the Rhine 
in an irregular series of lobes along the Schiefergebirge, Harz, 
Thuringerwald, Erzgebirge and Riesengebirge, and the northern 
flanks of the Carpathians towards Cracow. Down the valley of 
the Dnieper a lobe of the ice-sheet projected as far as 40 50' N. ; 
another lobe extended down the Don valley as far as 48 N. ; thence 
the boundary runs north-easterly towards the Urals and the Kara 
Sea. The British Islands constituted the centre second in import- 
ance; Scotland, Ireland and all but the southern part of England 
were covered by a moving ice-cap. On the west the ice-sheets reached 
out to sea; on the east they were conterminous with those from 
Scandinavia. The third European centre was the Alpine region; 
it is abundantly clear from the masses of morainic detritus and 
perched blocks that here, in the time of maximum glaciation, the 
ice-covered area was enormously in excess of the shrivelled remnants, 
which still remain in the existing glaciers. All the valleys were filled 
with moving ice; thus the Rhone glacier at its maximum filled Lake 
Geneva and the plain between the Bernese Oberland and the Jura; 
it even overrode the latter and advanced towards Besancon. Ex- 
tensive glaciation was not limited to the aforesaid regions, for all 
the areas of high ground had their independent glaciers strongly 
developed; the Pyrenees, the central highlands of France, the 
Vosges, Black Forest, Apennines and Caucasus were centres of 
minor but still important glaciation. 

The greatest expansion of ice-sheets was located on the North 
American continent; here, too, there were three principal centres 
of outflow: the " Cordilleran " ice-sheet in the N.W., the " Kee- 
watin " sheet, radiating from the central Canadian plains, and the 
eastern " Labrador M or " Laurentide " sheet. From each of these 
centres the ice poured outwards in every direction, but the principal 
flow in each case was towards the south-west. The southern 
boundary of the glaciated area runs as an irregular line along the 
40 parallel in the western part of the continent, thence it follows 
the Mississippi valley down to its junction with the Ohio (southern 
limit 37 30' N.), eastward it follows the direction of that river and 
turns north-eastward in the direction of New Jersey. As in Europe, 
the mountainous regions of North America produced their own local 
glaciers; in the Rockies, the Olympics and Sierras, the Bighorn 
Mountains of Wyoming, the Uinta Mountains of Utah, &c. Although 
it was in the northern hemisphere that the most extensive glaciation 
took place, the effects of a general lowering of temperature seem to 
have been felt in the mountainous regions of all parts; thus in South 
America, New Zealand, Australia and Tasmania glaciers reached 
down the valleys far below the existing limits, and even where none 
are now to be found. In Asia the evidences of a former extension 
of glaciation are traceable in the Himalayas, and northward in the 
high ranges of China and Eastern Siberia. The same is true of parts of 
Turkestan and Lebanon. In Africa also, in British East Africa moraines 
are discovered 5400 ft. below their modern limit. In Iceland and 
Greenland, and even in the Antarctic, there appears to be evidence 
of a former greater extension of the ice. It is of interest to note that 
Alaska seems to be free from excessive glaciation, and that a remark- 
able " driftless " area lies in Wisconsin. The maximum glaciation of 
the Glacial period was clearly centred around the North Atlantic. 

Glacial Epochs in the Older Geological Periods. — Since Ramsay 
drew attention to the subject in 1855 ( On the occurrence of angular, 
subangular, polished and striated fragments and boulders in the 
Permian Breccia of Shropshire, Worcestershire, &c, and on the 
probable existence of glaciers and icebergs in the Permian epoch," 
Q.J.G.S., 1855, pp. 185-205), a good deal of attention has been paid 
to such formations. It is now generally acknowledged that the 
Permo-carboniferous conglomerates with striated boulders and 
polished rock surfaces, such as are found in the Karoo formation of 
South Africa, the Talkir conglomerate of the Salt Range in India, 
and the corresponding formations in Australia, represent undeniable 



62 



GLACIER 



the lower valleys it is more strongly heated, and surface 
streams are established in consequence that flow into channels 
caused by unequal melting of the ice and finally plunge into 
crevasses. These crevasses are formed by strains established 
as the central parts drag away from the sides of the glacier and 
the upper surface from the lower, and more markedly by the 
tension due to a sudden bend in the glacier caused by an in- 
equality in its bed which must be over-ridden. These crevasses 
are developed at right angles to the strain and often produce 
intersecting fissures in several directions. The morainic material 
is gradually dispersed by the inequalities produced, and is 
further distributed by the action of superficial streams until the 
whole surface is strewn with stones and d6bris, and presents, 
as in the lower portions of the Mer de Glace, an exceedingly 
dirty appearance. Many blocks of stone fall into the gaping 
crevasses and much loose rock is carried down as " englacial 
material " in the body of the glacier. Some of it reaches the 
bottom and becomes part of the "ground moraine" which 
underlies the glacier, at least from the bergschrund to the " snout," 
where much of it is carried away by the issuing stream and 
spread finally on to the plains below. It appears that a very 
considerable amount of degradation is caused under the berg- 
schrund by the mass, of ice " plucking " and dragging great 
blocks of rock from the side of the mountain valley where the 
great head of ice rests in winter and whence it begins to move 
in summer. These blocks and many smaller fragments are 
carried downwards wedged in the ice and cause powerful abrasion 
upon the rocky floor, rasping and scoring the channel, producing 
conspicuous striae, polishing and rounding the rock surfaces, 
and grinding the contained fragments as well as the surface 
over which it passes into small fragments and fine powder, 
from which " boulder clay " or " till " is finally produced. 
Emerging, then, from the snow-field as pure granular ice the 
glacier gradually becomes strewn and filled with foreign material, 
not only from above but also, as is very evident in some Greenland 
glaciers, occasionally from below by masses of fragments that 
move upwards along gliding planes, or are forced upwards by 
slow swirls in the ice itself. 

As a glacier is a very brittle body any abrupt change in gradient 
will produce a number of crevasses, and these, together with 
those produced by dragging strains, will frequently wedge the 
glacier into a mass of pinnacles or s&racs that may be partially 
healed but are usually evident when the melting end of the 
glacier emerges suddenly from a steep valley. Here the streams 
widen the weaker portions and the moraine rocks fall from the 
end to produce the " terminal " moraine, which usually lies in 
a crescentic heap encircling the glacier snout, whence it can 
only be moved by a further advance of the glacier or by the 
ordinary slow process of atmospheric denudation. 

In cases where no rock fails upon the surface there is a con- 
siderable amount of englacial material due to upturning either 
over accumulated ground debris or over structural inequalities 
in the rock floor. This is well seen at the steep sides and ends 
of Greenland glaciers, where material frequently comes to the 
surface of the melting ice and produces median and lateral 
moraines, besides appearing in enormous " eyes " surrounded 
in the glacial body by contorted and foliated ice and sometimes 
producing heaps and embankments as it is pushed out at the 
end of the melting ice. 

The environment of temperature requires consideration. 
At the upper or dorsal portion of the glacier there is a zone 
of variable (winter and summer) temperature, beneath which, 
if the ice is thick enough, there is a zone of constant temperature 
which will be about the mean annual temperature of the region 
ofjthe snow-field. Underlying this there is a more or less constant 
ventral or ground temperature, depending mainly upon the 
internal heat of the earth, which is conducted to the under 
surface of the glacier where it slowly melts the ice, the more 
readily because the pressure lowers the melting point consider- 
ably, so that streams of water run constantly from beneath many 
glaciers, adding their volume to the springs which issue from the 
rock. The middle zone of constant temperature is wedge-shaped 



in " alpine " glaciers, the apex pointing downwards to the zone 
of waste. The upper zone of variable temperature is thinnest 
in the snow-field where the mean temperature is lowest, and 
entirely dominant in the snout end of the glacier where the zone 
of constant temperature disappears. Two temperature wedges 
are thus superposed base to point, the one being thickest where 
the other is thinnest, and both these lie upon the basal film of 
temperature where the escaping earth-heat is strengthened 
by that due to friction and pressure. The cold wave of winter 
may pass right through a thin glacier, or the constant temperature 
may be too low to permit of the ice melting at the base, in which 
cases the glacier is " dry " and has great eroding power. But 
in the lower warmer portions water running through crevasses 
will raise the temperature, and increase the strength of the 
downward heat wave, while the mean annual temperature 
being there higher, the combined result will be that the glacier 
will gradually become " wet " at the base and have little eroding 
power, and it will become more and more wet as it moves down 
the lower valley zone of ice-waste, until at last the balance 
is reached between waste and supply and the glacier finally 
disappears. 

If the mean annual temperature be 20 F., and the mean 
winter temperature be - 12 F., as in parts of Greenland, all 
the ice must be considerably below the melting point, since the 
pressure of ice a mile in depth lowers the melting point only 
to 30 F., and the earth-heat is only sufficient to melt J in. of 
ice in a year. Therefore in these regions, and in snow-fields and 
high glaciers with an equal or lower mean temperature than 
20 F., the glacier will be " dry " throughout, which may account 
for the great eroding power stated to exist near the bergschrund 
in glaciers of an alpine type, which usually have their origin on 
precipitous slopes. 

A considerable amount of ice-waste takes place by water- 
drainage, though much is the result of constant evaporation 
from the ice surface. The lower end of a glacier is in summer 
flooded by streams of water that pour along cracks and plunge 
into crevasses, often forming " pot-holes " or moulins where 
stones are swirled round in a glacial " mill " and wear holes 
in the solid rock below. Some of these streams issue in a spout 
half way up the glacier's end wall, but the majority find their 
way through it and join the water running along the glacier 
floor and emerging where the glacier ends in a large glacial 
stream. 

Results of Glacial Action.-^ A glacier is a degrading and an 
aggrading agent. Much difference of opinion exists as to the 
potency of a glacier to alter surface features, some maintaining 
that it is extraordinarily effective, and considering that a valley 
glacier forms a pronounced cirque at the region of its origin 
and that the cirque is gradually cut backward until a long and 
deep valley is formed (which becomes evident, as in the Rocky 
Mountains, in an upper valley with " reversed grade " when 
the glacier disappears), and also that the end of a glacier plunging 
into a valley or a fjord will gouge a deep basin at its region of 
impact. The Alaskan and Norwegian fjords and the rock basins 
of the Scottish lochs are adduced as examples. Other writers 
maintain that a glacier is only a modifying and not a dominant 
agent in its effects upon the land-surface, considering, for example, 
that a glacier coming down a lateral valley will preserve the 
valley from the atmospheric denudation which has produced 
the main valley over which the lateral valley " hangs," a result 
which the believers in strong glacial action hold to be due to the 
more powerful action of the main glacier as contrasted with the 
weaker action of that in the lateral valley. Both the advocates 
and the opponents of strenuous ice action agree that a V-shaped 
valley of stream erosion is converted to a U-shaped valley of 
glacial modification, and that rock surfaces are rounded into 
roches moutonnies, and are grooved and striated by the passage 
of ice shod with fragments of rock, while the subglacial material 
is ground into finer and finer fragments until it becomes mud 
and " rock-flour " as the glacier proceeds. In any case striking 
results are manifest in any formerly glaciated region. The high 
peaks rise into pinnacles, and ridges with " house-roof " structure, 



GLACIS— GLADIATORS 



63 



above the former glacier, while below it the contours are all 
rounded and typically subdued. A landscape that was formerly 
completely covered by a moving ice-cap has none but these 
rounded features of dome-shaped hills and U-shaped valleys 
that at least bear evidence to the great modifying power that 
a glacier has upon a landscape. 

There is no conflict of opinion with regard to glacial aggradation 
and the distribution of superglacial, englacial and subglacial 
material, which during the active existence of a glacier is finally 
distributed by glacial streams that produce very considerable 
alluviation. In many regions which were covered by the 
Pleistocene ice-sheet the work of the glacier was arrested by 
melting before it was half done. Great deposits of till and boulder 
clay that lay beneath the glaciers were abandoned in situ, and 
remain as an unsorted mixture of large boulders, pebbles and 
mingled fragments, embedded in clay or sand. The lateral, 
median and terminal moraines were stranded where they sank 
as the ice disappeared, and together with perched blocks (roches 
per chits) remain as a permanent record of former conditions 
which are now found to have existed temporarily in much earlier 
geological times. In glaciated North America lateral moraines 
are found that are 500 to 1000 ft. high and in northern Italy 
1500 to 2000 ft. high. The surface of the ground in all these 
places is modified into the characteristic glaciated landscape, 
and many formerly deep valleys are choked with glacial debris 
either completely changing the local drainage systems, or compel- 
ling the reappearing streams to cut new channels in a superposed 
drainage system. Karnes also and eskers (q.v.) are left under 
certain conditions, with many puzzling deposits that are clearly 
due to some features of ice- work not thoroughly understood. 

See L. Agassiz, Atudes sur les glaciers (Neuchatel, 1840) and 
Nouvelles £tudes . . . (Paris, 1847); N. S. Shaler and W. M. Davis, 
Glaciers (Boston, 1881); A. Penck, Die Begletscherung der deutschen 
Alpen (Leipzig, 1882) ; J. Tyndall, The Glaciers of the Alps (London, 
1896); T. G. Bonney, Ice- Work, Past and Present (London, 1896); 
I. C. Russell, Glaciers of North America (Boston, 1897) ; E. Richter, 
Neue Ergebnisse und Probleme der Gletscherforschung (Vienna, 1899) ; 
F. Forel, Essai sur les variations pSriodiques des glaciers (Geneva, 188 1 
and 1900) ; H. Hess, Die Gletscher (Brunswick, 1904). (E. C. Sp.) 

GLACIS, in military engineering (see Fortification and 
Siegecrapt), an artificial slope of earth in the front of works, 
so constructed as to keep an assailant under the fire of the 
defenders to the last possible moment. On the natural ground- 
level, troops attacking any high work would be sheltered from 
its fire when close up to it; the ground therefore is raised to 
form a glacis, which is swept by the fire of the parapet. More 
generally, the term is used to denote any slope, natural or 
artificial, which fulfils the above requirements. 

GLADBACH, the name of two towns in Germany distinguished 
as Bergisch-Gladbach and Munchen-Gladbach. 

1. Bergisch-Gladbach is in Rhenish Prussia, 8 m. N.E. of 
Cologne by rail. Pop. (1005) 13,410. It possesses four large 
paper mills and among its other industries are paste-board, 
powder, percussion caps, nets and machinery. Ironstone, 
peat and lime are found in the vicinity. The town has four 
Roman Catholic churches and one Protestant. The Stunden- 
thalshohe, a popular resort, is in the neighbourhood, and near 
Gladbach is Altenberg, with a remarkably fine church, built 
for the Cistercian abbey at this place. 

2. Munchen-Gladbach, also in Rhenish Prussia, 16 m. 
W.S.W. of Dusseldorf on the main line of railway to Aix-la- 
Chapelle, Pop. (1885) 44,230; (1905) 60,714. It is one of the chief 
manufacturing places in Rhenish Prussia, its principal industries 
being the spinning and weaving of cotton, the manufacture 
of silks, velvet, ribbon and damasks, and dyeing and bleaching. 
There are also tanneries, tobacco manufactories, machine works 
and foundries. The town possesses a fine park and has statues 
of the emperor William I. and of Prince Bismarck. There are 
ten Roman Catholic churches here, among them being the 
beautiful minster, with a Gothic choir dating from 1250, a nave 
dating from the beginning of the 13th century and a crypt of 
the 8th century. The town has two hospitals, several schools, 
and is the headquarters of important insurance societies. 



Gladbach existed before the time of Charlemagne, and a Bene- 
dictine monastery was founded near it in 793. It was thu9 
called Munchen-Gladbach or Monks' Gladbach, to distinguish 
it from another town of the same name. The monastery was 
suppressed in 1802. It became a town in 1336; weaving was 
introduced here towards the end of the 18th century, and 
having belonged for a long time to the duchy of Juliers it came 
into the possession of Prussia in 181 5. 

See Strauss, Geschichte der Stadi M&nchen-Gladbach (1895); and 
G. Eckertz, Das Verbriiderungs- und Todtenbuch der Abtei Gladbach 
(1881). 

GLADDEN, WASHINGTON (1836- ), American Congrega- 
tional divine, was born in Pottsgrove, Pennsylvania, on the nth 
of February 1836. He graduated at Williams College in 1859, 
preached in churches in Brooklyn, Morrisania (New York City), 
North Adams, Massachusetts, and Springfield, Massachusetts, 
and in 1882 became pastor of the First Congregational Church 
of Columbus, Ohio. He was an editor of the Independent in 
1871-1875, and a frequent contributor to it and other periodicals. 
He consistently and earnestly urged in pulpit and press the 
need of personal, civil and, particularly, social righteousness, 
and in 1900-1902 was a member of the city council of Columbus. 
Among his many publications, which include sermons, occasional 
addresses, &c, are: Plain Thoughts on the Art of Living (1868); 
Workingmen and their Employers (1876); The Christian Way 
(1877); Things New and Old (1884); Applied Christianity 
(1887); Tools and the Man — Property and Industry under the 
Christian Law (1893); The Church and the Kingdom (1894), 
arguing against a confusion and misuse of these two terms; 
Seven Puzzling Bible Books (1897); How much is Left of the Old 
Doctrines (1899); Social Salvation (1901); Witnesses of the 
Light (1903); the William Belden Noble Lectures (Harvard), 
being addresses on Dante, Michelangelo, Fichte, Hugo, Wagner 
and Ruskin; The New Idolatry (1005) ; Christianity and Social- 
ism (1906), and The Church and Modern Life (1908). In 1909 he 
published his Recollections. 

GLADIATORS (from Lat. gladius, sword), professional com- 
batants who fought to the death in Roman public shows. That 
this form of spectacle, which is almost peculiar to Rome and 
the Roman provinces, was originally borrowed from Etruria 
is shown by various indications. On an Etruscan tomb dis- 
covered at Tarquinii there is a representation of gladiatorial 
games; the slaves employed to carry off the dead bodies from 
the arena wore masks representing the Etruscan Charon; and 
we learn from Isidore of Seville (Origines, x.) that the name for 
a trainer of gladiators (lanista) is an Etruscan word meaning 
butcher or executioner. These gladiatorial games are evidently 
a survival of the practice of immolating slaves and prisoners 
on the tombs of illustrious chieftains, a practice recorded in 
Greek, Roman and Scandinavian legends, and traceable even as 
late as the 19th century as the Indian suttee. Even at Rome 
they were for a long time confined to funerals, and hence the older 
name for gladiators was bustuarii; but in the later days of the 
republic their original significance was forgotten, and they 
formed as indispensable a part of the public amusements as the 
theatre and the circus. 

The first gladiators are said, on the authority of Valerius 
Maximus (ii. 4. 7), to have been exhibited at Rome in the Forum 
Boarium in 264 b.c. by Marcus and Decimus Brutus at the 
funeral of their father. On this occasion only three pairs fought, 
but the taste for these games spread rapidly, and the number 
of combatants grew apace. In 174 Titus Flamininus celebrated 
his father's obsequies by a three-days' fight, in which 74 gladiators 
took part. Julius Caesar engaged such extravagant numbers 
for his aedileship that his political opponents took fright and 
carried a decree of the senate imposing a certain limit of numbers, 
but notwithstanding this restriction he was able to exhibit no 
less than 300 pairs. During the later days of the republic the 
gladiators were a constant element of danger to the public 
peace. The more turbulent spirits among the nobility had 
each his band of gladiators to act as a bodyguard, and the 
armed troops of Clodius, Milo and Catiline played the same part 



6+ 



GLADIATORS 



in Roman history as the armed retainers of the feudal barons 
or the condottieri of the Italian republics. Under the empire, 
notwithstanding sumptuary enactments, the passion for the 
arena steadily increased. Augustus, indeed, limited the shows 
to two a year, and forbade a praetor to exhibit more than 120 
gladiators, yet allusions in Horace (Sat. ii. 3. 85) and Persius 
(vi. 48) show that too pairs was the fashionable number for 
private entertainments; and in the Marmor Ancyranum the 
emperor states that more than 10,000 men had fought during 
his reign. The imbecile Claudius was devoted to this pastime, 
and would sit from morning till night in his chair of state, descend- 
ing now and then to the arena to coax or force the reluctant 
gladiators to resume their bloody work. Under Nero senators 
and even well-born women appeared as combatants; and 
Juvenal (viii. 199) has handed down to eternal infamy the 
descendant of the Gracchi who appeared without disguise as a 
rctiarius, and begged his life from the secutor, who blushed to 
conquer one so noble and so vile. 1 Titus, whom his countrymen 
sumamed the Clement, ordered a show which lasted 100 days; 
and Trajan, in celebration of his triumph over Decebalus, 
exhibited 5000 pairs of gladiators. Domitian at the Saturnalia 
of a.d. 90 arranged a battle between dwarfs and women. Even 
women of high birth fought in the arena, and it was not till 
a.d. 200 that the practice was forbidden by edict. How widely 
the taste for these sanguinary spectacles extended throughout 
the Roman provinces is attested by monuments, inscriptions 
and the remains of vast amphitheatres. From Britain to Syria 
there was not a town of any size that could not boast its arena 
and annual games. After Italy, Gaul, North Africa and Spain 
were most famous for their amphitheatres; and Greece was the 
only Roman province where the institution never thoroughly 
took root. 

Gladiators were commonly drawn either from prisoners of 
war, or slaves or criminals condemned to death. Thus in the 
first class we read of tattooed Britons in their war chariots, 
Thracians with their peculiar bucklers and scimitars, Moors 
from the villages round Atlas and negroes from central Africa, 
exhibited in the Colosseum. Down to the time of the empire 
only greater malefactors, such as brigands and incendiaries, 
were condemned to the arena; but by Caligula, Claudius and 
Nero this punishment was extended to minor offences, such as 
fraud and peculation, in order to supply the growing demand 
for victims. For the first century of the empire it was lawful 
for masters to sell their slaves as gladiators, but this was forbidden 
by Hadrian and Marcus Aurelius. Besides these three regular 
classes, the ranks were recruited by a considerable number of 
freedmen and Roman citizens who had squandered their estates 
and voluntarily took the aucior amentum gladiatorium, by which 
for a stated time they bound themselves to the lanista. Even 
men of birth and fortune not seldom entered the lists, either for 
the pure love of fighting or to gratify the whim of some dissolute 
emperor; and one emperor, Commodus, actually appeared in 
person in the arena. 

Gladiators were trained in schools (ludi) owned either by 
the state or by private citizens, and though the trade of a 
lanista was considered disgraceful, to own gladiators and let 
them out for hire was reckoned a legitimate branch of commerce. 
Thus Cicero, in his letters to Atticus, congratulates his friend 
on the good bargain he had made in purchasing a band, and 
urges that he might easily recoup himself by consenting to let 
them out twice. Men recruited mainly from slaves and criminals, 
whose lives hung on a thread, must have been more dangerous 
characters than modern galley slaves or convicts; and, though 
highly fed and carefully tended, they were of necessity subject 
to an iron discipline. In the school of gladiators discovered at 
Pompeii, of the sixty-three skeletons buried in the cells many 
were in irons. But hard as was the gladiators' lot, — so hard 
that special precautions had to be taken to prevent suicide, — 
it had its consolations. A successful gladiator enjoyed far 
greater fame than any modern prize-fighter or athlete. He was 

1 See A. E. Housmanon the passage in Classical Review (November 
1904). 



presented with broad pieces, chains and jewelled helmets, such 
as may be seen in the museum at Naples; poets like Martial 
sang his prowess; his portrait was multiplied on vases, lamps 
and gems; and high-born ladies contended for his favours. 
Mixed, too, with the lowest dregs of the city, there must have 
been many noble barbarians condemned to the vile trade by the 
hard fate of war. There are few finer characters in Roman 
history than the Thracian Spartacus, who, escaping with seventy 
of his comrades from the school of Lentulus at Capua, for three 
years defied the legions of Rome; and after Antony's defeat at 
Actium, the only part of his army that remained faithful to 
his cause were the gladiators whom he had enrolled at Cyzicus 
to grace his anticipated victory. 

There were various classes of gladiators, distinguished by 
their arms or modes of fighting. The Samnites fought with the 
national weapons — a large oblong shield, a vizor, a plumed 
helmet and a short sword. The Thraces had a small round 
buckler and a dagger curved like a scythe; they were generally 
pitted against the Mirmillones, who were armed in Gallic fashion 
with helmet, sword and shield, and were so called from the fish 
(fjLopfxd\os or /xop/x&pos) which served as the crest of their helmet. 
In like manner the Retiarius was matched with the Secutor: 
the former had nothing on but a short tunic or apron, and sought 
to entangle his pursuer, who was fully armed, with the cast-net 
(jaculum) that he carried in his right hand; and if successful, 
he despatched him with the trident (tridens, fuscina) that he 
carried in his left. We may also mention the Andabatae who 
are generally believed to have fought on horseback and wore 
helmets with closed vizors; the Dimachaeri of the later empire, 
who carried a short sword in each hand; the Essedarii, who 
fought from chariots like the ancient Britons; the Hoplomachi, 
who wore a complete suit of armour; and the Laquearii, who 
tried to lasso their antagonists. 

Gladiators also received special names according to the 
time or circumstances in which they exercised their calling. 
The Bustuarii have already been mentioned; the Catervarii 
fought, not in pairs, but in bands; the Meridiani came forward 
in the middle of the day for the entertainment of those spectators 
who had not left their seats; the Ordinarii fought only in pairs, 
in the regular way; the Fiscales were trained and supported 
at the expense of the imperial treasury; the Paegniarii used 
harmless weapons, and their exhibition was a sham one; the 
Postulaticii were those whose appearance was asked as a favour 
from the giver of the show, in addition to those already exhibited. 

The shows were announced some days before they took 
place by bills affixed to the walls of houses and public buildings, 
copies of which were also sold in the streets. These bills gave 
the names of the chief pairs of competitors, the date of the show, 
the name of the giver and the different kinds of combats. The 
spectacle began with a procession of the gladiators through the 
arena, after which their swords were examined by the giver of 
the show. The proceedings opened with a sham fight (praelusio, 
prolusio) with wooden swords and javelins. The signal for real 
fighting was given by the sound of the trumpet, those who 
showed fear being driven on to the arena with whips and red-hot 
irons. When a gladiator was wounded, the spectators shouted 
Habet (he is wounded) ; if he was at the mercy of his adversary, 
he lifted up his forefinger to implore the clemency of the people, 
with whom (in the later times of the republic) the giver left the 
decision as to his life or death. If the spectators were in favour 
of mercy, they waved their handkerchiefs; if they desired the 
death of the conquered gladiator, they turned their thumbs 
downwards. 1 The reward of victory consisted of branches of 
palm, sometimes of money. Gladiators who had exercised 
their calling for a long time, or such as displayed special skill 
and bravery, were presented with a wooden sword (rudis), and 
discharged from further service. 

* A different account is given by Mayor on Juvenal iii. j6, who 
says: "Those who wished the death of the conquered gladiator 
turned their thumbs towards their breasts, as a signal to his opponents 
to stab him ; those who wished him to be spared, turned their thumbs 
downwards, as a signal for dropping the sword." 



GLADIOLUS 



65 



Both the estimation in which gladiatorial games were held by 
Roman moralists, and the influence that they exercised upon the 
morals and genius of the nation, deserve notice. The Roman was 
essentially cruel, not so much from spite or vindictiveness as from 
callousness and defective sympathies. This element of inhumanity 
and brutality must have been deeply ingrained in the national 
character to have allowed the games to become popular, but there 
can be no doubt that it was fed and fostered by the savage form 
which their amusements took. That the sight of bloodshed provokes 
a love of bloodshed and cruelty is a commonplace of morals. To 
the horrors of the arena we may attribute in part, not only the 
brutal treatment of their slaves and prisoners, but the frequency 
of suicide among the Romans. On the other hand, we should be 
careful not to exaggerate the effects or draw too sweeping infer- 
ences from the prevalence of this degrading amusement. Human 
nature is happily illogical; and we know that many of the Roman 
statesmen who gave these games, and themselves enjoyed these siehts 
of blood, were in every other department of life irreproachable — 
indulgent fathers, humane generals and mild rulers of provinces. 
In the present state of society it is difficult to conceive how a man 
of taste can have endured to gaze upon a scene of human butchery. 
Yet we should remember that it is not so long since bear-baiting was 
prohibited in England, and we are only now attaining that stage of 
morality in respect of cruelty to animals that was reached in the 5th 
century, by the help of Christianity, in respect of cruelty to men. 
We shall not then be greatly surprised if hardly one of the Roman 
moralists is found to raise his voice against this amusement, except 
on the score of extravagance. Cicero in a well-known passage com- 
mends the gladiatorial games as the best discipline against die fear 
of death and suffering that can be presented to the eye. The 
younger Pliny, who perhaps of all Romans approaches nearest to our 
ideal of a cultured gentleman, speaks approvingly of them. Marcus 
Aurelius, though he did much to mitigate their horrors, yet in his 
writings condemns the monotony rather than the cruelty. Seneca 
is indeed a splendid exception, and his letter to Lentulus is an 
eloquent protest against this inhuman sport. But it is without 
a parallel till we come to the writings of the Christian fathers, 
Tertullian, Lactantius, Cyprian and Augustine. In the Confessions 
of the last there occurs a narrative which is worth quoting as a proof 
of the strange fascination which the games exercised even on a 
religious man and a Christian. He tells us how his friend Alipius 
was dragged against his will to the amphitheatre, how he strove 
to guiet his conscience by closing his eyes, how at some exciting 
crisis the shouts of the whole assembly aroused his curiosity, how 
he looked and was lost, grew drunk with the sight of blood, and 
returned again and again, knowing his guilt yet unable to abstain* 
The first Christian emperor was persuaded to issue an edict abolishing 
gladiatorial games (325), yet in 404 we read of an exhibition of 
gladiators to celebrate the triumph of Honorius over the Goths, 
and it is said that they were not totally extinct in the West till the 
time of Theodoric. 

Gladiators formed admirable models for the sculptor. One of 
the finest pieces of ancient sculpture that has come down to us is 
the " Wounded Gladiator" of the National Museum at Naples. The 
so-called " Fighting Gladiator" of the Borvhese collection, now in the 
Museum of the Louvre, and the " Dying Gladiator " of the Capitoline 
Museum, which inspired the famous stanza of Childe Harold, have 
been pronounced by modern antiquaries to represent, not gladiators, 
but warriors. In this connexion we may mention the admirable 
picture of Gerome which bears the title, Ave, Caesar, morituri te 
salutant." 

The attention of archaeologists has been recently directed to the 
tesserae of gladiators. These tesserae, of which about sixty exist in 
various museums, are small oblong tablets of ivory or bone, with 
an inscription on each of the four sides. The first line contains 
a name in the nominative case, presumably that of the gladiator; 
the second line a name in the genitive, that of the patronus or 
dominus; the third line begins with the letters SP (for sbectatus 
« approved), which shows that the gladiator had passed his pre- 
liminary trials; this is followed by a day of a Roman month; and 
in the fourth line are the names of the consuls of a particular year. 

Authorities. — All needful information on the subject will be 
found in L. Friedlander's Darstellungen aus der Sittengeschichte Roms, 
(part ii., 6th ed., 1889), and in the section by him on^ 1 The Games " 
in Marquardt's Romische Staatsverwaltung, iii. (1885) p. 554; see 
also article by G. Lafaye in Daremberg and Saglio, Dictionnaire 
des antiquiUs. See also F. W. Ritschl, Tesserae gJadialoriae (i86a) 
and P. J. Meier, De gladiatura Romana quaestiones selectae (1881). 
The articles by Lipsius on the Saturnalia and amphitheatrum in 
Graevius, Thesaurus anUqu/Uaium Romanarum, be., may still be 
consulted with advantage. 

GLADIOLUS, a genus of monocotyledonous plants, belonging 
to the natural order Iridaceae. They are herbaceous plants 
growing from a solid fibrous-coated bulb (or corm), with long 
narrow plaited leaves and a terminal one-sided spike of generally 
bright-coloured irregular flowers. The segments of the limb of 
the perianth are very unequal, the perianth tube is curved, funnel- 



shaped and widening upwards, the segments equalling or 
exceeding the tube in length. There are about 150 known 
species, a large number of which are South African, but the 
genus extends into tropical Africa, forming a characteristic 
feature oi the mountain vegetation, and as far north as central 
Europe and western Asia. One species G. illyricus (sometimes 
regarded as a variety of G. communis) is found wild in England, 
in the New Forest and the Isle of Wight. Some of the species 
have been cultivated for a long period in English flower-gardens, 
where both the introduced species and the modern varieties 
bred from them are very ornamental and popular. G. segetum 
has been cultivated since 1596, and G. byzantinus since 1629, 
while many additional species were introduced during the latter 
half of the 18th century. One of the earlier of the hybrids 
originated in gardens was the beautiful G. Colvillei, raised in the 
nursery of Mr Colville of Chelsea in 1823 from G. tristis fertilized 
by G. cardinalis. In the first decade of the 1 9th century, however, 
the Hon. and Rev. W. Herbert had successfully crossed the 
showy G. cardinalis with the smaller but more free-flowering 
G. blandus, and the result was the production of a race of great 
beauty and fertility. Other crosses were made with G. tristis } 
G. oppositiflorus, G. hirsuius, G. alatus and G. psiltacinus; but 
it was not till after the production of G. gandavensis that the 
gladiolus really became a general favourite in gardens. This 
fine hybrid was raised in 1837 by M. Bedinghaus, gardener to 
the due d'Aremberg, at Enghien, crossing G. psiltacinus and 
G. cardinalis. There can, however, be little doubt that before 
the gandavensis type had become fairly fixed the services of 
other species were brought into force, and the most likely of 
these were G. oppositiflorus (which shows in the white forms), 
G. blandus and G. ramosus. Other species may also have been 
used, but in any case the gandavensis gladiolus, as we now know 
it, is the result of much crossing and inter-crossing between 
the best forms as they developed (J. Weathers, Practical Guide 
to Garden Plants). Since that time innumerable varieties have 
appeared only to sink into oblivion upon being replaced by 
still finer productions. 

The modern varieties of gladioli have almost completely 
driven the natural species out of gardens, except in botanical 
collections. The most gorgeous groups — in addition to the 
gandavensis type — are those known under the names of Lemoinei f 
Childsi, nanceianus and brenchleyensis. The last-named was 
raised by a Mr Hooker at Brenchley in 1848, and although quite 
distinct in appearance from gandavensis, it undoubtedly had 
that variety as one of its parents. Owing to the brilliant scarlet 
colour of the flowers, this is always a great favourite for planting 
in beds. The Lemoinei forms originated at Nancy, in France, 
by fertilizing G. purpureo-auralus with pollen from G. gandavensis, 
the first flower appearing in 1877, and the plants being put into 
commerce in 1880. The Childsi gladioli first appeared in 1882, 
having been raised .at Baden-Baden by Herr Max Leichtlin 
from the best forms of G. gandavensis and G. Saundersi. The 
flowers of the best varieties are of great size and substance, often 
measuring 7 to 9 in. across, while the range of colour is marvellous, 
with shades of grey, purple, scarlet, salmon, crimson, rose, white, 
pink, yellow, &c, often beautifully mottled and blotched in the 
throat. The plants are vigorous in growth, often reaching a 
height of 4 to 5 ft. G. nanceianus was raised at Nancy by 
MM. Lemoine and were first put into commerce in 1889. Next 
to the Childsi group they are the most beautiful, and have the 
blood of the best forms of G. Saundersi and G. Lemoinei in their 
veins. The plants are quite as hardy as the gandavensis hybrids, 
and the colours of the flowers are almost as brilliant and varied 
in hue as those of the Childsi section. 

A deep and rather stiff sandy loam is the best soil for the gladiolus, 
and this should be trenched up in October and enriched with well- 
decomposed manure, consisting partly of cow dung, the manure being 
disposed altogether below the conns, a layer at the bottom of the 
upper trench, say 9 in. from the surface, and another layer at double 
that depth. The corms should be planted in succession at intervals 
of two or three weeks through the months of March, April and May ; 
about % to 5 in. deep and at least I ft. apart, a little pure soil or sand 
being laid over each before the earth is closed in about them, an 

Hi. 3 



66 



GLADSHEIM— GLADSTONE 



arrangement which may be advantageously followed with bulbous 
plants generally. In hot summer weather they should have a good 
mulching of well-decayed manure, and, as soon as the flower spikes 
are produced, liquid manure may occasionally be given them with 
advantage. 

The gladiolus is easily raised from seeds, which should be sown in 
March or April in pots of rich soil placed in slight heat, the pots 
being kept near the glass after they begin to grow, and the plants 
being gradually hardened to permit their being placed out-of-doors 
in a sheltered spot for the summer. Modern growers often grow the 
seeds in the open in April on a nicely prepared bed in drills about 
6 in. apart and i in. deep, covering them with finely sifted gritty 
mould. The seed bed is then pressed down evenly and firmly, 
watered occasionally and kept free from weeds during the summer. 
In October they will have ripened off, and must be taken out of the 
soil, and stored in paper bags in a dry room secure from frost. They 
will have made little bulbs from the size of a hazel nut downwards, 
according to their vigour. In the spring they should be planted 
like the old bulbs, and the larger ones will flower during the season, 
while the smaller ones must be again harvested and planted out as 
before. The time occupied from the sowing of the seed until the 
plant attains its full strength is from three to four years. The 
approved sorts, which are identified by name, are multiplied by 
means of bulblets or offsets or " spawn,*' which form around the 
principal bulb or corm; but in this they vary greatly, some kinds 
furnishing abundant increase and soon becoming plentiful, while 
others persistently refuse to yield offsets. The stately habit and 
rich glowing colours of the modern gladioli render them exceedingly 
valuable as decorative plants during the late summer months. They 
are, moreover, very desirable and useful flowers for cutting for the 
purpose of room decoration, for while the blossoms themselves last 
fresn for some days if cut either early in the morning or late in the 
evening, the undeveloped buds open in succession, if the stalks are 
kept in water, so that a cut spike will go on blooming for some time. 

GLADSHEIM (Old Norse Gladsheimr) , in Scandinavian 
mythology, the region of joy and home of Odin. Valhalla, 
the paradise whither the heroes who fell in battle were escorted, 
was situated there. 

GLADSTONE, JOHN HALL (1827-1902), English chemist, 
was born at Hackney, London, on the 7th of March 1827. From 
childhood he showed great aptitude for science; geology was 
his favourite subject, but since this in his father's opinion did 
not afford a career of promise, he devoted himself to chemistry, 
which he studied under Thomas Graham at University College, 
London, and Liebig at Giessen, where he graduated as Ph.D. 
in 1847. In 1850 he became chemical lecturer at St Thomas's 
hospital, and three years later was elected a fellow of the Royal 
Society at the unusually early age of twenty-six. From 1858 
to 1 86 1 he served on the royal commission on lighthouses, and 
from 1864 to 1868 was a member of the war office committee 
on gun-cotton. From 1874 to 1877 he was Fullerian professor 
of chemistry at the Royal Institution, in 1874 he was chosen 
first president of the Physical Society, and in 1877-1879 he was 
president of the Chemical Society. In 1897 the Royal Society 
recognized his fifty years of scientific work by awarding him the 
Davy medal. Dr Gladstone's researches were large in number 
and wide in range, dealing to a great extent with problems 
that lie on the border-line between physics and chemistry. 
Thus a number of his inquiries, and those not the least important, 
were partly chemical, partly optical. He determined the optical 
constants of hundreds of substances, with the object of discover- 
ing whether any of the elements possesses more than one atomic 
refraction. Again, he investigated the connexion between the 
optical behaviour, density and chemical composition of ethereal 
oils, and the relation between molecular magnetic rotation and 
the refraction and dispersion of nitrogenous compounds. So 
early as 1856 he showed the importance of the spectroscope 
in chemical research, and he was one of the first to notice that 
the Fraunhofer spectrum at sunrise and sunset differs from that 
at midday, his conclusion being that the earth's atmosphere 
must be responsible for many of its absorption lines, which 
indeed were subsequently traced to the oxygen and water-vapour 
in the air. Another portion of his work was of an electro-chemical 
character. His studies, with Alfred Tribe (1840-1885) and W. 
Hibbert, in the chemistry of the storage battery, have added 
largely to our knowledge, while the " copper-zinc couple," with 
which his name is associated together with that of Tribe, among 
other things, afforded a simple means of preparing certain 



organo-metallic compounds, and thus promoted research in 
branches of organic chemistry where those bodies are especially 
useful. Mention may also be made of his work on phosphorus, 
on explosive substances, such as iodide of nitrogen, gun-cotton 
and the fulminates, on the influence of mass in the process of 
chemical reactions, and on the effect of carbonic acid on the 
germination of plants. Dr Gladstone always took a great 
interest in educational questions, and from 1873 to 1894 he was 
a member of the London School Board. He was also a member 
of the Christian Evidence Society, and an early supporter of 
the Young Men's Christian Association. His death occurred 
suddenly in London on the 6th of October 1902. 

GLADSTONE, WILLIAM EWART (1809- 1898), British 
statesman, was born on the 29th of December 1809 at No. 62 
Rodney Street, Liverpool. His forefathers were Gledstanes 
of Gledstanes, in the upper ward of Lanarkshire; or in Scottish 
phrase, Gledstanes of that Ilk. As years went on their estates 
dwindled, and by the beginning of the 17th century Gledstanes 
was sold. The adjacent property of Arthurshiel remained in 
the hands of the family for nearly a hundred years longer. Then 
the son of the last Gledstanes of Arthurshiel removed to Biggar, 
where he opened the business of a maltster. His grandson, 
Thomas Gladstone (for so the name was modified), became a 
corn-merchant at Leith. He happened to send his eldest son, 
John, to Liverpool to sell a cargo of grain there, and the energy 
and aptitude of the young man attracted the favourable notice 
of a leading corn-merchant of Liverpool, who recommended him 
to settle in that city. Beginning his commercial career as a 
clerk in his patron's house, John Gladstone lived to become 
one of the merchant-princes of Liverpool, a baronet and a 
member of parliament. He died in 185 1 at the age of eighty- 
seven. Sir John Gladstone was a pure Scotsman, a Lowlander 
by birth and descent. He married Anne, daughter of Andrew 
Robertson of Stornoway, sometime provost of Dingwall. Provost 
Robertson belonged to the Clan Donachie, and by this marriage 
the robust and business-like qualities of the Lowlander were 
blended with the poetic imagination, the sensibility and fire 
of the Gael. 

John and Anne Gladstone had six children. The fourth son, 
William Ewart, was named after a merchant of Liverpool who 
was his father's friend. He seems to have been a 
remarkably good child, and much beloved at home. Chi J d ^ t ood m 
In i8i8or 1819 Mrs Gladstone, who belonged to the ^a. 
Evangelical school, said in a letter to a friend, that 
she believed her son William had been " truly converted to God." 
After some tuition at the vicarage of Seaforth, a watering-place 
near Liverpool, the boy went to Eton in 182 1. His tutor was 
the Rev. Henry Hartopp Knapp. His brothers, Thomas and 
Robertson Gladstone, were already at Eton. Thomas was in the 
fifth form, and William, who was placed in the middle remove 
of the fourth form, became his eldest brother's fag. He worked 
hard at his classical lessons, and supplemented the ordinary 
business of the school by studying mathematics in the holidays. 
Mr Hawtrey, afterwards headmaster, commended a copy of 
his Latin verses, and " sent him up for good "; and this ex- 
perience first led the young student to associate intellectual 
work with the ideas of ambition and success. He was not a 
fine scholar, in that restricted sense of the term which implies 
a special aptitude for turning English into Greek and Latin, or 
for original versification in the classical languages. " His 
composition," we read, " was stiff," but he was imbued with 
the substance of his authors; and a contemporary who was in 
the sixth form with him recorded that " when there were thrilling 
passages of Virgil or Homer, or difficult passages in the Scriptores 
Graeciy to translate, he or Lord Arthur Hervey was generally 
called up to edify the class with quotation or translation." By 
common consent he was pre-eminently God-fearing, orderly 
and conscientious. " At Eton," said Bishop Hamilton of 
Salisbury, " I was a thoroughly idle boy, but I was saved from 
some worse things by getting to know Gladstone." His most 
intimate friend was Arthur Hallam, by universal acknowledg- 
ment the most remarkable Etonian of his day; but he was not 



GLADSTONE 



67 



generally popular or even widely known. He was seen to the 
greatest advantage, and was most thoroughly at home, in the 
debates of the Eton Society, learnedly called " The Literati," and 
vulgarly " Pop," and in the editorship of the Eton Miscellany. 
He left Eton at Christmas 1827. He read for six months with 
private tutors, and in October 1828 went up to Christ Church, 
where, in the following year, he was nominated to a studentship. 

At Oxford Gladstone read steadily, but not laboriously, 
till he neared his final schools. During the latter part of his 
undergraduate career he took a brief but brilliant share in the 
proceedings of the Union, of which he was successively secretary 
and president. He made his first speech on the nth of February 
1830. Brought up in the nurture and admonition of Canning, he 
defended Roman Catholic emancipation, and thought the duke 
of Wellington's government unworthy of national confidence. 
He opposed the removal of Jewish disabilities, arguing, we are 
told by a contemporary, "on the part of the Evangelicals," 
and pleaded for the gradual extinction, in preference to the 
immediate abolition, of slavery. But his great achievement 
was a speech against the Whig Reform Bill. One who heard 
this famous discourse says: " Most of the speakers rose, more 
or less, above their usual level, but when Mr Gladstone sat 
down we all of us felt that an epoch in our lives had occurred. 
It certainly was the finest speech of his that I ever heard." 
Bishop Charles Wordsworth said that his experience of Gladstone 
at this time " made me (and I doubt not others also) feel no less 
sure than of my own existence that Gladstone, our then Christ 
Church undergraduate, would one day rise to be prime minister 
of England." In December 1831 Gladstone crowned his career 
by taking a double first-class. Lord Halifax (1800-188 5) used 
to say, with reference to the increase in the amount of reading 
requisite for the highest honours: " My double-first must have 
been a better thing than Peel's; Gladstone's must have been 
better than mine." 

Now came the choice of a profession. Deeply anxious to make 
the best use of his life, Gladstone turned his thoughts to holy 
orders. But his father had determined to make him 
Bat Zj nt ° a P out i c * an « Quitting Oxford in the spring of 1832, 
%jjg atm ' Gladstone spent six months in Italy, learning the 
language and studying art. In the following September 
he was suddenly recalled to England, to undertake his first 
parliamentary campaign. The fifth duke of Newcastle was one 
of the chief potentates of the High Tory party. His frank 
claim to " do what he liked with his own " in the representation 
of Newark has given him a place in political history. But that 
claim had been rudely disputed by the return of a Radical 
lawyer at the election of 1831, The Duke was anxious to obtain 
a capable candidate to aid him in regaining his ascendancy over 
the rebellious borough. His son, Lord Lincoln, had heard 
Gladstone's speech against the Reform Bill delivered in the 
Oxford Union, and had written home that " a man had uprisen 
in Israel." At his suggestion the duke invited Gladstone to 
stand for Newark in the Tory interest against Mr Serjeant 
Wilde, afterwards Lord Chancellor Truro. The last of the 
Unreformed parliaments was dissolved on the 3rd of December 

1832. Gladstone, addressing the electors of Newark, said that 
he was bound by the opinions of no man and no party, but felt 
it a duty to watch and resist that growing desire for change 
which threatened to produce " along with partial good a melan- 
choly preponderance of mischief." The first principle to which 
he looked for national salvation was, that the"dutiesof governors 
are strictly and peculiarly religious, and that legislatures, like 
individuals, are bound to carry throughout their acts the spirit 
of the high truths they have acknowledged." The condition of 
the poor demanded special attention; labour should receive 
adequate remuneration; and he thought favourably of the 
" allotment of cottage grounds." He regarded slavery as 
sanctioned by Holy Scripture, but the slaves ought to be educated 
and gradually emancipated. The contest resulted in his return 
at the head of the poll. 

The first Reformed parliament met on the 29th of January 

1833, an d the young member for Newark took his seat for the first 



time in an assembly which he was destined to adorn, delight 
and astonish for more than half a century. His maiden speech 
was delivered on the 3rd of June in reply to what was 
almost a personal challenge. The colonial secretary, ^w 1 ' 
Mr Stanley, afterwards Lord Derby, brought forward ^^ 
a series of resolutions in favour of the extinction of 
slavery in the British colonies. On the first night of the debate 
Lord Howick, afterwards Lord Grey, who had been under- 
secretary for the Colonies, and who opposed the resolutions 
as proceeding too gradually towards abolition, cited certain 
occurrences on Sir John Gladstone's plantation in Demerara 
to illustrate his contention that the system of slave-labour in 
the West Indies was attended by great mortality among the 
slaves. Gladstone in his reply — his first speech in the House — 
avowed that he had a pecuniary interest in the question, " and, 
if he might say so much without exciting suspicion, a still deeper 
interest in it as a question of justice, of humanity and of religion." 
If there had recently been a high mortality on his father's planta- 
tion, it was due to the age of the slaves rather than to any 
peculiar hardship in their lot. It was true that the particular 
system of cultivation practised in Demerara was more trying 
than some others; but then it might be said that no two trades 
were equally conducive to health. Steel-grinding was notoriously 
unhealthy, and manufacturing processes generally were less 
favourable to life than agricultural. While strongly condemning 
cruelty, he declared himself an advocate of emancipation, but 
held that it should be effected gradually, and after due prepara- 
tion. The slaves must be religiously educated, and stimulated 
to profitable industry. The owners of emancipated slaves were 
entitled to receive compensation from parliament, because it 
was parliament that had established this description of property. 
" I do not," said Gladstone, " view property as an abstract 
thing; it is the creature of civil society. By the legislature it is 
granted, and by the legislature it is destroyed. " On the following 
day King William IV. wrote to Lord Althorp: " The king 
rejoices that a young member has come forward in so promis- 
ing a manner as Viscount Althorp states Mr W. E. Gladstone 
to have done." In the same session Gladstone spoke on 
the question of bribery and corruption at Liverpool, and 
on the temporalities of the Irish Church. In the session 
of 1834 his most important performance was a speech in 
opposition to Hume's proposal to throw the universities open 
to Dissenters. 

On the 10th of November 1834 Lord Althorp succeeded to 
his father's peerage, and thereby vacated the leadership of 
the House of Commons. The prime minister, Lord Melbourne, 
submitted to the king a choice of names for the chancellorship 
of the exchequer and leadership of the House of Commons; 
but his majesty announced that, having lost the services of 
Lord Althorp as leader of the House of Commons, he could feel 
no confidence in the stability of Lord Melbourne's government, 
and that it was his intention to send for the duke of Wellington. 
The duke took temporary charge of affairs, but Peel was felt to 
be indispensable. He had gone abroad after the session, and 
was now in Rome. As soon as he could be brought back he 
formed an administration, and appointed Gladstone to a junior 
lordship of the treasury. Parliament was dissolved on the 29th 
of December. Gladstone was returned unopposed, this time in 
conjunction with the Liberal lawyer whom he had beaten at the 
last election. The new parliament met on the 19th of February 
1835. The elections had given the Liberals a considerable 
majority. Immediately after the meeting of parliament Glad- 
stone was promoted to the under-secretaryship for the colonies, 
where his official chief was Lord Aberdeen. The administration 
was not long-lived. On the 30th of March Lord John Russell 
moved a resolution in favour of an inquiry into the temporalities 
of the Irish Church, with the intention of applying the surplus 
to general education without distinction of religious creed 
This was carried against ministers by a majority of thirty-three. 
On the 8th of April Sir Robert Peel resigned, and the under- 
secretary for the colonies of course followed his chief into private 
life. 



68 



GLADSTONE 



Released from the labours of office, Gladstone, living in 
chambers in the Albany, practically divided his time between 
his parliamentary duties and study. Then, as always, 
wo J^ ry his constant companions were Homer and Dante, and 
it is recorded that he read the whole of St Augustine, 
in twenty-two octavo volumes. He used to frequent the services 
at St James's, Piccadilly, and Margaret chapel, since better 
known as All Saints', Margaret Street. On the 20th of June 
1837 King William IV. died, and Parliament, having been 
prorogued by the young queen in person, was dissolved on the 
17th of the following month. Simply on the strength of his 
parliamentary reputation Gladstone was nominated, without 
his consent, for Manchester, and was placed at the bottom of 
the poll; but, having been at the same time nominated at 
Newark, was again returned. The year 1838 claims special note 
in a record of Gladstone's life, because it witnessed the appearance 
of his famous work on The State in its Relations with the Church. 
He had left Oxford just before the beginning of that Catholic 
revival which has transfigured both the inner spirit and the 
outward aspect of the Church of England. But the revival was 
now in full strength. The Tracts for the Times were saturating 
England with new influences. The movement counted no more 
enthusiastic or more valuable disciple than Gladstone. Its 
influence had reached him through his friendships, notably with 
two Fellows of Merton — Mr James Hope, who became Mr Hope- 
Scott of Abbotsford, and the Rev. H. E. Manning, afterwards 
cardinal archbishop. The State in its Relations with the Church 
was his practical contribution to a controversy in which his 
deepest convictions were involved. He contended that the 
Church, as established by law, was to be " maintained for its 
truth," and that this principle, if good for England, was good 
also for Ireland. 

On the 25th of July 1839 Gladstone was married at Hawarden 
to Miss Catherine Glynne, sister, and in her issue heir, of Sir 
Stephen Glynne, ninth and last baronet of that name. In 
1840 he published Church Principles considered in their Results. 

Parliament was dissolved in June 1841. Gladstone was 
again returned for Newark. The general election resulted in 
a Tory majority of eighty. Sir Robert Peel became 
cabinet, * prime minister, and made the member for Newark 
vice-president of the Board of Trade. An inevitable 
change is from this time to be traced in the topics of Gladstone's 
parliamentary speaking. Instead of discoursing on the corporate 
conscience of the state and the endowments of the Church, the 
importance of Christian education, and the theological unfitness 
of the Jews to sit in parliament, he is solving business-like 
problems about foreign tariffs and the exportation of machinery; 
waxing eloquent over the regulation of railways, and a graduated 
tax on corn; subtle on the monetary merits of half -farthings, 
and great in the mysterious lore of quassia and cocculus indicus. 
In 1842 he had a principal hand in the preparation of the revised 
tariff, by which duties were abolished or sensibly diminished 
in the case of 1200 duty-paying articles. In defending the new 
scheme he spoke incessantly, and amazed the House by his 
mastery of detail, his intimate acquaintance with the commercial 
needs of the country, and his inexhaustible power of exposition. 
In 1843 Gladstone, succeeding Lord Ripon as president of the 
Board of Trade, became a member of the cabinet at the age of 
thirty-three. He has recorded the fact that " the very first 
opinion which he ever was called upon to give in cabinet " was 
an opinion in favour of withdrawing the bill providing education 
for children in factories, to which vehement opposition was 
offered by the Dissenters, on the ground that it was too favourable 
to the Established Church. 

At the opening of the session of 1845 the government, in 
pursuance of a promise made to Irish members that they would 
Maynootb deal with the question of academical education in 
grant: Ireland, proposed to establish non-sectarian colleges 
T^otT*' m t ^ iat countrv an d to make a large addition to the 
grant to the Roman Catholic College of Maynooth. 
Gladstone resigned office, in order, as he announced in the debate 
on the address, to form " not only an honest, but likewise an 



trade. 



independent and an unsuspected judgment," on the plan to be 
submitted by the government with respect to Maynooth. His 
subsequent defence of the proposed grant, on the ground that 
it would be improper and unjust to exclude the Roman Catholic 
Church in Ireland from a " more indiscriminating support " 
which the state might give to various religious beliefs, was 
regarded by men of less sensitive conscience as only proving that 
there had been no adequate cause for his resignation. Before 
he resigned he completed a second revised tariff, carrying 
considerably further the principles on which he had acted in 
the earlier revision of 1842. 

In the autumn of 1845 the failure of the potato crop in Ireland 
threatened a famine, and convinced Sir Robert Peel that all 
restrictions on the importation of food must be at 
once suspended. He was supported by only three 
members of the cabinet, and resigned on the 5th of 
December. Lord John Russell, who had just announced his 
conversion to total and immediate repeal of the Corn Laws, 
declined the task of forming an administration, and on the 20th 
of December Sir Robert Peel resumed office. Lord Stanley 
refused to re-enter the government, and his place as secretary 
of state for the colonies was offered to and accepted by Gladstone. 
He did not offer himself for re-election at Newark, and remained 
outside the House of Commons during the great struggle of the 
coming year. It was a curious irony of fate which excluded 
him from parliament at this crisis, for it seems unquestionable 
that he was the most advanced Free Trader in Sir Robert Peel's 
Cabinet. The Corn Bill passed the House of Lords on the 28th 
of June 1846, and on the same day the government were beaten 
in the House of Commons on an Irish Coercion Bill. Lord John 
Russell became prime minister, and Gladstone retired for a season 
into private life. Early in 1847 it was announced that one of the 
two members for the university of Oxford intended to retire at 
the general election, and Gladstone was proposed for the vacant 
seat. The representation of the university had been pronounced 
by Canning to be the most coveted prize of public life, and 
Gladstone himself confessed that he " desired it with an almost 
passionate fondness." Parliament was dissolved on the 23rd 
of July 1847. The nomination at Oxford took place on the 29th 
of July, and at the close of the poll Sir Robert Inglis stood at 
the head, with Gladstone as his colleague. 

The three years 1847, 1848, 1849 were for Gladstone a period 
of mental growth, of transition, of development. A change 
was silently proceeding, which was not completed for 
twenty years. " There have been," he wrote in later ^Sif*. 
days to Bishop Wilberforce, " two great deaths, or 
transmigrations of spirit, in my political existence — one, very 
slow, the breaking of ties with my original party." This was 
now in progress. In the winter of 1850-1851 Gladstone spent 
between three and four months at Naples, where he learned 
that more than half the chamber of deputies, who had followed 
the party of Opposition, had been banished or imprisoned; that 
a large number, probably not less than 20,000, of the citizens 
had been imprisoned on charges of political disaffection, and that 
in prison they were subjected to the grossest cruelties. Having 
made careful investigations, Gladstone, on the 7th of April 1851, 
addressed an open letter to Lord Aberdeen, bringing an elaborate, 
detailed and horrible indictment against the rulers of Naples, 
especially as regards the arrangements of their prisons and the 
treatment of persons confined in them for political offences. 
The publication of this letter caused a wide sensation in England 
and abroad, and profoundly agitated the court of Naples. In 
reply to a question in the House of Commons, Lord Palmerston 
accepted and adopted Gladstone's statement, expressed keen 
sympathy with the cause which he had espoused, and sent a 
copy of his letter to the queen's representative at every court of 
Europe. A second letter and a third followed, and their effect, 
though for a while retarded, was unmistakably felt in the 
subsequent revolution which created a free and united Italy. 

In February 1852 the Whig government was defeated on a 
Militia Bill, and Lord John Russell was succeeded by Lord 
Derby, formerly Lord Stanley, with Mr Disraeli, who now 



GLADSTONE 



69 



entered office for the first time, as chancellor of the exchequer 
and leader of the House of Commons. Mr Disraeli introduced 
and carried a makeshift budget, and the government 
Gladstone tided over the session, and dissolved parliament on the 
DtorveiL 1 st of July 1852. There was some talk of inducing Glad- 
stone to join the Tory government, and on the 29th of 
November Lord Malmesbury dubiously remarked, " I cannot 
make out Gladstone, who seems to me a dark horse." In the 
following month the chancellor of the exchequer produced his 
second budget. The government redeemed their pledge to do 
something for the relief of the agricultural interest by reducing 
the duty on malt. This created a deficit, which they repaired by 
doubling the duty on inhabited houses. The voices of criticism 
were heard simultaneously on every side. The debate waxed 
fast and furious. In defending his proposals Mr Disraeli gave full 
scope to his most characteristic gifts; he pelted his opponents 
right and left with sarcasms, taunts and epigrams. Gladstone 
delivered an unpremeditated reply, which has ever since been 
celebrated. Tradition says that he " foamed at the mouth." 
The speech of the chancellor of the exchequer, he said, must be 
answered " on the moment." It must be " tried by the laws 
of decency and propriety." He indignantly rebuked his rival's 
language and demeanour. He tore his financial scheme to 
ribbons. It was the beginning of a duel which lasted till 
death removed one of the combatants from the political arena. 
" Those who had thought it impossible that any impression 
could be made upon the House after the speech of Mr Disraeli 
had to acknowledge that a yet greater impression was produced 
by the unprepared reply of Mr Gladstone." The House divided, 
and the government were left in a minority of nineteen. Lord 
Derby resigned. 

The new government was a coalition of Whigs and Peelites. 
Lord Aberdeen became prime minister, and Gladstone chancellor 
of the exchequer. Having been returned again for 
Chancellor $& university of Oxford, he entered on the active 
exchequer, duties of a great office for which he was pre-eminently 
" fitted by an unique combination of financial, adminis- 
trative and rhetorical gifts. His first budget was introduced on 
the 18th of April 1853. It tended to make life easier and cheaper 
for large and numerous classes; it promised wholesale remissions 
of taxation; it lessened the charges on common processes of 
business, on locomotion, on postal communication, and on 
several articles of general consumption. The deficiency thus 
created was to be met by a " succession-duty," or application 
of the legacy-duty to real property; by an increase of the duty 
on spirits; and by the extension of the income-tax, at 5d. in 
the pound, to all incomes between £100 and £150. The speech 
in which these proposals were introduced held the House spell- 
bound. Here was an orator who could apply all the resources 
of a burnished rhetoric to the elucidation of figures>.who could 
sweep the widest horizon of the financial future, and yet stoop 
to bestow the minutest attention on the microcosm of penny 
stamps and post-horses. Above all, the chancellor's mode of 
handling the income-tax attracted interest and admiration. It 
was a searching analysis of the financial and moral grounds on 
which the impost rested, and a historical justification and eulogy 
of it. Yet, great as had been the services of the tax at a time 
of national danger, Gladstone could not consent to retain it as 
a part of the permanent and ordinary finances of the country. 
It was objectionable on account of its unequal incidence, of the 
harassing investigation into private affairs which it entailed, 
and of the frauds to which it inevitably led. Therefore, having 
served its turn, it was to be extinguished in i860. The scheme 
astonished, interested and attracted the country. The queen 
and Prince Albert wrote to congratulate the chancellor of the 
exchequer. Public authorities and private friends joined in 
the chorus of eulogy. The budget demonstrated at once its 
author's absolute mastery over figures and the persuasive force 
of his expository gift. It established the chancellor of the 
exchequer as the paramount financier of his day, and it was only 
the first of a long series of similar performances, different, of 
course, in detail, but alike in their bold outlines and brilliant 



handling. Looking back on a long life of strenuous exertion, 
Gladstone declared that the work of preparing his proposals 
about the succession-duty and carrying them through Parlia- 
ment was by far the most laborious task which he ever performed. 

War between Great Britain and Russia was declared on the 
27th of March 1854, and it thus fell to the lot of the most pacific 
of ministers, the devotee of retrenchment, and the anxious 
cultivator of all industrial arts, to prepare a war budget, and to 
meet as well as he might the exigencies of a conflict which had so 
cruelly dislocated all the ingenious devices of financial optimism. 
No amount of skill in the manipulation of figures, no ingenuity 
in shifting fiscal burdens, could prevent the addition of forty-one 
millions to the national debt, or could countervail the appalling 
mismanagement at the seat of war. Gladstone declared that 
the state of the army in the Crimea was a " matter for weeping 
all day and praying all night." As soon as parliament met in 
January 1855 J. A. Roebuck, the Radical member for Sheffield, 
gave notice that he would move for a select committee " to 
inquire into the condition of our army before Sevastopol, and 
into the conduct of those departments of the government whose 
duty it has been to minister to the wants of that army." On 
the same day Lord John Russell, without announcing his inten- 
tion to his colleagues, resigned his office as president of the 
council sooner than attempt the defence of the government. 
Gladstone, in defending the government against Roebuck, 
rebuked in dignified and significant terms the conduct of men 
who, " hoping to escape from punishment, ran away from duty." 
On the division on Mr Roebuck's motion the government was 
beaten by the unexpected majority of 157. 

Lord Palmerston became prime minister. The Peelites 
joined him, and Gladstone resumed office as chancellor of the 
exchequer. A shrewd observer at the time pronounced him 
indispensable. " Any other chancellor of the exchequer would 
be torn in bits by him." The government was formed on the 
understanding that Mr Roebuck's proposed committee was to 
be resisted. Lord Palmerston soon saw that further resistance 
was useless; his Peelite colleagues stuck to their text, and, 
within three weeks after resuming office, Gladstone, Sir James 
Graham and Mr Sidney Herbert resigned. Gladstone once said 
of himself and his Peelite colleagues, during the period of political 
isolation, that they were like roving icebergs on which men 
could not land with safety, but with which ships might come 
into perilous collision. He now applied himself specially to 
financial criticism, and was perpetually in conflict with the 
chancellor of the exchequer, Sir George Cornewall Lewis. 

In 1858 Lord Palmerston was succeeded by Lord Derby at 
the head of a Conservative administration, and Gladstone 
accepted the temporary office of high commissioner extraordinary 
to the Ionian Islands. Returning to England for the session of 
1859, he found himself involved in the controversy which arose 
over a mild Reform Bill introduced by the government. They 
were defeated on the second reading of the bill, Gladstone voting 
with them. A dissolution immediately followed, and Gladstone 
was again returned unopposed for the university of Oxford. 
As soon as the new parliament met a vote of want of confidence 
in the ministry was moved in the House of Commons. In the 
critical division which ensued Gladstone voted with the govern- 
ment, who were left in a minority. Lord Derby resigned. Lord 
Palmerston became prime minister, and asked Gladstone to 
join him as chancellor of the exchequer. To vote confidence 
in an imperilled ministry, and on its defeat to take office with 
the rivals who have defeated it, is a manoeuvre which invites 
the reproach of tergiversation. But Gladstone risked the re- 
proach, accepted the office and had a sharp tussle for his seat. 
He emerged from the struggle victorious, and entered on his 
duties with characteristic zeal. The prince consort wrote: 
" Gladstone is now the real leader in the House of Commons, 
and works with an energy and vigour altogether incredible." 

The budget of i860 was marked by two distinctive features. 
It asked the sanction of parliament for the commercial treaty 
which Cobden had privately arranged with the emperor Napoleon, 
and it proposed to abolish the duty on paper. The French treaty 



7° 



GLADSTONE 



was carried, but the abolition of the paper-duty was defeated in 
the House of Lords. Gladstone justly regarded the refusal to 
remit a duty as being in effect an act of taxation, and 
of i860. therefore as an infringement of the rights of the House 
of Commons. The proposal to abolish the paper- 
duty was revived in the budget of 1861, the chief proposals 
of which, instead of being divided, as in previous years, into 
several bills, were included in one. By this device the Lords were 
obliged to acquiesce in the repeal of the paper-duty. 

During Lord Palmerston's last administration, which lasted 
from 1859 to 1865, Gladstone was by far the most brilliant and 
most conspicuous figure in the cabinet. Except in finance, he 
was not able to accomplish much, for he was met and thwarted 
at every turn by his chief's invincible hostility to change; but 
the more advanced section of the Liberal party began to look 
upon him as their predestined leader. In 1864, in a debate on a 
private member's bill for extending the suffrage, he declared that 
the burden of proof lay on those " who would exclude forty-nine 
fiftieths of the working-classes from the franchise." In 1865, 
in a debate on the condition of the Irish Church Establishment, 
he declared that the Irish Church, as it then stood, was in a false 
position, inasmuch as it ministered only to one-eighth or one- 
ninth of the whole community. But just in proportion as Glad- 
stone advanced in favour with the Radical party he lost the 
confidence of his own constituents. Parliament was dissolved 
in July 1865, and the university elected Mr Gathorne Hardy 
in his place. 

Gladstone at once turned his steps towards South Lancashire, 
where he was returned with two Tories above him. The result 
of the general election was to retain Lord Palmerston's 
L*mderoi government in power, but on the 18th of October the 
cZmmong. °ld prime minister died. He was succeeded by Lord 
Russell, and Gladstone, retaining the chancellorship 
of the exchequer, became for the first time leader of the House 
of Commons. Lord Russell, backed by Gladstone, persuaded 
his colleagues to consent to a moderate Reform Bill, and the 
task of piloting this measure through the House of Commons 
fell to Gladstone. The speech in which he wound up the debate 
on the second reading was one of the finest, if not indeed the very 
finest, which he ever delivered. But it was of no practical avail. 
The government were defeated on an amendment in committee, 
and thereupon resigned. Lord Derby became prime minister, 
with Disraeli as chancellor of the exchequer and leader of the 
House of Commons. On the 18th of March 1867 the Tory 
Reform Bill, which ended in establishing Household Suffrage 
in the boroughs, was introduced, and was read a second time 
without a division. After undergoing extensive alterations in 
committee at the hands of the Liberals and Radicals, the bill 
became law in August. 

At Christmas 1867 Lord Russell announced his final retirement 
from active politics, and Gladstone was recognized by acclama- 
tion as leader of the Liberal party. Nominally he was 
i Ubenl* i m Opposition; DUt ms party formed the majority 
party. of the House of Commons, and could beat the govern- 
ment whenever they chose to mass their forces. 
Gladstone seized the opportunity to give effect to convictions 
which had long been forming in his mind. Early in the session 
he brought in a bill abolishing compulsory church-rates, and 
this passed into law. On the 16th of March, in a debate raised 
by an Irish member, he declared that in his judgment the Irish 
Church, as a State Church, must cease to exist. Immediately 
afterwards he embodied this opinion in a series of resolutions 
concerning the Irish Church Establishment, and carried them 
against the government. Encouraged by this triumph, he 
brought in a Bill to prevent any fresh appointments in the Irish 
Church, and this also passed the Commons, though it was 
defeated in the Lords. Parliament was dissolved on the nth of 
November. A single issue was placed before the country — Was 
the Irish Church to be, or not to be, disestablished? The 
response was an overwhelming affirmative. Gladstone, who had 
been doubly nominated, was defeated in Lancashire, but was 
returned for Greenwich. He chose this moment for publishing 



a Chapter of Autobiography, in which he explained and justified 
his change of opinion with regard to the Irish Church. 

On the 2nd of December Disraeli, who had succeeded Lord 
Derby as premier in the preceding February, announced that 
he and his colleagues, recognizing their defeat, had 
resigned without waiting for a formal vote of the new Minister: 
parliament. On the following day Gladstone was iriMk 
summoned to Windsor, and commanded by the Cfc « re * 
queen to form an administration. The great task to ^^ImeuL 
which the new prime minister immediately addressed 
himself was the disestablishment of the Irish Church. The 
queen wrote to Archbishop Tait that the subject of the Irish 
Church " made her very anxious/ ' but that Mr Gladstone 
" showed the most conciliatory disposition." " The government 
can do nothing that would tend to raise a suspicion of their 
sincerity in proposing to disestablish the Irish Church, and to 
withdraw all state endowments from all religious communions 
in Ireland; but, were these conditions accepted, all other 
matters connected with the question might, the queen thinks, 
become the subject of discussion and negotiation." The bill 
was drawn and piloted on the lines thus indicated, and became 
law on the 26th of July. In the session of 1870 Gladstone's 
principal work was the Irish Land Act, of which the object was 
to protect the tenant against eviction as long as he paid his rent, 
and to secure to him the value of any improvements which his 
own industry had made. In the following session Religious 
Tests in the universities were abolished, and a bill to establish 
secret voting was carried through the House of Commons. 
This was thrown out by the Lords, but became law a year later. 
The House of Lords threw out a bill to abolish the purchase of 
commissions in the army. Gladstone found that purchase 
existed only by royal sanction, and advised the queen to issue 
a royal warrant cancelling, on and after the 1st of November 
following, all regulations authorizing the purchase of commissions. 

In 1873 Gladstone set his hand to the third of three great 
Irish reforms to which he had pledged himself. His scheme 
for the establishment of a university which should satisfy both 
Roman Catholics and Protestants met with general disapproval. 
The bill was thrown out by three votes, and Gladstone resigned. 
The queen sent for Disraeli, who declined to take office in a 
minority of the House of Commons, so Gladstone was compelled 
to resume. But he and his colleagues were now, in Disraelitish 
phrase, " exhausted volcanoes." Election after election went 
wrong. The government had lost favour with the public, and 
was divided against itself. There were resignations and rumours 
of resignations. When the session of 1873 had come to an end 
Gladstone took the chancellorship of the exchequer, and, as 
high authorities contended, vacated his seat by doing so. The 
point was obviously one of vital importance; and we learn from 
Lord Selb*rne, who was lord chancellor at the time, that Glad- 
stone " was sensible of the difficulty of either taking his seat 
in the usual manner at the opening of the session, or letting .... 
the necessary arrangements for business in the House of Commons 
be made in the prime minister's absence. A dissolution was the 
only escape." On the 23rd of January 1874 Gladstone announced 
the dissolution in an address to his constituents, 0& ^ Arfto 
declaring that the authority of the government had ot is74. * 
now " sunk below the point necessary for the due de- 
fence and prosecution of the public interest." He promised that, 
if he were returned to power, he would repeal the income-tax. 
This bid for popularity failed, the general election resulting in a 
Tory majority of f orty^six. Gladstone kept his seat for Greenwich, 
but was only second on the poll. Following the example of 
Disraeli in 1868, he resigned without meeting parliament. 

For some years he had alluded to his impending retirement 
from public life, saying that he was "strong against going on in 
politics to the end." He was now sixty-four, and his 
life had been a continuous experience of exhausting g^finmeML 
labour. On the 12th of March 1874 he informed 
Lord Granville that he could give only occasional attendance 
in the House of Commons during the current session, and that 
he must " reserve his entire freedom to divest himself of all the 



GLADSTONE 



7i 



responsibilities of leadership at no distant date." His most 
important intervention in the debates of 1874 was when he 
opposed Archbishop Tait's Public Worship Bill. This was read 
a second time without a division, but in committee Gladstone 
enjoyed some signal triumphs over his late solicitor-general, 
Sir William Harcourt, who had warmly espoused the cause of 
the government and the bill. At the beginning of 1875 Gladstone 
carried into effect the resolution which he had announced a year 
before, and formally resigned the leadership of the Liberal 
party. He was succeeded by Lord Hartington, afterwards 
duke of Devonshire. The learned leisure which Gladstone had 
promised himself when released from official responsibility 
was not of long duration. In the autumn of 1875 an insurrection 
broke out in Bulgaria, and the suppression of it by the Turks 
was marked by massacres and outrages. Public indignation 
was aroused by what were known as the " Bulgarian atrocities," 
and Gladstone flung himself into the agitation against Turkey 
with characteristic zeal. At public meetings, in the press, and 
in parliament he denounced the Turkish government and its 
champion, Disraeli, who had now become Lord Beaconsfield. 
Lord Hartington soon found himself pushed aside from his 
position of titular leadership. For four years, from 1876 to 1880, 
Gladstone maintained the strife with a courage, a persistence 
and a versatility which raised the enthusiasm of his followers 
to the highest pitch. The county of Edinburgh, or Midlothian, 
which he contested against the dominant influence of 
campaign. tne duke °* Buccleuch, was the scene of the most 
astonishing exertions. As the general election ap- 
proached the only question submitted to the electors was — Do 
you approve or condemn Lord Beaconsfield's foreign policy? 
The answer was given at Easter 1880, when the Liberals were 
returned by an overwhelming majority over Tories and Home 
Rulers combined. Gladstone was now member for Midlothian, 
having retired from Greenwich at the dissolution. 

When Lord Beaconsfield resigned, the queen sent for Lord 
Hartington, the titular leader of the Liberals, but he and Lord 
Granville assured her that no other chief than Gladstone would 
satisfy the party. Accordingly, on the 23rd of April he became 
prime minister for the second time. His second administration, 
of which the main achievement was the extension of the suffrage 
to the agricultural labourers, was harassed by two controversies, 
relating to Ireland and Egypt, which proved disastrous to the 
Liberal party. Gladstone alienated considerable masses of 
English opinion by his efforts to reform the tenure of Irish land, 
and provoked the Irish people by his attempts to establish 
social order and to repress crime. A bill to provide compensation 
for tenants who had been evicted by Irish landlords passed the 
Commons, but was shipwrecked in the Lords, and a ghastly 
record of outrage and murder stained the following winter. A 
Coercion Bill and a Land Bill passed in 188 1 proved unsuccessful. 
On the 6th of May 1882 the newly appointed chief secretary 
for Ireland, Lord Frederick Cavendish, and his under-secretary, 
Mr Burke, were stabbed to death in the Phoenix Park at Dublin. 
A new Crimes Act, courageously administered by Lord Spencer 
and Sir George Trevelyan, abolished exceptional crime in Ireland, 
but completed the breach between the British government and 
the Irish party in parliament. 

The bombardment of the forts at Alexandria and the occupa- 
tion of Egypt in 1882 were viewed with great disfavour by the 
bulk of the Liberal party, and were but little congenial to 
Gladstone himself. The circumstances of General Gordon's 
untimely death awoke an outburst of indignation against those 
who were, or seemed to be, responsible for it. Frequent votes of 
censure were proposed by the Opposition, and on the 8th of June 
1885 the government were beaten on the budget. Gladstone 
resigned. The queen offered him the dignity of an earldom, 
which he declined. He was succeeded by Lord Salisbury. 

The general election took place in the following November. 
When it was over the Liberal party was just short of the numerical 
strength which was requisite to defeat the combination of Tories 
and Parnellites. A startling surprise was at hand. Gladstone 
had for some time been convinced of the expediency of conceding 



Home Rule to Ireland in the event of the Irish constituencies 
giving unequivocal proof that they desired it. His intentions 
were made known only to a privileged few, and 
these, curiously, were not his colleagues. The general 2!*ito 
election of 1885 showed that Ireland, outside Ulster, RuhBtti, 
was practically unanimous for Home Rule. On the 
17th of December an anonymous paragraph was published, 
stating that if Mr Gladstone returned to office he was prepared 
to " deal in a liberal spirit with the demand for Home Rule." 
It was clear that if Gladstone meant what he appeared to mean, 
the Parnellites would support him, and the Tories must leave 
office. The government seemed to accept the situation. When 
parliament met they executed, for form's sake, some confused 
manoeuvres, and then they were beaten on an amendment 
to the address in favour of Municipal Allotments. On the 1st 
of February 1886 Gladstone became, for the third time, prime 
minister. Several of his former colleagues declined to join 
him, on the ground of their absolute hostility to the policy of 
Home Rule; others joined on the express understanding that 
they were only pledged to consider the policy, and did not fetter 
their further liberty of action. On the 8th of April Gladstone 
brought in his bill for establishing Home Rule, and eight days 
later the bill for buying out the Irish landlords. Meanwhile 
two members of his cabinet, feeling themselves unable to support 
these measures, resigned. Hostility to the bills grew apace. 
Gladstone was implored to withdraw them, or substitute a 
resolution in favour of Irish autonomy; but he resolved to press 
at least the Home Rule Bill to a second reading. In the early 
morning of the 8th of June the bill was thrown out by thirty. 
Gladstone immediately advised the queen to dissolve parliament. 
Her Majesty strongly demurred to a second general election 
within seven months; but Gladstone persisted, and she yielded. 
Parliament was dissolved on the 26th of June. In spite of 
Gladstone's skilful appeal to the constituencies to sanction 
the principle of Home Rule, as distinct from the practical 
provisions of his late bill, the general election resulted in a 
majority of considerably over 100 against his policy, and Lord 
Salisbury resumed office. Throughout the existence of the new 
parliament Gladstone never relaxed his extraordinary efforts, 
though now nearer eighty than seventy, on behalf of the cause 
of self-government for Ireland. The fertility of argumentative 
resource, the copiousness of rhetoric, and the physical energy 
which he threw into the enterprise, would have been remarkable 
at any stage of his public life; continued into his eighty-fifth 
year they were little less than miraculous. Two incidents of 
domestic interest, one happy and the other sad, belong to that 
period of political storm and stress. On the 25th of July 1889 
Gladstone celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of his marriage, 
and on the 4th of July 189 1 his eldest son, William Henry, a 
man of fine character and accomplishments, died, after a lingering 
illness, in his fifty-second year. 

The crowning struggle of Gladstone's political career was 
now approaching its climax. Parliament was dissolved on the 
28th of June 1892. The general election resulted 
in a majority of forty for Home Rule, heterogeneously n!me%ih 
composed of Liberals, Labour members and Irish. BUI 
As soon as the new parliament met a vote of want of 
confidence in Lord Salisbury's government was moved and 
carried. Lord Salisbury resigned, and on the 15th of August 
1892 Gladstone kissed hands as first lord of the treasury. He 
was the first English statesman that had been four times prime 
minister. Parliament reassembled in January 1893. Gladstone 
brought in his new Home Rule Bill on the 13th of February. 
It passed the House of Commons, but was thrown out by the 
House of Lords on the second reading on the 8th of September 
1893. Gladstone's political work was now, in his own judgment, 
ended. He made his last speech in the House of Commons on the 
1st of March 1894, acquiescing in some amendments introduced 
by the Lords into the Parish Councils Bill; and on the 3rd of 
March he placed his resignation in the queen's hands. He 
never set foot again in the House of Commons, though he re- 
mained a member of it till the dissolution of 1895. He paid 



7° 



GLADSTONE 



was carried, but the abolition of the paper-duty was defeated in 
the House of Lords. Gladstone justly regarded the refusal to 
remit a duty as being in effect an act of taxation, and 
o/ 1*69. therefore as an infringement of the rights of the House 
of Commons. The proposal to abolish the paper- 
duty was revived in the budget of 1861, the chief proposals 
of which, instead of being divided, as in previous years, into 
several bills, were included in one. By this device the Lords were 
obliged to acquiesce in the repeal of the paper-duty. 

During Lord Palmerston's last administration, which lasted 
from 1859 to 1865, Gladstone was by far the most brilliant and 
most conspicuous figure in the cabinet. Except in finance, he 
was not able to accomplish much, for he was met and thwarted 
at every turn by his chief's invincible hostility to change; but 
the more advanced section of the Liberal party began to look 
upon him as their predestined leader. In 1864, in a debate on a 
private member's bill for extending the suffrage, he declared that 
the burden of proof lay on those " who would exclude forty-nine 
fiftieths of the working-classes from the franchise." In 1865, 
in a debate on the condition of the Irish Church Establishment, 
he declared that the Irish Church, as it then stood, was in a false 
position, inasmuch as it ministered only to one-eighth or one- 
ninth of the whole community. But just in proportion as Glad- 
stone advanced in favour with the Radical party he lost the 
confidence of his own constituents. Parliament was dissolved 
in July 1865, and the university elected Mr Gathorne Hardy 
in his place. 

Gladstone at once turned his steps towards South Lancashire, 
where he was returned with two Tories above him. The result 
of the general election was to retain Lord Palmerston's 
Ltmderot government in power, but on the 18th of October the 
Common*. old prime minister died. He was succeeded by Lord 
Russell, and Gladstone, retaining the chancellorship 
of the exchequer, became for the first time leader of the House 
of Commons. Lord Russell, backed by Gladstone, persuaded 
his colleagues to consent to a moderate Reform Bill, and the 
task of piloting this measure through the House of Commons 
fell to Gladstone. The speech in which he wound up the debate 
on the second reading was one of the finest, if not indeed the very 
finest, which he ever delivered. But it was of no practical avail. 
The government were defeated on an amendment in committee, 
and thereupon resigned. Lord Derby became prime minister, 
with Disraeli as chancellor of the exchequer and leader of the 
House of Commons. On the 18th of March 1867 the Tory 
Reform Bill, which ended in establishing Household Suffrage 
in the boroughs, was introduced, and was read a second time 
without a division. After undergoing extensive alterations in 
committee at the hands of the Liberals and Radicals, the bill 
became law in August. 

At Christmas 1867 Lord Russell announced his final retirement 
from active politics, and Gladstone was recognized by acclama- 
tion as leader of the Liberal party. Nominally he was 
£2JjJj|J o/ in Opposition; but his party formed the majority 
party. °* tne House of Commons, and could beat the govern- 
ment whenever they chose to mass their forces. 
Gladstone seized the opportunity to give effect to convictions 
which had long been forming in his mind. Early in the session 
he brought in a bill abolishing compulsory church-rates, and 
this passed into law. On the 16th of March, in a debate raised 
by an Irish member, he declared that in his judgment the Irish 
Church, as a State Church, must cease to exist. Immediately 
afterwards he embodied this opinion in a series of resolutions 
concerning the Irish Church Establishment, and carried them 
against the government. Encouraged by this triumph, he 
brought in a Bill to prevent any fresh appointments in the Irish 
Church, and this also passed the Commons, though it was 
defeated in the Lords. Parliament was dissolved on the nth of 
November. A single issue was placed before the country — Was 
the Irish Church to be, or not to be, disestablished? The 
response was an overwhelming affirmative. Gladstone, who had 
been doubly nominated, was defeated in Lancashire, but was 
returned for Greenwich. He chose this moment for publishing 



a Chapter of Autobiography, in which he explained and justified 
his change of opinion with regard to the Irish Church. 

On the 2nd of December Disraeli, who had succeeded Lord 
Derby as premier in the preceding February, announced that 
he and his colleagues, recognizing their defeat, had 
resigned without waiting for a formal vote of the new MinMer: 
parliament. On the following day Gladstone was M*k 
summoned to Windsor, and commanded by the Chmxh 
queen to form an administration. The great task to 2Jj me-< , 
which the new prime minister immediately addressed 
himself was the disestablishment of the Irish Church. The 
queen wrote to Archbishop Tait that the subject of the Irish 
Church " made her very anxious," but that Mr Gladstone 
" showed the most conciliatory disposition." " The government 
can do nothing that would tend to raise a suspicion of their 
sincerity in proposing to disestablish the Irish Church, and to 
withdraw all state endowments from aU religious communions 
in Ireland; but, were these conditions accepted, all other 
matters connected with the question might, the queen thinks, 
become the subject of discussion and negotiation." The bill 
was drawn and piloted on the lines thus indicated, and became 
law on the 26th of July. In the session of 1870 Gladstone's 
principal work was the Irish Land Act, of which the object was 
to protect the tenant against eviction as long as he paid his rent, 
and to secure to him the value of any improvements which his 
own industry had made. In the following session Religious 
Tests in the universities were abolished, and a bill to establish 
secret voting was carried through the House of Commons. 
This was thrown out by the Lords, but became law a year later. 
The House of Lords threw out a bill to abolish the purchase of 
commissions in the army. Gladstone found that purchase 
existed only by royal sanction, and advised the queen to issue 
a royal warrant cancelling, on and after the 1st of November 
following, all regulations authorizing the purchase of commissions. 

In 1873 Gladstone set his hand to the third of three great 
Irish reforms to which he had pledged himself. His scheme 
for the establishment of a university which should satisfy both 
Roman Catholics and Protestants met with general disapproval. 
The bill was thrown out by three votes, and Gladstone resigned. 
The queen sent for Disraeli, who declined to take office in a 
minority of the House of Commons, so Gladstone was compelled 
to resume. But he and his colleagues were now, in Disraelitish 
phrase, " exhausted volcanoes." Election after election went 
wrong. The government had lost favour with the public, and 
was divided against itself. There were resignations and rumours 
of resignations. When the session of 1873 had come to an end 
Gladstone took the chancellorship of the exchequer, and, as 
high authorities contended, vacated his seat by doing so. The 
point was obviously one of vital importance; and we learn from 
Lord Selbarne, who was lord chancellor at the time, that Glad- 
stone " was sensible of the difficulty of either taking his seat 
in the usual manner at the opening of the session, or letting .... 
the necessary arrangements for business in the House of Commons 
be made in the prime minister's absence. A dissolution was the 
only escape." On the 23rd of January 1874 Gladstone announced 
the dissolution in an address to his constituents, ^^ 
declaring that the authority of the government had t%s74. * 
now " sunk below the point necessary for the due de- 
fence and prosecution of the public interest." He promised that, 
if he were returned to power, he would repeal the income-tax. 
This bid for popularity failed, the general election resulting in a 
Tory majority of forty^six. Gladstone kept his seat for Greenwich, 
but was only second on the poll. Following the example of 
Disraeli in 1868, he resigned without meeting parliament. 

For some years he had alluded to his impending retirement 
from public life, saying that he was " strong against going on in 
politics to the end." He was now sixty-four, and his 
life had been a continuous experience of exhausting ntinmoZ 
labour. On the 12th of March 1874 he informed 
Lord Granville that he could give only occasional attendance 
in the House of Commons during the current session, and that 
he must " reserve his entire freedom to divest himself of all the 



GLADSTONE 



7i 



responsibilities of leadership at no distant date." His most 
important intervention in the debates of 1874 was when he 
opposed Archbishop Tait's Public Worship Bill. This was read 
a second time without a division, but in committee Gladstone 
enjoyed some signal triumphs over his late solicitor-general, 
Sir William Harcourt, who had warmly espoused the cause of 
the government and the bill. At the beginning of 1875 Gladstone 
carried into effect the resolution which he had announced a year 
before, and formally resigned the leadership of the Liberal 
party. He was succeeded by Lord Hartington, afterwards 
duke of Devonshire. The learned leisure which Gladstone had 
promised himself when released from official responsibility 
was not of long duration. In the autumn of 1875 an insurrection 
broke out in Bulgaria, and the suppression of it by the Turks 
was marked by massacres and outrages. Public indignation 
was aroused by what were known as the " Bulgarian atrocities," 
and Gladstone flung himself into the agitation against Turkey 
with characteristic zeal. At public meetings, in the press, and 
in parliament he denounced the Turkish government and its 
champion, Disraeli, who had now become Lord Beaconsfield. 
Lord Hartington soon found himself pushed aside from his 
position of titular leadership. For four years, from 1876 to 1880, 
Gladstone maintained the strife with a courage, a persistence 
and a versatility which raised the enthusiasm of his followers 
to the highest pitch. The county of Edinburgh, or Midlothian, 
which he contested against the dominant influence of 
campaign. tne duke °* Buccleuch, was the scene of the most 
astonishing exertions. As the general election ap- 
proached the only question submitted to the electors was — Do 
you approve or condemn Lord Beaconsfield's foreign policy? 
The answer was given at Easter 1880, when the Liberals were 
returned by an overwhelming majority over Tories and Home 
Rulers combined. Gladstone was now member for Midlothian, 
having retired from Greenwich at the dissolution. 

When Lord Beaconsfield resigned, the queen sent for Lord 
Hartington, the titular leader of the Liberals, but he and Lord 
Granville assured her that no other chief than Gladstone would 
satisfy the party. Accordingly, on the 23rd of April he became 
prime minister for the second time. His second administration, 
of which the main achievement was the extension of the suffrage 
to the agricultural labourers, was harassed by two controversies, 
relating to Ireland and Egypt, which proved disastrous to the 
Liberal party. Gladstone alienated considerable masses of 
English opinion by his efforts to reform the tenure of Irish land, 
and provoked the Irish people by his attempts to establish 
social order and to repress crime. A bill to provide compensation 
for tenants who had been evicted by Irish landlords passed the 
Commons, but was shipwrecked in the Lords, and a ghastly 
record of outrage and murder stained the following winter. A 
Coercion Bill and a Land Bill passed in 188 1 proved unsuccessful. 
On the 6th of May 1882 the newly appointed chief secretary 
for Ireland, Lord Frederick Cavendish, and his under-secretary, 
Mr Burke, were stabbed to death in the Phoenix Park at Dublin. 
A new Crimes Act, courageously administered by Lord Spencer 
and Sir George Trevelyan, abolished exceptional crime in Ireland, 
but completed the breach between the British government and 
the Irish party in parliament. 

The bombardment of the forts at Alexandria and the occupa- 
tion of Egypt in 1882 were viewed with great disfavour by the 
bulk of the Liberal party, and were but little congenial to 
Gladstone himself. The circumstances of General Gordon's 
untimely death awoke an outburst of indignation against those 
who were, or seemed to be, responsible for it. Frequent votes of 
censure were proposed by the Opposition, and on the 8th of June 
1885 the government were beaten on the budget. Gladstone 
resigned. The queen offered him the dignity of an earldom, 
which he declined. He was succeeded by Lord Salisbury. 

The general election took place in the following November. 
When it was over the Liberal party was just short of the numerical 
strength which was requisite to defeat the combination of Tories 
and Parnellites. A startling surprise was at hand. Gladstone 
had for some time been convinced of the expediency of conceding 



Home Rule to Ireland in the event of the Irish constituencies 
giving unequivocal proof that they desired it. His intentions 
were made known only to a privileged few, and 
these, curiously, were not his colleagues. The general ^j^e 
election of 1885 showed that Ireland, outside Ulster, RuhBOL 
was practically unanimous for Home Rule. On the 
17th of December an anonymous paragraph was published, 
stating that if Mr Gladstone returned to office he was prepared 
to " deal in a liberal spirit with the demand for Home Rule." 
It was clear that if Gladstone meant what he appeared to mean, 
the Parnellites would support him, and the Tories must leave 
office. The government seemed to accept the situation. When 
parliament met they executed, for form's sake, some confused 
manoeuvres, and then they were beaten on an amendment 
to the address in favour of Municipal Allotments. On the 1st 
of February 1886 Gladstone became, for the third time, prime 
minister. Several of his former colleagues declined to join 
him, on the ground of their absolute hostility to the policy of 
Home Rule; others joined on the express understanding that 
they were only pledged to consider the policy, and did not fetter 
their further liberty of action. On the 8th of April Gladstone 
brought in his bill for establishing Home Rule, and eight days 
later the bill for buying out the Irish landlords. Meanwhile 
two members of his cabinet, feeling themselves unable to support 
these measures, resigned. Hostility to the bills grew apace. 
Gladstone was implored to withdraw them, or substitute a 
resolution in favour of Irish autonomy; but he resolved to press 
at least the Home Rule Bill to a second reading. In the early 
morning of the 8th of June the bill was thrown out by thirty. 
Gladstone immediately advised the queen to dissolve parliament. 
Her Majesty strongly demurred to a second general election 
within seven months; but Gladstone persisted, and she yielded. 
Parliament was dissolved on the 26th of June. In spite of 
Gladstone's skilful appeal to the constituencies to sanction 
the principle of Home Rule, as distinct from the practical 
provisions of his late bill, the general election resulted in a 
majority of considerably over 100 against his policy, and Lord 
Salisbury resumed office. Throughout the existence of the new 
parliament Gladstone never relaxed his extraordinary efforts, 
though now nearer eighty than seventy, on behalf of the cause 
of self-government for Ireland. The fertility of argumentative 
resource, the copiousness of rhetoric, and the physical energy 
which he threw into the enterprise, would have been remarkable 
at any stage of his public life; continued into his eighty-fifth 
year they were little less than miraculous. Two incidents of 
domestic interest, one happy and the other sad, belong to that 
period of political storm and stress. On the 25th of July 1889 
Gladstone celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of his marriage, 
and on the 4th of July 1891 his eldest son, William Henry, a 
man of fine character and accomplishments, died, after a lingering 
illness, in his fifty-second year. 

The crowning struggle of Gladstone's political career was 
now approaching its climax. Parliament was dissolved on the 
28th of June 1892. The general election resulted i -^ . 
in a majority of forty for Home Rule, heterogeneously ff eme j^ 
composed of Liberals, Labour members and Irish. Bill 
As soon as the new parliament met a vote of want of 
confidence in Lord Salisbury's government was moved and 
carried. Lord Salisbury resigned, and on the 15th of August 
1892 Gladstone kissed hands as first lord of the treasury. He 
was the first English statesman that had been four times prime 
minister. Parliament reassembled in January 1893. Gladstone 
brought in his new Home Rule Bill on the 13th of February. 
It passed the House of Commons, but was thrown out by the 
House of Lords on the second reading on the 8th of September 
1893. Gladstone's political work was now, in his own judgment, 
ended. He made his last speech in the House of Commons on the 
1st of March 1894, acquiescing in some amendments introduced 
by the Lords into the Parish Councils Bill; and on the 3rd of 
March he placed his resignation in the queen's hands. He 
never set foot again in the House of Commons, though he re- 
mained a member of it till the dissolution of 1895. He paid 



7* 



GLADSTONE— GLAGOLITIC 



occasional visits to friends in London, Scotland and the south 
of France; but the remainder of his life was spent for the most 
part at Hawarden. He occupied his leisure by writing a rhymed 
translation of the Odes of Horace, and preparing an elaborately 
annotated edition of Butler's Analogy and Sermons. He had 
also contemplated some addition to the Homeric studies which 
he had always loved, but this design was never carried into effect, 
for he was summoned once again from his quiet life of study 
and devotion to the field of public controversy. The Armenian 
massacres in 1894 and 1895 revived all his ancient hostility to 
" the governing Turk." He denounced the massacres and their 
perpetrators at public meetings held at Chester on the 6th of 
August 1895, and at Liverpool on the 24th of September 1896. 
In March 1897 he recapitulated the hideous history in an open 
letter to the duke of Westminster. 

But the end, though not yet apprehended, was at hand. 
Since his retirement from office Gladstone's physical vigour, 
up to that time unequalled, had shown signs of impairment. 
Towards the end of the summer of 1897 he began to suffer from 
an acute pain, which was attributed to facial neuralgia, and 
in November he went to Cannes. In February 1898 he returned 
to England and went to Bournemouth. There he was informed 
that the pain had its origin in a disease which must soon prove 
fatal. He received the information with simple thankfulness, 
and only asked that he might die at home. On the 22nd of 

March he returned to Hawarden, and there he died 

on the ioth of May 1898. During the night of the 
25th of May his body was conveyed from Hawarden to London 
and the coffin was placed on a bier in Westminster Hall. Through- 
out the 26th and 27th a vast train of people, officially estimated 
at 250,000, and drawn from every rank and class, moved in 
unbroken procession past the bier. On the 28th of May the 
coflm, preceded by the two Houses of Parliament and escorted 
by the chief magnates of the realm, was carried from Westminster 
Hall to Westminster Abbey. The heir-apparent and his son, 
the prime minister and the leader of the House of Commons, 
were among those who bore the pall. The body was buried 
in the north transept of the abbey, where, on the 19th of June 
1900, Mrs Gladstone's body was laid beside it. 

Mr and Mrs Gladstone had four sons and four daughters, of 
whom one died in infancy. The eldest son, W. H. Gladstone 
AMrifct. (1840-1891), was a member of parliament for many 

years, and married the daughter of Lord Blantyre, his 
son William (b. 1885) inheriting the family estates. The fourth 
son, Herbert John (b. 1854), sat in parliament for Leeds from 
i$8o to 19x0, and Ailed various offices, being home secretary 
1 005- iq xo; in xoio he was created Viscount Gladstone, on being 
appointed governor-general of united South Africa, The eldest 
daughter, Agnes, married the Rev. E. C. Wickham, headmaster of 
Wellington, 1873-1803, and later Dean of Lincoln. Another 
daughter married the Rev, Harry Drew, rector of Hawarden. 
The youngest, Helen, was for some years vice-principal of 
Newnham College, Cambridge. 

After a careful survey of Mr Gladstone's life, enlightened 
by personal observation, it is inevitable to attempt some analysis 
CiOTriiri °* kk ch*™ 01 ^ First among his moral attributes 

must be placed his religiousness. From those early 
days when a fond mother wrote of him as having been " truly 
converted to God,* 1 down to the verge of ninety years, he lived 
in the habitual eon temptation of the unseen world, and regulated 
his private and public action by reference to a code higher 
than that of mere prudence or worldly wisdom. A second 
characteristic, scarcely less prominent than the first, was his 
love of power. His ambition had nothing in common with the 
vulgar eagerness for place and pay and social standing. Rather 
it was a resolute determination to possess that control over the 
machine of state which should enable him to fulfil without let 
or hindrance the political mission with which he believed that 
Providence had ch&rptd him. The love of power was supported 
by a splendid fearlessness, Xo dangers were too threatening 
for him to tace.no obstacles tooformidable.no tasks too laborious, 
no heights too s:«|\ The love of power and the supporting 



courage were allied with a marked imperiousness. Of this 
quality there was no trace in his manner, which was courteous, 
conciliatory and even deferential; nor in his speech, which 
breathed an almost exaggerated humility. But the imperious- 
ness showed itself in the more effectual form of action; in his 
sudden resolves, his invincible insistence, his recklessness of 
consequences to himself and his friends, his habitual assumption 
that the civilized world and all its units must agree with him, 
his indignant astonishment at the bare thought of dissent or 
resistance, his incapacity to believe that an overruling Provid- 
ence would permit him to be frustrated or defeated. He had 
by nature what he himself called a " vulnerable temper and 
impetuous moods." But so absolute was his lifelong self-mastery 
that he was hardly ever betrayed into saying that which, on 
cooler reflection, needed to be recalled. It was easy enough 
to see the " vulnerable temper " as it worked within, but it 
was never suffered to find audible expression. It may seem 
paradoxical, but it is true, to say that Mr Gladstone was by 
nature conservative. His natural bias was to respect things as 
they were. In his eyes, institutions, customs, systems, so long 
as they had not become actively mischievous, were good because 
they were old. It is true that he was sometimes forced by 
conviction or fate or political necessity to be a revolutionist 
on a large scale; to destroy an established Church; to add two 
millions of voters to the electorate; to attack the parliamentary 
union of the kingdoms. But these changes were, in their in- 
ception, distasteful to their author. His whole life was spent 
in unlearning the prejudices in which he was educated. His 
love of freedom steadily developed, and he applied its principles 
more and more courageously to the problems of government. 
But it makes some difference to the future of a democratic 
state whether its leading men are eagerly on the look-out for 
something to revolutionize, or approach a constitutional change 
by the gradual processes of conviction and conversion. 

Great as were his eloquence, his knowledge and his financial 
skill, Gladstone was accustomed to say of himself that the only 
quality in which, so far as he knew, he was distinguished from 
his fellow-men was his faculty of concentration. Whatever were 
the matter in hand, he so concentrated himself on it, and absorbed 
himself in it, that nothing else seemed to exist for him. 

A word must be said about physical characteristics. In 
his prime Gladstone was just six feet high, but his inches 
diminished as his years increased, and in old age the unusual 
size of his head and breadth of his shoulders gave him a slightly 
top-heavy appearance. His features were strongly marked; 
the nose trenchant and hawk-like, and the mouth severely 
lined. His flashing eyes were deep-set, and in colour resembled 
the onyx with its double band of brown and grey. His com- 
plexion was of an extreme pallor, and, combined with his jet-black 
hair, gave in earlier life something of an Italian aspect to his 
face. His dark eyebrows were singularly flexible, and they per- 
petually expanded and contracted in harmony with what he 
was saying. He held himself remarkably upright, and even 
from his school-days at Eton had been remarked for the rapid 
pace at which he habitually walked. His voice was a baritone, 
singularly clear and far-reaching. In the Waverley Market 
at Edinburgh, which is said to hold 20,000 people, he could be 
heard without difficulty; and as late as 1895 he said to the 
present writer: " What difference does it make to me whether 
I speak to 400 or 4000 people ? " His physical vigour in old 
age earned him the popular nickname of the Grand Old Man. 

Lord Morley of Blackburn's Life of Gladstone was published in 
1903. (G. W. E. R.) 

GLADSTONE, a seaport of Clinton county, Queensland, 
Australia, 328 m. by rail X.E. of Brisbane. Pop. (1901) 1566. 
It possesses a fine, well-sheltered harbour reputed one of the 
best in Queensland, at the mouth of the river Boyne. Gold, 
manganese, copper and coal are found in the neighbourhood. 
Gladstone, founded in 1S47. became a municipality in 1S63. 

See J. F- Hogan, The Gladstone Colony ^ London, iSoS). 

GLAGOUTIC, an early Slavonic alphabet: also the liturgy 
written therein, and the people ^Dalmatians and Roman Catholic 



GLAIR—GLAMORGANSHIRE 



-73 



Montenegrins) among whom it has survived by special Hcence 
of the Pope (see Sj.ay« for, table of letters). 

GLAIR (from Fr<. glaire, probably from Lat clams, clear, 
bright), the white of an egg, and hence a term used for a prepara- 
tion made of this and used, in bookbinding and in gilding, to 
retain the gold and as a varnish. The adjective " glairy " is 
usecfof substances having the viscous and transparent consistency 
of the white bl an egg. 

GLAISHER, JAMBS (1809-1903), English meteorologist and 
aeronaut, was bora in. London on the 7th of April 1809. After 
serving for a few years on the Ordnance Survey of Ireland, 
he acted as an assistant at the Cambridge and Greenwich ob- 
servatories successively, and when the department of meteorology 
and magnetism was formed at the latter, he was entrusted ( ^vith 
its superintendence^whiich he continued to exercise for thirty-four 
years, until his retirement from the public service. In 1845 he 
published his well-known dew-point tables, which have gone 
through many editions. In 1850 he established the Meteoro- 
logical Society,: acting as its secretary for many years, and, in 
1866 he assisted in the foundation of the Aeronautical Society 
of Great Britain. He was appointed a member of the royal 
commission on , the warming and ventilation of dwellings in 1875, 
and for twelve years from 1880 acted as chairman of the executive 
committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund. But his name 
is best known in connexion with the series of balloon ascents 
which he made between 1862 and 1866, mostly in company 
with Henry Tracey Coxwell. Many of these ascents were 
arranged by a committee of the British Association, of which 
he was a member, and were strictly scientific in character, the 
object being to carry out observations on the temperature, 
humidity, &c, of the atmosphere at high elevations. In one of 
them, that which took place at Wolverhampton on the 5th of 
September 1862, Glaisher and his companion attained the 
greatest height that had been reached by a balloon carrying 
passengers. As no. automatically recording instruments were 
available, and Glaisher was unable to read the barometer at 
the highest point owing to loss of consciousness, the precise 
altitude can never be known, but it is estimated at about 
7 m. from the earth. Hfe died on the 7th of February 1903 at 
Croydon. ' . 

GLAMIS, a village and: parish of Forfarshire, Scotland, 5J m. 
W. by S. of Forfar by the Caledonian railway. Pop. of parish 
(iqoi) 1351, .The name is sometimes spelled Glammis and the 
* is mute: it is derived from the Gaelic, glamhus, " a Wide gap," 
" a vale." The chief object in the village is the sculptured stone, 
traditionally supposed to be a memorial of Malcolm II., although 
Fordun's statement that the king was slain in the castle is now 
rejected. About a- mile from the station stands Glamis Castle, 
the seat of the fearl of Strathmore aiid Kinghbrne, a fine example ; 
of the Scottish ;BarbriiaJ style, enriched with certain features 
of the French chateau. In its present form it dates mostly 
from the 17th cehturyi but tbt original structure was as old as ', 
the nth century, for Macbeth was Thane of Qlamis. Several 
of the early Scots kings, especially Alexander III., used it 
occasionally as a residence. Robert H. bestowed the thanedom 
on John Lyon, who had married the king's second daughter 
by Elizabeth Mure and was thus the founder of the existing 
family. Patrick Lyon becarnje hostage to "England fdr James I. 
in 1424, When, in. 35537, Janet Douglas* widow of the 6th Lord 
Glamis, was burned at Edinburgh; as- a witch, for conspiring to 
procure James V.'s death, Glamis was forfeited to the crown, but 
it was restored to her son six years later when her innocence had 
been established. The 3rd earl of Strathmore entertained the 
Old Chevalier and eighty of. his immediate followers in 171 5. 
After discharging the duties of hospitality the earl joined the 
Jacobites at Sheriffmuir and fell on the battlefield. Sir Walter 
Scott spent a night in the " hoary old pile " when he was about 
twenty years old, and gives a striking relation of his experiences 
in his Demonohgy: and Witchcraft. . The hall has, an arched 
ceiling and seVeral histprical portraits, including those of Claver- 
house, Charles II. and James II. of England. At Cossans, in 
the parish of Glamis, there is a remarkable sculptured monolith, 



and other examples occur at the Hunters* Hill and hi the oM 
kfrkyard of Eassie, ' ' ' ' 

GLAMORGANSHIRE (Welsh Motganwg), a maritime county 
occupying the south-east corner of Wales, and bounded N,W. 
by Carmarthenshire, N. by Carmarthenshire 'and Breconshire, 
E. by Monmouthshire and S. and S. W. by the Bristol Channel 
and Carmarthen Bay. The contour of the county is largely 
determined by the fact that it lies between the mountains of 
Breconshire and the Bristol Channel Its extreme breadth frodi 
the sea inland' is 29 m., while its greatest length from east to 
west is 53- m. • Its chief rivers, the Rhymtiey, Taff, Neath (or 
NSdd)* and Tawe br f awy/have their sources' in the Breconshire 
mountains, the two first trending towards the south-east, while 
the two last trend to the south-west, so that the ma{n body of the 
county forms a sort of quarter-circle between the Tag and the 
Neath. Near tine apex of the angle formed by these two rivers 
is the toftiest "peak m the county, the great Pennant scarp of 
Craig y Llyn or Cam Moesyn, 1970 ft high, which in the Glacial 
period diverted the ice-flow from the Beacons into the valley 
on either side of it. To the south and southeast of this p6ak 
extend the great coal-fields of mid-Glamorgan, their surface 
forming an irregular plateau with an average elevation of 600 to, 
1200 ft. above sea-level, but with numerous peaks about 1500 ft 
high, or more; Mynydd y Caerau, the second highest being 
1823 ft. Out of this plateau have been carved, to the depth 
of 500 to 800 ft. below its general level, three distinct series 
of narrow valleys, those in -each series being more or less parallel. 
The rivers which give their names to these valleys include the 
Cynon, the Great and Lesser Rhondda (tributaries of the Taff) 
and the Ely flowing to the S.E., the Ogwr or Ogmore (with its 
tributaries the Garw and Llynfi) flowing south through Bridgend, 
and the Avan bringing the waters of the Corwg and Gwynfi to 
the south-west into Swansea Bay at Aberavon. To the south 
of this Central hiU country, which is wet, cold and sterile, and 
whose steep slopes form the southern edge of the coal-field, there 
stretches out to the sea a gently undulating plain, compendiously 
known as the " Vale of Glamorgan," but in fact consisting of a 
succession of small vales of such fertile land' and with such a 
mild climate that it has been styled, not inaptly, the " Garden 
of Wales.*' To the east of the central area referred to and 
divided from it by a spur of the Brecknock mountains culminating 
in Cam Bugail, 1570 ft. high, is the Rhymney, which forms the 
county's eastern boundary. On. the west other spurs of the 
Beacons divide the Neath from the Tawe (which enters the 
sea at 'Swansea), and the Tawe from the Loughor, which, with 
its tributary the Amman, separates the county on the N.W. 
from Carmarthenshire, in , which it rises, and falling into Car- 
marthen* Bay forms what is known as the Burry estuary, so 
called from a small stream of that name in the Gower peninsula. 
The rivers are all comparatively short, the Taff, in every respect 
the chief river, feeing only 33 m. long. 

Down to the middle of the 19th century mdst of the Glamorgan 
valleys were famous for their beautiful scenery, but industrial 
operations have since destroyed most of ttis beauty, except in 
the so-called "iVale of Glamorgan," the Vale of Neath, the 
" combes "and limestone gorges of Gower and the upper reaches 
of the Taff and the Tawe. The Vale of Neath is fat excellence 
the* waterfall district of South Wales, the finest falls being the 
Cflhepstc fall, the Sychnant and the three . Chjuigwyns on the 
Mellte and its tributaries near the Vale of Neath railway from 
Neath to Rirwaun, Scwd Einon Gam and Scwd Gladys on th,e 
Pyrddin on the west side of the valley close by, with Melin Court 
and Abergarwed still nearer Neath. There are also several 
cascades on the Dulais, and in the same district, though in 
Breconshire, is Scwd Henrhyd on the Llech near Colbren Junction. 
Almost the only part of the county which is now well timbered 
is the Vale oi Neath. There are three small lakes, Llyn Fawr 
and Llyn Each near Craig y Llyn and Kenfig Pool amid the 
sand-dunes of Margam. The rainfall of the county varies from 
an average of about 25 in. at Porthcawl and other parts of the 
Vale of Glamorgan to about 37 in. at Cardiff,.^ in. at Swansea 
and to. upwards of 70 in. in the northern part of the county > 

xn. 3 a 



n 



[GLAMORGANSHIRE 



the fad] being stall' higher id the adjoining parts, of B Devonshire 
whence Cardiff, Swansea, Merthyr and a large area near Neath 
draw their main supplies of water; i-: ... 

. The county has a, coast-line of about 83 m. Its two chief bays 
are the Burry estuary and Swansea, one on either side of the 
Cower Peninsula, which has also a number of smaller inlets with 
magnificent cliff scenery. The rest of the coast is fairly regular, 
the chief openings being at the mouths of the Ogmqre and the 
Taff respectively. The most conspicuous headlands are Whitef ord 
Point, Worms Head and Mumbles Head in Gower, Nash Point 
and Lavetnock Point on the eastern half of the coast. 

Geology. — The Silurian rocks, the oldest in the county, form a 
small injier about 2 sq. m. in area at Rumnev and Pen-y-lan, north 
of Cardiff, and consist of mudstones and sandstones of Wenlock and 
Ludlow age ; a feeble representative of the Wenlock Limestone also 
is present. They are conformably succeeded by the Old Red Sand- 
stone which extends westwards as far as Cowbridge as a deeply- 
eroded anticline largely concealed by Trias and Lias. The Old 
Red Sandstone consists in the lower parts of red marls and sand- 
stones, while the upper beds are quartzitic and pebbly, and form 
bold scarps which dominate the low ground formed by the softer 
beds below. Cefn-y-bryn, another anticline of Old Red Sandstone 
(including small exposures of Silurian rocks), forms the prominent 
backbone of the Gower peninsula. The next formation is the 
Carboniferous Limestone which encircles and underlies the great 
South Wales coal-field, on the south of which, west of Cardiff, it 
forms a bold escarpment of steeply-dipping beds surrounding the 
Old Red Sandstone anticline. It shows up through the Trias and 
Lias in extensive inliers near Bridgend, while in Gower it dips away 
from the Old Red Sandstone of Cefn-y-bryn. On the north of the 
coal-field it is just reached near Merthyr Tydfil. The Millstone Grit, 
which consists of grits, sandstones and shales, crops out above the 
limestone and serves to introduce the Coal Measures, which lie in the 
form of a great trough extending east and west across the county and 
occupying most of its surface. The coal seams are most numerous 
in the lower part of the series; the Pennant Sandstone succeeds 
and occupies the inner parts of the basin, forming an elevated 
moorland region deeply trenched by the teeming vafleya {e.g. the 
Rhondda) which cross the coal-field from north to south. Above 
the Pennant Sandstone still higher coals come in. Taken generally, 
the coals are bituminous in the south-east and anthracitic in the 
north-west. 

After the Coal Measures had been deposited, the southern part of 
the region was subjected to powerfulfolding; tne resulting anticlines 
were worn down during a long period of detrition, and then sub- 
merged slowly beneath a Triassic lake in which accumulated the 
Keuper conglomerates and marls which spread over the district 
west of Cardiff and are traceable on the coast of Gower. The 
succeeding Rhaetic and Lias which form most of the coastal plain 
(the fertile Vale of Glamorgan) from Penarth to near Bridgend werfe 
laid down by the Jurassic sea. A well-marked raised beach is 
traceable in Gower. Sand-dunes are present locally around Swansea 
Bay. Moraines, chiefly formed of gravel and clay, occupy many 
of the Glamorgan valleys; and these, together with the striated 
surfaces which may be observed at higher levels, are clearly glacial 
fn origin. In the Coal Measures and the newer Limestones and 
Triassic, Rhaetic and Liassic conglomerates, marls and shales, many 
interesting fossils have been disinterred: these include the remains 
of an air-breathing reptile {A nthracespeton) . Bones of the cave-bear, 
lion, mammoth, reindeer, rhinoceros, along with flint weapons and 
tools, have been discovered in some caves of the Gower peninsula. 

Agriculture.— T\v^ low-lying land on the south from Caerphilly to 
Margam is. very fertile, the soil being a deep rich loam ; and nere the 
standard of agriculture is fairly high, and there prevails a well- 
defined tenant-right custom, supposed to be of ancient origin but 
g'obably dating only from the beginning of the 19th century, 
very where on the Coal Measures the soil is poor, while vegetation is 
also injured by the smoke from the works, especially copper smoke. 
Leland (c. 1535) describes the lowlands as growing gooq corn and 
grass but little wood, while the mountains had " redde dere, kiddes 
plenty, oxen and sheep." The land even in the " Vale " seems to 
nave been open and unenclosed till the end of the 15th or beginning 
of the 1 6th century, while enclosure spread to the uplands still later. 
About one-fifth of the total area is still common land, more than half 
of which is unsuitable for cultivation. The total area under culti- 
vation in 1005 was 269,271 acres or about one-half of the total are a 
of the county. The chief crops raised (giving them in the order 
of their respective acreages) are oats, barley, turnips and swedes, 
wheat, potatoes and mangolds. A steady decrease of the acreage 
under grain-crops, green-crops and clover has been accompanied 
by an increase m the area of pasture. Dairying has been largely 
abandoned for stock-raising, and very little " Caerphilly cheese " is 
now made in that, district. In 1905 Glamorgan had the largest 
number of horses in agriculture of any Welsh county except those of 
Carmarthen and Cardigan, Good sheep and ponies are reared in the 
hill-country. Pig-keeping is much neglected, and despite the mild 
climate very little fruit is grown. The average size of holdings in 



1905 was 47*3 acres* there being only 46 holdings above 300 acres, 
and 1 71 9 between 56 and 500 acres. 

Mining and Manufactures. — Down to the middle of the 18th 
century the county had no industry of any importance except 
agriculture. The coal which underlies practically the wl}o|e surface 
of the county except the Vale of Glamorgan and West Gower was 
little worked till about 1755, when it began to be used Instead of 
charcoal for the smelting of iron. By 181 1, when there were 25 
blast furnaces in the county, the demand for coal for this purpose 
had much increased, but it was in the most active period of railway 
construction that it reached its maximum. Down to about 1850, 
if not later, the chief collieries were owned by the ironmasters and 
were worked for their own requirements, but when the suitability 
of the lower seams in the district north of Cardiff for steam purposes 
was realized, an export trade sprang up and soon assumed enormous 

Proportions, so that " the port of Cardiff " (including Barry and 
enarth), from which the bulk of the steam coal was shipped, became 
the first port in the world for the shipment of coal . The development 
of the anthracite coal-field lying to the north and west of Swansea 
{from which port it is mostly shipped) dates mainly from the closing 
years of the 19th century, when the demand for this coal grew 
rapidly. There are still large areas in the Rhymney Valley on the 
east, and in the districts of Neath and Swansea on the west, whose 
development has only recently been undertaken. In connexion with 
the coal industry, patent fuel (made from small coal and tar) is 
largely manufactured at Cardiff, Port Talbot and Swansea, the ship- 
ments from Swansea being the largest in the kingdom. Next in 
importance to coal are the iron, steel and tin-plate industries, and 
in the Swansea district the smelting of copper and a variety of other 
ores. 

The manufacture of iron and steel is carried onat Dowlais, Merthyr 
Tydfil, Cardiff, Port Talbot, Briton Ferry, Pontardawe, Swansea, 
Gorseinon and Gowerton. During the last quarter of the loth cen- 
tury the use of the native ironstone was almost wholly given up, 
and the necessary ore is now imported, mainly from Spain. As a 
result several of the older inland works, such as those of Aberdare, 
Ystalyfera and Brynaman have been abandoned, and new works 
have been established on or near the sea-board; e.g. the Dowlais 
company in 1891 opened large works at Cardiff. The tin-plate 
industry is mainly confined to the west of the county, Swansea being 
the chief port for the shipment of tin-plates, though there are works 
near Llantrisant and at Melin Griffith near Cardiff, the latter being 
the oldest in the county. Copper-smelting is carried on on a large 
scale in the west of the county, at Port Talbot, Cwmavon, Neath and 
Swansea, and on a small scale at Cardiff, the earliest works having 
been established at Neath in 1584 and at Swansea in 17 17. There 
are nickel works at Clydach near Swansea, the nickel being imported 
in the form of " matte " from Canada. Swansea has almost a 
monopoly of the manufacture of spelter or zinc. Lead, silver and a 
number of other metals or their by-products are treated in or near 
Swansea, which is often styled the metallurgical capital of Wales." 
Limestone and silica quarries are worked, while sandstone and clay 
are also raised. Swansea and Nantgarw were formerly famous for 
their china, coarse ware is still made chiefly at Ewenny and terra- 
cotta at Pencoed. Large numbers of people are employed in 
engineering works and in the manufacture of machines, chains, 
conveyances, tools, paper and .chemicals. The textile factories are 
few and unimportant. 

Fisheries. — Fisheries exist all along the coast; by lines, draught- 
nets, dredging, trawling, fixed nets and by hand* There is a fleet of 
trawlers at Swansea. The principal fish caught are cod, herring, 
pollock, whiting, flukes, brill, plaice, soles, turbot, oysters, mussels, 
limpets, cockles, shrimps, crabs and lobsters. There are good fish- 
markets at Swansea and Cardiff. 

Communications. — The county has ample dock accommodation. 
The various docks of Cardiff amount to 210 acres, including timber 
ponds; Penarth has a dock and basin of 26 acres and a tidal harbour 
of 55 acres. Barry docks cover iia acres; Swansea has 147 acres, 
including its new king's Dock; and Port Talbot 90 acres. There 
are also docks at Briton Ferry and Porthcawl, but they are not 
capable of admitting deep-draft vessels. 

Besides its ports, Glamorgan has abundant means of transit in 
many railways, of which the Great Western is the chief. Its trunk 
line traversing the country between the mountains and the sea passes 
through Cardiff, Bridgend and Landore (on the outskirts of Swansea), 
and throws off numerous branches to the north. The Taff Vale 
railway serves all the valley of the Taff and its tributaries, and has 
also extensions to Barry and (through Llantrisant and Cowbridge) 
to Aberthaw. The Rhymney railway likewise serves the Rhymney 
Valley, and has a joint service with the Great Western between 
Cardiff and Merthyr Tydfil— the latter town being also the terminus 
of the Brecon and Merthyr and a branch of the North- Western from 
Abergavenny. The Barry railway visits Cardiff and then travels in 
a north-westerly direction to Pontypridd and Porth, while it sends 
another branch along the coast through Llantwit Major to Bridgend. 
Swansea is connected with Merthyr by the Great Western, with 
Brecon by the Midland, with Craven Arms and Mid- Wales generally 
by the London & North- Western, with the Rhondda Valley by 
the Rhondda and Swansea Bay (now worked by the Great Western) 
and with Mumbles by the Mumbles railway. The Port Talbot 



GLAMQ&#/VN$HIRE 



«W 



railway runs to Blaengarw, and the Neath,-. and Brecon railway 
(starting from Neath) Joins the Midland at Colbren Junction. The, 
canals of the county are the Glamorgan canal from Cardiff "to 
Merthyr Tydfil (35$ m.), with a' branch <? m.) fc> Aberdare, the 
Neath canal (13 m.) from Briton Feiry to' Aberrant, 'Glyn Neath 
(whence a tramway formerly connected it with Aberaare),. the 
Tennarit canal connecting the rivers Neath and Tawe, and the Swan- 
sea canal (i6i m.)i running up the Swansea Valley from Swansea to 
Abercrave in Breconshire. Comparatively little use is now made of 
these canals* excepting the lower portion© of the Glamorgan canal. 

Population and Administration. — The area of. the ancient county' 
with which the administrative county is conterminous is 516,863 
acres, with a population in 1901 of 859,931 persons. In the three 
decades between 1831 and 1861 it increased 35*2, 35*4 and 37*1 % 
respectively, and in 1881-1891, 34*4, its average increase in the other 
decennial periods subsequent to 1861 being about 25%. The 
county is divided into five parliamentary divisions (viz. Glamorgan- 
shire East, South and Middle, Gower and Rhondda) ; it also includes 
the Cardiff district of boroughs (consisting of Cardiff, Cowbridge and 
Llantrisant), which has one member; the greater part of the parlia- 
mentary borough of Merthyr Tydfil (which mainly consists of the 
county borough of Merthyr, the urban district of Aberdare and part 
of Mountain Ash), and returns two members; and the two divisions 
of Swansea District returning one member each, one division con- 
sisting of the major part of Swansea town, the other comprising the 
remainder of Swansea and the boroughs of Aberavon, Ken fig, 
Llwchwr and Neath. There are six municipal boroughs: Aberavon 
(pop. in 1901, 7553)» Cardiff (164,333), Cowbridge (1202), Merthyr 
Tydfil (69,228), Neath (13,720) and Swansea (94,537). Cardiff 
(which in 1905 was created a city), Merthyr Tydfil and Swansea are 
county boroughs. The following are urban districts: Aberdare 
Cj3.3°5)» Barry (27,030), Bridgend (6062), Briton Ferry (6973), 
Caerphilly (15,835), Glyncorrwg (6452), Maesteg (15,012), Margam 
(9014), Mc ~ ' * ' v ~ ' ~ ' ^ 

mouth 



ilyncc 
(31/3 



ountain Ash (31,093), Ogmore and Garw (19,007), Oyi 
.61), fenarth (14,22^), Pontypridd (32,316), Porth 



ster 
mouth (4461), ifenarth (14,228), Pontypridd (32,316), Porthcawl 
(1872) ana Rhondda, previously known as Ystradytodwg (113,735). 
Glamorgan is in the S. Wales circuit, and both assizes ana quarter- 
sessions are held at Cardiff and Swansea alternately. AH the 
municipal boroughs have separate commissions of the peace, and 
Cardiff and Swansea have also separate courts of quarter-sessions. 
The county has thirteen other petty sessional divisions, Cardiff, the 1 
Rhondda (with Pontypridd) and the Merthyr and Aberdare district 
have stipendiary magistrates. There are 165 civil parishes. Ex-' 
cepting the districts of Gower and Kilvey, which are in the diocese 
of St David's, the whole county is in the diocese of Llandaff. • There 
are 159 ecclesiastical parishes or districts situated whoijy pr partly' 
within the county. .,.',.., ' 

History*** The earliest known traces of man within the area 
of the present county are the human remains found in the famous 
bone-caves of Gower, though they are scanty as compared with 
the huge depoaits of still earlier animal remains.' To a later; 
stage, perhaps in the Neolithic period,, belongs a number of cpm-| 
piete skeletons discovered in 1005 in sanoVfalown , tumuli at! 
the mouth of the Ogmore, where many flint .implements were; 
also found. Considerably later, and probably belonging, to the' 
Bronze Age (though finds of bronze implements have been scanty) , 
are the many cairns and tumuli, mainly on the (hills, such as on; 
Garth Mountain near Cardiff, Crug-yr-avan and a number east! 
of the Tawe;' the stone circles often found in association, with! 
the tumuli, that of Cam Llechartb near Pon tarda we being, one 
of the most complete in Wales; and the one cromlechs of Cefn! 
Bryn in Gower (known as Arthur's Stone), of St Nicholas and of, 
St Lythan's near Cardiff. ■• ' 1 

In Roman times the country from: the Neath to the Wye was- 
occupied by the Silures, a pre-Celtic race, probably governed at 
that time by Brythonic Celts. West' of the Neath and along the 
fringe of the Brecknock Mountains were probably remnants of the 
earlier Goidelic Celts, who have left traces in the place-names of 
the Swansea valley (e.g. Uwck, <( a lake '!) and in the illegible 
Ogham inscription at Loughor, the only other Ogham stone in 
the county being at Kenfig, a few miles to the east of the Neath 
estuary. The conquest of the Silures by. the Romans was begun' 
about aj>. 50 by Ostorius Scapula and completed some 25 years 
later by Julius Frontinus, who probably constructed the great 
military road, called Via Julia Maritima, from Gloucester to St 
David's, with stations at Cardiff, Bovium (variously identified 
with Boverton, Cowbridge and Eweimy), Nidum (identified with, 
Neath) and Leucarum or Loughor* The important station of 
Gaer on the Usk near Brecon was connected by two branch 
roads, one running from Cardiff through .GelKgae*. (where there 
wasasttoi^hinfort) and Merthyr ;Tydfil^ndanotherfromNeatb] 



through CapeJ. Colbren, . Welslj . tradition credits Glanaor^an 
with being the first home of Christianity, and Handaff the earliest 
bishopric in Britain, tlie na/ne of three reputed nuWonaries of 
the 2nd century being preserved in the names of parishes insouth 
Glamorgan. What is certain, however, is that the first two bishops 
of Llandaff, St Dubricius and St Teilo, lived during, the first 
half of the 6th century, to whic^i period also belongs the establish- 
ment of the great monastic settlements of Llancarvan by Cadoc, 
of Llandough by Oudoceus and of JUantwit Major \>y Illtutus, the 
last of which flourished as a seat pf learning down to the 12th 
century. A few moated mounds such as at Cardiff indicate that, 
after the withdrawal of the Romans, the coasts were visited by 
sporadic bands of Savons, but the Scandinavians who came in 
the 9th and succeeding centuries left more abundant traces both 
in the place-names of the coast and in such camps as that on 
Sully Island, the Bulwarks at Porthkerry and Hardings Down 
in Gower. Meanwhile the native tribes of the district had 
regained their independence under a line of Welsh chieftains, 
whose domain was consolidated into a principality known as 
Glywyssing, till about the end of the 10th century when it 
acquired the name of Morganwg, that is the territory of Morgan, 
a prince who died in a.d. 980; it then comprised the whole 
country from the Neath to the Wye, practically corresponding 
to the present diocese of Llandaff. Gwlad Morgan, later softened 
into Glamorgan,, never had much vogue and meant precisely the 
same as Morganwg, though the two terms became differentiated 
a few centuries later. 

The Norman conquest of Morganwg was effected in the 
closing years of the nth century by Robert Fitzhamon, lord of 
Gloucester. His followers settled in- the lpw-Jying lands of the 
" Vale," which becarae known as the " body " of the shire, 
while in the hill country, which consisted of ten." members," 
corresponding to its ancient territorial divisions, the Welsh 
retained their customary, laws and much of their independence. 
Glamorgan, whose bounds were now contracted between the 
Neath and; the Rhymney,. tjien became ;a lordsliip marcber> its 
status and organization being that of a county palatine; its 
lord possessed jura* regalia, and his chief official was froni the 
first a vice-comes, ,or sheriff, who presided over a county court 
composed of his lord's principal tenants. The inhabitants of 
Cardiff in which, as the, caput baroniae, this court was held 
(though sometimes ambulatory), were soon granted municipal 
privileges, and in, time Cowbridge, Kenfig, Llantrisant, Aberavon 
and Neath also became chartered market-towns. The manorial 
system was introduced throughout the " Vale," the manor in 
-many cases becoming the parish, and tfre owner building: for its 
protection first a castle and then a church., The church itself 
became Normanjzed, and monasteries were established— the 
Cistercian abbey of Neath .and Margam .in nag and 1147 re- 
spectively, the Benedictine priory of Eweuny in 1141 and that of 
Cardiff in 1147-' Dominican and; Franciscan. houses were also 
founded at Cardiff in the following century. 

Gower (with Kilvey) or the country west of the morass between 
-Neath and Swansea had a separate history. It was conquered 
about 1 100 by Henry de Newburgh, rst earl of Warwick, by 
whose descendants and the powerful family of De Breos it 
was successively held as a marcher lordship, organized to some 
extent on county lines, till 1460. Swansea (which was the caput 
baroniae of Gower) and Loughor received their .earlier charters 
from the lords of Gower (see Gower), 

For the first two centuries after Fitzhamon's time the lordship 
of Glamorgan was held by the earls of Gloucester, a title con- 
ferred by Henry J. on his natural son Robert, who acquired 
Glamorgan- by marrying Fitzhamon's daughter. To the 1st 
earl's patronage of Geoffrey of Monmouth and other men of 
letters, at Cardiff Castle of which he was the bfuilder, is probably 
due the large place which Celtic romance, especially theArthurian 
cycle, won for itself in medieval literature. The Jordsbip passed 
by descent through the families of Clare (who held it from 121 7 
•to 1317), Pespenser, Beauchnmp and Neville tq Richard .III., on 
whose fall it escheated to the crown. : From time to time, the 
Welsh- ef;the WUs* t qf ten Joined: by theft .co^atryir*en from, other 



7 6 



GLANDERS 



part*, raided the Vale, and even Cardiff Castle was seized about 
**53 by Ivor Bach, lord of Senghenydd, who for a time held its 
lord a prisoner. At last Caerphilly Castle was built to keep them 
in check, but this provoked an invasion in 1270 by Prince 
Llewelyn ap Griffith, who besieged the castle and refused to retire 
except on conditions. In 1316 Llewelyn Bren headed a revolt in 
the same district, but being defeated wasput to death by Despenser, 
whose great unpopularity with the Welsh made Glamorgan less 
safe as a retreat for Edward II. a few years later. In 1404 
Glendower swept through the county, burning castles and laying 
waste the possessions of the king's supporters. By the Act of 
Union of 1535 the court ty of Glamorgan was incorporated as it 
now exists, by the addition to the old county of the lordship 
of Gower and Kilvey, west of the Neath. By another act of 
1542 the court of great sessions was established, and Glamorgan, 
with the counties of Brecon and Radnor, formed one of its four 
Welsh circuits from thence till 1830, When the English assize 
system was introduced into Wales. In the same year the county 
was given one parliamentary representative, increased to two 
in 1832 and to five in 1885. The boroughs were also given a 
member. In 1832 Cardiff (with Llantrisant and Cowbridge), the 
Swansea group of boroughs and the parliamentary borough of 
Merthyr Tydfil were given one member each, increased to two, 
in the case of Merthyr Tydfil in 1867. In 1885 the Swansea 
group was divided into two constituencies with a member each. 

The lordship of Glamorgan, shorn of its quasi-regal status, was 
granted by Edward VI. to William Herbert, afterwards 1st earl 
of Pembroke, from whom it has descended to the present marquess 
of Bute. 

The rule of the Tudors promoted the rapid assimilation of the 
inhabitants of the county, and by the reign of Elizabeth even 
the descendants of the Norman knights had largely become 
Welsh both in speech and sentiment. . Welsh continued to be the 
prevalent speech almost throughout the county, except in the 
peninsular part of Gower and perhaps Cardiff, till the last quarter 
of the ioth century. Since then it has lost ground in the mari- 
time towns and the south-east corner of the county generally, 
while fairly holding its own, despite much English migration, in 
the industrial districts to the north. In 1001 about 56% of the 
total population above three ydars of age was returned as speaking 
English only, 37% as speaking both English and Welsh, and. 
about 6J% as speaking Welsh only. 

In common with the rest of Wales the county was mainly 
Royalist in the Civil War, and indeed stood foremost in its 
readiness to pay ship-money, but when Charles I. visited Cardiff; 
in July 1645 he failed to recruit his army there, owing to the 
dissatisfaction of the county, which a few months later declared 
for the parliament. There was, however, a subsequent Royalist 
revolt in Glamorgan in 1648, butr it was signally crushed by 
Colonel Horton at the battle of St Fagan's (8th of May). 

The educational gap caused by final disappearance of the 
great university of Llantwit Major, founded in the 6th century, 
and by the dissolution of the monasteries was to some extent, 
filled by the foundation, by the Stradling family, of a grammar, 
school at Cowbridge which, relounded in 1685 by Sir Leoline 
Jenkins, is stiH calmed on as an endowed school. The only other 
ancient grammar school is that of Swansea, founded by Bishop 
Gore in 1682, and now under the control of the borough council. 
Besides the l*niversity College of South Wales and Monmouth- 
shire established at Cardiff in 1883, and a technical college 
at Swansea, there is a Church of England theological college 
(St Michael's) at Llandaff (previously at Aberdare), a training 
college for school-mistresses at Swansea, schools for the blind at 
Cardiff and Swansea and for the deaf at Cardiff, Swansea and 
Pontypridd, 

Antiquities* — The antiquities oi the county not already 
mentioned include an unusually large number of castles, all 
of which, except the castles of Morlais (near Merthyr Tydfil), 
Castell Coch and Llantrisant, are between the hill country and 
the sea. The finest specimen is that of Caerphilly, but there 
are also more or less imposing ruins at Oystermouth, Coity, 
Newcastle (at Bridgend), LlanUethian, Pennard and Swansea. 



Among the restored castles, resided in by their present owners, ; 

are St Donat's, " the latest and most complete of the structures $ 

built for defence," Cardiff, the residence of the marquess of £ 

Bute, St Fagan's, Dunraven, Fonmon and Penrice. Of the ^ 

monastic buildings, that of Ewenny is best preserved, Neath < 

and Margam are mere ruins, while all the others have disappeared. ? 

Almost all the older churches possess towers of a somewhat ; 

military character, and most of them, except in Gower, retain / 

some Norman masonry. Coity, Coychurch and Ewenny (all near ^ 

Bridgend) are fine examples of cross churches with embattled t 

towers characteristic of the county. There are interesting ,, 

monumental effigies at St Mary's, Swansea, Oxwich, Ewenny, ^ 

Llantwit Major, Llantrisant, Coity and other churches in the ' 

Vale. There are from . twenty-five to thirty sculptured stones, 
of which some sixteen are bpth ornamented and inscribed, five 
of the latter being at Margam and three at Llantwit .Major, 
and dating from the 9th century if not earlier. " 

Authorities. — The records of the Curia comilatus or County 
Court of Glamorgan are supposed to have perished,, so also have i 

the records of Neath. With these exceptions, the records of the 3 

county have been well preserved. A collection edited by G. T. i 

Clark under the title Car toe el alia munimenta quae ad dominium de 
Glamorgan pertinent was privately printed, by 'him in four volumes 
( 1 885-1 833 J. A Descriptive Catalogue oftte Penriu and Margam 
Abbey MSS. in the Possession of Miss Talbot of Margam (6 vols.) 
was privately issued (1893-1905) under the editorship of Dr de 
Gray Birch, who has also published histories of the Abbeys of 
Neath and Margam. The Book of Han V&f (edited by Dr Gweno- 
zvryn Evans, 1903) contains documents illustrative of the early 
history of the diocese of Llandaff. Cardiff has published its Records 
in 5 vols., and there is a volume of Swansea charters. There is no 
complete history of the county, except a modest but useful one 
in Welsh — Hants Morganwg, by D. W. Jones (Dafydd M organ wg) 
(1 87a) ; the chief contributions are Rice Merrick's Booke of Glamorgan- 
shires Antiquities, written in 1578; The Land of Morgan (1883) 
(a history of the lordship of Glamorgan), by G. T. Clark, whose : 

Genealogies of Glamorgan (1886) and Medieval Military Architecture '. 

(1884) are also indispensable; see also T. Nicholas, Annals and a 

Antiquities of the Counties and County Families of Wales (2 vols., a 

1872). For Gower, see Gower. (D. Ll. T.) 

GLANDERS, or Farcy (Equinio), a specific infective and - 

contagious disease, caused by a tissue parasite {Bacillus mallei), ' 

to which certain animals, chiefly the horse, ass and mule, are l 

liable, and which' is communicable from them to man. Glanders 
in the domesticated animals is dealt with under Veterinary } 

Science; it is happily a rare form of disease in man, there being 
evidently less affinity for its development in the human subject * 

than in the equine species. For the pathology see the article * 

Parasitic Diseases. It occurs chiefly among those who from 
their occupation are frequently in contact with horses, such as ' 

grooms, coachmen, cavalry soldiers, veterinary sturgeons, &c ; the e 

bacillus is communicated from a giandered animal either through 
a wound or scratch or through application to the mucous menu- ? 

brane of the nose or mouth. A period of incubation, lasting 
from three to five days, generally follows the introduction of 3 

the virus into the human system. This period, however, appears 
sometimes to be of much longer duration, especially where there ' 

has been no direct inoculation of the poison. The first symptoms 
are a general feeling of illness, accompanied with pains in the 1 

limbs and joints resembling those of acute rheumatism. If s 

the disease has been introduced by means of an abraded surface, 
pain is felt at that point, and inflammatory swelling takes place 
there, and extends along the neighbouring lymphatics. An 
ulcer is formed at the point of inoculation which discharges 
an offensive ichor, and blebs appear in the inflamed skin, along 
with diffuse abscesses, as in phlegmonous erysipelas. Sometimes 
the disease stops short with these local manifestations, but 
more commonly goes on rapidly accompanied, with symptoms 
of grave constitutional disturbance. Over the whole surface 
of the body there appear numerous red spots or pustules, which 
break and discharge a thick mucous or sanguineous fluid. Besides 
these there are larger swellings lying deeper in the subcutaneous 
tissue, which at first are extremely hard and painful, and to 
which the term farcy " buds " or " buttons " is applied. These 
ultimately open and become extensive sloughing ulcers. 

The mucous membranes participate in the same 



GLANVIL^-mGJLAPTHORNE 



77- 



are present in the skin, and this is particularly the case with 
the interior of the nose, where indeed, in many instances, the 
disease first of all shows itself. This organ becomes greatly 
swollen and inflamed, while from one or both nostrils there 
exudes a copious discharge of highly offensive purulent or 
sanguineous matter. The lining membrane of the nostrils 
is covered with papules similar in character to those on the 
skin, which form ulcers, and may lead to the destruction of the 
cartilaginous and bony textures of the hose. The diseased action 
extends into the throat, mouth and eyes, while the whole face 
becomes swollen and erysipelatous, and the lymphatic glands 
under the jaws inflame and suppurate. Not unfrequently the 
bronchial tubes become affected, and cough . attended with 
expectoration of matter similar to that discharged from the 
nose is the consequence. The general constitutional symptoms 
are exceedingly severe, and advance with great rapidity, the 
patient passing Into a st^ate of extreme prostration. In the 
acute form of the disease recovery rarely if ever occurs, and the 
case generally terminates fatally in a period varying from two 
or three days to as many weeks. 

A chronic form of glanders and farcy is occasionally met with, 
in which the symptoms, although essentially the same as those 
above described, advance much more slowly, and are attended 
with relatively less urgent constitutional disturbance. Cases 
of recovery from this form are on record; but in general the 
disease ultimately proves fatal by exhaustion of the patient, 
or by a sudden supervention, which is apt to occur, of the acute 
form. On the other hand, acute glanders is never observed 
to become chronic. 

In the treatment of this malady in human beings reliance 
is mainly placed on the maintenance of the patient's strength 
by strong nourishment and tonic remedies. Cauterization 
should be resorted to if the point of infection is early known. 
Abscesses may be opened and antiseptic lotions used. In all 
cases of the outbreak of glanders it is of the utmost consequence 
to prevent the spread of the disease by the destruction of affected 
animals and the cleansing and disinfection of infected localities. 

GLANVILL (or Glanvil), JOSEPH (1636-1680)-, English 
philosopher, was born at Plymouth in 1636, and was educated 
at Exeter and Lincoln colleges, Oxford, where he graduated as 
M.A. in 1658. After the Restoration he was successively rector 
of Wimbush, Essex, vicar of Frome Selwood, Somersetshire, 
rector of S treat and Walton. In 1666 he was appointed to the 
abbey church, Bath; in 1678 he became prebendary of Wor- 
cester Cathedral, and acted as chaplain in ordinary to Charles II. 
from 1672. He died at Bath in November 1680. GlanvhTs 
first work (a passage in which suggested the theme of Matthew 
Arnold's Scholar Gipsy), The Vanity of Dogmatizing, or Con- 
fidence in Opinions, manifested in a Discourse of the shortness 
and uncertainty of our Knowledge, and Us Causes, with Reflexions 
on Peripateticism, and an Apology for Philosophy (1 661), is 
interesting as showing one special direction in which the new 
method of the Cartesian philosophy might be developed. Pascal 
had already shown how philosophical scepticism might be 
employed as a bulwark for faith, and Glanvill follows in the 
same track. The philosophic endeavour to cognize the whole 
system of things by referring all events to their causes appears 
to him to be from the outset doomed to failure. For if we 
inquire into this causal relation we find that though we know 
isolated facts, we. cannot perceive any such connexion between 
them as that the one should give rise to the other. In the 
words of Hume, " they seem conjoined but never connect ed." 
All causes then are but secondary, i.e. merely the occasions 
on which the one first cause operates. It is singular enough 
that Glanvill who had not only shown, but even exaggerated, 
the infirmity of human reason, himself provided an example of 
its weakness; for, after having combated scientific dogmatism, 
he not only yielded to vulgar superstitions, *but actually en- 
deavoured to. accredit them both in his revised edition of the 
Vanity x>f Dogmatizing, published as Scepsis scienlifica (1665, 
ed. Rev. John Owen, 1885), and in his Philosophical Considera- 
tions concerning the existence of Sorcerers and Sorcery (1666). 



The latter work appears to. have been based on the story of the 
drum which was alleged to have been heard * every night In a' 
house in Wiltshire (Tedworth, belonging to a Mi* Mompesson), 
a story which macle much noise in the year *6<5$, and Which is 
supposed to bave' furnished Addison with the idea of hi* comedy 
the Drummer. At his death Glanvill left a piece entitled Saddu- 
cismus Triumphalus (printed in r68i, reprinted with some 
additions in 1682, German trans. 1701). He had there collected 
twenty-six relation^ or stories of the same description as that 
of the drum, in orcler to establish, by a series' of facts, the opinion 
which he had expressed in his Philosophical Considerations* 
Glanvill supported a much more honourable cause when he 
undertook the defence of the Royal Society of London, under 
the title of Plus Ultra, or the Progress and Advancement of 
Science since the time of Aristotle (1668), a work which shows 
how thoroughly he was imbued with the ideas of the empirical 
method. 

Besides the works already noticed, Glanvill wrote lAtx otimtaUs 
(1662) ; . Philosophia pia (1671); Essays on Several Important 
Subjects in Philosophy and Religion (1676); An Essay concerning 
Preaching; and Sermons. See C. Remusat, Hist, de la phil. en 
Angleterre, bk. ill. ch. xi.; W. E. H. Lecky, Rationalism in Europe 
(1865), i. 120-128; Hallam's Literature of Europe, iii. 358-362; 
Tulloch's Rational Theology, ii. 443-455. ;f 

GLANVILL, RANULF DE (sometimes written Glanvil, 
Glanville) (d. 1 1 90), chief justiciar of England and reputed 
author of a book on English law, was born at Stratford in Suffolk, 
but in what year is unknown. There is but little information 
regarding his early life. He first comes to the front as sheriff 
of Yorkshire from 1263 to n 70. In 11 73 he became sheriff 
of Lancashire and custodian of the honour of Richmond. In 
1 1 74 he was one of the English leaders at the battle of Alnwick, 
and it was to him that the king of the Scots, William the Lion, 
surrendered. In n 75 he was reappointed sheriff of Yorkshire, 
in 1 1 76 he became justice of the king's court' and a justice 
itinerant in the northern circuit, and in t 180 chief justiciar of 
England. It was with his assistance that Henry II. completed 
his Judicial reforms, though the principal of them had been 
carried out before he came into office. He became the king's 
right-hand man, and during Henry's frequent absences was in 
effect viceroy of England. After the death of Henry in 1189, 
Glanvill was removed from his office by Richard I., and im- 
prisoned till he had paid a ransom, according to one authority, 
of £15,000. Shortly after obtaining his freedom he took the 
cross, and he died at the siege of Acre in 1190; At the instance, 
it may be, of Henry II. , Glanvill wrote or superintended the 
writing of the Tractatus de legibus el consuetudimbus regni 
Angliae, which is a practical treatise on the forms of procedure 
in the king's court. As the source of our knowledge regarding 
the earliest form of the curia regis, and for the information it 
affords regarding ancient customs and laws, it is of great value 
to the student of English history. It is now generally agreed 
that the work of Glanvill is of earlier date than the Scottish law 
book known from its first words as Regiam idajestatem, a work 
which bears a close resemblance to his. 

The treatise of Glanvill was first printed in 1554. An English 
translation, with notes and introduction by John Beames, was 
published at London in 18 12. A French version is found in various 
MSS., but has not yet been printed. (See also English Law: 
History of.) 

GLAPTHORNE, HENRY (fl. 1635-1642), English poet and 
dramatist, wrote in the reign of Charles I. All that is known 
Of him is gathered from his own work. He published Poems 
(1639), many of them in praise of an unidentified " Lucinda "; 
a poem in honour of his friend Thomas Beedome, whose Poems 
Divine and Humane he edited in 1641; and Whitehall (1642), 
dedicated to his " noble friend and gossip, Captain Richard 
Lovelace." The "first volume contains a poem' in honour of the 
duke of York, and Whitehall is a review of the 'past glories of 
the English court, containing abundant evidences of the writer's 
devotion to the royal cause. Argalus and Parthenia (1639) is a 
pastoral tragedy founded on an episode in Sidney's Arcadia; 
4lbertus WaUenstein (1639), his only attempt at historical tragedy, 
represents Wallenstein as a monster of pride and cruelty. EHs 



7 "S 






GLARU^ 



/ T:) 



other plays axe. The Hollander "(written 1635; printed 1640), 
a romantic comedy, of which the scene is laid in Genoa; Wit in a 
Constable (1640), which is probably a version of an earlier play, 
arid owes something to Shakespeare's Much Ado about Nothing) 
and The Ladies Priviledge (1640). The Lady Mother (1635) 
has been identified (Fleay, Biog, Chron. of the Drama) with The 
Noble Trial, one of the plays destroyed by Warburton's cook, 
and Mr A» H. Bnllen prints it in vol. ii. of his Old English Plays 
as most probably Glapthorne's work. The Paraside, or Revenge 
for Honour ,(16 54) , entered at Stationers' Hall in 1653 as Glap- 
thorne's, was printed in the next year with George Chapman's 
name on the title-page. It should probably be included among 
Glapthorne's plays, which, though they hardly rise above the 
level of contemporary productions, contain many felicitous 
isolated passages. 

The Plays and Poems of Henry Glapthorne (1874) contains an un- 
signed memoir, which, however, gives no information about the 
dramatist's life. There is no reason for supposing that the George 
Glapthorne of whose trial details are given was a relative of the poet. 

GLARTJS (Fr. Glaris), one of the Swiss cantons, the name 
being taken from that of its chief town. Its area is 266-8 sq. m., 
of which 173-1 sq. m. are classed as "productive" (forests 
covering 41 sq. m.), but it also contains 13*9 sq. m. of glaciers, 
ranking as the fifth Swiss canton in this respect. It is thus a 
mountain canton, the loftiest point in it being theTodi (1 1,887 ft.), 
the highest summit that rises to the north of the upper Aar and 
Vorder Rhine valleys. It is composed of the upper valley of 
the Linth, that is the portion which lies to the south of a line 
drawn from the Lake of Zurich to the Walensee. This river 
rises in the glaciers of the Todi, and has carved out for itself a 
deep bed, so that the floor of the valley is comparatively level, 
and therefore is occupied by a number of considerable villages. 
Glacier passes only lead from its head to the Grisons, save the 
rough footpath over the Kisten Pass, while a fine new carriage 
road over the Klausen Pass gives access to the canton of Uri. 
The upper Linth valley is sometimes called the Grossthal (main 
valley) to distinguish it from its chief (or south-eastern) tributary, 
the Sernf valley or Kleinthal, which joins it at Schwanden, a 
little above Glarus itself. At the head of the Kleinthal a mule 
track leads to the Grisons over the Panixer Pass, as also a foot- 
path over the Segnes Pass. Just below Glarus town, another 
glen (coming from the south-west) joins the main valley, and is 
watered by the Klon, while from its head the Pragel Pass 
(a mule path, converted into a carriage road) leads over to 
the canton of Schwyz. The Klon glen (uninhabited save in 
summer) is separated from the main glen by the fine bold mass 
of the Giarnisch (9580 ft.), while the Sernf valley is similarly cut 
off from the Grossthal by the high ridge running northwards 
from the Hausstock (10,342 ft.) over the Karpfstock (9177 ft.). 
The principal lakes, the Klonthalersee and the Muttensee, are 
of a thoroughly Alpine character, while there are several fine 
waterfalls near the head of the main valley, such as those formed 
by the Sandbach, the Schreienbach and the Fatschbach. The 
Pantenbrucke, thrown over the narrow cleft formed by the 
Linth, is one of the grandest sights of the Alps below the snow- 
line. There is a sulphur spring at Stachelberg, near Linthal 
village, and ah iron spring at Elm, while in the Sernf valley 
there are the Plattenberg slate quarries, and just south of Elm 
those of the Tschingelberg, whence a terrific landslip descended 
to Elm ( 1 1 th September 1 88 1) , destroying many houses and killing 
115 persons. A railway runs through the whole canton from 
north to south past Glarus to Linthal village (i6jt m.), while 
from Schwanden there is an electric line (opened in 1905) up to 
Elm (Sim.). . 

In 1000 the population of the canton was 32,349 (a decrease 
on the 33,825 of 1888, this being the only Swiss canton which 
shows a decrease), of whom 31,797 were German-speaking, 
while there were 24,403 Protestants, 7918 Romanists (many in 
Nafels) and 3 Jews. After the capital, Glarus (q.v.) 9 the largest 
villages are Nafels (2557 inhabitants), Ennenda (2494 inhabitants, 
opposite Glarus, of which it is practically a suburb), Netstal 
(2003 inhabitants), Mollis (191 2 inhabitants) and Linththal 



(1894 inhabitants), 'the slate industry is now the most important 
; as the cotton manufacture has lately very greatly, fallen off, 
this being the real reason of the diminution in the nurnber of the 
population. There is little agriculture, for it is a pastoral region 
(owing to its height) and contains'87 mountain pastures (though 
the. finest of all within the limits of the canton, the Uraerboden,. 
or the Glarus side of the Klausen Pass, belongs to Uri), which 
can support 8054 cows, and are of an estimated capital value 
of about £246,000. One of the most characteristic products 
(though inferior qualities are manufactured elsewhere in Switzer- 
land) is the cheese called Schabzieger, Krduterkiise, or green cheese, 
made of skim milk (Zieger or strac), whether of goals or cows, 
mixed with buttermilk and coloured with powdered Steinklee 
(Melilotus officinalis) or blauer Honigklee (Melilolus caerulea). 
The curds are brought down from the huts on the pastures, and, 
after being mixed with the dried powder, are ground in a mill, 
then put into shapes and pressed. The cheese thus produced 
is ripe in about a year, keeps a long time and is largely exported, 
even to America. The ice formed on the surface of the K15n- 
thalersee in winter is stored up on its shore and exported. A 
certain number of visitors come to the canton in the summer, 
either to profit by one or other of the mineral springs men- 
tioned above, or simply to enjoy the beauties of nature, especially 
at Obstalden, above the Walensee. The canton forms but a 
single administrative district and contains 28 communes. It 
sends to the Federal St&nderath 2 representatives (elected by 
the Landsgemeinde) and 2 also to the Federal Nationalrath. The 
canton still keeps its primitive democratic assembly or Lands- 
gemeinde (meeting annually in the open air at Glarus on the first 
Sunday in May), composed of all male citizens of 20 years of age. 
It acts as the sovereign body, so that no " referendum " is 
required, while any citizen can submit a proposal. It names the 
executive of 6 members, besides the Landammann or president, 
all holding office for three years. The communes (forming 18 
electoral circles) elect for three years the Landrath, a sort of 
standing committee composed of members in the proportion of 
1 for every 500 inhabitants or fraction over 250. The present 
constitution dates from 1887. (W. A. B. C.) 

GLARUS (Fr. Glaris) f the capital of the Swiss canton of the 
same name. It is a clean, modern little town, built on the left 
bank of the Linth (opposite it is the industrial suburb of Ennenda 
on the right bank), at the north-eastern foot of the imposing 
rock peak of the Vorder Giarnisch (7648 ft.), while on the east 
rises the Schild (6400 ft.). It now contains but few houses 
built before 1861, for on the 10/ 11 May 1861 practically the 
whole town was destroyed by fire that was fanned by a violent 
Fohn or south wind, rushing down from the high mountains 
through the natural funnel formed by the Linth valley. The 
total loss is estimated at about half a million sterling, of which 
about £100,000 were made up by subscriptions that poured in 
from every side. It possesses the broad streets and usual 
buildings of a modern town, the parish church being by far the 
most stately and well-situated building; it is used in common 
by the Protestants and Romans. Zwingli, the reformer, was 
parish priest here from 1506 to 15 16, before he became a Pro- 
testant. The town is 1578 ft. above the sea-level, and in 1900 
had a population of 4877, almost all German-speaking, while 
1248 were Romanists. For the Linth canals (181 1 and 18 16) 
see Linth. 

The District of Glarus is said to have been converted to 
Christianity in the 6th century by the Irish monk, Fridolin, 
whose special protector was St Hilary of Poitiers; the former 
was the founder, and both were patrons, of the Benedictine 
nunnery of Sackingen, on the Rhine between Constance and 
Basel, that about the 9th century became the owner of the 
district which was then named after St Hilary. The Habsburgs, 
protectors of the nunnery, gradually drew to themselves the 
exercise of all the rights of the nuns, so that in 1352 Glarus 
joined the Swiss Confederation. But the men of Glarus did not 
gain their complete freedom till after they had driven back the 
Habsburgs in the glorious battle of Nafels (1388), the comple- 
ment of Sempach, so that the Habsburgers gave up their rights 



GLAS, G.-— GLAS^JP 



in 1398, while those of Sackingen were bought up in 1395, on 
condition of a small annual payment. Glarus early adopted' 
Protestantism; but there were many struggles later on between 
the two parties, as the chief family, that of Tschudi, adhered to 
the old faith. At last it was arranged that, besides the common 
Lands gemeinde, each party should have its separate Lands- 
gemeinde (1623) and tribunals (1683), while it was not till 1798 
that the Protestants agreed to accept the Gregorian calendar: 
The slate-quarrying industry appeared early in the 17th century, 
while cotton-spinning was introduced about 1714, and calico- 
printing by 1750. In 1798, in consequence of the resistance 
of Glarus to the French invaders, the canton was united to other 
districts under the name of canton of the Linth, though in 1803 
it was reduced to its former limits. In 1799 it was traversed 
by the Russian army, under Suworoff, coming over the Pragel 
Pass, but blocked by the French at Nafels, and so driven over 
the Panixer to the prisons. The old system of government was 
set up again in 1814. But in 1836 by the new Liberal con- 
stitution one single Landsgemeinde was restored, despite the 
resistance (1837) of the Romanist population at Nafels. 

Authorities. — J. B&bler, Die Alpwirtschaft im Kant. G. (Sofeure, 
1898); J. J. Blumer, article on the early history of the canton in 
vol. iii. (Zurich, 1844) of the Arckiv f. sehweiz. Geschichte; E. Buss 
and A. Heim, Der Bergsturz von Elm (1881) (Zurich, 1881) ; W. A. B. 
Coolidge, The Range of the Todi (London, 1894) ; J. G. Ebel, Schilde- 
rung der Gebirgsvofker d. Sehweiz, vol. ii. (Leipzig, 1798) ; Gottfried 
Heer, Geschichte d. Landes Glarus (to 1830) (2 vols., Glarus, 1898- 
1899), Glarnetiscke Reformationsgeschichte (Glarus, 1900), Zur $oo 
jahrigen Gedachtnisfeier der Schlacht bei Nafels (1388) (Glarus, 1888) 
and Die Kitchen d. Kant, Glarus (Glarus, 1890); Oswald Heer and 
J. J. Blumer-Heer, Der Kant. Glarus (St Gall, 1846); T. J. Hottineef. 
Conrad Escher von der Linth (Zurich, 1852); Jahrbuch, published 
annually since 1865 by the Cantonal Historical Society ; A; Jenny- 
Trumpy, " Handel u. Industrie d. Kant. G." (article in vol. xxxiii., 
1899, of the Jahrbuch); M. Schuler, Geschichte d. Landes Glarus 
(Zurich, 1836); E. Naf-Blumer, Clubfuhrer durch die Glarner-Alpen 
(Schwanden, 1902) ; Aloys Schulte, article on the true and legendary 
early history of the Canton, published in vol. xviii., 1893, of the 
Jahrbuch f. sehweiz. Geschichte (Zurich) ; J. J. Blumer, Stoats- und 
Rechtsgeschichte a\ sehweiz. Demokratien (3 vols., St Gall, 1850- 
I 859); H. Ryffel, Die sehweiz. Landsgemeinden (Zurich, 1903); 
R. von Reding-Biberegg, Der Zug Suworoffs durch die Sehweiz in 
1799 (Stans, 1895). (W. A. B, C.) 

GLAS, GEORGE (1725-1765), Scottish seaman and merchant 
adventurer in West Africa, son of John Glas the divine, was 
born at Dundee in 1725, and is said to have been brought up 
as a surgeon. He obtained command of a ship which traded 
between Brazil, the N.W. coasts of Africa and the Canary Islands. 
During his voyages he discovered on the Saharan seaboard a 
river navigable for some distance inland, and here he proposed 
to found a trading station. The exact spot is not known with 
certainty, but it is plausibly identified with Gueder, a place 
in about 29 10' N., possibly the haven where the Spaniards had 
in the 15th and 16th centuries a fort called Santa Cruz de Mar 
Pequeiia. Glas made an arrangement with the Lords of Trade 
whereby he was granted £15,000 if he obtained free cession of 
the port he had discovered to the British crown; the proposal 
was to be laid before parliament in the session of 1765. 
Having chartered a vessel, Glas, with his wife and daughter, 
sailed for Africa in 1764, reached his destination and made 
a treaty with the Moors of the district. He named his settle- 
ment Port Hillsborough, after Wills Hill, earl of Hillsborough 
(afterwards marquis of Downshire), president of the Board 
of Trade and Plantations, 1763-1765. In November 1764 
Glas and some companions, leaving his ship behind, went in 
the longboat to Lanzarote, intending to buy a small barque 
suitable for the navigation of the river on which was his settle- 
ment. From Lanzarote he forwarded to London the treaty 
he had concluded for the acquisition of Port Hillsborough. A 
few days later he Was seized by the Spaniards, taken to Teneriffe 
and imprisoned at Santa Cruz. In a letter to the Lords of Trade 
from Teneriffe, dated the 15th of December 1764, Glas said 
be believed the reason for his detention was the jealousy of the 
Spaniards at the settlement at Port Hillsborough "because 
from thence in time of war the English might ruin their fishery 
and effectually stop the whole commerce of the Canary Islands/' 



|The 'Spaniards farther : looked iipoti the settlement as a step, 
towards the conquest of the islands. "They - are, therefore, 
contriving how to make out a claim to -the port; and. will forge, 
old manuscripts to prove their assertion " (Calendar of Home 
Office Paferr, 1760^1765), in March 176$ the ship's company 
at Port Hillsborough was attacked by the natives and several, 
members of it killed. The survivors, including Mrs and Miss 
Glas, escaped to Teneriffe. In October following, through the 
representations of the British government, Glas was released 
from prison. With his wife and child he set sail for England 
on board the barque " Earl of Sandwich." Qn the 30th of 
November Spanish and Portuguese members of the crew* who 
had learned that the ship contained much treasure, mutinied, 
killing the captain and passengers. Glas was stabbed to death, 
and his wife and daughter thrown overboard. (The murderers 
were afterwards captured and hanged at Dublin-) After the 
death of Glas the British government appears to have taken 
no steps to carry out his project. 

In 1764 Glas published in London The History of the Discovery and 
Conquest of the Canary Islands, which he had translated from the 
MS. of an Andalusian monk named Juan Abreu de Galindo, then 
recently discovered at Palma. To this Glas added a description of 
the islands, a continuation of the history and an account of the 
manners, customs, trade, &c, of the inhabitants, displaying con* 
siderable knowledge of the archipelago. 

GLAS, JOHN (1695-1773), Scottish divine, was born at 
Auchtermnchty, Fife, where his father was parish minister, 
on the 5th of October 1695. He was educated at Kinclaven and 
the grammar school, Perth, graduated A.M. at the university of 
St Andrews in 17 13, and completed his education for the ministry 
at Edinburgh. He was licensed as a preacher by the presbytery 
of Dunkeld, and soon afterwards ordained by that of Dundee 
as minister of the parish of Tealing (1719), where his effective 
preaching soon secured a large congregation. Early in his 
ministry he was " brought to a stand " while lecturing on the 
"Shorter Catechism v by the question "How doth Christ 
execute the office of a king ? " This led to an examination of 
the New Testament foundation of the Christian Church, and in 
1725, in a letter to Francis Archibald, minister of Guthrie, 
Forfarshire, he repudiated the obligation of national covenants. 
In the same year his views found expression in the formation of 
a society " separate from the multitude " numbering nearly a 
hundred, and drawn from his own and neighbouring parishes. 
The members of this ecclesiola in ecclesia pledged themselves 
" to join together in the Christian profession, to follow Christ 
the Lord as the righteousness of his people, to walk together 
in brotherly love, and in the duties of it, in subjection to 
Mr Glas as their overseer in the Lord, to observe the ordinance 
of the Lord's Supper once every month,, to submit themselves 
to the Lord's law for removing offences," &c. (Matt, xviii. 
15-20). From the scriptural doctrine of the essentially spiritual 
nature of the kingdom of Christ, Glas in his public teaching 
drew the conclusions: (1) that there is no warrant in the New 
Testament for a national church; (2) that the magistrate as 
such has no function in the church; (3) that national covenants 
are without scriptural grounds; (4) that the true Reformation 
cannot be carried out by political and secular weapons but by 
the word and spirit of Christ only. 

This argument is most fully exhibited in a treatise entitled 
The Testimony of the King of Martyrs (1729). For the promulga- 
tion of these views, which were confessedly at variance with the 
doctrines of the standards of the national church of Scotland, 
he was summoned (1726) before his presbytery, where in the 
course of the investigations which followed he affirmed still 
more explicitly his belief that " every national church established 
by the laws of earthly kingdoms is antichristian in its constitution 
and persecuting in its spirit," and further declared opinions 
upon the subject of church government which amounted to a 
repudiation of Presbyterianism and an acceptance of the puritan 
type of Independency. For these opinions he was in 1728 
suspended from the discharge of ministerial functions, and 
finally deposed in 1730* The members of the society already 
referred to, however, for the most, part continued to adhere 



8o 



GL^SER— GLASGOW 



to him, thus constituting the first " Glassite i" o* "Glasite" 
church. The^ seat 1 of this congregation was shortly. afterward 
transferred to Dundee (whence Glas subsequently removed to 
Edinburgh), where he officiated for some time as an "elder," 
He next laboured in Perth for a few years* where, he was joined 
by Robert Sandeman (see Glasites)} who became his son-in-law, 
and eventually was recognized as the leader and principal 
exponent of Glas's views? these he. developed in a direction 
which laid them open to the charge of antinomianism. Ulti- 
mately iti 1730 Glas returned to Dundee, where the remainder 
of his life was spent. He introduced in his church the primitive 
custom of the' * 4 osculum pads " and the " agape " celebrated 
as a common meal with broth. From this custom his congrega- 
tion was known as the "kail kirk." In 1^39 .the General 
Assembly, without any application from him, removed the 
sentence of deposition which had: been passed against him, and 
restored him to the character and function of a minister, of the 
gospel of Christ, but not that of a minister of the Established 
Church of Scotland* declaring that he was not eligible for a 
charge until he should have renounced principles inconsistent 
with the constitution of the church. 

A collected edittoa of his works was published at Edinburgh in 
1 76 1 (4 vols,, 8vo), and again at Perth in 1782 (5 vols., 8vo). He 
died in 1773. 

Glas's published works bear witness to his vigorous mind and 
scholarly attainments. His reconstruction of the True Discourse of 
Celsus (1753), from Origen's reply to it, is a competent and learned 
piece of work. The Testimony of the King of Martyrs concerning His 
Kingdom (1729) is a classic repudiation of erastianism and defence 
of the spiritual autonomy of the church under Jesus Christ. His 
common sense appears in his rejection of Hutchinson's attempt to 
prove that the Bible supplies a complete system of physical science, 
and his shrewdness in his Notes on Scripture Texts (1747). He 
published a volume of Christian Songs (Perth, 1784). (D. Mn.) 

GLASER, CHRISTOPHER, a pharmaceutical chemist of the 
17th century, was a native of Basel, became demonstrator of 
chemistry at the Jardin du Roi in Paris and apothecary to 
Louis XIV. and to the duke of Orleans. He is best known by 
his Trait* de fo ckymie (Paris, 1663), which went through some 
ten editions in about five-and-twenty years, and was translated 
into both German and English. It has been alleged that he was 
an accomplice in the notorious poisonings carried out by the 
marchioness de Brinvilliers, but the extent of his complicity is 
doubtful. He appears to have died some time before 1676. 
The sal polychrestum Gfaseri is normal potassium sulphate which 
he prepared and used medicinally. 

GLASGOW, a city, county of a city, royal burgh and port of 
Lanarkshire, Scotland, situated on both banks of the Clyde, 
401 J m. N\W. of London by the West Coast railway route, and 
47 m. W.S.W. of Edinburgh by the North British railway. The 
valley of the Clyde is closely confined by hills, and the city 
extends far over these, the irregularity of its site making for 
picturesqueness. The commercial centre of Glasgow, with the 
majority of important public buildings, lies on the north bank 
of the river, which traverses the city from W.S.W. to E.N.E., 
and is crossed by a number of bridges. The uppermost is 
Dalmamock Bridge, dating from 1801, and next below it is 
Ruthcrglen Bridge, rebuilt in 1806, and superseding a structure 
of 1 7 7 5. St Andrew's suspension bridge gives access to the Green 
to the inhabitants of Hutchesontown, a district winch is ap- 
proached also by Albert Bridge, a handsome erection, leading 
from the Salt market. Above this bridge is the tidal dam and 
weir. Victoria Bridge, of granite, was opened in 1856, taking 
the place of the venerable bridge erected by Bishop Rae in 1345, 
whi ch was demolished in 1 $4 7. Then follows a suspension bridge 
(vlating from r$53> by which foot-passengers from the south side 
obtain access to St Enoch Square and. finally, the most important 
bridge of all is reached, variously known as Glasgow, Jamaica 
Street, or Broomiehw Bridge, built of granite from Telford's 
designs and first used in 1S35. Towards the dose of the century 
it was reconstructed, and reopened in 1800. At the busier 
periods of the day it bears a very heavy traffic The stream is 
spanned between Victoria and Albert Bridges by a bridge 
belor^ing to the Glasgow & South-Western railway and by two 



bridges carrying the lines of the Caledonian railway, one below 
Dalmarnock Bridge and the other a massive work immediately 
west of Glasgow Bridge. ' . V . 

Buildings.— George Square, in tfre heart of the city, is an 
open space of which every possible advantage has been taken. 
On its eastern side stand the municipal buildings, a palatial 
pile in Venetian renaissance style, from the designs of William 
Young, a native of Paisley. They were opened in 1889 and cost 
nearly £600,000. They form a square block four storeys high 
and carry a domed turret at each . end of the western facade, 
from the centre qf which rises a massive tower. The entrance 
hall and grand staircase, the council chamber, banqueting hall 
and reception rooms are decorated in a grandiose style, not 
unbecoming to the commercial and industrial metropolis of 
Scotland. Several additional blocks have been built or rented" 
! for the accommodation of the municipal staff. Admirably 
equipped sanitary chambers were opened in 1897, including a 
bacteriological and chemical laboratory. Up till 1810 the town 
council met in a hall adjoining the old tplbooth. It then moved 
to the fine classical structure at the foot of the Salt market, 
which is now used as court-houses. This was vacated in 1842 
for the county buildings in Wilson Street. Growth of business 
compelled another migration to Ingram Street. in 1875, and, 
fourteen years later, it occupied its present quarters. On the 
southern side of George Square the chief structure is the massive 
General Post Office. On the western side stand two ornate Italian 
buildings, the Bank of Scotland and the Merchants' House, the 
head of which (the dean of gild), along with the head of the 
Trades' House (the deacon-convener of trades) has been de facto 
member of the town council since 1711, an arrangement devised 
with a view to adjusting the frequent disputes between the two 
gilds. The Royal Exchange, a Corinthian building with a fine 
portico of columns in two rows, is an admired example of the 
work of David Hamilton (1 768-1 843), a native of Glasgow, who 
designed several of the public buildings and churches, and gained 
the second prize for a design for the Houses of Parliament. The 
news-room of the exchange is a vast apartment, 130 ft. long, 
60 ft. wide, 130 ft. high, with a richly-decorated roof supported 
by Corinthian pillars. Buchanan Street, the most important 
and handsome street in the city, contains the Stock Exchange, 
the Western Club House (by David Hamilton) and the offices of 
the Glasgow Herald. In Sauchiehall Street are the Fine Art 
Institute and the former Corporation Art Gallery. Argyll 
Street, the busiest thoroughfare, mainly occupied with shops, 
leads to Trongate, where a few remains of the old town are now 
carefully preserved. On the south side of the street, spanning 
the pavement, stands the Tron Steeple, a stunted spire dating 
from 1637. It is all that is left of St Mary's church, which was 
burned down in 1793 during the revels of a notorious body 
known as the Hell Fire Club. On the opposite side, at the corner 
of High Street, stood the ancient tolbooth, or prison, a turreted 
building, five storeys high, with a fine Jacobean crown tower. 
The only remnant of the structure is the tower known as the 
Cross Steeple. 

Although almost all the old public buildings of Glasgow have 
been swept away, the cathedral remains in excellent preservation. 
It stands in the north-eastern quarter of the city at a 
height of 104 ft. above the level of the Clyde. It is a |* . 
beautiful example of Early English work, impressive cSSnL 
in its simplicity. Its form is that of a Latin cross, 
with imperfect transepts. Its length from east to west is 319 ft. , 
and its width 63 ft.; the height of the choir is 93 ft., and of the 
nave 85 ft. At the centre rises a fine tower, with a short octagonal 
spire, 225 ft. high. The choir, locally known as the High Church, 
serves as one of the city churches, and the extreme east end of it 
forms the Lady chapel. The rich western doorway is French 
in design but English in details. The chapter-house projects 
from the north-eastern corner and somewhat mars the harmony 
of the effect. It was built in the 15th century and has a groined 
roof supported by a pillar 20 ft. high. Many citizens have 
contributed towards filling the windows with stained glass, 
executed at Munich, the government providing the eastern 



GLASGOW 




window in recognition of their enterprise. The crypt beneath 
the choir is not the least remarkable part of the edifice, being 
without equal in Scotland. It is borne on 65 pillars and lighted 
by 41 windows. The sculpture of the capitals of the columns 
and bosses of the groined vaulting is exquisite and the whole 
is in excellent preservation. Strictly speaking, it is not a crypt, 
but a lower church adapted to the sloping ground of the right 
bank of the Molendinar burn. The dripping aisle is so named 
from the constant dropping of water from the roof. St Mungo's 
Well in the south-eastern corner was considered to possess 
therapeutic virtues, and in the crypt a recumbent effigy, headless 
and handless, is faithfully accepted as the tomb of Kentigern. 
The cathedral contains few monuments of exceptional merit, 
but the surrounding graveyard is almost completely paved with 
tombstones; In 11 15 an investigation was ordered by David, 
prince of Cumbria, into the lands and churches belonging to the 
bishopric, and from the deed then drawn up it is clear that at 
that date a cathedral had already been endowed. When David 
ascended the throne in 1124 he gave to the see of Glasgow the 
lands of Partick, besides restoring many possessions of which 
it had been deprived. JoceKn (dL 1:199 j^ made bishop in 11 74, 
was the first great bishop, and is memorable for his efforts to 
replace the cathedral built in 1136 by Bishop John Achaius, which 
had been destroyed by fire. The crypt is hib wdrx, and he began 
the. choir, Lady chapel, and central tower. The new structure 



was sufficiently advanced to be dedicated Jn 1 1 9 7 . Other famous 
bishops were Robert Wishart (d. 13 16), appointed in 1272, who 
was among the first to join in the revolt of Wallace, and received 
Robert Bruce when he lay under the ban of the church for the 
murder of Comyn; John Cameron (d. 1446), appointed in 1428, 
under whom the building as it stands was completed; and 
William Turnbull (d. 1454), appointed * n J 447/ wno founded the 
university in 1450. James Beaton or Bethune (151 7-1603) 
was the last Roman Catholic archbishop. He fled to France at 
the reformation in 1560, and took with him the treasures and 
records of the see, including the Red Book of Glasgow dating 
from the reign of Robert III. The documents were deposited 
in the Scots College in Paris, were sent at the outbreak of the 
Revolution for safety to St Omer, and were never recovered. 
This loss explains the paucity of the earlier annals of the city. 
The zeal of the Reformers led them ,to threaten to mutilate the 
cathedral, but the building was saved by the prompt action of 
the craftsmen, who mustereo! in force and dispersed the fanatics. 
Excepting the cathedral, none of the Glasgow churches 
possesses historical interest; and, speaking generally, it is 
only the buildings that have been erected since the cbtimhea^ 
beginning of the 19th century that have pronounced 
architectural merit. This was due largely to the long survival 
of the severe sentiment of the Covenanters, who discouraged, 
i^ they did not actually forbid^ the raising of, temples of beautiful 



8* 



GLASGOW 



design. Representative examples of later work ate found in rile 
United Free churches in Vincent Street, in Caledonia Road and 
at Queen's Park, designed by Alexander Thomson (1817-1875), 
an architect of distinct originality; St George's church, in West 
George Street, a remarkable work by William Stark, erected 
in the beginning of the 19th century; St Andrew's church 
in St Andrew's Square off the Saltmarket, modelled after 
St MartinVin-the-Fields, London, with a fine Roman portico; 
some of the older parish churches, such as St Enoch's, dating 
from 1780, with a good spire (the saint's name is said to be a 
corruption of Tanew, mother of Kentigern); the episcopal 
church of St Mary (1870), in Great Western Road, by Sir G. G. 
Scott; the Roman Catholic cathedral of St Andrew, on the 
river-bank between Victoria and Broomielaw bridges; the 
Barony church, replacing the older kirk in which Norman 
Macleod ministered; and several admirable structures, well 
situated, on the eastern confines of Kelvingrove Park. 

The principal burying-ground is the Necropolis, occupying 
Fir Park, a hill about 300 ft. high in the northern part of the 
city. It provides a not inappropriate background to the cathe- 
dral, from which it is approached by a bridge, known as the 
" Bridge of Sighs," over the Molendinar ravine. The ground, 
which once formed portion of the estate of Wester Craigs, belongs 
to the Merchants' House, which purchased it in 1650 from Sir 
Ludovic Stewart of Minto. A Doric column to the memory of 
Knox, surmounted by a colossal statue of the reformer, was 
erected by public subscription on the crown of the height in 
1824, and a few years later the idea arose of utilizing the land as 
a cemetery. The Jews have reserved for their own people a 
detached area in the north-western corner of the cemetery. 

Education. — The university, founded in 1450 by Bishop 
Turnbull under a bull of Pope Nicholas V., survived in its old 
quarters till far in the 19th century. The paedagogium, 
V m jf ow or college of arts, was at first housed in Rottenrow, 
venity. DUt was moved in 1460 to a site in High Street, 
where Sir James Hamilton of Cadzow, first Lord 
Hamilton (d. 1479), 8 ave it four acres of land and some buildings. 
Queen Mary bestowed upon it thirteen acres of contiguous 
ground, and her son granted it a new charter and enlarged the 
endowments. Prior to the Revolution its fortunes fluctuated, 
but in the 18th century it became very famous. By the middle 
of the 19th century, however, its surroundings had deteriorated, 
and in i860 it was decided to rebuild it elsewhere. The ground 
had enormously increased in value and a railway company 
purchased it for £100,000. In 1864 the university bought the 
Gilmore Hill estate for £65,000, the adjacent property of Dowan 
Hill for £16,000 and the property of Clayslaps for £17,400. Sir 
G. G. Scott was appointed architect and selected as the site of 
the university buildings the ridge of Gilmore Hill — the finest 
situation in Glasgow. The design is Early English with a 
suggestion in parts of the Scots-French style of a much later 
period. The main structure is 540 ft. long and 300 ft. broad. 
The principal front faces southwards and consists of a lofty central 
tower with spire and corner blocks with turrets, between which 
are buildings of lower height. Behind the tower lies the Bute 
hall, built on cloisters, binding together the various departments 
and smaller halls, and dividing the massive edifice into an 
eastern and western quadrangle, on two sides of which are 
ranged the class-rooms in two storeys. The northern facade 
comprises two corner blocks, besides the museum, the library 
and, in the centre, the students' reading-room on one floor and 
the Hunterian museum on the floor above. On the south the 
ground falls in terraces towards Kelvingrove Park and the 
Kelvin. On the west, but apart from the main structure, stand 
the houses of the principal and professors. The foundation 
stone was laid in 1868 and the opening ceremony was held in 
1870. The total cost of the university buildings amounted to 
£500,000, towards which government contributed £120,000 and 
public subscription £250,000. The third marquess of Bute 
(1847-1000) gave £40,000 to provide the Bute or common hall, 
a room of fine proportions fitted in Gothic style and divided 
by a beautiful Gothic screen from the Randolph hall, named 



after another benefactor, " Charles "Randolph ^1809- x8fS]^" a. 
native of Stirling, who had prospered as shipbuilder and marine! 
engineer and left £60,000 to Ihe university. The graceful spire = 
surmounting the tower was provided from the bequest of £5000; 
by Mr A. Cunningham, deputy town-clerk, and Dr John M'Intyre ■ 
erected the Students' Union at a cost of £5000, while other 
donors completed the equipment so generously that the senate 
was enabled to carry on its work, for the first time in its history, 
in almost ideal circumstances. The library includes the collec- 
tion of Sir William Hamilton, and the Hunterian museum, 
.bequeathed by William Hunter, the anatomist, is particularly 
rich in coins, medals, black-letter books and anatomical prepara- 
tions. The observatory on Dowan Hill is attached to the chair 
of astronomy. An interesting link with the past are the exhibi- 
tions founded by John Snell (1 629-1 679), a native of Colmonell 
in Ayrshire, for the purpose of enabling students of distinction 
to continue their career at Balliol College, Oxford. Amongst 
distinguished exhibitioners have been Adam Smith, John 
Gibson Lockhart, John Wilson (" Christopher North"), Arch- 
bishop Tait, Sir William Hamilton and Professor Shairp. The 
curriculum of the university embraces the faculties of arts, 
divinity, medicine, law and science. The governing body 
includes the chancellor, elected for life by the general council, 
the principal, also elected for life, and the lord rector elected 
triennially by the students voting in " nations " according to 
their birthplace (GlotHana, natives of Lanarkshire; Trans- 
fortkana, of Scotland north of the Forth; Rothseiana, of the 
shires of Bute, Renfrew and Ayr; and Loudonia, all others). 
There are a large number of well-endowed chairs and lectureships 
and the normal number of students exceeds 2000. The uni- 
versities of Glasgow and Aberdeen unite to return one member 
to parliament. Queen Margaret College for women, established 
in 1883, occupies a handsome building close to the botanic 
gardens, has an endowment of upwards of £25,000, and was 
incorporated with the university in 1893. Muirhead College 
is another institution for women. 

Elementary instruction is supplied at numerous board schools. 
Higher, secondary and technical education is provided at several 
well-known institutions. There are two educational 
endowments boards which apply a revenue of about 
£10,000 a year mainly to the foundation of bursaries. **? 
Anderson College in George Street perpetuates the ooue ^ 
memory of its founder, John Anderson (1 726-1 796), professor of 
natural philosophy in the university, who opened a class in physics 
for working men, which he conducted to the end of his life. By his 
will he provided for an institution for the instruction of artisans and 
others unable to attend the university. The college which bears his 
name began in 1796 with lectures on natural philosophy and chemistry 
by Thomas Garnett ( 1 766-1 802) . Two years later mathematics and 
geography were added. In 1799 Dr George Birkbeck (1 776-1 841) 
succeeded Garnett and began those lectures on mechanics and applied 
science which, continued elsewhere, ultimately led to the foundation 
of mechanics' institutes in many towns. In later years the college 
was further endowed and its curriculum enlarged by the inclusion 
of literature and languages, but ultimately it was determined to 
limit the scope of its work to medicine (comprising, however, physics, 
chemistry and botany also). The lectures of its medical school* 
incorporated in 1887 and situated near the Western Infirmary, are 
accepted by Glasgow and other universities. The Glasgow and 
West of Scotland Technical College, formed in 1886 out of a com- 
bination of the arts side of Anderson College, the College of Science 
and Arts, Allan Glen's Institution and the Atkinson Institution, is 
subsidized by the corporation and the endowments board, and is 
especially concerned with students desirous of following an in- 
dustrial career. St Mungo's College, which has developed from an 
extra-mural school in connexion with the Royal Infirmary, was 
incorporated in 1889, with faculties of medicine and law. The 
United Free Church College, finely situated near Kelvingrove Park, 
the School of Art and Design, and the normal schools for the training 
of teachers, are institutions with distinctly specialized objects. 

The High school in Elmbank is the successor of the grammar 
school (long housed in John Street) which was founded in the 14th 
century as an appanage of the cathedral. It was placed under the 
jurisdiction of the school board in 1873. Other secondary schools 
include Glasgow Academy, Kervinside Academy and the girls' and 
boys' schools endowed by the Hutcheson trust. Several of the 
schools under the board are furnished with secondary departments 
or equipped as science schools, and the Roman Catholics maintain 
elementary schools and advanced academies. 

Art GaUeries, Libraries and M useums.— Glasgow merchants and 



GLASGOW 



«3 



manufacturer* ttllkef havri teen constant patron* of -art, 'and thdr 
liberality may have had gome influence on the younger painters who, 
towards the close of the l<)th century, broke away from tradition 
and, stimulated by training in the studios of Paris, became known 
as the "Glasgow schook" The' art gallery and museum in Kelvin- 
grove Park, which was built at a cost of £250,000 (partly derived 
from the profits of the exhibitions held in the park in 1888 and 1901), 
is exceptionally well appointed. The collection originated m 1854 
in the purchase of the works of art belonging to Archibald M'Lellan', 
and was supplemented from time to time by numerous bequests of 
important pictures. It was housed for many years in the Corpora* 
tion galleries in Sauchiehall Street. The Institute of Fine Arts, in 
Sauchiehall Street, is mostly devoted to periodical exhibitions of 
modern art. There are also pictures on exhibition in the People's 
Palace on Glasgow Green, which was built by the corporation in 
1898 and combines an art gallery and museum with a conservatory 
and winter garden, and In the museum at Camphill, situated 
within the bounds of Queen's Park. The library and Hunteriah 
museum in the university are mostly reserved for the use of students. 
The faculty of procurators possess a valuable library which is housed 
in their hall, an Italian Renaissance building, in West George Street. 
In Bath Street there are the Mechanics' and the Philosophical 
Society's libraries, and the Physicians' is in St Vincent Street. 
Miller Street contains the headquarters of the public libraries. The 
premises once occupied by the water commission have been converted 
to house the Mitchell library, which grew out of a bequest of £70,000 
by Stephen Mitchell, largely reinforced by further gifts of libraries 
and funds, and now contains upwards of 100,000 volumes. It is 
governed by the city council and has been in use since 1877. Another 
building in this street accommodates both the Stirling and Baillie 
libraries. The Stirling, with some 50,000 volumes, is particularly 
rich in tracts of the 16th and 17 th centuries, and the Baillie was 
endowed by George Baillie, a solicitor who, in 1863, gave ■£ 18,000 
for educational objects. The Athenaeum in St George's Place, an 
institution largely concerned with evening classes in various subjects, 
contains an excellent library and reading-room. 

Charities. — The old Royal Infirmary, designed by Robert Adam 
and opened in 1704, adjoining the cathedral, occupies the site of the 
archiepiscopal palace, the last portion of which was removed towards 
the close of the 18th century. The chief architectural feature of the 
infirmary is the central dome forming the roof of the operating 
theatre. On the northern side are the buildings of the medical 
school attached to the institution. The new infirmary commemor- 
ates the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria. A little farther north, 
in Castle Street, is the blind asylum. The Western Infirmary is to 
some extent used for the purposes of clinical instruction in connexion 
with the university, to which it stands in immediate proximity. 
Near it is the Royal hospital for sick children. To the south of 
Queen's Park is Victoria Infirmary, and close to it the deaf and dumb 
institution. On the bank of the river, not far from the south-eastern 
boundary of the city, is the Belvedere hospital for infectious diseases, 
and at Ruchill, in the north, is another hospital of the same character 
opened in 1900. The Royal asylum at Gartnavel is situated near 
jordanhill station, and the District asylum at Gartloch (with a 
branch at West Muckroft) lies in the parish of Cadder beyond the 
north-eastern boundary. There are numerous hospitals exclusively 
devoted to the treatment of special diseases, ana several nursing 
institutions and homes. Hutcheson's Hospital, designed by David 
Hamilton and adorned with statues of the founders, is situated in 
I ngram Street, and by the increase in the value of its lands has become 
a very wealthy body. George Hutcheson (1580-1639), a lawyer in 
the Trongate near the tolbooth, who afterwards lived in the Bishop's 
castle, which stood close to the snot where the Kelvin enters the Clyde, 
founded the hospital for poor old men. His brother Thomas (1580- 
1641) established in connexion with it a school for the lodging and 
education of orphan boys, the sons of burgesses. The trust, through 
the growth of its funds, has been enabled to extend its educational 
scope and to subsidise schools apart from the charity. 

Monuments. — Most of the statues have been erected in George 
Square. They are grouped around a fluted pillar 80 ft. high, sur- 
mounted by a colossal statue of Sir- Walter Scott by John Ritchie 
( 1 809-1 850), erected in 1837, and include Queen Victoria and the 
Prince Consort (both equestrian) by Baron Marochetti; James Watt 
by Chantrey; Sir Robert Peel, Thomas Campbell the poet, who 
was born in Glasgow, and David Livingstone, all by John Mossman; 
Sir John Moore, a native of Glasgow, by Flaxman, erected in 1819; 
James Oswald, the first member returned to parliament for the city 
after the Reform Act of 1832; Lord Clyde (Sir Colin Campbell), 
also a native, by Foley, erected in 1868; Dr Thomas Graham, 
master of the mint, another native, by Brodie; Robert Burns by 
G. E. Ewing, erected in 1877, subscribed for in shillings by the work- 
ing men of Scotland; and William Ewart Gladstone by Hamo 
Thornycroft, unveiled by Lord Rosebery in' 19O2. In front of the 
Royal Exchange stands the equestrian monument of the duke of 
Wellington. In Cathedral Square are the statues of Norman 
Macieod, James White and James Arthur, and iri front of the Royal 
infirmary is that of Sir James Lumedert, lord provost and benefactor. 
Nelson is commemorated by an obelisk' 143 ft. high on the Green, 
which was erected in 1806 and is said to be a copy of that in the 
Piazza del Popolo at Rome. One of the most familiar statues is the 



equestrian figure ofWiltfam III. indie Tfohgate, which waa.prfisettted 
to the town in 1735 by James Macrae (1677-1744), a poor Ayrshire 
lad who had amassed a fortune in India, where he was governor of 
Madras from 1725 to 1730: 

Recreations. ~~Qt the theatres the chief are the King's in Batii 
Street, the Royal and' the Grand in Cowcaddena, the. Royalty and 
Gaiety in Sauchiehall Street, and the Princess's in Main Street 
Variety theatres, headed by the Empire in Sauchiehall Street, are 
found in various parts of tne town. There is a circus in Waterloo 
Street, a hippodrome in Sauchiehall Street and a joofagicnl garde* 
in New City Road. The principal concert halls are the great hall 
of the St Andrew's Halls, a group of rooms belonging to the corpora- 
tion ; the City Hall in Candleriggs, the People's Palace on the Green, 
and Queen's Rooms close to Kdvingrove Park. Throughout winter 
enormous crowds throng the football grounds of the Queen V Park, 
the leading amateur dub* and the Celtic, the Rangers, the Third 
Lanark and other prominent professional clubs. 

Parks and Open Spaces.— The oldest open space is the Green 
(140 acres), on the right bank of the river, adjoining a densely- 
populated district. It once extended farther west, but a portion 
was built over at a time when public rights were not vigilantly 
guarded. It is a favourite area for popular demonstrations, and 
sections have been reserved for recreation or laid out in flower-beds. 
Kelvingrove Park, in the west end, has exceptional advantages, for 
the Kelvin burn flows through it and the ground is naturally terraced* 
while the situation is beautified by the adjoining Gilmore Hill with 
the university on its summit. The park was laid out under the 
direction of Sir Joseph Paxton, and contains the Stewart fountain, 
erected to commemorate the labours of Lord Provost Stewart 
and his colleagues in the promotion of the Loch Katrine water scheme. 
The other parks on the right bank are, in the north, Ruchill (53 
acres), acquired in 1891, and Springburn (53$ acres), acquired in 
1892, and, in the east, Alexandra Park (120 acres), in which is laid 
down a nine-hole golf-course, and Tollcross (82! acres), beyond the 
municipal boundary, acquired in 1897. On the left bank Queen's 
Park (130 acres), occupying a commanding she, was laid out by Sir 
Joseph Paxton, and considerably enlarged in 1894 by the enclosure 
of the grounds of Camphill. The other southern parks are Richmond 
(44 acres), acquired in 1898, and named after Lord Provost Sir David 
Richmond, who opened it in 1800,; Maxwell, which was taken over 
on the annexation of Pollokshields in 1891; Bellahouston (176 
acres), acquired in 1895; and Cathkin Braes (50 acres), aim. beyond 
the south-eastern boundary, presented to the city in 1886 by James 
Dick, a manufacturer, containing " Queen Mary's stone," a point 
which commands a view of the lower valley of the Clyde. In the 
north-western district of the town 40 acres between Great Western 
Road and the Kelvin are devoted to the Royal Botanic Gardens, 
which became public property in 1891. They are beautifully laid 
out, and contain a great range of hothouses. The gardens owed 
much to Sir William Hooker, who was regius professor of botany in 
Glasgow University before his appointment to the directorship of 
Kew Gardens. 

Communications. — The North British railway terminus is situated 
in Queen Street, and consists of a high-level station (main line) 
anda low-level station, used in connexion with the City & District 
line, largely underground, serving the northern side of the town, 
opened -in 1886. The Great Northern and North- Eastern railways 
use the high-level line of the N.B.R., the three companies forming the 
East Coast Joint Service. The Central terminus of the Caledonian 
railway in Gordon Street, served by the West Coast system (in 
which the London & North- Western railway shares), also comprises 
a high-level station for the main line traffic and a low-level station 
for the Cathcart District railway, completed in 1886 and made 
circular for the southern side and suburbs in 1804, and also for the 
connexion between Maryhill and Rutherglen, which is mostly under- 
ground. Both the underground lines communicate with certain 
branches of the main line, either directly or by change of carriage. 
The older terminus of the Caledonian railway in Buchanan Street 
now takes the northern and eastern traffic. The terminus of the 
Glasgow & South-Western railway company in St Enoch Square 
serves the country indicated in its title, and also gives the Midland 
railway of England access to the west coast and Glasgow. The 
Glasgow Subway — an underground cable passenger line, 64 m. long, 
worked in two tunnels and passing below the Clyde twice — was 
opened in 1896. Since no more bridge-building will be sanctioned 
west of the railway bridge at the Broomielaw, there are at certain 
points steam ferry boats or floating bridges for conveying vehicles 
across the harbour, and at Stobcross there is a subway for foot and 
wheeled traffic Steamers, carrying both goods and passengers, 
constantly leave the Broomielaw quay for the piers and ports on 
the river and firth, and the islands and sea lochs of Argyllshire. 
The city is admirably served by tramways which penetrate every 
populous district and cross the rrver by Glasgow and Albert bridges. 

Trade. — Natural causes, such as proximity to the richest field of 
coal and ironstone in Scotland and the vicinity of hill streams of pure 
water, account forj much of the great development of trade in Glasgow. 
It was in textiles that the city showed its earliest predominance, 
which, however, has not been maintained, owing, it is alleged, to 
the shortage of female labour. Several cotton mitts- are still worked, 
but the leading feature in the trade has always been the manufacture 



84 



GLASGOW 



of such light textures as plain, striped ahd figured muslins, ginghams 
and fancy fabrics.. * Thread is made on a considerable scale, but jute 
and silk are of comparatively little importance. The principal 
varieties of carpets are woven. Some factories are exclusively 
devoted to the making of lace curtains; The allied industries of 
bleaching v printing, and dyeing, an the other hand; have never 
declined* The use of. chlorine in bleaching was first introduced in 
Great Britain at Glasgow in 1787; on the suggestion of James Watt, 
•whose father-in-law was a bleacher; and it was a Glasgow bleacher, 
Charles Tenrtant, who first discovered and made bleaching powder 
(chloride, of lime). . Turkey *ced dyeing. was. begun at Glasgow by 
David Dale arid George M'lntosh, and the colour was long known 
locally as Dale's red. A large quantity of grey cloth continues to be 
sent from Lancashire and other, mills to be bleached and printed in 
Scottish works. These industries gave a powerful impetus to the 
manufacture of chemicals, and the works at St Rollox developed 
rapidly. Among prominent chemical industries- are to be reckoned 
the alkali trades-— including soda, bleaching powder and soap- 
making — the preparation of alum and prussiates of potash, bichro- 
mate of potash, white lead and other pigments, dynamite and gun- 
powder. - Glass-making and paper-making are also carried on, and 
there are several breweries and distilleries, besides factories for the 
making of aerated waters, starch, dextrine and matches. Many 
miscellaneous tirades flourish; such as clothing, confectionery, 
cabinet-making, bread and biscuit making, boot and shoe making, 
flour mills and saw mills, pottery and incharubber. Since the days 
of the brothers Robert Foulis (1705-1776) and Andrew Foulis 
(1712+-1775), printing, both letterpress and colour, has been identified 
with Glasgow, though in a lesser degree than with Edinburgh. 
The tobacco trade still flourishes, though much lessened; But the 
great industry is iron-founding. The discovery of the value of 
blackband ironstone, till then regarded as useless " wild coal," by 
David Mushet (1772-1847), and Neilson's invention of the hot-air 
blast threw the control of the Scottish iron trade into the hands of 
Glasgow ironmasters, although the furnaces themselves were mostly 
erected in Lanarkshire and Ayrshire. The expansion of the industry 
was such that, in 1850, one-third of the total output in the United 
Kingdom was Scottish. During the following years, however, the 
tracte seemed to have lost its elasticity, the annual production 
averaging about one million tons of pigfiron. Mild steel is manu- 
factured extensively : and some crucible cast steel is made. In addi- 
tion to brass foundries there are works for the extraction of copper 
and the smelting of lead and zinc. With such resources every 
branch of engineering is well represented. Locomotive engines are 
built for every country where railways are employed, and all kinds of 
builder's ironwork is forged in enormous quantities, .and the sewing- 
machine factories in the neighbourhood are important. Boiler- 
making and marine engine works, in many cases in direct connexion 
with the shipbuilding yards, are numerous. Shipbuilding* indeed, is 
the greatest of the industries of Glasgow 1 , and m some years more 
than half of the total tonnage in the United Kingdom has been 
launched on the Clyde, the yards of which extend from the harbour 
to Dumbarton on One side and Greenock on the other side of the river 
and firth. Excepting a trifling proportion of wooden ships, the 
Clyde-built vessels are of iron and steel, the trade having owed its 
immense expansion to the prompt adoption of this material. Every 
variety of craft is turned out, from battleships and great liners to 
dredging-plant and hopper barges. 

The Fort.— -The harbour extends from Glasgow Bridge to the point 
where the Kelvin joins the Clyde, and occupies 206 acres. For the 
most part it is lined by quays and wharves, which have a total 
length of 8} m., and from the harbour to the sea vessels drawing 
26 ft. can go up or down on one tide. It is curious to remember 
that in the middle of the 18th century the river was fordable on 
foot at Dumbuck, 12 m. below Glasgow and I J m. S.E. of Dum- 
barton. Even within the limits of the present harbour Smeaton 
reported to the town council in 1740 that at Pointhouse ford, just 
east of the mouth of the Kelvin, the depth at low water was only 
15 in. and at high water 39 in. The transformation effected within 
a century and a half is due to the energy and enterprise of the Clyde 
Navigation Trust. The earliest shipping-port of Glasgow was Irvine 
in Ayrshire, but lighterage was tedious and land carriage costly, and 
in 1658 the civic authorities endeavoured rx> purchase a site for a 
spacious harbour at Dumbarton. Being thwarted by the magistrates 
of that burgh, however, in 1662 they secured ij acres on the southern 
bank at a spot some 2 m. above Greenock, which became known as 
Port Glasgow, where they built harbours and constructed the first 
graving dock in Scotland. Sixteen years later the Broomielaw auay 
was built, but it was not until the tobacco merchants appreciated 
the necessity of bringing their wares into the heart of the city that 
serious consideration was paid to schemes for deepening the water- 
way. Smeaton 'a suggestion of a lock and dam 4 m. below the 
Broornielarw was happily not accepted. In 1768 John Golborne 
advised the- narrowing of the- river iand the increasing of the 6Cour 
by the construction of rubble jetties and the dredging of sandbanks 
and shoals.' : After; James Watt's report in 1769 on the ford at 
. Dumfbnekv Gqlbonte succeeded in 1775 in deepening the ford to 6 ft. 
• sit low water with: a width of 300 ft. By; Rennie's advice in 1799, 
following up GoKborne's< recommendation, as many as 200 jetties 
were built between! Glasgow and,. Bowling, some old ones were 



shortened and low rabble walla carried Iron* point to point of the 
jetties, and thus the channel was made more uniform and much land 
reclaimed. By 1 836 there was a depth of <7 or 8 ft. at the Broomielaw 
at low water, and in 1 840 the whole duty of improving the navigation 
was devolved upon; the Navigation Trust,! Steam dredgers were 
kept constantly at work, shoals were Removed and rocks blasted 
away. Two million cubic yards of matter are lifted -every year 
and dumped in Loch Long. By [900 the channel had been deepened 
to a minimum of 22 ft., and, as already indicated, the largest vessels 
make the open sea in one tide, whereas in ^40 it took ships drawing 
only 1 5 ft. two and even three tides to reach the sea. The debt of the 
Trust amounts to £6,000,000, and the annual revenue to £450*000. 
Long before these great results had been achieved, however> the 
shipping trade had been revolutionized by the application of steam 
to navigation, and later by the use ©£ iron for wood in shipbuilding, 
in both respects enormously enhancing the industry and commerce 
of Glasgow. From 1812 to 1820 Henry Bell's " Comet," ,30 tons, 
driven by an engine of 3 horse-power, plied between Glasgow and 
Greenock, until she was wrecked, being the first steamer to run 
regularly on any river in the Old World. Thus since the appearance 
of that primitive vessel phenomenal changes had taken place on the 
Clyde. When the quays and wharves ceased to be able to accom- 
modate the growing traffic, the construction of docks became 
imperative. In 1867 Kingston Dock on the south side, of 5 J acres, 
was opened, but soon proved inadequate, and in 1880 Queen's Dock 
(two basins) at Stobcross, on the north side* of 30 acres, was com- 
pleted. Although this could accommodate one million tons of 
shipping, more dock space was speedily called for, and in 1897 
Prince's Dock (three basins) on the opposite side, of 72 acres, was 
opened, fully equipped with hydraulic and steam cranes and all the 
other latest appliances. There are, besides, three graving docks, 
the longest of which (880 ft.) can be made at will into two docks 
of 417 ft. and 457 ft. in length. The. Caledonian and Glasgow & 
South- Western railways have access to the harbour for goods and 
minerals at Terminus Quay to the west of Kingston Dock* and a 
mineral dock has been constructed by the Trust at Clydebank, 
about si m « below the harbour* The shipping attains to colossal 
proportions. The imports consist chiefly of flour, fruit, timber, 
iron ore, live stock and wheat; and the exports principally of cotton 
manufactures, manufactured iron . and steel, machinery, whisky, 
cotton yarn, linen fabrics, coal* jute, jam and foods, and woollen 
manufactures. 

Government. — By the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1889 the 
city was placed entirely in the county of, Lanark, the districts then 
transferred having previously belonged to the 9hires of Dumbarton 
and Renfrew. In 1891 the boundaries were enlarged to include 
six suburban burghs and a number of suburban districts, the area 
being increased from 6x11 acres to II>86i acres. The total area 
of the city and the conterminous burghs of Govan, Partick and 
Kinning Park— which, though they successfully resisted annexation 
in 1891, are practically part of the city— is 15,659 acres. The 
extreme length from north to south and from east to west is about 
5 m. each way, and the circumference measures 27 m. In 1893 tne 
municipal burgh was constituted a county of a city. Glasgow is 
governed by a corporation consisting of 77 members, including 14 
bailies and the lord provost. In 1895 all the powers which the town 
council exercised as police commissioners and trustees for parks, 
markets, water and the like were consolidated and conferred upon 
the corporation. Three years later the two parish councils of the 
city and barony, which administered the poor law over the greater 
part of the city north of the Clyde, were amalgamated as the parish 
council of Glasgow, with 3 1 members. As a cou nty of a city Glasgow 
has a lieutenancy (successive lords provost holding the office) and a 
court of quarter sessions, which is the appeal court from the magis- 
trates sitting as licensing authority. Under the corporation municipal 
ownership has reached a remarkable development, the corporation 
owning the supplies of water, gas and electric power, tramways and 
municipal lodging-houses. The enterprise of the corporation has 
brought its work prominently into notice, not only in the United 
Kingdom, but in the United States of America and elsewhere. 
In 1859 water was conveyed by aqueducts and tunnels from Loch 
Katrine (364 ft. above sea-level, giving a pressure of 70 or 80 ft. 
above the highest point in the city) to the reservoir at Mugdock 
(with a capacity of 500,000,000 gallons), a distance of 27 m., whence 
after filtration it was distributed by pipes to Glasgow, a further 
distance of 7 m., or J4 m. in all. During the next quarter of a cen- 
tury it became evident that this supply would require to be aug- 
mented, and powers were accordingly obtained in 1895 to raise Loch 
Katrine 5 ft. and to connect with it by tunnel Loch Arklet (455 ft. 
above the sea), with storage for 2,050,000,000 gallons, the two lochs 
together possessing a capacity of twelve thousand million gallons. 
The entire works between the loch and the city were duplicated 
over a distance. of. 23$ m., and an additional reservoir, holding 
694,000,000 gallons, , was constructed, increasing the supply held in 
reserve from I2jdays' to 30$ days'. In 1909 the building of a dam 
was undertaken 1 J m. west of the lower end. of Loch Arklet, designed 
to create a sheet of water 2 i m. long and to increase the water-supply 
of the city. 'by ten. million gallons a day. The water committee 
supplies hydraulic power to manufacturers and merchants. In 
1869 the corporation acquired the gasworks, the productive capacity 



GLASGOW 



*i 



of which exceeds 70 million cut>. ft. a day. In 1893 the supply 
of electric light was also undertaken* and sipce that date the city has 
been partly lighted by electricity. The corporation also laid down 
the tramways, which were, leased by a company for twenty-three 
years at a rental of £150 a mile per annum. When the lease expired 
in 1804 the town council took over the working of the cars, substitut- 
ing overhead electric traction for horse-power. , One of the most 
difficult problems that the corporation has had to deal with was the 
housing of the poor. By the lapse of time and the congestion of 
population, certain quarters of the city, in old Glasgow especially, 
had become slums and rookeries of the worst description. The 
condition of the town was rapidly growing into a byword, when the 
municipality obtained parliamentary powers in 1866 enabling it to 
condemn for purchase over-crowded districts, to borrow money and 
levy rates. The scheme of reform contemplated the demolition of 
10,000 insanitary dwellings occupied by 50,000 persons, but the 
corporation was required to provide accommodation for. the dis- 
lodged whenever the numbers exceeded 500, In point of fact they 
never needed to build, as private enterprise more than kept pace 
with the operations of the improvement. *^he work was carried out 
promptly and effectually, and when the act expired in 1881 whole 
localities had been recreated and nearly 40,000 persons properly 
housed* Under the amending, act of 1881 the corporation began in 
1888 to build tenement houses in which the poor could rent one or 
more rooms at the most moderate rentals; lodging-houses for men 
and women followed, and in 1896 a home was erected for the accom- 
modation of families in certain circumstances; The powers of the 
improvement trustees were practically exhausted in 1896, when it 
appeared that during twenty-nine years £1,955,550 had been spent 
in buying and improving lane and buildings, and £231,500 in building 
tenements and lodging-houses; while, on the other side, ground 
had been sold for £1,072,000, and the trustees owned heritable 
property valued at £692,000, showing a deficiency of £423,050. 
Assessment of ratepayers for the purposes of the trust had yielded 
£593 •000, and it was estimated that these operations, beneficial to 
the city in a variety of ways, had cost the citizens £24,000 a year. 
In 1897 an act was obtained for dealing in similar fashion with in- 
sanitary and congested areas in the centre of the city, and. on the 
south side of the river, and for acquiring not more than 25 acres of 
land, within or without the city, for dwellings for the poorest classes. 
Along with these later improvements the drainage system ^ was 
entirely remodelled, the area being divided into three sections, 
each distinct, with separate works for the disposal of its own sewage. 
One section (authorized in 1891 and doubled in 1901) comprises ri 
sq. m. — one-half within the city north of the river, and the other in 
the district in Lanarkshire — with works at Dalmarnock; another 
section (authorized in 1896) includes the area on the north bank 
not provided for in 1891, as well as the qurgha of Partick and Clyde- 
bank and intervening portions of the shires of Renfrew and Dum- 
barton, the total area consisting of 14 sq. m., with works at Dalmuir, 
7 m. below Glasgow; and the third section (authorized in 1898) 
embraces the whole municipal area on the south side of the river, 
the burghs of Rutherglen, Pollokshaws, Kinning Park and Govan, 
and certain districts in the counties of Renfrew and Lanark — 14 
sq. m. in all, which may be extended by the inclusion of the burghs 
of Renfrew and Paisley — with works at Braehead, r m. east of 
Renfrew. Among other works in which it has interests there may be 
mentioned its representation on %he board of the Clyde Navigation 
Trust and the governing body of the West of Scotland Technical 
College. In respect of parliamentary representation the Reform 
Act of 1832 gave two members to Glasgow, a third was added in 
1868 (though each elector had only two votes), and in 1885 the city 
was split up into seven divisions* each : returning one member. 

Population* — Throughout the iQtii century the population .grew, 
prodigiously. Only 77,385 in 1801, it was nearly doubled in twenty 
years, being 147,043 in 1 821, already outstripping Edinburgh. It 
had become 395,503 in r£ol* and in 188 1 it was 5 it, 41 5* In 1891, 
priqr to extension of the fronndary* it was 565.839* and, after, exf 
tension, 658,198, and in 1901 it stood at ,761,700. The birth-rate 
averages 33, and the death-rate 21 per 1000, but the mortality before 
the city improvement scheme was carried out was as high as 33 
per 1000* Owing to hs being convenient of access from tne High- 
lands, a very considerable number of Gaelic-speaking (tarsons live in 
Glasgow, while the great industries attract an enormpus number of 
persons from other parts of Scotland. , The valuation of the city, 
which in 1 878-1 879 was £3,420,697, now exceeds £5,000,000. 

History, — There axe several theories as to the origin of the 
name of Glasgow. One holds that it conies from Gaelic words 
meaning " dark glen," descriptive of the narrow ravine through 
which the Molendiuar flowed to the Clyde. But the more 
generally accepted version is that the word is the Celtic Cleschu, 
afterwards written Glesco or Glasghu, meaning " dear green 
spot " (glas s green; cu or gnu, dear), which is supposed to have 
been the name of the. settlement that Kentigexn found here 
when he came to convert the Britons of Strathclyde. Mungo 
became the patron-saint of Glasgow, and the motto and arms 



of the city are wholly identified with him—" Let Glasgow 
Flourish by the Preaching of the Word," usually shortened to 
" Let Glasgow Flourish." It is not till the 12th century, however, 
that the history of the city becomes clear. About x 178 William 
the. Lion made the town by charter a burgh of barony, and gave 
it a market with freedom and customs* Amongst more or less 
isolated episodes of which record has been preserved may be 
mentioned the battle of the Bell o* the Brae, on the site of High 
Street, in which Wallace routed the English under tercy in 
, 1300; the betrayal of Wallace to the English in 1305 in, a; barn 
situated, according to tradition, in Robroyston, just beyond the 
north-eastern boundary of the city; the ravages of the £IagueJin 
1350 and thirty years later; the regent Arran's siege, in 1544, 
of the bishop's castle, garrisoned by the earl of Glencairn, and 
the subsequent fight at the Butts (now the Gallowgate) when 
the terms of surrender were dishonoured, in which the regent's 
men gained the day. ' Most of the inhabitants were opposed to 
Queen Mary and many actively supported Murray in the battle 
of Langside — the site of which is now occupied by the Queen's 
Park—on the 13th of May 1568, in which she lost. crown and 
kingdom. A memorial of the conflict was erected on the site 
in 1887. Under James VI. the town became a royal burgh in 
1636, with freedom of the river from the Broomielaw to theCloch. 
But the efforts to establish episcopacy aroused the fervent 
anti-prelatical sentiment of the people, who made common 
cause with the Govenanters to the end of their long struggle. 
Montrose mulcted the citizens heavily after the battle of Kilsyth 
in 1645, and three years later the provost and bailies were deposed 
for contumacy to their sovereign lord. Plague and famine devast- 
ated the town in 1649, and in 1652 a conflagration laid a third 
of the burgh in ashes. Even after the restoration its sufferings 
were acute. It was the headquarters of the Whiggamores 
of the west and its prisons were constantly filled with rebels 
for conscience 1 sake. The government scourged the townsfolk 
with an army of Highlanders, whose brutality only served to 
> strengthen the resistance at the battles of Drumclog and BothweE 
Brig. With the Union, hotly resented as it was at the time, 
the dawn of almost unbroken prosperity arose. By the treaty 
of Union Scottish ports were placed, in respect of trade, on the 
same footing as English ports, and the situation of Glasgow 
enabled it to acquire a full share of the ever-increasing Atlantic 
trade. Its commerce was already considerable and in population- 
it was now the second town in Scotland. It enjoyed a practical 
monopoly of the sale of raw and refined sugars, had the right 
to distil spirits from molasses free of duty, dealt largely in cured 
herring and salmon, sent hides to English tanners and manu- 
factured soap and linen. It challenged the supremacy of Bristol 
in the tobacco trader-fetching cargoes from 'Virginia, Maryland 
and Carolina in its own fleet— so that by 1772 its importations 
of tobacco amounted to more than half of the whole quantity 
brought into the United Kingdom. The* tobacco merchants 
built handsome mansions *and the town rapiidly extended west- 
wards; With the surplus profits new industries were created, 
which- helped the* city through the period of the* American War. 
Most, though' not all, of the manufactures in which Glasgow, 
has always held a f dremost place date from this period. It wai 
^1764 that. James Watt succeeded in » repatiritfg a hitherto 
, unworkable) modeLof Neweomen's fire (steam) engine in his small 
workshop witWn the. college precincts. Shipbuilding on a 
colossal scale and the enormous developments in th^' Iron in- 
dustries and engineering were practically the growth of the' 19th 
century. The failure of the Western bank in 1857, the Civil 
War in the United States, the collapse of the City of Glasgow, 
bank in 1878, among other disasters, involved' heavy losses and 
distress, but recovery was always rapid. ' 

Authorities.— J. Cleland, Annals of Glasgow (Glasgow, 18 16); 
Duncan, Literary History of Glasgow (Glasgow, 1886); Repstrum 
Episcopates Glasgow (Maitland Cltib, 1843) ; Pagan, Sketch of the 
History of Glasgow (Glasgow, 1847); Sir J. D. Marwick, Extracts 
from the Burgh Records of Glasgow (Burgh Records Society) ; Charters 
relating to Glasgow (Glasgow, 1891); River Clyde and Harbour of 
Glasgow (Glasgow, 1898) ; Glasgow Past and Present (Glasgow, 1884) ; 
Munimenta UnivetsitaHs Glasgow (Maitland Club, 1854); J. Strang, 



86 



GLASITE&--GLASS 



Glasgow audits Clubs. (Glasgow, 1864) ; Reid (" Senex "), Old Glasgow 
(Glasgow, 1864); A. Macgeorge, Old Glasgow (Glasgow, 1888); 
Deas, The River Clyde (Glasgow, 1881); Gale, Loch Katrine Water- 
works (Glasgow, 1^83); Mason, Public and Private Libraries of 
Glasgow (Glasgow, 1885); J. Nicol, Vital, Social and Economic 
Statistics of Glasgow <i88i) ; T.B.Russell, Life in One Room (Glasgow, 
1888); Ticketed Houses (Glasgow, 1889); T. Somerville, George 
Square (Glasgow, 1891); J. A. Kilpatrick, Literary Landmarks of 
Glasgow (Glasgow, 1898); J. K. M'Dowali, People's History of 
Glasgow (Glasgow, "1899); Sir J. Bell and J. Paton, Glasgow: Its 
Municipal Organization and Administration (Glasgow, 1896); Sir 
D. Richmond, Notes on Municipal Work (Glasgow, 1899); J. M. 
Lang, Glasgow and the Barony (Glasgow, 1895) ; Old Glasgow (Glasgow, 
1896) ; J, H. Muir, Glasgow in 1901. 

GLASITES, or Sandemanians, 1 a Christian sect, founded in 
Scotland by John Glas (q.v.). It. spread into England and 
America, but is now practically extinct. Glas dissented from 
the Westminster Confession only in his views as to the spiritual 
nature of the church and the functions of the civil magistrate. 
But his son-in-law Robert Sandexnan added a distinctive doctrine 
as to the nature of faith which is thus stated on his tombstone: 
" That the bare death of Jesus Christ without a thought or 
deed on the part of man, is sufficient to present the chief of sinners 
spotless before God." In a series of letters to James Hervey, 
the author of Theron and As pasta, he maintained that justifying 
faith is a simple assent to the divine testimony concerning 
Jesus Christ, differing in no way in its character from belief in any 
ordinary testimony. In their practice the Glasite churches aimed 
at a strict conformity with the primitive type of Christianity 
as understood by them. Each congregation had a plurality of 
elders, pastors or bishops, who were chosen according to what 
were believed to be the instructions of Paul, without regard to 
previous education or present occupation, and who enjoy a 
perfect equality in office. To have been married a second time 
disqualified for ordination, or for continued tenure of the office 
of bishop. In all the action of the church unanimity was con- 
sidered to be necessary; if any member differed in opinion from 
the rest, he must either surrender his judgment to that of the 
church, or be shut out from its communion. To join in prayer 
with any one not a member of the denomination was regarded 
as unlawful, and even to eat or drink with one who had been 
excommunicated was held to be wrong. The Lord's Supper 
was observed weekly; and between forenoon and afternoon 
service every Sunday a love feast was held at which every 
member was required to be present. Mutual exhortation was 
practised at all the meetings for divine service, when any member 
who had the gift of speech (x&purpa) was allowed to speak. 
The practice of washing one another's feet was at one time 
observed ; and it was for a long time customary for each brother 
aind sister to receive new members, on admission, with a holy 
kiss, " Things strangled " and " blood " were rigorously ab- 
stained from; the lot was regarded as sacred; the accumulation 
of wealth they held to be unscriptural and improper, and each 
member considered his property as liable to be called upon 
at any time to meet the wants of the poor and the necessities 
of the church. Churches of this order were founded in Paisley, 
Glasgow, Edinburgh, Leith, Arbroath, Montrose, Aberdeen, 
Dunkeldt Cupar, Galashiels, Liverpool and London, where 
Michael Faraday was long an elder. Their exclusiveness 
in practice, neglect of education for the ministry, and the 
antinomian tendency of their doctrine contributed to their 
dissolution. Many Glasites joined the general body of Scottish 
Congregationalists, and the sect may now be considered extinct. 
The last of the Sandemanian churches in America ceased to 



exist in 1890. 

See James Ross, History 
Scotland (Glasgow, 1900). 



of Congregational Independency in 
(D. Mn.) 

GLASS (O.E. glas, cf. Ger. Glas f perhaps derived from an old 
Teutonic root gla-, a variant of glo-, having the general sense of 
shining, cf. " glare/' " glow "), a hard substance, usually trans- 
parent or translucent, which from a fluid condition at a high 
temperature has passed to a solid condition with sufficient 
rapidity to prevent the formation of visible crystals. There 

1 The name Glasites or Glassites was generally used in Scotland ; 
in England and America the name Sandemanians was more common. 



are many varieties of glass differing > widely in chemical com- 
position and in physical qualities. Most varieties, however, 
have certain qualities in common. They pass through a viscous 
stage in cooling from a state. of fluidity; they develop effects 
of colour when the glass mixtures are fused with certain metallic 
oxides; they are, when cold, bad conductors both of electricity 
and heat, they are easily fractured by a blow or shock and show a 
conchoidal fracture; they are but slightly affected by ordinary 
solvents, but are readily attacked by hydrofluoric acid. 

The structure of glass has been the subject of repeated in- 
vestigations. The theory most widely accepted at present is 
that glass is a quickly solidified solution, in which silica, silicates, 
borates, phosphates and aluminates may be either solvents or 
solutes, and metallic oxides and metals may be held either 
in solution or in suspension. Long experience has fixed the 
mixtures, so far as ordinary furnace temperatures are con- 
cerned, which produce the varieties of glass in common use. The 
essential materials of which these mixtures are made are, for 
English flint glass, sand, carbonate of potash and red lead; 
for plate and sheet glass, sand, carbonate or sulphate of soda 
and carbonate of lime; and for Bohemian glass, sand, carbonate, 
of potash and carbonate of lime. It is convenient to treat 
these glasses as " normal " glasses, but they are in reality 
mixtures of silicates, and cannot rightly be regarded as definite 
chemical compounds or represented by definite chemical 
formulae. 

The knowledge of the chemistry of glass-making has been 
considerably widened by Dr F. O. Schott's experiments at the 
Jena glass-works. The commercial success of these works has 
demonstrated the value of pure science to manufactures. 

The recent large increase in the number of varieties of glass 
has been chiefly due to developments in the manufacture of 
optical glass. Glasses possessing special qualities have been 
required, and have been supplied by the introduction of new 
combinations of materials. The range of the specific gravity 
of glasses from 2-5 to 5-0 illustrates the effect of modified 
compositions. In the same, way glass can be rendered more or 
less fusible, and its stability can be increased both in relation 
i to extremes of temperature and to the chemical action of 
solvents. 

The fluidity of glass at a high temperature renders possible 
the processes of ladelling, pouring, casting and stirring. A 
mass of glass in a viscous state can be rolled with an iron roller 
like dough; can be rendered hollow by the pressure of the human 
breath or by compressed air; can be forced by air pressure, or 
, by a mechanically driven plunger, to take the shape and im- 
pression of a mould; and can be almost indefinitely extended as 
solid rod or as hollow tube. So extensible is viscous glass that 
it can be drawn out into a filament sufficiently fine and elastic 
to be woven into a fabric* * i 

Glasses are generally transparent but may be translucent or 
opaque. Semi-opacity due to crystallization may be induced 
in many glasses by maintaining them for a long period at a 
temperature just insufficient to cause fusion. In this way is pro- 
duced the crystalline, devitrified material, known as R6aumur's 
porcelain. Semi^opacity and opacity are usually produced 
by the addition to the glass-mixtures of materials which will 
remain in suspension in the glass, such as oxide of tin, oxide 
of arsenic, phosphate of lime, cryolite or a mixture of felspar 
and fluorspar. 

Little is known about the actual cause of colour in glass 
beyond the fact that certain materials added to and melted 
with certain glass-mixtures will in favourable circumstances 
produce effects of colour. The colouring agents are generally 
metallic oxides. The same oxide may produce different colours 
with different glass-mixtures, and different oxides of the same 
metal may produce different colours. The purple-blue of cobalt, 
the chrome green or yellow of chromium, the dichroic canary- 
colour of uranium and the violet of manganese, are constant. 
Ferrous oxide produces an olive green or a pale blue according 
to the glass with which it is mixed. Ferric oxide gives a yellow 
colour, but requires the presence of an oxidizing agent to prevent 



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reduction to the ferrous state. Lead gives a pale yellow colour. 
Silver oxide, mixed as a paint and spread on the surface of a 
piece of glass and heated, gives a permanent yellow stain. Finely 
divided vegetable charcoal added to a soda-lime glass gives a 
yellow colour. It has been suggested that the colour is due to 
sulphur, but the effect can be produced with a glass mixture 
containing no sulphur, free or combined, and by increasing 
the proportion of charcoal the intensity of the colour can be 
increased until it reaches black opacity. Selenites and selenates 
give a pale pink or pinkish 
yellow. Tellurium appears 
to give a pale pink tint. 
Nickel with a potash-lead 
glass gives a violet colour, 
and a brown colour with 
a soda-lime glass. Copper 
gives a peacock-blue which 
becomes green if the pro- 
portion of the copper oxide 
is increased. If oxide of 
copper is added to a glass 
mixture containing a strong 
reducing agent, a glass is 
produced which when first 
taken from the crucible is 
colourless but on being re- 
heated develops a deep 
crimson - ruby colour. A 
similar glass, if its cooling 

is greatly retarded, produces throughout its substance minute 
crystals of metallic copper, and closely resembles the mineral 
called avanturine. There is also an intermediate stage in which 
the glass has a rusty red colour by reflected light, and a purple- 
blue colour by transmitted light. Glass containing gold behaves 
in almost precisely the same way, but the ruby glass is less crimson 
than copper ruby glass. J. E. C, Maxwell Garnett, who has studied 
the optical properties of these glasses, has suggested that the 
changes in colour correspond with changes effected in the 
structure of the metals as they pass gradually from solution in 
the glass to a state of crystallization. ; 

Owing to impurities contained in the materials from which 
glasses are made, accidental coloration or discoloration is often 
produced. For this reason chemical agents are added to glass 
mixtures to remove or neutralize accidental colour. Ferrous 
oxide is the usual cause of discoloration. By converting ferrous 
into ferric oxide the green tint is changed to yellow, which is 
less noticeable. Oxidation may be effected by the addition to 
the glass mixture of a substance which gives up oxygen at a 
high temperature, such as manganese dioxide or arsenic trioxide. 
With the same object, red lead and saltpetre are used in the 
mixture for potash-lead glass. Manganese dioxide not only acts 
as a source of oxygen, but develops a pink tint in the glass, which 
is complementary to and neutralizes the green colour due to 
ferrous oxide. 

Glass is a bad conductor of heat. When boiling water is 
poured into a glass vessel, the vessel frequently breaks, on 
account of the unequal expansion of the inner and outer layers. 
If in the process of glass manufacture a glass vessel is suddenly 
cooled, the constituent particles are unable to arrange themselves 
and the vessel remains in a state of extreme tension. The surface 
of the vessel may be hard, but the vessel is liable to fracture 
on receiving a trifling shock. M. de la Bastie's process of 
" toughening " glass consisted in dipping glass, raised to a 
temperature slightly below the melting-point, into molten 
tallow. The surface of the glass was hardened, but the inner 
layers remained in unstable equilibrium. Directly the crust 
was pierced the whole mass was shattered into minute fragments. 
In all branches of glass manufacture the process of " annealing," 
i .e. cooling the manufactured objects sufficiently slowly to allow 
the constituent particles to settle into a condition of equilibrium, 
is of vital importance. The desired result is obtained either by 
moving the manufactured goods gradually away from a constant 



source of heat, or by placing them in a heated kiln and allowing 
the heat gradually to die out. , , 

The furnaces (fig. 1 5) employed for melting glass are usually 
heated with gas on the " Siemens," or some similar system of 
regenerative heating. In the United States natural gas is used 
wherever it is available. In some English works coal is still 
employed for direct heating with various forms of mechanical 
stokers. Crude petroleum and a thin tar, resulting from the 
process of enriching water-gas with petroleum, have been used 



■jfe^rS 



Fig. 15. — Siemens's Continuous Tank Furnace. 

both with compressed air and with steam with considerable 
success. Electrical furnaces have not as yet been employed 
for ordinary glass-making on a commercial scale, but the electrical 
plants which have been erected for melting and moulding 
quartz suggest the possibility of electric heating being employed 
for the manufacture of glass. Many forms of apparatus have 
been tried for ascertaining the temperature of glass furnaces. 
It is usually essential that some parts of the apparatus shall be 
made to acquire a temperature identical with the temperature 
to be measured. Owing to the physical changes produced in the 
material exposed prolonged observations of temperature are 
impossible. In the F£ry radiation pyrometer this difficulty 
is obviated, as the instrument may be placed at a considerable 
distance from the furnace. The radiation passing out from an 
opening in the furnace falls upon a concave mirror in a telescope 
and is focused upon a thermoelectric couple. The hotter the 
furnace the greater is the rise of temperature of the couple. 
The electromotive force thus generated is measured by a galvano- 
meter, the scale of which is divided and figured so that the 
temperature may be directly read. (See Thermometry.) 

In dealing with the manufacture of glass it is convenient 
to group the various branches in the following manner : 
Manufactured Glass* 
I. Optical Glass 



II. Blown Glass 

) 



A. Table glass. 



B. Tube. 
Special glasses 
for thermo- 
meters, and 
other special 
glasses. 



C. Sheet 
and crown 
glass. 



ittles. 



III. Mechanically Pressed Glass 

A. Plate and rolled plate glass. ' B. Pressed table glass. 

I. Optical Glass. — As regards both mode of production and 
essential properties optical glass differs widely from all other 
varieties. These differences arise primarily from the fact that 
glass for optical uses is required in comparatively large and thick 
pieces, while for most other purposes glass is used in the form 
of comparatively thin sheets; when, therefore, as a consequence 



88 



GLASS 



of Dollond'i invention of achromatic telescope objectives in 
1757, a demand first arose for optical glass, the industry was 
unable to furnish suitable material. Flint glass particularly, 
which appeared quite satisfactory when viewed in small pieces, 
was found to be so far from homogeneous as to be useless for 
lens construction. The first step towards overcoming this vital 
defect in optical glass was taken by P. L. Guinand, towards the 
end of the 18th century, by introducing the process of stirring 
the molten glass by means of a cylinder of fireclay. Guinand 
was induced to migrate from his home in Switzerland to Bavaria, 
where he worked at the production of homogeneous flint glass, 
first with Joseph von Utzschncidcr and then with J. Fraunhofer; 
the latter ultimately attained considerable success and produced 
telescope disks up to 28 centimetres (1 1 in.) diameter. Fraunhofer 
further initiated the specification of refraction and dispersion 
in terms of cortain lines of the spectrum, and even attempted 
an investigation of the effect of chemical composition on the 
relative dispersion produced by glosses in different parts of the 
spectrum. Guinand's process was further developed in France 
by Guinand's sons and subsequently by Bontemps and £. Feil. 
In 1848 Bontemps was obliged to leave France for political 
reasons and came to England, where he initiated the optical 
glass manufacture at Chance's glass works near Birmingham, 
and this firm ultimately attained a considerable reputation in 
the production of optical gloss, especially of large disks for 
telescope objectives. Efforts at improving optical glass had, 
however, not been confined to the descendants and successors 
of Guinand and Fraunhofer. In 1824 the Royal Astronomical 
Society of London appointed a committee on the subject, the 
experimental work being carried out by Faraday. Faraday 
independently recognized the necessity for mechanical agitation 
of the molten gloss in order to ensure homogeneity, and to 
facilitate his manipulations he worked with dense lead borate 
glasses which are very fusible, but have proved too unstable 
for ordinary optical purposes. Later Maes of Clichy (France) 
exhibited some " zinc crown " glass in small plates of optical 
quality at the London Exhibition of 1851; and another French 
gloss-maker, Lamy, produced a dense thallium glass in 1867. 
In 1834 W. V. llarcourt began experiments in glass-making, 
in which he was subsequently joined by G. G. Stokes. Their 
object was to pursue the inquiry begun by Fraunhofer as to the 
effect of chemical composition on the distribution of dispersion. 
The specific effect of boric acid in this respect was correctly 
ascertained by Stokes and Harcourt, but they mistook the effect 
of titanic acid. J. Hopkinson, working at Chance's glass works, 
subsequently made an attempt to produce a titanium silicate 
glass, but nothing further resulted. 

The next and most important forward step in the progress of 
optical glass manufacture was initiated by Ernst Abbe and 
carried out jointly by him and O. Schott at Jena in Germany. 
Aided by grants from the Prussian government, these workers 
systematically investigated the effect of introducing a large 
number of different chemical substances (oxides) into vitreous 
fluxes. As a result a whole series of glasses of novel composition 
and optical properties were produced, A certain number of the 
most promising of these* from the purely optical point of view, 
had unfortunately to be abandoned for practical use owing to 
their chemical instability, and the problem of Fraunhofer, viz. 
the production of pairs of glasses of widely differing refraction 
ami dispersion, but having a similar distribution of dispersion 
in the various regions of the spectrum, was not in the first instance 
solved. On the other hand, while in the older crown and flint 
glasses the relation between refraction and dispersion had been 
practically thoi dispersion and refraction increasing regularly 
w ith the density of the glass, in some of the new glasses introduced 
by Abbe and Schott this relation is altered and a relatively 
low retractive index is ■acwmrsunied by a relatively high disper- 
>ion % while in others a h;$h refractive index is associated with 
knv dispersive power. 

The initiative of Abbe a:ul Schott. which was greatly aided 
by the resources for scier.tinc investigation avaitable at the 
rhxsiVaUsche Rckhsanstalt vlmperiai rhysical Laboratory \ 



led to such important developments that similar work was 
undertaken in France by the firm of Mantois, the successors 
of Feil, and somewhat later by Chance in England. The manu- 
facture of the new varieties of glass, originally known as " Jena " 
glasses, is now carried out extensively and with a considerable 
degree of commercial success in France, and also to a less extent 
in England, but none of the other makers of optical glass has 
as yet contributed to the progress of the industry to anything 
like the same extent as the Jeria firm. 

The older optical glasses, now generally known as the 
" ordinary " crown and flint glasses, are all of the nature of pure 
silicates, the basic constituents being, in the case of crown 
glasses, lime and soda or lime and potash, or a mixture of both, 
and in the case of flint glasses, lead and either (or both) soda and 
potash. With the exception of the heavier flint (Lead) glasses, 
these can be produced so as to be free both from noticeable 
colour and from such defects as bubbles, opaque inclusions or 
" striae," but extreme care in the choice of all the raw materials 
and in all the manipulations is required to ensure this result. 
Further, these glasses, when made from properly proportioned 
materials, possess a very considerable degree of chemical stability, 
which is amply sufficient for most optical purposes. The newer 
glasses, on the other hand, contain a much wider variety of 
chemical constituents, the most important being the oxides of 
barium, magnesium, aluminium and zinc, used either with or 
without the addition of the bases already named in reference 
to the older glasses, and — among acid bodies — boric anhydride 
(B2O1) which replaces the silica of the older glasses to a varying 
extent. It must be admitted that, by the aid of certain of these 
new constituents, glasses can be produced which, as regards 
purity of colour, freedom from defects and chemical stability are 
equal or even superior to the best of the " ordinary " glasses, but 
it is a remarkable fact that when this is the case the optical 
properties of the new glass do not fall very widely outside 
the limits set by the older glasses. On the other hand, the more 
extreme the optical properties of these new glasses, i.e. the 
further they depart from the ratio of refractive index to dispersive 
power found in the older glasses, the greater the difficulty found 
in obtaining them of either sufficient purity or stability to be of 
practical use. It is, in fact, admitted that some of the glasses, 
most useful optically, the dense barium crown glasses, which 
are so widely used in modern photographic lenses, cannot be 
produced entirely free either from noticeable colour or from 
numerous small bubbles, while the chemical nature of these 
glasses is so sensitive that considerable care is required to protect 
the surfaces of lenses made from them if serious tanrishing is to 
be avoided. In practice, however, it is not found that the presence 
either of a decidedly greenish-yellow colour or of numerous 
small bubbles interferes at all seriously with the successful use 
of the lenses for the majority of purposes, so that it is preferable 
to sacrifice the perfection of the glass in order to secure valuable 
optical properties. 

It is a further striking fact, not unconnected with those just 
enumerated, that the extreme range of optical properties covered 
even by the relatively large number of optical glasses now available 
is in reality very small. The refractive indices of all glasses at 
present available lie between 1-46 and 1*00, whereas transparent 
minerals are known having refractive indices lying considerably 
outside these limits; at least one of these, fraorite (calcium 
fluoride), is actually used by opticians in the construction of 
certain lenses, so that probably progress is to be looked for in a 
considerable widening of the limits of available optical materials: 
possibly such progress may lie in the direction of the artificial 
production of large mineral crystals. 

The qualities required in optical glasses have already been 
partly referred to, but may now be summarized: — 

1, Transparency and Freedom from Colour. — These qualities can 
be readily judged - by inspection oT the glass in pieces of considerable 
thickness, amfthey may be quantitatively measured by means of cbe 
spectro-photometer. 

2. Homogeneity* — The optical desideratum is uniformitv of re- 
fract ive index and dispersive power throughout the mass of the ^!ass> 
This is probably never completely attained, variations ra the sbch 



GLASS 



*9 



significant figure of the refractive index being observed in different 
parts of single large blocks of the most perfect glass. t While such 
minute and gradual variations are harmless for most optical purposes, 
sudden variations which generally take the form of striae or veins 
are fatal defects in all optical glass. In their coarsest forms such 
striae are readily visible to the unaided eye, but finer ones escape 
detection unless special means are taken for rendering them visible; 
such special means conveniently take the form of an apparatus for 
examining the glass in a beam of parallel light, when the striae 
scatter the light and appear as either dark or bright lines according 
to the position of the eye. Plate glass of the usual quality, which 
appears to be perfectly homogeneous when looked at in the ordinary 
way, is seen to be a mass of fine striae, when a considerable thickness 
is examined in parallel light. Plate glass is, nevertheless, consider- 
ably used for the cheaper forms of lenses, where the scattering of 
the light and loss of definition arising from these fine striae is not 
readily recognized. 

Bubbles and enclosures of opaque matter, although more readily 
observed, do not constitute such serious defects; their presence in a 
lens, to a moderate extent, does not interfere with its performance 
(see above). 

3. Hardness and Chemical Stability. — These properties contribute 
to the durability of lenses, and are specially desirable in the outer 
members of lens combinations which are likely to be subjected to 
frequent handling or are exposed to the weather. As a general rule, 
to which, however, there are important exceptions, both these 
qualities are found to a greater degree, the lower the refractive index 
of the glass. The chemical stability, i.e. the power of resisting the 
disintegrating effects of atmospheric moisture and carbonic acid, 
depends largely upon the auantity of alkalis contained in the glass 
and their proportion to the lead, lime or barium present, the stability 
being generally less the higher the proportion of alkali. A high 
silica-content tends towards both hardness and chemical stability, 
and this can be further increased by the addition of small proportions 
of boric acid; in larger quantities, however, the latter constituent 
produces the opposite effect. 

4. Absence of Internal Strain. — Internal strain in glass arises from 
the unequal contraction of the outer and inner portions of masses 
of glass during cooling. Processes of annealing, or very gradual 
cooling, are intended to relieve these strains, but such processes are 
only completely effective when the cooling, particularly through 
those ranges of temperature where the glass is just losing the last 
traces of plasticity, is extremely gradual, a rate measured in hours 
per degree Centigrade being required. The existence of internal 
strains in glass can be readilv recognized by examination in polarized 
light, any signs of double refraction indicating the existence of strain. 
Ifthe glass is very badly annealed, the lenses made from it may fly 
to pieces during or after manufacture, but apart from such extreme 
cases the optical effects of internal strain are not readily observed 
except in large optical apparatus. Very perfectly annealed optical 
glass is now, however, readily obtainable. 

5. Refraction and Dispersion. — The purely optical properties of 
refraction and dispersion, although of the greatest importance, 
cannot be dealt witn in any detail here; for an account of the optical 
properties required in glasses for various forms of lenses see the 
articles Lens and Aberration: II. In Optical Systems. As typical 
of the range of modern optical glasses Table I. is given, which 
constituted the list of optical glasses exhibited by Messrs Chance 
at the Optical Convention in London in 1905. In this table n is the 



refractive index of the glass for sodium light (the D line of the solar 
spectrum), while the letters C, F and G' refer to lines in the hydrogen 
spectrum by which dispersion is now generally specified. The 
symbol v represents the inverse of the dispersive power, its value 
being (» D -iJ/(C-F). The very much longer lists of German and 
French firms contain only a few types not represented in this table. 
Manufacture of Optical Glass. — In its earlier stages, the process 
for the production of optical glass closely resembles that used in 
the production of any other glass of the highest quality. The raw 
materials are selected with great care to assure chemical purity, 
but whereas in most glasses the only impurities to be dreaded 
are those that are either infusible or produce a colouring effect 
upon the glass, for optical purposes the admixture of other 
glass-forming bodies than those which are intended to be present 
must be avoided on account of their effect in modifying the 
optical constants of the glass. Constancy of composition of the 
raw materials and their careful and thorough admixture in con- 
stant proportions are therefore essential to the production of the 
required glasses. The materials are generally used in the form 
either of oxides (lead, zinc, silica, &c.) or of salts readily decom- 
posed by heat, such as the nitrates or carbonates. Fragments of 
glass of the same composition as that aimed at are generally 
incorporated to a limited extent with the mixed raw materials 
to facilitate their fusion. The crucibles or pots used for the 
production of optical glass very closely resemble those used in the 
manufacture of flint glass for other purposes; they are " covered " 
and the molten materials are thus protected from the action of 
the furnace gases by the interposition of a wall of fireclay, but 
as crucibles for optical glass are used for only one fusion and are 
then broken up, they are not made so thick and heavy as those 
used in flint-glass making, since the latter remain in the furnace 
for many weeks. On the other hand, the chemical and physical 
nature of the fireclays used in the manufacture of such crucibles 
requires careful attention in order to secure the best results. 
The furnace used for the production of optical glass is generally 
constructed to take one crucible only, so that the heat of the 
furnace may be accurately adjusted to the requirements of the 
particular glass under treatment. These small furnaces are 
frequently arranged for direct coal firing, but regenerative gas- 
fired furnaces are also employed. The empty crucible, having 
first been gradually dried and heated to a bright red heat in a 
subsidiary furnace, is taken up by means of massive iron tongs 
and introduced into the previously heated furnace, the tempera- 
ture of which is then gradually raised. When a suitable tempera- 
ture for the fusion of the particular glass in question has been 
attained, the mixture of raw materials is introduced in com- 
paratively small quantities at a time. In this way the crucible 
is gradually filled with a mass of molten glass, which is, however, 









Table I.— Optical Properties. 












Factory 
Number. 








IMpHinm 


Partial and Relative Partial Dispersions. 


Name. 


"D. 


V. 


Dispersion. 
C-F. 


C-D. 


C-D 
C-F. 


D-F. 


D-F 
C-F. 


F-G'. 


F-G' 
C-F. 


C. 644 
B. 646 


Extra Hard Crown . 


1-4959 


64-4 


•00770 


•00228 


•296 


•00542 


•704 


•00431 


•560 


Boro-silicate Crown . 


15096 


63-3 


•00803 


•00236 


•294 


•00562 


•700 


•00446 


•555 


A. 605 


Hard Crown 


I-5I75 


60-5 


•00856 


•00252 


•294 


•00604 


•706 


•00484 


•554 


C 577 


Medium Barium Crown 


1-5738 


57-9 


•00990 


•00293 
•00308 


•296 


•00697 
•00738 


•704 


•00552 


•557 


C 579 


Densest Barium Crown 


1-6065 


57-9 


•01046 


•294 


•705 


•00589 


•563 


A. 569 


Soft Crown . 


I-5I52 


56-9 


•00906 


•00264 


•291 


•00642 


•708 


•00517 


•57o 


B. 563 


Medium Barium Crown 


1-5660 


56-3 


•01006 


•00297 
•00298 


•295 


•00709 


•704 


•00576 
•00582 


•572 


B. 535 


Barium Light Flint 


1*5452 


53*5 


•01020 


•292 


•00722 


•701 


•57o 


A. 490 


Extra Light Flint 


I-53I6 


49-o 


•01085 


•00313 


•288 


•00772 


•711 


•00630 


•580 


A. 485 


Extra Light Flint 


1-5333 


48-5 


•01099 
•01 187 


•00322 


•293 


•00777 


•707 


•00640 


•582 


C. 474 


Boro-silicate Flint 


1-5623 


ga 


•00343 


•289 


•00844 


•711 


•00693 


•584 


B. 466 


Barium Light Flint . 


I-5833 


•01251 


•00362 


•288 


•00889 


.711 


•00721 


•576 


B. 458 


Soda Flint . 


1-5482 


45-8 


•01 195 
•01 196 


•00343 


•287 


•00852 


•713 


•00690 


•577 


A. 458 


Light Flint . 


1-5472 
1-5610 


45-8 


•00348 


•291 


•00848 


.709 


•00707 


•59i 


A. 432 


Light Flint . 


43-2 


•01299 


•00372 


•287 


•00927 


•713 


•00770 


•593 
•598 


A. 410 


Light Flint . 


i-576o 


41-0 


•01404 


•00402 


•286 


•01002 


•713 


•00840 


B. 407 


Light Flint . 


1-5787 


40-7 


•01420 
•01657 


•00404 


•284 


•01016 


•715 


•00840 


•591 


A. 370 


Dense Flint . 


1-6118 


36-9 


•00470 


•284 


•01 187 


•716 


•OIOOJ. 

•01040 


-606 


A. 361 


Dense Flint . 


1-6214 


36-1 


•01722 


•00491 


•285 


•01231 


•715 


•608 


A. 360 


Dense Flint . . 


1-6225 


36-0 


•01729 


•00493 


•286 


•01236 


•7i5 


•01054 


•609 


A. 337 


Extra Dense Flint 


1-6469 


33-7 


•01917 


•00541 


•285 


•01376 


•720 


•01 I 70 


•655 


A. 299 


Densest Flint 


1-7129 


299 


•02384 


•00670 


-281 


•01714 


.789 


•01661 


•678 



90 



GLASS 



full of bubble* of all nizcu. These bubbles arise partly from the 
air endowd between the particle* of raw materials and partly 
from the gjurous decomposition products of the materials 
themurlve*, In the next stage of the process, the glass is raised 
lo a high lempentture in order to render it sufficiently fluid to 
allow of the complete elimination of these bubbles; the actual 
temperature required varies with the chemical composition of 
the glitftrt, a bright red heat sufficing for the most fusible glasses, 
while with others the utmost capacity of the best furnaces 
Is required to attain the necessary temperature. With these 
latter glumes there is, of course, considerable risk that the 
partial (union and consequent contraction of the fireclay of the 
criuihle may result in its destruction and the entire loss of the 
gltiM. The stages of the process so far described generally occupy 
from .40 to oo hours, and during this time the constant care and 
watchfulness of those attending the furnace is required. This is 
still more the case in the next stage. The examination of small 
text pieces of the glass withdrawn from the crucible by means 
of an iron rod having shown that the molten mass is free from 
bubbles, the stirring process may be begun, the object of this 
nmnipulat ion being to render the glass as homogeneous as possible 
and to secure the absence of veins or striae in the product. For 
this purpose a cylinder of fireclay, provided with a square axial 
hole at the upper end, is heated in a small subsidiary furnace and 
Is then Introduced into the molten glass. Into the square axial 
hole tits the square end of a hooked iron bar which projects 
several yards beyond the mouth of the furnace; by means of 
this bar a workman moves the fireclay cylinder about in the glass 
with a steady circular sweep. Although the weight of the iron 
bar is carried by a support, such as an overhead chain or a swivel 
roller, this operation is very laborious and trying, more especially 
during the earlier stages when the heat radiated from the open 
mouth of the crucible is intense. The men who manipulate the 
stirring bars are therefore changed at short intervals, while the 
bars themselves have also to be changed at somewhat longer 
intervals, as they rapidly become oxidised, and accumulated 
scale would tend to fall off them, thus contaminating the glass 
Mow. The stirring process is begun when the glass is perfectly 
fluid at a temperature little short of the highest attained in its 
fusion, but as the stirring proceeds the glass is allowed to cool 
gradually and thus becomes more and more viscous until finally 
the st irring cylinder can scarcely Ik moved. When the glass has 
acquired this degree of consistency it is supposed that no fresh 
movements can occur within its mass, so that if homogeneity has 
been at tained the glass w ill preserve it permanently. Thestirring 
is ihetviore discontinued and the clay cylinder is either left 
embedded in the glass, or by the exercise of considerable force 
it may Ik giaduallv withdrawn. The crucible 
*ith i he semi **\Ud gU>* which it contains is now 
allowed to cool considerably in the melting furnace, 
or it way be eemovwl to another slightly heated 
t\uuA\\\ When the glass has cooled so far as 
h\ KwMwe ha.vd and soiid v the furnace is hermetic- 
*U> xv\dx\l up and allowed to cool wry gradually 
lo the ot\lu\ai\ temperature H the cooling is very 
gtadual occupying several weeks— it sometime* 
hap$vns that ihe emir* consents of a large crucible, weighing 
pet Saps *s\» IK ate found intact as a single mass of glass, but 
mote uwjuentvv the mass is KhukI broken up in;o a number of 
UAjtmcn;* ot \arious sue*. Krvvn the lar$e masses great lenses 
and nv.teors nvav be p?v\tuord, while the smaller pieces are used 
km tSe piodwevA>n of :Sie dv&s and slabs of moderate s£», in 
*Ku h ; V op* v*i ^va^s of cocuinerce is usually supplied. Is order 
to aUo* ot ; V wxs>v*l of the $U*$* the cvvi craciSe ts broken 
**p a*Avi ;Se $wss c^ef^^r s«^vira:evi frvva :he frignents of nre- 
v>*\ . IV p\ves oc jUss are ;Sra evirri:xvi roc :be iewetxxi of 
tav ^tvt^H n\:vv;$. A*vi oc-\nk*C> detective pieces are reacted. 



are chosen, and are heated to a temperature just sufficient to 
soften the glass, when the lumps are caused to assume the shape 
of moulds made of iron or fireclay either by the natural flow of 
the softened glass under gravity, or by pressure from suitable 
tools or presses. The glass, now in its approximate form, is 
placed in a heated chamber where it is allowed to cool very 
gradually — the minimum time of cooling from a dull red heat 
being six days, while for " fine annealing " a much longer period 
is required (see above). At the end of the annealing process the 
glass issues in the shape of disks or slabs slightly larger than 
required by the optician in each case. The glass is, however, by 
no means ready for delivery, since it has yet to be examined 
with scrupulous care, and all defective pieces must be rejected 
entirely or at least the defective part must be cut out and the 
slab remoulded or ground down to a smaller size. For the purpose 
of rendering this minute examination possible, opposite plane 
surfaces of the glass are ground approximately flat and polished, 
the faces to be polished being so chosen as to allow of a view 
through the greatest possible thickness of glass; thus in slabs 
the narrow edges are polished. 

It will be readily understood from the above account of the 
process of production that optical glass, relatively to other 
kinds of glass, is very expensive, the actual price varying from 
3s, to 30s. per lb in small slabs or disks. The price, however, 
rapidly increases with the total bulk of perfect glass required in 
one piece, so that large disks of glass suitable for telescope 
objectives of wide aperture, or blocks for large prisms, become 
exceedingly costly. The reason for this high cost is to be found 
partly in the fact that the yield of optically perfect glass even 
in large and successful meltings rarely exceeds 20% of the total 
weight of glass melted. Further, all the subsequent processes 
of cutting, moulding and annealing become increasingly difficult, 
owing to the greatly increased risk of breakage arising from 
either external injury or internal strain, as the dimensions of 
the individual piece of glass increase. Nevertheless, disks of 
optical glass, both crown and flint, have been produced up to 
39 in. in diameter. 

II. Blown Glass. (A) Table-ware and Vases. — The varieties 
of glass used for the manufacture of table-ware and vases are 
the potash-lead glass, the soda-lime glass and the potash-lime 
glass. These glasses may be colourless or coloured. Venetian 
glass is a soda-lime glass; Bohemian glass is a potash-lime 
glass. The potash-lead glass, which was first used on a com- 
mercial scale in England for the manufacture of table-ware, 
and which is known as " flint " glass or " crystal," is also largely 
used in France, Germany and the United States. Table II. 
shows the typical composition of these glasses. 

Table II. 





SiO,- 


K,0. 


PbO. 


Xa,0. 


CaO. 


MgO. 


Ferf), 
and 


IVtash-lead vflint) glass . 
Soda-Ume (Venetian) glass 
Potash-lime v Bohemian) glass 


53-17 
7340 
7170 


12-70 


52-95 


18-58 
250 


506 
10-30 


-- 


24* 

0-90 



iTWS ^'iv\^ o* 



;V $Us* i- this coaditaoa. are un- 
:\jux^ a £0*x£ ie-il of .diss :hi; tv&sses 



*v.,a\v \>c deccatv- 

;* * x . k svv ; v« \v* \v< .. ^\*;oC\ to S? arreted. Tbe nest stage 
$* .V ^c^m; jt;,vv> 0* ,>c ^.fc^ ^ Ibc process of ^ocldizg arsi 
**±<ou-j^ i -^v* vtt $v*ss v* Jcrcc?.T-?r.irgqr tie r^ttc weight 



For melting the leadless glasses, open, bowl-shaped crucibles 
are used, ranging from 12 to 40 in. in diameter. Glass mixtures 
containing lead are melted in covered, beehive-shaped crucibles 
holding from 12 to 18 cut. of glass. They have a hooded open- 
ing on one side near the top. This opening serves for the intro- 
duction of the glass-mixture, for the removal of the melted 
glass and as a source of heat for the processes of manipulation. 

The Venetian furnaces in the island of Murano are small 
low structures heated with wood. The heat passes from the 
melting furnace into the annealing kiln. In Germany. Austria 
and the United States, gas furnaces are generally used. In 
England directly-heated coal furnaces are still in common use 
which in many cases are stoked by mechanical feeders. There 
are two systems of annealing. The manufactured goods are 
either removed gradually from a constant source of heat by meams 
of a train of small iron trucks drawn along a tramway by an 



GLASS 



9 1 



endless chain, or are placed in a heated kiln in which the fire is 
allowed gradually to die out. The second system is especially 
used for annealing large and heavy objects. The manufacture 
of table-ware is carried on by small gangs of men and boys. In 
England each " gang " or " chair " consists of three men and one 
boy. In works, however, in which most of the goods are moulded, 
and where less skilled labour is required, the proportion of boy 
labour is increased. There are generally two shifts of workmen, 
each shift working six hours, and the work is carried on continu- 
ously from Monday morning until Friday morning. Directly 
work is suspended the glass remaining in the crucibles is ladled 
into water, drained and dried. It is then mixed with the glass 
mixture and broken glass (" cullet "), and replaced in the 




Fig. 16. — Pontils and Blowing Iron, 
a, Puntee; 6, spring puntee; c, blowing iron. 

crucibles. The furnaces are driven to a white heat in order to 
fuse the mixture and expel bubbles of gas and air. Before work 
begins the temperature is lowered sufficiently to render the glass 
viscous. In the viscous state a mass of glass can be coiled upon 
the heated end of an iron rod, and if the rod is hollow can be 
blown into a hollow bulb. The tools used are extremely primitive 
— hollow iron blowing-rods, solid rods for holding vessels during 
manipulation, spring tools, resembling sugar-tongs in shape, 
with steel or wooden blades for fashioning the viscous glass, 
callipers, measure-sticks, and a variety of moulds of wood, 
carbon, cast iron, gun-metal and plaster of Paris (figs. 16 and 1 7). 
The most important tool, however, is the bench or " chair " 
on which the workman sits, which serves as his lathe. He sits 




Fig. 17. — Shaping and Measuring Tools. 

d, " Sugar-tongs " tool with wooden /, Pincers, 

ends. g. Scissors, 

e, e, " Sugar-tongs " tools with cutting \ Battledore. 

edges. t , Marking compacs. 

between two rigid parallel arms, projecting forwards and back- 
wards and sloping slightly from back to front. Across the arms 
he balances the iron rod to which the glass bulb adheres, and 
rolling it backwards and forwards with the fingers of his left 
hand fashions the glass between the blades of his sugar-tongs 
tool, grasped in his right hand. The hollow bulb is worked into 
the shape it is intended to assume, partly by blowing, partly by 
gravitation, and partly by the workman's tool. If the blowing 
iron is held vertically with the bulb uppermost the bulb becomes 
flattened and shaflow, if the bulb is allowed to hang downwards 
it becomes elongated and reduced in diameter, and if the end of 
the bulb is pierced and the iron is held horizontally and sharply 
trundled, as a mop is trundled, the bulb opens out into a flattened 
disk. 
During the process of manipulation, whether on the chair 



or whilst the glass is being reheated, the rod must be constantly 
and gently trundled to prevent the collapse of the bulb or vessel. 
Every natural development of the spherical form can be obtained 
by blowing and fashioning by hand. A non-spherical form can only 
be produced by blowing the hollow bulb into a mould of the 
required shape. Moulds are used both for giving shape to vessels 
and also for impressing patterns on their suface. Although 
spherical forms can be obtained without the use of moulds, 
moulds are now largely used for even the simplest kinds of table- 
ware in order to economize time and skilled labour. In France, 
Germany and the United States it is rare to find a piece of table- 
ware which has not received its shape in a mould. The old and 
the new systems of making a wine-glass illustrate almost all the 
ordinary processes of glass working. Sufficient glass is first 
" gathered " on the end of a blowing iron to form the bowl of 
the wine-glass. The mere act of coiling an exact weight of 
molten glass round the end of a rod 4 ft. in length requires 
considerable skill. The mass of glass is rolled on a polished 
slab of iron, the " marvor," to solidify it, and it is then slightly 
hollowed by blowing. Under the old system the form of the bowl 
is gradually developed by blowing and by shaping the bulb with 
the sugar-tongs tool. The leg is either pulled out from the 
substance of the base of the bowl, or from a small lump of glass 
added to the base. The foot starts as a small independent bulb 
on a separate blowing iron. One extremity of this bulb is made 
to adhere to the end of the leg, and the other extremity is broken 
away from its blowing iron. The fractured end is heated, and by 
the combined action of heat and centrifugal force opens out 
into a flat foot. The bowl is now severed from its blowing iron 
and the unfinished wine-glass is supported by its foot, which is 
attached to the end of a working rod by a metal clip or by a seal 
of glass. The fractured edge of the bowl is heated, trimmed 
with scissors and melted so as to be perfectly smooth and even, 
and the bowl itself receives its final form from the sugar-tongs 
tool. 

Under the new system the bowl is fashioned by blowing the 
slightly hollowed mass of glass into a mould. The leg is formed 
and a small lump of molten glass is attached to its extremity 
to form the foot. The blowing iron is constantly trundled, and 
the small lump of glass is squeezed and flattened into the shape 
of a foot, either between two slabs of wood hinged together, 
or by pressure against an upright board. The bowl is severed 
from the blowing iron, and the wine-glass is sent to the an- 
nealing oven with a bowl, longer than that of the finished glass, 
and with a rough fractured edge. When the glass is cold the 
surplus is removed either by grinding, or by applying heat to a 
line scratched with a diamond round the bowl. The fractured 
edge is smoothed by the impact of a gas flame. ", 

In the manufacture of a wine-glass the ductility of glass is 
illustrated on a small scale by the process of pulling out the leg. 
It is more strikingly illustrated in the manufacture of glass cane 
and tube. Cane is produced from a solid mass of molten glass, 
tube from a mass hollowed by blowing. One workman holds 
the blowing iron with the mass of glass attached to it, and 
another fixes an iron rod by means of a seal of glass to the 
extremity of the mass. The two workmen face each other 
and walk backwards. The diameter of the cane or tube is 
regulated by the weight of glass carried, and by the distance 
covered by the two workmen. It is a curious property of viscous 
glass that whatever form is given to the mass of glass before it 
is drawn out is retained by the finished cane or tube, however 
small its section may be. Owing to this property, tubes or 
canes can be produced with a square, oblong, oval or triangular 
section. Exceedingly fine canes of milk-white glass play an 
important part in the masterpieces produced by the Venetian 
glass-makers of the 16th century. Vases and drinking cups 
were produced of extreme lightness, in the walls of which were 
embedded patterns rivalling lace-work in fineness and intricacy. 
The canes from which the patterns are formed are either simple 
or complex. The latter are made by dipping a small mass of 
molten colourless glass into an iron cup around the inner wall 
of which short lengths of white cane have been arranged at 



9 2 



GLASS 



regular intervals. The canes adhere to the molten glass, and 
the mass is first twisted and then drawn out into fine cane, 
which contains white threads arranged in endless spirals. The 
process can be almost indefinitely repeated and canes formed 
of extreme complexity. A vase decorated with these simple 
or complex canes is produced by embedding short lengths of 
the cane on the surface of a mass of molten glass and blowing 
and fashioning the mass into the required shape. 

Table-ware and vases [may be wholly coloured or merely 
decorated with colour. Touches of colour may be added to 
vessels in course of manufacture by means of seals of molten 
glass, applied like sealing-wax; or by causing vessels to wrap 
themselves round with threads or coils of coloured glass. By 
the application of a pointed iron hook, while the glass is still 
ductile, the parallel coils can be distorted into bends, loops or 
zigzags. The surface of vessels may be spangled with gold or 
platinum by rolling the hot glass on metallic leaf, or iridescent, 
by the deposition of metallic tin, or by the corrosion caused 
by the chemical action of acid fumes. Gilding and enamel 
decoration are applied to vessels when cold, and fixed by 
heat. 

Cutting and engraving are mechanical processes for producing 
decorative effects by abrading the surface of the glass when cold. 
The abrasion is effected by pressing the glass against the edge 
of wheels, or disks, of hard material revolving on horizontal 
spindles. The spindles of cutting wheels are driven by steam 
or electric power. The wheels for making deep cuts are made 
of iron, and are fed with sand and water. The wheels range 
in diameter from 18 in. to 3 in. Wheels of carborundum are 
also used. Wheels of fine sandstone fed with water are used 
for making slighter cuts and for smoothing the rough surface 
left by the iron wheels. Polishing is effected by wooden wheels 
fed with wet pumice-powder and rottenstone and by brushes 
fed with moistened putty-powder. Patterns are produced by 
combining straight and curved cuts. Cutting brings out the 
brilliancy of glass, which is one of its intrinsic qualities. At 
the end of the 18th century English cut glass was unrivalled 
for design and beauty. Gradually, however, the process was 
applied without restraint and the products lost all artistic 
quality. At the present time cut glass is steadily regaining 
favour. 

Engraving is a process of drawing on glass by means of small 
copper wheels. The wheels range from J in. to 2 in. in diameter, 
and are fed with a mixture of fine emery and oil. The spindles 
to which the wheels are attached revolve in a lathe worked by 
a foot treadle. The true use of engraving is to add interest to 
vessels by means of coats of arms, crests, monograms, inscriptions 
and graceful outlines. The improper use of engraving is to 
hide defective material. There are two other processes of 
marking patterns on glass, but they possess no artistic value. 
In the " sandblast " process the surface of the glass is exposed 
to a stream of sharp sand driven by compressed air. The parts 
of the surface which are not to be blasted are covered by adhesive 
paper. In the " etching " process the surface of the glass is 
etched by the chemical action of hydrofluoric acid, the parts 
which are not to be attacked being covered with a resinous paint. 
The glass is first dipped in this protective liquid, and when the 
paint has set the pattern is scratched through it with a sharp 
point. The glass is then exposed to the acid. 

Glass stoppers are fitted to bottles by grinding. The mouth 
of the bottle is ground by a revolving iron cone, or mandrel, 
fed with sand and water and driven by steam. The head of the 
stopper is fastened in a chuck and the peg is ground to the size 
of the mouth of the bottle by means of sand and water pressed 
against the glass by bent strips of thin sheet iron. The mouth 
of the bottle is then pressed by hand on the peg of the stopper, 
and the mouth and peg are ground together with a medium of 
very fine emery and water until an air-tight joint is secured. 

The revival in recent years of the craft of glass-blowing in 
England must be attributed to William Morris and T.G. Jackson, 
R.A. (PL II. figs, n and 12). They, at any rate, seem to have 
been the first to grasp the idea that a wine-glass is not merely 



a bowl, a stem and a foot, but that, whilst retaining simplicity 
of form, it may nevertheless possess decorative effect. They, 
moreover, suggested the introduction for the manufacture of 
table-glass of a material similar in texture to that used by the 
Venetians, both colourless and tinted. 

The colours previously available for English table-glass were 
ruby, canary-yellow, emerald-green, dark peacock-green, light 
peacock-blue, dark purple-blue and a dark purple. About 
1870 the " Jackson " table-glass was made in a light, dull green 
glass. The dull green was followed successively by amber, white 
opal, blue opal, straw opal, sea-green, horn colour and various 
pale tints of soda-lime glass, ranging from yellow to blue. Ex- 
periments were also tried with a violet-coloured glass, a violet 
opal, a transparent black and with glasses shading from red 
to blue, red to amber and blue to green. 

In the Paris Exhibition of 1900 surface decoration was the 
prominent feature of all the exhibits of table-glass. The carved 
or " cameo " glass, introduced by Thomas Webb of Stourbridge 
in 1878, had been copied with varying success by glass-makers 
of all nations. In many specimens there were three or more 
layers of differently coloured glass, and curious effects of blended 
colour were obtained by cutting through, or partly through, 
the different layers. The surface of the glass had usually been 
treated with hydrofluoric acid so as to have a satin-like gloss. 
Some vases of this character, shown by Emile Galle* and Daum 
Freres of Nancy, possessed considerable beauty. The " Favrile " 
glass of Louis C. Tiffany of New York (PL II. fig. 13) owes its 
effect entirely to surface colour and lustre. ' The happiest speci- 
mens of this glass almost rival the wings of butterflies in the 
brilliancy of their iridescent colours. The vases of Karl Koepping 
of Berlin are so fantastic and so fragile that they appear to be 
creations of the lamp rather than of the furnace. An illustration 
is also given of some of Powell's " Whitefriars " glass, shown at 
the St Louis Exhibition, 1904 (PL II. fig. 14). The specimens 
of " pate de verre " exhibited by A. L. Dammouse, of Sevres, 
in the Mus6e des Arts decoratifs in Paris, and at the London 
Franco-British Exhibition in 1908, deserve attention. They 
have a semi-opaque body with an "egg-shell" surface and are 
delicately tinted with colour. The shapes are exceedingly 
simple, but some of the pieces possess great beauty. The material 
and technique suggest a close relationship to porcelain. 

(B) Tube. — The process of making tube has already been 
described. Although the bore of the thermometer-tube is 
exceedingly small, it is made in the same way as ordinary 
tube. The white line of enamel, which is seen in some thermo- 
meters behind the bore, is introduced before the mass of glass 
is pulled out. A flattened cake of viscous glass-enamel is welded 
on to one side of the mass of glass after it has been hollowed by 
blowing. The mass, with the enamel attached, is dipped into 
the crucible and covered with a layer of transparent glass; 
the whole mass is then pulled out into tube. If the section of 
the finished tube is to be a triangle, with the enamel and bore 
at the base, the molten mass is pressed into a V-shaped mould 
before it is pulled out. 

In modern thermometry instruments of extreme accuracy 
are required, and researches have been made, especially in 
Germany and France, to ascertain the causes of variability 
in mercurial thermometers, and how such variability is to be 
removed or reduced. In all mercurial thermometers there 
is a slight depression of the ice-point after exposure to high 
temperatures; it is also not uncommon to find that the readings 
of two thermometers between the ice- and boiling-points 
fail to agree at any intermediate temperature, although the 
ice- and boiling-points of both have been determined together 
with perfect accuracy, and the intervening spaces have been 
equally divided. It has been proved that these variations 
depend to a great extent on the chemical nature of the glass of 
which the thermometer is made. Special glasses have therefore 
been produced by Tonnelot in France and at the Jena glass- 
works in Germany expressly for the manufacture of thermometers 
for accurate physical measurements; the analyses of these are 
shown in Table III. 



GLASS 



93 



Table III. 





SiO,. 


Narf). 


K 2 0. 


CaO. 


AI2O,. 


MgO. 


B 2 8 . 


ZnO. 


Depression 

of 
Ice-point. 


Tonnelot's " Verre dur " 
Jena glass — 

XVI .-in . . 
59-"i 


70*96 

67-5 
72-0 


1202 
14-0 

11*0 


0-56 


14-40 

70 
50 


1.44 

2-5 
50 


0-40 


2-0 
12-0 


7.0 


0-07 

0-05 
002 



Since the discovery of the Rontgen rays, experiments have 
been made to ascertain the effects of the different constituents 
of glass on the transparency of glass to X-rays. The oxides 
of lead, barium, zinc and antimony are found perceptibly to 
retard the rays. The glass tubes, therefore, from which the 
X-ray bulbs are to be fashioned, must not contain any of these 
oxides, whereas the glass used for making the funnel-shaped 
shields, which direct the rays upon the patient and at the same 
time protect the hands of the operator from the action of the 
rays, must contain a large proportion of lead. 

Among the many developments of the Jena Works, not the 
least important are the glasses made in the form of a tube, 
from which gas-chimneys, gauge-glasses and chemical apparatus 
are fashioned, specially adapted to resist sudden changes of 
temperature. One method is to form the tube of two layers 
of glass, one being considerably more expansible than the other. 

(C) Sheet and Crown-glass. — Sheet-glass is almost wholly 
a soda-lime-silicate glass, containing only small quantities of 
iron, alumina and other impurities. The raw materials used 
in this manufacture are chosen with considerable care, since the 
requirements as to the colour of the product are somewhat 
stringent. The materials ordinarily employed are the following: 
sand, of good quality, uniform in grain and free from any 
notable quantity of iron oxide; carbonate of lime, generally 
in the form of a pure variety of powdered limestone; and 
sulphate of soda. A certain proportion of soda ash (carbonate 
of soda) is also used in some works in sheet-glass mixtures, while 
" decolorizers " (substances intended to remove or reduce the 
colour of the glass) are also sometimes added, those most generally 
used being manganese dioxide and arsenic. Another essential 
ingredient of all glass mixtures containing sulphate of soda 
is some form of carbon, which is added either as coke, charcoal 
or anthracite coal; the carbon so introduced aids the reducing 
substances contained in the atmosphere of the furnace in bringing 
about the reduction of the sulphate of soda to a condition in 
which it combines more readily with the silicic acid of the sand. 
The proportions in which these ingredients are mixed vary 
according to the exact quality of glass required and with the 
form and temperature of the melting furnace employed. A 
good quality of sheet-glass should show, on analysis, a composi- 
tion approximating to the following: silica (SiO^), 72%; 
lime (CaO), 13%; soda (Na 2 0), 14%; and iron and alumina 
(Fe 2 08,Al 2 8 ), 1%. The actual composition, however, of a 
mixture that will give a glass of this composition cannot be 
directly calculated from these figures and the known composition 
of the raw materials, owing to the fact that considerable losses, 
particularly of alkali, occur during melting. 

The fusion of sheet-glass is now generally carried out in 
gas-fired regenerative tank furnaces. The glass in process 
of fusion is contained in a basin or tank built up of large blocks 
of fire-clay and is heated by one or more powerful gas flames 
which enter the upper part of the furnace chamber through 
suitable apertures or " ports." In Europe the gas burnt in 
these furnaces is derived from special gas-producers, while in 
some parts of America natural gas is utilized. With producer 
gas it is necessary to pre-heat both the gas and the air which 
is supplied for its combustion by passing both through heated 
regenerators (for an account of the principles of the regenerative 
furnace see article Furnace). In many respects the glass- 
melting tank resembles the open-hearth steel furnace, but there 
are certain interesting differences. Thus the dimensions of the 
largest glass tanks greatly exceed those of the largest steel 
furnaces; glass furnaces containing up to 250 tons of molten 



glass have been successfully oper- 
ated, and owing to the relatively 
low density of glass this involves 
very large dimensions. The tem- 
perature required in the fusion of 
sheet-glass and of other glasses 
produced in tank furnaces is much 
lower than that attained in steel 
furnaces, and it is consequently pos- 
sible to work glass-tanks continuously for many months together; 
on the other hand, glass is not readily freed from foreign bodies 
that may become admixed with it, so that the absence of detach- 
able particles is much more essential in glass than in steel melting. 
Finally, fluid steel can be run or poured off, since it is perfectly 
fluid, while glass cannot be thus treated, but is withdrawn from 
the furnace by means of either a ladle or a gatherer's pipe, 
and the temperature required for this purpose is much lower than 
that at which the glass is melted. In a sheet-glass tank there 
is therefore a gradient of temperature and a continuous passage 
of material from the hotter end of the furnace where the raw 
materials are introduced to the cooler end where the glass, 
free from bubbles and raw material, is withdrawn by the 
gatherers. For the purpose of the removal of the glass, the 
cooler end of the furnace is provided with a number of suitable 
openings, provided with movable covers or shades. The 
" gatherer " approaches one of these openings, removes the 
shade and introduces his previously heated "pipe." This 
instrument is an iron tube, some 5 ft. long, provided at one end 
with an enlarged butt and at the other with a wooden covering 
acting as handle and mouthpiece. The gatherer dips the butt 
of the pipe into the molten " metal " and withdraws upon it a 
small ball of viscous glass, which he allows to cool in the air 
while constantly rotating it so as to keep the mass as nearly 
spherical in shape as he can. When the first ball or " gathering " 
has cooled sufficiently, the whole is again dipped into the molten 
glass and a further layer adheres to the pipe-end, thus forming 
a larger ball. This process is repeated, with slight modifications, 
until the gathering is of the proper size and weight to yield the 
sheet which is to be blown. When this is the case the gathering 
is carried to a block or half-open mould in which it is rolled 
and blown until it acquires, roughly, the shape of a hemisphere, 
the flat side being towards the pipe and the convexity away 
from it; the diameter of this hemisphere is so regulated as to 
be approximately that of the cylinder which is next to be formed 
of the viscous mass. From the hemispherical shape the mass 
of glass is now gradually blown into the form of a short cylinder, 
and then the pipe with the adherent mass of glass is handed 
over to the blower proper. This workman stands upon a platform 
in front of special furnaces which, from their shape and purpose, 
are called "blowing holes." The blower repeatedly heats 
the lower part of the mass of glass and keeps it distended by 
blowing while he swings it over a deep trench which is provided 
next to his working platform. In this way the glass is extended 
into the form of a long cylinder closed at the lower end. The 
size of cylinder which can be produced in this way depends 
chiefly upon the dimensions of the working platform and the 
weight which a man is able to handle freely. The lower end of 
the cylinder is opened, in the case of small and thin cylinders, 
by the blower holding his thumb over the mouthpiece of the 
pipe and simultaneously warming the end of the cylinder in the 
furnace, the expansion of the imprisoned air and the softening 
of the glass causing the end of the cylinder to burst open. The 
blower then heats the end of the cylinder again and rapidly 
spins the pipe about its axis; the centrifugal effect is sufficient 
to spread the soft glass at the end to a radius equal to that of the 
rest of the cylinder. In the case of large and thick cylinders, 
however, another process of opening the ends is generally 
employed: an assistant attaches a small lump of hot glass to the 
domed end, and the heat of this added glass softens the cylinder 
sufficiently to enable the assistant to cut the end open with a 
pair of shears; subsequently the open end is spun out to the 
diameter of the whole as described above. The finished cylinder 



9+ 



GLASS 



is next carried to a rack and the pipe detached from it by applying 
a cold iron to the neck of thick hot glass which connects pipe-butt 
and cylinder, the neck cracking at the touch. Next, the rest 
of the connecting neck is detached from the cylinder by the 
application of a heated iron to the chilled glass. This leaves a 
cylinder with roughly parallel ends; these ends are cut by the 
use of a diamond applied internally and then the cylinder is 
split longitudinally by the same means. The split cylinder is 
passed to the flattening furnace, where it is exposed to a red heat, 
sufficient to soften the glass; when soft the cylinder is laid upon 
a smooth fiat slab and flattened down upon it by the careful 
application of pressure with some form of rubbing implement, 
which frequently takes the form of a block of charred wood. 
When flattened, the sheet is moved away from the working 
opening of the furnace, and pushed to a system of movable 
grids, by means of which it is slowly moved along a tunnel, 
away from a source of heat nearly equal in temperature to that 
•f the flattening chamber. The glass thus cools gradually as it 
passes down the tunnel and is thereby adequately annealed. 

The process of sheet-glass manufacture described above is 
typical of that in use in a large number of works, but many 
modifications are to be found, particularly in the furnaces in 
which the glass is melted. In some works, the older method 
of melting the glass in large pots or crucibles is still adhered to, 
although the old-fashioned coal-fired furnaces have nearly 
everywhere given place to the use of producer gas and re- 
generators. For the production of coloured sheet-glass, however, 
the employment of pot furnaces is still almost universal, prob- 
ably because the quantities of glass required of any one tint 
are insufficient to employ even a small tank furnace continuously; 
the exact control of the colour is also more readily attained with 
the smaller bulk of glass which has to be dealt with in pots. The 
general nature of the colouring ingredients employed, and the 
colour effects produced by them, have already been mentioned. 
In coloured sheet-glass, two distinct kinds are to be recognized; 
in one kind the colouring matter is contained in the body of the 
glass itself, while in the other the coloured sheet consists of 
ordinary white glass covered upon one side with a thin coating of 
intensely coloured glass. The latter kind is known as " flashed," 
and is universally employed in the case of colouring matters 
whose effect is so intense that in any usual thickness of glass 
they would cause almost entire opacity. Flashed glass is 
produced by taking either the first or the last gathering in the 
production of a cylinder out of a crucible containing the coloured 
" metal," the other gatherings being taken out of ordinary 
white sheet-glass. It is important that the thermal expansion 
of the two materials which are thus incorporated should be 
nearly alike, as otherwise warping of the finished sheet is liable 
to result. 

Mechanical Processes for the Production of Sheet-glass. — The 
complicated and indirect process of sheet-glass manufacture 
has led to numerous inventions aiming at a direct method of 
production by more or less mechanical means. All the earlier 
attempts in this direction failed on account of the difficulty of 
bringing the glass to the machines without introducing air-bells, 
which are always formed in molten glass when it is ladled or 
poured from one vessel into another. More modern inventors 
have therefore adopted the plan of drawing the glass direct from 
the furnace. In an American process the glass is drawn direct 
from the molten mass in the tank in a cylindrical form by means 
of an iron ring previously immersed in the glass, and is kept 
in shape by means of special devices for cooling it rapidly as it 
leaves the molten bath. In this process, however, the entire 
operations of splitting and flattening are retained, and although 
the mechanical process is said to be in successful commercial 
operation, it has not as yet made itself felt as a formidable rival 
to hand-made sheet-glass. An effort at a more direct mechanical 
process is embodied in the inventions of Foucault which are at 
present being developed in Germany and Belgium; in this 
process the glass is drawn from the molten bath in the shape of 
flat sheets, by the aid of a bar of iron, previously immersed in the 
glass, the glass receiving its form by being drawn through slots 



in large fire-bricks, and being kept in shape by rapid chilling 
produced by the action of air-blasts. The mechanical operation 
is quite successful for thick sheets, but it is not as yet available 
for the thinner sheets required for the ordinary purposes of 
sheet-glass, since with these excessive breakage occurs, while 
the sheets generally show grooves or lines derived from small 
irregularities of the drawing orifice. For the production of thick 
sheets which are subsequently to be polished the process may 
thus claim considerable success, but it is not as yet possible 
to produce satisfactory sheet-glass by such means. 

Crown-glass has at the present day almost disappeared from 
the market, and it has been superseded by sheet-glass, the more 
modern processes described above being capable of producing 
much larger sheets of glass, free from the knob or " bullion " 
which may still be seen in old crown-glass windows. For a 
few isolated purposes, however, it is desirable to use a glass 
which has not been touched upon either surface and thus pre- 
serves the lustre of its " fire polish " undiminished; this can 
be attained in crown-glass but not in sheet, since one side of 
the latter is always more or less marked by the rubber used 
in the process of flattening. One of the few uses of crown-glass 
of this kind is the glass slides upon which microscopic specimens 
are mounted, as well as the thin glass slips with which such 
preparations are covered. A full account of the process of 
blowing crown-glass will be found in all older books and articles 
on the subject, so that it need only be mentioned here that the 
glass, instead of being blown into a cylinder, is blown into a 
flattened sphere, which is caused to burst at the point opposite 
the pipe and is then, by the rapid spinning of the glass in front 
of a very hot furnace-opening, caused to expand into a flat disk 
of large diameter. This only requires to be annealed and is then 
ready for cutting up, but the lump of glass by which the original 
globe was attached to the pipe remains as the bullion in the centre 
of the disk of glass. 

Coloured Glass for Mosaic Windows, — The production of coloured 
glass for " mosaic " windows has become a separate branch 
of glass-making. Charles Winston, after prolonged study 
of the coloured windows of the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries, 
convinced himself that no approach to the colour effect of these 
windows could be made with glass which is thin and even in 
section, homogeneous in texture, and made and coloured with 
highly refined materials. To obtain the effect it was necessary 
to reproduce as far as possible the conditions under which the 
early craftsmen worked, and to create scientifically glass which 
is impure in colour, irregular in section, and non-homogeneous 
in texture. The glass is made in cylinders and in " crowns " or 
circles. The cylinders measure about 14 in. in length by 8 in. 
in diameter, and vary in thickness from J to $ in. The crowns 
are about 15 in. in diameter, and vary in thickness from J to § in., 
the centre being the thickest. These cylinders and crowns 
may be either solid colour or flashed. Great variety of colour 
may be obtained by flashing one colour upon another, such as 
blue on green, and ruby on blue, green or yellow, 

£. J. Prior has introduced an ingenious method of making 
small oblong and square sheets of coloured glass, which are thick 
in the centre and taper towards the edges, and which have one 
surface slightly roughened and one brilliantly polished. Glass is 
blown into an oblong box-shaped iron mould, about 12 in. in depth 
and 6 in. across. A hollow rectangular bottle is formed, the base 
and sides of which are converted into sheets. The outer surface 
of these sheets is slightly roughened by contact with the iron 
mould. 

(D) Bottles and mechanically blown Glass, — The manufacture 
of bottles has become an industry of vast proportions. The 
demand constantly increases, and, owing to constant improve- 
ments in material in the moulds and in the methods of working, 
the supply fully keeps pace with the demand. Except for 
making bottles of special colours, gas-heated tank furnaces are 



in general use. Melting and working are carried on continuously. 
The essential qualities of a bottle are strength and power to resist 
chemical corrosion. The materials are selected with a view to 
secure these qualities. For the highest quality of bottles, which 



GLASS 



95 



are practically colourless, sand, limestone and sulphate and 
carbonate of soda are used. The following is a typical analysis 
of high quality bottle-glass: SiC>2, 69- 15%; Na20, 13-00%; 
CaO, 15-00%; AI2O3, 2-20%; and Fe 2 8 , 0-65%. For the 
commoner grades of dark-coloured bottles the glass mixture 
is cheapened by substituting common salt for part of the sulphate 
of soda, and by the addition of felspar, granite, granulite, 
furnace slag and other substances fusible at a high temperature. 
Bottle moulds are made of cast iron, either in two pieces, hinged 
together at the base or at one side, or in three pieces, one 
forming the body and two pieces forming the neck. 

A bottle gang or "shop" consists of five persons. The 
" gatherer " gathers the glass from the tank furnace on the end 
of the blowing-iron, rolls it on a slab of iron or stone, slightly 
expands the glass by blowing, and hands the blowing iron and 
glass to the " blower." The blower places the glass in the mould, 
closes the mould by pressing a lever with his foot, and either 
blows down the blowing iron or attaches it to a tube connected 
with a supply of compressed air. When the air has forced the 
glass to take the form of the mould, the 
mould is opened and the blower gives the 
blowing iron with the bottle attached to 
it to the "wetter off." The wetter off 
touches the top of the neck of the bottle 
with a moistened piece of iron and by 
tapping the blowing iron detaches the 
bottle and drops it into a wooden trough. 
He then grips the body of the bottle with 
a four-pronged clip, attached to an iron 
rod, and passes it to the " bottle maker." 
The bottle maker heats the fractured neck 
of the bottle, binds a band of molten glass 
round the end of it and simultaneously 
shapes the inside and the outside of the 
Fig. 18.— Tool for nec ^ ky us^S the tool shown in fig. 18. 
moulding the inside The finished bottle is taken by the " taker 
and outside of the in " to the annealing furnace. The bottles 
CM* 'ttl* k Qtt are stacked * n i* 011 trucks, which, when 

A, Conical piece of ^ lu ^» are move< * slowly away from a constant 
iron to form the source of heat. 




the The processes of manipulation which have 
been described, although in practice they 



inside of 
neck. 

B ' dfton?wM&^ are very rapidly Performed, are destined 
be pressed upon to be replaced by the automatic working 
the outside of of a machine. Bottle-making machines, 
the neck by the based on Ashley's original patent, are 
spnng-nanale H. alrcady being largely use± They ensure 

absolute regularity in form and save both 
time and labour. A bottle-making machine combines the 
process of pressing with a plunger with that of blowing by 
compressed air. The neck of the bottle is first formed by the 
plunger, and the body is subsequently blown by compressed air 
admitted through the plunger. A sufficient weight of molten 
glass to form a bottle is gathered and placed in a funnel-shaped 
vessel which serves as a measure, and gives access to the mould 
which shapes the outside of the neck. A plunger is forced 
upwards into the glass in the neck-mould and forms the neck. 
The funnel is removed, and the plunger, neck-mould and the 
mass of molten glass attached to the neck are inverted. A bottle 
mould rises and envelops the mass of molten glass. Com- 
pressed air admitted through the plunger forces the molten glass 
to take the form of the bottle mould and completes the bottle. 

In the case of the machine patented by Michael Owens of 
Toledo, U.S.A., for making tumblers, lamp-chimneys, and other 
goods of similar character, the manual operations required are 

(1) gathering the molten glass at the end of a blowing iron; 

(2) placing the blowing iron with the glass attached to it in the 
machine; (3) removing the blowing iron with the blown vessel 
attached. Each machine (fig. 19) consists of a revolving table 
carrying five or six moulds. The moulds are opened and closed 
by cams actuated by compressed air. As soon as a blowing 
iron is in connexion with an air jet, the sections of the mould 



close upon the molten glass, and the compressed air forces the 
glass to take the form of the mould. After removal from the 
machine, the tumbler is severed from the blowing iron, and 
its fractured edge is trimmed. 

Compressed air or steam is also used for fashioning very large 
vessels, baths, dishes and reservoirs by the " Sievert " process. 
Molten glass is spread upon a large iron plate of the required 
shape and dimensions. The flattened mass of glass is held by 
a rim, connected to the edge of the plate. The plate with the glass 
attached to it is inverted, and compressed air or steam is intro- 
duced through openings in the plate. The mass of glass, yielding 
to its own weight and the pressure of air or steam, sinks down- 
wards and adapts itself to any mould or receptacle beneath it. 

The processes employed in the manufacture of the glass 
bulbs for incandescent electric lamps, are similar to the old- 




Fig. 19. — Owens's Glass-blowing Machine. g,g,g, Blowing-irons. 



fashioned processes of bottle making. The mould is in two 
pieces hinged together; it is heated and the inner surface is 
rubbed over with finely powdered plumbago. When the glass 
is being blown in the mould the blowing iron is twisted round and 
round so that the finished bulb may not be marked by the joint 
of the mould. 

III. Mechanically Pressed Glass. (A) Plate-glass.— The 
glass popularly known as " plate-glass " is made by casting and 
rolling. The following are typical analyses: 





SiO*. 


CaO. 


Na 2 0. 


AW),. 


Fe,0«. 


French . 
English . 


71-80 
70-64 


1570 
16-27 


11*10 

11.47 


1*26 

0-70 


0-14% 
o-49% 



The raw materials for the production of plate-glass are chosen 
with great care so as to secure a product as free from colour 
as possible, since the relatively great thickness of the sheets 



^ 1 



9 6 



GLASS 



would render even a faint tint conspicuous. The substances 
employed are the same as those used for the manufacture 
pi sheet-glass, viz. pure sand, a pure form of carbonate of lime, 
and sulphate of soda, with the addition of a suitable proportion 
of carbon in the form of coke, charcoal or anthracite coal. 

The glass to be used for the production of plate is universally 
melted in pots or crucibles and not in open tank furnaces. 
When the glass is completely melted and " fine," i.e. free from 
bubbles, it is allowed to cool down to a certain extent so as 
to become viscous or pasty. The whole pot, with its contents 
of viscous glass, is then removed bodily from the furnace by 
means of huge tongs and is transported to a crane, which grips 
the pot, raises it, and ultimately tips it over so as to pour the 
glass upon the slab of the rolling-table. In most modern works 
the greater part of these operations, as well as the actual rolling 
of the glass, is carried out by mechanical means, steam power 
and subsequently electrical power having been successfully 
applied to this purpose; the handling of the great weights of 
glass required for the largest sheets of plate-glass which are 
produced at the present time would, indeed, be impossible 
without the aid of machinery. The casting-table usually con- 
sists of a perfectly smooth cast-iron slab, frequently built up 
of a number of pieces carefully fitted together, mounted upon 
a low, massive truck running upon rails, so that it can be readily 
moved to any desired position in the casting-room. The viscous 
mass having been thrown on the casting-table, a large and 
heavy roller passes over it and spreads it out into a sheet. 
Rollers up to 5 tons in weight are employed and are now 
generally driven by power. The width of the sheet or plate 
is regulated by moving guides which are placed in front of 
the roller and are pushed along by it, while its thickness 
is regulated by raising or lowering the roller relatively to 
the surface of the table. Since the surfaces produced by 
rolling have subsequently to be ground and polished, it is 
essential that the glass should leave the rolling-table with as 
smooth a surface as possible, so that great care is required in 
this part of the process. It is, however, equally important 
that the glass as a whole should be flat and remains flat during 
the process of gradual cooling (annealing), otherwise great 
thicknesses of glass would have to be ground away at the pro- 
jecting parts of the sheet. The annealing process is therefore 
carried out in a manner differing essentially from that in use 
for any other variety of flat glass and nearly resembling that 
used for optical glass. The rolled sheet is left on the casting- 
table until it has set sufficiently to be pushed over a flat iron 
plate without risk of distortion; meanwhile the table has been 
placed in front of the opening of one of the large annealing 
kilns and the slab of glass is carefully pushed into the kiln. The 
annealing kilns are large fire-brick chambers of small height 
but with sufficient floor area to accommodate four or six large 
slabs, and the slabs are placed directly upon the floor of the 
kiln, which is built up of carefully dressed blocks of burnt fire- 
clay resting upon a bed of sand; in order to avoid any risk of 
working or buckling in this floor these blocks are set slightly 
apart and thus have room to expand freely when heated. Before 
the glass is introduced, the annealing kiln is heated to dull red 
by means of coal fires in grates which are provided at the ends 
or sides of the kiln for that purpose. When the floor of the kiln 
has been covered with slabs of glass the opening is carefully 
built up and luted with fire-bricks and fire-clay, and the whole 
is then allowed to cool. In the walls and floor of the kiln special 
cooling channels or air passages are provided and by gradually 
opening these to atmospheric circulation the cooling is con- 
siderably accelerated while a very even distribution of tempera- 
ture is obtained; by these means even the largest slabs can now 
be cooled in three or four days and are nevertheless sufficiently 
well annealed to be free from any serious internal stress. From 
the annealing kiln the slabs of glass are transported to the 
cutting room, where they are cut square, defective slabs being 
rejected or cut down to smaller sizes. The glass at this stage 
has a comparatively dull surface and this must now be replaced 
by that brilliant and perfectly polished surface which is the chief 



beauty of this variety of glass. The first step in this process is 
that of grinding the surface down until all projections are 
removed and a close approximation to a perfect plane is obtained. 
This operation, like all the subsequent steps in the polishing 
of the glass, is carried out by powerful machinery. By means 
of a rotating table either two surfaces of glass, or one surface 
of glass and one of cast iron, are rubbed together with the inter- 
position of a powerful abrasive such as sand, emery or carbor- 
undum. The machinery by which this is done has undergone 
numerous modifications and improvements, all tending to pro- 
duce more perfectly plane glass, to reduce the risk of breakage, 
and to lessen the expenditure of time and power required per 
sq. yd. of glass to be worked. It is impossible to describe 
this machinery within the limits of this article, but it is notable 
that the principal difficulties to be overcome arise from the 
necessity of providing the glass with a perfectly continuous 
and unyielding support to which it can be firmly attached but 
from which it can be detached without undue difficulty. 

When the surface of the glass has been ground down to a plane, 
the surface itself is still " grey," i.e. deeply pitted with the marks 
of the abrasive used in grinding it down; these marks are re- 
moved by the process of smoothing, in which the surface is 
successively ground with abrasives of gradually increasing fine- 
ness, leaving ultimately a very smooth and very minutely pitted 
" grey " surface. This smooth surface is then brilliantly polished 
by the aid of friction with a rubbing tool covered with a soft 
substance like leather or felt and fed with a polishing material, 
such as rouge. A few strokes of such a rubber are sufficient to 
produce a decidedly " polished " appearance, but prolonged 
rubbing under considerable pressure and the use of a polishing 
paste of a proper consistency are required in order to remove the 
last trace of pitting from the surface. This entire process must, 
obviously, be applied in turn to each of the two surfaces of the 
slab of glass. Plate-glass is manufactured in this manner in 
thicknesses varying from A- in. to 1 in. or even more, while 
single sheets are produced measuring more than 27 ft. by 13 ft. 

" Rolled Plate " and figured " Rolled Ptote."— Glass for this 
purpose, with perhaps the exception of the best white and 
tinted varieties, is now universally produced in tank-furnaces, 
similar in a general way to those used for sheet-glass, except that 
the furnaces used for " rolled plate " glass of the roughest kinds 
do not need such minutely careful attention and do not work at 
so high a temperature. The composition of these glasses is very 
similar to that of sheet-glass, but for the ordinary kinds of rolled 
plate much less scrupulous selection need be made in the choice 
of raw materials, especially of the sand. 

The glass is taken from the furnace in large iron ladles, which 
are carried upon slings running on overhead rails; from the 
ladle the glass is thrown upon the cast-iron bed of a rolling-table, 
and is rolled into sheet by an iron roller, the process being 
similar to that employed in making plate-glass, but on a smaller 
scale. The sheet thus rolled is roughly trimmed while hot and 
soft, so as to remove those portions of glass which have been 
spoilt by immediate contact with the ladle, and the sheet, still 
soft, is pushed into the open mouth of an annealing tunnel or 
" lear," down which it is carried by a system of moving grids. 

The surface of the glass produced in this way may be modified 
by altering the surface of the rolling-table; if the table has a 
smooth surface, the glass will also be more or less smooth, but 
much dented and buckled on the surface and far from having the 
smooth face of blown sheet. If the table has a pattern engraved 
upon it the glass will show the same pattern in relief, the most 
frequent pattern of the kind being either small parallel ridges or 
larger ribs crossing to form a lozenge pattern. 

The more elaborate patterns found on what is known as 
" figure rolled plate " are produced in a somewhat different 
manner; the glass used for this purpose is considerably whiter 
in colour and much softer than ordinary rolled plate, and instead 
of being rolled out on a table it is produced by rolling between 
two moving rollers from which the sheet issues. The pattern is 
impressed upon the soft sheet by a printing roller which is 
brought down upon the glass as it leaves the main rolls. This 



GLASS 



97 



glass shows a pattern in high relief and gives a very brilliant 
effect. 

The various varieties of rolled plate-glass are now produced 
for some purposes with a reinforcement of wire netting which is 
embedded in the mass of the glass. The wire gives the glass 
great advantages in the event of fracture from a blow or from 
fire, but owing to the difference in thermal expansion between 
wire and glass, there is a strong tendency for such " wired glass " 
to crack spontaneously. 

Patent Plate-glass. — This term is applied to blown sheet-glass, 
whose surface has been rendered plane and brilliant by a process 
of grinding and polishing. The name " patent plate " arose from 
the fact that certain patented devices originated by James 
Chance of Birmingham first made it possible to polish com- 
paratively thin glass in this way. 

(B) Pressed Glass. — The technical difference between pressed 
and moulded glass is that moulded glass-ware has taken its form 
from a mould under the pressure of a workman's breath, or of com- 
pressed air, whereas pressed glass-ware has taken its form from a 
mould under the pressure of a plunger. Moulded glass receives 

the form of the 
mould on its in- 
terior as well as on 
its exterior surface. 
In pressed glass the 
exterior surface is 
modelled by the 
mould, whilst the 
interior surface is 
modelled by the 
plunger (fig. 20). 

The process of 
pressing glass was 
introduced to meet 
the demand for 
cheap table-ware. 
Pressed glass, 
which is necessarily 
thick and service- 
able, has well met 
this legitimate de- 
mand, but it also 
caters for the less 
legitimate taste for 
cheap imitations of 
hand-cut glass. An 
American writer 
has expressed his 
satisfaction that 
the day-labourer can now have on his table at a nominal price 
glass dishes of elaborate design, which only an expert can dis- 
tinguish from hand-cut crystal. The deceptive effect is in some 
cases heightened by cutting over and polishing by hand the 
pressed surface. 

The glass for pressed ware must be colourless, and, when 
molten, must be sufficiently fluid to adapt itself readily to the 
intricacies of the moulds, which are often exceedingly complex. 
The materials employed are sand, sulphate of soda, nitrate of 
soda, calcspar and in some works carbonate of barium. The 
following is an analysis of a specimen of English pressed glass; 
SiOj, 70-68%; Na*0, ia-38%; CaO, 5-45%; BaO, 4-17% 
AljOs, 0-33%; and Fe a O$,o-2o%. Tanks and pots are both used 
for melting the glass. The moulds are made of cast iron. They 
axe usually in two main pieces, a base and an upper part or collar 
of hinged sections. The plunger 1 is generally worked by a hand 
lever. The operator knows by touch when the plunger has 
pressed the glass far enough to exactly fill the mould. Although 
the moulds are heated, the surface of the glass is always slightly 
ruffled by contact with the mould. For this reason every piece 
of pressed glass-ware, as soon as it is liberated from the mould, 
is exposed to a sharp heat in a small subsidiary furnace in order 
that the ruffled surface may be removed by melting. These 




Fig. 20. — Modern American Glass-Press. 



small furnaces are usually heated by an oil spray under the 
pressure of steam or compressed air. 

See Antonio Neri, Ars vitraria, cum MerriUi observationibus 
(Amsterdam, 1668) (Neri's work was translated into English by C. 
Merritt in 1662, and the translation. The Art of making Glass, was 

Srivately reprinted by Sir T. Phillipps, Bart., in 1826); Johann 
[unkel, Voustdndige Glasmacher-Kunst (Nuremberg, 1785) ; Apsley 
Pellatt, Curiosities of Glass-making (London, 1840); A. Sauzay, 
Marvels of Glass-making (from the French) (London, 1869); G. 
Bontemps, Guide du verrier (Paris, 1868); E. Peligot, Le Verre t 
son histoire, sa fabrication (Paris, 1878); W. Stein, " Die Gksfabri- 
kation," in Bolicy's Technologies vol. ill. (Brunswick, 1862) ; H. E. 
Benrath, Die Glasfabrikation (Brunswick, 1875); J. Falck and L. 
Lobmeyr, Die Glasindustrie (Vienna, 1875); D. H. Hovestadt, 
Jenaer Glas (Jena, 1900; Eng. trans, by J. D. and A. Everett, 
Macmillan, 1907); J. Henrivaux, Le Verre et le cristal (Paris, 1887), 
and La Verrerie au XX* siecle (1903) ; Chance, Harris and Powell, 
Principles of Glass-making (London, 1883); Moritz V. Rohr, Theorie 
und Geschichte der photographischen Objektive (Berlin, 1899); C. E. 
Guillaume, TraiU pratique de la thermometrie de precision (Paris, 
1889); Louis Coffignal, verres et imaux (Paris, 1900); R. Gerner, 
Die Glasfabrikation (Vienna, 1897); C. Wetzel, Herstellung grosser 
GUiskorper (Vienna, 1900) ; C. Wetzel, Bearbeitung von Glaskdrpern 
(Vienna, 1901); E. Tscheuschner, Handbuch der Glasfabrikation 



(Weimar, 1885); R. Dralle, Anlage und Betrieb der Glasfabriken 
Leipzig, 1886); G. Tammann, KristaUisicren und Schmelzen 
Leipzig, 1903) ; W. Rosenhain, " Some Properties of Glass," Trans. 



Optical Society (London, 1903), " Possible Directions of Progress in 
Optical Glass," Proc. Optical Convention (London, 1905) and Glass 
Manufacture (London, 1908); Introduction to section 1, Catalogue 
of the Optical Convention (London, 1905). .-, (H. J. P.; W. RnJ. 

History of Glass Manufacture. 

The great similarity in form, technique and decoration of 
the earliest known specimens of glass-ware suggests that the 
craft of glass-making originated from a single centre. It has 
been generally assumed that Egypt was the birthplace of the 
glass industry. It is true that many conditions existed in Egypt 
favourable to the development of the craft. The Nile supplied a 
waterway for the conveyance of fuel and for the distribution 
of the finished wares. Materials were available providing the 
essential ingredients of glass. The Egyptian potteries afforded 
experience in dealing with vitreous glazes and vitreous colours, 
and from Egyptian alabaster-quarries veined vessels were 
wrought, which may well have suggested the decorative arrange- 
ment of zigzag lines (see Plate I. figs. 1, 2, 4 d) so frequently 
found on early specimens of glass-ware. In Egypt, however, 
no traces have at present been found of the industry in a rudi- 
mentary condition, and the vases which have been classified 
as " primitive " bear witness to an elaboration of technique 
far in advance of the experimental period. The earliest specimens 
of glass-ware which can be definitely claimed as Egyptian 
productions, and the glass manufactory discovered by Dr 
Flinders Petrie at Tell el Amarna, belong to the period of the 
XVIIIth dynasty. The comparative lateness of this period 
makes it difficult to account for the wall painting at Beni Hasan, 
which accurately represents the process of glass-blowing, and 
which is attributed to the period of the Xlth dynasty. Dr 
Petrie surmounts the difficulty by saying that the process 
depicted is not glass-blowing, but some metallurgical process 
in which reeds were used tipped with lumps of clay. It is possible 
that the picture does not represent Egyptian glass-blowers, but 
is a traveller's record of the process of glass-blowing seen in some 
foreign or subject country. The scarcity of specimens of early 
glass-ware actually found in Egypt, and the advanced technique 
of those which have been found, lead to the supposition that 
glass-making was exotic and not a native industry. The 
tradition, recorded by Pliny (Nat. Hist, xxxvi. 65), assigns the 
discovery of glass to Syria, and the geographical position of that 
country, its forests as a source of fuel, and its deposits of sand 
add probability to the tradition. The story that Phoenician 
merchants found a glass-like substance under their cooking pots, 
which had been supported on blocks of natron, need not be 
discarded as pure fiction. The fire may well have caused the 
natron, an impure form of carbonate of soda, to combine with 
the surrounding sand to form silicate of soda, which, although 
not a permanent glass, is sufficiently glass-like to suggest the 

xii. 4 



9» 



GLASS 



possibility of creating a permanent transparent material. More- 
over, Pliny (xxxvi. 66) actually records the discovery which 
effected the conversion of deliquescent silicate of soda into 
permanent glass. The words are " Coestus Addi magnes lapis." 
There have been many conjectures as to the meaning of the 
words " magnes lapis." The material has been considered by 
some to be magnetic iron ore and by others oxide of manganese. 
Oxides of iron and manganese can only be used in glass manu- 
facture in comparatively small quantities for the purpose of 
colouring or neutralizing colour in glass, and their introduction 
would not be a matter of sufficient importance to be specially 
recorded. In chapter 25 of the same book Pliny describes five 
varieties of " magnes lapis." One of these he says is found in 
magnesia, is white in colour, does not attract iron and is like 
pumice stone. This variety must certainly be magnesian 
limestone. Magnesian limestone mixed and fused with sand and 
an alkaline carbonate produces a permanent glass. The scene 
of the discovery of glass is placed by Pliny on the banks of the 
little river Belus, under the heights of Mount Carmel, where 
sand suitable for glass-making exists and wood for fuel is 
abundant. In this neighbourhood fragments and lumps of glass 
are still constantly being dug up, and analysis proves that the 
glass contains a considerable proportion of magnesia. The 
district was a glass-making centre in Roman times, and it is 
probable that the Romans inherited and perfected an indigenous 
industry of remote antiquity. Pliny has so accurately recorded 
the stages by which a permanent glass was developed that it 
may be assumed that he had good reason for claiming for Syria 
the discovery of glass. Between Egypt and Syria there was 
frequent intercourse both of conquest and commerce. It was 
customary for the victor after a successful raid to carry off 
skilled artisans as captives. It is recorded that Tahutmes III. 
sent Syrian artisans to Egypt. Glass-blowers may have been 
amongst their captive craftsmen, and may have started the 
industry in Egypt. The claims of Syria and Egypt are at the 
present time so equally balanced that it is advisable to regard 
the question of the birthplace of the glass industry as one that 
has still to be settled. 

The "primitive" vessels which have been found in Egypt are 
small in size and consist of columnar stibium jars, flattened 
bottles and amphorae, all decorated with zigzag lines, tiny 
wide-mouthed vases on feet and minute jugs. The vessels 
of later date which have been found in considerable quantities, 
principally in the coast towns and islands of the Mediterranean, 
are amphorae and alabastra, also decorated with zigzag lines. 
The amphorae (Plate I. figs. 1 and 2) terminate with a point, 
or with an unfinished extension from the terminal point, or with 
a knob. The alabastra have short necks, are slightly wider at 
the base than at the shoulder and have rounded bases. Dr 
Petrie has called attention to two technical peculiarities to be 
found in almost every specimen of early glass-ware. The 
inner surface is roughened (Plate I. fig. 4 c), and has particles 
of sand adhering to it, as if the vessel had been filled with sand 
and subjected to heat, and the inside of the neck has the impres- 
sion of a metal rod (Plate I. fig. 4 a), which appears to have 
been extracted from the neck with difficulty. From this evidence 
Dr Petrie has assumed that the vessels were not blown, but 
formed upon a core of sandy paste, modelled upon a copper rod, 
the rod being the core of the neck (see Egypt: Art and 
Archaeology). The evidence, however, hardly warrants the 
abandonment of the simple process of blowing in favour of a 
process which is so difficult that it may almost be said to be 
impossible, and of which there is no record or tradition except 
in connexion with the manufacture of small beads. The technical 
difficulties to which Dr Petrie has called attention seem to 
admit of a somewhat less heroic explanation. A modern glass- 
blower, when making an amphora-shaped vase, finishes the base 
first, fixes an iron rod to the finished base with a seal of glass, 
severs the vase from the blowing iron, and finishes the mouth, 
whilst he holds the vase by the iron attached to its base. The 
" primitive " glass-worker reversed this process. Having blown 
the body of the vase, he finished the mouth and neck part, and 



fixed a small, probably hollow, copper rod inside the finished 
neck by pressing the neck upon the rod (Plate I. fig. 4 b) . Having 
severed the body of the vase from the blowing iron, he heated 
and closed the fractured base, whilst holding the vase by means 
of the rod fixed in the neck. Nearly every specimen shows 
traces of the pressure of a tool on the outside of the neck, as 
well as signs of the base having been closed by melting. Occasion- 
ally a knob or excrescence, formed by the residue of the glass 
beyond the point at which the base has been pinched together, 
remains as a silent witness of the process. 

If glass-blowing had been a perfectly new invention of Graeco- 
Egyptian or Roman times, some specimens illustrating the 
transition from core-moulding to blowing must have been 
discovered. The absence of traces of the transition strengthens 
the supposition that the revolution in technique merely consisted 
in the discovery that it was more convenient to finish the base 
of a vessel before its mouth, and such a revolution would leave 
no trace behind. The roughened inner surface and the adhering 
particles of sand may also be accounted for. The vessels, 
especially those in which many differently coloured glasses were 
incorporated, required prolonged annealing. It is probable that 
when the metal rod was withdrawn the vessel was filled with 
sand, to prevent collapse, and buried in heated ashes to anneal. 
The greater the heat of the ashes the more would the sand 
adhere to and impress the inner surface of the vessels. The 
decoration of zigzag lines was probably applied directly after 
the body of the vase had been blown. Threads of coloured 
molten glass were spirally coiled round the body, and, whilst 
still viscid, were dragged into zigzags with a metal hook. 

Egypt. — The glass industry flourished in Egypt in Graeco- 
Egyptian and Roman times. All kinds of vessels were blown, 
both with and without moulds, and both moulding and cutting 
were used as methods of decoration. The great variety of these 
vessels is well shown in the illustrated catalogue of Graeco- 
Egyptian glass in the Cairo museum, edited by C. C. Edgar. 

Another species of glass manufacture in which the Egyptians 
would appear to have been peculiarly skilled is the so-called 
mosaic glass, formed by the union of rods of various colours 
in such a manner as to form a pattern; the rod so formed was 
then reheated and drawn out until reduced to a very small size, 
1 sq. in. or less, and divided into tablets by being cut trans- 
versely, each of these tablets presenting the pattern traversing 
its substance and visible on each face. This process was no 
doubt first practised in Egypt, and is never seen in such per- 
fection as in objects of a decidedly Egyptian character. Very 
beautiful pieces of ornament of an architectural character are 
met with, which probably once served as decorations of caskets 
or other small pieces of furniture or of trinkets; also tragic 
masks, human faces and birds. Some of the last-named are 
represented with such truth of colouring and delicacy of detail 
that even the separate feathers of the wings and tail are well 
distinguished, although, as in an example in the British Museum, 
a human-headed hawk, the piece which contains the figure 
may not exceed } in. in its largest dimension. Works of this 
description probably belong to the period when Egypt passed 
under Roman domination, as similar objects, though of inferior 
delicacy, appear to have been made in Rome. 

Assyria. — Early Assyrian glass is represented in the British 
Museum by a vase of transparent greenish glass found in the 
north-west palace of Nineveh. On one side of this a lion is 
engraved, and also a line of cuneiform characters, in which 
is the name of Sargon, king of Assyria, 722 B.C. Fragments of 
coloured glasses were also found there, but our materials are 
too scanty to enable us to form any decided opinion as to the 
degree of perfection to which the art was carried in Assyria. Many 
of the specimens discovered by Layard at Nineveh have all the 
appearance of being Roman, and were no doubt derived from 
the Roman colony, Niniva Claudiopolis, which occupied the same 
site. 

Roman Glass. — In the first centuries of our era the art of glass- 
making was developed at Rome and other cities under Roman 
rule in a most remarkable manner, and it reached a point of 



GLASS 



Plate I. 




Fig. 5. 




Fig. 6. 




Fig. 8. 




Fie. 10. 




XII. 98. 



Fig. 7, 



Fig. 9. 



Plate II. 



GLASS 



r 





f 



x 



Jh 




Fig. ii— TABLE GLASS. 
Designed by T. G. Jackson in 1870. 




T5^- -^ 



Fig. 12.— TABLE GLASS 
Designed for Wm. Morris about 1872 by Philip Webb. 




Fig. 13.— TIFFANY GLASS. 




Fig. 14.— WHITEFRIARS GLASS, 1906. 



GLASS 



99 



excellence which in some respects has never been excelled or 
even perhaps equalled. It may appear a somewhat exaggerated 
assertion that glass was used for more purposes, and in one sense 
more extensively, by the Romans of the imperial period than 
by ourselves in the present day; but it is one which can be 
borne out by evidence. It is true that the use of glass for windows 
was only gradually extending itself at the time when Roman 
civilization sank under the torrent of German and Hunnish 
barbarism, and that its employment for optical instruments 
was only known in a rudimentary stage; but for domestic 
purposes, for architectural decoration and for personal orna- 
ments glass was unquestionably much more used than at the 
present day. It must be remembered that the Romans possessed 
no fine procelain decorated with lively colours and a beautiful 
glaze; Samian ware was the most decorative kind of pottery 
which was then made. Coloured and ornamental glass held 
among them much the same place for table services, vessels for 
toilet use and the like, as that held among us by porcelain. 
Pliny (Nat. Hist, xxxvi. 26, 67) tells us that for drinking vessels 
it was even preferred to gold and silver. 

Glass was largely used in pavements, and in thin plates as a 
coating for walls. It was used in windows, though by no means 
exclusively, mica, alabaster and shells having been also em- 
ployed. Glass, in flat pieces, such as might be employed for 
windows, has been found in the ruins of Roman houses, both in 
England and in Italy, and in the house of the faun at Pompeii 
a small pane in a bronze frame remains. Most of the pieces 
have evidently been made by casting, but the discovery of 
fragments of sheet-glass at Silchester proves that the process 
of making sheet-glass was known to the Romans. When the 
window openings were large, as was the case in basilicas and 
other public buildings, and even in houses, the pieces of glass 
were, doubtless, fixed in pierced slabs of marble or in frames 
of wood or bronze. The Roman glass-blowers were masters 
of all the ordinary methods of manipulation and decoration. 
Their craftsmanship is proved by the large cinerary urns, by 
the jugs with wide, deeply ribbed, scientifically fixed handles, 
and by vessels and vases as elegant in form and light in weight 
as any that have been since produced at Murano. Their moulds, 
both for blowing hollow vessels and for pressing ornaments, were 
as perfect for the purposes for which they were intended as those 
of the present time. Their decorative cutting (Plate I. figs. 5 
and 6), which took the form of simple, incised lines, or bands of 
shallow oval or hexagonal hollows, was more suited to the 
material than the deep prismatic cutting of comparatively 
recent times. 

The Romans had at their command, of transparent colours, 
blue, green, purple or amethystine, amber, brown and rose; 
of opaque colours, white, black, red, blue, yellow, green and 
orange. There are many shades of transparent blue and of 
opaque blue, yellow and green. In any large collection of 
fragments it would be easy to find eight or ten varieties of opaque 
blue, ranging from lapis lazuli to turquoise or to lavender and 
six or seven of opaque green. Of red the varieties are fewer; 
the finest is a crimson red of very beautiful tint, and there are 
various gradations from this to a dull brick red. One variety 
forms the ground of a very good imitation of porphyry; and 
there is a dull semi-transparent red which, when light is passed 
through it, appears to be of a dull green hue. With these 
colours the Roman vitrarius worked, either using them singly 
or blending them in almost every conceivable combination, 
sometimes, it must be owned, with a rather gaudy and inharmo- 
nious effect. 

The glasses to which the Venetians gave the name " mille 
fiori " were formed by arranging side by side sections of glass 
cane, the canes themselves being built up of differently coloured 
rods of glass, and binding them together by heat. A vast 
quantity of small cups and paterae were made by this means in 
patterns which bear considerable resemblance to the surfaces of 
madrepores. In these every colour and every shade of colour 
seem to have been tried in great variety of combination with 
effects more or less pleasing, but transparent violet or purple 




appears to have been the most common ground colour. Although 
most of the vessels of this mille fiori glass were small, some were 
made as large as 20 in. in diameter. Imitations of natural 
stones were made by stirring together in a crucible glasses of 
different colours, or by incorporating fragments of differently 
coloured glasses into a mass of molten glass by rolling. One 
variety is that in which transparent brown glass is so mixed 
with opaque white and blue as to resemble onyx. This was 
sometimes done with great success, and very perfect imitations 
of the natural stone were produced. Sometimes purple glass 
is used in place of brown, probably with the design of imitating 
the precious murrhine. Imitations of porphyry, of serpentine, 
and of granite are also met with, but these were used chiefly 
in pavements, and for the decoration of walls, for which pur- 
poses the onyx-glass was likewise employed. 

The famous cameo glass was formed by covering a mass of 
molten glass with one or more coatings of a differently coloured 
glass. The usual process was to gather, first, a small quantity 
of opaque white glass; to coat this with a thick layer of trans- 
lucent blue glass; and, finally, to cover the blue glass with a 
coating of the white glass. The outer coat was then removed 
from that portion which was to constitute the ground, leaving 
the white for the figures, foliage or other ornamentation; these 
were then sculptured by means of the gem-engraver's tools, 
Pliny no doubt means to refer to this when he says (Nat. Hist. 
xxxvi. 26. 66), "aliud argenti modo caelatur," contrasting it 
with the process of cutting glass by the help of a wheel, to which 
he refers in the words immediately preceding, " aliud tonio 
teritur." 

The Portland or Barberini vase in the British Museum is the 
finest example of this kind of work which has iomt duvvn to us. 
and was entire until it was broken into some hundj^etplecejs by a 
madman. The pieces, however, were joined lojgeiber by Mr 
Doubleday with extraordinary skill, and the beauty of design 
and execution may still be appreciated. The two other most 
remarkable examples of this cameo glass are an amphora 
Naples and the Auldjo vase. The amphora measures 1 ft. fir), 
in height, 1 ft. 7 J in. in circumference; it is shaped. like the 
earthern amphoras with a foot far too small to support^,- and 
must no doubt have had a stand, probably of gold; the greater 
part is covered with a most exquisite design of garlands and 
vines, and two groups of boys gathering and treading grapes 
and playing on various instruments of music; below these 
is a line of sheep and goats in varied attitudes. The ground 
is blue and the figures white. It was found in a house in the 
Street of Tombs at Pompeii in the year 1839, and is now in the 
Royal Museum at Naples. It is well engraved in Richardson's 
Studies of Ornamental Design. The Auldjo vase, in the British 
Museum, is an oenochoe about 9 in. high; the ornament consists 
mainly of a most beautiful band of foliage, chiefly of the vine, 
with bunches of grapes; the ground is blue and the ornaments 
white; it was found at Pompeii in the house of the faun. It also 
has been engraved by Richardson. The same process was used 
in producing large tablets, employed, no doubt, for various 
decorative purposes. In the South Kensington Museum is a 
fragment of such a tablet or slab; the figure, a portion of which 
remains, could not have been less than about 14 in. high. The 
ground of these cameo glasses is most commonly transparent 
blue, but sometimes opaque blue, purple or dark brown. The 
superimposed layer, which is sculptured, is generally opaque 
white. A very few specimens have been met with in which 
several colours are employed. 

At a long interval after these beautiful objects come those 
vessels which were ornamented either by means of coarse threads 
trailed over their surfaces and forming rude patterns, or by 
coloured enamels merely placed on them in lumps; and these, 
doubtless, were cheap and common wares. But a modification 
of the first-named process was in use in the 4th and succeeding 
centuries, showing great ingenuity and manual dexterity, — that, 
namely, in which the added portions of glass are united to the 
body of the cup, not throughout, but only at points, and then 
shaped either by the wheel or by the hand (Plate I. fig. 3). The 



sign 
aost 
1 at 






100 



GLASS 



attached portions form in some instances inscriptions, as on a 
cup found at Strassburg, which bears the name of the emperor 
Maximian (a.d. 286-310), on another in the Vereinigte Samm- 
lungen at Munich, and on a third in the Trivulzi collection at 
Milan, where the cup is white, the inscription green and the 
network blue. Probably, however, the finest example is a 
situla, 10J in. high by 8 in. wide at the top and 4 in. at the 
bottom, preserved in the treasury of St Mark at Venice. This 
is of glass of a greenish hue; on the upper part is represented, 
in relief, the chase of a lion by two men on horseback accompanied 
by dogs; the costume appears to be Byzantine rather than 
Roman, and the style is very bad. The figures are very much 
undercut. The lower part has four rows of circles united to the 
vessel at those points alone where the circles touch each other. 
All the other examples have the lower portion covered in like 
manner by a network of circles standing nearly a quarter of an 
inch from the body of the cup. An example connected with the 
specimens just described is the cup belonging to Baron Lionel 
de Rothschild; though externally of an opaque greenish colour, 
it is by transmitted light of a deep red. On the outside, in very 
high relief, are figures of Bacchus with vines and panthers, 
some portions being hollow from within, others fixed on the 
exterior. The changeability of colour may remind us of the 
" calices versicolors " which Hadrian sent to Serviahus. 

So few examples of glass vessels of this period which have 
been painted in enamel have come down to us that it has been 
questioned whether that art was then practised; but several 
specimens have been described which can leave no doubt on the 
point; decisive examples are afforded by two cups found at 
Vaspclev, in Denmark, engravings of which are published in 
the Annalerfor Nardisk Oldkyndegked for 1861, p. 305. These 
are small cups, 3 in. and a| in. high, 3! in. and 3 in. wide, with 
feet and straight sides; on the larger are a lion and a bull, on 
the smaller two birds with grapes, and on each some smaller 
ornaments. On the latter are the letters DVB. R. The colours 
are vitrified and slightly in relief; green, blue and brown may 
be distinguished. They are found with Roman bronze vessels 
and other articles. 

The art of glass-making no doubt, like all other art, deteriorated 
during the decline of the Roman empire, but it is probable that 
it continued to be practised, though with constantly decreasing 
skill, not only in Rome but in the provinces. Roman technique 
was to be found in Byzantium and Alexandria, in Syria, in Spain, 
in Germany, France and Britain. 

Early Christian and Byzantine Glass* — The process of embed- 
ding gold and silver leaf between two layers of glass originated 
as early as the xst century, probably in Alexandria. The process 
consisted in spreading the leaf on a thin film of blown glass and 
pressing molten glass on to the leaf so that the molten glass 
cohered with the film of glass through the pores of the metallic 
leaf. If before this application of the molten glass the metallic 
leaf, whilst resting on the thin film of blown glass, was etched 
with a sharp point, patterns, emblems, inscriptions and pictures 
could be embedded and rendered permanent by the double 
coating of glass. The plaques thus formed could be reheated 
and fashioned into the bases of bowls and drinking vessels. 
In this way the so-called " fondi d'oro " of the catacombs in Rome 
were made. They arc the broken bases of drinking vessels 
containing inscriptions, emblems, domestic scenes and portraits 
etched in gold leaf. Very few have any reference to Christianity, 
but they served as indestructible marks for indicating the position 
of interments in the catacombs. The fondi d'oro suggested the 
manufacture of plaques of gold which could be broken up into 
tesserae for use in mosaics. 

Some of the Roman artificers in glass no doubt migrated 
to Constantinople, and it is certain that the art was practised 
there to a very great extent during the middle ages. One 
of the gates near the port took its name from the adjacent 
glass houses. St Sofia when erected by Justinian had vaults 
covered with mosaics and immense windows filled with plates 
of glass fitted into pierced marble frames; some of the plates, 
7 to $ in. wide and o to 10 in. high, not blown but cast, which 



are in the windows may possibly date from the building of the 
church. It is also recorded that pierced silver disks were sus- 
pended by chains and supported glass lamps " wrought by fire." 
Glass for mosaics was also largely made and exported. In the 
8th century, when peace was made between the caliph Walid 
and the emperor Justinian II., the former stipulated for a 
quantity of mosaic for the decoration of the new mosque at 
Damascus, and in the 10th century the materials for the decora- 
tion of the niche of the kibla at Cordova were furnished by 
Romanus II. In the nth century Desiderius, abbot of Monte 
Casino, sent to Constantinople for workers in mosaic. 

We have in the work of the monk Theophilus, Diversarum 
artium schedula, and in the probably earlier work of Eraclius, 
about the nth century, instructions as to the art of glass-making 
in general, and also as to the production of coloured and enamelled 
vessels, which these writers speak of as being practised by the 
Greeks. The only entire enamelled vessel which we can con- 
fidently attribute to Byzantine art is a small vase preserved in 
the treasury of St Mark's at Venice. This is decorated with 
circles of rosettes of blue, green and red enamel, each surrounded 
by lines of gold; within the circles are little figures evidently 
suggested by antique originals, and precisely like similar figures 
found on carved ivory boxes of Byzantine origin dating from 
the nth or 12th century. Two inscriptions in Cufic characters 
surround the vase, but they, it would seem, are merely ornamental 
and destitute of meaning. The presence of these inscriptions 
may perhaps lead to the inference that the vase was made 
in Sicily, but by Byzantine workmen. The double-handled 
blue-glass vase in the British Museum,dating from the 5 th century, 
is probably a chalice, as it closely resembles the chalices re- 
presented on early Christian monuments. 

Of uncoloured glass brought from Constantinople several 
examples exist in the treasury of St Mark's at Venice, part of 
the plunder of the imperial city when taken by the crusaders 
in 1204. The glass in all is greenish, very thick, with many 
bubbles, and has been cut with the wheel; in some instances 
circles and cones, and in one the outlines of the figure of a 
leopard, have been left standing up, the rest of the surface having 
been laboriously cut away. The intention would seem to have 
been to imitate vessels of rock crystal. The so-called ' ' Hedwig " 
glasses may also have originated in Constantinople. These are 
small cups deeply and rudely cut with conventional representa- 
tions of eagles, lions and griffins. Only nine specimens are known. 
The specimen in the Rijks Museum at Amsterdam has an eagle 
and two lions. The specimen in the Germanic Museum at 
Nuremberg has two lions and a griffin. 

Saracenic Glass. — The Saracenic invasion of Syria and Egypt 
did not destroy the industry of glass-making. The craft survived 
and flourished under the Saracenic regime in Alexandria, Cairo, 
Tripoli, Tyre, Aleppo and Damascus. In inventories of the 14th 
century both in England and in France mention may frequently 
be found of glass vessels of the manufacture of Damascus. A 
writer in the early part of the 15th century states that " glass- 
making is an important industry at Haleb (Aleppo)." Edward 
Dillon (Glass , 1902) has very properly laid stress on the import- 
ance of the enamelled Saracenic glass of the 13th, 14th and 
15th centuries, pointing out that, whereas the Romans and 
Byzantine Greeks made some crude and ineffectual experiments 
in enamelling, it was under Saracenic influence that the processes 
of enamelling and gilding on glass vessels were perfected. Ait 
analysis of the glass of a Cairene mosque lamp shows that it is a 
soda-lime glass and contains as much as 4% of magnesia. This 
large proportion of magnesia undoubtedly supplied the stability 
required to withstand the process of enamelling. The enamelled 
Saracenic glasses take the form of flasks, vases, goblets, beakers 
and mosque lamps. The enamelled decoration on the lamps is 
restricted to lettering, scrolls and conventional foliage; on other 
objects figure-subjects of all descriptions are freely used. C. H. 
Read has pointed out a curious feature in the construction of the 
enamelled beakers. The base is double but the inner lining has 
an opening in the centre. Dillon has suggested that this central 
recess may have served to support a wick. It is possible, however 



GLASS 



101 



that it served no useful purpose, but that the construction 
is a survival from the manufacture of vessels with fondi d'oro. 
The bases containing the embedded gold leaf must have been 
welded to the vessels to which they belonged, in the same way 
as the bases are welded to the Saracenic beakers. The enamelling 
process was probably introduced in the early part of the 13th 
century; most of the enamelled mosque lamps belong to the 
14th century. 

Venetian Glass. — Whether refugees from Padua, Aquileia 
or other Italian cities carried the art to the lagoons of Venice 
in the 5th century, or whether it was learnt from the Greeks 
of Constantinople at a much later date, has been a disputed 
question. It would appear not improbable that the former 
was the case, for it must be remembered that articles formed 
of glass were in the later days of Roman civilization in constant 
daily use, and that the making of glass was carried on, not as 
now in large establishments, but by artisans working on a small 
scale. It seems certain that some knowledge of the art was 
preserved in France, in Germany and in Spain, and it seems 
improbable that it should have been lost in that archipelago, 
where the traditions of ancient civilization must have been 
better preserved than in almost any other place. In 523 
Cassiodorus writes of the "innumerosa navigia" belonging 
to Venice, and where trade is active there is always a probability 
that manufactures will flourish. However this may be, the 
earliest positive evidence of the existence at Venice of a worker 
in glass would seem to be the mention of Petrus Flavianus, 
phiolarius, in the ducale of Vitale Falier in the year 1000. In 
1224 twenty-nine persons are mentioned as friolari (i.e. phiolari), 
and in the same century " mariegole," or codes of trade regula- 
tions, were drawn up (Monografia delta vetraria Veneziana e 
Muranese, p. 2 1 9) . The manufacture had then no doubt attained 
considerable proportions: in 1268 the glass-workers became 
an incorporated body; in their processions they exhibited 
decanters, scent-bottles and the like; in 1279 they made, among 
other things, weights and measures. In the latter part of this 
century the glass-houses were almost entirely transferred to 
Murano. Thenceforward the manufacture continued to grow 
in importance; glass vessels were made in large quantities, 
as well as glass for windows. The earliest example which has 
as yet been described — a cup of blue glass, enamelled and gilt — 
is, however, not earlier than about 1440. A good many other 
examples have been preserved which may be assigned to the 
same century: the earlier of these bear a resemblance in form 
to the vessels of silver made in the west of Europe; in the later 
an imitation of classical forms becomes apparent. Enamel 
and gilding were freely used, in imitation no doubt of the much- 
admired vessels brought from Damascus. Dillon has pointed 
out that the process of enamelling had probably been derived 
from Syria, with which country Venice had considerable com- 
mercial intercourse. Many of the ornamental processes which 
we admire in Venetian glass were already in use in this century, 
as that of mille fiori, and the beautiful kind of glass known as 
" vitro di trina " or lace glass. An elaborate account of the 
processes of making the vitro di trina and the vasi a reticelli 
(Plate I., fig. 7) is given in Bontemps's Guide du verrier, pp. 
602-612. Many of the examples of these processes exhibit 
surprising skill and taste, and are among the most beautiful 
objects produced at the Venetian furnaces. That peculiar 
kind of glass usually called schmelz, an imperfect imitation of 
calcedony, was also made at Venice in the 15th century. Avan- 
turine glass, that in which numerous small particles of copper 
are diffused through a transparent yellowish or brownish mass, 
was not invented until about 1600. 

The peculiar merits of the Venetian manufacture are the 
elegance of form and the surprising lightness and thinness of 
the substance of the vessels produced. The highest perfection 
with regard both to form and decoration was reached in the 
1 6th century; subsequently the Venetian workmen somewhat 
abused their skill by giving extravagant forms to vessels, making 
drinking glasses in the forms of ships, lions, birds, whales and 
the like. 



Besides the making of vessels of all kinds the factories of 
Murano had for a long period almost an entire monopoly of 
two other branches of the art — the making of mirrors and of 
beads. Attempts to make mirrors of glass were made as early 
as a.d. 1317, but even in the 16th century mirrors of steel were 
still in use. To make a really good mirror of glass two things 
are required — a plate free from bubbles and striae, and a method 
of applying a film of metal with a uniform bright surface free 
from defects. The principle of applying metallic films to glass 
seems to have been known to the Romans and even to the 
Egyptians, and is mentioned by Alexander Neckam in the 12th 
century, but it would appear that it was not until the 16th 
century that the process of " silvering " mirrors by the use of an 
amalgam of tin and mercury had been perfected. During the 
16th and 17th centuries Venice exported a prodigious quantity of 
mirrors, but France and England gradually acquired knowledge 
and skill in the art, and in 1772 only one glass-house at Murano- 
continued to make mirrors. 

The making of beads was probably practised at Venice from 
a very early period, but the earliest documentary evidence 
bearing on the subject does not appear to be of earlier date than 
the 14th century, when prohibitions were directed against those 
who made of glass such objects as were usually made of crystal 
or other hard stones. In the 16th century it had become a trade 
of great importance, and about 1764 twenty-two furnaces were 
employed in the production of beads. Towards the end of the 
same century from 600 to 1000 workmen were, it is stated,, 
employed on one branch of the art, that of ornamenting beads 
by the help of the blow-pipe. A very great variety of patterns 
was produced; a tariff of the year 1800 contains an enumeration 
of 562 species and a vast number of sub-species. 

The efforts made in France, Germany and England, in the 
17th and 18th centuries, to improve the manufacture of glass 
in those countries had a very injurious effect on the industry 
of Murano. The invention of colourless Bohemian glass brought 
in its train the practice of cutting glass, a method of ornamenta- 
tion for which Venetian glass, from its thinness, was ill adapted. 
One remarkable man, Giuseppe Briati, exerted himself, with 
much success, both in working in the old Venetian method and 
also in imitating the new fashions invented in Bohemia. He 
was especially successful in making vases and circular dishes of 
vitro di trina; one of the latter in the Correr collection at Venice, 
believed to have been made in his glass-house, measures 55 
centimetres (nearly 23 in.) in diameter. The vases made by 
him are as elegant in form as the best of the Cinquecento period, 
but may perhaps be distinguished by the superior purity and 
brilliancy of the glass. He also made with great taste and 
skill large lustres and mirrors with frames of glass ornamented 
either in intaglio or with foliage of various colours. He obtained 
a knowledge of the methods of working practised in Bohemia 
by disguising himself as a porter, and thus worked for three 
years in a Bohemian glass-house. In 1736 he obtained a patent 
at Venice to manufacture glass in the Bohemian manner. He 
died in 1772. e A£ 

The fall of the republic was accompanied by interruption of 
trade and decay of manufacture, and in the last years of the 
1 8th and beginning of the 19th century the glass-making of 
Murano was at a very low ebb. In the year 1838 Signor Bussolin 
revived several of the ancient processes of glass-working, and 
this revival was carried on by C. Pietro Biguglia in 1845, and 
by others, and later by Salviati, to whose successful efforts the 
modern renaissance of Venetian art glass is principally due. 

The fame of Venice in glass-making so completely eclipsed 
that of other Italian cities that it is difficult to learn much 
respecting their progress in the art. Hartshorne and Dillon have 
drawn attention to the important part played by the little 
Ligurian town, Altare, as a centre from which glass-workers 
migrated to all parts of Europe. It is said that the glass industry 
was established at Altare, in the nth century, by French 
craftsmen. In the 14th century Muranese glass- workers settled 
there and developed the industry. It appears that as early 
as 1295 furnaces had been established at Treviso, Vicenza, 



102 



GLASS 



Padua, Mantua, Ferrara, Ravenna and Bologna. In 1634 
there were two glass-houses in Rome and one in Florence; but 
whether any of these produced ornamented vessels, or only articles 
of common use and window glass, would not appear to have as 
yet been ascertained. 

Germany — Glass-making in Germany during the Roman 
period seems to have been carried on extensively in the neighbour- 
hood of Cologne. The Cologne museum contains many specimens 
of Roman glass, some of which are remarkable for their cut 
decoration. The craft survived the downfall of the Roman 
power, and a native industry was developed. This industry 
must have won some reputation, for in 758 the abbot of Jarrow 
appealed to the bishop of Mainz to send him a worker in glass. 
There are few records of glass manufacture in Germany before 
the beginning of the 16th century. The positions of the factories 
were determined by the supply of wood for fuel, and subse- 
quently, when the craft of glass-cutting was introduced, by the 
accessibility of water-power. The vessels produced by the 
16th-century glass-workers in Germany, Holland and the Low 
Countries are closely allied in form and decoration. The glass 
is coloured (generally green) and the decoration consists of glass 
threads and glass studs, or prunts (" Nuppen ")• The use of 
threads and prunts is illustrated by the development of the 
" Roemer," so popular as a drinking-glass, and as a feature 
in Dutch studies of still life. The " Igel," a squat tumbler 
covered with prunts, gave rise to the " Krautsrunk," which is 
like the " Igel," but longer and narrow- waisted. The " Roemer " 
itself consists of a cup, a short waist studded with prunts and 
a foot. The foot at first was formed by coiling a thread of 
glass round the base of the waist; but, subsequently, an open 
glass cone was joined to the base of the waist, and a glass thread 
was coiled upon the surface of the cone. The " Passglas," 
another popular drinking-glass, is cylindrical in form and marked 
with horizontal rings of glass, placed at regular intervals, to 
indicate the quantity of liquor to be taken at a draught. 

In the edition of 158 1 of the De re metallica by Georg Agricola, 
there is a woodcut showing the interior of a German glass 
factory, and glass vessels both finished and unfinished. 

In 1428 a Muranese glass- worker set up a furnace in Vienna, 
and another furnace was built in the same town by an Italian 
in i486. In 1 53 1 the town council of Nuremberg granted a 
subsidy to attract teachers of Venetian technique. Many 
specimens exist of German winged and enamelled glasses of 
Venetian character. The Venetian influence, however, was 
indirect rather than direct. The native glass-workers adopted 
the process of enamelling, but applied it to a form of decoration 
characteristically German. On tall, roomy, cylindrical glasses 
they painted portraits of the emperor and electors of Germany, 
or the imperial eagle bearing on its wings the arms of the states 
composing the empire. The earliest-known example of these 
enamelled glasses bears the date 1553. They were immensely 
popular and the fashion for them lasted into the iSth century. 
Some of the later specimens have views of cities, battle scenes 
and processions painted in grisaille. 

A more important outcome, however, of Italian influence was 
the production, in emulation of Venetian glass, of a glass made 
of refined potash, lime and sand, which was more colourless 
than the material it was intended to imitate. This colourless 
potash-lime glass has always been known as Bohemian glass. 
It was well adapted for receiving cut and engraved decoration, 
and in these processes the German craftsmen proved themselves 
to be exceptionally skilful. At the end of the 16th century 
Rudolph II. brought Italian rock-crystal cutters from Milan 
to take control of the crystal and glass-cutting works he had 
established at Prague. It was at Prague that Caspar Lehmann 
and Zachary Belzer learnt the craft of cutting glass. George 
Schwanhart, a pupil of Caspar Lehmann, started glass-cutting 
at Ratisbon, and about 1690 Stephen Schmidt and Hermann 
Schwinger introduced the crafts of cutting and engraving 
glass in Nuremberg. To the Germans must be credited the 
discovery, or development, of colourless potash-lime glass, 
the reintroduction of the crafts of cutting and engraving on 



glass, the invention by H. Schwanhart of the process of etching 
on glass by means of hydrofluoric acid, and the rediscovery by 
J. Kunkel, who was director of the glass-houses at Potsdam in 
1679, of the method of making copper-ruby glass. 

Low Countries and the United Provinces. — The glass industry 
of the Low Countries was chiefly influenced by Italy and Spain, 
whereas German influence and technique predominated in the 
United Provinces. The history of glass-making in the provinces 
is almost identical with that of Germany. In the 17th and 
1 8th centuries the processes of scratching, engraving and etching 
were brought to great perfection. 

The earliest record of glass-making in the Low Countries 
consists in an account of payments made in 1453-1454 on behalf 
of Philip the Good of Burgundy to " Gossiun de Vieuglise, 
Maitre Vomer de Lille " for a glass fountain and four glass 
plateaus. Schuermans has traced Italian glass-workers to 
Antwerp, Liege, Brussels and Namur. Antwerp appears to 
have been the headquarters of the Muranese, and Liege the 
headquarters of the Altarists. Guicciardini in his description 
of the Netherlands, in 1563, mentions glass as among the chief 
articles of export to England. 

In 1599 the privilege of making " Voires de cristal a la faschon 
Venise, ,, was granted to Philippe de Gridolphi of Antwerp. 
In 1623 Anthony Miotti, a Muranese, addressed a petition to 
Philip IV. of Spain for permission to make glasses, vases and 
cups of fine crystal, equal to those of Venice, but to be sold at 
one- third less than Venetian glasses. In 1642 Jean Savonetti 
" gentilhomme Verrier de Murano " obtained a patent for 
making glass in Brussels. The Low Country glasses are closely 
copied from Venetian models, but generally are heavier and 
less elegant. Owing to the fashion of Dutch and Flemish painters 
introducing glass vases and drinking-glasses into their paintings 
of still life, interiors and scenes of conviviality, Holland and 
Belgium at the present day possess more accurate records of 
the products of their ancient glass factories than any other 
countries. 

Spain. — During the Roman occupation Pliny states that glass 
was made " per Hispanias " (Nat. Hist, xxxvi. 26. 66). Traces 
of Roman glass manufactories have been found in Valencia 
and Murcia, in the valleys which run down to the coast of Cata- 
lonia, and near the mouth of the Ebro. Little is known about 
the condition of glass-making in Spain between the Roman 
period and the 13th century. In the 13th century the craft of 
glass-making was practised by the Moors in Almeria, and was 
probably a survival from Roman times. The system of decorat- 
ing vases and vessels by means of strands of glass trailed upon 
the surface in knots, zigzags and trellis work, was adopted by 
the Moors and is characteristic of Roman craftsmanship. Glass- 
making was continued at Pinar de la Vidriera and at Al Castril 
de la Pena into the 17th century. The objects produced show 
no sign of Venetian influence, but are distinctly Oriental in form. 
Many of the vessels have four or as many as eight handles, and 
are decorated with serrated ornamentation, and with the trailed 
strands of glass already referred to. The glass is generally of a 
dark-green colour. 

Barcelona has a long record as a centre of the glass industry. 
In 1324 a municipal edict was issued forbidding the erection 
of glass-furnaces within the city. In 1455 the glass-makers of 
Barcelona were permitted to form a gild. Jeronimo Paulo, writing 
in 1 49 1, says that glass vessels of various sorts were sent thence 
to many places, and even to Rome. Marineus Siculus, writing 
early in the 16th century, says that the best glass was made at 
Barcelona; and Gaspar Baneiros, in his Chronographia, published 
in 1562, states that the glass made at Barcelona was almost 
equal to that of Venice and that large quantities were exported. 

The author of the Atlante espafiol, writing at the end of the 
1 8th century, says that excellent glass was still made at Barcelona 
on Venetian models. The Italian influence was strongly felt 
in Spain, but Spanish writers have given no precise information 
as to when it was introduced or whence it came. Schuermans 
has, however, discovered the names of more than twenty Italians 
who found their way into Spain, in some cases by way of Flanders, 



GLASS 



103 



either from Altare or from Venice. The Spanish glass-makers 
were very successful in imitating the Venetian style, and many 
specimens supposed to have originated from Murano are really 
Spanish. In addition to the works at Barcelona, the works 
which chiefly affected Venetian methods were those of Cadalso 
in the province of Toledo, founded in the 16th century, and the 
works established in 1680 at San Martin de Valdeiglesias in 
Avila. There were also works at Valdemaqueda and at Villa- 
franca. In 1680 the works in Barcelona, Valdemaqueda and 
Villafranca are named in a royal schedule giving the prices at 
which glass was to be sold in Madrid. In 1772 important glass 
works were established at Recuenco in the province of Cuenca, 
mainly to supply Madrid. The royal glass manufactory of La 
Granja de San Ildefonso was founded about 1725; in the first 
instance for the manufacture of mirror plates, but subsequently 
for the;production of vases and table-ware in the French style. 
The objects produced are mostly of white clear glass, cut, 
engraved and gilded. Engraved flowers, views and devices 
are often combined with decorative cutting. Don Sigismundo 
Brun is credited with the invention of permanent gilding fixed 
by heat. Spanish glass is well represented in the Victoria and 
Albert Museum. 

France. — Pliny states that glass was made in Gaul, and there 
is reason to believe that it was made in many parts of the country 
and on a considerable scale. There were glass-making districts 
both in Normandy and in Poitou. 

Little information can be gathered concerning the glass 
industry between the Roman period and the 14th century. 
It is recorded that in the 7th century the abbot of Wearmouth 
in England obtained artificers in glass from France; and there 
is a tradition that in the nth century glass-workers migrated 
from Normandy and Brittany and set up works at Altare near 
Genoa. 

In 1302 window glass, probably crown-glass, was made at 
Beza le For6t in the department of the Eure. In 1416 these 
works were in the hands of Robin and Leban Guichard, but 
passed subsequently to the Le Vaillants. 

In 1338 Humbert, the dauphin, granted a part of the forest 
of Chamborant to a glass-worker named Guionet on the condition 
that Guionet should supply him with vessels of glass. 

In 1466 the abbess of St Croix of Poitiers received a gross 
of glasses from the glass-works of La FerriSre, for the privilege 
of gathering fern for the manufacture of potash. 

In France, as in other countries, efforts were made to intro- 
duce Italian methods of glass-working. Schuermans in his 
researches discovered that during the 15th and 16th centuries 
many glass-workers left Altare and settled in France, — the 
Saroldi migrated to Poitou, the Ferri to Provence, the Massari to 
Lorraine and the Bormioli to Normandy. In 1551 Henry II. 
of France established at St Germain en Laye an Italian named 
Mutio; he was a native of Bologna, but of Altare origin. In 
1598 Henry IV. permitted two " gentil hommes verriers " from 
Mantua to settle at Rouen in order to make " verres de cristal, 
verres doree emaul et autres ouvrages qui se font en Venise." 

France assimilated the craft of glass-making, and her crafts- 
men acquired a wide reputation. Lorraine and Normandy 
appear to have been the most important centres. To Lorraine 
belong the well-known names Hennezel, de Thietry, du Thisac, 
de Houx; and to Normandy the names de Bongar, de Cacqueray 
le Vaillant and de Brossard. 

In the 17th century the manufacture of mirror glass became 
an important branch of the industry. In 1665 a manufactory 
was established in the Faubourg St Antoine in Paris, and another 
at Tour-la- Ville near Cherbourg. 

Louis Lucas de Nehou, who succeeded de Cacqueray at the 
works at Tour-la- Ville, moved in 1675 to the works in Paris. 
Here, in 1688, in conjunction with A. Thevart, he succeeded 
in perfecting the process of casting plate-glass. Mirror plates 
previous to the invention had been made from blown " sheet ff 
glass, and were consequently very limited in size. De Nehou's 
process of rolling molten glass poured on an iron table rendered 
the manufacture of very large plates possible. 



The Manufacture Royale des Glaces was removed in 1693 to 
the Chateau de St Gobain. 

In the 1 8th century the manufacture of vases de verre had 
become so neglected that the Academy of Sciences in 1759 
offered a prize for an essay on the means by which the industry 
might be revived (Labarte, Histoire des arts industriels) . 

The famous Baccarat works, for making crystal glass, were 
founded in 1818 by d'Artigues. 

English Glass. — The records of glass-making in England are 
exceedingly meagre. There is reason to believe that during the 
Roman occupation the craft was carried on in several parts of 
the country. Remains of a Roman glass manufactory of con- 
siderable extent were discovered near the Manchester Ship 
Canal at Warrington. Wherever the Romans settled glass 
vessels and fragments of glass have been found. There is no 
evidence to prove that the industry survived the withdrawal 
of the Roman garrison. 

It is probable that the glass drinking- vessels, which have been 
found in pre-Christian Anglo-Saxon tombs, were introduced 
from Germany. Some are elaborate in design and bear witness 
to advanced technique of Roman character. In 675 Benedict 
Biscop, abbot of Wearmouth, was obliged to obtain glass- workers 
from France, and in 758 Cuthbert, abbot of Jarrow, appealed 
to the bishop of Mainz to send him artisans to manufacture 
" windows and vessels of glass, because the English were ignorant 
and helpless." Except for the statement in Bede that the French 
artisans, sent by Benedict Biscop, taught their craft to the 
English, there is at present no evidence of glass having been made 
in England between the Roman period and the 13th century. 
In some deeds relating to the parish of Chiddingfold, in Surrey, 
of a date not later than 1230, a grant is recorded of twenty 
acres of land to Lawrence " vitrearius," and in another deed, 
of about 1280, the " ovenhusveld " is mentioned as a boundary. 
This field has been identified, and pieces of crucible and fragments 
of glass have been dug up. There is another deed, dated 1300, 
which mentions one William " le verir " of Chiddingfold. 

About 1350 considerable quantities of colourless flat glass 
were supplied by John Alemayn of Chiddingfold for glazing 
the windows in St George's chapel, Windsor, and in the chapel 
of St Stephen, Westminster. The name Alemayn (Aleman) 
suggests a foreign origin. In 1380 John Glasewryth, a Stafford- 
shire glass-worker, came to work at Shuerewode, Kirdford, 
and there made brode-glas and vessels for Joan, widow of 
John Shertere. 

There were two kinds of flat glass, known respectively as 
" brode-glas " and " Normandy " glass. The former was made, 
as described by Theophilus, from cylinders, which were split, 
reheated and flattened into square sheets. It was known as 
Lorraine glass, and subsequently as " German sheet " or sheet- 
glass. Normandy glass was made from glass circles or disks. 
When, in after years, the process was perfected, the glass was 
known as " crown " glass. In 1447 English flat glass is 
mentioned in the contract for the windows of the Beauchamp 
chapel at Warwick, but disparagingly, as the contractor binds 
himself not to use it. In i486, however, it is referred to in such 
a way as to suggest that it was superior to " Dutch, Venice or 
Normandy glass." The industry does not seem to have prospered, 
for when in 1567 an inquiry was made as to its condition, it was 
ascertained that only small rough goods were being made. 

In the 16th century the fashion for using glass vessels of 
ornamental character spread from Italy into France and England. 
Henry VEIL had a large collection of glass drinking-vessels 
chiefly of Venetian manufacture. The increasing demand for 
Venetian drinking-glasses suggested the possibility of making 
similar glass in England, and various attempts were made to 
introduce Venetian workmen and Venetian methods of manu- 
facture. In 1 550 eight Muranese glass-blowers were working in 
or near the Tower of London. They had left Murano owing to 
slackness of trade, but had been recalled, and appealed to the 
Council of Ten in Venice to be allowed to complete their contract 
in London. Seven of these glass-workers left London in the 
following year, but one, Josepho Casselari, remained and joined 



io4 



GLASS 



Thomas Cavato, a Dutchman. In 1574 Jacob Verzellini, a 
fugitive Venetian, residing in Antwerp, obtained a patent for 
making drinking-glasses in London " such as are made in 
Murano." He established works in Crutched Friars, and to him 
is probably due the introduction of the use of soda-ash, made 
from seaweed and seaside plants, in place of the crude potash 
made from fern and wood ashes. His manufactory was burnt 
down in 1575, but was rebuilt. He afterwards moved his works 
to Winchester House, Broad Street. There is a small goblet 
(PL I., fig. 8) in the British Museum which is attributed to 
Verzellini. It is Venetian in character, of a brownish tint, with 
two white enamel rings round the body. It is decorated with 
diamond or steel-point etching, and bears on one side the date 
1586, and on the opposite side the words " In God is al mi trust." 
Verzellini died in 1606 and was buried at Down in Kent. In 
1 592 the Broad Street works had been taken over by Jerome 
Bowes. They afterwards passed into the hands of Sir R. Mansel, 
and in 1618 James Howell, author of Epistolae Ho-elianae, was 
acting as steward. The works continued in operation until 1641. 
During excavations in Broad Street in 1874 many fragments 
of glass were found; amongst them were part of a wine-glass, 
a square scent-bottle and a wine-glass stem containing a spiral 
thread of white enamel. 

A greater and more lasting influence on English glass-making 
came from France and the Low Countries. In 1567 James 
Carre 1 of Antwerp stated that he had erected two glass-houses 
at " Fernefol " (Fernfold Wood in Sussex) for Normandy and 
Lorraine glass for windows, and had brought over workmen. 
From this period began the records in England of the great 
glass-making families of Hennezel, de Thietry, du Thisac and du 
Houx from Lorraine, and of de Bongar and de Cacqueray from 
Normandy. About this time glass-works were established at 
Ewhurst and Alford in Surrey, Loxwood, Kirdford, Wisborough 
and Petworth in Sussex, and Sevenoaks and Penshurst in Kent. 
Beginning in Sussex, Surrey and Kent, where wood for fuel 
was plentiful, the foreign glass-workers and their descendants 
migrated from place to place, always driven by the fuel-hunger 
of their furnaces. They gradually made their way into Hamp- 
shire, Wiltshire, Gloucestershire, Staffordshire, Northumberland, 
Scotland and Ireland. They can be traced by cullet heaps and 
broken-down furnaces, and by their names, often mutilated, 
recorded in parish registers. 

In 16 10 a patent was granted to Sir W. Slingsby for burning 
coal in furnaces, and coal appears to have been used in the 
Broad Street works. In 161 5 all patents for glass-making 
were revoked and a new patent issued for making glass with 
coal as fuel, in the names of Mansel, Zouch, Thelwall, Kellaway 
and Percival. To the last is credited the first introduction of 
covered crucibles to protect the molten glass from the products 
of burning coal. 

Simultaneously with the issue of this patent the use of wood 
for melting glass was prohibited, and it was made illegal to import 
glass from abroad. About 161 7 Sir R. Mansel, vice-admiral 
and treasurer of the navy, acquired the sole rights of making 
glass in England. These rights he retained for over thirty years. 

During the protectorate all patent rights virtually lapsed, 
and mirrors and drinking-glasses were once more imported from 
Venice. In 1663 the duke of Buckingham, although unable to 
obtain a renewal of the monopoly of glass-making, secured the 
prohibition of the importation of glass for mirrors, coach plates, 
spectacles, tubes and lenses, and contributed to the revival of 
the glass industry in all its branches. Evelyn notes in his 
Diary a visit in 1673 to the Italian glass-house at Greenwich, 
" where glass was blown of finer metal than that of Murano," and 
a visit in 1677 to the duke of Buckingham's glass-works, where 
they made huge " vases of mettal as cleare, ponderous and 
thick as chrystal; also looking-glasses far larger and better 
than any that came from Venice." 

Some light is thrown on the condition of the industry at the 
end of the 17th century by the Houghton letters on the improve- 
ment of trade and commerce, which appeared in 1696. A few 
of these letters deal with the glass trade, and in one a list is 



given of the glass-works then in operation. There were 88 glass 

factories in England which are thus classified: 

Bottles 39 

Looking-glass plates .... 2 
Crown and plate-glass .... 5 

Window glass 15 

Flint and ordinary glass ... 27 

88 
It is probable that the flint-glass of that date was very different 
from the flint-glass of to-day. The term flint-glass is now 
understood to mean a glass composed of the silicates of potash 
and lead. It is the most brilliant and the most colourless 
of all glasses, and was undoubtedly first perfected in England. 
Hartshorne has attributed its discovery to a London merchant 
named Tilson, who in 1663 obtained a patent for making 
" crystal glass." E. W. Hulme, however, who has carefully 
investigated the subject, is of opinion that flint-glass in its 
present form was introduced about 1730. The use of oxide of 
lead in glass-making was no new thing; it had been used, 
mainly as a flux, both by Romans and Venetians. The invention, 
if it may be regarded as one, consisted in eliminating lime from 
the glass mixture, substituting refined potash for soda, and using 
a very large proportion of lead oxide. It is probable that flint- 
glass was not invented, but gradually evolved, that potash-lead 
glasses were in use during the latter part of the 17th century, 
but that the mixture was not perfected until the middle of the 
following century. 

The 1 8th century saw a great development in all branches of 
glass-making. Collectors of glass are chiefly concerned with the 
drinking-glasses which were produced in great profusion and 
adapted for every description of beverage. The most noted 
are the glasses with stout cylindrical legs (Plate I. fig. 9), con- 
taining spiral threads of air, or of white or coloured enamel. 
To this type of glass belong many of the Jacobite glasses which 
commemorate the old or the young Pretender. 

In 1746 the industry was in a sufficiently prosperous condition 
to tempt the government to impose an excise duty. The report 
of the commission of excise, dealing with glass, published in 1835 
is curious and interesting reading. So burdensome was the duty 
and so vexatious were the restrictions that it is a matter for 
wonder that the industry survived. In this respect England 
was more fortunate than Ireland. Before 1825, when the excise 
duty was introduced into Ireland, there were flourishing glass- 
works in Belfast, Cork, Dublin and Waterford. By 1850 the 
Irish glass industry had been practically destroyed. Injurious 
as the excise duty undoubtedly was to the glass trade generally, 
and especially to the flint-glass industry, it is possible that it 
may have helped to develop the art of decorative glass-cutting. 
The duty on flint-glass was imposed on the molten glass in the 
crucibles and on the unfinished goods. The manufacturer had, 
therefore, a strong inducement to enhance by every means in his 
power the selling value of his glass after it had escaped the 
exciseman's clutches. He therefore employed the best available 
art and skill in improving the craft of glass-cutting. It is 
the development of this craft in connexion with the perfecting 
of flint-glass that makes the 18th century the most important 
period in the history of English glass-making. Glass-cutting 
was a craft imported from Germany, but the English material 
so greatly surpassed Bohemian glass in brilliance that the 
Bohemian cut-glass was eclipsed. Glass-cutting was carried on 
at works in Birmingham, Bristol, Belfast, Cork, Dublin, Glas- 
gow, London, Newcastle, Stourbridge, Whittington and Water- 
ford. The most important centres of the craft were London, 
Bristol, Birmingham and Waterford (see Plate I., fig. 10, for 
oval cut-glass Waterford bowl). The finest specimens of cut- 
glass belong to the period between 1780 and 18 10. Owing 
to the sacrifice of form to prismatic brilliance, cut-glass gradually 
lost its artistic value. Towards the middle of the 19th century 
it became the fashion to regard all cut-glass as barbarous, and 
services of even the best period were neglected and dispersed. 
At the present time scarcely anything is known about the 
origin of the few specimens of 18th-century English cut-glass 



GLASS, STAINED 



105 



which have been preserved in public collections. It is strange 
that so little interest has been taken in a craft in which for 
some thirty years England surpassed all competitors, creating 
a wave of fashion which influenced the glass industry throughout 
the whole of Europe. 

In the report of the Excise Commission a list is given of the 
glass manufactories which paid the excise* duty in 1833. There 
were 105 factories in England, 10 in Scotland and 10 in Ireland. 
In England the chief centres of the industry were Bristol, 
Birmingham, London, Manchester, Newcastle, Stourbridge 
and York. Plate-glass was made by Messrs Cookson of New- 
castle, and by the British Plate Glass Company of Ravenhead. 
Crown and German sheet-glass were made by Messrs Chance & 
Hartley of Birmingham. The London glass-works were those 
of Apsley Pellatt of Blackf riars, Christie of Stangate, and William 
Holmes of Whitefriars. In Scotland there were works in Glasgow, 
Leith and Portobello. In Ireland there were works in Belfast, 
Cork, Dublin and Waterford. The famous Waterford works 
were in the hands of Gatchell & Co. 

India. — Pliny states (Nat. Hist, xxxvi. 26. 66) that no glass 
was to be compared to the Indian, and gives as a reason that it 
was made from broken crystal; and in another passage (xii. 
19, 42) he says that the Troglodytes brought to Ocelis (Ghella 
near Bab-el- Mandeb) objects of glass. We have, however, 
very little knowledge of Indian glass of any considerable antiquity. 
A few small vessels have been found in the " topes," as in that 
at Manikiala in the Punjab, which probably dates from about 
the Christian era; but they exhibit no remarkable character, 
and fragments found at Brahmanabad are hardly distinguishable 
from Roman glass of the imperial period. The chronicle of the 
Sinhalese kings, the Mahavamsa, however, asserts that mirrors 
of glittering glass were carried in procession in 306 B.C., and beads 
like gems, and windows with ornaments like jewels, are also 
mentioned at about the same date. If there really was an 
important manufacture of glass in Ceylon at this early time, 
that island perhaps furnished the Indian glass of Pliny. In the 
later part of the 17th century some glass decorated with enamel 
was made at Delhi. A specimen is in the Indian section of the 
South Kensington Museum. Glass is made in several parts of 
India— as Patna and Mysore — by very simple and primitive 
methods, and the results are correspondingly defective. Black, 
green, red, blue and yellow glasses are made, which contain a 
large proportion of alkali and are readily fusible. The greater 
part is worked into bangles, but some small bottles are blown 
(Buchanan, Journey through Mysore, i. 147, iii. 369). 

Persia. — No very remarkable specimens of Persian glass are 
known in Europe, with the exception of some vessels of blue 
glass richly decorated with gold. These probably date from 
the 17th century, for Chardin tells us that the windows of the 
tomb of Shah Abbas II. (ob. 1666), at Kum, were " de cristal 
peint d'or et d'azur." At the present day bottles and drinking- 
vessels are made in Persia which in texture and quality differ 
little from ordinary Venetian glass of the 16th or 17th centuries, 
while in form they exactly resemble those which may be seen 
in the engravings in Chardin's Travels. 

China. — The history of the manufacture of glass in China is 
obscure, but the common opinion that it was learnt from 
the Europeans in the 17th century seems to be erroneous. A 
writer in the Mtmoires concernant les Chinois (ii. 46) states 
on the authority of the annals of the Han dynasty that the 
emperor Wu-ti (140 B.C.) had a manufactory of the kind of glass 
called " lieou-li " (probably a form of opaque glass), that in the 
beginning of the 3rd century of our era the emperor Tsaou-tsaou 
received from the West a considerable present of glasses of all 
colours, and that soon after a glass-maker came into the country 
who taught the art to the natives. 

The Wei dynasty, to which Tsaou-tsaou belonged, reigned in 
northern China, and at this day a considerable manufacture 
of glass is carried on at Po-shan-hien in Shantung, which it 
would seem has existed for a long period. The Rev. A. William- 
son (Journeys in North China, i. 131) says that the glass is 
extremely pure, and is made from the rocks in the neighbourhood. 



The rocks are probably of quartz, i.e. rock crystal, a correspond- 
ence with Pliny's statement respecting Indian glass which seems 
deserving of attention. 

Whether the making of glass in China was an original dis- 
covery of that ingenious people, or was derived via Ceylon from 
Egypt, cannot perhaps be now ascertained; the manufacture 
has, however, never greatly extended itself in China. The case 
has been the converse of that of the Romans; the latter had no- 
fine pottery, and therefore employed glass as the material for 
vessels of an ornamental kind, for table services and the like. 
The Chinese, on the contrary, having from an early period had 
excellent porcelain, have been careless about the manufacture of 
glass. A Chinese writer, however, mentions the manufacture 
of a huge vase in a.d. 627, and in 11 54 Edrisi (first climate, tenth 
section) mentions Chinese glass. A glass vase about a foot high 
is preserved at Nara in Japan, and is alleged to have been placed 
there in the 8th century. It seems probable that this is of 
Chinese manufacture. A writer in the Mtmoires concernant 
les Chinois (ii. 463 and 477), writing about 1770, says that 
there was then a glass-house at Peking, where every year a 
good number of vases were made, some requiring great labour 
because nothing was blown (rien n'est souffle), meaning no doubt 
that the ornamentation was produced not by blowing and mould- 
ing, but by cutting. This factory was, however, merely an 
appendage to the imperial magnificence. The earliest articles 
of Chinese glass the date of which has been ascertained, which 
have been noticed, are some bearing the name of the emperor 
Kienlung (1 735-1 795), one of which is in the Victoria and Albert 
Museum. 

In the manufacture of ornamental glass the leading idea 
in China seems to be the imitation of natural stones. The 
coloured glass is usually not of one bright colour throughout, 
but semi-transparent and marbled; the colours in many instances 
are singularly fine and harmonious. As in 1770, carving or cut- 
ting is the chief method by which ornament is produced, the 
vessels being blown very solid. ' l \ 

Bibliography. — Georg Agricola, De re metaUica (Basel, 1556); 
Percy Bate, English Table Glass (n.d.) ; G. Bontemps, Guide du verrier 
(Pans, 1868); Edward Dillon, Glass (London, 1907); C. C. Edgar, 
" Graeco-Egyptian Glass," Catalogue du MusSe du Caire (1905); 
Sir A. W. Franks, Guide to Glass Room in British Museum (1888) ; 
Rev. A. Hallen, " Glass- making in Sussex," Scottish Antiquary, 
No. 28 (1893); Albert Hartshorne, Old English Glasses (London); 
E. W. Hulme, " English Glass-making in XVI. andXVII. Centuries," 
The Antiquary, Nos. 59, 60, 63, 64, 65; Alexander Nesbitt, " Glass," 
Art Handbook, Victoria and Albert Museum; E. Peligot, Le Verre, 
son histoire, sa fabrication (Paris, 1878); Apsley Pellatt, Curiosities 
of Glass-making (London, 1840) ; F. Petrie, TeU-el-Amarna, Egypt 
Exploration Fund (1894); ,r Egypt," sect. Art; H. J. Powell, 
" Cut Glass," Journal Society of Arts, No. 2795; C. H. Read, " Sara- 
cenic Glass," Archaeotogia, vol. 58, part 1.; Juan F. Riano, 
"Spanish Arts," Art Handbook, Victoria and Albert Museum; 
H. Schuermans, " Muranese and Altarist Glass Workers," eleven 
letters: Bulletins des commissions royales (Brussels, 1883, 1891). 
For the United States, see vol. x. of Reports of the 12th Census, pp. 
949-1000, and Special Report of Census of Manufactures (1905), Part 
III., pp. 837-935. ..... .„ ... .. .v . „ (A. Ne.; H. J. P.) , 

GLASS, STAINED. All coloured glass is, strictly speaking, 
" stained " by some metallic oxide added to it in the process 
of manufacture. But the term " stained glass " is popularly, 
as well as technically, used in a more limited sense, and is under- 
stood to refer to stained glass windows. Still the words " stained 
glass " do not fully describe what is meant; for the glass in 
coloured windows is for the most part not only stained but 
painted. Such painting was, however, until comparatively 
modern times, used only to give details of drawing and to define 
form. The colour in a stained glass window was not painted 
on the glass but incorporated in it, mixed with it in the making — 
whence the term " pot-metal " by which self-coloured glass is 
known, i.e. glass coloured in the melting pot. 

A medieval window was consequently a patchwork of variously 
coloured pieces. And the earlier its date the more surely was 
it a mosaic, not in the form of tesserae, but in the manner 
known as " opus sectile." Shaped pieces of coloured glass were, 
that is to say, put together like the parts of a puzzle. The 

xn. 40 



io6 



GLASS, STAINED 



nearest approach to an exception to this rule is a fragment at 
the Victoria and Albert Museum, in which actual tesserae are 
fused together into a solid slab of many-coloured glass, in effect 
a window panel, through which the light shines with all the 
brilliancy of an Early Gothic window. But apart from the fact 
that the design proves in this case to be even more effective 
with the light upon it, the use of gold leaf in the tesserae con- 
firms the presumption that this work, which (supposing it to 
be genuine) would be Byzantine, centuries earlier than any 
coloured windows that we know of, and entirely different from 
them in technique, is rather a specimen of fused mosaic that 
happens to be translucent than part of a window designedly 
executed in tesserae. 

The Eastern (and possibly the earlier) practice was to set 
chips of coloured glass in a heavy fretwork of stone or to imbed 
them in plaster. In a medieval window they were held together 
by strips of lead, in section something like the letter n , the 
upright strokes of which represent the " tapes " extending on 
either side well over the edges of the glass, and the crossbar the 
connecting " core " between them. The leading was soldered 
together at the points of junction, cement or putty was rubbed 
into the crevices between glass and lead, and the window was 
attached (by means of copper wires soldered on to the leads) 
to iron saddle-bars let into the masonry. 

Stained glass was primarily the art of the glazier; but the 
painter, called in to help, asserted himself more and more, and 
eventually took it almost entirely into his own hands. Between 
the period when it was glazier's work eked out by painting 
and when it was painter's work with the aid of the glazier lies 
the entire development of stained and painted window-making. 
With the eventual endeavour of the glass painter to do without 
the glazier, and to get the colour by painting in translucent 
enamel upon colourless glass, we have the beginning of a form of 
art no longer monumental and comparatively trivial. 

This evolution of the painted window from a patchwork of 
little pieces of coloured glass explains itself when it is remembered 
that coloured glass was originally not made in the big sheets 
produced nowadays, but at first in jewels to look as much as 
possible like rubies, sapphires, emeralds and other precious 
stones, and afterwards in rounds and sheets of small dimensions. 
Though some of the earliest windows were in the form of pure 
glazing (" leaded-lights "), the addition of painting seems to have 
been customary from the very first. It was a means of render- 
ing detail not to be got in lead. Glazing affords by itself scope 
for beautiful pattern work; but the old glaziers never carried their 
art as far as they might have done in the direction of ornament; 
their aim was always in the direction of picture; the idea was to 
make windows serve the purpose of coloured story books. That 
was beyond the art of the glazier. It was easy enough to repre- 
sent the drapery of a saint by red glass, the ground on which he 
stood by green, the sky above by blue, his crown by yellow, 
the scroll in his hand by white, and his flesh by brownish pink; 
but when it came to showing the folds of red drapery, blades of 
green grass, details of goldsmith's work, lettering on the scroll, 
the features of the face — the only possible way of doing it was 
by painting. The use of paint was confined at first to an opaque 
brown, used, not as colour, but only as a means of stopping out 
light, and in that way defining comparatively delicate details 
within the lead lines. These themselves outlined and defined 
the main forms of the design. The pigment used by the glass 
painter was of course vitreous: it consisted of powdered glass 
and sundry metallic oxides (copper, iron, manganese, &c), 
so that, when the pieces of painted glass were made red hot in 
the kiln, the powdered glass became fused to the surface, and 
with it the dense colouring matter also. When the pieces of 
painted glass were afterwards glazed together and seen against 
the light, the design appeared in the brilliant colour of the glass, 
its forms drawn in the uniform black into which, at a little 
distance, leadwork and painting lines became merged. 

It needed solid painting to stop out the light entirely: thin 
paint only obscured it. And, even in early glass, thin paint was 
used, whether to subdue crude colour or to indicate what little 



shading a 13th-century draughtsman might desire. In the 
present state of old glass, the surface often quite disintegrated, 
it is difficult to determine to what extent thin paint was used for 
either purpose. There must always have been the temptation to 
make tint do instead of solid lines; but the more workmanlike 
practice, and the usual one, was to get difference of tint, as a 
pen-draughtsman does, by lines of solid opaque colour. In 
comparatively colourless glass (grisaille) the pattern was often 
made to stand out by cross-hatching the background; and 
another common practice was to coat the glass with paint all 
over, and scrape the design out of it. The effect of either 
proceeding was to lower the tone of the glass without dirtying 
the colour, as a smear of thin paint would do. 

Towards the 14th century, when Gothic design took a more 
naturalistic direction, the desire to get something like modelling 
made it necessary to carry painting farther, and they got rid 
to some extent of the ill effect of shading-colour smeared on the 
glass by stippling it. This not only softened the tint and allowed 
of gradation according to the amount of stippling, but let some 
light through, where the bristles of the stippling-tool took up 
the pigment. Shading of this kind enforced by touches of strong 
brushwork, cross-hatching and some scratching out of high 
lights was the method of glass painting adopted in the 14th 
century. 

Glass was never at the best a pleasant surface to paint on; 
and glass painting, following the line of least resistance, 
developed in the later Gothic and early Renaissance periods 
into something unlike any other form of painting. The outlines 
continued to be traced upon the glass and fixed in the fire; but, 
after that, the process of painting consisted mainly in the 
removal of paint. The entire surface of the glass was coated with 
an even " matt " of pale brown; this was allowed to dry; and 
then the high lights were rubbed off, and the modelling was got 
by scrubbing away the paint with a dry hog-hair brush, more 
or less, according to the gradations required. Perfect modelling 
was got by repeating the operation — how often depended upon 
the dexterity of the painter. A painter's method is partly the 
outcome of his individuality. One man would float on his colour 
and manipulate it to some extent in the moist state; another 
would work entirely upon the dry matt. Great use was made 
of the pointed stick with which sharp lines of light were easily 
scraped out; and in the 16th century Swiss glass painters, 
working upon a relatively small scale, got their modelling 
entirely with a needle-point, scraping away the paint just as an 
etcher scratches away the varnish from his etching plate. The 
practice of the two craftsmen is, indeed, identical, though the 
one scratches out what are to be black lines and the other lines 
Of light. In the end, then, though a painter would always use 
tnuches of the brush to jjet crisp lines of dark, the manipulation 
of glass painting consisted more in erasing lights than in painting 
shadows, more in rubbing out or scraping off paint than in putting 
it on in brush strokes. ^ 

So far there was no thought of getting colour by means of 
paint. The colour was in the glass itself, permeating the mass 
(" pot-metal "). There was only one exception to this — ruby* 
glass, the colour of which was so dense that red glass thick 
enough for its purpose would have been practically obscure; 
and so they made a colourless pot-metal coated on one side 
only with red glass. This led to a practice which forms an ex- 
ception to the rule that in "pot-metal" glass every change of 
colour, or from colour to white, is got by the use of a separate 
piece of glass. It was possible in the case of this " flashed " 
ruby to grind away portions of the surface and thus obtain 
white on red or red on white. Eventually they made coated 
glass of blue and other colours, with a view to producing similar 
effects by abrasion. (The same result is arrived at nowadays 
by means of etching. The skin of coloured glass, in old days 
laboriously ground or cut away, is now easily eaten off by fluoric 
acid.) One other exceptional expedient in colouring had very 
considerable effect upon the development of glass design from 
about the beginning of the 14th century. The discovery that 
a solution of silver applied to glass would under the action of the 



GLASS, STAINED 



107 



fire stain it yellow enabled the glass painter to get yellow upon 
colourless glass, green upon grey-blue, and (by staining only 
the abraded portions) yellow upon blue or ruby. This yellow was 
neither enamel nor pot-metal colour, but stain — the only staining 
actually done by the glass painter as distinct from the glass 
maker. It varied in colour from pale lemon to deep orange, and 
was singularly pure in quality. As what is called " white " 
glass became purer and was employed in greater quantities it 
was lavishly used; so much so that a brilliant effect of silvery 
white and golden yellow is characteristic of later Gothic 
windows. 

The last stage of glass painting was the employment of enamel 
not for stopping out light but to get colour. It began to be used 
in the early part of the 16th century — at first only in the form of a 
flesh tint; but it was not long before other colours were introduced. 
This use of colour no longer in the glass but upon it marks quite 
a new departure in technique. Enamel colour was finely powdered 
coloured glass mixed with gum or some such substance into a 
pigment which could be applied with a brush. When the glass 
painted with it was brought to a red heat in the oven, the powdered 
glass melted and was fused to it, just like the opaque brown 
employed from the very beginning of glass-painting. 

This process of enamelling was hardly called for in the interests 
of art. Even the red flesh-colour (borrowed from the Limoges 
enamellers upon copper) did not in the least give the quality of 
flesh, though it enabled the painter to suggest by contrast the 
whiteness of a man's beard. As for the brighter enamel colours, 
they had nothing like the depth or richness of "stained " glass. 
What enamel really did was to make easy much that had been 
impossible in mosaic, as, for example, to represent upon the 
very smallest shield of arms any number of " charges " all in 
the correct tinctures. It encouraged the minute workmanship 
characteristic of Swiss glass painting; and, though this was not 
altogether inappropriate to domestic window panes, the painter 
was tempted by it to depart from the simplicity and breadth of 
design inseparable from the earlier mosaic practice. In the end 
he introduced coloured glass only where he could hardly help it, 
and glazed the great part of his window in rectangular panes of 
clear glass, upon which he preferred to paint his picture in opaque 
brown and translucent enamel colours. 

Enamel upon glass has not stood the test of time. Its presence 
is usually to be detected in old windows by specks of light shining 
through the colour. This is where the enamel has crumbled off. 
There is a very good reason for that. Enamel must melt at a 
temperature at which the glass it is painted on keeps its shape. 
The lower the melting point of the powdered glass the more easily 
it is fused. The painter is consequently inclined to use enamel of 
which the contraction and expansion is much greater than that of 
his glass — with the result that, under the action of the weather, 
the colour is apt to work itself free and expose the bare white 
glass beneath. The only enamel which has held its own is that of 
the Swiss glass-painters of the 16th and 17th centuries. The 
domestic window panes they painted may not in all cases have 
been tried by the sudden changes of atmosphere to which church 
windows are subject; but credit must be given them for ex- 
ceptionally skilful and conscientious workmanship. 

The story of stained glass is bound up with the history of 
architecture, to which it was subsidiary, and of the church, 
which was its patron. Its only possible course of development 
was in the wake of church building. From its very inception it 
was Gothic and ecclesiastical. And, though it survived the 
upheaval of the Renaissance and was turned to civil and domestic 
use, it is to church windows that we must go to see what stained 
glass really was — or is; for time has been kind to it. The charm 
of medieval glass lies to a great extent in the material, and especi- 
ally in the inequality of it. Chemically impure and mechanic- 
ally imperfect, it was rarely crude in tint or even in texture. It 
shaded off from light to dark according to its thickness; it was 
speckled with air bubbles; it was streaked and clouded; and all 
these imperfections of manufacture went to perfection of colour. 
And ag6 has improved it: the want of homogeneousness in the 
material has led to the disintegration of its surface; soft particles 



in it have been dissolved away by the action of the weather, and 
the surface, pitted like an oyster-shell, refracts the light in a way 
which adds greatly to the effect; at the same time there is 
roothold for the lichen which (like the curtains of black cobwebs) 
veils and gives mystery to the colour. An appreciable part of the 
beauty of old glass is the result of age and accident. In that 
respect no new glass can compare with it. There is, however, no 
such thing as " the lost secret " of glass-making. It is no secret 
that age mellows. 

Stained and painted glass is commonly apportioned to its 
" period," Gothic or Renaissance, and further to the particular 
phase of the style to which it belongs. C. Winston, who was the 
first to inquire thoroughly into English glass, adopting T. 
Rickman's classification, divided Gothic windows into Early 
English (to c. 1280), Decorated (to c. 1380) and Perpendicular 
(to c. 1530). These dates will do. But the transition from one 
phase of design to another is never so sudden, nor so easily 
defined, as any table of dates would lead us to suppose. The old 
style lingered in one district long after the new fashion was 
flourishing in another. Besides, the English periods do not quite 
coincide with those of other countries. France, Germany and 
the Low Countries count for much in the history of stained glass; 
and in no two places was the pace of progress quite the same. 
There was, for example, scarcely any 13th-century Gothic in 
Germany, where the " geometric " style, equivalent to our 
Decorated, was preceded by the Romanesque period; in France 
the Flamboyant took the place of our Perpendicular; and in 
Italy Gothic never properly took root at all. All these con- 
sidered, a rather rough and ready division presents the least 
difficulty to the student of old glass; and it will be found con- 
venient to think of Gothic glass as (1) Early, (2) Middle and (3) 
Late, and of the subsequent windows as (1) Renaissance and (2) 
Late Renaissance. The three periods of Gothic correspond 
approximately to the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries. The 
limits of the two periods of the Renaissance are not so easily 
defined. In the first part of the 16th century (in Italy long 
before that) the Renaissance and Gothic periods overlapped; in 
the latter part of it, glass painting was already on the decline; 
and in the 17th and 18th centuries it sank to deeper depths of 
degradation. 

The likeness of early windows to translucent enamel (which is 
also glass) is obvious. The lines of lead glazing correspond 
absolutely to the " cloisons " of Byzantine goldsmith's work. 
Moreover, the extreme minuteness of the leading (not always 
either mechanically necessary or architecturally desirable) 
suggests that the starting point of all this gorgeous illumination 
was the idea of reproducing on a grandiose scale the jewelled 
effect produced in small by cloisonne enamellers. In other 
respects the earliest glass shows the influence of Byzantine 
tradition. It is mainly according to the more or less Byzantine 
character of its design and draughtsmanship that archaeologists 
ascribe certain remains of old glass to the 1 2th or the nth century. 
Apart from documentary or direct historic evidence, it is not 
possible to determine the precise date of any particular fragment. 
In the " restored " windows at St Denis there are remnants of 
glass belonging to the year 1 108. Elsewhere in France (Reims, 
Anger, Le Mans, Chartres, &c.) there is to be found very early 
glass, some of it probably not much later than the end of the 10th 
century, which is the date confidently ascribed to certain 
windows at St Remi (Reims) and at Tegernsee. The rarer the 
specimen the greater may be its technical and antiquarian 
interest. But, even if we could be quite sure of its date, there is 
not enough of this very early work, and it does not sufficiently 
distinguish itself from what followed, to count artistically for 
much. The glory of early glass belongs to the 13th century. 

The design of windows was influenced, of course, by the con- 
ditions of the workshop, by the nature of glass, the difficulty 
of shaping it, the way it could be painted, and the necessity 
of lead glazing. The place of glass in the scheme of church 
decoration led to a certain severity in the treatment of it. The 
growing desire to get more and more light into the churches, 
and the consequent manufacture of purer and more transparent 



io8 



GLASS, STAINED 



glass, affected the glazier's colour scheme. For all that, the 
fashion of a window was, mutatis mutandis , that of the painting, 
carving, embroidery, goldsmith's work, enamel and other crafts- 
manship of the period. The design of an ivory triptych is very 
much that of a three-light window. There is a little enamelled 
shrine of German workmanship in the Victoria and Albert 
Museum which might almost have been designed for glass; 
and the famous painted ceiling at Hildesheim is planned precisely 
on the lines of a medallion window of the 13th century. By that 
time glass had fallen into ways of its own, and there were already 
various types of design which we now recognize as characteristic 
of the first great period, in some respects the greatest of all. 

Pre-eminently typical of the first period is the " medallion 
window." Glaziers began by naively accepting the iron bars 
across the light as the basis of their composition, and planned 
a window as a series of panels, one above the other, between the 
horizontal crossbars and the upright lines of the border round it. 
The next step was to mitigate the extreme severity of this com- 
position by the introduction of a circular or other medallion 
within the square boundary lines. Eventually these were 
abandoned altogether, the iron bars were shaped according to 
the pattern, and there was evolved the " medallion window/' 
in which the main divisions of the design are emphasized by the 
strong bands of iron round them. Medallions were invariably 
devoted to picturing scenes from Bible history or from the lives 
of the saints, set forth in the simplest and most straightforward 
manner, the figures all on one plane, and as far as possible clear-cut 
against a sapphire-blue or ruby-red ground. Scenery was not so 
much depicted as suggested. An arch or two did duty for archi- 
tecture, any scrap of foliated ornament for landscape. Simplicity 
of silhouette was absolutely essential to the readableness of 
pictures on the small scale allowed by the medallion. As it is, 
they are so difficult to decipher, so confused and broken in effect, 
as to give rise (the radiating shape of " rose windows " aiding) 
to the misconception that the design of early glass is kaleido- 
scopic — which it is not. The intervals between subject medallions 
were filled in England (Canterbury) with scrollwork, in France 
(Chartres) more often with geometric diaper, in which last 
sometimes the red and blue merge into an unpleasant purple. 
Design on this small scale was obviously unsuited to distant 
windows. Clerestory lights were occupied by figures, sometimes 
on a gigantic scale, entirely occupying the window, except for 
the border and perhaps the slightest pretence of a niche. This 
arrangement lent itself to broad effects of colour. The drawing 
may be rude; at times the figures are grotesque; but the general 
impression is one of mysterious grandeur and solemnity. 

The depth and intensity of colour in the windows so far described 
comes chiefly from the quality of the glass, but partly also from 
the fact that very little white or pale-coloured glass was used. 
It was not the custom at this period to dilute the colour of a 
rich window with white. If light was wanted they worked in 
white, enlivened, it might be, by colour. Strictly speaking, 
13th-century glass was never colourless, but of a greenish tint, 
due to impurities in the sand, potash or other ingredients; it 
was of a horny consistency, too; but it is convenient to speak 
of all would-be-clear glass as " white." The greyish windows in 
which it prevails are technically described as " in grisaille." 
There are examples (Salisbury, Chalons, Bonlieu, Angers) of 
" plain glazing " in grisaille, in which the lead lines make very 
ingenious and beautiful pattern. In the more usual case of 
painted grisaille the lead lines still formed the groundwork of 
the design, though supplemented by foliated or other detail, 
boldly outlined in strong brown and emphasized by a background 
of cross-hatching. French grisaille was frequently all in white 
{Reims, St Jean-aux-Bois, Sens), English work was usually 
enlivened by bands and bosses of colour (Salisbury); but the 
general effect of the window was still grey and silvery, even 
though there might be distributed about it (the " five sisters," 
York minster) a fair amount of coloured glass. The use of grisaille 
is sufficiently accounted for by considerations of economy 
and the desire to get light; but it was also in some sort a protest 
(witness the Cistercian interdict of 1134) against undue indulgence 



in the luxury of colour. At this stage of its development it was 
confined strictly to patternwork; figure subjects were always 
in colour. For all that, some of the most restful and entirely 
satisfying work of the 13th century was in grisaille (Salisbury, 
Chartres, Reims, &c). 

The second or Middle period of Gothic glass marks a stage 
between the work of the Early Gothic artist who thought out his 
design as glazing, and that of the later draughtsman who con- 
ceived it as something to be painted. It represents to many the 
period of greatest interest — probably because of its departure 
from the severity of Early work. It was the period of more 
naturalistic design; and a touch of nature is more easily 
appreciated than architectural fitness. Middle Gothic glass, 
halting as it does between the relatively rude mosaic of early 
times and the painter-like accomplishment of fully-developed 
glass painting, has not the salient merits of either. In the matter 
of tone also it is intermediate between the deep, rich, sober 
harmonies of Early windows and the lighter, brighter, gayer 
colouring of later glass. Now for the first time grisaille ornament 
and coloured figurework were introduced into the same window. 
And this was done in a very judicious way, in alternate bands 
'of white and deep rich colour, binding together the long lights 
into which windows were by this time divided (chapter-house, 
York minster). A similar horizontal tendency of design is notice- 
able in windows in which the figures are enshrined under canopies, 
henceforth a feature in glass design. The pinnaclework falls 
into pronounced bands of brassy yellow between the tiers of 
figures (nave, York minster) and serves to correct the vertical 
lines of the masonry. Canopywork grew sometimes to such 
dimensions as quite to overpower the figure it was supposed 
to frame; but, then, the sense of scale was never a directing 
factor in Decorated design. A more interesting form of ornament 
is to be found in Germany, where it was a pleasing custom 
(Regensburg) to fill windows with conventional foliage without 
figurework. There is abundance of Middle Gothic glass in 
England (York, Wells, Ely, Oxford), but the best of it, such as 
the great East window at Gloucester cathedral, has features 
more characteristic of the 15th than of the 14th century. 

The keynote of Late Gothic glass is brilliancy. It had a silvery 
quality. The 15th century was the period of white glass, which 
approached at last to colourlessness, and was employed in great 
profusion. Canopywork, more universal than ever, was repre- 
sented almost entirely in white touched with yellow stain, but 
not in sufficient quantities to impair its silveriness. Whatever 
the banality of the idea of imitation stonework in glass, the 
effect of thus framing coloured pictures in delicate white is 
admirable: at last we have white and colour in perfect combina- 
tion. Fifteenth-century figurework contains usually a large 
proportion of white glass; flesh tint is represented by white; 
there is white hi the drapery; in short, there is always white 
enough in the figures to connect them with the canopywork and 
make the whole effect one. The preponderance of white will be 
better appreciated when it is stated that very often not a fifth 
or sixth part of the glass is coloured. It is no uncommon thing 
to find figures draped entirely in white with only a little colour 
in the background; and figurework all in grisaille upon a ground 
of white latticework is quite characteristic of Perpendicular 
glass. 

One of the most typical forms of Late English Gothic canopy 
is where (York minster) its slender pinnacles fill the upper part 
of the window, and its solid base frames a picture in small of 
some episode in the history of the personage depicted as large as 
life above. A much less satisfactory continental practice was 
to enrich only the lower half of the window with stained glass and 
to make shift above (Munich) with " roundels " of plain white 
glass, the German equivalent for diamond latticework. 

A sign of later times is the way pictures spread beyond the 
confines of a single light. This happened by degrees. . At first 
the connexion between the figures in separate window openings 
was only in idea, as when a central figure of the crucified Christ 
was flanked by the Virgin and St John in the side lights. Then 
the arms of the cross would be carried through, or as it were 



GLASS, STAINED 



Plate I. 




I. EARLY GLAZING. From S. Serge, Angers, Grisaille, with 
colour introduced in the small circles. 
II. AN EARLY BORDER. From S. Kunibert, Cologne. 
III. PORTION OF AN EARLY MEDALLION WINDOW. 
From Canterbury, showing the plan of the design and the 
ornamental details. 



IV. AN EARLY FIGUREJFROM LYONS. Showing the leading 
of the eyes, hair, nimbus, and drapery. 

V. DECORATED LIGHTS. From S. Urbain, Troyes, showing 
both the influence of the early period in the figures, and 
the beginning of the architectural canopy. 

VI. TYPICAL DECORATED CANOPY. From Exeter. 



Nos. I., II., III., IV., VI. are taken from illustrations in Lewis F. Day, Windows, by permission of B. T. Batsford. 



XII. xo8. 



Plate II. 



GLASS, STAINED 







'.«'<> 



I. A TYPICAL PERPENDICULAR CANOPY (from Lewis F. Day, Windows, by permission of B. T. Batsford). 
II. A WINDOW FROM AUCH. Illustrating the transition from Perpendicular to Renaissance. 

III. A SIXTEENTH-CENTURY JESSE WINDOW. From Beauvais (source as in Fig. I.). 

IV. PORTION OF A RENAISSANCE WINDOW. From Montmorency, showing the perfection of glass painting. 

From Lutien Magne, Oeuvre des Peintres Verriers Francais, by permission of Firrain-Didot et C*e. 



GLASS, STAINED 



109 



behind, the mullions. The expansion to a picture right across 
the window was only a question of time. Not that the artist 
ventured as yet to disregard the architectural setting of his 
picture — that happened later on — but that he often composed 
it with §uch cunning reference to intervening stonework that it 
did not interfere with it. It has been argued that each separate 
light of a window ought to be complete in itself. On the other 
hand it has proved possible to make due acknowledgment of 
architectural conditions without cramping design in that way. 
There can be no doubt as to the variety and breadth of treatment 
gained by accepting the whole window as field for a design. And, 
when a number of lights go to make a window, it is the window, 
and no separate part of it, which is the main consideration. 

By the end of the Gothic period, glass painters proceeded on 
an entirely different method from that of the 13 th century. 
The designer of early days began with glazing: he thought in 
mosaic and leadwork; the lines he first drew were the lines of 
glazing; painting was only a supplementary process, enabling 
him to get what lead lines would not give. The Late Gothic 
draughtsman began with the idea of painting; glazing was to him 
of secondary importance; he reached a stage (Creation window, 
Great Malvern) where it is clear that he first sketched out his 
design, and then bethought him how to glaze it in such wise that 
the leadwork (which once boldly outlined everything) should not 
interfere with the picture. The artful way in which he would 
introduce little bits of colour into a window almost entirely 
white, makes it certain that he had always at the back of his 
mind the consideration of the glazing to come. So long as he 
thought of that, and did not resent it, all was fairly well with 
glass painting, but there came a point where he found it difficult, 
if not impossible, to reconcile the extreme delicacy of his painting 
upon white glass with the comparatively brutal strength of 
his lead lines. It is here that the conditions of painting and 
glazing clash at last. 

It must not be supposed that Late Gothic windows were never 
by any chance rich in colour. Local conservatism and personal 
predilection prevented anything like monotonous progress in 
a single direction. There is (St Sebald, Nuremberg) Middle 
Gothic glass as dense in colour as any 13th-century work, and 
Late Gothic (Troyes cathedral) which, from its colour, one might 
take at first to be a century earlier than it is. In Italy (Florence) 
and to some extent in Spain (Seville) it was the custom to make 
canopywork so rich in colour that it was more like part of the 
picture than a frame to it. But that was by exception. The 
tendency was towards lighter windows. Glass itself was less 
deeply stained when painters depended more upon their power 
of deepening it by paint. It was the seeking after delicate 
effects of painting, quite as much as the desire to let light into 
the church, which determined the tone of later windows. The 
clearer the glass the more scope it gave for painting. 

It is convenient to draw a line between Gothic art and Renais- 
sance. Nothing is easier than to say that windows in which 
crocketed canopywork occurs are Gothic, and that those with 
arabesque are Renaissance. But that is an arbitrary distinction, 
which does not really distinguish. Some of the most beautiful 
work in glass, such for example as that at Auch, is so plainly 
intermediate between two styles that it is impossible to describe 
it as anything but " transitional." And, apart from particular 
instances, we have only to look at the best Late Gothic work to 
see that it is informed by the new spirit, and at fine Renaissance 
glass to observe how it conforms to Gothic traditions of workman- 
ship. The new idea gave a spurt to Gothic art; and it was 
Gothic impetus which carried Renaissance glass painting to the 
summit of accomplishment reached in the first hall of the 16th 
century. When that subsided, and the pictorial spirit of the age 
at last prevailed, the bright days of glass were at an end. If we 
have to refer to the early Renaissance as the culminating period 
of glass painting, it is because the technique of an earlier period 
found in it freer and fuller expression. With the Renaissance, 
design broke free from the restraints of tradition. 

An interesting development of Renaissance design was the 
framing of pictures in golden-yellow arabesque ornament, 



scarcely architectural enough to be called canopywork, and 
reminiscent rather of beaten goldsmith's work than of stone 
carving. This did for the glass picture what a gilt frame does for 
a painting in oil. Very of ten framework of any kind was dispensed 
with. The primitive idea of accepting bars and mullions as 
boundaries of design, and filling the compartments formed by 
them with a medley of little subjects, lingered on. The result 
was delightfully broken colour, but inevitable confusion; for 
iron and masonry do not effectively separate glass pictures. 
There was no longer in late glass any pretence of preserving the 
plane of the window. It was commonly designed to suggest that 
one saw out of it. Throughout the period of the Renaissance, 
architectural and landscape backgrounds play an important 
part in design. An extremely beautiful feature in early 16th- 
century French glass pictures (Rouen, &c.) is the little peep of 
distant country delicately painted upon the pale-blue glass which 
represents the sky. In larger work landscape and architecture 
were commonly painted upon white (King's College, Cambridge). 
The landscape effect was always happiest when one or other of 
these conventions was adopted. Canopywork never went quite 
out of fashion. For a long while the plan was still to frame 
coloured pictures in white. Theoretically this is no less effectually 
to be done by Italian than by Gothic shrinework. Practically the 
architectural setting assumed in the 16th century more and more 
the aspect of background to the figures, and, in order that it 
should take its place in the picture, they painted it so heavily that 
it no longer told as white. Already in van Orley's magnificent 
transept windows at St Gudule, Brussels, the great triumphal arch 
behind the kneeling donors and their patron saints (in kite glass 
donors take more and more the place of holy personages) tells 
dark against the clear ground. There came a time, towards the 
end of the century, when, as in the wonderful windows at Gouda, 
the very quality of white glass is lost in heavily painted shadow. 

The pictorial ambition of the glass painter, active from the 
first, was kept for centuries within the bounds of decoration. 
Medallion subjects were framed in ornament, standing figures in 
canopywork, and pictures were conceived with regard to the 
window and its place in architecture. Severity of treatment in 
design may have been due more to the limitations of technique 
than to restraint on the part of the painter. The point is that it 
led to unsurpassed results. It was by absolute reliance upon the 
depth and brilliancy of self-coloured glass that all the beautiful 
effects of early glass were obtained. We need not compare early 
mosaic with later painted glass; each was in its way admirable; 
but the early manner is the more peculiar to glass, if not the more 
proper to it. The ruder and more archaic design gives in fullest 
measure the glory of glass — for the loss of which no quality of 
painting ever got in glass quite makes amends. The pictorial 
effects compatible with glass design are those which go with pure, 
brilliant and translucent colour. The ideal of a " primitive " 
Italian painter was more or less to be realized in glass: that of a 
Dutch realist was not. It is astonishing what glass painters did 
in the way of light and shade. But the fact remains that heavy 
painting obscured the glass, that shadows rendered in opaque 
surface-colour lacked translucency, and that in seeking before all 
things the effects of shadow and relief, glass painters of the 17th 
century fell short of the qualities on the one hand of glass and on 
the other of painting. 

The course of glass painting was not so even as this general 
survey of its progress might seem to imply. It was quickened 
here, impeded there, by historic events. The art made a splendid 
start in France; but its development was stayed by the disasters 
of war, just when in England it was. thriving under the Planta- 
genets. It revived again under Francis I. In Germany it was 
with the prosperity of the free cities of the Empire that glass 
painting prospered. In the Netherlands it blossomed out under 
the favour of Charles V. In the Swiss Confederacy its direction 
was determined by civil and domestic instead of church patron- 
age. In most countries there were in different districts local 
schools of glass painting, each with some character of its own. To 
what extent design was affected by national temperament it is not 
easy to say. The marked divergence of the Flemish from the 



no 



GLASS, STAINED 



French treatment of glass in the 16th century is not entirely due 
to a preference on the one part for colour and on the other for 
light and shade, but is partly owing to the circumstance that, 
whilst in France design remained in the hands of craftsmen, 
whose trade was glass painting, in the Netherlands it was 
entrusted by the emperor to his court painter, who concerned 
himself as little as possible with a technique of which he knew 
nothing. If in France we come also upon the names of well- 
known artists, they seem, like Jean Cousin, to have been closely 
connected with glass painting: they designed so like glass 
painters that they might have begun their artistic career in the 
workshop. 

The attribution of fine windows to famous artists should not 
be too readily accepted; for, though it is a foible of modern 
times to father whatever is noteworthy upon some great name, 
the masterpieces of medieval art are due to unknown craftsmen. 
In Italy, where glass painting was not much practised, and it 
seems to have been the custom either to import glass painters as 
they were wanted or to get work done abroad, it may well be 
that designs were supplied by artists more or less distinguished. 
Ghiberti and Donatello may have had a hand in the cartoons for 
the windows of the Duomo at Florence; but it is not to any 
sculptor that we can give the entire credit of design so absolutely 
in the spirit of colour decoration. The employment of artists not 
connected with glass design would go far to explain the great 
difference of Italian glass from that of other countries. The 14th- 
century work at Assisi is more correctly described as " Trecento " 
than as Gothic, and the " Quattrocento " windows at Florence 
are as different as could be from Perpendicular work. One 
compares them instinctively with Italian paintings, not with 
glass elsewhere. And so with the 15th-century Italian glass. 
The superb 16th-century windows of William of Marseilles at 
Arezzo, in which painting is carried to the furthest point possible 
short of sacrificing the pure quality of glass, are more according 
to contemporary French technique. Both French and Italian 
influence may be traced in Spanish glass (Avila, Barcelona, 
Burgos, Granada, Leon, Seville, Toledo). Some of it is said to 
have been executed in France. If so it must have been done to 
Spanish order. The coarse effectiveness of the design, the 
strength of the colour, the general robustness of the art, are 
characteristically Spanish; and nowhere this side of the Pyrenees 
do we find detail on a scale so enormous. 

We have passed by, in following the progressive course of 
craftsmanship, some forms of design, peculiar to no one period 
but very characteristic of glass. The " quarry window," barely 
referred to, its diamond-shaped or oblong panes painted, richly 
bordered, relieved by bosses of coloured ornament often heraldic, 
is of constant occurrence. Entire windows, too, were from 
first to last given up to heraldry. The " Jesse window " occurs 
in every style. According to the fashion of the time the " Stem 
of Jesse " burst out into conventional foliage, vine branches 
or arbitrary scrollwork. It appealed to the designer by the 
scope it gave for freedom of design. He found vent, again, 
for fantastic imagination in the representation of the "Last 
Judgment," to which the west window was commonly devoted. 
And there are other schemes in which he delighted; but this 
is not the place to dwell upon them. 

The glass of the 17th century does not count for much. Some 
of the best in England is the work of the Dutch van Linge family 
(Wadham and Balliol Colleges, Oxford). What glass painting 
came to in the 18th century is nowhere better to be seen than in 
the great west window of the ante-chapel at New College, Oxford. 
That is all Sir Joshua Reynolds and the best china painter of 
his day could do between them. The very idea of employing a 
china painter shows how entirely the art of the glass painter 
had died out. 

It re-awoke in England with the Gothic revival of the 19th 
century; and the Gothic revival determined the direction 
modern glass should take. Early Victorian doings are interesting 
only as marking the steps of recovery (cf . the work of T. Willement 
in the choir of the Temple church; of Ward and Nixon, lately 
removed from the south transept of Westminster Abbey; of 



Wailes) . Better things begin with the windows at Westminster 
inspired by A. C. Pugin, who exercised considerable influence 
over his contemporaries. John Powell (Hardman & Co.) was 
an able artist content to walk, even after that master's death, 
reverently in his footsteps. Charles Winston, whose Hints 
on Glass Painting was the first real contribution towards the 
understanding of Gothic glass, and who, by the aid of the Powells 
(of Whitefriars) succeeded in getting something very like the 
texture and colour of old glass, was more learned in ancient 
ways of workmanship than appreciative of the art resulting 
from them. (He is responsible for the Munich glass in Glasgow 
cathedral.) So it was that, except for here and there a window 
entrusted by exception to W. Dyce, E. Poynter, D. G. Rossetti, 
Ford Madox Brown or E. Burne- Jones, glass, from the beginning 
of its recovery, fell into the hands of men with a strong bias 
towards archaeology. The architects foremost in the Gothic 
revival (W. Butterfield, Sir G. Scott, G. E. Street, &c.) were all 
inclined that way; and, as they had the placing of commissions 
for windows, they controlled the policy of glass painters. 
Designers were constrained to work in the pedantically archaeo- 
logical manner prescribed by architectural fashion. Unwillingly 
as it may have been, they made mock-medieval windows, the 
interest in which died with the popular illusion about a Gothic 
revival. But they knew their trade; and when an artist like 
John Clayton (master of a whole school of later glass painters) 
took a window in hand (St Augustine's, Kilburn; Truro cathedral; 
King's College Chapel, Cambridge) the result was a work of art 
from which, tradework as it may in a sense be, we may gather 
what such men might have done had they been left free to follow 
their own artistic impulse. It is necessary to refer to this because 
it is generally supposed that whatever is best in recent glass is 
due to the romantic movement. The charms of Burne- Jones's 
design and of William Morris's colour, place the windows done 
by them among the triumphs of modern decorative art; but 
Morris was neither foremost in the reaction, nor quite such a 
master of the material he was working in as he showed himself 
in less exacting crafts. Other artists to be mentioned in con- 
nexion with glass design are: Clement Heaton, Bayne, N. H. J. 
Westlake and Henry Holiday, not to speak of a younger genera- 
tion of able men. 

Foreign work shows, as compared with English, a less just 
appreciation of glass, though the foremost draughtsmen of 
their day were enlisted for its design. In Germany, King Louis 
of Bavaria employed P. von Cornelius and W. von Kaulbach 
(Aix-la-Chapelle, Cologne, Glasgow); in France the Bourbons 
employed J. A. D. Ingres, F. V. E. Delacroix, Vernet and J. H. 
Flandrin (Dreux); and the execution of their designs was 
entrusted to the most expert painters to be procured at Munich 
and SSvres; but all to little effect. They either used potmetal 
glass of poor quality, or relied upon enamel — with the result 
that their colour lacks the qualities of glass. Where it is not 
heavy with paint it is thin and crude. In Belgium happier 
results were obtained. In the chapel of the Holy Sacrament at 
Brussels there is one window by J. B. Capronnier not unworthy 
of the fine series by B. van Orley which it supplements. At the 
best, however, foreign artists failed to appreciate the quality 
of glass; they put better draughtsmanship into their windows 
than English designers of the mid- Victorian era, and painted 
them better; but they missed the glory of translucent colour. 

Modern facilities of manufacture make possible many things 
which were hitherto out of the question. Enamel colours are 
richer; their range is extended; and it may be possible, with 
the improved kilns and greater chemical knowledge we possess, 
to make them hold permanently fast. It was years ago demon- 
strated at Sevres how a picture may be painted in colours upon 
a sheet of plate-glass measuring 4 ft. by 2 J ft. We are now no 
doubt in a position to produce windows painted on much larger 
sheets. But the results achieved, technically wonderful as they 
are, hardly warrant the waste of time and labour upon work so 
costly, so fragile, so lacking in the qualities of a picture on the 
one hand and of glass on the other. 

In America, John la Farge, finding European material not 



GLASS, STAINED 



m 



-dense enough, produced potmetal more heavily charged with 
colour. This was wilfully streaked, mottled and quasi- 
accidentally varied; some of it was opalescent; much of it was 
more like agate or onyx than jewels. Other forms of American 
enterprise were : the making of glass in lumps, to be chipped 
into flakes; the ruckling it; 



restrained from self-expression. Moreover, the recognition of 
the artistic position of craftsmen in general makes it possible 
for a man to devote himself to glass without sinking to the rank 
of a mechanic; and artists begin to realize the scope glass offers 
them. What they lack as yet is experience in their craft, and 



cathedrals. 



the shaping it in a molten 
state, or the pulling it out of 
shape. It takes an artist of 
some reserve to make judicious 
use of glass like this. La Farge 
and L. C. Tiffany have turned it 
to beautiful account; but even 
they have put it to purposes 
more pictorial than it can 
properly fulfil. The design it 
calls for is a severely abstract 
form of ornament verging upon 
the barbaric. 

Of late years each country 
has been learning so much 
from the others that the 
newest effort is very much in 
one direction. It seems to be 
agreed that the art of the 
window-maker begins with 
glazing, that the all-needful 
thing is beautiful glass, that 
painting may be reduced to a 
minimum, and on occasion 
(thanks to new developments 
in the making of glass) dis- 
pensed with altogether. A 
tendency has developed itself 
in the direction not merely of 
mosaic, but of carrying the 
glazier's art farther than has 
been done before and render- 
ing landscapes and even figure 
subjects in unpainted glass. 
When, however, it comes to 
the representation of the 
human face, the limitations 
of simple lead-glazing are at 
once apparent. A possible 
way out of the difficulty was 
shown at the Paris Exhibition 
of 1900 by M. Tournel, who, 
by fusing together coloured 
tesserae on to larger pieces of 
colourless glass, anticipated the 
discovery of the already men- 
tioned fragment of Byzantine 
mosaic now in the Victoria 
and Albert Museum. He may 
have seen or heard of some- 
thing of the sort. There would 
be no advantage in building 
up whole windows in this 
way; but for the rendering of 
the flesh and sundry minute 
details in a window for the 
most part heavily leaded, this 
fusing together of tesserae, 
and even of little pieces of 

glass cut carefully to shape, seems to supply the want of some- 
thing more in keeping with severe mosaic glazing than painted 
flesh proves to be. 

Glass painters are allowed to-day a freer hand than formerly. 
They are no longer exclusively engaged upon ecclesiastical work; 
domestic glass is an important industry; and a workman once 
comparatively exempt from pedantic control is not so easily 



Examples of Important Historical Stained Glass. 

There are remains of the earliest known glass: in France— at Le Mans, Chartres, Chilons-sur-Marne. 
Angers and Poitiers cathedrals, the abbey church of St Denis and at St Remi, Reims: in England — at 
York minster (fragments): in Germany — at Augsburg and Strassburg cathedrals: in Austria — in the 
cloisters of Heiligen Kreuz. 

The following is a classified list of some of the most characteristic and important windows, omitting 
for the most part isolated examples, and giving by preference the names of churches where there is a fair 
amount of glass remaining ; the country in which at each period the art throve best is put first. 

Early Gothic 
England. 
Canterbury ) 
Salisbury Y cathedrals. 
Lincoln ) 
York minster. 



France. 
Chartres ■* 
Le Mans 
Bourges 
Reims 
Auxerre . 
Ste Chapelle, Paris. 
Church of St Jean-aux-Bois. 

England. 
York minster. 
Ely cathedral. 
Wells cathedral. 
Tewkesbury abbey. 



Italy. 
Church of St Francis, Assist. 
Church of Or San Michele, 

Florence. 
Church of S. Petronio, Bologna. 

England. 
New College, Oxford. 
Gloucester cathedral. 
York, minster and other churches. 
Great Malvern abbey. 
Church of St Mary, Shrewsbury. 
Fairf ord church. 



France, 

St Vincent ) 

St Patrice \ Rouen. 

St Godard ) 

Church of St Foy, Conches. 

Church of St Gervais, Paris. 

Church of St £tienne-du-Mont, 
Paris. 

Church of St Martin, Mont- 
morency. 

Church of Ecouen. 

Church of St fetienne, Beauvais. 

Church of St Nirier, Troyes. 

Church of Brou, Bourg-en- 

The Chateau de Chantilly. 

Netherlands. 
Groote Kirk, Gouda. 
Choir of Brussels cathedral. 
Antwerp cathedral. 



Germany. 
Church of St Kunibert, Cologne 

(Romanesque). 
Cologne cathedral. 



Middle Gothic 
Germany. 
Church of St Sebald, Nuremberg. 
Strassburg ^ 
Regensburg 

Augsburg I- cathedrals. 
Erfurt 
Freiburg J 
Church of Nieder Haslach. 



Late Gothic 
France. 

Bar \~*+*- 

Church of Notre Dame, Alencon. 

Italy. 
The Duomo, Florence. 

Transition Period 
The choir of the cathedral at Auch. 



Renaissance 
Netherlands. 
Brussels cathedral. 
Church of St Jacques 
Church of St Martin 
Cathedral 



France. 
£vreux cathedral. 
Church of St Pierre, Chartres. 
Cathedral and church of St 

Urbain, Troyes. 
Church of Ste Radegonde,Poitiers. 
Cathedral and church of St Ouen, 

Rouen. 

Spain. 
Toledo cathedral. 



Germany. 
- cathedrals. 



Cologne ) 

Ulm f< 

Munich ) 

Church of St Lorenz, Nuremberg. 



I Lii 



Liege. 



Spain. 
Toldeo cathedral. 



Switzerland. 
Lucerne and most of the. other 
principal museums. 



Granada 
Seville 



Spain. 
I cathedrals. 

England. 
College chapel, 



Cam- 



Italy. 

Certosa di Pavia. 
Church of S. Petronio, Bologna. 
Church of Sta Maria Novella, 
Florence. 

'Germany. 
Freiburg cathedral.. 

Late Renaissance 

France. 

Church of St Martin-te-Vignes, 

Troyes. 
Nave and transepts of Auch 
cathedral. 

Switzerland. 
Most museums. 

perhaps due workmanlike respect for traditional ways of work- 
manship. When the old methods come to be superseded 
it will be only by new ones evolved out of them. At present the 
conditions of glass painting remain very much what they were. 
The supreme beauty of glass is still in the purity, the brilliancy, 
the translucency of its colour. To make the most of this the 
designer must be master of his trade. The test of window design 



Kind's 
bridge. 

Lichfield cathedral. 

St George's church, Hanover 
Square, London. 

St Margaret's church, West- 
minster* 

England. 
Wadham) 

Balliol [ colleges, Oxford. 
New ) 



112 



GLASSBRENNER— GLASTONBURY 



is, now as ever, that it should have nothing to lose and everything 
to gain by execution in stained glass. 

Bibliography.— Theophilus, Arts of the Middle Ages (London, 
1847); Charles Winston, An Inquiry into the Difference of Style 
observable in Ancient Glass Painting, especially in England (Oxford, 
1847), and Memoirs illustrative of the Art of Glass Painting (London, 
1865); N. H. J. Westlake, A History of Design in Painted Glass 
U vols., London, 1881-1804); L. F. Day, Windows, A Book about 
Stained and Painted Glass (London, 1009), and Stained Glass (London, 
1003); A. W. Franks, A Book of Ornamental Glazing Quarries 
(London, i8ao); A Booke of Sundry Draughtes, principaly serving 
for Glasiers (London, 161 5, reproduced 1900); F. G. Joyce, The 
Fairford Windows (coloured plates) (London, 1870); Divers Works 
of Early Masters in Ecclesiastical Decoration, edited by John Weale 
(2 vols., London, 1846); Ferdinand de Lasteyrie, Histoire de la 
peinture sur verre d'apres ses monuments en France (2 vols., Paris, 
1852), and Ouelques mots sur la thtorie de la peinture sur verre (Paris, 
1853); L. Magne, (Euvre des j>eintres verriers frangais (2 vols., Paris, 
1885) ; Viollet le Due. " Vitrail," vol. ix. of the Dictionnaire raisonni 
de V architecture (Pans, 1868); O. Merson, " Les Vitraux," Biblio- 
theque de I'enseignement des beaux-arts