Skip to main content

Full text of "Encyclopaedia Britannica Dict.A.S.L.G.I.11thEd.Chisholm.1910-1911-1922.33vols."

See other formats

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at http : //books . google . com/| 













A. A. H AiTinm Anthony Macdoneix, M.A., Ph.D. f 

" ■ - - - .J 

Bodcn Professor of Sanskrit in the University of Oxford. Keeper of the Indian J tteMAmw* 
Institute. Fellow of Balliol College; Fellow of the British Academy. Author of | n " wra w ' 
A Vedk Grammar; A History of Sanskrit Literature; Vedic Mythology; &c I 

A. B. D. Rev. Andrew B. Davidson, D.D. f . . ,. .* 

See the biographical article: Davidson, A. B. \ *°* <** P **. 

A. C 8. Algernon Charles Swinburne. J v*.h t: n Aar {\ 

See the biographical article : Swinburne, A. C. I *^ v "^ '' 

A. D. Henry Austin Dobson, LL.D. f Rgnflnuum, Ancellea. 

Sec the biographical article: Dobson, H. Austin. \ ■^•■■""■•"■h ««•«•«•• 

A. B. 8. Arthur Everett Shipley, M.A., F.R.S., D.Sc. f 

Master of Christ's College, Cambridge. Reader in Zoology, Cambridge University. < Klnorhynehs. 
Joint-editor of the Cambridge Natural History. I 

A. F. P. Albert Frederick Pollard, M.A., F.R.Hist.Soc. 

Professor of English History in the University of London. Fellow of All Souls* 
College, Oxford. Assistant Editor of the Dkuonory of National Biography, 1893- 
fooi. Lothian PriumaA (Oxford), 1892; Arnold prizeman. 1898. Author of 
England under the Protector Somerset; Henry VIII.; Life of Thomas Cranmer; &c. 

Jewri, Join. 

Juvenile Offenders (in part). 

A. 0. Major Arthur George Frederick Griffiths (d. 1008). 

H.M. Inspector of Prisons, 187&-1896. Author of The Chronicles of Newgate;' 
Secrets of the Prison House; &c- 

A. Go.* Rev. Alexander Gordon, M.A. J Jork; 

Lecturer on Church History in the University of Manchester. \ KnippeidoOulCk. 

A. G. D. Arthur George Doughty, C.M.G., M.A., Litt.D., F.R.S. (Canada), F.R.Hisr.S. f 

Dominion Archivist of Canada. Member of the Geographical Board of Canada. J j i v <j e Lotblnlim. 
Author of The Cradle of New France; &c. Joint-editor of Documents relating to | v ** 

the Constitutional History of Canada. I 

A. H. 8. Rev. Archibald Henry Sayce, Litt.D.. LL.D. / Kissltas. 

See the biographical article: Sayce, A- H. I 

A. H.-S. Snt A. HoutumSchindlkr, CLE. /S nm; Kw ? i f ; 

General in the Persian Array. Author of Eastern Persian Irak. \ Khorasan; Kfshm. 

A. H. Sib. Arthur Hamilton Smith, M.A., F.S.A. f 

Keeper of the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities in the British Museum. J JewellT 
Member of the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Author of Catalogue ] '' 

of Creek Sculpture in the British Museum ; &c. I 

A.M.C. Acnes Mary Clbske. S v»*u* 

See the biographical article: Clerks, A. M. \ ****** 

A. ML Alfred Ogle Maskell, F.S.A. - f 

Superintendent of the Picture Galleries, Indian and Colonial Exhibition, 1887. J Ivory* 

Cantor Lecturer, 1906. Founder and first editor of the Downside Review. Author | 

of Ivories; &c I - 

Jablrn; Jtctmtr; Jacani; ' 

A. I. Alfred Newton, F.R.S. 

See the biographical article: Newton, ALFRED* 

A. T. L Alexander Taylor Innes, M.A., LL.D. . 

Scotch advocate. Author of John Knox; Law of Creeds in Scotland; Studies in • Knox, John. 
Scottish History; &c. 

1 A complete Hst, stowing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume. 

J - v 

Jackdaw; Jay; Kakapo; 
Kestrel; KUldeer; King- 
Bird; Kingfisher; Kinglet; 
[Kite; KM; Knot 


A. W. H.* Arthur William Holland. r 

Formerly Scholar of St John's College, Oxford Bacon Scholar of Gray's Inn, J Jacobite. 

A. W. W. Adolphcs William Ward, LL.D., D.Litt. f Wmimmmm , «^ 

See the biographical article : Ward, A. W. \ J0B »"» ■«• 

B. P. 8. B.-P. Major Badem F. S. Baden-Powell, F.R.A.S., F.R.Met.S. f 
Inventor of man-lifung kites. Formerly President of Aeronautical Society. Author < KHa-flying (in pari). 

B. W. B. Rev. Benjamin Wisner Bacon, A.M., D.D., Lrrr.D., LL.D. , lmwmmm Wmtm4Mm . 

Professor of New Testament Criticism and Exegesis in Yale University. Formerly J *»»•»#■*»«• ©R 
Director of American School of Archaeology, Jerusalem. Author of The Fourth 1 Jam, The General EpJgUB OL 
Gospel in Research and Debate; The Founding of the Church; &c 

of Ballooning as a Sport; War in Practice; &c 


CD. 0. Rev. Christian Davtd Ginsburg, LL.D. /_ ... ... , ^ 

See the biographical arrfcte: Ginsbvrc, C. 1% * \ KnbfcWl impart). 

C. EL Sir Charles Norton Edgcumbe Eliot, K.C.M.O., C.B., M.A., LL.D., D.C.L. r 

Vice-Chancellor of Sheffield University. Formerly Fellow of Trinity College. Kashgar (in pari); 
Oxford. H.M.'s Commissioner and Commander-in-Chief for the British East < Khazaji (in parti * 
Africa Protectorate; Agent and Consul-Ceneral at Zanzibar; Consul-Genera! for ichiv* lit *^ r t\ ' 
German East Africa, 1900-1904. I IOl,v * ** **">' 

C.E.D.B. C. E. D. Black. J_ . ,. 

Formerly Clerk for Geographical Records, India Office, London. 1. wBgtr (|» part). 

C. H. Ha. Carlton Huntley Hayes, A.M.j Pb.D. f 

Assistant Professor of History tn Columbia University, New York City, Member -J John XXL: JoUnj H. 
of the American Historical Association. ^ 

C. H. T.* Crawford Howell Toy. / ,_ h ,. AjtmA 

See the biographical article: Toy, Crawford Howell, \ * ou * m ***'• 

C. J. J. Charles Jasper Joly, F.R.S., F.R.A.S. (1864^1006). f 

Royal Astronomer of Ireland, and Andrews Professor of Astronomy in the Uai- J *■+**&****** 
. vcrsity of Dublin, 1897-1906. Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin. Secretary of the 1 "■W'WW- 
Royal Irish Academy. I 

C. J. L. Sir Charles Tames Lyall, K.C.S.I., CLE., LL.D. (Ediii.). f 

Secretary, judicial and Public Department. India Office. Fellow of King's CoHege, j 
London. Secretary to Government of India in Home Department, 1889-1894. i Ktbtr* 
Chief Commissioner, Central Provinces, India, 1895-1898. Author of Translations 
of Ancient Arabic Poetry; &c L 

C. L. K. Charles Lethdridge Kingsford, M.A., F.R.Hist.Soc., F.S.A. f „ 

Assistant Secretary to the Board of Education. Author of Life of Henry V. Editor \ Kempt. 
of Chronicles of London* and Stow's Survey of London, [ 

C. Ml. Chedomille Mijatovich. r 

Senator of the Kingdom of Servia. Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleni- I KMtftorg*; 
potentiary of the King of Servia to the Court of St James's, 1895-1900, and 190a- 1 Kamjfeh. 
1903. I 

C. M. W. Sir Charles Moore Watson, K.C.M.G., C.B. r 

Colonel, Royal Engineers. Deputy- Inspector-General of Fortifications, 1896-1903. J JerosaJam (in part). 
Served under General Gordon in the Sudan, 1874-1875. [ 

C. R. B. Charles Raymono Beazley, M.A., D.Litt., F.R.G.Sj, F.R.Hist.S. 

Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow I 

of Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography. < JonUnuj. 

Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1889. Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author of 
Henry the Navigator; The Down of Modern Geography; 8tc 

C. S. C Caspar Stanley Clark. / g^, (i ^*fl 

Assisunt in Indian Section, Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington. \ ***** vn» |w#/. 

C. Wo. Cecil Weatherly. / . 

Formerly Scholar of Queen's College. Oxford. Bamster-at-Law, Inner Temple. "j Knlgniliooo: Uraers of. 

C W. W. Sir Charles William Wilson, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S. (1816-1907). 

Major-Gcneral, Royal Engineers. Secretary to the North American Boundary ■u—.e-um r;« hnrtX- 
Commission, 1858-1862. British Commissioner on the Servian Boundary Com- v"|~.. \inman), 
mission. Director-General of the Ordnance Survey, 1886-1894. Director-General ") Jordan (w part); 
of Military Education, 1895-1898. Author of From Korti to Khartoum; Life of Kurdfsttn (in part). 
Lord Cthe; Ac [ 

D. 0. H. Davtd George Hogarth, M.A. 

Keeper of the Ashmolcan Museum, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. 
Fellow of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphot, 1888; Naucratis, 1899 
and 1903; Ephesus, 1904-1905; Assiut. 1906-1907. Director, British School at 
Athens, 1897-1900. Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899. 

D. H. David Hannay. f J™?* J 1 "** 

Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of the Royal < Keith, Viscount; 
Navy, 1 31 f- 1688; Life of Bmilio Castelar;Ac. I KeppeL VfcooanL 

E.B Edward Breck, M. A.. Ph.D. r ._, ,. A _ 

Formerly Foreign Correspondent of the New Yorh Herald and the New Yarh Times. \ Klte-fljlnf (m part). 
Author of Fencing; Wilderness Pets; Sporting in Nova Scotia; &c [ 

Jebell; Jordan (in part); 
KhariRt; JConia. 



1. Br. Ernest Barker, M.A. f 

Fellow and Lecturer in Modern History, Sc John's College, Oxford. Formerly -j Jordan** (in part). 
Fellow and Tutor of Merton College. Craven Scholar, 1893. I 

I. F.I. Edward Fairbrother Strange, (town: Art (in tart) 

Assistant Keeper, Victoria and Albert Museum. South Kensington. Member of VJZ?' £"1/ F ' 
Council, Japan Society. Author of numerous works on art subjects; Joint-editor ' „""». ~?. 1 
of Bell'* " Cathedral ' f Series. [ Kyostl, Sho-Fu. 

1. 0. Edmund Gosse, LL.D. / Jaeobsen, Jens Peter; 

See the biographical article: Goes*, Edmund. \ KaJewala; Kyd, Thomas. 

B. Gr. Ernest Arthur Gardner, M.A. f !««*. 

See the biographical article: Gardner, Percy. \ ^^ 

I. He. Edward Heawood, MX fKenva* 

Gonville and Caiua College, Cambridge. Librarian of the Royal Geographical i £„£-.««..- 
Society, London. ^ Kllimanjaio. 

I. H. B. Six Edward Herbert Bunbury, Bart., M.A., F.R.G.S. (d. 1805). . 

M.P. for Bury St Edmunds, 1847-1852. Author of A History of Ancient Geography ; *| Italy: Geography [in parti. 


B. H. H. Ems Hovell Minns, M.A. f i vnAtl . 

University Lecturer in Palaeography, Cambridge. Lecturer and Assistant Librarian i «-SI™l— 
at Pembroke College, Cambridge. Formerly Fellow of Pembroke College. L £asnuoas. 

U H. Eduard Meyer, Ph.D., D.Litt. (Oxon.). LL.D. f 

Professor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. Author of Geschichte des \ Kavadh. 
A tier tk tons; Geschichte des alien Aegyptens; Dte JeraeHten und ihre Nachbarstantme. I 

E 0.* Edmund Owen, MB., F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.Sc. f 

" - * ~ i!,I 

Consulting Surgeon to St Mary's Hospital, London, and to the Children's Hospital, J Joints: Diseases and Injuries; 
Great Ormond Street; late Examiner in Surgery in the Universities of Cambridge, | Kldnev Disaasaa (in hnrt\ 
Durham and London. Author of A Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students. I ***™J yBHW vm J "'' 

Rev. Etheireo Luke Taunton (d. 1007). f m mmmUm ,. . * 

Author of The English Block Monks of St Benedict; History of the Jesuits in England. \ J*™ V*» part). 

F. By. Captajn Frank Brinkley, R.A- .,..„.. „ ...— -. f 

Foreign Adviser to Nippon Yusen Kaisha. Tokyo. Correspondent of The Times 

in Japan. Editor of the Japan Mail. Formerly Professor of Mathematics at ] — *— ■ 

Imperial Engineering College, Tokyo. Author of Japan ; &c [ 

F. C C Frederick Cornwallis Conybeare, M.A.. D.Th. (Giessen). r 

Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. 4 Jfcooblte Church. 
Author of The Ancient Armenian Texts of Aristotle; Myth, Magic and Morals; &c. [ 

F. G. M. B. Frederick George Meeson Beck, M.A. f 

Fellow and Lecturer in Classics, Clare College, Cambridge. | Kent, Kingdom Of. 

F. 0. F. Frederick Gymee Parsons, F.R.C.S., F.Z.S., F.R.Anthrop.Tnst. r 

Vice-President, Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Lecturer on! i„t«*«. j mMtMm .„ 
Anatomy at St Thomas's Hospital and the London School of Medicine for Women. 1 JotttI - Anatomy. 
Formerly Hunterian Professor at the Royal College of Surgeons. I 

F.LL Lady Lugaro. / Kant; 

See the biographical article: Lucard, Sir F. J. D. \ tr^g wm, 

F. LL 0. Francis Llewellyn Griffith, M.A., Ph.D. (Leipzig), F.S.A. r 

Reader in Egyptology. Oxford University. Editor of die Archaeological Survey J VaMtAV 
and Archaeological Reports of the Egypt Exploration Fund. Fellow of Imperial 1 A** 11 *** 
German Archaeological Institute. { 

F. B. C. Frank R. Cana. 

Author of So* 

ft. Sy. Friedrich Schwally. 

Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union. JKharga. 

mprfv JJCHWALLY f 

Professor of Semitic Philology in the University of Giessen. j Koran (in pari). 

F. 8. P. Francis Samuel Phtlbrick, A.M., Ph.D. r 

Formerly Teaching Fellow of Nebraska State University, and Scholar and Fellow J Jefferson. Thomas, 
of Harvard University. Member of American Historical Association. [ 

F.f.H. Baron Friedricb von Hugel. r*Afi. tl* jw» 

Member of Cambridge Philological Society; Member of Hellenic Society. Author I J ™' J** **?~5 
of The Mystical Element of Religion; &c | John, Gospel of St. 

F. W. B. # Frederick William Rudler, I.S.O., F.G.S. r 

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1879-1902. J 
President of the Geologists* Association, 1887-1889. | 

0. A. Gt George Abraham Grierson, CLE., Ph.D., D.Litt. 

Member of the Indian Civil Service, 1873-1003. In charge of the Linguistic Survey 
of India. 1808-1902. Gold Medallist, Royal Asiatic Society, 1909. Vice-President 
of the Royal Asiatic Society. Formerly Fellow of Calcutta University. Author of 
The Languages of India; Ac. 

0. st Rev. George Edmundson, M.A., F.R.Hist.S. 

Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Brasenose College, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer. 1909. 
Hon. Member, Dutch Historical Society, and Foreign Member, Netherlands Associa- 
tion of Literature. 

0. F.B6. Rev. George Foot Moore. /jehoiik. 

See the biographical article : Moore, George Foot. \ 



G. G. Co. George Gordon Coulton, M.A. f 

Btrkbeek Lecturer in Ecclesiastical History, Trinity College, Cambridge. Author of \ Knighthood and Chivalry. 
Medieval Studies; Chaucer and his England; From Si Francis to Dante i &c I 

G. H. Bo, Rev. George Herbert Box, M.A. f j onn the RantM- 

Rector of Sutton Sandy, Beds. Formerly Hebrew "Master. Merchant Taylors' J i^J/rv-I^r , a 

School, London. Lecturer in Faculty of Theology, University of Oxford, 190a- ] I ?** f™ r«teaie«0; 
1909- Author of Translation of Book of Isaiah ; &c. ,[ JnbUe* Year Ol (»n porQ 

G. K. Gustav Kruoer. f 

Professor of Church History in the University of Giessen. Author of Das Papsttum ; -j Justin Martyr. 

G. ML Rev. George Milugan, D.D. ( ]Mmtm ,«_ r#rf/f- _A. 

Professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticism in the University of Glasgow. Author \ «~T^ , !L* wk,wcw '» 
of The Theology of the Eptstle to the Hebrews; Lectures from the Creek Papyri; &c. I Jttwt ttaanot. 

G. 8a. Georce Saintsbury, LL.D., D.C.L. S i«t*«ttu, 

See the biographical article: SainTSBURT, G. E. B. *£ JOinvuje. 

G. S. L. George Somes Layard. / v — - n..^. e 

Barrister-atLaw, Inner Temple. Author of Charles Keene; Shirley Brooks; Sec \ *****' *■■»■ ■• 

G. 8. R. Sir George Scott Robertson, K.C.S.I., D.C.L., M.P. 

Formerly British Agent in Gikjit. Author of The Kafirs of the Hindu Kush;-\ Kafltfclfn- 
ChitroJ: the Story of a Minor Siege. M.P. Central Division, Bradford. 






H. W. C. D. 




G. W. T. Rev. Grifpithes Wheeler Thatcher, M.A./B.D. 

Warden of Camden College. Sydney. N.S.W. Formerly Tutor in Hebrew and Old 
Testament History at Mansfield College, Oxford. 


Jarir Rm Atfyya ul-Khatfl; 
Janharl; Jawillql; Jurjani, 
Kham Ibn Ahmad; Khansft; 
Kndl; Kumalt Ion ZafcL 

H. A. W. Hugh Alexander Webster. f 

Formerly Librarian of University of Edinburgh. Editor of the Scottish Geographical \ Java (in part). 
Magazine* i. 

H. Ch. Hugh Chisholm, M.A. f 

Formerly Scholar of Corpus Christ! College, Oxford. Editor of the nth edition -j Joan o! Arc (in pari), 
of the Encyclopaedia Britannica; Co-editor of the 10th edition. {, 

H. CL Sir Hugh Charles Clifford, K.C.M.G. 

Colonial Secretary, Ceylon. Fellow of the Royal Colonial Institute* Formerly 
Resident, Pahang. Colonial Secretary, Trinidad and Tobago, 1903-1907. Author •{ Johor. 
of Studies in Brown Humanity; Further India; &c. Joint -author of A Dictionary 
of the Malay Language. 

H. C H. Horace Carter Hovey, A.M., D.D. 

Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Geological 

Society of America, National Geographic Society and Socicte de Speleologie (France). , Jtoobs CavefD. 

Author of Celebrated American Caverns; Handbook of Mammoth Cave of Kentucky 


Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson, Bart. f tn^i.*.- >• j, ^ 

See the biographical article: Rawlinson, Sir H. C. \ K 1 ™"* 11 t*» P***)* 

Hippolyte Delehaye, S.T. r januarlQS. it: 

Assistant in the compilation of the Bollandist publications: Anakcta BollandtanaJ V iti. n c? 
and Acta sanctorum. ^KJlian, St 

Hector Munro Chadwick, M.A. r 

Librarian and Fellow of Clare College, Cambridge. Reader in Scandinavian, J Jolos. 
Cambridge University. Author of Studies on Anglo-Saxon Institutions, \ 

Hugh Munro Ross. f 

Formerly Exhibitioner of Lincoln College, Oxford. Editor of The Tims* Engineering \ Kelvin, Lord (til port). 
Supplement. Author of British Railways. [ 

Herbert M. Vaughan, F.S.A. f James: the Pretender: 

Kcble College, Oxford. Author of The Last of the Royal Stuarts; The Medici < K in*»« Evil 
Popes; The Last Stuart Queen. ^lUnfffiVU. 

Henry William Carless Davis. M.A. r John. Kin* of 1 

Fellow and Tutor of Batliol College, Oxford. Fellow o* All Souls* College, Oxford, < .-u- « H#xh*m. 
1895-1902. Author of England under the Normans and Angevins; Charlemagne. [ mwu w «w»n«u»» 

WiotHAic Steed. fw.i« »• , /i?\ 

Correspondent of The Times at Vienna, Correspondent of The Times at Rome, -j WJT! atstory \p.h 
i897-i9oa I 

Sir Henry Yule, K.C.S.I., C.B. 

See the biographical article: Yule, Sta Henry. 

L A. Israel Abrahams, M.A. 

Reader in Tatmodic and Rabbinic Literature in the University of Cambridge. 
Formerly President, Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A Short 
History of Jewish Literature; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages; Judaism; <Stc. 

Kublai Khan. 

Jacob ben Asher; 


Jews: Dispersion to Modern 


Johanan Ben Zaceia; 
Josipaon; Kalisch, Haxaua; 



J.A.B. . 

J. Br. 


J. Q. St. 




J. BLR. 


I. It. 


Isabella L. Bishop. 

See the biographical article: Bisbof, Isabella. 

urn of Practical Geology, London. Author of 

son, D.D. 

le British Academy. Hon. Fellow of Christ's 

rofeisor of Divinity in the Univeafcy. Author 


John Addinoton Symonds, LL.D. 

See the biographical article. Symonds, Jobs Akhnotoh. 

Right Hon. James Biyce, D.C.L., D.Lrrr. 
See the biographical article: Brycb, James. 

James Baxtlett. 

Lecturer on Construction, Architecture. Sanitation. Quantities, 4c. at King's 
College, London. Member of Society of Architects. Member of Institute of Junior 

Joseph Beavincton Atiinson. 

Formerly art-critic of the Saturday Renew. Author of 4» 4rf 7V«r in the Northern 
Capitals of Europe-, Schools of Modern Art in Germany. 

James Ftkmaurice-Kelly, Lrrr D., F R.Hist.S. 

Gilmour Professor of Spanish Language and Literature, Liverpool University. 

Norman McColf Lecturer, Cambridge University. Fellow of the British Academy. 

Member of the Royal Spanish Academy. Knight Commander of the Order of 

AlpbonsoXII. Author of A History of Spanish Literature; Soc, 
Jqhn George Cum Anderson, M.A. 

Censor and Tutor of Christ Church. Oxford. Formerly Fellow of Lincoln College; 

Craven Fellow, Oxford, 1896. Coniflgton Prizeman, 1893. 

Snt James George Scott. K.C.I.E. 

Superintendent and Political Officer, Southern Shan States. Author of Burma, 
The Upper Burma Gautteer. 

Justus Hashagen, Ph.D. ^ m . 

Privatdozent in Medieval and Modern History, University of Bona. Author of 
Das Rheinland uuter die franwbsische HerrschafU 

John Henry Arthur Hart, M.A. 

Fellow, Theological Lecturer and librarian, St John's College, Cambridge. 

John Henry Fkebse, M.A. 

Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge, 

John Horace Round, M.A.. LL.D. (Edin.). ........ 

Author of Feudal England; Studies in Peer** mid Family Hutory; Peerage and 

John Holland Rose, M.A., Lrrr.D. 

Lecturer on Modem History to the Cambridge Ui 
Author of Life of Napoleon /. ; Napoleonic Studies; The 
Nations; The Life of PUt;** 

Joseph Jacobs. Litt.D. 

Professor of English Literature in the Jewish Theological Semii 

Local Lectures Syndicate. 
of the European 

Professor of English Literature in the Jewish Theological Seminary, New York. 
Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England. G>rre#ponding 
Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid. Author of Jews of Angevin 
England; Studies in Biblical Archaeology; &c 

Rev. John James Lias, M.A. ,.*.., 

Chancellor of Llandaff Cathedral. Formerly HukjatA Lecturer in Divinity and 
Lady Margaret Preacher, University of Cambridge. 

James MorrATT, M.A., D.D. ,„..,„ ^ . ^ 

Jowett Lecturer, London, 1907. Author of Htstoftcal New Testament; Ac 

John Neville Keynes. M.A., D.Sc. 

Registrary of the University of Cambridge. University Lecturer in Moral Science. 
Secretary to the Local Examinations and Lecture* Syndicate. Formerly Fellow 
of Pembroke College. Author of Studies and Exercises t» Formal Logic; 4c. 

John Pctcjval Postgate, M.A., Litt.D. 

Professor of Latin in the University of Liverpool. Fellow of Trarity College, 
Cambridge. Fellow of tbe British Academy. Editor of the Classical Quarterly. 
Editor-in-Chief of the Corpus Poetarum Latemwum; Ac. 

Rav. John Punnett Peters, Ph.D., D.D. ... 

Canon Residentiary, P.E. Cathedral of New York. Formerly Professor of Hebrew in 
the University of Pennsylvania. Director of the University Expedition to Baby- 
lonia. 18S8-1895. Author of Nippur, or Explorations and Adoenlures on the 

Korea (in pari). 

Joints (Geology); 
Jurassic; Keupar; 

Italy: History (C). 


Juan Kennel, Dob. 


Karen-Hl; KengTlftg\ 

John, King of Saxony. 

Jews: Greek Domination. 

(in pari). 


Italy: History (D.); 

J. B. B. John Rose Bradyord, M.D., D.Sc, F.R.C.P., F.R.S. 

Physician to University College Hospital. Professc 

Physician to University College Hospital. Professor of Materia Medica and J 
Therapeutics. University College. ' London. Secretary of the Royal Society. 
Formerly Member of Senate University of London. 

Jew, Tbe Wandering. 

KetteJtr, Baron toil 
John, BjpisOes ot 

Jews, WIQuun Stanley. 
Jvfenal (mi ^ari). 



Kidney Diseases (in parti- 


J. T. Be, /ohm Thomas Bealby. 

Toint-author of Stanford's Europe. Formerly Editor of the Scottish Geographical 
Magaeine. Translator of Sven Hedln's Through Asia, Central Asia and Tibet; &c 

Kan; Kazan; Koran; 
Khtofin; Khiva; Khrtand; 
Kbotani Kiev; 
Kronttadt; Ktthaft; 
Ktaen-Lnn; Karat; Hutakw 

J. T. 8.* James Thomson Sbotwell, Ph J). / Inmn ^ /^ (iu harti 

Professorof History in Columbia Udversity, New York Oty. ^©anoiJira unpart). 


J. V. # Juus Viard. 

Archivist at the National Archives, Parts. Officer of Public Instruction. Author i JlQSflMCU), At. 
of La France sans Philippe VI. de Voids; Ac 

J. W. Ha. James Wvcum Headlam, M.A. 

Staff Inspector of Secondary £ 

Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. Professor of Greek and Ancient History at ■ 

Queen's Coir * ^ --.---♦ - - - - - _^.. l 

Empire; Ac 

K. Baron Datroeu Ktkuchi, M.A., D.Sc., LL.D. f 

President of the Imperial University of Kyoto. President of Imperial Academy of J •_„_. -« «.»,,, / . - - 
japan. Emeritus Professor, Imperial University, Toldo. Author of Japanese 1 iaDtm: Tke Clam of Japan. 
Education; &c. I 

X* 8. Kathleen Schlestncer, flaw's Han* Kettledrum* 

Editor of the PorlfoKo tf JfosYaf Archaeology. Author of The Instruments of He < £ri~i * nw *" onuB ' 
OrdscsJr«;&c. I Kajboard. 

L. Count Lutzow, Litt.D. (Oxon.), D.Ph. (Prague), F.R.G.S. f 

Chamberlain of H.M. the Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia. Hon. Member I _ 

of the Royal Society of Literature. Member of the Bohemian Academy. Ac. { Jaromt Of FrufOS. 
Author of Bohemia, a Historical Sketch; The Historians of Bohemia (ilenester I 
Lecture, Oxford, 1904) ; The Life and Times of John Hus; &c [ 

L. F. V*H* Leveson Francis Vernon-Haecourt, M.A., MJnst.CE. (1839-1007). ( 

Formerly Professor of Civil Engineering at University College. London. Author of j • aM _ 
Rivers and Canals; Harbours and Docks; CtoU Engineering as applied in Cm- | 4BU v* 
structian; 9cc [ 

L. J. 8. Leonard James Spencer, M.A. f 

Assistant in the Department of Mineralogy. British Museum. Formerly Scholar I AMd| ^ , , 

of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkneas Scholar. Editor of the Minera- \ *«"»*»•» 
logical Magaeine. (. 

L. C Rev. Lewis Campbell, D.C.L., LL.D. f _~ 

See the biographical article: Campbell. Lewis. ^JtWBtL 

L. D. # Louis Duchesne. /John XDL; 

See the biographical article: Duchesne, L, M. O. t Julius L 


Italian Foreign Office (Enugratirt Department). Formerly Newspaper Corre- 
spondent in east of Europe. Italian Vice-Consul in New Orleans, 1906; Phua- . 
delphia. 1907; Boston, U.5.A., 1907-1910. Author of Italian Ltfe in Town and 
Country; fire and Sword in the Caucasus; Ac 

at. Lord Macaulay. SiuhnsinL tumumL 

See the biographical article: Macaulay, Baron. | ,w "" 1 ™ ™" 

M. Br. Margaret Bryant. J Keats (in parti, 

M. P. Sir Michael Foster, K.C.B., D.CX., D.Sc. LL.D., F.R-S. f m , llt . i . 

See the biographical article: Foster, Sir M. 1 nWllBWi 

a1.Bl.Bh. Sir Mancherjxe Merwamtee Bhowmaocres. f 

Fellow of Bombay University. M.P. for N.E. Bethnal Green, 1895-1906. Author \ JeeJeebhOY. 
of History of the Constitution of the East India Company; Ac [ 

M. 0. B. 0. Maximilian Otto Bismarck Caspari, M.A. r 

Reader in Ancient History at London University. Lecturer ia Greek at Binning- J Justin XL 

Italy: History (E. and G). 

ham University, 1905-190*. 

at P.* Uon Jacquei Maxime Prtnet. f *Wfc <P**h)i 

Formerly Archivist to the French National Archives. AnxDsary of the Institute ■{ Jojiuaa; 
of France (Academy of Moral and Political Sciences). I J«fa, "" 

K. B. Norman McLean, M.A. f JMot of 1 

Lecturer in Aramaic, Cambridge University. Fellow and Hebrew Lecturer, Christ's \ Jacob of 8ar8gh; 
College. Cambridge. Joint-editor of the larger Cambridge SeptuaginL [ Joshua tht fffrflit.; 

X. V. Joseph Marie Noel Valois. 

Member of Academie des Inscriptions et Beues-Lettres, Paris. Honorary Archivist _ . __,_ 
at the Archives Nationales. Formerly President of the Societe de 1'Histoire de- John XXUL 
France and the Societe de I'Ecok da Chartes. Author of La Franca et le grand 
eckisme d*Ocddent; Ac 


O.H. - Otto HfiwBR, F.I.C., F.C.S. f 

. Public Analyst. Formerly President of Society of Public Analysts. Vice-President J » Mm _ --a j-nu- 
of Institute of Chemistry of Great Britain and Ireland. Author of works On batter 1 * WB * ■ ,MI * wn *»» 
analysis; Akohd TabUs; Ac I 

5iJ!A^ ......... ... f . . „ 

Korea {in pari). 

P. A. Paul Daniel Alphandery. r 

Professor of the History of Dogma. £oole pratique des Hautes Etudes, Sorbonnt. J JoaeMm of Florlf; 
Paria. Author of Us Utu morales chex Us bilhodaus latinos au dibut du XW j John TCT. 

P. A. A. Pinup A. AsHWorra, M.A., Doc. Juris, r 

0. J. R. H. OSBERT JOHK RaDCUTTE HOWARTH. M.A. f J«» tim hnwti* 

Christ Church. Oxford. Geographical Scholar, tool. Assistant Secretary of thel -** V*. *"*)*_ 
British Association- L 

New College. Oxford. Barristerat-Law. Translator of H. R. von Gneist's History \ JharlDC 
of the Kntfuh C on stitu tio n . | ^ 

P. A. K. PifmcE Pent Alkxhvitch Kropotkin. 

Seethe biographical article: KaoroTfcnf, P. A. 

Kabnock; Kaluga; 
Kamehatka; Kara-Kaaft 
Kaxaft; Kerch; KbJngan; 
Khokand; Kie?; Kronstadt; 
Kubafi; Kuan-Lou; 
Karat; Kntals. 


P. GL Petes Giles, M.A., LL.D., Lrrr.Dc 

Fellow and Classical Lecturer of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and University 
Reader in Comparative Philology. Formerly Secretary of the Cambridge Philo- 
logical Society. Author of Manual of Comparative Philology. 

P. 0. T. Peter Guthrie Tatt. J mr-^* 

See the biographical article: TaiT, PeTIR GuTHtlt, \ 9umu 

P. La. PbIuf Lahe, M.A., F.G.S. , f 

Lectursr on Physical and Regional Geography in Cambridge university. Formerly J r BMll . n^J^mm 

oftne Geological Survey rf India. Author of Monograph of British Cambrian | 49>VUk ' <"*ff. 
TrUobites. Translator and Editor of Kayser's Comparatm Ceology. I 

P. L. 0. Philt* Lytteltoh Gell, M.A. f 

Sometime Scholar of Balliol College. Oxford. Secretary to the Clarendon Press, \ Khazan (in Pari). 
Oxford, 1884-1897. Fellow of King's College, London. t 

P. VL Paul Vinocradott, D.C.L., LL.D. f , - 

See the biographical article : Vinoorapott, Pauu \ *■■-■— — *» 

R.A. # Robert Anchbl. Ivmw^m 

Ardbtvist to the Departement de I'Eure. ^ Hawaii. 

B. A4. Raewrr Aoahsow, LL.D. / ww a- a^\ 

See the biographical article: Adamsou, RoamaT. \ X** 1 (** pan)* 

R. A. 8. H. Robert Alexander Stewart Macalwtrr, M.A., F.S.A. f j otmm . 

St John's College, Cambridge. Director of Excavations for the Palestine Explore* A V™?? 
tionFund. l*era*> 

R. A. W. Robert Alexander Wahab, C.B., C.M.O., CLE. f 

Colonel, Royal Engineers. Formerly H.M. Commissioner, Aden Boundary De* I Knwft. 
Hmitatfon, and Superintendent, Survey of India. Served with Tirab ExpedttsMary | AUV * k 
Force, 1897-1898; Anglo-Russian Boundary Commission, Pamirs, 1895; Ac I 

R. F. L. Rev. Richard Frederick Lrtleoale, M.A., LL.D., D.C.L. (1833*1800). f , ,, ^ 

Author of ReUtious Communities of Women in the Early Chunk; Catholic Ritual 1 JSSOJfc (t» pan 
in tnaCen^ck of En^and; Why RUuatisUe^ net become I 

R.G. Richard Garnett. LL.D. ficmsawAi 

See the biographical article; Garnbtt, Richard. \ aaawwaai. 

R. H. 0. Rev. Robert Henry Charles, M.A.. D.D., D.Lm. (Oxdo.). 

GrinficJd Lecturer and Lecturer in Biblical Studies, Oxford and Fellow of Mertoo 
College. Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Senior Moderator of Trinity 
College. Dublin. Author and Editor of Booh of Enoch ; Booh of Jubilees ; Assumption 
of Moses-, Ascension of Isaiah', Testaments of the XII. Patriarchs; &c 

R. L P. RftGnfAfiD InHE* POCOCX, F.Z.S. l utmmAmh 

Superintendent of the Zoological Gardens, London. L **—*r**™* 

B. J.E. "WAi^ogiMtMn^M^ ^^ f M« >i« Baron; 

Jeremy. EpfaHo of, 
Jubilees, Book of; 

nald John McNeill, M.A. f Jetreys, 1st Ban 

Christ. Church. Oxford. BarristeWLt-Law. Formerly E(fitor of the St James's i w*ith- Fn-Uv 

Gasette, London. ^awn. r»v;, 

Rosea? Kennaway Dotjglas. f . 

Formeriy Keeper of Oriental Printed Books and MSS. at the British Museum, and J J 
Professor of Chinese, King'* College, London. Author of The Languace and Ltiera- 1 J 
ture of China; &* I 

SARD Lydekker, F.R.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S. r , 

Member of the Staff of the Geological Survey of India, 1874*1882. Author of J J 
CeMntut of Fossil Mammals. RefisUs and Birds in the British Museum; The] I 
Deer of all Lands ; The Came Animals of Africa'. Ac i 1 

R. K. D. Sot Roacu Kennaway Douglas. _ , j^ ^ im JKhMn . 

ture of China; &Q. 

R.L.* Richard Lydekker^ FJR.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S.^ • ! J boa- 

1 Kangaroo (in pari). 
















lk.1. - 






Assistant Librarian, British Museum, 1883-1909. Author of Scandinavia, the 
Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, iftj-iooo; The First Romanovs, 
i6i3~J7»<s ; Slavonic Europe, the Political History of Poland and Russia from 1460 
to 1796', Ac 

Rene* Poupardin, D. is L. 

Secretary of the Ecole des Chartes. Honorary Librarian at the Bibliotheque. 
Nationale, Paris. Author of Le Royanme d$ Provence sous Us Carolingiens; Ruueil "* 
des ckarles de Saint-Germain ; &c 

R. Phen£ Spiers, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A. 

Formerly Master of the Architectural School, Royal Academy, London. Past 
President of Architectural Association. Associate and Fellow of King's College, 
London. Corresponding Member of the Institute of France. Editor of Fergusson's 
History of Architecture. Author of Architecture : East and West ; Ac 

Robert Seymour Conway, M.A., D.Lrrr. (Cantab.). 

Professor of Latin and Indo-European Philology in the University of Manchester. 
Formerly Professor of Latin in University College, Cardiff; and Fellow of Gonville 
and Caius College, Cambridge. Author of The Italic Dialects. 

Stanley Arthur Cook, M.A. 

Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac, and formerly Fellow, Gonville and Caius College. 
Cambridge. Editor for Palestine Exploration Fund. Examiner in Hebrew and 
Aramaic, London University, 1904- 1908. Author of Glossary of Aramaic In- 
scriptions; The Laws of Moses and the Code of Hammurabi; Critical Notes on Old 
Testament History; Religion of Ancient Palestine; Ac 

Jehoram; Jehoshaphat; 
Jehn; Jephfhah; 
Jerahmeel; Jeroboam; 
Jews: Old Testament History; 
Jezebel; Joab; Jotsh; 
Joseph: Old Testament; 
Joshua; Josiah; Jodah; 
Judges, Book of ; 
Kabbalah (in pari), 
Kenltes; Kings, Books oL 

Viscount St Cyres. 

See the biographical article: looBSLEiCB, isr EarL op. 

Simon Newcoub, D.Sc., D.C.L. 

See the biographical article: Nbwcomb, Simon. 

Thomas Ashby, M.A., D.LrrT. (Oxon.). rtMv n,»~ n *>L**-A c/„^.v~ 

Director of British School of Archaeology at Rome. Formerly Scholar of Christ [ ,a JJ: ™ f £'!V *** SUUuticr » 
Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow,. 1807. Conington Priseman, 1906. Member oH History {p.); 
Che Imperial German Archaeological Institute. [ IfTSft. 

Thomas Allan Ingram, M.A., LL.D. r_ .. ^ M 

Trinity College, Dublin. | JmyooIIs Oflenders (m for/). 

Thomas Athol Joyce, M.A. r 

Assistant in Department of Ethnography,. British Museum, Hon. Sec., Royal. Kavlrondo. 
Anthropological Institute. 

Theodore Freylxnchuysen Collier, Ph.D. 

Assistant Professor of History, William* College, WUUamatown. Mass., U.S.A. 
Thomas Hodckin, D.C.L.. LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Hoocbun, T. 

Iran L-VL; \ 
John VOL : Sobieski; 
JueLJens; JoeL Neils; 
KAnnan; Kerneny, Barao; 
Kbfaludy; Kollonta]; 
Konlegmlskl; Kosdussko; 
Kurakin, Prince. 

John, Daks of Burgundy. 

Jseobean Style. 

Italy: History (A.). 

/ Jupiter: Satellites. 

Sn Thomas Hungerjord Holdich, K.C.M.G.. K.C.I.E., D.Sc., F.R.G.S. 
Colonel in the Royal Engineers. Superintendent Frontier Sun 

Julius in. 
Jordanes (in pari). 

Surveys. India. 1891- f *■*■* ****• Kandakar; 

1808. Cold Medallist. R.C-.S. (London), 1887. H.M. Commissioner for the Perso- - Kashmir; Khyber Pass; 

Beluch Boundary. 1806. Author of The Indian Borderland; The Gates of India; Ac [ Kunar; Knshk. 
D. r 

Socialism; Primer of Socialism; Ac j Julian (in part], 

"■» S-P- f Jeremiah; Joel (in party, 


Chkynb, T. K. 

e: Noldeke, Theodor. 



<ecturer In History, East London and Birkbeck C 
Itanhope Prizeman, Oxford, 1887. Assistant Editor _ 
iography, 1891-1901. Author of The Age of Johnson, 
History of English Literature; Ac 
Thomas Wooohousx. 

Head of the Weaving and Textile Designing Department, Technical College, Dundee. 
Thomas William Rhys Davids, LL.D.. Ph.D. f 

Professor of Comparative Religion, Manchester. Professor of Pali and 'Buddhist I .„__. 
Literature, University College. London, 1882-1904. President of the Pali Text I ,-tTL. 
Society. Fellow of the British Academy. Secretary and Librarian of Royal i •«■«■• 
Asiatic Society, 1 885-1902. Author of Buddhism; Sacred Books of the Buddhists; "'"" '" w * 
Early Buddhism; Buddhist India; Dialogues of the Buddha; Ac I 

William Anderson, F.R.C.S. r 

Formerly Chairman of Council of the Japan Society. Author of The Pictorial Arts] 
of Japan; Japanese Wood Engravings; Catalogue of Chinese and Japanese Pictures'] 
m the British Museum; Ac I 

Art (in part). 



W. A. B. C Rev. William Augustus Brevoort Coolidce, M.A., F.R.G.S., Ph.D. (Bern). | 
Fellow of Magdalen College. Oxford. Professor of English History, St David's J 
College, Lampeter. 1880-1881. Author of Guide to Switzerland; The Alps in \ 
Nature and in History; &c Editor of The Alpine Journal, 1880-1889. 

W. A. P. Walter Alison Phillips, M.A. 

Formerly Exhibitioner of Merton College and Senior Scholar of St John's College, 
Oxford. Author of Modern Europe; Ac 

W. B.* William Burton, M.A., F.C.S. 

Chairman, Joint Committee of Pottery Manufacturers of Great Britain. Author of 
English Stoneware and Earthenware; &c. 

W. Ba, William Bacher. Ph.D. 

Professor of Biblical Studies at the Rabbinical Seminary. Buda-Pest. 

W. Be. Sir Walter Besant. 

See the biographical article: Besant, Sir Walter. 

W. F. C. William Feilden Craies, M.A. 

Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. Lecturer on Criminal Law at King's College, 
London. Editor of Archbold's Criminal Pleading, 23rd ed. 

W. P. D, William Frederick Denning, F.R.A.S. 

Gold Medal, R.A.S. President, Liverpool Astronomical Society, 1877-1878. 
Corresponding Fellow of Royal Astronomical Society of Canada; Ac. Author of 
Telescopic Work for Starlight Evenings; The Great Meteoric Shower; Ac 

W. G. William Garnett, M.A., D CX. 

Educational Adviser to the London County Council. Formerly Fellow and Lecturer 
of St John's College, Cambridge. Principal and Professor of Mathematics, Durham 
College of Science, Newcastle-on-Tyne. Author of Elementary Dynamics; Ac 

W. G. S. William Graham Sumner. 

See the biographical article: Sumner, William Graham. 

W. H. Be. William Henry Bennett, M.A., D D., D.Litt (Cantab.). 

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis in New and Hackney Colleges, London. 
Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge. Lecturer in Hebrew at Firth 
College, Sheffield. Author of Religion of the Post-Exilic Prophets; Ac. 

W. H. DL William Henry Dines, F.R.S. 

Director of Upper Air Investigation for the English Meteorological Office. 

W. H. F. Sir William H. Flower, LL.D 

See the biographical article: Flower, Sir W. H. 

W. L. F. Walter Lynwood Fleming, A.M., Ph.D. 

Professor of History in Louisiana State University. Author of Documentary History 
of Reconstruction , Ac. 

W. L.-W. Sir William Lee-Warner, M.A., K.G.S.I. 

Member of Council of India. Formerly Secretary in the Political and Secret 
Department of the India Office Author of Life of the Marquis of Dalhousie; 
Memoirs of Field-Marshal Sir Henry Wylie Norman; Ac 

W. H. R. William Michael Rossetti. 

See the biographical article: Rossetti, Dantb G. 

W. H. Ra, Sir William Mitchell Ramsay, LL.D., D C.L. 

See the biographical article, Ramsay, Sir W. M. 
W. P. J. William Price James. 

Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. High Bailiff, Cardiff County Court. Author of 

Romantic Professions; Ac 

W. R. 8. William Robertson Smith, LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Smith, William Robertson. 
W. W. F. # William Warde Fowler, M.A. 

Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford. Sub-rector, 1 881-1904. Gifford Lecturer, 

Edinburgh University. 1908. Author of The City-State of the Greeks and Romans; 

The Roman festivals of the Republican Period; Ac. 

W. W. H.* William Walker Rockwell, Lic.Theol. 

Assistant Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, New York. 

W. T. sV William Young Sellar, LL.D 

See the biographical article* Sellar, W. Y. 

Jenatseh, Georg; 



King; KrlembJld; 
KrQdener, Baroness vol 

Kashl (in part). 



Kelvin, Lord. 

I Jackson, Andrew. 
\ Japheth. 

-[ Kite-flying (t* £art). 
J Kangaroo (in part). 

Knights of the Golden Circle; 
Ku Klux Kan. 

Jong Bahadur, Sir. 

- Kneller. 
•T Jupiter (in party. 

- Kipling, Rndyard. 

/Joel (in part); 

\ Jubilee, Year of (in part). 

I Juno; 

1 Jupiter (in part). 

-I Jerusalem, Synod ot 
/ Juvenal (in part)* 











Know Nothing 




ITALY (Italia), the name 1 applied both fa ancient and in 
modern times to the great peninsula that projects from the mass 
of central Europe far to the south into the Mediterranean Sea, 
where the island of Sicily may be considered as a continuation 
of the continental promontory. The portion of the Mediterranean 
commonly termed the Tyrrhenian Sea forms its limit on the W. 
and S., and the Adriatic on the £.; while to the N., where it 
joins the main continent of Europe, it is separated from the 
adjacent regions by the mighty barrier of the Alps, which sweeps 
round in a vast semicircle from the head of the Adriatic to the 
shores of Nice and Monaco. 

Topofrapky.— The land thus circumscribed extends between 
the parallels of 46° 40' and 36* 38' N., and between 6° 3c/ and 
18 s 30' E. Its greatest length in a straight line along the main- 
hod is from N.W. to S.E., in which direction it measures 708 m. 
m m. direct line from the frontier near Cburmayeur to Cape Sta 
Maria di Leuca, south of Otranto, but the great mountain 
peninsula of Calabria extends about two degrees farther south 
to Cape Spartivento in lat. 37° 55*. Its breadth is, owing to its 
configuration, very irregular. The northern portion, measured 
from the Alps at the Monte Vlso to the mouth of the Po, has a 
breadth of about 270 m., while the maximum breadth, from the 
Rocca Chiardonnet near Susa to a peak in the valley of the 
bonso, is 354 m. But the peninsula of Italy, which forms the 
hrgest portion of the country, nowhere exceeds 150 m. in breadth, 
vhue it does not generally measure more than 100 m. across. Its 
southern extremity, Calabria, forms a complete peninsula, being 
suited to the mass of Lucania or the Basillcata by an isthmus 
only 35 m. in width, while that between the gulfs of Sta Eufemia 
and SquHlace, which connects the two portions of the province, 
does not exceed 20 m. The area of the kingdom of Italy, exclusive 
of the large islands, is computed at 91,277 sq. m. Though 
m^^ the Alps form throughout the northern boundary of 
mtmt Italy, the exact limits at the extremities of the Alpine 
chain are not dearly marked. Ancient geographers 
appear to have generally regarded the remarkable headland 
which descends from the Maritime Alps to the sea between Nice 
and Monaco as the limit of Italy in that direction, and in a 
purely geographical point of view it is probably the best point 
that could be selected. But Augustus, who was the first to give 
to Italy a definite political organization, carried the frontier to 
1 On the derivation see below. History, eectaoa A» aa\ imiL 

the river Varus or Var, a few miles west of Nice, and this river 
continued in modern times to be generally recognised as the 
boundary between France and Italy. But in i860 the annexation 
of Nice and the adjoining territory to France brought the 
political frontier farther east, to a point between Mentone and 
Ventimiglia which constitutes no natural limit. 

Towards the north-east, the point where the Julian Alps 
approach close to the seashore (just at the sources of the little 
stream known in ancient times as the Timavus) would seem to 
constitute the best natural limit. But by Augustus the frontier 
was carried farther east so as to include Tergeste (Trieste), and 
the little river Formio (Risano) was in the first instance chosen 
as the limit, but this was subsequently transferred to the river 
Arsia (the Arsa), which flows into the Gulf of Quarnero, so as 
to include almost all Istria; and the circumstance that the 
coast of Istria was throughout the middle ages held by the 
republic of Venice tended to perpetuate this arrangement, so 
that Istria was generally regarded as belonging to Italy, though 
certainly not forming any natural portion of that country. 
Present Italian aspirations are similarly directed. 

The only other part of the northern frontier of Italy where the 
boundary is not clearly marked by nature is Tirol or the valley 
of the Adige. Here the main chain of the Alps (as marked by 
the watershed) recedes so far to the north that it has never 
constituted the frontier. In ancient times the upper valleys of 
the Adige and its tributaries were inhabited by Raetian tribes 
and included in the province of Raetia; and the line of demarca- 
tion between that province and Italy was purely arbitrary, 
as it remains to this day. Tridentum or Trent was in the time 
of Pliny included in the tenth region of Italy or Venetia, but he 
tells us that the inhabitants were a Raetian tribe. At the present 
day the frontier between Austria and the kingdom of Italy 
crosses the Adige about 30 m. below Trent — that dty and its 
territory, which previous to the treaty of Luneville in x 801 was 
governed by sovereign archbishops, subject only to the German 
emperors, being now induded in the Austrian empire. 

While the Alps thus constitute the northern boundary of Italy, 
its configuration and internal geography are determined almost 
entirely by the great chain of the Apennines, which branches off 
from the Maritime Alps between Nice and Genoa, and, after 
stretching in an unbroken line from the Gulf of Genoa to the 
Adriatic, turns more to the south, and is continued throughout 




** %»k -•*& * *••** 

«* «s* Urt throw* out several 

i mmi ,*+Jt .ywH***'****" 

*** W considered as constituting 
qjj— aad Campania, and 

>v" K \' 

v ^ lu^^Tw^Tssary. Beaide. these offshoots 
„ *7^'^/*^3TSi rf Central Italy several 
<•>«*.**» ***** *£* E» Wand, on the seashore. 
<*-**■* •**•«*♦**** «** Jin» the Monte Argentaro on the 
„ ^*. A * *~ .***■ rrj2T»» ft.) and the Monte Circello 
^^ n. v,.^.. *£. **T£^JS«^ by the whole breadth 

i, •»•■•» ' *' T" ^2«S?Se TOer (Ittl. Tevere) may 

P^ ,*.,«•<*«** •*• ^T^JjZLT^n^ Arno, which hat lu source in 
^, x ***, fst r*** aiwww^ -levated summits of the main 

t l^ M****- h **^^kJ<I|lMi^*>w« nearly south tin in rteneigh 

v .*v<in <M th< 

ty north-west, and pursues that 

w -fi*in rH m« . »- -',•„._, *wm*IV nortn-wett, «nu pursues imi 

£UrM*1 * AfW> h tag* *2£ l i , SS» n make, a sudden bend 
^•iiw «« f«r »» HHiiasm »*, **-_ _ ilM . thence to the sea. pawns 

'^^. ^ ^^r^^^ttoncetothesea.pawnt 

«-« «h* we*, and '^ToLTfts* Dnaripal tributary U the Sieve. 
*- -- •• fcl ~ — ■" d - BS JSJI. Swathe waters of the Valdi' 

rwi«* ' 

#***Tr2L- L-^kilk near Siena and V 

ich join it on its left bank, 

^IT J^T^r ^ena and Volterra, are inconsiderable 

^iT^^J^^^tVfrom the territory of Lucca 


2^^i?*'!!l^ A 32 n ' 

^ ««« separate channtL The most 

**?4Z~ml south of the Amo are the Cecina, 

• T*2Ss below Volterra, and the Ombrone, 

iHaearSsea** and enters the sea about la m. 

- i-oortant river than the Arno, and the 

T<r 'TL" ^*sTe*eption of the Po. rise. In the Apennines, 
*-*** * U ^TflT-23oithe Arno, and flows nearly south by 

r**-s i 

«^ti> *Ot» 
«s <»tty 

■Z^T^aich it receives the Nera. The Ncra, 

.T^Z^T** Monte della Sibilla is a consider- 

^LiTwkh it the waters of the Vehno (with its 

"^ J^SiAeSalto), which join* it a few miles below 

** ^^^"^Tersi. The Teverone or Anio, which enters 

- *, i» an Inferior stream to the Nera, 

body of water from the mountains 

* a MM*ar fact in the geography of Central 

I j« Hie Tiber and Arno are in some measure 

»r " *• * a level and marshy tract, the waters 

^^TAmoand partly into the Tiber. 

«f the central Apennines towards the 

: and varied than the western. The 

M -ww.-1-T— * much nearer to the sea, and hence. 

'*' rr^W^erivers that flow from it have short 

, MUMiiriTTly Utile importance. They may be 

*U.^J>-vrai Rimini southward.: (i) the Foglia; 

. , U .^UicaJ celebrity, and affording access to one 

**a w&aes of Lie Apennines; (3) the E«not (4) 

~ T/ -Toi««i: (6) the Aso; (7) the Trontoj (8) 

^ \crrwo; (10) the Sangro; (it) the Tngno, 

^ N^wan of the southernmost province of the 

' ^ - v«m« be taken as the limit of Central July. 

- N*«»m of Central Italy U a hilly country, much 

*• *♦ tfte torrents from the mountain*, but fertile, 

" . w\ «ivea and vines{ and it ha. been, both in 

.»« 11— 11 a populous district, containing many 

" ^— * w great oties. Its chief disadvantage is the 

^ dv cess* preserving an almost unbroken straight 

" ' % * .«*ww« of Ancona. the only port worthy of the 

- .^* omsc of Central Italy. 

.*k -T^rgieat central massof the Apennines, which 

■ " . ^ -sawsghout Central luly, with a general direi- 

*. M ^« o» sowtb-east, may be considered as continued 

v *iM Sjr abo«t 100 m. farther, from the basin-shaped 

," - *. .el Matese (which rises to 6660 ft.) to the ncigh- 

- \^v-«k ta the heart of the province of Bawlicata. 

^**rt co the ancient Lucanuu The whole of the 
*- , *.*oca< times as Samnium (a part of which retaips 

- * ^jja too*** orhaaHy designated the rjrovince of 

oM *l by an irregular nun of mountains, of much 

..- T v»* o< Ceotral Italy, and broken up into a number 

k ^«*-* J^t^ l»y rivers, which have for the most part a very 

-■V. Ts»» snountainous tract, which has an average 

* *■*"* ^ to oo av, h bounded west by the plain of Cam- 

, »'T*i'"iae Terra <fi La voro, and cast by the much broader 

- - * "T^,,* tract of Apulia or Puglia, composed partly of 
. *i* ^g the most part of undulating downs, contrasting 

.. ^* it h * esouniain ranges of the Apennines, which rise 

* t» '.hem- ^to central mass of the mountains, however, 

v** VuUing range*, the one to the west, which heparatct 

•^C* ff^ot that of Salerno, and culminate* in the Monte 

' » ^^♦^ ja cua*»«a*'e(47>o It.), while the detached volcanic 

- .lv*< ,-c»rl> aooo ft.) is isossted from the neighbouring 

^ ■^lrT^*rt> aooo I 

which projects la a bold spar-like promontory into the Adriatic; 
forming the only break in the otherwise uniform coast-line of Italy 
on that sea. though separated from the great body of the A nr s uiau ■ 
by a considerable interval of low country, may be considered at 
merely an outlier from the central mass. 

From the neighbourhood of Poteaza, the main ridge of the 
Apennines is continued by the Monti della Maddalcna in a directioa 
nearly due south, so that it approaches within a abort distance of the 
Gulf of Pobcastro. whence it is carried on as far as the Monte Pottino, 
the last of the lofty summits of the Apennine chain, which exceeds 
7000 ft. in height. The range is, however, continued through the 
province now called Calabria, to the southern extremity or " toe " of 
Italy, but presents in this part a very much altered character, the 
broken limestone range which b the true continuation of the chain 
as far as the neighbourhood of Nicastro and Catanzaro, and keeps 
dose to the west coast, being flanked on the east by a great mass of 
granitic mountains, rising to aboat 6000 ft., and covered with vast 
forests, from which it derives the name of La Sila. A similar 1 

separated from the preceding by a low neck of Tertiary hills, fills 
up the whole of the peninsular extremity of Italy from Squtllace 
to Reggio. Its highest point is called Aspromonte (6420 ft.). 

While the rugged and mountainous district of Calabria, extending 
nearly due south for a distance of more than 150 m.. thus derives its 
character and configuration almost wholly from the range of the 
Apennines, the long spur-like promontory which projects towards 
the east to Brindisi and Otranto is merely a continuation of the low 
tract of Apulia, with a dry calcareous soii of Tertiary origin. The 
Monte Voiture, which rises in the neighbourhood of Mdfi and Veaosa 
to 4357 ft., is of volcanic origin, and in great measure detached from 
the adjoining mass of the Apennines, Eastward from this the ranees 
of low bare hdls called the M urgie of Gravina and Altamura gradually 
sink into the still more moderate level of those which constitute 
the peninsular tract between Brindisi and Taranto as far as the -' 
Cape of Sta Maria di Leuca, the south-east extremity of Italy. Tua 
projecting tract, which may be termed the " heel or " spar " of 
Southern Italy, in conjunction with the great promontory of Calabria, 
forms the deep Gulf of Taranto, about 70 m. in width, and sosnewhac 
greater depth, which receives a number of streams from the central 
mass of the Apennines. 

None of the rivers of Southern Italy is of any great importance. 
The Liri (Liris) or Ganglia no, which has its source in the central 
Apennines above Sora, not far from Lake Fucino, and enters the 
Gulf of Gaeta about 10 m. east of the city of that name, briagsdown 
a considerable body of water; as docs also the Volturno, which rises 
in the mountains bet we en Castd di Sangro and Agnone, Bows past 
Isernia, Venafro and Capua, and enters the sea about 15 m. from thfM 
mouth of the Garigfiano. About 16 ra. above Capua it receives the 
Calore, which flows by Benevento. The Silarus or Sele enters t he Gul 
of Salerno a few miles below the ruins of Paestum. Below this tilt- 
watershed of the Apennines is too near to the sea on that side t§ 
allow the formation of any large streams. Hence toe rivers that flo% 
in the opposite direction into the Adriatic and the Gulf of Taransl 
have much longer courses, though all partake of the character m 
mountain torrents, rushing down with great violence in winter ansl 
after storms, but dwindling in the summer into scanty strean — 
which hold a winding and sluggish course through the great plains 
Apulia. Proceeding south from the Trigno, already mentioned 
constituting the limit of Central Italy, there are (1) the Biferno a_ 
(2) the Fortore, both rising in the mountain, of Samnium, and flo- 
ing into the Adriatic west of Monte Gargano; (3) the Cervaro, 1 
of the great promontory; and (4) the Ofanto, the Aufidus of Ho 
whose description of it is characteristic of almost all 1 
Southern Italy, of whkh it may be taken as the typical representaiiv. ___ 
It rises about is m. west of Conaa, and only about 2$ m. from thW 
Gulf of Salerno, so that it is f reoucntly (though erroneously) described^* 
as traversing the whole range of the Apennines. In its lower course sut' 
flows near Canosa and traverses the celebrated battlefield of Cannae* 
(5) The Bradano, which rises near Vcnosa, almost at the foot of 
Monte Voiture, flows towards the south-east into the Gulf of Taravnto, 
as do the Basento, the Agri and the Smni, all of which descend from 
the central chain of the Apennines south of Potenza. The Crati. 
which flows from Cosenza northwards, and then turns abruptly 
eastward to enter the same gulf, is the only stream worthy of notice 
in the rugged peninsula of Calabria; white the arid limestone hills 
projecting eastwards to Capo di Leuca do not give rise to anything 
more than a mere streamlet, from the mouth of the Ofanto to the 
south-eastern extremity of Italy. 

The only important lakes are those on or near the north frontier,, 
formed by the expansion of the tributaries of the Po. They have 
been already noticed in connexion with the rivers by which r-a—, 
they are formed, but may be again enumerated in order of •■»«_ 

succession. They are. proceeding from west to east, (1) the Latgo 
d'Orta, (2) the Lago Maggiore. (j) the Lago di Lugano, (4) the Laujo 
di Corao, (5) the Lagod'lseo,<6) the Lago d'ldro, and (7) the Lagods 
Garda. Of these the last named is considerably the tersest, covering 

an area of 143*9. m. It is t2i m. long by 10 broad; while tfc~ " 

Maniore sjotMtlafJaiiss Tii ■■— «! ■■-«•— — " ■ — — 



deptb<rfii9«ft^whaethatofComoattal««toi3teft. Of a wholly 
overeat diameter is the Lagodi Varese, between the Lago Maggiore 
of Lugano, which is a mere shallow expanse of i 
d by hills of very moderate elevation. Two other 

lakes in the same neighbourhood, as well as those of Erba and 
Pnriann, between Como and Lecco, are of a similar character. 

The lakes of Central Italy, which are comparatively of trifling 
dimensions, belong to a wholly different class. The most important 
of these, the Lacus Fucmits of the ancients, now called the Lago di 
Cefano, situated almost exactly in the centre of the peninsula, 
occupies a basin of cons i d er able extent, surrounded by mountains 
and without any natural outlet, at an elevation of more than 2000 ft. 
Its waters have been in great part carried off by an artificial channel, 
and more than half its surface laid bare. Next in size is the Lago 
Trashneno,a broad expanseof shallow waters, about 90 m. in circum- 
ference, surrounded by low hills. The neighbouring lake of Chiusi 
is of similar character, but much smaller dimensions. All the other 
lakes of Central Italy, which are scattered through the volcanic 
districts west of the Apennines, are of an entirely different formation, 
and o cc up y deep cup-shaped hollows, which have undoubtedly at 
one time formed the craters of extinct volcanoes. Such is the Lago di 
Bobena, near the city of the same name, which is an extensive sheet 
of water, as well as the much smaller Lago di Vico (the Ciminian lake 
of ancient writers) and the Lago di Bracciano, nearer Rome, while 
to the south of Rome the well known lakes of Albano and Nemi 
save a similar origin. 

The only lake properly so called In southern Italy is the Lago del 
Matese, in the heart of the mountain group of the same name, of 
small extent. The so-called like* on the coast of the Adriatic north 
and south of the pro m o nt ory of Gargano are brackish lagoons 
crwrmnmrating with the sea. 

The three great islands of Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica are closely 

i with Italy, both by geographical position and community 

of language, but they are considered at length in separate 
articles. Of the smaller islands that lie near the coasts 
of Italy, the most considerable is that of Elba, off the west coast of 
central Italy, about 50 m. S. of Leghorn, and separated from the 
mainland at Piombino by a strait of only about 6 m. in width. 

cany, is 

i nearer 
itory of 
er south 
ter. Of 
the Bay 
he more 
imber— - 
te Island 
■y of the 
than to 
ut equi- 

st to its 
red bya 
t island ; 
h of the 
1 breaks 

1 that of 
■e found 
diere of 
Ban to 

Besides these, and leaving out of account the islands, the Italian 

peninsula presents four distinct volcanic districts. In three of them 

the volcanoes are entirely extinct, while the fourth is still in great 


1. The Euganean hills form a small group extending for about 
to m. from the neighbourhood of Padua to Este, and separated from 
the lower offshoots of the Alps by a portion of the wide plain of 
Padua. Monte Venda. their highest peak, is 1890 ft. high. 

2. The Roman district, the largest of the four, extends from the 
hills of Albano to the frontier of Tuscany, and from the lower slopes 
of the Apennines to the Tyrrhenian Sea. It may be divided into 
three groups: the Monti Albani, the second highest 1 of which, 
Monte Cavo (31 15 ft.), is the ancient Mons Albanus, on the summit 
of which stood the temple of Jupiter Latialis, where the assemblies 
of the cities forming the Latin confederation were held; the Monti 
Cimtnl. which extend from the valley of the Tiber to the neighbour- 

* The actually highest point is the Maschio delle Faete (3137 ft.). 
(See Albanus mons.) 

oranges and lemons but even the olive tree cannot be grown, except 
in specially favoured situations. But the strip of coast between the 
Apennines and the sea, known as the Riviera of Genoa, is not only 
extremely favourable to the growth of olives, but produces oranges 
and lemons in abundance, while even the aloe, the cactus and the 
palm flourish in many places. 

Central Italy also presents striking differences of climate and 
temperature according to the greater or less proximity to the moun- 
tains. Thus the greater part of Tuscany, and the provinces thence 
to Rome, enjoy a mild winter climate, and are well adapted to the 
growth of mulberries and olives as well a* vines, but it is not till after 
passing Terracina, in proceeding along the western coast towards 
the south, that the vegetation of southern Italy develops in its full 
luxuriance. Even in the central parts of Tuscany, however, the 
climate is very much affected by the neighbouring mountains, 
and the increasing elevation of the Apennines as they proceed south 
produces a corresponding effect upon the temperature. But it is 
when we reach the central range of the Apennines that we find 
the coldest districts of Italy. In all the upland valleys of the 
Abruxxi snow begins to fall early in November, and heavy storms 
occur often as late as May; whole communities are shut out for 
months from any intercourse with their neighbours, and some 
villages are so long buried in snow that regular passages are made 
between the different houses for the sake of communication among 
the inhabitants. The district from the south-east of Lake Fucino 
to the Piano di Cinque Miglia. enclosing the upper basin of the Sangro 


•*!**• •""•» WW ot Scaano, b the eldest *ud mc 
l**y south of the AlpTHeavv falUof anow in J 

moat bleak part of 

Mt tune towards the end of July are the 
jght frosts. Yet less than 40 nuE. of this 
the north, the olhre. the fig-tree and the 
a the shores of the Adriatic from Ortona 
iy, whilst in the plains and hills round 
, and never remains long, and the ther- 
1 the freezing-point, 20 m. E. from it in the 
no great elevation, but encircled by high 
tot uncommon as late as June; and 18 m. 
i region of San Angdo dei Lombardi and 
re always warmly clad, and vines grow 
heltered places. Still farther south-east. 

dest climate in Italy, and certainly the 

|o«*«t summer Irmptraturea. But nowhere are these contrasts 
^ vinWiim a» ( n Calabria. The shores, especially on the Tyrrhenian 
>sv |mv«mu alnHMt a continued grove of olive, orange, lemon and 
t »t i\w imt, which attain a size unknown in the north of Italy. The 
«,tta*tM«t* nourishes, the cotton-plant ripens to perfection, date- 
li*v« at* *wn In the gardens, the rocks are clothed with the prickly- 
I*hh «h I tttlUii f\g, l he enclosures of the fields are formed by aloes and 
mMUrtlNM* pomegranate*, the liquorice-root grows wild, and the 
miamU • (he myrtio and many varieties of oleander and cistus form 
i\\o uimIoi wtMHl o( (ho natural forests of arbutus and evergreen oak* 
II *« turn inland but 5 or 6 m. from the shore, and often even less, 
th<< miMM» changes. High districts covered with oaks and chestnut* 
•m«««<«l to this almost tropical vegetation; a little higher up and 
wt< msu h the elevated regions of the PolUno and the Sila, covered 
«ltlt lit* and pints, and affording rich pastures even in the midst of 
•ummvr, when heavy dews and light frosts succeed each other in July 
aiul AuguM, and snow begins to appear at the end of September or 
•aily in October. Along; the shores of the Adriatic, which are ex- 
|mmh! to t he north<est winds, blowing coldly from over the Albanian 
nuHiutalns. delicate plants do not thrive so well in general as under 
(ho Mine latitude along the shores of the Tyrrhenian Sea. 

Southern Italy indeed has in general a very different climate 
from the northern portion of the kingdom; and, though large tracts 
an* st ill occupied by rugged mountains of sufficient elevation to retain 


fish there are many varieties, the tunny, the sardine and the anchovy 
being ccmunerrielfy the most important. Some of the other edabfe 
fish, such as the palombo, are not found in northern waters. Smal 
cuttlefish are in common use as an article of diet. TortoiaesbelL 
an important article of commerce, b derived from the Tbalattochdvt 
carctta, a sea turtle. Of freshwater fish the trout of the mountain 
streams and the eels of the coast lagoons, may be mentioned. The 
tarantula spider and the scorpion are found in the south of Italy. 
The aquarium of the zoological station at Naples contains the 
finest collection in the world ofi marine animals, showing the wonderful 
variety of the different species of fish, molluscs, Crustacea, Ac. found 
in the Mediterranean. (E. H. B.; T. As.) 

Papulation.— The following table indicates the areas of the several 
provinces (sixty-nine in number), and the population of each accord- 
ing to the censuses of the 31st of December -1881 and the 9th of 
February 1001 . (The larger divisions or compartments in which the 
provinces are grouped are not officially recognised.) 

the snow for a considerable part of the year, the districts adjoining 
the sea enjoy a climate similar to that of Greece and the southern 
provinces 01 Spain. Unfortunately several of these fertile tracts 

suffer severely from malaria (q.v.), and especially the great plain 
adjoining the Gulf of Tarcntum, which in the early ages of history 
was surrounded by a girdle of Greek citi es ■ s ome of which 
attained to almost unexampled prosperity — has for centuries past 
been given up to almost complete desolation. 1 

It is remarkable that, of the vegetable productions of Italy, many 
which are at the present day among the first to attract the attention 
of the visitor are of comparatively late introduction, and were un- 
known in ancient times. The olive indeed in al| ages clothed the 
hills of a large part of the country; but the orange and lemon, are 
a late importation from the East, while the cactus or Indian fig and 
the aloe, both of them so conspicuous on the shores of southern Italy, 
as well as of the. Riviera of Genoa, are of Mexican origin, and conse- 
quently could hot have been introduced earlier than the 16th century. 
The same remark applies to the roaixe or Indian corn. Many botanists 
are even of opinion that the sweet chestnut, which now constitutes 
so large a part of the forests that clothe the sides both of the Alps and 
the Apennines, and in some districts supplies the chief food of the 
inhabitants, is not originally of Italian growth; it is certain that 
it had not attained in ancient times to anything like the extension 
ancTimpoftance which it now possesses. The eucalyptus is of quite 
modern introduction; it has been extensively planted in malarious 
districts. The characteristic cypress, ilex ana stone-pine, however, 
are native trees, the last-named nourishing especially near the coast. 
The proportion of evergreens is large, and nas a marked effect on the 
landscape in winter. 

Fauna, — The chamois, bouquetin and marmot are found only in 
the Alps, not at all in the Apennines. In the latter the bear was found 
in Roman times, and there are said to be still a few remaining. 
Wolves are more numerous, though only in the mountainous 
districts; the flocks are protected against them by large white sheep- 
dogs, who have some wolf blood in them. Wild boars are also found 
in mountainous and forest districts. Foxes are common in the 
neighbourhood of Rome. The sea mammals include the common 
dolphin (Delpkinus ddphis). The birds are similar to those of central 
Europe; in the mountains vultures, eagles, buzzards, kites, falcons 
and hawks are found. Partridges, woodcock, snipe, &c, are among 
the game birds; but all kinds of small birds are also shot for food, 
and their number is thus kept down, while many members of the 
migratory species are caught by traps in the foothills on the south 
side of the Alps, especially near the Lake of Como, on their passage. 
Large numbers of quails are shot in the spring. Among reptiles, 
the various kinds of lizard are noticeable. There are several varieties 
of snakes, of which three species (all vipers) are poisonous. Of sea- 

1 On the influence of malaria on the population of Early Italy see 
W. H. S. Jones in Annals oj ArckatoU>ty and Anthropology, ii. 97 sqq. 
(Liverpool, 1909). 

Provinces and Compartments. 

Area in 
sq. m. 



1 901. 




Turin .... 

Piedmont . . . . 


Porto Maurizio .... 

Liguria .... 

Bergamo ...... 








Lombardy . . . 









Veoetia .... 








Reggio (Emilia) .... 

Emilia .... 






Massa and Carrara . . . 



Tuscany . . . 


Ascoli Piceno 


Pesaro and Urbino . . . 

Marches .... 

Perugia — Umbria .... 

Rome— Lasio 


















1. 075J60 


W 14.991 
































7 ?J 














Provinces and Compartments. 

Area in 
an. m. 




Aqmla degtt Abnuua (Abrazzo 
Ulteriore 11.) .... 
Campobasso (Molise) . 

1 138 


Chieti (Abruzso Citeriore) 
Tecamo (Abruxso Ulteriore I.) 

Abrusi and Mouse 

Aveflino (Prindpato Ulteriore) 
Bene vento ...... 

Caaerta (Terra di Lavoro) 


Salerno (Prindpato Citeriore) 

Campania . . . 

Bar! delte PujUe (Terra di Barf) 
Foggia (Capitanata) . . . 
Lecce (Terra diOtnnto) . . 

ApuKa «... 

Potensa (Basilkata) . . . 

Cataoxaro (Calabria Ulteriore 

Coseiua (Calabria Citeriore) . 

Remo di Calabria (Calabria 
Ulteriore I.) 

Calabria .... 










Sardinia .... 

Kingdom of Italy .... 

































,44 2 















The number of foreigners in ] 
37J62 were domidled within the 
The populatioo given in the 
" legal " population, which is al 
This is 490.251 higher than t 
ascertained by the census of the 
eace is due to temporary absent 
individuals on military service, &t 
and also to the fact that 469,020 
from Italy, while only 61,606 for 
the census. The kingdom is divi 
of which 197 are classed as circot 
belonging to the province of Man 
18D6 administrative divisions (1 
These were the figures at the dati 
1805 mmnimttnh and 8390 conn 
not connected with communes. 
ojvutMHM no longer correspond to 
ftnetssurHJ which in November 
1 535 by a law which provided thi 
exwtiag administrative and electo 
Ideal administrative bodies are t 
councils. The franchise is some* 
Both bodies ate elected for six y 
three yean. The provincial cou 
and the communal council a mu 
members; these smaller bodies 
while they are not sitting. The 
by ballot by the communal coun 
The actual (not the resident or 
1770 is approximately given in t 
of the kingdom as a whole was t 
1770 . . 14*689,317 
1800 . . 17,337421 
1834 . . 19.726,977 
1848 . . 33,617.153 

taly in 1 
■ kingdom 
so given 
he actua 
lothof F 
aes from 1 
^ who on 
eigners w 
idea into 
munes, at 
The ma* 
the judk 
1891 we 
it judicial 
the provi 
rhat wide 
ears, one- 
ndl elect 
carry on 
syndic of 
cil from a 
" legal" 
he follow 
iken In it 
I 186 
1 187 
1 too 

901 was 6i,e 


table is th« 
for the indh 
1 population 
ebniary 100 
Lheir residem 
ere in Italy 1 
69 provinces, 
tie 8 province 
Ui) and 836 
sums. In lot 
id 4 borough 
damtntior ai 
rial divisions 
re reduced 1 
reform shou 
ms. Theprii! 
ndal and th 
rthan the pi 
half bring n 
» a provinda 
unal from ai 
the business 
each commt 
mong its ow 
► population 
ng table (th 
[ . » 35.0 
I . . 36,8- 
1 . .384 
1 . . 324 

06, of whom 

e resident or 
ridual towns. 
. 32475.253. 
1; the differ- 
res of certain 
ountcd twice, 
ned as absent 
it the date of 
384 regions, 
ts (the latter 
sol Vcnetia), 
2 communes. 
06 there were 
s in Sardinia 
rom 1806 to 
Id not modify 
tdpal elective 
e communal 
rawed every 
1 commission 
none its own 
of the larger 
me is elected 
1 members, 
of Italy since 
e first census 




The a versos density increased from 257-31 per sq. m. in 1881 to 
~ • in Venetia, Emilia, the Marches, Umbria and 

?>3-a8 in 1001 
uscany the proportion of concentrated population ia 
40 to 55%; in Piedmont, Lignria and Lombardy the proportion 

1 of concentrated population ia only from 

rises to from 70 to 76%; in southern Italy, Sicily and Sardinia it 
attains a maximum of from 76 to 93%. 

The population of towns over 100,000 is given in the following 
table according to the estimates for 1906. The population of the 
town itself is distinguished from that of its commune, which often 
includes a considerable portion of the surrounding country. 
Town. Commune. 
Bologna ...... 105,153 160,423 

Catania 135-548 159.210 

Florence 301,183 326,550 

Genoa 255,294 267,248 

Messina 108.514 165.007 

Milan 560.613 

Naples 491.614 585,389 

Palermo 364,016 3 3 3.747 

Rome 403,383 510,580 

Turin 277,131 361,720 

Venice 146,940 169,563 

The population of the different parts of Italy differs in charac- 
ter and dialect; and there is little community of sentiment 
between them. The modes of life and standards of comfort and 
morality in north Italy and in Calabria are widely different; the 
former being far in front of the latter. Much , however, is effected 
towards unification,' by compulsory military service, it being the 
prinriple that no man shall serve within the military district to 
which he belongs. In almost all parts the idea of personal 
loyalty (eg. between master and servant) retains an almost 
feudal strength. The inhabitants of the north— the Pied- 
montese, Lombards and Genoese especially— have suffered less 
than those of the rest of the peninsula from foreign domination 
and from the admixture of inferior racial elements, and the cold 
winter climate prevents the heat of summer from being enervat- 
ing. They, and also the inhabitants of central Italy, are more 
industrious than the inhabitants of the southern provinces, 
who have by no means recovered from centuries of misgovern" 
ment and oppression, and are naturally more hot-blooded and 
excitable, but less stable, capable of organization or trust- 
worthy. The southerners are apathetic except when roused, 
and socialist doctrines find their chief adherents In the north. 
The Sicilians and Sardinians have something of Spanish dignity, 
but the former are one of the most mixed and the latter probably 
one of the purest races of the Italian kingdom. Physical character- 
istics differ widely; but as a whole the Italian is somewhat short 
of suture, with dark or black hair and eyes, often good looking. 
Both sexes reach maturity early. Mortality is decreasing, but 
if we may judge from the physical conditions of the recruits the 
physique of the nation shows little or no improvement. Much of 
this lack of progress is attributed to the heavy manual (especially 
agricultural) work undertaken by women and children. The 
women especially age rapidly, largely owing to this cause (E. 
Nathan, Vent' anni di vita italiana attrtverso all' annuaria, 
x6o sqq.). 

Births, Marriotts, Deaths.— Birth and marriage rates vary 
considerably, being highest in the centre and south (Umbria, the 
Marches, Anulia, Abruzzi and Molise, and Calabria) and lowest in the 
north (Piedmont, Liguria and Venetia), and in Sardinia. The 
death-rate is highest in Apulia, in the Abruiri and Molise, and in 
Sardinia, and lowest in the north, especially in Venetia and Piedmont. 
Taking the statistics for the whole kingdom, the annual marriage- 
rate for the years 1876-1880 was 7*5$ per 1000; in 188 1-1885 it rose 
to 8 06; in 1886-1890 it was 7*77; in 1891-1895 it was 741. and in 
1896-1900 it had gone down to 7*14 (a figure largely produced by 
the abnormally low rate of 6-88 in 1898), and in 1902 was 723. 
Divorce is forbidden by the Roman Catholic Church, and only 839 
judicial separations were obtained from the courts in 1902, more 
than half of the demands made having been abandoned. Of the 
whole population in 1901, 57-5% were unmarried, 360% married, 
and 65% widowers or widows. The Illegitimate births show a 
decrease, having been 6*95* per too births in 1873 and 5*72 in 1903, 
with a rise, however, in the intermediate period as high as 7*76 in 
1883. The birth-rate shows a corresponding decrease from 38-10 
per 1000 in 1881 to 33*39 in 1003. The male births have since 1873 
been about 3% (3*14 in 1873-1875 and 3*73 in 1806-1000) in excess 
of the female births, which is rather more than com p ensated for by 
the mater male mortality, the excess ban? 264 in 1872-1875 and 
having increased to 4*08 in 1896- 1900. - (The calculations are made 




in both cm« o« the total ol birth* «ad death* ol both •««.) The 
result is that, while in 1871 there was an excess of 143.370 male* 
over female* in the total popoJatioa. in 1881 the excem was only 
71,138. and in 1001 there were 169,684 none females than males, 
The death-rate (excluding still-born children) was, in 1872, 30-78 
per 1000. and has since steadily decreased— less rapidly between 
1886-1800 than during other years; in 1902 it was only 22*15 and 
in 1899 was aa low as 2189. The excess of births over deaths shows 
considerable variations— owing to a very low birth-rate, it was only 
3 12 per 1000 in 1880, but has averaged 11*05 per 1000 from 1896 to 
1900, reaching 11-98 in 1899 and 11-14 in 1902. For the four years 
1 809-1902 24-66 % died under the age of one year, 9-41 between one 
and two years. The average expectation of life at birth for the same 
period was 52 yean and 11 months, 62 years and 2 months, at the 
age of three years, 52 years at the age of fifteen, 44 years at the age 
of twenty-four. 30 years at the age of forty; while the average 
period of life, which was 35 years 3 months per individual in 1882, 
was 43 years per individual in 1901. This shows a considerable 
improvement, largely, but not entirely, in the diminution of infant 
mortality; the expectation of life at birth in 1882, it is true, was 
only 33 years and 6 months, and at three years of age 56 years 
1 month ; but the increase, both in the expectation of life and in its 
average duration, goes all through the different ages. 

Occupations. — In the census of 1901 the population over nine 

of age (both male and female) was divided as follows as 
main prof< 





Agricultural (including hunt- 
ing and fishing) .... 


Commerce and transport 
(public and private services) 

Domestic service, &c 

Professional classes, admini- 













Defence ' 



Emigration, — The movement of emigration may be divided into 

two currents, temporary and permanent — the former going; chiefly 

towards neighbouring European countries and to North Africa, and 

consisting of manual labourers, the latter towards trans-oceanic 

countries, principally Brazil, Argentina and the United States. 

These emigrants remain abroad for several years, even when they 

do not definitively establish themselves there. They are composed 

principally of peasants, unskilled workmen and other manual 

labourers. There was a tendency towards increased emigration 

during the last quarter of the 19th century. The principal causes 

are the growth 01 population, and the over-supply of and low rates 

of remuneration for manual labour in various Italian provinces. 

Emigration has, however, recently assumed such proportions as to 

lead to scarcity of labour and rise of wages in Italy itself. Italians 

jonn about half of the total emigrants to America. 

Permanent Emigration. 

Total Na of 

Temporary Emigration. 

Per every 
100,000 of 

Total Na of 


Per every 
100,000 of 


. |W -— ,1 figures may, to a minor extent, be due to better 
f* f?in«nsequence of the law of 1901. 
■ t g tatl ^rt C ittiH # will be seen the direction of emigration in the 

these about three-fourths would be adults; in the meantime, how- 
ever, the population increases so fast that even in 1905 there was a 
net increase in Sicily of 20,000 souls; so that in three years 2*0,000 
workers were replaced by 320000 infants. 

The phenomenon of emigration in Sicily cannot altogether be 
explained by low wages, which have risen, though prices have done 
the same. It tea been denned as apparently " a kind of collective 

Agriculture. — Accurate statistics with regard to the area 
occupied in different forms of cultivation are difficult to obtain, 
both on account of* their varied and piecemeal character and 
from the lack of a complete cadastral surrey. A complete 
survey was ordered by the law of the xst of March 1886, but 
many years must elapse before its completion. The law, however, 
enabled provinces most heavily burdened by land tax to ac- 
celerate their portion of the survey, and to profit by the reassess- 
ment of the tax on the new basis. An idea of the effects of the 
survey may be gathered from the fact that the assessments in the 
four provinces of Mantua, Ancona, Cremona and Milan, which 
formerly amounted to a total of £1 ,454,606, are now £2,788,060, an 
increase of 91 % Of the total area of Italy, 70,793,000 acres, 
71% are classed as "productive." The unproductive area 
comprises 16% of the total area (this includes 4% occupied by 
lagoon* or marshes, and 1*75% of the total area susceptible of 
bonificaiione or improvement by drainage. Between 1882 and 
1902 over £4/300,000 was spent on this by the government). The 
uncultivated area is 13%. This includes 3-50% of the total 
susceptible of cultivation. 

The cultivated area may be divided into five agrarian regions or 
zones, named after the variety of tree culture which flourishes in 
them. (1) Proceeding from south to north, the first aone is that of 
the agrumi (oranges, lemons and similar fruits). It comprises a 
great part of Sicily. In Sardinia it extends along the southern and 
western coasts. It predominates along the Ligurian Riviera from 
Bordighera to Spezia, and on the Adriatic, near San Benedetto dd 
Tronto and Gargano, and, crossing the Italian shore of the Ionian 
Sea, prevails in some regions of Calabria, and terminates around the 
gulfs of Salerno, Sorrento and Naples. (2) The region of olives 
comprises the internal Sicilian valleys and part of the mountain 
slopes; in Sardinia, the valleys near the coast on the S.E., S.W. and 
N.W.; on the mainland it extends from Liguria and from the 
southern extremities of the Romagna to Cape Santa Maria di Leuca 
in Apulia, and to Cape Spaxtivento in Calabria. Some districts of 
the olive region are near the lakes of upper Italy and in Venetia, 
and the territories of Verona, Vicenza, Treviso and FriulL (3) The 
vine region begins on the sunny slopes of the Alpine spurs and in 
those Alpine valleys open towards the south, extending over the 
plains of Lombardy and Emilia. In Sardinia it covers the mountain 
slopes to a considerable height, and in Sicily covers the aides of the 
Madonie range, reaching a level above 3000 ft. on the southern slope 
of Etna. The Calabrian Alps, the less rocky sides of the Apulian 
Murgie and the whole length of the Apennines are covered at 
different heights, according to their situation. The hills of Tuscany, 
and of Monferrato in Piedmont, produce the most celebrated Italian 
vintages. (4) The region of chestnuts extends from the valleys to 
the high plateaus of the Alps, along the northern slopes of the 
Apennines in Liguria, Modena, Tuscany, Romagna, Uinbria, the 
Marches and along the southern Apennines to the Calabrian and 
Sicilian ranges, aa well as to the mountains of Sardinia. (5) The 
weeded region covers the Alps and Apennines above the chestnut 
level. The woods consist chiefly of pine and hazel upon the Apennines, 
and upon the Calabrian, Sicilian and Sardinian mountain* of oak, 
ilex, hornbeam and similar trees. 
Between these regions of tree culture lie zones of different her- 
baceous culture, cereals, vegetable* 
and textile plants. The style of 
cultivation varies according to the 
nature of the ground, terraces sup- 
ported by stone walls being much 
used in mountainous districts. Cereal 
cultivation occupies the for em ost 

f>Iace in area arid quantity though 
l has been on the decline since 
1903, still representing, however, aa 
advance on previous years. Wheat 
is the most important crop and 
905 12,734491 acres, or about 18% 
151,696^571 bushels of wheat, a yield 
re. The importation has, however, 
882— from 164,600 to I.J 26,368 tons; 
ed to com cultivation has slightly 

r- _, - snee to wheat comes maize, occupying 
41 * a of the country , and cultivated almost 
w _ ' crop. The production of maiae in 1905 




reached about 96,250,000 bushels, a slight increase on the average. 
The production of maize is, however, insufficient, and 208,719 tons 
were imported in 1902— about double the amount imported in 188a. 

Rice ts cultivated in low-lying, moist lands, where spring and 
summer temperatures are high. The Po valley and the valleys of 
Emilia and the Romagna arc best adapted for rice, but the area is 

diminishing on account of the competit ' '- ' ' J ~' "he 

impoverishment of the soil by too intei 1 is 

about 0-5 % of the total of I taly. The i , % 

of the total, of which about two-thirds tut 

one-third in the Apennine zone. The I 
extensive but embraces not more than 1 
half is situated in Sardinia and Sicily. C 
and Tuscan maremma and in Apulia, ai for 

horses and cattle. The area of oats cul tal 

area. The other cereals, millet and f>a* »), 

have lost much of their importance in < k> 

tion of maize and rice. Millet, however, th 

of Italy, and is used as bread for ag as 

forage when mixed with buckwheat ( he 

manufacture of macaroni and similar tic 

Italian industry. It is extensively lly 

flourishes in the Neapolitan provinces. r „jh- 

flour pastes " sank, however, from 7100 tons to 350 between 1882 
and 1902. 

The cultivation of green forage is extensive and is divided into the 
categories of temporary and perennial. The temporary includes 
vetches, pulse, lupine, clover and trifolium; and the perennial, 
meadow-trefoil, lupinella, sulla (Hedysarum csronarium), lucerne 
and darnel. The natural grass meadows arc extensive, and hay is 
grown all over the country, but especially in the Po valley. Pasture 
occupies about 30% of the total area of the country, of which 
Alpine pastures occupy 1*25%. Seed-bearing vegetables are 
comparatively scarce. The principal are: white beans, largely 
consumed by the working classes; lentils, much less cultivated than 
beans; and green peas, largely consumed in Italy, and exported as 
a spring vegetable. Chick-pease are extensively cultivated in the 
southern provinces. Horse beans are grown, especially in the south 
and In the larger islands; lupines are also grown for fodder. 

Among tuberous vegetables the potato comes first. The area 
occupied is about 07% of the whole of the country. Turnips are 
grown principally in the central provinces as an alternative crop to 
wheat. They yield as much as 12 tons per acre. Beetroot (Bcla 
tsUgaris) is used as fodder, and yields about 10 tons per acre. Sugar 
beet is extensively grown to supply the sugar factories. I r\ 1898-1899 
there vera only four sugar factories, with an output of 5972 tons; 
m IQ05 there were thirty-three, with an output of 93,916 tons. 

Market gardening is carried on both near towns and villages, 
where products find ready sale, and along the great railways, on 
account of transport facilities. Rome is an exception to the former 
rule and imports garden produce largely from the neighbourhood of 
Naples and from Sardinia. 

Among the chief industrial plants is tobacco, which grows wherever 
suitable soil exists. Since tobacco as a government monopoly, its 
cultivation is subject to official concessions and prescriptions. 
Experiments hitherto made show that the cultivation of Oriental 
tobacco may profitably be extended in Italy. The yield for loot 
was 5528 tons, but a large increase took place subsequently, eleven 
million new plants having been added in southern Italy in 1905. 

The chief textile plants are hemp, flax and cotton. Hemp w 
largely cultivated in the provinces of Turin, Fcrrara, Bologna, Fori!, 
Ascoh Piceno and Cascrta. Bologna hemp is specially valued. 
FJax covers about 160,000 acres, with a product, in fibre, amounting 
to about 20,000 tons. Cotton (Gossypium ktrbaceum), which at 
the beginning of the !Qth century, at the time of the Continental 
blockade, and again during the American War of Secession, was 
largely cultivated, is now grown only in parts of Sicily and in a few 
southern provinces. Sumach, liquorice and madder are also grown 
in the south. 

I The vine is cultivated throughout the length and breadth of Italy, 
but while in some of the districts of the south and centre it occupies 
from 10 to 20% of the cultivated area, in some of the northern 
provinces, such as Sondrio, Belluno, Grossrto, &c, the average is 
only about f or 2%. The methods of cultivation are varied; but 
the planting of the vines by themselves in long rows of insignificant 
bushes is the exception. In Lombardy, Emilia, Romagna, Tuscany, 
the Marches, Umbria and the southern provinces, they are trained 
to trees which are either left in their natural state or subjected to 
pruning and pollarding. In Campania the vines arc allowed to climb 
freely to the tops of the poplars. In the rest of Italy the rim and 
the maple are the trees mainly employed as supports. Artificial 

Kops of several kinds — wires, cane work, trellis work. &c. — are also 
use in many districts (in the neighbourhood of Rome canes are 
almost exclusively employed), and in some the plant is permitted 
to trail along the ground. The vintage takes place, according to 
locality and climate, from the beginning of September to the beginning 
of November. The vine has been attacked by the Oi&ium tuckert, 
the Phylloxera vastatrix and the Peronospora viticola, which in 
rapid succession wrought great havoc in Italian vineyards. American 
vines, are, however, immune and have been largely adopted. The 

production of wine in Che vintage of 1907, which was extraordinarily 
abundant all over the country, was estimated at 1232 million gallons 
(56 million hectolitres), the average for 1901-J903 being some 352 
million gallons less; of this the probable home consumption was 

es " ...... it remained 

o> d about 45 

in » an equally 

at »rtatibn of 

th rndered the 

<" uality, too, 

<" tod; Italian 

*! i best wines 

of we opening 

fo ); nor will 

m ral qualities 

ar ireparation. 

Tl >me of the 

he re excellent 

k* s increased 

en a, or about 

14 seems thus 

to ..__,.. , :y is rather 

to be sought after. This has been encouraged by government prizes 
sir— tM ' 






8IV.VUI.V v* »ubm.u-w>» .«. iimu^ *u uvuumiuI| »>,vujr , nuuild 41 111 

Calabria; colza in Piedmont, Lombardy, Venctia and Emilia: 
and castor-oil in Venctia and Sicily. The product is principally used 
for industrial purposes, and partly in the preparation of food, but 
the amount is decreasing. 

The cultivation of oranges, lemons and their congeners (collec- 
tively designated in Italian by the term agntmi) is of comparatively 
modern date, the introduction of the Citrus Bigaradi* being probably 
due to the Arabs. Sicily is the chief centre of cultivation — the area 
occupied by lemon and orange orchards in the province of Palermo 
alone having increased from 1 1,525 acres in 1854 to 54,340 in 1874. 
Reggio Calabria, Catanzaro, Coscnza, Lecce, Sale * 

... Jerno, Naples and 
Cascrta are the continental provinces which come next after Sicily. 
In Sardinia the cultivation is extensive, but receives little attention. 
Both crude and concentrated lime-juice is exported, and essential 
oils are extracted from the rind of the ae'umi, more particularly from 
that of the lemon and the bergamot. In northern and central Italy, 
except in the province of Brescia, the agrumi are almost non-existent. 
The trees are planted on irrigated soil and the fruit gathered between 
November and August. Considerable trade is done in agra di limone 
or lemon extract, which forme the basis of citric acid. Extraction is 
extensively carried on in the provinces of Messina and Palermo. 

Among other fruit trees, apple-trees have special importance. 
Almonds are widely cultivated in Sicily, Sardinia and the southern 
provinces; walnut trees throughout the peninsula, their wood being 
more important than their fruit; hazel nuts, figs, prickly pears (used 
in the south and the islands for hedges, their fruit being a minor 
consideration), peaches, pears, locust beans and pistachio nuts are 
among the other fruits. The mulberry-tree (mows alba), whose 
leaves serve as food for silkworms, is cultivated in every region, 
considerable progress having been made in its cultivation and in the 
rearing of silkworms since 1850. Silkworra-reariog establishments 


of Importance now exist in the Marches, Umbria, in the Abruzzi, 
Tuscany, Piedmont and Venetia. The chief silk-producing provinces 
are Lombardy, Venetia and Piedmont. During the period iooo-iooa 
the average annual production of silk cocoons was 53,500 tons, and 
of silk 5200 tons. 

The great variety in physical and social conditions throughout 
the peninsula gives corresponding variety to the methods of agricul- 
ture. I n the rotation of crops there is an amazing diversity— shifts of 
two years, three years, four years, six years, and in many cases 
whatever order strikes the fancy of the farmer. The fields of Tuscany 
for the most part bear wheat one year and maize the next, in per- 
petual interchanges, relieved to some extent by green crops. A 
similar method prevails in the Abruzzi, and in the provinces of 
Salerno, Benevento and Avcllino. In Lombardy a six-year shift 
is common: either wheat, clover, maize, rice, rice, rice (the last 
year manured with lupines) or maize, wheat followed by clover, 
clover, clover ploughed in, and rice, rice and rice manured with 
lupines. The Emilian region is one where regular rotations are best 
observed— a common shift being grain, maize, clover, beans and 
vetches, Ac., grain, which has the disadvantage of the grain crops 
succeeding each other. In the province of Naples, Cascrta. &c., 
Che method of fallows is widely adopted, the ground often being left 
jn this state for fifteen or twenty >ears; and in some parts of Sicily 
there is a regular interchange of fallow and crop year by year. The 
following scheme indicates a common Sicilian method of a type which 
fvas many varieties: fallow, grain, grain, pasture, pasture— other 
two divisions of the area following the same order, but beginning 
respectively with the two years of grain and the two of pasture. 

Woods and forests play an important part, especially in regard 
to the consistency of the soil and to the character of the water- 

^. courses. The chestnut is of great value for its wood and 

**_*; its fruit, an article of popular consumption. Good timber 

***; is furnished by the oak and beech, and pine and fir forests 

****** of the Alps and Apennines. Notwithstanding the efforts 
of the government to unify and co-ordinate the forest laws previously 
Existing in the various states, deforestation has continued in many 
regions. This has been due to speculation, to the unrestricted 
pasturage of goats, to the rights which many communes have over 


p ceptkra of a few sub- 

/ great Lombard plain 

ii u the largest breed in 

t caches it in size. In 

t nail stationary flocks. 

1 , Apulia, the Abruzzi, 

I lopment a remarkable 

s ol seasons which has 

t ss, and has attracted 

a its industrial import- 

a 1 acclimatized in the 

/ ber of sheep, however, 

u >atB, which are reared 

1 account of the exist- 
ii oi young plantations, 
r helps to improve the 
b al of private breeders 
a nimportant, while the 
ii \ horses having been 
ii the different regions. 

1 n pens and stalls; ia 
c the stall system being 
Ii cattle are kept in the 

erection of shelters, 
li i extensively reared in 
n and ; though methods 
a rapidly increasing. 

17,766 head of cattle: 
e exported 95.995 and 

i a very large decrease 

a tgures for 188a. The 

e arease, 

s great dairy districts. 

1 (from Lodi) or grave, 
v 09. Parmesan is not 
c its name: it ia manu- 
fi bourhood of the Po. 
a Pavia, Novmra and 
/ ia from a town in the 
p whole of Lombardy. 
11 and in the province of 
Cuhcv. a iic wkvwc kiiuwii «• iuc uKwtcmw is produced in regions 
extending from 37 * to 43* N. let Gruyere, extensively manufactured 
in Switzerland and France, is also produced in Italy in the Alpine 
regions and in Sicily. With the exception of Parmesan, Gorgoazola, 
La Fontina and Gruyere, most of the Italian cheese b consumed in 
the locality of its production. Co-operative dairy farms are 
numerous in north Italy, and though only about halt as many as 
in 1889 (1 14 in 1902) are better organized. Modern methods have 
been introduced. 

The drainage of marshes and marshy lands has considerably 
extended. A law passed on the 22nd of March 1900 gave a - . 
special impulse to this form of enterprise by fixing the ratio 2™^ 
of expenditure incumbent respectively upon the State, ma 
the provinces, the communes, and the owners or other private 
individuals directly interested. 

The Italian Federation of Agrarian Unions has greatly contributed 
to agricultural progress. Government travelling teachers 
of agriculture, and fixed schools of viticulture, also do good 
work. Some unions annually purchase large quantities 
of merchandise for their members, especially chemical 
manures. The importation of machinery amounted 
5000 tons in 1901. 

Income from land has diminished on the whole. The chief 
diminution has taken place in the south in regard to oranges and 
lemons, cereals and (for some provinces) vines. Since 1895, however, 
the heavy import corn duty has caused a slight rise in the income 
from corn lands. The principal reasons for the general decrease arc 
the fall in prices through foreign competition and the closing of certain 
markets, the diseases of plants and the increased outlay required 
to combat them, and the growth of State and local taxation. One 
of the great evils of Italian agricultural taxation is its lack of elas- 
ticity and of adaptation to local conditions. Taxes are not sufficiently 
proportioned to what the land may reasonably be expected to 
produce, nor sufficient allowance made for the exceptional conditions 
of a southern climate, in which a few hours' bad weather may destroy 
a whole crop. The Italian agriculturist has come to look (and often 
in vain) for action on a large scale from the state, for irrigation, 
drainage of uncultivated low-lying land, which may be made fertile, 
river regulation, &c; while to the small proprietor the state often 
appears only as a hard and inconsiderate tax-gatherer. 

The relations between owners and tillers of the soil are still 
regulated by the ancient forms of agrarian contract, which have 
remained almost untouched by social and political changes. The 
possibility of reforming these contracts in some parts of the kingdom 
has been studied, in the hope of bringing them into closer harmony 
with the needs of rational cultivation and the exigencies of social 

Peasant proprietorship is most common in Lombardy and Pied* 
moot, but it is also found elsewhere. Large farms are found ia certain 




of the more open districts; but in Italy generally, and especially in 
Sardinia, the land b very much subdivided. The following forms of 
contract are most usual in the several regions: In Piedmont the 
metaadria (mMayoge), the terrieria, the colonia parwiaria, the boaria, 
the scktavensa and the afitto, or lease, are most usual. Under 
metaadria the contract generally lasts three years. Products are 
usually divided in equal proportions be t wee n the owner and the 
tiller. The owner pays the taxes, defrays the cost of preparing the 
ground, and provides the necessary implements. Stock usually 
belong* to the owner, and, even if kept on the half-and-half system, 
is usually bought by him. The peasant, or memadro, provides 
•■-'•--- rfurmsf ---■•■ 

labour. Under Urtieria the owner furnishes stock, implements and 
seed, and the tiller retains only one-third of the principal products. 
In the colonia partiaria the peasant executes all the agricultural 
work, in return for which he is housed rent-free, and receives one- 
sixth of the corn, one-third of the maize and has a small money wage. 
This contract is usually renewed from year to year. The boaria 
is widely diffused in its two forms of casctnafaUa and pagke. In the 
former case a peasant family undertakes all the necessary work in 
return for payment in money or kind, which varies according to the 
crop; in the latter the money wages and the payment in kind are 
fixed beforehand. Sckiavenaa, either simple or with a share in the 
crops, is a form of contract similar to the boaria, but applied princi- 
pally to large holdings. The wages are lower than under the boaria. 
In the ofkUo, or lease, the proprietor furnishes seed and the imple- 
ments. Kent varies according to the quality of the soil. 

In Lombardy, besides the meteadri*, the lease b common, but the 
lertieria b rare. The lessee, or farmer, tills the soil at his own risk; 
usually he provides live stock, implements and capital, and has no 
right to compensation for ordinary improvements, nor for extra- 
ordinary improvements effected without the landlord's consent. 
He b obliged to give a guarantee for the fulfilment of hb engage- 
ments. In some places he pays an annual tribute in grapes, corn and 
other produce. In some of the Lombard meuadria contracts taxes 
are paid by the cultivator. 

In Venetia it b more common than elsewhere in Italy for owners 
to till their own soil. The prevalent forms of contract are the 
mestadria and the lease. In Liguria, also, meuadtia and lease are 
the chief forms of contract. 

In Emilia both metaadria and lease tenure are widely diffused in 
the provinces of Ferrara, Reggio and Parma; but other special 
forms of contract exist, known as the famiglio da spesa, boaria, 
braccianH obNigoti and broxcianti disobbiigali. In the famiglio da 
spesa the tiller receives a smalt wage anrl a proportion of certain 
products. The boaria a of two kinds. If the tiller receives as much 
as 45 lire per month, supplemented by other wages in kind, it b said 
to be boaria a salario; if the principal part of his remuneration Is in 
kind, hb contract b called boaria a spesa. 

In the Marches, Umbria and Tuscany, metaadria prevaib in its 
purest form. Profits and losses, both in regard to produce and stock, 
are equally divided. In some places, however, the landlord takes 
two-thirds of the olives and the whole of the grapes and the mulberry 
leaves. Leasehold exists in the province of Grosseto alone. In 
Latium leasehold and farming by landlords prevail, but cases of 
metaadria and of " improvement farms " exist. In the agro Romano, 
or zone immediately around Rome, land b as a rule left for pasturage. 
It needs, therefore, merely supervision by guardians and mounted 
overseers, or butteri, who are housed and receive wages. Large 
landlords are usually represented by ministri, or factors, who direct 
agricultural operations and manage the estates, but the estate b 
often let to a middleman, or mereanU di eampaena. Wherever corn 
b cultivated, leasehold predominates. Much of the work b done by 
companies of peasants, who come down from the mountainous 
districts when required, permanent residence not being possible 
owing to the malaria. Near Vetlctri and Frosinone " improvement 
farms " prevail. A piece of uncultivated land is made over to a 
peasant for from 20 to 29 years. Vines and olives are usually 
planted, the landlord paying the taxes and receiving one-third of the 
produce. At the end of the contract the landlord either cultivates 
Kb land himself or leases it, repaying to the improver part of the 
expenditure incurred by him. This repayment sometimes consists 
of half the estimated value of the standing crops. 

In the Abruxxi and in Apulia leasehold Is predominant. Usually 
leases la*t from three to six years. In the provinces of Foggb *nd 
Lecce long leases (up to twenty-nine years) are granted, but in them 
it is explicitly declared that they do not imply tnfiUvsi (perpetual 
leasehold), nor any other form of contract equivalent to co-pro- 
prietorship. Metaadria b rarely resorted to. On some small hold- 
ings, however, it exists with contracts lasting from two to six years. 
Special contracts, known as colonie immooibm and colonie temporanee 
are applied to the tatifondi or huge estates, the owners of which receive 
half the produce, except that of the vines, olive-trees and woods, 
which he leases separately. " improvement contracts " also exist. 
They consist of long leases, under which the landlord shares the 
costs of improvements and builds farm-houses; also leases of orange 
and lemon gardens, two-thirds of the produce of which go to the 
landlord, while the farmer contributes half the cost of farming 
besides the labour. Leasehold, varying from four to six years for 
arable land and from six to eighteen years for forest-land, prevails 
also in Campanb, Basilica** and Cambria. The sstagko, or rent, 











rciamra oy tne actual uuer 01 we sou is extremely meagre, in oaa 

years the tiller, moreover, gives up seed corn before beginning harvest. 

In Sardinia landlord-farming and leasehold prevail. In the few 
cases of metaadria the Tuscan system b followed. 

Mines. — The number of mines increased from 589 in 1881 to 
1580 in 1002. The output in 1881 was worth about £2,800,000, but 
by 1895 bad decreased to £1. 800,000, chiefly on account of the fall 
in the price of sulphur. It afterwards rose, and was worth more than 

„ ,640,000 in 1899, falling again to £3,1 18,600 in 1902 owing to s 

American competition in sulphur (see Sicily). The chief minerals 
are sulphur, in the production of which Italy holds one of the first 
places, iron, zinc, lead; these, and, to a smaller extent, copper of an 
inferior quality, manganese and antimony, are successfully mined. 
The bulk of the sulphur mines are in Sicily, while the majority of the 
lead and sine mines are in Sardinia; much of the lead smelting is 
done at Pertusola, near Genoa, the company formed for this purpose 
having acquired many of the Sardiman mines. Iron b mainly mined 
in Elba. Quicksilver and tin are found (the latter in small quantities) 
in Tuscany. Boracic acid b chiefly found near VoUerra. where there 
b also a little rock salt, but the main supply b obtained by evapora- 
tion. The output of stone from quarries u greatly diminished (from 
12,500,000 tons, worth £1,920,000, in 1890, to 8,000,000 tons, worth 
£1,400,000, in 1899), * circumstance probably attributable to the 
slackening of building enterprise in many cities, and to the decrease 
in the demand for stone for railway, maritime and river embankment 
works. The value of the output had, however, by 1902 risen to 
£1,600,000, representing a tonnage of about 10,000,000. There b 
good travertine below Tivoli and elsewhere in Italy; the finest 
granite b found at Baveno. Lava b much used for paving-stones 
in the neighbourhood of volcanic districts, where posxolana (for 
cement) and pumice stone are also important. Much of Italy contains 
Pliocene clay, which b good for pottery and brickmaking. Mineral 
springs are very numerous, and of great variety. 

Fisheries.— The number of boats and smacks engaged in the 
fisheries has considerably increased. In 188 1 the total number was 
15.914. with a tonnage of 49.1°3- In 1902 there were 23,098 boats, 
manned by 101 ,720 men, and the total catch was valued at just over 
half a million sterling— according to the government figures, which 
are certainly below the truth. The value has, however, undoubtedly 
diminished, though the number of boats and crews increases. Most 
of the fishing boats,' properly so called, start from the Adriatic coast, 
the coral boats from the western Mediterranean coast, and the sponge 
boats from the western Mediterranean and Sicilian coasts. Fishing 
and trawling are carried on chiefly off the Italian (especially Ligurian, 
Austrian and Tunisian coasts; coral b found principally near 
Sardinia and Sicily, and sponges almost exclusively off Sicily and 
Tunisia in the neighbourhood of Sfax. For sponge fishing no 
accurate statistics are available before 1896; in that year 75 tons of 
sponges were secured, but there has been considerable diminution 
since, only 3 1 tons being obtained in 1 902. A considerable proportion 
was obtained by foreign boats. The island of Lampedusa may be 
considered it* centre. Coral fishing, which fell off between 1889 and 
1892 on account of the temporary closing of the Sciacca coral reefs 
has greatly decreased since 1884, when the fisheries produced 643 
tons, whereas in 1902 they only produced 225 tons. The value of 
the product has, however, proportionately increased, so that the sum 

liaed was little leas* while leas than half the number of men 





r ••* v\*w** ^•\K\»i>n co««1 command* from £t to {4 per kilo- 

n v- ^ **V *»^l i» much more valuable than the Sicilian 

^v. Vvk\* r\vK *vtr Again closed (or three winters by a 

4 . >N ...» X ^V4 fV r»>Kmjs t« largely carried on by boats from 

• >>•>-. v n\>\ m the \\w\\ of Naples, where the best coral beds are 

>\ >\^.*v »<v\t l« i$«q auoo men were employed; in 1002 only 

. x»\n^ iossv U i^vi there were 48 tunny fisheries, employing 

^>v >»»% * m>I jn« t\»n» ol fish worth £80,000 were caught. The 

« s.v, n .« *<v in Sardinia, Sicily and Elba. Anchovy and 

s * Nv,v S <tho prxMlmtm of which are reckoned among the 

• »\ i.m »t» ,ux« .»Im» *>f cott»kfcrahte importance, especially along 

, t < > .«»« Ami Ititiin ctvuts. The lagoon fisheries arc also of 

> .M»^Mt,»mt, mutr e.^jallv those of Comacchio. the lagoon 

%Mst,lk% rt .«vl the Mare Piccolo at Taranto &c The deep-sea 

^-sc Nv>u m too* numbered 1308. with a total tonnage of 16J49; 

^ % A Ou -♦ wrrv i™*|.fi,hing boats and 1 11 sponge-fishing boats. 

/ «..f-.x,. „,/ /V.»xr««.--The Industrial progress of Italy has been 

^, % i Mm* 1S80. Many articles formerly imported arc now 

#% |v M home, and some Italian manufactures have begun to 

•° V! ,h - ?'* *? ma r kcl ** Ildy has on, y important lignite 
%l .»>^'»«v lie mines but water power is abundant and hasbcen 
^•lv awl!*! to industry, especially in generating electricity. 

* C %V^r., rc ? uircd ^. 1 ^ tmrnwavsanHhcmS: 










V uvmstries (flax. Jute. Ac.) have made notable 
. - Wv t« concentrated in a few large factories. 
H ** ' W more than supplied the home market. 
s . >*v»»Ny to export. 

.* vVm« an output worth £2.640,000 in 1903 as 

,v • Vj The chief products are sulphuric acid : 

, - ^s -.v» employed chiefly as a preventive of 

. . »<v» w tt* vine; carbonate of lead, hyper- 

.K-...S u MMsvures; calcium carbide; explosive 

% ^y^f^»v»i, Pharov- •*. 

as distinguished from those above mentioned, have kept pace with 
the general development of Italian activity. The principal product 
is quinine, the manufacture of which has acquired great importance, 
owing to its use as a specific against malaria. Milan and Genua am 
the principal centres, and also the government military pharma- 
ceutical factory at Turin. Other industries of a semi-chemical 
character are candle*, soap-, glue-, and pcrfumc-makiog, and the 
preparation of india-rubber. The last named has succeeded, by 
means of the large establishments at Milan in supplying not only the 
whole Italian market but an export trade. 

The match-making industry is subject to special fiscal conditions. 

| n .~*-_.^.. .t -pg 2 |p match factories scattered throughout 

It; n Piedmont, Lombard^ and Vcnetia. The 

nu ccd to less than half since 1897 by the sup- 

pn ctorics, while the production has increased 

fro 59.741 millions. 

tdustry has attained considerable proportions 
in »s, Lazio, Vcnetia and Piedmont since 1890. 

In ns were produced, while in 1905 the figure 

hai The rise of the industry has been favoured 

by id by a system of excise which allows a con- 

sid lanufacturcra. 

one various oscillations, according to the 
leg istillcrics. In 1871 only 20 hectolitres were 

pn f the output was 318,000 hectolitres, the 

ma incd. Since then special laws have hampered 

dc r r _ vinccs, as for instance Sardinia, being allowed 

to manufacture for their own consumption but not for export. la 
other parts the industry is subjected to an almost prohibitive excise- 
duty. The average production is about 180,000 hectolitres per 
annum. The greatest quantity is produced in Lombardy, Piedmont, 
Vcnetia and Tuscany. The quantity of beer is about the same, 
the greater part of the beer drunk being imported from Germany, 
while the production of artificial mineral waters has somewhat 
decreased. There is a considerable trade (not very large for export, 
however) in natural mineral waters, which are often excellent. 

Paper-making is highly developed in. the provinces of Novara, 
Caserta. Milan, Viccnza, Turin, Como, Lucca, Ancona, Genoa. 
Brescia, Cunco, Macerata and Salerno. The hand-made paper of 
Fabriano is especially good. 

Furniture-making in different styles is carried on all over Italy, 
especially as a result of the establishment of industrial schools. 
Each region produces a special type, Vcnetia turning out imitations 
of 16th- and 17th-century styles, Tuscany the 15th-century or cinque- 
cento style, and the Neapolitan provinces the Pompeian style. 
Furniture and cabinet -making in great factories are carried on 
particularly in Lombardy and Piedmont. Bent-wood factories have 
been established in Vcnetia and Liguria. 

A characteristic Italian industry is that of straw-plaiting for 
hat-making, which is carried on principally in Tuscany, in the 
district of Fcrmo, in the Alpine villages of the province of Viccnza, 
and in some communes of the province of Messina. The plaiting 
is done by country women, while the hats are made up in factories. 
Both plaits and hats are largely exported. 

Tobacco is entirely a government monopoly; the total amount 
manufactured in 1902-1903 was 16,599 tons — a fairly constant figure. 

The finest glass is made in Tuscany and Vcnetia; Venetian glass 
is often coloured and of artistic form. 

In the various ceramic arts Italy was once unrivalled, but the 
ancient tradition for a long time lost its primeval impulse. The 
works at Vinovo, which had fame in the 18th century, 
came to an untimely end in 1820; those of Castclli (in 
the Abruzzi), which have been revived, were supplanted trUa 
by Charles lll.'s establishment at Capodimontc, 1750, 
which after producing articles of surprising execution was closed 
before the end of the century. The first place now belongs to the 
Delia Doccia works at Florence. Founded in 1 735 by the marquis 
Carlo Ginori. they maintained a reputation of the very highest kind 
down to about i860; but since then they have not kept pace with 
their younger rivals in other lands. They still, however, are com- 
mercially successful. Other cities where the ceramic industries keep 
their ground arc Pesaro, Gubbio, Facnza (whose name long ago 
became the distinctive term for the finer kind of pottcr*s work in 
France, faience), Savona and Albissola, Turin, Mondovi. Cunco, 
CastcUamontc, Milan, Brescia, Sassuoto, lmola, Rimini, Perugia. 
Castclli. &c. In all these the older styles, by which these places 
became famous in the t6ih-i8th centuries, have been revived. It 
is estimated that the total production of the finer wares amounts 
on the average to £400,000 per annum. The ruder branches of the 
art— the making of tiles and common wares— are pretty generally 

The jeweller's art received large encouragement in a country 
which had so many independent courts: but nowhere has it attained 
a fuller development than at P.ome. A vast variety of trinkets— in 
coral, glass, lava, &c. — is exported from Italy, or carried away bv 
the annual host of tourists. The copying of the paintings of the old 
masters is becoming an art industry of no small mercantile import- 
ance in some of the larger cities. 

The production of mosaics is an industry still carried on with 
much success is Italy, which, indeed ranks exceedingly high in the 




The great works of the Vatican aw especially tamow 
(more than 17,000 distinct tints are employed in theirproductions), 
and there are many other establishments in Rome. Toe Florentine 
mosaics are perhaps better known abroad; they are composed of 
larger pieces than the Roman. Those of the Venetian artists are 
remarkable for the boldness of their colouring. There is a tendency 
towards the fostering of feminine home uxtoftries—lace-making, 
fiaen- weaving, Ac 

Condition of UU Working Classes.— Tht condition of the 
numerous agricultural labourers (who constitute one-third of the 
population) is, except in some regions, bard, and in places 
absolutely miserable. Much light was thrown upon their position 
by the agricultural inquiry (incMicsU agraria) completed in 1884, 
The large numbers of emigrants, who are drawn chiefly from the 
rural classes, furnish another proof of poverty. The terms of 
agrarian contracts and leases (except in districts ^here mmadria 
prevails in its essential form), are in many regions disadvantageous 
to the labourers, who suffer from the obligation to provide 
guarantees for payment of rent, for repayment of seed corn and 
for the division of products. 

It was only at the close of the 19th century that the true caose 
of malaria— the conveyance of the infection by the bite of the 
jy^jb AnopktUs cAmjtr— was discovered. This mosquito does 
not as a rule enter the large towns; but low-lying coast 
districts and ill-drained plains are especially subject to it. Much 
has been done in keeping out the insects by fine wire netting placed 
on the windows and the doors of houses, especially in the railway 
men*s cottages. In 1903 the state took up the sate of quinine at a 
low price, manufacturing it at the central military pharmaceutical 
laboratory at Twin. Statistics show the difference produced by 
this measure. 

Financial Year. 

Pounds of 
quinine sold. 

Deaths by 

1 901-1902 
1 902-1903 



Th« profit made by the state, which is entirely devoted to a 
special fund for means against malaria, amounted in these 
five .years to £41,759. It ha» been established that two 3-grain 
pastilles a day are a sufficient prophylactic; and the proprietors 
of malarious estates and contractors (or public works in malarious 
districts are bound by law to provide sufficient quinine for their 
workmen, death for want of this precaution coming under the pro- 
visions of tho workmen's compensation act. Much has also been, 
though much remains to be, done in the way of bonificmmsnto, i>. 
proper drainage and improvement of the (generally fertile) low-lying 
ana hitherto malarious plains. 

In Venetia the lives of tho small proprietors and of the salaried 
peasants are often extremely miserable. There and in Lombardy the 
disease known as pelUgro is most widely diffused. The disease Is 
due to poisoning by micro-organism* produced by deteriorated maize, 
and can be combated by care in ripening, drying and storing the 
maize. The most recent statistics snow the disease to be dimmish- 
ing. Whereas in 1881 there were 104,067 (16-79 per 1000) peasants 
afflicted by the disease, in 1899 there were only 72,603 (10-30 per 
1000) peasants, with a maximum of 39,88a (34*32 per 1000} peasants 
in Venetia. and 19,557 (11*90 per 1000) peasants in Lombardy. The 
b of the disease is a direct result of the efforts made to combat 

h, in the form of special hospitals or peUaposori, economic kitchens, 
rural bakeries and maize-drying establishments. A bill for the 
better prevention of pellagra was introduced in the spring of 1903. 
The deaths from it dropped in that year to 2376, from 3054 in the 
previous year and 3788 in 1900. 

In Liguna, on account of the comparative rarity of Urge estates, 
agricultoral labourers arc in a better condition. Men earn between 
Is. 3d. and 2s. id. a day, and women from 5d. to 8d. In Emilia 
the day labourers, known as distbUigpH, earn, on the contrary, low 
wages, out of which they have to provide for shelter and to lay by 
something against unemployment. Their condition is miserable. 
In Tuscany, however, the prevalence of mettairia, properly so 
called, has raised the labourers' position. Yet in some Tuscan 
provinces, as, for instance, that of Grosseto, where malaria rages, 
kbourers are organized in gangs under " corporals," who undertake 
harvest work. They arc poverty-stricken, and easily fall victims 
to fever. In the Abrurri and in Apulia both regular and irregular 
workmen are engaged by the year. The eurqtori or eurntoH (factors) 
* * .with a si - . . . 

receive £40 a year, 

slight interest in the profits; the stock- 

hardly earn in money and kind £13; the muleteers and under* 
get between £5 to £8, plus firewood, bread and oil; 

irregular workmen have even lower wages, with a dairy distribution 
of bread, salt and oiL In Campania and Calabria the curototi and 
wmssan earn, in money and kind, about £ia a year; cowmen, 
shepherds and muleteers about £10; irregular workmen are paid 
from 8|d. to is. 3d. per day, but only find employment, on an 
average, 230 days in the year. The condition of Sicilian labourers 
is also miserable. The huge extent of the ItUifondi, or large estates, 
often results in their being left in the hands of speculators, who 
exploit both workmen and farmers with such usury that the latter 
are often compelled, at the end of a scanty year, to hand over their 
crops to the usurers before harvest. In Sardinia wage-earners are 
paid tod. a day, with free shelter and an allotment for private 
cultivation. Irregular adult workmen earn between led. and is. 3d., 
and boys from 6d. to tod. a day. Woodcutters and vine-waterers, 
however, sometimes earn as much as 3s. a day. 

The peasants somewhat rarely use animal food—this b most largely 
used in Sardinia and least in Sicily— bread and polenta or macaroni 
and vegetables being the staple diet. Wine is the prevailing drink. 

The condition of the workmen employed in manufactures has 
improved during recent years. Wages are higher, the cost of the 
prime necessaries of life is, as a rule, lower, though taxation on 
some of them is still enormous; so that the remuneration of 
work has improved. Taking into account the variations in wages 
and in the price of wheat, it may be calculated that the number 
of hours of work requisite to earn a sum equal to the price of 
a cwt. of wheat fell from 183 in 1871 to 73 in 1804* la 
1898 it was 105, on account of the rise in the price of wheat, and 
since then up tfll 1902 it oscillated between 105 and 95. 

Wages have risen from 226 centimes per hour (on an average) 
to 26*3 centimes, but not in all industries. In the mining and 
woollen industries they have fatten, but have increased in mechanical, 
chemical, silk and cotton industries. Wages vary greatly in different 
parts of Italy, according to the cost of the necessaries of Ufe, the 
degree of development of working-class needs and the state of 
working-class organization, which m some places has succeeded in 
increasing tht rates of pay. Women are, as a rule, paid less than 
men, and though their wages Jiave also increased, the rise has been 
slighter than in the case of men. In some trades, for instance the 
silk trade, women earn little more than led. a day, and, for some 
classes of work, as little as 7d. and M. The general improvement 
in sanitation has fed to a corresponding Improvement in the condi- 
tion of the working classes, though much still remains to be done, 
espedaly in the sooth. On the other hand, it is generally the case 
that even in the most unpromising inn the bedding is clean. 

The number of industrial strikes has risen from year to year, 
although, on account of the large namber of persons involved in 
some of them, the rise in the number of strikers has not sMkmm. 
always corresponded to the number of strikes. During a" 1 *** 
the years 1900 and 1901 strikes were increasingly numerous, chiefly 

are most developed. Textile, building and mining industries show 
the highest percentage of strikes, since they give employment to 
large numbers of men concentrated in single localities. Agricultural 
strikes, though less frequent than those in manufacturing industries; 
have speciartmportance in Italy. They are most common in the 
north and centre, a circumstance which shows them to be promoted 
less by the move backward and more ignorant peasants than by the 
better-educated labourers of Lombardy and Emilia, among whom 
Socialist organizations are widespread. Since 1901 there have been, 
more than once, general strikes at Milan and elsewhere, and one in 
the autumn of 1905 caused great inconvenience throughout the 
country, and led to no effective result. 

Although in some industrial centres the working-class movement 
has assumed an importance equal to that of other countries, there 
is no general working-class organization comparable to the English 
trade unions. Mutual benefit and co-operative societies serve the 

parpose of working-class defence or offence against the employers. 
In 1893,. after many vicissitudes, the Italian Socialist Labour Party 
was founded, and has 1 — ■ * 1 — -*- ,: -- «--*-«--. »-—- — 

i893,*after many vicissitudes, the Italian Socialist Labour I _ 
1 founded, and has now become the Italian Socialist Party, in 
which the majority of Italian workmen enrol themselves. Printers 

and hat-makers, however, possess trade societies. In 1899 an agita- 
tion began for the organization of " Chambers of Labour, Intended 
to look after the technical education of workmen and to form com- 
missions of arbitration in case of strikes. They act also as employ- 
ment bureaux, and are often centres of political propaganda. At 
present such " chambers " exist in many Italian cities, while "leagues 
of improvement," or of " resistance," are rapidly spreading in the 
country districts. In many cases the action of these organizations has 
proved, at least temporarily, advantageous to the working classes. 

Labour legislation is backward In Italy, on account of the late 
development of manufacturing industry and of working-class 
organization. On the 17th of April 1898 a species of Employers 
Liability Act compelled employers of more than five workmen in 
certain industries to insure their employees against accidents. 



Q* the* t ?xh of Jalv 1808 a national futld forth* insurance of workmen 
•***•«* Ml««rs» and old age was founded by law on the principle of 
*****»a4 Trituration. In addition to an initial endowment by the 
•**t«\ i*m vi ike annual income of the fund it furnished in various 
****** **v the state (principally by making over a proportion of the 
ljv»&t* ol the Post Office Savings Bank), and part by the premiums 
*" *"* *»«rkroen. The minimum} annual premium is six lire for an 
Annua > of one lira per day at the age of sixty, and insurance against 
*£ iSTTf" ^^** ** w I***! °* wnges in many trades and the jealousies 
** •*• * Oumbm of Labour " and other working-class organizations 
•«M*2* rapid dcx-elopmcnt. 

A **!■' cvarae into operation in February 1908, according to which 
# *ttHi Unv of rest (with few exceptionslwas established on Sunday 
V • vc *v <^a» in which it was possible, and otherwise upon some other 
* A X** l*** w k. 

t « V£* **•«** institution of Pntdkommes was introduced into Italy 
l« »»**• >hkWt the name of CeUegi di Prebmri. The institution has 
not *M*ux*l treat vogue. Most of the colleges deal with matters 
? v2£2P w tr * * ,wl mccftarMca » industries. Each "college" is 

k» v ^y*l decree, and consists of a president, with not fewer 

tnan ten and not more than twenty members. A conciliation 
t* ur **u *nd * Jury are elected to deal with disputes concerning wages, 

hours o| wvrk. labour contracts, &c, and have power to settle the 

<J**P ut **» without appeal* whenever the amounts involved do not 

c )tceeU Jpj. 

f VtovideM Institutions have considerably developed in Italy 

rMMt Un ^ cr lne forms of savings banks, assurance companies 

~\t\ H<t - *nd mutual benefit societies. Besides the Post Office 

JJJJs, Savings Bank and the ordinary savings banks, many 

co-operative credit societies and ordinary credit banks 

-w.clve deposits of savings. 

flourishes most in the districts in which the mezaadria system baa 
been prevalent. 

Radwavs.-~The first railway in Italy, a line 16 m. long from Naples 
to Castelkurnmare, was opened in 1840. By 1881 there were some 
5500 m. open, in 1891 some 8000 m., while in 1901 the total length 
was 9317 m. In July 1905 all the principal lines, which had been 
constructed by the state, but had been since 1885 let out to three 
companies (Mediterranean, Adriatic, Sicilian), were taken over by 
the state; their length amounted in loot to 6147 m., and in 1907 
to 8422 m. The minor lines (many of them narrow gauge) remain in 
the hands of private companies. The total length, including the 
Sardinian railways, was 10,368 m. in 1907. The state, in taking over 
the railways, did not exercise sufficient care to see that the lines and 
the rolling stock were kept up to a proper state of efficiency and 
adequacy for the work they had to perform; while the step itself 
was taken, somewhat hastily. The result was that for the first two 
years of state administration the service was distinctly bad, and the 
lack of goods trucks at the ports was especially fcU. A capital 
expenditure of £4,000,000 annually was decided on to bring the lines 
up to the necessary state of efficiency to be able to cope with the 
rapidly increasing traffic. It was estimated in 1906 that this would 
have to be maintained for a period of ten years, with a further total 
expenditure of £14,000,000 on new lines. 

Comparing the state of things in 1001 with that of 1881, for the 
whole country, we find the passenger and goods traffic almost 
doubled (except the cattle traffic), the capital expenditure almost 
doubled, the working expenses per mile almost imperceptibly 
increased, and the gross receipts per mile slightly lower. The 
personnel had increased from 70,568 to 108,690. The construction 
of numerous unremunerative lines, and the free granting- of coo- 
cessions to government and other employees (and also of cheap 
tickets on special occasions for congresses, fix., in various towns, 
without strict inquiry into the qualifications of the claimants) will 
account for the failure to realise a higher profit. The fares (in slow 
trains, with the addition of 10% for expenses) arc: 1st class, i*8sd.; 
2nd, 1 3d. ; 3rd, 0*7250% per mile. There are, however, considerable 
reductions for distances over 93 m-, on a scale increasing in propor- 
tion to the distance. 

The taking over of the main lines by the state has of course 
produced a considerable change in the financial situation of the 
railways. The state incurred in this connexion a liability of some 
£20,000,000, of which about £16,000,000 represented the rolling 
stack. The state has considerably improved the enginesand passenger 
carriages. The capital value of the whole of the lines, rolling stock, 
&c, for 1908-1909 was calculated approximately at £244,161,400, 
and the profits at £5.?95^»9. or 2*%. 

Milan is the most important railway centra in the country, and 
is followed by Turin, Genoa, Verona, Bologna, Rome, Naples, Lom- 
bardy and Piedmont are much better provided with railways in 

proportion to their area than any other parts of Italy; ne 

Venctia, Emilia and the immediate environs of Naples. 

The northern frontier is crossed by the railway from Turin to 
Ventimiglia by the Col di Tenda, the Mont Cenis line from Turin 
to Modane (the tunnel is 7 m. in length), the Simplon line (tunnel 
1 1 m. in length) from Domodossola to Brigue, the St Got t hard from 
Milan to Chiasso (the tunnel is entirely in Swiss territory), the 
Brenner from Verona to Trent, the line from Udine to Tarvis and 
the line from Venice to Triest by the Adriatic coast. Besides these 
international lines the most important are those from Milan to Turin 
(via Vcrcelli and via Alessandria), to Genoa via Tortona, to Bologna 
via Parma and Modena, to Verona, and the shorter lines to the 
district of the lakes of Lombardy ; from Turin to Genoa via Savona 
and via Alessandria ( from Genoa to Savona and Ventimiglia along 
the Riviera, and along the south-west coast of Italy, via Sarzana 
(whence a line runs to Parma) to Pisa (whence lines run to Pistoia 
and Florence) and Rome; from Verona to Modena, and to Venice 
via Padua; from Bologna to Padua, to Rimini (and thence alone 
the north-east coast via Ancona, Castellammare Adriatico ana 
Foggia to Brindisi and Otranto), and to Florence and Rome; from 
Rome to Ancona, to Castellammare Adriatico and to Naples; from 
Naples to Foggia, via Metaponto (with a junction for Keggio di 
Calabria), to Brindisi and to Reggio di Calabria. (For the Sicilian 
and Sardinian lines, see Sicily and Sardinia.) The speed of the 
trains is not high, nor are the runs without stoppage long as a rule. 
One of the fastest runs is from Rome to Orte, 52*40 m. in 69 min* 
or 45*40 m. per hoar, but this is a double line with little traffic* 
The low speed reduces the potentiality of the lines. The insufficiency 
of rolling stock, and especially of goods wagons, is mainly caused 
by delays in " handling traffic consequent on this or other causes, 
among which may be mentioned the great length of the single lines 
south of Rome. It is thus a matter of difficulty to provide trucks 
for a sudden emergency, «£. the vintage season; and in 1905-1907 
complaints were many, while the seaports were continually short of 
trucks. This led to deficiencies in the supply of coal to the manu- 
facturing centres, and to some diversion elsewhere of shipping. 

Steam and Electric Tramways. — Tramways with mechanical 
traction have developed rapidly. Between 1875, when the first line 
was opened, and 1001, the length of the lines grew to 1 890 m. of 
steam and 270 m. of electric tramways. These lines exist principally 
in Lombardy (especially in the province of Mitaa)* ia Piedmont* 



espedaJty la the province of Turin, and in other regioi 
and central luly. In the south they ate rare, on aooo 
the mountainous character of the country, and partly < 
of traffic All the important townt of Italy are providec 
electric tramways, mostly with overhead wires. 
P'lworfr have been 


greatly extended in 

although their ratio to ansa varies in different localit 
Italy there are 1480 yds. of road per sq. m.; in cent 
in southern Italy 405; in Sardinia 596, and in Sit 
They are as a rule well kept up in north and central It 
the south, where, especially in Calabria, many villa 
ceasibJe by road and have only footpaths leading to t 
act of 1903 the state contributes half and the provmc 
the cost of roads connecting communes with the m 
■rations or landing places. 

Intend Norifatum.— Navigable canals had in 1886 a 1 
about 655 m.; they are principally situated in Piedmo 
and Venetia, and are thus practically confined to 1 
Canals lead from Milan to the Tidno, Adda and Po. 1 
navigable from Turin downwards, but through its deta 
that canals are p referred, the Po di Volano and the Po 
the right, and the Canale Bianco on the left. The t 
navigable rivers is 967 m. 

Pmsts, Tdtrrapks and Telephones.— The number e 
(including colleUoru, or collecting offices, which are 
eliminated) ii 

from 2200 in 1862 to 4823 in 1881 

and 8817 in 1904. In spite of a large increase in tl 
letters and post cards (i*. nearly 10 per inhabitant 1 
1904, as against 5*65 in 1888) the average is consic 
that of most other European countries. 'Die number 
graph offices was 4603, of other offices (railway and tran 
which, accept private telegrams for transmission) 
telephone system is considerably developed ; in 1904, 
66 later - urban systems existed. They were install* 
companies, but have been taken over oy the state, 
communication between Rome and Paris, and Italy an 
also exists. The parcel post and money order service) 
increased since 1 887-1888, the number of parcels fa 
doubled (those for abroad are more than trebled), 
of money orders issued is trebled and their value dc 
£40,000,000). The value of the foreign orders paid in 1 
from £1,280,000 to £2*3*6,000 owing to the increase 
and of the savings sent home by emigrants. 

At the end of 1907 Italy was among the few countries 
adopted the reduction of postage sanctioned at the 
c on g r ess , held in Rome in 1906, by which the rates be 
the first on., and ifcL per ox. afterwards. The intern 
(1 WO per I ox.; post-cards 10c. (id), reply 15c. On tl 
letters within the postal district are only Se.(ftd.) per \ 
matter is 2c. (Jd.) per 50 grammes (1 1 ox.). Thereguu 
that if there is a greater weight of correspondence (in 
packets) than 1} lb for any individual by any one dc 
■kail be given bun that it is lying at the post office, 1 
obliged to arrange for fetchucg it. Letters insured fo 
are not delivered under any circumstances. 

Money order cards are very convenient and cheap 
[8s.] for ioc. [id.]), as they need not be enclosed in a 1 
short private message can be written on them. Owin 
parativdy small amount of letters, it is found povil 
travelling post office on all principal trains (while alroo 
hasa travelling sorter, for whom a compartment is rese 
a late fee being exacted in either case. In the principal 
may be posted in special boxes at the head office ju 
departure of any given mail train, and are conveyed 
travelling post office. Another convenient arrangx 
provision of letter-boxes on electric tramcars in some c 

Mercantile Marine.— Between the years 1881 and 19c 
of ships entered and cleared at Italian ports decn 
(219.598 in 1881 and 208,737 in 1905). while their aggri 
increased (32,070,704 in 1881 and 80,782,030 in 1905). 
ment of shipping, trade with foreign countries prevails 
regards arrivals) over trade between Italian ports, 
merchandise ana passengers bound for and bailing from 
sail under foreign flags. Similarly, foreign vessels 
Italian vessels in regard to goods embarked. Europ 
absorb the greater part of Italian sea-borne trade, wh 
the passenger traffic goes to North and South America 
tution of steamships for sailing vessels has brought ab 
tion in the number of vessels belonging to the lulu 
marine, whether employed in the coasting trade, the \ 
traffic on the high seas. Thus: — 


No. of 











nd up 

- .. uig obligatory at 

frO ^. oecoodary instruction (i.) 

~*a /tc«, the latter leading to the 

?fe age Ifcw/ technical. 3. Higher education— universities, 

^L. f institutes and special schools. 

Of the secondary and higher educatory methods, in the normal 
schools and licei the state provides for the payment of the staff 
and for scientific material, and often largely supports the ginnasi 
and technical schools, which should by law be supported by the 
communes. The universities are maintained by the state and 
by their own ancient resources; while the higher special schools 
are maintained conjointly by the state, the province, the com- 
mune and (sometimes) the local chamber of commerce. 

The number of persons unable to read and write has gradually 
decreased, both absolutely and in proportion to the number of 
inhabitants. The census of 1871 gave 73% of illiterates, that 
of 1881, 67%, and that of xoot, 56%, i.e. 51-8 for males and 608 
for females. In Piedmont there were 17*7% of illiterates above 
Six years (the lowest) and in Calabria 78*7% (the highest), 
the figures for the whole country being 48-5. As might be 
expected, progress has been most rapid wherever education, at 
the moment of national unification, was most widely diffused. 
For instance, the number of bridegrooms unable to write their 
names in 1872 was in the province of Turin 26%, and in the 
Calabrian province of Cosenza 00%; in 1809 the percentage in 
the province of Turin had fallen to 5%, while in that of Cosenza 
it was still 76%. Infant asylums (where the first rudiments of 
instruction are imparted to children between two and a half and 
six years of age) and elementary schools have increased in 
number. There has been a corresponding increase in the number 
of scholars. Thus: — 


greatest increase has taken place m technical education, when* it has 
been much more rapid than io classical education. There are three 
higher commercial school*, with academic rank, at Venice, Genoa 
and Ban, and eleven secondary commercial schools; and technical 
and commercial schools for women at Florence and Milan. The 
number of agricultural schools has also grown, although the total 
is relatively small .when compared with population. The attendance 
at the various classes of secondary schools in 188a and 190a is shows 
by the following tabic: — 


Infant Asylums 
(Public and Private). 

Daily Elementary Schools 
(Public and Private). 

Number of 

Number of 

Number of 

Number of 






The teachers in 1001-1902 numbered 65,739 (exclusive of 576 
non-teaching directors and 322 teachers of special subjects) or 
about 41*5 scholars per teacher. 

The rate of increase in the public state-supported schools has been 
much greater than in the private schools. School buildings have 
been improved and the qualifications of teachers raised. # Neverthe- 
less, many schools are still defective, both from a hygienic and a 
teaching point of view; while the economic position of the ele- 
mentary teachers, who in Italy depend upon the communal admini- 
strations and not upon the state, is still in many parts of the country 
extremely low. 

The law of 1877 rendering education compulsory for children 
between six and nine years of age has been the principal cause of the 
spread of elementary education. The law is, however, imperfectly 
enforced for financial reasons. In 1 901-1 902 only 65 % out of the 
whole number of children between six and nine years of age were 
registered in the lower standards of the elementary and private 
schools. The evening schools have to some extent helped to spread 
education. Their number and that of their scholars have, however, 
decreased since the withdrawal of state subsidies. In 1871-1872 
there were 3 *~~' ~ L " L ' J """ "°" at 

the holiday en 

to 94.510 ar tly 

institutions i 06 

5000 of the* 're 

the proportW 15. 

with 138,18 ry 

education to ed 

40% of the ^ 

illiterate wh< »ns 

and workint el- 

lectual condi ve 

lately attain^*, ^w....^,. , — t«s 

devoted to secondary education remained almost unchanged between 
1880-1881 and 1895-1896. In some places the number has even been 
diminished by the suppression of private educational institutes. 
But the number of scholars has considerably increased, and shows 
a ratio superior to the general increase of the population. The 



No. of 

Ginnasi — 


On an equal footing with govern* 

meat schools 

Not on such a footing .... 

Total , • « 

Technical schools— 


On an equal footing .... 
Not on such a footing .... 

Total . . . 

Government ...... 

On an equal footing .... 

Not on such a footing .... 

Total ... 

Technical institutes- 
Government . # 

On an equal footing .... 
Not on such a footing. . . • 

Total . . . 

Nautical institutes- 

On an equal footing .... 
Not on such a footing .... 

Total . . . 




























n. 930 










are < 
in w 



of p 

on ^ 


decreased to 19,044 in 1901-1902, owing to the admission of women 
to telegraph and telephone work. The female secondary schools in 
1881-1882 numbered 77. of which 7 were government institutions, 
with 3569 pupils; in 1901-1902 there were 233 schools (9 govern- 
mental) with 9347 pupils. m 

The total attendance of students in the various faculties at- the 
different universities and higher institutes is as follows : — 




Philosophy and letters 
Medicine and surgery 
Professional diploma, pharmacy 
Mathematics and natural science 
Engineering .... 
Agriculture . . • • • 
Commerce .... 4 











Thus a large all-round increase in teeoadary and higher education 
is shown — satisfactory in many respects, but showing, chat more 
young men devote themselves to the learned profcsNons (especially 
to the law) than the economic condition of the country will justify. 
There are 21 universities — Bologna, Cagliari, Camenno. Catania. 
Ferrara,Cenoa,Maccrata. Messina, Modcna. Naples, Padua, Palermo. 
Parma. Pavia, Perugia. Pisa, Rome, Sa&sari. Siena. Turin, Urbino, 
of which Camerino, Ferrara, Perugia and Urbino arc not state 
institutions; university courses arc alx> given at Aquila, Bari and 
Catanaaro. Of these the most frequented in 1 904-1905 were: Naples 
(4745)> Turin (3451). Rome (26)0), Bologna (171 1 ), Pavia (1559), 
Padua (1364). Genoa (1276). and the least frequented, Cagliari (254). 
Siena (235) and Sassart (200). The professors arc ordinary and 
extraordinary, and free professors {liberi docenli), corresponding to 
the German Prwaidotenten, arc also allowed to be attached to the 

The institutions which co-operate with tl he 

special schools for cngineci» at Turin, Napk na 

(and others attached to some of the u ni wrsi 1 ic :al 

institute at Milan, the higher veterinary scfa les 

and Turin, the institute tor higher studies a di 

itudi superior i, fnatici e di perfezionamcnlo), til fie 

academy of Milan, the higher institutes for lie 

teachers at Florence and Rome, the lnstitui at 

Florence, the higher commercial schools at V< ja, 

the commercial university founded by L. Boc 32. 

the higher naval school at Genoa, the higher ire 

at Milan and Portici. the experimental insi he 

school of forestry at Vallambrosa. the indust 
The special secondary institutions, distinct dy 

reckoned under the universities and alliec an 

Oriental institute at Naples with 243 pupils; 3 ire 

with (1004-1905) 1925 students; 2 schools of 1 :ta 

and Iglesias) with (1904-1905) 83 student nd 

commercial schools with (1903-1904) 46,411 »Is 

of design and moulding with (1898) 12,556 stL . -.-„„■ 'nt 

fine art institutes (1904-1905) with 2778 students and 13 non- 
government with 1662 students: 5 government institutes of music 
with 1026 students, and 51 non-government with 4109 pupils (1904- 
•y^5). Almost all of these show a considerable increase. 

Libraries are numerous in Italy, those even of small cities 
being often rich in manuscripts and valuable works. Statistics 
collected in 1893-1804 and 1896 revealed the existence of 1831 
libraries, either private (but open 10 the public) or completely 
public The public libraries have been enormously increased 
since 1870 by the incorporation of the treasures of suppressed 
monastic institutions. The richest in manuscripts is that of the 
Vatican, especially since the purchase of the Barbcrini Library in 
1902; it now contains over 34,000 MSS. The Vatican archives 
are also of great importance. Most large towns contain im- 
portant state or communal archives, in which a considerable 
amount of research is being done by local investigators; the 
various societies for local history (Socicta di Star in P atria) do 
very good work and issue valuable publications; the treasures 
which the archives contain are by no means exhausted. Libraries 
and archives are under the superintendence of the Ministry of 
Public Instruction. A separate department of this ministry 
under a director-general has the charge of antiquities and fine 
arts, making archaeological excavations and supervising those 
undertaken by private persons (permission to foreigners, even 
to foreign schools, to excavate in Italy is rarely granted), and 
maintaining the numerous state museums and picture galleries. 
The exportation of works of art and antiquities from Italy without 
leave of the ministry is forbidden (though it has in the past 
been sometimes evaded). An inventory of those subjects, the 
exportation of which can in no case be permitted, has been 
prepared; and the ministry has at its disposal a fund of £200,000 
for the purchase of important works of art of all kinds. 

Charities. — In Italy there is no legal right in the poor to be 
supported by the parish or commune, nor any obligation on the 
commune to relieve the poor — except in the case of forsaken 
children and the sick poor. Public charity is exercised through 
the permanent charitable foundations (opcre pie) % which arc, 
however* very unequally distributed in the different provinces. 
The districts of Italy which show between 1881 and 1003 the 
greatest increase of new institutions, or of gifts to old ones, arc 
Lombardy, Piedmont, Liguria, while Sardinia, Calabria and 
Basilicata stand lowest, Lalium standing comparatively low. 

The patrimony of Italian charitable institutions is considerable 
and is constantly increasing. In 1880 the number of charitable 
XV I* 

institutions (exclusive of public pawnshops, or Mntti di Field, and 

other institutions which combine operations of credit with charity) 
was approximately 22.000. with an aggregate patrimony of nearly The revenue was about * 3,600,000; after deduction of 
taxes, interest an debts, expenses of management, Ac, £2,080,000. 
Adding to this. £1,240,009. of communal and provincial subsidies, 
the product of the labour of inmates, temporary subscriptions, &c, 
the net revenue available for charity was, during 1880, £3,860,000. 
Of this sum £260,000 was spent for religious purposes. Between 
1881 and 1905 the bequests to existing institutions and sums left for 
the endowment of new institutions amounted toabout tt6.604.60a 

Charitable institutions take, as a rule, the two forms of outdoor 
and indoor relief and attendance. The indoor institutions are the 
more important in regard to endowment, and consist of hospitals 
for the infirm (a number of these are situated at the seaside); of 
hospitals for chronk and incurable diseases; of orphan asylums; 
of a poorhouses and shelters for beggars; of infant asylums or in* 
stitutcs for the first education of children under six years of age: 
of lunatic asylums; of homes for the deaf and dumb; and of 
institutes for the Wind. The outdoor charitable institutions include 
those which distribute help in money or food; those which supply 
medicine and medical help; those which aid mothers unable to rear 
their own children; those which subsidize orphans and foundlings; 
those which subsidize educational institutes; and those which supply 
marriage portions. Between 1881 and 1898 the chief increases took 
place in the endowments of hospitals: orphan asylums; infant 
asylums; poorhouses; almshouses; voluntary workhouses; and 
institutes for the blind. The least creditably administered of these 
arc the asylums for abandoned infants; in 1887, of a total of 23,913, 
53*77% died; while during the years 1893-1896 (no later statistics 
arc available) of 117,970 5172% died. The average mortality 
under one year for the whole of Italy in 1893-1896 was only 16 -66%. 

Italian charity legislation was reformed by the laws of 1862 and 
1890, which attempted co provide efficacious protection for endow- 
ments, and to ensure the application of the income to the purposes 
for which it was intended. The law considers as " charitable in- 
stitutions " (opere pie) all poorhouses, almshouses and institutes 
which partly or wholly give help to able-bodied or infirm paupers, 
or seek to improve their moral and economic condition ; and also the 
Congregationi di caritd (municipal charity boards existing in every 
commune, and composed of members elected by the municipal 
council), which administer funds destined for the poor in general. All 
charitable institutions were under the protection of provincial adminis- 
trative junta, existing in every province, and empowered to control the 
management of charitable endowments. The supreme control was 
vented in the minister of the I nterior. The law of 1890 also empowers 
every citizen to appeal to the tribunals on behalf of the poor, for 
whose benefit a given charitable institution may have been intended. 
A more recent law provides for the formation of a central body, 
with provincial commissions under it. Its effect, however, has been 
comparatively small. 

Public pawnshops or Monti di pieti numbered 555 in 1896, 
with a net patrimony of £2,879,625. In that year their income, 
including revenue from capital, was £416.385. and their expenditure 
£300,232. The amount lent on security was £4,153,229. 

The Monti frumentarii or co-operative corn deposits, which lend 
seed corn to farmers, and are repaid after harvest with interest in 
kind, numbered 1615 in 1894, and possessed a patrimony of £240,000. 

In addition to the regular charitable institutions, the communal 
and provincial authorities exercise charity, the former (in 1899) to the 
extent of £1.827.166 and the latter to the extent of £919832 per 
annum. Part of these sums is given to hospitals, and part spent 
directly by the communal and provincial authorities. Of the sum 
spent by the communes, about \ goes for the sanitary service (doctors, 
midwives, vaccination), \ for the maintenance of foundlings, 
A for the support of the sick in hospitals, and jfo for sheltering 
the aged and needy. Of the sum spent by the provincial authorities, 
over halT goes to lunatic asylums and over a quarter to the mainten- 
ance of foundling hospitals. 

Religion.— The great majority of Italians— 97* «%— are 
Roman Catholics. Besides the ordinary Latin rite, several 
others are recognized. The Armenians of Venice maintain their 
traditional characteristics. The Albanians of the southern 
provinces still employ the Greek rite and the Greek language 
in their public worship, and their priests, like those of the Greek 
Church, are allowed to marry. Certain peculiarities introduced 
by St Ambrose distinguish the ritual of Milan from that of the 
general church. Up to 1871 the island of Sicily was, according 
lo the bull of Urban II.. ecclesiastically dependent on the king, 
and exempt from the canonical power of the pope. 

Though the territorial authority of the papal see was practically 
abolished in 1870. the fact that Rome is the seat of the admini- 
strative centre of the vast organization of the church is not 
without significance to the nation. In the same city in which 
the administrative functions of the body politic arc centralized 


there still 
1879 consl 
65,000, of 1 
22,500 are 
tome 2$oc 
were in 15 
48,043 **% 
parishes v 
parishes ii 
and some 
Italian pi 
assign men 
£1, 280,0a 
sum cons 

The kin 
uuttius die 

A. 6»u1 
Albaao. F 

B-. 74 • 

posed of 


B^» • 








tb \ 








and * 






But the 

a ratio » 













t in 












I the 

n the 






ion 01 


of the 






which were to be accepted at their nominal value m purchase money 
for the alienated property. The public worship endowment fund 
has relieved the state exchequer of the cost of public worship; has 
gradually furnished to the poorer parish priests an addition to 
their stipends, raising; them to £32 per annum, with the prospect 
of further raising them to £10; and has contributed to the outlay 
incurred by the communes for religions purposes. The monastic 
buildings required for public purposes have been made over to the 
c o m mun al and provincial authorities, while the same authorities 
have been entrusted with the administration of the ecclesiastical 
revenues previously set apart for charity and education, and objects 
of art ana historical interest have been consigned to public libraries 
and museums. By these laws the reception of novices was for- 
bidden in the existing conventual establishments the extinction of 
which had been decreed, and all new foundations were forbidden, 
except those engaged in instruction and the care of the sick. 
But the laws have not been rigorously enforced of late years; and 
the ecclesiastical possessions seized by the state were thrown on the 
market simultaneously, and so realized very low prices, being often 
bought up by wealthy religious institutions. The large number 
of these institutions was increased when these bodies were expelled 
from France. 

On the 30th of June 1903 the patrimony of the endowment fund 
amounted to jfj7.3jQ.040, of which only £364,399 were represented 
by buildi ngs st ill occupied by mon ks of nuns. The rest was made up 
of capital and interest. The liabilities of the fund (capitalized) 
amounted to £10.668.105, °f which monastic pensions represented a 
rapidly diminishing sum of £2.564,930. The chief items of annual 
expenditure drawn from the fund are the supplementary stipends 
to priests and the pensions to members of suppressed religious houses. 
The number of persons in receipt of monastic pensions on the 30th 
of June 1899 was 13.255; but while this item of expenditure will 
disappear by the deaths of those" entitled to pensions, the supple- 
mentary stipends and contributions are gradually increasing. The 
following table shows the course of the two main categories of the 
fund from 1876 to 1902-1903:— 

Monastic pensions, liquidation of re- 
ligious property and provision of 
shelter for nuns . 

Supplementary stipends to bishops and 

Sarochial clergy, assignments to Sar- 
inian clergy and expenditure for edu- 
cation and charitable purposes . . 

876. 1885-1886. 


14?.9 »* 



1 902- 1903. 


Roman Charitable and Religions Fund.— The law of the 19th of 
June 1873 contained special provisions, in conformity with the 
character of Rome as the scat of the papacy, and with the situation 
created by the Law of Guarantees. According to the census of 1871 
there were in the city and province of Rome 474 monastic establish- 
ments (311 for monks, 163 for nuns), occupied by 4326 monks and 
3825 nuns, and possessing a gross revenue of 4,780.891 lire. Of these. 
126 monasteries and 90 convents were situated in the city, 51 
monasteries and 22 convents in the " suburbirariatcs." The law of 
1873 created a special charitable and religious fund of the city, while 
it left untouched 23 monasteries and 49 convents which had either 
the character of private institutions or were supported by foreign 
funds. New parishes were created, old parishes were improved, the 
property of the suppressed religious corporations was assigned to 
charitable and educational institutions and to hospitals, while 
property having no special application was used to form a charitable 
snd religious fund. On the 30th of June 1903 the balance-sheet of 
this fund showed a credit amounting to £1.796,120 and a debit of 
£460.819. Expenditure for the year 1902-1903 was £889,858 and 
revenue £818,674. 

Consiiitrtion and Government. — The Vatican palace itself 
(with St Peter's), the Late ran palace, and the papal villa 
at Castel Gandolfo have secured Lo them the privilege of 
extraterritoriality by the law of 1871. The small republic of 
San Marino is the only other enclave in Italian territory. 
Italy is & constitutional monarchy, in which the executive 
power belongs exclusively to the sovereign, while the legislative 
power is shared by him with the parliament. He holds 
supreme command by land and sea, appoints ministers and 
officials, promulgates the laws, coins money, bestows honours, 
has the right of pardoning, and summons and dissolves the 
parliament. Treaties with foreign powers, however, must have 
the consent of parliament. The sovereign is irresponsible, the 
ministers, the signature of one of whom is required to give 
validity to royal decrees, being responsible. Parliament consists 
of two chambers, the senate and the Chamber of Deputies, 
vbicb axe nominally on an equal tooting, though practically 

the elective chamber is the mote important. * The senate consists 
of princes of the blood who have attained their majority, and 
of an unlimited number of senators above forty years of age, 
who are qualified under any one of twenty-one specified cate- 
gories — by having either held high office, or attained celebrity 
in science, literature, &c. In 1008 there were 318 senators 
exclusive of five members of the royal family. Nomination is 
by the king for life. Besides its legislative functions, the senate 
is the highest court of justice fn the case of political offences or 
the impeachment of ministers. The deputies to the lower house 
are 508 in number, i.e. one to every 64,893 of the population, 
and all the constituencies are single-member constituencies. 
The party system is not really strong. The suffrage is extended 
to all citiaens over twenty-one years of age who can read and 
write and have cither attained a certain standard of elementary 
education or arc qualified by paying a rent which varies from 
£6 in communes of 2500 inhabitants to £16 in communes of inhabitants, or, if peasant farmers, 16s. of rent; or 
by being sharers in the profits of farms on which not less than 
£3, 45. of direct (including provincial) taxation is paid ; or by 
paying not less than £16 in direct (including provincial) taxation. 
Others, e.g. members of the professional classes, are qualified 
to vote by their position. The number of electors (2,541,327) 
at the general election in 1904 was 29% of the male population 
over twenty-one years of age, and 76% of the total population- 
exclusive of those temporarily disfranchised on account of 
military service; and of these 62-7% voted. No candidate 
can be returned unless he obtains more than half the votes given 
and more than one-sixth of the total number on the register; 
otherwise a second ballot must be 
held. Nor can he be returned under 
the age of thirty, and he must be 
qualified as an elector. All salaried 
government officials (except minis- 
ters, under-secret arics of state and 
other high functionaries, and officers 
in the army or navy), and ecclesiastics, 
are disqualified for election. Senators 
and deputies receive no salary but have free passes on 
railways throughout Italy and on certain lines of steamers. 
Parliaments are quinquennia], but the king may dissolve the 
Chamber of Deputies at any time, being bound, however, to 
convoke a new chamber within four months. The executive ( 
must call parliament together annually. Each of the chambers 
has the right of introducing new bills, as has also the government; 
but all money bills must originate in the Chamber of Deputies. 
The consent of both chambers and the assent of the king is 
necessary to their being passed. Ministers may attend the 
debates of either bouse but can only vole in that of which they 
are members. The sittings of both houses arc public, and an 
absolute majority of the members must be present to make 
a sitting valid. The ministers are eleven in number and havf 
salaries of about £1000 each; the presidency of the council of 
ministers (created in 1889) may be held by itself or (as is usual) 
in conjunction with any other portfolio. The ministries arc: 
interior (under whom are the prefects of the several provinces), 
foreign affairs, treasury (separated from finance in 1889), finance, 
public works, justice and ecclesiastical affairs, war, marine, 
public instruction, commerce, industry and agriculture* posts 
and telegraphs (separated from public works in 1889). Each 
minister is aided by an under-secretary of state at a salary of 
£500. There is a council of state with advisory functions, which 
can also decide certain questions of administration, especially 
applications from local authorities and conflicts between 
ministries, and a court of accounts, which has the right of 
examining all details of state expenditure. In every country 
the bureaucracy is abused, with more or less reason, for un- 
progressiveness, timidity and " red-tape," and Italy is no 
exception to the rule. The officials are not well paid, and are 
certainly numerous; while the manifold checks and counter- 
checks have by no means always been sufficient to prevent 




TUtes of Honour.— The 
sovereignties and " fountai 
hereditary titles of nobili 
dukes, marquesses, counts 
number of persons of " pal 
designation nobilt or sip 
cavaJieri. In the " Golde 
CampidogKo) are inscribec 
have the title of prince a 
marquesses, counts or sim 
knighthood see Knightho 
The king's uncle is duke ol 
his cousin is duke of Geno 

Justice. — The judiciary 
French model. Italy ha: 
Palermo, Turin, Florence, 
districts and 1535 mand 
{prelura). In 13 of the prir 
exclusively penal jurisdicti 
up to 100 lire (£4), liudic 
they may act as arbitrate 
Roman court of cassation 
matters has a right to deci 
the lower judicial authoril 
diction in penal cases, wl 
revise civil cases. 

The pretori have penal j 
(contravoenziont) or offence 
exceeding three months c 
The penal tribunals have 
merit up to ten years, or a 
with a jury, deal with of! 
over ten years, and hav< 
senate is on occasion a high 
Appeal may be made from 1 
ana from the tribunals t 
courts there is no appeal e> 
to the court of cassation 
power in all questions o 

The penal code was unifi 
years is the amdanna ami 
bound over to appear fc 
94,489 cases in 1907. It 
giudict concitiatore to the 
of 1500 lire- £60) from 1 
civil tribunal to the court 
toe court of cassation. 

The judges of all land 
president of the Rome cot 

The statistics of civil pc 
to province. Lombardy, 
holds the lowest place; 
_9; VenetU 
; and Sai 


Tuscany has 39: 'X 
153; and Sardinia, , 
chiefly due to cases within 


The number of penal proi 
petence of praetors, has 
Frequency of minor conti 
section Crime. The ratio 
as a rule, much higher in 1 

A royal decree, dated I 
prisons: judiciary prison 
•persons sentenced to ants 
months; penitentiaries of 
detemfone or custodia), fc 
imprisonment; and refoi 
vagabond*. Capital pui 
servitude for life being sul 
confinement of the most 
occupy the mind, the a 
Certain types of dangeroc 
sentence in the ordinary c 
by judicial process, to spa 
or u forced residences, 
satisfactory, being mostly 
difficult to find work for t 
confined at night. The 
allowance for food of so a 
supplement by work if th 

Notwithstanding the o 
formation of old ones, th 
is still insufficient for a 
established by the code ol 
tion of the prisoners is no 
finement as practised in I 
prisoners, including mino 
which from 76,066 (284 p 
ber 1871 rose to a maximi 
(287 per 1000), decreasec 



ued to 
in lock- 

pares of 

b a rise 
541* in 
a; and 

also an 

rtion to] 
rtiiJe in' 
lie pro- 
t Mafia 

is still 

s called 
ve been 
e inter- 
p 241) 
lly. In 
(fere ac- 
r. This 
rnt, are 
:her are 
eal and 
ar 1907 
Dints of 

r. lower 
t. while 
{best in 
t south, 
that of 
bund in 
i of the 
ice 1882 

r organ- 
tie. To 
to their 
to draw 
arps to 
f affairs 
isf erring 
Tvab in 
lere are 
i f works 
ore, has 
I to the 
ch more 
the way 


of any radical and far-reaching reforms, and even the proposals 
c: the Commission of 1907, referred to below, have only been 
firtiilly accepted. 

The taw of 1875 t h er ef ore still regulates the principles of military 
service in Italy, though an important modification was made in 
1907-1908. By this law, every man liable and accepted for service 
mred for eight or nine years on the Active Army and its Reserve 
(of which three to five were spent with the colours), four or five in 
the Mobile Mtlitia. and the rest of the service period of nineteen 
Tears in the Territorial MM tux. Under present regulations the 
Rrra of liability is divided into nine years m the Active Army and 
inerve (three or two years with the colours) four in the Mobile 
Mdiha and six in the Territorial Militia. But these figures do not 
represent the actual service of every able-bodied Italian. Like almost 
all " Universal Service " countries, Italy only drafts a small pro- 
portion of the available recruits into the army. 

The folio wine table shows the operation of the law of 1875, with 
the figures of 1871 for comparison: — 

30th Sept. 

30th June. 






Men .... 

ActingArrny & Reserve 
Mobile Militia . . 
Territorial Militia . . 







445.3 15 







1 Including officers on special service or in the reserve. 

Huts, on the 30th of September 1871 the various categories of 
the amy included only a % of the population, but on the 30th of 
Jam* 189ft they included 10%. But in 1901 the strength of the 
active army and reserve shows a marked diminution, which 
became accentuated in the year following. The table below in- 
Antes that np to 1907 the army, though always below its 
aomtnal strength, never absorbed' more than a quarter of the 
available contingent* 






441. »7» 




Physically unfit . . . 
Struck off ... . 
Failed to appear . . 
Put back for re-examina- 
tion .... 




1 08.6 r8 

1 19.070 




Assigned to Territorial 
Mifitia and excused 
peace service . . . 





Assigned to active army 
Joined active army . . 





The serious condition of recruiting was quickly noticed, and the 
tabulation of each year's results waa followed by a new draft law, 
but no solution was achieved until a special commission assembled. 
The inquiries made by this body revealed an unsatisfactory con- 
dition in the national defences, traceable in the main to financial 
exigencies, and as regards recruiting a new law was brought into 
force in 1907-1908. 

One specially difficult point concerned the < e- 

strength army. Hitherto the actual time of is 

than the nominal. The recruits due to join >t 

incorporated till the following March, and thu is 

Italy was defenceless. The army is alwayi w 

peace effective (about one-quarter of war es :n 

this was reduced, by the absence of the rec re 

often only 15 rank and file with a company Ji 

is about 230. Even in the summer and auti mi 

of the army consisted of men with but ad a 

highly dangerous state of things considering a- 

tion conditions of the country. Further— and >n 

can cover — the contingent, and (what is roor s, 

are being steadily weakened by emigration. ie 

numbers rejected as unfit is accounted for bj a 

small proportion of the contingent can be ie 

medical standard of acceptance is high. 

The new recruiting scheme of 1907. re-established three categories 
of recruits, 1 the 2nd category corresponding practically to the 
German Ersattr Reserve, The men classed In it have to train for 
six months, and they are called up in the late summer to bridge the 

» The Tod c a t e gor y of the 1675 law had practically ceased to 


gap above mentioned. Toe new terras off service for the other 
categories have been already stated. In consequence, in 1908, of 
490.000 liable, some 1 10,000 actually joined for full training and 
24.000 of the new and category for short training, which contrasts 
very forcibly with the feeble embodiments of 1906 and 1907. These 
changes threw a considerable strain on the finances, but the im- 
minence of the danger caused their acceptance. 

The peace strength under the dew scheme is nominally 300,000, 
but actually (average throughout the year) about 240,000. The 
army is organized in 12 army corps (each of 2 divisions), 6 oC 
which are quartered on the plain of Lombardy and Venetia and 
on the frontiers, and 2 more in northern Central Italy. Their 
headquarters are: I. Turin, II. Alessandria, III. Milan, IV. 
Genoa, V. Verona, VI. Bologna, VII. Ancona, VIII. Florence, 
IX. Rome, X. Naples, XI. Ban, XII. Palermo, Sardinian division 
Cagliari. In addition there are 22 " Alpini " battalions and 
15 mountain batteries stationed on the Alpine frontiers. 

The war strength was estimated in 190 1 as, Active Army (ind. 
Reserve) 750,000, Mobile Militia 320,000, Territorial Militia 
2,300,000 (more than half of the last-named untrained). These 
figures are, with a fractional increase in tbe Regular Army, 
applicable to-day. When the 1007 scheme takes full effect, 
however, the Active Army and the Mobile Militia will each be 
augmented by about one-third. In 191 5 the field army should; 
including officers and permanent cadres, be about 1,012,000 
strong. The Mobile Militia will not, however, at that date have 
felt the effects of the scheme, and the Territorial Militia (setting 
the drain of emigration against the increased population) ail) 
probably remain at about the same figure as in 1901. 

The army consists of 96 three-battalion regiments of infantry of 
the line and 12 of bersaglieri (riflemen), each of the latter having 
a cyclist company (Bersaglieri cyclist battalions are being (1909) 
provisionally formed); 26 regiments of cavalry, of which 10 are 
lancers, each of 6 squadrons; 24 regiments of artillery, each of 
8 batteries;* 1 regiment of horse artillery of 6 batteries; 1 of 
mountain artillery of 12 batteries, and 3 independent mountain 
batteries. The armament of the iniantry is the Mftnnlicher-Carcano 
magazine rifle of 1891. The field and horse artillery was in 1909 
in process of rearmament with a Krupp quick-firer. The garrison 
artillery consists of 3 coast and 3 fortress regiments, with a total of 
72 companies. There are 4 regiments (1 1 battalions) of engineers. 
The carabinieri or gendarmerie, some 26.300 in number, are part of 
the standing army; they are recruited from selected volunteers front 
the army. In 1902 the special corps in Eritrea numbered about 
4700 of all ranks, including nearly 4000 natives. 

Ordinary and extraordinary military expenditure for the financial 
year 1 898-1 899 amounted to nearly £10,000,000, an increase of 
£4.000.000 as compared with 1871. The Italian Chamber decided 
that from the 1st of July 1901 until the 30th of June 1907 Italian 
military expenditure proper should not exceed the maximum of 
£9.560.000 per annum fixed by the Army Bill of May 1897, and that 
military pensions should not exceed /1440,00a Italian military 
expenditure was thus until 1907 £11,000.000 per annum. In 1908 
the ordinary and extraordinary expenditure was £1 0,000,00a 
The demand* of the Commission were only partly complied with, 
but a large special grant was voted amounting to at least £1,000,000 
per annum for the next seven years. The amount spent is slight 
compared with the military expenditure of other countries. 

The Alpine frontier is fortified strongly, although the condition 
of the works was in many cases considered unsatisfactory by the 
1907 Commission. The fortresses in the basin of the Po chiefly 
belong to the era of divided Italy and are now out of date; the 
chief coast fortresses are Vado, Genoa, Spezia, Monte Argentaro. 
Gaeta, Straits of Messina, Taranto. Maddalena. Rome is ptotected 
by a circle of forts from a coup de main from the sea, the coast, only 
12 ra. off, being flat and deserted. 

Navy. — For purposes of naval organization the Italian coast U 
divided into three maritime departments, with headquarters at 
Spezia, Naples and Venice; and into two comandi mililari, with 
headquarters at Taranto and at tbe island of Maddalena. 
Tbe personnel of the navy consists of the following corps: (t) 
General staff; (2) naval engineers, chiefly employed in building 
and repairing war vessels; (3) sanitary corps; (4) commissariat 
corps, for supplies and account-keeping; (5) crews. 

The materiel of tbe Italian navy has been completely trans- 
formed, especially in virtue of the bill of the 31st of March 1875. 
Old types of vessels have been sold or demolished, and replaced 
by newer types. 

* This maybe reduced, In consequence of the adoption of the new 
Q.F. gun. 1 to 6. 




To March 1907 the Italian aavy contained, wi n din g ship* of no 
fighting value:— 




Modern battleship* . 




Old battleships . . . 



• • 

Armoured causer* 




Protected cruisers . . 



• .. 

Torpedo gunboats 




Destroyers .... 




Modern torpedo boats 



Submarines . . . 




The four modern ships— the " Vittorio Emanuele" class, latd 
down in 1807— have a tonnage of 12,625, two 12-in. and twelve 8- in. 
guns, an l.H.P. of 19,000. and a designed speed of 23 knots, being 
intended to avoid any battleship and to carry enough guns to 
destroy any cruiser. 

The personnel on active service consisted of 1799 officers and 
25,000 men, the former being doubled and the latter trebled since 
1883. , , 

Naval expenditure has enormously increased s tal 

for 1871 having been about £900,000, and the f 06 

over £5,100,000. Violent fluctuations have, ho ce 

from year to year, according to the state of It To 

permit the steady execution of a normal program kg. 

the Italian Chamber, in May 1901, adopted a ng 

naval expenditure, inclusive of naval pensions a on 

mercantile shipbuilding, to the sum of £4,840,0: ng 

six years, 14. from 1st July 1901 until 30th Jur im 

consists of £4,240,000 of naval expenditure pc [or 

naval pensions and £380,000 for premiums upc up- 

building. During thennancial year ending on th 01 

these figures were slightly exceeded. 

Finance.— The volume of the Italian budget has considerably 
increased as regards both income and expenditure. The income 
of £60,741,418 in 1881 rose in 1800- 1000 to £69,917,126; while 
the expenditure increased from £58,705,929 in 1881 to £69,708,706 
in 1809-1000, an increase of £9.1 75.708 in income and £u ,002,777 
in expenditure, while there has been a still further increase since, 
the figures for 1005- 1906 showing (excluding items which figure 
on both sides of the account) an increase of £8,766,995 in income 
and £5,434,560 in expenditure over 1800-1000. These figures 
include not only the categories of " income and expenditure " 
proper, but also those known as " movement of capital/' " rail- 
way constructions " and " partite di giro," which do not constitute 
real income and expenditure. 1 Considering only income and 
expenditure proper, the approximate totals are: — 

Financial Year. 



Surpluses or 





£+ 160,000 
- 940.400 
+ I.537.200 

duced more than £3^00,000 a year. From 1883-1886 oowaxda, 

outlay on public works, military and colonial expenditure, and 
especially the commercial and financial crises, contributed to pro- 
duce annual deficits; but owing to drastic reforms introduced in 
1894-1895 and to careful management the year 1898-1899 marked 
a return of surpluses (nearly £1406,400). 

The revenue in the Italian financial year 1905-1906 (July l. 190S 
to June 30, 1906) was £102,486,108, and the expenditure £99.945*2 S3, 
or, subtracting the partite di giro, £99,684,121 and £97.I43^66, 
leaving a surplus of £2,540.855.* The surplus was made up by 
contributions from every branch of the effective revenue, except the 
" contributions and repayments from local authorities." The rail- 
ways showed an increase of £351,685; registration transfer and 
succession, £295,560; direct taxation, £42,136 (mainly from income 
tax, which more than made up for the remission of the house tax in 
the districts of Calabria visited by the earthquakeof 1906) .0 
and excise, £1,036,743; government monopolies, £391/127; 

The financial year 1863 closed with a deficit of more than 
£16,000,000, which increased in 1866 to £28,640,000 on account of 
the preparations for the war against Austria. Excepting the in- 
creases of deficit in 1868 and 1870, the annual deficits tended thence* 
forward to decrease, until in 1875 equilibrium between expenditure 
and revenue was attained, ana was maintained until 1881. Ad- 
vantage was taken of the equilibrium to abolish certain imposts, 
amongst them the grist tax, which prior to its gradual repeal pro- 

1 " Movement of capital " consists, as regards " income," of the 
proceeds of the sale of buildings, Church or Crown lands, old prisons, 
barracks, Ac., or of moneys derived from sale of consolidated stock. 
Thus " income " really signifies diminution of patrimony or increase 
of debt, la regard to " expenditure;" " movement of capital " 
refers to extinction of debt by amortization or otherwise, to pur- 
chases of buildings or to advances made by the state. Thus ex- 
penditure " really represents a patrimonial improvement, a creation 
of credit or a decrease of indebtedness. The items referring to 
" railway construction " represent, on the one hand, repayments 
made to the exchequer by the communes and provinces of money 
disbursed on their account by the State Treasury; and, on the 
other, the cost of new railways incurred by the Treasury. The 
items of the " Partite di giro " are inscribed both on the credit and 
debit sides of the budget, and have merely a figurative value. 

441.3-0; telegraphs. £23461. telephones, £65.771. Of the surplus 
£1,000,000 was allocatedto the improvement of posts, telegraphs and 
telephones; £1.000,000 to public works (£720,000 for harbour im- 
provement ana £280,000 for internal navigation) , £200,000 to the 
navy (£132,000 lor a second dry dock at Taranto and £68,000 for 
coal purchase) ; and £200,000 as a nucleus of a fund for the purchase 
of valuable works of art which are in danger of exp o rt atio n . 

The state therefore draws its principal revenues from the imposts, 
the taxes and the monopolies. According to the Italian tributary 
system, " imposts," properly so called are those upon land, Taxation. 
buildings and personal estate. The impost upon land is 
based upon the cadastral survey independently of the vicissitudes of 
harvests. In 1869 the main quota to the impost was increased by 
one-tenth, in addition to the extra two-tenths previously imposed 
in 1866. Subsequently, it was decided to repeal these additional 
tenths, the first being abolished in 1886 and the rest in 1887. On 
account of the inequalities still existing in the cadastral survey, in 
spite of the law of 1886 (see Agriculture, above), great differences are 
found in the land tax assessments in various parts of Italy. Land is 
not so heavily burdened by the government quota as by the additional 
centimes imposed by the provincial and communal authorities 
On an average Italian landowners pay nearly 25% of their reven u e s 
from land in government and local land tax. The buildings impost 
has been assessed since 1866 upon the basis of 12*50% of T< taxable 
revenue." Taxable revenue corresponds to two-thirds of actual 
income from factories and to three-fourths of actual income from 
houses: it is ascertained by the agents of the financial administra- 
tion. In 1869, however, a third additional tenth was added to the 
previously existing additional two-tenths, and, unUke the tenths of 
the land tax, they have not been abolished. At present the main 
quota with the additional three-tenths amounts to 16*25% of tax- 
able income. The imposts on incomes from personal estate (rtcckexaa 
mobile) were introduced in 1866, it applies to incomes derived from 
investments, industry or personal enterprise, but not to landed 
revenues. It is proportional, and is collected by deduction from 
salaries and pensions paid to servants of the state. Where it is assessed 
on three-eighths of the income, and from interest on consolidated 
stock, where it is assessed on the whole amount; and by register in 
the cases of private individuals, who pay on three-fourths of their 
income, professional men, capitalists or manufacturers, who pay on 
one-half or nine-twentieths of their income. From 1871 to 1894 it 
was assessed at 13-20% of taxable income, this quota being formed 
of 12 % main quota and 1*20% as an additional tenth. In 189a the 
quota, including the additional tenth, was raised to the uniform level 
of 20%. One-tenth of the tax is paid to the communes as compensa- 
tion for revenues made over to the state. 

Taxes proper are divided into (a) taxes on business transactions 
and (6) taxes on articles of consumption. The former apply prin- 
cipally to successions, stamps, registrations, mortgages, Ac; the 
latter to distilleries, breweries, explosives, native sugar and matches, 
though the customs revenue and octrois upon articles of general 
consumption, such as corn, wine, spirits, meat, flour, petroleum, 
butter, tea, coffee and sugar, may be considered as belonging to tins 
class. The monopolies are those of salt, tobacco and the lottery. 

Since 1880, while income from the salt and lotto monopolies has 
remained almost stationary, and that from land tax and octroi has 
diminished, revenue derived from all other sources has notably 
increased, especially that from the income tax on personal estate, 
and the customs, the yield from which has been nearly doubled. 

It will be seen that the revenue is swollen by a large number of 
taxes which can only be justified by necessity; the reduction and, 
still more, the readjustment of taxation (which now largely faRs on 
articles of primary necessity) Is urgently needed. The government 
in presenting the estimates for 1007-1908 proposed to set aside s 
sum of nearly £800,000 every year for this express purpose. It 
must be remembered that the sums realised by the octroi go in the 
main to the various communes. It is only in Rome and Naples that 
the octroi is collected directly by the government, which pays over a 
certain proportion to the respective communes. 

The external taxation is not only strongly protectionist, but is 

• Financial operations (mainly in connexion with railway purchase) 
figure on each side of the account for about £22,000,000. 




applied to goods which cannot be made fa Italy; hardly anything 
comes in duty free, even such articles as second-hand furniture paying 
duty, unless within she months of the date at which the importer 
has declared domicile in Italy. The application, too, is somewhat 
rigorous, e.g. the tax on electric light is applied to foreign ships 
generating their own electricity while lying in Italian ports. 

The annual consumption per inhabitant of certain kinds of food 
and drink has considerably increased, e.g. grain from 370 lb per head 
in 1884-1885 to 321 lb in 1901-1902 (mane remains almost stationary 
at 158 lb); wine from 73 to 125 litres per head; oil from 12 to 13 lb 
per head (sugar is almost stationary at 7} lb per head, and coffee 
at about t lb); salt from 14 to 16 lb per head. Tobacco slightly 
diminished in weight at a little over 1 lb per head, while the gross 
receipts are considerably increased — by over 2| millions sterling 
since 1884-1885— showing that the quality consumed is much better. 
The annual expenditure on tobacco was 5s. per inhabitant in 1902- 
1903. and is increasing. 

The annual surpluses are largely accounted for by the heavy 
taxation on almost everything imported into the country, * and by 
the monopolies on tobacco and on salt ; and are as a rule spent, and 
well spent, in other ways. Thus, that of 1907-1908 was devoted 
mainly to raising the salaries of government officials and university 
professors; even then the maximum for both (in the former class, 
lor an under-secretary of state) was only £500 per annum. The case 
is frequent, too, in which a project is sanctioned by law, but is then 
not carried into execution, or only partly so, owing to the lack of 
funds. Additional stamp duties ana taxes were imposed in 1909 to 
meet the expenditure necessitated by the disastrous earthquake at 
the end of 1908. 

The way in which the taxes press on the poor may be shown by the 
Dumber of small proprietors sold up owing to inability to pay the 
hod and other taxes. In 1882 the number of landed proprietors was 
1452% of the population, in 1902 only 12-66, with an actual 
diminution of some 30,000. Had the percentage of 1882 been kept 
op there would have been in 1902 600,000 more proprietors than 
there were. Between 1884 and 1902 no fewer than 220,616 sales 
were effected for failure to pay taxes, while, from 1886 to 1902, 
79,208 expropriations were effected for other debts not due to the 
state. In 1884 there were 20.422 sales, of which 35*28% were for 
debts of 4*. or less, and 51-95 for debts between as. and £2 ; in 1902 
there were 4857 sales, but only 1 1 -oi % for debts under 4s. (the 
treasury having given up proceeding in cases where the property is 
a tiny piece of ground, sometimes hardly capable of cultivation), 
and 55-69% for debts between 4s. and £2. The expropriations deal 
as a rule with properties of higher value: of these there were 3217 
ra 1886. 5993 in 1892 (a period of agricultural depression), 3910 in 
1902. About 22% of them are for debts under £40, about 49% 
from £40 to £200, about 26% from £200 to £2000. 

Of the expenditure a large amount is absorbed by interest on debt. 
Debt has continually increased with the development of the state. 
r j. The sum paid in interest on debt amounted to £1 7,640,000 
VJ" in 1871, £19440.000 in 1881, £25.600.000 in 1891-1892 

^ m and £27.560,000 in 1899-1900; bui had been reduced to 

£23.100,409 by the 30th of June 1906. The public debt at that date 
was composed as follows: — 

Parti.— Funded Debt. 

Grand 1 

Consolidated 5 % 

.. 3 % ■ 

4.% net ..... 

4 % 

„ 34% ....... 

Total . . , 
Debts to be transferred to the Grand Livre 
Perpetual annuity to the Holy See . 
Perpetual debts (Modena, Sicily, Naples) 

Total . . 

Part II.— Unfunded Debt. 
Debts separately inscribed in the Grand Livre . 
Various railway obligations, redeemable, &c . 

Sicilian indemnities 

Capital value of annual payment to Sooth 

Austrian Company . 

Long date Treasury warrants, law of July 7, 1901 
Railway certi6cates (365% net). Art. 6 of law, 

June 25. 1905. So. 261 
















Grand Tout . £521,568.629 

1 For example, wheat, the price of which was in 1902 26 lire per 
cwt^ pays a tax of 7i lire: sugar pays four times its wholesale value 
mtax; coffee twice its wholesale value. 

The debt per head of population was, hi 1905, £14, lbs. 3d., and 
the interest 13s. 5d. 

In July 1906 the 5% gross (4% net), and 4% net rente were 
successfully converted into 3!% stock (to be reduced to 3$% after 
five years), to a total amount of £324,017.393. The demands for 
reimbursement at par represented a sum oionly £187,588 and the 
market value of the stock was hardly affected; while the saving 
to the Treasury was to be £800,000 per annum for the first five years 
and about double the amount afterwards. 

Currency. — The lira (plural lire) of 100 eentesimi (centimes) is equal 
in value to the French franc The total coinage (exclusive of Eritrean 
currency) from the 1st of January 1862 to the end of 1907 was 
1.104,667.116 lire (exclusive of recoinage), divided as follows: gold, 
427.516.070 bre: silver, 570.097,025 tire; nickel, 23417,000 lire; 
bronxe, 83,636,121 lire. The forced paper currency, instituted in 
1866, was abolished in 1 881, in which year were dissolved the Union 
of Banks of Issue created in 1874 to furnish to the state treasury a 
milliard of lire in notes, guaranteed collectively by the banks, rart 
of the Union notes were redeemed, part replaced by 10 lire and -5 lire 
state notes, payable at sight in metallic legal tender by certain state 
banks. Nevertheless the law of 1881 did not succeed in maintaining 
the value of the state notes at a par with the metallic currency, and 
from 1885 onwards there reappeared a gold premium, which during 
1899 and 1900 remained at about 7 %, but subsequently fell to about 
3% and has since 1902 practically disappeared. The paper circula- 
tion to the debit of the^ state and the paper currency issued by the 
authorized state banks is shown below: — 




Direct Liabaity of State. 

State Notes. Boat de Camd 




by State 






1 .673 680.46a 

1 These ceased to have legal currency at the cod of soot; they were notes of 1 and a lird 
Banks. — Until 1893 thc juridical status of the Banks of Issue was 
regulated by the laws of the 30th of April 1874 on paper currency and 
of the 7th of April 1881 on the abolition of forced currency. At that 
time four limited companies were authorized to issue bank notes, 
namely, the National Bank, the National Bank of Tuscany, the 
Roman Bank and the Tuscan Credit Bank; and two banking 
corporations, the Bank of Naples and the Bank of Sicily. In 1893 
the Roman Bank was put into liquidation, and the other three 
limited companies were fused, so as to create thc Bank of Italy, the 
privilege of issuing bank notes being thenceforward confined to the 
Bank of Italy, the Bank of Naples and the Bank of Sicily. The gold 
reserve in the possession of the Banca d'lulia on September 30th 
1907. .amounted to £32,240,984, and the silver reserve to £4*767,861 ; 
the foreign treasury bonds, Ac amounted to £3.324,074, making 
the total reserve £40.332.919; while thc circulation amounted to 
£54,612,234. The figures were on the 31st of December 1906: 



Banca d'ltalia . 
Banca di Napofi . 
Banca di Sialia . 

Total . . 

. 2.813.692 




This is considerably in excess of the circulation, £40.404,000, fixed 
by royal decree of 1900; but the issue of additional notes was 
allowed, provided they were entirely covered by a metallic reserve, 
whereas up to the fixed limit a 40% reserve only was necessary. 
These notes are of 50, 100, 500 and 1000 lire; while the state issues 
notes for 5, 10 and 25 lire, the currency of these at the end of October 
1906 being £17.546.967: with a total guarantee of £15,636,000 held 
against them. They were in January 1908 equal in value to the 
metallic currency of gold and silver. 

The price of Italian consolidated 5% (gross, 4% net, allowing for 
the 20% income tax) stock, which is thc security most largely 
negotiated abroad, and used in settling differences between large 
financial institutions, has steadily risen during recent years. After 
being depressed between 1885 and 1894. the prices in Italy and abroad 
reached, in 1899, on the Rome Stock Exchange, the average of 
10083 and of 948 on thc Paris Bourse. By the end of 1901 the price 
of Italian stock on the Paris Bourse had, however, risen to par or 
thereabouts. 1 The average price of Italian 4% in 1905 was 105-29; 
since the conversion to 31 % net (to be further reduced to 3 J in five 
more years), the price has been about 103-5. Rates of exchange, or, 
in other words the gold premium, favoured Italy during the years 
immediately following the abolition of the forced currency in 1881. 
In 1885, however, rates tended to rise, and though they fell in 1886 
thev subsequently increased to such an extent as to reach 110% 
at tie end of August 1894. For the next four years they continue'* 

























from 30-79 lire (£1, 4s. 7§d.) to 43*70 lire (£1, 14s. 1 td.),anincreasedue 
in great part to the need for improved buildings, hygienic reforms 
and education, but also attributable in part to the manner in which 

the finances of many communes arc administered. The total was in 
>9oo, £49*496,193 for the communes and £6,903,022 for the provinces. 
The former total is more than double and the latter more tban treble 
the sura in ' 1873, while there is an increase of 62 % in the former and 
36% in the latter over the totals for 1882. 

See Annuario statistico italiano (not, however, issued regularly each 
year) for general statistics; and other official publications; W. 
Decckr. Italy, a Popular Account of Ike Country, its Peopie and its 
Institutions (translated by H. A. Nc&bitt, London, 1904); B. King 
and T. Okcy, Italy to-day (London, 1901); E. Nathan, Vent' Anni dt 
vita italiana attraverso air Annuario (Rome, 1906); G. StrafforcJIo, 
Geogmfia dell' Italia (Turin, 1 890-1902). • (T. As.) 


The difficulty of Italian history lies in the fact that until 
modern times the Italians have had no political unity, no inde- 
pendence, no organized existence as a nation. Split up into 
numerous and mutually hostile communities,' they never, through 
the fourteen centuries which have elapsed since the end of the 
old Western empire, shook off the yoke of foreigners completely; 
they never until lately learned to merge their local and conflicting 
interests in the common good of undivided Italy. Their history 
is therefore not the history of a single people, centralizing and 
absorbing its constituent elements by a process of continued 
evolution, but of a group of cognate populations, exemplifying 
divers types of constitutional developments. 

The early history of Italy will be found under Rome and allied 
headings. The following account is therefore mainly concerned 
with the periods succeeding A.t>. 476, when Romuhis August ul us 
was deposed by Odoacer. Prefixed to this arc two sections 
dealing respectively with (A) the ethnographical and philological 
divisions of ancient Italy, and (B) the unification of the country 
under Augustus, the growth of the road system and so forth. 
The subsequent history is divided into five periods: (C) From 
476 to 1796; (D) From 170610 1814; (£) From 1815 to 1870; 
(F) From 1870 to 190a; (G) From 1002 to 1910. 

A. Ancient Lancuages and Peoples 

The ethnography of ancient Italy is a very complicated and 
difficult subject, and notwithstanding the researches of modern 
scholars is still involved in some obscurity. The great beauty 
and fertility of the country, as well as the charm of its climate, 
undoubtedly attracted, even in early ages> successive swarms of 
invaders from the north, who sometimes drove out the previous 
occupants of the most favoured districts, at others reduced them 
to a state of serfdom, or settled down in the midst of them, until 
the two races gradually coalesced. Ancient writers are agreed 
as to the composite character of the population of Italy, and the 
diversity of races that were found within the limits of the 
peninsula. But unfortunately the traditions they have trans- 
mitted to us are often various and conflicting, while the only safe 
test of the affinities of nations, derived from the comparison of 
their languages, is to a great extent inapplicable, from the fact 
that the idioms that prevailed in Italy in and before the 5th 
century B.C. are preserved, K at all, only in a few scanty and 
fragmentary inscriptions, though from that date onwards we 
have now a very fair record of many of them (see, e.g. Latin 
Language, Osca Lingua, Icuvtum, Volsci, Etruria: section 
Language, and below). These materials, imperfect as they are, 
when combined with the notices derived from ancient writers and 
the evidence of archaeological excavations, may be considered 
as having furnished some results of reasonable certainty. 

It must be observed that the name " Italians " was at one 
time confined to the Ocnolrians; indeed, according to Anthxhus 
of Syracuse (apud Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. ii. 1), the name of Italy 
was first still more limited, being applied only to the southern 
portion of the Bruttium peninsula (now known as Calabria). 
But in the time of that historian, as well as of Thucydtdes, the 
names of Ocnotria and Italia, which appear to have been at that 
period regarded as synonymous, had been extended to include 
the shore of the Tarcntine GuH as far as Mctapontum and 
from thence across to the gulfs of Laus and Posidonia on the 

Tyrrhenian Sea. It thus stul comprised only the two provinces 
subsequently known as Lucania and Bruttium (see references s.t. 
" Italia " in R. S. Conway's Italic Dialects, p. 5). The name seems 
to be a Graecized form of an Italic Vitdia, from the stem vitlo-, 
" calf " (Lat. titulus, Gr. traAot), and perhaps to have meant 
"calf-land," '* grazing-land "; but the origin is more certain 
than the meaning; the calf may be one of the many animals 
connected with Italian tribes (see Hirmni, Samnites). 

Taking the term Italy to comprise the whole peninsula with 
the northern region as far as the Alps, we must first distinguish 
.the tribe or tribes which spoke Indo-European languages from 
those who did not. To the latter category it is now possible to 
refer with certainty only the Etruscans (for the chronology and 
limits of their occupation of Italian soil see Etruria: section 
Language). Of all the other tribes that inhabited Italy down 
to the classical period, of whose speech there is any record 
(whether explicit or in the form of names and glosses), it is 
impossible to maintain that any one does not belong to the 
Indo-European group. Putting aside the Etruscan, and also 
the different Greek dialects of the Greek colonies, like Cumae, 
Ncapolis, Tarentum, and proceeding from the south to the 
north, the different languages or dialects, of whose separate 
existence at some time between, say, 600 and 200 B.C., we can 
be sure, may be enumerated as follows: (1) Sicel, (2) South 
Oscdn and Oscan, (3) Messapian, (4) North Oscan, (5) Volscian, 
(6) East Italic or " Sabellic," (7) Latinian, (8) Sabine, (9) Iguvrae 
or " Umbrian," (10) Gallic, (11) Ligurian and (12) Venetic. 

Between several of these dialects it is probable that closer 
affinities exist. (1) It is probable, though not very clearly 
demonstrated, that Venetic, East Italic and Messapian are 
connected together and with the ancient dialects spoken in 
lllyria (q.v.), so that these might be provisionally entitled the 
Adriatic group, to which the language spoken by the Eteocretes 
of the city of Praesos in Crete down to the 4th century B.C. 
was perhaps akin. (3) Too little is known of the Sicel language 
to make clear more than its Indo-European character. But 
it must be reckoned among the languages of Italy because of the 
well-supported tradition of the early existence of the Sicels in 
Latium (see Sicuu). Their possible place in the earlier stratum 
of Indo-European population is discussed under Sabini. How 
far also the language or languages spoken in Bruttium and at 
certain points of Lucania, such as Anxia, differed from the 
Oscan of Samnium and Campania there is not enough evidence 
to show (see Brutttj). (3) It is doubtful whether there are any 
actual inscriptions which can be referred with certainty to the 
language of the Ligurcs, but some other evidence seems to link 
them with the -CO' peoples, whose early distribution is discussed 
under Volsci and Licuria. (4) It is difficult to point to any 
definite evidence by which wc may determine the dates of the 
earliest appearance of Gallic tribes in the north of Italy, No 
satisfactory collection has been made of the Celtic inscriptions of 
Cisalpine Gaul, though many are scattered about in different 
museums. For our present purpose it is important to note that 
the archaeological stratification in deposits like those of Bologna 
shows that the Gallic period supervened upon the Etruscan. 
Until a scientific collection of the local and personal names of 
this district has been made, and until the archaeological evidence 
is clearly interpreted, it is impossible to go beyond the region 
of conjecture as to the tribe or tribes occupying the vaUey of 
the Po before the two invasions. It is clear, however, that the 
Celtic and Etruscan elements together occupied the greater 
part of the district between the Apennines and the Alps 
down to its Romanization, which took place gradually in the 
course of the 2nd century B.C. Their linguistic neighbours 
were Ligurian in the south and south-west, and the Ventti 
on the easL 

We know from the Roman historians that a large force of 
Gauls came as far south as Rome in the year 300 B.C., and that 
some part of this horde settled in what was henceforward known 
as the Ager Callicus, the easternmost strip of coast in what was 
later known as Umbria, including the towns of Caesena, Ravenna 
and Ariminum. A bilingual inscription (Gallic and Latin) of 




the and century B.C. was found as far sooth as Tuder, the modern 
Todi (Italic Dialects, ii. S&; Stokes, Baunbergcr's BciUdgc, 
ii, p. 113). 

(5) Turning now to the languages which constitute the Italic 
group in the narrower sense, (a) Oscan; (b) the dialect of Velitrae, 
commonly called Volscian; (c) Latinian (i.e. Latin and its 
nearest congeners-, like Faliscan); and (d) Umbrian (or, as it 
may more safely be called, Iguvine), two principles of classifica- 
tion offer themselves, of which the first is purely linguistic, the 
second linguistic and topographical. Writers on the ethnology 
of Italy have been hitherto content with the first, namely, the. 
broad distinction between the dialects which preserved the Indo- 
European velars (especially the breathed plosive q) as velars or 
back-palatals (gutturals), with or without the addition of a 
ip-sound, and the dialects which converted the velars wholly 
into labials, for example, Latinian quis contrasted with Oscan, 
Volscian and Umbrian pis (see further Latin Language). 

This distinction, however, takes us but a little way towards 
an historical grouping of the tribes, since the only Latinian 
dialects of which, besides Latin, we have inscriptions are Faliscan 
and Marsian (see Falxsci, Marsi); although the place-names 
of the Aequi (q.v.) suggest that they belong to the same group 
in this respect. Except, therefore, for a very small and appar- 
ently isolated area in the north of Latkim and south of Etruria, 
all the tribes of Italy, though their idioms differed in certain 
particulars, are left undiscriminated. This presents a strong 
contrast to the evidence of tradition, which asserts very strongly 
(1) the identity of the Sabines and Samnites; (2) the conquest 
of an earlier population by this tribe; and which affords (3) 
clear evidence of the identity of the Sabines with the ruling 
class, i.e. the patricians, at Rome itself (see Sabini; and Rome. 
Early History and Ethnology). 

Some clue to this enigma may perhaps be found in the second 
principle of classification proposed by the present writer at the 
Congresso Internationale di Scicnre Storichc at Rome (Atti del 
Con graso/vi) in 1003. It was on that occasion pointed cut that the 
ethnica or tribal and oppidan names of communities belonging 
to the Sabine stock were marked by the use of the suffix -NO- 
as in Sabini; and that there was some linguistic evidence that 
this stratum of population overcame an earlier population, which 
used, generally, ethnica in -CO- or -77- (as in Marruci, A rotates, 
transformed later into Marrucini, Ardeatini). 

The validity of this distinction and its results are discussed 
under Sabini and Volsci, but it is well to state here its chief 

1. Latin will be counted the language of the earlier plebeian 
stratum of the population of Rome and Latium, probably once 
spread over a large area of the peninsula, and akin in some 
degree to the language or languages spoken in north Italy 
before either the Etruscan or the Gallic invasions began. 

a. It would follow, on the other hand, that what is called 
Oscan represented the language of the invading Sabines (more 
correctly Safines), whose racial affinities would seem to be 
of a distinctly more northern cast, and to mark them, like the 
Dorians or Achaeans in Greece, as an early wave of the invaders 
who more than once in later history have vitally influenced the 
fortunes of the tempting southern land into which they forced 
their way. 

3. What is called Volscian, known only from the important 
inscription of the town of Velitrae, and what is called Umbrian, 
known from the famous Iguvine Tables with a few other records, 
would be regarded as Safine dialects, spoken by Safine com- 
munities who had become more or less isolated in the midst 
of the earlier and possibly partly Etniscanized populations, the 
result being that as early as the 4th century B.C. their language 
had suffered corruptions which it escaped both in the Samnite 
mountains and in the independent and self-contained community 
of Rome. 

For fuller details the reader must be referred to the separate 
articles already mentioned, and to Iguvium, Picenum, Osc a Lingua, 
Marsi, Aequi, Siculi and Liguria. Such archaeological evidence as 
can be connected with the linguistic data will there be dhcussed. 


B. Consolidation of Italy 

We have seen that the name of Italy was originally ap 
only to the southernmost part of the peninsula, and was o* _ 
gradually extended so as to comprise the central regions, s m* / 
as Latium and Campania, which were designated by writenrf 
late as Thucydides and Aristotle as in Opicia. The progress* 
this change cannot be followed in detail, but there can be ltlfll 
doubt that the extension of the Roman arms, and the gnuM 
union of the nations of the peninsula under one dominant powdj 
would contribute to the introduction, or rather would make t£ 
necessity felt, for the use of one general appellation. At fiatf 
indeed, the term was apparently confined to the regions of til 
central and southern districts, exclusive of Cisalpine Gaul an*— 
the whole tract north of the Apennines, and this continued ti^ 
be the official or definite signification of the name down to tta^ 
end of the republic. But the natural limits of Italy are so clea 
marked that the name came to be generally employed as a g 
graphical term at a much earlier period. Thus we already i 
Polybius repeatedly applying it in this wider signification to \ 
whole country, as far as the foot of the Alps; and it is evidc 
from many passages in the Latin writers that this was the famili 
use of the term in the days of Cicero and Caesar. The official 
distinction was, however, still retained. Cisalpine Caul, inclu 
ing the whole of northern Italy, still constituted a " province,*! 
an appellation never applied to Italy itself. As such it waft 
assigned to Julius Caesar, together with Transalpine Caul, 
and it was not till he crossed the Rubicon that he entered Italy 
in the strict sense of the term. 

Augustus was the first who gave a definite administrative 
organization to Italy as a whole, and at the same time gave 
official sanction to that wider acceptation of the name which 
had already established itself in familiar usage, and which hat 
continued to prevail ever since. 

The division of Italy in to eleven regions, instituted by Augustus 
for administrative purposes, which continued in official use till 
the reign of Constantino, was based mainly on the territorial 
divisions previously existing, and preserved with few exceptions 
the ancient limits. 

The first region comprised Latium (in the more extended sense 
of the term, as including the land of the Volsci, Hernki and 
Aurunci), together with Campania and the district of the 
Picentini. It thus extended from the mouth of the Tiber to 
that of the Silarus (see Latium). 

The second region included Apulia and Calabria (the name 
by which the Romans usually designated the district known to 
the Greeks as Messapia or Iapygia), together with the land of the 
Hirpini, which had usually been considered as a part of Samnium. 

The third region contained Lucania and Bruttium; it was 
bounded on the west coast by the Silarus, on the east by the 

The fourth region comprised all the Samnites (except the 
H.'pini), together with the Sabines and the cognate tribes of 
the Frentani, Marrucini, Marsi, Peligni, Vestini and AequicuU. 
It was separated from Apulia on the south by the river Tifemus, 
and from Picenum on the north by the Matrinus. 

The fifth region was composed solely of Picenum, extending 
along the coast of the Adriatic from the mouth of the Matrinus 
to that of the Acsis, beyond Ancona. 

The sixth region was formed by Umbria, in the more extended 
sense of the term, as including the Ager Galticus, along the coast 
of the Adriatic from the Aesis to the Ariminus, and separated 
from Etruria on the west by the Tiber. 

The seventh region Consisted of Etruria, which preserved 
its ancient limits, extending from the Tiber to the Tyrrhenian 
Sea, and separated from Liguria on the north by the river 

The eighth region, termed Gallia Cispadana, comprised the 
southern portion of Cisalpine Gaul, and was bounded on the sort b 
(as its name implied) by the river Padus or Po, from above 
Placentia to its mouth. It was separated from Etruria and 
Umbria by the main chain of the Apennines; and tbo river 




Arixninus was substituted for the far-famed Rubicon as its limit 
on the Adriatic 

The ninth region comprised Liguria, extending along the sea- 
coast from the Varus to the Macra, and inland as far as the river 
Padas, which constituted its northern boundary from its source 
in Mount Vesulus to its confluence with the Trebia just above 

The tenth region included Venetia from the Padus and Adriatic 
to the Alps, to which was annexed the neighbouring peninsula 
of Istria, and to the west the territory of the Cenomani, a Gaulish 
tribe, extending from the Athesis to the Addua, which had 
previously been regarded as a part of Gallia Cisalpina. 

The eleventh region, known as Gallia Transpadana, included 
all the rest of Cisalpine Gaul from the Padus on the south and 
the Addua on the east to the foot of the Alps. 

The arrangements thus established by Augustus continued 
almost unchanged ttH the time of Constant ine, and farmed the 
basis of all subsequent administrative divisions until the fan* 
of the Western empire. 

The mainstay of the Roman military control of Italy first, 
and of the whole empire afterwards, w«s the splendid system of 
roads. As the supremacy of Rome extended itself 
over Italy, the Roman road system grew step by step, 
each fresh conquest being marked by the pushing forward of 
roads through the heart of the newly-won territory, and the 
establishment of fortresses in connexion with them. It was in 
Italy that the military value of a network of roads was first 
appreciated by the Romans, and the lesson stood them in good 
stead in the provinces. And it was for military reasons that 
from mere cart-tracks they were developed into permanent 
highways (T. Ashby, in Papers of the British School at Rome, 
i. 129). Prom Rome itseH roads radiated in all directions. 
Communications with the south-east were mainly provided 
by the Via Appia (the" queen of Roman roads," as Stat ius colled 
it) and the Via Latina, which met close to Casilinum, at the 
crossing of the Volturnus, 3 m^N.W. of Capua, the second city in 
Italy in the 3rd century B.C., and the centre of the road system 
of Campania. Here the Via Appia turned eastward towards 
Bene vent urn, while the Via PopQla continued in a south-easterly 
direction through the Campanian plain and thence southwards 
through the mountains of Lucania and Bruttii as far as Rhegium. 
Coast roads of minor importance as means of through com- 
munication also existed on both sides of the " toe " of the boot. 
Other roads ran south from Capua to Cumae, Puteoli (the most 
important harbour of Campania), and Neapolis, which could 
also be reached by a coast road from Minturnae on the Via Appia. 
From Beneventum, another important road centre, the Via 
Appia itself ran south-east through the mountains past Venusia 
to Tarentum on the south-west coast of the " heel," and thence 
across Calabria to Brundusium, while Trajan's correction of it, 
following an older mule-track, ran north-east through the moun- 
tains and then through the lower ground of Apulia, reaching the 
coast at Barium. Both met at Brundusium, the principal port 
•for the East. From Aequum Tuticum, on the Via Traiana, 
the Via Herculia ran to the south-east, crossing the older Via 
Appta, then south to Potentia and so on to join the Via Popflia 
in the centre of Lucania. 

The only highroad of importance which left Rome and ran 
eastwards, the Via Valeria, was not completed as far as the 
Adriatic before the time of Claudius; but on the north and north- 
west started the main highways which communicated with central 
and northern Italy, and with all that part of the Roman empire 
which was accessible by land. The Via Salaria, a very ancient 
road, with its branch, the Via Caecilia, ran north-eastwards to 
the Adriatic coast and so also did the Via Flaminia, which reached 
thexoast at Fanum Fortunae, and thence followed it to Ariminum. 
The road along the east coast from Fanum Fortunae down to 
Barium, which connected the terminations of the Via Salaria 
and Via Valeria, and of other roads farther south crossing from 
Campania, had no special name in ancient times, as far as we 
know. The Via Flaminia was the earliest and most important 
mad to the north; and it was soon extended (in 187 B.C.) by 

the Via AemiHa running through Bononia as far as Placentia, 
in an almost absolutely straight line between the plain of the. 
Po and the foot of the Apennines. In the same year a road was 
constructed over the Apennines from Bononia to Arretiura, but 
it is difficult to suppose that it was not until later that the Via 
Cassia was made, giving a direct communication between 
Arrethim and Rome. The Via Clodia was an alternative route 
to the Cassia for the first portion out of Rome, a branch having 
been built at the same time from Florentia to Lucca and Luna. 
Along the west coast the Via Aurelia ran up to Pisa and was 
continued by another Via Aemilia to Genoa. Thence the Via 
Postumia led to Dertona, Placentia and Cremona, while the Via 
Aemilia and the Via Julia Augusta continued along the coast into 
Gallia Naibonensis. 

The road system of Cisalpine Gaul was mainly conditioned 
by the rivers which had to be crossed, and the Alpine passes 
which had to be approached. 

Cremona, on the north bank of the Po, was an important 
meeting point of roads and Hostilia (Ostiglia) another; so also 
was Pat avium, farther east, and Altinum and AquileU farther 
east still. Roads, indeed, were almost as plentiful as railways 
at the present day in the basin of the Po. 

As to the roads leading out of Italy, from Aquileia roads 
diverged northward into Raetia, eastward to Noricum and 
Pannonia, and southwards to the Istrian and Dalmatian coasts. 
Farther west came the roads over the higher Alpine passes— 
the Brenner from Verona, the Septimer and the SplUgen from 
Clavenna (Chiavenao), the Great and the Little St Bernard from 
Augusta Praetoria (Aosta) # and the Mont Genevre from Augusta 
Taurinorum (Turin). 

Westward two short but important, roads led on each side of 
the Tiber to the great harbour at its mouth; while the coast 
of Lathim was supplied with a coast road by Septimius Severus. 
To the south-west the roads were short and of little importance. 

On ancient Italian geography in general see articles in Pauly- 
Wissowa, Rtaiencyclopcdte (1899, sqo.); Corpus inscriptiouum 
Latinarum (Berlin, 1863 sqq.); C, Straflorcllo. GcografiadcW Italia 
(Turin, 1890-1892); H. Ni&scn, Italiscke Londeskunde (Berlin, 1883- 
1902); also references in articles Rous, Latium, Ac. (T. As.) 

C From 476 to 1796 

The year 476 opened a new age for the Italian people. Odoacer, 
a chief of the Herulians, deposed Romulus, the last Augustus 
of the West, and placed the peninsula beneath the titular sway 
of the Byzantine emperors. At Pavia the barbarian conquerors 
of Italy proclaimed him king, and he received from Zeno the 
dignity of Roman patrician. Thus began that system of mixed 
government, Teutonic and Roman, which, in the absence of a 
national monarch, impressed the institutions of new Italy from 
the earliest date with dualism. The same revolution vested 
supreme authority in a non-resident and inefficient autocrat, 
whose title gave him the right to Interfere in Italian affairs, but 
who lacked the power and will to rule the people for his own or 
their advantage. Odoacer inaugurated that long scries of foreign 
rulers — Greeks, Franks, Germans, Spaniards and Austriaits— 
who have successively contributed to the misgovernment of 
Italy from distant seats of empire. 

I. Gothic and Lombard Kingdoms. — In 488 Theodoric, king of 
the East Goths, received commission from the Greek -emperor, 
Zeno, to undertake the affairs of Italy. He defeated Odoacer, 
drove him to Ravenna, besieged him there, and in 493 completed 
the conquest of the country by murdering the Heruh'an chief 
with his own hand. Theodoric respected the Roman institutions 
which he found in Italy, held the Eternal City sacred, and governed 
by ministers chosen from the Roman population. He settled 
at Ravenna, which had been the capital of Italy since the days 
of Honorius, and which still testifies by its monuments to the 
Gothic chieftain's Romanizing policy. Those who believe that 
the Italians would have gained strength by unification in a single 
monarchy must regret that this Gothic kingdom lacked the 
dements of stability. The Goths, except in the valley of the 
Po, resembled an army of occupation rather than a people 
numerous enough to blend with the Italic stock. Though their 




rule wis favourable to the Rontons, they were Arians; and 
religious differences, combined with the pride and jealousies 
of a nation accustomed to imperial honours, rendered the in- 
habitants of Italy eager to throw off their yoke. When, there- 
fore, Justinian undertook the reconquest of Italy, his generals, 
Belisarius and Narses, were supported by the south. The struggle 
of the Greeks and the Goths was carried on for fourteen years, 
between 539 and $53, when Teias, the last Gothic king, was 
finally defeated in a bloody battle near Vesuvius. At its close 
the provinces of Italy were placed beneath Greek dukes, controlled 
by a governor-general, entitled exarch, who ruled in the Byzantine 
emperor's name at Ravenna. 

This new settlement lasted but a few years. Narses had 
employed Lombard auxiliaries in his campaigns against the 
Goths; and when he was recalled by an insulting 
, message from the empress in 565, he is said to have 
invited this fiercest and rudest of the Teutonic clans 
to seize the spoils of Italy. Be this as it may, the Lombards, 
their ranks swelled by the Gcpidae, whom they had lately 
conquered, and by the wrecks of other barbarian tribes, passed 
southward under their king Alboin in 568. The Hcrulian 
invaders had been but a band of adventurers; the Goths were 
an army; the Lombards, far more formidable, were a nation 
In movement. Pavia offered stubborn resistance; but after 
a three years' siege it was taken, and Alboin made It the capital 
of his new kingdom. 

In order to understand the future history of Italy, it is necessary 
to form a clear conception of the method pursued by the Lombards 
in their conquest. Penetrating the peninsula, and advancing 
like a glacier or half-liquid stream of mud, they occupied the 
valley of the Po, and moved slowly downward through the centre 
of the country. Numerous as they were compared with their 
Gothic predecessors, tbey had not strength or multitude enough 
to occupy the whole peninsula. Venice, which since the days 
of Atlila had offered an asylum to Roman refugees from the 
northern cities, was left untouched. So was Genoa with its 
Riviera. Ravenna, entrenched within her lagoons, remained 
a Greek city. Rome, protected by invincible prestige, escaped. 
The sea-coast cities of the south, and the islands, Sicily, Sardinia 
and Corsica, preserved their independence. Thus the Lombards 
neither occupied the extremities nor subjugated the brain-centre 
of the country. The strength of Alboin's kingdom was in the 
north; his capital, Pavia. As his people pressed southward, 
they omitted to possess themselves of the coasts; and what 
was worse for the future of these conquerors, the original impetus 
of the invasion was checked by the untimely murder of Alboin 
in 573. After this event, the semi-independent chiefs of the 
Lombard tribe, who borrowed the title of dukes from their 
Roman predecessors, seem to have been contented with con- 
solidating their power in the districts each had occupied. The 
duchies of Spoleto in the centre, and of Benevento in the south, 
inserted wedge-like into the middle of the peninsula, and enclos- 
ing independent Rome, were but loosely united to the kingdom 
at Pavia. Italy was broken up into districts, each offering 
points for attack from without, and fostering the seeds of internal 
revolution. Three separate capitals must be discriminated- 
Pa via, the seat of the new Lombard kingdom; Ravenna, the 
garrison city of the Byzantine emperor; and Rome, the rallying 
point of the old nation, where the successor of St Peter was 
already beginning to assume that national protectorate which 
proved so influential in the future. 

It is not necessary to write the history of the Lombard kingdom 
in detail. Suffice it to say that the rule of the Lombards proved 
at first far more oppressive to the native population, and was 
less intelligent of their old customs, than that of the Goths had 
been. Wherever the Lombards had the upper hand, they placed 
the country under military rule, resembling in its general 
character what we now know as the feudal system. Though 
there is reason to suppose that the Roman laws were still ad- 
ministered within the cities, yet the Lombard code was that of 
the kingdom; and the Lombards being Arians, they added the 
oppression of religious intolerance to that of martial despotism 

and barbarous cupidity. The Italians were reduced to the 
last extremity when Gregory the Great (500-604), having 
strengthened his position by diplomatic relations with the 
duchy of Spoleto, and brought about the conversion of the 
Lombards to orthodoxy, raised the cause of the remaining 
Roman population throughout Italy. The fruit of his policy, 
which made of Rome a counterpoise against the effete empire 
of the Greeks upon the one hand and against the pressure of the 
feudal kingdom on the other, was seen in the succeeding century. 
When Leo the Isaurian published his decrees against the worship 
of images in 726, Gregory IL allied himself with Liudprand, 
the Lombard king, threw off allegiance to Byzantium, and 
established the autonomy of Rome. This pope initiated the 
dangerous policy of playing one hostile force off against another 
with a view to securing independence, He used the Lombards 
in his struggle with the Greeks, leaving to his successors the 
duty of checking these unnatural allies. This was accomplished 
by calling the Franks in against the Lombards. Liudprand 
pressed hard, not only upon the Greek dominions of the exarchate, 
but also upon Rome. His successors, Rachis and Aistolf, 
attempted to follow the same game of conquest. But the popes, 
Gregory III., Zachary and Stephen II., determining at any 
cost to espouse the national cause and to aggrandize their own 
office, continued to rely upon the Franks. Pippin twice crossed 
the Alps, and forced Aistolf to relinquish his acquisitions, 
including Ravenna, Pcntapolis, the coast towns of Romagna 
and some cities in the duchy of Spoleto. These he handed 
over to the pope of Rome. This donation of Pippin in 756 
confirmed the papal see in the protectorate of the Italic party, 
and conferred upon it sovereign rights. The virtual outcome 
of the contest carried on by Rome since the year 726 with 
Byzantium and Pavia was to place the popes in the position 
held by the Greek exarch, and to confirm the limitation of the 
Lombard kingdom. We .must, however, be cautious to remember 
that the south of Italy was comparatively unaffected. The 
dukes of the Greek empire and the Lombard dukes of Benevento, 
together with a few autonomous commercial cities, still divided 
Italy below the Campagna of Rome (see Lombards). 

II. Frankish Emperors. — The Franko-Papal alliance, which 
conferred a crown on Pippin and sovereign rights upon the see 
of Rome, held within itself thai ideal of mutually chart— 
supporting papacy and empire which exercised $0 <** OtmI 
powerful an influence in medieval history. When 
Charles the Great (Charlemagne) deposed his father-in- 
law Desidcrius, the last Lombard king, in 774, and 
when he received the circlet of the empire from Leo 111. at Rome 
in 800, he did but complete and ratify the compact offered to 
his grandfather, Charles Martcl, by Gregory III. The relations 
between the new emperor and the pope were ill defined; and 
this proved the source of infinite disasters to Italy and Europe 
in the sequel. But for the moment each seemed necessary to 
the other; and that sufficed. Charles took possession of the 
kingdom of Italy, as limited by Pippin's settlement. The pope 
was confirmed in his rectorship of the cities ceded by Aistolf, . 
with the further understanding, tacit rather than expressed, 
that, even as he had wrung these provinces for the Italic people 
from both Greeks and Lombards, so in the future he might 
claim the protectorate of such portions of Italy, external to the 
kingdom, as he should be able to acquire. This, at any rate, 
seems to be the meaning of that obscure resettlement of the 
peninsula which Charles effected. The kingdom of Italy, trans* 
milled on his death by Charles the Great, and afterwards con- 
firmed to his grandson Lothar by the peace of Verdun in 843, 
stretched from the Alps to Terradna. The duchy of Benevento 
remained tributary, but independent. The cities of Gaeta and 
Naples, Sicily and the so-called Theme of Lombard y in South 
Apulia and Calabria, still recognized the Byzantine emperor. 
Venice stood aloof, professing a nominal allegiance to the East. 
The parcels into which the Lombards had divided the peninsula 
remained thus virtually unaltered, except for the new authority 
acquired by the see of Rome. 

Internally Charles left the affairs of the Italian kingdom 




ranch m he found them, -except that be appears to have 
pursued the polky of breaking up the larger fiefs of the Lombards, 
substituting counts for their dukes, and adding to the privileges 
of the bishops. We may reckon these measures among the 
earnest advantages extended to the cities, which still contained 
the bulk of the old Roman population, and which were destined 
to intervene with decisive effect two centuries later in Italian 
history. It should also here be noticed that the changes intro- 
duced into the holding of the fiefs, whether by altering their 
boundaries or substituting Prankish for Lombard vassals, 
were chief among the causes why the feudal system took no 
permanent hold in Italy. Feudalism was not at any time a 
national institution. The hierarchy of dukes and marquises 
and counts consisted of foreign soldiers imposed on the indigenous 
inhabitants; and the rapid succession of conquerors, Lombards, 
Franks and Germans following each other at no long interval, 
and each endeavouring to weaken the remaining strength of his 
predecessor, prevented this alien hierarchy from acquiring 
fixity by permanence of tenure. Among the many miseries 
inflicted upon Italy by the frequent changes of her northern 
rulers, this at least may be reckoned a blessing. 

The Italians acknowledged eight kings of the house of Charles 
the Great, ending in Charles the Fat, who was deposed in 888. 
Prtakitk After them followed ten sovereigns* some of whom 
imt have been misnamed Italians by writers too eager 

JjJJJ* to catch at any resemblance of national glory for a 
****** people passive in the hands of foreign masters. The 
truth is that no period in Italian history was less really glorious 
than that which came to a close in 061 by Berengar IL's cession 
Of his rights to Otto the Great. It was a period marked in the 
first place by the conquests of the Saracens, who began to occupy 
Sicily early in the 9th century, overran Calabria and Apulia, took 
Ban and threatened Rome. In the second place it was marked 
by a restoration of the Greeks to power. In 800 they established 
themselves again at Ban, and ruled the Theme of Lorabardy by 
means Of an officer entitled Catapan. In the third place It was 
marked by a decline of good government in Rome. Early in the 
soth century the papacy fell into the hands of a noble family, 
known eventually as the counts of Tuscuhim, who almost 
succeeded in rendering the omce hereditary, and in uniting the 
civil and ecclesiastical functions of the city under a single member 
of their house. It is not necessary to relate the scandals of 
Maroxfa's and Theodora's female reign, the infamies of John XII. 
or the intrigues which tended to convert Rome into a dudry. 
The most important fact for the historian of Italy to notice is 
that during this time the popes abandoned, not only their high 
duties as chiefs of Christendom, but also their protectorate of 
Italian liberties. A fourth humiliating episode in this period 
was the invasion of the Magyar barbarians, who overran the 
north of Italy, and reduced its fairest provinces to the condition 
of a wilderness. Anarchy and misery are indeed the main 
features of that long space of time which elapsed between the 
death of Charles the Great and the descent of Otto. Through 
the almost impenetrable darkness and confusion we only discern 
this much, that Italy was powerless to constitute herself a 

F The discords which followed on the break-up of the Carolingian 
power, and the weakness of the so-caMed Italian emperors, who 
were unable to control the feudatories (marquises of Ivrea and 
Tuscany, dukes of Friuli and Spokto), from whose ranks they 
sprang, exposed Italy to ever-increasirjg misrule. The country 
by this time had become thickly covered over with castles, the 
seats of greater or lesser nobles, all of whom were eager to detach 
themselves from strict allegiance to the " Regno," The cities, 
exposed to pillage by Huns in the north and Saracens in the 
south, and ravaged on the coast by Norse pirates* asserted their 
right to enclose themselves with walls, and taught their burghess 
the use of arms. Within the circuit of their ramparts, the bishops 
already began to exercise authority in rivalry with the counts, 
to whom since the days of Theodoric, had been entrusted the 
government of the Italian burghs. Agreeably to feudal customs, 
these nobles, as they grew in power, retired from the town, 

and buit themselves fortresses on points of vantage in the 
neighbourhood. Thus the titular king of Italy found himself 
simultaneously at war with those great vassals who had chosen 
him from their own class, with the turbulent factions of the 
Roman aristocracy, with unruly bishops in the growing dties 
and with the multitude of minor counts and barons who occupied 
the open lands, and who changed sides according to the interests 
of the moment. The last king of the quasi-Italian succession, 
Berengar IL, marquis of Ivrea (951-061), made a vigorous effort 
to restore the authority of the regno; and had he succeeded, it 
is not impossible that now at the last moment Italy might have 
become an independent nation. But this attempt at unification 
was reckoned to Berengar for a crime. He only won the hatred 
of all classes, and was represented by the obscure annalists of 
that period as an oppressor of the church and a remorseless 
tyrant. In Italy, divided between feudal nobles and almost 
hereditary ecclesiastics, of foreign blood and alien sympathies, 
there was no national feeling. Berengar stood alone against a 
multitude, unanimous in their intolerance of discipline. His 
predecessor in the kingdom, Lothar, had left a young and 
beautiful widow, Adelheid. Berengar imprisoned her upon the 
Lake of Como r and threatened her with a forced marriage to his 
son Adalbert* She escaped to the castle of Canossa, where the 
great count of Tuscany espoused her cause, and appealed in 
her behalf to Otto the Saxon. The king of Germany descended 
into Italy, and took Adelheid in marriage. After this episode 
Berengar was more discredited and impotent than ever. In the 
extremity of his fortunes he had recourse himself to Otto, making 
a formal cession of the Italian kingdom, fat his own name and 
that of his son Adalbert, to the Saxon as his overlord. By this 
slender tie the crown of Italy was joined to that of Germany; 
and the formal right of the elected king of Germany to be con- 
sidered king of Italy and emperor may be held to have accrued 
from this epoch. 

III. The Qcrman £m£«r«T.— Berengar gained nothing by 
his act of obedience to Otto. The great Italian nobles, in their 
turn, appealed to Germany. Otto entered Lombardy smxob 
in 061, deposed Berengar, assumed the crown in San «** #*»«. 
Ambrogio at Milan, and in 06s was proclaimed ****** 
emperor by John XII. at Rome. Henceforward • l "** rw * 
Italy changed masters according as one or other of the German 
families assumed supremacy beyond the Alps. It is one of the 
strongest instances furnished by history of the fascination 
exercised by an idea that the Italians themselves should have 
grown to glory in this dependence of their nation upon Caesars 
who had nothing but a name in common with the Roman 
Imperater of the past. 

The first thing we have to notice in this revolution which 
placed Otto the Great npon the imperial throne is that the 
Italian kingdom, founded by the Lombards, recognised by 
the Franks and recently claimed by eminent Italian feudatories, 
virtually ceased to exist. It was merged in the German kingdom ; 
and, since for the German princes Germany was of necessity 
their first care, Italy from this time forward began to be left 
more and more to herself. The central authority of Pavia bad 
always been weak; the regno had proved Insufficient to combine 
the nation. But now even that shadow of union disappeared, 
and the Italians were abandoned to the slowly working influences 
which tended to divide them into separate states. The most 
brilliant period of their chequered history, the period which 
includes the rise of communes, the exchange of municipal 
liberty for despotism and the gradual discrimination of the five 
great powers (Milan, Venice, Florence, the Papacy and the 
kingdom of Naples), now begins. Among the centrifugal forces 
which determined the fatureof the Italian race muBt be reckoned, 
first and foremost, the new spirit of municipal independence. 
We have seen how the cities enclosed themselves with walls, 
and how the bishops denned their authority against that of 
the counts. Otto encouraged this revolution by placing the 
enclosures of the chief burghs beyond the jurisdiction of the 
counts. Within those precincts the bishops and the citizens were 
independent of all feudal masters but the emperor. He further 




broke the power of the great vassals by redivisions of their feuds, 
and by the creation of new marches which he assigned to his 
German followers. In this way, owing to the dislocation of the 
ancient aristocracy, to the enlarged jurisdiction of a power so 
democratic as the episcopate, and to the increased privileges of 
the burghs, feudalism received a powerful check in Italy. The 
Italian people, that people which gave to the world the commerce 
and the arts of Florence, was not indeed as yet apparent. But the 
conditions under which it could arise, casting from itself all 
foreign and feudal trammels, recognising its true past in ancient 
Rome, and reconstructing a civility out of the ruins of those 
glorious memories, were now at last granted. The nobles from 
this time forward retired into the country and the mountains, 
fortified themselves in strong places outside the cities, and gave 
their best attention to fostering the rural population. Within 
the cities and upon the open lands the Italians, in this and 
the next century, doubled, trebled and quadrupled their 
numbers. A race was formed strong enough to keep the 
empire itself in check, strong enough, except for its own 
internecine contests, to have formed a nation equal to its 
happier neighbours. 

The recent scandals of the papacy induced Otto to deprive 
the Romans of their right to elect popes. But when he died 
in 073, his son Otto IL (married to Theophano of the imperial 
Bysantine house) and his grandson, Otto III., who descended 
into Italy in 006, found that the affairs of Rome and of the 
southern provinces were more than even their imperial powers 
could cope with. The faction of the counts of Tusculum raised 
its head from time to time in the Eternal City, and Rome still 
claimed to be a commonwealth. Otto III.'i untimely death in 
1002 introduced new discords. Rome fell once more into the 
hands of her nobles. The Lombards chose Ardoin, marquis of 
Ivrea, for king, and Pavia supported his claims against those of 
Henry of Bavaria, who had been elected in Germany. Milan 
sided with Henry; and this is perhaps the first eminent instance 
of cities being reckoned powerful allies in the Italian disputes of 
sovereigns. It is also the first instance of that bitter feud 
between the two great capitals of Lombardy, a feud rooted in 
ancient antipathies between the Roman population of Medio- 
Ianum and the Lombard garrison of Alboin's successors, which 
proved so disastrous to the national cause. Ardoin retired to 
a monastery, where he died in 1015. Henry nearly destroyed 
Pavia, was crowned in Rome and died in 1024. After this event 
Heribert, the archbishop of Milan, invited Conrad, the Franconian 
king of Germany, into Italy, and crowned him with the iron 
crown of the kingdom. 

The intervention of this man, Heribert, compels us to turn a 
closer glance upon the cities of North Italy. It is here, at the 
Htrt**tt present epoch and for the next two centuries, that the 
mastk* pith and nerve of the Italian nation must be sought; 
f""**'* and among the burghs of Lombardy, Milan, the eldest 
*"**** daughter of ancient Rome, assumes the lead. In 
Milan we hear for the first time the word Commie. In Milan 
the citixens first form themselves into a Portamento. In Milan 
the archbishop organizes the hitherto voiceless, defenceless 
population into a community capable of expressing its needs, 
and an army ready to maintain its rights. To Heribert is 
attributed the invention of the Carroccio, which played so 
singular and important a part in the warfare of Italian cities. 
A huge car drawn by oxen, bearing the standard of the burgh, 
and carrying an altar with the host, this carroccio, like the ark 
of the Israelites, formed a rallying point in battle, and reminded 
the armed artisans that they had a dty and a church to fight for. 
That Heribert 's device proved effectual in raising the spirit of 
his burghers, and consolidating them into a formidable band of 
warriors, is shown by the fact that it was speedily adopted in 
all the free cities. It must not, however, be supposed that at 
this epoch the liberties of the burghs were fully developed. The 
mass of the people remained unrepresented in the government; 
and even if the consuls existed in the days of Heribert, they 
were but bumble legal officers, transacting business for their 
constituents in the courts of the bishop and his viscount. It 

still needed nearly * century of struggle to render the burghers 
independent of lordship, with a fully organized commune, 
self-governed in its several assemblies. While making these 
reservations, it is at the same time right to observe that certain 
Italian communities were more advanced upon the path of 
independence than others. This is specially the case with the 
maritime ports. Not to mention Venice, which has not yet 
entered the Italian community, and remains a Greek free dty, 
Genoa and Pisa were rapidly rising into ill-defined autonomy. 
Their command of fleets gave them incontestable advantages, 
as when, for instance, Otto II. employed the Pisans in 080 against 
the Greeks in Lower Italy, and the Pisans and Genoese together 
attacked the Saracens of Sardinia in 1017. Still, speaking 
generally, the age of independence for the burghs had only 
begun when Heribert from Milan undertook the earliest 
organization of a force that was to become paramount in peace 
and war. 

Next to Milan, and from the point of view of general politics 
even more than Milan, Rome now claims attention. The 
destinies of Italy depended upon the character which rftmt 
the see of St Peter should assume. Even the liberties 
of her republics In the north hung on the issue of a contest which 
in the nth and 12th centuries shook Europe to its farthest 
boundaries. So fatally were the Internal affairs of that magnifi- 
cent but unhappy country bound up with concerns which 
brought the forces of the civilized world into play. Her andent 
prestige, her geographical position and the intellectual primacy 
of her most noble children rendered Italy the battleground of 
principles that set all Christendom in motion, and by the dash 
of which she found herself for ever afterwards divided. During 
the reign of Conrad IL, the party of the counts of Tusculum 
revived in Rome; and Crescentius, claiming the title of consul 
in the imperial dty, sought onco more to control the election 
of the popes. When Henry III., the son of Conrad, entered 
Italy in 1046, he found three popes in Rome. These he abolished, 
and, taking the appointment into his own hands, gave German 
bishops to the see. The policy thus initiated upon the precedent 
laid down by Otto the Great was a remedy for pressing evils. 
It saved Rome from becoming a duchy in the hands of the 
Tusculum house. But it neither raised the prestige of the papacy, 
nor could it satisfy the Italians, who rightly regarded the Roman 
see as theirs. These German popes were short-lived and in* 
efficient. Their appointment, according to notions which defined 
themselves within the church at this epoch, was simoniacal; 
and during the long minority of Henry IV., who succeeded 
his father in 1056, the terrible Tuscan monk, Hildebrand of 
Soana, forged weapons which he used with deadly effect against 
the presumption of the empire. The condition of the church 
seemed desperate, unless it could be purged of crying scandals— 
of the subjection of the papacy to the great Roman nobles, 
of its subordination to the German emperor and of its internal 
demoralization. It was Hilde brand's policy throughout three 
papades, during which he controlled the counsels of the Vatican, 
and before he himself assumed the tiara, to prepare the mind 
of Italy and Europe for a mighty change. His programme 
included these three points: (1) the celibacy of the clergy; 
(2) the abolition of ecclesiastical appointments made by the 
secular authority; (3) the vesting of the papal election in 
the hands of the Roman clergy and people, presided over by the 
curia of cardinals. How Hildebrand paved the way for these 
reforms during the pontificates of Nicholas II. and Alexander IL, 
how he succeeded in raising the papal office from the depths of 
degradation and subjection to illimitable sway over the minds 
of men in Europe, and how his warfare with the empire estab- 
lished on a solid basis the still doubtful independence of the 
Italian burghs, renewing the long neglected protectorate of the 
Italian race, and bequeathing to his successors a national policy 
which had been forgotten by the popes since his great pre* 
decessor Gregory IL, forms a chapter in European history which 
must now be interrupted. We have to follow the fortunes of 
unexpected allies, upon whom in no small measure his success 




In oidcr to maintain some thread of continuity through the 
perplexed and tangled vicissitudes of the Italian race, it has been 
necessary to disregard those provinces which did not 
immediately contribute to the formation of its history. 
For this reason we have left the whole of the south up 
to the present point unnoticed. Sicily in the hands of 
the Mussulmans, the Theme of Lombardy abandoned to 
the weak suzerainty of the Greek catapans, the Lombard duchy 
of Benevento slowly falling to pieces and the maritime republics 
of Naples, Gaeta and Amalfi extending their influence by com- 
merce in the Mediterranean, were in effect detached from the 
Italian regno, beyond the jurisidktion of Rome, included in no 
parcel of Italy proper. But now the moment had arrived when 
this vast group of provinces, forming the future kingdom of the 
Two Sicilies, was about to enter definitely and decisively within 
the bounds of the Italian community. Some Norman adventurers, 
on pilgrimage to St Michael's shrine on Monte Gargano, lent 
their swords in 1017 to the Lombard cities of Apulia against the 
Greeks. Twelve years later we find the Normans settled at 
Aversa under their Count Rainulf . From this station as a centre 
the little band of adventurers, playing the Greeks off against the 
Lombards, and the Lombards against the Greeks, spread their 
power in ail directions, until they made themselves the most con- 
siderable force in southern Italy William of Hauteville was 
proclaimed count of Apulia. His half-brother, Robert Wiskard 
or Guiscard, after defeating the papal troops at Civitetla in 1053, 
received from Leo IX. the investiture of all present and future 
conquests in Apulia, Calabria and Sicily, which he agreed to hold 
as fiefs of the Holy See. Nicholas IL ratified this grant, and con- 
firmed the title of count. Having consolidated their possessions 
on the mainland, the Normans, under Robert Guiscard's brother, 
the great Count Roger, undertook the conquest of Sicily in 1060. 
After a prolonged struggle of thirty years; they wrested the 
whole island from the Saracens; and Roger, dying in izoi, 
bequeathed to bis son Roger a kingdom in Calabria and Sicily 
second to none in Europe for wealth and magnificence. This, 
while the elder branch of the Hauteville family still held the title 
and domains of the Apulian duchy; but in 1127, upon the death 
of his cousin Duke William, Roger united the whole of the future 
realm. In 1130 he assumed the style of king of Sicily, i n sc ri bing 
upon his sword the famous hexameter — 

"Appulus et Calaber Siculus mini servit et Afcr." 
This Norman conquest of the two Sicilies forms the most 
romantic episode in medieval Italian history. By the con- 
solidation of Apulia, Calabria and Sicily into a powerful kingdom, 
by checking the growth of the maritime republics and by 
recognising the over-lordship of the papal sec, the house of 
Hauteville influenced the destinies of Italy with more effect than 
any of the princes who had previously dealt with any portion of 
the peninsula. Their kingdom, though Naples was from time to 
time separated from Sicily, never quite lost the cohesion they 
had given it; and all the disturbances of equilibrium in Italy 
were due in after days to papal manipulation of the rights 
acquired by Robert Guiscard's act of homage. The southern 
negno, in the hands of the popes, proved an insurmountable 
obstacle to the unification of Italy, led to French interference in 
Italian affairs, introduced the Spaniard and maintained in those 
rich southern provinces the reality of feudal sovereignty long 
after this alien element had been eliminated from the rest of 
Italy (see Noimans; Sicily: History). 

For the sake of clearness, we have anticipated the course of 
events by nearly a centary. We must now return to the data of 
RDdebrand's elevation to the* papacy in 1073, when 
£j£5f. he chose the memorable name of Gregory VII. In 
aw*» the next year after his election Hildebrand convened 
a council, and passed measures enforcing the celibacy 
of the clergy. In 107s he caused the investiture of ecclesiastical 
dignitaries by secular potentates of any degree to be condemned. 
These two reforms, striking at the most cherished privileges and 
most deeply-rooted self-indulgences of the aristocratic caste in 
Europe, inflamed the bitterest hostility. Henry IV., king of 
Germany, but not crowned emperor, convened a- diet in the 

Inflowing year at Worms, where Gregory was deposed and ex- 
communicated. The pope followed with a counter excommnnica* 
tion, far more formidable, releasing the king's subjects from 
their oaths of allegiance. War was thus declared between the 
two chiefs of western Christendom, that war of investitures 
which out-lasted the lives of both Gregory and Henry, and was 
not terminated till the year naa. The dramatic episodes of this 
struggle are too well known to be enlarged upon. In his single* 
handed dud with the strength of Germany, Gregory received 
material assistance from the Countess Matilda of Tuscany. She 
was the last heiress of the great house of Canossa, whose fiefs 
stretched from Mantua across Lombardy, passed the Apennines, 
included the Tuscan plains, and embraced a portion of the duchy 
of Spoleto. It was in her castle of Canossa that Henry IV. per* 
formed Ins three days' penance in the winter of 1077; and there 
she made the cession of her vast domains to the church. That 
cession, renewed after the death of Gregory to his successors, 
conferred upon the popes indefinite rights, of which they after- 
wards availed themselves in the consolidation of their temporal 
power. Matilda died in the year. iris. Gregory had passed 
before her from the scene of his contest, an exile at Salerno, 
whither Robert Guiscard carried him in 1084 from the anarchy of 
rebellious Rome. With unbroken spirit, though the objects of 
his life were unattained, though Italy and Europe had been 
thrown into confusion, and the issue of the conflict was still 
doubtful, Gregory expired in 1085 with these words on his lips: " I 
loved justice, I hated iniquity, therefore in banishment I die." 

The greatest of the popes thus breathed his last; but the new 
spirit he had communicated to the papacy was not destined to 
expire with him. Gregory's immediate successors, Victor III., 
Urban n. and Paschal II., carried on his struggle with Henry 

IV. and his imperial antipopes, encouraging the emperor's son 
to rebel against him, and stirring up Europe for the first crusade. 
When Henry IV. died, his own son's prisoner, in 1106, Henry 

V. crossed the Alps, entered Rome, wrung the imperial coronation 
from Paschal IL and compelled the pope to grant his claims 
on the investitures. Scarcely had he returned to Germany when 
the Lateran disavowed all that the pope had done, on the score 
that it had been extorted by force. France sided with the 
church. Germany rejected the bull of investiture. A new 
descent into Italy, a new seizure of Rome, proved of no avail* 
The emperor's real weakness was in Germany, where his subjects 
openly expressed their discontent. He at last abandoned the 
contest which had distracted Europe. By the concordat of 
Worms, ma, the emperor surrendered the right of investiture 
by ring and staff, and granted the right of election to the clergy. 
The popes were henceforth to be chosen by the cardinals, the 
bishops by the chapters subject to the pope's approval. On 
the other hand the pope ceded to the emperor the right of 
investiture by the sceptre. But the main issue of the struggle 
was not in these details of ecclesiastical government; principles 
had been at stake far deeper and more widely reaching. The 
respective relations of pope and emperor, ill-defined in the 
compact between Charles the Great and Leo III., were brought 
in question, and the two chief potentates of Christendom, no 
longer tacitly concordant, stood against each other in irreconcil- 
able rivalry. Upon this point, though the battle seemed to be 
a drawn one, the popes were really victors. They remained 
independent of the emperor, but the emperor had still to seek 
the crown at their hands. The pretensions of Otto the Great 
and Henry III. to make popes were gone for ever (see Papacy; 

IV. Age of ike Comimmess—Tht final gamers, however, by the 
war of investitures were the Italians. In the first place, from 
this time forward, owing to the election of popes by 
the Roman curia, the Holy See remained in the hands %£ 
of Italians; and this, though it was by no means an tum, - 
unmixed good, was a great glory to the nation. In the 
next place, the antagonism of the popes to the emperors, which 
became hereditary in the Holy College, forced the former to 
assume the protectorate of the national cause. But by far the 
greatest profit the Italians reaped was the emancipation of theft 




burghs. During the forty-seven years 1 war, when pope and 
emperor were respectively bidding for their alliance, and offering 
concessions to secure their support, the communes grew in 
self-reliance, strength and liberty. As the bishops had helped 
to free them from subservience to their feudal masters, so the 
war of investitures relieved them of dependence on their bishops. 
The age of real autonomy, signalized by the supremacy of consuls 
in the cities, had arrived. 

In the republics, as we begin to know .them after the war of 
investitures, government was carried on by officers called consuls, 
varying in number according to custom and according to the 
division of the town into districts. These magistrates, as we 
have already seen, were originally appointed to control and 
protect the humbler classes. But, in proportion as the people 
gained more power in the field the consuls rose into importance, 
superseded the bishops and began to represent the city in trans- 
actions with its neighbours. Popes and emperors who needed 
the assistance of a city, had to seek it from the consuls, and thus 
these officers gradually converted an obscure and indefinite 
authority into what resembles the presidency of a common- 
wealth. They were supported by a deliberative assembly, 
called crtdetua, chosen from the more distinguished citizens. 
In addition to this privy council, we find a gran consitfio, consist- 
ing of the burghers who had established the right to interfere 
immediately in public affairs, and a still larger assembly called 
portamento, which included the whole adult population. Though 
the institutions of the communes varied in different localities, 
this is the type to which they all approximated. It will be 
perceived that the type was rather oligarchical than strictly 
democratic. Between the parlamento and the consuls with their 
privy council, or credenza, was interposed the gran consiglio of 
privileged burghers. These formed the aristocracy of the town, 
who by their wealth and birth held its affairs within their custody. 
There is good reason to believe that, when the term popoio 
occurs, it refers to this body and not to the whole mass of the 
population. The commu included the entire city— bishop, 
consuls, oligarchy, councils, handicraftsmen, proletariate. The 
popolo was the governing or upper class. It was almost inevitable 
in the transition from feudalism to democracy that this inter- 
mediate ground should be traversed; and the peculiar Italian 
phrases, primo popolo, scconic popolo, Urzo popolo, and so forth, 
indicate successive changes, whereby the oligarchy passed from 
one stage to another in its progress toward absorption in 
democracy or tyranny. 

Under their consuls the Italian burghs rose to a great height 
of prosperity and splendour. Pisa built her Duomo. Milan 
undertook the irrigation works which enriched the soil of 
Lombardy for ever. Massive walls, substantial edifices, com* 
medious seaports, good roads, were the benefits conferred by this 
new government on Italy. It is also to be noticed that the 
people now began to be conscious of their past. They recognised 
the fact that their blood was Latin as distinguished from Teutonic, 
and that they must look to ancient Rome for those memories 
which constitute a people's nationality. At this epoch the study 
of Roman law received a new impulse, and this is the real meaning 
of the legend that Pisa, glorious through her consuls, brought 
the pandects in a single codex from Amain. The very name 
consul, no less than the Romanizing character of the best archi- 
tecture of the time, points to the same revival of antiquity. 

The rise of the Lombard communes produced a sympathetic 
revolution in Rome,, which deserves to be mentioned in this place. 
Bm _ A monk, named Arnold of Brescia, animated with the 
£*£•#. *P irk of *** Milanese, stirred up the Romans to shake 
off the temporal sway of their bishop. He attempted, 
in fact, upon a grand scale what was being slowly and quietly 
effected in the northern cities. Rome, ever mindful of her 
unique past, listened to Arnold's preaching. A senate was 
established, and the republic was proclaimed. The title of 
patrician was revived and offered to Conrad, king of Italy, but 
not crowned emperor. Conrad refused it, and the Romans 
conferred ft upon one of their own aobies* Though these institu- 
tion* borrowed high-standing titles from antiquity, they were 

in reaKty imitations of the Lombard civic system. The patrician 
stood for the consuls. The senate, composed of nobles, repre- 
sented the credenza and the gran consiglio. The pope was 
unable to check this revolution, which is now chiefly interesting 
as further proof of the insurgence of the Latin as against the 
feudal elements in Italy at this period (see Rome: History). 

Though the communes gained so much by the war of investi- 
tures, the division of the country between the pope's and 
emperor's parties was no small price to pay for inde- muBldm 
pendence. It inflicted upon Italy the ineradicable p* VMr% . 
curse of party-warfare, setting city against city, bouse 
against house, and rendering concordant action for a national 
end impossible. No sooner had the compromise of the investitures 
been concluded than it was manifest that the burghers of the 
new enfranchised communes were resolved to turn their arms 
against each other. We seek in vain an obvious motive for each 
separate quarrel All we know for certain is that, at this epoch, 
Rome attempts to ruin Tivoli, and Venice Pisa; Milan fights 
with Cremona, Cremona with Crema, Pavia with Verona, 
Verona with Padua, Piacenza with Parma, Modena and Reggie 
with Bologna, Bologna and Faenza with Ravenna and Imoht, 
Florence and Pisa with Lucca and Siena, and so on through the 
whole list of cities. The nearer the neighbours, the more rancor- 
ous and internecine is the strife; and, as in all cases where 
animosity is deadly and no grave local causes of dispute are 
apparent, we arc bound to conclude that some deeply-seated 
permanent uneasiness goaded these fast growing communities 
into rivalry. Italy was, in fact, too small for her children. As 
the towns expanded, they perceived that they must mutually 
exclude each other. They fought for bare existence, far primacy 
in commerce, for the command of seaports, for the keys of 
mountain passes, for rivers, roads and all the avenues of wealth 
and plenty. The pope's cause and the emperor's cause were of 
comparatively little moment to Italian burghers; and the names 
of Guelph and Ghibelline, which before long began to be heard hi 
every street, on every market-place, had no meaning for them. 
These watchwords are said to have arisen in Germany during 
the disputed successionr of the empire between 113 5 and 1152, 
when the WelCs of Bavaria opposed the Swabian princes of 
Waiblingen origin. But in Italy, although they were severally 
identified with the papal and imperial parties, they really served 
as symbols for jealousies which altered in complexion from time 
to time and place to place, expressing more than antagonistic 
political principles, and involving differences vital enough to 
split the social fabric to its foundation. 

Under the imperial rule of Lothar the Saxon (1125-1137) and 
Conrad the Swabian (1138-1152), these civil wars increased 
in violence owing to the absence of authority. Neither 
Lothar nor Conrad was strong at home; the former Zn^ 
had no influence in Italy, and the latter never entered 
Italy at all. But when Conrad died, the electors chose his 
nephew Frederick, surnamed Barbarossa, who united the rival 
honours of Welf and Waiblingen, to succeed him; and it was 
soon obvious that the empire had a master powerful ft^^ut 
of brain and firm of will. Frederick immediately 6«tirwM 
determined to reassert the imperial rights in his «■*<*• 
southern provinces, and to check the warfare of the *•*£*•»» 
burghs. When he first crossed the Alps in 1154,****" 
Lombardy was, roughly speaking, divided between two parties, 
the one headed by Pavia professing loyalty to the empire* 
the other headed by Milan ready to oppose its claims. The 
municipal animosities of the last quarter of a century gave 
substance to these factions; yet neither the imperial nor the 
anti-imperial party had any real community of interest with 
Frederick. He came to supersede self-government by consuls* 
to deprive the cities of the privilege of making war on their own 
account and to extort bis regalian rights of forage, food ami 
lodging for his armies. It was only the habit of inter urban 
jealousy which prevented the communes from at once combining 
to resist demands which threatened their liberty of action, and 
would leave them passive at the pleasure of a foreign master. 
The diet was opened at RoncagUa near Piacecaa, where Frederick 



rjateaed to the roraplaints of Coma and Lodi against Mflan, of 
Fa via against Teuton* and of the marquis of Montfcrrat against 
Asti and Chkri. The plaintiffs in each case were imperialists; 
and Frederick's first action was to redress their supposed griev- 
ances. He laid waste Chkri, Asti and Tortona, then took the 
Lombard crown at Pa via, and, reserving Milan for a future day, 
passed southward to Rome. Outside the gates of Rome he was 
met by a deputation from the senate he had come to supersede, 
who addressed him in words memorable for expressing the 
republican spirit of new Italy face to face with autocratic 
feudalism: " Thou wast a stranger, I have made thee a citizen "; 
it is Rome who speaks: " Thou earnest as an alien from beyond 
the Alps, I have conferred on thee the principality." Moved 
only to scorn and indignation by the rhetoric of these presump- 
tuous enthusiasts, Frederick marched into the Leonine city, and 
took the imperial crown from the hands of Adrian IV. In return 
for this compliance, the emperor delivered over to the pope his 
troublesome rival Arnold of Brescia, who was burned alive by 
Nicholas Brcakspear, the only English successor of St Peter. 
The gates of Rome itself were shut against Frederick; and even 
on this first occasion his good understanding with Adrian began 
to suffer. The points of dispute between them .related mainly 
to Matilda's bequest, and to the kingdom of Sicily, which the 
pope had rendered independent of the empire by renewing its 
investiture in the name of the Holy See. In truth, the papacy 
and the empire had become irreconcilable. Each claimed 
illimitable authority, and neither was content to abide within 
such limits as would have secured a mutual tolerance. Having 
obtained bis coronation, Frederick withdrew to Germany, while 
Milan prepared herself against the storm which threatened. 
In the ensuing struggle with the empire, that great city rose tp 
the altitude of patriotic heroism. By their sufferings no less 
than by their deeds of daring, her citizens showed themselves to 
be sublime, devoted and disinterested, winning the purest 
laurels which give lustre to Italian story. Almost in Frederick's 
presence, they rebuilt Tortona, punished Pavia, Lodi, Cremona 
and the marquis of Montferrat. Then they fortified the Adda 
and Tidno, and waited for the emperor's next descent. He 
came in 1 158 with a large army, overran Lombardy, raised his 
imperial allies, and sat down before the walls of Milan. Famine 
forced the burghers to partial obedience, and Frederick held a 
victorious diet at RoncagUa. Here the jurists of Bologna 
appeared, armed with their new lore of Roman law, and ex- 
pounded Justinian's code in the interests of the German empire. 
It was now seen how the absolutist doctrines of autocracy 
developed irt. Justinian's age at Byzantium would bear fruits in 
the development of an imperial idea, which was destined to be 
the fatal mirage of medieval Italy. Frederick placed judges of 
his own appointment, with the title of podesta, in all the Lombard 
communes; and this stretch of his authority, while it exacer- 
bated his foes, forced even his friends to join their ranks against 
him. The war, meanwhile, dragged on. Crema yielded after an 
heroic siege in xx6o, and was abandoned to the cruelty of its 
fierce rival Cremona. Milan was invested in x 161, starved into 
capitulation after nine months' resistance, and given up to total 
destruction by the Italian imperialists of Frederick's army, 
so stained and tarnished with the vindictive passions of municipal 
rivalry was even this, the one great glorious strife of Italian 
annals. Having ruined his rebellious city, but not tamed her 
spirit, Frederick withdrew across the Alps. But, in the interval 
between his second and third visit, a league was formed against 
him in north-eastern Lombardy. Verona, Vicenza, Padua, 
Treviso, Venice entered into a compact to defend their liberties; 
and when he came again in 1x63 with a brilliant staff of German 
knights, the imperial cities refused to join his standards. This 
was the first and ominous sign of a coming change. 
» Meanwhile the election of Alexander III. to the papacy in 
1 1 SO added a powerful ally to the republican party. Opposed 
by an anti-pope whom the emperor favoured, Alexander found 
it was his truest policy to rely for support upon the anti- 
imperialist communes. They in return, gladly accepted a 
champion who lent them the prestige and influence of the 

church. When Frederick once more crossed the Alps 
advanced on Rome, and besieged Alexander in the Colis 
the affairs of Lombardy left him no leisure to p 
recalcitrant pontiff. In April 1167 a new league v 
between Cremona, Bergamo, Brescia, Mantua an 
In December of the same year this league allied itsc 
elder Veronese league, and received the addition of ft 
Piacenza, Parma, Modena and Bologna. The fam 
of Lombard cities, styled Concordia in its acts of settli 
now established. Novara, Vercelli, Asti and Tortona 
ranks; only Pavia and Montferrat remained imperialist 
between the Alps and Apennines. Frederick fled foi 
his life by the Mont Cenis, and in. 1168 the town o 
Alessandria was erected to keep Pavia and thernarquisa 
in the emperor's absence, Ravenna, Rimini, Imola 
joined the league, which now called itself the " Societ) 
Lombardy, the March, Romagna and Alessandria.' 
fifth time, in n 74, Frederick entered bis rebellious 
The fortress town of Alessandria stopped his progress 
mud walls contemptuously named " of straw," while 
of the league assembled at Modena and obliged him 1 
siege. In the spring of n 76 Frederick threatened & 
•army found itself a little to the north of the towi 
village of Legnano, when the troops of the city, assist 
a few allies from Piacenza, Verona, Brescia, Novara ai 
met and overwhelmed it. The victory was complete, 
escaped alone to Pavia, whence he opened ncgotia 
Alexander. In consequence of these transactions 
suffered to betake himself unharmed to Venice. Hei 
neutral ground, the emperor met the pope, and a ti 
years was concluded with the Lombard burghs. La 
from the vantage-ground of history upon the issue c 
struggle, we are struck with the small results whic 
the Lombard communes. They had humbled ai 
defeated their foreign lord. . They had proved the 
in combination. Yet neither the acts by which their 
ratified nor the terms negotiated for them by th 
Alexander evince the smallest desire of what we now 1 
as national independence. The name of Italy is never 1 
The supremacy of the emperor is not called in ques 
conception of a permanent confederation, bound t 
offensive and defensive alliance for common object 
occurred to these hard fighters and stubborn assertc 
civic privileges. All they claim is municipal auto 
right to manage their own affairs within the city wal 
their battles as they choose, and to follow their se 
unchecked. It is vain to lament. that, when they r 
now established Italian independence upon a secure 
chose local and municipal privileges. Their mutual 
combined with the prestige of the empire, and possibl 
selfishness of the pope, who had secured his own po 
was not likely to foster a national spirit that w 
threatened the ecclesiastical supremacy, deprived t] 
of the only great opportunity they ever had of forming 
into a powerful nation. 

When the truce expired in 1183, a permanent 
ratified at Constance. The intervening years had bee 
the Lombards, not in consolidating their union, bul 
in attempting to secure special privileges for theii 
several cities. Alessandria della Paglia, glorious bj 
her resistance to the emperor in 1x74, had ever 
changed her name to Cesarea! The signatories of tl 
Constance were divided between leaguers and ii 
On the one side we find Vercelli, Novara, Milan, Lodi 
Brescia, Mantua, Verona, Vicenza, Padua, Treviso 
Faenza, Modena, Reggio, Parma, Piacenza; on 
Pavia, Genoa, Alba, Cremona, Como, Tortona, Ast 
Venice, who had not yet entered the Italian con- 
conspicuous by ber absence. According to the ter 
treaty, the communes were confirmed in their right of s 
merit by consuls, and their right of warfare. Th 
retained the supreme courts of appeal within the 




his dtim for sustenance at their expense when he tame into 

The privileges confirmed to the Lombard cities by the peace 
of Constance were extended to Tuscany, where Florence, having 
War •/ ruined Fiesole, had begun her career of freedom and 
ckka prosperity. The next great chapter in the history of 
«*•<•«* Italian evolution is the war of the burghs against the 
—*** nobles. The consular dties were everywhere sur- 
rounded by castles; and, though the feudal fords had been 
weakened by the events of the preceding centuries, they con- 
tinued to be formidable enemies. It was, for instance, necessary 
to the well-being of the towns that they should possess territory 
round their wails, and this had to be wrested from the nobles. 
We cannot linger over the details of this warfare. It must 
suffice to say that, partly by mortgaging their property to rich 
burghers, partly by entering the service of the cities as coudoUien 
(mercenary leaders), partly by espousing the cause of one town 
against another, and partly by forced submission after the siege 
of their strong places, the counts were gradually brought into 
connexion of dependence on the communes. These, in their 
turn, forced the nobles to leave their castles, and to reside for 
at least a portion of each year within the walk. By these 
measures the counts became citizens, the rural population 
ceased to rank as serfs, and the Italo-Roman population of 
the towns absorbed into itself the remnants of Franks, Germans 
and other foreign stocks. It would be impossible to exaggerate 
the importance of this revolution, which ended by destroying 
the last vestige of feudality, and prepared that common Italian 
people which afterwards distinguished itself by the creation of 
European culture. But, like all the vicissitudes, of the Italian 
race, while it was a decided step forward in one direction, it 
introduced a new source of discord. The associated nobles 
proved ill neighbours to the peaceable citizens. They fortified 
their houses, retained their military habits, defied the consuls, 
and carried on feuds in the streets and squares. The war against 
the castles became a war against the palaces; and the system 
of government by consuls proved inefficient to control the 
clashing elements within the state. This led to the establishment 
of podestas, who represented a compromise between two radically 
hostile parties in the city, and whose business it was to arbitrate 
and keep the peace between them. Invariably a foreigner, 
elected for a year with power of life and death and control of 
the armed force, but subject to a strict account at the expiration 
of his office, the podesta might be compared to a dictator invested 
with limited authority. His title was derived from that of 
Frederick Barbarossa's judges; but he had no dependence on 
the empire. The citizens chose him, and voluntarily submitted 
to his rule. The podesta marks an essentially transitional state 
in civic government, and his intervention paved the way for 

\ The thirty years which elapsed between Frederick Barbarossa's 
death in noo and the coronation of his grandson Frederick II. 
in z22o form one of the most momentous epochs in 
Italian history. Barbarossa, perceiving the advantage 
that would accrue to his house if he could join the 
crown of Sicily to that of Germany, and thus deprive the popes of 
their allies in Lower Italy, procured the marriage of his son 
Henry VI. to Constance, daughter of King Roger, and heiress of 
the Hauteville dynasty. When William II., the last monarch of 
the Norman race, died, Henry VI. claimed that kingdom in his 
wife's right, and was recognised in x 104. Three years afterwards 
he died, leaving a son, Frederick, to the care of Constance, who 
in her turn died in 1198, bequeathing the young prince, already 
crowned king of Germany, to the guardianship of Innocent III. 
It was bold policy to confide- Frederick to his greatest enemy and 
rival; but the pope honourably discharged his duty, until his 
ward outgrew the years of tutelage, and became a fair mark for 
ecdeshutkal hostility. Frederick's long minority was occupied 
by Innocent's pontificate. Among the principal events of that 
reign must be reckoned the foundation of the two orders, Fran- 
ciscan and Dominican, who were destined to form a militia for the 
holy see In conflict with the empire and the hecetki of Lombardy. 


A second great event was the fourth crusade, undertaken in not, 
which established the naval and commercial supremacy of the 
Italians in the Mediterranean. 4The Venetians, who contracted 
for the transport of the crusaders, and whose blind doge Dandolo 
was first to land in Constantinople, received one-half and one* 
fourth of the divided Greek empire for their spoils. The Venetian 
ascendancy in the Levant dates from this epoch; for, though the 
republic had no power to occupy all the domains ceded to jft, 
Candia was taken, together with several small islands and stations 
on the mainland. The formation of a Latin empire in the East 
increased the pope's prestige; while at home it was his poKcy to 
organize Countess Matilda's heritage by the formation of Gudph 
leagues, over which he presided. This is the meaning of the three 
leagues, in the March, in the duchy of Spoleto and in Tuscany, 
which now combined the chief cities of the papal territory into 
allies of the holy see. From the Tuscan league Pisa, consistently 
Ghibelline, stood aloof. Rome itself again at this epoch established 
a republic, with which Innocent would not or could not interfere. 
The thirteen districts in their council nominated four caporimd, 
who acted in concert with a senator, appointed, like the podesta 
of other cities, for supreme judicial functions. Meanwhile the 
Guelph and Ghibelline factions were beginning to divide Italy 
into minute parcels. Not only did commune range itself against 
commune under the two rival flags, but party rose up against 
party within the city walls. The introduction of the factions 
into Florence in 1215, owing to a private quarrel between the 
Buondelmonti, Amidei and Donati, is a celebrated instance of 
what was happening in every burgh. 

Frederick II. was left without a rival for the imperial throne 
in 1218 by the death of Otto IV., and on the 22nd of November 
12 20, Honorius IH., Innocent's successor, crowned _ 
him in Rome. It was impossible for any section of the J'^** 
Italians to mistake the gravity of his access to power, pj^ 
In his single person he combined the prestige of empire 
with the crowns of Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, Germany and Bur- 
gundy; and in 1225, by marriage with Yolande de Brienne, he 
added that of Jerusalem. There was no prince greater or more 
formidable in the habitable globe. The communes, no less than 
the popes, felt that they must prepare themselves for contest to 
the death with a power which threatened their existence. Already 
in 12x8, the Guetphs of Lombardy had resuscitated their old 
league, and had been defeated by the Ghibellines in a battle near 
GhibeUo. Italy seemed to lie prostrate before the emperor, who 
commanded her for the first time from the south as well as from 
the north. In 1227 Frederick, who had promised to lead a 
crusade, was excommunicated by Gregory IX. because he was 
obliged by illness to defer his undertaking; and thus the spiritual 
power declared war upon its rival. The Guelph towns of Lorn* 
bardy again raised their levies. Frederick enlisted his Saracen 
troops at Nocera and Luceria, and appointed the terrible EzaeUno 
da Romano his vicar in the Marches of Verona to quell their 
insurrection. It was 1236, however, before he was able to take 
the field himself against the Lombards. Having established' 
EzzeBno in Verona, Vicenza and Padua, he defeated the Milanese 
and their allies at Cortenuova in x 237, and sent their carroccio as 
a trophy of his victory to Rome. Gregory IX. feared lest the 
Guelph party would be ruined by this check. He therefore 
made alliance with Venice and Genoa, fulminated a new ex- 
communication against Frederick, and convoked a council at 
Rome to ratify his ban in 1 241. The Genoese undertook to bring 
the French bishops to this council. Their fleet was attacked at 
Meloria by the Pisans, and utterly defeated. The French prelates 
went in silver chains to prison in the Ghibelline capital of Tuscany. 
So far Frederick had been successful at all points. In x 245 a new 
pope, Innocent IV., was elected, who prosecuted the war with 
still bitterer spirit. Forced to fly to France, he there, at Lyons, 
in 1245, convened a council, which enforced his condemnation of 
the emperor. Frederick's subjects were freed from their allegiance, 
and he was declared dethroned and deprived of all rights. Five 
times king and emperor as he was, Frederick, placed under the 
ban of the church, led henceforth a doomed existence. The 
m e ndic a nt monks stirred up the populace to acts of fanatical 




comity. To plot against htm, to attempt hit life by 
the sword, was Accounted virtuous. His secretary, Hero delle 
Vigne, was wrongly suspected of conspiring. The crimes of his 
vicar Ewu'no, who laid whole provinces waste and murdered men 
by thousands in his Paduan prisons, increased the horror with 
which he was regarded. Parma revolted from him, and he spent 
months in 1247-1348 vainly trying to reduce this one time 
faithful city. The only gleam of success which shone on his ill 
fortune was the revolution which placed Florence in the hands of 
the GhibelUnesin 124&. Next year Bologna rata against him, 
defeated his troops and took his son Enzio, king of Sardinia, 
prisoner at Fossalta. Hunted to the ground and broken-hearted, 
Frederick expired at the end of ia$o in his Apulian castle of 
Florentine. It is difficult to judge his career with fairness. The 
only prince who could, with any probability of success, have 
established the German rule in Italy, his ruin proved the im- 
possibility of that long-ch eri sh ed scheme. The nation had out* 
grown dependence upon foreigners, and after his death no 
German emperor interfered with anything but miserable failure 
in Italian affairs. Yet from many points of view it might be 
regretted that Frederick was not suffered to rule Italy. By birth 
and breeding an Italian, highly gifted and widely cultivated, 
liberal in his opinions, a patron of literature, a founder of uni- 
versities, he anticipated the spirit of the Renaissance. At his 
court Italian started into being as a language. His laws were 
vise. He wascapable of giving to Italy a large and noble culture. 
But the commanding greatness of his position proved his rain. 
Emperor and king of Sicily, he was the natural enemy of popes, 
who could not tolerate so overwhelming a rival. 

After Frederick's death, the popes carried on their war for 
eighteen years against his descendants. The cause of bis son 
0mmmt Conrad was sustained in Lower Italy by Manfred, 
******"* on* of Frederick's many natural children; and, when 
Coarad died in 1354, Manfred still acted as vicegerent 
foe the Swabians, who were now represented by a boy 
Conradin. Innocent IV. and Alexander XV. continued 
to make bead against the Ghibelline party. The most 
dramatic incident in this struggle was the crusade preached 
against EszeUno. This tyrant had made himself justly odious; 
and when be was hunted to death in 1259, the triumph was less 
for the Gueiph cause than for humanity outraged by the 
iniquities of such a monster. The battle between Gueiph and 
Ghibelline raged with unintermitting fury. While the former 
faction gained In Lombardy by the massacre of Ezselino, the 
latter revived in Tuscany after the battle of Montaperti, which 
m 1 too placed Florence at the discretion of the Ghibellines. 
Manfred, now called king of Sicily, beaded the GhibelVnes, and 
there was no strong counterpoise against hfm. In this necessity 
Urban IV. and Clement IV. invited Charles of Anjoa to enter 
Italy and take the Gueiph command. They made him senator 
of Rome and vicar of Tuscany, and promised him the investiture 
of the regno provided he stipulated that it should not be bdd in 
combination with the empire. Charles accepted these terms, 
% and was welcomed by the Gueiph party as their chief throughout 
* Italy. He defeated Manfred in a battle at Grandella near 
Benevento in ia66. Manfred was killed; and, when Conradin, 
a lad of sixteen, descended from Germany to make good his 
claims to the kingdom, he too was defeated at Tagilacozzo in 
1*67. Less lucky than his uncle, Conradin escaped with his 
lire, to die upon a scaffold at Naples. His glove was carried to 
lbs cousin Constance, wife of Peter of Aragon, the last of the 
great Norman-Swabian family. Enrio died in his prison four 
years later. The popes had been successful; but they had 
purchased their bloody victory at a great cost. This first 
invitation to French princes brought with it incalculable evils. 

Churles of Anjou, supported by Rome, and recognized as 
chief in Tuscany, was by far the most formidable of the Italian 
potentates. In his turn he now excited the jealousy of the 
popes, who began, though cautiously, to cast their weight into 
the Ghibelline scale. Gregory initiated the policy of establish- 
ing an equilibrium between the parties, which was carried out 
by his successor Nicholas III. Charles was forced to resign 

the ftnatetabJp of Rome and .the sJgnoria of Lombardy and 
Tuscany. In 1 282 he received a more decided check, when Sicily 
rose against him in the famous rebellion of the Vespers. CMtWmtm 
He lest the island, which gave itself to Aragon; and •som*** 
thus the kingdom of Sicily was severed from that of —* 
Naples, the dynasty in the one being Spanish and <**•* 
Ghibelline, in the other French and Gueiph. Mean- ^"* 
while a new emperor had been elected, the prudent Rudolf of 
Habsburg, who abstained from interference with Italy, and 
who confirmed the territorial pretensions of the popes by solemn 
charter in 1278. Henceforth Emilia, Romagna, the March of 
Ancona, the patrimony of St Peter and the Campagna of Rome 
held of the Holy See, and not of the empire. The imperial 
chancery, without inquiring closely into the deeds furnished 
by the papal curia, made a deed of .gift, which placed the pope 
in the position of a temporal sovereign. While Nicholas IIL 
thus bettered the position of the church m Italy, the Gueiph party 
grew stronger than ever, through the crushing defeat of the fisans 
by the Genoese at Mdoria in 1284* Pisa, who had ruined 
Amain, was now ruined by Genoa; She never held her bead 
so high again after this victory, which sent her best and bravest 
citizens to die in the Ligurian dungeons. The Mediterranean 
was left to be fought for by Genoa and Venice, while Gueiph 
Florence grew still more powerful in Tuscany. Not long after 
the battle of MelorJa Charles of Anjou died, and was succeeded 
by his son Charles II. of Naples, who played no prominent 
part ra Italian affairs. The Gueiph party was held together 
with a less tight hand even in cities so consistent as Florence. 
Here in the year 1300 new factions, subdividing the old Guelphs 
and GhibelKnes under the names of Neri and Bianchi, bad 
acquired such force that Boni f ace VIII., a violently Gueiph pope, 
called in Charles of Valois to pacify the republic and undertake 
the charge of Italian affairs. Bo n iface was a passionate and 
unwise man. After quarrelling with the French king, Philip 
le Bel, he fell into the hands of the Ceionna family at Anagni, 
and died r either of the violence he there received or of mortinca* 
tion, in October 1303* 

After the short papacy of Benedict XL a Frenchman, Clement 
V., was elected, and the seat of the papacy was transferred to 
Avignon. Thus began that Babylonian exile of the Tna9 . 
popes which placed them in subjection to the French uttoa 
crown and ruined their prestige in Italy. Lasting •"*+ 
seventy years, and joining on to the sixty years of ?*£* rM 
the Great Schism, this enfeeblement of tht papal *"**•* 
authority, coinciding at it did with the practical elimination 
of the empire from Italian affairs, gave a long period of com- 
parative independence to the nation. Nor must it be forgotten 
that this exile was due to the policy which induced the pontiffs, 
in their detestation of GtrfbellJnisrn, to rely successively upon 
the houses of Anjou and of Valois. This policy it was which 
justified Dante's fierce epigram— the puttotuigior iortgu 

The period we have briefly traversed was immortalized by 
Dante in an epic which from one point of view might be caHed 
tberx>em of the Goelphft and Ghibellines. From the foregoing bare 
narration of events ft Is impossible to estimate the importance 
of these parties, or to understand their bearing on subsequent 
Italian history We are therefore forced to pause awhile, and 
probe beneath the surface. The civil wars may be regarded as 
a continuation of the previous municipal struggle, intensified by 
recent hostilities between the burghers and the nobles. The 
quarrels of the church and empire lend pretexts and furnish 
war-cries; but the real question at issue is not the supremacy of 
pope or emperor. The conflict h a social one, between civic 
and feudal institutions, between c om merc i al and military 
interests, between progress and conservatism. Guefph de- 
mocracy and industry idealize the pope. The banner of the 
church waves above the camp of those who aim at positive 
prosperity and republican equality. Ghibelline aristocracy and 
immobility idealise the emperor. The prestige of the empire, 
based upon Roman law end feudal tradition, attracts imaginative 
patriots and systematic thinkers. The two ideals are counter- 
poscd and mutually exclusive. NodtycaQsHselfoItrK 




Alfonso reigned alone and undisturbed in Lower Italy, combining 
for the first time since the year xa8a the crowns of Sicily and 
Naples. The former he held by inheritance, together with that 
of Aragon. The latter be considered to be his by conquest. 
Therefore, when he died in 1458, he bequeathed Naples to his 
natural son Ferdinand, while Sicily and Aragoa passed together 
to his brother John, and so on to Ferdinand the Catholic. The 
twenty-three years of Alfonso's reign were the most prosperous 
and splendid period of South Italian history. He became an 
Italian in taste and sympathy, entering with enthusiasm into 
the humanistic ardour of the earlier Renaissance, encouraging 
men of letters at his court, administering his kingdom on the 
principles of an enlightened despotism, and lending his authority 
to establish that equilibrium in the peninsula upon winch the 
politicians of his age beheved, not without reason, that Italian 
independence might be secured. 

The last member of the Visconti family of whom we had 
occasion to speak was Azco, who bought the city in 1328 from 
fodfrtt Louis of Bavaria. His uncle Lucchlno succeeded, but 
jukm. was murdered in 1349 by a wife against whose life be 
had been plotting. Lucchino's brother John, arch* 
bishop of Milan, now assumed the lordship of the city, and 
extended the power of the Visconti over Genoa and the whole of 
north Italy, with the exception of Piedmont, Verona, Mantua, 
Ferrara and Venice. The greatness of the family dates from the 
reign of this masterful prelate. He died in 1354, and his heritage 
was divided between three members of his house, Matteo,Bemabd 
and Galeazzo. In the next year Matteo, being judged incom- 
petent to rule, was assassinated by order of his brothers, who 
made an equal partition of their subject cities— Bernabd 
residing in Milan, Galeazzo in Pavia. Galea am was the wealthiest 
and most magnificent Italian of his epoch. He married his 
daughter Violante to our duke of Clarence, and his son Gian 
Galeaaso to a daughter of King John of France. When he died 
in 1378, this son resolved to reunite the domains of the Visconti; 
and, with this object in view, he plotted and executed the murder 
of his uncle Bernabd. Gian Galeazzo thus became by one stroke 
the most formidable of Italian despots. Immured in his castle at 
Pa via, accumulating wealth by systematic taxation and methodical 
economy, he organized the mercenary troop* who eagerly took 
service under so good a paymaster; and, by directing their 
operations from his cabinet, he threatened the whole of Italy 
with conquest. The last scions of the Delia Scala family stall 
reigned in Verona, the last Carraresi in Padua; the Estensi were 
powerful in Ferrara, the GonaagU in Mantua. Gian Galeazzo, 
partly by force and partly by intrigue, discredited these minor 
despots, pushed his dominion to the very verge of Venice, and, 
having subjected Lombardy to his sway, proceeded to attack 
Tuscany. Pisa and Perugia were threatened with .extinction, and 
Florence dreaded the advance of the Visconti arms, when the 
plague suddenly cut short his career of treachery and conquest 
in the year 140a. Seven years before his death Gian Galea rro 
bought the title of duke of Milan and count of Pavia from the 
emperor Wenceslaus, and there is no doubt that he was aiming at 
the sovereignty of Italy. But no sooner was he dead than the 
essential weakness of an artificial state, built up by running and 
perfidious pokey, with the aid of bought troops, dignified by no 
dynastic title, and consolidated by no sense of loyalty, became 
apparent. Gian Galeazso's duchy was a masterpiece of 
mechanical contrivance, the creation of a scheming intellect and 
lawless wilt When the mind which had planned it was with- 
drawn, it fell to pieces, and the very hands which had been used 
to build it helped to scatter its fragments. The Visconti's own 
' generals, Facino Cane, Pandolfo Mala test a, Jacopo dal Venae, 
Gabrino Fondulo, Ottobon Terxo* seized upon the tyranny of 
several Lombard cities. In others the petty tyrants whom the 
Visconti had uprooted reappeared. The Estensi re covered their 
grasp upon Ferrara* and the Gonzaghi upon Mantua, Venice 
strengthened herself between the Adriatic and the Alpa. Florence 
reassumed her Tuscan hegemony. Other communes which still 
preserved the shadow of independence, tike Perugia and Bologna, 
began once mora to. dream of republican freedom under their 

own leading families. Meanwhile Gian Galeaaso had ferl 
sons, Giovanni Maria and Fihppo Maria. Giovanni, a mel 
of cruelty and lust, was assassinated by some Milanese nod 
141a; and now Fihppo set about rebuilding his father's <■ 
Herein be was aided by the troops of Fjadno Cane, who, f 
opportunely at this period, left considerable wealth, a 
trained band of mercenaries, and a widow, Beatrice di 11 
Fihppo married and then beheaded Beatrice after a mock trl 
adultery, having used her money and her influence in rem 
several subject cities to the crown of Milan. He sub* 
sperit a long, suspicious, secret and incomprehensible c 
the attempt to piece together Gian Galeazso's Lombard state; 
to carry out his schemes of Italian conquest. In this en ' 
he met with vigorous opponents. Venice and Florence, si 
in the strength of their resentful oligarchies, offered a detail 
resistance; nor was Fihppo equal in ability to his father, 
infernal cunning often defeated its own aims, checkmating hi 
the point of achievement by suggestions of duplicity or U 
In the course of Fihppo's wars with Florence and Vemca 
greatest generab of this age were formed — Francesco Cermaf 
who was beheaded between the columns at Venice in 1 
Niccolo Picdnino, who died at Milan in 1444; and Franl 
Sforza, who survived to seize his master's heritage in 1490. 
of Attendolo Sforza, this Francesco received the hand of Fili| 
natural daughter, Bianca, as a reward for past service ai 
pledge of future support. When the Visconti dynasty ende 
the duke's death in 1447, he pretended to espouse the cam 
the Milanese republic, which was then re-established; bu 
played his cards so subtly as to make himself, by the hd 
Coshno de' Medki in Florence, duke de facto if not dt 
Francesco Sforza was the only condotticro among many asp 
to be tyrants who planted themselves firmly on a throne of 1 
rate importance. Once seated in the duchy of Milan, he dfept 
rare qualities as a ruler; for he not only entered into thesph 
the age, which required humanity and culture from a de 
but he also knew how to curb his desire for territory. The 
ceptaon of confederated Italy found in htm a vigorous suppc 
Thus the limitation of the Milanese duchy under Filippo k 
Visconti, and its consolidation under Francesco Sforza, 1 
equally effectual in preparing the balance of power to M 
Italian politics now tended. 

This balance could not have been established without th* 
current aid of Florence. After the expulsion of the 
Athens in 1343. and the great plague of 1348, the Flare! 
proletariate rose up against the merchant princes. This ii 
gence of the artisans, in a republic which had been remotk 
upon economical principles by Giano della Bella's constitute 
129a, reached a climax in 1378, when the Ciompi rebellion pi 
the city for a few years in the hands of the Lesser Arts, 
revolution was but temporary, and was rather a symptoM 
democratic tendencies in the state than the sign of any capaj 
for government on the part of the working classes. The nfl 
sides of war and foreign affairs soon placed Florence in the pi 
of an oligarchy headed by the great Albiexi family. Theyfai 
the battles of the republic with success against the ViscentiV 
widely extended the Florentine domain over the Tuscan cl 
During their season of ascendancy Pisa was enslaved, 
Florence gained the access to the sea. But throughout 
period a fttwerrul oprmtion was gatiiering strength. Itwa 
by the Medici, who sided with the common people, and focrej 
their political importance by the accuimuation and wise eton" 
ment of vast commercial wealth, In 1433 the Albiexi and 
Medici came to open strife. Coauno de' Medid, the chief of 
exposition, was exiled to Venice, In the next year he retail 
assu m ed the presidency of the democratic party, and by a ays! 
of corruption and popularity-hunting, combined with 
patronage of arts and letters, established himself as the real 
unacknowledged dictator of the commonwealth, Cosimoal 
doned the policy of his pred e cesso r s. Instead of opposing Fj 
cesco Sforza in Milan, he lent him his prestige and mfl«4 
foreseeing that the dynastic future of his own family andi 
pacifica t ion of bar/ might be secured by a balance of .powt 




wmch Florence should rank on equal terms with Mian and 

The republic of Venke differed essentially from any other 
state in Italy; and her history was so separate that, up to this 
Ytak*. point, it would have been needless to interrupt the 
narrative by tracing it. Venice, however, in the 14th 
century took her place at last as an Italian power on an equality 
at least with the very greatest. The constitution of the common- 
wealth bad slowly matured itself through a series of revolutions, 
which confirmed and denned a type of singular stability. During 
the earlier days of the republic the doge had been a prince elected 
by the people, and answerable only to the popular assemblies. 
In 103s he was obliged to act in concert with a senate, called 
pregadi; and in 117a the grand council, which became the real 
sovereign of the state, was formed. The several steps whereby 
the members of the grand council succeeded in eliminating the 
people from a share m the government, and reducing the doge 
to the position of their ornamental representative, cannot here 
be described. It must suffice to amy that these changes cul- 
minated in 1307, when an act was passed for closing the grand 
council, or in other words for confining it to a fixed number of 
privileged families, in whom the government was henceforth 
vested by hereditary right. This ratification of the oligarchical 
principle, together with the establishment in 13U of the 
Council of Ten, completed that famous constitution which 
endured till the extinction of the republic in 1797. Meanwhile, 
throughout the middle ages, it had been the policy of Venice to 
refrain from conquests on the Italian mainland, and to confine 
her energies to commerce in the East. The first entry of any 
moment made by the Venetians into strictly Italian affairs was 
in 1336, when the republics of Florence and St Mark allied them- 
selves against Mastino dells Scala, and the latter took possession 
of Treviso. After this, for thirty years, between 135a and 138 1, 
Venke and Genoa contested the supremacy of the Mediterranean. 
Pisa's maritime power having been extinguished in the battle 
of Meloria (1284), the two surviving republics had no rivals. 
They fought their duel out upon the Bosporus, off Sardinia, 
and in the Mores, with various success. From the first great 
encounter, in 1355, Venice retired well-nigh exhausted, and 
Genoa was so crippled that she placed herself under the protection 
of the Visconti. The second and decisive battle was fought upon 
the Adriatic. The Genoese fleet under Luciano Doria defeated 
the Venetians off Pola in 1379, and sailed without opposition to 
Chioggia, which was stormed and taken. Thus the Venetians 
found themselves blockaded in their own lagoons. Meanwhile 
a fleet was raised for their relief by Carlo Zeno in the Levant, 
and the admiral Vittore Pisanf, who had been imprisoned after 
the defeat at Pola, was released to lead their forlorn hope from 
the city side. The Genoese in their turn were now blockaded in 
Chioggia, and forced by famine to surrender. The losses of men 
and money which the war of Chioggia, as it was called, entailed, 
though they did not immediately depress the spirit of the Genoese 
republic, signed her naval ruin. During this second struggle 
to the death with Genoa, the Venetians had been also at strife 
with the Carraresi of Padua and the Scaligers of Verona. In 1406, 
after the extinction of these princely houses they added Verona, 
Vkenza and Padua to the territories they claimed on terra firma. 
Their career of conquest, and their new policy of forming Italian 
alliances and entering into the management of Italian affairs 
were confirmed by the long dogeship of Francesco Foscari (i4>3~ 
1457), w h° nwst ranK "bh Alfonso, Cosimo de' Medici, Francesco 
Sforza and Nicholas V., as a Joint-founder of confederated Italy. 
When Constantinople fell in 1453, the old ties between Venice and 
the Eastern empire were broken, and she now entered on a 
wholly new phase of her history. Ranking as one of the five 
Italian powers, she was also destined to defend Western Christen- 
dom against the encroachments of the Turk in Europe. (See 
Venice: History,) 

By their settlement in Avignon, the popes relinquished their 
protectorate of Italian liberties, and lost their position as Italian 
potentates. Rienzi's revolution in Rome ( 1347-1 3 54) f and his 
establishment of a repnbfic upon a fantastic basis, half classical, 

half feudal, proved the temper of the times; while the rise of 
dynastic families in the cities of the church, claiming the title 
of papal vicars, but acting in their own interests, 
weakened the authority of the Holy See. The pre- 
datory expeditions of Bertrand du Poiet and Robert of 
Geneva were as ineffective as the descents of the emperors; 
and, though the cardinal Albornos conquered Romagna and the 
March in 1364, the legates who resided in those districts were not 
long able to hold them against their despots. At last Gregory XI. 
returned to Rome; and Urban VI., elected in 1378, put a final 
end to the Avignoaian exile. Still the Great Schism, which now 
distracted Western Christendom, so enfeebled the papacy, and 
kept the Roman pontiffs so engaged in ecclesiastical disputes, 
that they had neither power nor leisure to occupy themselves 
seriously with' their temporal affairs. The threatening presence 
of the two princely houses of Orsini and Colonna, alike dangerous 
as friends or foes, rendered Rome an unsafe residence. Even 
when the schism was nominally terminated in 141 5 by the council 
of Constance, the next two popes held but a precarious grasp 
upon their Italian domains. Martin V. (141 7-143 1) resided 
principally at Florence. Eugenius IV. (1431-1447) followed his 
example. And what Martin managed to regain Eugenius lost. 
At the same time, the change which had now come over Italian 
politics, the desire on all skies for a settlement, and the growing 
conviction that a federation was necessary, proved advantageous 
to the popes as sovereigns. They gradually entered into the 
spirit of their age, assumed the style of despots and made use of 
the humanistic movement, then at its height, to place themselves 
in a new relation to Italy. The election of Nicholas V. in 1447 
determined this revolution in the papacy, and opened a period of 
temporal splendour, which ended with the establishment of the 
popes as sovereigns. Thomas of Sarsana was a distinguished 
humanist. Humbly born, he had been tutor in the house of the 
Albisri, and afterwards librarian of the Medici at Florence, 
where he imbibed the politics together with the culture of the 
Renaissance. Soon after assuming the tiara, he found himself, 
without a rival in the church; for the schism ended by Felix V.'s 
resignation in 1440. Nicholas fixed his residence in Rome, which 
he began to rebuild and to fortify,- d e t ermining to render the 
Eternal City once more a capital worthy of its high place in 
Europe. The Romans ware flattered] and, though his reign 
was disturbed by republican conspiracy, Nicholas V. was able 
before his death 101455 to secure the modern status of the pontiff 
as a splendid patron and a wealthy temporal potentate. 

Italy was now for a brief space independent. The humanistic 
movement had created a common culture, a common language 
and sense of common nationality. The five great „**+* - 
powers, with their satellites— -dukes of Savoy and „<**" 
Urbino, marquesses of Ferrara and Mantua, republics tufy. 
of Bologna, Perugia, Siena— were constituted. All 
political institutions tended toward despotism. The Medici 
became yearly more indispensable to Florence, the Bentrrogli 
more autocratic in Bologna, the Baglioni in Perugia; and even 
Siena was ruled by the Petrucd. But this despotism was of a 
mild type. The princes were Italians; they shared the common 
enthusiasms of the nation for art, learning, literature and science; 
they studied how to mask their tyranny with arts agreeable to the 
multitude. When Italy had reached this point, Constantinople 
was taken by the Turks. On all sides it was felt that the Italian 
alliance must be tightened; and one of the last, best acts of 
Nicholas V.'s pontificate was the appeal in 1453 to the five great 
powers in federation. As regards their common opposition to 
the Turk, this appeal led to nothing; but it marked the growth 
of a new Italian consciousness. 

Between 1453 and 149a Italy continued to be prosperous and 
tranquil. Nearly all wars during this period were undertaken 
either to check the growing power of Venice or to further the 
ambition of the papacy. Having become despots, the popes 
sought to establish their relatives in principalities. The word 
nepotism acquired new significance in the reigns of Sixtus IV. 
and Innocent VIII. Though the country was convulsed by no 
great struggle, these forty years witnessed a truly appalling 




> of political crime. To be a prince was tantamount to 
being the mark ot secret conspiracy and assassination. Among 
the most noteworthy examples of such attempts may be mentioned 
the revolt of the barons against Ferdinand L of Naples (1464)* 
the murder of Gateaxxo Maria Sforza at Milan (1476) and the 
plot of the Parti to destroy the Medici (1478)- After Cosimo 
de' Medici's death in 1464, the presidency of the Florentine 
republic passed to his son Piero, who left it in 1469 to his sons 
LorensoandGiuliano. These youths assumed the style of princes, 
and it was against their lives that the Paxri, with the sanction 
•i Sixt us I V., aimed their blow. Giuliano was murdered, Lorenzo 
•scaped, to tighten his grasp upon the city, which now loved 
him and was proud of him. During the following fourteen years 
of bis brilliant career he made himself absolute master of 
Florence, and so modified her institutions that the Medici were 
henceforth necessary to the state. Apprehending the importance 
of Italian federation, Lorenzo, by his personal tact and prudent 
■tadenhip of the republic, secured peace and a common intel- 
Ugence between the five powers. His own family was fortified 
by the. marriage of his daughter to a son of Innocent VUL, 
which procured his son Giovanni's elevation to the cardinalate, 
and involved two Medicean papacies and the future dependence 
of Klotence upon Rome. 

VI, Aft *f Invasions.—- The year 149 J opened a new age for 

Italy. In this year Lorenzo died, and was succeeded by his son, 

*. — Tg, the vain and weak Piero; France passed beneath 

•'csmnm the personal control of the inexperienced Charles 

%«* VIII.; the fall of Granada freed Spain from her 

^_ embarrassments; Columbus discovered America, 

•Proving the commercial supremacy of Venice; last, but not 

tlV , kiH *«ri«o Borgia assumed the tiara with the famous 

i"w«f Alexander VI. In this year the short-lived federation 

<* it* five powers was shaken, and Italy was once more drawn 

i»n* the vortex of European affairs. The events which led to 

%"*» diMstcr may be briefly told. After Geteasso Maria's 

• luuinjtwn, his crown passed to a boy, Gian Galeasxo, who 

"Vm • OOUrtc rowri «d to a grand-daughter of Ferdinand I. 

. li L M But lhe government of Milan remained in the hands 

% U iMe youth'a uncle, Lodovico, sumamed II Moro. Lodovico 

,v*Mv*u to become duke of Milan. The king of Naples was 

* i* !!*i » J lltmjr ' and he h * d <*»»* to su *p ect &* ntxo de * 

c>I<*um might abandon his alliance. Feeling himself alone, 
* >r,i l,l l! l , !l lhe titIe he was bent on seizing, he had recourse 
*** 1 J *L *%jll L °* Franc *» wh °» he urged to make good his 
c j*»m 10 the kingdom of Naples. This claim, it may be said in 

• ^^'^^^^^•wiU of King Ren* of Anjou. After some 
| % ...*t Alton, Charles agreed to invade Italy. He crossed the Alps 
t f * Wh.^L /tj "* JLombardy, entered Tuscany, freed Pisa 

• ■ * k ui , m f lor * nce « witnessed the expulsion of the Medici, 

• •* % V.h- » 1.1 * pl€ f * nd *** crowned there-*ll this without 
-' ' * 1 •«.! .T' . Me * nwh ^e Lodovico procured his nephew's 
«> -*\i JiTJ*W_f >Mt* against the French in Lombardy. 

nd narrowly escaped destruc- 

i Apennines. He made good 

France in 1495. Little 

»w ...» t > •"■ — h-"*""**; but he had convulsed 

ft * •' h JJ^k J ,***• d «"roycd her equilibrium, exposed her 

• . - »'*** ,v * ,u, " w «* Powerful nations. 

** l !" .h raon^i p t j! autt « A"* 00 ' *»" Wanted by 
. •* J ' mad. k *™iii»and I., returned to Naples. Florence 
^*<»* tW \H t* H * ^"blic, adopting a form of constitu- 
***^ i^l Z t5* l0iBut to toMi of Venice. At this crisis she 
^ *• ° L wah ! I^? 1 * GXr <>lamo Savonarola, who inspired 

•>* t^i"* 1 ***. ***> pUcea H!m ^ lf >** Air ^ mntmtfnnim S n 

.,,,/#"/ • Knin* ■*! c **■» *-"mis ajj. succreoea tnsna viu. 
1 ' ■ '» ' M lldan thL. u n f *• A» duk « <* Orleans be had certain 
*£ss* tQ M thf ° U * h *» trandmother Valentine, daughter of 

Gian Galeexzo, the first duke. Tbey were not valid, for the 
investiture of the duchy had been granted only to male heirs. 
But they served as a sufficient pretext, and in 1499 Louis entered 
and subdued the Milanese. Lodovico escaped to Germany, 
returned the next year, was betrayed by his Swiss mercenaries 
and sent to die at Leches 11 France. In 1500 Louis made the 
blunder of calling Ferdinand the Catholic to help htm in the 
conquest of Naples. By a treaty signed at Granada, the French 
and Spanish kings were to divide the spoil The conquest was 
easy; but, when it came to a partition, Ferdinand played has 
ally false. He made himself supreme over the Two Sicilies, 
which he now reunited under a single crown. Three years later, 
unlessoned by this experience, Louis signed the treaty of Blois 
(1504), whereby he invited the emperor Maximilian to aid him 
in the subjugation of Venice. No policy could have been lest 
far-sighted; for Charles V., joint heir to Austria, Burgundy, 
Castile and Aragon, the future overwhelming rival of Fiance, 
was already born. 

The stage was now prepared, and all the actors who were 
destined to accomplish the ruin of Italy trod it with their armies, 
Spain, France, Germany, with their Swiss auxiliaries, had been 
summoned upon various pretexts to partake her provinces. 
Then, too late, patriots like MachlaveUi perceived the suicidal 
self-indulgence of the past, which, by substituting mercenary 
troops for national militias, left the Italians at the absolute 
discretion of their neighbours. Whatever parts the Italians 
themselves played in the succeeding quarter of a century, the 
game was in the hands of French, Spanish and German invaders, 
Meanwhile, no scheme for combination against common foes 
arose in the peninsula. Each petty potentate strove for his ow» 
private advantage in the confusion; and at this epoch the chief 
gains accrued to the papacy. Aided by his terrible son, Ceaare 
Borgia, Alexander VI. chastised the Roman nobles, subdued 
Romagna and the March, threatened Tuscany, and seemed to 
be upon the point of creating a Central Italian state m favour 
of his progeny, when he died suddenly in 1503. His rongeurs 
reverted to the Holy See. Julius £L, his bitterest enemy and 
powerful successor, continued Alexander's policy, but no longer 
in the interest of his own relatives. It became the nobler 
ambition of Julius to aggrandize the church, and to reassume 
the protectorate of the Italian people. With this object, he 
secured Emilia, carried his victorious arms against Ferrari, 
and curbed the tyranny of the Baglioci in Perugia. Julius IX 
played a perilous game; but the stakes were high, and he fancied 
himself strong enough to guide the tempest he evoked. Quarrel- 
ling with the Venetians in 1508, he combined the forces of all 
Europe by the league of Cambray against them; and, when he 
had succeeded in his first purpose of humbling them even to the 
dust, he turned round in 2510, uttered bis famous resolve to 
expel the barbarians from Italy, and pitted the Spaniards 
against the French. It was with the Swiss that he hoped to 
effect this revolution; but the Swiss, now interfering for the first 
time as principals in Italian affairs, were incapable of snore than 
adding to the already maddening distractions of the people. 
Formed for mercenary warfare, they proved a perilous instrument 
in the hands of those who used them, and were hardly less injurious 
to their friends than to their foes. In 1512 the battle of Ravenna 
between the French troops and the allies of Julius— Spaniards, 
Venetians and Swiss— was fought. Gaston de Foix bought a 
doubtful victory dearly with his death; and the allies, though 
beaten on the banks of the Ronco, immediately afterwards 
expelled the French from Lombardy. Yet Julius II. had 
failed, as might have been foreseen. He only exchanged one 
set of foreign masters for another, and taught a new barbarian 
race how pleasant were the. plains of Italy. As a consequence 
of the battle of Ravenna, the Medici returned in 1512 to Florence. 

When Leo X. was elected in 1 513, Rome and Florence rejoiced; 
but Italy had no repose. Louis XII. had lost the game, and the 
Spaniards were triumphant. But new actors appeared upon 
the scene, and the same old struggle was resumed with fiercer 
energy. By the victory of Marignano in 1515 Francis I., having 
now succeeded to the throne of France, regained the Milanese, 




and broke the power of the Swiss, who held it for Maarimflkno 
Sforza, the titular duke. Leo for a while relied on Francis} for 
the vast power of Charles V., who succeeded to the empire 
in 1519, as in 1516 he had succeeded to the crowns of Spain 
and Lower Italy, threatened the whole of Europe, It was 
Leo's nature, however, to- be inconstant. In 1521 he changed 
sides, allied himself to Charles, and died after hearing that the 
imperial troops had again expelled the French from Milan. 
During the next four years the Franco-Spanish war dragged on 
in Lombardy until the decisive battle of Pavia in 152$, when 
Francis was taken prisoner, and Italy by open to the Spanish 
armies. Meanwhile Leo XL had been followed by Adrian VI., 
and Adrian by Clement VII:, of the house of Medici, who had 
long ruled Florence. In the reign of this pope Francis was 
released from his prison in Madrid (1576), and Clement hoped 
that he might still he used in the Italian interest as a counterpoise 
to Charles. It is impossible in this place to follow the tangled 
mtrigaes of that period. The year 1537 was signalised by the 
famous sack of Rome. An army of mixed German and Spanish 
troops, pretending to act for the emperor, but which may 
rather be regarded as a vast marauding party, entered Italy 
tinder their leader Frundsberg. After his death, the Constable 
de Boorbon took command of them; they marched slowly 
down, aided by the marquis of Ferrara, and unopposed by the 
duke of Urbino, reached Rome, and took it by assault. The 
constable was killed in the first onslaught; Clement was im- 
prisoned in the castle of St Angela; Rome was abandoned 
to the rage of 30,000 ruffians. As an Immediate result of this 
catastrophe, Florence shook off the Medici, and established a 
republic But Clement, having made peace with the emperor, 
turned the remnants of the army which had sacked Rome 
against his native city. After a desperate resistance, Florence 
fell in 1530. Alessandro de* Medici was placed there with the 
title of duke of Civita di Penna; and, on his murder in 1537, 
Cosimo de 1 Medici, of the younger branch of the ruling house, 
was made duke. Acting as lieutenant for the Spaniards, he 
subsequently (1555) subdued Siena, and bequeathed to his 
descendants the grand-duchy of Tuscany. 

VIL Sptnisk- Austrian Ascendancy.— It was high time, after 
the sack of Rome in 1527, that Charles V. should undertake 

Italian affairs. The country was exposed to anarchy, 

fJJSj* -1 of which this had been the last and most disgrace* 
lyg iS e. *"* « DCam P le * T* 10 Turks were threatening western 
Europe, and Luther was inflaming Germany. By 
the treaty of Barcelona in 1520 the pope and emperor made 
terms. By that of Cambray in the same year France relinquished 
Italy to Spain. Charles then entered the port of Genoa, and on 
the 5th of November met Clement VIL at Bologna. He there 
received the imperial crown, and summoned the Italian princes 
for a settlement of all disputed claims. Francesco Sforza, the 
last and childless heir of the ducal house, was left in Milan till 
his death, which happened in 1 53 5. The repubhc of Vemce was 
respected m her liberties and Lombard territories. The Este 
family received a confirmation of their duchy of Modena and 
Reggio, and were invested in their 6ef of Ferrara by the pope. 
The marquessate of Mantua was made a duchy; and Florence 
was secured, as we have seen, to the Medici. The great gainer 
by this settlement was the papacy, which held the most sub- 
stantial Italian province, together with a prestige that raised 
it far above all rivalry. The rest of Italy, however parcelled, 
henceforth became but a dependence upon Spam. Charles V., 
it must be remembered, achieved his conquest and confirmed 
his authority far less as emperor than as the heir of Castile and 
Aragon. A Spanish viceroy in Milan and another in Naples, 
supported by Rome and by the minor princes who followed the 
policy dictated to them from Madrid, were sufficient to preserve 
the whole peninsula in a state of somnolent inglorious servitude. 

Frotn 1530 until 1796, that is, for a period of nearly three 
centuries, the Itatians had no history of their own. Their annals 
are filled with records of dynastic changes and redistributions of 
territory, consequent upon treaties signed by foreign powers, in 
the settlement of quarrels which no wise concerned the people* 

Italy only too often became the theatre of desolating and dis- 
tracting wars. But these wars were fought for the most part 
by alien armies; the points at issue were decided beyond the 
Alps; the gains accrued to royal families whose names were 
unpronounceable by southern tongues. The affairs of Europe 
during the years when > Habsburg and Bourbon fought their 
domestic battles with the blood of noble races may teach grave 
lessons to aH thoughtful men of our days, but none bitterer, 
none fraught with more insulting recollections, than to the 
Italian people, who were haggled over like dumb driven cattle 
in the mart of chaffering kings. We cannot wholly acquit the 
Italians of their share of blame. When they might have won 
national independence, after their warfare with the Swabian 
emperors, they let the golden opportunity slip. Pampered with 
commercial prosperity, eaten to the core with inter-urban 
rivalries, they submitted to despots, renounced the use of arms, 
and offered themselves in the hour of need, defenceless and dis- 
united to the shock of puissant nations. That they had created 
modern civilization for Europe availed them nothing. Italy, 
intellectually first among the peoples, was now politically and 
practically last; and nothing to her historian is more heart- 
rending than to watch the gradual extinction of her spirit in this 
age of slavery. 

In 1534 Alessandro Farnese, who owed his elevation to his 
sister Giulia, one of Alexander VI.'s mistresses, took the tiara 
with the title of Paul HI. It was his ambition to 
create a duchy for his family; and with this object he **£*£ 
gave Parma and Piaccnza to his son Pier Lirigi. After pu,ua. 
much wrangling between the French and Spanish 
parties, the duchy was confirmed in rs86 to Ottaviano Farnese 
and his son Alessandro, better known as Philip II. 's general, 
the prince of Parma. Alessandro's descendants reigned in Parma 
and Piacenza till the year 173T. 'Vaul III.'s pontificate was 
further marked by important changes in the church, all of which 
confirmed the spiritual autocracy of Rome. In 1^40 this pope 
approved of Loyola's foundation, and secured the powerful 
militia of the Jesuit order. The Inquisition was established with 
almost unlimited powers in Italy, and the press was placed under 
its jurisdiction. Thus free thought received a check, by which 
not only ecclesiastical but political tyrants knew how to profit. 
Henceforth it was impossible to publish or to utter a word which 
might offend the despots of church or state; and the Italians 
had to amuse their leisure with the polite triflings of academics. 
In 154s a council was opened at Trent for the reformation of 
church discipline and the promulgation of orthodox doctrine. 
The decrees of this council defined Roman Catholicism against 
the Reformation; and, while failing to regenerate morality, 
they enforced a hypocritical observance of public decency. Italy 
to outer view put forth blossoms of hectic and hysterical piety, 
though at the core her clergy and her aristocracy were more 
corrupt than ever. 

In 1556 Philip II., by the abdication of his father Charles V., 
became king of Spain. He already wore the crown of the Two 
Sicilies, and ruled the duchy of Milan. In the next 
year Ferdinand, brother of Charles, was elected em- pSRtt, 
peror. The French, meanwhile, had not entirely 
abandoned their claims on Italy. Gian Pietro Caraffa, who 
was made pope in 1555 with the name of Paul IV., en- 
deavoured to revive the ancient papal policy of leaning upon 
France. He encouraged the duke of Guise to undertake the 
conquest of Naples, as Charles of Anjou had been summoned by 
his predecessors. But such schemes were now obsolete and 
anachronistic. They led to a languid lingering Italian campaign, 
which was settled far beyond the Alps by Philip's victories over 
the French at St Quentin and Gravelines. The peace of Catcatt 
Cambresis, signed in 1559, left the Spanish monarch undisputed 
lord of Italy. Of free commonwealths there now survived only 
Venice, which, together with Spain, achieved for Europe the 
victory of Lcpanto in 1573; Genoa, which, after the ineffectual 
Fieschi revolution in 1547, abode beneath the rule of the great 
Doria family, and held a feeble sway in Corsica; and the two 
insignificant republics of Lucca and San Marino.. 




The future hope of Italy, however, was growing in a remote 
and hitherto neglected corner. Emmanuel Philibert, duke of 
Savoy, represented the oldest and not the least illustrious reigning 
house in Europe, and his descendants were destined to achieve 
for Italy the independence which no other power or prince 
had given her since the fall of ancient Rome. (See Savoy, 
House or.) 

When Emmanuel Philibert succeeded to his father Charles III. 
in 1553, he was a duke without a duchy. But the princes of 
the house of Savoy were a race of warriors; and what Emmanuel 
Philibert lost as sovereign he regained as captain of adventure 
in the service of his cousin Philip II. The treaty of Cateau 
Cambresis in 1559, and the evacuation of the Piedmontesc cities 
held by French and Spanish troops in 1574, restored bis state. 
By removing the capital from ChamWry to Turin, he completed 
the transformation of the dukes of Savoy from Burgundian into 
Italian sovereigns. They still owned Savoy beyond the Alps, the 
plains of Bresse, and the maritime province of Nice. 

Emmanuel Philibert was succeeded by his son Charles 
Emmanuel I., who married Catherine, a daughter of Philip II. 
He seized the first opportunity of annexing Saluzzo, which had 
been lost to Savoy in the last two reigns, and renewed the 
disastrous policy of his grandfather Charles III. by invading 
Geneva and threatening Provence. Henry IV. of France forced 
him in 1601 to relinquish Bresse and his Burgundian possessions. 
In return he was allowed to keep Saluzzo. All hopes of conquest 
on the transalpine side were now quenched; but the keys of 
Italy had been given to the dukes of Savoy; and their attention 
was still further concentrated upon Lombard conquests. Charles 
Emmanuel now attempted the acquisition of Montferrat, which 
was soon to become vacant by the death of Francesco Gonzaga, 
who held, it together with Mantua. In order to secure this 
territory, he went to war with Philip III. of Spain, and allied 
himself with Venice and the Grisons to expel the Spaniards from 
the Valtelline. When the male line of the Gonzaga family expired 
in 1627, Charles, duke of Nevers, claimed Mantua and Montferrat 
in right of his wife, the only daughter of the last duke. Charles 
Emmanuel was now checkmated by France, as he had formerly 
been by Spain. The total gains of all his strenuous endeavours 
amounted to the acquisition of a few places on the borders of 

Not only the Gonzagas, but several other ancient ducal 
families, died out about the date which we have reached. The 
gjrt^p. legitimate line of the Estensi ended in 1597 by the 
<#•«•/ death of Alfonso II., the last duke of Ferrara. He 
•u ducal left his domains to a natural relative, Cesare d'Este, 
tamBln * who would in earlier days have inherited without 
dispute, for bastardy had been no bar on more than one occasion 
in the Este pedigree. Urban VIII., however, put in a claim to 
Ferrara, which, it will be remembered, had been recognized a 
papal fief in 1530. Cesare d'Este had to content himself with 
Modena and Reggio, where his descendants reigned as dukes 
till 1794. Under the same pontiff, the Holy See absorbed the 
duchy of Urbino on the death of Francesco Maria II., the last 
representative of Montefcltro and Delia Rovere. The popes 
were now masters of a fine and compact territory, embracing 
no inconsiderable portion of Countess Matilda's legacy, in 
addition to Pippin's donation, and the patrimony of St Peter. 
Meanwhile Spanish fanaticism, the suppression of the Huguenots 
in France and the Catholic policy of Austria combined to 
strengthen their authority as pontiffs. Urban's predecessor, 
Paul V., advanced so far as to extend his spiritual jurisdiction 
over Venice, which, up to the date of his election (1605), bad 
resisted all encroachments of the Holy See. Venice offered the 
single instance in Italy of a national church. The republic 
managed the tithes, and the clergy acknowledged no chief above 
their own patriarch. Paul V. now forced the Venetians to 
admit his ecclesiastical supremacy; but they refused to readmit 
the Jesuits, who had been expelled in 1606. This, if we do not 
count the proclamation of James I. of England (1604), was the 
earliest instance of the order's banishment from a state where 
it had proved disloyal to the commonwealth. 

Venice rapidly declined throughout the 17th century. The 
loss of trade consequent upon the closing of Egypt and the 
Levant, together with the discovery of America and Dteam 
the sea-route to the Indies, had dried up her chief «/r*ote 
source of wealth. Prolonged warfare with the Otto- *•* 
mans, who forced her to abandon Candia in 1660, ^•* 
as they had robbed her of Cyprus in 1570, still further crippled 
her resources. Yet she kept the Adriatic free of pirates, notably 
by suppressing the sea-robbers called Uscocchi (1601-1617), 
maintained herself in the Ionian Islands, and in 1684 added one 
more to the series of victorious episodes which render her annals 
so romantk. In that year Francesco Morosini, upon whose 
tomb we still may read the title Peloponnesiacus, wrested the 
whole of the Morea from the Turks. But after his death in 1715 
the republic relaxed her hold upon his conquests. The Venetian 
nobles abandoned themselves to indolence and vice. Many of 
them fell into the slough of pauperism, and were saved from 
starvation by public doles. Though the signory still made a 
brave show upon occasions of parade, it was clear that the state 
was rotten to the core, and sinking into the decrepitude of dotage. 
The Spanish monarchy at the same epoch dwindled with 
apparently less reason. Philip's Austrian successors reduced 
it to the rank of a secondary European power. This decline of 
vigour was felt, with the customary effects of discord and bad 
government, in Lower Italy. The revolt of Masaniello in Naples 
(1647), followed by rebellions at Palermo and Messina, which 
placed Sicily for a while in the hands of Louis XIV. (1676- 
1678) were symptoms of progressive anarchy. The population, 
ground down by preposterous taxes, ill-used as only the subjects 
of Spaniards, Turks or Bourbons are handled, rose in blind 
exasperation against their oppressors. It is impossible to attach 
political importance to these revolutions; nor did they bring 
the people any appreciable good. The destinies of Italy were 
decided in the cabinets and on the battlefields of northern 
Europe. A Bourbon at Versailles, a Habsburg at Vienna, or 
a thick-lipped Lorrainer, with a stroke of his pen, wrote off 
province against province, regarding not the populations who 
had bled for him or thrown themselves upon his mercy. 

This inglorious and passive chapter of Italian history is con- 
tinued to the date of the French Revolution with the records of 
three dynastic wars, the war of the Spanish succession, 
the war of the Polish succession, the war of the Austrian JJJJjf 
succession, followed by three European treaties, do*, 
which brought them respectively to diplomatic 
terminations. Italy, handled and rehandled, settled and re- 
settled, upon each of these occasions, changed masters without 
caring or knowing what befell the principals in any one of the 
disputes. Humiliating to human nature in general as are the 
annals of the 18th-century campaigns in Europe, there is no 
point of view from which they appear in a light so tragi -comic 
as from that afforded by Italian history. The system of setting 
nations by the ears with the view of settling the quarrels of a 
few reigning houses was reduced to absurdity when the people, 
as in these cases, came to be partitioned and exchanged without 
the assertion or negation of a single principle affecting their 
interests or rousing their emotions. 

In 1700 Charles II. died, and with him ended the Austrian 
family in Spain. Louis XIV. claimed the throne for Philip, 
dukeofAnjou. Charles, archduke of Austria, opposed 
him. The dispute was fought out in Flanders; but SjjJ? 
Lombardy felt the shock, as usual, of the French and 9hm 
Austrian dynasties. The French armies were more 
than once defeated by Prince Eugene of Savoy, who drove them 
out of Italy in 1707. Therefore, in the peace of Utrecht (17 ij), 
the services of the house of Savoy had to be duly recognized. 
Victor Amadeus II. received Sicily with the title of king. Mont* 
fcrrat and Alessandria were added to his northern provinces, 
and his state was recognized as independent. Charles of Austria, 
now emperor, took Milan, Mantua, Naples and Sardinia for his 
portion of the Italian spoil. Philip founded the Bourbon Tine 
of Spanish kings, renouncing in Italy all that his Habsburg 
predecessors had gained. Discontented with this diminution 




of the Spanish heritage, PhHip V. minted Elbabetta Fame*, 
heiress to the last duke of Puma, in 1714. He hoped to secure 
this duchy for his 000, Don Carlos; and EMsabetta further brought 
with her a daim to the grand-duchy of Tuscany, which would 
soon become vacant by the death of Gian Gastone de' Medici 
After this marriage Philip broke the peace of Europe by invading 
Sardinia. The Quadruple AlKance was formed, and the new king 
of Sicily was punished for his supposed adherence to Philip V. 
by the forced exchange of Sicily for the island of Sardinia. 
It was thus that in 1730 the house of Savoy assumed the regal 
title which it bore until the declaration of the Italian kingdom 
m the last century. Victor Amadeus U.'s reign wasof great import* 
ance in the history of his state. Though a despot, as all monarch* 
were obliged to be at that date, he reigned with prudence, 
probity and seal for the welfare of his subjects. He took public 
education out of the hands of the Jesuits, which, for the future 
development of manliness in his dominions, was a measure 
of incalculable value. The duchy of Savoy in bis days became 
a kingdom, and Sardinia, though it seemed a poor exchange for 
Sicily, was a far less perilous possession than the larger and 
wealthier island would have been. In 1730 Victor Amadeus 
abdicated in favour of his son Charles Emmanuel III. Repenting 
of this step, he subsequently attempted to regain Turin, but was 
imprisoned in the castle of RivoB, where he ended his days 
in 173*- 

The War of the Polish Succession which now disturbed Europe 
is only important in Italian history because the treaty of Vienna 
in 1738 settled the disputed affairs of the duchies 
of Parma and Tuscany. The duke Antonio Farnese 
died in 1731; the grand-duke Gian Gastone de* 
Medici died in 1737. In the duchy of Parma Don 
Carlos had already been proclaimed. But he was now transferred 
to the Two Sicilies, while Francis of Lorraine, the husband of 
Maria Theresa, took Tuscany and Parma. Milan and Mantua 
remained in the hands of the Austrian*. On this occasion 
Charles Emmanuel acquired Tortona and Novara. 

Worse complications ensued for the Italians when the emperor 
Qtsdes VI., father of Maria Theresa, died in 1740. The three 
^^^ branches of the Bourbon house, ruling m France, 
!*■■"" Spain and the Sicilies, joined with Prussia, Bavaria 
aY g and the kingdom of Sardinia to despoil Maria Theresa 

of her heritage. Lombardy was made the seat of war; 
and here the king of Sardinia acted as in some sense the arbiter 
of the situation. After war broke out, he changed sides and 
supported the Habsburg-Lorraine party. At first, in 1745, the 
Sardinians were defeated by the French and Spanish troops. 
But Francis of Lorraine, elected emperor in that year, sent an 
army to the king's support, which in 1746 obtained a signal 
victory over the Bourbons at Piacenza. Charles Emmanuel now 
threatened Genoa. The Austrian soldiers already held the town. 
But the citizens expelled them, and the republic kept her inde- 
pendence. In 1748 the treaty of Aix-la-Chapellc, which put an 
end to the War of the Austrian Succession, once more redivided 
Italy. Parma, Piacenza and GuastaUa were formed into a duchy 
for Don Philip, brother of Charles III. of the Two Sicilies, and son 
of Philip V. of Spain. Charles III. was confirmed in his kingdom 
of the Two Sicilies. The Austrianskept Milan and Tuscany. The 
duchy of Modena was placed under the protection of the French. 
So was Genoa, which in 1755, after Paoli's insurrection against 
the misgovcrnment of the republic, ceded her old domain of 
Corsica to France. 

From the date of this settlement until 1792, Italy enjoyed a 
period of repose and internal amelioration under l?cr numerous 
paternal despots. It became the fashion during these 
forty-four years of peace to encourage the industrial 
population and to experimentalize in economical re- 
forms. The Austrian government in Lombardy under 
Maria Theresa was characterized by improved agriculture, regular 
administration, order, reformed taxation and increased educa- 
tion. A considerable amount of local autonomy was allowed, and 
dependence on Vienna was very slight and not irksome. The 
nooles and the clergy were rich and influential, but kept in order 

by the dvfl power. There was no feeling of nationality, but the 
people were prosperous, enjoyed profound peace and were 
placidly content with the existing order of things. On the death 
of Maria Theresa in 1780, the emperor Joseph II. instituted much 
wider reforms. Feudal privileges were done away with, clerical 
influence di m inished and many monasteries and convents sup- 
pressed, the criminal law rendered more humane and torture 
abolished largely as a result of G. Beccaria's famous pamphlet 
DHdtUUicddUpent. At the same time Joseph's administration 
was more arbitrary, and local autonomy was to some extent 
curtailed. His anti-clerical laws produced some OMeeling 
among the more devout part of the population. On the whole 
the Austrian rule in pre-revolutionary days was beneficial and 
far from oppressive, and helped Lombardy to recover from the 
ill-effects of the Spanish domination. It did little for the moral 
education of the people, but the same criticism applies more or 
less to all the European governments of the day. The emperor 
Francis I. ruled the grand-duchy of Tuscany by lieutenants until 
his death in 1765, when it was given, as an independent state, to 
his second son, Peter Leopold., The reign of this duke was long 
remembered as a period of internal prosperity, wise legislation 
and important pubBc enterprise. Leopold, among other useful 
works, drained the Val di Chiana, and restored those fertile upland 
plains to agriculture. In 1700 he succeeded to the empire, and 
left Tuscany to his son Ferdinand. The kingdom of Sardinia 
was administered upon similar principles, but with less of 
geniality. Charles Emmanuel made his wiD law, and erased the 
remnants of free institutions from his state. At the same time 
he wisely followed his father's policy with regard to education and 
the church. This is perhaps the best that can be said of a king 
who incarnated the stolid absolutism of the period. From this 
date, however, we are able to trace the revival of independent 
thought among the Italians. The European ferment of ideas 
which preceded the French Revolution expressed itself in men 
like Alfieri, the fierce denouncer of tyrants, Beccaria, the philo- 
sopher of criminal jurisprudence, Volta, the physicist, and 
numerous political economists of Tuscany. Moved partly by 
external influences and partly by a slow internal reawakening, 
the people was preparing for the efforts of the 19th century. 
The papacy, during this period, had to reconsider the question of 
the Jesuits, who made themselves universally odious, not only in 
Italy, but also In France and Spain. In the pontificate of 
Clement XIII. they ruled the Vatican, and almost succeeded in 
embroiling the pope with the concerted Bourbon potentates of 
Europe. His successor, Cement XIV. suppressed the order 
altogether by a brief of 1773. (J. A. S.) 

D. Italy in the Napoleonic Pebioo, 1 706-1814 

The campaign of 1706 which led to the awakening of the 
Italian people to a new consciousness of unity and strength is 
detailed in the article Napoleonic Campaigns. Here we can 
attempt only a general survey of the events, political, civic and 
social, which heralded the Risorgitnenio in its first phase. It Is 
desirable in the first place to realize the condition of Italy at 
the time when the irruption of the French and the expulsion of 
the Austrians opened up a new political vista for that oppressed 
and divided people. 

For many generations Italy had been bandied to and fro 
between the Habsburgs and the Bourbons The decline -of 
French influence at the dose of the reign of Louis XIV. . ftKtwn 
left the Habsburgs and the Spanish Bourbons without 0itb0 
serious rivals. The former possessed the rich duchies Pnact 
of Milan (including Mantua) and Tuscany; while %?** 
through a marriage alliance with the house of Este 
of Modena (the Archduke Ferdinand had married the heiress 
of Modena) its influence over that duchy was supreme. 
It also had a few fiefs in Piedmont and in Genoese 
te/ritory. By marrying her daughter, Maria Amelia, to the 
young duke of Parma, and another daughter, Maria Carolina, 
to Ferdinand of Naples, Maria Theresa consolidated Habsburg 
influence in the north and south of the peninsula. The Spanish 
Bourbons held Naples and Sicily, as well as the duchy of Parma. 





Of the nominally independent states- the chief were the kingdom 
of Sardinia, ruled over by the house of Savoy, and comprising 
Piedmont, the isle of Sardinia and nominally Savoy and Nice, 
though the two provinces last named had virtually been lost 
to the monarchy since the campaign of 1 793. Equally extensive, 
but less important in the political sphere, were the Papal States 
and Yenetia, the former torpid under the obscurantist rule 
of pope and cardinals, the latter enervated by luxury and the 
policy of unmanly complaisance long pursued by doge and 
council. The ancient rival of Venice, Genoa, was likewise far 
gone in decline. The small states, Lucca and San Marino, 
completed the map of Italy. The worst governed part of the 
peninsula was the south, where feudalism lay heavily on the 
cultivators and corruption pervaded all ranks. Milan and 
Piedmont were comparatively well governed; but repugnance 
to Austrian rule in the former case, and the contagion of French 
Jacobinical opinions in the latter, brought those populations into 
increasing hostility to the rulers. The democratic propaganda, 
which was permeating all the large towns of the peninsula, then 
led to the formation of numerous and powerful clubs and secret 
societies; and the throne of Victor Amadeus IiL, of the house 
of Savoy, soon began to totter under the blows delivered by the 
French troops at the mountain barriers of his kingdom and under 
the insidious assaults of the friends of liberty at Turin. Plotting 
was rife at Milan, as also at Bologna, where the memory of old 
liberties predisposed men to cast off clerical rule and led to the 
first rising on behalf of Italian liberty in the year 1704. At 
Palermo the Sicilians struggled hard to establish a republic 

in place of the odious government of an alien dynasty. 

The anathemas of the pope, the bravery of Piedmontese 
and Austrian*, and the subsidies of Great Britain 

failed to keep the league of Italian princes against 
France intact. The grand-duke of Tuscany was the first of the 
European sovereigns who made peace with, and recognized 
the French republic, early in 1795. The first fortnight of 
Napoleon's campaign of 1796 detached Sardinia from alliance 
with Austria and England. The enthusiasm of the Italians 
for the young Corsican " liberator " greatly helped his progress. 
Two months later Ferdinand of Naples sought for an armistice, 
the central duchies were easily overrun, and, early in 1797, 
Pope Pius VI. was fain to sign terms of peace with Bonaparte 
at Tolentino, practically ceding the northern part of his states, 
known as the Legations. The surrender of the last Habsburg 
stronghold, Mantua, on the 2nd of February 1797 kft the field 
dear for the erection of new political institutions. 

Already the men of Reggio, Modena and Bologna had declared 
for a democratic policy, in which feudalism and clerical rule 

should have no place, and in which manhood suffrage, 
TtoOa- together with other rights promised by Bonaparte 

to the men of Milan in May 1796, should form the basis 

of a new order of things. In taking this step the 
Modenese and Romagnols had the encouragement of Bonaparte, 
despite the orders which the French directory sent to him in a 
contrary sense. The result was the formation of an assembly 
at Modena which abolished feudal dues and customs, declared 
for manhood suffrage and established the Cispadane Republic 
(October 1796). 

The close of Bonaparte's victorious campaign against the 
Archduke Charles in 1797 enabled him to mature those designs 
respecting Venice which are detailed in the article Napoleon. 
On a far higher level was his conduct towards the Milanese. 
While the French directory saw in that province little more 
than a district which might be plundered and bargained for. 
Bonaparte, though by no means remiss in the exaction of gold 
and of artistic treasures, was laying the foundation of a friendly 
republic. During his sojourn at the castle of Montebello or 
Mombello, near Milan, be commissioned several of the leading 
men of northern Italy to draw up a project of constitution and 
list of reforms for that province. Meanwhile he took care to 
curb the excesses of the Italian Jacobins and to encourage 
the Moderates, who were favourable to the French connexion 
as promising a guarantee against Austrian domination and 


internal anarchy. ' He summed up his conduct in the letter of 
the 8th of May 1797 to the French directory, " I cool the hot 
heads here and warm the cool ones." The Transpadane 
Republic, or, as it was soon called, the Cisalpine 
Republic, began its organised life on the 9th of July 
1 797. with a brilliant festival at Milan. The constitu- 
tion was modelled on that of the French directory, and, lest there 
should be a majority of clerical or Jacobinical deputies, the 
French Republic through its general, Bonaparte, nominated 
and appointed the first deputies and administrators of the 
new government. In the same month it was joined by the 
Cispadane Republic; and the terms of the treaty of Campo 
Formio (October 17, 1797), while fatal to the political life 
of Venice, awarded to this now considerable state the Venetian 
territories west of the river Adige. A month later, under the 
pretence of stilling the civil strifes in the Valtelline, Bonaparte 
absorbed that Swiss district in the Cisalpine Republic, which 
thus included all the lands between Como and Verona on the 
north, and Rimini on the south. 

Early in the year 1708 the Austrian*, in pursuance of the 
scheme of partition agreed on at Campo Formio, entered Venice 
and brought to an end its era of independence which 
had lasted some 1 100 years. Venice with its mainland f^%y 
territories east of the Adige, inclusive of Istria and ^M^a 
Dalmatia, went to the Habsburgs, while the Venetian 
isles of the Adriatic (the Ionian Isles) and the Venetian fleet went 
to strengthen France for that eastern expedition on which 
Bonaparte had already set his heart. Venice not only paid the 
costs of the war to the two chief belligerents, but her naval 
resources also helped to launch the young general on his career 
of eastern adventure. Her former rival, Genoa, had also been 
compelled, in June 1797, to bow before the young conqueror, 
and had undergone at his bands a remodelling on the lines already 
followed at Milan. The new Genoese republic, French in all 
but name, was renamed the Ligurian Republic. 

Before he set sail for Egypt, the French had taken possession 
of Rome. Already masters of the papal fortress of Ancona, 
they began openly to challenge the pope's authority r „ wt 
at the Eternal City itself.. Joseph Bonaparte, then •m^» 
French envoy to the Vatican, encouraged democratic «*•*•* 
manifestations; and one of them, at the close of 1797, rr,B " 
led to a scuffle in which a French general, Duphot, was killed. 
The French directory at once ordered its general, Berthier, to 
march to Rome: the Roman democrats proclaimed a republic 
on the 15th of February 1798, and on their invitation Berthier 
and his troops marched in. The pope, Pius VI., was forthwith 
haled away to Siena and a year later to Valence in the south of 
France, where he died. Thus fell the temporal power. The 
" liberators " of Rome thereupon proceeded to plunder the city 
in a way which brought shame on their cause and disgrace 
(perhaps not wholly deserved) on the general left in command, 

These events brought revolution to the gates of the kingdom 
of Naples, the worst-governed part of Italy, where the boorish 
king. Ferdinand IV. (U ri laxzarone, he was termed), — _._ 
and his whimsical consort, Maria Carolina, scarcely ^ 
held in check the discontent of their own subjects. A British 
fleet under Nelson, sent into the Mediterranean in May 1798 
primarily for their defence, checkmated the designs of Bonaparte 
in Egypt, and then, returning to Naples, encouraged that court 
to adopt a spirited policy. It is now known that the influence 
of Nelson and of the British ambassador, Sir William Hamilton, 
and Lady Hamilton precipitated the rupture between Naples 
and France. The results were disastrous. The Neapolitan 
troops at first occupied Rome, but, being badly handled by 
their leader, the Austrian general, Mack, they were soon scattered 
in flight; and the Republican troops under General j^ 
Champlonnet, after crushing the stubborn resistance 
of the lazzaroni, made their way into Naples and 
proclaimed the Parthenopaean Republic (January 23, 
1799). The Neapolitan Democrats chose five of their leading 
men to be directors, and tithes and feudal dues and customs 




were abolished. Much good work was done by the Republicans 
during their brief teaureof power ,but it soon came to an end owing 
to the course of events which favoured a reaction agaiaat France; 
The directors of Paris, not content with overrunning and pleader- 
ing Switzerland, had outraged German sentiment in many ways* 
Further, at the close of 1 708 they virtually compelled the young 
king of Sardinia, Charles Emmanuel IV., to abdicate at Turin. 
He retired to the island of Sardinia, while the French despoiled 
Piedmont, thereby adding fuel to the resentment rapidly growing 
against them, in every part of Europe. 

The outcome of it all was the War of the Second Coalition, 
in which Russia, Austria, Great Britain, Naples and some 
secondary states of Germany took part. The incursion 
saJtaST °f *& Austro-RassUn army, led by that strange but 
magnetic being, Suvarov, decided the campaign in 
northern Italy. The French, poorly handled by Scherer and 
Securier, were everywhere beaten, especially at Magnaao (April 
5) and Cassano (April 27), Milan and Turin fell before the 
allies, and Moreau, who took over the command, had much 
difficulty in making his way to the Genoese coast -line. There 
be awaited the arrival of Macdonald with the army of Naples. 
That general, Championnet's successor, had been compelled by 
these reverses and by the threatening pressure of Nelson's fleet 
to evacuate Naples and central Italy. In many parts the 
peasants and townsfolk, enraged by the licence of the French, 
hung on his flank and rear. The republics set up by the French 
at Naples, Rome and Milan collapsed as soon as the French 
troops retired; and a reaction in favour of clerical and Austrian 
influence set in with great violence. For the events which then 
occurred at Naples, so compromising to the reputation of Nelson, 
see Nelson and Naples. Sir William Hamilton was subset 
quenlly recalled in a manner closely resembling a disgrace, and 
his place was taken by Paget, who behaved with more dignity 
and tact* 

Meanwhile Macdonald, after struggling through central Italy, 
had 'defeated an Austrian force at Modena (June 1a, 1709), 
but Suvarov was able by swift movements utterly to overthrow 
brm at the Trcbbia (Ju&e 17-19). The wreck of his force 
drifted away helplessly towards Genoa. A month later the 
ambitious young general, Joubcrt, who took over Moreau's 
command and rallied part of Macdonalds following, was utterly 
routed by the Austro- Russian army at Novi (August 15) with 
the loss of 12,000 men. Joubert perished in the battle. The 
growing friction between' Austria and Russia led to the -transfer- 
ence of Suvarov and his Russians to Switzerland, with results 
which were to be fatal to the allies in that quarter. But in Italy 
the Austrian successes continued. Melas defeated Champiormet 
near Coni on the 4th of November; and a little later the French 
garrisons at Ancona and Coni surrendered. The tricolour, 
which floated triumphantly over all the strongholds of Italy 
early in the year, at its close waved only over Genoa, where 
Masse na prepared for a stubborn defence. Nice and Savoy 
also seemed at the mercy of the invaders. Everywhere the old 
order of things was restored. The- death of the aged Pope 
Pius VI. at Valence (August 39, 1709) deprived the French of 
whatever advantage they had hoped to gain by dragging, him 
into exile; on the 24th of March 1800 the conclave, assembled 
for greater security on the island of San Giorgio at Venice, elected 
a new pontiff, Pius VII. 

Such was the position of affairs when Bonaparte returned 
from Egypt and landed at Frejus. The contrast presented by 
bis triumphs, whether real or imaginary, to the reverses 
sustained by the armies of the French directory, was 
fatal to that body and to popular institutions in France. 
After the coup d'itat of Brumaire (November 1709) he, 
as First Consul, began to organize an expedition against the 
Attstrians (Russia having now retired from the coalition), in 
northern Italy. The campaign culminating at Marengo was 
the result. By that triumph (due to Desaix and Retlermann 
rather than directly to him), Bonaparte consolidated his own 
position in France and again laid Italy at his feet. The Austrian 
general, Melas, signed an armistice whereby he was to retire 

with hi* army beyood the river Mtaria Ten days earlier, 
namely en the 4th of June, Massena had been compelled by 
hunger to capitulate at Genoa; but the success at Marengo, 
followed up by that of Macdonald in north Italy, and Moreao 
at Honcnlinden (December a, r8oo), brought the emperor 
Francis to sue for peace which was finally concluded 
at Luneville on the 9th of February 1801. The JlSK^. 
Cisalpine and Ligurian Republics (reconstituted soon 
after Marengo) were recognized by Austria on condition that they 
were independent of France. The rule of Pius VII. over the 
Papal States was admitted; and Italian affairs were arranged 
much as they were at Campo Formio: Modena and Tuscany 
now reverted to French control, their former rulers being promised 
compensation in Germany. Naples, easily worsted by the French, 
under Miollis, left the British alliance, and made peace by the 
treaty of Florence (March 1801), agreeing to withdraw her 
troops from the Papal States, to cede Plombino and the Presidil 
(in Tuscany) to France and to close her ports to British ships and 
commerce. King Ferdinand also had to accept a French garrison 
at Taranto, and other points in the south. 

Other changes took place in that year, all of them in favour 
of France. By complex and secret bargaining with the court 
of Madrid, Bonaparte procured the cession to France fy M<tMta * f 
of Louisiana, in North America, and Parma; while im^w . 
the duke of Parma (husband of an infanta of Spain) **«<*»« 0/ 
was promoted by him to the duchy of Tuscany, now ltMty ' 
renamed the kingdom of Etruria. Piedmont was declared to be 
a military division at the disposal of France (April 21, 1S01); 
and on the 2 1 st of September 1802, Bonaparte, then First Consul 
for life, issued a decree for its definitive incorporation m the 
French Republic About that time, too, Elba fell into the hands 
of Napoleon. Piedmont was organized in six departments on 
the model of those of France, and a number of French veterans 
were settled by Napoleon in and near the fortress of Alessandria. 
Besides copying the Roman habit of planting military colonies, 
the First Consul imitated the old conquerors of the wodd by 
extending and completing the road-system of his outlying 
districts, especially at those important passes, the Mont Cenis 
and Simplon. Fie greatly improved the rough track over the 
Simplon Pass, so that, when finished in 1807, it was practicable 
for artillery. Milan was the terminus of the road, and the 
construction of the Foro Buonaparte and the completion of the 
cathedral added dignity to the Lombard capital. The Corniche 
road was improved; and public works in various parts of 
Piedmont, and the Cisalpine and Ligurian Republics attested 
the foresight and wisdom of the great organiser of industry and 
quickener of human energies. The universities of Pavia and 
Bologna were reopened and made great progress in this time of 
peace and growing prosperity. Somewhat later the Pavia canal 
was begun in order to connect Lake Como with the Adriatic 
for barge-traffic. 

The personal nature of the tie binding Italy to France was 
illustrated by a curious incident of the winter of 1802-1803. 
Bonaparte, now First Consul for life, felt strong enough to impose 
his will on the Cisalpine Republic and to set at defiance one of 
the stipulations of the treaty of Luneville. On the pretext of 
consolidating that republic, he invited 4 so of its leading men to 
come to Lyons to a consuUa. In reality he and his agents had 
already provided for the passing of proposals which were agree- 
able to him. The deputies having been dazzled by fetes and 
reviews, Talleyrand and Marescalchi, ministers of foreign affairs 
at Paris and Milan, plied them with hints as to the course to be 
followed by the consulUi; and, despite the rage of the more 
democratic of their number, everything corresponded to the 
wishes of the First Consul. It remained to find a chief. Very 
many were fin favour of Count Mclzi, a Lombard noble, who had 
been chief of the executive at Milan; but again Talleyrand and 
French agents set to work on behalf of their master, with the 
result that he was elected president for ten years. He accepted 
that office because, as he frankly informed the deputies, he had 
found no one who " for his services rendered to his country, 
his authority with the people and his separation from party 




has deserved such an office." Mela was elected vice-president 
with merely honorary functions. The constitution comprised a 
consulta charged with executive duties, a legislative body of 
150 members and a court charged with the maintenance of the 
fundamental laws. These three bodies were to be chosen by 
three electoral colleges consisting of (a) landed proprietors! 
(b) learned men and clerics, (c) merchants and traders, holding 
their sessions biennially at Milan, Bologna and Brescia re- 
spectively. In practice the consulta could override the legis- 
lature; and, as the consulta was little more than the organ of 
the president, the whole constitution may be pronounced as 
autocratic as that of France after the changes brought about 
by Bonaparte in August 1803. Finally we must note that the 
Cisalpine now took the name of the Italian Republic, and that 
by a concordat with the pope, Bonaparte regulated its relations 
to the Holy See in a manner analogous to that adopted in the 
famous French concordat promulgated at Easter 1802 (see 
Concordat). It remains to add that the Ligurian Republic 
and that of Lucca remodelled their constitutions in a way some- 
what similar to that of the Cisalpine. 

Bonaparte's ascendancy did not pass unchallenged. Many of 
the Italians retained their enthusiasm for democracy and national 
Ktmt*m ^dependence. In 1803 movements in these directions 
ot'ltSy! t0 °^ place at Rimini, Brescia and Bologna; but they 
were sharply repressed, and most Italians came to 
acquiesce in the Napoleonic supremacy as inevitable and indeed 
beneficial. The complete disregard shown by Napoleon for one 
of the chief conditions of the treaty of Luneville (February 
1801)— that stipulating for the independence of the Ligurian 
and Cisalpine Republics— became more and more apparent 
every year. Alike in political and commercial affairs they were 
for all practical purposes dependencies of France. Finally, 
after the proclamation of the French empire (May 18, 1804) 
Napoleon proposed to place his brother Joseph over the Italian 
state, which now took the title of kingdom of Italy. On Joseph 
declining, Napoleon finally decided to accept the crown which 
Melzi, Marescakhi, SerbeUoni and others begged him to assume. 
Accordingly, on the 26th of May 1805, in the cathedral at Milan, 
he crowned himself with the iron crown of the old Lombard 
kings, using the traditional formula, " God gave it me: let him 
beware who touches it." On the 7th of June he appointed his 
step-son, Eugene Beauharnais, to be viceroy. Eugene soon found 
that his chief duty was to enforce the will of Napoleon. The 
legislature at Milan having ventured to alter some details of 
taxation, Eugene received the following rule of conduct from his 
step-father: " Your system of government is simple: the 
emperor wills it to be thus." Republicanism was now every* 
where discouraged. The little republic of Lucca, along with 
Piombino, was now awarded as a principality by the emperor 
to Elisa Bonaparte and her husband, Baccbcchi. 

In June 1805 there came a last and intolerable affront to the 
emperors of Austria and Russia, who at that very time were 
seeking to put bounds to Napoleon's ambition and to redress 
the balance of power. The French emperor, at the supposed 
request of the doge of Genoa, declared the Ligurian Republic 
to be an integral part of the French empire. This defiance to 
the sovereigns of Russia and Austria rekindled the flames of 
war. The third coaliti on was formed between Great Britain, 
Russia and Austria, Naples soon joining its ranks. 

For the chief events of the ensuing campaigns see Napoleonic 
Campaigns. While Masstna pursued the Austrians into their 
own lands at the dose of 1805, Italian forces under Eugene 
and Gouvion St Cyr (?.».) held their ground against allied forces 
landed at Naples. After Austerlitz (December a, 180$) 
Austria made peace by the treaty of Pressburg, ceding to the 
kingdom of Italy her part of Venetia along with the provinces 
of Istria and Dalmatia. Napoleon then turned fiercely against 
Maria Carolina of Naples upbraiding her with her " perfidy." 
He sent Joseph Bonaparte and Masstna southwards with a 
strong column, compelled the Anglo-Russian forces to evacuate 
Naples, and occupied the south of the peninsula with little 
opposition except at the fortress of Gaeta. The Bourbon court 

sailed away to Palermo, where it remained for eight yean 
under the protection afforded by the British fleet end a 
British army of occupation. On the 15th of February 

1806 Joseph Bonaparte entered Naples in triumph, his ' 

troops capturing there two hundred pieces of cannon. * # 
Gaeta, however, held out stoutly against the French. 
Sir Sidney Smith with a British squadron captured Capri 
(February 1806), and the peasants of the Abruza and Calabria 
soon began to give trouble. Worst of all was the anivml of a 
small British force in Calabria under Sir John Stuart, which 
beat off with heavy loss an attack imprudently delivered by 
General Reynier on level ground near the village of Ifaida 
(July 4). The steady volleys of Kempt's light infantry 
were fatal to the French, who fell back in disorder under a 
bayonet charge of the victors, with the loss of some 2700 men. 
Calabria now rose In revolt against King Joseph, and the peasants 
dealt out savage reprisals to the French troops. On the 18th 
of July, however, Gaeta surrendered to Masstna, and that 
marshal, now moving rapidly soutnwards, extricated Reynier, 
crushed the Bourbon rising in Calabria with great barbarity, 
and compelled the British force to re-embark for Sicily. At 
Palermo Queen Maria Carolina continued to make vehement 
but futile efforts for the overthrow of King Joseph. 

It is more important to observe that under Joseph and his 
ministers or advisers, including the Frenchmen Roederer, 
Dumas, Miot de Melito and the Corsican Saticeti, great progress 
was made in abolishing feudal laws and customs, in reforming 
the judicial procedure and criminal laws on the model of the 
Code NapoUon, and in attempting the beginnings of elementary 
education. More questionable was Joseph's policy in dosing 
and confiscating the property of 213 of the richer monasteries 
of the land. The monks were pensioned off, but though the 
confiscated property helped to fill the empty coffers of the state, 
the measure aroused widespread alarm and resentment . 
that superstitious people. 

The peace of Tilsit (July 7, 1607) enabled Napoleon to ] 
on his projects for securing the command of the Mediterranean, 
thenceforth a fundamental axiom of his policy. Consequently, 
in the autumn of 1807 he urged on Joseph the adoption of vigorous 
measures for the capture of Sicily. Already, in the negotiations 
with England during the summer of 1806, the emperor had shown 
his sense of the extreme importance of gaining possession of 
that island, which indeed caused the breakdown of the peace 
proposals then being considered; and now he ordered French 
squadrons into the Mediterranean in order to secure Corfu and 
Sicily. His plans respecting Corfu succeeded. That island and 
some of the adjacent isles fell into the hands of the French 
(some of them were captured by British troops in 1800-10); 
but Sicily remained unassailable. Capri, however, feU to the 
French on the x8th of October 1808, shortly after the arrival 
at Naples of the new king, Murat. 

This ambitious marshal* brother-in-law of Napoleon, foiled 
in his hope of gaining the crown of Spain, received that of Naples 
in the summer of 1808, Joseph Bonaparte being moved 
from Naples to Madrid. This arrangement pleased S^L 
neither of the relatives of the emperor; but bis- will j^** 
now was law on the continent. Joseph left Naples on 
the s^rd of May 1808; but it was not until the 6th of September 
that Joachim Murat made his entry. A fortnight later his 
consort Caroline arrived, and soon showed a vigour and restless- 
ness of spirit which frequently clashed with the dictates of her 
brother, the emperor and the showy, unsteady policy of her 
consort. The Spanish national rising of 1808 and thereafter 
the Peninsular War diverted Napoleon's attention from the 
affairs of south Italy., In June 1809, during his campaign 
against Austria, Sir John Stuart with an Anglo-Sicilian force 
sailed northwards, captured Ischia and threw Murat into great 
alarm; but on the news of the Austrian defeat at Wagram, 
Stuart sailed back again. 

It is now time to turn to the affairs of central Italy. Early in 
1808 Napoleon proceeded with plans which he had secretly 
concerted after the treaty of Tilsit for transferring the infanta 





of Spain who* after the death of her consort, reigned at Florence 
on behalf of her young son, Charles Louis, from her kingdom of 
Etruria to the little principality of Bntre Dooro e 
Minho which he proposed to carve out from the north 
of Portugal Etruria reverted to the French empire, 
but the Spanish princess and her son did not receive the promised 
indemnity. Elba Bonaparte and her husband, Bacciocchi, 
rulers of Lucca and Piombino, became the heads of the admini- 
stration in Tuscany, Elba showing decided governing capacity. 

The last part of the peninsula to undergo the GalHrizing influ- 
ence was the papal dominion. For some time past the relations 
between Napoleon and the pope, Pius VII., had been 
severely strained, chiefly because the emperor insisted 
on controlling the church, both m France and in the 
kingdom of Italy, in a way inconsistent with the 
traditions of the Vatican, but also because the pontiff refused to 
grant the divorce between Jerome Bonaparte and the former 
Miss Patterson on which Napoleon early in the year 1806 laid so 
much stress. These and other disputes led the emperor, as 
successor of Charlemagne, to treat the pope in a very high- 
handed way. " Your Holiness (he wrote) is sovereign of Rome, 
but I am Hs emperor **; and he threatened to annul the pre- 
sumed ** donation " of Rome by Charlemagne, unless the pope 
yielded implicit obedience to hitn in all temporal affairs. He 
further exploited the Charlemagne tradition for the benefit of 
the continental system, that great engine of commercial war by 
which he hoped to assure the ruin of England. This aim prompted 
the annexation of Tuscany, and his intervention in the affairs of 
the Papal States. To this the pope assented under pressure 
from Napoleon; but the latter soon found other pretexts for 
intervention, and in February 1808 a French column under 
mollis occupied Rome, and deposed the papal authorities. 
Against this violence Pius VII. protested in vain. Napoleon 
sought to push matters to an extreme, and on the 2nd of April 
Aaatxma he adopted the rigorous measure of annexing to the 
UoMo/tb0 kingdom of Italy the papal provinces of Ancona, 
Av«f Urbino, Macerata and Camerina. This measure, which 
**■***» seemed to the pious an act of sacrilege, and to ItaKan 
patriots an outrage on the only independent sovereign of the 
peninsula, sufficed for the present. The outbreak of war in 
Spain, followed by the rupture with Austria in the spring of 1809, 
distracted the attention of the emperor. But after the occupation 
of Vienna the conqueror dated from that capital on the 1 7th of 
May 1809 a decree virtually annexing Rome and the Patri- 
monium Petri to the French empire. Here again he cited the 
action of Charlemagne, his *' august predecessor," who had 
merely given ** certain domains to the bishops of Rome as fiefs, 
though Rome did not thereby cease to be part of his empire." 

In reply the pope prepared a bull of excommunication against 
those who should infringe the prerogatives of the Holy See in 
this matter, "thereupon the French general, Miollis, who still 
occupied Rome, caused the pope to be arrested and carried him 
away northwards into Tuscany, thence to Savona; finally he was 
taken, at Napoleon's orders, to Fontainebleau. Thus, a second 
time, fell the temporal power of the papacy. By an imperial 
decree of the 17th of February 18 10, Rome and the neighbouring 
districts, including Spoleto, became part of the French empire. 
Rome thenceforth figured as its second city, and entered upon 
a new life under the adminn»tration of French officials. The 
Roman territory was divided into two departments— the Tiber 
and Trasimenus; the Code NopoHon was introduced, public works 
were set on foot and great advance was made in the material 
sphere. Nevertheless the harshness with which the emperor 
treated the Roman clergy and suppressed the monasteries 
caused deep resentment to the orthodox. 
• There is no need to detail the fortunes of the Napoleonic states 
in Italy. One and all they underwent the influences emanating 
Otarmefr * rom P ftr «J arK * m respect to civil administration, 
•IHmpo- l*w, judicial procedure, education and public works, 
Jm0** they all experienced great benefit*, the icsults of which 
*■•* never wholly disappeared. On the other hand, they 

suffered from the rigorous measures of the continental system, 

which seriously crippled trade at the ports and were not com- 
pensated by the increased facilities for trade with France which 
Napoleon opened up. The drain of men to supply his armies in 
Germany, Spain and Russia was also a serious loss. A powerful 
Italian corps marched under Eugene Beauharnais to Moscow, 
and distinguished itself at Malo-Jaroslavit*, as also during the 
horrors of the retreat in the dosing weeks of 181 2. It is said that 
out of 37,000 Italians who entered Russia with Eugene, only 3$$ 
saw their country again. That campaign marked the beginning of 
the end for the Napoleonic domination in Italy as else- ctoArpM 
where. Murat, left In command of the Grand Army at o/jv«*o- 
Vilna, abandoned his charge and in the next year made *«•'• 
overtures to the allies who coalesced against Napoleon. n * 1 * 
For his vacillations at this time and his final fate, see Mtjbat. 
Here it must suffice to say that the uncertainty caused by his 
policy in 1815-1814 had no small share in embarrassing Napoleon 
and in precipitating the downfall of his power in Italy. Eugene 
Beauharnais, viceroy of the kingdom of Italy, showed both 
constancy and courage; but after the battle of Leipaig (October 
16-19, l8l 3) n is power crumbled away under the assaults of 
the now victorious Austrians. By an arrangement with Bavaria, 
they were able to march through Tirol and down the valley of the 
Adlge in force, and overpowered the troops of Eugene whose 
position was fatally compromised by the defection of Murat and 
the dissensions among the Italians. Very many of them, distrust- 
ing both of these kings, sought to act independently in favour 
of an Italian republic. Lord William Bcntinck with an Anglo- 
Sidlian force landed at Leghorn on the 8th of March 1814, and 
issued a proclamation to the Italians bidding them rise against 
Napoleon in the interests of their own freedom. A little later he 
gained possession of Genoa, Amidst these schisms the defence 
of Italy collapsed. On the 16th of April 18 14 Eugene, on hearing 
of Napoleon's overthrow at Paris, signed an armistice at Mantua 
by which he was enabled to send away the French troops beyond 
the Alps and entrust himself to the consideration of the allies. 
The Austrians, under General Bellegarde, entered Milan without 
resistance? and this event precluded the restoration of the old 
political order. 

The arrangements made by the allies in accordance with the 
treaty of Paris (June 12, 1814) and the Final Act of the congress 
of Vienna (June 9, 181 5), imposed on Italy boundaries which, 
roughly speaking, corresponded to those of the pre-Napoleonie 
era. To the kingdom of Sardinia, now reconstituted under 
Victor Emmanuel I., France ceded its old provinces, Savoy and 
Nice; and the allies, especially Great Britain and Austria, 
insisted on the addition to that monarchy of the territories of 
the former republic of Genoa, in respect of which the king took 
the title of duke of Genoa, in order to strengthen it for the duty 
of acting as a buffer state between France and the smaller states 
of central Italy. Austria recovered the Milanese, and all the 
possessions of the old Venetian Republic on the mainland, 
including Istria and Dalmatia. The Ionian Islands, formerly 
belonging to Venice, were, by a treaty signed at Paris on the 
$th of November 18x5, placed under the protection of Great 
Britain. By an instrument signed on the 24th of April 1815, 
the Austrian territories in north Italy were erected into the 
kingdom of Lombardo-Venetia, which, though an integral part 
of the Austrian empire, was to enjoy a separate administration, 
the symbol of its separate individuality being the coronation 
of the emperors with the ancient iron crown of Lombardy 
C* Proclamation de rempereur d'Autriche, &o," April 7, 1815, 
State Papers, h*. 000). Francis IV., son of the archduke 
Ferdinand of Austria and Maria Beatrice, daughter of Ercole 
Rmaldo, the last of the Estensi; was reinstated as duke of 
Modena. Parma and Piacenza were assigned to Marie Louise, 
daughter of the Austrian emperor and wife of Napoleon, on 
behalf of her son, the little Napoleon, but by subsequent arrange- 
ments (18x6-1817) the duchy was to revert at her death to the 
Bourbons of Parma, then reigning at Lucca. Tuscany was 
restored to the grand-duke Ferdinand III. of Habsburg-Lorraine. 
The duchy of Lucca was given to Marie Louise of Bourbon- 
Parma, who, at- the death of Marie Louise of Austria, would 



- <k»_* MU»«^ikite<^ 0Vttt0 Tuscany. 
** ^T-Tr^«W s*t tone bee* kept under restraint 

"\ **~J* ^TaW^wmdto Ron* in May 1814, 

* v^n- *J^^^J^T^ Vienna (not without 

~~ ^UL-T^ltekS^ Ferdinand IV. of Naples, 

* "~ ^!^jt^^W»c^^M»n»CMoUnft. in Austria. 
_ .^. .^v. ^~^ r „ .i to dominions on the 

, v ^^^^ , *TtI IHNII# iMur*t in the autumn of 

s. ^ vs. <* ^^ViTTSLo in Calabria, enabled the 

" ^t ~ ? ?£* SakeStnt with all the greater 

^. ^ . ^* J^Tjrww^Wl and heavy in the 

~ JVlSTawi * Victor Emmanuel, systematically 

" ' > C lV£ ila •! U* north, and comporauvdy 

. *v.-* "^ JJT ^Jftttit these it was directed by a 

v^ * -^ . .^^fl,-. why Sicily ahouW harbour these 

N x r* ^t^ST XSu^tyear. (i8co-i ?; 4) 

^ ^ ^.^ ,v £**T~ ^ d beBn garrisoned by British 

V ^ "^ x^tM ol the force whkh upheld the 

— ~' ** v rr^Tar^ni»o naturally had great 

•* s> " v, it-Tand queen at Palermo, daimed to 

■ -^"^^tradmlnistraUon. Lord William 
v s ^ ,w* -^ ^ administrative powers, seeing 

* * V *"J *X t» M duW, and Maria Carolina, owing 
v • " Jl *u«u<« *M Napoleon, could never be 

v v ^UiS* «>yal power and that <rf the 

t J-i t* bring matters to a deadlock, until 

^ ^^#1 Urd William Bentinck, a con- 

:Tih. «a that of England was passed by 

! ^ XTSiHiMiil of the British troops in 1814 


"* "Tt* ^ m ir*ment 

" ** L-Il and the royal authority became once 
^ ^ " uYiW memory of the benefits conferred by 
v * 1I1L1 M rtmained fresh and green amidst 
v^ Ci ^i*"^ wh |ch foUowcd. It lived on as one 
' v £ 'STwwfHul influences which spurred on the 
1V t ^TaTof Naple* lo the efforts which they 
* ***\ lM a „d 186a 

jww British intervention, was in some 

cwrtcd by Napoleon on the Italians of 

tv *rtalilki * Austria's white coats in the 

^TCft ^rtcd by Napoleon on the Italians of 

i ^JaT wprmion then characteristic 
^ tT£u7»p5« of the duke of Modena, the 
VV ^tinopt and cardinals in the middle of the 
^'v l ^«isn weesseaof Ferdinand in the south, 
" imIX mi«di of the Italians the recollection 
* ,-JlKwn the just laws, vigorous administra- 
s ' " "l^j jLimii of the great emperor. The hard but 

- ,s ^TtjLa they had undergone at his hands had 

^. ... ^ .^J' J* * Uie equals of the northern races 

, . .v..* ' w j^JJJe and on the field of battle. It had 
K ^ .. Jw ^^** L^, t hat truth, which once grasped can 
% , ,, ^v^v^ w ' .^^^ differences of climate, character 
. - v "* ^£ 5 4llesKn«^ a nation. <J. Hu R.) 

*, TAW RWORCOIENTO, 18x5-1870 

^k ui \U Vienna treaties, Austria became the real 

* »^ ****,!" Koj only did she govern Lombardy and 

» * M ^ iT Kut Austrian princes ruled in Modeaa, Parma 

y » * JI * X ivTlma, Pcrrara and Comacchio had Austrian 

^ ^^**.^* klctt«rnich, the Austrian chancellor, believed 

^ r ** , *2,n» *<urc the election of an Austrophil pope, 

\ i. vn*^ T*^ Ksples, reinstated by an Austrian army, 

» " 4 * S iy asccrct article of the treaty of June iz, 

v v- - V ' M *. 1 1|JJ» methods of government incompatible 

, *h *♦" ** ' » j n AusirJ?'* Italian »n«scssions. Austria 

. ' ^"^Sivt ar ^ with Sardinia, 

Tuscany and Naples; and MetternichV ambition was to make 
Austrian predominance over Italy still more absolute, by placing 
an Austrian archduke on the Sardinian throne. 

Victor F.mmsnuel I., the king of Sardinia* was the only native 
ruler in the peninsula, and the Savoy dynasty was popular with 
all classes. But although welcomed with enthusiasm ffBl<rf<tt> 
on his return to Turin, he introduced a system of *»<*• 
reaction which, if less brutal, was no less uscom- tummm 
promising than that of Austrian archdukes or Bourbon £*"•*• 
princes. His object was to restore his dominions to the condi- 
tions preceding the French occupation. The French system of 
taxation was maintained because it brought in ampler revenues; 
but feudalism, the antiquated legislation and bureaucracy were 
revived, and all the officers and officials still living who had served 
the state before the Revolution, many of them now in their 
dotage, were restored to their posts; only nobles were eligible for 
the higher government appointments; all who had served under 
the French administration were dismissed or reduced in rank; 
and in the army beardless scions of the aristocracy were placed 
over the heads of war-worn veterans who had commanded 
regiments in Spain and Russia. The influence of a bigoted 
priesthood was re-established, and " every form of intellectual 
and moral torment, everything save actual persecution and 
physical torture that could be inflicted on the 'impure* was 
inflicted " (Cesare Balbo's Autobiography). All this soon pro- 
voked discontent among the educated classes. In Genoa the 
government was particularly unpopular, for the Genoese resented 
being handed over to their old enemy Piedmont like a flock of 
sheep. Nevertheless the king strongly disliked the Austria ns, 
and would willingly have seen them driven from Italy. 

In Lombardy French rule had ended by making itself un- 
popular, and even before the fall of Napoleon a national party, 
called thtltalici puri, bad begun to advocate the .. 

independence of Lombardy, or even its union with ^jflj" 
Sardinia. At first a part of the population were y-fr 
content with Austrian rule, which provided an honest 
and efficient administration; but the rigid system of centraliza- 
tion which, while allowing the semblance of local autonomy, 
sent every minute question for settlement to Vienna; the 
severe police methods; the bureaucracy, in which the best 
appointments were usually conferred on Germans or Slavs 
wholly dependent on Vienna, proved galling to the people, and 
in view of the growing disaffection the country was turned 
into a vast armed camp. In Modena Duke Francis proved 
a cruel tyrant. In Parma, on the other hand, there was 
very little oppression, the French codes were retained, and 
the council of state was consulted on all legislative matters. 
Lucca too enjoyed good government, and the peasantry were 
well cared for and prosperous. In Tuscany the rule of Ferdinand 
and of his minister Fossombroni was mild and benevolent, 
but enervating and demoralizing. The Papal States were 
ruled by a unique system of theocracy, for not only the head of 
the state but all the more important officials were ecdesiastifs, 
assisted by the Inquisition, the Index and all the paraphernalia 
of medieval church government. The administration 
was inefficient and corrupt, the censorship uncora- gj,'^',,'* 
promising, the police ferocious and oppressive, although 
quite unable to cope with the prevalent anarchy and brigandage; 
the antiquated pontifical statutes took the place of the French 
laws, and every vestige of the vigorous old communal independ- 
ence was swept away. In Naples Xing Ferdinand retained 
some of the laws and institutions of Murat's regime, and many 
of the functionaries of the former government entered h&*± 
his service; but he revived the Bourbon tradition, 
the odious police system and the censorship; and a degrading 
religious bigotry, to which the masses were all too much inclined, 
became the basis of government and social life. The upper 
classes were still to a large extent inoculated with French ideas, 
but the common people were either devoted to the dynasty or 
indifferent. In Sicily, which for centuries had enjoyed a feudal 
constitution modernized and Anglicized under British auspices 
in 181 a, and whore ami-Neapolitan feeling was strong, autonomy 




was suppressed, the constitution abofiahed in tBl6 t and the 
island, as a reward for its fidelity to the dynasty, converted into 
a Neapolitan province governed by Neapolitan, bureaucrats. 
. To the mass of the people the restoration of the old govern- 
ments undoubtedly brought a sense of relief, for the terrible 
drain in men and money caused by Napoleon's wars had caused 
much discontent, whereas now there was a prospect of peace and 
rest. But the restored governments in their terror of revolution 
would not realise that the late regime had wafted a breath of 
new life over the country and left ineffaceable traces in the way 
of improved laws, efficient administration, good roads and the 
sweeping away of old abuses; while the new-born idea of 
Italian unity, strengthened by a national pride revived on many 
a stricken field from Madrid to Moscow, was a force to be 
reckoned with. The oppression and follies of the restored 
governments made men forget the evils of French rule and 
remember only its good side. The masses were still more or 
less indifferent, but among the nobility and the educated middle 
classes, cut off from all part in free political life, there 
was developed either the spirit of despair at Italy's 
moral degradation, as expressed in the writings of 
Foscolo and Leopardi, or a passion of hatred and 
revolt, whkh found its manifestation, in spite of severe laws, 
in the development of secret societies. The most important of 
these were the Carbonari lodges, whose objects were the expulsion 
of the foreigner and the achievement of constitutional freedom 
(see Carbonari). 

> When Ferdinand returned to Naples in 1815 he found the 
kingdom, and especially the army, honeycombed with Carbonar- 
ism, to which many noblemen and officers were 
affiliated; and although the police instituted prosecu- 
tions and organized the counter-movement of the 
um% Caldcrai, who may be compared to the "Black 

Hundreds " of modem Russia, the revolutionary spirit continued 
to grow, but it was not at first anti-dynastk. The granting 
of the Spanish constitution of 1820 proved the signal for the 
beginning of the Italian liberationist movement; a military 
mutiny led by two officers, Sflvati and MoreUi, and the priest 
Menichini, broke out at Monteforte, to the cry of " God, the 
King, and the Constitution 1" The troops sent against them 
commanded by General GugMehno Pepe, himself a Carbonaro, 
hesitated to act, and the king, finding that he could not count 
on the army, granted the constitution (July 13, 18*0), and 
appointed his son Francis regent. The events that followed 
are described in the article on the history of Naples (q.v.). Not 
only did the constitution, which was modelled on the impossible 
Spanish constitution of x8i?, prove unworkable, but the powers 
of the Grand Alliance, whose main object was to keep the peace 
of Europe, felt themselves bound to interfere to prevent the evil 
precedent of a successful military revolution. The diplomatic 
developments that led to the intervention of Austria are sketched 
elsewhere (see Europe: History)* » general the result of the 
deliberations of the congresses of Troppau and Laibach was to 
establish, not the general right of intervention claimed in the 
Troppau Protocol, but the special right of Austria to safeguard 
her interests in Italy. The defeat of General Pepe by the 
Austrians at Rieti (March 7, 2821) and the re-establishment 
of King Ferdinand's autocratic power under the protection of 
Austrian bayonets were the effective assertion of this principle. 
The movement in Naples had been purely local, for the 
Neapolitan Carbonari had at that time no thought save of 
Naples; it was, moreover, a movement of the middle 
and upper classes in which the masses took little 
interest. Immediately after the battle of Rieti a 
Carbonarist mutiny broke out in Piedmont independ- 
ently of events in the south. Both King Victor Emmanuel and 
his brother Charles Felix had no sons, and the heir presumptive 
to the throne was Prince Charles Albert, of the Carignano 
branch of the house of Savoy. Charles Albert felt a certain 
interest in Liberal ideas and was always surrounded by young 
nooks of Carbonarist and anti-Austrian tendencies, and was 
therefore regarded with suspicion by his royal relatives. Metter- 
XV % 


nich, too; had aa instinctive disHke lor Urn, and proposed to 
exclude him from the succession by marrying one of the king's 
daughters to Francis of Modena, and getting the Salic law 
ahoushed so that the succession would pass to the duke and 
Austria would thus dominate Piedmont. The Liberal movement 
had gained ground in Piedmont as in Naples among the younger 
nobles and officers, and the events of Spain and southern Italy 
aroused much excitement. In March 1821, Count Santofre di 
Santarosa and other conspirators informed Charles Albert of a 
constitutional and anti-Austrian plot, and asked for his help. 
After a momentary hesitation he informed the king; but at 
his request no arrests were made, and no precautions were 
taken. On the 10th of March the garrison of Alessandria 
mutinied, and its example was followed on the 12th by that 
of Turin, where the Spanish constitution was demanded, and 
the black, red and blue flag of the Carbonari paraded the streets. 
The next day the king abdicated after appointing Charles Albert 
regent. The latter immediately proclaimed the constitution, 
but the new king, Charles Felix, who was at Modena at the time, 
repudiated the regent's acts and exiled him to Tuscany; and, 
with 'his consent, an Austrian army invaded Piedmont and 
crushed the constitutionalists at Novara. Many of the con- 
spirators were condemned to death, but all succeeded in escaping. 
Charles Felix was most indignant with the ex-regent, but be 
resented, as an unwarrantable interference, Austria's attempt 
to have him excluded from the succession at the congress Of 
Verona (i8jq), Charles Albert's somewhat equivocal conduct 
also roused the hatred of the Liberals, and for a long time the 
eseerate Carignetw was regarded, most unjustly, as a traitor 
even by many who were not republicans. 

Carbonarism had been introduced into Lombardy by two 
Romagnols, Count ladercht and Pictro Maroncclli, but the 
leader of the movement was Count F. Confalonieri, , „^ mmnmmm 
who was in favour of an Italian federation coiriposed j^toaH 
of northern Italy under the house of Savoy, central benty. 
Italy under the pope, and the kingdom of Naples. 
There had been some mild plotting against Austria in Milan, 
and an attempt was made to cooperate with the Piedmontese 
movement of i8«; already in i8ao Maroncclli and the poet 
SQvio Pellko had been arrested as Carbonari, and after the 
movement in Piedmont more arrests were made. The mission 
of Gaetaao Castiglia and Marquis Giorgio Pallavicmi to Turin, 
where they had interviewed Charles Albert, although without 
any definite result — for Confalonieri had warned the prince that 
Lombardy was not ready to rise— was accidentally discovered, 
and Confalonieri was himself arrested. The plot would never 
have been a menace to Austria but for her treatment of the 
conspirators. Pellico and Maroncelli were immured in the 
Spielberg; Confalonieri and two dozen others were condemned 
to death, their sentences being, however, commuted to imprison- 
ment in that same terrible fortress. The heroism of the priaeero, 
and Silvio Pellico's account of his Imprisonment (Le mie Prigiotri), 
did much to enlist the sympathy of Europe for the Italian cause. 

During the next few years order reigned in Italy, save for a 
few unimportant outbreaks in the Papal States; there was, 
however, perpetual discontent and agitation, especially m -^ 
in Romagna, where misgovernment was extreme, sutes. 
Under Pins VIL and fas minister Cardinal Consalvi 
oppression had not been very severe, and Metternich's proposal 
to establish a central inquisitorial tribunal for political offences 
throughout Italy had been rejected by the papal government. 
But on the death of Pius in 1823, his successor Leo XII. (Cardinal 
Delia Genga) proved a ferocious reactionary under whom 
barbarous laws were enacted and torture frequently applied. 
The secret societies, such as the Carbonari, the Adclfi and the 
Bersaglieri d'Amerka, which flourished in Romagna, replied 
to these persecutions by assassinating the more brutal officials 
ans spies. The events of 1820-1821 increased the agitation hi 
Romagna, and in 1875 large numbers of persons were condemned 
to death, imprisonment or exile. The society of the Sanfedisti, 
formed of the dregs of the populace, whose object was to murder 
every Liberal, was openly protected and encouraged. Leo died 




in 1829, and the mild, religious Pins VIII. (Cardinal Castiglioni) 
only reigned until 1830, when Gregory XVI. (Cardinal Cappellari) 
was elected through Austrian influence, and proved another 
a*™**. *d aMt€ - T° c J^y revolution in Paris and the declara- 
jjJJJ^J tion of the new king, Louis Philippe, that France, as 
jam. & Liberal monarchy, would not only not intervene 

in the internal affairs of other countries, but would 
not permit other powers to do so, aroused great hopes among the 
oppressed peoples, and was the immediate cause of a revolution 
in Romagna and the Marches. In February 183 1 these provinces 
rose, raised the red, white and green tricolor (which henceforth 
took the place of the Carbonarist colours as the Italian flag), 
and shook off the papal yoke with surprising case. 1 At Parma 
too there was an outbreak and a demand for the constitution; 
Marie Louise could not grant it because of her engagements 
with Austria, and, therefore, abandoned her dominions. In 
Modena Duke Francis, ambitious of enlarging his territories, 
coquetted with the Carbonari of Paris, and opened indirect 
negotiations with Menotti, the revolutionary leader in his state, 
believing that he might assist him in his plans. Menotti, for 
his part, conceived the idea of a united Italian state under the 
duke. A rising was organized for February 1831; but Francis 
got wind of it, and, repenting of his dangerous dallying with 
revolution, arrested Menotti and fled to Austrian territory with 
his prisoner. In his absence the insurrection took place, and 
Biagio Nardi, having been elected dictator, proclaimed that 
" Italy is one; the Italian nation one sole nation." But the 
French king soon abandoned his principle of non-intervention 
on which the Italian revolutionists had built their hopes; the 
Austrians intervened unhindered; the old governments were 
re-established in Parma, Modena and Ro magna; and Menotti 
and many other patriots were hanged. The Austrians evacuated 
Romagna in July, but another insurrection having broken out 
immediately afterwards which the papal troops were unable 
to quell, they returned. This second intervention gave umbrage 
to France, who by way of a counterpoise sent a force to occupy 
Ancona. These two foreign occupations, which were almost 
as displeasing to the pope as to the Liberals, lasted until 1838. 
The powers, immediately after the revolt, presented a memor- 
andum to Gregory recommending certain moderate reforms, 
but no attention was paid to it. These various movements 
proved in the first place that the masses were by no means ripe 
for revolution, and that the idea of unity, although now advocated 
by a few revolutionary leaders, was far from being generally 
accepted even by the Liberals; and, secondly, that, in spite of 
the indifference of the masses, the despotic governments were 
unable to hold their own without the assistance of foreign 

On the 37th of April 2832, Charles Albert succeeded Charles 
Felix on the throne of Piedmont. Shortly afterwards he received 
Jfsmfaf * lettcr irom an unknown person, in which he was 
ma4 exhorted with fiery eloquence to place himself at the 

"Yoomg head of the movement for liberating and uniting 
ft ** r *" Italy and expelling the foreigner, and told that he 
was free to choose whether he would be " the first of men or the 
last of Italian tyrants." The author was Giuseppe Mazzini, 
then a young man of twenty-six years, who, though in theory a 
republican, was ready to accept the leadership of a prince of 
the house of Savoy if he would guide the nation to freedom. 
The only result of his letter, however, was that he was forbidden 
to re-enter Sardinian territory. Mazzini, who had learned to 
distrust Carbonarism owing to its lack of a guiding principle 
and its absurd paraphernalia of ritual and mystery, had conceived 
the idea of a more serious political association for the emancipa- 
tion of his country not only from foreign and domestic despotism 
but from national faults of character; and this idea he had 
materialized in the organization of a society called the Giovane 
Italia (Young Italy) among the Italian refugees at Marseilles. 
After the events of 183 1 he declared that the .liberation of Italy 
could only be achieved through unity, and his great merit lies 

> \Among the Insurgents of Romagna was Louis Napoleon, after- 
wards em peror of the French. 

in having Inspired a large number of Italians with that idea at 
a time when provincial jealousies and the difficulty of communica- 
tions maintained separatist feelings. Young Italy spread to 
all centres of Italian exiles, and by means of literature carried 
on an active propaganda in Italy itself, where the party came 
to be called " Ghibellini," as though reviving the traditions 
of medieval anti-Papalism. Though eventually this activity 
of the Giovane Italia supplanted that of the oMer societies, 
in practice it met with no better success; the two attempts 
to invade Savoy in the hope of seducing the army from its 
allegiance failed miserably, and only resulted in a series of 
barbarous sentences of death and imprisonment which made 
most Liberals despair of Charles Albert, while they called down 
much criticism on Mazzini as the organizer of raids in which 
he himself took no part. He was now forced to leave France, 
but continued his work of agitation from London. The disorders 
in Naples and Sicily in 2837 had no connexion with Mazzini, 
but the forlorn hope of the brothers Bandiera, who in 1844 
landed on the Calabrian coast, was the work of the Giovane 
Italia. The rebels were captured and shot, but the significance 
of the attempt lies in the fact that it was the first occasion on 
which north Italians (the Bandieras were Venetians and officers 
in the Austrian navy) had tried to raise the standard of revolt 
in the south. 

Romagna had continued a prey to anarchy ever since 1832; 
the government organized armed bands called the Centurioni 
(descended from the earlier Sanfedisti), to terrorize the Liberals, 
while the secret societies continued their "propaganda by 
deeds." It is noteworthy that Romagna was the only part of 
Italy where the revolutionary movement was accompanied by 
murder. In 2845 several outbreaks occurred, and a band led by 
Pietro Renzi captured Rimini, whence a proclamation drawn up 
by L. C. Farini was issued demanding the reforms advocated by 
tfa . , ~ ~ . .. lt co ik pspd 



th 1 

Sc Lys,develop- 

iftj resorting to 

re .inspired by 

th be people fit 

fo ; periodicals. 

Vltiwiutw uiuuuii yu.v>/ |nii/i»iim •■> *u^« mi isuivu) treatlSC JJO 

primalo meraU • dvtU degli ItaHani, a work, which, in striking con- 
trast to the prevailing pessimism of the day, extolled the past great- 
ness and achievements of the Italian people and their present virtues. 
His political ideal was a federation of all the Italian states under the 
presidency of the pope, on a basis of Catholicism, but without a 
constitution. In spite of all its inaccuracies and exaggerations the 
book served a useful purpose in reviving the sclf-rcspcct of a de- 
spondent people. Another work of a similar kind was Le Spt 

Italia (1844) by the Piedmontcse Count Cesare Balbo (q,v.h Like 
Gioberti he advocated a federation of Italian states, but he declared 
that before this could be achieved Austria must be expelled from 
Italy and compensation found for her in the Near East by making 
her a Danubian power— a curious forecast that Italy's Liberation 
would begin with an eastern war. He extolled Charles Albert 
and appealed to his patriotism; he believed that the church was 
necessary and the secret societies harmful; representative govern- 
ment was undesirable, but he advocated a consultative assembly. 
Above all Italian character must be reformed and the nation edu- 
cated. A third important publication was Massimo d'Azeglto's 
Degli vllimi can di Romagna, in which the author, another Pied- 
inontese nobleman, exposed papal misgovcrnment while condemning 
the secret societies and advocating open resistance and protest. He 
upheld the papacy in principle, regarded Austria as the great enemy 
of Italian regeneration, and believed that the means of expelling her 
were only to be found in Piedmont. 

Besides the revolutionists and republicans who promoted con- 
spiracy and insurrection whenever possible, and the moderates or 
■' Neo-Gudphs," as Gioberti's followers were called, we 
must mention the Italian exiles who were learning the art *■• 
of war in foreign countries — in Spain, in Greece, in 
Poland, in South America — and those other exiles who, in 
Paris or London, eked out a bare subsistence by teaching Italian or 




by their pes, and bid the foundations of that love of Italy which, 
especially in England, eventually brought the weight of diplomacy 
into the scales tor Italian freedom. All these forces were equally 
necessary — the revolutionists to keep up agitation and make govern- 
ment by bayonets impossible; the moderates to curb the impetu- 
osity of the revolutionists and to present a scheme of society that 
was neither reactionary nor anarchical; the volunteers abroad to 
gain military experience; and the more peaceful exiles to spread the 
name of Italy among foreign peoples. All the while a vast amount of 
revo l utio n a r y literature was betng printed in Switzerland, France 
and England, and smuggled into Italy; the poet Giusti satirized the 
Italian princes, the dramatist G. B. Niccolini blasted tyranny in his 
tragedies, the novelist Guerrazzi re-evoked the memories of the last 
struggle for Florentine freedom in UAssedio di Firetue, and Verdi's 
operas bristled with political double tntendres which escaped the censor 
but were understood and applauded by the audience. 

On the death of Pope Gregory XVI. in 1846 Austria hoped to 
secure the election of another zealot; but the Italian cardinals, 
-^j. . who did not want an Austxophil, finished the conclave 
pj^ix, before the arrival of Cardinal Gaysruck, Austria's 
mouthpiece, and in June elected Giovanni Maria 
Mastai Ferretti aa Pius IX. The new pope, who while bishop 
of Imole had evinced a certain interest in Liberalism, was 
a kindly man, of inferior intelligence, who thought that 
all difficulties could be settled with a little good-will, some 
reforms and a political amnesty. The amnesty which he 
granted was the beginningof the immense if short-lived popularity 
which he was to enjoy. But he did not move so fast in the path 
of reform as was expected, and agitation continued throughout 
the papal states. 1 In 1847 some administrative reforms were 
enacted, the laity were admitted to certain offices, railways were 
talked about, and political newspapers, permitted. In April 
Pkas created a. Consults, or consultative assembly, and soon 
afterwards a council of ministers and a municipality for Rome. 
Here he would willingly have stopped, but he soon realized that 
he had hardly begun. Every fresh reform edict was greeted with 
demonstrations of enthusiasm, but the ominous cry " Viva Pio 
Nonosolol" signified dissatisfaction with the whole system of 
government. A lay ministry was now demanded, a constitution, 
and an Italian federation for war against Austria. Rumours of a 
reactionary plot by Austria and the Jesuits against Pius, induced 
him to create a national guard and to appoint Cardinal Ferretti 
as secretary of state. 

Events in Rome produced widespread excitement throughout 
Europe< Metternich had declared that the one thing which had 
not entered into his calculations was a Liberal pope, only that was 
an impossibility; still he was much disturbed by Pius's attitude, 
and tried to stem the revolutionary tide by frightening the 
princes. Seizing the agitation in Romagna as a pretext, he had 
the town of Ferrara occupied by Austrian troops, which provoked 
the indignation not only of the Liberals but also of the pope, for 
according to the treaties Austria had the right of occupying the 
citadel atone. There was great resentment throughout Italy, and 
in answer to the pope's request Charles Albert declared that he 
was with him in everything, while from South America Giuseppe 
Garibaldi wrote to offer his services to His Holiness. Charles 
Albert, although maintaining his reactionary policy, had intro- 
duced administrative reforms, built railways, reorganized the 
army and developed the resources of the country. He had little 
sympathy with Liberalism and abhorred revolution, but his 
batted of Austria and bis resentment at the galling tutelage to 
which she subjected him had gained strength year by year. 
Religion was still his dominant passion, and when a pope in 
Libera] guise appeared on the scene and was bullied by Austria, 
his two strongest feelings— piety and hatred of Austria— ceased 
to be incompatible. In 1847 Lord Minto visited the 
Italian courts to try to induce the recalcitrant despots 
. to mend their ways, so as to avoid revolution and war, 
C 7 * the latter being England's especial anxiety; this 

mission, although not destined to produce much effect, aroused 
extravagant hopes among the liberals. Charles Louis, the opera- 

* In Rome itself a certain Angelo Brunetti. known as Ciceruaechio, 
a forage merchant of lowly birth and a Carbooaro. exercised great 
influence over the masses and kept the peace where the authorities 
would have failed. 

bonne duke of Lucca, who had coquetted with Liberalism in the 
past, now refused to make any concessions to his subjects, and in 
1847 sold his duchy to Leopold II. of Tuscany (the successor of 
Ferdinand III. since 1824) to whom it would have reverted in any 
case at the death of the duchess of Banna. At the same time 
Leopold ceded Lunigiana to Parma and Modena in equal parts* 
an arrangement which provoked the indignation of the in- 
habitants of the district (especially of those destined to be ruled 
by Francis V. of Modena, who had succeeded to Francis IV. in 
1846), and led to disturbances at Fivixzano. In September 1847, 
Leopold gave way to the popular agitation for a national guard, 
in spite of Metternich's threats, and allowed greater freedom of 
the press; every concession made by the pope was followed by 
demands for a similar measure in Tuscany. • 

Ferdinand I. of the Two Sicilies had died in 1835, and was 
succeeded by Francis L At the fetter's death in 1830 Ferdinand 
II. succeeded, and although at first he gave promise of proving a 
wiser ruler, he soon reverted to the traditional Bourbon methods. 
An ignorant bigot, he concentrated the whole of the executive 
into his own hands, was surrounded by priests and monks, and 
served by an army of spies. In 1847 there were unimportant 
disturbances in various parts of the kingdom, but there was no 
anti-dynastic outbreak, the jealousy between Naples and Sicily 
largely contributing to the weakness of the movement. On the 
1 ath of January, however, a revolution, the first of the many 
throughout Europe that was to make the year 1848 memorable, 
broke out at Palermo under the leadership of Ruggiero Settimo. 
The Neapolitan army sent to crush the rising was at first un- 
successful, and the insurgents demanded the constitution of 181a 
or complete independence. Disturbances occurred at Naples 
also, and the king, who could not obtain Austrian help, as the 
pope refused to allow Austrian troops to pass through his 
dominions, on the advice of his prime minister, the duke of. 
Serracapriola, granted a constitution, freedom of the press, the 
national guard, &c. (January 28). 

The news from Naples strengthened the demand for a con- 
stitution in Piedmont. Count Camillo Cavour, then editor of a 
new and influential paper called 11 Risorgimenio, had 
advocated it strongly, and monster demonstrations 
were held every day. The king disliked the idea, but 
great pressure was brought to bear on him, and 
finally, on the 4th of March 1848, he granted the charter which 
was destined to be the constitution of the future* Italian kingdom. 
It provided for a nominated senate and an elective chamber of 
deputies, the king retaining the right of veto; the press censor- 
ship was abolished, and freedom of meeting, of the press and of 
speech were guaranteed. Balbo was called upon to form the first 
constitutional ministry. Three days later the grand-duke of 
Tuscany promised similar liberties, and a charter, prepared by a 
commission which included Gino Capponi and Bettino Ricasoli, 
was promulgated on the 17 th- 
in the Austrian provinces the* situation seemed calmer, and 
the government rejected the moderate proposals of Daniele 
Manin and N. Tommaseo. A demonstration in favour of Pius IX. 
on the 3rd of January at Milan was dispersed with unnecessary 
severity, and martial law was proclaimed the following month. 
The revolution which broke out on the 8th of March in Vienna 
itself and the subsequent flight of Metternich (see Austria- 
Hungary: History), led to the granting of feeble concessions 
to Lombardy and Venetia, which were announced in Milan on 
the 18th. But it was too late; and in spite of the exhortations 
of the mayor, Gabrio Casati, and of the republican C. Cattaneo, 
who believed that a rising against 15,000 Austrian soldiers under 
Field-Marshal Radetzky was madness, the famous Five Days' 
revolution began. It was a popular outburst of pent-up hate, 
unprepared by leaders, although leaders such as Luciano Manara 
soon arose. Radetzky occupied the citadel and other points of 
vantage; but in the night barricades sprang up by the hundred 
and were manned by citizens of all classes, armed with every 
kind of weapon. The desperate struggle lasted until the 22nd, 
when the Austrian*, having lost 5000 killed and wounded, were 
forced to evacuate the city. The rest of Lombardy and Venetia 




DO w flew to arms, and the Austrian garrisons, except in the 
quadrilateral (Verona, Pescbiera, Mantua and Legnano) were 
^^pelled. In Venice the people, under the leadership of Manin, 
xX> %c in arms and forced the military and civil governors (Counts 
^icby and Palffy) to sign a capitulation on the 22nd of March, 
«fter which the republic was proclaimed. At Milan, where there 
wB s a division of opinion between the monarchists under Casati 
jfTvd. the republicans under Cattaneo, a provisional administration 
wa s formed and the question of the form of government postponed 
far the moment. The duke of Modena and Charles Louis of 
j»^rm* (Marie Louise was now dead) abandoned their capitals; 
2^ both cities provisional governments were set up which sub- 
0C cgiiently proclaimed annexation to Piedmont. In Rome the 
nope gave way to popular clamour, granting one concession after 
iXotber, and on the 8th of February he publicly called down 
God'* blessing on Italy—that Italy hated by the Austrians, 
w j j0 §c name it had hitherto been a crime to mention. On the 
x otb of March he appointed a new ministry, under Cardinal 
Antooe^t which included several Liberal laymen, such as Marco 
Vj ingbetti, G. Pasolini, L. C. Farini and Count G. Recchi. On 
*j,e 1 **** a constitution drawn up by a commission of cardinals, 
«ritis° ut ttte knowledge of the ministry, was promulgated, a 
constitution which attempted the impossible task of reconciling 
She P ?*'* t * m P oral power with free institutions. In the mean- 
while preparations for war against Austria were being carried on 
with Pius's sanction. 

The** were now three main political tendencies, viz. the union 

^g north Italy under Charles Albert and an alliance with the 

^-^ and Naples, a federation of the different states under their 

P°*^nt rulers, and a united republic of all Italy. All parties, 

£ wr vef , were agreed in favour of war against Austria, for which 

•h« p6°Pl n forced their unwilling rulers to prepare. But the 

*J*7 -/it ate capable of taking the initiative was Piedmont, and the 

£ln£ still hesitated. Then came the news of the Five Days of 

Z!iklan, which produced the wildest excitement in Turin; unless 

*** ^ the army were sent to assist the struggling Lombards 

F*jV£ at once the dynasty was in jeopardy. Cavour's stirring 

^JJlJZt articles in the Risorgimento hastened the king's decision, 

*/tmirt+> and on the 23rd of March he declared war (see for the 

ttitary events Italian Wars, 1848-70). But much precious 

1 I bid been lost, and even then the army was not ready. 

UkmtIcS Albert could dispose of 00,000 men, including some 

^00 from central Italy, but he took the field with only half 

£ 'force. He might yet have cut off Radetzky on his retreat, 

JLotured Manlut, which was only held by 300 men. But his 

*L JL lc*t him both chances and enabled Radetzky to receive 

r^^rtrments from Austria. The pope, unable to resist the 

***£!y demand for war, allowed his army to depart (March 23) 

,W ZTihc commAnA of General Durando, with instructions to 

*^! Jsicert with Charles Albert, and he corresponded with the 

* r TU of Tuscany and the king f Naples with a view to a 

n ir^r jfcanc*. But at the same time, fearing a schism in the 

****TJZ*U\ he attack Catholic Austria, he forbade his troops 

T * rf \J*«riMn defend the frontier, and in his Encyclical of the 

,. a .*** _„ mt%teA that, as head of the church, he could not 

revent his subjects from 

is. He then requested 

under his command, and 

asking him voluntarily 

Tuscany and Naples had 

'scan army started for 

7.000 Neapolitans com- 

after 28 years of exile) 

the Austrian reinforce- 

j -sc defeated the enemy 

n t profit by the victory. 

/. he 17th of May, but in 

aj ■* Naples between the 

col ln « *oyal oath ; a cry of 

On receiving the order to return, Pepe, after hesitating for some 
time between his oath to the king and his desire to fight for Italy, 
finally resigned his commission and crossed the Po with a few 
thousand men, the rest of his force returning south. The effects 
of this were soon felt. A force of Tuscan volunteers was attacked 
by a superior body of Austrians at Curtatone and Montanaro 
and defeated after a gallant resistance on the 27th of May; 
Charles Albert, after wasting precious time round Pescbiera, 
which capitulated on the 30th of May, defeated Radetzky at 
Goito. But the withdrawal of the Neapolitans left Durando 
too weak to intercept Nugent and his 30.000 men; and the 
latter, although harassed by the inhabitants of Venctia and 
repulsed at Vicenza, succeeded in joining Radetzky, who was 
soon further reinforced from Tirol The whole Austrian army 
now turned on Vicenza, which after a brave resistance sur- 
rendered on the toth of June. All Veneris except the capital 
was thus once more occupied by the Austrians. On the 23rd, 
24th and 25th of July (first battle of Custozza) the Pledmontese 
were defeated and forced to retire on Milan with Radetzky** 
superior force in pursuit. The king was the object of a hostile 
demonstration in Milan, and although he was ready to defend 
the dty to the last, the town council negotiated a capitulation 
with Radetzky. The mob, egged on by the republicans, attacked 
the palace where the king was lodged, and he escaped with 
difficulty, returning to Piedmont with the remnants of his army. 
On the 6th of August Radetzky re-entered Milan, and three 
days later an armistice was concluded between Austria and 
Piedmont, the latter agreeing to evacuate Lombardy and 
Venetia. The offer of French assistance, made after the pro- 
clamation of the republic in the spring of 1848, had been rejected 
mainly because France, fearing that the creation of a strong 
Italian state would be a danger to her, would have demanded 
the cession of Nice and Savoy, which the king refused to 

Meanwhile, the republic had been proclaimed in Venice; 
but on the 7th of July the assembly declared in favour of fusion 
with Piedmont, and Manin, who had been elected 
president, resigned his powers to the royal com- ' 
missioners. Soon after Custozza, however, the ' 
Austrians blockaded the city on the land side. In 
Rome the pope's authority weakened day by day, and disorder 
increased. The Austrian attempt to occupy Bologna was re- 
pulsed by the citizens, but unfortunately this success was followed 
by anarchy and murder, and Farini only with difficulty restored 
a semblance of order. The Mamiani ministry having failed to 
achieve anything, Pius summoned Pellegrino Rossi, a learned 
lawyer who had long been exiled in France, to form a cabinet. 
On the 15th of November be was assassinated, and as no one 
was punished for this crime the insolence of the disorderly 
elements increased, and shots were exchanged with the Swiss 
Guard. The terrified pope fled in disguise to Gaeta (November 
25), and when parliament requested him to return he refused 
even to receive the deputation. This meant a complete rupture; 
on the 5th of February 1849 a constituent assembly was 
summoned, and on the oth ft voted the downfall of the temporal 
power and proclaimed the republic. Mazzini hurried rtrntUmi 
to Rome to see his dream realized, and was chosen Uaamftk& 
head of the Triumvirate. On the 1 8th Pius invited Ommb 
the armed intervention of France, Austria, Naples *■#■■• 
and Spain to restore his authority. In Tuscany the government 
drifted from the moderates to the extreme democrats; the 
Ridolfi ministry was succeeded after Custozza by that of Ricasofi, 
and the latter by that of Capponi. The lower classes provoked 
disorders, which were very serious at Leghorn, and were only 
quelled by Guerrazri's energy. Capponi resigned in October 
1848, and Leopold reluctantly consented to a democratic ministry 
led by Guerrazzi and Montanelli, the former a very ambitious 
and unscrupulous man, the latter honest but fantastic. Follow- 
ing the Roman example, a constituent assembly was demanded 




iS. Stefano; on the 8th of February 1849 the republic was pro- 
claimed, and on the 21st, af the pressing request of the pope and 
the king of Naples, Leopold went to Gaeta. 

Ferdinand did not openly break his constitutional promises 
until Sicily was reconquered. His troops had captured Messina 
after a bombardment which earned him the sobriquet of " King 
Bomba "; Catania and Syracuse feU soon after, hideous atrocities 
being everywhere committed with his sanction. He now pro* 
rogued parliament, adopted stringent measures against the 
Liberals, and retired to Gaeta, the haven of refuge for deposed 

But so long as Piedmont was not completely crushed none of 
the princes dared to take decisive measures against their subjects; 
in spite of Custozza, Charles Albert still had an army, and Austria, 
with revolutions in Vienna, Hungary and Bohemia on her 
hands, couM not intervene. In Piedmont the Pinelli-Revcl 
ministry, which had continued the negotiations for an alliance 
with Leopold and the pope, resigned as it could not count 
on a parliamentary majority, and in December the returned 
exile Gtoberti formed a new ministry. His proposal to reinstate 
Leopold and the pope with Piedraontese arms, so as to avoid 
Austrian intervention, was rejected by both potentates, and met 
with opposition even in Piedmont, which would thereby have 
forfeited its prestige throughout Italy. Austrian mediation 
was now imminent, as the Vienna revolution had been crushed, 
and the new emperor, Francis Joseph, refused to consider any 
settlement other than on the basis of the treaties of 1815. But 
ChmHn Charles Albert, who, whatever his faults, had a generous 
A»erirv nature, was determined that so long as he had an 
»■•*•• army in being he could not abandon the Lombards 
■"* and the Venetians, whom he had encouraged in their 

resistance, without one more effort, though he knew full well 
that he was staking all on a desperate chance. On the 12th of 
March 1849, he denounced the armistice, and, owing to the 
want of confidence in Piedmontese strategy after 1848, gave the 
chief command to the Polish General Chrzanowski. His forces 
amounted to 80,000 men, including a Lombard corps and some 
Roman, Tuscan and other volunteers. But the discipline and 
moral of the army were shaken and its organization faulty. 
General Ramorino, disobeying his instructions, failed to prevent 
a corps of Austrian* under Lieut. Field- Marshal d'Aspre 
from seizing Mortara, a fault for which he was afterwards court- 
martiaHed and shot, and after some preliminary fighting Radetzky 
won the decisive battle of Novara (March 23) which broke up 
the Piedmontese army. The king, who had sought death in vain 
all day, had to ask terms of Radetzky; the latter demanded 
a slice of Piedmont and the heir to the throne (Victor 
Emmanuel) as a hostage, without a reservation for 
' the consent of parliament. Charles Albert, realizing 
his own failure and thinking that his son might obtain 
better terms, abdicated and departed at once for Portugal, where 
be died in a monastery a few months later. Victor Emmanuel 
went in person to treat with Radetzky on the 24th of March. 
The Field-Marshal received him most courteously and offered 
not only to waive the demand for a part of Piedmontese territory, 
but to enlarge the kingdom, on condition that the constitution 
should be abolished and the blue Piedmontese flag substituted 
for the tricolor. But the young king was determined to abide 
by his father's oath, and had therefore to agree to an Austrian 
occupation of the territory between the Po, the Ticino and the 
Sesia, and of half the citadel of Alessandria, until peace should 
be concluded, the evacuation of all districts occupied by his 
troops outside Piedmont, the dissolution of his corps of Lombard, 
Polish and Hungarian volunteers and the withdrawal of his 
fleet from the Adriatic. 

Novasa set Austria free to reinstate the Italian despots. 
Ferdinand at once re-established autocracy in Naples; (hough 
the struggle in Sicily did not end until May, when Palermo, 
after a splendid resistance, capitulated. In Tuscany disorder 
continued, and although Guerrazzi, who had been appointed 
dictator, saved the country from complete anarchy, a large part 
of the population, especially among the peasantry, was still 

loyal to the grand-dule. After Novara the chief question was 
how to avoid an- Austrian occupation, and owing to the prevailing 
confusion the town council of Florence took matters into its 
own hands and declared the grand-duke reinstated, but on a 
constitutional basis and without foreign help (April 1 2). Leopold 
accepted as regards the constitution, but said nothing about 
foreign intervention. Count Serristori, the grand-ducal com- 
missioner, arrived in Florence on the 4th of May 1849; the 
national guard was disbanded; and on the 25th, the Austrians 
under d'Aspre entered Florence. 

On the 28th of July Leopold returned to his capital, and while 
that event was welcomed by a part of the people, the fact that 
he had come under Austrian protection ended by destroying all 
loyalty to the dynasty, and consequently contributed not a 
little to Italian unity. 

In Rome the triumvirate decided to defend the republic to 
the last. The city was quieter and more orderly than it had 
ever been before, for Mazzini and Ciceruacchio success- ^^^ 
fully opposed all class warfare; and in April the 
defenders received a priceless addition to their strength in the 
person of Garibaldi, who, on the outbreak of the revolution in 
1848, had returned with a few of his followers from his exile 
in South America, and in April 1849 entered Rome with some 
500 men to fight for the republic. At this time France, as a 
counterpoise to Austrian intervention in other parts of Italy, 
decided to restore the pope, regardless of the fact that this 
action would necessitate the crushing of a sister /v»«» 
republic. As yet, however, no such intention was aadtt* 
publicly avowed. On the 25th of April General Rommm 
Oudinot landed with 8000 men at Civitavecchia, and *v*** 
on the 30th attempted to capture Rome by suprise, but was 
completely defeated by Garibaldi, who might have driven the 
French into the sea, had Mazzini allowed him to leave the city. 
The French republican government, in order to gain time foe 
reinforcements to arrive, sent Ferdinand de Lesseps to pretend 
to treat with Mazzini, the envoy himself not being a party to 
this deception. Mazzini refused to allow the French into the 
city, but while the negotiations were being dragged on Oudinot 's 
force was increased to 3 5,000 men. At the same time an Austrian 
army was marching through (he Legations, and Neapolitan and 
Spanish troops were advancing from the south. The Roman 
army (20,000 men) was commanded by General RosseUi, and 
included, besides Garibaldi's red-shirted legionaries, volunteers 
from all parts of Italy, mostly very young men, many of them 
wealthy and of noble family. The Neapolitans were ignominf- 
ously beaten in May and retired to the frontier; on the 1st of 
June Oudinot declared that he would attack Rome on the 4th, 
but by beginning operations on the 3rd, when no attack was 
expected, he captured an important position in the Pamphili 

In spite of this success, however, it was not until the end of 
the month, and after desperate fighting, that the French pene- 
trated within the walls and the defence ceased (June 29). The 
Assembly, which had continued in session, was dispersed by the 
French troops on the 2nd of July, but Mazzini escaped a week 
later. Garibaldi quitted the city, followed by 4000 of his men, 
and attempted to join the defenders of Venice. In spite of the 
fact that he was pursued by the armies of four Powers, he 
succeeded in reaching San Marino; but his force melted away 
and, after hiding in the marshes of Ravenna, he fled across the 
peninsula, assisted by nobles, peasants and priests, to the 
Tuscan Coast, whence he reached Piedmont and eventually 
America, to await a new call to fight for Italy (see Garibaldi). 

After a heroic defence, conducted by Giuseppe Martincngo, 
Brescia was recaptured In April by the Austrians under Lieut. 
Field-Marshal von Haynau, the atrocities which Rtt^ 
followed earning for Haynau the name of "The tioaot 
Hyena of Brescia." In May they seized Bologna, • v<m»j»*j* 
and Ancona in June, restoring order in those towns Am9U ^* 
by the same methods as at Brescia. Venice alone still held out; 
after Novara the Piedmontese commissioners withdrew and 
Manin again took charge of the government* The assembly 




voted: " Venice lesisU the Austrian* at til costs," and the 
atuens and soldiers, strengthened by the arrival of volunteers 
from all parts of Italy, including Pepe, who was given the chief 
command of the defenders, showed the most splendid devotion 
in their hopeless task. By the end of May the city was blockaded 
by land and sea, and in July the bombardment began. On the 
24th the city, reduced by famine, capitulated on favourable 
t«ms. Manin, Pepc and a few others were excluded from the 
•mnesty and went into exile. 

Thus were despotism and foreign predominance re-established 
throughout Italy save in Piedmont. Yet the " terrible year " 
was by no means all loss. The Italian cause had been crushed, 
but revolution and war had strengthened the feeling of unity, 
for_ Neapolitans had fought for Venice, Lombards for Rome, 
riwiinontese for all Italy. Piedmont was shown to possess 
the qualities necessary to constitute the nucleus of a great nation. 
It was now evident that the federal idea was impossible, for none 
of the princes except Victor Emmanuel could be trusted, and 
that unity and freedom could not be achieved under a republic, 
for nothing could be done without the Piedmontese army, which 
was royalist to the core. All reasonable men were now convinced 
that the question of the ultimate form of the Italian govern- 
ment was secondary, and that the national efforts should be 
concentrated on the task of expelling the Austrian*; the form 
of government could be decided afterwards. Liberals were by no 
means inclined to despair of accomplishing this task; for hatred 
of the foreigners, and of the despots restored by their bayonets, 
had been deepened by the humiliations and cruelties suffered 
during the war into a passion common to all Italy. 

When the terms of the Austro- Piedmontese armistice were 
announced in the Chamber at Turin they aroused great indigna- 
_ . tion, but the king succeeded in convincing the deputies 

JJjJmjJ* that ^gy wcce mcv j ta bi e- tj, c pcac-g negotiations 

war. dragged on for several months, involving two changes 

of ministry, and D'Azeglio became premier. Through 
Anglo-French mediation Piedmont's war indemnity was reduced 
from 230,000,000 to 75,000,000 lire, but the question of the 
amnesty remained. The king declared himself ready to go to 
war again if those compromised in the Lombard revolution were 
not freely pardoned, and at last Austria agreed to amnesty all 
save a very few, and in August the peace terms were agreed upon. 
The Chamber, however, refused to ratify them, and it was not 
until the king's eloquent appeal from Moncalicri to his people's 
loyalty, and after a dissolution and the election of a new parlia- 
ment, that the treaty was ratified (January 9, 1850). The 
situation in Piedmont was far from promising, the exchequer 
was empty, the army disorganized, the country despondent and 
suspicious of the king. If Piedmont was to be fitted for the part 
which optimists expected it to play, everything must be built 
up anew. Legislation had to be entirely reformed, and the bill 
for abolishing the special jurisdiction for the clergy (foro ecclesi- 
aslico) and other medieval privileges aroused the bitter opposition 
of the Vatican as well as of the Piedmontese clericals. This 
CjttiJ same year (1850) Cavour, who had been in parliament 
for some time and had in his speech of the 71b of March 
struck the first note of encouragement after the gloom of Novara, 
became minister of agriculture, and in 1851 also assumed the 
portfolio of finance. He ended by dominating the cabinet, but 
owing to his having negotiated a union of the Right Centre and 
the Left Centre (the Connubio) in the conviction that the country 
needed the moderate elements of both parties, he quarrelled with 
D'Azeglio (who, as an uncompromising conservative, failed to 
see the value of such a move) and resigned. But D'Azeglio was 
not equal to the situation, and he, loo, resigned in November 
1852; whereupon the king appointed Cavour prime minister, 
a position which with short intervals he held until his death. 

The Austrian* in the period from 1849 to 1850, known as the 
dfccnnw delta rcsistenxa (decade of resistance), were made to feel 
that they were in a conquered country where they could have 
no social intercourse with the people; for no self-respecting 
Lombard or Venetian would even speak to an Austrian. Austria, 
on the other hand, treated her Italian subjects with great severity. 

The Italian provinces were the most heavily taxed in the 
whole empire, and much of the money thus levied was spent 
either for the benefit of other provinces or to pay for 
the huge army of occupation and the fortresses in jjjj^jj^, 
Italy. The promise of a constitution for the empire, ^^ 
made in 1849, was never carried out; the government 
of Lombardo-Venetia was vested in Field-Marshal Radetzky; 
and although only very few of the revolutionists were 
excluded from the amnesty, the carrying of arms or the 
distribution or possession of revolutionary literature was 
punished with death. Long terms of imprisonment and the 
bastinado, the latter even inflicted on women, were the penalties 
for the least expression of anti-Austrian opinion. 

The Lombard republicans had been greatly weakened by the 
events of 1848, but Mazzini still believed that a bold act by a few 
revolutionists would make the people rise en masu and expel 
the Austrian*, A conspiracy, planned with the object, among 
others, of kidnapping the emperor while on a visit to Venice and 
forcing him to make concessions, was postponed in consequence 
of the coup d'ilal by which Louis Napoleon became emperor 
of the French (1852); but a chance discovery led to a large 
number of arrests, and the state trials at Mantua, conducted in 
the most shamelessly inquisitorial manner, resulted in five death 
sentences, including that of the priest Tazzoli, and many of 
imprisonment for long terms. Even this did not convince 
Mazzini of the hopelessness of such attempts, for he was out of 
touch with Italian public opinion, and he greatly weakened bis 
influence by favouring a crack-brained outbreak at Milan on the 
6th of February 1853, which was easily quelled, numbers of the 
insurgents being executed or imprisoned. Radetzky, not 
satisfied with this, laid an embargo on the property of many 
Lombard emigrants who had settled in Piedmont and become 
naturalized, accusing them of complicity. The Piedmontese 
government rightly regarded this measure as a violation of the 
peace treaty of 1850, and Cavour recalled the Piedmontese 
minister from Vienna, an action which was endorsed by Italian 
public opinion generally, and won the approval of France and 

Cavour's ideal for the present was the expulsion of Austria 
from Italy and the expansion of Piedmont into a north Italian 
kingdom; and, although he did not yet think of Italian unity 
as a question of practical policy, he began to foresee it as a 
future possibility. But in reorganizing the shattered finances of 
the state and preparing it for its greater destinies, he had to 
impose heavy taxes, which led to rioting, and involved the 
minister himself in considerable though temporary 'unpopularity. 
His ecclesiastical legislation, too, met with bitter opposition 
from the Church. 

But the question was soon forgotten in the turmoil caused by 
the Crimean War. Cavour believed that by taking part in the 
war his country would gain for itself a military status ' 

and a place in the councils of the great Powers, and hJJ*"* 
establish claims on Great Britain and France for the 
realization of its Italian ambitions. One section of public opinion 
desired to make Piedmont's co-operation subject to definite 
promises by the Powers; but the latter refused to bind them- 
selves, and both Victor Emmanuel and Cavour realized that, 
even without such promises, participation would give Piedmont 
a claim. There was also the danger that Austria might join the 
allies first and Piedmont he left isolated; but there were also 
strong arguments on the other side, for while the Radical party 
saw no obvious reason why Piedmont should fight other people's 
battles, and therefore opposed the alliance, there was the risk 
that Austria might join the alliance together with Piedmont, 
which would have constituted a disastrous situation. Da 
Bonnida, the minister for foreign affairs, resigned «^*_ 
rather than agree to the proposal, and other statesmen 
were equally opposed to it. But after longnegotiations 
the treaty of alliance was signed in January 1855, and 
while Austria remained neutral, a well-equipped Pied- 
montcse force of 15,000 men, under General La Marmora, sailed 
for the Crimea. Everything turned out as Cavour had hoped. 




The Piedmontese troops distinguished themselves in the field, 
gaining the sympathies of the French and English; and at the 
subsequent congress of Paris (1856), where Cavour himself was 
Sardinian representative, the Italian question was discussed, 
and the intolerable oppression of the Italian peoples by Austria 
and the despots ventilated. 

Austria at last began to see that a policy of coercion was 
useless and dangerous, and made tentative efforts at conciliation. 
Taxation was somewhat reduced, the censorship was made less 
severe, political amnesties were granted, humaner officials were 
appointed and the Congregations (a sort of shadowy consultative 
assembly) were revived. In 1856 the emperor and empress 
visited their Italian dominions, but were received with icy 
coldness; the following year, on the retirement of Radetzky 
at the age of ninety-three, the archduke Maximilian, an able, 
cultivated and kind-hearted man, was appointed viceroy. He 
made desperate efforts to conciliate the population, and succeeded 
with a few of the nobles, who were led to believe in the possi- 
bility of an Italian confederation, including Lombardy and 
Venetia which would be united to Austria by a personal union 
alone; but the immense majority of all classes rejected these 
advances, and came to regard union with Piedmont with 
increasing favour. 1 

Meanwhile Francis V. of Modcna, restored to his duchy by 
Austrian bayonets, continued to govern according to the traditions 
of his house. Charles II. of Parma, after having been 
reinstated by the Austrian*, abdicated in favour of his 
son Charles III. a drunken libertine and a cruel tyrant 
Jj*[ (May 1840); the latter was assassinated in 1854, and 

^^ a regency under his widow, Marie Louise, was insti- 

tuted during which the government became somewhat more 
tolerable, although by no means free from political persecution; 
in 1857 the Austrian troops evacuated the duchy. Leopold of 
Tuscany suspended the constitution, and in 1852 formally 
abolished it by order from Vienna? he also concluded a treaty of 
semi-subjection with Austria and a Concordat with the pope for 
granting fresh privileges to the Church. His government, how- 
ever, was not characterized by cruelty like those of his brother 
despots, and Guerrazzi and the other liberals of 1849, although 
tried and sentenced to long terms of imprisonment, were merely 
exiled. Yet the opposition gained recruits among all the ablest 
and most respectable Tuscans. In Rome, after the restoration of 
the temporal power by the French troops, the pope paid no 
attention to Louis Napoleon's advice to maintain some form of 
constitution, to grant a general amnesty, and to secularize the 
administration. He promised, indeed, a consultative council of 
state, and granted an amnesty from which no less than 95,000 
persons were excluded: but on his return to Rome (12th April 
1850), after he was quite certain that France had given up all 
idea of imposing constitutional limitations on him, he re-estab- 
lished his government on the old lines of priestly absolutism, and, 
devoting himself to religious practices, left political affairs mostly 
to the astute cardinal AntonelR, who repressed with great 
severity the political agitation which still continued. At Naples 
/^■jmcm * trifling disturbance in September 1849, led to the 
fb« mt arrest of a large number of persons connected with the 
Lm wm lB UnM Italiana, a society somewhat similar to the 
fertapfrc Carbonari. The prisoners included Silvio Spaventa, 
Luigi Settembrini, Carlo Boerio and many other cultured and 
wort hy citizens. Many condemnations followed, and hundreds of 
"politicals" were immured in hideous dungeons, a state of 
things which provoked Gladstone's famous letters to Lord 
Aberdeen, in which Bourbon rule was branded for all time as 
" the negation of God erected Into a system of government." 
But oppressive, corrupt and inefficient as it was, the government 
was not confronted by the uncompromising hostility of the 
whole people; the ignorant priest-ridden masses were either 
indifferent or of mildly Bourbon sympathies; the opposition was 
constituted by the educated middle classes and a part of the 

> The popular cry of " Viva Verdi ! " did not merely express 
enthusiasm for Italy's most eminent musician, but signified, in 
• Viva Vittorio Emanuele Re d' Italia I " 

nobility. The revolutionary attempts of Bentfvegna tn Sfaly 
(1856) and of the Mazzinian Carlo Pisacane, who landed at 
Sapri in Calabria with a few followers in 1857, failed from lack of 
popular support, and the leaders were killed. 

The decline of Maxxini's influence was accompanied by the 
rise of a new movement in favour of Italian unity under Victor 
Emmanuel, inspired by the Milanese marquis Giorgio 
Pallavicini, who had spent 14 years in the Spielberg, 
and by Manin, living in exile In Paris, both of them 
ex-repubh'cans who had become monarchists. The 
propaganda was organized by the Sicilian La Farina by means 
of the Societd Rationale. All who accepted the motto " Unity, 
Independence and Victor Emmanuel " were admitted into 
the society. Many of the republicans and Mazzinians joined 
it, but Mazzmi himself regarded ft with no sympathy. In the 
Austrian provinces and in the duchies it carried all before it, 
and gained many adherents in the Legations, Rome and Naples, 
although in the latter regions toe autonomist feeling was still 
strong even among the Liberals. In Piedmont itself it was at 
first less successful; and Cavour, although he aspired ultimately 
to a united Italy with Rome as the capital,* openly professed no 
ambition beyond the expulsion of Austria and the formation of a 
North Italian kingdom. But he gave secret encouragement to 
the movement, and ended by practically directing its activity 
through La Farina. The king, too, was in close sympathy with the 
society's aims, but for the present it was necessary to hide this 
attitude from the eyes of the Powers, whose sympathy Cavour 
could only hope to gain by professing hostility to everything that 
savoured of revolution. Both the king and his minister realised 
that Piedmont alone, even with the help of the National Society, 
could not expel Austria from Italy without foreign assfctsnet. 
Piedmontcse finances had been strained to breaking-point to 
organize an army obviously intended for other than merely 
defensive purposes. Cavour now set himself to the task of 
isolating Austria and securing an alliance for her expulsion. 
A British alliance wouM have been preferable, but the British 
government was too much concerned with the preservation of 
European peace. The emperor Napoleon, almost alone 
among Frenchmen, had genuine Italian sympathies. (Jj^JJ 
But were he to intervene in Italy, the intervention lufy, 
would not only have to be successful; It would have 
to bring tangible advantages to France* Hence his hesitations 
and vacillations, which Cavour steadily worked to overcome. 
Suddenly on the 14th of January i8s8 Napoleon's life was 
attempted by Felice Orsfni (q.v.) a Mazzinian Romagnol, who 
beh'eved that Napoleon was the chief obstacle to the success of 
the revolution in Italy. The attempt failed and its author was 
caught and executed, but while it appeared at first to destroy 
Napoleon's Italian sympathies and led to a sharp interchange of 
notes between Paris and Turin, the emperor was really impressed 
by the attempt and by Orshri's letter from prison exhorting him 
to intervene in Italy. He realized how deep the Italian feeling 
for independence must be, and that a refusal to act now might 
result in further attempts on his life, as indeed Orsini's letter 
stated. Consequently negotiations with Cavour were resumed, 
and a meeting with him was arranged to take place at Piom- 
bieres (20th and 21 st of July 1858). There it was agreed that 
France should supply 200,000 men and Piedmont 100,000 for the 
expulsion of the Austrians from Italy, that Piedmont should be 
expanded into a kingdom of North Italy, that central Italy should 
form a separate kingdom, on the throne of which the emperor 
contemplated placing one of his own relatives, and Naples 
another, possibly under Luden Murat; the pope, while retaining 
only the " Patrimony of St Peter " (the Roman province), would 
be president of the Italian confederation. In exchange for 
French assistance Piedmont would cede Savoy and perhaps 
Nice to France; and a marriage between Victor Emmanuel's 
daughter Clothilde and Jerome Bonaparte, to which Napoleon 
attached great importance, although not made a definite 
condition, was also discussed. No written agreement, however, 
was signed. 

* La Farina's Epistdario, 8. 426. 



. _ , -' ,•* ** x *h*vh rvachvd him from all 

' '^ ^- *^ * x- k " ^ iM«*'^f derations and after 
>vv ^ «-*- \** *\ V 4%w»^w** rutin* t he king agreeing 

w x * ; • * \ ■+* * ** V*»*^ ^ N *!***»*» ihc latter suddenly 
* % " -^ -*- v ^ fcsV \ ^M»i*d *h* Ku*»Un suggestion thai 

s^ «iM^ ^.V^****** k Austria agreed 
'• ^^i v*\l M*lww*huiy urged the Sardinian 

oA «>*'kl duAim and should not be 
k * ^ »< ^ ^vt M*lwH*buiy urged the Sardinian 

* * -- * x o- * x ** » >\v»»« »v*v»od to diwrm, or to accept 

v 4 v \, o x .„.o * k ** ^ w*^'*» IVnItoom were admitted to 

* 4 \. •- N \. + * vM C^^ !V**<v As neither the Sardinian 

* V \. . *■ ' w \ « *■ * .,^ *** w ! ai y*«l to yield, the idea 
v > - %^'?\ *^^ u 1 ^ Maimesbury now 
* * \ \- •■ " >. \ »° * iv**«* *^™ a *** rm wmultaneously 

V ?*\ * x "^"; * K ° I*"™**™ of Laibach 

to plead 

is course 


o back out 

xx -* u, A* **' ""•---»"*• "iiea war seemed 

'" -" v ^ ^ * tt »*Vm 5* Ualy * C8 *>ccially from 
** v *•„<» ** lx . ,^ i«u» i ifdmont to enrol themselves 

t ** v w „» ^* 7J^IW *««* volunteer corps (the com- 

v . - * * * ^ >' ^^^^i t0g0 to ^edmont ' 
i> * ' x \ **• *^U« ihivMjltMiut «he country. Urged by 

*,*»** v l v — -^; ^ *«»**' f ^"i?* the volunteer; 

v *\; * *v* r^w" 1 "? 

- *■■ -^ri^a aimed .. . 

vt on the part of Austria, At 

ascendant; the convention 

but so far from its being 

„* ^— ^ lu *" y C *! ,cd . oul on ^e 12th of 

^ "* ,\t Ww* t » vour » J decision was known 

kV *^ uU»«»* lu,n ^^^ Turin, summoning 

* - - 1 v»»hH\ lhte« dtv * °^ .P*»n of invasion. 
% ^ A "I^ili htf •• ,h * lur ? * fla,rs had taken, for 
* v ^ "*\. .. ■ ^^ *_ Al a^«tnl « the aggressor. On the 

ww, and the next day 


^^ h*a tinted It would be, by a French 

.- s * H tk* mkl»»*ry events of the Italian war of 

., •*■ VN '^^ wW ,K-i liaiAH Wars. The actions of 

* > A *^ ,v^ \^U*iio(May y) and Melegnano (June 
\ v x " ^ w NUa^MkU Ijwne *) and Solferino (June «4) 

» * ' N 4fcv Vv»*uuu«, Uaribaldi's volunteers raised 

s * * * \^,vm^iu*>» *ml held the field in the region of 

" * "^ Vk» MU*ilno lhe allies prepared to besiege 

fc *"*^ \tu-^ NAjtoteon suddenly drew back, un- 

* \\ v>^^^»^ ^ voutinue the c&uiDaign. Firstly, 

"'\,*ifcf *H»f* w» strong enough to attack the 

si v^ »«« \U+ d«(« t» of his own army's organiza- 

^■w S*.«*h ** lt«« intervention by Prussia, whose 

^ %> i ^,^.umj|, thirdly, although really anxious 

*^ . »4W* i\\\w Italy, he did not wish to create a 

k* \\A\t M tht foot of the Alps, which, besides 

„. , *^4l vUi^rr to France, might threaten the 

* >b v *n+ Atni N«poleon believed that he could not 

,v vn**mU ^-ote; fourthly, the war had been 

^ v ****** u( (he great majority of Frenchmen 

,^» w »Hmh r»pular. Consequently, to the 

s^nn %h^W the allied forces were drawn up 

\ ,-v*w*k vsilhout consulting Victor Emmanuel, 

, .* .W ^h of July to Francis Joseph to ask 

„ ,v\ >»«« agreed to. The king was now 

_ „ x *^ C*«ttal» Vaillant, DeUa Rocca and 

v.' 1 



Hess met at Villafranca and arranged an annistice until tk 
i sth of August. But the king and Cavour were terribly upset by 
this move, which meant peace without Venetia ; Cavour _ 
hurried to the king's headquarters at Monzambano ^ST 
and in excited, almost disrespectful, language implored * mca , 
him not to agree to peace and to continue the war 
alone, relying on the Piedmontese army and a general Italian 
revolution. But Victor Emmanuel on this occasion proved the 
greater statesman of the two; be understood that, hard as it 
was, he must content himself with Lombardy for the present, lest 
all be lost. On the nth the two emperors met at Villafrano, 
where they agreed that Lombardy should be ceded to Piedmont, 
and Venetia retained by Austria but governed by liberal methods; 
that the rulers of Tuscany, Parma and Modena, who had been 
again deposed, should be restored, the Papal Slates reformed, 
the Legations given a separate administration and the pope 
made president of an Italian confederation including Austria 
as mistress of Venetia. It was a revival of the old impossible 
federal idea, which would have left Italy divided and dominated 
by Austria and France. Victor Emmanuel regretfully signed 
the peace preliminaries, adding, however, pour u quint concent 
(which meant that he made no undertaking with regard to 
central Italy), and Cavour resigned office. 

The Lombard campaign had produced important effects 
throughout the rest of Italy. The Sardinian government had 
formally invited that of Tuscany to participate in 
the war of liberation, and on the grand-duke rejecting 
the proposal, moderates and democrats combined to 
present an ultimatum to Leopold demanding that he 
should abdicate in favour of his son, grant a constitu- 
tion and take part in the campaign. On his refusal Florence rose 
as one man, and he, feeling that he could not rely on his troops, 
abandoned Tuscany on the 37th of April 1859. A provisional 
government was formed, led by Ubaldino Peruzxi, and was 
strengthened on the 8th of May by the inclusion of Baron 
Bettino Ricasoli, a man of great force of character, who became 
the real head of the administration, and all through the ensuing 
critical period aimed unswervingly at Italian unity. Victor 
Emmanuel, at the request of the people, assumed the protector- 
ate over Tuscany, where he was represented by the Sardinian 
minister Boncompagni. On the 23rd of May Prince Napoleon, 
with a French army corps, landed at Leghorn, his avowed object 
being to threaten the Austrian fiank; 1 and in June these troops, 
together with a Tuscan contingent, departed for Lombardy. 
In the duchy of Modena an insurrection had broken out, and 
after Magenta Duke Francis joined the Austrian army in 
Lombardy, leaving a regency in charge. But on the 14th of 
June the municipality formed a provisional government and 
proclaimed annexation to Piedmont; L. C. Farini was chosen 
dictator, and 4000 Modenese joined the allies. The duchess- 
regent of Parma also withdrew to Austrian territory, and on 
the nth of June annexation to Piedmont was proclaimed. 
At the same time the Austrians evacuated the Legations and 
Cardinal Milesi, the papal representative, departed. The muni- 
cipality of Bologna formed a Ciuttla, to which Romagna and 
the Marches adhered, and invoked the dictatorship of Victor 
Emmanuel; at Perugia, too, a provisional government was 
constituted under F. Guardabassi. But the Marches woe 
soon reoccupied by pontifical troops, and Perugia fell, its capture 
being followed by an indiscriminate massacre of men, women 
and children. In July the marquis D'Azeglio arrived at Bologna 
as royal commissioner. 

After the meetings at VQlaf ranca Napoleon returned to France. 
The question of the cession of Nice and Savoy bad not beea 
raised; for the emperor had not fulfilled his part of the bargain, 
that he would drive the Austrians out of Italy, since Venice was 
yet to be freed. At the same time he was resolutely opposed 
to the Piedmontese annexations in central Italy. But here 
Cavour intervened, for he was determined to maintain the 
annexations, at all costs. Although he had resigned, he remained 

1 In reality the emperor was contemplating an Etrurian longdoca 
with the prince at its head. 




in office until Rattazzi could form a new ministry; and while 
officially recalling the royal commissioners according to the 
preliminaries o/ Villafranca, he privately encouraged them to 
remain and organize resistance to the return of the despots, if 
necessary by force (see Cavour) Farini, who in August was 
elected dictator of Parma as well as Modena, and Ricasoli, who 
since, on the withdrawal of the Sardinian commissioner fion- 
compagni, had become supreme in Tuscany, were now the men 
who by their energy and determination achieved the annexation 
of central Italy to Piedmont, in spite of the strenuous opposition 
of the French emperor and the weakness of many Italian. Liberals. 
In August Marco Minghetti succeeded in forming a military 
league and a customs union between Tuscany, Romagna and 
the duchies, and in procuring the adoption of the Piedmontesc 
codes, and envoys were sent to Paris to mollify Napoleon. 
Constituent assemblies met and voted for unity under Victor 
Emmanuel, but the king could not openly accept the proposal 
owing to the emperor's opposition, backed by the presence of 
French armies in Lombard/; at a word from Napoleon there 
might have been an Austrian, and perhaps a Franco-Austrian, 
invasion of central Italy. But to Napoleon's statement that 
be could not agree to the unification of Italy, as he was bound 
by his promises to Austria at Villafranca, Victor Emmanuel 
replied that he himself, after Magenta and Solferino, was bound 
in honour to Enk his fate with that of the Italian people; and 
General Manfredo Fanti was sent by the Turin government to 
organize the army of the Central League, with Garibaldi under 

The terms of the treaty of peace signed at Zurich on the 10th 
of November were practically identical with those of the prc- 
TtvMvsi En" 114 " 6 * * Villafranca. It was soon evident, however, 
j£2 tnat lne Italian question was far from being settled. 
Central Italy refused to be bound by the treaty, and 
offered the dictatorship to Prince Carignano, who, himself unable 
to accept owingtoNapoleon'sopposition.suggestcd Boncompagni, 
who was accordingly elected. Napoleon now realized that it 
would be impossible, without running serious risks, to oppose 
the movement in favour of unity. He suggested an international 
congress on the question; inspired a pamphlet, Le Pape tt U 
CeMgris. which proposed a reduction of the papal territory, and 
wrote to the pope advising him to cede Romagna in order to 
obtain better guarantees for the rest of his dominions. The 
proposed congress fell through, and Napoleon thereupon raised 
the question of the cession of Nice and Savoy as the price of 
his consent to the union of the central provinces with the Italian 
kingdom. In January 1866 the Rattazzi ministry fell, after 
completing the fusion of Lombardy with Piedmont, and Cavour 
wis again summoned by the king to the head of affairs. 

Cavour well knew the unpopularity that would fall upon him 
by consenting to the cession of Nice, the birthplace of Garibaldi, 
and Savoy, the cradle of the royal house; but he realized the 
necessity of the sacrifice, if central Italy was to be won. The 
negotiations were long drawn out; for Cavour struggled to save 
Nice and Napoleon was anxious to make conditions, especially 
as regards Tuscany. At last, on the 24th of March, the treaty 
was signed whereby the cession was agreed upon, but subject 
to the vote of the populations concerned and ratification by the 
Italian parliament. The king having formally accepted the 
voluntary annexation of the duchies, Tuscany and Romagna, 
appointed the prince of Carignano viceroy with Ricasoli as 
governor-general (22nd of March), and was immediately after- 
wards excommunicated by the pope. On the 2nd of April i860 
the new Italian parliament, including members from central 
Italy, assembled at Turin. Three weeks later the treaty of 
Turin ceding Savoy and Nice to France was ratified, though 
not without much opposition, and Cavour was fiercely reviled 
for bin share in the transaction, especially by Garibaldi, who 
even contemplated an expedition to Nice, but was induced to 
desist by the king. 

In May 1859 Ferdinand of Naples was succeeded by his son 
Francis II., who gave no signs of any intention to change his 
father's policy, and, in spite of Napoleon's advice, refused to 

grant a constitution or to enter Into an alliance with Sardinia. 
The result was a revolutionary agitation which in Sicily, stirred 
up by Mazzini's agents, Rosalino Pilo and Francesco 
Crispi, culminated, on the 5th of April i860, in open 
revolt. An invitation had been sent Garibaldi to put Frmadt tt 
himself at the head of the movement, at first he 
bad refused, but reports of the progress of the insurrection 
soon determined him to risk all on a bold stroke, and on the 
5th of May he embarked at Quarto, near Genoa, with Btxio, 
the Hungarian Tftrr and some 1000 picked followers, on two 
steamers. The preparations for the expedition, openly made, 
were viewed by Cavour with mixed feelings. With its object 
he sympathized; yet he could not give ©racial sanction to 
an armed attack on a friendly power, nor on the other hand 
could he forbid an action enthusiastically approved by public 
opinion. He accordingly directed the Sardinian admiral Persano 
only to arrest the expedition should it touch at a Sardinian port; 
while m reply to the indignant protests of the continental 
powers he disclaimed all knowledge of the affair. On the nth 
Garibaldi landed at Marsala, without opposition, defeated the 
Neapolitan forces at Calatafimi on the 15th, and on the 17th 
entered Palermo in triumph, where he proclaimed himself, in- 
King Victor Emmanuel's name, dictator of Sicily By the end 
of July, after the hard-won victory of Milazzo, the whole island, 
with the exception of the citadel of Messina and a few unim- 
portant ports, was in his hands. 

From Cavourt point of view, the situation was now one of 
extreme anxiety. It was certain that, his work in Sicily done, 
Garibaldi would turn his attention to the Neapolitan dominions 
on the mainland; and beyond these lay Umbria and the Marches 
and — Rome. It was all-important that whatever victories 
Garibaldi might win should be won for the Italian kingdom, 
and, above all, that no ill-timed attack on the Papal States 
should provoke an intervention of the powers. La Farina was 
accordingly sent to Palermo to urge the immediate annexation of 
Sicily to Piedmont. But Garibaldi, who wished to keep a free 
hand, distrusted Cavour and scorned all counsels of expediency, 
refused to agree; Sierly was the necessary base for his projected 
invasion of Naples; it would be time enough to announce its' 
union with Piedmont when Victor Emmanuel had been pro-, 
dalmed king of United Italy in Rome. Foiled by the dictator's 
stubbornness, Cavour had once more to take to underhand 
methods; and, while continuing futile negotiations with King 
Francis, sent his agents into Naples to stir up disaffection and 
create a sentiment in favour of national unity strong enough, in 
any event, to force Garibaldi's hand. 

On the 8th of August, in spite of the protests and threats of 
most of the powers, the Garibaldians began to cross the Straits, 
and in a short time 20,000 of them were on the main- 
land The Bourbonists in Calabria, utterly dis- 
organized, broke before the invincible red-shirts, and 
the 40,000 men defending the Salerno- A vclli no line made 
no better resistance, being eventually ordered to fall back 
on the Volturno. On the 6th of September King Francis, with 
his family and several of the ministers, sailed for Gaeta, and the 
next day Garibaldi entered Naples alone in advance of the army, 
and was enthusiastically welcomed. He proclaimed himself 
dictator of the kingdom, with Bertani as secretary of state, but 
as a proof of his loyalty he consigned the Neapolitan fleet to 

His rapid success, meanwhile, inspired both the French 
emperor and the government of Turin with misgivings. There 
was a danger that Garibaldi's entourage, composed of 
ex-Mazzinians, might induce him to proclaim a republic JJ^JJ"" 
and march on Rome; which would have meant ntwrnL 
French intervention and the undoing of all Cavour 's 
work. King Victor Emmanuel and Cavour both wrote to 
Garibaldi urging him not to spoil all by aiming at too much. 
But Garibaldi poured scorn on all suggestions of compromise; 
and Cavour saw that the situation could only be saved by 
the armed participation of Piedmont in the liberation of 
south Italy. 




The rftastira was, indeed, sufficiently critical The unrest 
la Naples had spread into Urabria and the Marches, and the 
p*p*l troops, under General Lamoriciere, were preparing to 
suppress it. Had they succeeded, the position of the Pied- 
montese in Romagna would have been imperilled, had they 
(ailed, the road would have been open for Garibaldi to march 
oa Rome. In the circumstances, Cavour decided that Piedmont 
must anticipate Garibaldi, occupy Umbria and the Marches 
and place Italy between the red-shirts and Rome. His excuse 
was the pope's refusal to dismiss his foreign levies (September 7) 
On the nth of September a Piedmontese army of 35,000 men 
crossed the frontier at La Cattolica; on the 18th the pontifical 
army was crushed at Castelfidardo; and when, on the 29th, 
Ancona fell, Umbria and the Marches were in the power of 
Piedmont. On the 15th of October King Victor Emmanuel 
crossed the Neapolitan border at the head of his troops. 

It had been a race between Garibaldi and the Piedmontese 
" If we do not arrive at the Volturno before Garibaldi reaches 
La Cattolica," Cavour had said, " the monarchy is lost, and Italy 
will remain in the prison-house of the Revolution." * Fortun- 
ately for his policy, the red-shirts had encountered a formidable 
obstacle to their advance in the Neapolitan army entrenched 
on the Volturno under the guns of Capua. On the 19th of 
September the Garibaldians began their attack on this position 
with their usual impetuous valour; but they were repulsed 
again and again, and it was not till the and of October, after 
a two days' pitched battle, that they succeeded in carrying the 
position. The way was now open for the advance of the Pied- 
montese, who, save at Isernia, encountered practically no 
resistance. On the 29th Victor Emmanuel and Garibaldi met, 
and on the 7th of November they entered Naples together 
Garibaldi now resigned his authority into the king's hands and, 
refusing the title and other honours offered to him, retired to his 
island home of Caprera.* 

Gaeta remained still to be taken. The Piedmontese under 
CiakUni had begun the siege on the 5th of November, but it was 
Rtogmh not unt ^ tiie Iotn of January 1861, when at the 
thmmiu* instance of Great Britain Napoleon withdrew his 
«•*#* squadron, that the blockade could be made complete. 
•t'luZZ ° n thc lii ^ °* Fcbru » r y v *°* fortress surrendered, 
Francis and his family having departed by sea for 
papal territory The citadel of Messina capitulated on the 22nd, 
and Civitella del Tronto, the last stronghold of Bourbonism, 
on the 21st of March. On the 18th of February the first Italian 
parliament met at Turin, and Victor Emmanuel was proclaimed 
king of Italy The new kingdom was recognized by Great 
Britain within a fortnight, by France three months later, and 
subsequently by other powers. It included the whole peninsula 
except Venetia and Rome, and these the government and the 
nation were determined to annex sooner or later 

There were, however, other serious problems calling for im- 
mediate attention. The country had to be built up and converted 
g^ummm ' rom an a RS' orn erntton of scnttercd medieval princi- 
o§tb»a*w P 3 '' 1 '* 9 ' nto * unified modern nation. The first question 
nvtn. which arose was that of brigandage in the south. Brigand- 
fl,^,!. age had always existed in the Neapolitan kingdom, largely 

BrtMf- ow ' n K to the poverty of the people; but the evil was now 
^^ aggravated by the mistake of the new government in 

dismissing the Bourbon troops, and then calling them out 
again as recruits. A great many turned brigands rather than serve 
again, and together with the remaining adherents of Bourbon rule and 
malefactors of all kind 3, were made use of by the ex-king and his 
tntouroge to harass the Italian administration. Bands of desperadoes 
were formed, commanded by the most infamous criminals and by 
foreigners who came to fight in what they were led to believe was 
an Italian Vendet, but which was in reality a campaign of butchery 
and plunder. Villages were sacked and burnt, men, women and 
children mutilated, tortured or roasted alive, and women outraged. 
The authors of these deeds when pursued by troops fled into papal 
territory, where they were welcomed by the authorities and allowed 
to refit and raise fresh recruits under the aegis of the Church. The 
prime organizers of the movement were King Francis's uncle, the 
cutt-u of Trapani, and Mon*. dc M6rode. a Belgian ecclesiastic who 

1 N- Bianchi. Cavour. p. 118. 

* H* tsfced for the Neapolitan viccroyalty for life, which the king 
**rr «wrl> refused. 

brigandage was entrusted to Generals La Marmora and < . 

but irt spite of extreme severity, justifiable in the circumstances, ft 
took four or five years completely to suppress the movement. Its 
vitality, indeed, was largely due to the mistakes made by the 
new administration, conducted as this was by officials ignorant of 
outhern conditions and out of sympathy with a people far more 
primitive than in any other part of the peninsula. Politically, its 
sole outcome was to prove the impossibility of allowing the continu- 
ance of an independent Roman state in the heart of Italy. 

Another of the government's difficulties was the (juestioa of what 
to do with Garibaldi's volunteers. Fanti. the minister of war, had 
three armies to incorporate in that of Piedmont, viz. that _. 
of central Italy, that of the Bourbons and that of Garibaldi. SS. 
The first caused no difficulty; the rank and file of the raZa 
second were mostly disbanded, but a number of the officers fcM , 
werc taken into the Italian army; the third offered a more 
serious problem. Garibaldi demanded that all his officers should be 
given equivalent rank in the Italian army, and in this he had the 
support of Fanti. Cavour, on the other hand, while anxious to deal 
generously with the Garibaldians, recognized the impossibility of such 
a course, which would not only have offended the conservative spirit 
of the Piedmontese military caste, which disliked and despised 
irregular troops, but would almost certainly have introduced into the 
army an element of indiscipline and disorder. 

On the 1 8th of April the question of the volunteers was 
discussed in one of the most dramatic sittings of the 
Italian parliament. Garibaldi, elected member for Naples, 
denounced Cavour in unmeasured terms for his treatment of the 
volunteers and for the cession of Nice, accusing him of leading 
the country to civil war These charges produced a tremendous 
uproar, but Bixio by a splendid appeal for concord succeeded 
in calming the two adversaries. On the 23rd of April they were 
formally reconciled in the presence of the king, but the scene of 
the 1 8th of April hastened Cavour's end. In May the Roman 
question was discussed in parliament. Cavour had often declared 
that in the end the capital of Italy must be Rome, for it alone of 
all Italian cities had an unquestioned claim to moral supremacy, 
and his views of a free church in a free state were well known. 
He had negotiated secretly with the pope through unofficial 
agents, and sketched out a scheme of settlement of the Roman 
question, which foreshadowed in its main features the law of 
papal guarantees. But it was not given him to see this problem 
solved, for his health was broken by the strain of the n^m 
last few years, during which practically the whole ^^r 
administration of the country was concentrated in his 
hands. He died after a short illness on the 6th of June 1861, 
at a moment when Italy had the greatest need of his statesman- 

Ricasoli now became prime minister, Cavour raving advised 
the king to that effect The financial situation was far from 
brilliant, for the expenses of the administration of 
Italy were far larger than the total of those of all the 
separate states, and everything had to be created or 
rebuilt. The budget of i86t showed a deficit of 
344,000,000 lire, while the service of the debt was 
1 10,000,000, deficits were met by new loans issued on unfavour- 
able terms (that of July 1861 for 500,000,000 lire cost the govern- 
ment 714,833,000), and government stock fell as low as 36. It 
was now that the period of reckless finance began which, save for 
a lucid interval under Sella, was to last until nearly the end of the 
century Considering the state of the country and the coming 
war for Venice, heavy expenditure was inevitable, but good 
management might have rendered the situation less dangerous. 
Ricasoli, honest and capable as he was, failed to win popularity; 
his attitude on the Roman question, which became more un- 
compromising after the failure of his attempt at conciliation, 
and his desire to emancipate Italy from French predominance, 
brought down on him the hostility of Napoleon. He fell in 
March 1862, and was succeeded by Rattaizi, who being more 
pliable and intriguing managed at first to please every- 
body, including Garibaldi At this time the extremists 
and even the moderates were full of schemes for liberat- 
ing Venice and Rome Garibaldi had a plan, with which the 
premier was connected, for attacking Austria by raising a revolt 
in the Balkans and Hungary, and later he contemplated s raid 




into the Trentino; but the government, seeing the danger of such 
an attempt, arrested several Garibaldians at Sarnico (near 
Brescia), and in the imeute which followed several persons were 
shot. Garibaldi now became an opponent of the ministry, and 
in June went to Sicily, where, after taking counsel 
with his former followers, he decided on an immediate 
Affair t raid on Rome. He summoned his legionaries, and in 
A^rT August crossed over to Calabria with 1000 men. His 
JJJJf* intentions in the mam were still loyal, for he desired 
to capture Rome for the kingdom; and he did his 
best to avoid the regulars tardily sent against him. On the 
29th of August 1862, however, he encountered a force under 
Pallavidni at Aspromonte, and, although Garibaldi ordered his 
men not to fire, some of the raw Sicilian volunteers discharged a 
few volleys which were returned by the regulars. Garibaldi 
himself was seriously wounded and taken prisoner. He was shut 
up in the fortress of Varignano, and after endless discussions as to 
whether he should be tried or not, the question was settled by an 
amnesty. The affair made the ministry so unpopular 
that it was forced to resign. Farini, who succeeded, 
retired almost at once on account of ill-health, and 
Minghetti became premier, with Visconti-Venosta as minister 
for foreign affairs. The financial situation continued to be 
seriously embarrassing, deficit was piled on deficit, loan upon 
loan, and the service of the debt rose from 00,000,000 lire in 
i860 to 220,000,000 in 1864. 

Negotiations were resumed with Napoleon for the evacuation 
of Rome by the French troops; but the emperor, though he saw 
p ramcr0 that the temporal power could not for ever be supported 
tufy mm* by French bayonets, desired some guarantee that the 
UmQ o m aa evacuation should not be followed, at all events 
•* ,,(,Bft immediately, by an Italian occupation, lest Catholic 
opinion should lay the blame for this upon France. Ultimately 
the two governments concluded a convention on the 15th of 
September 1864, whereby France agreed to withdraw her troops 
from Rome so soon as the papal army should be reorganized, 
or at the outside within two years, Italy undertaking not to 
attack it nor permit others to do so, and to transfer the capital 
from Turin to some other city within six months. 1 The change of 
capital would have the appearance of a definite abandonment of 
the Roma capitate programme, although in reality it was to be 
merely atappa (stage) on the way. Theconvention was kept secret, 
but the last clause leaked out and caused the bitterest 
feeling among the people of Turin, who would have 
been resigned to losing the capital provided it were 
transferred to Rome, but resented the fact that it was 
to be established in any other city, and that the con- 
vention was made without consulting parliament. Demonstra- 
tions were held which were repressed with unnecessary violence, 
and although the change of capital was not unpopular in the rest of 
Italy, where the Piemontaismo of the new regime was beginning 
to arouse jealousy, the secrecy with which the affair was arranged 
and the shooting down of the people in Turin raised such a stwrn 
of disapproval that the king for the first time used his privilege 
of dismissing the ministry. Under La Marmora's ad- 
ministration the September convention was ratified, 
and the capital was transferred to Florence the follow- 
ing year. This affair resulted in an important 
political change, for the Picdmontese deputies, hitherto the 
bulwarks of moderate conservatism, now shifted to the Left or 
constitutional opposition. 

Meanwhile, the Venetian question was becoming more and 
more acute. Every Italian felt the presence of the Austrians in 
the lagoons as a national humiliation, and between 
1859 and 1866 countless plots were hatched for their 
expulsion. But, in spite of the sympathy of the king, 
the attempt to raise armed bands in Venetia had no success, and 
it became dear that the foreigner could only be driven from the 
peninsula by regular war. To wage this alone Italy was still too 
weak, and it was necessary to look round for an ally. Napoleon 

1 The counterblast of Pius IX. to this convention was the encyclical 
Quanta Curaoi Dec 8, 1864, followed by the famous SyUabus. 

was sympathetic; he desired to see the Austrians expelled, and 
the Syllabus of Pius IX., which had stirred up the more aggressive 
elements among the French clergy against his government, had 
brought him once more into harmony with the views of Victor 
Emmanuel; but he dared not brave French public opinion by 
another war with Austria, nor did Italy desire an alliance 
which would only have been bought at the price of further 
cessions. There remained Prussia, which, now that the Danish 
campaign of 1864 was over, was completing her prepara- 
tions for the final struggle with Austria for the hegemony 
of Germany; and Napoleon, who saw in the furthering of 
Bismarck's plans the surest means of securing his own influence 
in a divided Europe, willingly lent his aid in negotiating a Prusso- 
Italian alliance. In the summer of 1865 Bismarck made formal 
proposals to La Marmora; but the pourparlers were interrupted by 
the conclusion of the convention of Gastcin (August 14), to which 
Austria agreed partly under pressure of the Prusso-Italian entente. 
To Italy the convention seemed like a betrayal; to /v«**>- 
Napolcon it was a set-back which he tried to retrieve by ttmOma 
suggesting to Austria the peaceful cession of Venetia to ^ffiS 
the Italian kingdom, in order to prevent any danger of ^^ 

its alliance with Prussia. This proposal broke on the refusal of the 
emperor Francis Joseph to cede Austrian territory except as the 
result of a struggle; and Napoleon, won over by Bismarck at 
the famous interview at Biarritz, once more took up the idea of 
a Prusso-Italian offensive and defensive alliance. This was 
actually concluded on the 8th of April 1866. Its terms, dictated 
by a natural suspicion on the part of the Italian government, 
stipulated that it should only become effective in the event of 
Prussia declaring war on Austria within three months. Peace 
was not to be concluded until Italy should have received Venetia, 
and Prussia an equivalent territory in Germany. 

The outbreak of war was postponed by further diplomatic 
complications. On the 12th of June Napoleon, whose policy 
throughout had been obscure and contradictory, signed a secret 
treaty with Austria, under which Venice was to be handed over 
to him, to be given to Italy in the event of her making a separate 
peace. La Marmora, however, who believed himself bound in 
honour to Prussia, refused to enter into a separate arrangement. 
On the x6th the Prussians began hostilities, and on the 20th 
Italy declared war. 

Victor Emmanuel took the supreme command of the Italian 
army, and La Marmora resigned the premiership (which was 
assumed by Ricasoli), to become chief of the staff. 
La Marmora had three army corps (130,000 men) 
under his immediate command, to operate on the 
Mincio, while ChUdini with 80,000 men was to operate on the 
Po. The Austrian southern army consisting of 95,000 men was 
commanded by the archduke Albert, with General von John 
as chief of the staff. On the 23rd of June La Marmora crossed 
the Mincio, and on the 24th a battle was fought at Custozza, 
under circumstances highly disadvantageous to the Italians, 
which after a stubborn contest ended in a crushing Austrian 
victory. Bad generalship, bad Organization and the jealousy 
between La Marmora and Delia Rocca were responsible for this, 
defeat. Custozza might have been afterwards retrieved, for 
the Italians had plenty of fresh troops besides Cialdini's army; 
but nothing was done, as both the king and La Marmora believed 
the situation to be much worse than it actually was. On the 
3rd of July the Prussians completely defeated th« m-u^m! 
Austrians at Koniggrita, and on the 5th Austria jJJUJJ* 
ceded Venetia to Napoleon, accepting his mediation jrfes. 
in favour of peace. The Italian iron-dad fleet com- 
manded by the incapable Persano, after wasting much time at 
Taranto and Ancona, made an unsuccessful attack on the 
Dalmatian island of Lissa on the 18th of July, and on the aoth 
was completely defeated by the Austrian squadron, consisting 
of wooden ships, but commanded by the capable Admiral 

On the 22nd Prussia, without consulting Italy, made an armis- 
tice with Austria, while Italy obtained an eight days' truce on 
condition of evacuating the Trentino, which had almost entirely 





fallen into the hands of Garibaldi and his volunteers. Ricasoli 
wished to go on with the war, rather than accept Venetia as a 
gift from France, but the king and La Marmora saw that 
peace must be made, as the whole Austrian army of 350,000 
men was now free to fall on Italy. An armistice was accord- 
ingly signed at Cormons on the 12th of August, Austria 
handed Venetia over to General Leboeuf, representing 
V *!2 Napoleon, and on the 3rd of October peace between 
louir. Austria and Italy was concluded at Vienna. On the 
19th Leboeuf handed Venetia over to the Venetian 
representatives, and at the plebiscite held on the 21st and 22nd, 
647,246 votes were returned in favour of union with Italy, only 
69 against it. When this result was announced to the king by 
a deputation from Venice he said: " This is the finest day of 
my life, Italy is made, but it is not complete." Rome was 
still wanting. 

Custozza and Lissa were not Italy's only misfortunes in 1866. 
There had been considerable discontent in Sicily, where the 
government had made itself unpopular. The pricst- 
JfJT* te hood and the remnants of the Bourbon party fomented 
I86&* an agitation, which in September culminated in an 
attack on Palermo by 3000 armed insurgents, and in 
similar outbreaks elsewhere. The revolt was put down owing 
to the energy of the mayor of Palermo, Marquis A. Di Rudini, 
and the arrival of reinforcements. The Ricasoli cabinet fell 
over the law against the religious houses, and was succeeded 
by that of Rattazzi, who with the support of the Left 
was apparently more fortunate. The French regular 
troops were withdrawn from Rome in December 1866, 
but the pontifical forces were largely recruited in France and 
commanded by officers of the imperial army, and service under 
the pope was considered by the French war office as equivalent 
to service in France. This was a violation of the letter as well 
as of the spirit of the September convention, and a stronger 
and more straightforward statesman than Rattazzi would have 
declared Italy absolved from its provisions. Mazzini now wanted 
to promote an insurrection in Roman territory, whereas Garibaldi 
advocated an invasion from without. He delivered a scries 
of violent speeches against the papacy, and made open prepara- 
tions for a raid, which were not interfered with by the govern- 
ment; but on the 23rd of September 1867 Rattazzi had him 
suddenly arrested and confined to Caprera. In spite of the 
vigilance of the warships he escaped on the 14th of 
^j^f * October and landed in Tuscany. Armed bands had 
1,^ already entered papal territory, but achieved nothing 
in particular. Their presence, however, was a sufficient 
oro» for Napoleon, under pressure of the clerical party, to 
scad another expedition to Rome (26th of October). Rattazzi, 
a body of troops to enter papal territory with no 
definite object, now resigned, and was succeeded by 
Menabrea. Garibaldi joined the bands on the 23rd, 
bat his ill-armed and ill-disciplined force was very 
ienar to his volunteers of '49, '6o and '66. On the 24th he 
*ftand Monte Rotondo, but did not enter Rome as the expected 
l uiwmiwa bad not broken out. On the 29th a French force, 
wdn «*. FaiBy, arrived, and on the 3rd of November a battle 
^^ rf took place at Mentana between 4000 or 5000 rcd- 
Mn *■"*** *od a somewhat superior force of French and 
Wmtyk 1I1 The Garibaldians, mowed down by the 
sn Tiwk dmaepU rifles, fought until their last cartridges 
wnofe«aea.aml retreated the next day towards the Italian 
fcxao kx*K loo prisoners. 
T)t jli» «i Ueauna caused considerable excitement through- 
«* S*f*,»ad \fe Roman question entered on an acute stage 
N»*w«d» »Cgsiea fo tavourite expedient of a congress, 
W \J« ptoposaV ta^ fo^ ^^ t0 Great Britain's refusal 
^jm?** 1 ** *** *•**. *he ?Kncb premier, declared in 
the U»irt*, <^ d tfcttjrt*, 1&7) that France could never 
P«tov v^\\^ ra l0 ^^ lm ^ allilU( j e of France 
•"JOJ^^m^myAV^^uiUaly which had begun 
A* bl tZ*JT** *** W**k ** «* »low to make use 


sides with France against Germany in the struggle between the 
two powers which he saw to be inevitable. At the same time 
Napoleon was making overtures both to Austria and to Italy, 
overtures which were favourably received. Victor Emmanuel 
was sincerely anxious to assist Napoleon, for in spite of Nice 
and Savoy and Mentana he felt a chivalrous desire to hdp the 
man who had fought for Italy. But with the French at Civita- 
vecchia (they had left Rome very soon after Mentana) a war for 
France was not to be thought of, and Napoleon would not promise 
more than the literal observance of the September convention. 
Austria would not join France unless Italy did the same, and 
she realized that that was impossible unless Napoleon gave way 
about Rome. Consequently the negotiations were suspended. 
A scandal concerning the tobacco monopoly led to 
the fall of Menabrea, who was succeeded in December 
1869 by Giovanni Lanza, with Visconti-Venosta at 
the foreign office and Q. Sella as finance minister. The latter 
introduced a sounder financial policy, which was maintained 
until the fall of the Right in 1876. Mazzini, now openly hostile 
to the monarchy, was seized with a perfect monomania for in- 
surrections, and promoted various small risings, the only effect 
of which was to show how completely his influence was gone. 

In December 1869 the XXI. oecumenical council began its 
sittings in Rome, and on the 18th of July 1870 proclaimed the 
infallibility of the pope (see Vatican Council). Two days 
previously Napoleon had declared war on Prussia, and immedi- 
ately afterwards ho withdrew his troops from Civitavecchia; 
but he persuaded Lanza to promise to abide by the September 
convention, and it was not until after Worth and Gravelotte 
that he offered to give Italy a free hand to occupy Rome. Then 
it was too late; Victor Emmanuel asked Thiers if he could 
give his word of honour that with 100,000 Italian troops France 
could, be saved, but Thiers remained silent. Austria replied 
like Italy: " It is too late." On the 9th of August Italy made 
a declaration of neutrality, and three weeks later Visconti- 
Venosta informed the powers that Italy was about to occupy 
Rome. On the 3rd of September the news of Sedan reached 
Florence, and with the fall of Napoleon's empire the September 
convention ceased to have any value. The powers having 
engaged to abstain from intervention in Italian affairs, Victor 
Emmanuel addressed a letter to Pius IX. asking him in the name 
of religion and peace to accept Italian protection instead of the 
temporal power, to which the pope replied that he r-f— 
would only yield to force. On the nth of September ooapa- 
General Cadorna at the head of 60,000 men entered t k ^J^ 
papal territory. The garrison of Civitavecchia sur- *•«•• 
rendered to Bixio, but the 10,000 men in Rome, mostly French, 
Belgians, Swiss and Bavarians, under Kanzler, were ready to 
fight. Cardinal Antonelli would have come to terms, but the 
pope decided on making a sufficient show of resistance to prove 
that he was yielding to force. On the 20th the Italians began 
the attack, and General Maze" de la Roche's division having 
effected a breach in the Porta Pia, the pope ordered the garrison 
to cease fire and the Italians poured into the Eternal City followed 
by thousands of Roman exiles. By noon the whole city on the 
left of the Tiber was occupied and the garrison laid down their 
arms; the next day, at the pope's request, the Leonine City 
on the right bank was also occupied. It had been intended to 
leave that part of Rome to the pope, but by the earnest desire 
of the inhabitants it too was included in the Italian kingdom. 
At the plebiscite there were 133,681 votes for union and 1507 
against k. In Jury 1872 King Victor Emmanuel made his 
solemn entry into Rome, which was then declared the capital 
of Italy. Thus, after a struggle of more than half a century, in 
spite of apparently insuperable obstacles, the liberation and 
the unity of Italy were accomplished. 

Bibliography.— A vast amount of material on the Risorgimento 
has been published both in Italy and abroad as well as numerous 
works of a literary and critical nature. The most detailed Italian 
history of the period is Carlo Tivaroni's Storia critica det Ri%t*n- 
mento Italian* in 9 vols. (Turin. 1886-18971. based on a diligent study 
of the original authorities and containing a Urge amount ol inform*- 
' tion; the author is a Mazrinian. which fact should be taken into 




with . is 

F.Bc b- 

1881V 3- 

l«8 7 ) a) 

uevc »,, 

Paris, be 

rnentJ 'ia 

(8 vol k. 

See a >'s 

G/*«/ nt 

for th ia 

d'ltal vn 

ef Ifa ys 

aeeun ss, 

1872- // 

Jbgiw or 

Englk «/ 

Italy d, 

for accuracy, fairness and synthesis, as well as for charm of style, 
one of the very best books on the subject in any language: .Bolton 
King's History of Italian Unity (2 vols., London, 1890) is bulkier and 
less satisfactory, but contains a useful bibliography. A succinct 
account of the chief events of the period will be found in Sir Spencer 

Walpote's History of Twenty-Five Years (London, 19x14). See also 
the Cambrid ge M odern History, vols. x. a " ' "* * % 

where full bibliographies will be found. 

the Cambridg Modern History, vols. x. and xi. (Cambridge, IQ07, &c.), 

F. Hjstoey, 1870-1902 

The downfall of the temporal power was hailed throughout 
Italy with unbounded enthusiasm. Abroad, Catholic countries 
If-Trr at first received the tidings with resignation, and 
taw Protestant countries with joy. In France, where the 
g»»_ f* Government of National Defence had replaced the 
*•"** Empire, Cremieux, as president of the government 
delegation at Tours, hastened to offer his congratulations to 
Italy. The occupation of Rome caused no surprise to the 
French government, which had been forewarned on nth 
September of the Italian intentions. On that occasion Jules 
Favre had recognised the September convention to be dead, and, 
while refusing explicitly to denounce it, had admitted that unless 
Italy went to Rome the city would become a prey to dangerous 
agitators. At the same time he made it clear that Italy would 
occupy Rome upon her own responsibility. Agreeably surprised 
by this attitude on the part of France, Visconti-Vcnosta lost 
no time in conveying officially the thanks of Italy to the French 
government. He doubtless foresaw that the language of Favre 
and Cremieux would not be endorsed by the French Clericals. 
Prussia, while satisfied at the fall of the temporal power, seemed 
to fear lest Italy might recompense the absence of French opposi- 
tion to the occupation of Rome by armed intervention in favour 
of France. Bismarck, moreover, was indignant at the connivance 
of the Italian government in the Garibaldian expedition to 
Dijon, and was irritated by Visconti-Venosta's plea in the 
Italian parliament for the integrity of French territory. The 
course of events in France, however, soon calmed German 
Apprehensions. The advent of Thiers, his attitude towards 
the petition of French bishops on behalf of the pope, the recall 
of Senard, the French minister at Florence — who had written to 
congratulate Victor Emmanuel on the capture of Rome — and 
the instructions given to his. successor, the comte de Choiseul, 
to absent himself from Italy at the moment of the king's official 
entry into the new capital (2nd July 1871), together with the 
haste displayed in appointing a French ambassador to the Holy 
See, rapidly cooled the cordiality of Franco-Italian relations, and 
reassured Bismarck on the score of any dangerous intimacy 
between the two governments. 

The friendly attitude of France towards Italy during the 
period immediately subsequent to the occupation of Rome 

seemed to cow and to dishearten the Vatican. For 
X/Wotfr a f ew wce j ca tjjg relations between the Curia and the 
v^JLm. Italian authorities were marked by a conciliatory 

spirit. The secretary-general of the Italian foreign 
office, Baron Blanc, who had accompanied General Cadorna 
to Rome, was received almost daily by Cardinal Antondli, 
papal secretary of state, in order to settle innumerable questions 
arising out of the Italian occupation. The royal commissioner 

for finance, Giacomefli, had, aa a precautionary measure, seised 
the pontifical treasury: but upon being informed by Cardinal 
Antonelli that among the funds deposited in the treasury were 
x, 000,000 crowns of Peter's Pence offered by ,the faithful to the 
pope in person, the commissioner was authorized by the Italian 
council of state not only to restore this sum, but also to indemnify 
the Holy See for moneys expended for the service of the October 
coupon of the pontifical debt, that debt having been taken over 
by the Italian state. On the 20th of September Cardinal Antonelli 
further apprised Baron Blanc that he was about to issue drafts 
for the monthly payment of the 50,000 crowns inscribed in the 
pontifical budget for the maintenance of the pope, the Sacred 
College, the apostolic palaces and the papal guards. The 
Italian treasury at once honoured all the papal drafts, and thus 
contributed a first instalment of the 3,225,000 lire per annum 
afterwards placed by Article 4 of the Law of Guarantees at the 
disposal of the Holy See. Payments would have been regularly 
continued had not pressure from the French Clerical party 
coerced the Vatican into refusing any further instalment. 

Once in possession of Rome, and guarantor to the Catholic 
world of the spiritual independence of the pope, the Italian 
government prepared juridically to regulate its 
relations to the Holy See. A bill known as the Law of JJJjJ^* 
Guarantees was therefore framed and laid before aatetu 
parliament. The measure was an amalgam of Cavour's 
scheme for a " free church in a free state," of Ricasoli's Free 
Church Bill, rejected by parliament four years previously, 
and of the proposals presented to Pius IX. by Count Ponxa di 
San Martino in September 1870. After a debate lasting nearly 
two months the Law of Guarantees was adopted in secret ballot 
on the 21st of March 1871 by 185 votes against 106. 

It consisted of two parts. The first, containing thirteen articles, 
recognized (Articles 1 and 2) the person of the pontiff as sacred and 
intangible, and while providing for free discussion of religious 
questions, punished insults and outrages against the pope in the 
same way as insults and outrages against the king. Royal honours 
were attributed to the pope (Article 3), who was further guaranteed 
the same precedence as that accorded to him by other Catholic 
sovereigns, and the right to maintain his Noble and Swiss guards. 
Article 4 allotted the pontiff an annuity of 3,225,000 lire (£129,000) 
for the maintenance of the Sacred College, the sacred palaces, the 
congregations, the Vatican chancery and the diplomatic service. 
The sacred palaces, museums and libraries were, by Article 5. 
exempted from all taxation, and the pope was assured perpetual 
enjoyment of the Vatican and Lateran buildings and gardens, and of 
the papal villa at Castel Gandolfo. Articles 6 and 7 forbade access 
of any Italian official or agent to the above-mentioned palaces or to 
any eventual conclave or oecumenical council without special author- 
ization from the pope, conclave or council. Article 8 prohibited the 
seizure or examination of any ecclesiastical papers, documents, 
books or registers of purely spiritual character. Article 9 guaranteed 
to the pope full freedom for the exercise of his spiritual ministry, and 
provided for the publication of pontifical announcements on the 
doors of the Roman churches and basilicas. Article 10 extended 
immunity to ecclesiastics employed by the Holy See, and bestowed 
upon foreign ecclesias t ics in Rome the personal rights of Italian 
citizens. By Article 11, diplomatists accredited to the Holy See, 
and papal diplomatists while in Italy, were placed on the same footing 
as diplomatists accredited to the Quirinal. Article 12 provided for 
the transmission free of cost in Italy of all papal telegrams and 
correspondence both with bishops and foreign governments, and 
sanctioned the establishment, at the expense of the Italian 6tate, 
of a papal telegraph office served by papal officials in communication 
with the Italian postal and telegraph system. Article 13 exempted 
all ecclesiastical seminaries, academies, colleges and schools for the 
education of priests in the city of Rome from all interference en 
the part of the Italian government. 

This portion of the law, designed to reassure foreign Catholics, 
met with little opposition; but the second portion, regulating the 
relations between state and church in Italy, was sharply criticized 
by deputies who, like Sella, recognized the ideal of a " free church in 
a free state " to be an impracticable dream. The second division of 
the law abolished (Article 14) all restrictions upon the right of 
meeting of members <* " * ~ 

relinquished it" --*— 

pointment of i 

kingdom. Bishops were further dispensed from swearing fealty to 
the xing, though, except in Rome and suburbs, the choice of bishops 
was limited to ecclesiastics of Italian nationality. Article 16 
abolished the need for royal exequatur and placet for ecclesiasticftl 
publications, but subordinated the enjoyment of temporalities by 




biihppe and priests to the concession of stmts caqvahir and plaat. 
Article 17 maintained the independence of the ecclesiastical juris- 
diction in spiritual and disciplinary matters, but reserved for the 
state the exclusive right to carry out coercive measures. 

On the lath of July 1871, Articles 268, 360 and 270 of the 
Italian Penal Code were so modified as to make ecclesiastics 
liable to imprisonment for periods varying from six months to 
five years, and to fines from 1000 to 3000 lire, for spoken or 
written attacks against the laws of the state, or for the fomenta- 
tion of disorder. An encyclical of Pins IX. to the bishops of the 
Catholic Church on the 15th of May 1871 repudiated the Law of 
Guarantees, and summoned Catholic princes to co-operate in 
restoring the temporal power. Practically, therefore, the law 
has remained a one-sided enactment, by which Italy considers 
herself bound, and of which she has always observed the spirit, 
even though the exigencies of self-defence may have led in some 
minor respects to non-observance of the letter. The annuity 
payable to the pope has, for instance, been made subject to 
quinquennial prescription, so that in the event of tardy recogni- 
tion of the law the Vatican could at no time claim payment of 
more than five years' annuity with interest. 

For a few months after the occupation of Rome pressing 
questions incidental to a new change of capital and to the 
administration of a new domain distracted public attention from 
the real condition of Italian affairs. The rise of the Tiber and 
the flooding of Rome in December 1870 (tactfully used by 
Victor Emmanuel as an opportunity for a first visit to the new 
capital) illustrated the imperative necessity of reorganizing the 
drainage of the city and of constructing the Tiber embankment. 
In spite of pressure from the French government, which desired 
Italy to ?w<mV»'" Florence as the political and to regard Rome 
merely as the moral capital of the realm, the government offices 
and both legislative chambers were transferred in 1871 to the 
Eternal City. Early in the year the crown prince Humbert with 
the Princess Margherita took up their residence in the Quirinal 
Palace, which, in view of the Vatican refusal to deliver up the 
keys, had to be opened by force. Eight monasteries were 
expropriated to make room for the chief state departments, 
pending the construction of more suitable edifices. The growth 
of Clerical influence in France engendered a belief that Italy 
would soon have to defend with the sword her newly-won unity, 
while the tremendous lesson of the Franco-Prussian War con- 
vinced the military authorities of the need for thorough military 
reform. General Ricotti Magnani, minister of war, therefore 
framed an Army Reform Bill designed to bring the Italian army 
as nearly as possible up to the Prussian standard. Sella, minister 
of finance, notwithstanding the sorry plight of the Italian 
exchequer, readily granted the means for the reform. "We 
must arm," he said, "since we have overturned the papal 
throne," and he pointed to France as the quarter from which 
attack was most likely to come. 

Though perhaps less desperate than during the previous decade, 
the condition of Italian finance was precarious indeed. With 
p M taxation screwed up to breaking point on personal and 

real estate, on all forms of commercial and industrial 
activity, and on salt, flour and other necessaries of life; with a 
deficit of £8,500,000 for trje current year, and the prospect of a 
further aggregate deficit of £12,000,000 during the next quin- 
quennium, Sella's heroic struggle against national bankruptcy 
was still far from a successful termination. He chiefly had 
borne the brunt and won the laurels of the unprecedented fight 
against deficit in which Italy had been involved since 1862. 
As finance minister In the RattaMJ cabinet of that year he had 
been confronted with a public debt of nearly £120,000,000, and 
with an immediate deficit of nearly £18,000,000. In 1864, as 
minister in the La Marmora cabinet, he had again to face an 
excess of expenditure over income amounting to more than 
£14,600,000. By the seizure and sale of Church lands, by the 
sale of state railways, by " economy to the bone" and on one 
supreme occasion by an appeal to taxpayers to advance a year's 
quota of the land-tax, he had met the most pressing engagements 
of that troublous period. The king was persuaded to forgo 

one-fifth of his dvfl list, ministers and the higher dvfl servants 
were required to relinquish a portion of their meagre s a l a ries , 
but, in spite of all, Sella had found himself in 1865 compelled 
to propose the most hated of fiscal burdens— a grist tax on 
cereals. This tax (macitutio) had long been known in Italy. 
Vexatious methods of assessment and collection had made it so 
unpopular that the Italian government in 1859-1860 had thought 
it expedient to abolish it throughout the realm. Sella hoped 
by the application of a mechanical meter both to obviate the 
odium attaching to former methods of collection and to avoid the 
maintenance of an army of inspectors and tax-gatherers, whose 
stipends had formerly eaten up most of the proceeds of the 
impost. Before proposing the reintroduction of the tax, SeOa 
and his friend Ferrara improved and made exhaustive experi- 
ments with the meter. The result of their efforts was laid before 
parliament in one of the most monumental and most painstaking 
preambles ever prefixed to a bill. Sella, nevertheless, fell before 
the storm of . opposition which his scheme aroused. Scialoja, 
who succeeded him, was obliged to adopt a similar proposal, 
but parliament again proved refractory. Ferrara, successor of 
Sdaloja, met a like fate; but Count Cambray-Digny, finance 
minister in the Menabrea cabinet of 1868-1869, driven to find 
means to cover a deficit aggravated by the interest on the 
Venetian debt, succeeded, .with Sella's help, in forcing a Grist 
Tax Bill through parliament, though in a form of which Sella 
could not entirely approve. When, on the 1st of January i860, 
the new tax came into force, nearly half the flour-mills in Italy 
ceased work. In many districts the government was obliged 
to open mills on its own account. Inspectors and tax-gatherers 
did their work under police protection, and in several parts of 
the country riots had to be suppressed manu miiitari. At first 
the net revenue from the impost was less than £1,100,000; but 
under Sella's firm administration (1 869-1 873), and in consequence 
of improvements gradually introduced by him, the net return 
ultimately exceeded £3,200,000. The parliamentary opposition 
to the impost, which the Left denounced as " the tax on hunger,** 
was largely factitious. Few, except the open partisans of national 
bankruptcy, doubted its necessity; yet so. strong was the current 
of feeling worked up for party purposes by opponents of the 
measure, that Sella's achievement in having by its means saved 
the financial situation of Italy deserves to rank among the most 
noteworthy performances of modern parliamentary statesman- 

Under the stress of the appalling financial conditions 
represented by chronic deficit, crushing taxation, the heavy 
expenditure necessary for the consolidation of the kingdom, the 
reform of the army and the interest on the pontifical debt, Sella, 
on the nth of December 1871, exposed to parliament the 
financial situation in all its nakedness. He recognized that 
considerable improvement had already taken place. Revenue 
from taxation had risen in a decade from ^000,000 to 
£20,200,000; profit on state monopolies had increased from 
£7,000,000 to £9400,000; exports had grown to exceed imports; 
income from the working of telegraphs had tripled itself; rail- 
ways had been extended from 2200 to 6200 kilometres, and the 
annual travelling public had augmented from 15,000,000 to 
25,000,000 persons. The serious feature of the situation lay 
less In the income than in the " intangible " expenditure, namely, 
the vast sums required for interest on the various forms of public 
debt and for pensions. Within ten years this category of outlay 
had increased from £8,000,000 to £28,800,000. During the same 
period the assumption of the Venetian and Roman debts, losses 
on the issue of loans and the accumulation of annual deficits, 
had caused public indebtedness to rise from £92,000,000 to 
£328,000,000, no less than £100,000,000 of the latter sum having 
been sacrificed in premiums "and commissions to bankers and 
underwriters of loans. By economies and new taxes Sella 
had reduced the deficit to less than £2,000,000 in 1871, but for 
1872 he found himself confronted with a total expenditure of 
£8,000,000 in excess of revenue. He therefore proposed to make 
over the treasury service to the state banks, to increase the 
forced currency, to raise the stamp and registration duties and 




im impose a new tax on textJe fabrics. An optional conversion 
of sundry internal loans into consolidated stock at a lower rate of 
interest was calculated to effect considerable saving. The battle 
over these proposals was long and fierce. But for the tactics of 
Rattazzi, leader of the Left, who, by basing bis opposition on 
party considerations, impeded the secession of Minghetti and a 
part of the Right from the ministerial majority, Sella would have 
been defeated. On the 23rd of March 1872, however, he suc- 
ceeded in carrying his programme, which not only provided for 
the pressing needs of the moment, but laid the foundation of the 
much- needed equilibrium between expenditure and revenue. 

In the spring of 1873 it became evident that the days of the 
Lanza-Sella cabinet were numbered. Fear of the advent of a 
Radical administration under Rattazzi alone prevented the 
Minghettian Right from revolting against the government. The 
Left, conscious of its strength, impatiently awaited the moment 
of accession to power. Sella, the real head of the Lanza cabinet, 
was worn out by four years' continuous work and disheartened 
by the perfidious misrepresentation in which Italian politicians, 
particularly those of the Left, have ever excelled. By sheer force 
of will he compelled the Chamber early in 1873 to adopt some 
minor financial reforms, but on the 29th of April found himself 
in a minority on the question of a credit for a proposed state 
arsenal at Taranto. Pressure from all sides of the House, how- 
ever, induced the ministry to retain office until after the debate 
on the application to Rome and the Papal States of the Religious 
Orders Bill (originally passed in 1866) — a measure which, with 
the help of Ricasoli, was carried at the end of May. While 
leaving intact the general houses of the various confraternities 
(except that of the Jesuits), the bill abolished the 
JJJjJj** corporate personality of religious orders, handed over 
Bta. their schools and hospitals to civil administrators, 

placed their churches at the disposal of the secular 
clergy, and provided pensions for nuns and monks, those who 
had families being sent to reside with their relatives, and those 
who by reason of age or bereavement had no home but their 
monasteries being allowed to end their days in religious houses 
specially set apart for the purpose. The proceeds of the sale of 
the suppressed convents and monasteries were partly converted 
into pensions for monks and nuns, and partly allotted to the 
municipal charity boards which had undertaken the educational 
and charitable functions formerly exercised by the religious 
orders. To the pope was made over £16,000 per annum as a 
contribution to the expense of maintaining in Rome represen- 
tatives of foreign orders; the Sacred College, however, rejected 
this endowment, and summoned all the suppressed confraternities 
to reconstitute themselves under the ordinary Italian law of 
association. A few days after the passage of the Religious Orders 
Bill, the death of Rattazzi (5th June 1873) removed all probability 
of the immediate advent of the Left. Sella, uncertain of the 
loyalty of the Right, challenged a vote on the immediate dis- 
cussion of further financial reforms, and on the 23rd of June was 
overthrown by a coalition of the Left under Depretis with a 
part of the Right under Minghetti and the Tuscan Centre under 
CorrentL The administration which thus fdl was unquestionably 
the* most important since the death of Cavotur. It had completed 
national unity, transferred the capital to Rome, overcome the 
chief obstacles to financial equilibrium, initiated military reform 
and laid the foundation of the relations between state and church. 
The succeeding Minghetti-Visconti-Venosta cabinet— which 
held office from the 10th of July 1873 to the 1 8th of March 1876 — 
M^m LK U continued in essential points the work of the preceding 
administration. Minghetti's finance, though less dear- 
sighted and less resolute than that of Sella, was on the whole, 
prudent and beneficial. With the aid of Sella he concluded 
conventions for the redemption of the chief Italian railways from 
their French and Austrian proprietors. By dint of expedients be 
gradually overcame the chronic deficit, and, owing to the normal 
increase of revenue, ended his term of office with the announce- 
ment of a surplus of some £7204000. The question whether this 
surplus was real or only apparent has been much debated, but 
there is no reason to doubt its substantial reality. It left out of 

account & am of £1,006,000 for railway construction which was 
covered by credit, but, on the other hand, took no note of 
£360,000 expended in the redemption of debt Practically, 
therefore, the Right, of which the Minghetti cabinet was the last 
representative administration, left Italian finance with a surplus 
of £80,000* Outside the all-important domain of finance, the 
attention of Minghetti andhis colleagues was principally absorbed 
by strife between church and state, army reform and railway 
redemption. For some time after the occupation of Rome the 
pope, in order to substantiate the pretence that his spiritual 
freedom had been diminished, avoided the creation of cardinals 
and the nomination of bishops. On the 22nd of December 1873, 
however, he unexpectedly created twelve cardinals, and subse- 
quently proceeded to nominate a number of bishops. Visconti* 
Venosta, who had retained the portfolio for foreign affairs in the 
Minghetti cabinet, at once drew the attention of the European 
powers to this proof of the pope's spiritual freedom and of the 
imaginary nature of his " imprisonment " in the Vatican. At 
the same time he assured them that absolute liberty would be 
guaranteed to the deliberations of a conclave. In relation to the 
Church in Italy, Minghetti's policy was less perspicacious. 
He let it be understood that the announcement of the appoint- 
ment of bishops and the request for the royal exequatur might be 
made to the government impersonally by the congregation of 
bishops and regulars, by a municipal council or by any other 
corporate body— a concession of which the bishops were quick to 
take advantage, but which so irritated Kalian political opinion 
that, in July 1875, the government was compelled to withdraw 
the temporalities of ecclesiastics who had neglected to apply for 
: the exequatur, and to evict sundry bishops who had taken posses- 
sion of their palaces without authorization from the state. 
Parliamentary pressure further obliged Bonghi, minister of 
public instruction, to compel clerical seminaries either to forgo 
the instruction of lay pupils or to conform to the laws of the 
state in regard to inspection and examination, an ordinance 
which gave rise to conflicts between ecclesiastical and lay 
authorities, and led to the forcible dissolution of the Mantua 
seminary and to the suppression of the Catholic university in 

More noteworthy than its management of internal affairs 
were the efforts of the Minghetti cabinet to strengthen and. 
consolidate national defence, AppaHed by the weak- 
ness, or rather the non-existence, of the navy, Admiral ^^j^^ 
Saint-Bon, with his coadjutor Signor Brin, addressed nMruu 
himself earnestly to the task of recreating the fleet, 
which had never recovered from the effects of the disaster of 
Lfesa, During his three years of office he laid the foundation 
upon which Brin was afterwards to build up a new Italian navy. 
Simultaneously General Ricotti Magnani matured the army 
reform scheme which he had elaborated under the preceding 
administration. His bill, adopted by parliament on the 7th of 
June 187 5, still forms the ground plan of the Italian army. 

It was fortunate for Italy that during the whole period 1860- 
1876 the direction of her foreign policy remained in the experi- 
enced hands of Visconti-Venosta, a statesman whose PfHgm 
trustworthiness, dignity and moderation even political j»*y 
opponents have been compelled to recognize £>iplo- JjJjT **• 
malic records fail to substantiate the accusations of 
lack of initiative and instability of political criterion currently 
brought against him by contemporaries. As foreign minister of 
a young state which had attained unity in defiance of the most 
formidable religious organization in the world and in opposition 
to the traditional policy of France, it could but be Viscontl- 
Venosta's aim to uphold the dignity of his country while convinc- 
ing European diplomacy that United Italy was an element of 
order and progress, and that the spiritual independence of the 
Roman pontiff had suffered no diminution. Prudence, moreover, 
counselled avoidance of all action likely to serve the predominant 
anti-Italian party in France as a pretext for violent intervention 
in favour of the pope. On the occasion of the Metrical Congress, 
which met in Paris in 187a, he, however, successfully protested 
against the recognition of the Vatican delegate, Father Secchi, 








c- «*»- 
^.^ »# SMg** 

. . , v ;a.»?ii for 

\^»*y wtotions 
. \, v,. * x*7^ both 

v ■ . ;*i mtuaitr to 

^. - ^ -N*^* ftom lbcir 

„ * .». «* ***«d Victor 

\"vwM, **l tbo Italian 

,. .« ^tbt acceptance 

v «^w**i by a further 

" v v *A*M*I« of a visit 

- **' . „.*»» ,V lui«o occupation 

" ,. ■- tM *\" *.>************ and con- 

* ..**■*- H ^ysw* with the German 

v .*» **" '" , V v* *M»ed their sovereign 

^ v .. - * J *»>*\i*»«U German invita- 

K «.••«-***! au* *» *bt *7th to the a*nd 

N ^ , x~** *** ^ tfct tind to the a6th of 

\ " — v * * ^m* ^1 accorded in both 

^ K * , k '*** ^iw^ the contemporaneous 

v ^^17 ^o«» pamphlet, Mere Light on 

~ * ■ * ' "*~lli \\\*i***n» between the Italian 

1 -^* ^^^^eatiwlyconndential. Visconti- 

- v v ' ~ x< '^C^vrT * *■*** w*** 1 * 4 thc chancellor's 

. ^ * Kv ^ w ^ Guarantees and to engage in an 

^ ^ *"** w^iheroyal journey contributed 

. v. * * - \ . r^J vi ^ial relations between Italy 

sV s . k h* • . \ TT^, ^ich were further strengthened 

v ^ r^^ »>*«<*!» J^P lo Victor E" ™"' 1 

,W H V>-l I 

* ^Tawl by that of the German emperor 
v^!V>T*Uwy**r. Meanwhile Thiers had 

- v ~* : tti^ nSZ. ** ^ ttd * dc, ? dcd 

* " vU "*1 ****** lu*« rebtioni by recaUing from 
-.w t ^»--« £«J£* Orf**u». M which since i8 7 ohadbeen 
v ^^^1^, ihTSiposal of the pope m case he 
^"Tl^t^K^ ^ToreignpoUcyofVisconU. 
t * a* » W m.v» to have reinforced the international position 
YV\\ *.ttv* **«»» «l dignity, and without the vacillation 
^ J ^t *«>wU»v.. wKkh was to characterfxe the ensuing 

. i.i**** »-»! *>■** *l * be I eft» 

*" ik ui* w iW K^M m tbt t«th of March 1876 was an event 

* -*wl i*vfcM*»**tY ••hI *n many respects adversely to affect 

*vT v*w *J h*^*» b*rt vvr>-. Except at rare and not auspicious 

„,*av iW KvgM bad beM office from 1840 to 1876. Its 

" J! «*• *»*uied m the popular mind with severe tdmmistra- 

" a wm^v to tbt> democratic elements represented by 

". **ia 0«f< IM^^» •«<* Bertani; ruthless imposition 

*" " >****• w i»m w order to meet the financial engagements 

"^, ^* h*r^f b¥ tbt vicissitudes of her Risorgimento; 

^L vv^xmv* fw Piedmontcse, Lombards and Tuscans, 

"" «»> J ^ uf i f fcatlon, not always scrupulous In Its choice 

^ k wtctittve power and the most important 


__ , fcM» of the state for the imsmUrU, or date 

""^ .** « *s own adherents. For years the men ol the 
''" ^ wtK *gi to inoculate the electorate with suspicion ol 
^..^ *» ssethods and with hatred of the imposts which 
v „ p.^viiaekss knew to be indispensable to sound finance* 
^•v w the grist tax especially; the agitators of the Left 
^ ^K«d their party in a radically lake position. Moreover, 
v xMt«ption of the railways by the state — contracts for which 
^ »««fi signed by Sella in 187 s on behalf of the Minghetti 
,*}tMt with Rothschild at Basel and with the Austrian govern- 
tv'tt at Vienna— had been fiercely opposed by the Left, although 
t» members were for the most part convinced ol the utility 
vl the operation. When, at the beginning of March 1876, these 
contracts were submitted to parliament, a group ol Tuscan 
deputies, under Ccsare Correnti, joined the opposition, and on 
the 18th of March took advantage of a chance motion concerning 
the date of discussion of an interpellation on the grist tax to 
place the Minghetti cabinet in a minority. Depretis, ex-pro- 
dictator of Sicily, and successor of Rattazziin the leadership 
of the Left, was entrusted by the king with the formation ol a 
Liberal ministry. Besides the premiership, Depretis assumed the 
portfolio ol finance; Nicotera, an ex-Caribaldian of 
somewhat tarnished reputation, but a man of energetic 
and conservative temperament^ was placed at the 
ministry of the interior; public works were entrusted 
to ZanardeUi, a Radical doctrinaire of considerable juridical 
attainments; General Mezzacapb and Signor Brin replaced 
General Ricotti Magnaniand Admiral Saint-Bon at the war office 
and ministry of marine; while to Mancini and Coppino, pro- 
minent members of the Left, were allotted the portfolios of jus- 
tice and public instruction. Great difficulty was experienced in 
finding a foreign minister willing to challenge comparison with 
Visconti-Venosta. Several diplomatists in active service were 
approached, but, partly on account of their refusal, and partly 
from the desire of the Left, to avoid giving so important a post 
to a diplomatist bound by ties of friendship or of interest to the 
Right, the choice fell upon Melegari, Italian minister at Bern. 

The new ministers had long since made monarchical p rof es si o ns 
of faith, but, up to the moment of taking office, were nevertheless 
considered to be tinged with an almost revolutionary hue. The 
king alone appeared to feel no misgiving. His shrewd sense of 
political expediency and his loyalty to constitutional principles 
saved him from the error of obstructing the advent and driving 
into an anti-dynastic attitude politicians who had succeeded 
in winning popular favour. Indeed, the patriotism and loyalty 
of the new ministers were above suspicion. Danger lay rather 
in entrusting men schooled in political conspiracy and in un- 
scrupulous parliamentary opposition with the government of a 
young state still beset by enemies at home and abroad. As an 
opposition party the Left had lived upon the facile credit of 
political promises, but had no well-considered programme nor 
other discipline nor unity of purpose than that born ol the 
common eagerness of its leaders for office and their common 
hostility to the Right. Neither Depretis, Nicotera, Crispi, 
Cairoli nor ZanardeUi was disposed permanently to recognise 
the superiority of any one chief. The dissensions which broke 
out among them within a few months of the accession of their 
party to power never afterwards disappeared, except at rare 
moments when it became necessary to unite in preventing the 
return of the Conservatives. Considerations such as these could 
not be expected to appeal to the nation at large, which hailed 
the advent of the Left as thc dawn of an era of unlimited popular 
sovereignty, diminished administrative pressure, reduction of 
taxation and general prosperity. The programme of Depretis 
corresponded only in part to these expectations. Its chief 
points were extension of the franchise, incompatibility of a 
parliamentary mandate with an official position, strict jy^ 
enforcement of the rights of the State in regard to the .»■■■■ 
Church, protection of freedom of conscience, mainten- •#<*• 
ance of the military and naval policy inaugurated by the ***** 
Conservatives, acceptance of the railway redemption contracts, 
consolidation of the financial equilibrium, aboUtion of the forced 




currency, and, eventually, fiscal reform. The long-promised 
abolition of the grot tax was not explicitly mentioned, opposition 
to the railway redemption contracts was transformed into 
approval, and the vaunted reduction of taxation replaced by 
lip-service to the Conservative deity of financial equilibrium. 
The railway redemption contracts were in fact immediately 
voted by parliament, with a clause pledging the government 
to legislate in favour of farming out the railways to private 

Nicotera, minister of the interior, began his administration 
of hone affairs by a sweeping change in the ptrsonnd of the 
prefects, sub-preiects and public prosecutors, but found himself 
obliged to incur the wrath of his supporters by prohibiting 
Radical meetings likely 10 endanger public order, and by enunciat- 
ing administrative principles which would have befitted an 
inveterate Conservative, in regard to the Church, he instructed 
the prefects strictly to prevent infraction of the law against 
religious orders. At the same time the cabinet, as a whole, 
brought in a Clerical Abuses Bill, threatening with severe 
punishment priests guilty of disturbiag the peace of families, 
of opposing the laws of the stale, or of fomenting disorder. 
Depretis, for his part, was compelled to declare impracticable 
the immediate abolition of the grist lax, and to frame a bill for 
the increase of revenue, acts which caused the secession of some 
sixty Radicals and Republicans from the ministerial majority, 
and gave the signal for an agitation against the premier similar 
to that which he himself bad formerly undertaken against the 
Right. The first general election under the Left (November 
1876) had yielded the cabinet the overwhelming majority of 
*ji Ministerialists against 87 Conservatives, but the very size 
of the majority rendered it unmanageable. The Clerical Abuses 
Bill provoked further dissensions: Nicotera was severely 
affected by revelations concerning his political past; Zanardelli 
re/used to sanction the construction of a railway in Calabria 
in which Nicotera was interested; and Depretis saw fit to com- 
pensate the supporters of his bill for the increase of revenue 
by decorating at one stroke sixty ministerial deputies with the 
Order of the Crown of Italy. A further derogation from the 
ideal of democratic austerity was committed by adding £80,000 
per annum to the kings civil list ( 14th May 1877) and by burden- 
ing the state exchequer with royal household pensions amounting 
to £tofioo a year. The civil list, which the law of the 10th of 
August 1 86a had fixed at £650,000 a year, but which had been 
voluntarily reduced by the king to £530,000 in 1864* and to 
£400.000 in 1867, was thus raised to £570,000 a year. Almost 
the only respect in which the Left could boost a decided im- 
provement over the administration of the Right was the energy 
displayed by Nicotera in combating brigandage and the mafia 
in Calabria and Sicily. Successes achieved in those provinces 
failed, however, to save Nicotera from the wrath of the Chamber, 
and on the 14th of December 187-4 a cabinet crisis arose over a 
question concerning the secrecy of telegraphic correspondence. 
Depretis thereupon reconstructed his administration, excluding 
Nicotera, Melegari and Zanardelli, placing Crispi at the home 
office, entrusting Magliaoi with finance, and himself assuming 
the direction of foreign affairs. 

In regard to foreign affairs, the dlbut of the Left as a governing 
party was scarcely more satisfactory than its borne policy. 
Since the war of 1866 the Left had advocated an Italo- 
2jf*^ Prussian alliance in opposition to the Francophil 
ttmA^iu tendencies of the Right. On more than one occasion 
Bismarck had maintained direct relations with the 
chiefs of the Left, and had in 1870 worked to prevent a Franco- 
Italian alliance by encouraging the " party of action " to press 
for the occupation of Rome. Besides, the Left stood for anti- 
clericalism and for the retention by the Slate of means of coercing 
the Church, in opposition to the men of the Right, who, with 
the exception of Sella, favoured Cavour's ideal of " a free Church 
in a free Stale," and the consequent abandonment of state 
control over ecclesiastical government. Upon the outbreak of 
the Prussian Kutturkampf the Left had pressed the Right to 
introduce an Italian counterpart to the Prussian May laws, 

especially as the attitude of Thiers and the hostility of the 
French Clericals obviated the need for sparing French sus- 
ceptibilities. Visconti-Venosta and Minghetti, partly from 
aversion to a Jacobin policy, and partly from a conviction that 
Bismarck sooner or later would undertake his Cong nach Canossa, 
regardless of any tacit engagement he might have assumed 
towards Italy, bad wisely declined to be drawn into any infraction 
of the Law of Guarantees. It was, however, expected that the 
chiefs of the Left, upon attaining office, would turn resolutely 
towards Prussia in search of a guarantee against the Clerical 
menace embodied in the regime of Marshal Macmahon. On the 
contrary, Depretis and Melegari, both of whom were imbued 
with French Liberal doctrines, adopted towards the Republic 
an attitude so deferential as to arouse suspicion in Vienna and 
Berlin. Depretis recalled Nigra from Paris and replaced him by 
General Cialdini, whose ardent plea for Italian intervention 
jn favour of France in 1870, and whose comradeship with Marshal 
Macmahon in 1850, would, it was supposed, render him persona 
gratiaima to the .French government. This calculation was 
falsified by events. Incensed by the elevation to the rank of 
embassies of the Italian legation in Paris and the French legation 
to the Quirinal, and by the introduction of the Italian bill 
against clerical abuses, the French Clerical party not only attacked 
Italy and her representative, General Cialdini, in the Chamber 
of Deputies, but promoted a monster petition against the Italian 
bill. Even the coup d'ilal of the 16th of May 1877 (when 
Macmahon dismissed the Jules Simon cabinet for opposing the 
Clerical petition) hardly availed to change the attitude of 
Depretis. As a precaution against an eventual French attempt 
to restore the temporal power, orders were hurriedly given to 
complete the defences of Rome, but in other respects the Italian 
government maintained its subservient attitude. Yet at that 
moment the adoption of a clear line of policy, in accord with 
the centra] powers, might have saved Italy from the loss of 
prestige entailed by her bearing in regard to the Russo-Turkish 
War and the Austrian acquisition of Bosnia, and might have 
prevented the disappointment subsequently occasioned by the 
outcome of the {Congress of Berlin. In the hope of inducing 
the European powers to " compensate" Italy for the increase 
of Austrian influence on the Adriatic, Crispi undertook in the 
autumn of 1877, with the approval of the king, and in spite of 
the half-disguised opposition of Depretis, a semi-official mission 
to Paris, Berlin, London and Vienna. The mission appears 
not to have been an unqualified success, though Crispi afterwards 
affirmed in the Chamber (4U1 March 1886) that Depretis might in 
1877 " have harnessed fortune to the Italian chariot." Depretis, 
anxious only to avoid " a policy of adventure/' let slip whatever 
opportunity may have presented itself, and neglected even to 
deal energetically with the impotent but mischievous Italian 
agitation for a " rectification " of the llalo-Austrian frontier. 
He greeted the treaty of San Stefano (3rd March 1878) with 
undisguised relief, and by the mouth of the king, congratulated 
Italy (7th March 1878) on having maintained with the powers 
friendly and cordial relations " free from suspicious precautions," 
and upon having secured for herself " that most precious of 
alliances, the alliance of the future "—a phrase of which the 
empty rhetoric was to be bitterly demonstrated by the Berlin 
Congress and the French occupation of Tunisia. 

The entry of Crispi into the Depretis cabinet (December 1877) 
placed at the ministry of the interior a strong hand and sure eye 
at a moment when they were about to become im- cHtpL 
perativcly necessary. Crispi was the only man of truly 
statesmanlike calibre in the ranks of the Left. Formerly a friend 
and disciple of Maxsini, with whom he had broken 00 the quest ion 
of the monarchical form of government which Crispi believed 
indispensable to the unification of Italy, he had afterwards been 
one of Garibaldi's most efficient coadjutors and an active member 
of the " party of action." Passionate, not always scrupulous in 
his choice and use of political weapons, intensely patriotic, loyal 
with a loyalty based rather oc reason than sentiment, quick- 
witted, prompt in action, determined and pertinacious, be 
possessed in eminent degree many qualities lacking in other 


Liberal chieftains. Hardly had be assumed office when the 
unexpected death o! Victor Emmanuel II. (oth January 
Death* ot l8?8 ^ stirred national feeling to an unprecedented 
victor depth, and placed the continuity of monarchical in- 
Bmmmaatl stitutions in Italy upon trial before Europe. For thirty 
**■* yezrs Victor Emmanuel had been the centre point 
*** of national hopes, the token and embodiment of the 

struggle for national redemption. He had led the country out of 
the despondency which followed the defeat of Novara and the 
abdication of Charles Albert, through all the vicissitudes of 
national unification to the final triumph at Rome. His dis- 
appearance snapped the chief link with the heroic period, and 
removed from the helm of 'state a ruler of large heart, great 
experience and civil courage, at a moment when elements of 
continuity were needed and vital problems of internal reorganiza- 
tion had still to be faced Crispi adopted the measures necessary 
to ensure the tranquil accession of King Humbert with a quick 
energy which precluded any Radical or Republican demonstra- 
tions. His influence decided the choice of the Roman Pantheon 
as the late monarch's burial-place, in spite of formidable pressure 
from the Picdmontese, who wished Victor Emmanuel II. to Test 
with the Sardinian kings at Superga. He also persuaded the 
new ruler to inaugurate, as King Humbert I., the new dynastical 
epoch of the kings of Italy, instead of continuing as Humbert IV. 
the succession of the kings of Sardinia. Before the commotion 
caused by the death of Victor Emmanuel had passed away, the 
decease of Pius IX. (7th February 1878) placed further demands 
upon Crispi 's sagacity and promptitude. Like Victor Emmanuel, 
Pius IX. had been bound up with the history of the Risorgimento, 
but, unlike him, had represented and embodied the anti-national, 
reactionary spirit. Ecclesiastically, he had become the instru- 
ment of the triumph of Jesuit influence, and had in turn set his 
seal upon the dogma of the Immaculate Conception, the Syllabus 
and Papal Infallibility. Yet, in spite of all, his jovial disposition 
and good-humoured cynicism saved him from unpopularity, and 
rendered his death an occasion of mourning. Notwithstanding 
the pontiff's bestowal of the apostolic benediction in artxeulo 
mortis upon Victor Emmanuel, the attitude of the Vatican had 
remained so inimical as to make it doubtful whether the conclave 
would be held in Rome. Crispi, whose strong anti-clerical con- 
victions did not prevent him from regarding the papacy as pre- 
eminently an Italian institution, was determined both to prove 
to the Catholic world the practical Independence of the govern- 
ment of the Church and to retain for Rome so potent a centre of 
universal attraction as the presence of the future pope. The 
Sacred College having decided to hold the conclave abroad, Crispi 
assured them of absolute freedom if they remained in Rome, or of 
protection to the frontier should they migrate, but warned 
them that, once evacuated, the Vatican would be occupied in the 
name of the Italian government and be lost to the Church as 
headquarters of the papacy. The cardinals thereupon overruled 
their former decision, and the conclave was held in Rome, the 
new pope, Cardinal Pceci, being elected on the 20th of February 
1878 without let or hindrance. The Italian government not only 
Uo Xttt. Piwog 11 ^ lnc Chamber during the conclave to prevent 
unseemly inquiries or demonstrations on the part of 
deputies, but by means of Mandni, minister of justice, and 
Cardinal di Pietro, assured the new pope protection during the 
settlement of his outstanding personal affairs, an assurance of 
which Leo XIII. on the evening after his election, took full 
advantage. At the same time the duke of Aosta, commander of 
the Rome army corps, ordered the troops to render royal honours 
to the pontiff should he officially appear In the capita). King 
Humbert addressed to the pope a letter of congratulation upon 
his election, and received a courteous reply. The improve- 
ment thus signalized in the relations between Quirinal and 
Vatican was further exemplified on the t8th of October 1878, 
when the Italian government accepted a papal formula with 
regard to the granting of the royal exequatur for bishops, 
whereby they, upon nomination by the Holy See, recognized 
state control over, and made application for, the payment of 
their temporalities. 

Italy h*7o-»*>» 

The Depretts-drispi cabinet did not long survive the opening 
of the new reign. Crispi's position was shaken by a morally 
plausible but juridically untenable charge of bigamy, cmtmo. 
while on the 8th of March the election of Cairoti, an ***•*• 
opponent of the ministry and head of the extremer section of the 
Left, to the presidency of the Chamber, induced Depretis to 
tender his resignation to the new king. Cairoli succeeded in 
forming an administration, in which his friend Count Coni, 
Italian ambassador at Constantinople, accepted the portfolio of 
foreign affairs, Zanardelli the ministry of the interior, and Seismit 
Doda the ministry of finance. Though the cabinet had no stable 
majority, it induced the Chamber to sanction a commercial 
treaty which had been negotiated with France and a general 
" autonomous " customs tariff. The commercial treaty was, 
however, rejected by the French Chamber in June 1878, a cir- 
cumstance necessitating the application of the Italian general 
tariff, which implied a 10 to 20% increase In the duties on the 
principal French exports. A highly imaginative financial exposi- 
tion by Seismit Doda, who announced a surplus of £2,400.000, 
paved the way for a Grist Tax Reduction Bill, which Cairoli had 
taken over from the Depretis programme. The Chamber, 
though convinced of the danger of this reform, the perils of which 
were incisively demonstrated by Sella, voted by an overwhelming 
majority for an immediate reduction of the impost by one- 
fourth, and its complete abolition within four years. Cairoli's 
premiership was, however, destined to be cut short by an attempt 
made upon the king's life in November 1878, during a royal visit 
to Naples, by a miscreant named Passanante. In spite of the 
courage and presence of mind of Cairoli, who received the dagger 
thrust intended for the king, public and parliamentary indigna- 
tion found expression in a vote which compelled the ministry to 

Though brief, Cairoli's term of office was momentous in regard 
to foreign affairs. The treaty of San Stefano had led to the 
convocation of the Berlin Congress, and though Count 
Corti was by no means ignorant of the rumours con- JJJfflwi 
cerning secret agreements between Germany, Austria cfcaww*. 
and Russia, and Germany, Austria and Great Britain, 
he scarcely seemed alive to the possible effect of such agreements 
upon Italy. Replying on the 9th of April 1878 to interpellation* 
by Visconti -Venosta and other deputies on the impending 
Congress of Berlin, he appeared free from apprehension lest 
Italy, isolated, might find herself face to face with a change of 
the balance of power in the Mediterranean, and declared that 
in the event of serious complications Italy would be " too much 
sought after rather than too much forgotten." The policy of 
Italy in the congress, he added, would be to support the interests 
of the young Balkan nations. Wrapped in this optimism, Const 
Corti proceeded, as first Italian delegate, to Berlin, where he 
found himself obliged, on the 28th of May, to join reluctantly in 
sanctioning the Austrian occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. 
On the 8th of July the revelation of the Anglo-Ottoman treaty 
for the British occupation of Cyprus took the congress by surprise. 
Italy, who had made the integrity of the Ottoman empire a 
cardinal point of her Eastern policy, felt this change of the 
Mediterranean status quo the more severely inasmuch as, in 
order not to strain her relations with France, she had turned a 
deaf ear to Austrian, Russian and German advice to prepare to 
occupy Tunisia in agreement with Great Britain. Count Corti 
had no suspicion that France had adopted a less disinterested 
attitude towards similar suggestions from Bismarck and Lord 
Salisbury. He therefore returned from the German capital 
with 4I clean" but empty hands, a plight which found marked 
disfavour in Italian eyes, and stimulated anti-Austrian Irre- 
dentism. Ever since Venetia had been ceded by 
Austria to the emperor Napoleon, and by him to Italy, J£^ 
after the war of t866, secret revolutionary com- 
mittees had been formed in the northern Italian provinces to 
prepare for the " redemption " of Trent and Trieste. For 
twelve years these committees had remained comparatively in- 
active, but in 1878 the presence of the ex-Garibaldian Cairoli 
at the head of the government, and popular dissatisfaction at the 

i»t • n» * \ 



spread of Austrian my on the Adriatic, encouraged 'them to 
begin a series of noisy demonstrations. On the evening of the 
signature at Berlin of the clause sanctioning the Austrian occupa- 
tion of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an Irredentist riot took place 
before the Austrian consulate at Venice. The Italian govern- 
ment attached little importance to the occurrence, and believed 
that a diplomatic expression of regret would suffice to alky 
Austrian irritation. Austria, indeed, might easily have been 
persuaded to ignore the Irredentist agitation, had not the 
equivocal attitude of Cairoli and Zanardelli cast doubt upon the 
sincerity of their regret. The former at Pa via (15th October 
1878), and the Utter at Arco (3rd November), declared publicly 
that Irredentist manifestations could not be prevented under 
existing laws, but gave no hint of introducing any law to sanction 
their prevention. " Repression, not prevention " became the 
official formula, the enunciation of which by Cairoli at Favia 
cauaed Count Corti and two other ministers to resign. 

The mil of Cairoli, and the formation of a second Depretis 
cabinet in 1878, brought no substantial change in the attitude 
of the government towards Irredentism, nor was the position 
improved by the return of Cairoli to power in the following July. 
Though aware of Bismarck's hostility towards Italy, of the 
conclusion of the Austro-Gennan alliance of 1870, and of the 
undisguised ill-will of France, Italy not only made no attempt 
to crush an agitation as mischievous as it was futile, but granted 
a state funeral to General Avezsana, president of the Irredentist 
League. In Bonghi's mordant phrase, the foreign policy of 
Italy during this period may be said to have been characterised 
by M enormous intellectual impotence counterbalanced by equal 
moral feebleness." Home affairs were scarcely better managed. 
Parliament had degenerated into a congeries of personal groups, 
whose members were eager only to overturn cabinets in order 
to secure power for the leaders and official favours for themselves. 
Depretis, who had succeeded Cairoli in December 1878, fell in 
July 1870, after a vote in which Cairoli and Nicotera joined the 
Conservative opposition. On 12th July Cairoli formed a new 
administration, only to resign on 24th November, and to recon- 
struct his cabinet with the help of Depretis. The administration 
of finance was as chaotic as the condition of parliament. The 
£7,400,000 surplus announced by Seismk Doda proved to be a 
myth. Nevertheless Magliani, who succeeded Seismit Doda, 
had neither the perspicacity nor the courage to resist the abolition 
of the grist tax. The first vote of the Chamber for tbe immediate 
diminution of the tax, and for its total abolition on 1st January 
ammmrm 1883, had been opposed by the Senate. A second bill 
Haamcm ' was passed by tbe Chamber on 18th July 1879, pro- 
viding for the immediate repeal of the grist tax on minor cereals, 
and for its total abolition on 1st January 1884. While approving 
the repeal in regard to minor cereals, the Senate (24th January 
1880) again rejected the repeal of the tax on grinding wheal as 
prejudicial to national finance. After the general election of 
1880, however, the Ministerialists, aided by a number of factious 
Conservatives, passed a third bill repealing the grist tax on 
wheat (10th July 1880), the repeal to take effect from the 1st of 
January 1884 onwards. Tbe Senate, in which the partisans of 
the ministry had been increased by numerous appointments od 
hoc, finally set the seat of hs approval upon the measure. Not- 
withstanding this prospective loss of revenue, parliament showed 
great reluctance to vote any new impost, although hardly a year 
previously it had sanctioned (30th June 1870) Depretis's scheme 
for spending during the next eighteen years £43,200,000 in 
building 5000 kilometres of railway, an expenditure not wholly 
justified by the importance of the lines, and useful principally 
as a source of electoral sops for the constituents of ministerial 
deputies. The unsatisfactory financial condition of the Florence, 
Rome and Naples municipalities necessitated stale help, but 
the Chamber nevertheless proceeded with a light heart (23rd 
February 1881) to sanction the issue of a foreign loan for 
£jo,ooo T ooo, with a view to the abolition of theforcedcurrency, 
thus adding to the burdens of the exchequer a load which 
three years later again dragged Italy into the gulf of chronic 

In no modern country is error or incompetence on the part 
of administrator* more swiftly followed by retribution than in 
Italy; both at home and abroad she is hemmed in 9)mmtmtm 
by political and economic conditions which leave """^ 
littk margin for folly, and still less for " mental and moral 
insufficiency/' such as had been displayed by tbe Left. Nemesis 
came in the spring of t88i, in tbe form of the French invasion 
of Tunisia. Guiccioli, the biographer of Sella, observes that 
Italian politicians find it especially hard to resist " the temptation 
of appearing crafty." The men of the Left believed themselves 
subtle enough to retain the confidence and esteem of all foreign 
powers while coquetting at home with elements which some 
o£ these powers had reason to regard with suspicion. Italy, 
in constant danger from France, needed good relations with 
Austria and Germany, but could only attain the goodwill of 
the former by firm treatment of the revolutionary Irredentist 
agitation, and of the latter by clear demonstration of Italian 
will and ability to cope with all anti-monarchical forces. Depretis 
and Cairoli did neither the one nor the other. Hence, when 
opportunity offered firmly to establish Italian predominance in 
the central Mediterranean by an occupation of Tunisia, they 
found themselves deprived of those confidential relations with 
the central powers, and even with Great Britain, which might 
nave enabled them to use the opportunity to full advantage. 
The conduct of Italy in declining tbe suggestions received from 
Count Andrassy and General Ignatiev on the eve of the Russo- 
Turkish War— that Italy should seek compensation in Tunisia 
for tbe extension of Austrian sway in the Balkans— and in 
subsequently rejecting the German suggestion to come to an 
arrangement with Great Britain for the occupation of Tunisia as 
compensation for the British occupation of Cyprus, was certainly 
due to fear lest an attempt on Tunisia should lead to a war with 
France, for which Italy knew herself to be totally unprepared. 
This very unpreparedness, however, rendered still less excusable 
her treatment of the Irredentist agitation, which brought her 
within a hairVbreadtb of a conflict with Austria. Although 
Cairoli, upon learning of the Anglo-Ottoman convention in regard 
to Cyprus, had advised Count Corti of the possibility that Great 
Britain might seek to placate France by conniving at a French 
occupation of Tunisia, neither he nor Count Corti had any 
inkling of the verbal arrangement made between Lord Salisbury 
and Waddington at the instance of Bismarck, that, when con- 
venient, France should occupy Tunisia, an agreement afterwards 
confirmed (with a reserve as to the eventual attitude of Italy) 
in despatches exchanged in July and August 1878 between the 
Quai d'Orsay and Downing Street. Almost up to the moment 
of the French occupation of Tunisia the Italian government 
believed that Great Britain, if only out of gratitude for the bearing 
of Italy in connexion with the Dutcigno demonstration in the 
autumn of 1880, would prevent French acquisition of the Regency. 
Ignorant of the assurance conveyed to France by Lord Granville 
that the Gladstone cabinet would respect the engagements of 
the Beaconsfield-Salisbury administration, Cairoli, in deference 
to Italian public opinion, endeavoured to neutralize the activity 
of the French consul Roustan by the appointment of an equally 
energetic Italian consul, Maccto. The rivalry between these 
two officials in Tunisia contributed not a little to strain Franco- 
Italian relations, but it is doubtful whether France would have 
precipitated her action had not General Menabrea, Italian 
ambassador in London, urged his government to purchase tbe 
Tunis-Goletta railway from the English company by which it 
had been constructed. A French attempt to purchase the hne 
was upset in the English courts, nrtd the railway was finally 
secured by Italy at a price more than eight times its real value. 
This pertinacity engendered a belief in France that Italy was 
about to undertake in Tunisia a more aggressive policy than 
necessary for the protection of her commercial Interests. Roustan 
therefore hastened to extort from the bey concessions calculated 
to neutralize the advantages which Italy had hoped to secure 
by the possession of the Tunis- Goletta line, and at the same time 
the French government prepared at Toulon an expeditionary 
corps for the occupation of the Regency. In the spring of 1881 



mA rr%lr tribe waft reported to have attacked a French force 
'^jffcri* 11 border, and on the oth of April Roustan informed 
J»^ "^T of Tunis that France would chastise the assailants. 
^J^^l^ issued futile protests to the powers. On the 26th of 
c ^ > ^2^ island of Tabarca was occupied by the French, Bizerta 
sraM *~/~^d <> n tDC and °* M *y» ftnd on th * I2ln of Mav ^ ^Y 
» ^J*tS« treaty of Bardo accepting the French protectorate. 
cx^** CY xi<^ ertoolc toe '"Aintenance of order in the Regency, 
*** c ^ nt , rtxed. the representation of Tunisia in all dealings with 
c* ^^SJiaJi tries- 

x*^ -^*» incus * 0011 al ^^ French ««if rfe main was the 

It-^J-*^^^ account of the apparent duplicity of the government 

&£>^* j^cpublic On the nth of May the French foreign 

«,*»^ partheleiny Saint Hilaire, had officially assured the 

ii*>* ! ^^Ir»*> aSSador m Paris that France " had «» thought of 
\^L Tunisia °* *»y P*rt of Tunisian territory, beyond 

„. ijit3 of ^ K-rounur country." This assurance, dictated 

&X%^ , PfL "Ferry to Barthelemy Saint Hilaire in the presence of 
o£< J 1^0 am bassa<,or » and Dv nim telegraphed e* </air to Rome, 
t*** I ' 1 "*iS<i erCci a Dmdm * P ,ed « e that France would not materially 
^s ^^^J^V/as/** ^afl in Tunisia. Documents subsequently published 
t ^fl>« whal attenuated the responsibility of Ferry and 
: SS^* 1 * for this breach of faith, and have shown that the 
^^ t *f^rce» "» Tunisia acted upon secret instructions from 
Yjc**"^, V*r rC « mmi$tcr of war m thc Fcrr y cabinet, who pursued 
^^Betrically opposed to the official declarations made 
L | e r and the foreign minister. Even had this circum- 
fcnown at the time, it could scarcely have mitigated 
resentment of the whole Italian nation at an event 

, considered tantamount not only to the destruction- 

-cx.^ ^—^spirations to Tunisia, but to the ruin of the interests 

"fca****^ ,c*nr* Italian colony and to a constant menace against 

^i the Sicilian and south Italian coasts. 

_^ar thus struck at Italian influence in the Mediter- 

fc»*- -^a-cea politicians to sink for a while their personal 

t» unite in presenting a firm front to foreign 

ub regard to Tunisia might not have been 

of good. Unfortunately, on this, as on 

deputies proved themselves incapable of 

M promote general welfare. While excitement 

^te u. its height, but before the situation was 

to the disadvantage of Italy, Cairoli 

, .fat *» resign by a vote of want of confidence in 

a^^^^rTrV^a^ politician capable of dealing adequately 

^" ZM0 "^L s m «■» **• leider of ^ Ri «ht, and to him the 

mA 1 1***^. T*e action leaders of the Left, though divided 

t»«**5*7^i^awa*s aad mutually incompatible ambitions, 

* i*- -0 * jn «•& ed which could befall Italy would be the 

tp** 13 **' ^^ v |*««r, and conspired to preclude the 

veua - L ** ^jfc. .ssxsd An attempt by Depretis to re- 

****** lls^gpo. a—*** I** vcd fruitless, and after eleven 

w« » < , - g | ^.mm***. *J»t Humbert was obliged, on the 

tH*.***** ' v-T^Br^w^raSMtioiL The conclusion 

t*.*^ *** 4 «**.« a» **• ♦* May, however, compelled 

M xu tm **xt*x**—* * I**" 11 * wdwwJon. Again SeUa 

U»— 'a*, *.-••*** wag-in-the-manger policy of 

•* **"'' .,, yjwq^a^ laccari ni, in conjunction with 

■** -wo.-* «awr«awme Conservatives, proved 

not. U— — **— >uccceded in recomposing 

«**' "* B ?'!Z^ B r< watM *jmK Mancini being placed at the 

lae of the army 
union, the new 
>lic opinion was 
e of some Italian 
ie return of the 
i, in response to 
Jte a part of the 
on of borne and 
Anexion with the 
■ s to the basilica 






to th 


his el 



when ( 



state co 

their tern 

l*f*«- w 

irriute Italian feeling, but little excuse can be offered for the 
failure of the Italian authorities to maintain public order. In 
conjunction with the occupation of Tunisia, the effect of these 
disorders was to exhibit Italy as a country powerless to defend 
its interests abroad or to keep peace at home. The scandal and 
the pressure of foreign Catholic opinion compelled Depretis to 
pursue a more energetic policy, and to publish a formal declaration 
of the intangibility of the Law of Guarantees. 

Meanwhile a conviction was spreading that the only way of 
escape from the dangerous isolation of Italy lay in closer agree- 
ment with Austria and Germany. Depretis tardily 
recognized the need for such agreement, if only to JJj^JiJ? 
remove the " coldness and invincible diffidence " which, A iJjf 
by subsequent confession of Mandni, then characterized 
the attitude of the central powers; but he was opposed to any 
formal alliance, test it might arouse French resentment, while the 
new Franco-Italian treaty was still unconduded, and the foreign 
loan lor the abolition of the forced currency had still to be 
floated. He, indeed, was not disposed to concede to public 
opinion anything beyond an increase of the army, a measure 
insistently demanded by Garibaldi and the Left. The Right like* 
wise desired to strengthen both army and navy, but advocated 
cordial relations with Berlin and Vienna as a guarantee against 
French domineering, and as a pledge that Italy would be vouch- 
safed time to effect her armaments without disturbing financial 
equilibrium. The Right also hoped that closer accord with 
Germany and Austria would compel Italy to conform her home 
policy more nearly to the principles of order prevailing in 
those empires. More resolute than Right or Left was the 
Centre, a small group led by Sidney Sonnino, a young 
politician of unusual fibre, which sought in the press and in 
parliament to spread a conviction that the only sound basis for 
Italian policy would be dose alliance with the central powers and 
a friendly understanding with Great Britain in regard to Mediter- 
ranean affairs. The principal Italian public men were divided in 
opinion on the subject of an alliance. Peruazi, Lanza and 
Bonghi pleaded for equal friendship with all powers, and 
especially with France; Crispi, Minghetti, Cadorna and others, 
including Blanc, secretary-general to the foreign office, openly 
favoured a pro-Austrian policy. Austria and Germany, however, 
scarcely reciprocated these dispositions. The Irredentist agita- 
tion had left profound traces at Berlin as well as at Vienna, and 
had given rise to a distrust of Depretis which nothing had yet 
occurred to allay. Nor, in view of the comparative weakness el 
Italian armaments, could eagerness to find an ally be deemed 
conclusive proof of the value of Italian friendship. Count di 
Robilant. Italian ambassador at Vienna, warned his government 
not to yield too readily to pro-Austrian pressure, lest the dignity 
of Italy be compromised, or her desire for an alliance be granted 
on onerous terms. Mancini, foreign minister, who was as anxious 
as Depretis for the conclusion of the Franco-Italian commercial 
treaty, gladly followed this advice, and limited his efforts to the 
maintenance of correct diplomatic relations with the central 
powers. Except in regard to the Roman question, the advantages 
and disadvantages of an Italian alliance with Austria and 
Germany counterbalanced each other. A rapprochement with 
France and a continuance of the Irredentist movement could not 
fail to arouse Austro-German hostility; but, on the other band, 
to draw near to the central powers would inevitably accentuate 
the diffidence of France. In the one hypothesis, as in the other, 
Italy could count upon the moral support of Great Britain, but 
could not make of British friendship the keystone of a Continental 

?>licy. Apart from resentment against France on account of 
urusia there remained the question of the temporal power of the 
pope to turn thescale in favour of Austria and Germany. Danger 
of foreign interference in the relations between Italy and thepapacy 
had never been so great since the Italian occupation of Rome, as 
when, in the summer of 1881. the disorders during the transfer of 
the remains of Phis IX. had lent an unwonted ring of plausibility 
to the papal complaint concerning the " miserable " position of . 
the Holy See. Bismarck at that moment had entered upon bis 
pilgrimage to Canossa," and was anxious to obtain from the 




VwXicm the support of Gennan Catholics. What resistance 
could Italy have offered had the German chancellor* seconded by 
Austria, and assuredly supported by France, called upon Italy to 
revise the Law of Guarantees in conformity with Catholic 
exigencies, or had be taken the initiative of making papal in- 
dependence the subject of an international conference ? Friend' 
ship and alliance with Catholic Austria and powerful Germany 
could alone lay this spectre. This was the only immediate 
advantage Italy could hope to obtain by drawing nearer the 
central Powers. 

The political conditions of Europe favoured the realization 
of Italian desires. Growing rivalry between Austria and Russia 
in the Balkans rendered the continuance of the " League of the 
Three Emperors" a practical impossibility. The Austro- 
German alliance of 1879 formally guaranteed the territory of 
the contracting parties, but Austria could not count upon 
effectual help from Germany in case of war, since Russian attack 
upon Austria would certainly have been followed by French 
attack upon Germany. As in 1860*1870, it therefore became a 
matter of the highest importance lor Austria to retain full 
disposal of all her troops by assuring herself against Italian 
aggression. The tsar, Alexander III., under the impression of 
the assassination of his father, desired, however, the renewal 
of the Drdkaiscrbumd, both as a guarantee of European peace 
and as a conservative league against revolutionary parties. 
The Gennan emperor shared this desire, but Bismarck and the 
Austrian emperor wished to substitute for the imperial league 
some more advantageous combination. Hence a tacit under* 
standing between Bismarck and Austria that the latter should 
profit by Italian resentment against France to draw Italy into 
the orbit of the Austro-German alliance. For the moment 
Germany was to hold aloof lest any active initiative on her part 
should displease the Vatican, of whose help Bismarck stood 
m need. 

At the beginning of August 1881 the Austrian press mooted the 
idea of a visit from King Humbert to the emperor Francis 
Joseph. Count di Robilanl, anxious that Italy should not seem 
to beg a smile from the central Powers, advised Maacini to receive 
with caution the suggestions of the Austrian press. Depretis 
took occasion to deny, in a form scarcely courteous* the prob- 
ability of the visit. Robilant'* opposition to a precipitate 
acceptance of the Austrian hint was founded upon fear lest King 
Humbert at Vienna might be pressed to disavow Irredentist 
aspirations, and upon a desire to arrange for a visit of the emperor 
Francis Joseph to Rome in return for King Humbert's visit to 
Vienna. Seeing the hesitation of the Italian government, the 
Austrian and German semi-official press redoubled their efforts 
to bring about the visit. By the end of September the idea 
had gained such ground in Italy that the visit was practically 
settled, and on the 7th of October Mancisi informed Robilant 
(who was then in Italy) of the fact. Though be considered 
such precipitation impolitic, Robilant, finding that confidential 
information of Italian intentions had already been conveyed 
to the Austrian government, sought an interview with King 
Humbert, and on the 1 7th of October started for Vienna to settle 
the conditions of the visit. Depretis, fearing to jeopardize the 
impending conclusion of the Franco-Italian commercial treaty, 
would have preferred the visit to take the form of an act of 
personal courtesy between sovereign*. The Austrian govern mem, 
for its part, desired; that the kiog should be accompanied by 
Depretis, though not by Mancini, lest the presence of the Italian 
foreign minister should lend to the occasion too mar Led a political 
character. Mancini, unable to brook exclusion, insisted, how* 
evw% upon accompanying the king. King Humbert with 
Queen Margberita reached Vienna on the morning of the 37th 
of October* and stayed at the Hofburg until the 31st of October. 
The visit was marked by the greatest cordiality. Count Robilant'! 
fear* of inopportune pressure with regard to Irrcdsntism 
proving groundless; Both in Germany and Austria the visit 
was construed as a preliminary to the adhesion of Italy to tho 
Austrp-Gennan alliance. Count Haizfddl. on behalf of the 
German. Foreign Office, informed the .Italian ambassador in 

Berha that whatever was done at Vienna would be regarded at 
having been done in the German capital. Nor did nascent 
irritation in France prevent the conclusion of the Franco-Italian 
co m me r cial treaty, which was signed at Paris on the 3rd of 

In Italy public opinion as a whole was favourable to the visit, 
especially as it was not considered an obstacle to tbc projected 
increase of the army and navy. Doubts, however, soon sprang up 
as to its effect upon the minds of Austrian statesmen, since on 
the 8th of November the language employed by Kallay and Count 
Andrissy to the Hungarian delegations on the subject of 
Irredentism was scarcely calculated to soothe Italian suscepti- 
bilities. But on oth November the European situation was 
suddenly modified by the formation of the Gambetta cabinet!, 
and, in view of the policy of revenge with which Gambetta was 
supposed to be identified, it became imperative for Bismarck to 
assure himself that Italy would not be enticed into a Francophil 
attitude by any concession Gambetta might offer. As usual 
when dealing with weaker nations, the German chancellor re- 
sorted to intimidation. He not only re-established the Prussian 
legation to the Vatican, suppressed since 1874, and omitted 
from the imperial message to the Reichstag (17th November 
1881) all reference to King Humbert's visit to Vienna, but took 
occasion on the 20th of November to refer to Italy as a country 
tottering on the verge of revolution, and opened in the German 
semi-official press a campaign in favour of an international 
guarantee for the independence of the papacy. These manoeuvres 
produced their cflect upon Italian public opinion. In the long 
and important debate upon foreign policy in the Italian Chamber 
of Deputies (6th to oth December) the fear was repeatedly 
expressed lest Bismarck should seek to purchase the support 
of German Catholics by raising the Roman question. Mancini, 
still unwilling frankly to adhere to the Austro-German alliance, 
found his policy of "friendship all round "impeded byGambettas 
uncompromising attitude in regard to Tunisia. Bismarck never* 
thekss continued his press campaign in favour of the temporal 
power until, reassured by Gambetta 's decision to send Roustan 
back to Tunis to complete as minister the an ti- Italian programme 
begun as consul, be finally instructed his organs to emphasize 
the common interests of Germany and Italy on the occasion of 
the opening of the St Got hard tunnel. But the effect of toe 
German press campaign could not be effaced in * day. At 
the new, year's reception of deputies King Humbert aroused 
enthusiasm by a significant remark that Italy intended to remain 
" mistress in her own house "; while Mancini addressed to Count 
de Launay, Italian ambassador in Berlin, a haughty despatch, 
repudiating the supposition that the pope might (as Bismarck ian 
emissaries had suggested to the Vatican) obtain abroad greater 
spiritual liberty than in Rome, or that closer relations between 
Italy and Germany „ such as were required by the interests and 
aspirations, of the two countries* could be made in any way 
contingent upon a modification of Italian freedom of action in 
regard to home affairs. 

The sudden fall of Gambetta (aoth January . xfi&t) having 
removed the fear of immediate European complications, the 
cabinet* of Berlin and Vienna again displayed diffidence towards 
Italy. So great wss Bismarck's distrust of Italian parliamentary 
instability, his doubts of Italian capacity for offensive warfare 
Snd his fear of the Francophil tendencies of Depretis, that for 
many weeks the Italian ambassador at Berlin was unable to 
obtain audienceof the chancellor. But for the Tunisian question 
Italy might again have been drawn 'into the wake el France. 
Mancini tried to impede the organization/Of French rule in the 
Regency by Musing to recognize ike treaty of Baruo, yet so 
careless was Bismarck of Italian susceptibilities that he in- 
structed the. German consul at Tunis to recognize French decrees. 
Partly under the influence of these circumstances, and partly 
in response' to persuasion by Baron Blanc secretary ^general 
for foreign affairs, Mancini instructed Count di Robilant, tQropen 
negotiations for an halo-Austrian alliance— instrudioc* which 
Robilant neglected until questioned by Count Kalnoky on the sub- 
ject. The first exchange «c ideas between the tveo Government* 


p t 

tb* v 

j*urih tr 

public fc 

for«»« n **; 
transfer of 


Kataiky, somewhat Oerical-minded, 

the integrity of ail kalian 

unwilling to guarantee to 

i of Treat and Trieste. Mancini, 

: 2ae jasLjct aflianceto provide for reciprocal 

of the contracting Powers, 

i Aastria-Hungary in the Balkans, 

pledging themselves to support 

Without some such proviso 

i, be exposed single-handed 

At the request of Kakioky, Mancini 

■ — ii-iiiw, but the illness of himself 

with an untoward discussion in the 

r «f the Austrian emperor to return in 

-i vat t» Vienna, caused negotiations to 

r i m^m r 1 bad refused to receive the 

k 3» fcsiae om a visit to the Quirinal, and 

to return King Humbert's 

inzar -a afisai the ieehngs of bis Catholic subjects. 

. rm £zx sJiL:> :he ltaban parliament adopted the 

f a special credit of £5,100.000 for the" 

■a v-wjenr* nys* by which the war footing of the 

r-«jfc xsec jj scady 850/100 men and the ordinary 

- xr -1 jooooo per annum. Garibaldi, who, 

-^ ifi-^ii* «f Tunis, had ardently worked for 

c nc anxu aai thus the satisfaction of seeing his 

t his death at Caprcra, on the 2nd 

3&c * ha spirit a child, in character a man 

c iimH i ** f^^Mi' bad remained the nation's 

n ■ M 1 tew whose place none could aspire 

: ir is adbrveaaents and sorrow for ras death 

nwtn"»g wherein king and 

Bvaic* his death, and almost con- 

j of the Army Bill, negotiations 

Eacoungco from Berlin, Kamoky 

guarantee, but declined 

Mancini had therefore 

_ j that the lilies would act in 

Dcpretis made some opposition, 

law! Ac Wwty of triple alliance was signed 

t u/ dtfc ** wv» *<* *** promulgation of 

j iwmmm iti — »- »» ^^ Though partial 

" ^^ ^^ a^it. the exact tenor of the 

"T- -v* ah»« has never been divulged. 

—a" * k* Wen cwdttded for a period of 

S ^ZTw Mafefcri the contracting parties 

Tt 1^ W^^»^ of any one of them. 

* * TJL* ****«• to be adopted by 

^-* «*hrf itom France, or from 

^ The Italian General 

^ the event of war against 

* |mc . »orth~we*tcrn frontier 

• " ^ n*L * %h»ch the war strength is 

- -^^^^^aaesped^t, 

— w * T~L tShee France or Russia. 

^.r - ~^^^onwo»agamsltwo 

• -***-« - ^^tT^i .K. treaty and 

* narck 




1 who 

*« to 
.» hit 

ITALY (1870-1901 

revealed the existence of the treaty, thereby irritating France 
and destroying Deprelis's secret hope of finding in the triple 
alliance the advantage of an Auslro-Gcrman guarantee without 
the disadvantage of French enmity. In Italy the revelation 
of the treaty was hailed with satisfaction except by the Clericals, 
who were enraged at the blow thus struck at the restoration 
of the pope's temporal power, and by the Radicals, who feared 
both the inevitable breach with republican France and the 
reinforcement of Italian constitutional parties by intimacy 
with strong monarchical states such as Germany and Austria. 
These very considerations naturally combined to recommend 
the fact to constitutionalists, who saw in it, besides the territorial 
guarantee, the elimination of the danger of foreign interference 
in the relations between Italy and the Vatican, such as Bismarck 
had recently threatened and such as France was believed ready 
to propose. 

Nevertheless, during its first period (1882-1887) the triple 
alliance failed to ensure cordiality between the contracting 
Powers. Mancini exerted himself in a hundred ways to soothe 
French resentment. He not only refused to join Great Britain 
in the Egyptian expedition, but agreed to suspend Italian 
consular jurisdiction in Tunis, and deprecated suspicion of 
French designs upon Morocco. His efforts were worse than 
futile. France remained cold, while Bismarck and Kalnoky, 
distrustful of the Radicalism of Dcprctis and Mancini, assumed 
towards their ally an attitude almost hostile. Possibly Germany 
and Austria may have been influenced by the secret treaty signed 
between Austria, Germany and Russia on the 21st of March 
1884, and ratified during the meeting of the three emperors at 
Skierniewice in September of that year, by which Bismarck, in 
return for " honest brokerage " in the Balkans, is understood 
to have obtained from Austria and Russia a promise of bene* 
volent neutrality in case Germany should be " forced " to make 
war upon a fourth power— France. Guaranteed thus against 
Russian attack, Italy became in the eyes of the central powers 
a negligible quantity, and was treated accordingly. Though 
kept in the dark as to the Skierniewice arrangement, the Italian 
government soon discovered from the course of events that the 
triple alliance had practically lost its object, European peace 
having been assured without Italian co-operation. Meanwhile 
France provided Italy with fresh cause for uneasiness by abating 
her hostility to Germany. Italy in consequence drew nearer 
to Great Britain, and at the London conference on the Egyptian 
financial question sided with Great Britain against Austria and 
Germany. At the same time negotiations took place with 
Great Britain for an Italian occupation of Mossawa, and Mancini, 
dreaming of a vast Anglo-Italian enterprise against the Mabdi, 
expatiated in the spring of 1885 upon the glories of on Anglo- 
Italian alliance, an indiscretion which drew upon him a scarcely- 
veiled dCmenti from London. Again speaking in the Chamber, 
Mancini claimed for Italy the principal merit in the conclusion 
of the triple alliance, but declared that the alliance left Italy 
full liberty of action in regard to interests outside its scope, 
" especially as there was no possibility of obtaining protection 
for such interests from those who by the alliance had not under- 
taken to protect them." These words, which revealed the 
absence of any stipulation in regard to the protection of Italian 
interests in the Mediterranean, created lively dissatisf actios ia 
Italy and corresponding satisfaction in France. They hastened 
Mancini's downfall (17th June 1885), and prepared the advent 
of count di Robilant, who three months later succeeded Mancini 
at the Italian Foreign Office. Robilant, for whom the Skiernie- 
wice pact was no secret, followed a firmly independent policy 
throughout the Bulgarian crisis of 1885-1886, declining to be 
drawn into any action beyond that required by the treaty of 
Berlin and the protection of Italian interests in the Balkans. 
Italy, indeed, came out of the Eastern crisis with enhanced 
prestige and with her relations to Austria greatly improved. 
Towards Prince Bismarck Robilant maintained an attitude 
of dignified independence, and as, in the spring of 1886, the 
moment for the renewal of the triple alliance drew near, he 
profited by the development of the Bulgarian crisis and the 




threatened Franco-Russian understanding to secure from the 
central powers " something more " than the bare territorial 
guarantee of the original treaty. Tins "something more" 
consisted, at least in part, of the arrangement, with the help of 
Austria and Germany, of an Anglo-Italian naval understanding 
having special reference to the Eastern question, but providing 
for common action by the British and Italian fleets in the 
Mediterranean m case of war. A vote of the Italian Chamber on 
the 4th of February 1887, in connexion with the disaster to Italian 
troops at Dogali, in Abyssinia, brought about the resignation 
of the Deprelis- Robilant cabinet. The crisis dragged for three 
months, and before its definitive solution by the formation of a 
Depretis-Crispi ministry, Robilant succeeded (17th March 1887) 
in renewing the triple alliance on terms more favourable to 
Pint n- Italy than those obtained in 1882. Not only did he 
mrwmlot secure concessions from Austria and Germany corre- 
*Jf^**» sponding in some degree to the improved state of the 
1flh " rf Italian army and navy, but, in virtue of the Anglo- 
Itafian understanding, assured the practical adhesion of Great 
Britain to the European policy of the central powers, a triumph 
probably greater than any registered by Italian diplomacy 
since the completion of national unity. 

The period between May 1881 and July 1887 occupied, in the 
region of foreign affairs, by the negotiation, conclusion and 
renewal of the triple alliance, by the Bulgarian crisis 
and by the dawn of an Italian colonial policy, was 
marked at home by urgent political and economic 
problems, and by the parliamentary phenomena known as 
ir&sformismo. On the 29th of June 1881 the Chamber adopted a 
Franchise Reform Bill, which increased the electorate from 
600,000 to 2,000,000 by lowering the fiscal qualification from 
40 to 19-80 lire in direct taxation, and by extending the suffrage 
to all persons who had passed through the two lower standards 
of the elementary schools, and practically to all persons able 
to read and write. The immediate result of the reform was to 
increase the political influence of large cities where the proportion 
of illiterate workmen was lower than in the country districts, 
and to exclude from the franchise numbers of peasants and small 
proprietors who, though of more conservative temperament 
and of better economic position than the artizan population of 
the Urge towns, were often unable to fulfil the scholarship 
qualification. On the 12th of April 1883 the forced currency was 
formally abolished by the resumption of treasury payments 
m gold with funds obtained through a loan of £14,500.000 issued 
in London on the 5th of May 1882. Owing to the hostility of 
the French market, rt>e loan was covered with difficulty, and, 
though the gold premium fell and commercial exchanges were 
temporarily facilitated by the resumption of cash payments. 
k is doubtful whether these advantages made up for the burden of 
£640,000 additional annual interest thrown upon the exchequer. 
On the 6th of March 1885 parliament finally sanctioned the 
conventions by which state railways were farmed out to three 
private companies — the Mediterranean, Adriatic and Sicilian. 
The railways redeemed in 1875-1876 had been worked in the 
interval by the government at a heavy loss. A commission of 
inquiry reported in favour of private management. The conven- 
tions, concluded for a period of sixty years, but terminable by 
either party after twenty or forty years, retained for the state 
the possession of the lines (except the southern railway, viz. 
the line from Bologna to Brindisi belonging to the Societa 
Meridionale to whom the Adriatic lines were now farmed), but 
sold rolling stock to the companies, arranged various schedules 
of state subsidy for lines projected or in course of construction, 
guaranteed interest on the bonds of the companies and arranged 
tor the division of revenue between the companies, the reserve 
fund and the state. National control of the railways was secured 
by a proviso that the directors must be of Italian nationality. 
Deprelis and his colleague Genala, minister of public works, 
experienced great difficulty in securing parliamentary sanction for 
the conventions, not so much on account of their defective 
character, as from the opposition of local interests anxious to 
extort new lines from the government. In fact, the conventions 

were only voted by a majority of twenty-three votes after the 
government had undertaken to increase the length of new slate- 
built lines from 1500 to 2500 kilometres. Unfortun- 
ately, the calculation of probable railway revenue on **« «* 
which the conventions had been based proved to be ^LL 
enormously exaggerated. For many years the 37 J % 
of the gross revenue (less the cost of maintaining the rolling 
stock, incumbent on the state) scarcely sufficed to pay the 
interest on debts incurred for railway construction and on 
the guaranteed bonds. Gradually the increase of traffic con- 
sequent upon the industrial development of Italy decreased 
the annual losses of the state, but the position of the government 
in regard to the railways still remained so unsatisfactory as to 
render the resumption of the whole system by the state on the 
expiration of the first period of twenty years in 1005 inevitable. 

Intimately bound up with the forced currency, the railway 
conventions and public works was the financial question in 
general. From 1876, when equilibrium between w a^mm^ 
expenditure and revenue had first been attained, 
taxation yielded steady annual surpluses, which in 1881 reached 
the satisfactory level of £2,120,000. The gradual abolition of 
the grist tax on minor cereals diminished the surplus in 1882 
to £236,000, and in 1883 to £1 10,000, while the total repeal of the 
grist tax on wheat, which took effect on the 1st of January 1884, 
coincided with the opening of a new and disastrous period of 
deficit. True, the repeal of the grist tax was not the 
only, nor possibly even the principal, cause of the deficit. 
The policy of " fiscal transformation " inaugurated by the 
Left increased revenue from indirect taxation from £17,000,000 
in 1876 to more than £24,000,000 in 1887, by substituting 
heavy corn duties for the grist tax, and by raising the 
sugar and petroleum duties to unprecedented levels. But 
partly from lack of firm financial administration, partly 
through the increase of military and naval expenditure (which 
in 1887 amounted to £9,000,000 for the army, while special 
efforts were made to strengthen the navy), and principally 
through the constant drain of railway construction and public 
works, the demands upon the exchequer grew largely to exceed 
the normal increase of revenue, and necessitated the contraction 
of new debts. In their anxiety to remain in office Deprctis and 
the finance minister, Magliani, never hesitated to mortgage 
the financial future of their country. No concession could be 
denied to deputies, or groups of deputies, whose support was 
indispensable to the life of the cabinet, nor, under such conditions, 
was it possible to place any effective check upon administrative 
abuses in which politicians or their electors were interested. 
Railways, roads and harbours which contractors had undertaken 
to construct for reasonable amounts were frequently made to 
cost thrice the original estimates. Minghetti, in a trenchant 
exposure of the parliamentary condition of Italy during this 
period, cites a case in which a credit for certain public works 
was, during a debate in the Chamber, increased by the govern- 
ment from £6,600,000 to £9,000,000 in order to conciliate local 
political interests. In the spring of 1887 Genala, minister of 
public works, was taken to task for having sanctioned expenditure 
of £80,000,000 on railway construction while only £40,000,000 
had been included in the estimates. As most of these credits 
were spread over a series of years, succeeding administrations 
found their financial liberty of action destroyed, and were 
obliged to cover deficit by constant issues of consolidated stock. 
Thus the deficit of £940,000 for the financial year 1885-1886 
rose to nearly £2,920,000 in 1887-1888, and jn 1888-1889 
attained the terrible level of £9400,000. 

Nevertheless, in spile of many and serious shortcomings, 
the long series of Deprelis administrations was marked by the 
adoption of some useful measures. Besides the realization of 
the formal programme of the Left, consisting of the repeal of 
the grist tax, the abolition of the forced currency, the extension 
of the suffrage and the development of the railway system* 
Deprelis bid the foundation for land lax re-assessment by intro- 
ducing a new cadastral survey. Unfortunately, the new survey 
was made largely optional, so that provinces which had reasr* 




i» hope for a diminution of land tax under a revised assessment 
hastened to complete their survey, while others, in which the 
average of the land tax was below a normal assessment, 
neglected to comply with the provisions of the scheme. An 
important undertaking, known as the Agricultural Inquiry, 
brought to light vast quantities of information valuable for 
future agrarian legislation. The year 1885 saw the introduction 
and adoption of a measure embodying the principle of employers' 
liability for accidents to workmen, a principle subsequently 
extended and more equitably defined in the spring of 1809. 
An effort to encourage the development of the mercantile marine 
was made in the same year, and a convention was concluded 
with the chief lines of passenger steamers to retain their fastest 
vessels as auxiliaries to the fleet in case of war. Sanitation and 
public hygiene received a potent impulse from the cholera 
epidemic of 1884, many of the unheal thiest quarters in Naples 
and other cities being demolished and rebuilt, with funds chiefly 
furnished by the stale. The movement wa6 strongly supported 
by Kmg Humbert, whose intrepidity in visiting the most 
dangerous spots at Busca and Naples while the epidemic was 
at its height, reassuring the panic-stricken inhabitants by his 
presence, excited the enthusiasm of his people and the admiration 
of Europe. 

During the accomplishment of these and other reforms the 
condition of parliament underwent profound change. By degrees 

_„ ^_ the administrations of the Left had ceased to rely 

solely upon the Liberal sections of the Chamber, and 
had carried their most important bills with the help 
of the Right. This process of transformation was not exclusively 
the work of Depretis, but had been initialed as early as 1873, 
when a portion of the Right under Minghetti had, by joining 
the Left, overturned the Lanza-Sclla cabinet. In 1876 Minghetti 
himself had fallen a victim to a similar defection of Conservative 
deputies. The practical annihilation of the old Right in the 
elections of 1876 opened a new parliamentary era. Reduced in 
number to less than one hundred, and radically changed in spirit 
and composition, the Right gave way, if not to despair, at least 
to a despondency unsuited to an opposition parly. Though on 
more than one occasion personal rancour against the men of 
the Moderate Lcfl prevented the Right from following Bella's 
advice and regaining, by timely coalition with cognate parlia- 
mentary elements, a portion of its former influence, the bulk of 
the party, with singular inconsistency, drew nearer and nearer 
to the Liberal cabinets. The process was accelerated by Sella 's 
fitness and death (14th March 1884), an event which cast profound 
discouragement over the more thoughtful of the Conservatives 
and Moderate Liberals, by whom Sella had been regarded as a 
supreme political reserve, as a statesman whose experienced 
vigour and patriotic sagacity might have been trusted to lift 
Italy from any depth of folly or misfortune. By a strange 
Anomaly the Radical measures brought forward by the Left 
diminished instead of increasing the distance between it and the 
Conservatives. Numerically insufficient to reject such measures, 
and lacking the fibre and the cohesion necessary for the pursuance 
of a far-sighted policy, the Right thought prudent not to employ 
lit fttrengih in uncompromising opposition, but rather, by sup* 
porting the government, to endeavour to modify Radical legisla- 
I Ion In a Conservative sense. In every case the calculation proved 
f.ill.ifiou*. Radical measures were passed unmodified, and the 
KUhl was compelled sadly to, accept the accomplished fact. 
Thin (l was with the abolition of the grist tax, the reform of the 
litffrnge, the railway conventions and many other bills. When, 
In ( utafce of lime, the extended suffrage increased the Republican 
and Kulrtinf Radical elements in the Chamber, and the Liberal 
*' |S 11 Inn hy " (composed of Crispi, Cairoli, Nlcotcra, Zanardelli 
*•«>! U,»n mini) assumed an attitude of bitter hostility to Depretis, 
itw Kighl. obeying the impulse of Minghetti, rallied openly 
l*» lM«rvik lending him aid without which his prolonged term 
o| v**sv w«mM rinve been impossible. The result was parlia- 
\»» ui o\ t h n»t. Iiftptl/fd trasformismo. In May 1883 this process 
u .wj s'ltt, ul rrtngnftlon by the elimination of the Radicals 
* 1 ,ii it Mi *ttd flauiirlni from the pcpictis cabinet, while in 

the course of 1884 a Conservative, Signor Biancheif, was elected 
to the presidency of the Chamber, and another Conservative, 
General Ricoui, appointed to the War Office. Though Depretis, 
at the end of hjs life in 1887, showed signs of repenting of the 
confusion thus created, he had established & parliamentary 
system destined largely to sterilize and vitiate the political hie 
of Italy, 

Contemporaneously with the vicissitudes of home and foreign 
policy under the Left there grew up in Italy a marked tendency 
towards colonial enterprise. The tendency itself dated 
from i860, when a congress of the Italian chambers of 
commerce at Cenoa had urged the Lanza cabinet to 
establish a commercial dep6t on the Red Sea. On the nth of 
March 1870 an Italian shipper, Signor Rubaltino, had bought the 
bay of Assab, with the neighbouring island of Darmakich, from 
Bcheran, sultan of Rahcita, for £1880, the funds being furnished 
by the government. The Egyptian government being unwilling 
to recognize the sovereignly of Bcheran over Assab or his right 
to sell territory to a foreign power, V'isconti-Vcnosta thought it 
opportune not then to occupy Assab. No further step was taken 
until, at the end of 1879, Rubattino prepared to establish a 
commercial station at Assab, The British government made 
inquiry as to his intentions, and on the 19th of April 1880 
received a formal undertaking from Cairoli that Assab wouM 
never be fortified nor be made a military establishment. Mean- 
while (January 1880) stores and materials were landed, and Assab 
was permanently occupied. Eighteen months later a party of 
Italian sailors and explorers under Lieutenant Biglieri and 
Signor Ciulictti were massacred in Egyptian territory. Egypt, 
however, refused to make thorough inquiry into the massacre, 
and was only prevented from occupying Rahcita and coming into 
conflict with Italy by the good offices of Lord Granville, who 
dissuaded the Egyptian government from enforcing its sove- 
reignty. On the 20th of September 1881 Bcheran formally 
accepted Italian protection, and in the following February am 
Anglo-Italian convention established the Italian tide to Assab 
on condition that Italy should formally recognise the suzerainty 
of the Porte and of the khedive over the Red Sea coast, and 
should prevent the transport of arms and munitions of war 
through the territory of Assab. This convention was never 
recognized by the Porte nor by the Egyptian government. A 
month later (10th March 1882) Rubattino made over his establish- 
ment to the Italian government, and on the 12th of June the 
Chamber adopted a bill constituting Assab an Italian crowa 

Within four weeks of the adoption of this bill the bombardment 
of Alexandria by the British fleet (nth July 1882) opened as 
era destined profoundly to affect the colonial position of 
Italy. The revolt of Arabi Pasha (September 1881) T** ^ _ 
had led to the meeting of an ambassadorial conference 
at Constantinople, promoted by Mancini, Italian 
minister for foreign affairs, in the hope of preventing European 
intervention in Egypt and the permanent establishment of an 
Anglo-French condominium to the detriment of Italian influence. 
At the opening of the conference (23rd June 1882) Italy secured 
the signature of a self-denying protocol whereby all the great 
powers undertook to avoid isolated action; but the rapid develop- 
ment of the crisis in Egypt, and the refusal of France to co- 
operate with Great Britain in the restoration of order, necessitated 
vigorous action by the latter alone. In view of the French 
refusal, Lord Granville on the 27th of July invited Italy to join 
in restoring order in Egypt; but Mancini and Depretis, in 
spite of the efforts of Crispi, then in London, declined the 
offer. Financial considerations, lack of proper transports for an 
expeditionary corps, fear of displeasing France, dislike of a 
" policy of adventure,*' misplaced deference towards the ambassa- 
dorial conference in Constantinople, and unwillingness to thwart 
the current of Italian sentiment in favour of the Egyptian 
" nationalists," were the chief motives of the Italian refusal, 
which had the effect of somewhat estranging Great Britain and 
Italy. Anglo-Italian relations, however, regained their normal 
cordiality two years later, and found expression in the support 




lent by Ttaly to the British proposal at t be London conference -•* 
the Egyptian question July 1884). About the same time 
Manctni was informed by the Italian agent in Cairo thit Great 
Britain would be well disposed towards an extension of Italian 
influence on the Red' Sea coast. Having sounded Lord GranvHle, 
Mancini received encouragement to seize Beflul and Massawa, 
in view of the projected restriction of the Egyptian zone of 
military occupation consequent on the Mahdbl rising in the 
Sudan. Lord Granville further inquired whether Italy would 
co-operate in pacifying the Sudan, and received an affirmative 
reply. Italian action was hastened by news that, in December 
1884, an exploring party under Signer Biandri, royal com* 
mi ssioner for Assab, had been massacred in the Aussa (DanakH) 
country, an event which aroused m Italy a desire to punish the 
assassins and to obtain satisfaction for the Still unpunished 
aaassacre of Signer Giulietti and his companions. Partly to 
satisfy public opinion, partly in order to profit by the favourable 
disposition of the British government, and partly in the hope of 
remedying the error committed in 1882 by refusal to co-operate 
with Great Britain in Egypt, the Italian government in January 
1885 despatched an expedition under Admiral Cainri and Colonel 
Saletta to occupy Massawa and Beihil. The occupation, effected 
on the 5th of February, was accelerated by fear lest Italy tpight 
be forestalled by Prance or Russia, both of which powcre were 
inspected of desiring to establish themselves firmly on the Red 
Sea and to exercise a protectorate over Abyssinia, News of the 
occupation reached Europe simultaneously with the tidings of the 
fill of Khartum, an event which disappointed Italian hopes 1 of 
military co-operation with Great Britain in the Sudan. The 
resignation of the Gladstone-Granvillc cabinet further precluded 
the projected Italian occupation of Suakin, and the Italians, 
wisely refraining from an independent attempt to succour 
Kassala, then besieged by the Mabdists, bent their efforts to the 
increase of their zone of occupation around Massawa. The ex- 
tension of the Italian tone excited the suspicions of John, negus 
of Abyssinia, whose apprehensions were assiduously fomented 
by Alula, fas of Tigre, and by French and Greek adventure rs. 
Measures, apparently successful, were taken to reassure the negus, 
but shortly afterwards protection inopportunely accorded by 
Italy to enemies of Ras Alula, induced the Abyssinians to enter 
upon hostilities. In January 1886 Ras Alula raided the village of 
Wa, to the west of Zula, but towards the end of the year (23rd 
November) Wa was occupied by the irregular troops of General 
Gene, who had superseded Colonel Salettaat Massawa. Angered 
by this step, Ras Alula took prisoners the members of an Italian 
exploring party commanded by Count Salimbcni, and held them 
as hostages for the cvacuat ion of Wa. General Gcni nevertheless 
reinforced Wa and pushed forward a detachment to Saati. Oh 
the 75th of January 1887 Ras Alula attacked Saati, but Was 
repulsed with loss. On the following day, however, the Abys- 
sinians succeeded in surprising, near the village of Dogali, an 
Italian force of 524 officers and men under Colonel Dc Cristoforis, 

who were convoying provisions to the garrison of Saati. 

The Abyssinians, 20.000 strong, speedily overwhelmed 

the small Italian force, which, after exhausting its 
ammunition, was destroyed where it stood. One man only 
escaped. Four hundred and seven men and twenty-three officers 
were killed out right , and one officer and eighly-one men wounded. 
Dead and wounded alike were horribly mutilated by order of 
Alula. Fearing a new attack. General Gene withdrew his forces 
from Saati, Wa and Arafali; but the lasses of the Abyssinians 
at Saati and Dogali had been so heavy as to dissuade Alula from 
further hostilities. 

In Italy the disaster of Dogali produced consternation, and 
caused the fall of the Dcpretis-Robllant cabinet. The Chamber, 
iltjMfafci **&* * or r ^ ven 8^« voted a credit of £700,000, and 

sanctioned the despatch of reinforcements. Mean- 
while Signor Crispi, who, though averse from colonial adventure, 
desired to vindicate Italian honour, entered the Dcprctis cabinet 
as minister of the interior, and obtained from parliament a new 
credit of £800,000 In November 1SS7 a strong expedition under 
General di San Marzano raised the strength of the Massawa 


garrison' to neatly 20,000 men. The British government; 
desirous of preventing an iCalo-Abyssinlan conflict, which could 
bat strengthen the position 01 the Mahdists, despatched Mr 
(afterwards Sir) Gerald Pdrul from Massawa on the *oth of 
October to mediate with the negus. The mission proved fruitless. 
Portal returned to Massawa on the 25th of December 1887, and 
warned the Italians that John was preparing to attack them in 
the foBowmg spring with an army of 100,000 men. On the a8th : 
of March 1888 the negus indeed descended from the Abyssinian 
high plateau in the direction of Saati, but finding the Italian posi- 
tion too strong to be carried by assault, temporized and opened ' 
negotiations for peace. His tactics failed to entice the Italians 
from their position, and on the 3rd of April sickness among his 
men compelled John to withdraw the Abyssinian army. The negus 
next marched against Menelek, king of Sboa, whose neutrality 
Italy had purchased with 5000 Remington rifles and a supply of 
ammunition, but found him With 80,000 men too strongly en- 
trenched to be successfully attacked. Tidings of a new Mahdist 
incursion into Abyssinian territory reaching the negus induced 
him to postpone the settlement of his quarrel with Menelek until 
the dervishes had been chastised. Marching towards the Blue 
Nile, he joined battle with the Mahdists] but ori the roth of 
March 1889 was killed, in the hour of victory, near Gallabat. 
His death gate rise to an Abyssinian war of succession between 
Mangasha, natural son of John, and Menelek, grandson of the- 
Negus ScIla»SeIlassi£. Menelek, by means of Count Antonett, 
resident in the Shoa country, requested Italy to execute a 
diversion in his favour by occupying Asmara and other points on 
the high plateau. Antonelli profited by the situation to obtain 
Menelek's signature to a treaty fixing the frontiers of the Italian : 
colony and defining Italo^Abysstnian relations. The treaty,: 
signed at Uccialli on the 2nd of May 1800, arranged for 
regular intercourse between Italy and Abyssinia and* Jjjjjft 
conceded to Italy a portion of the>hfeh plateau, with ' 
the positions of Halat, Saganeiti and Asmara. The main point 
of the treaty, however, lay in clause 17:— 

*' His Majesty the king of kings of Ethiopia consents to make Use 
of the government of His Majesty the king of Italy for the treatment 
of all questions concerning other powers and governments*" 

Upon this clause Italy founded her claim to a protectorate over 
Abyssinia. In September 1889 the treaty of Uccialli was ratified' 
in Italy by Menelek's lieutenant, the Ras Makonnen. Makonnen 
further concluded with the Italian premier. Crisp*, a convention 
whereby Italy recognized Menelek as emperor of Ethiopia, 
Menelek recognized the Italian colony, and arranged for* a special 
I tafo- Abyssinian currency and for a roan Ori the nth of October 
Italy communicated article ty of the treaty of Uccialli to the 
European powers, interpreting it as a valid title to an Italian 
protectorate over Abyssinia, Russia alone neglected to take note' 
of the communication, and persisted in the hostile attitude she 
had assumed at the moment of the occupation of Massawa. 
Meanwhile the Italian mint coined thalers bearing the portrait 
of Ring Humbert, with an inscription referring to the Italian 
protectorate, and on the 1st of January f 800 a royal decree con- 
ferred upon the colony the name of ** Eritrea. 1 ' 

In the colony itself General Balchsscra, who had replaced 
Oeneral Saletta, delayed the movement against Mangashft 
desired by Menelek. The Italian general would have 
preferred to wait until his intervention was requested JJjJ^T 
by both pretenders to the Abyssinian throne. Pressed A fy$$tai§, 
by the home government, he, however, Instructed a 
native ally to occupy the important positions of Keren and. 
Asmara, and prepared himself to take the offensive against 
Mangasha and Ras Alula. The latter retreated south oi the. 
river Mareb, leaving the whole of the cjs-Mareb territory, includ- 
ing the provinces of Hamasen, Agamch, Sera* and Okule-Kusai, 
in Italian hands, Oeneral Orero, successor of Baldissera, pushed 1 
o (Tensive action more vigorously, and on the 36th of January 
1890 entered Adowa, a city considerably to the south of the 
Mareb— an imprudent step which aroused Menelek's suspicions, 
and had hurriedly to be retraced. Mangasha, seeing further 
resistance to be useless, submitted to Menelek, who ai the end 




of February ratified at Makalle the additional convention to 
the treaty of Uccialli, but refused to recognize the Italian occupa- 
tion of the Mareb. The negus, however, conformed to article 
17 of the treaty of Uccialli by requesting Italy to represent 
Abyssinia at the Brussels anti-slavery conference, an act which 
strengthened Italian illusions as to Menelek's readiness to submit 
to their protectorate. Menelek had previously notified the chief 
European powers of bis coronation at En tot to (14th December 
1889), but Germany and Great Britain replied that such notifica- 
tion should have beeu made through the Italian government. 
Germany, moreover, wounded Menelek's pride by employing 
merely the title of " highness." The negus took advantage of 
the incident to protest against the Italian text of article 17, 
and to contend that the Amharic text contained no equivalent 
for the word "consent," but merely stipulated that Abyssinia 
" might " make use of Italy in her relations with foreign powers. 
On the 28th of October 1890 Count AntoneUi, negotiator of the 
treaty, was despatched to settle the controversy, but on arriving 
at Adis Ababa, the new residence of the negus, found agreement 
impossible either with regard to the frontier or the protectorate. 
On the 10th of April 1801, Menelek communicated to the powers 
his views with regard to the Italian frontier, and announced 
his intention of re-establishing the ancient boundaries of Ethiopia 
as far as Khartum to the north-west and Victoria Nyanza to the 
south. Meanwhile the marquis de Rudini, who had succeeded 
Crispi as Italian premier, had authorized the abandonment of 
article 17 even before he had heard of the failure of Antonelli's 
negotiations. Rudini was glad to leave the whole dispute in 
abeyance and to make with the local ras, or chieftains, of the 
high plateau an arrangement securing for Italy the cis-Mareb 
provinces of Serae" and Okule-Kusai under the rule of an allied 
native chief named Bath-Agos. Rudini, however, was able 
to conclude two protocols with Great Britain (March and April 
1 801) whereby the British government definitely recognized 
Abyssinia as within the Italian sphere of influence in return for 
an Italian recognition of British rights in the Upper Nile. 

The period 1887-1890 was marked in Italy by great political 
activity. The entry of Crispi into the Depretis cabinet as 
minister of the interior (4th April 1887) introduced 
into the government an element of vigour which had 
long been lacking. Though sixty-eight years of age, 
Crispi possessed an activity, a rapidity of decision 
and an energy in execution with which none of his contemporaries 
could vie Within four months the death of Depretis (29th 
July 1887) opened for Crispi the way to the premiership. Besides 
assuming the presidency of the council of ministers and retaining 
the ministry of the interior, Crispi took over the portfolio of 
foreign affairs which Depretis had held since the resignation of 
Count di Robilant. One of the first questions with which he 
had to deal was that of conciliation between Italy and the 
Vatican. At the end of May the pope, in an allocution to the 
cardinals, had spoken of Italy in terms of unusual cordiality, 
and had expressed a wish for peace. A few days later Signor 
Bonghi, one of the framers of the Law of Guarantees, published 
in the Nuova Antologta a plea for reconciliation on the basis of 
an amendment to the Law of Guarantees and recognition by 
the pope of the Italian title to Rome. The chief incident of the 
movement towards conciliation consisted, however, in the 
publication of a pamphlet entitled La Conciliaxione by Father 
Tosti. a close friend and confidant of the pope, extolling the 
advantages of peace between Vatican and Quirinal. Tosti's 
pamphlet was known to represent papal ideas, and Tosti himself 
was persona grata to the Italian government. Recon- 
* *%£ f dilation seemed within sight when suddenly Tosti's 
to*. pamphlet was placed on the Index, ostensibly on 
account of a phrase, "The whole of Italy entered 
Rome by the breach of Porta Pia; the king cannot restore 
Rome to the pope, since Rome belongs to the Italian people " 
On the 4th of June 1887 the official Vatican organ, the Ossenatore 
Romano, published a letter written by Tosti to the pope condition- 
ally retracting the views expressed in the pamphlet The letter 
had been written at the pope's request, on the understanding 


that it should not be published. On the 15th of June the pope 
addressed to Cardinal Rampolla del Tindaro, secretary of state, 
a letter reiterating in uncompromising terms the papti daim to 
the temporal power, and at the end of July Cardinal Rampolla 
reformulated the same claim in a circular to the papal nuncios 
abroad. The dream of conciliation was at an end, but the Tosti 
incident had served once more to illustrate the true position of 
the Vatican in regard to Italy. It became clear that neither the 
influence of the regular clergy, of which the Society of Jesus 
is the most powerful embodiment, nor that of foreign clerical 
parties, which largely control the Peter's Pence fund, would 
ever permit renunciation of the papal claim to temporal power. 
France, and the French Catholics especially, feared lest concilia - 
tion should diminish the reliance of the Vatican upon frma 
France, and consequently French hold over the ©/**• 
Vatican. The Vatican, for its part, felt its claim to "^*gf* 
temporal power to be too valuable a pecuniary asset V*"** 
and too efficacious an instrument of church discipline lightly 
to be thrown away. The legend of an "imprisoned pope," 
subject to every whim of his gaolers, had never failed to arouse 
the pity and loosen the purse-strings of the faithful; dangerous 
innovators and would-be reformers within the church could be 
compelled to bow before the symbol of the temporal power, and 
their spirit of submission tested by their readiness to forgo 
the realization of their aims until the head of the church should 
be restored to bis rightful domain. More important than all 
was the interest of the Roman curia, composed almost exclusively 
of Italians, to retain in its own hands the choice of the pontiff 
and to maintain the predominance of the Italian element and 
the Italian spirit in the ecclesiastical hierarchy. Conciliation 
with Italy would expose the pope and his Italian entourage to 
suspicion of being unduly subject to Italian political influence— 
of being, in a word, more Italian than Catholic. Such a suspicion 
would inevitably lead to a movement in favour of the inter- 
nationalization of the curia and of the papacy. In order to 
avoid this danger it was therefore necessary to refuse all com- 
promise, and, by perpetual reiteration of a claim incompatible 
with Italian territorial unity, to prove to the church at large 
that the pope and the curia were more Catholic than Italian. 
Such rigidity of principle need not be extended to the affairs 
of everyday contact between the Vatican and the Italian 
authorities, with regard to which, indeed, a tacit modus titendi 
was easily attainable. Italy, for her part, could not go back 
upon the achievements of the Risorgimcnto by restoring Rome 
or any portion of Italian territory to the pope. She had hoped 
by conciliation to arrive at an understanding which should have 
ranged the church among the conservative and not among the 
disruptive forces of the country, but she was keenly desirous 
to retain the papacy as a preponderatingly Italian institution, 
and was ready to make whatever formal concessions might have 
appeared necessary to reassure foreign Catholics concerning the 
reality of the pope's spiritual independence. The failure of the 
conciliation movement left profound irritation between Vatican 
and Quirinal, an irritation which, on the Vatican side, found 
expression in vivacious protests and in threats of leaving Rome, 
and, on the Italian side, in the deposition of the syndic of 
Rome for having visited the cardinal- vicar, in the anti-clerical 
provisions of the new penal code, and in the inauguration (9th 
June 1889) of a monument to Giordano Bruno on the very site 
of bis martyrdom. 

The internal situation inherited by Crispi from Depretis was 
very unsatisfactory. Extravagant expenditure on railways 
and public works, loose administration of finance, the cost of 
colonial enterprise, the growing demands for the army and 
navy, the impending tariff war with France, and the over- 
speculation in building and in industrial ventures, which had 
absorbed all the floating capital of the country, had combined 
to produce a state of affairs calling for firm and radical treatment 
Crispi, burdened by the premiership and by the two most 
important portfolios in the cabinet, was, however, unable to 
exercise efficient control over all departments of state. Neverthe- 
less his administration was by no means unfruitful. Zanardelli, 




minister of justice, secured In June 1888 the adoption of a new 
penal code; state surveillance was extended to the opcrt pie, 
or charitable institutions, municipal franchise was reformed 
by granting what was practically manhood suffrage with 
residential qualification , provision being made for minority 
representation; and the central state administration was 
reformed by a bill fixing the number and functions of the various 
ministries. The management of finance was scarcely satisfactory, 
for though Giolitti, who had succeeded Magliani and Perazzi 
at the treasury, suppressed the former's illusory " pension fund," 
be lacked the fibre necessary to deal with the enormous deficit 
of nearly £10,000,000 in 1888-1889, the existence of which both 
Perazzi and he had recognized. The most successful feature 
of Crispi's term of office was his strict maintenance of order and 
the suppression of Radical and Irredentist agitation So 
vigorous was his treatment of Irredentism that he dismissed 
without warning his colleague Seismit Doda, minister of finance, 
for having failed to protest against Irredentist speeches delivered 
in his presence at Udine. Firmness such as this secured for him 
the support of all constitutional elements, and after three years' 
premiership his position was infinitely stronger than at the 
outset. The general election of 1800 gave the cabinet an almost 
unwieldy majority, comprising four-fifths of the Chamber. A 
lengthy term of office seemed to be opening out before him when, 
on the 31st of January 1801, Crispi, speaking in a debate upon 
an unimportant bill, angrily rebuked the Right for its noisy 
interruptions. The rebuke infuriated the Conservative deputies, 
who. protesting agatnst Crispi's words in the name of the " sacred 
memories " of their party, precipitated a division and placed 
the cabinet in a mmoiity The incident, whether due to chance 
or guile, brought about the resignation of Crispi A few days 
later lie was succeeded in the premiership by the marquis di 
Rudini. leader of the Right, who formed a coalition cabinet with 
Nkotera and a part of the Left. 

The sudden fall of Crispi wrought a great change in the 
character of Italian relations with foreign powers His policy 
frjtoj had been characterized by extreme cordiality towards 
Austria and Germany, by a dose understanding with 
Great Britain in regard to Mediterranean questions, and by an 
apparent animosity towards France, which at one moment 
seemed Nkely to lead to war. Shortly before the fall of the 
Depretis-Robilant cabinet Count Robilant had announced the 
intention of Italy to denounce the commercial treaties with 
France and Austria, which would lapse en the 31st of December 
1887, and had intimated his readiness to negotiate new treaties 
On the 24th of June 1887, in view of a possible rupture of com- 
mercial relations with France, the Depretis-Cnspi cabinet 
introduced a new general tariff. The probability of the conclu- 
sion of a new Franco-Italian treaty was small, both on account 
of the protectionist spirit of France and of French resentment 
at the renewal of the triple alliance, but even such slight proba- 
bility vanished after a visit paid to Bismarck by Crispi (October 
1887) within three months of his appointment to the premiership- 
Crispi entertained no a priori animosity towards France, but was 
strongly convinced that Italy must emancipate herself from the 
position of political dependence on her powerful neighbour 
which had vitiated the foreign policy of the Left. So far was he 
from desiring a rupture with France, that be had subordinated 
acceptance of the portfolio of the interior in the Depretis cabinet 
to an assurance that the triple alliance contained no provision 
for offensive warfare. But his ostentatious visit to Friedrichsruh, 
and a subsequent speech at Turin, la which, while professing 
sentiments of friendship and esteem for France, be eulogized 
the personality of Bismarck, aroused against him a hostility 
on the part of the French which be was never afterwards able 
to allay. France was equally careless of Italian susceptibilities, 
and in April 1888 Goblet made a futile but irritating attempt 
to enforce at Massawa the Ottoman regime of the capitulations 
in regard to non-Italian residents. In such circumstances the 
negotiations for the new commercial treaty could but fail, and 
though the old treaty was prolonged by special arrangement 
for two months, differential tariffs were put in force on both sides 

of the frontier on the 29th of February 1888. The value of 
French exports into Italy decreased immediately by one-half, 
while Italian exports to France decreased by nearly two-thirds. 
At the end of 1880 Crispi abolished the differential duties against 
French imports and returned to the general Italian tariff, but 
France declined to follow his lead and maintained her prohibitive 
dues. Meanwhile the enthusiastic reception accorded to the 
young German emperor on the occasion of his visit to Rome in 
October 1888, and the cordiality shown towards King Humbert 
and Crispi at Berlin in May 1889, increased the tension of Franco- 
Italian relations; nor was it until after the fall of Prince 
Bismarck in March 1890 that Crispi adopted towards the Republic 
a more friendly attitude by sending an Italian squadron to salute 
President Carnot at Toulon. The chief advantage derived 
by Italy from Crispi's foreign policy was the increase of con- 
fidence in her government on the part of her allies and of Great 
Britain. On the occasion of the incident raised by Goblet with 
regard to Massawa, Bismarck made it clear to France that, in 
case of complications, Italy would not stand alone; and when 
in February 1888 a strong French fleet appeared to menace 
the Italian coast, the British Mediterranean squadron demon- 
strated its readiness to support Italian naval dispositions. 
Moreover, under Crispi's hand Italy awoke from the apathy 
of former years and gained consciousness of her place in the 
world. The conflict with France, the operations in Eritrea, 
the vigorous interpretation of the triple alliance, the questions 
of Morocco and Bulgaria, were all used by him as means to 
stimulate national sentiment With the instinct of a true 
statesman, he felt the pulse of the people, divined their need for 
prestige, and their preference for a government heavy-handed 
rather than lax. How great had been Crispi's power was seen 
by contrast with the policy of the Rudini cabinet which succeeded 
him in February 1891. Crispi's so-called " megalomania " gave 
place to retrenchment in home affairs and to a deferential 
attitude towards all foreign powers The premiership s*co*4 
of Rudini was hailed by the Radical leader, CavaJJotti, n—wioi 
as a pledge of the non-renewal of the triple alliance, ^J™* 1- 
against which the Radicals began a vociferous campaign AWB9C *' 
Their tactics, however, produced a contrary effect, for Rudini, 
accepting proposals from Berlin, renewed the alliance in June 

1891 for a period of twelve years. None of Rudini's public 
utterances justify the supposition that he assumed office with the 
intention of allowing the alliance to lapse on its expiry in May 
1892, indeed, he frankly declared it to form the basis of his 
foreign policy. The at t itude of several of his colleagues was more 
equivocal, but though they coquetted with French financiers 
in the hope of obtaining the support of the Paris Bourse for 
Italian securities, the precipitate renewal of the alliance destroyed 
all probability of a dose understanding with France. The desire 
of Rudini to live on the best possible terms with all powers was 
further evinced in the course of a visit paid to Monza by M. de 
Giers in October 1891, when the Russian statesman was apprised 
of the entirely defensive nature of Italian engagements under 
the triple alliance. At the same time he carried to a successful 
conclusion negotiations begun by Crispi for the renewal of 
commercial treaties with Austria and Germany upon terms 
which to some extent compensated Italy for the reduction of 
her commerce with France, and concluded with Great Britain 
conventions for the delimitation of British and Italian spheres 
of influence in north-east Africa. In borne affairs his administra- 
tion was weak and vacillating, nor did the economies effected 
in naval and military expenditure and in other departments 
suffice to strengthen the position of a cabinet which bad dis- 
appointed the hopes of its supporters. On the 14th of April 

1892 dissensions between ministers concerning the financial 
programme led to a cabinet crisis, and though Rudmi succeeded 
in reconstructing his administration, he was defeated in the 
Chamber on the 5th of May and obliged to resign. King Humbert, 
who, from lack of confidence in Rudini, had declined ofeMtt 
to allow him to dissolve parliament, entrusted Signor 
Giolitti, a Piedmontese deputy, sometime treasury minister 
in the Crispi cabinet, with the formation of a ministry of 




the Left, which contrived. 16* obtain si* months' supply oft 
account, and dissolved the Chamber. 

The ensuing general election (November 1892), marked by 
unprecedented violence and abuse of official pressure upon 
A ^ the electorate, fitly ushered tn what proved to be 
the most unJortunate period of Italian history since 
Che completion of national unity. The influence of 
Gioliui was based largely upon the favour of a court clique, 
and especially of Rattazzi, minister of the royal household. 
Early in 1805 a scandal arose in connexion with the manage* 
ment of state banks, and particularly of the Banc* Romaua, 
whose managing director, Tanlongo, had issued £2,500,000 of 
duplicate bank-notes. Gioliui scarcely improved matters by 
creating Tanlongo a member of the senate, and by denying in 
parliament the existence of any mismanagement. The senate, 
however, manifested the utmost hostility to Tanlongo, whom 
Gioliui, in consequence of an interpellation in the Chamber, 
was compelled to arrest. Arrests of other prominent persons 
followed, and on the 3rd of February the Chamber authorized 
the prosecution of De Zerbi, a Neapolitan deputy accused of 
corruption. On the 20th of February De Zerbi suddenly 
expired. For a time Gioliui successfully opposed inquiry into 
the conditions of the state banks, but on the 21st of March was 
compelled to sanction an official investigation by a parliamentary 
commission composed of seven members. On the 23rd of 
November the report of the commission was read to the Chamber 
amid intense excitement. It established that all Italian cabinets 
since 1880 had grossly neglected the state banks; that the two 
preceding cabinets had been aware of the irregularities committed 
by Tanlongo; that Tanlongo had heavily subsidized the press, 
paying as much as £20,000 for that purpose in 1888 alone; 
that a number of deputies, intruding several ex-ministers, bad 
received from him loans of a considerable amount, which they 
had apparently made no effort to refund; that Giolitti had 
deceived the Chamber with regard to the state banks* and was 
open tosuspicionof ter the arrest of Tanlongo, abstracted 
a number of documents from the tatter's papers before placing 
the remainder in the bands of the judicial authorities. In spite 
of the gravity of the charges formulated against many prominent 
men. the report merely *' deplored " and " disapproved " of 
their conduct, without proposing penal proceedings. Fear of 
extending still farther a scandal which had already attained 
huge dimensions, and the desire to avoid any further shock to 
national credit, convinced the commissioners of the expediency 
of avoiding a long series of prosecutions. The report, however, 
sealed the fate of ihe£iolitti cabinet, and on the 24th of November 
h resigned amid general execration. 

Apart from the lack of scruple manifested by Giolitti in the 
bank scandals, he exhibited incompetence in the conduct of 
foreign and home affairs. On the 16th and 18th of 
August 1893 a number of Italian workmen were 
massacred at Aigues-Mortea, The French authorities, 
under whose eyes the massacre was perpetrated, did 
nothing to prevent or repress it, and the mayor of Marseilles 
even refused to admit the wounded Italian workmen to the 
municipal hospital. These occurrences provoked an ti Trench 
demonstrations in many parts of Italy, and revived the chronic 
Italian rancour against France. The Italian foreign minister. 
Brio, began by demanding the punishment of the persons 
guilty of the massacre, but hastened to accept as satisfactory the 
anodyne measures adopted by the French government.- Giobiti 
removed the prefect of Rome for not having prevented ah 
expression -of popular anger, and presented formal excuses to 
the French consul ai Messina for a demonstration against that 
consulate. -In. the fallowing. December the French tribunal at 
Angoultme acquitted alL the authors at the massacre. At 
home Giolitti displayed the same weakness. Riots at Naples 
in August 1803 and symptoms of unrest in Sicily found him* 
as usual, unprepared and vacillating. The dosing of the French 
market to Sicilian produce, the devastation wrought by the 
phylloxera and the decrease of the sulphur trade had combined 
to produce in Sicily a discontent of which Socialist agitators 

took advantage to organixe the workmen of the towns and 
the peasants ofc the country bio groups known as fascu 
The movement had no well-denned object. Here 
and there it was based upon a bastard Socialism, JjjJ^T* 
in other places it was made a means of municipal *±^ 
party warfare under the guidance of the local mafia, 
and in some districts it was simply popular effervescence against 
the local octrois on bread and flour. As early as January 1803 a 
conflict had occurred between the police and the populace, in 
which several men, women and children were killed , an occurrence 
used by the agitators further to inflame the populace. Instead 
Of maintaining a firm policy, Giolitti allowed the movement 
to spread until, towards the autumn of 1893, he became alarmed 
and drafted troops into the island, though in numbers insufficient 
to restore order, At the moment of his fall the movement 
assumed the aspect of an insurrection, and during the interval 
between bis resignation (24th November) and the formation 
of a new Crispi cabinet (toth December) conflicts between the 
public farces and the rioters were frequent. The return of Crispi 
to power— a return imposed by public opinion as that of the only 
man capable of dealing with the desperate situation— marked 
the turning-point of the crisis. Intimately acquainted with 
the conditions of his native island, Crispi adopted efficacious 
remedies. The/tori were suppressed, Sicily was filled with troops, 
the reserves were called out, a state of siege proclaimed, military 
courts instituted and the whole movement crushed in a few 
weeks. The chief agitators were either sentenced to heavy 
terms of imprisonment or were compelled to flee the country. 
A simultaneous insurrection at Massa Carrara was crushed 
with similar vigour. GrispTs methods aroused great outcry 
in the Radical press, but the severe sentences of the military 
courts were in time tempered by the Royal prerogative of 

But it was not alone in regard to public order that heroic 
measures were necessary. The financial situation inspired 
serious misgivings. While engagements contracted FSuAmJl j 
by Depretis in regard to public works had more than (riaiBm 
neutralized the normal increase of revenue from taxa- 
tion, the whole credit of the state had been affected by the 
severe economic and financial crises of the years 1S80-1S03. 
The state banks, already hampered by maladministration, 
were encumbered by. huge quantities of real estate which bad 
been taken over as compensation for unredeemed mortgages* 
Baron Sidney Sonnino, minister of finance in the Crispi cabinet, 
found a prospective deficit of £7.080.000. and in spite of economies 
was obliged to face an actual deficit of more than £6,000,000, 
Drastic measures were necessary to limit expenditure and to 
provide new sources of revenue. Sonnino applied, and sub- 
sequently amended, the Bank Reform Bill passed by the previous 
Administration (August 10, 1893) for the creation of a supreme 
state bank, the Bank of Italy, which was entrusted with the 
liquidation of the insolvent Banca Romana. The new law 
forbade the state banks to lend money on real estate, limited 
their powers of discounting bills and securities, and reduced the 
maximum of their paper currency. In order to diminish the 
gold premium, which under Giolitti had risen to 16%, forced 
currency was given to the existing notes of the banks of Italy, 
Naples and Sicily, while special state notes were issued to meet 
immediate currency needs. Measures were enforced to prevent 
Italian holders of consols from sending their coupons abroad to 
be paid in gold, with the result that, whereas in 1893 £3**40,000 
had been paid abroad in. gold for the service of the January 
coupons and only £680,000 in paper in Italy, the same coupon 
was paid a year later with only £1 ,360,000 abroad and £2.540,000 
at home. Economies for more than £1 ,000,000, were immediately 
effected, taxes, calculated to produce £2,440,000, were proposed 
to be placed upon land, incomes, salt and com, while the existing 
income-tax upon consols (fixed at 8% by Cambray-Digny an 
1868, and raised to 13*20% by Sella in 1870) was increased to 
20% irrespectively of the stockholders' nationality. These 
proposals met with opposition so fierce as to cause a cabinet 
crisis, but Sonnino who resigned office as minister of Anance, 

i*k<9o>] ITALY 

returned to power as minster of the treasury, promulgated some 
of his proposals by royal decree, and in spite of vehement 
opposition secured their ratification by the Chamber. The tax 
upon consols, which, in conjunction with the other severe fiscal 
measures, was regarded abroad as a pledge that Italy intended 
at all costs to avoid bankruptcy, caused a rise in Italian stocks. 
When the Crispi cabinet fell in March 1896 Sonnino had the 
satisfaction of seeing revenue increased by £3,400,000, expendi- 
ture diminished by £2,600,000, the gold premium reduced from 
16 to 5%, consolidated stock at 95 instead of 72, and, notwith- 
standing the expenditure necessitated by the Abyssinian War 1 , 
financial equilibrium practically restored. 

While engaged in restoring order and in supporting Sonnlno's 
courageous struggle against bankruptcy, Crispi became the 
AMmr ^ object of fierce attacks from the Radicals, Socialists 
•aCHsp*. tm * anarchists. On the 16th of June an attempt by 
an anarchist named Lego, was made on Crispi '5 life; 
on the 24th of June President Carnot was assassinated by the 
anarchist Caserio; and on the 30th of June an Italian journalist 
was murdered at Leghorn for a newspaper attack upon anarchism 
— a series of outrages which led the government to frame and 
parliament to adopt (nth July) a Public Safety Bill for the pre- 
vention of anarchist propaganda and crime. At the end of July 
the trial of the persons implicated in the Banca Romana scandal 
revealed the fact that among the documents abstracted by Giolitti 
from the papers of the bank manager, Tanlongo, were several 
bearing upon Crispi's political and private life. On the nth of 
December Giolitti laid these and other papers before the Chamber, 
in the hope of ruining Crispi, but upon examination most of them 
were found to be worthless, and the rest of so private a nature as 
to be unfit for publication. The eft>ct of the incident was rather 
to increase detestation of Giolitti than to damage Crispi. The 
latter, inJeed, prosecuted the former for libel and for abuse of 
his position when premier, but after many vicissitudes, including 
the flight of Giolitti to Berlin in order to avoid arrest, the 
Chamber refused authorization for the prosecution, and the 
matter dropped. A fresh attempt of the same kind was then 
made against Crispi by the Radical leader Cavallotti, who 
advanced unproven charges of corruption and embezzlement. 
These attacks were, however, unavailing to shake Crispi's 
position, and m the general election of May 1895 his government 
obtained a majority of nearly 200 votes. Nevertheless public 
confidence in the efficacy of the parliamentary system and in the 
honesty of politicians was seriously diminished by these un- 
savoury occurrences, which, in combination with the acquittal of 
all the defendants in the Banca Romana. trial, and the abandon- 
ment of the proceedings against Giolitti, reinforced to an alarm- 
ing degree the propaganda of the revolutionary parties. 

The foreign policy of the second Crispi Administration, in 
which the portfolio of foreign affairs was held by Baron Blanc, 
was, as before, marked by a cordial interpretation of 
tla the triple alliance, and by close accord with Great 
^a. Britain. In the Armenian question Italy seconded with 
energy the diplomacy of Austria and Germany, while 
the Italian fleet joined the British Mediterranean squadron in a 
demonstration off the Syrian coast. Graver than any foreign 
question were the complications in Eritrea. Under the arrange- 
ment concluded in 1891 by Rudini with native chiefs in regard 
to the Italo-Abysstnian frontier districts, relations with Abyssinia 
had remained comparatively satisfactory. Towards the Sudan, 
however, the Mahdists, who had recovered from a defeat inflicted 
by an Italian force at Agordat in 1890, resumed operations in 
December 1893. Colonel Arimondi, commander of the colonial 
forces in the absence of the military governor. General Baratieri, 
attacked and routed a dervish force 10,000 strong on the 21st of 
December. The Italian troops, mostly native levies, numbered 
only 2200 men. The dervish loss was more than rooo killed, 
while the total Italian casualties amounted to less than 230. 
General Baratieri. upon returning to the colony, decided to 
execute a coup it main against the dervish base at Kassata, both in 
order to relieve pressure from that quarter and to preclude a com- 
bined Abyssinian and dervish attack upon the colony at the end of 


1894. The protocol concluded with Great Britain on the r 5th of 
April 1 891 , already referred to, contained a clause to the effect that, 
were Kassala occupied by the Italians, the place should be trans- 
ferred to the Egyptian government as soon as the latter should 
be in a position to restore order in the Sudan. Concentrating a 
little army of 2000 men, Baratieri surprised and captured Kassala 
on the 17th of July 1894, and garrisoned the place with native 
levies under Italian officers. Meanwhile Menelek, jealous of the 
extension df Italian influence to a part of northern SomaUand 
and to the Benadir coast, had, with the sapport of France and 
Russia, completed his preparations for asserting his authority as 
independent ruler of Ethiopia. On the nth of May 1893 be 
denounced the treaty of Ucrialli, but the Giolitti cabitiet, absorbed 
by the bank scandals, paid no heed to his action. Possibly an 
adroit repetition in favour of Mangasha and against Menelek of 
the policy formerly followed in favour of Menelek against the 
negus John might have consolidated Italian influence in Abyssinia 
by preventing the ascendancy of any single chieftain. The 
Italian government, however, neglected this opening, and 
Mangasha came to terms with Menelek. Consequently the 
efforts of Crispi and his envoy, Colonel Piano, to conclude a new 
treaty with Menelek in June 1894 not only proved unsuccessful, 
but formed a prelude to troubles on the Itolo-Abyssinian frontier. 
Bath-Agos, the native chieftain who ruled the Oku)6-Kusai and 
the ds-Mareb provinces on behalf of Italy, intrigued with 
Mangasha, ras of the trans-Mareb province of Tigr£, and with 
Menelek, to raise a revolt against Italian rule on the high 
plateau. In December 1894 the revolt broke out, but Major 
Toselli with a small force marched rapidly against Bath Agos, 
whom he routed and killed at Halai. General Baratieri. having 
reason to suspect the complicity of Mangasha in the revolt, called 
upon him to furnish troops for a projected Italo-Abyssinian 
campaign against the Mahdists. Mangasha made no reply, and 
Baratieri crossing the March advanced to Adowa, but four days 
later was obliged to return northwards. Mangasha thereupon 
took the offensive and attempted to occupy the village of Coatit 
in Okule-Kusai, but was forestalled and defeated by Baratieri on 
the 13th of January 1895. Hurriedly retreating to Senate, hard 
pressed by the Italians, who shelled Senate on the evening of the 
15th of January, Mangasha was obliged to abandon his camp and 
provisions to Baratieri, who also secured a quantity of corre- 
spondence establishing the complicity of Menelek and Mangasha 
in the revolt of Bath-Agos. 

The comparatively facile success achieved by Baratieri 
against Mangasha seems to have led him to undervalue his 
enemy, and to forget that Menelek, negus and king 
of Shoa, had an interest in allowing Mangos hi to be ojjjn?" 
crushed, in order that the imperial authority and the 
superiority of Shoan over Tigrin arms might be the more strikingly 
asserted. After obtaining the establishment of an apostolic 
prefecture in Eritrea under the charge of Italian Franciscans, 
Baratieri expelled from the colony the French Lazarist mission- 
aries for their alleged complicity in the Bath-Agos insurrection, 
and in March -1895 undertook the conquest of Tigr*. Occupyihg 
Adigrat and Makalle, he reached Adowa on the 1st of April, and 
thence pushed forward to Axum, the holy city of Abyssinia. These 
places were garrisoned, and during the rainy season Baratieri 
returned to Italy, where he was received with unbounded 
enthusiasm. Whether he or the Crispi cabinet had any inkling 
of the enterprise to whkh they were committed by the occupa- 
tion of Tigrl is more than doubtful. Certainly Baratieri made 
no adequate preparations to repel an Abyssinian attempt to 
reconquer the province. Early in September both Mangasha 
and Menelek showed signs of activity, and on the 20th of Sep- 
tember Makonncn, ras of Harrar, who up till then had ben, 
regarded as a friend and quasi-ally by Italy, expelled all Italians 
from bis territory and marched with 30,600 men to jom the 
ttegus. On returning to Eritrea, Baratieri mobilized his native 
reserves and pushed forward columns under Major Toselli and 
General Arimondi as far south as Amba Magi. Mangasha fell 
back before the Italians, who obtained several minor successes; 
but on the 6th of December ToscUTs column, 2000 strong, *hicb 




thwuth a misunderstanding continued t* hold Amba Akgi, was 
«lm,«i wmlhiKiitfU by the Abyssinian vanguard of 40,000 men. 
twill «ml all but throe ofiicers and 300 men fell at their posts 
4MH a lUiHWlr resistance. Arimondi, collecting the survivors 
,q ihr lWlh wluinn, retreated to Makalle and Adigrat. At 
MaUW, howc\er, he left a small garrison in the fort, which on 
th» 11 h «( January 1896 was invested by the Abyaanian •nny. 
|ti<t*,ttftt attempts to capture the fort having failed, Mcnelek 
*»d Makonntn opened negotiations with Baratieri for itscapitula- 
turn and on tho aist of January the garrison, under Major 
IUIIIauo, who hod heroically defended the position, were per- 
mit trd to mnrch out with the honours of war. Meanwhile 
lUimirti rcicived reinforcements from Italy, but remained 
undecided as lo the best plan of campaign. Thus a month was 
lost, during which the Abyssinian army advanced to Hauscn, 
a position slightly south of Adowa, The Italian commander 
attempted to treat with Menelek, but his negotiations merely 
enabled the Italian envoy, Major Salsa, to ascertain that the 
Abyuinlftni were nearly 100,000 strong mostly armed with 
lilies and well supplied with artillery. Tho Italians, including 
ctimp-tollowera, numbered less than 35,000 men, a force too 
small for effective action, but too large to be easily provisioned 
at aoo m. from its base, in a roadless, mountainous country, 
slmosl devoid of water. For a moment Baratieri thought of 
retreat, especially as the hope of creating a diversion from Zaila 
towards Harrar had failed in consequence of the British refusal 
to permit the landing of an Italian force without the consent 
of France. The defection of a number of native allies (who, 
however, were attacked and defeated by Colonel Stevani on 
the 18th of February) rendered the Italian position still more 
precarious, but Baratieri, unable to make up bis mind, continued 
to manoeuvre in the hope of drawing an Abyssinian attack. 
These futile tactics exasperated the home government, which 
oil the 22nd of February despatched General Baldissera, with 
strong reinforcements, to supersede Baratieri. On the 25th of 
February Crispi telegraphed to Baratieri, denouncing bis opera- 
tions as " military phthisis/' and urging him to decide upon 
some strategic plan. Baratieri, anxious probably to obtain 
some success before the arrival of Baldissera, and alarmed by 
the rapid diminution of his stores, which precluded further 
immobility, called a council of war (2Qth of February) and 
obtained the approval of the divisional commanders for a plan 
of attack. During the night the army advanced towards 
Adowa in three divisions, under Generals Dabormida, Arimondi 
and Albertone, each division being between 4000 and 5000 
strong, and a brigade 5300 strong under General 
Ellena remaining in reserve. All the divisions, 
save that of Albertone, consisted chiefly of Italian 
troops. During the march Albertone's native division mistook 
the road, and found itself obliged to delay in the Arimondi column 
by retracing its steps. Marching rapidly, however, Albertone 
outdistanced the other columns, but, in consequence of allowing 
his men an hour's rest, arrived upon the scene of action when 
the Abyssinians, whom it had been hoped to surprise at dawn, 
were ready to receive the attack. Pressed by overwhelming 
forces, the Italians, after a violent combat, began to give way. 
The Dabormida division, unsupported by Albertone, found 
itself likewise engaged in a separate combat against superior 
numbers. Similarly the Arimondi brigade was attacked by 
30,000 Sboans, and encumbered by the debris of Albertone's 
troops. Baratieri vainly attempted to push forward the reserve, 
but the Italians were already overwhelmed, and the battle— or 
rather, series of distinct engagements— ended in a general rout. 
The Italian loss is estimated to have been more than 6000, 
of whom jus were whites. Between 3000 and 4000 prisoners 
were taken by the Abyssinians, including General Albertone, 
while Generals Arimondi and Dabormida were killed and General 
Kllena wounded. The Abyssinians lost more than 5000 killed 
and 8000 wounded. Baratieri, after a futile attempt to direct 
tho retreat, fled in haste and reached Adi-Caje before the debris 
of his army. Thence he despatched telegrams to Italy throwing 
blame for the defeat upon his tr<~~ * ~— — <*ing whidi sub* 

SET EUro * 

sequent evidence proved to be as unjustifiable as it was unsoMier- 
like. Placed under court-martial for his conduct, Baratieri 
was acquitted of the charge for having been led lo give battle 
by other than military considerations, but the sentence ** deplored 
that in such difficult circumstances the command should have 
been given to a general so inferior to the exigencies of the 

In Italy the news of the defeat of Adowa caused deep dis- 
couragement and dismay. On the 5th of March the Crispi 
cabinet resigned before an outburst of indignation which the 
Opposition had assiduously fomented, and five days later a new 
cabinet was formed by General Rkotti-Magnani, who, however, 
made over the premiership to the marquis di Rudini. The latter, 
though leader of the Right, had long been intriguing with 
Cavallotti, leader of the Extreme Left, to overthrow Crispi, but 
without the disaster of Adowa his plan would scarcely have 
succeeded. The first act of the new cabinet was to confirm 
instructions given by its predecessor to General Baldissera (who 
had succeeded General Baratieri on the 2nd of March) to treat 
for peace with Menelek if he thought desirable. Baldissera 
opened negotiations with the negus through Major Salsa, and 
simultaneously reorganized the Italian army. The negotiations 
having failed, he marched to relieve the beleaguered garrison 
of Adigrat; but Menelek, discouraged by the heavy losses at 
Adowa, broke up his camp and returned southwards 
to Shoa. At the same time Baldissera detached 2*22^ 
Colonel Stevani with four native battalions to relieve mta t. 
Kassala, then hard pressed by the Mahdists. Kassala 
was relieved on the 1st of April, and Stevani a few days later 
severely defeated the dervishes at Jebel Mokram and Tucrufi 
Returning from Kassala Colonel Stevani rejoined Baldissera, 
who on the 4th of May relieved Adigrat after a well-executed 
march. By adroit negotiations with Mangasha the Italian 
general obtained the release of the Italian prisoners in Tigrt, 
and towards the end of May withdrew his whole force north of 
the Mareb. Major Nerazzini was then despatched as special 
envoy to the negus to arrange terms of peace. On the 26th of 
October Nerazzini succeeded in concluding, at Adis Ababa, 
a provisional treaty annulling the treaty of Ucdalli, recognizing 
the absolute independence of Ethiopia, postponing for one year 
the definitive delimitation of the Italo-Abyssinian boundary, 
but allowing the Italians meanwhile to hold the strong Mareb- 
Belcsa-Muna line; and arranging for the release of the Italian 
prisoners after ratification of the treaty in exchange for an 
indemnity of which the amount was to be fixed by the ItaLan 
government The treaty having been duly ratified, and an 
indemnity of £400,000 paid to Menelek, the Shoan prisoners were 
released, and Major Nerazzini once more returned to Abyssinia 
with instructions to secure, if possible, Menekk's assent to tie 
definitive retention of the Mareb-Belesa-Muna line by Italy. 
Before Nerazzini could reach Adis Ababa, Rudini, in order 
partially to satisfy the demands of his Radical supporters for 
the abandonment of the colony, announced in the Chamber the 
intention of Italy to limit her occupation to the triangular zone 
between the points Asmara, Keren and Massawa, and. possibly, 
to withdraw to Massawa alone This declaration, of which 
Menelek was swiftly apprised by. French agents, rendered it 
impossible to Nerazzini to obtain more than a boundary leaving 
to Italy but a small portion of the high plateau and ceding to 
Abyssinia the fertile provinces of Serae and Okule-Kusai The 
fall of the Rudini cabinet in June 1808, however, enabled 
Signor Ferdinando Martini and Captain Cicco di Cola, who had 
been appointed respectively civil governor of Eritrea and minister 
resident at Adis Ababa, to prevent the cession of Serai and Okule- 
Kusai, and to secure the assent of Mcnelek to Italian retention 
of the Mareb-BelesarMuna frontier. Eritrea has now approxi- 
mately the same extent as before the revolt of Bath-Ago*, 
except in regard (1) to Kassala, which was transferred to the 
Anglo-Egyptian authorities on the 25th of December 1897, in 
pursuance of the above-mentioned Anglo-Italian convention, 
and (2) to slight rectifications of its northern and eastern bound- 
aries by conventions concluded between the Eritrean and tho 

itm w wl 



Anglo-Egyptian authorities. UfldirSigiiOffFcftlhMdoliutSM's 
Able srf ministration (1898-1906) the cost of the colony to Italy 
was reduced and its trade and agriculture have vastly improved. 

While marked in regard to Eritrea by vacillation and un- 
dignified readiness to yield to Radical clamour, the policy of 
the marquis di Rudini was in other respects chiefly characterized 
by a desire to demolish Crispi and his supporters. Actuated by 
rancour against Crispi, he, on the 29th of April 1806, authorized 
the pubacation of a Green Book on Abyssinian affairs, in which, 
without toe consent of Great Britain, the confidential Anglo- 
Italian negotiations in regard to the Abyssinian war were 
disclosed. This publication, which amounted to a gross breach 
of diplomatic confidence, might have endangered the cordiality of 
Aagio-Italian relations, had net the esteem of the British 
government for General Ferrero, Italian ambassador in London, 
induced it to overlook the incident. Fortunately for Italy, 
the marquis Visconti Venosta shortly afterwards consented 
to assume the portfolio of foreign affairs, which had been resigned 
by Duke Caetani di Sermoneta, and again to place, after an 
interval of twenty years, his unrivalled experience at the service 
of has country. In September 1806 he succeeded in concluding 
with France a treaty with regard to Tunisia in place of the old 
Italo-Tunisian treaty, denounced by the French Government a 
year previously. During the Greco-Turkish War of 1897 Visconti 
Venosta laboured to maintain the European concert, joined 
Great Britain in preserving Greece from the worst consequences 
of her folly, and Lent moral and material aid in establishing an 
autonomous government in Crete. At the same time he mitigated 
the Francophil tendencies of some of bis colleagues, accompanied 
King Humbert and Queen Margherita on their visit to Homburg 
in September 1807, and, by loyal observance of the spirit of the 
triple alliance, retained for Italy the confidence of her allies 
without forfeiting the goodwill of France. 

The home administration of the Rudini cabinet compared 
unfavousably with that of foreign affairs. Bound by a secret 
understanding with the Radical leader Cavallotti, an able but 
unscrupulous demagogue, Rudini was compelled to how to 
Radical exigencies. He threw all the influence of the government 
against Crispi, who was charged with complicity in embezzlements 
perpetrated, by Favilla, managing director of the Bologna 
branch of the Bank of Naples. After being subjected to persecu- 
tion for nearly two years, Grispi's character was substantially 
vindicated by the report of a parliamentary commission ap- 
pointed to inquire into his relations with Favilla. True, the 
commission proposed and the Chamber adopted a vote of censure 
upon Crispi's conduct in 1804, when, as premier and minister 
of the interior, he had borrowed £12,000 from Favilla to replenish 
the secret service fund, and had subsequently repaid the money 
as instalments for secret service were in due course furnished by 
the treasury. Though irregular, his action was to some extent 
justified by the depletion of the secret service fund under Giolitti 
and by the abnormal circumstances prevailing in i8Q3-r8o4t 
when he bad been obliged to quell the insurrections in Sicily 
and Massa-Carrara. But the Rudini-Cavallotti alliance was 
destined to produce other results than those of the campaign 
against Crispi Pressed by Cavallotti, Rudini in March 1897 
dissolved the Chamber and conducted the general election in 
such a way as to crush by government pressure the partisans of 
Crispi, and greatly to strengthen the (Socialist, Republican and 
Radical) revolutionary parties. More than ever at the mercy 
of the Radicalsand of their revolutionary allies, Rudini continued 
so to administer public affairs that subversive propaganda 
and associations obtained unprecedented extension. The effect 
was seen in May 1898, when, in consequence of a rise in the 
price of bread, disturbances occurred in southern Italy, The 
corn duty was reduced to meet the emergency, but the disturbed 
"-g. area extended to Naples, Foggia, Bari, Minervino- 

JJJ* 0f Murge, Molfetta and thence along the line of railway 
£J£ which skirls the Adriatic coast. At Faenza, Piacenza, 

Cremona, Pavia and Milan, where subversive associa- 
tions were stronger, it assumed the complexion of a political revolt. 
From the 7 th to the 9th of May Milan remained practically in 

the hands of the mob. A palace was tacked, barricades were 
erected and for forty-eight hours the troops under General 
Bava-Beccaris, notwithstanding the employment of artillery, 
were unable to restore order. In view of these occurrences, 
Rudini authorized the proclamation of a state of siege at Milan, 
Florence, Leghorn and Naples, delegating the suppression of 
disorder to special military commissioners. By these means 
order was restored, though not without considerable loss of life 
at Milan and elsewhere. At Milan alone the official returns 
confessed to eighty killed and several hundred wounded, a total 
generally considered below the real figures. As in 1894, excess- 
ively severe sentences were passed by the military tribunals 
upon revolutionary leaders and other persons considered to have 
been implicated In the outbreak, but successive royal amnesties 
obliterated these condemnations within three years. 

No Italian administration since the death of D-pretis under- 
went so many metamorphoses as that of the marquis di Rudini. 
Modified a first time within five months of its forma* 
lion (July 1896) in connexion with General Ricotti's 
Army Reform Bil, and again in December 1897, 
when ZanardeUi entered the cabinet, it was recon- 
structed for a third time at the end of May 1898 upon the 
question of a Public Safety Bill, but fell for the fourth and last 
time on the xSth of Tune 1808, on account of public indignation 
at the results of Rudmi's home policy as exemplified in the May 
riots. On the soth of June Rudini was succeeded in the premier- 
ship by General Ltrigi Pettoux, a Savoyard, whose only title to 
office was the confidence of the king. The Pelloux cabinet 
possessed no dear programme except in regard to the Public 
Safety Bill, which it had taken over from its predecessor. Pre- 
sented to parliament in November 1898, the bill was read a 
second time in the following spring, but its third reading was 
violently obstructed by the Socialists, Radicals and Republicans 
of the Extreme Left. After a series of scenes and scuffles the 
bill was promulgated by royal decree, the decree being post- 
dated to allow time for the third reading. Again obstruction 
precluded debate, and on the 22nd of July 1899 the decree 
automatically acquired force of law, pending the adoption of 
a bill of indemnity by the Chamber. In February 1900 it was, 
however, quashed by the Supreme court on a point of procedure, 
and the Public Safety Bfll as a whole had again to be presented 
to the Chamber. In view of the violence of Extremist obstruc- 
tion, an effort was made to reform the standing orders of the 
Lower House, but parliamentary feeling ran so high that Genera) 
Pelloux thought it expedient to appeal to the country. The 
general election of June 1900 not only failed to reinforce the 
cabinet, but largely increased the strength of the extreme 
parties (Radicals, Republicans and Socialists), who in the new 
Chamber numbered nearly roo out of a total of 508. General 
Pelloux therefore resigned, and on the 24th of June a moderate 
Liberal cabinet was formed by the aged Signor Saracco, president 
of the senate* Within five weeks of its formation King Humbert 
was shot by an anarchist assassin named Bresci while leaving 
an athletic festival at Monza, where his Majesty had distributed 
the prizes (29th July 1900). The death of the unfortunate 
monarch, against whom an attempt had previously 
been made by the anarchist Acciarito (22nd April 
1897), caused an outburst of profound sorrow and 
indignation. Though not a great monarch, King 
Humbert had, by his unfailing generosity and personal courage, 
won the esteem and affection of his people. During the cholera 
epidemic at Naples and Busca in 1884, and the Ischla earth- 
quake of 1885, be, regardless of danger, brought relief and en- 
couragement to sufferers, and Kscued many lives. More than 
£100,000 of his civil list was annually devoted to charitable pur- 
poses. Humbert was succeeded by his only son, Victor Aeetaaliao 
Emmanuel III. (b. November ir, 1869), a liberal- o/Kiag 
minded and well-educated prince, who at the time of victor 
his father's assassination was returning from a cruise Bmmummi 
in the eastern Mediterranean. The remains of King UL 
Humbert were laid to rest in the Pantheon at Rome beside 
those of his father, Victor Emmanuel II. (9th August). Two 





day* bier Victor Emmanuel IIL swore fidelity to the con- 
stitution before the assembled Houses of Parliament and in 
the presence of his consort, Elena, of Montenegro, whom he had 
married in October 1806. 

The later course of Italian foreign polky was marked by 
many vicissitudes. Admiral Canevaro, who had gained distinc- 
tion as commander of the international forces in 
Crete (1806-1808), assumed the direction of foreign 
affairs in the first period of the Pelloux administration. 
His diplomacy, though energetic, lacked steadiness. Soon after 
taking office he completed the negotiations begun by the Rudini 
administration for a new commercial treaty with France (October 
1898), whereby Franco-Italian commercial relations were placed 
upon a normal footing after a breach which had lasted for more 
than ten years. By the despatch of a squadron to South 
America be obtained satisfaction for injuries inflicted thirteen 
years' previously upon an Italian subject by the United States 
of Colombia. In December 1808 he convoked a diplomatic 
conference in Rome to discuss secret means for the repression 
of anarchist propaganda and crime in view of the assassination 
of the empress of Austria by an Italian anarchist (Luccheni), 
but it is doubtful whether results of practical value were achieved. 
The action of the tsar of Russia in convening the Peace Conference 
at The Hague in May 1900 gave rise to a question as to the right 
of the Vatican to be officially represented, and Admiral Canevaro, 
supported by Great Britain and Germany, succeeded in prevent- 
ing the invitation of a papal delegate. Shortly afterwards his 
term of office was brought to a close by the failure of an attempt 
to secure for Italy a coaling station at Sanmen and a sphere 
of influence in China; but his policy of active participation in 
Chinese affairs was continued in a modified form by his successor, 
the Marquis Visconti Venosta, who, entering the reconstructed 
Pelloux cabinet in May 1899, retained the portfolio of foreign 
affairs in the ensuing Saracco administration, and secured the 
despatch of an Italian expedition, aooo strong, to aid in repress- 
ing the Chinese outbreak and in protecting Italian interests 
in the Far East (July 1900). With characteristic foresight, 
Visconti Venosta promoted an exchange of views between Italy 
and France in regard to the Tripolitan hinterland, whkh the 
Anglo-French convention of 1899 had placed within the French 
sphere of influence — a modification of the statu* quo ante con- 
sidered highly detrimental to Italian aspirations in Tripoli. 
For this reason the Anglo-French convention had caused pro- 
found irritation in Italy, and had tended somewhat to diminish 
the cordiality of Anglo-Italian relations. Visconti Venosta 
is believed, however, to have obtained from France & formal 
declaration that France would not transgres? the limits assigned 
to her influence by the convention. Similarly, in regard to 
Albania, Visconti Venosta exchanged notes with Austria with 
a view to the prevention of any misunderstanding through the 
conflict between Italian and Austrian interests in that part of 
the Adriatic coast. Upon the fall of the Saracco cabinet (ojth 
February 1901) Visconti Venosta was succeeded at the foreign 
office by Signor Prinetti, a Lombard manufacturer of strong 
temperament, but without previous diplomatic experience. 
The new minister continued in most respects the policy of his 
predecessor. The outset of his administration was marked 
by Franco-Italian fetes at Toulon (10th to 14th April 1901), 
when the Italian fleet returned a visit paid by the French 
Mediterranean squadron to Cagliari in April 1800; and by the 
despatch of three Italian warships to Prevesa to obtain satis- 
faction fur damage done to Italian subjects by Turkish officials. 
The Saracco administration, formed after the obstructionist 
crisis of 1899-1 900 as a cabinet of transition and pacification* was 
7«m*» overthrown in February 1001 in consequence of its 
*<*• vacillating conduct towards s dock strike at Genoa. 

a*mti It was succeeded by a Zanardelli cabinet, in which the 
Cmblttt portfolio of the interior was allotted to Gioliiti. Com- 
posed mainly of elements drawn from the Left, and dependent 
for a majority upon the support of the subversive groups of the 
Extreme Left, the formation of this cabinet gave the signal for a 
vast working-class movement, during whkh ihe Socialist party 

sought to extend its political influence by means of strikes and 
the organization of labour leagues among agricultural labourers 
and artisans. The movement was confined chiefly to the 
northern and central provinces. During the first six months of 
100 1 the strikes numbered 600, and involved more than 1 ,000,000 
workmen. (H. W. S.) 

G. 1902-1909 

In 1901*1001 the social economic condition of Italy was a 
matter of grave concern. The strikes and other economic agita- 
tions at this time may be divided roughly into three Labaur 
groups: strikes in industrial centres for higher wages, umbtf. 
shorter hours and better labour conditions generally; 
strikes of agricultural labourers in northern Italy for better con- 
tracts with the landlords; disturbances among the south Italian 
peasantry due to low wages, unemployment (particularly in 
Apulia), and the claims of the labourers to public land occupied 
illegally by the landlords, combined with local feuds and the 
struggle for power of the various influential families. The 
prime cause in most cases was the unsatisfactory economic 
condition of the working classes, which they realized all the more 
vividly for the very improvements that had been made in it, 
while education and better communications enabled them to 
organize themselves. Unfortunately these genuine grievances 
were taken advantage of by the Socialists for their own purposes, 
and strikes and disorders were sometimes promoted without 
cause and conciliation impeded by outsiders who acted from 
motives of personal ambition or profit. Moreover, while many 
strikes were quite orderly; the turbulent character of a part of 
the Italian people and their hatred of authority often converted 
peaceful demands for better conditions into dangerous riots, in 
which the dregs of the urban population (known as leppisti or the 
mala vita) joined. 

Whereas in the past the strikes had been purely local and due 
to local conditions, they now appeared of more general and 
political character, and the " sympathy " strike came to be a 
frequent and undesirable addition to the ordinary economic 
agitation. The most serious movement at this time was that of 
the railway servants. The agitation had begun some fifteen 
years before, and the men had at various times demanded better 
pay and shorter hours, often with success. The next demand 
was for greater fixity of tenure and more regular promotion, as 
well as for the recognition by the companies of the railwayman's 
union. On the ath of January 190a, the employees of the 
Mediterranean, railway advanced these demands at a meeting ai 
Turin, and threatened to strike if they were not satisfied. By the 
beginning of February the agitation had spread all over Italy, and 
the government was faced by the possibility of a strike which 
would paralyse the whole economic life of the country. Then the 
Turin gas men struck, and a general " sympathy " strike broke 
out in that city in consequence, which resulted in scenes of 
violence lasting two days. The government called out all the 
rail way men who were army reservists, but continued to keep 
them at their railway work, exercising military discipline over 
them and thus ensuring the continuance of the service. At the 
same time it mediated between the companies and the employees, 
and in June a settlement was formally concluded between the 
ministers of public works and of the treasury and the directors of 
the companies concerning the grievances of the employees. 

One consequence of the agrarian agitations was the increased 
use of machinery and the reduction in the number of hands 
employed, which if it proved advrjuageous to the landlord and to 
the few labourers retained, who received higher wages, resulted 
in an increase of unemployment. The Socialist party, which had 
grown powerful under a series of weak-kneed administrations, 
now began to show Signs of division, on the one hand there was 
the revolutionary wing, led by Signor Enrico Ferri, the Mantuaa 
deputy, which advocated a policy of uncompromising class 
warfare, and on the other the rijtrmisti, or moderate Socialists, 
led by Signor Fflippo Turati, deputy for Milan, who adopted a 
more conciliatory attitude and were ready to ally themselves wSth 
other parliamentary parties. Later trie division took another 

aspect, the extreme wing rjemgconstfeuted by^ ihtsindhcalhti, who 
were opposed to all legislative parliamentary action and favoured 
only direct revolutionary propaganda by means of the siniacati or 
unions which organized strikes and demonstrations. In March 
1002 agrarian strikes organized by the leghe broke out in the 
district of Copparo and Pokstne (lower valley of the Po), owing 
to a dispute about the labour contracts, and in Apulia on account 
of unemployment. In August there were strikes among the dock 
labourers of Genoa and the iron workers of Florence; the latter 
agitation developed into a general strike in that city, which 
aroused widespread indignation among the orderly part of the 
population and ended without any definite result. At Como 
15,000 textile workers remained on strike for nearly a month, but 
there were no disorders. 

The year 1003, although not free from strikes and minor 
disturbances, was quieter, but in September 1004 a very serious 

situation was brought about by a general economic 
JJjJ^ and political agitation. The troubles began with the 
,994, disturbances at Buggeru in Sardinia and CasteUuzzo in 

Sicily, in both of which places the troops were compelled 
to use their arms and several persons were killed and wounded; 
at a demonstration at Sestri Ponente in Liguria to protest 
against what was called the Buggeru •' rriassacrc," four cara- 
bineers and eleven rioters were injured. The Monza labour 
exchange then took the initiative of proclaiming a general strike 
throughout Italy (September rsth> as a protest against the 
government for daring to maintain order. The strike spread to 
nearly all the industrial centres, although m many places it was 
limited to a few trades. At Milan it was more serious and fasted 
longer than elsewhere, as the movement was controlled by the 
anarchists under Arturo Labriola; the hooligans committed 
many acts of savage violerice, especially against those workmen 
who refused to strike, and much property was wilfuHy destroyed. 
At Genoa, which was in the hands of the UppisH for a couple of 
days, three persons were killed and 50 wounded, including 14 
policemen, and railway communications were interrupted for a 
short time. Venice was cut off from the mainland for two days 
and all the public services were suspended. Riots broke out also 
in Naples, Florence, Rome and Bologna. The deputies of the 
Extreme Left, instead of using their irifluence in favour of 
purification, could think of nothing better than to demand an 
immediate convocation of parliament m order that they might 
pment a bill forbidding t he troops and police to use their arms in 
alt conflicts between capital and labour, whatever the provocation 
might be. This preposterous proposal was of course not even 
discussed, and the movement caused a strong feeling of reaction 
against Socialism and of hostility to the government for its 
weakness; for, however much sympathy there might be with the 
genuine grievances of the working classes, the September strikes 
were of a frankly revolutionary character and had been fomented 
by professional agitators and kept going by the dregs of the 
people. The mayor of Venice sent a firm and dignified protest to 
the government for its inaction, and the people of Liguria raised 
a large subscription in favour of the troops, in recognition of 
their gallantry and admirable discipline during the troubles. 

Early in 1005 there was a fresh agitation among the railway 
servants, who were dissatisfied with the clauses concerning 
u^. . the personnel in the bill for the purchase of the lines 
J32** by the state. They initiated a system of obstruction 

which hampered and delayed the traffic without alto- 
gether suspending it. On the 17th of April a general railway 
strike was orrtered by the union, but owing to the action of the 
authorities, who for once showed energy, the traffic was carried 
on. Other disturbances of a serious character occurred among 
the steelworkers of iTerni, at Grammichele in Sicily and at 
Alessandria. The extreme parties now began to direct especial 
attention to propaganda in the army, with a view to destroying 
Us cohesion and thus paralysing the action of the government, 
The campaign was conducted on the lines of the anti-militarist 
movement m France identified with the name of Herv6. Fortu- 
nately, however, this pohcy was not successful, as military service 
h less unpopular in Italy than in many other countries; aggr ess iv e 
XV 2* 


militarism is quite unknown, and without it anti-murtarism can 
gain no foothold. No serious mutinies have ever occurred in 
the Italian army, and the only results of the propaganda were 
occasional meetings of hooligans, where Hcrvcist sentiments 
were expressed and applauded, and a few minor disturbances 
among reservists unexpectedly called back to the colours. 
In the army itself the esprit de corps and the sense of duty and 
discipline nullified the work of the propagandists. 

In June and July 1907 there were again disturbances among 
the agricultural labourers of Ferrara and Rovigo, and a wide- 
spread strike organized by the leghe throughout those —j. to 
provinces caused very serious losses to all concerned, jjjfc 
The legkisH, moreover, were guilty of much criminal 
violence; they committed one murder and established a veritable 
reign of terror, boycotting, beating and wounding numbers of 
peaceful labourers who would not join the unions, and brutally 
maltreating solitary policemen and soldiers. The authorities, 
however, by arresting a number of the more prominent leaders 
succeeded m restoring order. Almost immediately afterwards an 
agitation of a still less defensible character broke out in various 
towns under the guise of anti-clericalism. Certain scandals 
had come to light in a small convent school at Greco near Milan. 
This was seized upon as a pretext for violent anti-clerical demon- 
strations all over Italy and for brutal and unprovoked attacks 
on unoffending priests; at Spezia a church was set on fire and 
another dismantled, at Marino Cardinal Merry del Val was 
attacked by a gang of hooligans, and at Rome the violence of, 
the teppisti reached such a pitch as to provoke reaction on the 
part of all respectable people, and some of the aggressors were 
very roughly handled. The Socialists and the Freemasons were 
largely responsible for the agitation, and they filled the country 
with stories of other priestly and conventual immoralities, 
nearly all of which, except the original case at Greco, proved to 
be without 'foundation. In September 1007 disorders in 
Apulia over the rcpartitipn of communal lands broke out anew/ 
and were particularly serious 'at Ruvo, Bari, Cerignola and: 
Satriano del Colic. In some cases there was foundation for the- 
labourers' claims, but unfortunately the movement got into the. 
hands of professional agitators and common swindlers, and 
. the leader, a certain Giampctruzzi, who at one time seemed to 
be a worthy Colleague of Marcelin Albert, was afterwards tried 
and condemned for having cheated his own followers. 
• In October 1907 there was again a general strike at Milan, 
which was rendered more serious on account of . the action of 
the railway servants, and extended to other cities; traffic 
was disorganized over a large part of northern Italy, until the 
government, being now owner of the railways, dismissed the 
ringleaders from the service. This had the desired effect, and 
although the Sindacalo dei jcrrovieri (railway servants' union) 
threatened a general railway strike if the dismissed men were 
not reinstated, there was no further trouble. In the spring of 
1908 there were agrarian strikes at Parma; the labour contracts 
had pressed hardly On the peasantry, who had cause for complaint; 
but while some improvement had been effected in the new 
contracts, certain unscrupulous demagogues, of whom Alceste 
De Ambris, representing the " syndacalist " wing of the Socialist 
party, was the chief, organized a widespread agitation. The 
landlords on their part organized an agrarian union to defend 
their interests and enrolled numbers of non-union labourers to 
carry on the necessary work and save the crops. Conflicts 
occurred between the strikers and the independent labourers 
and the police; the trouble spread to the city of Parma, where 
violent scenes occurred when the labour exchange was occupied, 
by the troops, and many soldiers and policemen, whose behaviour 
as usual was exemplary throughout, were seriously wounded. 
The agitation ceased in June with the defeat of the strikers, 
but not until a vast amount of damage had been done to the 
crops and all had suffered heavy losses, including the government,' 
whose expenses for the maintenance of public order ran into tens' 
of millions of lire. The failure of the strike caused the Socialists 
to quarrel among themselves and to accuse each other of dis-' 
•honesty in the management of party funds; it appeared in fact 



that the Urge sums collected throughout Italy on behalf of the 
strikers had been squandered or appropriated by the " syndi- 
calist" leaders. The spirit of indiscipline had begun to reach 
the lower classes of state employees, especially the school teachers 
and the postal and telegraph clerks, and at one time it seemed 
as though the country were about to face a situation similar to 
that which arose in France in the spring of 1909. Fortunately, 
however, the government, by dismissing the ringleader, Dr 
Campanozzi, in time nipped the agitation in the bud, and it 
did attempt to redress some of the genuine grievances. Public 
opinion upheld the government in its attitude, for all persons 
of common sense realized that the suspension of the public 
services could not be permitted for a moment in a civilized 

In parliamentary politics the most notable event in 1902 
was the presentation of a divorce bill by Signor ZanardeUi's 

government; this was done not because there was any 

real demand for it, but to please the doctrinaire 
tfta. anti-clericals and freemasons, divorce being regarded 

not as a social institution but as a weapon against 
Catholicism. But while the majority of the deputies were 
nominally in favour of the bill, the parliamentary committee 
reported against it, and public opinion was so hostile that an 
anti-divorce petition received 3,500,000 signatures, including 
not only those of professing Catholics, but of free-thinkers and 
Jews, who regarded divorce as unsuitable to Italian conditions. 
The opposition outside parliament was in fact so overwhelming 
that the ministry decided to drop the bill. The financial situa- 
tion continued satisfactory; a new loan at 3$% was voted by 
the Chamber in April 1002, and by June the whole of it had been 
placed in Italy. In October the rate of exchange was at par, 
the premium on gold had disappeared, and by the end of the 
year the budget showed a surplus of sixteen millions. 

In January 1003 Signor Prinetti, the minister for foreign 
affairs, resigned on account of ill-health, and was succeeded by 

Admiral Morin, while Admiral Bettolo took the latter's 
jgf* place as minister of marine. The unpopularity of 

the ministry forced Signor Giolitti, the minister of the 
interior, to resign (June 1003), and he was followed by Admiral 
Bettolo, whose administration had been violently attacked by 
the Socialists; in October Signor Zanardc^i, the premier, 
resigned on account of his health, and the king entrusted the 
formation of the cabinet to Signor Giolitti. The latter accepted 
the task, and the new administration included Signor Tittoni, 
late prefect of Naples, as foreign minister, Signor Luigi Luzzatli, 
the eminent financier, at the treasury, General Pedotti at the 
war office, and Admiral Mirabello as minister of marine. Almost 
immediately after his appointment Signor Tittoni accompanied 
the king and queen of Italy on a state visit to France and then 
to England, where various international questions were discussed, 
and the cordial reception which the royal pair met with in London 
and at Windsor served to dispel the small cloud which.had arisen 
in the relations of the two countries on account of the Tripoli 
agreements and the language question in Malta. The premier's 
programme was not well received by the Chamber, although 
the treasury minister's financial statement was again satisfactory. 
The weakness of the government in dealing with the strike riots 
caused a feeling of profound dissatisfaction, and the so-called 
" experiment of liberty," conducted with the object of conciliat- 
ing the extreme parties, proved a dismal failure. In October 
1004, after the September strikes, the Chamber was dissolved, 
and at the general elections in November a ministerial majority 
was returned, while the deputies of the Extreme Left (Socialists, 
Republicans and Radicals) were reduced from 107 to 04, and 
a few mild clericals elected. The municipal elections in several 
of the larger cities, which had hitherto been regarded as strong- 
holds of socialism, marked an overwhelming triumph for the 
constitutional parties, notably in Milan, Turin and Genoa, for 
the strikes had wrought as much barm to the working classes 
as to the bourgeoisie. In spite of its majority the Giolitti 
caolnet, realizing that it had lost its hold over the country, 
resigned in March 1905. 

Signor Fortis then became premier and minister of the interior, 
Signor Maiorano finance minister and Signor Carcano treasury 
minister, while Signor Tittoni, Admiral Mirabello 1M _ 
and General Pedotti retained the portfolios they had JJJ* 
held in the previous administration. The new govern- 
ment was colour less in the extreme, and the premier's programme 
aroused no enthusiasm in the House, the most important bill 
presented being that for the purchase of the railways, which was 
voted in June 1905. But the ministry never had any real bold 
over the country or parliament, and the dissatisfaction caused 
by the modus vivendi with Spain, which would have wrought 
much injury to the Italian wine-growers, led to demonstrations 
and riots, and a hostile vote in the Chamber produced a cabinet 
crisis (December 17, 1905) ; Signor Fortis, however, reconstructed 
the ministry, inducing the marquis di San Giuliano to accept the 
portfolio of foreign affairs. This last fact was significant, as 
the new foreign secretary, a Sicilian deputy and a specialist on 
international politics, had hitherto been one of Signor Sonnino*s 
staunchest adherents; his defection, which was but one of many, 
showed that the more prominent members of the Sonnino party 
were tired of waiting in vain for their chief's access to power. 
Even this cabinet was still-born, and a hostile vote in the Chamber 
on the 30th of January 1006 brought about its fall. 

Now at last, after waiting so long, Signor Sonnino's hour had 
struck, and he became premier for the first time. This result 
was most satisfactory to all the best elements in the 
country, and great hopes were entertained that the B99 , 

advent of a rigid and honest statesman would usher 
in a new era of Italian parliamentary life. Unfortunately at 
the very outset of its career the composition of the new cabinet 
proved disappointing j for while such men as Count Guicriardim, 
the minister for foreign affairs, and Signor Luzzattt at the 
treasury commanded general approval, the choice of Signor 
Sacchi as minister of justice and of Signor Pantano as minister 
of agriculture and trade, both of them advanced and militant 
Radicals, savoured of an unholy compact between the prem i er 
and his erstwhile bitter enemies, which boded ill for the success 
of the administration. For this unfortunate combination Signor 
Sonnino himself was not altogether to blame; having lost many 
of his most faithful followers, who, weary of waiting for office, 
had gone over to the enemy, he had been forced to seek support 
among men who had professed hostility to the existing order ol 
things and thus to secure at least the neutrality of the Extreme 
Left and make the public realize that the " reddest " of 
Socialists, Radicals and Republicans may be tamed and rendered 
harmless by the offer of cabinet appointments. A similar 
experiment had been tried in France not without success. 
Unfortunately in the case of Signor Sonnino public opinion 
expected too much and did not take to the idea of such a com- 
promise. The new premier's first act was one which cannot be 
sufficiently praised: he suppressed all subsidies to journalists, 
and although this resulted in bitter attacks against him in the 
columns of the " reptile press " it commanded the approval of 
all right-thinking men. Signor Sonnino realized, however, that 
his majority was not to be counted on: " The country is with 
me," he said to a friend, " but the Chamber is against me." 
In April 1006 an eruption of Mount Etna caused the destruction 
of several villages and much loss of life and damage to property; 
in appointing a committee to distribute the relief funds the premier 
refused to include any of the deputies of the devastated districts 
among its members, and when asked by them for the reason of 
this omission, he replied, with a frankness more characteristic 
of the man than pontic, that he knew they would prove more 
solicitous in the distribution of relief for their own electors than 
for the real sufferers. A motion presented by the Socialists in 
the Chamber for the immediate discussion of a bill to prevent 
" the massacres of the proletariate " having been rejected by 
an enormous majority, the 28 Socialist deputies resigned their 
seats; on presenting themselves for re-election their number 
was reduced to 25. A few days later the ministry, having received 
an adverse vote on a question of procedure, sent in its resignation 
(May 17). 



The fall of Signor Sonnino, the disappointment caused by the 
aoa-fulfilment of the expectations to which his advent to power 
had given rise throughout Italy and the dearth of influential 
statesmen, made the return to power of Signor Giolitti inevitable. 
An appeal to the country might have brought about a different 
result, but it is said that opposition from the highest quarters 
rendered this course practically impossible. The change of 
government brought Signor Tittoni back to the foreign office; 
Signor Maiorano became treasury minister, General Vigand 
minister of war, Signor Cocco Ortu, whose chief claim to con- 
sideration was the fact of his being a Sardinian (the island had 
rarely been represented in the cabinet) minister of agriculture, 
Signor Gianturco of justice, Signor Massimini of finance, Signor 
Schanser of posts and telegraphs and Signor Fusinato of educa- 
tion. The new ministry began auspiciously with the conversion 
of the public debt from 4% to 3}%, to be eventually reduced 
*° 3s %• This operation had been prepared by Signor Luzzatti 
under Signor Sonnino 's leadership, and although carried out by 
Signor Maiorano it was Luzzatti who deservedly reaped the 
honour and glory; the bill was presented, discussed and voted 
by both Houses on the 29th of June, and by the 7th of July the 
conversion was completed most successfully, showing on how 
sound a basis Italian finance was now placed. The surplus for 
the year amounted to 65,000,000 lire. In November Signor 
Gianturco died, and Signor Pietro Bertolini took his place as 
minister of public works; the latter proved perhaps the ablest 
member of the cabinet, but the acceptance of office under Giolitti 
of a man who had been one of the most trusted and valuable 
fieutenants of Signor Sonnino marked a further step in the 
ilpingolade of that statesman's party, and was attributed to 
the fact that Signor Bertolini resented not having had a place 
in the late Sonnino ministry. General Vigand was succeeded 
in December by Senator Casana, the first civilian to become 
minister of war in Italy. He made various reforms which were 
badly wanted in army administration, but on the whole the 
experiment of a civilian " War Lord " was not a complete 
success, and in April 1909 Senator Casana retired and was suc- 
ceeded by General Spingardi, an appointment which received 
general approval. 

The elections of March 1009 returned a chamber very slightly 
different from its predecessor. The ministerial majority was 
over three hundred, and although the Extreme Left was some- 
what increased in numbers it was weakened in tone, and many 
of the newly elected " reds " were hardly more than pale pink. 

Meanwhile, the relations between Church and State began to 
show signs of change. The chief supporters of the claims of the 
papacy to temporal power were the clericals of France 
Zm f flftf ^ and Austria, but in 'the former country they had lost 
all influence, and the situation between the Church and 
the government was becoming every day more strained. 
With the rebellion of her " Eldest Daughter," the Roman 
Church could not continue in her old attitude of uncompromising 
hostility towards United Italy, and the Vatican began to realize 
the foUy of placing every Italian in the dilemma of being eilkar a 
good Italian or a good Catholic, when the majority wished to be 
both. Outside of Rome relations between the clergy and the 
authorities were as a rule quite cordial, and in May 1903 Cardinal 
Sarto, the patriarch of Venice, asked for and obtained an audience 
with the king when he visited that city, and the meeting which 
followed was of a very friendly character. In July following Leo 
XIII. died, and that same Cardinal Sarto became pope under the 
style of Pius X. The new pontiff, although nominally upholding 
the claims of the temporal power, in practice attached but little 
importance to it. At the elections for the local bodies the 
Catholics had already been permitted to vote, and, availing 
themselves of the privilege, they gained seats in many municipal 
councils and obtained the majority in some. At the general 
parliamentary elections of 1904 a few Catholics had been elected 
as such, and the encyclical of the 1 xth of June 1005 on the political 
organization of the Catholics, practically abolished the non 
expedil. In September of that year a number of religious institu- 
tions in the Near East, formerly under the protectorate of the 

French government, in view of the rupture between Church and 
State in France, formally asked to be placed under Italian pro* 
tection, which was granted in January 1007. The situation thus 
became the very reverse of what it had been in Crispi's time, 1 
when the French government, even when anti-clerical, protected 
the Catholic Church abroad for political purposes, whereas the 
conflict between Church and State in Italy extended to foreign 
countries; to the detriment of Italian political interests. A more 
difficult question was that of religious education in the public 
elementary schools. Signor Giolitti wished to conciliate the 
Vatican by facilitating religious education, which was desired 
by the majority of the parents, but he did not wish to offend the 
Freemasons and other anti-clericals too much, as they could 
always give trouble at awkward moments. Consequently the 
minister of education, Signor Rava, concocted a body of rules 
which, it was hoped, would satisfy every one: religious instruction 
was to be maintained as a necessary part of the curriculum, but 
in communes where the majority of the municipal councillors 
were opposed to it it might be suppressed; the council in that 
case must, however, facilitate the teaching of religion to those 
children whose parents desire it. In practice, however, when the 
council has suppressed religious instruction no such facilities are 
given. At the general elections of March 1009, over a score of 
Clerical deputies were returned, Clericals of a very mild tone who 
had no thought of the temporal power and were supporters of the 
monarchy and anti-socialists; where no Clerical candidate was 
in the field the Catholic voters plumped for the constitutional 
candftlate against all representatives of the Extreme Left. On 
the other hand, the attitude of the Vatican towards Liberalism 
within the Church was one of uncompromising reaction, and 
under the new pope the doctrines of Christian Democracy and 
Modernism were condemned in no uncertain tone. Don Romolo 
Murri, the Christian Democratic leader, who exercised much 
influence over the younger and more progressive clergy, having 
been severely censured by the Vatican, made formal submission, 
and declared his intention of retiring from the struggle. But he 
appeared again on the scene in the general elections of 1009, as a 
Christian Democratic candidate; he was elected, and alone of the 
Catholic deputies took his seat in the Chamber on the Extreme 
Left, where all his neighbours were violent anti-clericals. 

At 5 a.m. on the 28th of December 1908, an earthquake of 
appalling severity shook the whole of southern Calabria and the 
eastern part of Sicily, completely destroying the cities Bttth* 
of Reggio and Messina, the smaller towns of Canhello, «■■*» «r 
Scilla, Villa San Giovanni, Bagnara, Palmi, Mctito, 2ST**' 
Porto Salvo and Santa Eufemia, as well as a large 
number of villages. In the case of Messina the horror of the 
situation was heightened by a tidal wave. The catastrophe was 
the greatest of its kind that has ever occurred in any country; 
the number of persons killed was approximately 150,000, while 
the injured were beyond calculation. 

The characteristic feature of Italy's foreign relations during 
this period was the weakening of the bonds of the Triple Alliance 
and the improved relations with France, while the 
traditional friendship with England remained un- 
impaired. Franco-Italian friendship was officially 
cemented by the visit of King Victor Emmanuel and Queen 
Elena in October 1003 to Paris where they received a very cordial 
welcome. The visit was returned in April 1904 when M. 
Loubet, the French president, came to Rome.; this action was 
strongly resented by the pope, who, like his predecessor since 
1870, objected to the presence of foreign Catholic rulers in Rome, 
and led to the final rupture between France and the Vatican. 
The Franco-Italian understanding had the effect of raising 
Italy's credit, and the Italian rente, which had been shut out 
of the French bourses, resumed its place there once more, a fact 
which contributed to increase its price and to reduce the unfavour- 
able rate of exchange. That agreement also served to clear up 
the situation in Tripoli; while Italian aspirations towards 
Tunisia had been ended by the French occupation of that 
territory, Tripoli and Bengazi were now recognized as coming 
within the Italian " sphere of influence." The Tripoli hinterland, 





however, was in danger of being absorbed by otber powers 
having large African interests; the Anglo-French declaration 
of the a*at of March 1899 in particular aecmod likely to interfere 
with Italian activity. 

1 The Triple Alliance was maintained and renewed as far as 
paper documents were concerned (in June root it was reconfirmed 
for 1a years), but public opinion was no longer so favourably 
disposed towards lL Austria's petty persecutions of her Italian 
subjects in the irtedente provinces, her active propaganda 
incompatible with Italian interests in the Balkans, and the anti- 
Italian war talk of Austrian military circles, imperilled the 
relations of the two " allies "; it was remarked, indeed, that the 
object of the alliance between Austria and Italy was to prevent 
war between them. Austria had persistently adopted a j\>licy 
of pin-pricks and aggravating police provocation toward* the 
Italians of the Adriatic Littoral and of the Trentino, while 
encouraging the Slavonic clement in the former and the Germans 
in the latter. One of the causes of ill-feeling was the university 
question; the Austrian government had persistently refused 
to create an Italian university for its Italian subjects, fearing 
lest it should become a hotbed of " irredentism," the Italian- 
apcakiAg students being thus obliged to attend the German- 
Austrian universities. An* attempt at compromise resulted in 
the institution of an Italian law faculty at Innsbruck, but this 
aroused the violent hostility of the German students and populace, 
• ° ?* VC proof oi ***** ^P*" *" civilization by an unprovoked 
attack on the Italians in October 1002. Further acts of violence 
*crc committed by the Germans in 1003, which led to anti- 
Auatrian demonstrations in Italy. The worst tumults occurred 
alt ? v *? nbcr ,0 °4, when Italian students and professors were 
bv aK J** InnsDruck without provocation; being outnumbered 
w self ^Jf ** tD 0ne the Itauans werc forced l0 use their revolvers 
Ami I i? 611 ^ Md several persons were wounded on both sides, 
whil J * A n dcmonslra l*ons occurred periodically also at Vienna, 
(Italia ,n ?^ malia and Cr <>atia Italian fishermen and workmen 
of half 1 atJ * cns » not natives) were subject to attacks by gangs 
dents" 4 I age Croats » wnich led to frequent diplomatic " inci- 
lowarda tK fu 5 th . cr cause °* resentment was Austria's attitude 
of the * Vatic *n» inspired by the strong clerical tendencies 

Austrian 1>PCrlal iwnilv » ^ indeed of a large section of the 
Balkan Pco P* e * Bul thc most serious point at issue was the 
serious m^**- 1 *?"* * ta * ian P u °lic opinion could not view without 
was coJ!! 1581 ^ 11 ^ 8 the active political propaganda which Austria 
discussed U £ tm ? m Albania. The two governments frequently 
denying v siluatlon » but although they had agreed to a self- 
part of AH DanCe wherebv cach bound itself not to occupy any 
w f chardl t!!** t * r " torv ' Austria's declarations and promises 
Italy, th r ™ 6 . 0111 by the activity of her agents in the Balkans, 
schools e *f' Qrc i instituted a counter-propaganda by means of 
too* a*f* v commw cial agencies. The Macedonian troubles of 
ince by ih rought A "st"a and Italy into conflict. The accept- 
rtient of a powers oi lne MUrzsteg programme and the appoint- 
^ Austrian and Russian financial agents in Macedonia 

1 tier J* dv * nla « e f °r Austria and a set-back for Italy; but the 
corn ° a &ucccss in lhc appointment of General de Giorgis 
*? *l«I na ?^ er of the international Macedonian gendarmerie; 
A R • ained ' ^th the support of Great Britain, France 
A nd Kussia, th© assignment of the partly Albanian district of 
**? n *rv r to the Italian officers of that corps. 

In Y^tober joo8 came the bombshell of the Austrian annexa- 
tion 01 Bosnia, announced to King Victor Emmanuel and to 
otb« r rul *« by autograph letters from the emperor-king. The 
pew* caused the most widespread sensation, and public opinion 
jo Italy was greatly agitated at what it regarded as an act of 
brigandage on the part of Austria, when Signor Tittoni in a speech 
it Carate Brianza (October 6th) declared that " Italy might await 
events with serenity, and that these could find her neither unpre- 
pared nor isolated." These words were taken to mean that Italy 
would receive compensation to restore the balance of power 
upset in Austria's favour. When it was found that there was 
to be no direct compensation for Italy a storm of indignation 
v *s aroused against Austria, and also against Signor Tittoni. 

On the 29th of October, however, Austria abandoned her 
military posts in the sandjak of Novibazar, and the frontier 
between Austria and Turkey, formerly an uncertain one, which 
left Austria a half-open back door to the Aegean, was now a 
distinct line of demarcation. Thus the danger of a "pacific 
penetration " of Macedonia by Austria became more remote. 
Austria also gave way on another point, renouncing her right to 
police the Montenegrin coast and to prevent Montenegro from 
having warships of its own (paragraphs 5, 6 and n of art. 29 of 
the Berlin Treaty) in a note presented to the Italian foreign 
office on the xath of April 1909. Italy had developed some 
important commercial interests in Montenegro, and anything 
which strengthened the position of that principality was a 
guarantee against further Austrian.encroachments. The harbour 
works in the Montenegrin port of Antivari, commenced in 
March 1905 and completed early in 1909, were an Italian 
concern, and Italy became a party to the agreement for the 
Danube-Adriatic Railway (June 2, 1008) together with Russia, 
France and Servia; Italy was to contribute 35,000,000 lire out 
of a total capital of 100,000,000, and to be represented by four 
directors out of twelve. But the whole episode was a warning 
to Italy, and the result was a national movement for security. 
Credits for the army and navy were voted almost without a 
dissentient voice; new battleships were laid down, the strength 
of the army was increased, and the defences of the exposed 
eastern border were strengthened. It was clear that so long as 
Austria, bribed by Germany, could act in a way so opposed to 
Italian interests in the Balkans, the Triple Alliance was a 
mockery, and Italy could only meet the situation by being 
prepared for all contingencies. 

no great scientific importance, and Cesare Balbo's Sammaho 
(Florence, 1856) presents the main outlines of the subject with 
brevity and clearness. For the period of the French revolution and 
the Napoleonic wars see F. Lcmmi's Le Origini del risorgtmenit 
italiano (Milan, 1906); E. Bonnal de Ganges, La Chute dune rf* 
publiaue [Venise) (Paris, 1885); D. Carutti, Storia delta cvrte di 
Savoia durante la rivoluzione e V impero Jranccse (a vols*, Turin, 
1892) ; G. de Castro, Sloria d' Italia dal 1797 al 1814 (Milan, 1881); 
A. Dufourcq, Le Regime jacobin en Jtalte, 1796-1700 (Paris, 1900); 
A. Franchetti, Storia d" Italia dal 1780 al 1700 (Milan, 1878): P. 
Gaffarel, Bonaparte et Us ripubliquei itatienmes (ifoti-ijoo) (Paris, 
189S); R. M. Johnston, The Napoleonic Empire in Southern Italy 
(2 vols., with full bibliography, London, 1904); E. Ramondira, 
U Italia durante la dominazione francese (Naples, 1882); E, Ruth, 
Cesehuhte des italienischen Volhes unter der uapoleonischen Herrschafl 
(Leipzig, 1859). For modern timet* see Bolton King's History of 
Italian Unity (1899) and Bolton King and Thomas Okey s Italy 
To-day (1901). With regard to the history of separate provinces xt 
may suffice to notice N. Machiavelirt Storia fiorenlina, B. Corio*s 
Sloria di Milano, G. Capponi's Storia delta ttpubblica di Firenu 
(Florence, 1875). P. Villari s / primi due secoli delta storia di Firenu 
(Florence, 1905), F. Pagano's I storia del regno di Napoit (Palermo- 
Naples, 1832, &c-), P. Romanin's Storia documentata d\ Venma 
(Venice. 1853), M. Amari's Musulmani di Sicitia (1854-1875), 
F. Gregorovius't Cesehiehte der Stadl Rom (Stuttgart, 1881), A. von 
Reumont* CeuhuhU der Stadl Rom (Berlin. 1867). L- Cibrario's 
Storia delta monorchia picmonicse (Turin, 1840), and D. Caruttfi 



Storia itfta. dMomweia deOa eerie di Sofia .(Rome, 1875). The 
Archivii storici and Deputasi&ni di storia patria of the various Italian 
towns and provinces contain a great deal of valuable material for 
local history. From the point of view of papal history, L. von 
Ranke's History of the Popes (English edition, London, 1870), M. 
Creighton's History of the Papacy (London, 1897) and L. Pastor's 
Gesckickteder Pdpste (Freiburg 1. B., 1886-1896), should be mentioned. 
From the point of view 01 general culture, Jacob Burckhardt's 
Culinr der Renaissance in Italic* (Basel, i860), E. Guinet's Revolu- 
tions d'ludit (Paris, 1857)1 and j. A. Symonds's Renaissance in Italy 
(5 vols., London, 1875, &c) should be consulted. (JL V.*) 

ITEM (a Latin adverb meaning M also/' " likewise ")> originally 
wed adverbially in English at the beginning of each separate 
head in a list of articles* or each detail in an account book or 
ledger or in * legal document. The word is thus applied, as a 
noun, to the various heads in any such- enumeration and also 
to a piece of information or news. 

ITHACA (m«j), vulgarly Thiaki (&&«*), next to Paxo 
the smallest of the seven Ionian Islands, with an area of about 
44 sq. m. It forms an eparchy of the nomos of Cepbalonia in 
the kingdom of Greece, and its population, which was 9873 in 
1870, is now about 13,000. The island consists of two mountain 
masses, connected by ft narrow isthmus of hills, and separated 
by a wide inlet of the sea known as the Gulf of Mob. The northern 
and greater mass culminates in the heights of Anoi (3650 ft.), 
and the southern in Hagfos Stephanos, or Mount MerovigU 
(2100 ft.).. Vathy (Bo0fr-"deep "), the chief town and port 
of the island, lies at the northern foot of Mount Stephanos, 
iu whitewashed houses stretching for about a mile round the 
deep bay in the Gulf of Molo* to which it owes its name. As 
there are only one or two small stretches of arable land m Ithaca, 
the inhabitants are dependent on commerce for their grain 
supply; and olive oil, wine and currants are the principal 
products obtained by the cultivation of the thin stratum of 
soil that covers the calcareous rocks. Goats are fed in con- 
siderable number on the brushwood pasture of the hills; and 
hares (in spite of Aristotle's supposed assertion of their absence) 
are exceptionally abundant. The island is divided into four 
districts: Vathy, Aeto (or Eagle's Cliff), Anoge (Anoi) or 
Upland, and Exoge (Exoi) or Outland. 

The name has remained attached to the island from the 
earliest historical times with but little interruption of the tradi- 
tion; though in Brampton's travels (12th century) and in the 
old Venetian maps we find it called Fale ox Val de Compar, and 
at a later date it not unfrequently appears as Little Cepbalonia. 
This last name indicates the general character of Ithacan history 
(if history it can be called) in modern and indeed in ancient times; 
for the fame of the island is almost solely due to its position 
in the Homeric story of Odysseus. Ithaca, according to the 
Homeric epos, was the royal seat and residence of King Odysseus. 
The island is incidentally described with no small variety of 
detail, picturesque and topographical; the Homeric localities 
for which counterparts have been sought are Mount Neritos, 
Mount Neion, the harbour of Phorcys, the town and palace of 
Odysseus, the fountain of Arethusa, the cave of the Naiads, the 
stalls of the swineherd Eumaeus, the orchard of Laertes, the 
Korax or Raven Cliff and the island Asteris, where the suitors 
lay in ambush for Telemachus. Among the " identificationists " 
there are two schools, one placing the town at Polis on the west 
coast in the northern half of the island (Leake, Gladstone, &c), 
and the other at Aeto on the isthmus. The latter site, which 
was advocated by Sir William Cell (Topography and Antiquities 
of Ithaca, London, 1807), was supported by Dr H. Schliemann, 
who carried on excavations in 1873 and 1878 (seeH. Schliemann, 
llhaque, U Pttoponncst, Troie, Paris, 1869, also published in 
German; his letter to The Times, 26th of September, 187S; 
and the author's life prefixed to Ilios, London, 1880). But 
his results were mainly negative. The fact is that no amount 
of ingenuity can reconcile the descriptions given in the Odyssey 
with the actual topography of this island. Above all, the passage 
in which the position of Ithaca is described offers great difficulties. 
" Now Ithaca lies low, farthest up the sea line towards the 
darkness, but those others face the dawning and the sun " 
(Butcher and Lang). Such a passage fits very ill an island 

lying, as Ithaca does, just to the east of Cephalonfe. Accordingly 
Professor W. Ddrpfeld has suggested that the Homeric Ithaca 
is not the island which was called Ithaca by the later Greeks, 
but must be identified with Leucas (Santa Maura, q.v.). He 
succeeds in fitting the Homeric topography to this latter island, 
and suggests that the name may have been transferred in con- 
sequence of a migration of the inhabitants. There is no doubt 
that Leucas fits the Homeric descriptions much better than 
Ithaca; but, on the other hand, many scholars maintain that 
it is a mistake to treat the imaginary descriptions of ft poet as 
if they were portions of a guide-book, or to look, in the author 
of the Odyssey, for a dose familiarity with the geography of the 
Ionian islands. 

ks oa 
It! crlin, 

18 hens, 

18 rcher, 

in recce: 

Bi ms of 

stc ipzig. 

18 Id in 

U tkaka 

(S a.) , 

ITHACA, a city and the county-seat of Tompkins county. 
New York, U.S.A., at the southern end of Cayuga Lake, 60 m. 
S.W. of Syracuse. Pop. (1890) 11,079, (rooo) 13,136, of whom 
13 10 were foreign-born, (19 10 census) 14,802. It is served 
by the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western and the Lehigh 
Valley railways and by interurban electric line; and steam- 
boats ply on the lake. Most of the city is in the level valley, 
from which it spreads up the heights on the south, east and 
west. The finest residential district is East Hill, particularly 
Cornell and Cayuga Heights (across Fall Creek from the Cornell 
campus). Ren wick Beach, at the head of the lake, is a pleasure 
resort. The neighbouring region is one of much beauty, and is 
frequented by summer tourists. Near the city are many water- 
falls, the most notable being Taughannock Falls (9 m. N.), with 
a fall of 215 ft. Through the city from the east run Fall, Cas- 
cadilla and Six Mile Creeks, the first two of which have cut 
deep gorges and have a number of cascades and waterfalls, 
the largest, Ithaca Fall in Fall Creek, being 120 ft. high. Six 
Mile Creek crosses the south side of the city and empties into 
Cayuga Inlet, which crosses the western and lower districts, 
often inundated in the spring. The Inlet receives the waters of 
a number of small streams descending from the south-western 
hills. Among the attractions In this direction are Buttermilk 
Falls and ravine, on the outskirts of the city. Lick Brook Falls 
and glen and Enfield Falls and glen, the last 7 m. distant. 
Fall Creek furnishes good water-power. The city has various 
manufactures, including fire-arms, calendar clocks, traction 
engines, electrical appliances, patent chains, incubators, auto- 
phones, artesian well drills* salt, cement, window glass and wall* 
paper. The value of the factory product increased from 
$1,500,604 in 1000 to $2,080,002 in 1005, or 38-6%. Ithaca 
is also a farming centre and coal market, and much fruit is grown 
in the vicinity. The city is best known as the seat of Cornell 
University (q.vj. It has also the Ezra Cornell Free Library 
of about 28,000 volumes, the Ithaca Conservatory of Music, 
the Cascadilla School and the Ithaca High School. Ithaca 
was settled about 1789, the name being given to it by Simeon 
De Witt in 1,806. It was incorporated as a village in 1821, and 
was chartered as a city in x888. At Buttermilk Falls stood 
the principal village of the Tutelo Indians, Coreorgoncl, 
settled in 1753 and destroyed in 1779 by ft detachment of 
Sullivan's force. 

ITINERARIUM (i.e. road-book, from Lat. iter, road), a term 
applied to the extant descriptions of the ancient Roman roads 
and routes of traffic, with the stations and distances. It is 
usual to distinguish two classes of these, 1 liner aria adnotata or 
scripta and J liner aria picla—-lht former having the character 
of a book, and the latter being a kind of travelling map. Of 
the Itineraria Scripta the most Important are: (1) //. Antonini 
(see Antonini Ixinxbarium), which consist* of two parts, the 



one dealing with roads in Europe, Asia and Africa, and the other 
with familiar sea-routes— the distances usually being measured 
from Rome; (a) //. Hierasatynritanum or Burdigalcnse, which 
belongs to the 4th century, and contains the route of a pilgrimage 
from Bordeaux to Jerusalem and from Heraclea by Rome to 
Milan (ed. G. Parthcy and M. Finder, 1848, with the Ilinerarium 
Autonini); (3) //. Altxcndri, containing a sketch of the march- 
route of Alexander the Great, mainly derived from Arrian and 
prepared for Const an tius's expedition in aj>. 340-34$ against 
the Persians (ed. D. Volkmann, 1871). A collected edition of 
the ancient itineraria, with ten maps, was issued by Fortia 
d'Urban, Rtcueil des iUntraires anciens (184$). Of the Itineraria 
Picta only one great example has been preserved. This is the 
famous Tabula Peulingcriana, which, without attending to the 
shape or relative position of the countries, represents by straight 
lines and dots of various sizes the roads and towns of the whole 
Roman world (facsimile published by K. Miller, x888; see also 

ITIUS PORTUS, the name given by Caesar to the chief harbour 
which he used when embarking for his second expedition to 
Britain in 54 B.C. {De bcllo Callica, v. 2). It was certainly 
near the uplands round Cape Grisnez (Promuntorium Ilium), 
but the exact site has been violently disputed ever since the 
renaissance of learning. Many critics have assumed that Caesar 
used the same port for his first expedition, but the name does not 
appear at all in that connexion (B. G. iv. 31-23). This * act > 
coupled with other considerations, makes it probable that the 
two expeditions started from different places. It is generally 
agreed that the first embarked at Boulogne. The same view 
was widely held about the second, but T. Rice Holmes in an 
article in the Classical Review (May 1000) gave strong reasons 
for preferring Wissant, 4 m. east of Grisnez. The chief reason is 
that Caesar, having found he could not set sail from the small 
harbour of Boulogne with even 80 ships simultaneously, decided 
that he must take another point for the sailing of the " more 
than 800" ships of the second expedition. Holmes argues 
that, allowing for change in the foreshore since Caesar's time, 
800 specially built ships could have been hauled above the 
highest spring-tide level, and afterwards launched simultaneously 
at Wissant, which would therefore have been " commodissimus " 
(v. 2) or opposed to " brevissimus traiectus " (iv. 21). 

See T. R. Holmes in Classical Review (May 1909), in which he 

girt tally revises the conclusions at which he arrived in his A ncient 
rtlain (1907), pp. 552-594; that the first expedition started from 
Boulogne is accepted, «.f. by H. Stuart Jones, in Enfluh Historical 
Review (1909), xxiv. 215; other authorities in Holmes's article. 

170. HIROBTJMI, Prince (1841-1009), Japanese statesman, 
was born in 1841, being the son of Ito J0z6, and (like his father) 
began life as a retainer of the lord of Choshu, one of the most 
powerful nobles of Japan. Choshu, in common with many of his 
fellow Daimyos, was bitterly opposed to the rule of the shogun 
or tycoon, and when this rule resulted in the conclusion of the 
treaty with Commodore M. C. Perry in 1854, the smouldering 
discontent broke out into open hostility against both parties 
to the compact. In these views Ito cordially* agreed with 
his chieftain, and was sent on a secret mission to Yedo to report 
to his lord on the doings of the government. This visit had the 
effect of causing Ito to turn his attention seriously to the study 
of the British and of other military systems. As a result he 
persuaded Choshu to remodel his army, and to exchange the 
bows and arrows of his men for guns and rifles. But Ito felt 
that his knowledge of foreigners, if it was to be thorough, should 
be sought for in Europe, and with the connivance of Choshu he, 
in company with Inouye and three other young men of the same 
rank as himself, determined to risk their lives by committing 
the then capital offence of visiting a foreign country. With great 
secrecy they made their way to Nagasaki, where they concluded 
an arrangement with the agent of Messrs Jardine, Matheson & Co. 
for passages on board a vessel which was about to sail for 
Shanghai (1863). At that port the adventurers separated, three 
of their number taking ship as passengers to London, while Ito 
and Inouye preferred to work their passages before the mast 

in the " Pegasus," bound for the same destination. For a year these 
two friends remained in London studying English methods 
but then events occurred in Japan which recalled them to then 
country. The treaties lately concluded by the shogun with the 
foreign powers conceded the right to navigate the strait of 
Shimonoseki, leading to t he Inland Sea. On the northern shores 
of this strait stretched the feudal state ruled over by Prince 
Choshu, who refused to recognize the clause opening the strait, 
and erected batteries on the shore, from which he opened fire 
on all ships which attempted to force the passage. The shogun 
having declared himself unable in the circumstances to gfve effect 
to the provision, the treaty powers determined to take the 
matter into their own hands. Ito, who was better aware than 
his chief of the disproportion between the fighting powers of 
Europe and Japan, memorialized the cabinets, begging that 
hostilities should be suspended until he should have had time to 
use his influence with Choshu in the interests of peace. With 
this object Ito hurried back to Japan. But his efforts were 
futile. Choshu refused to give way, and suffered the conse- 
quences of his obstinacy in the destruction of his batteries and 
in the infliction of a heavy fine. The part played by Ito in these 
negotiations aroused the animosity of the more reactionary of 
his fellow-clansmen, who made repeated attempts to assassinate 
him. On one notable occasion he was pursued by his enemies 
into a tea-house, where he was concealed by a young lady beneath 
the floor of her room. Thus began a romantic acquaintance, 
which ended in the lady becoming the wife of the fugitive. 
Subsequently (1868) Ito was made governor of Hiogo, and in the 
course of the following year became vice-minister of finance. 
In 187 1 he accompanied Iwakura on an important mission to 
Europe, which, though diplomatically a failure, resulted in the 
enlistment of the services of European authorities on military, 
naval and educational systems. 

After his return to Japan Ito served in several cabinets as 
head of the bureau of engineering and mines, and in 1886 be 
accepted office as prime minister, a post which, when he resigned 
in ioox, he had held four times. In 1882 he was sent on s 
mission to Europe to study the various forms of constitutional 
government; on this occasion he attended the coronation of the 
tsar Alexander III. On his return to Japan he was entrusted 
with the arduous duty of drafting a constitution. In 1890 he 
reaped the fruits of his labours, and nine years later be was 
destined to witness the abrogation of the old treaties, and the 
substitution in their place of conventions which place Japan on 
terms of equality with the European states. In all the great 
reforms in the Land of the Rising Sun Ito played a leading part. 
It was mainly due to his active interest in military and naval 
affairs that he was able to meet Li Hung-chang at the end of 
the Chinese and Japanese War (1895) as the representative of 
the conquering state, and the conclusion of the Anglo- Japanese 
Alliance in 1902 testified to his triumphant success in raising 
Japan to the first rank among civilized powers. As a reward for 
his conspicuous services in connexion with the Chinese War Ito 
was made a marquis, and in 1897 he accompanied Prince Arisu- 
gawa as a joint representative of the Mikado at the Diamond 
Jubilee of Queen Victoria. At the close of 1001 he again, though 
in an unofficial capacity, visited Europe and the United States; 
and in England he was created a G.C.B. After the Russo- 
Japanese War (190s) he was appointed resident general in Korea, 
and in that capacity he was responsible for the steps taken to 
increase Japanese influence in that country. In September 
roo7 he was advanced to the rank of prince. He retired from 
his post in Korea in July 1909, and became president of the 
privy council in Japan. But on the *6th of October, 
when on a visit to Harbin, he was shot dead by a Korean 

He is to be distinguished from Admiral Count Yuko Ito (b. 1843), 
the distinguished naval commander. 

ITRI. a town of Campania, Italy, in the province of Caserts, 
6 m. by road N.W. of Formia. Pop. (1901) 5797. The town is 
picturesquely situated 690 ft. above sea-level, in the mountains 
which the Via Appia traverses between Fondi and Formia. 



Inteiestiig remains of the substruction wall supporting the 
ancient road axe preserved in Itri itself; and there are many 
remains of ancient buildings near it. The brigand Fra Diavolo, 
the hero of Aubcr's opera, was a native of ltri, and the place 
was once noted for brigandage. 

ITURBIDE (or Ytumxdx), AUOUSTIN DE (1783-1824), 
emperor of Mexico from May 1822 to March 1823, was born on 
the 27th of September 1793, at Valladolid, now Mordia, in 
Mexico, where his father, an Old Spaniard from Pampeluna, 
had settled with his Creole wife. After enjoying a better educa- 
tion than was then usual in Mexico, Iturbide entered the military 
service, and in 1810 held the post of lieutenant in the provincial 
regiment of his native city. In that year the insurrection under 
Hidalgo broke out, and Iturbide, more from policy, it would seem, 
than from principle, served in the royal army. Possessed of 
splendid courage and brilliant military talents, which fitted him 
especially for guerilla warfare, the young Creole did signal service, 
and rapidly rose in military rank. In December 1813 Colonel 
Iturbide, along with General Llano, dealt a crushing blow to 
the revolt by defeating Morelos, the successor of Hidalgo, in the 
battle of Valladolid; and the former followed it up by another 
decisive victory at Puruaran in January 1814. Next year Don 
Augustin was appointed to the command of the army of the north 
and to the governorship of the provinces of Valladolid and 
Guanajuato, but in 1816 grave charges of extortion and violence 
were brought against him, which kd to his recall. Although 
the general was acquitted, or at least although the inquiry was 
dropped, he did not resume his commands, but retired into private 
life for four years, which, we are told, he spent in a rigid course 
of penance for his former excesses. In 1820 Apodaca, viceroy 
of Mexico, received instructions from the Spanish cortes to 
proclaim the constitution promulgated in Spain in 181 2, but 
although obliged at first to submit to an order by which his 
power was much curtailed, be secretly cherished the design of 
reviving the absolute power for Ferdinand VII. in Mexico. 
Under pretext of putting down the lingering remains of revolt, 
he levied troops, and, placing Iturbide at their head, instructed 
him to proclaim the absolute power of the king. Four years of 
reflection, however, had modified the general's views, and now, 
led both by personal ambition and by patriotic regard for his 
country, Iturbide resolved to espouse the cause of national, 
independence. His subsequent proceedings— how he issued the 
Plan of IguaJc, on the 24th of February 1821, how by the refusal 
of the Spanish cortes to ratify the treaty of Cordova, which he 
bad signed with O'Donoju, he was transformed from a mere 
champion of monarchy into a candidate for the crown, and how, 
hailed by the soldiers as Emperor Augustin L on the 18th of 
May 1822, he was compelled within ten months, by his arrogant 
neglect of constitutional restraints, to tender his abdication to 
a congress which he had forcibly dissolved-rwill be found 
detailed under M exico. Although the congress refused to accept 
bis abdication on the ground that to do so would be to recognize 
the validity of his election, it permitted the ex-emperor to retire 
to Leghorn in Italy, while in consideration of his services in 1820 
a yearly pension of £5000 was conferred upon him. But Iturbide 
resolved to make one more bid for power; and in 1824, passing 
from Leghorn to London, he published a Statement, and on the 
11 th of May set sail for Mexico. The congress immediately issued 
an act of outlawry against him, forbidding him to set foot on 
Mexican soil on pain of death. Ignorant of this, the ex-empcror 
landed in disguise at Soto la Marina on the 14th of July. He was 
almost immediately recognized and arrested, and on the 19th of 
July 1824 was shot at Padilla, by order of the state of Tamaulipas, 
without being permitted an appeal to the general congress. 
Don Augustin de Iturbide is described by his contemporaries 
a* being of handsome figure and ingratiating manner. His 
brilliant courage and wonderful success made him the idol of 
big soldiers, though towards his prisoners he displayed the most 
cold-blooded cruelty, boasting in one of his despatches of having 
honoured Good Friday by shooting three hundred excommuni- 
cated wretches. Though described as amiable in his private 
Ufev he teems in bis public career to have been ambitious and 

unscrupulous, and by his haughty Spanish temper, impatient 
of all resistance or control, to have forfeited the opportunity 
of founding a secure imperial dynasty. His grandson Augustin 
was chosen by the ill-fated emperor Maximilian as his successor. 

See Statement of some of the principal events in the public- life of 
Auptstin de Iturbide, written by himself (Eng. trans., 1824). 

ITZA, an American-Indian people of Mayan stock, inhabiting 
the country around Lake Peten in northern Guatemala. Chichen- 
Itza, among the most wonderful of the ruined cities of Yucatan, 
was the capital of the Itzas. Thence, according to their traditions 
they removed, on the breaking up of the Mayan kingdom in 1420, 
to an island in the lake where another city was built. Cortes 
met them in 1525, but they preserved their independence till 
1697, when the Spaniards destroyed the city and temples, and a 
library of sacred books, written in hieroglyphics on bark fibre. 
The Itzas were one of the eighteen semi-independent Maya 
states, whose incessant internecine wars at length brought 
about the dismemberment of the empire of Xibalba and the 
destruction of Mayan civilization. 

ITZEHOE, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of 
SchJeswig-Holstein, on the St6r, a navigable tributary of the 
Elbe, 3 2 m. north-west of Hamburg and 15 m. north of Gluckstadt. 
Pop. (1000) 15,649. The church of St Lawrence, dating from 
the 1 2th century, and the building in which the Holstein estates 
formerly met, are noteworthy. The town has a convent founded 
in 1256, a high school, a hospital and other benevolent institu- 
tions. Itzehoe is a busy commercial place. Its sugar refineries 
are among the largest in Germany. Ironfounding, shipbuilding 
and wool-spinning are also carried on, and the manufactures 
include machinery, tobacco, fishing-nets, chicory, soap, cement 
and beer. Fishing employs some of the inhabitants, and the 
markets for cattle and horses are important. A considerable 
trade is carried on in agricultural products and wood, chiefly 
with Hamburg and Alton*. 

Itzehoe is the oldest town in Holstein. Its nucleus was a 
castle, built in 809 by Egbert, one of Charlemagne's counts, 
against the Danes. The community which sprang up around 
it was diversely called Esseveldoburg, Eselsfleth and Ezeho. 
In X20i the town was destroyed, but it was restored in x 224. To 
the new town the Lubeck rights were granted by Adolphus IV. 
in 123$, and to the old town in 1303. During the Thirty 
Years' War Itzehoe was twice destroyed by the Swedes, in 1644 
and 1657, but was rebuilt on each occasion. It passed to Prussia 
in 1 867, with the duchy of Schleswig-Holstein. 

1UKA, the county-seat of Tishomingo county, Mississippi, 
U.S.A., about 25 m. S.E. of Corinth in the N.E. corner of the 
state and 8 m. S. of the Tennessee river. Pop. (1900) 882; 
(19x0) 1221. It is served by the Southern railway, and has 
a considerable trade in cotton and farm products. Its mineral 
springs make it a health resort. In the American Civil War, 
a Confederate force under General Sterling Price occupied the 
town on the 14th of September 1862, driving out a small Union 
garrison; and on the 19th of September a partial engagement 
took place between Price and a Federal column commanded by 
General Rosecrans, in which the Confederate losses were 700 
and the Union 790. Price, whose line of retreat was threatened 
by superior forces under General Grant, withdrew from Iuka 
on the morning of the 20th of September. 

IUUJS, in Roman legend: (a) the eldest son of Ascanjus 
and grandson of Aeneas, founder of the Julian gens {gens lulia)* 
deprived of his kingdom of Latium by his younger brother 
Silvius (Dion. Halic. I 70); (b) another name for, or epithet 
of, Ascanius. 

IVAN (John), the name of six grand dukes of Muscovy and 
tsars of Russia. 

Ivan I., called KaUta, or Money-Bag (d. X341), grand duke 
of Vladimir, was the first sobiratd,ot" gatherer "of the scattered 
Russian lands, thereby laying the foundations of the future 
autocracy as a national institution. This he contrived to do by 
adopting a policy of complete subserviency to the khan of the 
Golden Horde, who, in return for a liberal and punctual tribute, 
permitted him to aggrandize himscli at the expense of the lc&<*r 



pisit&et. Moscow and Tver were tbe first t6 fall, the latter 
Inr received from the hand of the khan, after devastating it 
rth a host of 50,000 Tatars (1327). When Alexander of Tver 
fed to the powerful dty of Pskov, Ivan, not strong enough to 
*: ick Pskov, procured the banishment of Alexander by the aid 
cc tie metropolitan, Theognost, who threatened Pskov with an 
kizrr±cu In 1330 Ivan extended his influence over Rostov 
fcr zht drastic methods of blackmail and hanging. But Great 
Xrr^rrod was too strong for him, and twice he threatened that 
r-pzi- r ro vain. In 1340 Ivan assisted the khan to ravage the 
cn=^-3s of Prince Ivan of Smolensk, who had refused to pay the 
<~r^r — ary tribute to the Horde. Ivan*s own domains, at any 
rxi£ i^ring his reign, remained free from Tatar incursions, and 
^rrsperrd correspondingly, thus attracting immigrants and 
tie^r wnhh from the other surrounding principalities. Ivan 
was z =ost careful, not to say niggardly economist, keeping an 
exact account of every village or piece of plate that his money- 
bigs ao^ired, whence his nickname. The most important 
e*'*a£ ci his reign was the transference of the metropolitan see 
tr:aj V-i Jimir to Moscow, which gave Muscovy the pre-eminence 
ever *;: the other Russian states, and made the metropolitan 
t^or ecclesiastical police-superintendent of the grand duke. 
r*- j Metropolitan Peter built the first stone cathedral of Moscow, 
arrr v -s s uccesso r , Theognost, foDowed suit with three more stone 
cV-irciaes. Simultaneously Ivan substituted stone walls- for the 
4-TTt wooden ones of the KremT, or citadel, which made 
M .-sesrw a stiM safer place of refuge. 

V S- M Sctov'ev, History of Russia (Rus.), vol. in. (St Petersburg, 
• j****-* «*?«*Wv. The Principality of Moscow in the first half of the 
1 iRos.) (St Petersburg, 1878). 

T* ^*c IT. <r$*6-x35Q), grand duke of Vladimir, a younger son 

>s **• KxLta. was born in 1326. In 1353 he succeeded his 

• *.- ^corVr Simeon as grand duke, despite the Competition 

. '*—™v* Coast ant ine of Suzdal, the Khan Haaibek preferring 

, ■ ^^;-Ht the y&htik, or letter of investiture, upon Ivan rathor 

* >}vr Constantino. At first the principalities of Suzdal, 

: * * » *tvl the republic of Novgorod refused to recognise him 

-.'M iuie. and waged war with him till 1354.. The authority 

•- c-t id duchy sensibly diminished during the reign- of 

„ * "l T*hr surrounding principalities paid but little attention 

, vsvw, and Ivan, '* a meek, gentle and merciful prince," 

»m !«* i great extent by the tuisyatsky, or chiliarcb, Alexis 

• ■»*. *••»'. after his murder by the jealous boyflrS in 1357, by 

* v x v <^ He died m 1359. Like most of his predecessors, 
^ ^ Jist will, divided his dominions among his children. 

' _^ s . -n tfevaisky. History of Russia (Rus.), vol. li. (Moscow, 

" ^ » v " t t *44fl*-tjos), grand duke of Muscovy, son of Vasily 

\ * s. A s k h the Blind, grand duke of Moscow, and Maria 

" ".*. i-x •* •■*. WA * °° rn *n 1440. He was co-regent with his 

v ■ ** t 4 * t»tter years of his life and succeeded him in 

** ;m.i ttnaviottsly pursued the unifying policy of his 

»<*or*» Vtvtrthcless cautious to timidity, like most of 

^ „»! t*ie house of Rurik, he avoided as far as possible 

\ r „ vvtu^n with his neighbours until all the circum- 

**,*%** <\cept tonally favourable, always preferring to 

'*\ t „.**% gradually, circuit ously and subtcrraneously. 

' " v ^ >* thw time become a compact and powerful state, 

■ * * t% *\ Sad grown sensibly weaker, a condition of things 

*• x * w u> the speculative activity of a statesman of 

% • t ^.^ " " character. His first enterprise was a war 

>. ^.v»vo< Novgorod, which, alarmed at the growing 

*■ v .*».v*>. n *d placed herself beneath the protection 

\* * * s * vJ Poland, an alliance regarded at Moscow 

, * *•* ■■* , 4 ^ uv from orthodoxy. Ivan took the field 

** * <%*** * tiro, and after his generals had twice 

. x * \ , 4 „ * j« tS* republic, at Shelona and on the Dvma, 

**■ * ^^1 *l u7« t the Novgorodtans were forced to 

. . x "" ..v< > ',Wv obtained on engaging to abandon for 

_ . *■•* ^ ..t»4*ct ceding a considerable portion of their 

* ■ *" K ^iftf>*tniwp*' * koo roubles. 

^**v*Mcc destroying 

Novgorod altogether; but though he frequently violated it* 
ancient privileges in minor matters, the attitude of the republic 
was so wary that his looked-for opportunity did not come tifl 
1477. In that year the ambassadors of Novgorod played into 
his hands by addressing him in public audience as " Gosudar " 
(sovereign) instead of " Gospodin " (" Sir ") as heretofore. Ivan 
at once seized upon this as a recognition of his sovereignty, 
and when the Novgorodians repudiated their ambassadors, be 
marched against them. Deserted by CasinurlV., and surrounded 
on every side by the Muscovite armies, which included a Tatar 
contingent, the republic recognized Ivan as autocrat, and 
surrendered (January 14, 1478) all her prerogatives and 
possessions (the latter including the whole of northern Russia 
from Lapland to the Urals) into his hands. Subsequent revolts 
(1477-1488) were punished by the removal tn masse of the 
richest and most ancient families of Novgorod to Moscow, 
Vyatka and other central Russian cities. After this, Novgorod, 
as an independent state, ceased to exist. The rival republic 
of Pskov owed the continuance of its own political existence to 
the readiness with which it assisted Ivan against its ancient 
enemy. The other principalities were virtually absorbed, by 
conquest, purchase or marriage contract — Yaroslavl in 1463, 
Rostov in 1474, Tver in 1485. 

Ivan's refusal to share his conquests with his brothers, and 
his subsequent interference with the internal politics of their 
inherited principalities, involved him in several wars with them, 
from which, though the princes were assisted by Lithuania, 
he emerged victorious. Finally, Ivan's new rule of government, 
formally set forth in his last wtU to the effect that the domains of 
all his kinsfolk, after thefr deaths, should pass directly to the 
reigning grand duke instead of reverting, as hitherto, to the 
princes' heirs, put an end once for all to these semi-independent 
princdets. The further extension of the Muscovite dominion 
was facilitated by the death of Casfmir IV. m 140?, when Poland 
and Lithuania once more parted company. The throve of 
Lithuania was now occupied by CashmY* son Alexander, a weak 
and lethargic prince so incapable of defending his posses- 
sions against the persistent attacks of the Muscovites that he 
attempted to Save them by a matrimonial compact and wedded 
Helena, Ivan's daughter. But' the clear determination of 
Ivan to appropriate as much of Lithuania as possible at last 
compelled Alexander m 1409 to take up arms against his fatbeY* 
in-law. The Lithuanians were routed at Vedrosha (July 14, 
1500), and in 1503 Alexander was glad to purchase peace by 
ceding to Ivan Chernigov, Starodub, Novgorod-Syeversk and 
sixteen other towns. 

It was in the reign of Ivan IIL that Muscovy rejected the 
Tatar yoke. In 1480 Ivan refused to pay the customary tribute 
to the grand Khan Ahmed. When, however, the grand khaa 
marched against him, Ivan's courage began to fail, and only 
the stern exhortations of the high-spirited bishop of Rostov, 
Vassian, could induce him to take the field. All through the 
autumn the Russian and Tatar hosts confronted each other on 
opposite sides of the Ugra, till the nth of November, when 
Ahmed retired into the steppe. In the following year the grand 
khan, while preparing a second expedition against Moscow, 
was suddenly attacked, routed and slain by Ivak, the khan of 
the Nogai Tatars, whereupon the Golden Horde suddenly fell 
to pieces. In 1487 Ivan reduced the khanate ot Kazan (one of 
the offshoots of the Horde) to the condition of a vassal-state, 
though in his later years H broke away from his suzerainty. 
With the other Mahommedan powers, the khan of the Crimea 
and the sultan of Turkey, Ivan's relations were pacific and 
even amicable. The Crimean khan, MengU Girai, helped too 
against Lithuania and facilitated the opening of diplomatic 
intercourse between Moscow and Constantinople, whore the 
first Russian embassy appeared in 1495. 

The character of the government of Muscovy under Ivan IIL 
changed essentially and took on an autocratic form wWch it 
had never had before, This was due not merely to the natural 
consequence of the hegemony of Moscow over the other Russian 
lands, but even more to the simultaneous growth •of new and 



exotic principles falling upon a soil already prepared lor them. 
After the fall of Constantinople, orthodox canonists were in- 
clined to regard the Muscovite grand dukes as the successors 
by the Byzantine emperors. This movement coincided with a 
change in the family circumstances of Ivan 111. After the 
death of his first consort, Maria of Tver (1467), at the suggestion 
of Pope Paul II. (1469), who hoped thereby to bind Russia to the 
holy see, Ivan III. wedded the Catholic Zoe Palaeologa (better 
known by her orthodox name of Sophia), daughter of Thomas, 
despot of the Morea, who claimed the throne of Constantinople 
as the nearest relative of the last Greek emperor. The princess, 
however, clave to her family traditions, and awoke imperial 
ideas in the mind of her consort. It was through her influence 
that the ceremonious etiquette of Constantinople (along with 
the imperial double-headed eagle and all that it implied) was 
adopted by the court of Moscow. The grand duke henceforth 
held aloof from his boyars. The old patriarchal systems of 
government vanished. The boyars were no longer consulted. 
on affairs of state. The sovereign became sacrosanct, while 
the boyars were reduced to the level of slaves absolutely de- 
pendent on the will of the sovereign. The boyars naturally 
resented so insulting a revolution, ami struggled against it, at 
first with some success. But the clever Greek lady prevailed 
in the end, and it was her son Vasily, not Maria of Tver's son, 
Demetrius, who was ultimately crowned co-regent with his 
father (April 14, 1502). It was in the reign of Ivan III. that 
the first Russian " Law Book," or code, was compiled by the 
scribe Gusev. iVaa did his utmost to promote civilization in 
his realm, and with that object invited many foreign masters 
and artificers to settle in Muscovy, the most noted of whom was 
the Italian Ridolfo di FiOravante, nicknamed Aristotle because 
of his extraordinary knowledge, who built the cathedrals of the 
Assumption (Uspenski) and of Saint Michael or the Holy Arch- 
angels in the Kreml. 

Sea P. Pierling, Manage <Tun tsar am Vatican, Ivan III el Sophie 
Paliologue (Paris. 1891) ;£. I. Kashprovsky. The Struggle of loan II J. 
With Sigismund I. (Rus.) (Nizhni. 1899); 5. M. Solovev, History of 
Russia (Ru*.). vol. t. (St Petersburg. 1895). 

Ivan IV., called " the Terrible " (1 530-1 584), tsar of Muscovy, 
was the son of Vastly [Basil) III. Ivanovich, grand duke of 
Muscovy, by his second wife, Helena Glinska. Bern on the 
25th of August 1530, he was proclaimed grand duke on the 
death of his father (1533), and took the government into his own 
bands in 1544, being then fourteen years old. Ivan IV. was in 
every respect precocious; but from the first there was what 
we should now call a neurotic strain in his character. His father 
died when he was three, his mother when he was only seven, and 
he grew up In a brutal and degrading environment where he 
learnt to hold human life and human dignity in contempt. He 
was maltreated by the leading boyars whom successive revolu- 
tions placed at the head of affairs, and hence he conceived an 
inextinguishable hatred of their whole order and a corresponding 
fondness for the merchant class, their natural enemies. At a 
very early age he entertained an exalted Idea of his own divine 
authority, and his studies were largely devoted to searching 
in the Scriptures and the Slavonic chronicles for sanctions and 
precedents for the exercise and development of his right divine. 
He first asserted his power by literally throwing to the dogs the 
last of his boyar tyrants, and shortly afterwards announced his 
intention of assuming the title of tsar, a title which his father 
and grandfather had coveted but never dared to assume publicly. 
On the 10th of January 1547, he was crowned the first Russian 
tsar by the metropolitan of Moscow; on the 3rd of February 
in the same year he selected as his wife from among the virgins 
gathered from all parts of Russia for his inspection, Anastasla 
Zakharina-Koshkina, the scion of an ancient and noble family 
better known by its later name of Romanov. 

Hitherto, by his own showing, the private life of the young 
tsar had been unspeakably abominable, but his sensitive con- 
science (he was naturally religious) induced him, in 1550, to 
summon a Ztmsky Sobor or national assembly, the first of Its 
kind, to which he made a curious public confession of the sins 
of his youth, and at the same time promised that the realm of 

Hussa (for whose dilapidation he blamed the boyar regents) 
should henceforth be governed justly and mercifully. In 1531 
the tsar submitted to a synod Of prelates a hundred questions 
as to the best mode of remedying existing evils, for which reason 
the decrees of this synod are generally called stoglav or cenluria. 
The decennium extending from 1550 to 1560 was the good period 
of Ivan IV.'s reign, when he deliberately broke away from his 
disreputable past and surrounded himself with good men of 
lowly origin. It was not only that he hated and distrusted the 
boyars, but he was already statesman enough to discern that they - 
could not be fitted into the new order of things which he aimed at 
introducing. Ivan meditated the regeneration of Muscovy, and 
the only men who could assist him in his task were men who 
could look steadily forward to the future because they had no 
past to look back upon, men who would unflinchingly obey their 
sovereign because they owed their whole political significance to 
him alone. The chief of these men of good- will were Alexis 
Adashev and the monk Sylvester, men of so obscure an origin 
that almost every detail of their lives is conjectural, but both 
of them, morally, the best Muscovites of theif day. Their in- 
fluence upon the young tsar was profoundly beneficial, and the 
period of their administration coincides with the most glorious 
period of Ivan's reign— the period of the conquest of Kazan and 

Tn the course of 1551 one of the factions' of Kazan offered 
the whole khanate to the young tsar, and on the 20th of August 
1552 he stood before its walls with an army of 150,000 men and 
50 guns. The siege was long and costly; the army suffered 
severely; and only the tenacity of the tsar kept it in camp for 
six weeks. But on the 2nd of October the fortress, which had 
been heroically defended, was taken by assault. The conquest 
of Kazan was an epoch-making event in the history of eastern 
Europe: It was not only the first territorial conquest from the 
Tatars, before whom Muscovy had humbled herself for genera- 
tions; at Kazan Asia, in the name of Mahomet, had fought 
behind its last trench against Christian Europe marshalled 
beneath the banner of the tsar of Muscovy. For the first time the 
Volga became a Russian river. Nothing could now retard the 
natural advance of the young Russian state towards the east and 
the south-east. In 1554 Astrakhan fell almost without a blow. 
By 1560 all the Finnic and Tatar tribes between the OVa and the 
Kama had become Russian subjects. Ivan was also the first 
tsar who dared to attack the Crimea. In 1555 he sent Ivan 
Sheremetev against Pcrekop, and Shcremctev routed the Tatars 
In a great two days' battle at Sudbishcnska. Some of Ivan's 
advisers, including both Sylvester and Adashev, now advised 
him to make an end of the Crimean khanate, as he had already 
made an end of the khanates of £azan and Astrakhan. But 
Ivan, wiser in his generation, knew that the thing was impossible, 
in view of the immense distance to be traversed, and the pre- 
dominance of the Grand Turk from whom it would have to be 
wrested. It was upon Livonia that his eyes were fixed, which 
was comparatively near at hand and promised him a seaboard 
and direct communication with western Europe. Ivan IV., like 
Peter I. after him, clearly recognized the necessity of raising 
Muscovy to the level of her neighbours. He proposed to do so 
by promoting a wholesale immigration into his tsardom of 
master-workmen and skilled artificers. But all his neighbours, 
apprehensive of the consequences of a civilized Muscovy, com- 
bined to thwart him. Charles V. even went so far as to disperse 
123 skilled Germans, whom Ivan's agent had collected and 
brought to Lflbeck for shipment to a Baltic port. After this, 
Ivan was obliged to help himself as best he could. His oppor- 
tunity seemed to have come when, in the middle of the x6tb 
century, the Order of the Sword broke up, and the possession 
of Livonia was fiercely contested between Sweden, Poland and 
Denmark. Ivan intervened in 1558 and quickly captured 
Narva, Dorpat and a dozen smaller fortresses; then, in 1560, 
Livonia placed herself beneath the protection of Poland} and 
King Sigismund II. warned Ivan off the premises. 

By this time, Ivan had entered upon the second and. evil 
portion of his reign. As early as 1553 he had ceased to trust 



« v lve^er and Adashev, owing to thdr extraonUnaiy backward- 

f-** In supporting the claims oC his infant son to the throne 

°^V Y& himself lay at the point of death. The ambiguous and 

W ^ratcful conduct of the tsar's intimate friends and proteges 

ux **Y"t- occasion has never been satisfactorily explained, and he 

Z n A mood reason to resent it. Nevertheless, on his recovery, 

Xk * M ^ htohis credit, he overlooked it, and they continued to direct 

nt jy*:\L £ or »U years longer. Then the dispute about the Crimea 

,^es W& lvan Dccamc convinced that they were mediocre 

* X< Y7{ c ia>Th* as well as untrustworthy friends. In 1560 both of 

* fh/r« SJa*PPC***i from the scene, Sylvester into a monastery 

»t h^ own request, while Adashev died the same year, in honour- 

Jbl^jaUc as a general in Livonia. The death of his deeply 

kJJ^-^J. consort Anastasia and his son Demetrius, and the 

!|Z?rti<>a* of his one bosom friend Prince Kurbsky, about the 

,^ * ixric, seem to have infuriated Ivan against God and man. 

TW*V»*e the next ten years (1560-1570) terrible and horrible 

th^fjt t» append » thc 'calm of Muscovy. The tsar himself 

UvtOFs** * n atmosphere of apprehension, imagining that every 

*• lm«.ncl was against him. On the 3rd of December 1564 he 

"^ n ^^m jfyfoscow with his whole family. On the 3rd of January 

? J lt ^_i declared in an open letter addressed to the metropolitan 

i?i,^»ti- »•"«?«•■. ~ 


plore^* ■ r ~^j^ trenched himself within a peculiar institution, the 

90 » **y*~- ^ ~r u separate estate." Certain towns and districts all 

The common people, whom he had 

favoured at the expense of the boyars, thereupon im- 

l-^ixn to come back on his own terms. He consented to do 

^ entrenched himself within 

t*»w-»^ or " ~ 

°P ric *L^ xsSA ia. were separated from the rest of the realm, and their 
over "*^*_ gr were assigned to the maintenance of the tsar's new 
revet* ^^^^^a household, which was to consist of 1000 carefully 
court ~ _,-S*»ovars and lower dignitaries, with their families and 


tbe midst of whom Ivan henceforth lived exclusively. 

ja fr-t/i was no constitutional innovation. The duma, or 

The **2^ ~&LiR attended to all the details of the administration; 

coun^t* boyars still retained their ancient offices and dignities. 

the C *J~« < — . clifference was that the tsar had cut himself off from 

"T^e °* a ^^ < j they were net even to communicate with him except 

The oprichniki, 

**\JZ^ortiinary and exceptional occasions. 

^ ..^STth* exclusive favourites of the tsar, 1 .,, ... 

* ^^^^re^ts, hardened the tsar's heart against all outsiders, 
^^ 2Xi*xa>\0& **** topuaity upon every one beyond the charmed 
**"- rsm ^&xar first and most notable victim was Philip, the 
' =rrSf - ~frviivpdfit m °' Moscow, who was strangled for condemn- 
« snfr "" ^ptiLhimn as an unchristian institution, and refusing to 
r ~ T^^r (X5«9)- Ivan a*" 1 stopped at Tver, to murder St 
t^/«iiS«e cm his way to destroy the second wealthiest city 
jggg — Great Novgorod. A delator of infamous char- 
acter, had accused the authorities of the city to the 
B &ujsn Irtn » without even confronting the Nov- 
^ZZ liar accuser, proceeded at the end of 1569 to 
a*^ ravaging the land, his own land, like a wild 
^e city on the 8th of January 1570, and for 
Is, systematically and deliberately, day after 
of every class of the population. Every 
house, warehouse and farm within a 
a wrecked, plundered and left roofless, 
_ xl cattle destroyed. Not till the 13th 
30 useable remnants of the population 
_ t ai bouses and cultivate their fields 
scrsoes- ' 

at itsafeery war, with Sweden and Poland 

. tt -waecaion of Livonia and Esthonia, 

at . x?t. lean's generals (he himself rarely 

.juihY"^ — r-M at first, and bore down 

^-■tsearN capturing scores of fortresses 

_ --r-« tie superior military efficiency of 

"*» «ns**r prevailed. Ivan was also un- 

\ uitogonist Stephen B&thory, 

%e Agp. Thus nil his strenuous 

aroo to nothing. The West 

.^•♦m T\"*c«»i* ol Zapoli (Jonimrv irth 
paMLjjwia i'oiouk to B 








as an 



during U 

«ue for pe ; 

*ver the p ( , 

northern co! 

Fromhencefor **"* 

the truce of Ilyusa he at the same time abandoned Ingria to tbe 
Swedes. The Baltic seaboard was lost to Muscovy for another 
century and a half. In his latter years Ivan cultivated friendly 
relations with England, in the hope of securing some share in the 
benefits of civilization from the friendship of Queen Elizabeth, 
one of whose ladies, Mary Hastings, he wished to marry, though 
his fifth wife, Martha Nagaya, was still alive. Towards the end 
of his life Ivan was partially consoled for his failure in the west 
by the unexpected acquisition of the kingdom of Siberia in the 
east, which was first subdued by the Cossack hetman Ermak 
or Yermakin 1581. 

In November 1580 Ivan in a fit of ungovernable fury at some 
contradiction or reproach, struck his eldest surviving son Ivan, 
a prince of rare promise, whom he passionately loved, a blow 
which proved fatal. In an agony of remorse, he would now have 
abdicated " as being unworthy to reign longer "; but his 
trembling boyars, fearing some dark ruse, refused to obey any one 
but himself. Three years later, on the 18th of March 1584, 
while playing at chess, he suddenly fell backwards in his chair 
and was removed to his bed in a dying condition. At the last 
moment he assumed the hood of the strictest order of hermits, 
and died as the monk Jonah. 

Ivan IV. was undoubtedly a man of great natural ability. His 
political foresight was extraordinary. He anticipated the 
ideals of Peter the Great, and only failed in realizing them because 
his material resources were inadequate. But admiration of his 
talents must not blind us to his moral worthkasnesa, nor is it 
right to cast the blame for his excesses on the brutal and vicious 
society in which he lived. The same society which produced his 
infamous favourites also produced St Philip of Moscow, and by 
refusing to listen to St Philip Ivan sank below even the not very 
lofty moral standard of his own age. He certainly left Muscovite 
society worse than he found it, and so prepared the way for 
the horrors of " the Great Anarchy." Personally, Ivan was tall 
and well-made, with high shoulders and a broad chest. His eyes 
were small and restless, his nose hooked, he had a beard and 
moustaches of imposing length. His face had a sinister, troubled 
expression; but an enigmatical smite played perpetually 
around his lips. He was the best educated and the hardest 
worked man of his age. His memory was astonishing, hit 
energy indefatigable. As far as possible he saw to everything 
personally, and never sent away a petitioner of the lower orders. 

See S. M. Solov'cv, History 0/ Russia (Rus.) vol. v. (St Petersburg; 
jg--» * "Inickncr, Ceschichle Russlands bis turn Ende dts 18 ten 
Jt r (Gotha, 1896); E. Tikhomirov, The first Tsar at 

M an IV. (Rus.) (Moscow, 1888); L. G. T. Tidandcr, 

K n Sverige och Ryssland aren 1555~'S57 (Vesteraa, 1888); 

P. Un Arbitrage pontifical au XVI* suae enire la Polagne 

el (Bruxclles, 1890); V. V. Novodvon»ky, The Struggle (or 

L\ 0-1582 (Rus.) (St Petersburg, 1904); K. Walisaewski, 

It bU (Paris, 1904); R. N. Bain, Slavonic Europe, ch. 5 

(C , 1907). 

.. (1666-1606), tsar of Russia, was the ton of Tsar 

Alexius Mikhailovich and his first consort Miloslavxkoya. 
Physically and mentally deficient, Ivan was the mere tool of the 
party in Muscovy who would have kept the children of the tsar 
Alexis, by his second consort Natalia Naruishktna, from the 
throne. In 1682 the party of progress, headed by Artamon 
Matvyecv and the tsaritsa Natalia, passed Ivan over and placed 
his half-brother, the vigorous and promising little tsarevkh 
Peter, on the throne. On the 23rd of May, however, the Naruisb- 
kin faction was overthrown by the strycllsi (musketeers), secretly 
worked upon by Ivan's half-sister Sophia, and Ivan was associ- 
ated as tsar with Peter. Three days later be was proclaimed 
" first tsar," in order still further to depress the Naruishkins, and 
place the government in the hands of Sophia exclusively. In 
1689 the name of Ivan was used as a pretext by Sophia in her 
attempt to oust Peter from the throne altogether. Ivan was 
made to distribute beakers of wine to his sister's adherents with 
his own hands, but subsequently, beneath the influence of has 
uncle Prozorovsky, be openly declared that " even for his sister's 

1 Ivan V., if we count from the first grand duke of that name, as 
»ncnt Ktmian historians do; Ivan II., if, with the minority, wre 

Icon from Ivan the Terrible as the first Russian tsar. 


sake, he would quarrel no longer with his deer brother/' During 
the reign of his colleague Peier, Ivan V. took no part whatever 
in affairs, but devoted himself " to incessant prayer and rigorous 
fasting." On the 9th of January 1684 be married Praskovia 
Saltuikova, who bore him five daughters, one of whom, Anne, 
ultimately ascended the Russian throne. In his last years Ivan 
was a paralytic. He died on the 29th of January 1696. 

See R. Nitbet Bain. The First Romanovs (Loudon. 1905); M. P. 
Pogodia. The First Seventeen Years of the Life of Peter the Great (Rus.) 
(Moscow, 1875). 

Ivan VI. (1740-1764), emperor of Russia, was the son of 
Prince Antony Ulrich of Brunswick, and the princess Anna 
L e opoldovna of Mecklenburg, and great-nephew of the empress 
Anne, who adopted him and declared him her successor on the 
5th of October 1740, when he was only eight weeks old. On the 
death of Anne (October 17th) he was proclaimed emperor, and 
on the following day Ernest Jobann Biren, duke of Courland, 
was appointed regent. On the fall of Biren (November 8th), 
the regency passed to the baby tsar's mother, though the govern- 
ment was in the hands of the capable vice-chancellor, Andrei 
Osterman. A little more than twelve months later, a coup 
aVHat placed the tsesarevna Elizabeth on the throne (December 
6, 1 741), and Ivan and his family were imprisoned in the 
fortress of Diinamtlnde (Ust Dvinsk) (December 13, 1742) 
after a preliminary detention at Riga, from whence the new 
empress had at first decided to send them home to Brunswick. 
In June 1744 they were transferred to Kholmogory on the White 
Sea, where Ivan, isolated from bis family, and seeing nobody 
but his gaoler, remained for the neat twelve years. Rumours 
of his confinement at Kholmogory having leaked out, he was 
secretly transferred to the fortress of SchlUsselburg (1756), 
where he was still more rigorously guarded, the very commandant 
of the fortress not knowing who " a certain arrestant " com- 
mitted to his care really was. On the accession of Peter III. 
the condition of the unfortunate prisoner seemed about to be 
ameliorated, for the kind-hearted emperor visited and sym- 
pathized with him; but Peter himself was overthrown a few 
weeks later. In the instructions sent to Ivan's guardian, Prince 
Churmtyev, the latter was ordered to chain up bis charge, and 
even scourge him should he become refractory. On the accession 
of Catherine still more stringent orders were sent to the officer 
in charge of " the nameless one." If any attempt were made 
from outside to release him, the prisoner was to be put to death; 
in no circumstances was he to be delivered alive into any one's 
hands, even if his deliverers produced the empress's own sign- 
manual authorizing his release. By this time, twenty years of 
solitary confinement had disturbed Ivan's mental equilibrium, 
though he does not seem to have been actually insane. Never- 
theless, despite the mystery surrounding him, he was well aware 
of his imperial origin , and always called himself jM«<tor(sovercign) . 
Though instructions had been given to keep him ignorant, he 
had been taught his tetters and could read his Bible. Nor could 
his residence at Schlttsselburg remain concealed for ever, and 
its discovery was the cause of his ruin. A sub-lieutenant of the 
garrison, Vasily Mirovich, found out all about him, and formed 
a plan for freeing and proclaiming him emperor. At midnight 
on the 5th of July 1764, Mirovich won over some of the garrison, 
arrested the commandant, Berednikov, and demanded the 
delivery of Ivan, who there and then was murdered by his 
gaolers in obedience to the secret instructions already in their 

See R. Nisbet Bain, The Pupils of Peler the Great (London, 1897) J 
M. Setnevsky, Ivan Vt. Antonovich (Rus.) (St Petersburg. 1866); 
A. Bruckner, The Emperor Ivan VI. and hu Family (Rus.) (Moscow, 
J 874); V, A, Bilbasov, Getekkhte Catherine 11. (voL ii.. Berlin. 
1891-1893). (R. N. B.) 

IVANGOROD, a fortified town of Russian Poland, In the 
government of Lublin, 64 m. by rail S.E. from Warsaw, at the 
confluence of the Wicprz with the Vistula. It is defended by 
nine forts on the right bank of the Vistula and by three on the 
left bank, and, with Warsaw, Novo-Ceorgievsk and Brest- 
Lltovsk, forms the Polish " quadrilateral." 


IVAJC0VO-V0ZMESENSK, a. town of middle Russia, in the 
government of Vladimir, 86 m. by rail N. of the town of Vladimir. 
Pop. (1887) 22,000; (xooo) 64,628. It consists of what were 
originally two villages— Ivanovo, dating from the 16th century, 
and Voanesensk, of much more recent date— united into a town 
in x86x. Of best note among the public buildings are the 
cathedral, and the church of the Intercession of the Virgin, 
formerly associated with an important monastery founded in 
1579 and abandoned in 1754. One of the colleges of the town 
contains a public library. Linen-weaving was introduced in 
1751, and in 1776 the manufacture of chintzes was brought from 
SchlUsselburg. The town has cotton factories, calico print-works, 
iron-works and chemical works. 

1VARR BE1MLAUSI (d. 873), son of Ragnar Lothbrok, the 
great Viking chieftain, is known in English and Continental 
annals as Inuaer, Ingwar or Hingwar. He was one of the 
Danish leaders in the Sheppey expedition of 855 and was perhaps 
present at the siege of York in 867. The chief incident in his 
life was his share in the martyrdom of St Edmund in 870. He 
seems to have been the leader of the Danes on that occasion, 
and by this act he probably gained the epithet " crudehssimus " 
by which he is usually described. It is probable that he is to be 
identified with Imhar, king of the Norsemen of all Ireland and 
Britain, who was active in Ireland between the years 852 and 
873, the year of his death. 

IVIZA, Ibita or Ivi£A, an Island in the Mediterranean Sea, 
belonging to Spain, and forming part of the archipelago known as 
the Balearic Islands (?.*.). Pop. (1900) 23,524; area 228 sq. m. 
Iviza lies 50 m. S.W. of Majorca and about 60 m. from Cape San 
Martin on the coast of Spain. Its greatest length from north-east 
to south-west is about 25 m. and its greatest breadth about 13 m. 
The coast is indented by numerous small bays, the principal of 
which are those of San Antonio on the north-west, and of Iviza 
on the south-east. Of all the Balearic group, Iviza is the most 
varied in its scenery and the most fruitful The hilly parts 
which culminate in the Pico de Atalayasa (1560 ft.), are richly 
wooded. The climate is for the most part mild and agreeable, 
though the hot winds from the African coast are sometimes 
troublesome. Oil, corn and fruits (of which the most important 
are the fig, prickly pear, almond and carob-bean) are the principal 
products; hemp and flax are also grown, but the inhabitants are 
rather indolent, and their modes of culture are very primitive. 
There are numerous salt-pans along the coast, which were 
formerly worked by the Spanish government. Fruit, salt, char- 
coal, lead and stockings of native manufacture are exported. 
The imports are rice, flour, sugar, woollen goods and cotton. 
The capital of the island, and, indeed, the only town of much 
importance — for the population is remarkably scattered — is 
Iviza or La Ciudad (6527), a fortified town on the south-east 
coast, consisting of a lower and upper portion, and possessing 
a good harbour, a 13th-century Gothic collegiate church and an 
ancient castle. Iviza was the see of a bishop from 1782 to 1851. 

South of Iviza Hes the smaller and more irregular island of 
Formentera (pop., xooo, 2243; area, 37 sq. m.), which is said to 
derive its name from the production of wheat. With Iviza ft 
agrees both in general appearance and in the character of its 
products, but it is altogether destitute of streams. Goats and 
sheep are found in the mountains, and the coasts are greatly 
frequented by flamingoes. Iviza and Formentera are the principal 
islands of the lesser or western Balearic group, formerly known 
as the Pityusae or Pine Islands. 

IVORY, 8IR JAKES (1765-184 2), Scottish mathematician, 
vitpj& born in Dundee in 1765. In X779 he entered the university 
of St Andrews, distinguishing himself especially in mathematics. 
He then studied theology; but, after two sessions at St Andrews 
and one at Edinburgh, he abandoned all idea of the church, and 
in 1786 he became an assistant-teacher of mathematics and 
natural phflosoghy in a newly established academy at Dundee. 
Three years later he became partner in and manager Of a flax- 
spinning company at Douglastown in Forfarshire, still, however, 
prosecuting ih moments of leisure his favourite studies. He was 
itially a self-trained mathematician, and was not only deeply 



versed in andent and modern geometry, but also had a hill 
Jc no wled«e of the analytical methods and discoveries of the comi- 
gx^nted mathematicians. His earliest memoir, dealing with an 
3j*aJ.y tical expression for the rectification of the ellipse, is pub- 
lislieci in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 
(x 796); and this and his later papers on " Cubic Equations " 
(x 79O) and " Kepler's Problem " (1802) evince great facility 
in lfa*e handling of algebraic formulae. In 1804 after the dis- 
lolution of the flax-spinning company of which he was manager, 
he ol> gained one of the mathematical chairs in the Royal Military 
College at Marlow (afterwards removed to Sandhurst); and till 
tj,^. year 1816, when failing health obliged him to resign, be dis- 
charged his professional duties with remarkable success. During 
lfri& period he published in the Philosophical Transactions several 
important memoirs, which earned for him the Copley medal in 
,g m ^ Axtd ensured his election as a Fellow of the Royal Society 
£0 x 3* S» & special importance in the history of attractions is 
th^ fi*"st. °* tne9e cafk'er memoirs (/>**/. 7>d*w., 1809), in which 
tj,^ r> roblem of the attraction of a homogeneous ellipsoid upon an 
external point is reduced to the simpler case of the attraction of 
ant,*, fcusr but related ellipsoid upon a corresponding point interior 
to £ t ^ This theorem is known as Ivory's theorem. His later 
>*-& in the Philosophical Transactions treat of astronomical 
Actions, of planetary perturbations, of equilibrium of fluid 
3SC s T &c. For his investigations in the first named of these 
h ,-^c^ived a royal medal in i8a6 and again in 1839. Jn 1831, 
_ f3<? recommendation of Lord Brougham, King William IV. 
00 *_ «d him a pension of £300 per annum, and conferred on him 
5J 1 1 ^moverian Guelphic order of knighthood. Besides being 
j-!L^ = :t.l.> r connected with the chief scientific societies of his own 
ri"VT* *~y* tbc Royal Sociclv of Edinburgh, the Royal Irish Aca- 
V*l* ^. &c, he was corresponding member of the Royal Academy 
,2^5 L-wmtc* both of Paris and Berlin, and of the Royal Society of 


Got «- * r*fi* n \ He ^j" 1 ,* 1 London on the 21st of September 1842. 


^ erf h«* ^fV**?*** w *** &****&* of Scientific Papers of 

,— /-o A y (Fr * ,wir * i Ut * ** Mf )» strictly speaking a term confined 

1 V^^ material represented by the tusk of the elephant, and for 

10 *" V*»e * v ~ ia, P 1 * 1 **** 8 a 1 ™ * 1 entirely to that of the male elephant 

£"^L #*-»«* both the male and female elephant produce good-sued 

*» -^" . in the Indian variety the female is much less bountifully 

"^^j^d, and in Ceylon perhaps not more than 1 % of either sex 

"*■ ,y *usks at all. Ivory is in substance very dense, the pores 

^ compact and filled with a gelatinous solution which 

t t*s to the beautiful polish which may be given to it 

it easy to work. It may be placed between bone and 

abrous than bone and therefore less easily torn or 

«•■ — .pui For a scientific definition it would be difficult to find 

*r ***■ -^ *a* dun that given by Sir Richard Owen. He says: > 

* f!T " . j^— -* ***? ■» °° w restricted to that modification of den- 

, "*^ r .^^ substance which in transverse sections or fractures 

**~^ j_r*» * ^ crcn \ colours, or striae, proceeding in the 

" **» forming by their decussations minute curvi- 

■pos spaces." These spaces are formed by an 

« exceedingly minute tubes placed vciy close 

«tt«anb in all directions. It is to this 

that ivory owes its fine grain and 

ssr-^y aad the peculiar marking resembling 

; <* -se case of a watch, by which many people 

l i r^'n^ -t from celluloid or other imitations. 

feasor teeth of the animal, which, 

a semisolid vascular pulp, grow 

e_ffaikcring phosphates and other 

as in the formation of 

^. 1* ia layers, the inside layer 

is embedded in the 

%ts some distance up in a 

is it is prolonged 

4. a thread or as it is 

k. d *Jk tooth. The 

_ ■ ^ ' u the central 

part. Besides the elephant's tooth or tusk we recognize as ivory, 
for commercial purposes, the teeth of the hippopotamus, walrus, 
narwhal, cachalot or sperm-whale and of some animals of the 
wild boar class, such as the warthog of South Africa. Practically, 
however, amongst these the hippo and walrus tusks are the only 
ones of importance for large work, though boars' tusks come to the 
sale-rooms in considerable quantities from India and Africa* 

Generally speaking, the supply of ivory imported into Europe 
comes from Africa; some is Asiatic, but much that is shipped 
from India is really African, coming by way of Zanzibar and 
Mozambique to Bombay. A certain amount is furnished by the 
vast stores of remains of prehistoric animals still existing through- 
out Russia, principally in Siberia in the neighbourhood of the 
Lena and other rivers discharging into the Arctic Ocean. The 
mammoth and mastodon seem at one time 10 have been common 
over the whole surface of the globe. In England tusks have been 
recently dug up — for instance at Dungeness — as long as 12 ft. 
and weighing 300 lb. The Siberian deposits have been worked 
for now nearly two centuries. The store appears to be as in- 
exhaustible as a coalfield. Some think that a day may come 
when the spread of civilisation may cause the utter disappearance 
of the elephant in Africa, and that it will be to these deposits 
that we may have to turn as the only source of animal ivory. 
Of late years in England the use of mammoth ivory has shown 
signs of decline. Practically none passed through the London 
sale-rooms during 1003-1006. Before that, parcels of 10 to 20 
tons were not uncommon. Not all of it is good; perhaps about 
half of what comes to England is so, the rest rotten; specimens, 
however, are found as perfect and m as fine condition as if 
recently killed, instead of having lain hidden and preserved for 
thousands of years in the icy ground. There is a considerable 
literature (see Shooting) on the subject of big-game bunting, 
which includes that of the elephant, hippopotamus and smaller 
tusk-bearing animals. Elephants until comparatively r ecent 
times roamed over the whole of Africa irora the northern deserts 
to the Cape of Good Hope. They are still abundant in Central 
Africa and Uganda, but civilization has gradually driven them 
farther and farther into the wilds and impenetrable forests of 
the interior. 

The quality of ivory varies according to the districts whence 
it is obtained, the soft variety of the eastern parts of the con- 
tinent being the most esteemed. When in perfect condition 
African ivory should be if recently cut of a warm, transparent, 
mellow tint, with as little as possible appearance of grain or 
mottling. Asiatic ivory is of a denser white, more open in 
texture and softer to work. But it is apt to turn yellow sooner, 
and is not so easy to polish. Unlike bone, ivory requires no 
preparation, but is fit for immediate working. That from the 
neighbourhood of Cameroon is very good, then ranks the ivory 
from Loango, Congo, Gabun and Arabriz; next the Gold Coast, 
Sierra Leone and Cape Coast Castle. That of French Sudan 
is nearly always " ringy," and some of the Ambria variety also. 
We may call Zanzibar and Mozambique varieties soft; Angola 
and Ambriz all hard. Ambru ivory was at one time much es- 
teemed, but there is comparatively little now. Siam ivory is 
rarely if ever soft. Abyssinian has its soft side, but Egypt is 
practically the only place where both descriptions axe largely 
distributed. A drawback to Abyssinian ivory is a prevalence 
of a rather thick bark. Egyptian is liable to be cracked, from 
the extreme variations of temperature; more so. formerly 
than now, since better methods of packing and transit are used. 
Ivory is extremely sensitive to sudden extremes of temperature; 
for this reason billiard balls should be kept where the temperature 
is fairly equable. 

The market terms by which descriptions of ivory are dis- 
tinguished are liable to mislead. They refer to ports of shipment 
rather than to places of origin. For instance, " Ma^ta " ivory 
is a well-understood terra, yet there are ao ivory producing 
animals in that island. 

Tusks should be regular and tapering in shape, not very 

curved or twisted, (or economy in cutting; the coat fine, thin, 

nd transparent. The substance of ivory is so elastic 



and flexible that excellent riding-whips have been cut longi- 
tudinally from whole tusks. The size to which tusks grow and 
are brought to market depends on race rather than on size of 
elephants. The latter run largest in equatorial Africa. Asiatic 
b«U elephant tusks seldom exceed 50 lb in weight, though 
lengths of 9 ft. and up to 150 lb weight are not entirely un- 
known. Record lengths for African tusks are the one presented 
to George V., when prince of Wales, on his marriage (1803), 
measuring 8 ft. 7$ in. and weighing 165 lb, and the pair of tusks, 
which were brought to the Zanzibar market by natives in 189*, 
weighing together over 450 tt>. One of the latter is new in the 
Natural History Museum at Sduth Kensington ; the other is 
in Messrs Rodgers & Co.'s collection at Sheffield. For length 
the longest known are those belonging to Messrs Rowland Ward, 
Piccadilly, which measure, n ft. and it fL 5 in. respectively, 
with a combined weight of 293 lb. Osteodentine, resulting from 
the effects of injuries from spearheads or bullets, is sometimes 
found in tusks. This formation, resembling stalactites, grows 
with the task, the bullets or iron remaining embedded without 
trace of their entry. 

The most important commercial distinction of the qualities 
of ivory is that of the hard and soft varieties. The terms are 
difficult to define exactly Generally speaking, hard ox bright 
ivory is distinctly harder to cut with the saw or other tools. 
It is, as it were, glassy and transparent. Soft contains more 
moisture, stands differences of climate and temperature better, 
and does not crack so easily. The expert is guided by the shape 
of the tooth, by the colour and quality of the bark or skin, and 
by the transparency when cut, or even before, as at the point 
of the tooth. Roughly, a line might be drawn almost centrally 
down the map of Africa, on the west of which the hard quality 
prevails, on the east the soft. In choosing ivory for example 
for knife-handles— people rather like to see a pretty grain, 
strongly marked; but the finest quality in the hard variety, 
whkh is generally used for them, is the closest and freest from 
grain. The curved or canine teeth of the hippopotamus are 
valuable and come in considerable quantities to the European 
markets. Owen describes this variety as " an extremely dense, 
compact kind of dentine, partially defended on the outside by 
a thin layer of enamel as hard as porcelain; so hard as to strike 
fire with steel." By reason of this hardness it is not at all liked 
by the turner and ivory workers, and before being touched by 
them the enamel has to be removed by acid, or sometimes by 
heating and sudden cooling, when it can be scaled off. The 
texture is slightly curdled, mottled or damasked. Hippo ivory 
was at one time largely used for artificial teeth, but now mostly 
for umbrella and stick-handles; whole (in their natural form) 
for fancy door-handles and the like. In the trade the term is 
not •' riverhorse " but " seahorse teeth." Walrus ivory is less 
dense and coarser than hippo, but of fine quality— what there 
is of it, for the oval centre which has more the character Of 
coarse bone unfortunately extends a long way up. At one 
time a large supply came to the market, but of late years there 
has been an increasing scarcity, the animals having been almost 
exterminated by the ruthless persecution to which they have 
been subjected in their principal haunts In the northern seas. 
It is little esteemed now, though our ancestors thought highly 
of it. Comparatively large slabs are to be found in medieval 
sculpture of the nth and 12th centuries, and the grips of most 
oriental swords, ancient and modern, are made from it. The 
ivory from the single tusk or horn of the narwhal is not of much 
commercial value except as an ornament or curiosity. Some 
horns attain a length of 8 to 10 ft., 4 »«• thick at the hase. It 
is dense in substance and of a fair colour, but owing to the 
central cavity there is little of it fit for anything larger than 

Ivory in Commerce, and its Industrial Applications.— Mmvst 
the whole of the importation of ivory to Europe was until recent 
years confined to tendon, the principal distributing mart pf 
the world. Put the opening up of the* Congo trade has placed 
the port of Antwerp in a position which has equalled and, for 
a time, may surpass that of London. Other important markets 

are Liverpool and Hamburg; and Germany, France and Portu- 
gal have colonial possessions in Africa, from which it is imported. 
America is a considerable importer for its own requirements. 
From the German Cameroon alone, according to Schilling, 
there were exported during the ten years ending 1005, 452,100 
kilos of ivory, Mr Buxton estimates the amount of ivory im- 
ported into the United Kingdom at about 500 tons. If we give 
the same to Antwerp we have from these two ports alone no less 
than 1000 tons a year to be provided. Allowing a weight so 
high as 30 ft) per pair of tusks {which is far loo high, perhaps 
twice too? high) we should have here akme between thirty and 
forty thousand elephants to account for. It is true that every 
pair of tusks that comes to the market represents a dead elephant, 
but not necessarily by any means a slain or even a recently killed 
one, as is popularly supposed and unfortunately too often 
repeated. By far the greater proportion is the resalt of 6tores 
accumulated by natives, a good part coming from animals whkh 
have died a natural death. Not 20% is live ivory or recently 
killed ; the remainder Is known In the trade e&dead ivory. 

In [837 the principal London Ivory importers imported 3000 cwL 

cwt. The big! * " - *— 


_ i7 percw ...... „ .... 

were, according to Board of Trade returns, in 1890. 14.349 cwt.; 

in 1850, 8000 cwt. 

At the July sales in 1905 a 

highest price up to #855 was £53 per cwt. 
. , 15a record price was reached for billiard-ball 

teeth of £167 per cwt. The total imports into the United Kingdom 
were, according to Board of Trade returns, in 1890. 14.3 
in 1895, 10.91 1 cwt.; in 1900, 9889 cwt.; in 1904, 9045 cwt. 
••■■"- 's(i ' ' * * 

■ ovj, iw,^ii iwi. , in iyw t yovy vwi. , in iyu^, V-^+j i"i. 

From Messrs Hate & Son's (ivory brokers, 10 Fenchurch Avenue) 

_ wy Report of the second querte 

It appears that the following were c 

Ivory Report of the second quarterly sales in London. April 1906, 
offered: — 

From Zanzibar. Bombay, Mozambique and Siara 17 

Egyptian 19} 

West Coast African It 


Abyssinian. > 

Sea horse (hippopotamus teeth) 
Walrus ..... 
Waste ivory .... 




Hard ivory was scarce. West Coast African was principally of the 
Gabun description, and aomeof very fine quality. There was very 
little inquiry for walrus. The highest price* ranged as follows'. 
Soft East Coast tusks (Zanzibar, Mozambique, Bombay and Siam). 
ioa to 143 lb. each £po, 10s. to £75. 10s. per cwt. Billiard-ball 
scriveUoes,£icapercwt. Cut points for billiard-balls (3! in. to 2| to 
3 inj £114 to £151 per cwt. Seahorse (for best), 3s. 6d. to 4s. id 
per to. Boars' tusks, 6d. to 7d. per lb. 

QuanUlies of ioory offered to Public auction (from Messrs Hale eV 
Son's Reports). 

Zanzibar, Bombay, Mozambique and Siam 


Abyssinian .... . . . 

West Coast African 


Seahorse teeth and Boars' tusks . 








11 1 








Fluctuations in prices of ioory at the London Sale- Room (from Messrs 
HoJe 6V Son's Charts, wkkh show the prices at each quarters? 
sale from 18ft). 

Billiard Ball pieces .... 
Hard^ Egyptian 36 to 50 lb. . 
Soft East Indian $0* to 70 ft. 
West Coast African 50 to 70 lb. 
Hard East African 50 to 70 lb. . 






























tic engii 

a fc guide 

starting it 
during ti, c 
earthy mat 
**U> genco 
<*'ag the last 
oouc sockets i 
fonkaJ form, : 

'omciinjcs cali, 
v*r iaycr, or i 

were offered from Gabun. Angola, aod Cameroon (from the last 
3 1 tons). To the port of Antwerp the imports were 6830 cwt. in 
1004 and 6570 cwt. in 1905; of which 5310 cwt. and 4890 cwt. 
respectively were from the Congo State. 

The leading London sales are held quarterly in Mincing Lane, a 
very interesting and wonderful display of tusks and ivory of all 
kinds being laid out previously for inspection In the great warehouses 
known as the " Ivory Floor '' in the London docks. The quarterly 
Liverpool tales follow the London ones, with a short interval. 

The important part which ivory plays in the industrial arts 
not only for decorative, but also for domestic applications is 
hardly sufficiently recognized. Nothing is wasted of this valuable 
product. Hundreds of sacks full of cuttings and shavings, and 
scraps returned by manufacturers after they have used what they 
reottti* for their particular trade, come to the mart. The dust is 
used for polishing, and in the preparation of Indian ink, and even 
lor food in the form of Ivory jelly. The scraps come in for in- 
laying and for the numberless purposes in which ivory is used for 
small doasoslk and decorative objects. India, which has been 
catted the backbone of the trade, takes enormous quantities 
ef is* rings left in the turning of billiard-balls, which serve as 
went*'* bangles, or for making small toys and models, and in 
etfcct characteristic Indian work. Without endeavouring to 
ftjassmie all the applications, a glance may be cast at the most 
i*uv*t*at of those which consume the largest quantity. Chief 
**#*£ these is the manufacture of billiard-balb, of cutlery 
htiwfet, of piancr»fcoys and of brushware and toilet articles. 
WU*T\^h*JH dofftand the highest quality of ivory; for the best 
hslfc the soft description is employed, though recently, through 
«ht ttMitpNrtio* of bomoline and similar substitutes, the hard 
**» hi** more usod In order that the weight may be assimilated 
i« >fc*t *| the artinvial kind. Therefore the most valuable tusks 
« «K sir thtt* adapted (or the billiard-ball trade. The term used 
k • *M*lfc*«k %> o*d ** *PPN ca " l0 lcelh P ro P«r for the purpose, 
wtwtti* «w4 over about 7 R>. The division of the tusk into 
sttttlto **ve* for subsequent manufacture, in order to avoid 
v*»» u a SMI w *f importance. 

*i* **NuitNk*\i*tt diagrams ("!•• * Iftd *) • now the method; 
iw ^iTUw^* w^hsi»«g (rem an Imaginary centre of the curve 
r.CmX U*fw sew*** ll» various trades have their own 
t^£^l^ W SU«*g the most of the material In making 
f*NV«iM ajwesww ^ billiard-ball of the 

English size the first 
thing to be done is to 
rough out, from the 
cylindrical section, a 
sphere about al in. in 
diameter, which will 
eventually be a »/w or 
sometimes for pro- 
fessional players a lit- 
tle larger. One hemi- 
sphere— as shown in 
the diagrams (fig. 2) 
-T*» first turned, and 
the resulting ring de- 
tached with a parting 
tool. The diameter 
'• .accurately taken 
and the subsequent 
removals taken off in 
other directions. The 
M" U then fixed in 
f wooden chuck, the 

a~ .li*" u ey,lr| acr re- 
ar the other hemisphere, 
turned dead true. 
n for ball-making 
I the ball tn e „£ 
•a*** .to the bark 

4jyfc% ***** ***•*■* 

V Hn those portions 
>tn« of billiard-balls 

L.-.-L— J 1 jt U * Ual 

[^the distributing 
*•* But this i» a 
•at** tin* to some 

. - Billiard 

** temperature is 

But although ball teeth rose in .1905 to £167 a cwt.. the price of 
billiard-balls was the same in 1905 as it was in 1885. Roughly 
speaking, there are about twelve different qualities aod prices of 
billiard-balls, and eight of pyramid-and pool-balls, the latter ranging 
from half a guinea to two guineas each. 

The ivory for piano-keys is delivered to the trade in the shape 
of what are known as heads and tails, the former lor the parts 
which come under the fingers, the latter for that running up 
between the black keys. The two are joined afterwards on the 
keyboard with extreme accuracy. Piano-keys are bleached, but 
organists for some reason or other prefer unbleached keys. 
The soft variety is mostly used for high-class work and preferably 
of the Egyptian type. 

The great centres of the ivory industry for the ordinary 
objects of common domestic use are in England, for cutlery 
handles Sheffield, for billiard-balls and piano-keys London. For 

Stock ItoMd £ hiWNianck SMI 


Fig. 2. 

cutlery a large firm such as Rodgers & Sons uses an average of 
some twenty tons of ivory annually, mostly of the hard variety. 
But for billiard-balls and piano-keys America is now a large 
producer, and a considerable quantity is made in France and 
Germany. Brush backs are almost wholly in English hands. 
Dieppe has long been famous for the numberless little ornaments 
and useful articles such as statuettes, crucifixes, little book- 
covers, paper-cutters, combs, serviette-rings and articles dt 
Paris generally. And St Claude in the Jura, and Geislingen 
In Wtirtemberg, and Erbach in Hesse, Germany, are amongst 
the most important centres of the industry. India and China 
supply the multitude of toys, models, chess and draughtsmen, 
puzzles, workbox fittings and other curiosities. 

Vegetable Ivory \ 6>c— Some allusion may be made to vegetable 
ivory and artificial substitutes. The plants yielding the vegetable 
ivory of commerce represent two or more species of an anomalous genus 
of palms, and are known to botanists as PhytcUpkas. They are natives 
of tropical South America, occurring chiefly on the banks of the 
river Magdalena, Colombia, always found in damp localities, not 
only, however, on the lower coast region as in Darten, but also at 
a considerable elevation above the sea. They are mostly found in 
separate groves, not mixed With other trees or shrubs. The plant is 
severally known as the " tagua " by the Indians on the banks of the 
Magdalena, as the " anta " on the coast of Darien, and as the M pulli- 
punta " and " homero " in Peru. It is stemless or short-stemmed, 
and crowned with from twelve to twenty very long pinaatifid leaves. 
The plants are dioecious, the males forming higher, more erect 
and robust trunks than the females. The male inflorescence is in 
the form of a simple fleshy cylindrical spadix covered with flowers; 
the female flowers are also in a single spadix, which, however, is 
shorter than in the male. The fruit consists of a congkwneratcd 
head composed of six or seven drupes, each containing from six to 
nine seeds, and the whole being enclosed in a walled woody covering 
forming altogether a globular head as large as that of a man. A 
single plant sometimes bears at the same time from six to eight of 
these large heads of fruit, each weighing from 20 to 15 lb. In its very 
young state the seed contains a dear insipid fluid, whkh travellers 
take advantage of to allay thirst. As it gets older this fluid becomes 
milky and of a sweet taste, and it gradually continues to change 
both in taste and consistence until it becomes so hard as to make it 
valuable as a substitute for animal ivory. In their youngand fresh 
state the fruits are eaten with avidity by bears, hoes and other 
animals. The seeds, or nuts as they are usually called when fully 
ripe and hard, are used by the American Indians for making small 
ornamental articles and toys. They are imported into Britain itj 
considerable quantities, frequently under the name of Coroso 
nuts, a name by which the fruits of some species of AttaUa (another 
palm with hard ivory-Kke seeds) are known in Central America-- 
their uses being chiefly for small articles of turnery. Of vegetable 
ivory Great Britain imported in 1004 laoo tons, of which about 4©* 
tons were reexported, principally to Germany. It Is mainly aad 
•ty used for coat buttons. , 

y artificial compounds have, from time to time, been tned as 
tea for ivory; amongst them potatoes treated with sulphuric 



add. Celluloid b familiar to as nowaday*. Itichefonnotboasoline. 
into which it » said to enter, it is used largely for billiard balls; and 
a new French substitute— a caseine made from milk, called gallalith — 
has begun to be much used for piano keys in the cheaper sorts of 
instrument. Odontotite is mammoth ivory, which through lapse of 
time and from surroundings becomes converted into a substance 
known as fossil or blue ivory, and u used occasionally in jewelry 
as turquoise, which it very much resembles. It results from the 
tusks of antediluvian mammoths buried in the earth for thousands 
of years, during which time under certain conditions the ivory 
becomes slowly penetrated with the metallic salts- which give it the 
peculiar vivid blue colour of turquoise. 

Ivory Sculpture and the Decorative Arts.— Thcuse of ivory as 
a material peculiarly adapted for sculpture and decoration has 
been universal in the history of civilization. The earliest 
examples which have come down to us take as back to pre- 
historic times, when, so far as our knowledge goes, civilisation 
as we understand it had attained no higher degree than that of 
the dwellers in caves, or of the most primitive races. Throughout 
succeeding ages there is continued evidence that no other 
substance — except perhaps wood, of which we have even fewer 
ancient examples— has been so consistently connected with 
man's art-craftsmanship. It is hardly too much to say that to 
follow properly the history of ivory sculpture involves the study 
of the whole world's art in all ages. It will take us back to the 
most remote antiquity, for we have examples of the earnest 
dynasties of Egypt and Assyria. Nor is there entire default 
when we come to the periods of the highest civilization of Greece 
and Rome. It has held an honoured place in all ages for the 
adornment of the palaces of the great, not only in sculpture 
proper but in the rich inlay of panelling, of furniture, chariots 
and other costly articles. The Bible teems with references to 
its beauty and value. And when, in the days of Phcidias, Greek* 
sculpture had reached the highest perfection, we learn from 
ancient writers that colossal statues were constructed — notably 
the " Zeus of Olympia " and the " Athena of the Parthenon." 
The faces, hands and other exposed portions of these figures 
were of ivory, and the question, therefore, of the method of 
production of such extremely large slabs as perhaps were used 
has been often debated. A similar difficulty arises with regard 
to other pieces of considerable size, found, for example, amongst 
consular diptychs. It has been conjectured that some means of 
softening and moulding ivory was known to the ancients, but 
as a matter of fact though it may be softened it cannot be again 
restored to its original condition. If up to the 4th century we 
are unable to point to a large number of examples of sculpture 
in ivory, from that date onwards the chain is unbroken, and 
during the five or six hundred years of unrest and strife from the 
decline of the Roman empire in the 5th century to the dawn of 
the Gothic revival of art in the nth or 12th, ivory sculpture 
alone of the sculptural arts carries on the preservation of types 
and traditions of classic times in central Europj. Most import- 1 
ant indeed is the role which existing examples of 
ivory carving play in the history of the last two cen- 
turies of the consulates of the Western and Eastern 
empires. Though the evidences of decadence in art 
may be marked, the close of that 'period brings us 
down to the end of the reign of Justinian (527-563). 
Two centuries later the iconoclastic persecutions in the 
Eastern empire drive westward and compel to settle 
there numerous colonies of monks and artificers. 
Throughout the Carlovingian period, the examples of 
ivory sculpture which we possess in not inconsiderable 
quantity are of extreme importance in the history 
of the early development of Byzantine art in Europe. 
And when the Western world of art arose from its 
torpor, freed itself from Byzantine shackles and 
traditions, and began to think for itself, it is to the 
sculptures in ivory of the Gothic art of the 13th 
und 14th centuries that we turn with admiration 
of their exquisite beauty of expression. Up to about the 
14th century the influence of the church was everywhere 
predominant in all matters relating to art. In ivories, 
as in mosaics, enamels or miniature painting it Would be 

difficult to find a dozen examples, from the age of Constantine 
onwards, other than sacred ones or of sacred symbolism. But 
as the period of the Renaissance approached, the influence of 
romantic literature began to assert itself, and a feeling and style 
similar to those which are characteristic of the charming series 
of religious art In ivory, so touchingly conceived and executed, 
meet us in many objects m ivory destined for ordinary domestic 
uses and ornament. Mirror cases, caskets for jewelry or toilet 
purposes, combs, the decoration of arms, or of saddlery or of 
weapons of the chase, are carved and chased with scenes of real 
life or illustrations of the romances, which bring home to us in a 
vivid manner details of the manners and customs, amusements, 
dresses and domestic life of the times. With the Renaissance 
and a return to classical ideas, joined with a love of display and 
of gorgeous magnificence, art in ivory takes a secondary place. 
There is a want of simplicity and of originality. It is the period 
of the commencement of decadence. Then comes the period 
nicknamed rococo, which persisted so long. Ivory carving 
follows the vulgar fashion, is content with copying or adapting, 
and until the revival in our own times is, except in rare instances, 
no longer to be classed as a fine art. It becomes a trade and is in 
the hands of the mechanic of the workshop. In this necessarily 
brief and condensed sketch we have been concerned mainly with 
ivory carving in Europe. It will be necessary to give also, 
presently, some indications enabling the inquirer to follow the 
history — or at least to put him on the track of it — not only in the 
different countries of the West but also in India, China and Japan. 

Prehistoric Ivory Carvings. — These are the result of investiga- 
tions made about the middle of the 19th century in the cave 
dwellings of the Dordogne in France and also of the lake dwellings 
of Switzerland. As records they are unique in the history of 
art. Further than this our wonderment is excited at finding 
these engravings or sculptures in the round, these chiselled 
examples of the art of the uncultivated savage, conceived and exe- 
cuted with a feeling of delicacy and restraint which the most 
modern artist might envy. Who they were who executed them 
must be left to the palaeontologist and geologist to decide. 
We can only be certain that they were contemporary with the 
period when the mammoth and the reindeer still roved freely in 
southern France. The most important examples are the sketch 
of the mammoth (see Painting, Plate I.), on a slab of ivory 
now in the museum of the Jardin des Plantes, the head and 
shoulders of an ibex carved in the round on a piece of reindeer 
horn, and the figure of a woman (instances of representations 
of the' human form are most rare) naked and wearing a necklace 
and bracelet. Many of the originals arc in the museum at St 
Germain-en-Laye, and casts of a considerable number are in the 
British Museum. 

Ancient Assyrian, Egyptian, Greek and Roman Ivories.-^Vit 
know from ancient writers that the Egyptians were skilled In 

Fig. 3.— Panel with Cartouche, Nineveh. 

ivory carving and that they procured ivory in large quantities 
from Ethiopia. The Louvre possesses examples of a kind of 
flat castanets or clappers, in the form of the curve of the tusks 
themselves, engraved in outline, beautifully modelled v — '- 



tomtit^ lh# Upoini points; and largt quantities of small 
»»I»imU, tiuUuhua a Ik»* of plain form and simple decoration 
Uvuuiunl lt\Mn tta luauibcd praenoracn as the fifth dynasty, 
ntuMit mvv* *,i\ the Uritifch Museum and the museum at Cairo 
Atv*tUtMMM|Mi*tiv«ly rich. But no other collection in the world 
ttml.tltti hvuh m\ interesting collection of ancient Assyrian 
Ivuiu * n» \\u\[ in the Uritish Museum. Those exhibited, number 
*«m»» HI t v Impoiunt pieces, and many other fragments are, on 
»« » »\\i\\ ul | heir fragility or state of decay, stowed away. The 
tulUition la tha result of the excavations by Layard about 1840 
dm Ihu supposed site of Nineveh opposite the modern city of 
Mtikul, When found they were so decomposed from the lapse 
ul Umc us scarcely to bear touching or the contact of the external 
sir- Layard hit upon the ingenious plan of boiling in a solution 
of Kvluiinc and thus restoring to them the animal matter which 
hud dried up in the course of centuries. Later, the explorations 
of Hinders Pctric and others at Abydos brought to light a con- 
siderable number of sculptured fragments which may be even 
two thousand years older than those of Nineveh. They have 
been exhibited in London and since distributed amongst various 
museums at home and abroad. 

Consular and Official and Private Dipiychs. — About fifty of 
the remarkable plaques called " consular diptychs." of the time 
of the three last centuries 
of the consulates of the 
Roman and Creek empire 
have been preserved. They 
range in date from perhaps 
mid-fourth to mid-sixth cen- 
turies, and as with two or 
three exceptions the dates 
are certain it would be diffi- 
cult to overestimate their 
historic or intrinsic value. 
The earliest of absolutely 
certain date is the diptych 
of Aosta (a.d. 408), the first 
alter the recognition of 
Christianity; or, if the 
Monza diptych represents, 
as some think, the Consul 
Stilicon, then we may refer 
back six years earlier. At 
any rate the edict of Thco- 
dosius in aj>. 384, concern- 
ing the restriction of the use 
of ivory to the diptychs of 
the regular consuls, is evi- 
dence that the custom must 
have been long estab- 
lished. According to some 
authorities the beautif ulleaf 
of diptych in the Liverpool 
Museum (fig. 4) isaconsular 
one and to be ascribed to 
Marcus Julius Philippus 
(a.d. 248). Similarly the 
From pbou> fay w a. Mansdi & Ox Gherardesca leaf in the 

Fie 4.— Leaf of diptych showing British Museum may be 
combats with stags; in the Liver- accepted as of the Consul 
pool Museum. Marcus Aurelius (a.d. 508). 

But the whole question of 
the half dozen earliest examples is con ject uraJ. With a few notable 
exceptions they show decadence in art. Amongst the finest may 
be cited the leaf with the combats with stags at Liverpool, the dip- 
tych of Probianus at Berlin and the two leaves, one of Anas- 
tasius, the other of Orestes, in the Victoria and Albert Museum. 
The literature concerning these diptychs is voluminous, from the 
time of the erudite treatise by Cori published in 1759 to the 
present day. The latest of certain date is that of Basilius, 
consul of the East in 541 . the last of the consuls. The diptychs 
of private individuals or of officials number about sixteen, and 

in the case of the private ones have a far greater artistic value 
Of these the Victoria and Albert Museum possesses the most 
beautiful leaf of perhaps the finest example of ancient ivory 
sculpture which has come down to us, diptychon Mcle re tense, 
representing a Bacchante (fig. 5). The other half, which is much 
injured, is in the Cluny Museum., Other important pieces are 
the Aesculapius and Hygeia at Liverpool, the Hippolytus and 
Phaedra at Brescia, the Barberini in the Bargello and at Vienna 
and the Rufius Probianus at Beilin. Besides the diptychs 
ancient Greek and Roman 
ivories before the recognition | 
of Christianity are compara- 
tively small in number and are | 
mostly in the great museums of I 
the Vatican, Naples, the British 1 
Museum, the Louvre and the I 
Cluny Museum. Amongst them 1 
are the statuette of Pcnthea, 
perhaps of the 3rd century 
(Cluny), a large head of a 
woman (museum of Vienna) .- 
and the Bellerophon (British 
Museum), nor must those of j 
the Roman occupation in ! 
England and other countries be I 
forgotten. Notable instances ij 
are the plaque and ivory mask 
found at Caerlcon. Others are 
now in the Guildhall and British 
Museums, and most continental 
European museums have ex- 
amples connected with their 
own history. 

Early Christian and Early 
Byzantine Ivories. — The few 
examples we possess of Christian 
ivories previous to the time of 
Constantine are not of great 
importance from the point of 
view of the history of art. But 

after that date the ivories which Fig. 5.— Leaf of Roman dip- 
we may ascribe to tie con- «»«*j «P™* •.SrSffi 
turies from the end of the Museum. 
4th to at least the end of the 

oth become of considerable interest, on account of their connexion 
with the development of Byzantine art in western Europe. 
With regard to exact origins and dates opinions are largely 
divergent. In great part they are due to the carrying on of 
traditions and styles by which the makers of the sarcophagi 
were inspired, and the difficulties of ascription are increased 
when in addition to the primitive elements the influence of 
Byzantine systems introduced many new ideas derived from 
many extraneous sources. The questions involved are of no 
small archaeological, iconographical and artistic importance, 
but it must be admitted that we are reduced to conjecture in 
many cases, and compelled to theorize. And it would seem to be 
impossible to be more precise as to dates than within a margin 
of sometimes three centuries. Then, again, we are met by the 
question how far these ivories are connected with Byzantine 
art; whether they were made in the West by immigrant Greeks, 
or indigenous works, or purely imported productions. Some 
German critics have endeavoured to construct a system of 
schools, and to form definite groups, assigning them to Rome, 
Ravenna, Milan and Monza. Not only so, but they claim to be 
precise in dating even to a certain decade of a century. But it 
is certainly more than doubtful whether there is sufficient 
evidence on which to found such assumptions. It is at least 
probable that a considerable number of the ivories whose dates 
arc given by such a number of critics so wide a range as from 
the 4th to the 10th century are nothing more than the work of 
the monks of the numerous monasteries founded throughout 
the Carlovingian empire, copying and adapting from whatever 



i into their hands. Many of them were Greek immigrant* 
exiled at the time of the iconoclastic persecutions* To these 
must be added the Celtic and Anglo-Saxon missionaries, who 
brought with them and disseminated their own national feeling 
and technique. We have to take into account also the relations 
which existed not only with Constantinople but also with the 
great governing provinces of Syria and Egypt. Where all our 
information is so vague, and in the face of so much conflicting 
opinion amongst authorities, it is not unreasonable to hold with 
regard to very many of these ivories that instead of assigning 
them to the age of Justinian or even the preceding century we 
ought rather to postpone their dating from one to perhaps three 
centuries later and to admit that we cannot be precise even 
within these limits. It would be impossible to follow here the 
whole of the arguments relating to this most important period 
of the development of ivory sculpture or to mention a tithe of the 
examples which illustrate it. Amongst the most striking the 
earliest is the very celebrated leaf of a diptych in the British 
Museum representing an archangel (6g. 6). It is generally 
admitted that we have no ivory 
of the 5th or 6th centuries or in 
fact of any early medieval period 
which can compare with it in 
excellence of design and work- 
manship. There is- no record (it 
is believed) from whence the 
museum obtained the ivory. 
There are at least plausible 
grounds for surmising that it is 
identical with the "Angelas 
longus eburncus " of a book- 
cover among the books brought 
to England by St Augustine 
which is mentioned in a list of 
things belonging to Christchurch, 
Canterbury (sec Dart, A pp. p. 
xviii.). The dating of the four 
Passion plaques, also in the 
British Museum, varies from the 
5th to the 7lh century. But- 
although most recent authorities 
accept the earlier date, the 
present writer holds strongly that 
they arc not anterior to, at 
earliest, the 7th century. Even 
then they wiH remain, with the 
exception of the Monza oil flask 
and perhaps the St Sabina doors, 
the earliest known representation 
Fmpfaoc0byW.A.Mai»cU&Ca of the crucifixion. The ivory 

Fig. 6.-Lcaf of Diptych, vase > w,lh < 0ver - in the Bm ' sh 
representing Archangel; in Museum, appears to possess de- 
tbe British Museum. fined elements of the farther 

East, due perhaps to the rela- 
tions between Syria and Christian India or Ceylon. Other 
important early Christian ivories arc the series of pyxes, 
the diptych in the treasury of St Ambrogio at Milan, the 
chair of Maximian at Ravenna (most important as a type 
piece), the panel with the "Ascension" in the Bavarian 
National Museum, the Brescia casket, the " Lorsch " bookcovers 
of the Vatican and Victoria and Albert Museum, the Bodleian 
and other bookcovers, the St Paul diptych in the Bargello at 
Florence and the " Annunciation " plaque in the Trivulxio 
collection. So far as unquestionably oriental specimens of 
Byzantine art are concerned they are few in number, but we have 
in the famous Harbaville triptych in the Louvre a super- 
excellent example. 

Gothic Ivories. — The most generally charming period of ivory 
sculpture is unquestionably that which, coincident with the 
Gothic revival in art, marked the beginning of a great and 
lasting change. The formalism imposed by Byzantine traditions 
gave place to a brighter, more delicate and tenderer conception. 

This golden age of the Ivory carver— at its best In the 13th cen- 
tury— was still in evidence during the rath, and although there 
is the beginning of a transition in style in the 15th century, the 
period of neglect and decadence which set in about the beginning 
of the 16th tiardly reached the acute stage until well on into the 
1 7th. To review the various developments both of religious art 
which reigned almost alone until the 14th century, or of the 
secular side as exemplified in the delightful mirror cases and 
caskets carved with subjects from the romantic stories which 
were so popular, would be impossible here. Almost every great 
museum and famous private collection abounds in examples 
of the well-known diptychs and triptychs and little portable 
oratories of this period. Some, as in a famous panel in the 
British Museum, are marvels of minute workmanship, others of 
delicate openwork and tracery. Others, again, are remarkable 
for the wonderful way in which, in the compass of a few inches, 
whole histories and episodes of the scriptural narratives are 
expressed in the most vivid and telling manner. Charming above 
all arc the statuettes of the Virgin and Child which French and 
Flemish art, especially, have handed down to us. Of these the 
Victoria and Albert Museum possesses a representative colkc- 

FiG. 7. — Mirror Case, illustrating the Storming of the Castle of , 
Love; in the Victoria and Albert Museum. 

tion. Another series of interest is that of the crozicrs or pastoral » 
staves, the development of which the student of ivories will be 
careful to study in connexion with the earlier ones and the 
tau -headed staves. In addition there are shrines, reliquaries, 
bookcovers, liturgical combs, portable altars, pyxes, holy water 
buckets and sprinklers J? abtlla or lit urgical fans, rosaries, mtmento 
rtori, paxes, small figures and groups, and almost every conceiv- 
able adjunct of the sanctuary or for private devotion. It is to 
French or Flemish art that the greater number and the most 
beautiful must be referred. At the same time, to take one 
example only— the diptych and triptych of Bishop Grandison 
in the British Museum— we have evidence that English ivory 
carvers were capable of rare excellence of design and workman- 
ship. Nor can crucifixes be forgotten, though they are of 
extreme rarity before the r7th century. A most beautiful 13th- 
century figure for one— though only a fragment— is in the Victoria 
and Albert Museum. Amongst secular objects of this period, 
besides the mirror cases (fig. 7) and caskets, there are hunting 
horns (the earlier ones probably oriental, or more or less faith- 
fully copied from oriental models), chess and draughtsmen 
(especially the curious set from the isle of Lewis), combs, marriage 
coffers (at one period remarkable Italian ones of bone), memor- 
andum tablets, seals, the pommels and cantles of saddles and a 



unique harp bow in the Louvre. The above enumeration will 
alone suffice to show that the inquirer must be referred for 
<ktAHs to the numerous works which treat of medieval ivory 

Ivory Stulpture from the 16th to the tgth Century.— Compared 

with the wealth of ivory carving of the two preceding centuries, 

t** » $ih, and especially the 16th, centuries are singularly poor in 

really fine work. But before we arrive at the period of real 

decadence we shall come across such things as the knife of 

Diana of Poitiers in the Louvre, the sceptre of Louis XIII., the 

Rothschild hunting horn, many Italian powder horns, the 

German Psyche in the Louvre, or the " Young Girl and Death ** 

in the Munich Museum, in which there is undoubtedly originality 

*nd talectt of the first order. The practice of ivory carving 

kecam* extremely popular throughout the 17th and 18th 

centuries, especially in the Netherlands and in Germany, and the 

amount of ivory consumed must have been very great. But, 

with race exceptions, and these for the most part Flemish, it is 

art of an inferior kind, which seems to have been abandoned to 

** co **l -rate sculptors and the artisans of the workshop. There is 

hit* origioahty, the rococo styles run riot, and we seem to be 

ec*>J*flan«i to wade through an interminable series of gods and 

sN^-JossjeSv bacchanalians and satyrs, pseudo-classical copies 

t?vNtx the antique and imitations of the schools of Rubens. As a 

cuter of fact few great museums, except the German ones, 

core to include in their collections examples of these periods. 

^^^ exceptions are made in the case of Flemish sculptors of 

*~»»^ talent as Francois Duquesnoy (Fiammingo), Gerard van 

^^ ** *r Lucas Fayd'herbe. In a lesser degree, in Germany, 

V "^V* Angertnair, Lconhard Kern, Bcrnhard Strauss, 

fc.vcv^ Kruger and Rauch miller; and, in France, Jean Guiller- 

»"» v tVavkJ Ve Marchand and Jean Cavalier. Crucifixes were 

r- ^*vi oat in enormous numbers, some of not inconsiderable 

i*^ Vet. for the most part, they represent anatomical exercises 

<• u*n ^g ^ sightly from a pattern of which a celebrated one 

a- **s.< x xt to Faislenbergcr may be taken as a type. Tankards 

*\>i k!^ aa*J some, notably the one in the Jones collection, than 

• k -v ^ «vt*Lap* ao finer example exists, arc also of a high standard. 

VW ^vv,? '* work b well illustrated by the charming series of 

* v % *^««w in the Victoria and Albert Museum known as the 

* *.n*t. ^ toyV* Amongst the crowd of objects in ivory 

j* £ . oa; ^<«;<«i of the early t8th century, the many examples 

• v -4t*v4» v w^kwents known as rappoirs, or tobacco graters, 

->m X tvtsved. It may perhaps be necessary to add that 

. v *<?* N v vtaacttf of art in ivory in these periods is not of 

** ••.srN.x. the subject Is not one entirely unworthy of attention 

,h v«..>. *td tam art a certain number of remarkable and 

««• % -o'M&c example*. 

.. * s«.*v« J $p*i* t Pertutal, India, China and Japan.— 

-*,+* ^v^ with regard to Spain and Portugal, there is 

v •*«*** .v*r*Wtwi»* than confine our attention to a certain 

^ % . 4 Ntvi*t Moorish or Hispano-Morcsque ivories of the 

" k "k V*>*x**>at»on of the Peninsula, from the 8th to the 

* V ,***>> $*»* *«* examples are in the Victoria and 

' i *».* vX IVrtttgucse work there is little except the 

•*" HA .MiMt G»i and the Portuguese settlements in the 

" w ^ »**» »** be made also of the remarkable 

, •♦*. lVetuguc«e and savage art from Benin, now 

^'" > . vmitv 01 Indian i vorv carving the India 

- ** ^^ ^ n^t* a very large and varied collection 

v— *\ ^ ^m But there is little older than the 

*- * \,^tWiiW that Indian art in ivory can 

, - - -*\ w4 s^» in the hUtory of the art. What we 

e m . • ~J?4#^ * ivvcy it confined to those examples 

t>. -- B _ m m *» Kiropean market, and can hardly 

tv ^ • , ur rN-e xtty •trongly to euluvated tastes. 

tl -~*~* rTiW^wn ddightf ttl ntUukis and the 

The " * sV -.walrt wflto ncre for *** lvorics o£ 

time _- ~\^ *. 



of pri 

- 7 • .^.w.iwV- ruJp * 

a certain amount is exhibited in the Royal Academy and in mott 
foreign salons, but in England the works— necessarily not very 
numerous — are soon absorbed in private collections. On the 
European* continent, on the contrary, in such galleries as the 
Belgian state collections or the Luxembourg, examples are 
frequently acquired and exhibited. In Belgium the acquisition 
of the Congo and the considerable import of ivory therefrom 
gave encouragement to a definite revival of the art. Important 
exhibitions have been held in Belgium, and a notable one in 
Paris in 1004. Though ivory carving is as expensive as marble 
sculpture, all sculptors delight in following it, and the material 
entails no special knowledge or training. Of 19th-century artists 
there were in France amongst the best known, besides numerous 
minor workers of Dieppe and St Claude, August in Morean, 
Vautier, Soitoux, Bclletcste, Meugniot, Pradier, Triqueti and 
Gerome; and in the first decade of the 20th century, besides 
such distinguished names in the first rank as Jean Dampt and 
Theodore Riviere, there were Vever, Gardet, Caron. Barrias, 
Allouard, Ferrary and many others. Nor must the decorative 
work of Rene Lalique be omitted. No less than forty Belgian 
sculptors exhibited work in ivory at the Brussels exhibition of 
1887. The list included artists of such distinction as J. Dillens, 
Constantin Meunier, van der Stappcn, Khnopff, P. Wolfcrs, 
Samuel and Paul de Vigne, and amongst contemporary Belgian 
sculptors are also van Beurden, G. Devrcese, Vincotte, de 
Tombay and Lagae. In England the most notable work includes 
the " Lamia " of George Frampton, the " St Elizabeth " of Alfred 
Gilbert, the " Mors Janua Vitae " of Harry Bates, the " Lance- 
lot " of W. Reynolds-Stephens and the use of ivory in the applied 
arts by Lynn Jenkins, A. G. Walker, Alexander Fisher and 

Authorities.— See generally A. Maskell, torus (1906). and the 
bibliography (here given. 

On Early Christian and Early Byzantine ivories, the following 
works may be mentioned : Abbe Cabrol, Dtclionnaire de Varchiolog* 
chrttienne (in progress): O. M. Dalton, Catalogue of Early Christian 
Antiquities in British Museum (1902); E. Dobbert, Zur GescktckU 
der Elfenbeinsculplur (1885): H. Graeven, Antike Scknittereien 

i«903); R. Kanzlcr, Gli avori . . . Vaticana (1903); Kondakov, 
,'Arl byzantini A. Maskell, Cantor Lectures, Soc. of Arts (1906) 
(lecture II., "Early Christian and Early Byzantine Ivories"); 
Strzygowskt, Bytantinische Denkmaler (1891): V. Schulze, Arekdo- 
lotie der alUkrutlichen Kunst (1895). G. Siuhlfauth, Die alUkristL 
Elfenbeinplaslik (1896). 

On the consular diptychs, see H. F. Clinton, Fasti Romani (1845- 
1850); A. Gori, Thesaurus veterum diptychorum (1759); C. Lenor- 
mant, Trisorde numismalique el de ityptique (1834-1846) ; F. Pulszky, 
Catalogue of the Fijhvdry Ivories (1856). 

On the artistic interest generally, see also C. Alabaster. Caialogve 
of Chinese Objects in the South Kensington Museum ; Sir R. Alcock. 
Art and Art Industries in Japan (1878) ; Barraud et Martin, Le BHon 
pastoral (1856): Bouchot, Us Relinres d'art d la Bibtiothique Nalio- 
na " " " •--•■- Hturgiques; H. Cole, Indian Art 

at Storia delT arte Christiana (1881); 

A. tier (1876); J. Labarte, Htstoire des 

ah Uber den Krummstab (1863); Sir F. 

M [in Archaealogia, vol. xxiv. 1832); 

VV 1 Medieval in the South Kensington 

M toire de I' art; E. Molinier, Htstoire 

get eld. Catalogue of Fictile Ivories stAA 

by . H. Pitt Rivers, Antique Worhs of 

At Juatrcm^re de Quincy, Le Jupiter 

(H, ?r, Elfenbetnplastik sett der Renats- 

sax Lex Arts an moyen Age ( 1 838-1 846) ; 

G. >-l868) . A. Venturi, Storus delT arte 

Itc Indian Art at Delhi (1904). J- O. 

W South Kensington Museum (1876). 

Sii ... . ureim Ivory (1856). (A. Ml.) 

IVORY COAST (Cdte <T I voire), a French West African colony, 
bounded S. by the Gulf of Guinea, W. by Liberia and French 
Guinea, N. by the colony of Upper Senegal and Niger, E. by the 
Gold Coast. Its area Is approximately 120,000 sq. m. t and its 
population possibly 2,000,000, of whom some 600 are Europeans. 
Official estimates (1008) placed the native population as low as 

Physical Features.— The coast -line extends from 7* 30' to *• 7* W 
and has a length of 380 m. It forms an air of a circle of which the 
convexity turns slightly to the north: neither bay nor promontory 
breaks the regularity of its outline. The shore U low, bordered in its 



eastern haK with lagoons, and difficult of access on account of the 
submarine bar of sand which stretches along nearly the whole of the 
coast, and also because of the heavy surf caused by the great Atlantic 
billows. The principal lagoons, going W. to E. are those of Grand 
Lahou, Grand Bassam or Ebri6 and Assini. The coast plains extend 
inland about 40 m. Beyond the ground rises in steep slopes to a 
general level of over 1000 ft., the plateau being traversed in several 
directions by hills rising 2000 ft. and over, and cut by valleys with a 
general south-eastern trend. In the north-east, in the district of 
Komj (9.9.), the country becomes mountainous, Mt. Kommono 
attaining a height of 4757 ft. In the north-west, by the Ltberian 
frontier, the mountains in the Gon region rise over 6000 ft. Starting 
from the Liberia n frontier, the chief rivers are the Cavalla (or 
Kavalfi), the San Pedro, the Sassandra (240 m. long), the Bandama 
(225 m.), formed by the White and the Red Bandama, the Komoe 
(360 m.) and the But. All these streams are interrupted by rapids 
as they descend from the highlands to the plain and are un navigable 
by steamers save for a few miles from their mouths. The nvcrs 
named all drain to the Gulf of Guinea , the rivers in the extreme 
north of the colony belong to the Niger system, being affluents of 
the Ban! or Mahel Balevel branch of that river. The watershed runs 
roughly fromo,* N. in the west to io d N in the east, and is marked by 
a line of bills rising about 650 ft. above the level of the plateau. 
The climate is in general very hot and unhealthy, the rainfall being 
very heavy. In some parts of the plateau healthier conditions 
prevail. The fauna and flora are similar to those of the Gold Coast 
and Liberia. Primeval forest extends from the coast plains to about 
8° N., covering nearly 50,000 sq. ra. 

Inhabitants.— The coast districts are inhabited by Negro 
tribes allied on the one hand to the K rumen (q.v.) and on the 
other to the people of Ashanti {q.v.). The Assinis are of Ashanli 
origin, and chiefly of the Ochin and Agni tribes. Farther west 
are found the "Jack- Jacks" and the "Kwa-Kwas," sobriquets 
given respectively to the Aradian and Avikom by the early 
European traders. The Kwa-Kwa are said to be so called 
because their salutation " resembles the cry of a duck." In the 
interior the Negro strain predominates but with an admixture 
of Hamitic or Berber blood. The tribes represented include 
Jamans, Wongaras and Mandingos (q.v ), some of whom are 
Moslems. The Mandingos have intermarried largely with the 
Bambara or Sienuf, an agricultural people of more than average 
Intelligence widely spread over the country, of which they are 
considered to be the indigenous race. The Bambara themselves 
are perhaps only a distinct branch of the original Mandingo 
stock. The Baule, who occupy the central part of the colony, 
are of Agni-Ashanti origin. The bulk of the inhabitants are 
fetish worshippers. On the northern confines of the great forest 
belt live races of cannibals, whose existence was first made known 
by Captain d '01 lone in 1809. In general the coast tribes arc 
peaceful. They have the reputation of being neither industrious 
nor intelligent. The traders are chiefly Fanti, Sierra Leonians, 
Senegalese and Mandingos. 

Teams.— The chief towns on the coast arc Grand and Little Bassam, 

iaclcville and Assini in the east and Grand Lahou, Sassandra and 
"abu in the west. Grand and Little Bassam are built on the strip 
of sand which separates the Grand Bassam or Ebrie lagoon from the 
sea. This lagoon forms a commodious harbour, once the bar has 
been crossed. Grand Bassam is situated at the point where the 
lagoon and the river Komoe enter the sea and there is a minimum 
depth of 1* ft. of water over the bar. The town (pop. 9000, including 
about 100 Europeans) is the seat of the customs administration and 
of the judicial department, and is the largest centre for the trade of 
the colony. A wharf equipped with cranes extends beyond the surf 
fine and the town is served by a light railway. It ts notoriously 
unhealthy; yellow fever is endemic. Little Bassam, renamed by 
the French Port Bouet, possesses an advantage over the other ports 
on the coast, as at this point there is no bar. The sea floor is here 
rent by a chasm, known as the " Bottomless Pit," the waters having 
a depth of 65 ft. Abijean (Abidjan), on the north sida of the lagoon 
opposite Port Bouet is the starting-point of a railway to the oil and 
rubber regions. The half-mile of foreshore separating the port from 
the lagoon was in 1904- 1907 pierced by a canal, but the canal silted 
up as soon as cut, and in 1908 the French decided to make Grand 
Bassam the chief port of the .colony. Assini Is an important centre 
for the rubber trade of Ashanti. On the northern shore of the 
Bassam lagoon* asd 19 m. from Grand Bassam, is the capital of the 
colony, the native name Adjame having been changed into Bloger- 
vine, in honour of Captain L. G. Btnger (sec below). The town is 
built on a hill and is fairly healthy. 

In the interior are several towns, though none of any stse numeric- 
ally. The best known are Koroko. Kong and Bona, entrepots for 
the trade of the middle Niger, and Bontuku. on the caravan route 
to Sokoto and the meeting-place of the merchants from Kong and 

Timbuktu engaged In the kota-mrt trade with Ashanti and (he Gold 
Coast. Bontuku is peopled largely by Wongara and Hansa, and 
most of the inhabitants, who number some 3000, are Moslems. 
The town, which was founded in the 15th century or earlier, is 
walled, contains various mosques and generally presents the 
appearance of an eastern city. 

Agricultnrt end Trod*.— The natives cultivate maize, plantains, 
bananas, pineapples, limes, pepper, cotton. &c, and live easily on 
the products of their gardens, with occasional help from fishing and 
hunting. They also weave cloth, make pottery and smelt iron. 
Europeans introduced the cultivation of coffee, which gives good 
results. The forests are rich in palm-tree products, rubber and 
mahogany, which constitute the chief articles of export. The rubber 
goes almost exclusively to England, as does also the mahogany. 
The palm-oil and palm kernels are sent almost entirely to France. 
The value of the external trade of the colony exceeded £1,000,000 
for the first time » 1904. About 50% of the trade is with Great 
Britain. The export of ivory, for which the country was formerly 
famous, has almost ceased, the elephants being largely driven out of 
the colony. Cotton goods, by far the most important of the imports, 
come almost entirely from Great Britain. Gold exists and many 
native villages have small "placer" mines. In 1901 the government 
of .the colony began the granting of mining concessions^ in which 
British capital was largely invested. There are many ancient mines 
in the country, disused since the close of the 18th century, if not 

Covwtunkations.—Tht railway from Little Bassam serves the 
east central part of the colony and runs to Katiola. in Kong, a total 
distance of 250 m. The line is of metre gauge. The cutting of two 
canals, whereby communication is effected by lagoon between 
Assini and Grand Lahou via Bassam, followed the construction of the 
railway. Grand and Little Bassam are in regular communication 
by steamer with Bordeaux, Marseilles, Liverpool, Antwerp and 
Hamburg. Grand Bassam is connected with Europe by submarine 
cable via Dakar. Telegraph lines connect the coast with all the 
principal stations in the interior, with the Gold Coast, and with the 
other French colonies in West Africa. 

Administration, &c— The colony is under the general superintend- 
ence of the government general of French West Africa. At the head 
of the local administration b a lieutenant-governor, who is assisted 
by a council on which nominated unofficial members have seats. 
To a large extent the native forms of government are maintained 
under European administrators responsible for the preservation of 
order, the colony for this purpose being divided into a number of 
" circles " each with its local government. The colony has a separate 
budget and is self-supporting. Revenue is derived chiefly from 
customs receipts and a capitation tax of frs. 2.50 (2$.), instituted in 
1901 and levied on all persons over ten years old. The budget for 
1906 balanced at £120400. 

History.— The Ivory Coast fs stated to have been visited by 
Dieppe' merchants in the 14th century, and was made known 
by the Portuguese discoveries towards the end of the 15th 
century. It was thereafter frequented by traders for ivory, 
slaves and other commodities. There was a French settlement 
at Assini, 1700-1704, and a French factory was maintained at 
Grand Bassam from 1700 to 1707. In the early part of the 19th 
century several French traders had established themselves 
along the coast. In 1830 Admiral (then Commandant) BouEt- 
Willaumez (1808-1871) began a series of surveys and expedi- 
tions which yielded valuable results. In 1842 he obtained from 
the native chiefs cessions of territory at Assini and Grand Bassam 
to France and the towns named were occupied in 1843. From 
that time French influence gradually extended along the coast, 
but no attempt was made to penetrate inland. As one result 
of the Franco- Prussian War, France in 1872 withdrew her 
garrisons, handing over the care of the establishments to a 
merchant named Verdier, to whom an annual subsidy of £800 
was paid. This merchant sent an agent into the interior who 
made friendly treaties between France and some of the native 
chiefs. In 1883, in view'of the claims of other European powers 
to territory in Africa, France again took over the actual 
administration of Assini and Bassam. Between 1887 and 1889 
Captain Bingcr (an officer of marine infantry, and subsequently 
director of the African department at the colonial ministry) 
traversed the whole region between the coast and the Niger, 
visited Bontuku and the Kong country, and signed protectorate 
treaties with the chiefs. The kingdom of Jaman, it may be men- 
tioned, was for a few months included in the Gold Coast hinter- 
land. In January 1889 a British mission sent by the governor 
of the Gold Coast concluded a treaty with the king of Jaman 
at Bontuku, placing his dominions under British protec*' 




be ■ 


The king had, however, previously concluded treaties of " com- 
merce and friendship " with the French, and by the Anglo-French 
agreement of August 1889 Jaman, with Bonluku, was recognized 
as French territory. In 1892 Captain BInger made further ex- 
plorations in the interior of the Ivory Coast, and in 1893 he was 
appointed the first governor of the colony on its erection into 
an administration distinct from that of Senegal Among other 
famous explorers who helped to make known the hinterland 
was Colonel (then Captain) Marchand. It was to the zone 
between the Kong states and the hinterland of Liberia that 
Samory (see Senegal) fled for refuge before he was taken 
prisoner (1898), and for a short time he was master of Kong. 
The boundary of the colony on the west was settled by Franco- 
Liberian agreements of 1892 and subsequent dates; that on 
the east by the Anglo- French agreements of 1893 and 1898. 
The northern boundary was fixed in 1899 on the division of the 
middle Niger territories (up to that date officially called the 
French Sudan) among the other French West African colonies. 
The systematic development of the colony, the opening up pf 
the hinterland and the exploitation of its economic resources 
date from the appointment of Captain Binger as governor, a 
post he held for over three years. The work he began has been 
carried on zealously and effectively by subsequent governors, 
who have succeeded in winning the co-operation of the natives. 
In the older books of travel are often found the alternative 
names for this region, Tooth Coast (Cdie des Denis) or Kwa-Kwa 
Coast, and, less frequently, the Coast of the Five and Six Stripes 
(alluding to a kind of cotton fabric in favour with the natives). 
The term Cote des Dents continued in general use in France 
until the closing years of the 19th century. 

Sec Dix ansa la Ctte d'lvoire (Paris. 1906) by F. J. Clbzel, governor 
of the colony, and Notre colonic de la Cite d'lvoire (Paris, 1003) by 
R. Villamur and Richaud. These two volumes deal with the history, 
geography, zoology and economic condition of the Ivory Coast. 
La Cite d'lvoire by Michcllet and Clement describes the administra- 
tive and land systems, &c. Another volume also called La C6le 
ilvoirt (Paris, 1908) is an official monograph on the colony. For 
ethnology consult Covtumes indigenes de la Cote flvoire (Paris, 1902) 
by F. J. Cloze! and R. Villamur, and Les Coutumes Agni, by R. 
Yttlamur and Delafosse. Of books of travel see Du Niger au Cotfe de 
Guin&e par Kong (Paris, 1892) by L. G. Binger, and Mission Hostains- 
tOUoue 1898-1900 (Paris, 1901) by Captain d'OHone. A Carte 
it U C$U dlvcire by A. Mcunier, on the scale of 1 : 500,000 (6 sheets), 
was published in Paris, 1905. Annual reports on the colony are 
pubhshed by the French colonial and the British foreign offices. 

IVREA (anc. Eporedia), a town and episcopal see of Piedmont, 

Italy, in the province of Turin, from which it is 38 m. N.N.E. 

by tail and 27 ra. direct, situated 770 ft. above sea-level, on the 

Dora Ballea at the point where it leaves the mountains. Pop. 

UqoO 6047 (town), "^ (commune). The cathedral was 

built between 973 and 1005; the gallery round the back of the 

m* and the crypt have plain cubical capitals of this period. 

tv tvo campanUi Banking the apse at each end of the side 

t«k ire the oldest example of this architectural arrangement. 

TV isolated tower, which is all that remains of the ancient abbey 

l^SieUia *» slightly later. The hill above the town is crowned 

w tie ifflP«»»8 Castello deuc Quatlro Torn, built in 1358, 

Z/vr* a prison- One of the four towers was destroyed by 

SLnttmi**. A tramway runs lo Santhii. 

^Tsoailporedia, standing at the junction of the roads 

^te^Taawwrum and Verccllae, at the point where 

«ttVsr3SU rraetoria enters the narrow valley of the 

^T^n^-V «* * military^ position of considerable 

*SLi» *ra=* * tbt Salassi who inhabited the whole 

*^!X, i ^c lir^ The importance of the gold-mines 

^ ^r— &- ts seat by the Romans in 143 B.C. The 

*JLT -* x3« r&sr* *«* to have been Victumulae 

^^-JU, ^? - at Cr a cetoty of Roman citizens was 

* - — V-JL~^ ^ <fc wsperity of this was only 

-*" =aa - * " T ^jj fcfeated in 2$ B.C. and 

tv*c se itnaains of a theatre 

and later of a marquiaate; both Berengar II. (950) and Ardoin 
(1002) became kings of Italy for a short period. Later it sub- 
mitted" to the marquises of Monferrato, and in the middle of the 
14th century passed to the house of Savoy. (T. As.) 

IVRY-SUR-SEINB, a town of northern France, in the depart- 
ment of Seine, near the left bank of the Seine, less than 1 m. 
S.S.E. of the fortifications of Paris. Pop. (1006) 30,532. Ivry 
has a large hospital for incurables. It manufactures organs, 
earthenware, wall-paper and rubber, and has engineering works, 
breweries, and oil-works, its trade being facilitated by a port 
on the Seine. The town is dominated by a fort of the older line 
of defence of Paris. 

IVY (A.S. ifig, Cer. Epkeu, perhaps connected with apiawi, 
Amor), the collective designation of certain species and 
varieties of Hedera, a member of the natural order Araliaceae, 


t Vecchio rests on 


Fie. j. — Ivy (Hedera Helix) fruiting branch, x. Flower. 2. Fruit, 

There are fifty species of ivy recorded in modem books, but they 
may be reduced to two, or at the most, three. The European ivy, 
Hedera Helix (fig. r), is a plant subject to infinite variety in the 
forms and colours of its leaves, but the tendency of which is 
always to a three- to five-lobed form when climbing and a regular 
ovate form of leaf when producing flower and fruit. The African 
ivy, H. can arte nsis, often regarded as a variety of H, Helix and 
known as the Irish ivy, is a 
native of North Africa and the 
adjacent islands. It is the com- 
mon large-leaved climbing ivy, 
and also varies, but in a less 
degree than H. Helix, from 
which its leaves differ in their, 
larger size, rich deep green colour, 
and a prevailing tendency to a 
five-lobed outline. When in fruit 
the leaves are usually three- 
lobcd, but they are sometimes 
entire and broadly ovate. The 
Asiatic ivy, H. cole h tea (fig. 2), 
now considered to be a form of 
H. Helix* has ovate, obscurely 

three-lobed leaves of a coriaceous texture and a deep greea 
colour; in the tree or fruiting form the leaves are narrower 
than in the climbing form, and without any trace of lobes. 
Distinctive characters are also to be found in the appendages of 
the pedicels and calyx, H. Helix having six-rayed stellate 
hairs, H. canariensis fifteen-rayed hairs and H. cokkica yellowish 
two-lobed scales. 
The Australian Ivy, H. australiana, is a small glabrous shrub 

Fig. 2.— Hedera coUkie*. 



Fig. 3. — Climbing Shoot of Ivy. 

with pinnate leaves. It is a native of Queensland* and is 

practically unknown in cultivation. 

It is of the utmost importance to note the difference of char- 
acters of the same species of ivy in its two conditions of climbing 
and fruiting. The first stage of growth, whkh we will suppose 
to be from the seed, is essentially scandent, and the leaves are 
lobed more or less. This stage is accompanied with a plentiful 
production of the daspers or modified roots by means of which 

the plant becomes at- 
tached and obtains sup- 
port. When it has 
reached the summit of 
the tree or tower, the 
stems, being no longer 
able to maintain a per- 
pendicular attitude, 
fall over and become 
horizontal or pendent. 
Coincidcntly with this 
change they cease to 
k produce daspers, and 
the leaves are strik- 
ingly modified in form, 
being now narrower 
and less lobed than 
on the ascending 
stems. In due time this tree-like growth produces terminal 
umbels of greenish flowers, which have the parts in fives, 
with the styles united into a very short one. These flowers 
are succeeded by smooth black or yellow berries, containing two 
to five seeds. The yellow-berried ivy is met with in northern 
India and in Italy, but in northern Europe it is known only as 
a curiosity of the garden, where, if sufficiently sheltered and 
nourished, it becomes an exceedingly beautiful and fruitful tree. 
It is stated in books that some forms of sylvestral ivy never 
flower, but a negative declaration of this kind is valueless. 
Sylvestral ivies of great age may be found in woods on the 
western coasts of Britain that have apparently never flowered, 
but this is probably to be explained by their inability to surmount 
the trees supporting them, for until the plant can spread its 
branches horizontally in full daylight, the flowering or tree-like 
growth is never formed. 

A question of great practical importance arises out of the 
relation of the plant to its means of support. A moderate growth 
of ivy is not injurious to trees; still the tendency is from the first 
inimical to the prosperity of the tree, and at a certain stage it 
becomes deadly. Therefore the growth of ivy on trees should be 
kept within reasonable bounds, more especially in the case of 
trees that are of special value for their beauty, history, or the 
quality of their timber. In regard to buildings clothed with 
ivy, there is nothing to be feared so long as the plant does not 
penetrate the substance of the wall by means of any fissure. 
Should it thrust its way in, the natural and continuous expansion 
of its several parts will necessarily hasten the decay of the 
edifice. But a fair growth of ivy on sound walls that afford no 
entrance beyond the superficial attachment of the daspers is, 
without any exception whatever, beneficial It promotes dryness 
and warmth, reduces to a minimum the corrosive action of the 
atmosphere, and is altogether as conservative as it is beautiful. 
The economical uses of the ivy are not of great importance. 
The leaves are eaten greedily by horses, deer, cattle and sheep, 
and in times of scarcity have proved useful The flowers afford a 
good supply of honey to bees; and. as they appear in autumn, 
tbey occasionally make amends for the shortcomings of the 
season. The berries are eaten by wood pigeons, blackbirds and 
thrushes. From all parts of the plant a balsamic bitter may 
be obtained, and this in the form of kederie acid is the only 
preparation of ivy known to chemists. 

In the garden the uses of the ivy are innumerable, and the 
least known though not the least valuable of them is the cultiva- 
tion of the plant as a bush or tree, the fruiting growth being 
selected for this purpose. The variegated tree forms of H. Helix, 

with leaves of creamy white, golden green or rich deep orange 
yellow, soon Drove handsome miniature trees, that thrive 
almost as well in smoky town gardens as in the pure air of the 
country, and that no ordinary winter will injure in the kast. 
The tree-form of the Asiatic ivy (H. colckica) is scarcely to be 
equalled in beauty of leafage by any evergreen shrub known to 
English gardens, and, although in the course of a few years it will 
attain to a stature of 5 or 6 ft., it is but rardy we meet with it, 
or Indeed with tree ivies of any kind, but little attention having 
been given to this subject until recent years. The scandent forms 
are more generally appreciated, and are now much employed in 
the formation of marginal lines, screens and trained pyramids, 
as well as for clothing walls. A very striking example of the 
capabilities of the commonest ivies, when treated artistically 
as garden plants, may be seen in the Zoological Gardens of 
Amsterdam, where several paddocks are endosed with wreaths, 
garlands and bands of ivy in a most picturesque manner. 

About sixty varieties known in gardens are figured and 
described in The Ivy, a Monograph, by Shirley Hibberd (1873). 
To cultivate these is an extremdy simple matter, as tbey will 
thrive in a poor soil and endure a considerable depth of shade, 
so that they may with advantage be planted under trees. The 
common Irish ivy is often to be seen clothing the ground beneath 
large yew trees where grass would not live, and it is occasionally 
planted in graveyards in London to form an imitation of grass 
turf, for which purpose it is admirably suited. 

The ivy, like the holly, is a scarce plant on the American 
continent. In the northern United States and British America 
the winters are not more severe than the ivy can endure, but 
the summers are too hot and dry, and the requirements of the 
plant have not often obtained attention. In districts where 
native ferns abound the ivy will be found to thrive, and the 
varieties of Hedero Heiix should have the preference. But in 
the drier districts hies might often be planted on the north side 
of buildings, and, if encouraged with water and careful training 
for three or four years, would then grow rapidly and train them- 
selves. A strong light is detrimental to the growth of ivy, but 
this enhances its value, for we have no hardy plants that may 
be compared with it for variety and beauty that will endure 
shade with equal patience. 

The North American poison ivy (poison oak), Rhus Toxico- 
dendron (nat. order Anacardiaceae), is a dimber with pinnately 
compound leaves, which arc very attractive in their autumn 
colour but poisonous to the touch to some persons, while others 
can handle the plant without injury. The effects are redness 
and violent itching followed by fever and a vesicular eruption. 

The ground ivy, Neptta Ctechoma (nat. order Labiatae), is a 
small creeping plant with rounded crenate leaves and small 
blue-purple flowers, occurring in hedges and thickets. 

IWAKURA, TOHOMI, Pkince (183 5-1 883), Japanese states- 
man, was born in Kioto. He was one of the court nobles {kuge) 
of Japan, and he traced his descent to the emperor Murakami 
(a.d. 047-067). A man of profound ability and singular force of 
character, he acted a leading part in the complications preceding 
the fall of the Tokugawa shdgunate, and was obliged to fly from 
Kioto accompanied by his coadjutor, Prince SanjO. They took 
refuge with the DaimyO of Choshu, and, while there, established 
relations which contributed greatly to the ultimate union of the 
two great fiefs, Satsuma and Choshu, for the work of the Restora- 
tion. From 1867 until the day of his death Iwakura was one 
of the most prominent figures on the political stage. In 1871 
he proceeded to America and Europe at the head of an imposing 
embassy of some fifty persons, the object being to explain to 
foreign governments the actual conditions existing in Japan, 
and to pave the way for negotiating new treaties consistent 
with her sovereign rights. Little success attended the mission. 
Returning to Japan in 1873, Iwakura found the cabinet divided 
as to the manner of dealing with Korea's insulting attitude. 
He advocated peace, and his influence carried the day, thus 
removing a difficulty which, though apparently of minor dimen- 
sions, might have changed the whole course of Japan's modern 



IZION, In Greek legend, son of Phlegyas, king of the Lapithae 
in Thessaly {or of Ares), and husband of Dia. According to 
custom he promised his father-in-law, Defoneus, a handsome 
bridal present, but treacherously murdered him when he claimed 
the fulfilment of the promise. As a punishment, Ixion was 
seised with madness, until Zeus purified him of his crime and 
admitted him as a guest to Olympus. Ixion abused his pardon 
by trying to seduce Hera} but the goddess substituted for herself 
a cloud, by which he became the father of the Centaurs. Zeus 
bound him on a fiery wheel, which rolls unceasingly through the 
air or (according to the later version) in the underworld (Pindar, 
Pylkia, ix. n; Ovid, Metam. iv. 461; Virgil, Aeneid, vi. 601). 
Ixion is generally taken to represent the eternally moving sun. 
Another explanation connects the story with the practice 
(among certain peoples of central Europe) of carrying a blazing, 
revolving wheel through fields which needed the heat of the sun, 
the legend being invented to explain the custom and subsequently 
Adopted by the Greeks (see Mannhardt, Wold- und FddkulU, 
U. 1005, p. 83). In view of the fact that the oak was the sun-god's 
tree and that the mistletoe grew upon it, it is suggested by A. B. 
Cook (Class, Rev. xvii. 420) that 1#o»» is derived from l&t 
(mistletoe), the sun's fire being regarded as an emanation from 
the mistletoe. Ixion himself is probably a by-form of Zeus 
(Uscner In Rkein. Mus. liii. 345). 

' The Myth of Ixion " (by C. Smith, in Classical Renew, June 
1895) deals with the subject of a red-figure cantharus in the British 

IXTaCClHUATU or Ictacohuatl ("white woman"), a 
lofty mountain of volcanic origin, xo m. N. of Popocatepetl and 
about 40 m. S.S.E of the city of Mexico, forming part of the short 
spur called the Sierra Nevada. According to Angelo Heilprin 
(1853-1007) Us elevation is j6,o6ofL; other authorities make it 
much less. Its apparent height is dwarfed somewhat by its 
elongated summit and the large area covered. It has three 
summits of different heights standing on a north and south line, 
the central one being the largest and highest and all three rising 
above the permanent snow-line. As seen from the city of Mexico 
the three summits have the appearance of a shrouded human 
figure, hence the poetic Axtcc appellation of " white woman " 
and the unsentimental Spanish designation " La ptMJer gorda." 
The awent is difficult and perilous, and is rarely accomplished. 

Ilritiuin t*y« thAt the mountain is largely composed of trachytic 
*» k« und thnt (t U older than Popocatepetl. It has no crater and no 
in** of Unerring volcanic heat. It fa surmised that its crater, if it 
•wi h*d one, hi* been filled in and its cone worn away by erosion 
through long periods of time. 

IYRCAS, an ancient nation on the north-east trade route 
dwulbed by Herodotus (iv. aa) beyond the Thyssagetae.some- 
«hw about the upper basins of the Tobol and the Irtysh. 
Thf v were distinguished by their mode of hunting, climbing a 
lie* to survey their game, and then pursuing it with trained 
M*« and Oof*. They were almost certainly the ancestors 

* it Z !»4\ "TO ^cfflm J . U £3- when Pliny (N.H. vi. 

******* , t ,. , ^ H -M> 

tmftU* or $MTA fane. Boris], the chief town of the 
tl*una«t*d sards* of the Konia vilayet, in Asia Minor, well 
Kl « iffi Ue of a fertile plain at the foot of Aghlasun 
iv^h U was once the capital of the Emirate of Hamid. It 

suffered severely from the earthquake of the i6th-i7th of 
January 1889 It is a prosperous place with an enlightened Cfreek 
element in its population (hence the numerous families called 
"Spartali " in Levantine towns); and it is, in fact, the chief 
inland colony of Hellenism in Anatolia. Pop. 30,000 (Moslems 
13,000, Christians 7000). The new Aidin railway extends from 
Dineir to Izbarta via Buldur. 

IZHEVSK, a town of Russia, in the government of Vyatka, 
140 m. S.W. of Perm and 22 m. W. from the Kama, on the Ixh 
river. Pop. (1897) 2 1 ,500. It has one of the principal steel and 
rifle works of the Russian crown, started in 1807. The making 
of sporting guns is an active industry. 

IZMAIL, or Ismail, a town of Russia, in the government 
of Bessarabia, on the left bank of the Kilia branch of the Danube, 
35 m. below Reni railway station. Pop. (1866) 31,779, (1900) 
33,607, comprising Great and Little Russians, Bulgarians, 
Jews and Gipsies. There are flour-mills and a trade in cereals, 
wool, tallow and hides. Originally a Turkish fortified post, 
Izmail had by the end of the 18th century grown into a place 
of 30,000 inhabitants. It was occupied by the Russians in 
1770, and twenty years later its capture was one of the brilliant 
achievements of the Russian general, Count A. V. Suvarov. 
On that occasion the garrison was 40,000 strong, and the assault 
cost the assailants 10,000 and the defenders 30,000 men. The 
victory was the theme of one of the Russian poet G. R. Der- 
zhavin's odes. In 1809 the town was again captured by the 
Russians; and, when in 1812 it was assigned to them by the 
Bucharest peace, they chose it as the central station for their 
Danube fleet. It was about this time that the town of Tuchkov, 
with which it was later (1830) incorporated, grew up outside of 
the fortifications. These were dismantled in accordance with 
the treaty of Paris (1856), by which Izmail was made over to 
Rumania. The town was again transferred to Russia by the 
peace of Berlin (1878). 

IZU-NO-SHICHI-T0, the seven (skickt) islands (to) of Ian, 
included in the empire of Japan. They stretch in a southerly 
direction from a point near the mouth of Tokyo Bay, and lie 
between 33 and 34° 48' N. and between 139° and ' 140° E. 
Their names, beginning from the north, are Izu-no-Oshima, 
To-shima, Nii-shima, Kozu-shima, Miyake-shima and Hachijo- 
shima. There are some islets in their immediate vicinity. 
Izu-no-Oshima, an island 10 m. long and 5! m. wide, is 15 m. 
from the nearest point of the Izu promontory. It is known to 
western cartographers as Vrics Island, a name derived from that 
of Captain Martin Gerritsz de Vrics, a Dutch navigator, who is 
supposed to have discovered the island in 1643. But the group 
was known to the Japanese from a remote period, and used as 
convict settlements certainly from the 12th century and probably 
from a still earlier era. Hachijo, the most southerly, is often 
erroneously written Tatsisio" on English charts. Izu-no- 
Oshima is remarkable for its smoking volcano, Mihara-yama 
(2461 ft.), a conspicuous object to all ships bound for Yokohama. 
Three others of the islands — Nii-shima, Kozu-shima and 
Miyake-shima — have active volcanoes. Those on Nii-shima and 
Kozu-shima are of inconsiderable size, but that on Miyake- 
shima, namely, Oyama, rises to a height of 2707 ft. The most 
southerly island, Hachijo-shima, has a still higher peak, Dsubo- 
take (2838 ft.), but it does not emit any smoke. 



J A letter of the alphabet which, as fat as form is concerned, 
is only a modification of the Latin I and dates back 
with a separate value only to the 15th century. It 
was first used as a special form of initial I, the ordinary 
form being kept for use in other positions. As, however, in 
many cases initial * had the consonantal value of the English y 
in ingum (yoke), Ac, the symbol came to be used for the value of 
y, a value which it still retains in German: Jot jung, &c. 
Initially it is pronounced in English as an affricate dak. The 
great majority of English words beginning with j are (1) of 
foreign (mostly French) origin, as "jaundice," "judge"; (2) 
imitative of sound, like " jar " (the verb), or (3) influenced by 
analogy, like " jaw " (influenced by chow, according to Skeat) . In 
early French g when palatalized by * or 4 sounds became con- 
fused with consonantal * (y), and both passed into the sound of 
/ which is still preserved in English. A similar sound-change 
takes place in other languages, eg Lithuanian, where the 
resulting sound is spelt dl. Modern French and also Provencal 
and Portuguese have changed j»dak into I (zh). The sound 
initially is sometimes represented in English by f gum, gaol as 
well as jail. At the end of modern English words the same 
sound is represented by -dge as in judge, French jug*. In this 
position, however, the sound occurs also in genuine English 
words like bridge, sedge, singe, but this is true only for the 
southern dialects on -which the literary, language is founded. In 
the northern dialects the pronunciation as brig, seg, sing still 
survives. (P Gi.) 

JA'ALIN (from Mat, to settle, i.e "the squatters"), an 
African tribe of Semitic stock. They formerly occupied the 
country on both banks of the Nile from Khartum to Abu 
Hamed. They claim to be of the Koreish tribe and even trace 
descent from Abbas, uncle of the prophet. They are of Arab 
origin, but now of very mixed blood. According to their own 
tradition they emigrated to Nubia in the 12th century. They 
were at one time subject to the Funj kings, but their position 
was in a measure independent. At the Egyptian, invasion in 
1820 they were the most powerful of Arab tribes in the Nile 
valley. They submitted at first, but in 1822 rebelled and 
massacred the Egyptian garrison at Shendi. The revolt was 
mercilessly suppressed, and the Ja'alin were thenceforward 
looked on with suspicion. They were almost the first of the 
northern tribes to join the mahdi in 1884, and it was their position 
to the north of Khartum which made communication with 
General Gordon so difficult. The Ja'alin are now a semi-nomad 
agricultural people. Many are employed in Khartum as ser- 
vants, scribes and watchmen. They are a proud religious 
people, formerly notorious as cruel slave dealers. J. L. Burck- 
hardt says the true Ja'alin from the eastern desert is exactly 
like the Bedouin of eastern Arabia. 

See The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, edited by Count Glekhen 
(London, 1905). 

JABIRT7. according to Marcgrave, the Brazilian name of a bird, 
subsequently called by Linnaeus hiycteria americano, one of the 
largest of the storks, Ciconiidae, which occurs from Mexico 
southwards to the territory of the Argentine Republic. It 
stands between 4 and 5 ft. in height, and is conspicuous for its 
massive bill, slightly upturned, and its entirely white plumage; 
but the head and neck are bare and black, except for about the 
lower third part of the latter, which is bright red in the living 
bird. Very nearly allied to Mytteria, and also commonly called 
jabirus, are the birds of the genera Xenorhynchus and Epkippio- 
rhynchus — the former containing one or (in the opinion of 
some) two species, X. australis and X> indkus, and the latter 
one only, B. senegaUnsis. These belong to the countries 
indicated by their names, and differ chiefly by their feathered 
head and neck, while the last is sometimes termed the saddle- 
billed stork from the very singular shape of its beak. Somewhat 
more distantly related are the gigantic birds known to Europeans 

in India and elsewhere as adjutant birds, belonging to the genus 
Lept&ptilus, distinguished by their sad-coloured plumage, their 
black scabrous head, and their enormous tawny pouch, which 
depends occasionally some 16 in. or more in length from the lower 
part of the neck, and seems to be connected with the respiratory 
and not, as commonly believed, with the digestive system. 
In many parts of India L. dubius, the largest of these birds, the 
hcrgtla as Hindus call it, is a most efficient scavenger, sailing 
aloft at a vast height and descending on the discovery of offal, 
though frogs and fishes also form part of its diet. It familiarly 
enters the large towns, in many of which an account of its services 
it is strictly protected from injury, and, having satisfied its 
appetite, seeks the repose it has earned, sitting with its fee* 


extended in front in a most grotesque attitude. A second and 
smaller species, L.javankus, has a more southern and eastern 
range; while a third, L. crumtnifcr, oi African origin, and often 
known as the marabou-stork, gives its name to the beautifully 
soft feathers so called, which are the under-taii-coverls; the 
" marabout " feathers of the plume-trade are mostly supplied 
by other birds, the term being apparently applied to any downy 
feathers. (A. N.) 

JABLOCHKOV, PAUL (1847-1804), Russian electrical engi- 
neer and inventor, was born at Serdobsk, in the government of 
Saratov, on the 14th of September 1847, and educated at St 
Petersburg. In 187 1 he was appointed director of the telegraph 
lines between Moscow and Kursk, but in 1875 he resigned his 
position in order to devote himself to his researches on electric 
lighting by arc lamps, which be had already taken up. In 1876 
he settled in Paris, and towards the end of the year brought out 
his famous " candles," known by his name, which consisted of 
two carbon parallel rods, separated by a non-conducting par- 
tition; alternating currents were employed, and the candle was 
operated by a high-resistance carbon match connecting the tips 
of the rods, a true arc forming between the parallel carbons 
when this burnt off, and the separators volatilizing as the 
carbons burnt away. For a few years his system of electric 
lighting was widely adopted, but it was gradually superseded 



(set Liotjtino: Blutric) and if no longer in use. Jablochkov 
made various other electrical inventions, but he died in poverty, 
having returned to Russia on the 19th of March 1804. 

JABLONSKI, DANIEL ERNST (1660-1741), German theo- 
logian, was born at Nassenhuben, .near Danzig, on the soth of 
November 1660. His father was a minister of the Moravian 
Church, who had taken the name of Peter Figulus on his bap- 
tism; the son, however, preferred the Bohemian family name of 
Jablonski. His maternal grandfather, Johann Amos Comenius 
(<L 1670) , was a bishop of the Moravian Church. Having studied 
at Frankfort-on-the-Odcr and at Oxford, Jablonski entered upon 
his career as a preacher at Magdeburg in 1683, and then from 
x686 to 1691 he was the head of the Moravian college at Lissa, 
a position which had been filled by his grandfather. Still retain- 
ing his connexion with the Moravians, he was appointed court 
preacher st Konigsberg in 1691 by the elector of Brandenburg, 
Frederick HI., and here, entering upon a career of great activity, 
he soon became a person of influence in court circles. In 1693 
he was transferred to Berlin as court preacher, and in 1699 he 
was consecrated a bishop of the Moravian Church. At Berlin 
Jablonski worked hard to bring about a union between the 
followers of Luther and those of Calvin; the courts of Berlin, 
Hanover, Brunswick and Gotha were interested in his scheme, 
and his principal helper was the philosopher Leibnitz. His idea 
appears to have been to form a general union between the 
German, the English and the Swiss Protestants, and thus to 
establish una eademque soncto cathciica et aftostolica eademque 
tvonttlica el reformat* ecdesia. For some years negotiations 
were carried on with a view to attaining this end, but eventually 
It wss found impossible to surmount the many difficulties in the 
way; Jablonski and Leibnitz, however, did not cease to believe 
In the possibility of accomplishing their purpose. Jablonski's 
next plan was to reform the Church of Prussia by introducing 
Into it the episcopate, and also the liturgy of the English 
Church, but here again he was unsuccessful. As a scholar 
Jablonski brought out a Hebrew edition of the Old Testament, 
and translated Bcntley's A Confutation of Atheism into Latin 
(1606). He had some share in founding the Berlin Academy of 
Sciences, of which he was president in 1733, and he received 
a degree from the university of Oxford. He died on the 25th 
of May 1741. 

Jablonski's son, Paul Ernst Jablonski (1693-1757)1 was pro- 
fessor of theology and philosophy at the university of Frankfort- 
on the- Oder. 

Kit it ion* of the letters which passed between Tablonsld and 
Lrihnita, relative to the ptoposed union, were published at Leipzig 
In 1747 and at Dorpat in 1899. 

JABORANDI, a name given in a generic manner in Brazil and 
South America generally to a number of different plants, all 
of which possess more or less marked siaJogogue and sudorihe 
propertica. In the year 1875 a drug was introduced under the 
above namo to the notice of medical men in France by Dr 
Couttnho of Ptrnambuco, its botanical source being then un- 
known. Afrror*** ptnnatifotims. a member of the natural 
otder Rutaceao, the plant from which it is obtained, is a slightly 
branched shrub about 10 ft. high, growing in Paraguay and the 
eastern provinces of Brazil. The leaves, which are placed 
alternately on the stem, are often i| ft long, and consist of from 
two to nv* pairs of opposite leaflets, the terminal one having a 
Wag** pedicel than the others. The leaflets art oval, lanceolate, 
satire and obtuse, with the apex often slightly indented, from 
% t* a ta» tag and 1 to ifcin. broad in the oaddk. When held 
*;* to the light they may be observed to have scattered a! over 
i.Yc«i wauhwus pellucid dots or receptacles of secretion imamesaed 
a toe suJbaUnco of the leal. The leaves in size and texture 
K«c«*U*nc« to those of the cberty-lanrel (JVsami 
_ A hot are Was polished on the upper surface. The 
wfcvfc are ntoduced in spring tani early sawner, are 
at * nvemev * or * in. bag. and the font consists of nv© 
a «aWt %* asore than two or three usually arrive at 
r r^«a«T«ar«tWpartoitWr4aMuamlryiatxKtoil, 
:V sue* and roots are attached to the**. 

. ««avJalz»l 

t atssfor^* 

Holmes, was ultimately adopted, was discovered almost siinutta* 
neously by Hardy in France and Gerrard in England, but wss first 
obtained in a pure state by Petit of Paris. It is a liquid alkaloid, 
slightly soluble in water, and very soluble in alcohol, ether and 
chloroform. It strongly rotates the plane of polarization to the 
right, and forms crystalline salts of which the nitrate is that 
chiefly used in medicine. The nitrate and phosphate are 
insoluble in ether, chloroform and benzol, while the hydro* 
chlorate and hydrobromate dissolve both in these menstrua and 
in water and alcohol; the sulphate and acetate being deliques- 
cent are not employed medkinalry. The formula of the alkaloid 
is CuH M N,0» 

Certain other alkaloids are present in the leaves. They have 
been named jaborine, jaboridine and pQocatpidint. The first 
of these is the most important and constant. It is possibly 
derived from pilocarpine, and has the formula CaHaNiQ* 
Jaborine resembles atropine pharmacologically, and i$ there- 
fore antagonistic to pilocarpine. The various preparations of 

Jaborand: — j, leif (reluceJ); b, leiM; r. Power; d, fruit. 

jaborandi leaves are therefore undesirable for therapeutic p* 
poses, and only the nitrate of pilocarpine itself should be used. 
This is a white crystalline powder, soluble in the ratio of about 
one part in ten of cold water. The dose is iV-$ sprain by tie 
mouth, and up to one-third of a grain hypodermicaily, in wkid> 
fashion it is usually given. 

greatest power 00 the stcretioos. It has no external actio*. Wac* 
taken by the mouth the drug b rapidly absorbed and stimubtcsUK 
secretions of the entire alimentary tract, though not of the v*#- 
The action on the salivary ftands is the most m a r ked and the bes 
und e muml TWgffCMaVswofsaaWabdWtoanactioBiof taedrag, 
alter ab sorp tio n, on the temuantioos of the cnorda tympani fT*/ 
pathetic and other nerves of salivary secretion. The gland crfj 
themselves are anarlected. The nerves are so violently ctr'™ 
that direct stmrabrioo of them by electricity adds noebrcf tn»» 
rate of safivary tow. The action as a n tago nis ed bv atropine. «**» 
About it»ta of a gnata of atroja" 


anUronUes half a pain of pilocarpine. The circulation is , 

by the drag, the pulse being slowed and the blood pressure falling. 
The cardiac action is due to stimulation of the vagus, but the dilata- 
tion of the blood-vessels docs not appear to be due to a specific 
action upon them. The drug does not kill by its action on the heart. 
Its dangerous action is upon the bronchial secretion, which is greatly 
increased. Pilocarpine is not only the most powerful sialogogue 
but also the most powerful diaphoretic known. One dose may cause 
the flow of nearly a pint of sweat in an hour. The action is due, as 
in the case of the salivation, to stimulation of the terminals of the 
sudorific nerves- According to K. Bin/, there is also in both cases 
an action on the medullary centres for these secretions. Just as the 
saliva is a true secretion containing a high proportion of ptyalin and 
salts, and is not a mere transudation of water, so the perspiration is 
found to contain a high ratio of urea and chlorides. The great 
diaphoresis and the depression of the circulation usually cause a fall 
in temperature of about 2° F.^ The drug is excreted unchanged in 
the urine. It is a mild diuretic. When given internally or applied 
locally to the eye it powerfully stimulates the terminals of the 
oculomotor nerves in the iris and ciliary muscle, causing ext erne 
contraction ol the pupil and spasm of accommodation. The tension 
of the eyeball is at first raised but afterwards lowered. 

The cnief therapeutic u«* of the drug is as a diaphoretic in chronic 
Bright's disease. It is also used to aid the growth of the hair— in 
which it is sometimes successful; in cases of inordinate thirst, 
when one-tenth of a grain with a little bismuth held in the mouth 
may be of much value; in cases of lead and mercury poisoning, 
where it aids the elimination of the poison in the secretions; as a 
gabctagogue; and in cases of atropine poisoning (though here it 
is of doubtful value). 

JACA, a city of northern Spain, in the province of Huesca, 
114 m. by rail N. by W. of Saragossa, on the left bank of the 
river Aragon, and among the southern slopes of the Pyrenees, 
2380 ft. above the sea. Pop. (1900), 4934. Jaca is an episcopal 
see, and was formerly the capital of the Aragonese county of 
Sobrarbe. Its massive Gothic cathedral dates at least from the 
nth century, and possibly from the 9th. The city derives some 
importance from its position on the ancient frontier road from 
Saragossa to Pau. In August 1004 the French and Spanish 
governments agreed to supplement this trade-route by building 
a railway from Oloron in the Basses Pyrenees to Jaca. Various 
frontier defence works were constructed in the neighbourhood at 
the close of the 19th century. 

The origin of the city is unknown. The Jaccetani (Taxjmravot) 
are mentioned as one of the most celebrated of the numerous 
small tribes inhabiting the basin of the Ebro by Strabo, who adds 
that their territory was the theatre of the wars which took place 
in the 1st century B.C. between Scrtorius and Pompey. They 
are probably identical with the Lacctani of Livy (xxi. 60, 61) and 
Caesar {B.C. i. 60). Early in the 8th century Jaca fell into the 
possession of the Moors, by whose writers it is referred to under 
the name of Dyaka as one of the chief places in the province of 
Sarkosta (Saragossa). The date of its reconqucst is uncertain, 
but it must have been before the time of Ramiro 1, of Aragon 
(1035-1063), who gave it the title of "city," and in 1063 held 
within its walls a council, which, inasmuch as the people were 
called In to sanction its decrees, is regarded as of great impor- 
tance in the history of the parliamentary institutions of the 
Peninsula. In 1705 Jaca supported King Philip V. from whom, 
in consequence, it received the title of muy noble, muy leal y 
vencedora, " most noble, most loyal and victorious/' During 
the Peninsular War it surrendered to the French in 1809, and 
was recaptured in 1814. 

JACAMAR, a word formed by Brisson from Jacamcri, the 
Brazilian name of a bird, as given by Marcgrave, and since 
adopted in most European tongues for the species to which it 
was first applied and others allied to it, forming the family 
Galbulidae ' of ornithologists, the precise position of which is 
uncertain, since the best authorities differ. All will agree that 
the jacamars belong to the great heterogeneous group called by 
Nitzsch Picariae, but further into detail it is hardly safe to go. 
The Galbulidae have zygodactylous or pair-toed feet, like the 
CuculidaCy Bucconidat and Picidae, they also resemble both the 
latter in laying glossy white eggs, but in this respect they bear 
the same resemblance to the Momotidae, Akedmidae, hicropidae 

1 Galimla was first applied to Marcgravc's bird by Moehring. It 
is another form of Galgums, and seems to have been one of the many 
name* of the golden oriole. See Icterus. 


and so** other group*, to wkkh affinity has been claimed for 
them. la the opinion of Sdater (A Monograph of Ike Jacamars and 
Pug-birds) the jacamars form two groups—one consisting of the 
single genus and species J acumen pi aureus (/. grandis of most 
authors), and the other including all the rest, vis. Urogalba with 
two species, Galimla with nine, Braekygalba with five, and Jaca- 
meralcyon and GalbaUyrkymkus with one each. They are all 
rather small birds, the largest known being little over 10 in. in 
length, with long and sharply pointed bills, and the plumage 
more or less resplendent with golden or bronze reflections, but 
at the same time comparatively toft. Jacammralcyan tridaeiyta 
differs from all the rest in possessing but three toes (as its name 
indicates), on each foot, the hallux being deficient. With the 
exception of Galbula melanogenia, which is found also in Central 
America and southern Mexico, all the jacamars inhabit the 
tropical portions of South America eastward of the Andes, 
Galbula rujkaudo, however, extending its range to the islands of 
Trinidad and Tobago.* Very little is known of the habits of any 
of the species. They are seen sitting motionless on trees, some- 
times solitarily, at other times in companies, whence they suddenly 
dart off at any passing insect, catch it on the wing, and return 
to their perch. Of their nidification almost nothing has been 
recorded, but the species occurring in Tobago is said by Kirk to 
make its nest in marl-banks, digging a hole about an inch and a 
half in diameter and some 18 in. deep. (A. N.) 

JA$AMA, the Brazilian name, according to Marcgrave, of 
certain birds, since found to have some allies in other parts of the 
world, which are also very generally called by the same appella- 
tion. They have been most frequently classed with the water- 
hens or nils (Rallidae), but arc now recognized by many sy3tem- 
atists as forming a separate family, Parridae* whose leaning 
seems to be rather towards the Limkoiae, as apparently first 

Pheasant-tailed Jacana. 

suggested by Blyth, a view which is supported by the osteologies! 
observations of Parker (Proc. Zoot. Society, 1863, p. 513), though 
denied by A. Milne-Edwards {Ois. foss. de la France, ii. p. no). 
The most obvious characteristic of this group of birds is the 
extraordinary length of their toes and claws, whereby they are 
enabled to walk with ease over water-lilies and other aquatic 
plants growing in rivers and lakes. The family has been divided 
into four genera — of which Parra, as now restricted, inhabits 
South America; kfctopidius, hardly differing from it, has 
representatives in Africa, Madagascar and the Indian region; 
Hydralfctor, also very nearly allied to Parra t belongs to the 

* The singular appearance, recorded by Canon Tristram (Zoologist, 
p. 3906), of a bird of this species in Lincolnshire seems to require 
notice. No instance seems to be known of any jacamar having been 
kept in confinement or brought to this country alive; but expert 
aviculturists are often not communicative, and many importations 
of rare birds have doubtless parsed unrecorded. 

1 The classic Parra is by some authors thought to have been the 
golden oriole (sec Icterus), while others suppose it was a jay or 
pie. The word seems to have been imported into ornithology by 
Aldrovandus, but the reason which prompted Linnaeus to apply it, 
as he seems first to have done, to a bird of this group, cannot be 
satisfactorily stated. 



northern portion of tbe Australian region; and Hydrophasianus, 
the most extravagant form of the whole, is found in India, Ceylon 
and China. In habits the jacsoas have much in comrrion with the 
water-hens, but that fact is insufficient to warrant the affinity 
asserted to exist between the two groups; for in their osteologies! 
structure there is much difference, and the resemblance seems 
to be only that of analogy. The Parridae lay very peculiar eggs 
of a rich olive-brown colour, in most cases closely marked with 
dark lines, thus presenting an appearance by which they may 
be readily known from those of any other birds, though an 
approach to it is occasionally to be noticed in those of certain 
LimicMae, and especially of certain Charadriidae. (A. N.) 

JAC1N1, STEFANO, Count (1827-1891), Italian statesman and 
economist, was descended from an old and wealthy Lombard 
family. He studied in Switzerland, at Milan, and in German 
universities. During the period of the Austrian restoration in 
Lombardy (1840-1850) he devoted himself to literary and 
economic studies. For bis work on La Propriety jondiaria in 
Lombardia (Milan, 1856) he received a prize from the Milanese 
Societal d'incoraggiamento di scienu e lettere and was made a 
member of the Istituto Lombardo. In another work, Suite 
condition* eeonomicht delta Valldlina (Milan, 1858, translated 
into English by W. E. Gladstone), he exposed the evils of 
Austrian rule, and he drew up a report on the general conditions 
of Lombardy and Venct ia for Cavour. He was minister of Public 
Works under Cavour in 1860-1861, in 1864 under La Marmora, 
and down to 1867 under Ricasoli. In 1866 he presented a bill 
favouring Italy's participation in the construction of the St 
Gotlhard tunnel. He was instrumental in bringing about the 
alliance with Prussia for l he war of 1866 against Austria, and in 
the organization of the Italian railways. From 1881 to 1886 be 
was president of the commission to inquire into the agricultural 
conditions of Italy, and edited the voluminous report on the 
subject. He was created senator in 1870, and given the title 
of count in 1880. He died in 1891. 

L. Carpi's Risorgimento italiano, voL iv. (Milan, 1888), contains a 
short sketch of Jacini's life. 

JACK, a word with a great variety of meanings and appli- 
cations, all traceable to the common use of the word as a 
by-name of a man. The question has been much discussed 
whether " Jack " as a name is an adaptation of Fr. Jacques, 
i.e. James, from Lat. Jacobus, Gr. looo/fes, or whether it is a 
direct pet formation from John, which is its earliest and universal 
use in English. In the History of the Monastery of St A ugusiine 
at Canterbury, 14 14, Jack is given as a form of John-^Mos est 
Saxonum . . . verba et nomina transforuere ....«/... pro 
Johatme Jankin site J ache (see E.W.B. Nicholson, The Pedigree 
of Jock and other Allied Names, 1892). " Jack " was early used 
as a general term for any man of tbe common people, especially 
in combination with the woman's name Jill or Gill, as in the 
nursery rhyme. The New English Dictionary quotes from the 
Coventry Mysteries, 1450: " And I wolc kepe the feet this tydc 
Thow ther come both Iakke and Gylle." Familiar examples of 
this generic application of the name are Jack or Jack Tar for a 
sailor, which seems to date from the 17th century, and such 
compound uses as cheap-jack and steeplejack, or such expres- 
sions as " jack in office," " jack of all trades," &c It is a further 
extension of this that gives the name to the knave in a pack of 
cards, and also to various animals, as jackdaw, jack-snipe, jack- 
rabbit (a species of large prairie-hare); jt is, also used as a 
general name for pike. 

toe many applications of the word " jack " to mechanical 
devices and other objects follow two lines of reference, one to 
objects somewhat smaller than the ordinary, the other to appli- 
ances which take the place of direct manual labour or assist or 
save it. Of the first ckss may be noticed the use of the terra for 
the small object bowl in tbe game of bowls or for jack rafters, 
those rafters in a building shorter than the main rafters, espe- 
cially the end rafters in a hipped roof. The use of jack as the name 
for a particular form of ship's flag probably arose thus, for it is 
always a smaller flag than the ensign. The jack is flown on a 
staff on the bowsprit of a vessel In the British navy the jack 

is a small Union flag. (The Union flag should not be styled a 
Union Jack except when it is flown as a jack.) The jack of other 
nations is usually the canton of the ensign, as in the German and 
the United States navies, or else is a smaller form of the national 
ensign, as in France. (See Flag.) 

The more common use of " jack " is for various mechanical 
and other devices originally used as substitutes for men or boys. 
Thus the origin of the boot-jack and the meat-jack is explained 
in Isaac Watts's Logic, 1724: "So foot boys, who had fre- 
quently the common name of Jack given them, were kept to turn 
the spit or pull off their masters' boots, but when instruments 
were invented for both these services, they were both called 
jacks." The New English Dictionary finds a transitional sense 
in the use of the name " jack " for mechanical figures which 
strike the hours on a bell of a clock. Such a figure in the clock 
of St Lawrence Church at Reading is called a jack in the parish 
accounts for 1498-1499. There are many different applications of 
" jack," to certain levers and other parts of textile machinery, 
to metal plugs used for connecting lines in a telephone exchange, 
to wooden uprights connecting the levers of the keys with the 
strings in the harpsichord and virginal, to a framework form- 
ing a seat or staging which can be fixed outside a window 
for cleaning or painting purposes, and to many devices contain- 
ing a roller or winch, as in a jack towel a long towel hung on 
a roller. The principal mechanical application of the word, 
however, is to a machine for raising, weights from below. A 
jack chain, so called from its use in meat-jacks, is one in which 
the links, formed each in a figure of eight, are set in planes at 
right angles to each other, so that they are seen alternately flat 
or edgeways. 

In most European languages the word " jack " In various 
forms appears for a short upper outer garment, particularly ia 
the shape of a sleeveless (quilled) leather jerkin, sometimes with 
plates or rings of iron sewn to it. It was the common coat of 
defence of the infantry of the middle ages. The word in this 
case is of French origin and was an adaptation of the common 
name Jacques, as being a garment worn by the common people. 
In French the word isjaque, and it appears in Italian as giaco, 
or giacco, in Dutch jab, Swedish jacka and German J ache, still 
the ordinary name for a short coat, as is the English jacket, from 
the diminutive French jaquette. It was probably from some 
resemblance to the leather coat that the well-known leather 
vessels for holding liquor or for drinking were known as jacks or 
black jacks. These drinking vessels, which arc often of great 
size, were not described as black jacks till the 16th century, 
though known as jacks much earlier. Among the important 
specimens that have survived to this day is one with the initials 
and crown of Charles I. and the date, 1646, which came from 
Kensington Palace and is now in the British Museum; one each 
at Queen's College and New College, Oxford; two at Winchester 
College; one at Eton College; and six at the Chelsea Hospital. 
Many specimens arc painted with shields of arms, initials and 
other devices; they are very seldom mounted in silver, though 
spurious specimens with silver medallions of Cromwell and other 
prominent personages exist. At the end of the 17th century a 
smaller jack of a different form, like an ordinary drinking mug 
with a tapering cylindrical body, often mounted in silver, came 
into vogue in a limited degree. The black jack is a distinct type 
of drinking vessel from the leather botel and the bombard. The 
jack-boot, the heavy riding boot with long flap covering the knee 
and part of the thigh, and worn by troopers first during the 17th 
century, was so called probably from association with the leather 
jack or jerkin. The jack-boot is still worn by the Household 
Cavalry, and the name is applied to a high riding boot reaching 
to the knee as distinguished from the riding boot with tops, used 
in full hunting-kit or by grooms or coachmen. 

Jack, sometimes spelled jak, is the common name for the fruit 
of the tree Artiocarpus integrifolia, found in the East Indies. 
The word is an adaptation of the Portuguese/aca from the Malay 
name chakka. (See Bread Fruit.) 

Tbe word " jackanapes, '* now used as an opprobrious term for 
a swaggering person with impertinent ways and affected airs 


and graces, has a disputed and curious history. According to 
the New English Dictionary it first appears in 1450 in reference 
to William de la Pole, duke of Suffolk {Political Poems, " Rolls 
Series," II. 224), " Jack Napys with his dogge hath tiede Talbot 
oure gentille dogge." Suffolk's badge was a dog and chain, such 
as was often used for an ape kept in captivity, and be is alluded 
to (ibid. 222) as " Ape dogge." Jack Napes, Jack o' Napes, 
Jackanapes, was a common namCfor a tame ape from the 16th 
century, and it seems more likely that the word is a fanciful name 
for a monkey than that it is due to the nickname of Suffolk. 

JACKAL (Turk, ckakdl), a name properly restricted to Omit 
aureus, a wolf-like wild member of the dog family inhabiting 
eastern Europe and southern Asia, but extended to indude a 
number of allied species. Jackals resemble wolves and dogs in 
their dentition, the round eye-pupils, the period of gestation, and 
to a large extent also in habits. The European species grows 
to a height of 15 in. at the shoulders, and to a length of about 
s ft., exclusive of its bushy tail. Typically the fur is greyish- 
yellow, darker on the back and tighter beneath. The range of 
the common jackal (C. aureus) extends from Dalmatia to India, 
the species being represented by several local races. In Senegal 
this species is replaced by C. animus, while in Egypt occurs the 
much larger C. lufaster, commonly known ats the Egyptian wolf.. 
Nearly allied to the last is the so-called Indian wolf (C. pdlipes). 
Other African species are the black-backed jackal (C. mesomtlas), 

Egyptian Jackal (Canis lu paster). 

the variegated jackal (C. variegatus), and the dusky jackal 
(C adust us). Jackals are nocturnal animals, concealing them- 
selves until dusk in woody jungles and other natural lurking 
places, and then sallying forth in packs, which sometimes number 
two hundred individuals, and visiting farmyards, villages and 
towns in search of food. This consists for the most part of the 
smaller mammals and poultry; although the association in packs 
enables these marauders to hunt down antelopes and sheep. 
When unable to obtain living prey, they feed on carrion and 
refuse of all kinds, and aTc thus useful in removing putrescent 
matter from the streets. They are also fond of grapes and other 
fruits, and are thus the pests of the vineyard as well as the poultry- 
yard. The cry of the jackal is even more appalling than that of 
the hyena, a shriek from one member of a pack being the signal 
for a general chorus of screams, which is kept up during the 
greater part of the night. In India these animals are hunted 
with foxhounds or greyhounds, and from their cunning and pluck 


afford excellent sport. Jackals are readfiy tamed ; and domesti- 
cated individuals are said, when called by their masters, to wag 
their tans, crouch and throw themselves on the ground, and 
otherwise behave in a dog-like fashion. The jackal, tike the 
fox; has an offensive odour, due to the secretion of a gland at 
the base of the tail. 

JACKDAW, or simply Daw (Old Low German, Doha; Dutch, 
Kaauw), one of the smallest species of the genus Corvus (see 
Crow), and a very well known inhabitant of Europe, the 
C. monedula of ornithologists. In some of its habits it much 
resembles ks congener the rook, with which It constantly 
associates during a great part of the year; but, wmle the rook 
only exceptionally places its nest elsewhere than oh the boughs 
of trees and open to the sky, the daw almost invariably chooses 
holes, whether in rocks, hollow trees, rabbit-burrows or buildings. 
Nearly every church-tower and castle, ruined or Lot, is more or 
less numerously occupied by daws. Chimneys frequently give 
them the accommodation they desire, much to the annoyance 
of the householder, who finds the runnel choked by the quantity 
of sticks brought together by the birds, since their industry ia 
collecting materials for their nests is as marvellous as it often 
is futile. In some cases the stack of loose sticks piled up by 
daws in a belfry or tower has been known to form a structure 
ro or 12 ft. in height, and hence this species may be accounted 
one of the greatest nest-builders in the world. The style of 
architecture practised by the daw thus brings it more than the 
rook- into contact with man, and its familiarity is increased by 
the boldness of its disposition which, though tempered by 
discreet cunning, is hardly surpassed among birds. Its small 
size, in comparison with most of its congeners, alone incapaci- 
tates it from inflicting the serious injuries of which some of them 
are often the authors, yet its pilfering* are not to be denied, 
though on the whole its services to the agriculturist are great, 
for in the destruction of injurious insects it is hardly inferior to 
the rook, and it has the useful habit of ridding sheep, on whose 
backs it may be frequently seen perched, of some of their 

The daw displays the glossy black plumage so characteristic 
of the true crows, varied only by the hoary grey of the ear- 
coverts, and of the nape and sides of the neck, which is the mark 
of the adult; but examples from the east of Europe and western 
Asia have these parts much lighter, passing into a silvery white, 
and hence have been deemed by some authorities to constitute 
a distinct species (C. cottaris, Drumm.). Further to the east- 
ward occurs the C. dauuricus of Pallas, which has not only the 
collar broader and of a pure white, but much of the lower parts 
of the body white also. Japan and northern China are inhabited 
also by a form resembling that of western Europe; but wanting 
the grey nape of the latter. This is the C. neglectus of Professor 
Schlegel, and is said by Dresser, on the authority of Swinhoe, 
to interbreed frequently with C. dauuricus. These are all the 
birds that seem entitled to be considered daws, though Dr 
Bowdler Sharpe {Col. B. Bril. Museum, iii. 24) associates 
with them (under the little-deserved separate generic distinction 
Coloeus) the fish-crow of North America, which appears both in 
structure and in habits to be a true crow. (A. N.) 

JACKSON, ANDREW (1*67-1845), seventh president of the 
United States, was born oh the 15th of March 1767, at the 
Waxhaw or Warsaw settlement, in Union county, North 
Carolina, or in Lancaster county, South Carolina, whither his 
parents had immigrated from Carrkkfergus, Ireland, in 1765. 
He played a slight part m the War of Independence, and was 
taken prisoner m 1781, his treatment resulting in a lifelong 
dislike of Great Britain. He studied law at Salisbury, North 
Carolina, was admitted to the bar there in 1787, and began to 
practise at McLeansville, Guilford county, North Carolina, where 
for a time he was a constable and deputy-sheriff. In 1788, having 
been appointed prosecuting attorney of the western district of 
North Carolina (now the state of Tennessee), he removed toNash-* 
ville, the seat of justice of the district. In 1791 he married Mrs 
Rachel Robards (**> Donelson), having heard that her husband 
bad obtained a divorce through the legislature of Virginia, The 


legislative «ct, however, hid only authorised the courts to 
determine whether or not there were sufficient grounds for a 
divorce and to grant or withhold it accordingly. It was more 
than two years before the divorce was actually granted, and only 
on the basis of the fact that Jackson and Mrs Robards were then 
living together. On receiving this information, Jackson had 
the marriage ceremony performed a second time. 
I In 1796 Jackson assisted in framing the constitution of 
Tenoessee. From December 1 706 to March 1 797 he represented 
that state in the Federal House of Representatives, where he 
distinguished himself as an irreconcilable opponent of President 
Washington, and was one of the twelve representatives who 
voted against the address to him by the House. In 1797 he was 
elected a United States senator; but he resigned in the following 
year. He was judge of the supreme court of Tennessee from 
1708 to 1804. In 1804-1805 he contracted a friendship with 
Aaron Burr; and at the latter's trial in 1807 Jackson was one of 
his conspicuous champions. Up to the time of his nomination for 
the presidency, the biographer of Jackson finds nothing to record 
but military exploit* in which he displayed perseverance, energy 
and skill of a very high order, and a succession of personal acts 
in which he showed himself ignorant, violent, perverse, quarrel- 
some and astonishingly indiscreet. His combative disposition 
led him Uilo numerous personal difficulties. In 1795 he fought 
a duel with Colonel WailstiU Avery (1745-18*1). an opposing 
counsel* over some angry words uttered in a court room; but 
both, it appears, intentionally fired wild. In 1806 in another 
duet* alter a long and bitter quarrel, he killed Charles Dickinson, 
and J»ik»on himself received a wound from which he never 
fully recovered. In 181 J he exchanged shots with Thomas Hart 
peuttm and his brother Jesse In a Nashville tavern, and received 
a t«wd wound. Jackson and Thomas Hart Benton were latex 

lu 1 Hi t 1 8 1 4* *• major-general of militia, he commanded in 

lk« tauutiiign a«*ln»t the Creek Indians in Georgia and Alabama, 

*rJt«t<3 them tat liUadega, on the 9th of November 1813, and 

at l\«h<u*U, on the 19th of March 1814), and thus first attracted 

uuMu nutht by hli lalcnts. In May 1814 he was commissioned 

iT W Ah« rnvtaUntherrgulararmyto serve against the British; 

in N^ft"b*r he taptured Pcnsacola, Florida, then owned by 

feat* but used by ihe Brituto as a base of operations; and on 

tfc» ah ul January 181$ he inflicted a severe defeat on the 

•Zmt Mm* New Orlesns, the contestants being unaware that 

I\w*i> «l iwa* had already been signed. During his stay in 

k%« UH*ft» h» IwHlalmed martial law, and earned out his 

L*»*m *tth uiiielf Ming sternness, banishing from the town a 

L*4 *h* attempt"! resistance. When civd law was restored, 

IT 4L* »*» nntd liooo lor contempt of court; m 1844 Congress 

Il^lW Sa/wtth Interest ($»?oo) to be repaid. In .8.8 

C»^^ the command against the Seminoles. His 

J^t. W totk'WMil them up into the Spanish territory of 

*Vu a waul* IVnutola, and in arresting and executing 

1 * **£ Sm*" * Alexander Arbulhnot and Robert Ambris- 

1*1 it* t* muvh hostile comment in the cabinet and in 

T II WH the nrgotistions for the purchase of Florida put 

'^ ;^jZ»llc difficulty. In 1821 Jackson was 

~ ^x^^»M territory of Florida, and there again 

■UT^«i ***m*. J^ **** MAmBt lhen * ecreu,y * 

H . v.x\, ^^{j* ! ttttm bly of Tennessee nominated 

* ^^SVUU * was elected to the United 

* >^TC! *hnh he resigned in »8>s- . The f rival 
v~~ V**** ^ president in the campaign of 1824 

■"■*•-***: ►SLClt-v ^ams» W ' H * Crtw(ord ^ Henry 

^ ^K*Ued the largest number of votes (99) in 

^^\4ams receiving 84, Crawford 41 and 


^ a*i a* absolute majority, and it thus became 
*** ****' - matives to choose one of ihe 

*.- - * 

i M KUpwstntatlves 10 cnoose one 01 ine 

> t Jackson and Crawford— who had 

- — — ^-wTVwssirt of electoral votes. At * k - 

~ ^ * jT*s*» v**** 1 * * 


receiving the votes of 13 states, while Jackson received the 
votes of 7 and Crawford the votes of 4. Jackson, however, was 
recognized by the abler politicians as the coming man. Martin 
Van Buren and others, going into opposition under his banner, 
waged from the first a relentless and factious war on the admin- 
istration. Van Buren was the most adroit politician of his time; 
and Jackson was in the hands of very astute men, who advised 
and controlled him. He was easy to lead when his mind was in 
solution; and he gave his confidence freely where be bad once 
placed it. He was not suspicious, but if be withdrew his con- 
fidence he was implacable. When his mind crystallized on a 
notion that had a personal significance to himself, that notion 
became a hard fact that filled bis field of vision. When he was 
told that he had been cheated in the matter of the presidency, 1 he 
was sure of it, although those who told him were by no means so. 

There was great significance in the election of Jackson in 1828. 
A new generation was growing up under new economic and 
social conditions. They felt great confidence in themselves and 
great independence. They despised tradition and Old World 
ways and notions; and they accepted the Jeffersonian dogmas, 
not only as maxims, but as social forces—the causes of the 
material prosperity of the country. By this generation, there- 
fore, Jackson was recognized as a man after their own heart. 
They liked him because he was vigorous, brusque, uncouth, 
relentless, straightforward and open. They made him president 
in 1828, and he fulfilled all their expectations. He had 17S 
votes in the electoral college against 83 given for Adams. Though 
the work of redistribution of offices began almost at his inaugu- 
ration, it is yet an incorrect aecount of the matter to say that 
Jackson corrupted the civil service. His administration b 
rather the date at which a system of democracy, organized by 
the use of patronage, was introduced into the federal arena by 
Van Buren. It was at this time that the Democratic or Repub- 
lican party divided, largely along personal lines, into Jacksonian 
Democrats and National Republicans, the latter led by such men 
as Henry Clay and J. Q. Adams, The administration itself had 
two factions in it from the first, the faction of Van Buren, the 
secretary of state in 1 820- 183 1 , and that of Calhoun, vice-president 
in 1829-1832. The refusal of the wives of the cabinet and of Mrs 
Calhoun to accord social recognition to Mrs J. H. Eaton brought 
about a rupture, and in April 1831 the whole cabinet was re- 
organized. Van Buren, a widower, sided with the president in 
this affair and grew in his favour. Jackson in the meantime had 
learned that Calhoun as secretary of war had wished to censure 
him for his actions during the Seminole war in Florida in 1818, 
and henceforth he regarded the South Carolina statesman as his 
enemy. The result was that Jackson transferred to Van Buren 
his support for succession in the presidency. The relations 
between Jackson and his cabinet were unlike those existing 
under his predecessors. Having a military point of view, he 
was inclined to look upon the cabinet members as inferior officers, 
and when in need of advice he usually consulted a group of 
personal friends, who came to be called the " Kitchen Cabinet." 
The principal members of this clique were William B. Lewis 
(1784- 1866), Amos Kendall and Duff Green, the last named 
being editor of the United Stales Telegraph, the organ of the 

In 1832 Jackson was re-elected by a large majority (2x9 
electoral votes to 49) over Henry Clay, his chief opponent. The 
battle raged mainly around the re-charter of the Bank of the 
United Stales. It is probable that Jackson's advisers in i8:S 
had told him, though erroneously, that the bank had worked 
against him, and then were not able to control him. The first 
message of his first presidency had contained a severe reflection 
on the bank; and in the very height of this second campaign 
(July 1832) he vetoed the re-charter, which bad been passed in 

1 The charge was freely made then and afterwards (though, it Is 
now believed, without justification) that Clay had supported 
Adams and by influencing his followers in the home had been 
instrumental in securing his election, as the result of a bargain by 
which Adams had agreed to pay him for hi* support by appoiatiom; 
him secretary of state. 


the session of 1831-183}. Jackson interpreted his re-election as 
an approval by the people of his war on the bank, and he pushed 
it with energy. In September 1833 he ordered the public 
deposits in the bank to be transferred to selected local banks, 
and entered upon the " experiment " whether these could not 
act as fiscal agents for the government, and whether the desire 
to get the deposits would not induce the local banks to adopt 
sound rules of currency. During the next session the Senate 
passed a resolution condemning his conduct. Jackson protested, 
and after a hard struggle, in which Jackson's friends were led by 
Senator Thomas Hart Benton, the resolution was ordered to be 
expunged from the record, on the 16th of January 1837. 

In 183a, when the state of South Carolina attempted to 
" nullify M the tariff laws, Jackson at once took steps to enforce 
the authority of the federal government, ordering two war vessels 
to Charleston and placing troops within convenient distance. 
Be also issued a proclamation warning the people of South 
Carolina against the consequences of their conduct. In the 
troubles between Georgia and the Cherokee Indians, however, 
he took a different stand. Shortly after his first election Georgia 
passed an act extending over the Cherokee country the civil 
lawsof the state. This was contrary to the rights of the Cherokee* 
under a federal treaty, and the Supreme Court consequently 
declared the act void (1832). Jackson, however, having the 
frontiersman's contempt for the Indian, refused to enforce the 
decision of the court (see Nullification; Georgia: History). 

Jackson was very successful in collecting old claims against 
various European nations for spoliations inflicted under 
Napoleon's continental system, especially the French spoliation 
claims, with reference to which he acted with aggressiveness and 
firmness. Aiming at a currency to consist largely of specie, he 
caused the payment of these claims to be received and imported 
in specie as far as possible; and in 183d he ordered land-agents 
to receive for land nothing but specie. About the same time a 
law passed Congress for distributing among the states some 
$35,000,000 balance belonging to the United States, the public 
debt having all been paid. The eighty banks of deposit in which 
it was lying had regarded this sum almost as a permanent loan, 
and had inflated credit en the basis of it. The necessary calling 
in of their loans in order to meet the drafts in favour of the 
states, combining with the breach of the overstrained credit 
between America and Europe and the decline m the price of 
cotton, brought about a crash which prostrated the whole 
financial, industrial and commercial system of the country for 
six or seven years. The crash came just as Jackson was leaving 
office; the whole burden fell on his successor, Van Buren. 

In the 1 8th century the influences at work in the American 
colonies developed democratic notions. In fact, the circum- 
stances were those which create equality of wealth and condition, 
as far as civilized men ever can be equal The War of Indepen- 
dence was attended by a grand outburst of political dogmatism 
of the democratic type. A class of men were produced who 
believed in very broad dogmas of popular power and rights. 
There were a few rich men, but they were almost ashamed to 
differ from their neighbours and, in some known cases, they 
affected democracy in order to win popularity. After the 10th 
century began the class of rich men rapidly increased. In the 
first years of the century a little clique at Philadelphia became 
alarmed at the increase of the " money power," and at the grow- 
ing perils to democracy. They attacked with some violence, 
but little skill, the first Bank of the United States, and they 
prevented its re-charter. The most permanent interest of the 
history of the United States is the picture it offers of a primitive 
democratic society transformed by prosperity and the acquisi- 
tion of capital into a great republican commonwealth. The 
denunciations of the " money power " and the reiteration of 
democratic dogmas deserve earnest attention. They show the 
development of classes or parties in the old undifferentiated mass. 
Jackson came upon the political stage just when a wealthy class 
first existed. It was an industrial and commercial class greatly 
Interested in the tariff, and deeply Interested also in the then 
.currant forms of issue banking.' The southern planters also 


were rich, but were agriculturists and remained philosophical 
Democrats* Jackson was a man of low birth, uneducated, 
prejudiced, and marked by strong personal feeling in all bis 
beliefs and disbeliefs. He showed, in his military work and in 
his early political doings, great lack of discipline. The proposal 
to make him president won bis assent and awakened his ambi- 
tion. In anything which he undertook he always wanted to 
carry his point almost regardless of incidental effects on himself 
or others. He soon became completely engaged in the effort to 
be made president. The men nearest to him understood his 
character and played on it. It was suggested to him that the 
money power was against him. That meant that, to the 
educated or cultivated class of that day, he did not seem to be 
in the class from which a president should be chosen. He took 
the idea that the Bank of the United States was leading the 
money power against him, and that he was the champion of the 
masses of democracy and of the common people. The opposite 
party, led by Clay, Adams, Biddle, &c, had schemes for banks 
and tariffs, enterprises which were open to severe criticism. The 
political struggle was very intense and there were two good sides 
to it. Men like Thomas H. Benton, Edward Livingston, Amos 
Kendall, and the southern statesmen, found material for strong 
attacks on the Whigs. The great mass of voters felt the issue 
as Jackson's managers stated it. That meant that the masses 
recognized Jackson as their champion. Therefore, Jackson's 
personality and name became a power on the side opposed to 
banks, corporations and other forms of the new growing power 
of capital. That Jackson was a typical man of his generation 
is certain. He represents the spirit and temper of the free 
American of that day, and it was a part of his way of thinking 
and acting that he put his whole life and interest into the con- 
flict. He accomplished two things of great importance in the 
history: he crushed excessive state-rights and established the 
contrary doctrine in fact and in the political orthodoxy of the 
democrats; he destroyed the great bank. The subsequent 
history of the bank left it without an apologist, and prejudiced 
the whole later judgment about it. The way in which Jackson 
accomplished these things was such that it cost the country ten 
years of the severest liquidation, and left conflicting traditions 
of public policy in the Democratic party. After he left Washing- 
ton, Jackson fell into discord with his most intimate old friends, 
and turned his interest to the cause of slavery, which he thought 
to be attacked and in danger. 

Jackson b the only president of whom it may be said that he 
went out of office far more popular than he was when he entered. 
When he went into office he had no political opinions, only some 
popular notions. He left his party strong, perfectly organized 
and enthusiastic on a platform of low expenditure, payment of 
the debt, no expenditure for public improvement or for glory 
or display in any form and low taxes. His name still remained 
a spell to conjure with, and the politicians sought to obtain the 
assistance of his approval for their schemes; but in general his 
last years were quiet and uneventful. He died at his residence, 
"The Hermitage," near Nashville, Tennessee, on the 8th of 
June 1845. 

Bibliography.— Of the early biographies, that by J. H. Eaton 

fm.M^.1-^.- .«-.*. .. '*' Vs early military exploits, 

1 nd«H'» Lift (New York. 

] 1814. James Partem'* 

c 1) is still uaeful. Parton 

( eat Commanders Series 

( ickson's military career. 

1 t " American Statesmen 

5 bines the leading facts of 

J W. G. Brown wrote an 

i " Riverside Biographical 

£ elaborate are the History 

t York, 1904), marred by 

1 t of Andrew Jackson, by 

J i. Peck's The Jacksonion 

J of national politics from 

] of Jackson and Clay is 

emphasized. (W. G. S.) 

JACK80N, CYRIL (1746-1810), dean of Curat Church, 
Oxford, was bom in Yorkshire, and educated at Westminster 



and Oxford In 1771 lie was chosen to be sub-preceptor to the 
two eldest sons of George ILL, but in 1776 he was dismissed , 
probably through some household intrigues. He then took 
orders, and was appointed in 1779 to the preachership at 
Lincoln's Inn and to a canonry at Christ Church, Oxford. In 
1783 he was elected dean of Christ Church. His devotion to 
the college led him to decline the bishopric of Oxford in 1709 and 
the primacy of Ireland in 1800. He took a leading part in 
framing the statute which, in 1802, launched the system of 
public examinations at Oxford, but otherwise he Was not 
prominent in university affairs. On his resignation in 1809 he 
settled at Felpham, in Sussex, where he remained till his 

JACKSOH, FREDERICK GEORGE (i860- ), British Arctic 
explorer, was educated at Denstone College and Edinburgh 
University. His first voyage in Arctic waters was on a whaling- 
cruise in 1886-1887, and in 1893 he made a sledge-journey of 
3000 miles across the frozen tundra of Siberia lying between the 
Ob and the Pechora. His narrative of this journey was published 
under the title of The Great Praam Land (1895). On his return, 
he was given the command of the Jackson-Harmsworth Arctic 
expediton (1894-1897), which had for its objective the general 
exploration of Franz Josef Land. In recognition of his services 
be received a knighthood of the first class of the Danish Royal 
Order of St Olaf in 1898, and was awarded the gold medal of 
the Paris Geographical Society in 1890. His account of the 
expedition was published under the title of A Thousand Days in 
the Arctic (1899). He served in South Africa during the Boer 
War, and obtained the rank of captain. His travels also include 
a journey across the Australian deserts. 

JACKSON. HELEN MARIA (1831-1885), American poet and 
novelist, who wrote under the intials of " H. H." (Helen Hunt), 
was born in Amherst, Massachusetts, on the 18th of October 
1831, the daughter of Nathan Welby Fiske (1798-1847)} who 
was a professor in Amherst College. In October 1852 she 
married Lieutenant Edward Bissell Hunt (1822-1863), of the 
U.S. corps of engineers. In 1870 she published a little volume 
of meditative Verses, which was praised by Emerson in the 
preface to bis Parnassus (1874). In 1875 she married William 
S. Jackson, a banker, of Colorado Springs. She became a prolific 
writer of prose and verse, including juvenile tales, books of 
travel, household hints and novels, of which the best is Pomona 
(1884), a defence of the Indian character. In 1883, as a special 
commissioner with Abbot Kinney (b. 1850), she investigated the 
condition and needs of the Mission Indians in California. A 
Century of Dishonor (1881) was an arraignment of the treatment 
of the Indians by the United States. She died on the 12th of 
August 1885 in San Francisco. 

In addition to her publications referred to above, Mercy Phil- 
brick's Choice (1876), Hetty's Strange History (1877), Zeph (1886), 
and Sonnets and Lyrics (1886) may be mentioned. 

JACKSON, MASON (c. 1 820-1903), British engraver, was 
born at Berwick-on-Tweed about 1820, and was trained as a 
wood engraver by his brother, John Jackson, the author of a 
history of this art. In the middle of the 19th century he made a 
considerable reputation by his engravings for the Art Union 
of London, and for Knight's Shakespeare and other standard 
books; and in i860 he was appointed art editor of the Illustrated 
London News, a post which he held for thirty years. He wrote 
a history of the rise and progress of illustrated journalism. He 
died io December 1003. 

JACKSON, THOMAS (1570-1640), president of Corpus Chrisli 
College, Oxford, and dean of Peterborough, was born at Witton- 
It-Wear, Durham, and educated at Oxford; He became a 
probationer fellow of Corpus in 1606, and was soon afterwards 
tfccttd vice-president. In 1623 he was presented to the Irving 
at St Nicholas, Newcastle, and about 1623 to the living of 
Winston, Durham. Five years later he was appointed president 
^ Cwpua* and in 1631 the king presented him to the living of 
XVttMy> Oxfordshire. He was made a prebendary of Winchester 
» 1*55. **A w d**" °* Peterborough in 1635-1639. Although 
j^^mI* 4 Cahriaist, he becsr*- ^ Arminian. 

His chief work was a 1 

1 of commentaries eo the 


if Thomas 

Creed, the first complete edition being entitled The Works of Thomas 
Jackson, DJ). (London, 1673). The commentaries were, however, 
originally published in 1613-1657, as twelve books with different 
titles, the first being The Eternal Truth of Scriptures Qjoi+m. 

JACKSON, THOMAS JONATHAN (1824-1863), known as 
" Stonewall Jackson," American general, was born at Clarks- 
burg, Virginia (now West Viginia), on the 21st of January 1824, 
and was descended from an Ulster family. At an early age he 
was left a penniless orphan, and his education was acquired in a 
small country school until he procured, mainly by his own 
energy, a nomination to the Military Academy. Lack of social 
graces and the deficiencies of his early education impeded him at 
first, but "in the end 'Old Jack,' as he was always called, with 
his desperate earnestness, his unflinching straightforwardness, 
and his high sense of honour, came to be regarded with something 
like affection." Such qualities he displayed not less •——igff 
the light-hearted cadets than afterwards at the head of troops 
in battle. After graduating he took part, as second K^tf^t 
in the ist U.S. Artillery, in the Mexican War. At Vera Cnu he 
won the rank of first lieutenant, and for gallant conduct at 
Contreras and Chapultepec respectively he was brevetted captain 
and major, a rank which he attained with less than one year's 
service. During his stay in the city of Mexico bis thoughts were 
seriously directed towards religion, and, eventually entering the 
Presbyterian communion, he ruled every subsequent action of 
his life by his faith. In 1851 be applied for and obtained a 
professorship at the Virginia military institute, Lexington; 
and here, except for a short visit to Europe, he remained for 
ten years, teaching natural science, the theory of gunnery and 
battalion drill. Though he was not a good teacher, his influence 
both on his pupils and on those few intimate friends for whoa 
alone he relaxed the gravity of his manner was profound, and, 
little as he was known to the white inhabitants of Irrington, he 
was revered by the slaves, to whom he showed uniform Viiwiti^ 
and for whose moral instruction be worked unceasingly. As to 
the great question at issue in 1861, Major Jackson's ruling 
motive was devotion to his state, and when Virginia seceded, on 
the 17th of April, and the Lexington cadets were ordered to 
Richmond, Jackson went thither in command of the corps. 
His intimate friend, Governor Letcher, appreciating his gifts, 
sent him as a colonel of infantry to Harper's Ferry, where the 
first collision with the Union forces was hourly expected. In 
June be received the command of a brigade, and in July promo- 
tion to the rank of brigadier-generaL He had well employed 
the short time at bis disposal for training his men, and on the 
first field of Bull Run they won for themselves and their 
brigadier, by their rigid steadiness at the critical moment of the 
battle, the historic name of " Stonewall." 

After the battle of Bull Run Jackson spent some time in 
the further training of his brigade which, to bis infinite regret, 
be was compelled to leave behind him when, in October, he was 
assigned as a major-general to command in the Shenandoah 
Valley. His army had to be formed out of local troops, and 
few modern weapons were available, but the Valley regiments 
retained the impress of Jackson's training till the days of Cedar 
Creek. Discipline was not acquired at once, however, and the 
first ventures of the force were not very successful. At Kens- 
town, indeed, Jackson was tactically defeated by the Federals 
under Shields (March 23, 1862). But the Stonewall brigade 
had been sent to its old leader in November, and by the time 
that the famous Valley Campaign (see Shxkandoah Valley 
Campaigns) began, the forces under Jackson's command had 
acquired cohesion and power of manoeuvre. On the 8tn of May 
1862 was fought the combat of McDowell, won by Jackson 
against the leading troops of Fremont's command from West 
Virginia. Three weeks later the forces under Banks were being 
driven over the Potomac at Harper's Ferry, and Jackson was 
master of the Valley. Every other plan of campaign in Virginia 
was at once subordinated to the scheme of " trapping Jackson." 
But the Confederates, marching swiftly up the Valley, slipped 
between the converging columns of Fremont from the west and 


McDowell from the cast, and concluded a most daring campaign 
by the victorious actions of Cross Keys and Port Republic 
(8th and oth of June). While the forces of the North were still 
scattered, Jackson secretly left the Valley to take a decisive 
part in Lee's campaign before Richmond. In the M Seven Days M 
Jackson was frequently at fault, but his driving energy bore no 
small part in securing the defeat of McClellan** advance on 
Richmond. Here he passed for the first time Under the direct 
orders of Robert Lee, and the rest of his career was spent in 
command of the II. corps of the Army of Northern Virginia. 
As Lee's chief and most trusted subordinate he was throughout 
charged with the execution of the more delicate and difficult 
operations of his commander's hazardous strategy. After his 
victory over Banks at Cedar Mountain, near Culpeper, Virginia, 
Jackson led the daring march round the flank of General Pope's 
army, whkh against all theoretical rules ended in the great 
victory of second Bull Run. In the Maryland campaign 
Lieut. General Jackson was again detached from the main army. 
Eleven thousand Federals, surrounded in Harper's Ferry, were 
forced to surrender, and Jackson rejoined Lee just in time to 
oppose McClellan's advance. At the Antietam his corps bore the 
brunt of the battle, which was one of the most stubborn of 
modern warfare. At Fredericksburg his wing of Lee's li ne of bat tie 
was heavily engaged, and his last battle, before Chancellors villc, 
in the thickets of the Wilderness, was his greatest triumph. By 
one of his swift and secret flank marches he placed his corps on the 
lank of the enemy, and on the 2nd of May flung them against 
the Federal XI. corps, whkh was utterly routed. At the dose 
of a day of victory he was reconnoitring the hostile positions 
when suddenly the Confederate outposts opened fire upon his 
staff, whom they mistook in the dark and tangled forest for 
Federal cavalry. Jackson fell wounded, and on the toth of May 
he died at Guinea's station. He was buried, according to his 
own wish, at Lexington, where a statue and a memorial hall 
commemorate his connexion with the place; and on the spot 
where he was mortally wounded stands a plain granite pillar. 
The first contribution towards the bronze statue at Richmond 
was made by the negro Baptist congregation for which Jackson 
had laboured so earnestly in his Lexington years. He was twice 
married, first to Eleanor (d. 1854), daughter of George Junkin, 
president of Washington College, Virginia, and secondly in 1857 
to Mary Anna Morrison, daughter of a North Carolina clergyman. 
That Jackson's death, at a critical moment of the fortunes 
of the Confederacy, was an irreparable loss was disputed by no 
one. Lee said that he had lost his right arm, and. good soldiers as 
were the other generals, not one amongst them was comparable 
to Jackson, whose name was dreaded in the North like that of 
Lee himself. His military character was the enlargement of 
his personal character — *' desperate earnestness, unflinching 
straightforwardness," and absolute, almost fatalist, trust in 
the guidance of providenrc. At the head of his troops, who 
idolized him, he was a Cromwell, adding to the zeal of a fanatic 
and the energy of the born leader the special military skill and 
trained soldierly spirit which the English commander had to 
gain by experience. His Christianity was conspicuous, even 
amongst deeply religious men like .Lee and Stuart, and pene- 
trated every part of his character and conduct. 

See Hves by R. L. Dabney (New York. 1883). J. E. Cooke (New 
York, 1866). M. A. Jackson (General Jackson s widow) (New York, 
1892) ; and especially G. F. R. Henderson, Stonewall Jot kson (London, 
1898), and H. A. White, Stonewall Jatkson (Philadelphia, 1909). 

JACKSOH, WILLIAM (1 730-1 803), English musician, was 
born at Exeter on the 29th of May 1730. His father, a grocer, 
bestowed a liberal education upon him, but, on account of the 
lad's strong predilection for music, was induced to place him 
under the care of John Silvester, the organist of Exeter Cathedral, 
with whom he remained about two years. In 1748 be went to 
London, and studied under John Travers, organist of the king's 
chapel. Returning to Exeter, he settled there as a teacher and 
composer, and in 1777 was appointed subchanter, organist, lay- 
vicar and master of the choristers of the cathedral In 1755 
he published his first work, Twelve Sang*, which became at once 


highly popular. - His next publication, Six Sonatas for the Harp- 
sichord, was a failure. His third work, Six Elegies Jor three voices, 
preceded by an invocation, with an Accompaniment, placed him 
among the first composers of his day. His fourth work was* 
artother set of Twelve Songs, now very scarce; and his fifth work 
was again a set of Twelve Songs, all of which are now forgotten. 
He next published Twelve Hymns, with some good remarks upon 
that style of composition, although his precepts were better 
than his practice. A set of Twelve Songs followed, containing 
some good compositions. Next came an Ode to Fancy, the words 
by Dr Warton. Twelve Canzonets jor two voices formed his 
ninth work; and one of them — "Time has not thinned my 
Flowing Hair "— fcng held a place at public and private con* 
certs. His tenth work was Eight Sonatas jor the Harpsichord, 
some of which were novel and pleasing. He composed three 
dramatk pieces,— Lycidas (1767). The Lord oj the Manor, to 
General Burgoyne's words (1780), and The Metamorphoses, a 
comic opera produced at Drury Lane in 1783, which did not 
succeed. In the second of these dramatic works, two airs— 
u Encompassed in an Angel's Form " and " When first this 
Humble Roof I knew"— were great favourites. His church 
music was published after his death by James Paddon (1820); 
most of it is poor, but " Jackson in F " was for many years 
popular. In 1782 he published Thirty Letters on Various Subjects , 
in which he severely attacked canons, and described William 
Bird's Non nobis Domtnc as containing passages not to be 
endured. But his anger and contempt were most strongly 
expressed against catches of all kinds, which he denounced 
as barbarous. In 1701 he put forth a pamphlet. Observations on 
the Present Stale, oj Music in London, in which he found fault 
with everything and everybody. He published in 17Q8 The 
Four Ages, together with Essays on Various Subjects, — a work 
which gives a favourable idea of his character and of his literary 
acquirements. Jackson also cultivated a taste for landscape 
painting, and imitated, not unsuccessfully, the style of his friend 
Gainsborough. He died on the 5th of July 1803. 

JACKSON, a city and the county-seat of Jackson county, 
Michigan, U.S.A., on both sides of the Grand River, 76 m. W. 
of Detroit. Pop. (1800), 20,708; (1000), 25,180, of whom 
3843 were foreign-born (1004 German, 041 English Canadian); 
(roio census) 31433- It »s served by the Michigan Central, 
the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, the Grand Trunk and 
the Cincinnati Northern railways, and by inter-urban electric 
lines. It is the scat of the state prison (established 1839).- 
Coal is mined in the vicinity; the city has a large trade with 
the surrounding agricultural district (whose distinctive product 
is beans); the Michigan Central railway has car and machine 
shops here; and the city has many manufacturing establish- 
ments. The total factory product in 1004 was valued at 
$8,348,125, an increase of 244 % over that of 1900. The muni- 
cipality owns and operates its water-works. Hie place was 
formerly a favourite camping ground of the Indians, and was 
settled by whites in 1829. In 1830 it was laid out as a town, 
selected for the county-seat, and named Jack son burg in honour 
of Andrew Jackson; the present name was adopted in 1838. 
Jackson was incorporated as a village in 1843, and in 1857 was 
chartered as a city. It was at a convention held at Jackson 
on the 6th of July 1854 that jhe Republican party was first 
organized and so named by a representative state body. 

JACKSON, a city and the county-seat of Hinds county, 
Mississippi, U.S.A., and the capital of the state, on the W. bank 
of the Pearl River, about 40 m. E. of Vicksburg and 185 m. N. 
of New Orleans, Louisiana. Pop. (1890), 5920; (1900), 7816, 
of whom 4447 were negroes. According to the Federal census 
taken in 1910 the population had increased to 21,262. Jackson is 
served by the Illinois Central, the Alabama & Vicksburg, the 
Gulf & Ship Island, New Orleans Great Northern, and the Yazoo 
& Mississippi Valley railways, and during the winter by small 
freight and passenger steamboats on t he Pearl River. In Jackson 
is the state, library, with more than 80,000 volumes. The new 
state capitol was finished in 1903. The old state capitol, dating 
from 1830. is of considerable interest; in it were held the secession 


tt****ik* <i*60, the " Black sad Tan Owvention " (r$68), 
•ltd the cxMUhtutiooal convention of 180©, and in it Jef«w>« 
Devia made hi* last speech (!«♦). Jackson is the seat of MiU- 
aaps College* chartered in iSoo and opened m 1893 (under the 
control o! the Methodist Episcopal Church. South), and having, 
in 1007-1908, it instructor* and 297 stodenu; of Belhaven 
College (non-aectarian, 1*94). ** girls; and of Jackson College 
(founded in 1877 at Natchea hy the American Baptist Home 
Misnaon Society; in iMj removed to Jackson), for negroes, which 
had 356 students in 1007-100$. The city is a market for cotton 
*ad turn products, and has a number of manufactories. In 
sIji Uhe site was designated as the seat of the state government, 
ami eacty in the following year the town, named in honour of 
s-rfp-T Jackson, was laid out. The legislature first met here 
jx December isA. It was not until 1840 that it was chartered 
a* x. city. During the Civil War Jackson was in the theatre of 
«uve aunpaigning. On the 14th of May 1863 Johnston who 
-t>cn :«d the city, was attacked on both sides by Sherman and 
^vi^bccitti with two corps of Grant's army, which, after a sharp 
^V^uatnu drove the Confederates from the town. After 
**. *-: a \ .ckabuxg Johnston concentrated his forces at Jackson, 
xact ^ii oeeo evacuated by the Federal troops, and prepared 

* >**jc ^ stand h^hinH the intrenchments. On the 9th of 
«s* ^mvta began an investment of the place, and during 
* ^vnv.^ *exfc a sharp bombardment was carried on. 

1 k: -^-jv o* Lhe K6th Johnston, taking advantage of a lull 
3 «x ^ withdrew suddenly from the city. Sherman's 

.v>* oa the 17th and remained five days, burning a 

-^ .. »>.»< ^^t «| the city and ravaging the surrounding 

*>*>-***SJk % ocv and the county-seat of Madison county, 
*** - ^>. v v v . situated on the Forked Deer river, about 8s 

* N - * Vv tv&s. Pop. (1890), 10,039; (1900), i4,5«» of 

*,o ,*„< acgroes; (1910 census), 15,779. It is served 
•v 4,ws,c & Ohio, the Nashville, Chattanooga & St 
<s.- l!*jakAL« Central railways. The state supreme 
ire for the western district of Ten- 
t of Union University (co-educational), 
western Baptist University, and con- 
Jackson until 1907, when the present 
>7-i9o8 the university had 17 instruc- 
fackson, also, are St Mary's Academy 
emphis Conference Female Institute 
nth, 1843), and Lane College (for 
1 of the Colored Methodist Episcopal 
mportant cotton market, and is a 
1 products and fruits of the surround- 
numcrous manufactures and railway 
>f the factory product in 1905 was 
ility owns and operates the elcctric- 
itcr-works. There is in the city an 
th therapeutic properties. Jackson 
>rpo rated as a town in 1823, chartered 
17 received a new charter by which the 
is forever prohibited. After General 
nessce in 1862 Jackson was fortified 
ase of operations for the Federal army, 
his headquarters here in October, 
md the county-seat of Duval county, 
1. part of the state, on the left bank of 
from the Atlantic Ocean as the crow 
water. Pop. (1890), 17,201; (1900), 
vere negroes and 1x66 foreign-born; 
city being the largest in the state, 
rn, the Atlantic Coast Line, the Sea- 
>rgia Southern & Florida and the 
. . ys, and by several steamship lines. 1 

* V;,V* * **• «* r^^T and Mn d rock at its mouth long pre v e nt e d the 
' \ . I i V44 *»* 4 *«u * M *7 ulive water trade ' o" 1 ** 'fe 6 *>* U"*** 1 

w««">wi Yv s * »-«r ..^de an appropriation (supplemented in 190a. 

„>">4 10^ C4% ^ Opening, for a width of 300 ft., the channel 

•00: the ocean to 24 ft., and on the bar 27 ft. 


It is the largest railway centre in the state, and is popularly 
known as the Gate City of Florida. In appearance Jacksonville 
is very attractive. It has many handsome buildings, and its 
residential streets are shaded with live-oaks, water oaks and 
bitter-orange trees. Jacksonville is the seat of two schools for 
negroes, the Florida Baptist Academy and f>4tman Institute 
(187a; Methodist Episcopal). Many winter visitors are annually 
attracted by the excellent climate, the mean temperature for the 
winter months being about 55° F. Among the places of interest 
in the vicinity is the large Florida ostrich farm. There are 
numerous municipal and other parks. The city owns and 
operates its electric-lighting plant and its water-works system. 
The capital invested in manufacturing increased from $1,857,844 
in 1900 to $4,837,281 in 1005, or 160*4%. and the value of the 
factory product rose from $1,708,607 in 1000 to $5,340,264 in 
1 005, or 106- 9 %. Jacksonville is the most important distributing 
centre in Florida, and is a port of entry. In 1009 its foreign im- 
ports were valued at $513-430; its foreign exports at $3,507,373. 

The site of Jacksonville was called Cow Ford (a version of 
the Indian name, Wacca Pilatka), from the excellent ford of the 
St John's River, over which went the King's Road, a highway 
built by the English from St Augustine to the Georgia line. The 
first settlement was made in 1816. In 1822 a town was laid out 
here and was named in honour of General Andrew Jackson; in 
1833 Jacksonville was incorporated. During the Civil War the 
city was thrice occupied by Federal troops. In 1888 there was an 
epidemic of yellow fever. On the 3rd of May 1001 a fire destroyed 
nearly 150 blocks of buildings, constituting nearly the whole of 
the business part of the city, the total loss being more than 
$15,000,000; but within two years new buildings greater in 
number than those destroyed were constructed, and up to 
December 1909 about 9000 building permits had been granted. 

JACKSONVILLE, a city and the county-seat of Morgan 
county, Illinois, U.S. A., on Mauvaiseterre Creek, about 33 m. 
W. of Springfield. Pop. (1890), 12,935; (1900), 15,078, of whom 
1497 were foreign-born; (1910 census), 15,326. It is served 
by the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, the Chicago & Alton, 
the Chicago, Peoria & St Louis and the Wabash railways. It 
is the seat of several educational and philanthropic institutions. 
Illinois College (Presbyterian), founded in 1829 through the 
efforts of the Rev. John Millot Ellis (1 793-1855), a missionary of 
the American Home Missionary Society and of the so-called 
Yale Band (seven Yale graduates devoted to higher education 
in the Middle West), is one of the oldest colleges in the Central 
States of the United States. The Jacksonville Female Academy 
(1830) and the Illinois Conservatory of Music (1871) were ab- 
sorbed in 1903 by Illinois College, which then became co-educa-. 
tionaL The college embraces, besides the collegiate department,' 
Whipple Academy (a preparatory department), the Illinois 
Conservatory of Music and a School of Art, and in 1 908-1 909 had 
21 instructors and 173 students. The Rev. Edward Beecber 
was the first president of the college (from 1830 to 1844), and 
among its prominent graduates have been Richard Yates, jun., 
the Rev. Thomas K. Beecher, NewtQD Bateman (1822-1897), 
superintendent of public instruction of Illinois from 1865 to 1875 
and president of Knox College in 187 5- 1803, Bishop Theodore 
N. Morrison (b. 1850), Protestant Episcopal Bishop of Iowa after 
1898, and William J. Bryan. The Illinois Woman's College 
(Methodist Episcopal; chartered in 1847 as the Illinois Confer- 
ence Female Academy) received its present name in 1809. The 
State Central Hospital for the Insane (opened in 1851), the State 
School for the deaf (established in 1839, opened in 1845, and the 
first charitable institution of the state) and the State School for 
the Blind (1849) are also in Jacksonville. Morgan Lake and 
Duncan Park are pleasure resorts. The total value of the 
factory product in 1905 was $1,981,582, an increase of 17-7% 
since 1900. Jacksonville was laid out in 1825 as the county-seat 
of Morgan county, was named probably in honour of Andrew 
Jackson, and was incorporated as a town in 1840, chartered as a 

(mean low water), and by 1909 the work had been completed; 
further dredging to a 24 ft. depth between the navigable channel and 
pierhead lines was authorized in 1907 and completed by 191a 


rity «o 1867, and re-chartered in 1887. The majority of the. 
early settlers came from the soot hern and border states, princi- 
pally from Missouri and Kentucky; but subsequently there was 
a large immigration of New England and Eastern people, and 
these elements were stronger in the population of Jacksonville 
than in any other city of southern Illinois. The city was a 
station of the " Underground Railroad. 1 ' 

JACOB (Hebrew y&'&qdb, derived, according to Gen. xxv. 26, 
xxvii. 36, from a root meaning " to seize the heel " or " sup- 
plant "), son of Isaac and Rebekah in the Biblical narrative, and 
the father of the twelve tribes of Israel. Jacob and his twin 
brother Esau are the eponyms of the Israelites and Edomites. 
It was said of them that they would be two nations, and that the 
elder would serve the younger. Esau was born first, but lost 
his superiority by relinquishing his birthright, and Jacob by an 
act of deceit gained the paternal blessing intended for Esau 
(Gen. xxvii., J and E). 1 The popular view regarding Israel and 
Edom is expressed when the story makes Jacob a tent-dweller, 
and Esau a hunter, a man of the field. But whilst Esau married 
among the Canaanite " daughters of the land " (P in xxvi. 34; 
xxviii.8 seq.), Jacob was sent, or (according to a variant tradition) 
fled from Beer-sheba, to take a wife from among his Syrian 
kinsfolk at Haran. On the way be received a revelation at 
Bethel (" house of God ") promising to him and to his descen- 
dants the whole extent of the land. The beautiful story of 
Jacob's fortunes at Haran is among the best examples of Hebrew 
narrative: how he served seven years for Rachel, "and they 
seemed a few days for the love he had to her," and was tricked 
by receiving the elder sister Leah, and how he served yet another 
seven years, And at last-won his love. The patriarch's increasing 
wealth caused him to incur the jealousy of his father-in-law, 
Laban, and be was forced to flee in secret with his family. They 
were overtaken at Gilead,* whose name (interpreted " heap of 
witness ") is explained by the covenant into which Jacob and 
Laban entered (xxxi. 47 sqq.). Passing Mahanaim (" camps "), 
where he saw the camps of God, Jacob sent to Esau with friendly 
overtures. At the Jabbok he wrestled with a divine being and 
prevailed (cf. Hos. xii. 3 sqq.), hence he called the place Peniel 
or Penuel (" the face of God "); and received the new name 
Israel. He then effected an unexpected reconciliation with 
Esau, passed to Suecoth, where he built " booths " for his cattle 
(hence its name), and reached Shechem. Here he purchased 
ground from the clan Haraor (cf. Judg. ix. 28), and erected an 
altar to " God (El) the God of Israel." This was the scene of the 
rape of Dinah and of the attack of Simeon and Levi which led 
to their ruin (xxxiv.; see Dan, Levites, Simeon). Thence 
Jacob went down south to Bethel, where he received a divine 
revelation (P), similar to that recorded by the earlier narrator 
(J), and was called Israel (xxxv. 0-13, 15). Here Deborah, 
Rebekah *s nurse, died, on the way to Ephrath. Rachel died in 
giving birth to Benjamin (qv.), and further south Reuben was 
guilty of a grave offence (cf. xlix. 4). According to P, Jacob 
came to Hebron, and it was at this juncture that Jacob and Esau 
separated (a second time) and the latter removed to Mount Scir 
(xxxvi. 6 sqq.; cf. the parallel in xiii, 5 sqq,). Compelled by 
circumstances, described with much fullness and vividness, 
Jacob ultimately migrated to Egypt, receiving on the way the 
promise that God would make of him a great nation, which 
should come again out of Egypt (sec Joseph). After an inter- 
view with the Pharaoh (recorded only by P, xlvii. 5-11), he 
dwelt with his sons in the land of Goshen, and as his death drew 
near pronounced a formal benediction upon the two sons of 
Joseph (Manasseh and Ephraim), intentionally exalting the 
younger. Then he summoned all the " sons " to gather round 
his bed, and told them "what shall befall in the latter days" 
(xlix.). He died at the age of 147 (so P), and permission was 
given to cany his body to Canaan to be buried. 

» For the symbols J, E, P. as retards the sources of the book of 
Genesis, see Genesis; Bible Old Test. Criticism. 

* Since it is some 300 m from Haran to Gilead it is probable that 
Laban 's home^ only seven days' journey distant, was nearer Gilead 
than the current tradition allows (Gen. xxxi. 72 sqq.). 
XV 3 


These narratives are full of much valuable evidence regarding 
marriage customs, pastoral life and duties, popular beliefs and 
traditions, and are evidently typical of what was currently re- 
tailed. Their historical value has been variously estimated. 
The name existed long before the traditional date of Jacob, and 
the Egyptian phonetic equivalent of Jacob-el (cf .Isra-el, Ishroa-e)) 
appears to be the name of a district of central Palestine (or 
possibly east of Jordon) about 1500 B.C. But the stories in 
their present form are very much later. The dose relation 
between Jacob and Aramaeans confirms the view that some 
of the tribes of Israel were partly of Aramaean origin; bis 
entrance into Palestine from beyond the Jordan is parallel to 
Joshua's invasion at the head of the Israelites; and his previous 
journey from the south finds independent support in traditions 
of another distinct movement from this quarter. Consequently, 
it would appear that these extremely elevated and richly deve- 
loped narratives of Jacob-Israel embody, among a number of 
other features, a recollection of two distinct traditions of migra- 
tion which became fused among the Israelites. See further 
Genesis; Jews. (S. A. C.) 

JACOB, JOHN (1812-1858), Indian soldier and administrator, 
was born on the nth of January 1812, educated at Addiscombe, 
and entered the Bombay artillery in 1828. He served in the 
first Afghan War under Sir John Keane, and afterwards led his 
regiment with distinction at the battles of Mceanee, Shahdadpur, 
and Umarkot; but it is as commandant of the Sind Horse and 
political superintendent of Upper Sind that he was chiefly famous. 
He was the pacificator of the Sind frontier, reducing the tribes 
to quietude as much by his commanding personality as by his 
ubiquitous military measures. In 1853 he foretold the Indian 
Mutiny, saying: " There is more danger to our Indian empire from 
the state of the Bengal army, from the feeling which there exists 
between the native and the European, and thence spreads 
throughout the length and breadth of the land, than from all 
other causes combined. Let government look to this; it is a 
serious and most important truth "; but he was only rebuked by 
Lord Dalhousic for his pains. He was a friend of Sir Charles 
Napier and Sir James Out ram, and resembled them in his out- 
spoken criticisms and independence of authority. He died at 
the ear^y age of 46 of brain fever, brought on by excessive heat 
and overwork. The town of Jacobabad, which has the reputa- 
tion of being the hottest place in India, is named after him. 

See A. I. Shand, General John Jacob (1900). 

JACOB BEN ASHER (1 280-1340), codifier of Jewish law, was 
born in Germany and died in Toledo. A son of Asher ben 
Yehiel (9.9.), Jacob helped to re-introduce the older elaborate 
method of legal casuistry which had been overthrown by 
Maimonides (q.v ). The Asheri family suffered great privations 
but remained faithful in their devotion to the Talmud. Jacob 
ben Asher is known as the Ba'al ha-turim (literally " Master of 
the Rows ") from his chief work, the four Jvrim or Rows (the 
title is derived from the four Jwrim or rows of jewels in the 
High Priest's breastplate). In this work Jacob ben Asher 
codified Rabbinic law on ethics and ritual, and it remained a 
standard work of reference until it was edited with a commentary 
by Joseph Qaro, who afterwards simplified the code into the 
more popular Shulhan Aruch. Jacob also wrote two commen- 
taries on the Pentateuch. 

See Graett, History of the Jews (Eng. trans.),vol iv. ch. ail. : Weiss, 
Dor dor we-4orashav, v. 118-123. (I. A.) 

JACOB OF EDESSA, who ranks with Barhebraeus as the most 
distinguished for scholarship among Syriac writers, 1 was born at 
*£n-d£bha in the province of Antioch, probably about a.d 640. 
From the trustworthy account of his life by Barhebraeus (Ckron. 
Ecdes. i. 289) we learn that he studied first at the famous mon- 
astery of Ken-neshre* (on the left bank of the Euphrates, opposite 
Jerabis) and afterwards at Alexandria, which had of course been 

1 " In the literature of his country Jacob holds much the same 
place as Jerome among the Latin fathers " (Wright, Short Hist, of 
Syr. Lit. p. 143)* '2a 


for some time in the hands of the Moslems. 1 On his return he 
was appointed bishop of Edessa by his friend Athanasius II. (of 
Balad), probably in 684,' but held this office only for three or 
four years, as the clergy withstood his strict enforcement of the 
Church canons and be was not supported by Julian, the successor 
of Athanasius in the patriarchate. Accordingly, having In 
anger publicly burnt a copy of the canons in front of Julian's 
residence, Jacob retired to the monastery of KaisQm near 
Samoslta, and from there to the monastery of Eusebh6n&, s 
where for eleven years he taught the Psalms and the reading of 
the Scriptures in Greek. But towards the close of this period 
he again encountered opposition, this time from monks " who 
hated the Greeks," and so proceeded to the great convent of 
TcQ 'Addl or Teleda (? modern Telladi, N. W. of Aleppo), where 
he spent nine years in revising and emending the Peshitta version 
of the Old Testament by the help of the various Greek versions. 
He was finally recalled to the bishopric of Edessa in 708, but 
died four months later, on the 5th of June. 

In doctrine Jacob was undoubtedly M ry 

large number of his works, which arc most vc 

as yet been published, but much informal >rn 

Assemani's Bibtiotheca Orienialis and Wi ac 

MSS. in the British Museum. (1) Of t nt 

Jacob produced what Wright calls " a cui >rk 

text," of which five volumes survive in E \ue 

38). It was " the last attempt at a revisii in 

the M onophysite Church." Jacob was al he 

Syriac Massorah among the Monophysi t; ch 

MSS. as the one (Vat. chii.) described by Wiseman in Horae syriacae, 
part Hi. (2) Jacob was the author both of commentaries and of 
?c v . Mia on the sacred books ; of these specimens arc given by Asscmani 

— - ■ .... ators. who 

s." With 
or treatise 
len and at 
iplctc was 
,. Among 
simus was 
) Mention 
Election of 
Jai's qucs* 
juris ecd. 
rhole have 
Jacobs von 
>u tions to 
Short Hist. 
I comribu- 
.hich nave 
ight. Short 
he treatise 
of Edessa, 
the whole 
later date. 
1 continua- 
ccept a few 
lotue 1062. 
all on his 
of SerQgh. 
1869 and 
m port a nee 
ig. In his 


- . ,_, ^ Jacob's going to Alexandria as «. 

^J^^nTthat the Arabs burm*i thegreat library 
•3** xar r^ w p :ro IS). On this question cf. Krehl 
" """* *^iS2-' de$ Orienlalisti (Florence, 1880), 

-a M« hrf »*y* 677J ** ut A 1 * 4 * 11 * 4 * 11 * wa * 
— w -t > 43) in * s "^y ** tnc cc i cDratc d 

- "" ^ <%y *^"|j|n orthodox (BO. i. 470 sqq.) 

— **"■ = " TIT^ at* biography by Barhcbraeus 

— *" •* *^ l r^ i j4H.deSyrorutnfide,pD 206 sqq. 

«. . - - . "*"i 2/rr Erkenntntts der Wahrhett oder 

* * ^jc (posthumously) at Strassburg 

-y -,bli»hcd by Wright (London, 

— r.7j** o(syrUciext * 

his sense of the disadvantage under which Syriac labours through 
its alphabet containing only consonants, he declined to introduce 
a general system of vowel-signs, lest the change should contribute 
to the neglect and loss of the older books written without vowels. 
At the same time he invented, by adaptation of the Greek vowels, 
such a system of signs as might serve for purposes of grammatical 
exposition, and elaborated the rules by which certain consonants 
serve to indicate vowels. He also systematized and extended 
the use of diacritical points. It is still a moot question how far 
Jacob is to be regarded as the author of the five vowel-signs derived 
from Greek which soon after came into use among the Jacobites.' 
In any case he made the most important contribution to Syriac 
grammar down to the time of Barhcbraeus. (8) As a translator 
Jacob's greatest achievement was his Synac version of the Homtliae 
cathedraTes of Scverus. the monophysite patriarch of Antioch 
(512-518,535-536). This important collection is now in part knowa 
to us by E. W. Brooks's edition and translation of the 6th book of 
selected epistles of Sevcrus, according to another Syriac version made 
by Athanasius of Nisibis in 669. (9). A large number of letters by 
Jacob to various correspondents have been found in various MSS 
Besides those on the canon law to Addai, and on grammar to George 
of SerQgh referred to above, there are others dealing with doctrine. 
liturgy, &c. A few are in verse. 

Jacob impresses the modern reader mainly as an educator of his 
countrymen, and particularly of the clergy. His writings lack the 
fervid rhetoric and graceful style of such authors as Isaac of Antioch. 
Jacob of Scrugh and Philoxenus of Mabbdg. But judged by- the 
standard of his time he shows the qualities of a truly scientific 
theologian and scholar. (N. M.) 

JACOB OF JtiTERBOGK (c. 1381-1465), monk and theologian. 
Benedict Stolzcnhagen, known in religion as Jacob, was born at 
Jttterbogk in Brandenburg of poor peasant stock. He became 
a Cistercian at the monastery of Paradiz in Poland, and was sent 
by the abbot to the university of Cracow, where he became 
master in philosophy and doctor of theology. He returned to 
his monastery, of which he became abbot. In 144 1 , however, dis- 
contented wrth the absence of strict discipline in his community, 
he obtained the leave of the papal legate at the council of Basel 
to transfer himself to the Carthusians, entering the monastery 
of Salvatorberg near Erfurt, of which he became prior. He 
lectured on theology at the university of Erfurt, of which he was 
rector in 1455. He died on the 30th of April 1465. 

Jacob's main preoccupation was the reform of monastic life, the 
grave disorders of which he deplored, and to this end he wrote his 
Petitiones religiosorum pro reformatione sui status. Another work, 
De ncgligenlia praeiatorum, was directed against the neglect of their 
duties by the higher clergy, and be addressed a petition for the re- 
form of the church (Advisamcntum pro reformatione ecclesiae) to Pope 
Nicholas V This having no effect, he issued the most outspoken of 
his works, De sepiem ecclesiae statibus, in which he reviewed the work 
of the reforming councils of his time, and, without touching the 
question of doctrine, championed a drastic reform of life and practice 
of the church on the lines laid down at Constance and Basel. 

His principal works are collected in Walch, Mommenta med an. 
I. and 11 (1757. 1771), and Engeibert Klupfel, Vetus bibtiotheca cedes. 
(Freiburgim-Breisgau, 1780). 

JACOB OF SfiROGH, one of the best Syriac authors, named by 
one of his biographers " the flute of the Holy Spirit and the harp 
of the believing church," was born in 451 at Kurtam, a village 
on the Euphrates to the west of rjarran, and was probably edu- 
cated at Edessa. At an early age he attracted the attention of 
his countrymen by his piety and his literary gifts, and entered on 
the composition of the long series of metrical homilies on religious 
themes which formed the great work of his life. Having been 
ordained to the priesthood, he became periodeutes or episcopal 
visitor of tfaurl, in Sfcrugh, not far from his birthplace. His 
tenure of this office extended over a time of great trouble to the 
Christian population of Mesopotamia, due to the fierce war 
carried on by Kavadh II. of Persia within the Roman borders. 
When on the 10th of January 503 Amid was captured by the 
Persians after a three months' siege and all its citizens put to the 
sword or carried captive, a panic seized the whole district, and 
the Christian inhabitants of many neighbouring cities planned 

1 An affirmative answer is given by Wiseman (Horae syr. pp. 181-8) 
and Wright (Catalogue 1 168; Fragm. of the Syriac Grammar of Jacob 
of Edessa, preface , Short Hist. p. 151 seq.). But Martin (in Jour. As. 
May-June 1869, pp. 456 sqq.), Duval (urammatre syriaque, p. 71) and 
Merx (op. ett, p. 50) are of rhcoppositc opinion. The date of the intro- 
duction of the seven Nestorian vowel-signs is also uncertain. 


to leave their homes and flee to the west of the Euphrates. 
They were recalled to a more courageous frame of mind by the 
letters of Jacob. 1 In 519, at the age of 68, Jacob was made 
bishop of Batn&n, another town in the district oi Scrugh, but 
only lived till November 521. 

From the various extant accounts of Jacob's life and from the 
number of his known works, we gather that his literary activity 
was unceasing. According to Barhcbraeus (Ckron. Ecctes. i. 101) he 
employed 70 amanuenses and wrote in all 760 metrical homilies, 
besides expositions, letters and hymns of different sorts. Of his 
merits as a writer and poet we are now well able to judge from 
P. Bedian's excellent edition of selected metrical homilies, of which 
four volumes ha vealready appeared (Paris 1905-1998), containing 146 
pieces.* They are written throughout in dodecasyllabic metre, and 
those published deal mainly with biblical themes, though there are 
also poems on such subjects as the deaths of Christian martyrs, the 
fall of the idols, the council of Nicaea, &c* Of Jacob's prose works, 
which are not nearly so numerous, the most interesting are his letters, 
which throw light upon some of the events of his time and reveal 
his attachment to the Monophysite doctrine which was then strug- 
gling for supremacy in the Syrian churches, and particularly at 
, over the opposite teaching of Nestorius.* (N. M) 

gling for 
Edcssa, < 

' JACOBA, or Jacqueline (1401-1436), countess of Holland, 
was the only daughter and heiress of William, duke of Bavaria 
and count of Holland, Zeeland and Hainaut. She was married 
as a child to John, duke of Tourainc, second son of Charles VI., 
king of France, who on the death of his elder brother Louis 
became dauphin. John of Touraine died in April 1417, and two 
months afterwards Jacoba lost her father. Acknowledged as 
sovereign in Holland and Zeeland, Jacoba was opposed by her 
uncle John of Bavaria, bishop of Liege. She had the support of 
the Hook faction in Holland. Meanwhile she had been married 
in 1418 by her uncle, John the Fearless, duke of Burgundy, to 
her cousin John IV., duke. of Brabant. By the mediation of 
John the Fearless, a treaty of partition was concluded in 1410 
between Jacoba and John of Bavaria; but it was merely a truce, 
and the contest between uncle and niece soon began again and 
continued with varying success. In 14*0 Jacoba fledto England; 
and there, declaring that her marriage with John of Brabant was 
illegal, she contracted a marriage with Humphrey, duke of 
Gloucester, in 1422. Two years later Jacoba, with Humphrey, 
invaded Holland, where she was now opposed by her former 
husband, John of Brabant, John of Bavaria having died of 
poison. In 142s Humphrey deserted his wife, who found herself 
obliged to seek refuge with her cousin, Philip V., duke of Bur- 
gundy, to whom she bad to submit, and she was imprisoned in 
the castle of Ghent. John of Brabant now mortgaged the two 
counties of Holland and Zeeland to Philip, who assumed their 
protectorate. Jacoba, however, escaped from prison in dis- 
guise, and for three years struggled gallantly to maintain herself 
in Holland against the united efforts of Philip of Burgundy and 
John of Brabant, and met at first with success. The death of the 
weak John of Brabant (April 1427) freed the countess from her 
quondam husband; but nevertheless the pope pronounced 
Jacoba's marriage with Humphrey illegal, and Philip, putting 
out his full strength, broke down all opposition. By a treaty, 
made in July 1428, Jacoba was left nominally countess, but Philip 
was to administer the government of Holland, Zeeland and 
Hainaul, and was declared heir in case Jacoba should die without 
children. Two years later Philip mortgaged Holland and Zeeland 
to the Borselen family, of which Francis, lord of Borselen, was the 
head. Jacoba now made her last effort. In 1432 she secretly 
married Frauds of Borselen, and endeavoured to foment a rising 
in Holland against the BurgundiaQ rule. Philip invaded the coun- 
try, however, and threw Borselen into prison. Only on condition 
that Jacoba abdicated her three countships in his favour would 
he allow her liberty and recognize her marriage with Borselen, 

1 See the contemporary Chronicle called that of Joshua the Stylite, 
chap. 54. 

* Asiemani {Bibl. Orient. I 305-339) enumerates 231 uhich he had 
seen in MSS. 

• Some other historical poems M. Bcdjan has not seen fit to 
publish, on account of their unreliable and legendary character 
(vol. i p. ix. of preface). 

4 A full list of the older editions of works by Jacob is given by 
Wright in Short History of Syriac Literature, pp. 68-72. 


She submitted in April 143*, retained her title of duchess in 
Bavaria, and lived on her husband's estates in retirement. She 
died on the oth of October 1436, leaving no children. 

Bibliography.— F. von Loner. JakobSa ton Bayem und ikre Zeit 
(a vols., Nordlingen. 1862-1869) . W. 1. F. Nuyens, Jacobawt Beteren 
lem, 1873) ; A. vou Ovcrstratcn, 

en de eerste hetft der X V. eeuw (Haarl 
Jacoba van Beteren (Amsterdam, 1790). 

<G. E.) 

JACOBABAD, a town of British India, the administrative 
1 headquarters of the Upper Sind frontier district in Bombay; 
with a station on the Quetta branch of the North-Western rajh- 
way, 37 m. from the junction at Rule, on the main line Pop. 
(1901), 10,767. It is famous as having consistently the highest 
temperature in India. During the month of June the therm©* 
meter ranges between 120° and 127 F. The town was founded 
on the site of the village of Kbangarb in 1847 by General 
John Jacob, for many years commandant of the Sind Horse, 
who died here in 1858. It has cantonments for a cavalry regi* 
roent, with accommodation for caravans from Central Asia. It 
is watered by two canals. An annual horse show is held in 

JACOBEAN STYLE* the name given to the second phase of 
the early Renaissance architecture in England, following the 
Elizabethan style. Although the term is generally employed 
of the style which prevailed in England during the first quarter 
of the 17th century, its peculiar decadent detail will be found 
nearly twenty years earlier at Wollaton Hall, Nottinghamshire, 
and in Oxford and Cambridge examples exist up to 1660, not- 
withstanding the introduction of the purer Italian style by 
Inigo Jones in 1619 at Whitehall Already during Queen 
Elizabeth's reign reproductions of the classic orders had found 
their way mto English architecture, based frequently upon John 
State's TJk First and Chief Grounds of Arxkitcciure, published in 
1 563, with two other editions in 1 579 and 1 584. In 1577, three 
years before the commencement of Wollaton Hall, a copybook 
of the orders was brought out in Antwerp by Jan Vredeman de 
Vries. Though nominally based on the description of the orders 
by Vitruvius, the author indulged freely not only in his rendering 
of them, but in suggestions of his own, showing how the orders 
might be employed in various buildings. Those suggestions 
were Ot a most decadent type, so that even the author deemed it 
advisable to publish a letter from a canon of the Church, stating 
that there was nothing in his architectural designs which was 
contrary to religion. It is to publications of this kind that 
Jacobean architecture owes the perversion of its forms and the 
introduction of strap work and pierced cresting*, which appear 
for the first time at Wollaton (1580), at firarashill, Hampshire 
(1607-1619), and in Holland House, Kensington (1624), it 
receives its fullest development. (R. P. S.) 

JACOU, FB1BDRICH HEWRICH (1743-1819), German 
philosopher, was born at Dusseldorf on the 25th of January 1743. 
The second son of a wealthy sugar merchant near Dusseldorf, 
he was educated for a commercial career. Of a retiring, medita- 
tive disposition, Jacobi associated himself at Geneva mainly 
with the literary and scientific circle of which the most prominent 
member was Lesage. He studied closely the works of Charles 
Bonnet, and the political ideas of Rousseau and Voltaire. In 
1763 he was called back to Dusseldorf, and in the following year 
be married and took over the management of his father's busi- 
ness. After a short period he gave up his commercial career, 
and in 1770 became a member of the council for the duchies of 
Jiilich and Berg, in which capacity he distinguished himself 
by his ability in financial affairs, and his seal in social reform. 
Jacobi kept up his interest in literary and philosophic matters 
by an extensive correspondence, and his mansion at Pempdfort, 
near Dtisseldorf, was the centre of a distinguished literary circle 
With C. M. Wieland he helped to found a new literary journal. 
Dor Teuische Met cur, in which some of his earliest writings, 
mainly on practical or economic subjects, were published 
Here too appeared in part the first of his philosophic works, 
Edward AUvutits Briefsammiung (1776), a combination of romance 
and speculation. This was followed in 1779 by Woldemar, a 
philosophic novel, of very imperfect structure, but full of genial 



ideas, and giving the most complete picture of Jacobi's method 
of philosophizing. In 1779 he visited Munich as member of the 
privy council, but after a short stay there differences with his 
colleagues and with the authorities of Bavaria drove him back 
to Pempelfort. A few unimportant tracts on questions of theo- 
retical politics were followed in 1785 by the work which first 
brought Jacobi into prominence as a philosopher. A conversation 
which he had held with Lessing in x 780, in which Lessing avowed 
that he knew no philosophy, in the true sense of that word, save 
Spinozism, led him to a protracted study of Spinoza's works. 
The Brieje Uber die Lehre Spinozas (1785; *nd ed., much enlarged 
and with important Appendices, 1789) expressed sharply and 
clearly Jacobi's strenuous objection to a dogmatic system in 
philosophy, and drew upon him the vigorous enmity of the 
Berlin clique, led by Moses Mendelssohn. Jacobi was ridiculed 
as endeavouring to reintroduce into philosophy the antiquated 
notion of unreasoning belief, was denounced as an enemy of 
reason, as a pietist, and as in all probability a Jesuit in disguise, 
and was especially attacked for his use of the ambiguous term 
" belief." Jacobi's next important work, David Hume Uber den 
Clauben, oder Idealismus und Rcalismus (1787), was an attempt 
to show not only that the term Claube had been used by the 
most eminent writers to denote what he had employed it for in 
the Letters on Spinoza, but that the nature of the cognition of 
facts as opposed to the construction of inferences could not be 
otherwise expressed. In this writing, and especially in the 
Appendix, Jacobi came into contact with the critical philosophy, 
and subjected the Kantian view of knowledge to searching 

The outbreak of the war with the French republic induced 
Jacobi in 1793 l0 leave his home near Diisseldorf, and for nearly 
ten years he resided in Hobtein. While there he became 
intimately acquainted with Reinhold (in whose Bettrage, pt iii., 
x8oi, his important work liber das Unternekmen des Kriticismus, 
die Vemunjt su Verstande xu bringeu was first published), and 
with Matthias Claudius, the editor of the Wandsbeckcr Bote. 
During the same period the excitement caused by the accusation 
of atheism brought against Fichte at Jena led to the publication 
of Jacobi's Letter to Fichte (1799), in which he made more precise 
the relation of his own philosophic principles to theology. 
Soon after his return to Germany, Jacobi received a call to 
Munich m connexion with the new academy of sciences just 
founded there. The loss of a considerable portion of his fortune 
induced him to accept this offer; he settled in Munich in 1804, 
and in 1807 became president of the academy. In 181 1 appeared 
his last philosophic work, directed against Schelling specially 
( Von den gdttiicken Din gen und ikrer Ojfenbarung), the first part 
of which, a review of the Wandsbeckcr Bote, had been written in 
1708. A bitter reply from Schelling was left without answer by 
Jacobi, but gave rise to an animated controversy in which Fries 
and Baader took prominent part. In 181 2 Jacobi retired from 
the office of president, and began to prepare a collected edition 
of his works. He died before this was completed, on the xoth 
of March 18x9. The edition of his writings was continued by 
his friend F. Koppen, and was completed in 1825. The works 
fill six volumes, of which the fourth is in three parts. To the 
second is prefixed an introduction by Jacobi, which is at the same 
time an introduction to his philosophy. The fourth volume has 
also an important preface. 

The philosophy of Jacobi is essentially unsystematic. A certain 
fundamental view which underlies all his thinking is brought to bear 
in succession upon those systematic doctrines which appear to stand 
most sharply in contradiction to it, and any positive philosophic 
results are given only occasionally. The leading idea of the whole is 
that of the complete separation between understanding and appre- 
hension of real fact. For Jacobi understanding, or the logical faculty, 
is purely formal or elaborative, and its results never transcend the 
given material supplied to it. From the basis of immediate experi- 
ence or perception thought proceeds by comparison and abstraction, 
establishing connexions among facts, but remaining in its nature 
mediate and finite. The principle of reason and consequent, the 
necessity of thinking each given fact of perception as conditioned, 
impels understanding towards an endless series of identical proposi- 
tions, the records of Mtccetstve comparisons and abstractions. The 







in Ed 

Sp as 

fai be 

ve dt 

in ts, 

tn aU 

pr d, 

th a, 

« ....... f 

Lotze, to denote the peculiar character of an immediate, unproved 
truth) i (6) the keystone (Efcmi*/) of aU human knowledge and activity 
is belief {Claube). Of these propositions only the first and fouriL 
require further notice. Jacobi. accepting tne law of reason and 
consequent as the fundamental rule of demonstrative reasoning, 
and as the rule explicitly followed by Spinoza, points out that, if 
we proceed by applying this principle so as to recede from particular 
and qualified facts to the more general and abstract conditions. »e 
land ourselves, not in the notion of an active, intelligent creator 
of the system of things, but in the notion of an all-comprchen- 
sive, indeterminate Nature, devoid of will or intelligence Our 
unconditioned is cither a pure abstraction, or else the impossible 
notion of a completed system of conditions. In either case the result 
is atheism, and this result is necessary if the demonstrative method, 
the method of understanding, is regarded as the only possible means 
of knowledge. Moreover, the same method inevitably lands is 
fatalism. For, if the action of the human will is to be made intelli- 
gible to understanding, it must be thought as a conditioned pheno- 
menon, having us sufficient ground in preceding circumstance*, and. 
in ultimate abstraction, as the outflow from nature which is the sura 
of conditions. But this is the fatalist conception, and any philosophy 
which accepts the law of reason and consequent as the essence of 
understanding is fatalistic. Thus for the scientific understanding 
there can be no Cod and no liberty. It is impossible that there should 
be a God, for if so he would of necessity be finite. But a finite God, 
a God that is known, is no God. It is impossible that there should be 
liberty, for if so the mechanical order of phenomena, by means of 
which they are comprehensible, would be disturbed, and we should 
have an unintelligible world, coupled with the requirement that it 
shall be understood. Cognition, then, in the strict sense, occupies 
the middle place between sense perception, which is belief m matters 
of sense, and reason, which is belief in supersensuous fact 

The best introduction to Jacobi's philosophy is the preface to the 
second volume of the Works, and Appendix 7 to the Letters on 
Sptnoza's Theory. See also J Kuhn. Jacobi und die Pktloso'pkte 
seiner ZeU (1834); F Deycks. F. H. Jacobi tm Verkaltnts em senun 
ZeUgenossen (1848). H. Ountzer, Frcundesbilder ant Coetkes Lebem 
(1853): £. Zirngicbl, F. H. Jacobts Lebtn, Dichten, und Denktn, 
1867; F. Harms, Uber die Lehre von F*H. Jacobi .(1876) Jacobi's 
A usertesener Brief wee hsel has been edited by F. Roth in 2 vols 

JACOBI, JORANN OEORO (1740-1814), German poet, elder 
brother of the philosopher, F H. Jacobi (1743-1819), was born at 
Dusseldorf on the 2nd of September 1 740. He studied theology 
at Gottingen and jurisprudence at Helmstcdt, and was appointed, 
in 1766, professor of philosophy in Halle. In this year he made 
the acquaintance of J. W. L. (" Vater ") Gleim, who, attracted 
by the young poet's Poetische Vcrsuche (1764), became his 
warm friend, and a lively literary correspondence ensued 
between Gleim in Halberstadt and Jacobi in Halle. In order 
to have Jacobi near him, Gleim succeeded in procuring for him a 
prebendal stall at the cathedral of Halberstadt in 1769, and here 
Jacobi issued a number of anacreontic lyrics and sonnets. He 



tired, however, of the lighter muse, ana* in 1774, to Gleim'f 
grief, left Halberstadt, and for two years (1 774-1 776) edited at 
Diisscldorf the his, a quarterly for women readers. Meanwhile, 
he wrote many charming lyrics, distinguished by exquisite taste 
and true poetical feeling. In 1784 he became professor of 
literature at the university Of Freiburg im Breisgau, a pott 
which he held Until his death there on the 4th of January 1814. 
In addition to the earlier Iris, to which Goethe, his brother 
F. H. Jacobi, Gteim and other poets contributed, he published, 
from 1803-1813, another periodical, also called Iris, in which 
Klopstock, Herder, Jean Paul, Voss and the brothers Stollberg 
also collaborated. 

Jacobi's Sdmmtliche Werke were published in 1774 (Halberstadt, 
t vols.). Other editions appeared at Zurich in 1807-1813 and 1825. 
See Uuge&tuckt* Briejt ton und an Jchann Ceorg Jacob* (btrassburg* 
t874): biographical notice by Daniel Jacoby in AUg. Deutsche 
Btograpkiei Longo, Laurent* Sterne und Johann Ccorg Jacobi 
(Vienna, 1 898);. and Leben J C. Jacobis, von einent seiner Preunde 

JACOBI. KARL GUSTAV JACOB (1804-1851), German 
mathematician, was born at Potsdam, of Jewish parentage, on 
the 10th of December 1804. He studied at Berlin University, 
where he obtained the degree of doctor of philosophy in 1825, 
his thesis being an analytical discussion of (he theory of fractions. 
In 1827 he became extraordinary and in 1829 ordinary professor 
of mathematics at Konigsberg, and this chair he fiUed till 1842, 
when he visited Italy for a few months to recruit his health. 
On his return he removed to Berlin, where he lived as a royal 
pensioner till his death, which occurred on the 18th of February 

His Investigations in elliptic functions, the theory of which he 
established upon quite a new basis, and more particularly his 
development of the theta-function, as given in his great treatise 
Fundamenta nova theoriae funclionum cilipticarum (Kdrtrgsbcrg, 
1820). and in later papers in Crelle's Journal, constitute his grandest 
analytical discoveries. Second in importance only to these arc 
his researches in differential equations, notably the theory of the last 
multiplier, which is fully treated in his Vorlesungen uber Dynamik. 
edited by R. F. A. Clebsch (Berlin. 1866). It was in analytical 
development that Jacobi's peculiar power mainly lay, and he made 
many important contributions of this kind to other departments 
of mathematics, as a glance at the long list of papers that were 
published by him in Crellc's Journal and elsewhere from 1826 
onwards will sufficiently indicate. He was one of the early founders 
of the theory of determinants: in particular, he invented the func- 
tional determinant formed of the «* differential coefficients of n given 
functions of • independent variables, which now bears his same 
(Jacobian), and which has played an important part in many 
analytical investigations (see Algebraic Forms). Valuable also 
are nis papers on Abelian transcendents, and his investigations in 
the theory of numbers, in which latter department he mainly supple* 
ments the labours of K. F. Gauss. The planetary theory and other 
particular dynamical problems likewise occupied nis attention from 
time to time. He left a vast store of manuscript, portions of which 
have been published at intervals in CreUe's Journal. His other 
works include Commentalio de transformatione iniegralis dupiicis 
indefin&i informant fimpticforem (1832), Canon arithmeticus (1439), 
and OpMculo mathenalica (1846-1857). His CcsammelU Wcrke 
(1881-1891) were published by the Berlin Academy. 

See Lejeune-Dirichlet, " Gedfichtnisredc auf Jacobs ** in the 
Abhcndlungen der Berliner Akademie (1852). 

JACOBINS, THE, the most famous of the political clubs of 
the French Revolution. It had its origin in the Club Breton, 
which was established at Versailles shortly after the opening 
of the States General in 1789. It was at first composed exclu- 
sively of deputies from Brittany, but was soon joined by others 
from various parts of France, and counted among its early 
members Mirabeau, Sicy£s, Barnave, P6tion, the Abbe Gregoire, 
Charles and Alexandre Lameth, Robespierre, the due d'Aiguillon, 
and La Revellicre-Lepeaux. At this time its meetings Were 
secret and little is known of what took place at them. After 
the emcute of the 5th and 6th of October the club, still entirely 
composed of deputies, followed the National Assembly to Paris, 
where it rented the refectory of the monastery of the- Jacobins 
in the Rue St Honore, near the seat of the Assembly. The name 
" Jacobins," given in France (o the Dorafnlcans, because their 
first house in Paris was in the Rue St Jacques, was first applied 
to the club in ridicule by its enemies. The title assumed by 

the dub itself, after the promulgation of the constitution of 
1 791 , was SoeHti des amis de la constitution siants aux Jacobins d 
Paris, which was changed on the tist of September 1702, after 
the fall of the monarchy, to Soc^Udes Jacobins, tmisdela libera 
# de Vtgcliti. It occupied successively the refectory, the tfbrary, 
and the chapel of the monastery. 

Once transferred to Paris, the dub underwent rapid modmca* 
tkms. The first step was its expansion by the admission as 
members or associates of othecs besides deputies; Arthur Young 
was so admitted on the 18th of January 1700. On the 8th of 
February the society war formally constituted on this broader 
basis by the adoption of toe rules drawn up by Barnave, which 
were issued with the signature of the due d'Aiguillon, the presi- 
dent. The objects of the dub were denned as (1) to djscuss«in 
advance questions to be dectded by the National Assembly; (2) to 
work for the establishment and strengthening of the constitution 
in accordance with the Bpirit of the preamble (i.«. of respect for 
legally constituted authority and the rights of man); (3) to 
correspond with other societies of the same kind which should be 
formed in the realm. At the same time the rules of order and 
forms of election were settled, and the constitution of the club 
determined. There were to be a president, elected every month, 
four secretaries, a treasurer, and committees dected to super- 
intend elections and presentations, the correspondence, and the 
administration of the dub. Any member who by word or action 
showed that his principles were contrary to the constitution and 
the rights of man was to be expelled, a rule which later on 
facilitated the " purification " of the society by the expulsion 
of its more moderate dements. By the 7th article the dub 
decided to admit as associates similar societies in other parts of 
France and to maintain with them a regular correspondence. 
This last provision was of far-reaching importance. By the 
10th of August 1700 there were already one hundred and fifty* 
two affiliated clubs; the attempts at counter-revolution led to a 
great increase of their number in the spring of 1701, and by the 
close of the year the Jacobins had a network of branches all over 
France. It was this widespread yet highly centralized organiza- 
tion that gave to the Jacobin Club its formidable power. 

At the outset the Jacobin Club was not distinguished by 
extreme political views. The somewhat high subscription 
confined its membership to men of substance, and to the last it 
was— so far as the central society in Paris was concerned- 
composed almost entirely of professional men, such as Robes- 
pierre, or wdl-to-do bourgeois, like Santerre. From the firsts 
however, other dements were present. Besides Low's Philippe, 
due de Chart res (afterwards king of the French), liberal aristo- 
crats of the type of the due d'Aiguillon, the prince de Brogue, 
or the vicomtc de NoatUes, and the bourgeois who formed the 
mass of the members, the club contained such figures as " Pere " 
Michel Gerard, a peasant proprietor from Tuel-en-Montgerroont, 
in Brittany, whose rough common sense was admired as the 
oracle of popular wisdom, and whose countryman's waistcoat 
and plaited hair were later on to become the model for the 
Jacobin fashion. 1 The provincial branches were from the first far 
more democratic, though in these too the leadership was Usually 
in the hands of members of the educated or propertied classes. 
Up to the very eve of the republic, the club ostensibly supported 
the monarchy; it took no part in the petition of the 17th of July 
1790 for the king's dethronement; nor had it any official share 
even in the insurrections of the 20th of June and the 10th of 
August 1792; it onty formally recognized the republic on the 
21st of September. But the character and extent of the club's 
influence cannot be gauged by its official acts alone, and long 
before it emerged as the principal focus of the Terror, its charac- 
ter had been profoundly changed by the secession of its more 
moderate elements, some to found the Club of 1789, some in 
r 79 1— among thern Barnave, the Lameths, Duport and BaJUy— 
1 ** When I first sat among you I heard so many beautiful speeches 
that 1 might have believed myself in heaven, had there not been so 
many lawyers present." Instead of practical questions " we have 
become involved in a galimatias of Rights of Man of which 1 under- 
stand mighty little but that it is worth nothing." Motion du Pin 
Gerard in the Jacobins of the 27th of April 1790 (A u lard i. 63). 



to found the <*ub of the EeullUnU *cofted at by their former 

i JctrU as the dub numarcktque. The mam cause of this 

/£«« was the admission of the public to the sittings of the 

rSJh^Wch beiaD on the 14th of October 1701. The result is 

nWibedin Vfeport of the Department of Paris on " the state 

otthe empire," presented on the 12th of June 1792, at the request 

af Roland the mini**** © f the Ulterior, and signed by the due 

dt La Rochefoucauld, which ascribes to the Jacobin* all the 

woes of the *Ute. " There exists," it runs, " in the midst of the 

cardial committed to our care a public pulpit of defamation, 

where citizens of every age and both sexes are admitted day by 

day to listen to a criminal propaganda. . . . This establishment, 

situated in the former house of the Jacobins, calls itself a society; 

but it has less the aspect of a private society than that of a public 

spectacle: vast tribunes are thrown open for the audience; 

all the sittings are advertised to the public for fixed days and 

hours, and the speeches made are printed in a special journal and 

lavishly distributed." l In this society— the report continues— 

murder is counselled or applauded, all authorities are calumniated 

and all the organs of the law bespattered with abuse; as to its 

power, it exercises " by its influence," its affiliations and its 

correspondence a veritable ministerial authority, without title 

and without responsibility, while leaving to the legal and 

responsible authorities only the shadow of power " (Schmidt, 

Tableaux i. 78. &<=•>• ....... . , L 

The constituency to which the club was henceforth responsible, 
and from which it derived its power, was in fact the pcuple 
bUe of Paris; the sons-culottes— decayed lackeys, cosmopolitan 
ne'er-do-weels, and starving workpeople— who crowded ks 
tribunes- To this audience, and not primarily to the members 
of the club, the speeches of the orators were addressed and by 
Us verdict they were judged. In the earlier stages of the 
Revolution the mob had been satisfied with the fine platitudes 
of the phiUsapkes and the vague promise of a political millen- 
nium; but as the chaos in the body politic grew, and with it 
the appalling material misery, it began to clamour for the 
blood of the *' traitors " in office by whose corrupt machinations 
the millennium was delayed, and only those orators were listened 
to who pandered to its suspicions. Hence the elimination of 
the moderate elements from the club; hence the ascendancy of 
Marat, sad finally of Robespierre, the secret of whose power was 
that they reaUy shared the suspicions of the populace, to which 
they gave a voice and which they did not shrink from translating 
into action. After the fall of the monarchy Robespierre was in 
effect the Jacobin Club; for to the tribunes he was the oracle 
of political wisdom, and by his standard all others were judged.* 
With his fall the Jacobins too came to an end. 

Not the least singular thing about the Jacobins is the very 
slender material basis on which their overwhelming power rested. 
France groaned under their tyranny, which was compared to that 
of the Inquisition, with its system of espionage and denuncia- 
tions which no one was too illustrious or too humble to escape. 
Vet it was reckoned by competent observers that, at the height of 
the Terror, the Jacobins could not command a force of more than 
jooo men in Paris. But the secret of their strength was that, 
in the midst of the general disorganization, they alone were 
organised. The police agent Dutard, in a report to the minister 
Carat (April 3°» l ? 9i ) t ' describing an episode in the Palais 
ftgaliie (Royal), adds: " Why did a dozen Jacobins strike terror 
into two or three hundred aristocrats? It is that the former 
have a rallylng-noint and that the latter have none." When 
\hcj4»*4is< dorU did at last organize themselves, they had little 
i^ihcully to flo&ltf n * tnc J ac °b ,n s out of the cafes into compara- 
tive silence, U)«f before this the Girondin government had 
rat «cge4 to meet organization by organization, force by force; 
ml it a clear from the daily rcportsof the police agents that even 

♦a Ammai ** <W*^* ** * ** corrtspond&nce de la Sociitt, Ac. 
~-w x ^gvm newspapers publuhed under the autpices of the 
_«»«• Utoid i p. «•• &c. 

- * w -Mouth*! wportt only the tpeeches of members are given, 

• - namw**'! 01 " 1 *** tnbuno. Butsce the report (May 18, 

_^ vt .» Usat on a meeting of the Jacobins (Schmidt, 

a moderate display of energy would have saved the National 
Convention from the humiliation of being dominated by a dub, 
and the French Revolution from the blot of the Terror. But 
though the Girondins were fully conscious of the evil, they were 
too timid, or too convinced of the ultimate triumph of their own 
persuasive eloquence, to act. In the session of the joth of 
April .1793 a proposal was made to move the Convention to 
Versailles out of reach of the Jacobins, and Buzot declared that 
it was " impossible to remain in Paris " so long as " this abomin- 
able haunt " should exist; but the motion was not carried, and 
the Girondins remained to become the victims of the Jacobins. 

Meanwhile other political clubs could only survive so long as 
they were content to be the shadows of the.powcrful organization 
of the Rue St Honored The Feuillants had been suppressed 
on the 18th of August 1792. The turn of the Cordeliers came so 
soon as its leaders showed signs of revolting against Jacobin 
supremacy, and no more startling proof of this ascendancy 
could be found than the ease with which Hebcrt and his fellows 
were condemned and the readiness with which the Cordeliers, 
after a feeble attempt at protest, acquiesced in the verdict. 
It is idle to speculate on what might have happened had this 
ascendancy been overthrown by the action of a strong govern- 
ment. No strong government existed, nor, in the actual condi- 
tions of the country, could exist on the lines laid down by the 
constitution. France was menaced by civil war within, and by 
a coalition of hostile powers without; the discipline of the Terror 
was perhaps necessary if she was to be welded into a united force 
capable of resisting this double peril; and the revolutionary 
leaders saw in the Jacobin organization the only instrument 
by which this discipline could be made effective. This is the 
apology usually put forward for the Jacobins by republican 
writers of later times; they were, it is said (and of some of them 
it is certainly true), no mere doctrinaires and visionary sectaries, 
but practical and far-seeing politicians, who realized that 
" desperate ills need desperate remedies," and, by having the 
courage of their convictions, saved the gains of the Revolution 
for France. 

The Jacobin Club was closed after the fall of Robespierre on 
the oth of Thermidor of the year III., and some of its members 
were executed. An attempt was made to re-open the club, 
which was joined by many of the enemies of the Therm tdorians, 
but on the 21st of Brumaire, year III. (Nov. xi, 1794), it was 
definitively closed. Its members and their sympathizers were 
scattered among the cafes, where a ruthless war of sticks and 
chairs was waged against them by the young "aristocrats" 
known as the jeunesse dorle. Neve