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puUltbed in thftt folaoMt, 








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„ twenty „ 

1801— i8ia 



t» twenty „ 




tt twenty „ 




„ twenty-one „ 

1830— 184a. 



„ twenty-two » 




•„ twenty-five „ 




ninth edition And eieTeo 





pablishcd in twenty-nine tolumet, 















Copyright, in the United States of America, 191 1, 


The Encyclopedia Britannica Company. 




A. Ok Abthui Cayley, LL.D., F.R.S. /__ - . 

See the biographical article Caylby, Arthuk. \ "Ollfe, Oaqura. 

A. B. G. Rkv. Alfkzd Eenest Gakvxe, M.A., D.D. 

Principal of New CoOcffe. Hampstead. Member of the Board of Theology and the J iflfi*U 
Board of Philoaophy, London University. Author of Studies in the tuner Life "* ■ ^^^"^' 
Jesus; 8k. 

A. B. 8. AxTHXTs Everett Shipley, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S. 

Master of Christ's G>ll«|e, Cambridge. Reader in Zoology, Cambridge University. 
Joint-editor of the CamBridge Natural History, 

A. P. P. Altert Frederick Pollard, MA., F.R.Hist.S. f 

Professor of English History in the University of London. Fellow of All Souls' J „ . 
College. Oxford. AssisUnt Editor of the DicHonary of National Biography, 1893- i Honon, JohlL 
1901. Lothian Prizeman (Oxford). 1892; Arnold Prizeman, 1898. Author of 
Emg^aud under the Protector Somerset; Henry VIII.; Life of Thomas Cranmer; &c I 



A. Ha. 

A. HA 






ife o/| 


Honlos; Mennonltat; 
Kenno, Simons; 

Hereier, Honors 

Rsv. Alexander Gordon, M.A. 

Lecturer oa Church History in the Universtty of Manchester. 

Arthur George Doughty, M.A., Lnr.D., C.M.G. 

Dominion Archivist of Canada. Member of the Geographical Board of Canada. , 
Author of The Cradle of New France; Ac Joint-editor of Documents relating to the ^ 
Constitutional History of Canada. 

Adou Earxmx. ^. , . , „ - / HUtoiinlum: Montanlsm. 

See the biographical article. Harnack, Adolf. \ -unwiiuiuu, jhwumuuhi. 

Sir a. Houtum-Schindler, CLE. f 

General in the Persian Army. Author of Eastern Persian Irah. \ 

Rev. Alexander Jakes Grieve, M.A., B.D. r 

Professor of New Testament and Church History at the United Independent College, J ^i , # . ^ 

Bradford. Sometime Registrar of Madras university and Member of Mysore j ■BMODS \tn part). 
Educational Service. L 

Andrew Jaceson Lamoureux. f 

Librarian. College of Agriculture, Cornell University. Formeriy Editor of the -{ Mexico: Geography. 
Rio News, Rio de Janeirow . L 

Andrew Lang. I De^uk,^ 

See the biographical article, Lang, Andrew. \ aouere. 

Agnes Mary Clerke. •TMouehaz. 

See the biographical article, Clbreb. A. M. I 

Aljred Newton, F.R.S. 

See the biographical article, Newton, Alfred. 

Adam Sedgwick, M.A., F.R.S. 

Professor of Zoolosv at the Imperial Colleffc of Science and Technology, London. . 
FeUow, and formerly Tutor, of Trinity College. Cambridge. Professor of Zoology 
* 1 die University of Cambridge, 1 907-1909. 

Hegapode; Merganser; 
MoeUng Bird; 
Moor-Hen; MorlUon; 
Motmot; Mouse-Bird. 


A. ▼. 0. Baron Alfred von Gutschmid. f Moses of Chorene (in ParO 

See the biographical article, Gutschmid, Alfred, Baron von. L "*'^ "' vnorww vin jw.; 

A. Wl Asthur Waugh, M.A. f 

New College, Oxford. Newdigate Prize, 1888. Author of Gordon in Africa; Alfred, J Morris. Wnilam. 
Lord Tennyson. Editor of Johnson's Lives of the Poets; editions of Dichens, Tenny- ] ^ «•«««■. 

son, Arnold, Lamb; &c L 

* A complete list, duming all individual contributors, appears in the final Tolume. 


B. J. Bernhaso JUiJO (1825-1886). r 

Forxneriy Professor of Classical Phnology in the Univernty of Innabrilclc. Author J WAviMila* f^«M<«a« 
of Mongdische M&rchensammluHg: Ober Wesen undAufgabg der Spnekanssensckqfti ] "««»■• i^nptof^ 

and On the Present State of Mongdiau Researches. 

B. IL^ BUDGETT MeAKIN (1866-I906). f 

Formerly Editor of the Times of Morocco. Author of The Land 0/ Ike Moors; The i MofOOeo (tn ^ar(S 
Moorish Empire; Life in Morocco; &c. [^ r^ /• 

C.A« Cleveland Abbe, A.M.. LL.D. r 

Professor of Meteorology, U.S. Weather Bureau. Washington. Director of the 
Cincinnati Observatory, 1 863-1 873. Editor of Monthly Weather Review; and < Meteorology, 
Bulletin of Mount Weather Observatory. Author of Meteorological Apparatus and 
Methods; &c I 

C.B.W.* Charles Bertie Wedd, F.G.S. , u ^ . . . .. 111111110110 0111: 

Jowt-author of various memouB and maprof the Geological Survey I ' 

0. a Charles Creighton, M.A., M.D. f Monster (tn pdrt)i 

King's College, Cambridge. Author of A History of Epidemics in Britain; Jemur \ HomnL 
and vaccination ; Plague tn India ; &c. I *""»^"^ 

C. EL Sir Charles Norton Eoccombe Euot, K.C.M.G., C.B., M.A., LL.D., D.C.L. f 

Vice-Chancellor of Sheffield University. Formerly Fellow of Trinity College. — ^^^«,.«. 
Oxford. H.M.'s Commissioner and Commander-in-Chief for the British East < ■orarouam. 
Africa Protectorate: Agent and Consul-general at Zanzibar; and Consul-general 
for German East Africa. 1900-1904. I 

C.P.A. Charles Francis Atkinson. (MaAMi* Wn, n^^niij>m 

Formerly Scholar of Queen's College. Oxford. Captain, 1st City of London (Royal \ "•*!*■• *^^/ Oecoralton, 
FusUiers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbour. { (>» P<urlh 

0. P. B. Charles Francis Bastable, M.A., LL.D. r 

Regius Professor of Laws and Professor of Political Economy in the University J Monettnr CODfOfOBMS: 

Trade; 9cc 

C. G.Ala. Chaloner Grenville Alabaster. 

Barristcr-at-Law, Inner Temple. 

C. J. B. Charles Jasper Blunt, A.O.D. 

Major, Royal Artillery. Chief Ordnance Officer, Singapore. Served through' 

Chitral Campaign. 
C. J. P.* Constance Jocelyn Ffoulkes. 

Translator of Morelli's Italian Painters; &c 

C. J. L. SiE Charles Tames Lyall, K.C.S.L, CLE., LL.D. (Edin.). 

Secretary, Judicial and Public Department. India Office. Fellow of King's College, __ , . . „._ 
London. Secretary to Government of India in Home Department, 1889-1894, • MofiffallQflt^ 
Chief Commissioner. Central Provinces, India. 1895-1898. Author of Translations 
of Ancient Arabic Poetry; &c 

0. ML Chedouille Mijatovich. f Mlehael Obienofioh IIL. 

Senator of the Kingdom of Servia. Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipo- < mnt»Vk Obrenovieh L 
tentiary of the King of Servia to the Court cl St James's, Ifii95~i900, and 1903-1903. L ^^ 

CHo. William Cosmo Monkhouse._ ... _ / 

of Dublin. Author of Public Finance; Commerce of Nations; theory of IntemaHonal | Money. 

Mohinaiid *^"*rfttiit 

See the biographical article, Monkuouse. Wiluam CosMa 

C. Pf, Christian Pfister, D-is.-L. f 

Professor at the Sorbonne, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Authors MerOYlngtant. 
of Etudes sur le rhgne de Robert le Pieux. { 

C. R. B. Charles Raymond Beazley, M.A., D.Lrrr.. F.R.G.S., F.R.Hist.S. fMela, Pomponias 

Professor of Modem History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow /• ^--j\. 
of Merton College. Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography. - __ ^ 4/ ' 
Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1889. Lowell Lecturer. Boston, 1908. Author of Henry Mercitor; 
the Navigator; The Dawn of Modern Geography; &c I Monto CorvlDO. 

C. R. W. B. C. R. W. Bicgar, M.A., K.C. Mowat, Sir OUvir. 

G. S. R. Hon. Charles Stewart Rolls, M.A., F.R.G.S. (1877-1910). f Motor VehlelM* 

Trinity College, Cambridge. British Pioneer of Motoring and Aviation. Formerly J V^ , / »rvfv * 
Managing Director of RoTls-Roycc, Ltd. \ ^«» Vehcks. 

C. We. CeOL WeaTHERLY. / Mnnnnmnt- 

Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Barrister-at-Uw. \ "On"™"*- 

TiCAN Black Macdonald, M.A., D.D. r 

Professor of Semitic Languages, Hartford Theological Seminary, U.S.A. Author J 

of Development of Muslim Theology, Jurisprudence and Constitutional Theory ;"] MUItL 
Selections from Ibn Khaldun ; Religious A Uitude and Life in Islam ; &c [ 

D. P. T. Donald Francis Tovey. f M!!lliSiL»iiii-»«»#iii%M. 

Author of Essays in Musical Analysis: comprising The Classical Concerto, The\ "•MWSWBII-BinilOMJ 
Goldberg Variations, and analyses of many other classical works. | __ U** A^) > . _ 

D. B. Ma. Duncan Black Macdonald, M.A., D.D. 

D. GL Sn Davto Gill, K.C.B., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.A.S., D.Sc. 

H.M. Astronomer at Cape of Good Hope, 1 879-1907. Served on Geodetic Survey 
of Egypt, and on the expedition to Ascension Idand to determine the Solar Parallax 
by observations of Mars. Directed Geodetic Survey of Natal, Cape Colony, and 
Rhodesia. Author of Geodetic Survey of South Africa; Catalogues of Stars jor the 
JSgutfraxes, iSjo, i860, 288s, 1890, Ifioo; ftc 

I Motet; Moart {in partes 


0. 6. H. David Geokge Hogaxth, M.A. f 

Keeper of the Ashniolean M lueam. Oxford. FeOow of lyfafldalen Collcse. Oxford. J -, . „„ ^ 
Fdlow of the Bntish Academy. Excavated at Paphos. 1888: NaucratS 1899 and 1 MttsUw; MfletUt. 
1903; Ephesus. 1904-1905: Asuut. 1906-1907. Director, Brituh School at Athens, 
i8Q7-XQOOl Director. Cretan Exoloration Fund. 180a. v 

D. H. David Hannay. f 

Formeriy Britiih Vice-ContuI at Barcelona. Author of Skort History ef tk€ Royal < Malortft: 
Na8y;UftoJEmUioCasidar\dtc I 

D. U. T. Damixl Llkutes TBomas. r 

Barri^terat-Law, Lincola'a IniL StipeofUary Magiatnte at Pontypridd and \ HMttiT TyJin. 
Rhoodda. | 

D. Ua. David Masson, LLJ>. C ^^ . 

See the biosrapdiical article, Massom. David. \ Milton Km part). 

JL SB. Rbv. Dugald Macfadyen, M.A. f 

Minister of South Grove Congregational Church. Highgate. Author of ConstnuHte < Mdvllte, Andltw, 
Cauf^etaHomd Ideals; && { 

D. V. P. DxARiOD Noel Paton. M.D., F.R.C.P. (Edin.). 

Regius Professor of Physiology in the University of Glasgow. Formerly Supers 
intendent of Research Laboratory of Royal College of Physicians. Edinburgh. 
Biological Fellow of Edinburgh University. 1884. Author of EssenHals of Human 
Physiology; Ac 

D. B^IL David Randall-MacIver, M.A., D.Sc. r 

Curator of Egyptian Department, University of Pennsylvania. Formerly Worcester \ MonomotlBt. 
Reader in E^^ptology, University of Oxford. Author of Medieval Rhodesia; &c. [ 

D. 8. IL^ David Savuel Makgououth, M.A., D.Lrrr. r 

Laudian Professor of Arabic, Oxford. Fellow of New College. Author of Arabic J ..--^ 
Papyri of the Bodleian Library; Mohammed and the Rise of laam; Cairo, Jerusalem | XnM. 

Papyri of the Bodleian Library; Mohammed and the Rise of loom; Cairo, Jerusalem 1 

^ { 

K. A. H. Edwaed Altked Minchin, M.A., F.Z.S., 

Professor of Protosoology in the University of London. Formerly Fellow of Merton 
CoU^e, Oxford. 

X B. T. Edwaed Buknett Tyloe, D.C.L., LL,D. f Mailoo: Ancient History 

See the biographical article, Tylor, Edward Burnett. \ iin part). 

K. C. K. Right Rev. Edward Cuthbert Butler, O.S.B., D.Litt. f '■•'*?^ Movement 

Abbot of Downside Abbey. Bath. Author of " The Uusiac HUtory of Palladius *' J *»« Orders; 
in Cambridge Texts and Studies, vol. vi | Mooastieism; 

I Monte Cisslno. 

K. B. A. Ernest E. Austen. r ^ 

Assistant in Department of Zoology. Natural History Museum, South Kensington. '\^ Moiqaito, 

K F. S. D. Lady Dilke. f 

See the biographical article, Dileb, Sir C. W., Bart. | MUlet, Jean FtaQSOil. 

K. Gc Ernest Arthur Gardner, M.A. f MegtlopoDs; 

See the biographical article, Gardner, Percy. i megara Un partl); 


K. H.B. Sir Edward Herbert Bunbury, Bart., M.A., F.R.G.S.(d. 1805). fiffiii. BAmiw^fiim 

M.P. for Bury St Edmunds. 1847-1852. Author of A History ef Ancient Geography: < ^^fr ^^Vomm 
Sec I ^'^ F<»''0- 

B. H. M. Ellis Hovell Minns, M.A. f 

University Lecturer in Palaeography, Cambridte. Lecturer and Assistant Librarian 
at Pembiwe College. Cambridge. Formerly Fellow of Pembroke College. 

B. K. Edmund Knecht, Ph.D., M.Sc.Tech. (Manchester), F.I.C. 

Professor <^ Technological Chemistry, Manchester University. Head of Chemical 
Department, Municipal School of Technology, Manchester. Examiner in Dyeing, ■ 
City and Guilds of London Institute. Author of A Manual of Dyeing; &c. Editor 
of Journal of the Society of Dyers and Colourists. 

S4. M. EouARD Meyer, Ph.D., D.Litt. (Oxon.). LL.D. 

Professor of Ancient Histoiy in the University of Berlin. Author of Ceschichte 
des AUerthums; Ceschichte aes alten Aegyptens; Die Israeliten und ihre Nachbar- 


L 0.« Edmund Owen. M.B., F.R.C.S.. LL.D., D.Sc. 

Consulting Surgeon to St Mary's Hospital, London, and to the Children's Hospital, 
Great Ormond Street, London. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Late Examiner . 
in Surgery at the Universities of Cambridge, London and Durham. Author of 
A Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students. 


Memnon of Rhodes; 

Menander (Miumda) 

{in part); 
Mentor of Rhodes; 

Mouth and Salivary 
Glands {Surgery). 

fiLlt, Edgar Prestace. f 

Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature in the University of Manchester. Examiner 
in Portuguese in the Universities of London. Manchester, ^c. Commendador, J {foraes. 
Portujpiese Order of S. Thiaga Corresponding Member of Lisbon Royal Academy | 
of Sciences, Lisbon Geographical Society; &c. Editor ot Letters of a Portuguae \ 
Hvn ; Aiurara's Chronicle 1^ Guinea; Ac V 




F. C. C. 



P.O. P. 

P. H. Ne. 





P. We. 



G. G. W. 




G. H. Po. 




Sm Edwin Ray Lankester, K.C.B., F.R.S., M.A., D.Sc., LL.D. 

Hon. Fellow of Exeter College, Oxford. President of the British Association. 1906. 
Professor of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy in University Collie. London, 
1874-1890. Linacre Professor of Comparative Anatomjr at Oxford, 1891-1898. 
Director of the Natural History Departmenu of the British Museum, 1898-1907. 
Vice-President of the Royal Society, 1896. Romanes Lecturer at Oxford, 1905. 
Author of Degeneration; The Advancement oj Science; The Kingdom of Man; &c. 

Eugene Stock. 

Formerly Editorial Secretary of the Church Missionary Society. 

Edward Shrapnell Smith. 

Editor of Tk* Commercial Motor. Hon. Treasurer of the Commercial Motor Users 
Association. Organiser of the Lancashire Heavy Motor Trials of 1898, 1 899-1 901. 

Frederick Cornwalus Conybeare, M.A., D.Th. (Giessen). 

Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. 
Editor of The Ancient Armentan Texts of Aristotle. Author o\ Myth^ Magic and 
Morals; Sk. 

Frederick George Meeson Beck, MJL 

Fellow and Lecturer of Clare College, Cambridge. 

Frederick Gymer Parsons, F.R.C.S., F.Z.S., F.R.Antbrop.Inst. 

Vice-President, Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Lecturer on 
Anatomy at St Thomas's Hospital and the London School of Medicine for Women, 
London. Formeriy Hunterian Professor at the Royal Collie of Surgeons. 

Francis Henry Neville, M.A., F.R.S. 

Fellow and Lecturer in Natural Science, Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge. 

Francis John Haverpield, M.A., LL.D., F.S.A. 

Camden Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford. Fellow of 
Brasenose College. Fellow of the Bntish Academy. Author of Monographs on 
Roman History, especially Roman Britain ; &c. 

Francis Llewellyn Grifptth, M.A., Ph.D., F.S.A. 

Reader in Egyptology, Oxford University. Editor of the Archaeological Survey 
and Archaeological Reports of the Egypt Exploration Fund. Fellow of Imperial 
German Archaeological Institute. 

Colonel Frederic Natusch Maude, C.B. 

Lecturer in M ilitary History, Manchester University. Author of War and the World's 
Policy; The Leipzig Campaig;n; The Jena Campaign. 

Frederick Orpen Bower, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Regius Professor of Botany in the University of Glasgow. Author of Practical 
Botany Jor Beginners; && 

Frederick Wedkore. 

See the biographical article, Wbdmorb, Frederick. 

Frederick William Rxtdler, I.S.O., F.G.S. 

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1 879-1 902. 
President of the Geologisu' Association, 1 887-1 889. 

George A. Boulencer. D.Sc.. Ph.D., F.R.S. 

In tharge of the collections of Reptiles s^d Fishes, Department of Zoology, British 
Museum. Vice-President of the Zoological Society of London. 

George Charles Wiluamson, Litt.D. 

Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Portrait Miniatures; Life of Richard 
Cosway, R.A.; George Engleheart; Portrait Drawings; &c Editor oif new edition cl 
Bryan s Dictionary of Painters and Engravers. 

Surgeon-Major George Edward Dobson,M.A.,M.B.,F.Z.S., F.R.S. (1848-1895). 
Army Medical Department, 1 868-1 888. Formerly Curator of the Royal Victoria 
Museum, Netley. Author of Monograph of the Asiatic Chiroptera, &c. ; A Monograph 
of the Insectioora, Systematic and AnatomtcaL 

George F. Barwick. 

Assisunt Keeper of Printed Books and Superintendent of Reading-room, British 

George Gregory Smith. M.A. 

Professor of English Literature, Queen's University, Belfast. Author of 71u Days 
of James IV. ; The Transition Period; Specimens of Middle Scots; ftc 

George Herbert Fowler, F.Z.S.. F.L.S., Ph.D. 

Formerly Berkeley Research Fellow, Owens College, Manchester; and Assistant 
Professor of Zoology at University College, London. 

Gerald Philip Robinson. 

President of the Society of Mezzotint Engravers. Meziotint Engraver to Queen 
Victoria and to King Edward VII. 

George Saintsbury, LL.D., D.C.L. 

See the biographical artkle, Saintsbury, G. 

Grant Showerhan, A.M., Ph.D. 

Professor of Latin in the University of Wisconsin. Member of the Archaeological 
Institute of America. Member of American Philological Association. Author of 
ff^M /ke Pro/essor; The Great Mother of the Gods; &c 

MoUueca {in pati^. 

BOsslons {in paH^, 

Motor yehleles: 
Heavy Commercial 

Moses of Chorene 
(m pari). 


Hooth and Sallvaiy 

MetaOofiaplij (in parti. 


Memphb; Henes; 
Moeris, Lake of; 


Mohl, Hofo fon. 




Morland, Georgt. 

Mole (m part). 



M«rim«e; Miehelet, lata; 
Montaigne; Monteaqoieii; 
Mon^ensier, Duebene die, 














H. W. C. D. 




Rsv. GRumHES Wheeler Thatches. M.A., B.D. 

Warden of Camden Collie, Sydney, N.S.W. Formerly Tutor in Hebrew and Old 
Testament History at Manifidd College, Oxford. 

Horace Bouncbroke Woodward. F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Formerly Assistant Director of the Geological Survey of England and Wales. 
President, Geologists' Association, 1 893-1 894. WoUaston Medallist, 1508. 

Hugh Chisholic, M.A. 
Formerly Scholar of 
of the oKcydopaedia Britannica, 

Co>editor of the loth edition. 

Karl Herkeann EtkI, M.A., Ph.D. 

Professor of Oriental Languages, University CoUege, Aberystwyth (University of 
Wales). Author of Catalogue of Persian Uanuscnpls in Ike India Q^e Library, 
London (Clarendon Press) ; &c 

Henri Frantz. 

Art Critic. Caaetie des beaux arts, Paris. 

Horatio Robert Forbes Brown, LL.D. 

Editor of the Calendar of Venetian Staie Papers, for the Public Record Office. Author 
of Life on the Lagoons i VeneHt^n Studies: John Addington Symonds, a Biography, 

Hans Friedrich Gadow. F.R.S., Ph.D. 

Strickland Curator and Lecturer on Zoology in the University of Cambridge. Author 
of " Amphibia and Reptiles," in the Cambridge Natural History, 

Henry Harvey LittlejohNj M.A., M.B., CM., F.R.C.S. (Edin.), F.R.S. (Edin.) 
Professor of Forensic Medicine in the University of Edinburgh. 

Harriet L. Hemmissy, M J). (Bruz.), L,R.C.P.L, L.R.C.S J. 

H. Lawrence SwiNBUXiinE (d. zgoy). 

Henry Morse Stephens, M.A. 

Balliol College, Oxford. Professor of History and Director of University Extension, 
University of California. Author of History of the French Reoolutum; Modem 
European History, Ac 

BiHRY Newton Diceson, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S. (Edin.), F.R.G.S. 

Professor of Geography at Univerrity College, Reading. Formerly Vice-President, 
Royal Meteorological Society. Lecturer in Physical (geography, Oxford. Author 
of Meteorology I Elanenis of Weather and Qimate; &c. 

Hermann Oelsner, M.A., Ph.D. 

Taylorian Professor of the Romance Languages in University of Oxford. Member 
of Council of the Philological Society. Author of A History of Proven^ Literature ; 

Henry Sturt, M.A. 

Author of Idala Tkeatrii The Idea of a Free Church; Personal Idealism, 

Henry Stuart Jones, M.A. 

Formeriy Fellow and Tutor of Trinity College, Oxford, and Director of the British 
School at Rome. Member of the German Imperial Archaeological Institute. 
Author of The Roman Empire; &c 

Henry Smith Munroe, D.Sc., Ph.D. 

Professor of Mining, Columbia University, New York. 

Henry Spenser Wilkinson, M.A. 

Chichele Professor of Milttaiy History. University of Oxford. Fellow of All Souls' 
Cdlege. Author of The Brain of an Army; && 

Rev. Herbert Thomas Andrews. 

Professor of New Testament Execens. New College, London. Author of " The 
Commentary on Acts " in the Westminster New Testament; Handbook on the 
Apocryphal Boohs in the '' Century " Bible. 

Hope W. Hocc, M.A. 

Professor of Semitic Languages and Literatures in the University of Manchester. 

Henry William Carless Davis, M.A. 

Fdlow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford, 
1895-1902. Author of En^and under the Normans and Angevins; Charlemagne. 

Rev. Henry Wheeler Robinson. M.A. 

Professor of Church History in Rawdon College. Leieds. Senior Kennicott Scholar, 
Oxford, iQOi. Author of Hebrew Psychology in Relation to Pauline Anthropology 
(in Mansfield College Essays) ; &c. 

Israel Abrahams, M.A. 

Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature in the University of Cambridge. 
Formerly President, Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A Swrt 
History of Jewish Literature; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages; Judaism; &c. 

Sir Joseph Archer Crowe, K.C.M.G. 

See the biographical article, Crowe, Sir J. A. 


Miner, Hugh. 

Meredith, GeorKe; 
Milan Obrenoviteh IV.; 
Moriey, Viseouot 


{in part). 
Mlgntlon: Zoology; 

Medleal Jurbprndeme 
(in part). 

Medleal Edoeatton, USJL 
{in part). 

Medal: War Decorations 
{in part). 

Mirabean, Honori. 

Mediterranean Sea; 
Mexico, Gulf oL 



Mosale: Ancient {in part). 

Moltke, Count von. 

Missions {in part), 

Montfort, Simon de. 

MIcah {in part), 

r Melr; Melr of Rothenbnrg; 
I Menasseh ben Israel; 
I Mendelssohn, Moses; 
[Mocatta; Molko. 


J. A. F. John Ambrose Fleming, M.A., F.R.S., D.Sc. 

Pender Professor of Electrical Engineering in the University of London. Fellow 
of University Collie. London. Formeriy Fellow of St John's Coll^, Cambridge. •{ M^tar BIHCIlllc. 
and Lecturer on Applied Mechanics in the University. Author m Matn^ and ' 

Eieclric Currents. 

J. A. S. John Addington Symonds, LL.D. 

See the biographical article, Symonds, John Addington. 

J. A. V, Rev J \ Vanes f 

Prof^r of NeW TcsUmcnt Exegesis. Wesleyan College, Richmond. \ ■•ttwdtan (m part). 

J. Bt. James Bartlett. r 

Lecturer on Construction. Architecture, Sanitation, Quantities. &c., at King's College, J -- ^^ 
London. Member of Society of Architects. Member of Institute of Junior | "Wir. 
Engineers. ' t 

J. B. T. Sir John Batty Tukz, M.D., F.R.S. (Edin.), D.Sc., LL.D. f 

President of the Neurological Society of the United Kingdom. Medical Director J mmIImI VAnmmUt^n 
of New Saughton Hall Asylum, Edinburgh. M.P. for the Universiues of Edinbui^h 1 "«"«" Kanouon. 
and St Andrews, i90O-i9ia I 

J. D. B. James David Bourchier, M.A.. F.R.G.S. 

King's College, Cambridge. Corr^pondent of The Times in South-Eastem Europe. J UontantOO. 
Commander of the Orders of Ppnce Danilo of Montenegro and of the Saviour of ' 
Greece, and Officer of the Order of St Alexander of Bulgaria. 


J. E. H. Rev Joseph JEdmund Hutton. M.A. ( Uonvian Bnttmn. 

Author of History of the Moravian Church. \ 

J. F. K. James Furman Kemp, D.Sc. f 

Professor of Geology, Columbia University, New York. Geologist to United States •< Minenl Deposits, 
and New York Geological Surveys. Author of Handbooh o/Rochs; &c. I 

J. F. P. Joseph Frank Payne, M.A., M.D., F.R.C.P.(i84o-i9io). f 

Formeriy Harveian Librarian, Royal College of Physicians. London. Hon. Fellow I w-ji^i^*. rr* j /• ^ -A 
of Magdalen College, Oxford. Fellow of the University of London. Author of ] ■«UClll«. History {tn part). 
Lectures on Ang^Saxon Medicine; &c I 

J. G. H, Joseph G. Horner, A.M.I.Mech.E. f Httal-Work: Industrial 

Author of PlaHng and Boiler Making; Practical Metal Turning; &c \ ■•»^**"'»- ^'wiMirw*. 

J. G. B. John George Robertson, M.A., Ph.D. r 

Professor of German at the University of London. Formerly Lecturer on the! MeUtenlnnc 
English Language, Stra^urg University. Author of History of German Literature; | ^ 

Tames George Scott, K.C.I.E. f w i. wi v 

Superintendent and Political Officer* Southern Shan Sutes. Author of Burma; i ■•Kong; Hlnoil. 
The Upper Burma Gazetteer. L 

r Honandor; 
J.H.F. John Henry Freese.M. A. ^ ^ ., \ Minor. Ancient; 

Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge. | Ho^sia. 


J. G. 8e. Sn Tames George Scott, K.C.LE. 

Superintendent and Politic ' 
The Upper Burma Gazetteer. 

J. H. Jo. James Hopwood Jeans, M-A.^ F.R.S. 

Stokes Lecturer in the University of Cambridge. Formeriy Fellow of Trinity •{ Molecule. 
College. Author of Mathematical Theory of Electricity and Magtutism ; Ac 

Uetal-Work: Art 

{in part); 
Mosaic: Ancient {in part) 

Mowbray: Family. 

)yndicate.jMomeil, Couut; 

European j Montholon, Marqols do. 

J. H. M. John Henry Mhidleton, M.A., Litt.D., F.S.A., D.C.L. (1846-1806). 

Slade Professor of Fine Art in the University of Cambridge, 1886-189^ Director 
of the Fiuwilliam Museum, Cambridge. 1889-1892. Art Director of the South 
Kensington Museum, 1 893-1 896. Author of The Enrraved Gems of Classical Times; 
Illuminated Manuscripts in Classical and Mediaeval Times. 

i. H. B. John Horace Round, M.A., LL.D. 

Author of Feudal England; Studies in Peerage and Family History; Peerage and 

J. HL B. John Holland Rose, M.A., Litt.D. 

Lecturer on Modem History to the Cambridge University Local LecturesS; 

Author of Life of Napoleon L ; Napoleonic Studies; The Developmtnt of the 

Nations; The Life of Pitt; &c v 

T.Le, Rev. James Legce, D.D. /mmwIh. 

See the bk)graphkal article, Lbcgb, Jambs. \ ""w*"* 

J. L. W. Jessie Latolay Weston. f uerlln. 

Author of Arthurian Romances unrepresented in Malory. \ 

i. M. Bo. Rev. James Monroe Buckley, D.D;, LL.D. \ „ ^^ ^, ,, . , t». s 

Editor of the Christian AdvocaU, New York. Author of History of Methodism in < Methodisin: Untied States 
the United States; &c I 

J. M. M. John Malcolm Mitchell. f *"V John Stoart 

Sometime Scholar of Queen's Colleg^e, Oxford. Lecturer in Classkrs, East London •< (m part) 
College (University oiLondon). Joint-editor of Grote's History of Greece. I MilUades,* * 

Jno. 8. Sir John Scott, K.C.M.G., M.A., D.C.L. 

formeriy Deputy Judge- Advocate-General to His Majesty's Forces. Judge. J «fni|._„ » «„ 
afterwards Vice-President, International Court of Appeal in Egypt. 1874-1882. i ""»»»«y ■*'*• 
Jhudge of High Court. Bombay, 1882-1890. Judicial Adviser to the Khedive of 
tgypt, 1890-1898. Vice-President, International Law Association. \ 




J. a. Ma. 


J. T. §.• 







M. 0. B. C. 

I. W. T. 


Jonf SuTHZRLAMD Blacx, M.A., LL.D. I 

Aantttfit Editor. 9th editkm. Emychpotdia Britammea, Joint-editor of the H 
BmcycUpaedia BiUua, I 

John Smith Flett, D.Sc., F.G.S. 

Petfographer to the Geological Survey. Fonneriy Lecturer on Petrology in 
" NeiirMedallist of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. WtgAxy 


Edinburgh University. Nei 

Medallist of the Geological Society of London. 

John Stabxiz Gabdnes, F.S.A. . f 

Expert Metal Worker. Author of Armotw m Bm^tamd; Iromwprk (for the Educational 1 


Hetel-Work: Modem AtL 

Profeawr of Greek ati ii««««o: Modem History. 

:(«n part)', 
MoMQwCtn part). 

{in part); 


JMIddld AfM. 

(w part). 


Department) ; &c 

James Saumarez Mann, M.A. 

Formerly Fellow and Lecturer of Trinity Collese, Oxford. 
Bedford College, London. Joint-editor of SocM/Eiiffafid. 

John Thomas Bealby. 

Jotnt-author of Sunford** Europe. Formerly Editor of the Scottish CeopapkUal 
Mlagiaune, Translator of Sven Hedin's Throuffi Asia, Central Asia and Tibet; &c 

Joseph Thomas Cunningham. M.A.. F.Z.S. 

Lecturer on ZookMry at the South-Westem Polytechnic, London. Fonneriy Fellow . 
of University College. Oxford. Assistant Professor of Natural History in the 
University of Edinburgh. Naturalist to the Marine Biok)gical Association. 

James Thomson Shotwell, Ph.D. 

Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City. 
Kate A. Meaqm (Mrs Budgett Meakin). 

Kathleen Schlesincek. 

Editor of the Portfoiio cf Musical Archaeelagy. Author of The Instmments of the 

Louis Bell, Ph.D. 

Consulting Engineer. Boston. U.S.A. Chief Engineer, Electric Power Transmission . 
Department. General Electric Ca. Boston. Formeriv Editor of Electrical World, ' 
New York. Author of Electric Power Transmission-, Ac. 


Fonneriy Professor of Theoretical Physics, Universities of Munich. Vienna and . 
Leipzig. Author of Lectures on the Theory cf Gas; Lectures on Maxwell's Theory 
of Electricity and Light. 

Lazakus Fletchee, M.A.. F.R.S. 

Director of Natural History Departments of the British Museum. ' Keeper of 
Minerals. British Museum. 1 880-1909. Secretary to the Mineralogkal Society. 
Formeriy Fellow of University College, Oxford. Author of Introduction to the Study 
of Meteorites: &c 

Leonard James Spences, M.A. 

Assistant in Department of Mineralogy, British Museum. Formeriy Scholar of. 
Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Hari^ness Schobr. Editor of the Minera- 
logical Magaaine. 

Montague Hughes Crackanthorpe, M.A., D.C.L., K.C. 

Honorary Fellow. St John's College, Oxford. Bencher of Lincoln's Inn. Formerly 
Member of the General Council of the Bar and of the Council of Legal Education, • 
and Standing Counsel to the University of Oxford. President 01 the Eugenics 
Educatk>n Society. 

Marion H. Spielmann, F.S.A. 

Formeriy Editor of the Matasine t^ ArL Member of Fine Art Committee of 
International Exhibitions of Brussels, Paris, Buenos Aires. Rome, and the Franco- 
British Exhibition. London. Author of History of "Punch"; British Portrait 
Painhng to the opening of the NineUenth Century; Worhs ofC. F. Watts, Rjl.; British 
Sculpture and Sculptors qf To-Day; Henriette Ronner; &c 

Marcus Niebuhr Too, M.A. 

Fellow and Tutor of Oriel College, - Oxford. University Lecturer in Epigraphy. ■ 
Joint-author <^ Catalogue of the Sparta Museum. 

Maximilian Otto Bismarck Caspari, M.A. r 

Reader in Ancient History at London University. Lecturer in Greek at Birming- -j Uegani (in part). 

Mieroeline; HiUerite; 
MimeUte; Minentogy; 
Mlspiekel; Mo|ybd«iltr, 

{in part). 


ham University, 1905-190S. 


Sir Tbomat. 


Rev. Mark Pattison. 

See the bk>graphkal article, Pattison, Mark. 

NoRTHCOTE Whitridge Thomas, M.A. I 

Government Anthropok>gist to Southern Nigeria. Corresponding Member of the J 
Soci£t£ d'Anthropologie dc Paris. Author of Thought Transference; Kinship and \ 
Marriage in Australia; Ac I 

Oswald Barron, F.S.A. f unBtara (Pntmn^'\ 

Editor of The Ancestor, 1903-1905. Hon. Genealogist to Standing Council of the-{ ~" "*" >L"^^yj* 
Honourable Society of the Baronetage. t 

Owen Charles Wuttehouse, M.A., D.D. 

TheobgKal Tutor and Lecturer in Hebrew, Clieshunt Coflege, Cambridge. 

I lIorUiiier(Famt/>). 

y* ^. 



0. Hr. Otto Henkek, Ph.D. f -u,,^.^ 

On the Staff of the Cari Zeiss Factory, Jena, Gennany. \ HJcroiCope. 

P. A.K. PsiNCE Peter Alexeivitch Kkopotkin. (Wsak {in ^rt)- 

See the biographical article, Kropotkin. Primcb P. A. \ HoogoUs; Hoseow. 

P. C. M. Peter Chalmers Mitchell, M.A., F.R.S., FZ.S., D.Sc., LL.D. r 

Secretary to the Zoological Society of London. University Demonstrator in J Hontter (in part); 
Comparative Anatomy and AssisUnt to Linacre Professor at Oxford, 1888-1891.1 Morphology (m part). 

P.Oe. Patrick GEDDES.F.R.S. (Edin.). f 

Professor of Bouny, University College. Dundee. Formerly Lecturer on Natural J MomhAlAffv (i» 4t/twi\ 
Hbtory in School of Medicine, Edinburgh. Part-author of Evolutum of Sex. 1 "«»^"»««y ^»« 1^")- 
Author of Chapters in Modem Botany, L 

P. 0. K. Paul George Konody. f 

Art Critic of the Observer and the DaUy MaO. Formerly Editor of The Artist. \ HemUnc (m pari). 
Author of The Art of Walter Crane; Veiasquet, Life and Worh; &c L 

P.I#. Philip Lake, M.A., F.G.S. f 

Lecturer on Phyncal and Regional Geography in Cambridge Univeruty. Formerly J mavIaa* n^^^m.. 
of the Geological Survey of India. Author of Monograph of BrUtsh CamMan 1 "«»«>• ^^^ology. 
Trilobites. Translator and Editor of Keyser's Crai^a<iw GMtogy. I 

P.V. Pasquale Villari. /Medici fFajni/v) 

See the biographical article. Villari, Pasqualb. \ '"*' K^amuyj, 

R. A. 8. M. Robert Alexander Stewart Macalister, M.A., F.S.A. fMIehiiiRth* Mlznah* 

St John's CoUege, Cambridge. Director of Excavations for the Palestine Explora- \ M«H*h 
tionFund. ^^mwi»n. 

andCaius-j I 

R. C. P. Reginald Crundall Punnett, M.A. 

Professor of Bidogy in the University of Cambridge. Fdlow of Gonville 
College. Superintendent of the Museum of Zoology. 

R. H. C. Rev. Robert Henry Charles, M.A., D.D., D.Litt. f 

Grinfield Lecturer, and Lecturer in Biblical Studies, Oxford. Fellow of the British J Masm. AsmmnilAii t%f 
Academy. Formeriy Professor of Biblical Greek, Trinity College, Dublin. Author! ""^ iwwnpuon 01. 
of Critical History cf the Doctrine of a Future Idfei Booh cf JubUees\ &c L 

R. LP. Reginald Innes Pocock, F.Z.S. fHIlllpido; IDmleqr; 

Superintendent of the Zoological Gardens, London. \ Mito. 

R. K. D. Sir Robert Kennaway Douglas. r 

Formerly Keeper of Oriental Printed Books and MSS. at the British Museum; and J ^ ^. 
Professor of Chinese. King's College, London. Author of The Language onrfl "O"*©"- 
Literature of CkaM\ &c t 

R. L.* Richard Lydekker, M. A.. F.R.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S. f JIl*^""' "*'• (*» ^''^ • 

Member of the Staff of the Geological Survey of India, i874-i8to. Author of J Monodelphla; 
Catalogues of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in British Museum; The Deer of] HoDOtremftU; Mouse; 
All Lands ; The Came A nimals of Africa ; &c. [ Multltaberealfta. 

R. Mw-S. Richmond Mayo-Shith, Ph.D. 

9M0ND MaYO-SiOTH, Ph.D. f wi.^M^« /' j. s\ 

See the biographical article, Mato-Smitb, RiCRKOifa -j^HIgnaoil (m part). 

R. If . B. Robert Nisbet Bain (d. 1909). 

Assistant Librarian, British Museum, 1 883-1909. Author of Scandinavia^ thi 

Miehaal, Tsar; 
Moltko, Coant A. 0.; 
Mottko, Coant A. W. 

Political History of Denmarh, Norway and Sweden, tfJJ-tgoo; The First Romanovs, 
i6i3-t72K; Slavonic Europe, the Political History ef Poland and Russia from 1469 
to 1796; &C. 

R. P. 8. R. Phen4 SnERS, F.S.A.. F.R.I.B.A. f 

Formerly Master of the Architectural School, Royal Academy. London. Past „ --^ , ., _ 

President of Architectural Association. AsK)ciate and Fellow of King's College, -j "Oifliw; MOUldiDiS. 
London. Corresponding Member of the Institute of France. Editor of Fergusson's I 
History of Architecture, Author tii Architecture: East and West; Ac I 

R. S C. Robert Seymoxtr Conway, M.A., D.Litt. (Cantab/). r 

Professor of Latin and Indo-Euro|)ean Philology in the University of Manchester. J 
Formeriy Professor of Latin in University CoII^ Cardiff; and Fellow of Gonville 1 
and Caius College, Cambridge. Author of The Italic Dialects, I 

S. A. C. Stanley Arthur Cook, M.A. 

Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac. and formeriy Fellow, Gonville and Caius College, 
Cambridge. Editor for the Palestine Exploration Fund. Examiner in Hd>rew 
and Aramaic. London University, 1 904-1 908. Council of Royal Asiatic Society, 
1904-1905. Author of Glossary of Aramaic Inscriptions; The Law ef Moses and the 
Code of Hammurabi; Critical Notes on Old Testament History; Rekgion of Ancient 
Palestine; &c. 

Molehisadek {in part); 
MoBRliem; Midnsh; 
MIxnIm; Moab; 
Moloeh {in part); 

8. C. Sidney CoLviN, LL.D. ^ / Mfadnbiunlo. 

See the biographical article, CoLVW, SiDMBT. \ * 

8t C. Viscount St. Cyres. '' 

See the biographical article, Iddbslbicb, est Earl or. 

JL jr. Sdcon Newcomb, D.Sc., LL.D. 

See tba biographical article, Nbwcomb, Simon. 











W. B. S.* 

W. C. R.-A. 


W. F. D. 






THOMAS AsHBT, M.A., D.LiTT. (Oxon.). 

Director of British School of Archaeology at Rome. Formeriy Scholar of Christ 
Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow, 1897. Conington Prizeman, 1906. Member 
of the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Author of Tibs Qasskal 
T^pogr^pky of the Raman Campapta, 

TaoMAS Allan Imcsam. M.A., LLJ>. 
Trinity College, Dublin. 

Tbomab Case, M.A. 

Preadent of Coiput Christ! College, Oxford. Formeriy Waynflete Professor of 
Moral and Metaphysical Philosopny in the University of Oxford, and Fellow of 
Magdalen College. 

Sn Thomas Cuffobd Allbutt, K.C.B., M.A., M.D.. D.Sc., LL.D.j F.R.S. 

Regius PnAtaaor of Physic in the University of Cambridge. Physician to Adden- 
brooke's Hospital, Cambridge. Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. 
Editor of Systems qf Medicine, 

Colonel Sir Thomas Huncerfokd Holdich, K.C.M.G., K.CJ.E., D.Sc. 

Superintendent Frontier Surveys. India, 1892-1808. Gold Medallist, R.G.S. 
(London). 1887. Author of The Indian Borderiand; The Countries qf the King*s 
Award; India; Tibet; Ac 

Thomas Khee Rose, D.Sc. 

Chemist and Assaver, The Royal Mist, London. Author of Metallurgy ef Cold; The 
Precious Metals; oc. 

Tbeooor NOldeke, Ph.D. 

See the biographical article, NOlobkb, Theodor. 

Theodore Sausbury Woolsey, LL.D. 

Professor of International Law, Yak University. Editor of Wooliey's IntemaHanal 
Lam. Author of America's Foreign Policy; &c 

TiOMAS William Rhys Davids, LL.D., Ph.D. 

Professor of Comparative Religion, Manchester University. President of the Pali 
Text Society. Fellow of the British Academy. Secretary and Librarian of Royal 
Asiatic Society, 1885-1902. Author of Buddhism; Sacred Boohs cf the BuddhisU; 
EaHy Buddhism; Buddhist India; Dialogues of the Buddha; Sec 

Rev. William Augustus Brevoort Coolidge, M.A., F.R.G.S.. PH.D.(Bem). 
Fdlow of Magdalen College. Oxford. Professor of English History, St David's 
College, Lampeter, 1 880-1 881. Author of Guide du Haut Dauphini; The Range 
oj the Tddi; Guide to Grinddwald; Guide to Switserland; The Alps in Nature and tn 
History; &c Editor of The Alpine Journal, 1880-1881 ; Ac 

Walter Alison Phillips, M.A. 

Formerly Exhibitioner of Merton College and Senior Scholar of St John's College, 
Oxford. Author of Afodmi£t(roAe:&c 

Sn William Blake Richmond, K.C.B. 

See the biographical article, RicHMONp, SiR WaLiAM Blake. 

William Barclay Squire. M.A. 

Assistant in Chaige of Printed Music, British Museum. 

Snt William Chandler Roberts-Austen, K.C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
See the biographical article, Robbrts-.^ustbn, Sir W. C. 

WiLUAM Feiloen Craies, M.A. 

Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. Lecturer on Criminal Law, King's College, London. 

Editor of Archbold's Criminal Pleading (23rd edition). 
William Frederick Denning, F.R.A.S. 

Gold Medallist, R.A.S. President, Liverpool Astronomical Society, 1 877-1 878. 

Author of Telescopic Work for Starlight Evenings; The Great Meteoric Shower; &c 

William Fleetwood Shepparo, M.A. 

Senior Examiner in the Board of Education. Formeriy Fellow of Trinity College, 
Cambridge. Senior Wrangler, 1884. 

Snt William Henry Flower, F.R.S. 

See the biographical article. Flower, Sir W. H. 
WiLLUM Henry Howell. M.D., Ph.D., LL.D. 

Dean of the Medical Faculty and Professor of Physiology, Johns Hopkins University, 

Baltimore. President of the American Physiological Association. Associate-editor 

of American Journal cf Physiology, 

Hegm Hyblaaa; 
HenioR; HeUpontom; 
Milan {in part); 
MlntnnuM; Misennm; 
HonrMde(ti» part); 
HonteleoiM Calabro; 
Hotyt; Honiimeiit: Italy. 

(in part); 
MlfiBttoa (ni part). 


Medlelne: Modem 



Melrlngen; Hsran; 

Merian; Mont Osnls; 


MOlter, JohannM too. 

Mehemet AH; 
Mettarnleh; MInlstw; 

I Mosaic: Modem. 
I Morhy, nomas. 
/Metallography (m pari^. 


Medical Edocatloo, UJSJL 
(m part). 

WnxuM Herrick Macaulay, M.A. 

Fellow and Tutor of King's College, Cambridge. 

Walter Lermann. D.M. i 

Directorial Assistant, Royal Ethnographical Museum, Munich. ' Author of Methods H 
oa^ Results in Mexicass Researeh; ftc 


Laws of. 

Mexico: Ancient History 









WiLUAM Mnrro, LL.D. 

See the biographical ankle, Blorro, Wiluaii. 

Sir W. Maktin Conway. 

See the biographical article, COnwat, Sim W. Bl 

William Michael Rossetti. 

See the biographical article, RosssTTl, Damtb, G. 

{mo, John Stuart 
{in pari). 

•[ HoantBlDaeiliis. 


Libut.-Colonel William Patrick Anderson, MJnst.C.E., F.R.G.S. f 

Chief Engineer, Department of Marine and Fisheries of Canada. Member of the •{ Miehlgail, Lake. 
Geographic Board 01 Canada. Past President of Ca na d i an Society of Civil Engineers, t 

William Richard Mortill, M.A. (d. xgio). r 

Formerly Professor of Russian and the other Sbvonic Languages in the University J m.uiAwiM Rilam 
of Oxford. Curator of the Taylorian Institution Oxford. Author of Russian ■'«>«wicx, MMBL 
Slavonic Literature; &c L 

William Robertson Smitb, LL.D. 

See the biographical article, Smith, William Robertson. 

William Roy Smitb, M.A., Ph.D. 

Associate Professor of History, Bryn Mawr College, Pennsylvania. Author of 
SectiomUism in Pennsyhania during the RepoluHon; &c. 

William Smyth Rockstro. 

Author of A General History of Music from the Infancy of the Greeh Drama to the 
Present Period; and other works on the history of music 

HeleUiadek (in part) ; 
h {in part); 
{in part); 
{in part). 

msMiirt Compromite. 


{in part); 
Hoart {in part). 






Melon. , 






Mlssisslni River. 


Heroanttle System. 




Mereinj (Chembliy). 

Mineral Wateis. 









Mounted Infantry. 





MSDAL (Fr. wMaOU, from Lat. metaBimy, strictly the 
term given to a memorial piece, originally of metal, and 
generally in the shape of a coin, used however not as ciirrency 
but as an artistic product. " Medallion " is a similar term 
for a large medal, but is now usually restricted to a form of 
bas-relief in sculpture. The term " medal " is, artistically, 
extended by analogy to pieces of the same character not neceS- 
sarOy shaped like coins. The history of coins and medals 
b inseparable, and is treated under the general heading of 
NuMxsiCATics. That article may be supplemented here by an 
account of (i) the more recent progress in the art of the medallist, 
and (}) the use of medals for war decorations. 

I. The medal— Is understood to-day— enjoys a life 
entirely independent of the coin on the one hand, and, on the 
other, of the sculptured medallion, or bas-relief; and its renais- 
sance is one of the chief phenomena in art during the period 
&nce about 1870. It is in France that it has risen to the greatest 
perfection. Its popularity there is well-nigh imiversal; it is 
esteemed not only for memorials of popular events and of 
public men, but also for private celebrations of all kinds. No 
other nation approaches in excellence — in artistic feeling, 
treatment, and sensitiveness of execution — the artists and the 
achievements of France. In Engkmd, although the Royal 
Academy seeks to encourage its students to practise the art, 
the prize it offers commonly induces no competition. The 
art of the medallist b not properly appreciated or understood, 
and receives little or no support. The prevailing notion 
ooQceming it is that it consists in stamping dieap tokens out of 
white metal or bronze, on which a design, more or less vulgar, 
itAnds out in frosty relief from a dazzling, glittering background. 
These works, even the majority of military and civic medals, 
demonstrate how the exquisite art of the Renaissance had been 
degraded in England — almost without protest or even recognition 
—so that they are, to a work of Roty or Chaplain, what a 
nameless daub would be to a picture by Rembrandt or Velasquez. 

It is probable that Jacques Wiener (d. 1899), of Belgium, 
i^s the last of the medallists of note who habitually cut his 
sted dies entirely with his own hand without assistance, though 
others in some measure do so still. Although most modern 
workers, exclusively medallisU, have themselves cut dies, 
they now take advantage of the newest methods; and the 
pamir en midailks has become simply a nUdaiUeur. His 
knowledge of effect is the same— though the effect sought is 
different: in eariier times the artist thought chiefly of his 
skGdffms\ rx>w he mainly regards his planes. Otherwise his 
aims are not dissimilar. At the present day the medallist, 
after making conscientious studies from life (as if he were about 
to paint. a picture), commonly works out his' design in wax, 
or similar substance, upon a disk of plaster about 12 or 14 inches 

in diameter. From that advanced model a simple mould, 
or matrix, is made, and a plaster cast is taken, whereupon the 
artist can complete his work in the utmost perfection. Then, 
if a struck medal is required,, a steel cast is made, and from 
that a reduction to the size required for the fiiud work is pro- 
duced by means of the machine— the lour d rtduire. It is this 
machine which has made possible the modem revival, and has 
revolutionized the taste of designers and public alike. It 
was invented by Contamin, who based it upon that low d 
portrait which Houlot produced in 1766, and which helped 
to fame several engravers now celebrated. This machine was 
first exhibited in Paris in 1839, and was sold to the Munich- 
Mint; while a similar invention, devised at the same time by 
the English engraver Hill, was acquired by Wyon for £aooo, 
and was ultimately disposed of to a private mint in Paris. From 
that city comes the machine, based by the French inventor 
M. Ledru upon the two already referred to, now in use at the 
Royal Mint in London. A well-served medallist, there/ore, 
need trouble himself nowadays about little beyond the primary 
modelling and the final result, correcting with his own hand 
only the slightest touches — refining, perfecting — but sometimes 
merely confining himself to giving his directions to the profes- 
sional engraver.* 

The great majority of the artistic medals at present in the 
world (in the great collection of France there is a total of not 
fewer than 200,000 medals) are cast, not struck. There is in 
them a charm of surface, of patina, of the metal itself, which 
the struck medal, with all the added beauties which it allows 
of delicate finish and exquisite detail, can hardly give. But 
the production of the cast medal is much slower, much more 
uncertain, and the number of fine copies that can be produced 
is infinitely smaller. All the early medals were cast, being first 
modelled in wax, and then cast by the cire perdue (waste wax) 

^The method of preparing the dies, &c., is the same for medals 
as for coins, save that lor larger and heavier work more strokes are 
required, as in the case of L. Coudray's popular " Orphde " — rather a 
sculpture-relief than a medal. The dies are capable of a great yield 
before becommg quite worn-out; it is said that no fewer than three 
million copies were struck of Professor J. Tautenhayn's Austrian 
jubilee medal of the Emperor Francis Joseph. In France, Thonelier's 
perfected machine, substituting the lever for the screw, has been in 
use for coins since 184^; but for the striking of medals the same old- 
fashioned screw-press is retained which had till then been employed 
both for coins and medals since the time of Louis XIV. In its present 
form the machine consists of an iron or bronze frame, of which the 
upper part is fitted with a hollow screw wherein works an inner screw. 
This screw, moved by steam or electricity, drives the dies, set in iron 
collars, so that they strike the blank placed between them. This 
machine can deliver a strong blow to produce a high relief, or a delicate 
touch to add the finest finish. In the Paris Mmt large medals can 
be struck with comparative ease and rapidity. A hydraulic press 
of nearly two million pounds pressure U uuVvied Vot x.^^xXw^vV'^ ^vt% 


process, and were usually worked over by the chaser afterwards; 
indeed, it was not until the beginning of the i6th century 
that dies, hitherto used only for coins executed in low relief, 
were employed for larger and bolder work. The medallists 
of those days always cast in bronze or lead, and only proceeded to 
use silver and gold as a luxurious taste began to demand the 
more precious metals. There is little doubt that the material 
to be preferred is dull silver ( mat or sabli — sand-blasted), 
as the work, with all its variations of light and shade, can be 
better seen in the delicate grey of the surface. 

The medal, properly considered, is not sculpture. Vasari 
was happy in his definition when he describ«d the medallic 
art as the link between sculpture and painting — that is to say, 
painting in the round with the colour left out. Less severe 
than sculpture, it need not be less dignified; it is bound down 
by the conventions of low relief, and by compulsions of com- 
position and design, dependent on shape, from which sculpture, 
even when the relief is the lowest, is in a great measure free. 
In the medal, otherwise than in sculpture, elaborate perspective 
and receding planes are hot out of place. The genius of the 
modem Frenchman rebelled against the rule that commonly 
governed the medal during the decadence, and has triumphed 
in his revolt, justifying the practice by his success. The modem 
medal and the plaqnette aim at being de<torative yet vigorous, 
reticent and dignified, delicate and tender, graceful and pure; 
it may be, and often is, all these in tum. Imagination, fancy, 
symbolism, may always be brought into play, allied to a sense 
of form and colour, of arrangement and execution. By the 
demonstration of these qualities the artist is to be differentiated 
from the skilful, mechanical die-sinker, who spreads over the 
art the blight of his heavy and insensitive hand and brain. 
So with portraiture. Accurate Ukeness of feature as well as 
character and expression are now to be found in all fine works, 
such as are seized only by an artist of keenly sensitive tempera- 
ment. It is thus that he casts the events and the actions of 
to-day into metallic history, beautifully seen and exquisitely 
recorded; thus that the figure on the medal is no longer a mere 
sculpturesque symbol, but a thing of flesh and blood, suave 
and graceful in composition, and as pleasing in its purely decora- 
tive design as imagination can inspire or example suggest. 
It is thus that the art, while offering easy means of permanent 
memorial, has afforded to men of restricted means the eagerly 
seized opportunity of forming small collections of masterpieces 
of art at a small outlay. 

France.-^ln France the fxamplt of Oudifif, comia^ after tKst 
of David d'ArvK'er*^ d'J rnuch to itrvolLj|iorLij<c the spirit 3.mmsiung. 
the modern mcNdalltst. but Chapu. by tiises^-'mblly modern treat- 
ment, did more. To Pbnscarroe (pupil o| Oudtn^J is chiefly dye 
the idea, of rendering mat the ground 4* *tll a» the «iiljiL^rt on ihe 
meU^l* the aupprestion of the raiic<!4J nm, aftd the abaodurtfnmt oi 

ihc typ£>grpptiic kttcrine tikherto in vftgue^ t<%7ther with the 
nwrlianical rcgulirity ol it a arrangement, Dt-ecdrge, with hii 
semi -pictorial trfsitment, wa* followed by Daniel Dupuls^ whoic 

delicate and playful fancy, almost entirely pictorial, makes ua forget 
jilpkc the material and the die. J. C ChapUin a unsurpaiflcd ab a. 
modellcc of noble hcadsj incltudin^ I ho** ol four presidents of the 
Fr^^nch RepubUc^Macmahon, Casimtr-IVrier, Faurt and Loubct^ 
and his allL^oricaL d^^ign^are finely irnegincd and admimbly worked 
out (we f*Iate); but L. Oscar Ro(y ^ptipil of Ponscarmc) is at the 
head of the whole modern acbool, not only by virtue of abwiqie 
tn»ftery of the technique of his srt, but also of his^ orii^inality of 
arrani;em<rn^ of the poetic charm ot hh fymbohsm and hJs allegDrits, 
the cSelicate fanry, the cKqijibiie Xovzh, the clia*tenes5 and jpnriiy 
of taste— wedding a modtm $entin]cnt id an obviuui. feeling for the 
Crwk, Though e*pre**ly le*a virile than Chaplain, Foty ii never 
«ITeniirtjit«. To Roty belonf« the credit of having first revived the 
form ftf the ptc^utilt. of rectangular medal, which had been aban- 
doned! ifid fongoti en along with many crther traditions of the Renais- 
sance (sec Pbie), Alpirde Dubois^ Lagranze,, and Borrel tnufrt 
be mentioned among ihox who are understood to engrave their own 
ditt. ^ Followers are to be found in Mouchon, LrchcvrcV, Vernon « 
Henri Dubois, Patcy, Bott^ {titc Fbie) — nil ^terlin^ artists if not 
innavatora^ Medallists of more srtiking qrigin^lit^ but h*^ ^ninh, 
and of fat leai elessnce are Miciiel Otin^ LcA^i^lam (who los-ct a<- 
much 4^ B4fidincTli ta male over tii splay of hh knowk-ftiiC of 
muscular anatomy), Charpentier. and their school, who aim at a 
manner which makes less demand of highly educated artistry such 
as that of Roty or of Chaplain. It is learned and accomplished in 

its «'ay. but lumpy in its result; breadth is gained, but refinement 
and distinction are in a great measure lost. It may be added — to 
give some idea of the industry of the modern medallist, and the 
encouragement accorded to him — that between 1879 and 1900 
M. Roty executed more than 150 pieces, each having an obverse 
and a reverse. 

i4tM(ria.^The two leading medallists of the Austrian school are 
Josef Tautenhayn (see Plate) and Anton Scharff. both highly 
accomplished, vet neither displaying the highest qualities of uste. 
ability and " keeping," which distmguishes the French masters. 
About 330 pieces have come from the hand of Anton Scharff. Stefan 
Schwartz, Franz Pawlik, Staniek, Marschall and J. Tautenhayn, 
junior, are the only other artists who have risen to eminence. 

Germany.— A characteristically florid style is here cultivated, 
such as lends itself to the elaborate treatment of costume, armorial 
bearings, and the like; but delicacy, distinction, and the highest 
excellence in modelling and draughtsmanship — qualities which should 
accompany even the most vigorous or elaborate desiens — are lack- 
ing in a great degree. Professors Hildebrand and Kowarzik have 
wrought some ol the most artistk: works there produced. 

Bajtium. — Although sculpture so g^rcatly flourishes in Belgium, 
medal work shows little promise of rivalling that of France. The 
influence of the three brothers Wiener (Jacques, Lipoid and Charles) 
— good medallists of the old school— has not vet been shaken off. 
The remarkable architectural series by the iirst-named. and the 
coinage of the aecOnd, have little affinity with the spirit of the modern 
medal. Lemaire has perhaps done as well as any, followed by Paul 
Dubois, J. Dillens (a follower of the French). G. Devreese and 
Vin^tte (see Plate} — whose fdaquetU for the Brussels Exhibition 
award (1887) is original, but more admirable in design than in finish. 

Holland. — In Holland not very much has been done. Patriotism 
has called forth many medals of Queen Wilhelmina. and the best of 
them are doubtless those of Bart van Hove and Wortman. Baars 
is a more virile artist, who follows Chaplain at a distance. Wicnecke 
is interesting for the sake of his early Netherlandic manner; the 
incongruity is not unpleasant. 

Svnixerland. — The medal is also popular in Switzerland. Here 
Bovy is the leader of the French tradition and Hans Frei of a more 
national sentiment. The last-named, however, is more remarkable 
as a revivalist than as an original artist. 

Great Britain. — In England only two medallists of repute can be 
counted who practically confine themselves to their art— G. W. de 
Saulles, of the Royal Mint, best known by the Diamond Jubilee 
medal of Queen Victoria and by his medal of Sir Gabriel Stokes, 
and Frank Bowchcr (sec Plate) By that of Thomas Huxley. These 
artists both cut their own dies when necessary. Emil Fuchs, 
working in England in the manner of the Frencn medallists, but 
with greater freedom than is the wont of the older school, has pro- 
duced several examples of the art: the medals commemorative 
of the South African War and of Queen Victoria (two vcrtaons). all 
of 1900; and many portrait medals and plaquettes of small size have 
come from the same hand. Besides these, the leading English 
sculptors have produced medals — Lord Lcighton, Sir Edward 
Poynter, Hamo Thomycroft. T. Brock, Onslow Ford, G. Frampton 
and Ck>scombe John; but. practising more continually in sculpture, 
thoy tii> TiL>i ci:jirn [uik ii? ini>.jLilnMt'^, ni>r hai'f imry sDUijiu Lo acquire 
that cla^s of dcHteriiy which conitant habit alone can give. Alphonie 
Legroi, who has ca^E a certain number of porLtait medal«, it usually 
included in the Frtnch school. 

Uniicd 5/a/cj.' Among American medallistf Augustus 5t Caudeiu 
(sec Plate) 19 perhaps the moist prominent ; buL he is not, feinctly 
speaking, a medallist, bnt a sculptcrr who tan modd in the flat. 

AuTJiORiTiE5."F, f^arkes Weber, Jied'dlj and Mi^diiUiom of t^ 
tgih Cenlury rdfiiintiP Bnihnd by for^gn Antsii [London^ tSqd); 
Rogwr Mam, " The Kcriai^smee of I he Medal in France," Tht Siimo 
(vol. Jtv. i^^-S): M. H. Spirlmannr " Frank Bowcher, Medaili^c^ witb 
wme Comment on. the Medallic Art." Th£ Magatinf of Art {February 
J 900); 3f>i»k (f ^aen'f hfonikiy NitmiiMoiu: Circtdar {piusimjy 
1^9 J onwards (in EhkIi'^, French and German) : Roger Marx, Lfi 
MMa'iikuft franiaii dtp^is ifSg (Pjjris, 1S97); Lei MMaiUtun 
fran^i^is (imffinp^rniHi (Plate*) (Paris, iBw); La Mom naif d£ 
Parti d VEjipoitiiim UnfWfs^iif (F^ria, tooo) l Cent ans dt nttmii- 
malique fran^iiiit (2 voR, Jflg^-iB^M: F. MaseTDlle, L. O. Roty: 
Biitgraphie el ii>u4oi;ui it ii?» ffl-irrr^ (Paris, 1S97): J. F. Chaplain: 
Biairaj^it ei ^tittMi&sii* de ttsu^t (Paris, 1897); Dr H. }. de 
Dompierie die Chauft-pi^, Lei MSdaiites ei piaquttitLi modrrnes (in 
Dutch and French) (Haarlem, 1B<>^): A. R. v. Loehr, Wumir MrdaU- 
ieut-e, iSqq. (Virnna, i&gqh A, Lichtwarkn ** Die Wiedererwetkun^ 
der Medailler /*aii. (895, pp 34-40: 1^9*. PP- Ji «-3'H: ^' Modern*. 
Mediiilit (a monthly magazine, pajiim) (Vienna); L Forrer, Bis- 
traphkai Didwn^ry af MtdiAiviix, vol. i. A-D. (London, \<^i). 
V ^ ' (M. H. S.) 

Medals as War Decosahons 

Although the striking of medals to commemorate important 
events is a practice of considerable antiquity, yet the custom 
of using the medal as a decoration, and especially as a decoration 
to do honour to those who have rendered service to the state 


in time of war, is comparatively modern. It has been supposed 
that tl^ circular ornaments on the Roman standards bad medals 
in their centres, but there is no evidence to show that this 
was the case, and the standards shown on the column of Trajan 
appear only to have had plain bosses in their centres. It is 
true that the Chinese are said to have used military medals 
during the Han dynasty (ist century a.d.), but, as far as the 
West is concerned, we have to come to the i6th century before 
we find the custom of wearing medals as decorations of honour 
a recogm'zed institution. 

The wearing of decorative medals was common in England in 
the reign of Heniy VIII., but the first medals commemorating 
a particular event that were evidently intended as a personal 
decoration, and were in all probability (though there is no 
absolute prooO bestowed as reward for military services rendered 
to the Crown, are the " Armada " medals of Queen Elizabeth, 
158S-1589. Of these there are two. The earliest, generally 
styled the ** Ark in flood " medal, is a large oval medal of 
silver (2 by 1*75 in.), and bears on the obverse a profile bust 
of the queen surrounded by the inscription, ELIZABETH 
D. G. ANGLIAE. F. ET HI. REG. On the reverse is an ark 
on waves, with above the rays of the sun, and around the 
dates from 1588, and in the following year there was given 
another medal, a little larger (2-3 by 2*1 in.) and struck in gold, 
silver and copper. The obverse of this second medal bore a 
fuD-face bust of Elizabeth, with the legend, characteristic 
both of the monarch and the period, DITIOR IN TOTO NON 
ALTER CIRCULUS ORBE. The reverse has an island around 
which ships are sailing and sea-monsters swimming, and on 
the island there are houses, a flourishing bay-tree, standing 
uninjured by a storm of wind, and lightning emerging from 
heavy clouds above. The island is inscribed NON IPSA 
PERICVLA TANGVNT. These medals are of special interest 
as demonstrating thus eariy the existence of a doctrine of 
sea-power. In fact, in the medals of James I. (1603-1625), 
none of which have a distinct reference to war services, the 
" ark in flood ** design was again reproduced on the reverse, 
this time with the legend slightly altered, viz. STET SALVVS 

Other European nationalities were also about this period 
conferring decorative medals as a reward for war services, 
as for example, the " Medal to Volunteers " issued in Holland 
ia 1622-1623 and the " Military Medal of Gustavus Adolphus " 
ksatd in Sweden in 1630. Here it may be noted that' in follow- 
i^ the history of medals as used as a decoration to reward 
military services, only those of British origin need be dealt 
with in detail, since Great Britain has utilized them in a much 
greater degree than any other nationality. The countless 
minor wars of the 19th century, waged by the forces of the 
Crown of every class, navy, army and auxiliary, have no equiva- 
lent in the history of other states, even in that of France, the 
United States and Russia. The great wars of the 19th century 
were divided by long intervals of peace, and the result is that 
with most of the great military powers the issue of campaign 
medals has been on a small scale, and in the main decorations 
have taken the form of " Orders " (see Knichthgoo and 
Cbivalby: Orders), or purely personal decorations for some 
meritorious or exemplary service. 

During the reign of Charles I. (1625-1649), wc come across 
somerous medals and badges; a considerable number of these 
were undoubtedly associated with, and given, even system- 
atically given, as rewards for war services; for a royal warrant 
'*gi\'en at our Court of Oxford, the eighteenth day of May, 
1643,** which directed ** Sir William Parkhurst, Knight, and 
Tbocnas Bushell, Esquire, Wardens of our Mint, to provide 
from time to time ceruin Badges of silver, containing our Royal 
iraage, and that of our dearest son. Prince Charles, to be delivered 
u» wear on the breast of every man who shall be certified under 
the hands of their Commanders-in-Chief to have done us faithful 
service in the Foriom-hope/* 
From the foregoing it must not be deduced that this medal 

was in any way intended to reward special valour. In those 
days " forlorn-hopes " were not volunteers for some desperate 
enterprise, as to-day, but a tactical advanced guard which 
naturally varied, both in numbers and arm of the service, 
according to ground and circumstances. That a very free 
distribution of the award was contemplated is evident from 
the fact that "soldiers" alone were specified as recipients 
and that a clause was inserted in the warrant suictly forbidding 
the sale of the medal. This letter ran: — 
" And we do, therefore, most straitly command, that no 
soldier at any time do sell, nor any of our subjects 
presume to buy, or wear, any of these said Badges, 
other than they to whom we shall give the same, and 
that under such pain and punishment as our Council 
of War shall think fit to inflict, if any shall presume 
to offend against this our Royal command." 
As there are in existence several medals of this period which 
bear the effigies of both the king and Prince Charles, it is 
uncertain which in particular was used for the " forlorn-hope " 
award. Very probably it is one, an oval silver-gilt medal 
( I -7 by 1-3 in.) which bears on the obverse a three-quarters 
(r.) bust of Charles I., and on the reverse a profile (1.) bust of 
Prince Charles (see Mayo, Medals and Decorations oj the British 
Army and Navy, vol. i. No. 16, Plate $, No. 3). During the 
Commonwealth (1649- 1660), parliament was lavish in the 
award of medals in recognition of war services, and for the 
first time we find statutory provision made for their bestowal 
as naval awards, in the shape of acts of parliament passed 
Feb. 22, 1648 and April 7, 1649 (cap. 12, 1648 and cap. 21, 
1649), and Orders in Council of May 8 and Nov. 19 and 
21, 1649, and Dec. 20, 1652. There is no doubt whatever 
that there was a " Medal of the Parliament " for sea service 
issued in X649. This medal, oval (95 by -85 in.) and struck 
in gold and silver, had on the obverse an anchor, from the 
stock of which are suspended two shields, one bearing the 
cross of St George, and the other the Irish harp. The motto 
is MERVISTI. On the anchor stock, T. S.» The reverse 
has on it the House of Commons with the Speaker in the chair.' 
This medal is referred to in a minute of the Council of State 
of Nov. 1$, 1649: — 
" (5) That the Formes of the medalls which are now brought 
in to be given to the several! Mariners who have 
done good service this last SuAer be approved off, 
viz*: the Armes of the Co Aon wealth on one side 
with Meruisti written above it, and the picture 
of the House of Coflions on the other." 
That there was a " Medal of the Parliament " for land service 
as well, is proved by the following extract from the Journals 
of the House of Commons (vii. 6, 7) : — 
" Resolved, That a Chain of Gold, with the Medal of the Parlia- 
ment, to the Value of One Hundred Pounds, be sent 
to Colonel Mackworth, Governor of Shrewsbury, as a 
mark of the Parliament's Favour, and good acceptance 
of his fidelity: And that the Council of State do take 
care for the providing the same, and sending it forth- 
This order was duly carried out, as is shown in the minutes 
of the Council of State, June 2 and July 30, 1652, but there 
Is no trace to-day of either medal or chain. It is not un- 
likely that this medal is one figured at page 117 of Evelyn's 
Numismata (the engraving, unnumbered, is placed between 
Nos. 39 and 40, and there is no allusion to it in the text), which 
has on the obverse a representation of the parliament, and on 
the reverse a bust of the Protector with a- camp and troops in 
the background. 

The most splendid of all the naval awards of this perioa 
were those given for the three victories over the Dutch in 1653, 
namely: — 

* Thomas Simon, master and chief graver of the mint. Most 
of the medals of this period were his work, and they are considered 
to be amongst the best specimens of the meidallic art that have tx;en 
produced in the country. 


I. The fight of Feb. 18/20, when Blake, Deane and Monk 
defeated Von Tromp and De Ruyter, the battle beginning 
off Portland and ending near Calais; (2) the fight of June 2 
and 3, off the Essex coast, when Monk, Deane (killed), Penn 
and Blake, again defeated Van Tromp and De Ruyter; (3) the 
fight of 31st of July off the Tezel, in which Monk, Penn and 
Lawson beat Van Tromp in what was the decisive action of 
the war. The authorization for these awards will be found 
recorded in the Journals of the House of Commons (vii. 296, 
297), under date Aug. 8, 1653. The medals, all oval, and in 
gold, were given in three sizes, as described below: — 

A (2*2 by 2 in.). Only four of these medals were issued, 
to Admirals Blake and Monk, each with a gold chain of the 
value of £300, and to Vice-Admiral Penn and Rear-Admiral 
Lawson, each with a gold chain of the value of £100. On the 
obverse is an anchor, from the stock of which are suspended 
three shields, bearing respectively St George's cross, the salt ire 
of St Andrew, and the Irish harp, the whole encircled by the 
cable of the anchor. On the reverse is depicted a naval battle 
with, in the foreground, a sinking ship. Both obverse and reverse 
have broad, and very handsome, borders of naval trophies, and 
on the obverse side this border has imposed upon it the arms 
of Holland and Zeeland. Of these four medals three are known 
to be in existence. One, lent by the warden and fellows of 
Wadham College, Oxford (Blake, it may be noted, was a member 
of Wadham College) was exhibited at the Royal Naval Exhibi- 
tion of 189X. A second is in the royal collection at Windsor 
Castle. The third, with its chain, is in the possession of the 
family of Stuart of Tempsford House, Bedfordshire. This 
latter medal is known to have been the one given to Vice- 
Admiral Penn, an ancestor of the Stuart family. The one 
at Windsor is presumably Blake's, as Tancred sUtes "the 
medal given to Blake was purchased for William IV. at the 
price of xso guineas (Tancred, Historical Records of Medals ^ 
p. 30). The medal at Wadham was formerly in Captain 
Hamilton's collection. He purchased it at a low figure, but 
secrecy was kept as to the owner, and the original chain that 
was with it went into the melting-pot: there is therefore nothing 
to show whether it was Monk's or Lawson's, as the chain would 
have done. It was sold at Sotheby's in May 1882 for £305. 

B (2 by 1-8 in.). Four of these medals were issued, each 
with a gold chain of the value of £40, to the " Flag Officers," 
i.e. to the flag captains who commanded the four flag-ships. 
The obverse and reverse of this medal'are, with the exception 
of the borders, precisely as in (A). The borders on both sides 
are a little narrower than those of (A), and of laurel instead 
of trophies. One of these medals— that given to Captain William 
Haddock, who was probably Monk's flag-captain in the " Van- 
guard," in the February fight, as he had been in that ship in 
the previous year, and who commanded the " Hannibal," 
(44) in the June battle — is now (1909) in the possession of 
Mr G. D. Holworthy, who is maternally descended from 
Captain Haddock. 

- C (i-6 by 1-4 in.). This medal is precisely the same as (B). 
but has no border of any kind, and also was issued without 
the gold chains. It was in all probability one that was issued 
in some numbers to the captains and other senior oflicers of 
the fleet. 

Some of these medals have in the plate of the reverse an 
1653. The medal so inscribed was given only to those who 
served in the " Triumph," and commemorates a special service. 
Blakc, incapacitated by wounds received in the fight of February, 
took no part in this action, but his historic flag-ship, the 
"Triumph," formed part of the fleet, and early in the battle 
was fired by the Dutch fire-ships. Many of the crew threw 
themselves overboard in a panic, but those who remained on 
board succeeded by the most indomitable and heroic efforts 
in subduing the flames, and so saving the vessel. 

But undoubtedly the most interesting of all the medals of 
the Commonwealth period, is that known as the "Dunbar 

Medal," authorized by parliament, Sept. 10, 1650, in a resolu- 
tion of which the following is an extract: — 
"Ordered, that it be referred to the Committee of the Army, 
to consider what Medals may be prepared, both lor 
Officers and Soldiers, that were in this Service in Scotland; 
and set the Proportions and Values of them, and their 
number; and present the Estimate of them to the 
House. (Journals of Ike House of Commons, vi. 464-465.) 
So came into being, what, in a degree, may be regarded as 
the prototype of the " war medal " as we know it to-day, for 
the " Dunbar Medal" is the very eariiest that we know was 
issued to all ranks alike, to the humblest soldiers as well as to 
the commander-in-chief. It differed however in one very 
material point from the war medal of to-day— in that it was 
issued in two sices, and in several different metals. There 
is no evidence to show what was the method that governed the 
issue of this medal; but the medal itself undoubtedly varied 
in size or metal, or both, according to the rank of the recipient. 
Of the two sizes in which the medal was issued the smaller, 
X by '85 in. was apparently intended for seniors in the 
respective grades, for it was struck in gold, silver and copper. 
The larger, i-3S by i-is in. was struck in silver, copper and 
lead (see Mayo. op. c><. i. 20-21).* On the obverse of both 
issues of the " Dunbar Medal " is a left profile bust of Oliver 
Cromwell, with, in the distance, a battle. The reverse of the 
larger medal has the parliament assembled in one House with 
the Speaker; and, on the left, a member standing addressing 
the chair. The reverse of the smaller medal is the same as 
that of the larger, except that the member addressing the House 
is omitted. Cromwell himself expressed a wish to the " Com- 
mittee of the Army, at London," in a letter dated the 4th of 
February 1650/51, that his likeness, to procure which accurately 
the committee had sent Mr Simon to ScotUind, should not appear 
on the medaL He writes: — 

■" If my poor opinion may not be TOJetred by ypu^ I have to offer 
to which I think the most noiblc «nd, to wkt^ The CommceriDracon 
of that ^reat Mercie att Dunbar, and the GrarMiCie to the Army^ 
which might be better cKpressed upon ihc N'ltdiikL, by engTaving;., 
as on the" one side the Piirliamc'nt which [ hear *"!» lnTcnd«l 
and will do singulariy wv]\. bo on tbt? other lide m Army, wiih thi* 
inscription over the head o\ it. Tht Lofd of Hotis which was 
our Word that day. Whcrcforr, if [ m^v bcc it ai a favour (tern 
you, I most earnestly bwccch you. if 1 may do it without oflcnct, 
that it may be soe. And if you think not mi 10 haw it as t ofTcr, 
you may alter it as you see cauit; only I doe ihink 1 may truly say, 
It will be very thankfuHy ackiio*Wgtd by me, it you willfipare 
the having my Effigies in it.'* 

In spite of this request Cromwell's " Effigies " is made the 
prominent feature of the obverse of the medal, to which the 
representation of the " Army " is entirely subordinated. His 
wish that the " word " for the day should be commemorated 
is, however, observed in the legend on the obverse, as is also, 
on the reverse, his suggestion that on one side of the medal 
there should be a representation of the parliament. 

During the reign of Charles II. the issue of medals was numer- 
ous, and though we have it on the authority of Evelyn that 
many of these were bestowed as "gratuities of respect," yet 
many were given as naval awards; and, for the first time, 
there appears official authorization for the conferring of partlcu- 
lar awards on those who had succeeded in the very hazardous 
service of destroying an enemy's vessel by the use of fire-ships. 
In what are probably the eariiest " Fighting Instructions " 
issued — those of Sir William Penn, in 1653, and again in an 
abridged form in 1655— no allusion to these awards is made, 
but that the custom of rewarding this special service prevailed, 
there is a piece of strong indirect evidence to show, in the shape 
of an amusing letter from a certain Captain Cranwill, of 
" yo Hare Pinke," to the Admiralty Committee, dated Feb. 4, 

* An excellent reproduction of this medal, both obverse and re- 
verse, is ^vcn in Plate 8, figs, s and 5. of the same work, and on 
Plate 9 will be found equally well reproduced facsimiles of the three 
medah for " Victories over the Dutch, 165^." fi|{s. I, 2 and 3 and of 
the " Medal of the Parliament, for Sea Service. 1649," fig. I. 


Plate I. 

Dixplessis Plaquettc. 

i. ■" kwB^ 



Boulanger Plaquctte. 

Maurice Albert 

--i " 

Ambroisine Merlin. 


Wedding Medal. 

From the Medal by 



Michel Cazin. 

^ Q m 

m • ! 

Medals and Plaquettes. 
Jules Chaplain. 

Plate II. 


Henri Dubois. 

Medal of Award for the Cope and 

Nicol School of Painting. 

F. Bowchcr. 


Gold Medal, Vienna, 

By Joseph Tautenhayn. 

Great Gold Medal, Brussels, 1898. 
Designed by P. Wolfers. Engraved by Vincottc. 

Paris Universal Exhibition, 1889. 
By Louis Bottde. 

International Exhibition, Chicago, 1893. 
By Augustus St Gaudens. 


" Ai for w Pfay yor Hbora were pktae to order mee for my vrvice 
b ye HarePinbe, 1 retarn nuMt humble thankes. and am ready to 
■erve yor Hoon and my Country for ye future 

For thoiigh ye Hare be mewied in ye sand 

yet Cranweu at your mercy stUl doth stand 

A 6re Ship w>w doth bee Crave. 

And the Fox fain would he Have, 

then has hee had both Fox and Hare. 

then Spanish Admirall stand you cleare. 

For Cranwell means ye Chaine of goold to ware; 

Sett penn to paper it is done, 

for Czanwdl ■till will be your man.* 

aO of which goes to show that it had not been unusual to bestow 
gold chains, with or without medals, on the captains of fire- 
sUpa. By the "fighting Instructions" issued 20th of April, 
1665, by James, duke of York, lord high admiral, it was pro- 
vided as follows^ In tbe case of the destruction of an enemy's 
vessel of forty guns or more, each person remaining on board 
the fire-ship till the service was performed was to receive £10, 
"on board ye Admiral! imediatdy after ye service done," 
and the captain a gold medal and " shuth other future encourage- 
ment by preferment and commande as shall be fitt both to 
Rwaid him and induce others to perform yt like Service." 
If it was a flag-ship that was fired " ye Recompense in money 
tkaii be doubled to each man performing itt, and ye medall 
to ye Coaunandcr shall be shuth as shall particularly express 
ye Eminensye of ye Service, and his with ye other officers 
pceferesBcnt shalbe suiuble to ye meritt of itt." This was 
MIowcd by an " Oder of the King in Council " dated Whitehall 
utk of January 1669-1670, in which the lord high admiral is 
aflAofised '* to distribute a Medall and Chaine to such Captaines 
of fire Sfaipps as in the last Dutch Warr have burnt any Man 
of Wair, as also to any of them that shall perform any such 
«rHce in the present Warr with Algiers. Which Medalls 
and Chaines are to be of the price of Thirty Pounds each or 

To OMnpkte tlie story of fire-^p awards, it may here be 
noted (though out of cluonological order) that in 1703 revised 
*' Fighting Instructions " were issued by Admiral Sir George 
Rooke, in which it was provided that the captain was to have 
ha choice between a gratuity of £100, or a gold medal and 
chain of that value. Lastly an order of the king in council^ 
dated, St James's, x6th of December, 1742, ordered that all 
Eeutenants of fire-ships (which originally carried no officers 
of this rank) should be entitled to a gratuity of £50 " in all 
«^»^ where the Captain is entituled to the Reward of £100." 
TlKNigh probably others were conferred, so thorough an investi- 
gator as the late John Horsley Mayo, for many years assistant 
mili tary secretary at the India office, who had special opportun- 
ities of access to official records, traced but three authenticated 
fire-ship awards. Those were: (i) to Captain John Guy, who 
bfew up his fire^^hip the "'Vesuvius" under the walls of St 
Mah> in 1693; (2) to Captain Smith Callis who, with his fire- 
ship the " Duke," in 1742, destroyed five Spanish galleys 
which had put into St Tropez, to the eastward of Marseilles; 
(3) to Captain James Wooldridge, who commanded the British 
fire-ships in Aiz Roads on the nth of April 1809, when four 
French safl of the line were burnt. This latter is believed 
to be the last award of the kind that was issued. Fire-ships 
awards are of special interest as affording a precedent, in future 
naval wars, lor the award of special decorations for torpedo 
•et vices. 

It is in this reign also that we first find a case of medals 
being granted by the Honourable East India Company. The 
earliest <rf these would appear to have been a gold medal of 
the value of £20, conferrKi on Sir George Oxinden, president 
at Surat, 1622-1669, in 1668, for considerable civil and military 
services. Surat was then and until 1687, when Bombay took 
its place, the seat of government of the Western Presidency 
and the most eminent of Sir George's services was the defence 
of the Company's treasures and possessions at that place against 
Sivajee and the Malirattas in 1664. It is not known what 
has beooDe of this medal, but there is indirect evidence to 

show that it was a circular medal, three inches in diameter. 
On the obverse the " Arms of the Governor and Company of 
Merchants of London trading to the East Indies, with crcast, 
supporters, and mottoes," and around the legend NON MINOR 
reverse was probably blank to admit of an inscription. This 
award was the forerunner of many given by the H.E.I. Co., 
several of which were " general distributions " of the very highat 
interest, which will be dealt with together later on. 

The awards made in the reigns of James II., William and 
Mary, William III., Anne, George I., George II., may be very 
briefly dealt with. Almost without an exception they were 
either naval or conferred by the Hon. East India Company, 
and with only perhaps one or two exceptions, they were " per- 
sonal " as distinct from " general " awards. Of the very few 
medals awarded by James II., one was an undoubted military 
award, though curiously enough the recipient was a bishop. 
This was Peter Mew, who had been made bishop of Bath and 
Wells in 1672, was translated to Winchester 1684, "and next 
year was commanded by the king, in compliance with the re- 
quest of the gentry of Somerset, to go against Monmouth, and 
did eminent service at the battle of Sedgmoor, where he managed 
the artillery; for which he was rewarded with a rich medal " 
(Hutchins's History of Dorset, 3rd ed., vol. iv. p. 149). 

The possible exceptions in the way of a " general " distribu- 
tion of a medal during the reigns under review are the cases 
of the medals struck after the battles of La Hogue, 1692, 
and Cullodcn, 1746. By an act of parliament passed in 1692 
(4 Gul. and Mar. c. 25), it was enacted that a tenth part of 
the prize money taken by the navy should be set apart " for 
Medalls and other Rewards for Officers, Mariners, and Seamen 
in their Majesties Service at Sea who shall be found to have 
done any signal or extraordinary service." (Later a Royal 
Declaration of Queen Anne, the ist of June 1702, provided that 
all medal and monetary awards " shall be also paid out of Her 
Majesties Shares of Prizes.") This is the first case in naval 
records authorizing the issue of medals to men as well as to 
officers, and the conferring of the " La Hogue " medal was 
the first case in which the enactment was carried into effect, 
at any rate as far as admirals and officers are concerned. Seamen 
and soldiers had a more substantial reward, for the queen sent 
£30,000 to be distributed amongst them, whilst gold and silver 
medals were struck for the admirals and officers. The medal, 
which was circular, 1*95 in. in diameter, had on the obverse 
the busts conjoined of William and Mary, r., with around GVL 
ET MAR D G M B F ET H REX ET REGINA. On the reverse 
was a representation of the fight, showing the French flag-ship, 
" Le Solcii Royal," in flames, with above the legend, NOX 
NVLLA SECVTA EST, and, in the exergue, PVGN NAV INT 
ANG ET FR 21 M.AY 1692. 

As regards the medal struck after CuIIoden, fought on the 
i6th of April 1746. and in which the adherents of the young 
Pretender were completely routed, there is nothing even to 
show that it was issued evenby the authority of the government, 
though it was undoubtedly worn, and (if a contemporary portrait 
is to be relied upon, that of an ancestor of Mr W. Chandos-Pole 
of Radbournc Hall in Derbyshire) around the neck attached 
to a crimson ribbon with a green edge. There is no doubt it 
was struck in gold, silver and copper, but how it was awarded 
there is no proof, probably only to officers. The obverse had 
an r., bust of the duke of Cumberland, with above CUMBER- 
LAND, below YEO f (Richard Yco fecit), and, on the reverse, 
an Apollo, laureate, leaning upon Ms bow and pointing to a 
dragon wounded by his arrow. The reverse legend was ACTUM 
EST ILICET PERIIT, and, in the exergue PROEL COLOD 
AP XVI MDCCXLVL The medal is a strikingly handsome 
one, with an ornamental border and ring for sus(>ension, oval, 
I-7S by 1-45 in., but very few specimens arc known to exist. 
Those in gold were probably only given to officers commanding 
regiments and a very fine specimen of these, originally conferred 
on Brigadier-General Fleming (at one time in command of the 
36th Foot) is now in the collection of Major-General Lord 


Oieylesmore. In his monograph, If aval and MilUary UedalSf 
Lord Cheylesmore mentions another " CuJloden " medal in 
his collection^ *'a slightly larger one in white metal, which 
leads one to suppose that it was given in infecior metal to the 
more jimior branches, probably ofiicers; but whether this was 
the case or no I am unable authoriutively to sUte." However, 
one thing is fairly certain, that the issue of the " Culloden " 
medal was in no sense " general," as we now understand the 
term, nor as were the issues for " Dunbar " or the issues of the 
Honourable East India Company, which will ne^ be dealt with. 
No medal awards were made to either the naval or military 
services for the Seven Years' War, and the American War of 
Independence. In fact George HI. had been more than thirty 
years on the throne when the first medal award by the Crown 
was given, in the shape of the navy gold medals, first issued 
in 1794. It will however be more convenient to deal later with 
these medals and the army gold medals and crosses given for 
services in the long and arduous struggle of 1793-181$, and to 
describe here in sequence those medals which were issued by the 
Honourable East India Company, the issue of which was, with 
certain limitations, " general," thus reverting to the precedent 
first established in the " Dunbar " award, namely an issue to 
all ranks. They are nine in number, and are described bdow 
in the chronological order of the military operations for which 
they were awarded. 

1. Tlic " DECCAN " medal, Authorirvd. firet in 1784^ and again 
1785. Obverse: Ruurc of Britannia seated on a military tui\i\iy, 
witb her right h4nij holdmg » wrp^iEh of Uurcl and extended towanjiii 
a forticii over whifh ths: Briii»h fb|; J1ir». Keverse: Persia n in- 
tcripdana^ln c^ntnt. " Presented by ttie Calcutta Covtmment 
In memory of good wrvittafid i(iir<^|tid valout, a,d. 1784, a.m. i i^g;" 
around. *^XaV^ thii coin trtay it endufc tn the wdHrld, ond the exer- 
tions of thcfic lioii'heart<d En^liihrnen of efcat namep victorioiia 
from Kindoaun to the [>M:can» become exalted." Thii medal wa» 
iuued in two siiw, dLiniticrs 1-6 and (-35 in. The larger mc-d^I 
*ai Etruek both in gdid :ind silver, the amalWt in silver only, and 
both were worn round the neck su»p^nded from a yellow cord. Thii 
medal was awarded to two Urge dctajchincnt^ of the Bengal army, 
denominated the " Boenbsy Deia^^hment ''{authoriied 1784), and 
the "Carnatic Detachment " (authoriied I^Bj), whkh rcjpeciivtly 
foueht in the west ol India and Guzer^t* ij;;^-^^, and in the south 
of India, i^So-^. The mediil wajt fiot giv^^n ro any EurDpcani^ 
onlv to liAtivTs: the larger medd in gold to Sobadars, and in silver 
to Jemadars: the smaller silver medil tQ non-commtsiiio^ed officcra 
and KpoyL By a minyte of council^ dated the isih of Jul^ 1784, a 
fun her boon *^s granted to the ** Bombay Detiitnment," inasmuch 
as it eicempied all fiindut of that detachment fron^ paytnerit of the 
dutb^ levied b5r the auihoritiea on pilgrimi to Cova in Behar As 
tbe large majority of the troopa were high caste Hinduji, and Coya 
wUi and Is the Mecca of Hinduism, this favour must have been 
much appreciated by the recipients of the medal. This is theeaftieit 
AniElo-mdian eit^^mple of a medal issued atike to all ranloL 

2. The "MYSORE" medal. Authnrlfcd, 1793 Obverw: A 
lepoy hoWb^ in hi- d-h'; h.-unri Th.-. rrriTi-!i ,:.-lni}ri, jp, l^,j , i^.fj ^^ 

enemy's Bi.r- ':'!-■■ ■ ■_ , ■ - : 1 , :. 1 ■ _■_ -j _ i!.^i_..ujjied 

cannon. A fortified town is in the background. ReverK: Within 
a wreath; "For Ser>aces in Mysore, a.d. 1791-1792." Between 
wreath and rim is an inscription in Persian : " A memorial of devoted 
services to the Englbh government at the war of Mysore. Christian 
Era, 1 791-1793, eauivalent to the Mahomedan Era, 1205-1206." 
Like the " Deccan^' this medal was in two sizes, diameters 17 in. 
and I '5 in., the larger being struck both in gold and stiver, the smaller 
in silver only, and both were worn suspended from the neck by a 
yellow cord. The medal was awarded for the operations against 
Tippoo Sultan, and was bestowed on the " Native Officers and ^poys 
of tne Infantry and Cavalry, and on the Artillery Lascars, who either 
marched by land, or proceeded by sea to the Camatic and returned 
to Bengal.*' The large gold mmlals were given to Subadais, the 
laree silver to " Jemadars and Serangs," the small stiver medals to 
" Havildars, Naicks, Tindals, Sepoys and Lascars." The award 
therefore, followed precisely the precedent set in the " Deccan " 
medal. One of the very rare gdd specimens of this medal is in the 
collection of Captain Whitaker, late Sth Fusiliers, whose colksction, 
and that of Lord Cheylesmore, are probably the two finest that 
hav-e as yet been brought together. 

3. The " CEYLON^' medal. Authorized. l8o7. Obverse: An 
English inscription: " For Services on the Island .of Ceylon, 
A.D. 179^-6." Reverse: A Persian inscription: "This Medal was 
presented to commemorate good services in Ceylon during the years 
of the Hegira 1209-10." This medal was issued in only one size, 
2 in. diameter, and was awarded to a small force of Bengal native 
artillery which formed a fraction of a large body of British and native 
troops (the rest did not receive the naedal) which captured Ceylon 

from the Dutch in 1795-96. It is the only instance of a war medal 
that has merely a verbal design on both obverse and reverse, and 
moreover it sets a prece<jent that was destined to be followed only 
too often in that it was only granted twelve years after the services 
that had earned it had been rendered. Only 123 medals were struck, 
two in gold for native officers, and 121 in silver for other ranks. 
Like the two preceding, it was worn from the neck suspended from 
a yellow cord. 

, A.The"SERlNGAPATAM"medal. Authorized, 1799, for services 
in Lord Harris's campaign of that year, and the storm of Scringa- 
pat^m. ObvLfst:. A r j . . ;.' ,[i,jei uJ Uu' storming of thir breach 
at Smngapatam, ^%l:L i;., ni, rirJi;in sMn denoting the time of the 
itorm. In the ^\i\,^.:. i, .3 Per»ian instriptian: "The Fort 
of Seringapaiani, ih^- g\.\i oi God, the 4th May 17*1^" Rc^-^oeT 
A British lion overcoming a tiger the cmbtem of Tippoo SliiUan. 
Above is a standard^ with, in ilic innermost part of thft hoist irtt» 
mediatL-ly ^uniij^uQus to the stiff, the Union badge, andt in ihr Hy. 
an Arabic legend nicntfyirtg " Tht Liun of Cod Li the Conqueror,'' 
Jnthecxergut: IV. MAY, MDCCXCIX. ft he date of the assault). It 
was in oni; Bi^tt t-9 io* but of tve different kinds. Ahhouch 
thft medat was agihariicd in 1799. it wa* iSoi before order? for the 
prtparation of jo gpld mcdati, ittiS iilvtT-eilt, 850 silver, 5000 cop{«r 
brdin.£?d, and ji5,ooo pure tin, were cii^n, the artijt »in^ C^ H+ 
Kuchlern and the medals made by Matthew Bo u lion at the Soho 
Mint, BirmLn^hain> It wai iik)8 before they tame out to Indi^k for 
dlKuiliution^ and it was not tilt 1&15 that the Company'i Eumpean 
officefft had th<^ prince regent's sanction to wearing them on public 
occasions. For the first tinw the issue waa abtodutely " general," 
to EurocKans as well as natives, tp Crown troops ai well at to thoie 
of the H.E I. Co.H but it wa* not till ili^j, when the Fltst India G.5«. 
Medal was awarded, that oflicUd sanction was given (0 their being 
worn by Europeans in unifofin. The medal was given in gold to 
gifncr^l oflicera, in silver-gilt to fie!*! officers, in silver to captains and 
Au baiter ns^ in co[>peT bronzed to fton-com missioned officers, and 
in pure grain tin to private-* and tc'poys- With regard to this medal 
there is an incident I hat is worth rrcordjrg. The bulk of the irooni 
engaged at Serinjiapiitani were Ctown forcea, or belonged to the 
Madrai and Bombay presidencies; the only [krngal troops taking 
pan being five battalions oi infantry, and ^inillery detichmcnti. 
On their return to Bengal no ite^A were lakcci with reganj to medala 
till ]to7t when medals copied from the Soho Mint one, but i-S in. 
only in diameter, were made at the Calcutta Mint. Following the 
Bengal pnHiedentfl as Kt in the '* Doccan," " Mysore "and " Ceylon " 
medals, the medalj wer^ itruclc in gold for omcer^ and In ^Ivtrt (of 
the othtr r^nks. A £iengal native ofliccf therefore wore just the 
stance medal ai a general officer of any of the other forrii, 
and iimilariy a Beni;al xpoy wore the name medal m a British 
captAin or subaltern of the Crewn. The Bengat medal can e^tily 
be dlbtini^iiiTsht'd from the othcr*^, for in ttie reverse the artist a 
initials C.H.K. are rendered "CM.H." Some officers^ amongst 
them Lord Harris himself and his second-in-command Sir David 
Baird. wore the medal with the red, blue-bordcned ribbon, which is 
the same as that worn with the Army Gold Medal (see below) and 
was in fact the only authorized military ribbon then in use; but 
though no ribbon was issued with the medal, recipients were given 
to understand that the ribbon would be of a deep maize colour and 
watered, the shading on the ribbon symbolizing the stripes in the 
fur of the tiger, Tippoo Sultan's favourite emblem. The duke of 
Wellington's medal (silver gilt), has the maize (or yellow as it is 
often termed) ribbon, and the medal was undoubtedly more generally 
worn with this ribbon than with the red and blue one. There are 
also apparently occasional instances of it having been worn with a 
plain red ribbon. 

5. The "EGYPT" medal. Authorized, 1802. Obverse: A 
S^oy holding the Union Flag in his right hand ; in the background 
a camp. In exergue, in Persian: " This medal has been presented 
in commemoration of the defeat of the French Army in E^pt by 
the victorious and brave English Army." Reverse: A British ship 
sailiiu; towards the coast of Egypt. In the background, an obelisk 
and four pyramids. In the exergue, MDCCCl. This medal was 
only awarded to native officers and men of the small force of Bengal 
and Bombay troops which formed part of the expeditionary force 
from India, that co-operated in Sir Ralph Abcrcromby's descent on 
Egypt in 1801 (see BAiao, Sia David). This was another case of 
a belated issue (181 1 for the Bengal troops and two years later for 
the Bombay troops). The medal was issued in only one size, i -9 in. 
in diameter. For the Bengal troops 776 medals were struck, 16 in 
gold for commissioned officers, 760 in silver for other ranks. The 
Bombay government obtained the approval of the court of directors 

for the issue of the medal to their troops in 1803, but apparently 
did nothii^ till 1812, when they asked the Calcutta Mint tor a copy 
of the meduU to enable them to prepare similar ones. The Bombay 

Mint would not however appear to have been equal to the occasion, 
for the sample was returned to Calcutta with the request that 1439 
medals might be struck there. This was accordingly done, but all 
of these medals were made of silver, and so the medal went to the 
Bombay troops in all ranks alike. As in the case of the " Deccan " 
medal, Hindu sepoys, who had volunteered for Egypt, were exempted 
from the duties levied on pilgrinu. This medal was worn suspended 
from the neck by a yellow cord. 


tO«^]. Aulhonird, tSii. Obverse: A tf^ty, KoHing in hi* rijfht 
h^iuj the Briti^ Cbg- ii> hli left a musket with kjayuntrt 6x^. etands 
Mj(h Ki^ left FddC trampling: a Frcfifti inagle and stJiutArd; besuie the 
^urv i caiADCpn, ajid, in ihv bickj^round the sea slitd sliipi^ Reverse: 
wiOiia A wTOiCh, in (*c™a,ai " This medal *a5 confrrrrd in cum- 
awiiHf3ti<>ii of the bravFry aiwl dtTotion Mhibiird by (he Sepoys 
ctf the Englbh Company in tht capture of tbe l^iandn of Rodrigurs, 
Bourban, and Mauritiu*, in th« year of the Hegira 1336," U the 
m^unttnoa, in Ecaliih: RODRIGUES VJ, JULY MDCCCIX. 
ilDCCCX^ Thi« tsntd^l was awarded to the native troop* of the 
Bo^l f^nulenfy that fomietj part of tbt; c^rflbin^rd n»val and mili- 
W fome* tbai effect >i?d ihc redutrtion of tboe islands in tBcM)-io, 
nt pnfEnunent of Ek'iiciil also au^eAed " for the c^n«ideraiiDn 
itf {lie KyvcmmenEi of Fort St Geofgt> and Bombay 4 that cotnc- 
" \ Medalt shall be cutif erred on the native troops from those 
H ftyn t*.-*' but th49c gi>vemment^ do not appear to have 
with the ■u;cgt:&tiiMn^ a distinct injustice to the Mad rat 

, ^.JkAy troops emptoyrd> Tbe tiiedals, struck at ths Cakutu 

IfiBt Jor the Bcnpl troo^, wrfc 1-9 in. in dija meter, and in ^o\d 
«Dd hIvft. 45 gtjld for native officer^, 315* !illver for all other ranks. 
Ih^ Tfl-rr WW71 aa wai customary in «o many cases with yellow bib 
Bisrd suspended from the fleck. 

f. Vx '• JAVA ■* mrdal. Authorised. iBia. Obverse: A 
tqmnutioii of the viorming oi Fort CorncLia. On a lU^-itaff 
Ibe Sfidflii ftag: La i^own flying above a Dutch one, and over ^11 ■« 
tte VQcd OiTDc^is. RcVffijc : In Persian : " This medal was cctflferrvd 
fai GsmnKBiafaiion ol the brav^^eiy and rour^^e exhibited by the 

1 of tbe Eiifiiih Compan y in t"Ke capture of J ava^ 1 i J H , Hegira /' 

ITafcinnfH^Mx, in Et,f,\hh; -JA\/a CONQUERED 30tVI. 
AtPGUST MEMTCCXl.'* ThU medal wa* awarded to the native 
tiHpt of the Honourable Eirt India Company (all BengaT), 
«t»CB took pan in thu e^pcdtuon under Lieut. Gejieral Sir Samuel 
AtKhmutv whurh cflectcd the captuti? ol Java from the Dutch in 
iJlii, TW nw3il. r-9 in, in diamcrter, was SPtruck in ftold and 
miv^, 13J iin **«: former metal fof rtatiw o^cef$, and 6^t9 in iilver 
lor QCbcr nnki,i and wai vom in the usual manner »tth a yetlow 

8. Tbe " NEPAL ** medal. Authorised. 1816. Obverse: Hills 
cro w ned with stockades. In right foreground the cokwrs and 
bayraets of an attacking force, to the left a cannon. Reverse: In 
l^rnan: "This Medal was conferred by the Nawab Governor- 
General B^iadur in testimony of the energy, good service, skill and 
intrepidity, which were ^i^^ytd in the nilb in the yars of the 
Hesira 1239 and 1230." This was awarded to the native troops 
0^ the East Indb Compaiw who took part in the arduous operations 
m Nepal in 1814-16. This medal, 2 in. in diameter, marks a 

very tnterestin|[ new departure, for it was struck only^ in stiver, 

ecisely alike, whether the recipient was 

was worn from the usual yellow silk 

and given to aSl ranks precisely alike, whether the recipient was 
... -jj ^ . . 

or not. 

9. The "BURMAH" medal. Amhoriir^l, i§26. Obve«e^ 
Representation of the ttormlng oi the g^rtat pofjoda at Rangoon; an 
the left, a palm tr*e unde/ whkh the eenrrj^V ijnd staff, and Lh* river 
with steamer and boats of 1 he Irnw^ddy AotlUa joining in the attack- 
Is exercue, in PerHan: *' The Standard ol the viciorious Army of 
Fff gfa "*^ upon Ava.*" Reverie: The While Etrphant of Burm^ 
croochii^ in «ubmisiioci before the Briiifh Lion; behind ihe lion, 
the Bfiti^ fia^K Hy^n^ brciadi, behind the elephant, the Burma flag 
droopittg and between the two fbgs palm trt<c». Jn the cu^rgue, 
is PnWn: " Tfie eirphant of Ava SiLunmitt to the lion of England, 
year 1826." Thiit. on? o^ the most beautiful of ail war rnedalii. wna 
deagned by W Dan 1*11, R,A,. and t»i»cuted by W- Wyon* and was 
awarded to all the Company's native troops, that participated in 
the First Burmese War, 1824-26. The medal. 1-5 in. diameter, was 
t»jed in gold to native officers, in silver to other ranks. In all there 
«ef« struck; for Bengal troops, 368 gold, 13.108 silver; and for those 
cf Madras, ^50 gold and 20,025 silver. Oi the Madras medals how- 
ever nearly naif were still unclaimeii in i8ao. It is with this medal 
that we nrst find, as regards Indian medals, definite instructions 
as to the use of a ribbon, and the manner in which medals should 
be mom. In 1831 . it was officially ordered that the colour should be 
red with blue etues — it was in fact precisely similar to the Waterloo 
ribbon (for which see Plate I.) — and the instructions were that the 
medal " be worn perfectiv square upon the centre of the left breast, 
the upper edge 01 the ribbon being even with the first button for 
naks wearing Sword Belts only, and even with the second button 
for ranks wearing Cross Belts. Like the Waterloo medal also, it 
V3« mounted on a sCeel clip and ring, and the medals were struck 
02 iIm; Royal Mint instead of. as heretofore, in India.' 

* Most ol the authorities on medals, including Mr Thomas Carter 
and Captain Tancred. style as the reverse of the medal what above 
is ttyled the obverse ana vice versa. We. however, prefer to agree 
vriih the descriptkm of the medal as given by Mayo and for this 
rouoo. The side of the medal which is described above as the 
olnerw depicts a chief incident of the war; the allc^gorical repre- 
sratatinn on the other side is after all but the pictorial equivalent 
u a verbal inscription, and so is properly the reverse of the medal. 

This doses the list of the Indian medals, which, with the excep- 
tion of that for Seringapatam, were issued only to the native 
troops of the Honourable East India Company. All are now 
veiy jare and very highly valued by collectors. 

As has already been stated, the first war medals awarded 
by the Crown in the reign of George III., were tbe navy gold 
medals, instituted on the occasion of Lord Howe's great victory 
over the French fleet on the ist of June 1794. On the 26th of 
that month the king and queen visited Portsmouth, and, on 
the deck of the "Queen Charlotte," Lord Howe's flag-ship, 
presented the victorious admiral with a diamond-hilted sword 
of the value of three thousand guineas. Gold chains, from 
which the medaU were afterwards to be suspended, were also 
conferred on Admiral Lord Howe; Vice- Admirals Graves and 
Sir Alexander Hood; Rear- Admirals Gardner, Bowyer and 
Pasley; and Captain of the Fleet Sir Roger Curtis. At the 
same time the king announced his Intention of conferring gold 
medaU on each of the officers named, and similar, but smaller 
medals on the a4>tains. The medals were delivered in 1796, 
the Admiralty oidering " The Admirals to wear the Medal 
su^>ended by a ribband round their necks. The Captains 
to wear the Medal suspended to a ribband, but fastened through 
the third or fourth button-hole on the left side. The colour of 
the ribband, blue and white." 

The ribbon, which is white with broad blue borders (see 
Plate I.), did not of course supersede the gold chain in the case 
of those officers on whom chains had been conferred. They 
wore their chain with the ribbon, and the medal of Admiral 
Bowyer (now in tbe collection of Lord Cheylesmote) is so sus- 
pended. The same splendid and intensely interesting medal 
was later conferred for various fleet and ship actions deemed 
worthy of special acknowledgment; and so came into being 
the first " regulation " medal for naval officers. 

The two medals are, with but one slight distinction, identical 
in design, tbe larger being 2, and the smaller x-3, in. in diameter. 
The design is: — 

Obverse: The fore part of an antique galley, on the prow of which 
rests a figure of Victory who is placing a wreath on the head of 
Britannia who stands on the deck of the galley, her right foot resting 
upon a helmet, her left hand holding a spear. Behind Britannia is a 
" union " shield, charged with the CTross of St George and the Saltire 
of St Andrew. (Ireland had not then been added to the Union). 
Reverse: Within a wreath of oak and laurel, the name of the re- 
cipient, the event for which the medal was conferred, and the date. 
(In the smaller medal the wreath is omitted.) 

In all, eighteen actions were recognized by this medal, the 
complete list of which is as follows: — 

The " Glorious First of June " (7 large and 18 small medals); St 
Vincent (Feb. 14, 1787) (6 Urge and 15 small medals) ; Camperdown 
Oct. II, §797) (2 large, is small medals); The Nile (Au^. 1, 
1798) (1 large and 14 small medals); Re-capture of the frigate 
" Hermione from the Spaniards by the boats ol H.M.S. " Surprise " 
at Porto Cavallo (Oct. 25, 1709) (i small medal); Trafal- 

f'ar (Oct- 21, iSo^i) (^ Lat^ and 37 small medals); Action off 
'errol (Nov, 4. 1805) {4]l rriedaliA)^ AcLion off St Domingo 
(Feb. 5, 1B0&) (3 large and 7 Bmall medals); Capture of Cura^oa 
(Jan. I, 1807) (4 Email medahh Capture of the Turkish frigate 
*^Baderc Zaif e- " bv H-M,!x "fic^horac" (lulv 6, 1808) (i small 
mtdali; Capture of the French frigate Thetis" by H.M.S. 
" Amt'th)^it " (Nov, I Oh itioH) (i smaU mcdid); Capture of the 
French frigate ** Furicnse "by H.M. ship-sloop " Bonne Ciloyenne " 
J[]|y 6, iBog (r small medal] ; Capture of the Island of Banda Neira 
(Augn 9, T^ioJ (i small medal); Captain W, Hoste's action oflF 
Lissa (Mnrth iv tSu) {^ small trcdalt); Capture of the French 
74(?T]n fchlp "liivali" by H-MS ^^ Victorioui " (Feb. 22, 1812) 
(i *mai; medal); The '" CheiGSpeake " and "Shannon" (June i. 
iSii) (1 small medal): Captune of (he Frenrh frigate '* Etoilc " by 
H M S, " Hcbrus" (March 27, 1814) (i «naU medal); Capture of the 
American ffieate " President '* by H.M.S, " Endyraion * (Jan. 15, 
1815) (1 tmall medall- 

|ti nil 2; Urge medal?, and 11? 6Tn.ll I. v^rf awarded; but this does 
not say that all who were entitled to the medal received it. This 
is most notably the case with regard to the " Glorious First of June." 
When the issue was made, in 1796, the medals were given only to 
those flag officers who had received gold chains, and to such captains 
as were specially mentioned in Lord Howe's despatch of the 21st 
of June, de-ipite the fact that the admiral specially put it on record 
that the selection therein made. " should not be construed to the 
disadvanuge of the other commanders, who may have been equally 




deserving of the approbation of the Lords Commissioners of the 
Admiralty, although I am not enabled to make a pauttcular sute- 
roent of their merits." For this reason the medal was never awarded 
to Rear-Admiral B. Caldwell, fifth in command on the great 

ili:S I'.i-' ' .1. :..i: , I .1] ' ..i^r, |; '•.':■■' ■;i. ■ nil ■ ■\-, n i- l-v r .-.lEitiiinj 
of tine ul tMiLtlc siHip^ cn^a^cJ. One capuin tioi^xvtr, whu va not 
mentioned in dppiircrhe^, ^iicc^cdcd in gainEtig the ntnlal, by a 
t6t(f di fffr^t cminrciily characteristic of the _Buperb_ breed or naval 
officers thit Ehe great wars had brought into being. Thia was 
ColtinKwixid, whohadbt^n flaj^'Capt^n to Bowycrin the" Barfleiir.'" 
When Colling Wood wai awiindHl the medal for St Vmcent, where he 
c<nninanded the ** Excellent /' he Aatly refused iQ receive it unless 
that lor the First pi June waa ako conferred upan hijn+ which wai 
done. Foir St Vincent^ the Nile and Trafalgar, s.\\ flagplhcers and 
captains enE^Bi^ nxeiviMl the ntedal. At the Nile* Troubridg*'* 
ship, the '* Cuilodcd/* gnoufidetl id entfring the bay, and «► atrlctly 
■pej3ltin£, he was n^vw vnci^srd. in the action; but the king specially 
iflctuded him in the award, for his servitj^ both before and »ncc^ 
and lot the grmit and wondefful vxertion^ he made at the time of 
the action, in saving and ^'tting off hi* ship " 

For Camijcrdciwnt omJ capi^ln^ aftcrWianid found euitty by couri- 
martial of failure in duty, did not rrt:cLvc the medal. Several 
poathumoLLS awards of the smaller medals were made to the relatives 
of officer! who were either killed in action or died of wounds. The« 
were: on the first of junen, Captains Hutt C' Queen ")* Montagu 
C' Montaru "), Harvey (" Brunswick "); at Caniperdown, Captviin 
Sunless ('Ardent *'); at the Sile, Ciptain WestcoLt iT' Majestic ") \ 
Bt Trafalgar^ Captnixis Duff ('^ Mars *'} and CooJte (*' BcUerophon "). 
Captain Westcott was doubly unfortunate, for he wai one of the 
Fimt ol jure captains who should have received the medal hut did 
not. Captain Mi tier of the " The*eui '^ also did not receive hi^ m^^dul 
(or the Nile, for, though not killed in the action, he ptrriahcd at Acre 
in an afciiiiL-nLai (wwiJlt tif^toijijn ih^i M:iv \<^Wn^vn^\l, the medal 

arrr .: ■ i- - i ^ .. i. .. i i.. . .. ■ .i . -.a. .,- .u^^ jn 

oiih ■ ■ • _ .^rank, 

these being Sir R, Curtis, captain of the fleet to Lord Howe on the 
First of June, and Nelson, who only flew a commodore's broad 
pendant at St Vincent. Following this latter precedent Sir R. 
Strachan should have had the large medal for the action of the 4th 
of November 1805, for he also was a commodore, but it «'as denied 
him for what seems quite an inadcauate reason, namely that he was 
junior in rank to Captain Hcrvey 01 the " Temeraire," who was the 
senior of the Trafalgar captains. Hervey was promoted to rear- 
admiral for Trafalear on the 9th of November, and Strachan to the 
same rank on the following day. 

The small medal ti3o was conferred in only three ca&et on ol}irer$ 
below tht rank of post ca pt,^in. These were Con^n^^ndf^r Mouni>ey 
of the " Bonne Cittwenne," for the capture of the " Fur<eu*e "and 
Lteuts. PiUold and Stockhiim, who at Trafalgar eommiinded respec- 
tively the " AjjiJi " and the "Thunderer,*' the captains of those 
two ships being at the tinie of the action in England giving evidence 
at the court -martial ot Sir Rotiert Calder. In aU, of the dghteen 
awards yf the Na*^ Goki M^^l^l, eight were lot fleet actions (on* of 
which wd» between K^uadrun^ of rr»K.^:e«), seven for single ship 
actions, one between line of ba(t]i>«hipi^ sis in which frigates were 
engaged, iwi? for shore opera tian;^ (in both cases the taking of i»knd$ 
from the Dutchk and lastly the ri>-capiure of I he " Hermione " by 
the "Surprise." This last mentioned award is one partkrularly 
memoraLite^ not onl^ becauw it wai the first time that the medal 
was awarded to a fngate captain, but also because it is the only case 
in which the mwljl *j^a\vaftlfd far bi.>ji *itr\'ltt rmrf and ^^imple. 

Nelson '.V i^f- ■:- ' ■ ' :' ■ .. I . ' . ,. \ 

a medal fur A\ ■ 

were not made by the Crown but by the generosity of two private 
individuals, though of course with the kinc's approval and permis- 
sion. The first of these is ** Davison's Nile Medal," which Mr 
Alexander Davison, Nelson's prize agent and a valued friend, caused 
to be struck at a cost of near £3000, and one of which was presented 
to every ofhcer and man engaged at the Nile. The medal, 1-85 in. 
in diameter, was given in _Kold to Nelson and his captains, in 
silver to lieutenants and ofnccrs of corresponding rank, in copper 
gilt to warrant and petty officers, and in copper bronze to seamen 
and marines: — 

Obverse: Hope, iftanding on a rock in the sea, holdini; in her 
right hand nn oliv^ branch, and fupporting with ber left fiidc a shield 
on which x% the bu^t of Nelv^n surrounded by the legend: 
figure and shield is an nnchof, whiUt around all 1* Inscribed: 
The French fleet at anchor in Aboukir Bay, the British fleet ad- 
vancing to the attack: a ^.fitting sun denote* the time ol the action. 
ARMS "; and, in t^rf-Me: '' VICTORY OF THE NILE AUCU'ST 
I 1798." In [til riVLTw ih- ( rLi;r.],vir when jinking The die forEot 
to transpose the position of the objects, and so the sun is made to set 
in the east instead of in the west, and the land which is shown oqthe 
right should properly be on the left. 

Davison's Nile medal was struck at the Soho Mint, Birminghem. 
by Boulton. and it was this that probably inspired the latter to 
preaent a mpdaj to ail who took part in the battle of Trafalgar. 

** Boulton'c Trafalgar Medal " was 1 '9 in. in diameter, and given 
in gold to the three admirals, in silver to captains and nrst-Ueuteo- 
a ni&, and i n pewter to other ranks. In a very considerable number of 
cases the pewter medals were either returned, or thrown overboard, 
the recipients being di^^sted at what thev deemed the paltrincaa 
of the reward. Obverse: A bust of Ix)rd Nelson in uniform with 
BRONTE* Ac. Reverse: A represenution of the battle, with 
DO HIS DUTY. In exergue: TRAFALGAR OCTr. ai 1805. 

Both the Davison and the Boulton medals were worn sus- 
pended fram a blue ribbon. These are the only two cases in 
which officers and men of the navy and army have accepted 
apd tk'Qrn medals presented by a private individual. 

The Cold Medal given by George III. to the superior officers in 
command at the battle of Maida, in Sicily, on the 4th of July x8o6, 
is an award of special interest, for not only was it the first 
mjtiury award made by the Crown during the reign, but it was 
moreover the prototype of the superb army gold medals and 
crossca which were so widely distributed during the years that fol- 
lowed. A general order of the duke of York, commander-in-chief, 
dated Horse Guards, 22nd of February 1808, awarded a gold 
intd&l for Maida to Sir John Stuart, K.B., his three brigadiers, 
and nine other officers. Subsequently four other officers 
received it, so in all seventeen officers received the award. 
iL wai prescribed that the medal " should be worn suspended 
by a Ribband of the colour of the Sash, with a blue edge, from 
a button of the coat on the left side." It was in fact to be worn 
ia the same way as the small Navy Gold Medal, and as this 
grant eatablish^ blue and white as the specific navy ribbon, 
so did the Maida award establish red with a blue border as the 
regulation military ribbon. The Maida ribbon is in fact precisely 
the same as the Waterloo ribbon shown in Plate I. The Maidk 
medal was 1*5 in. in diameter and struck in gold only. It 
was issued precisely alike, quite irrespective of rank, to each of 
its seventeen recipients. 

Obverse: Head of George III., laureated and facing left, with 
bcbw the l^end: GEORGIUS TERTIUS REX. Reverse: 
Briit;innb castmg a spear with her right hand, and on her left arm 
the Lm^ti shield, above, and approaching her is a Flying Victorv 
hoidtnj^ ttut a wreath. In front of Britannia in four lines, m MAI/ 
DA/I VL IV/MDCCCVI/; behind her the triquetra or trinacria. the 
symbol oi the Island of Sicily. In the exergue are crossed spears. 

Two and a half years after the Maida award the king author- 
lied the " Army Gold Medal," the first grant of which was 
notified by the commander-in-chief, in a Horse Guards general 
order dnied the 9th of September 18 10. This authorized the 
bestQw:iJ of the medal on 107 senior officers mentioned by name. 
The battles commemorated were Roleia, Vimicra (1808), the 
cavalry actions of Sahagun and Benevente (1808), Corunna 
and Talavera (1809). TTie Army Gold Medal so awarded was 
in two silts, large, 2'X in. in diameter, for general officers, 
imall, ti in. in diameter, for officers of lower rank: and the 
reguJnLions provided that it should be worn from a red ribbon 
edged with blue, the larger round the neck, the smaller on the 
left breast from a button-hole of the uniform. The ribbon 
w^ the same width, 1} for both ribbons, and precisely the 
saine kter on for the Gold Cross. Both large and small medals 
were ot identical design, in fact there was no difference, either 
in medals or in ribbons, except in size and the style in which 
they were worn : — 

Obverse : Britannia seated' on a globe, holding in her right hand 
a bufvl ti^reath. and in her left, which rests upon a Union shield 
reitine ag-iinst the globe, a palm leaf; at her feet to her right, a lion. 
Reverse: A wreath of laurel, encircling the name of the battle or 
operations for which the medal was granted. 

In the following years subsequent orders similar to the 
oi^nal grant extended the award of the Army Gold Medal, 
until evetitually twenty-four distinct awards were made, com- 
rocmorating twenty-six actions, or series of operations, which 
took place not only in the Peninsula, but also in North America, 
atid both the East and the West Indies. 

The Peninsula medals were for Roleia and Vimiera, Sahagun 
and 6«a£vente, Corunna, Talavera, Busaco, Barrosa, Fuentes 
d'Oncr, Albuera, Ciudad Rodrigo (181 2), Badajoz (181 2), 


Sahmanra, Vlttoria, Pyrenees, St Sebastian, Nivelle, Nivc, 
OrtlKs, Tonloiiae. Tlie West Indies medals were for Martinique 
(Feb. 1809) and Gaudaloupe (Jan.-Feb. 1810), the North 
American for Fort Detroit (Aug. 16, 181 2), Chateauguay (Oct. 
26, 1813) and Chrystler's Farm (Nov. 11, 1813), and there 
vas. lastly, a medal awarded for Java (Aug.-Sept. 181 1). 

From the above it will be seen that as time went on many 
officers became entitled to two, three and even more medals, 
aad as this was found inconvenient, the method of granting 
the award was very materially amended as notified by the 
commander-in-chief, in a general order, dated Horse Guards, 
October 7, 1813. This ord^ formulated regulations which were 
as follows: — 

1. That one medal only was to be borne by each officer recom- 
nended for the distinction. 

2. That lor a second and a third action a gold clasp was to be 
attached to the ribbon from which the medal was suspended inscribed 
with the name of the action. 

3. When a fourth distinction was earned, the medal and two. 
dl^» were to be replaced by a (k>ld Cross having the four actions 
for which it was awarded inscribed upon it, one upon each arm. 

4. On every occasion the recipient was awarcied the decoration 
after the fourth a (}okl Clasp worn on the ribband was added to the 

The regulations further laid down that only officers should 
be reoommended who had been " personally and particularly 
cogaged " on the occasion, and that officers were to be named 
by "special selection and report of the Commander of the 
Forces upon the qx>t, as having merited the distinction by 
CDaapkuous service Further, the Commander of the Forces 
was restricted in his selection to General Officers, C.Os. of 
Brigades, CDs. of Artillery or Engineers, and certain staff 
officers holding field rank, and Commanding Officers of Units, 
aad Officers succeeding to such command during an engagement.* 
It was also ordered thaA awards earned by deceased officers 
should be transmitted " to their respective families." The 
Gold Cross that was, under these regulations, instituted is as 

A Maltese Cross, i) inches square, with an ornamental border; 
ia the centre, a lion, facing rijg^ht ; in each limb of the cross the name 
of oee of the actions for which it was conferred. The back of the 
cross is the same as the front. The cross was precisely the same 
ircespective of whether it replaced a large or a small medal. 

The clasps were all of the same pattern, whether worn with 
the cross, the large gold medal, or the small gold medal. They 
are 2 in. in length by } in. in width, and bear, within a border 
of laurel, the name of the action for which they were conferred. 
At the dose of the war in the Peninsula the issue of this handsome 
and much coveted decoration was discontinued, the enlargement 
of the Order of the Bath (January 181 5) affording another 
metlKxl of reward which the Crown deemed more appropriate. 
On the occasion of this extension all officers who had obtained 
the cross with one clasp, i^. who had been decorated for five 
or oaore actions, were made Knights Commander of the Bath. 
In all 847 awards of this superb decoration were made. The 
aBe<^ alone went to 469 officers, whilst 143 received it with 
one dasp, and 72 with two clasps. The cross was issued singly 
in 61 cases, with one dasp in 46, with two in 18, with three in 
17. with four in 8, and with five clasps in 7 cases. The cross 
with six dasps was gained by Sir Colin Campbell (Lord Clyde), 
Six Alexander Dickson (d. 1840) and Sir (}eorge Murray (d. 1846). 
Two officers. Viscount Beresford and Sir Denis Pack (d. 1823) 
received it with seven clasps. The duke of Wellington's had 
Bine, the decoration thus commemorating fourteen out of the 
twenty-six battles, sieges or operations for which the Gold 
Medals. Cross and Clasps were awarded. On the limbs of this 
FL-ENTES DE ONOR. The dasps are for CIUDAD ROD- 
• CTapcain Savers of the royal navy, who commanded the " Leda '* 
36. and landed in command of the 500 seamen who erected and 
aanocd the batteries for the attack of Fort Cornclis. received the 
asttll medal for Java. This is the only case of the Army Gold Medal 
having been conferred on a naval oflmrer. 

after the dose of the Great War, however, do we meet with 
the real prototype of the war medal as we know it to-day; for 
the Waterloo Medal of 181 5 is the first actual "general" 
medal that was ever issued, because it was issued precisely 
alike to all ranks. In the twelve cases in which we have seen 
that a medal was given to all ranks, the medals differed either 
in size or in metal, or in both, according to the rank of the 
recipient, and in eight out of the nine issued by the Hon. East 
India Company the award was withhdd from the British officers 
and men employed. Again in none of the cases quoted were 
the awards made by the Crown. The " Dunbar " medal was 
awarded by the Commonwealth parliament. The men of the 
Nile and Trafalgar wore their medals through the generosity 
of private individuals. In the other nine cases the award was 
made by the directors of the Hon. East India Company. It 
was with the issue of the Waterloo Medal that all this was 
changed ana for this wcU-mcrited and much prized boon the 
Services owe all gratitude to the duke of Wellington. Writing 
from Orville on June 28, 1815, to H.R.H. the duke of York, 
he says: — 

" 1 would likewise beg leave to suggest to your Royal Highness 
(the then Commander-in-chief) the expediency of giving to the non- 
commissioned officers and soldiers engaged in the battle of Waterloo, 
a medal. I am convinced it would have the best effect in the army; 
and, if that battle should settle our concerns, they will well deserve 

Again, writing from Paris, Sept. 17, 181 5. to Lord Bathurst, 
then war secretary: — 

" I have long intended to write to you about the medal for Water- 
loo. I recommend that wc should all have the same medal, hung 
to the same ribband as that now used with the medals." 

{i.e. the army gold medals and crosses). It is also fair to point 
out that in his place in the House of Commons, and on the 
day after the duke's letter to the commander-in-chief had been 
penned, WiUiom Wat kins Wytm urged that medals should 
be given to the survivors of Waterloo, and that they should 
be the same for both officers and men, " so that they who had 
been fellows in danger might bear the same badge of honour." 
And so came into being that type of " general " medal, which 
beginning with Waterloo has continued down to the present. 
The description of these later medals, and the points of 
interest about them, will now be given as fully as exigencies 
of space will allow. 

1. Waterloo, 1815. — Awarded by the Prince Regent, 18 16. Ob- 
verse: Bust of the Prince Regent. Leg. GEORGE P. REGENT. 
Reverse: Figure of Victory seated; in her right hand, a palm branch: 
in her left, an olive branch. Above, WELLINGTON; below. 
WATERLOO, JUNE 18. 1815. Ribbon: Crimson with blue borders 
(Plate I.). Clasps: Nil. 

The notification of this award was made in a memorandum by 
H.R.H. the commander-in-chief, dated Horse Guards, March 10. 
1816, and it is worth noting that the prince regent commanded that 
the ribbon " shall never be worn but with the medal suspended to it." 
The medal was conferred on all the British troops, including the 
King's German Legion, present on the i6th Tune at Quatre Bras, 
on the 17th in the fiehtmg that took place during the retirement 
through Genappc to Waterloo, and on the i8th at Waterloo. It was 
also given to four regiments, 2nd Batt. 35th, 1st Batt. 54th, 2nd Batt. 
59th. and ist Batt. 91st Regiments of Foot, which formed Sir Charles 
Colville's Brigade, which was detached. The reverse of this medal 
would appear to have been copied from the Greek Coin of Elis, about 
450 B.C., a specimen of which is in the British Museum. The medals 
most prized by collectors are those of the 1st, 2nd, and 6th Draeoons 
(the Union Brigade "), and the 28th and 42nd Regiments of Foot. 
as those regiments suffered very severely and consequently fewer 
survivors received the medal than in other corps. 

2. Chuznee, 18^9. — Awarded by the GoxTrnment of India, 1842. 
Obverse: The Gateway of the Fortress. Below, GHUZNEE. 
Reverse: In centre a space for name of recipient; above, 2^rd July; 
below, a mural crown with underneath it 1839; the whole withm 
a wreath of laurel. Ribbon: Particoloured, crimson and green 
(Plate I.). Clasps: Nil. 

This medal originated with Shah Soojah, whose part the Indian 
government took in the Afghan troubles of the time. His downfall 
and death having taken place before the medals were ready, the 
actual award was made by the Government of India. It was origin- 
ally ordered (Bengal Military Proceedings, May 27. 1842; Nos. 151 
and 152) that the ribbon should be green and yellow, and it was 
undoubtedly so worn by some recipients: but there is no official 
I record to snow why the colours were altered to green and crimsoa 


ir -n--. 


The med^ wat iwarded ta kU troopi both of the Ctowti tmd of th^ 
Company thdi Were actually prtrvoC «t the «kse uul capture of the 
[artrc5>, July 2 1.2 J, and JA, i^A9- 

X.^ 5yfw, 1840,— A warded b;^ the Suit* n of Turkey ^(S+t, Obvefsf; 
A Tortmx on which the Tyrki!»h lias U Hying, and abov« ^x tun; 
below, in Turkish, '^ The People ot Syria; aM the Ciudcl of Acre, 
A.H. J 35a." R*vcrsp : Cypher of the Sultan, within a laurel wreath. 
Ribbon: Red with whkc edges. Ck$ps:NiL 

Thtr St Jean d'Acre ni«ia,l, a^ it h commonly tallHl. wa^ zi warded 
to th(r c>f¥iet:r-'S and men of the Brit lib fl(?et thjtC were cn^^^ed in the 
uperaci^ris oEl the ajAA of Syria, aji^iost Atchemct All, which culniin- 
mced ict ihc bombard [iii:ni and capture of St Jeau d'Acrv, Nov. 3, 11^40. 
The mrd^t, 1 1 ia. in diameter, la pi^rely a uaval medal thercfoiv, 
although A few atcillery and eni^incor oEFirert doing duty iu the fleet 
neeeiviKl it. It wa^ given in go\a to ofificer$ of flag rank and captaina 
(or field o^cer?), in wfvcf to quarttr-deck and warrant olftcer*^ and 
in copper to other nnki. This ii the otily in nance of there being a 
dkiTerencf nude according to the rank of tbe rccipknt una the 
** Burmii "* medaL 

4. Cktaa, 1840-41 (iBt Medal): China, 1557-60 (md Medal], 
— Aih-arded by Queen Victoria, iSiJ, 1861. Obverw; Head of 
Queen Victoria, diademed, l. Le^. VICTORIA RtGlNA. Revcne^ 
Naval and military trophy, with behind a palm trec» aftd in 
front a Uiield of the Royal Armi. Above, ARM IS EXPOSCERE 
FACEM. In exergue, CHINA lH41,< Ribbon; Red with yellow 
boirde:n (Plate )0. CiaspiL at medal, nil; and medal, fijt— 
Ji5il^TAK^J FORTS ta6o; PEKIN 1&60, 

The hfii China medal wai awarded to aU the naval and military 
force:^, both of the Crown and of the flon. E^st India Company. tKaE 
took part in the fint China War, tH40'43. Another medal waa^ 
$<crui;k, and is in be found in proof, but it was never lE^ocd as it wa* 
deemeil ii might gi^e offence to China. Of this the obvier^c! it the 
fame o-t thai de^^fibed above; but the reverse had, undef the tame 
IBOIIO4 the Briiii^h lion trampEing upon the Chinese dragon, and 
ifl the exergue, NANKENG 1843. The second Chin4 medil was 
Aimtbrly awardic^ii to both ihe naval and military forces, Briti^^b and 
Indian, that took part in the second China war,. 1857-60, To iho'Wi 
however, who were already in ponseAfcion of the hrst China mcfJal 
the second medal wa* not awarded, ih^y receiving: a cLis-p CHINA 
1^42 to go on their original medal, together of course vith thecla^p^ 
to which their sefvicts in the second war had entitled them. The 
■ccond medal wai» in fact nnt a new decoration but a re'isfue. The 
first China medal wa* the (if*t to be iiaued with the effigy of Queen 
Victoria upon it. The fir*t mcd^ ftith clasps for the second China 
war it very rare, and in almo*t every caue would probably be found 
to be a navjl jot'daL Of the second medal only one wa* issued 
with all the live new clii^ps^ Thii was to a Ro>'al Marine Artillcrv- 
man, and it is now in the ChtyU>more collection. Medals speciahlv 
valued by collector* arc iho*e given to the ibt Dragoon Guards^ with 
the two clasps TAKL' FORTb ififio and PEKJN 1860, as only two 
aquadronj of the regiment were present. In a GO. by Lord Ellcrt' 
borough, governor general oi Jndia, dated Simla, Oct- 14, 1842, it 
was intimated that the Govern men I of India would present to the 
Indian Army a medal, the de&ien of which w-aa indicated in theordet, 
but thi^ idea was^ of CQunc abandoned when tfie queen intimated 
her intention of making the award. 

5, Jfilalabad. ift+J. — Awarded by the Government of India, tS-O- 
Firnt medal— Obverse: A mural crown; above, JELLALABAD. 
Revtra^r Vtl April 1842, Second medal— Ob verw: Head of 
Queen Victoria as in China medal, but legend, VICTORIA VIN DEX. 
Revere: Figure of Victory flying, in ner right hand two wreaths, 
i n her left t he B ri i lih Ha g Denca th , the low n of J el la labad. Above, 
(both mrd.ilsj : Military ribbon of India (Plate I. J. Clasp*: Nil. 

In a G-O-r dated Alfahabad, April 30. iS+i. Lord Ellen borough 
announced that the Government of India would preicni a rneoal 
to the Company'* troops^ and with the conKnt of Her Majesty, 
to those of the Crown^ that held Jellalabad, undtr Sir Robert Sale 
(Nov. 12, 1842— April 7, iH^J). The queen's consent to her troops 
(15th Foot, now Somersetshire Light Infantry) receiving the medal 
was granted in August. The ^overnor-ijenerHil being diwJ.ti4fi_ed 

with the first mpdal. made at the Calcutta Mint, theiceond {cencfally 
ina; Victory '^} wa* ordered in England, and it 
was notified that oh their arrival the first medals, all of which had 

twco distributed, could be eJ(changed for the second. The new issue 
was ready by March 13» 1843, but the recipients appaientEy preferred 
the original medals, (or very few were exchani^. Both are very 
rare, for only ij^ medals were Uaued. The ** military ribbon of 
India " i*a tricolour composed of the three primary colours shAding 
into one another. It was designed by Lord Ellcnboruugh, and Is 
intended lo symboUie an Oriental sunrijK 

6. Ahkaniiicit, ti+i (ist Afghan)— Awarded by Government 
of India, 1842- Obverse: Head of Queen Victoria as on First 
China Medal Reverse: No. 1. CAXDAHAR iSij within a laurel 
wrcith; abov^, a crown. No. 2. GHLIZINEE CAbUL each within 
a laurel wreath ; above, a crown : below, 1^41. No, 3. CAN D AH A R 

' The second hat no d^ite^ 

' Royai Navy and Royal Marines only. 

GHUZNEE CABUL 1Z43 all within a laurd wfeath ; aUxvt, m trvwti. 
No- 4- CABUL i@43 within a Uurcl ^-reath ; above, a crown- Ribbon i 
MiLit4iry ribbon of India (Plate L). Clasps: Nil, 

The authority for this medal ita G.O, ol thegovernor^general dated 
October 4, 1&12. It was awarded to all troopa, both of the Cr^wn 
and the Hon. East India Company, who took pan in the opera licins 
in Afghanistan in t&^, that is to say the second pliasii of the M^rst 
Afghan War. The medal, with reverse'ti J, 2 and 3, w^^ av^ardcd 
to those troops that WL-re wifth Majof'General Sir Willi3in Noit in 
Candahar^ and took pan in tht; operation ft around that place, rs' 
captured Chujnctt and then joined hand* with the column under 
MajQr-Getietal Pollock at Csbul- The med^iil nith rc%crH; 4 was 
awarde^^ to the column which advanced from Peshawu^f on Cabul, 
being Joined tn rtrbJc by the victorious garrison at J el la la bad. This 
h the first of the four occasions on i^i'hich the rr verve d a medal has 
been used to denote the actual part taken in the operations by the 
recipient, in the manner that is now done by claipv Ol theae 
medals the one with the No. l reverse is the rarest, as its iasue wai 
confined to the tmall portion of his army that Maior-Gecveral Nott 
left behind him in Candahar.' The medal with the No. 1 revcne 
is also lare^ as its distribution was very limited. 

7. KfLiUt-Ghtttte^ th^l. — Awarded by Government of India, iB^i^ 
Obverse: A shield inscribed KELAT I GHILZIE encircled by a 
laurel wreath, and surmounted by a mural crown. Reverse A 
military trophy^ beneath, on a tablet r IN VICT A MDCCCXLll* 
Ribbon. Mifitary ribbon of India (Plate I.). Clasps^ NiL 

The authority for this medul is the mme as that for the Fifft 
Afghan Medal, and the medal itself was awarded to the ffoopt of 
the Hon. East India Company, which defended thia hill fortress for 
several months^ and hnally, before they were eventually relieved 
from Candahar utterly routed and drove off a force of four thousand 
men. As the medal Has given only to 950 in all (forty bring 
European artillerymen, the remainder native trooiH}, it ii naturiilly 
very scarce. 

B. Siftd^, tftj;!.— Awarded by Queen VictorU to the force* of the 
Crown, and by the Government of 1 ndia to the t roops of the Cooifiany . 
Obver^. Head of Queen Victoria as on First China MedaL Reverse; 
HVDERABAD t^^. In each case the in#criprijn i^ SiUrroonded 
by a laurel wreath, and surmounted by a crown. Ribbon- Military 
ribbcn of India (Plate |.). Cla'sps: Nil. 

The aih'ard of a rnedal for Sir Charles Napier s conqueil of Sinde 
was fir*t noiified, as far as the troops of the Crown were concfrned, 
by a iL-iier from Lord Stanley* then war secretary, to the president 
01 the In4p Boaj^, da(ed JuEy tB, tS43, and it h worth noiing that 
this is the only in&tance of any medals for Indian tetvjte being fi^id 
for by the Crown. The notification of a similar aw^rd by i he Gov em* 
mem of India to r heir own troops, followed in a CO- by the ^ovemor- 
genetal, dated September 22, 1843- The award was confined to 
those who had been preieot at either Meeanee or Hyderabad, and 
the medals were issued according ai to i^hlch actions the recipient 
had been present, no orve of course receiving more than one mtdal 
for the campaign. In addition to the btid Torce* of Ihe Hon, East 
India Company, the medal was also given lo the oavil oBicers and 
crews of the Company 1 (Jot ilia on tbe lndus^ The only Crown 
regiment that received this medal was the 22nd Foot, 

q. CKoiwr. 1S4J (" Maharjjpoor '* and " Punniar " Stars) — 
Awarded by thcGovemmcrtt of India, 1S.J4. Tht* de^omijon took, 
fhe forrn of a bronie star of tiK points, 2 m- in diameter. Obversei 
In centre a silver star, ij in m diameter, around the centre of 
which is a einle in which is in -scribed eiilur MAHARAJPOOR t8J3 
or PUNNIAR 1S43, and in centre of circle the rJate 20th DECR, 
Reverse. Plain for name and rtsiment, or corpt, o? recipient. 
Ribbon: Military ribbon of India (Pbte LK Clasps: NiL 

The awani of a medal to the troops of the Crown and the Hon» 
East India Company engaged irt the Gwaliof Campaign of 1^43 
1ft as fifst notified in governor-general's C O , dated 1 amp^ Cwalior 
Rcjiidency, January 4^ 1844; and the qufen^s permission for tt to 
be worn by Crown tFoopi given June 26, 1844. The force moved 
in two columnar the main and larger under Sir Hugh (Viftcatint) 
Gough. the smaller undet V^ajor General Gray. Earn force fought 
an action on the ame da>r, December 2q, 1 843. the fon.ier at Mahara^- 
prfior, the Latter at Pun n tar, and the st^t was ioscribwi accofdinf to 
which action the recipient was engaged. The stars were manu- 
factured from the met ill of the captured guns. The star si*en to 
Sir Hugh Gough had in the cenirc a silver elephant in lieu oia silver 
star, and it Wat origin.iHy intended that all should be the $ame, but 
the silver star was substituted for reasons of cconomv. As there 
were fewer troopa at Punniar that star is of course the more un- 

10. SiLllfj. 1645-46 (tst Sikh War], — Awarded by Government 
of India, 1845. Obverse: Head of Queen \^ctorii as on First Chin* 
Medal- Reverse: Figure of Victory^ standing, with in right hand 
outstretched a wrearK in left a palm branch ; at her feet a trophy 
of captured Sikh weapons and armour In exergue, name and year 
of the first battle of (he war in which recipient was encaeed- Thcs* 
inscriptions are four, vj* MOODKEE ife^S^ FEROZESHrHLR 
i«4S, ALIVVAL 1846, son R AON ifl46. Ribbon^ Blue wUh 
cfim«n borders (Pkle 1 ), Clasps: FEROZESHUHURp ALlWAL, 

^Si 9H3rd<, Sived to »X\ tht tfflopi, both Crcnrn ancf Hon. East 
pulh Compairy en^aml td the First Sikh War, u^j$ fu^t tiotifted 
Hi gptcrnQtr-fewml » GO., d4t<^ Camp^ FeraieiJOTC, Deci'mber 25, 
ApSt Che Quati** cocufnt lof Crown troops to rccirivfr the medal 
|«af ^Kft lijL OKitthf Uter. As thc^rv w^s a conitdenible number 
if tMDpi emogtd ia thncam^iEf'^, the medal ii not a very rare one, 
bqc A wry ftiv cDmbi nation ts the medal wixh FerozHhuhur in the 
ewsue and the cbsp for AliwaTn at anly Hall a campQiiy of native 
artillery was pr«*.-nt rn these two baiiJei and in no other. This 
is a speciaUy noticeable medal, for it is the first time that '* clasps " 
vcre tsraed with a " general " medal, the precedent followed being 
that of the Army Gold MedaL For every action after his first battle, 
vhkh was inscribed on the medal itself, the recipient received a dasp. 
This a medal with " Moodkee " in the exergue might carry one, 
tvo or three clasps; a " Sobraon " medal could have no clasps. 
This and the " Punjab " medal, to be described later, are generally 
cotaidered to be the two finest pieces of medal work by W. Wyon, 

II. Navy General Service, 1703-1840.— Awarded by Queen 
Mctoria, 1S17. Obverse: Head 01 Queen Victoria as on First China 
Medal: under head, iSaS. Reverse: Britannia seated on a sea 
hone; in her right hand, a trident; in her left, a laurel branch. 
Ribbon: Wlute. with dark blue borders (Plate I.). Clasps: 231 
dosps in all were granted, of which 55 were for " Boat Service." 

Ajb Admiralty memorandum dated June i, 18^7. notified the grant 
of this award to commemorate the services of the fleet " during the 
van commencing in 1791 and ending in 1815." and this practically 
confined the award to those operations for which the Navy Gold 
Medal (see ante) had been conferred. Subseouently. however, a 
beard of admirals was af>po«nted to consider claims, and on their 
recommendatk>n an Admiralty memorandum dated Tune 7. I8a8. 
ottradcd iKf Grant, dasp? wrrt to he given for: (i) All Ck>ld Medal 
j.ncktrs or operation i. {j) AH actions in which first lieutenants or 
cDcncunden: we^r? prcnmoted, as had been customary afte^ important 
ms^ ts^TitcAJous enfoiEienieflts. (3) All " Bmt Service " operations 
it irhich the officer con ducting the operations was promoted. (4) 
Fcsr. In coHDfirnitiao »iih the bod forces, the siege and capture of 
Majitnii^tiK. thc^. Giuda^oupe, iSto, Java. 1811. and St Sebastian. 
liij, fpf all of whjfh onerafiomi the Army Gold Medal had been 
«wanled: tod i^i The feombirdfwnl of Algiers, 1816; the Battle 
of Navarine. iSsj; and oprrarjont on the coast of Syria, 1840. 

Althouiirh the mnial is purely a naval one, yet it was conferred 
en a frv soldiers 'vrho had done duty in the fleet in actions or op(ra> 
t>:>A±, for vrhich the medal was i^niFited. Forty military officers 
£tt 3!) reoeised the Nfl\->' C.S, medal, one. Captain Caleb Chute. 
#*»l9 Fooi^ wkh two efdfp*^ viz. " J 4th March, 1795 " and " St 
".' --^-tt."' Ft U very difficult to compile an absolutely accurate 
1 iM i^c thi^f* iL^uetl, for In scir ral cases more than one clasp 

wras given for the same action, and there were moreover nine or ten 
clasps allowed for which no claims appear to have been made good. 
The cMDbination of the clasps is endless, but it is curious to note 
chat medals with more than one. or two clasps are rare; with four 
or five clasps, vety rare; and the highest number of clasps issued 
with any one medal is six. Antongst very rare clasps the follow- 
iK f^ay be mentioned. One survivor only, Lieut. Baugh. the 
oncer in command, was alive to daim the clasp " Rapid. 24th April, 
1808." Only two claims were proved for "Surly, 24th Apnl, 1810"; 
flix for "Castor, 17th June. 1809"; seven for "Amazon, 13th January, 
1797"; «jht for "Confiance, 14th January. 1809"; and ten for 
" Acheron. 3rd February, 1805. Of " Boat Service " clasps only 
tbree were claimed for "20th December, 1799"; four for "9th 
lone. 1799 "; and eight for " loth July. 1799." (All " Boat 
Service ' clasps are inscribed " Boat Service" with the day and 
DQOth on the left, and the year on the right.) In all nearly thirty 
thousand claims were proved for the medal. 

li Army Gittrmi 3frti^r. J793->flf4^— Awarded by Queen 
Vfcswia, (^7. OtntTse: Head of Queen Vjcioiij as on Flrat China 
Medal; motr iitad, iBaa. RevTenc: Quren Victoria on a dais 
• pl«ij«j w«3ib pn the head of ihe duke of WcMicifiton, who kriecls 
«■ h^ left ^tee befors her, holding in hifi ripihr hand the t»ton of a 
Wytd Hairhal: at ihr siid* of the 44ti is a lion drtrmant, Leeend: 
TO THE BRITISH ARMY, fn exergue: 1701-1814. Ribtwn- 
Chff^n *iTh blue bordtrs (Plate I,). ClasrA: FGYFT. MA I DA 

TUi nwdal, freauent^y erroncotwly termed the " Peninsiilar ^Yar '* 
iMdttL *i^3s A warned to the sur^-ivon o( the niilitary forces of the 
GnvR ihat Iwtl laltfn part in the Peninsular War, and in conttrn* 
poraneous operations in other parts of the world: it was also given 
with the clasp " Java " to the European troops of the Hon. East 
ladia Company: with the clasps " Martinioue " and " Guadaloupe " 
to oenatn local West Indian Corps: and with the clasps '* Fort 

* Whether in one or both actions, only one clasp awarded. I 

* A amilar clasp was given with the Navy C.S. medal. ■ 


pctroit," ** Chateaugoay," aiul " Chryvtter's Farm," to tome Cana- 
dian militia and tocAl levies, as well as to i^mr tndidn auxiliaries. 
The award of ihe medaL and all ihe claipa tKcrpt " Ejfipt," bear 
date JyM 1, IS47, but the clasp "Egypt " was not gramed till 
Fi:bruary rt, ^i^jo- Although the oirdal is supposed to coin- 
meniorate services "during the wars coin menrioE in I79J^ and ending 
in 18 1|," the earliest opcrarionib for which the medal wa* awarded 
did not take plaoe until t8o]. \q medal was i»ucd without a tlasp, 
and as will be seen the mecf^l was awarded only for those actions 
or opera T ions for «hich the Army Cold Medats (including that for 
^fajd;Ljl had been awarfivd; and in addition for the operations in 
E^ypt in i^i, ^ The tombi nation of c]a»p» ts endless but only 
t^Q medats Ki-ere issued Kith fifteen clasps, tkough 5(?vcral survivon 
pto'k'cd their claim to fourteen clasps, in (act medals with seven, 
eilfht or nine cUups are not common, tho^e with ten, or more, di^* 
linctly rare. For example, taking only rnedab issued to officers 
(including; thote of the King's German Legion), three ^-ere issued 
with 14 cfaaiH, three with tj, nine with u, twelve with ti, ihirty-six 
with ro, fifty-eight with 9, ninety wiih P, and one hundred and four- 
teen with 7. By far the runt 61 all cLisps is " Bene\Trnte/* as 
according to (he War Offk* llflf only thrpe would appear to havt 
been laAued, vit to CapCaJn Eveksh, R.H.A-, Pte. G. Barriir, loih 
MuAin, and Pte. M^ Giimour, tiih Huvsa^t, akhou(th a jnviizl with 
thia claip hjivine ev^ery appearance of bcini; g?enuine and i^ued 
to Pic. William Cyne, 7th Huisar^, was in the colleeiion ol Colonel 
>lurray of 'Polmaitf. Sahagun also is a very rare claap, as it wa* 
ri'ceived only by fifteen men of the 15th Hussars and a few^ others. 
The ihr«r North Ameri<-an clasps are al*o very rare, especially 
Cha lea u](ua y . Lea vinsoutawarditoEndbnw^rriors, theataiistics 
t^iffandinjr the issue of tne North American daiips are app-roximaiely 
as rol}owE. At Chateauguay some 300 mien fought, and 1^3 gurvivon 
proved for the clasp, of which all ejcc*>pT threr of the Royal Artillery 
were Canadians. For Chry!«tlcr's Farm, the tIfXI rarest cla^p, out 
of about Soo eng^aged 176 claim* were proved: vii, 79 of the &91I1 
Foot, 59 Canadians, 44 o| the 49th Foot^ and 4 Royal Artifleiy. At 
Fort Deifivit* J J JO mt-n were engagedt and ihose who proved for the 
clasp included aio C4n,iLdians, 5 J of the 4isf Foot, 5 Royal Artillery, 
and one man d the 41^1 Foot (who alw got the clasp for Chrystler's 
Farm). One irutn proved for all three clasps, another for " Fort 
D^inoii *' and " ChateauinJ^y>'* ^ third for " Chateauguay " and 
" Chrysilcr's Farm-"* The former medal is iiaid to be in the cabinet 
of a New York collector. Two " regulars " al44][ prov-ed for t he medal 
with clasps for '* Fort Detroit " and " Chnj-itler'* Farm," the one 
beloni^inc fo the Royal An tilery, the other ta the 4^1 h Foot. The 
medal of the former sold at the Greg Sv^le, in iSSj, for Q^ tos. 

It. PuHjah^ 184^49 (md Silih War) — Awarded by Government 
ol India. ti^O' Ohvffw:; of Ouccn Victoria ai in First 
China Mrilit. Klmll-t^: Sikh chief* deltverinjt up their arms to 
Sir U'jlur J»:ht.ilttert,nearRawjil Pindi, March 14^ JB4Q Aliove, 
TO THE MiM\ Oh THE PliN^AB. In exergue, MDCCCXLtx! 
Rit^bort: Blue with yellow stnpe* at side (Plate IX Clasps; 

The awird of thii medal was firit nonfii'd by 3 CO, of the governor- 
Ifeneral, dated Camp* Feroicpore, April 2, 1S49, The medal is one 
of special interest, for it &^tab)ish« the principle that now rules, 
>iz, that every one pan id ps tine iti a campaign (including for the 
Brit time civilians) wa* entitled to receive the nvwjai apart from 
thc^e vbo reottved the medal tof^her with a clasp for a ipcfific 
action* The n^edal in fact was granted *" to every omter and soldier 
who has been employed vnfkin tkt Punjab in this campaign to the 
date of the oecupaiion of Ptshawur." In other words it was gTanted 
to all who had served "during this campaiEn within the territories 
of Maharajah Duleep Sing," irtt^pecii^-f of w heihet ihcy had Qualified 
for any of the clasps. A very lat^ number of medals was iherefoie 
iMued without cUspt. Another iitieresitn|[< point about this award 
is that after its irant it was laid down that in future no cnedals were 
Lo lie issued by the Cov^rnmeni of India without the consent of ihe 
Crowo^ As a matter ol fact the Government of India was for the 
future only concerned in the grant of the two medals that followed, 
namely the First and Second India General Ser^^ice Medalit No 
medals were issued with more than two of I he three cla^, the com* 
bi nation \x\n^ either "Moojian" and "Coojerat*' or "Chllianwala" 
and " Goojerat." Very rare medals are those of ihe J4th Foot with 
fhc clasp for " Chilianwala," as in thai action they lost more than 
half their strength, their casualties amountini; to 497, of whom 750 
were killed or died of wounds. Another rare medal is that given 
without a clasp (o the ofhcers and men of the Indian Marine that 
manned the Indus Flotilla; and more rare stilt is the iamc medal 
with the " Mooltan *' clasp which was given to a naval brigade landed 
from the same floiilb. 

\^. Indtu, I79i^i8j6 (rsi India C.S., oflidally styled "India* 
185T "J. — ^Awarded by ihff Government of India, 1*51. Ob^-erse: 
Head of Queen Victoria as in First China ^fedal Reverse: \iciofy 
seated, in hfr ri^hi hand a birrel branch, in her left a wreath ; on 
(he ground beside her a lotus flower, and in the left hackjj round a 
p;i1m tree and trophy of Eastern arms. Above, TO THE ARMY 
OF JNDIA. tn eicerffue. 1709- iHj&. Ribbon; Sk> bine f Plate I.)- 




This medal was awarded " to the surviving officers and soldten 
of the Crown and of the East India Company who took part in any 
one of seventeen specified actions and operations whicn occurred 
in India, Nepaul and Burma, during the first twenty-five years of 
the 19th century, " including the omcers and seamen of the Royal 
Navy and the Company's Marine who took part in the first Burmese 
War." The queen s consent to the grant of this medal was an- 
nounced in the London Gazette by a Notice of the Court of Directors, 
dated March 31, 1851. It was subsequently notified to the British 
Army by a Horse Guards G.O., dated March 21. 1851 ; to the Royal 
Navy by an Admiralty memorandum of the same date; and to the 
Army in India by a governor-general's G.O., dated April 14, 1851. 
In this medal again there is a discrepancy in dating, for though it 
is dated 1709-1826, the first action for which it was awarded, the 
storming of Allighur. took place on September 24, 1803. No medals 
were issued without clasps, the largest combination of clasps known 
being five. According to the India Office records there were ap- 
parently men entitled to as many as seven clasps, but whether any 
medal was issued with more than five is very doubtful. That 
awarded to the duke of Wellington had three clasps, " Assye." 
" Argaum " and ** GawilRhur." With the exception of medals 
issued with the Ava and Bhurtporc clasps, this medal is a rare one, 
and with a Urge number of the clasps, all except perhaps those for 
Nepaul and Maheidpore. an extremely rare one. The rarest of all 
is Seetabuldce," as only two Europeans and two natives are known 
to have received it. " Defence of Delhi " is also a very rare clasp, 
as the garrison only comprised two weak battalions of native infantry ; 
as is also " Corygaum, which was issued to only two Europeans, 
" both officers,', and seventy-five natives. The only European 
troops present at Corygaum were an officer and twenty-six men ol 
the Madras Artillery, of whom the officer and twelve men were 
killed and eight wounded. As the " Burma " medal had already 
been given to the Company's native officers and soldiers for the 
First Burmese War, only the European officers and men of the 
Company's service received the medal with " Ava " clasp: but as 
the Nepaul " medal had not been given to all the native troops 
who actually served " within the hills," the medal with clasp 
" Nepaul " was granted to those native troops who had not 
received the Nepaul medal, as well as to all the Company's 
European officers and men. 

15. India, 1852-05 (3nd India G.S., officially styled " India, 
1854 "). — Awarded by the Government of India as far as the first 
two issues with their clasps are concerned, all subsequent issues and 
clasps, with the exception of the last two, by Queen Victoria; the 
last two issues and clasps by King Edward VII. Obverse: Head 
of Queen Victoria as in First China Medal. Reverse: Victory 
standing, crowning a naked warrior sitting. In exergue, a lotus 
flower and leaves, symbolizing the connexion of the medal with India. 
Ribbon: Red, with two blue stripes, forming five i-inch stripes 
1877-78. NAGA 1879-80, BURMA i885-87,« SlKKfM 1888, 
HAZARA 1888, BUR.MA 1887-89. CHIN-LOOSHAI 1880-90, 


SA.MANA 1891, HAZARA 1891. N.E. FRONTIER 1801, HUl _ . 
1891, BURMA 1889-92. LUSHAI 1889-92.WAZIRISTAN 1894-95. 
CHIN HILLS 1892-93. KACHIN HILLS 1802-93. 

The queen's assent to this award, to those of H.M.'s Sea and Land 
Forces, as well as those belonging to the Elast India Company's 
Establishment engaged in the Second Burmese War, was first 
made known to the Government of India in a letter from the Court 
of Directors, April 6, 1853. In a Minute by Lord Dalhousie, the 
governor-general, December 9. 1852. it had been suggested " whether 
It would not be better for the future, instrad of issuing a separate 
Medal for each campaign, to have one Medal, such as the ' Indian 
Medal * [i.e. the ' India, 1851 ' Medal), which should be issued once 
to each individual entitled: the particular service for which it is 
granted being recorded upon a Bar, and every subsequent service 
which may l» thought to deserve distinction being recorded by an 
additional Bar. This plan would avoid the multiplication of Medals, 
which has accumulated of late years, which I humbly think is 
undcMrable." In another letter from the Court of Directors to the 
Government of India. March i, 185^. this suggestion is approved, 
and it was ordered that after ** a suitable design ' had been procured 
(L. C. Wyon designed the reverse), "the ^fcdal to be now struck 
shall be of a general character, the particular service for which it 
is now granted, viz. ' Pegu.' bcinj? recorded on a Bar. In the event 
of the same soldiers being entitled hereafter to another similar 
distinction, the service will be recorded by an additional Bar to the 
same Medal." Occasional mistakes have however been made, ior, 
since the issue with the clasp for the Pcrak campaign, from which 
time it has become customary to date the cla<ip. many instances 
have occurred of men having received two me*?als with clasps for 
different campaigns. The issue to the Persian Expeditionary Force 

(iBSfr-iSST). with the clasp " Persia/* m-as awarded by the Court of 
Dirvctors iafiuiry 19, idj^, and sanctioned by the queen in the same 
mo rich- The first i>»ue of the medi! by the Crown was authorized 
Apri! 15h 1859, with the cbspa " ^ art h- West Ffontkr" and " Um- 
tX'yU/^ Lhe fomner cDvcrinf vnnoLJs expt'dlLlanig beLween 1849 and 
ifloj, the Utier tht' hard ^fought L'mbeyLi Campeiign of the latter 
mrniioned yeah All E^ubsefiuent iiAura of the award were made by 

* Whether in one or both actions, only one clasp awarded. 

* The Royal Navy or Indian Marine, or both, received the medal 
with these dasps. 

tnousana men were empioyea, ana tne majoniy ol the* were 
uhmere Imperial Service Troops. No European troops received 
e clasps, ^ Looshai," " Naga 1879-80," or " Hunza 1891." 
Sikkim 1888 " is also a rare dasp as only some aooo troops were 

Queen Victoria, with the exception of those that carried with them 
the rUipa "Chin Hill 1895-93." and " Kachin Hills 1892-^t," 
which vtcreoTily awarded ten yeafSiafterv^irds by King Edward VII., 
and notified in Army OrdtT q ol January 1903; thf medal, which 
had meantime been superwat-d by the Third Imiu GS. medal 
described below, being: re-iisued wjth th«e liiat two clasps. The 
comtinaiion ol clasps with this medAl ii vt;ry nutneroiis. but medals 
with more than two or ihrt-e clasps are Tare* Seven is probably 
the ^Tcateit number awarded with any one med^l, and a m«lal witn 
this numbtT, viz, " Umbeyb." " North- Wt^t Ffrtntier," "Jowalci 
1877-78." "Burma 1885-87,*' " Hazara 1888," " Samana 1891," 
and " Hunza 1891," was granted to Bhanga Singh. Sardar 
Bahadur, who retired as Subadar-Maior of No. 4 (Dcrajat) Mountain 
Battery. Sir William Lockhart (o.v.) had the medal with six clasps. 
The rarest of all the clasps is probably " Hunza 1891," as less than 
a thousand men were employed, and the majority of the* were 

Cashmere I ■*-' *^ — -'" "^ *-'- ^ ' 

the claspi 

"Sikkim 1 ^ 

employed, the only Europeans beins two companies of tne 2nd 
Derb^hire Regiment. So also is " N.E. Frontier 1891," for in the 
Manipur expedition for which this clasp was given about 3000 men 
were employed, the only Europeans being (our companies of the 
King's Royal Rifle Corps. It was with the issue of this medal with 
the clasp '* Burma 1885-87." that the precedent was set of award- 
ing the medal and clasp in bronze to " all authorized followers," a 
precedent that was followed in all subsequent issues. 

16. S<n'^ " -" * 


Victoria as In First China Medal. Reverse: A lion crouching be- 
hind a sugar bush {Protm mrlhjeia). AU^vir, S<JUTH AFRICA. 
In exerEue, 1 853. In the energue of the fe-Is&ucd medal, the place 
of the date ts taken by a trophy of tour asv^is ^nd & Zulu shields 
Ribbon; Orancc watered, with two broad and two narrow blue 
stripes {Plate I J). Clasps: 1877-78^79, J 871-79, 1877-78, 1878, 
lajT, (879. 

The command of the quf«n that a m«da1 should be awarded to 
the survivijfs of the forces that had beten encaged in the first, second 
fl nd t h' rd KilSr Wars ( i &34~33 ► l S^6-^^ 7 , a nd j 850- 53 ) was notified by 
Vi^ount HardiriEe» the iiommander- in-chief, in a C.O., dated Horse 
GuAJ>d^, Novvrnticr 22^ 1854^ No clasps were issued with this medal. 
I he mrdal waiifcoTdcd only to the " re^ubr forces " (including the 
Cafie Mount«J Rific*}^ so local Icvirt did not receive it. In the third 
Kalfir WlJ^f a smvill Nav>al Brigade and a detjchment of Royal 
NUnnc^ took part in the opcfatiotis, and the iurvivgr; received the 
medal r The award ol ihe re-isisuc was noiLhed in a ChO. by the duke 
of Cambridgi', commander-in-chielj Augusrt l^ iBBo. It was to " be 
granted to Her Majesty's Imperial F(irc«, and To luch of Her 
\I a jetty's Colonial Forcei, EurDfteaii or Naiivef as were rMularly 
urKanir«l and diwrlplincd as combatant*, whether raised by the 
Cijionial Goviernmcnt or by the Genrral Officer Commanding." "The 
oix ratmni for which it wa;. given wtrt i^gsin^t 1 he G.ilekasand Gaikat 
1877-78, the Griauas 1878, Basutos 1879, Zulus 1870, and Sekukuni 
1878-79. In both the operations against the Galekas and Gaikaia, 
and in the Zulu War of 1879, the Royal Navy and Royal Marines 
took part and received the medal. The clasps issued with this medal 
were as noted above and record the year, or years, of service covering 
all the operations in which the recipient was engaged. No one 
received a medal with more than one clasp. The m«lal without a 
clasp was issued to such troops as were employed in Naul from 

ianuary to September 1879, but never crossed the border, into 

17. Crimea, 1854-56.— Awarded by Queen Victoria in 1854. 
Obverse: Head of pueen Victoria as in First China Medal; below, 
1854. Reverse: Victory crowning a Ronian soldier, who holds a 
sword in his right hand, and bears on his left arm a shield on which 
is the figure of a lion. On the left. CRIMEA. Ribbon : Light blue, 
with narrow yellow borders (Plate I.). Clasps: ALMA, BALA- 

This medal, awarded to both Services, was first notified by a 
commander-in-chief's CO., dated December 15, 1854. The grant 
was limited to all troops landing in the Crimea up to September 9, 
1855— the day on which Sevastopol fell — " unless they duill have 
been engaged after thai date in some expedition or operation against 
the enemy." This latter proviso applied in the main to the naval 
clasp " AZOFF," the period for which award was extended to the 
22nd of November. The clasps for this medal are very ornamental, 
being in the shape of oak leaves, ornamented with acorns. The 
Royal Nav> and Roval Marines, besides the " Azof! " clasp, icceived 
the clasps " Balaklava," " Inkermann." " Sebast opol." The 

* Royal Navy and Royal Marines. 


Plat« L 




S I 








. m 

I 111! 


,V\-ifa-a I.mte C-f , MmgmiM, A' |' 


biBert aninber of chips to any one medal b foor. Certain non- 
oombatanu received the medal without a clasp. 

la. Baltic, 1854-55.— Awarded by Queen Victoria, 18^ Ob- 
wne: Head of Queen Victoria as in First China MedaL Reverse: 
BritanriU «Aicd and holding a tndt'-nt in h^r right hand, !n the 
bsckgT'^nd fLjit*. Above, BALTIC^ In c^crguc* 1854-1 &55* 
Ribbon: Vdrow, with pa.\e blue bordrrm Cfkte [.). CU^ps: KQ. 

This awards notified by Admiralty Order. June 5, 1856^ wile 
granted *' ro the officcn and crew of Ker iStaij'Fvty'i Ehip§p as well 
as to suck oAkiCTi atid Men of Ker Majesty's Army as were €mploy«d 
in the opentions in ihe Baltic iq the year4 1854 and iSS^-' Th* 
medal ii^ of couri«, pvafCkaUy a naval on^, but two ofncerK and 
abety-mne men of the Royal Engifi«r» were employed inthccxpcdi- 
bpo. ctFpeciitW at Bomariiund, aitd receivf^ U^ 

I9l Tiirkiik Crimtti AfwtsJ,— Awafdtfi by the Sulun^ 1856* 
(Xnwse; A trophjr cociiiposHi of a field pice?, a mcrtar^ and an 
anchor, the fifid piecv tfandin^ on the Rn^ian Impcrbl Stafidard* 
and having a map of tht Crinvca spread over the wheel and bnECch^ 
Behind arc th* Tur ti^h, British ^ French and Sardinian Hai;^ The 
flaf of th« natHjn to which the recipient belonged a in thv fmnt with 
that of Turk^yi th« Rag^ of the oLher two nailonatitics behind. In 
caergur. " Choi^ J^SS-*' ** ^ Crimln? iSSS." or " La Crimea iflss/' 
accordintt au to whether the medal was intended for British, french 
or Sarduwan ireipientj^ Rfvcne: The Sul tan's cypher, below, in 
Torkisli* *'Criin*3i." and the year of the Hef^ira. IJ71. Ribbon; 
Crimsofi vatenxl, with hri|(ht green cdcea (Plate L). Clasps: Nil. 

This n'jfdal waj di^uibuted to all of the AliiL-d Forces, both naval 
and military, whkh shamj in the operation i in the Black Sea and 
the Crimea, As the shfp thai conveyed a majority of the English 
medaU wai viinK the remainder were bsued indiscriminately, and a 
hrse RhUiabcT of the BHiish received itietlak which were oriifirully 
intended cither for the French or Sardinians.* 

TO. Arctic, 1818-1855 (First Arctic).— Awarded by Queen 
Victoria, 1857. Obverse: Head of Queen Victoria, wearing a tiara. 
Legend. VICTORIA REGINA. Averse: A ship blocked in the 
ice. ircberg:* to right and left, and in foreground a sledging party. 
Alovc. FOR ARCTIC DISCOVERIES. In exergue, 1818-1855. 
Ribbon: V\Tiite (Plate II.). Clasps: Nil. 

This award was first notified in an Admiraltv Notice dated, 
January 30, 18^7. It was given to the crews 01 Her Majesty's 
ships employed in Arctic exploration, and also " to the oflficers of 
the French Navy, and to such volunteers as accompanied those 
expeditions": also to those engaged in expeditions e({uipped by 
the government and citizens of the United States": also to the 
** commandeTs and crews of the several expeditions which originated 
in the acal and humanity of Her Majesty's subjects ": and finally to 
tbiMC who served " in the several land expeditions, whether equipped 
by Her Majesty's government, by the iludson's Bay Company, or 
from private resources." The medal is worn on the left breast and 
tabes rank as a war medal. It is octagonal in shape. 1*3 in., and has 
affixed to the upper edge a (ive-pointcd star to which is attached 
a rime for suspension. The head of the queen, which is the work 
of L. C. Wyon, has never been reproduced on any other medal. 

21. Indian Mutiny, 1857-58. — Awarded by the Government of 
India. 1858. Obverse: Head of Queen Victoria as on First China 
Medal. Reverse: Britannia standins; facing left with a lion on her 
right side; her right arm is extended holding out a wreath; on her 
left arm is the Union shield, and in her left hand a wreath. Above, 
INDi.\. In exergue, 1857-1858. Ribbon: While, with two red 
stripes, forming five J-inch stripes (Plate L). Clasps: DELHI 
(May- 30 to Sep. 14. 1857): DEFENCE OF LUCKNOW Qunc 29 
to Sep!^-;. 1857); RELIEF OF LUCKNOW (Nov.. 1857): LUClC- 
NO\V (.\1arch 2 to 21. 1858); CENTRAL INDIA (Jan. to June 

The grant of this award was first notified in a despatch from the 
Court of Directors to the Govern mcnt which ttated that ** the 
Queen has been graciously pleased to comrn&nd thjt a Medal shall 
be granted to the troops in the Service of Her Majesty, and of the 
East India Company, who have been, or moy he, cni[j|oyed in the 
sapprc*bi«jn of the Mutiny in India." Thi? is the last rnedal given 
ty the Honourable East India Conipany. The rfledal without 
cu^p Ha* aviarded to all, including^f who had tAlten part 
in operations against the mutineers or relx-ls, and w>ih the cjaspf 
en'jnncratt-d above to those who shared in thie operations ffici^ifit'd- 
Some t«o or three artillery men arc known to have received the 
KKdal »ith the clasps " Delhi," " Relief of Lucknow,*^ " Luck^ 
now " and " Central India." The mcdaE with three clasps, vi*^ 
" Ddhi." " Relief of Lucknow " and " Luc know " was civen only 
to the 9th Lancers and the Bengal Horse Artillery, ancTof course 

' In addition to this award the French emperor sent five hundred 
cf the French " Military Medal." to be distributed amongst specially 
sriccted non-commi«ioned officers and men of the army and Royal 
Marine*, and petty oflficers and seamen of the Royal Navy. Only 
t«oof these medals were given to officers, viz. the duke of Cambridge 
and Sir William Codrington, the latter hein^ presented bv Peiiisicr 
*ith hl« own medal. The king of Sardinia also distributed 450 
rwTiaU to the British forces, of which 50 were given to the Royal 
Navy and Royal Marines, and 2^3 to oflficers and 157 to non-com> 
_■ ^ officers and privates 01 the army. 


vanou* officcfs who «emd on the sUflT. as, for example. Field 
Marshals Earl Ruticrts and Sir Henry Norman. With rnard to 
the Royal Navy and Royal Marines, the "Shannon's" &isade, 
under Captain Peel, received the medal with one. or both, oithe 
clasps " Relief of Lucknow, ' " Lucknow," the " Peari's" brigade, 
under Captain Suthoby rcxxived the medal without clasp. This 
11 the last merlal that had on it the beautiful head of Queen Victoria 
which wa^ hr^t u»ed for the China Medal of 1842, and of whkh 
W. Wyon, R.A.g wa* the artist. 

aj. Abytiima, 1867-68— Awarded by Queen Victoria, 1868. 
Obverse: Bust of Qu«n Victoria^ with diadem and veil; around 
&n imtvnTed border, oetwven the nine points of which are the letters 
A.B,Y,:5S.I N.LA. Reverse; Within a beaded circle the name of 
fi^ipient, ht^ corps, resimcnt or ship, the whole surrounded with 
a wreath cf laurul. Ribbon: Red, with broad white borders 
Plate I.). Clasps: Nil. 

The sanction of this award b tobe found in a letter from Sir 
J. S. Pakingtonp socnrtary of state for war. to H.R.H. the duke 
of Cambridj^c, held-ntarnhat commanding-in-chief, which notifies 
the queen'ii pleasune '* that 3 medal be granted to all Ifer Majesty's 
Forces and Indian ForL-cs, Naval and Military, employed in the 
operations in Ahy'^inia, which resulted in the capture of Magdala." 
In all 20,000 medals were struck. The medal is smaller tluin the 
usual, 1} in. in diameter, and it is surmounted by an Imperial 
Crown, and a large silver ring for suspension. It is altogether an 
unusual type of medal, and in the use of an indented border it 
follows a very old precedent, that of a medal commemorating the 
victory of Valens over Procopius, A. D. 365. (See Lcs MfdatUons 
de Vem^ire romain, by W. Froehner, Pans, 1878). The artists 
responsible for this medal are Joseph S. Wyon and Alfred -B. Wyon, 
and this bust of the queen is reproduced on only one other medal, 
the New Zealand. 

23. New Zealand, 184W7, i86o-<)6. — ^Awarded by Queen 
Victoria, 1869. Obverse: Bust of Queen Victoria as on Abyssinia 
medal, but larger. Legend: VICTC>klA D:G:BR1TT: REG:F:D: 
Reverse: Dated, within a wreath of laurel, according to the period 
in which the recipient served. Above, NEW ZEALAND; below, 
VIRTUTIS HONOR. Ribbon: Blue, with a broad red stripe 
down centre (Plate I.). Clasps: Nil. 

The grant of this award to the Army was notified in an Army 
Order, dated March i, 1869, and its extension to the Royal Navy 
and Royal Marines by an Admiralty Order, dated June 3, 1869. 
Owing to incompleteness in the returns many medals were issued 
undated. The dates on the reverse, in those issued dated, varied 
considerably; for the First Maori War, the medal was issued to the 
Army with one, and to the Navy with five different dates; for the 
Second Maori War, the medal was issued to the Army with twenty- 
one, and to the Navy with five different dates. No medal was 
dated 1862, though many of the Army medals bore date of a period 
covering that year, although no naval medals did. 

24. Wesl Africa, 1 873-1000. —A\nvirdc<I (originally as the "Ash- 
antce" medal) hy Queen v'ictoria in 1874, with the exception of 
the last issue, with clasp " 1900," which was awarded by H.M. 
King Edward VII. Obverse: Head of Queen Victoria, with 
diadem, and veil behind, by L. C. Wyon. Legend: VICTORIA 
REGINA. Reverse: British soldiers fighting savages in thick 
bush, by Sir E. J. Poynter. Ribbon: Yellow, with black borders, 
and two narrow black stripes (Plate II.). Clasps: COOMASSIE, 
1887-8, 1891-2, 1892, 1893-94; WITU, 1890;' LlWONDl, 1893:' 
WITU, August 1893;' JUBA RIVER. 1893:" LAKE NVA^A, 

This medal was first awarded by Army Order 43, dated June I. 
1874. to "all of Ikr forces wha hive been employee! 

on the Gold Coait nJumi,;^ lLl- opLTatlons against the King of 
Ashantee," and in addition a cbsp, " Coomas-yi**," "in the case of 
those who were present at Amoaful and ihn actions between that 
place and Coomaisie (including the capture of the capital), and of 
those who, during the five days of thoie aciiun^. were engaged on 
the north of the Prah in maintaimng ^nd prui^^/iing the communi- 
cations of the main army/' ]n all, with and without the clasp, 
11,000 medals werL' ii^ued for the Ashanu-c campaign to both 
Services. Over tiehtetn yejrs later thi* sime medal was re-issued 
as a "general service " mt.-*\iki, the award being for operations in 
CcntralAfrica, and on the East and Wc*l Coasts, during the period 
1887-92, which were covered by the dated clasps " 1887-8," 
" 1891-2," and " 1892." As Jiich the twoe Tuas continued for 
operations down to the year 1900, atthou^h tht* L>fficial title " West 

' These clasps uTre all naval awanis, but two companies of the 
West India Regiment took part in the operations for which the 
clasp " Gambia. 1894," was awarded. 

' Were awarded by the Admiralty to certain local forces which 
co-opcraie<l with the Naval Brigades. 

* " Mwelc. 1895," is not strictly speaking a clasp^ as it is engraved 
on the edge of the medal. Recipients already in possession of the 
medal were entitled to have the action and dale engraved thereon. 
It corres|)onds, however, to a clasp in that it commemorates a 
particular service, and ao has been included. 



Africa Medal*' f**^ Army Ofder 153^ of Dec. I&44) li somrwhat 
of a misnomer, for very ffFquently the medil has been Rrantcd for 
acrvkea tn Ceotr^l Afnca and Ln the Fllnterland of ibe East Cojfit 
aa for iCTviccs on the We-^t Coaat. In all issues since the original 
" A^haotee " medaln the ela&p only wa* given lo those who already 
bad the mcdAl> m suhwqkieidt UMJl^» do not inakje it a new ^v/^. 
As wlU be step Utcf » the simc medal was sut»i<«iucntly isMjed »ji1i 
a diffcrtm ribbon, and bo ton.^iEut€<! as an cmirely new decoraHon^ 
tKat ccuM be wcuri in conjunction with the older one. With the 
ejuzepiion of thOK i^^ued wiih " Mw?lc, f @95 ^' en|;ra%¥d on the 
medal, none of these medals have been isAued without tf t^lasp 
mnc^ the orig:inal issue for the camraign of 1873-74; and the 
liiup '* CoDfunssie " that accompanied the Srvt i&Koe 11 the only 
one that haa been iuued to rc^imeniat unit* o| the British Army 
ai apart from the Wejit India Regimeiit and local trtiops. The 
duke of Edinburgh was iJiarrii^d in January of the year in which 
this medal was first awarded ^ aiid it is said that ycUowaod biark tthc 
Imperial Rus!>ian eolour-i) were E;hQsen as the dolours of the ribbon, 
in complimeni to Mh ccinsort the tmnd dueScsa Marie of Itussia, 

J5, A rciK^ I B76 {i nd Arci k Medal J - — Awarded by Oueen Victoria , 
1870. Obvcrsei Bii*t of Queen VicioriiiH crowmr^l and wkh veil 
by G. G. Adami. l>eend: VICTORIA REGINAj nndernearh 
bust, 1676. Reveru: A ship packed in floe ke; above, an Arctic 
fiky wi th fleuy cLoudsinaelcarhoriixriiL Rlbbcm : Whke (Fb te [ f J , 
CLaspi: KIL 

The nwmrd of this gtant was noiiJied m an Adnuralty Order, 
dated Nov. ai, JS76, and the award U specihed " to aW pcf^n^, 
of every rack and class, who were serving on bo^rd Hit Majesty's 
§Jt»Q% ' Alert ' and * Discovery ' during the Arctic lij^pedition <jt 
ja7S-ia;r6>H and on board the yacht 'Pandora,' in her voyaee to 
the Arctic Regions m tB76/' The 'P-aftdyfa' was owned and silled 
by Commander (Sir Allen J Voong, R,N\R,^ whose oHicersand crew 
rendered valuable servicer to Her^iaiesty^s shins when in the Kolar 
■eas. SiKty-threc mcdab were given on board the " Alert,*' fifty- 
seven on board the " Discovery. ' The bust on the obvcric of this 
medal has not been fcprtxluccd On any other. The reversse (by L. C* 
Wyon) Ls copied from phoiocraph taktn durin|f the expedltjun of 
the " Alert ' and ^' Discovery ' under Sir Ceoixe Nares, K-C^Bk 

a6. Afghaniiitin^ 1878-60 (Jnd ATpthan). Awarded by Queen 
Victoria, ]l!i&>. Obverse: Bust of Queen Victoria, crowned and 
with veiL by J. E. Ikiehm. This ts the hr&t war medal bearin? 
the itnpejiil title. Lejjcnd: VICTORIA REGINA ET IMPERA- 
TRJX^ Reverse: A column of troops emerging from a mountain- 
pan, headed by a heavy battery vh-phartt carrying a gun ; behind^ 
mounted troops. Above, AFGHANISTAN* In etemuc, 187^- 
-79^1io, Ribbon: ijreen. with cfim-^on bordet? (Plate l.J. 

At the conclusion of ttie fifst phase of the Second Afghan War, 
it was proposed ihat the (Second) India G.S* Medal should be 
iiBued for t hi* campaign with cbsps" AfghaLnistaOt*' " AM Musjul," 
'* Pciwar Komi/' but, after the n^assacnc of Sir P, L. N. CavaBoitri 
and the ttteml^ers and escort of the Embassy at IGbi/l, Sep. 3, 
1^79, and the consequent renewal of the war^ it was decided to 
^rant a separate medal. The hrat oRieiiil intimation of the award 
IS in a Telegram from the secretary ol state for India to the viceroy, 
dated Aug. 7, i&tio. The awardn with the regulaiioni to govern 
the iHue, was promulgated in a G,0. hy the jjovcrnor-getieral, 
Dee. 10, 1880, and subsequent GO/t The medal without clasp 
waj awarded to all who had wrvtd across the Iroatier betwf^cn 
Nov. J J, I §78, and May 5^&, 1879 (fir^i phase of the war), and Iw 
tween Sep. 1879, and Aug. 15. i$So for the Khyber and Kurram 
Lines, and Sep. Jo, iBSp, for Sciuthern Afghanistan (5i,Tond pha^ 
of the war). The " Kabul " clasp was awarded to all who had 
shared in the operations^ "at and near that place from the imh 
to the 2%rd Dec^, JSjjg, forludinfr the column under the command 
of Brigadier-General C, 1. S. Cough, CB.^ which joined Sir Frederick 
Roberts on the 34th Dec., 187^9." The cb»p for " Kandahar " 
did not include the whole garrison of the beleaguered city, but 
onlv the troops that were actually " enga^r^ in the action fought 
tinder Sir Frederick Roberts^ commano £jrainst Sirdar Mahomed 
Ayob Khan on the Est Sep., t86o." The ereaiest number of 
cUsps with which the medal wai is<^ed was fourn and the units 
10 which such medaU were issued arc the 72nd HigManders. StK 
Ghoorkdsi, sih Punjab Infantry and 2y<A Punjab Pioneers The 
bust of the Queen by Sir Edgar Boehm, R.A., has not been t*- 
produted on other war medal 5- 

17. Kabii! to Kandakftr. iB8k>.— Awarded by Queen Vietoria, 
t88o. This decoration look the form of a Ave- pointed star, 1-9 in. 
across from point to point r with a ball between the points: between 
the two topmost points of the *tar h an Imperial Crown and rm^ 
for suspension, Obvene; In the centre the imperial monogram 
V.RJ., surrounded by a band in«ribed KARUL TOKANDA14AR, 
(S80, Reverse: Plam, with a hollow centre, round which the 
recipient's name and regiment are indented in capitiit ktten. The 
old m in bow -coloured military ribbon is worn witn tbia star 

The ffrani of thi* awarrj was first notified in a despatch from the 

tecrctary of state for India to the viceroy, d*ted Nov, 30, i8tk). 

This awafded the d^oration 'to the furte whirh marched from 

Ji^^u/ i4? A^dgJur/' Mnd Jater, Aug. 26, 1881, a G.O. by the 

Govemor-GenemT extended tbe et>nf ** to tbc troops which tb« 
composed ihe garri^n of Kelai-i-GhUiait and accompanied I he 
force under the command of Lieutenant-General Sir F, L Roberts, 
G.C.B.^ V.C., from that place to Kandahar." 

28. E£ypi. I &53- 1 889,— A warded by Queen Victoria, 1B82, 
Obverse: Head of Queen V^ictoria as in the W«t Afrkan MedaL 
A Sphins; above, EGYPT: below^ iSSj. Ribbon: Blue, with two 
white stripes, forming five J inch ttripe* (Plate L), CUspa; ALEX- 
A[^DR1A, iith iu\y; TEL-EL-KF.BIR, SUAKIN, 1884; El^ 
ZAH, 1S88: TOSKl, 1889.* Thi^ medal was first awarded (Admi- 
ralty Circular* Oct. t8S2;G.O^ by the commander-in-chief, {>tt* (7^ 
1883: and CO. by governor -|cnerat of India, Oct, 37, r&SjJ; 
to all the Foreea, naval and milii4iry, prpwnt and serving in Egypt 
L>etwcen July i6» and Sepn 14, iSiiis. The first two claspi were 
fliso given With this isanc. One military officer {Major-General 
Sir A. B. Tulloch, tlu-n of the Welbih Regiment) rtrt^ived the clasp 
" AlcKandria, i ith July," as he was servmg in the fleet as military 
adviser to Admiral Sir Beauchamp Seymour. A second issue was 
made In JS84, and wiih ii the nent four clasps wetc eiven^ *' Sua kin, 
1 884+" for thobe who landed at Suakin or Trinkitai bciween Feb. 19 
and March 36, [884, was, however, only gfven to thofie with the 
1881 me<la1^ thi>!«e not so posnessed receiving the medal without 
a cla^p,. A third issue was made tn 1885, the ctext five clasps 
accompanying it* "The Nile, 1884-85," was gi%'cn to those 
who served Kmth of As-vea^ on or before March 7, 1865; " Suakin, 
18B5," to those who were engaged in the operations at Suakin 
between Match and May 14. 1885; but the former clatp wati only 
to go to those already fiossevied of the medal, others received the 
medal onty+ The medal alor^e was also given to all an duty at 
Suakin UtA-ecn Marrh 37, iflSd, and May 14, 188^. No medal* 
were is^uc^l with single clasps for " Tofrek," recipients of which 
also pot clasp " Su:iktn, rSJ^s,'" or " Abu KIca " and '' Kirbtkao;* 
rccljnrnis of which got also clasp *' The Nile, 1884-IS5" In 
l8S<'), the mi^al without was issued to Lhqjse ivho had not previ- 
ously nrccivcd it and had served at, and south of Wady Halfa^ 
tK'lwecn Nov. yt, 1885 and Jan. it, 1886, but no ela*p4 weni taiih 
this isiuc, although ibe o [derations included the baiilc of Oinnis, 
The bit iwuc was made in 1890. The medal with clasp ' GemaiuN, 
i8S8," to all who were present at that action near Suakin, Dec. 30, 
iB8S? the medal alone to all employed on the .Mle at. and souiti 
of Korosko, on Aug. 3, 1819, and wuh clasp ' Toslti, (8B9." to all 
present at that action, Aug. 1, tBSg. Besides those already enumer- 
ated who received tbc medal without clasp, it was gi^-en lo oAicer* 
o| hired transjiorts of the mercamile marine, to »me civilians^ 
native and European* to the Australian contingent that landed at 
Suakin, and to tnc Canadian boatmen employ^ on the Nile, tn 
fact, not far short of fitly thousand of thtat medals have been 
struck, and the numbers issued have ckceeded that of any other 
medal with the exception of that i|iven tor ihc South African War. 
Seven clasps; " TebebKebir,'* " Suakin, 1884 "j " El-Teb Tamaai"; 
"The Nile, 1884^85"; "Abu Klea " ; "Gemaijah, 1888*': and 
" Toski, i88g/' were awarded to one officer, Major Beech, late loth 
Hussar Sh. who also received the Bronte Star wjib the clasp *' Tokar, 
18190," The medal with six clasps was earned by four men of (he 
t9th Husiars who wcr^ Lord Wolstlcy's ofderli<?s, and who afier 
ha vine earned the first five cUsps enumerated in Major Betch'i 
mcdau went with Lord Wolseley to Suakin and so eot the " Suakin. 
1885 " cUsp. 

29. Biyj>t Bronu Star, 1882-93.— Awarded by the Khedive 
1883. This decoration is in the shape of a five-pointed star (i'9 in. 
diameter) connected by a small star and crescent to a laurcated 
bar to which the ribbon is attached. Obverse: A front view of 
the Sphinx, with the desert and pyramids in the rear. Around 
a double band, upon which arc. above, EGYPT, 1882, and below, 
in Arabic, "Khedive of Egypt, 1299" (the Hegira date). In the 
second and third issues the dates are respectively altered to 18S4. 
1301 and 1884-86 and 1301-4; the fourth and fifth issues 
are dateless. Reverse: A large raised circle inside which is the 
Khedivial monogram, T. M. (Tewfik Mahomed), surmounted by 
a Crown and Crescent and Star. Ribbon: Dark blue (Plate I.). 
Clasps: TOKAR, 1890. 

This star was awarded for the same operations as was the British 
Egyptian medal above described, but, except for a few officers 
and men of the Royal Navy, the issue of the clasp TOKAR was 
confined to British and native officers and men of the Egyptian 
service. (H. L. S.) 

30. Canada, 1885. — Awarded by Queen Victoria. 1885. Obverse: 
Head of Oueen Victoria as on the West African (" Ashantre ") 
Medal. Reverse: NORTH WEST CANADA and date, within 
a maple leaf. Ribbon: Blue-grey, with a crimson stripe on each 
side (Plate H.). Clasp: SASKATCHEWAN. 

This medal, commemorative of services in the Riel Rebellion, 
was awarded to Canadian forces only. 

' Issued to the Royal Navy and Royal Marines only. 

' For combatants present at both actions. 

• Only claq> not issued to Royal Navy and Royal Marines. 



31. Camada iCemeral Srmce).— Awarded, 1899. Obverse: Head 
of Queen Victona. as in Third India G. S. Medal. Reverse: Within 

■ Hup'' I'-. . '■■!■...•. I :; .:..,:..■,..■, (.AN ^[v\. Ribbon: 

IM. »i!Th »*hUe ctnire f Plate [Lj. Clasfs; FEMAN RAID, 
i«06; FFlMAN RAID, 1870; RED RlVER> 1870. Ont batraLian 
of the Kiftg't Rjoy^l RiRei rvctsvif^ thiji med;il with the Red River 
Ctmp^ Oth^fwiie i^^duc confined to Can^didn rGixcs- 

ja, •• Oacrv's " Ssrfon, iflofr-t&^fl.— Awardifd bv ||^uecn Vit'oria, 
iS^ Obvprse: Half -length fffigy *iF Quwn Vkrioda hoTdifiK 
KTptrt, b^ Pv 5au]li?», ^« in ^^ llganda '' rm^dal dc^fcribcd b^low. 
Rfvfir^f : A wingH] ^^ictory, Mr^tcdt wiih, on rithcr hand, the 
Uiu^^K Jack and the Ecy^iiun fljg. The left hand holdsa buret 
«m4f>i, the rij^ht a palm branch. On a tnblet below, SUDAN^ 
Aod l^lo« thi^ Icytui kavt^L Ribbon: YlaSl blacky hall yellow, 
f^iridrd bv a Aarrow re^d stripe (Plai^ [.). Cbspsi none. 

Given tor the opera i ion* und<?r the command of Sr Herbert 
tLoidJ Kitclienef* which It-d to the rcconqgett of the Sudart^ (89* s 
fiBifiil in bronze to fQllpwert^ 

jj- '* J^WJiK'd ^* 5it^«, iH^B-r^oa— A*ard<*d by ihe Jthodivc 
li \^. Obvene: " Abtui Hlimi j1/' and date* in AttbicK Re- 
ivwi A trophy of arm& with a >hlcld ict the centn?^ on a tiibk't 
Wjjw " Rccc^vtry of the SutUfii** \n Armblc, Riblnjn: VVKow, 
*itb blirf cenift <Pbtc IK CU^p^: FIRKFIT* HAFJH. 5UDAN< 
1S97; *^LDAN, iSg«: ABU HAM ED, THE ATflAftA, KHAR^ 
TOUM CE:DAREF,i SUDAN, 1899;' SUDAN, 1000;* CEDID,' 

Tli» medaL w^as awarded to ^fficere and men of ifie Bnti^ Navy 
i«J Army, to il^ EfVpiijn Army engaged in thi; rcconquHt ^ 
fbe S«itiin aitd (in br^nje without claipn.) to fotlowc^rs. 

J4. Csp€ Celony Ctmfnt S^mke, t9Qq.— AwardttJ by the govern- 
Mai Cipe Cofowy* Obvcfit: Bu»i of Quctn Victoria 3i on the 

r Long Srrvice Meda.1. Revcr«: Arms of Cape Colony. 

Dark blur, with yellow «ntre (Pblc It,). Claap^; 
CdIbmI troops onty, fijr icrviccf in vanouit mi not ampaignf.. 

35. Mmtfbelctand. 184) (tilled the Rko4^iia Mc4tii I— Awarded 
by lie fttitijli Souih Akk* Company, i6y6, Obvcffc: fiutt of 
Qi9Pni Victona. RevrrMf: A (ighiin^ lion. Ribbon: Orance, 
wiih Ehrw dark btu«,- stripes fPlitc tl.). Clasps: RHODESf A 
and MASHONALAND. with dates. 

This ia the first war medal issued by a chartered company since 
the close of the Company's rule in India. It was awarded to British 
o& cc rs and men o( tne British service, to the Cape Mounted Rifles. 
Bechtfan^nd police, and the Chartered Company's own forces, 
e«^a4sed in the Matabeleland and Mashonaland Campaigns 1893, 
lS96and 1897. 

36. East and Central Africa, 1891-98. — Awarded by Queen 
\lctoria in 1895- Obverse and Reverse: as in West African (or 
orsriaal Ashantee) Medal described above. Ribbon: Terra-cot la, 
vbife and black stripes (Plate 11.). Cbsps: CENTRAL AFRICA, 
»*M-96; CENTRAL AFRICA, 1899. 

Tbis medal only differs from the West African in that it has a 
di fferent ribbon. It is suspended by a ring. Practically only the 
local forces (and of course tneir British officers) received this medal. 
B-jt a few officers and men of the Indian Army and of the Royal 
Navy have also received it. 

37. fffff<4«*< Central Africa, 1 899 ((Jke " Ufflnda" Medal).— Aytardcd 
by Queen Victoria in 1899. Obverse: Half-length cfiigy of Queen 
Victoria, by De Saulles.^ Reverse: Britannia with lion, gazing over 
a devert towards a rising sun. Ribbon: Half red, half yellow 
(PUte ID. Clasps: LUBWAS. UGANDA, 1897-98; UGANDA, 
i8m; UGANDA, 1900. 

Thus medal was awarded to the local forces and also to officers 
and mtn of the Indian Army and Royal Navy. 

38. Asiauti Star, 1896. — Awardeci by Queen Victoria in 1896. 
Obverse: An imperial crown with " Ashanti, 1896 " round it. 
Reverse: Inscribra " from the Queen." The star is four-pointed, 
aod is crosaed by a saltire or St Andrew's cross. Ribbon: Yellow 
with black stripes (Plate II.). 

This medal was issued for the expedition against Prempeh in 
1896. As there was no actual fighting, no medal was given, but 
sickness claimed many victims, amongst them Prince Henry of 
Battenberg. The decoration was issued to officers and men of 
Che British Army. Royal Navy and local troops. 

39. Ashanti Medal, 1900.— Awarded by King Edward VII. in 
Moi. Obverse: Head ami bust of King Edward VII. in the uniform 
of a field-marshal, by De Saulks. Reverse: a lion standing on a 
diff, in the background the rising sun. Ribbon: Green with black 
edKes and bUck central stripe (Plate II.). Clasp: KUMASSI. 

This medal was the first which was i»ucd with an effigy of King 
Edward VII. It was given only to bCal forces, and the British 
odkrrs employed on the staff or in commands. 

40. Afhca General Service, 1^9- .—Awarded by King 
Edward VII. in 1002. Obverse: As in Ashanti Medal of 1900. 
Revcne: As in "^Uganda" Medal above described. Ribbon: 
YeSow. vith black edges and two narrow green stripes (Plate 11.). 
Clasps: N. NIGERIA, with various dates ;S. NIGERIA, with various 

' Awarded to Egyptian Army ojiJy. 

dalts; UGANDA, l«w: TlfBALAND, GAM BIA. LANGO, 1901 and 
i9dj: IIDBALLf, KlSSf, loog^ SfJ MALI LAND, 1901 and 1902-04: 
BRITISH CENTRAL AFRICA, 1^99-1900; A ROT 1901-02: 

Thi$ mfditl rtprewnis an almc^^t incessant warfare of a minor, 
bui exacting, naiunv In the fin^i eighteen months, eleven clasps 
were aw9jpdc<l, aome awards beimt; of course retrospective. Tne 
clasp "Jubaland" is chiefly a award, but all the rest are 
almost cKcJuiivcly earned by thf \V<!8t African Frontier Force and 
the KingV African Rifl«L U ia worthy of remembrance, however, 
thjt a contingent of Boer mounted riflemen took part in the Somali- 
bnd Campaign, withiji one year of the peace of Vereeniging. and 
rectived the medal sn6 cLj^p The ''^Somaliland, 1902-1904 " 
cbsp repretcntn indeed a con I ! ^ : ' campaign in which contingents 
from Great Britain and fji ■ iart. 

41. "Queen's" South African, 1 899-1 002.— Awarded by King 
Edward VII. in 1901 shortly after Queen Victoria's death. Obverse: 
Bust of Queen Victoria, by De Saulles. Reverse: Britannia holding 
an outstretched laurel wreath towards a body of troops, in the 
background a coast line, the sea and war-ships. Ribbon: Centre 
orange bordered with blue, outside edgea red (Plate II.). Cbsps; 
see below. 

l;ix !^^... ;i„ ' medal for troip* tJi^.j.;^U in the South Afntan 
War was aothonzed, shortly alter Queen Vietorb'* death, by 
Army Order 94 of 1901. it wa* given "to all officers, warranl 
offictits, non^^ommiEAioned officers and men, of the Britiih, Indian 
sntj C^ilonbl for ecu, and to all Nar-ye* and Nursing Sisters, who 
actu^^tly served in South Africa between nth of October iflog, and 
a date to be fixed hereafter " (the w^r not being concluded) ^' 10 all 
itoops stationed In CapeCiilony and Natal at the outbreak of ho^titi- 
tie*, and to troops stationed at St Helena beiwevrt the iJth of April 
1909, and a dale to be fixed hereafter." The bst provision shows 
a wideninff of the *ignifie,»iion hiihcrto attaching to '* war service/' 
fot the tn^op^ at St Helena were employed in euardiAg Boef 
priMiners. The A-0. trf erred 10 was SLipplenientctr bv ol^er* in 
1^1 and tqoj. Claspa wure authoriied as follows: BELMONT 
iNov. It, r899>l MODDER RfVER (Nov. xU. iM); PAARDE- 
RERG (Feb. 17-^6, 1900); DREIFONT^.IN (M^irch )o, rooo>r 
WEPEIMER (April 9-«, I900h JOHANNESBL'RG (May ». 
igoo); DIAMCJnD MUL (June it-)3, 1900); BELFAST 
thus. ^-27. 1900) J WITTEBERGEN Otily 1-^9^ tgoo}\ DE. 
M:<?rE OF KfMBERLEV fOci, V4, iS^p Feb. rsT 1900); 
^I'MJ^f^i^^ .^1^^^- '^" i«92^May J7- I9«>)3 RELIEF OF 
MAI kKlNG (May 17, 19M>);TALANA (Oct, so, (899); ELANDS- 
(Nov. 3. iB^^^— Feb. 28, igoo)i TUG EL A HEIGHTS (Feb. u- 
27, 1900)^ RELIEF OF LADVSMITH (Dec. t^, ,tor>--Feb. sV 
Kjr«); LAINCS NEK fftane 3-9 ^ looo). Cb^p*: for 
DEShV wtTv liven to troopii who served within the Umiti of tb» 
rcspcctire colonies and itaics named during the war, without 
Iwinp pneftent at any action, fouitht inside Those limit*, for whicb 

a Cb^p was aWnird'vl ■N^rin-nlUp.fl ii|,.n. r.f ,..1, ^i.-VM- ^;v!>--v^l'v, 

who dri;* niilli,:--- ■ : . j 

of *ilviir ;ind \ft . . „ _ : _..J 

were sent to Mediterranean stations to release the regulars "for 
field service were awarded (Feb. 1902) the medal without clasp, 
"Mediterranean" being substituted for "South Africa" on the 
reverse. This was not, of course, issued to any one entitled to the 
Queen's Medal for Sodth Africa. 

43. The " King's " South African Medal was awarded by King 
Edward VII. in 1902, to be worn in addition to the "Queen s " by 
those who completed eighteen months' service in South Africa 
during the war. On the obverse of the medal is the effiey of King 
Edward, by De Saulles (as on the " Ashanti, 1900," Nledal); the 
reverse is the same as that of the "Queen's" Medal. Ribbon: 
Green, white and orange (Plate II.). The two clasps awarded 
were, in accordance with the terms of the award, general in character, 
to wit, SOUTH AFRICA, 1901 and SUJi I Jl Ai KICA, 1903, 

44. China, 1900.— Awarded by Kins* Edward VII., tooj. Ob- 
verse: Bust of Queen Victoria as on "Outtn's" Sgyth Afrkaa 
Medal. Reverse: As on first China ^^'fJL^X but with date ahefed. 
Ribbon: As in first China Medal (PI iec L). Cbios; DEFENCE 

This medal was issued to the Royal Navy (including some Noval 
volunteers), British and Indian Arnuii, and the (Wei bai-Wet) 
Chinese Regiment, for operations rtnring ihe Bojier rebctlien. 
This was the bst war medal, as the '^ F^ ■ ' hir^, " ■ -- "^■/ ''"t 
to bear Queen Victoria's effigy. Sir E. H. Seymour, the commander 
of the Tientsin relieving column, who had taken part in the former 
China War, received the new medal as well as the old. 

45. India, 1895 (Third India General Service).— Awarded by 

?ucen Victoria in 1896. Obverse: Bust of Queen Victoria, by 
. Brock. R.A. Reverse: A British and Indian soldier supporting 
a standard; below, INDIA, 1895. Ribbon: Three red and two 
green stripes of equal width (Plate 1.). Clasps: DEFENCE OF 
1898; PUNIAB FRONTIER, 1898; TIRAH, \89i\ TV^NW, 
1898; VVAZfRISTAN, 1901-02. 
The ribhoa of this medal is perViaps moc« li«c^u<:u\\^ ves.'a >2DA.tL 



that of any other British war medal except those (or South Africa. 
In 1903 the medal was re-issued with the military effigy of King 
Edward VII. (as on the Ashanti, 1900, medal) on the obverse, 
and the date was omitted from the reverse. The medal is issued 
in bronze, without clasps, to followers. 

46. Tibetf 1903-04. — Awarded by King. Edward VII in 1905. 
Obverse: Military effigy of the king as on A&hanti, 1900, ni«ial. 
Reverse: a representation of the Potala at Lhasa. Ribbon: 
Purple-red. edged with green and white stripes (Plate 11.). Clasp: 

47. India, 1908. — A new India General Service Medal was 
autnorizcd in i9pS, to take the place of the medal granted by A.O. 
43 of 1903. This was to be issued in silver to officers and 
men, and m bronze to non-enlisted men of all sorts. This medal 
with clasp bearing the name and date was given to the troops 
whkh took part in the North Western Frontier Expedition of I90<B. 
The ribbon u dark blue edged with green. 

48. Transport if «iai.— Awarded by King Edward VII. in 1002. 
Obverse: Head and bust of the king in naval uniform, bv De Saulles. 
Reverse; A steamer at sea. and the five continents. Ribbon: red, 
with two thin stripes near the edge (Plate II.). Clasps: SOUTH 
AFRICA, 1899-1902; CHINA, 1900. This medal is restrkted to 
officers of the mercantile marine serving in chartered troo(>-shi|3s. 
It is a sort of general service medal, clasps being added as earned. 
Up to 1910 only the above clasps had been authorized. 

49. Polar Medal (or Antarctic JIfrJa/).— Awarded by King 
Edward VII., 1004. Obverse: Naval effigy of the king as on 
Transport Medaf. Reverse: In the foreground a sledge and travel- 
lers, in the background the steamer " Discovery " (Capt. R. F. Scott's 
Expedition, 1904). Ribbon: As for ist and and Arctic Medals, 
white (Plate I.). The medal, like the 1st Arctic Medal, is octagonal. 

First awarded to officers and men of the " Discovery," whether 
belonging to the Royal Navy or not. It is given with a dated clasp 
for Antarctic exploration service. 

Other Medals and Decorations. — The above forty-nine medals 
are given as rewards for participating in the operations they 
commemorate, and issued generally to all concerned, irrespective 
of individual distinction or bravery. There are other classes 
of medals and decorations, civil as well as military, which must 
be grouped with them, as being allied in character. These 
are either (i.) awards personal to the recipient, being an acknow- 
ledgment of or reward for special individual services or good 
conduct (these are civil as well as military in respect of awards 
for bravery), or (ii.) awards that are simply of a commemorative 
kind, though worn as war medals and for the most part given 
to officers and soldiers. The more important of these two 
classes will be named. Orders given for service are dealt with, 
for the most part in the article Kmicutuood; but particulars 
are given here of certain distinctively military orders that 
have no knighthood rights and duties, and indeed little meaning 
apart from the deeds or services which led to the award— being 
so to speak, records of the past, rather than badges of a present 
membership. Individual decorations for services may be 
classed as (i.) for gallantry, (ii.) for special merit, and (iii.) 
for long service and good conduct. 

1. Indian Order of Merit. — Awarded by H.E.I. Company and 
notified by CO. of governor-general, April 17. 1837. Obverse: 
1st Class — A Gold Star, i| in. diameter; in the centre, in gold on 
a ground of dark blue enamel, crossed swords within a circle around 
which is the legend, REWARD OF VALOUR, the whole encircled 
by a gold laurel wreath. 2nd Class — Star similar to that of 1st 
Class, out in silver. Wreath and centre as in 1st Class. 3rd Class — 
Star exactly similar to that of 2nd Class, but the wreath and centre 
in silver, and dark blue enamel and silver, rcs|)ectively. Reverse: 
Engraved isi, 2nd and 3rd Class Order of Merit, respectively, but 
the name of the recipient is not engraved on the decoration when 
issued. Ribbon: Dark blue, with red edges. This decoration is 
to be obtained only by a " conspicuous act of individual gallantry " 
in the field or in the attack or defence of fortified places. It is 
open to all native officers or soldiers of the Indian Army, " without 
distinction of rank or grade." The 3rd Class is bestowed for the 
first act of gallantry for which the recipient is recommended. The 
2nd Class is given only to those who possess the third, and for a 
second act of conspicuous gallantry. The ist Class is given onlv 
to those who holcf the 2nd, and for a third act of bravery. A 
recipient of the decoration receives an additional allowance equivalent 
in the 3rd Class to one-third, in the 2nd to two-thirds, and in the 
1st to the whole of the ordinary pay of his rank, over and above 
that pay or his pension. The widow (in the case of plurality of 
wives, the first married) receives the pension of the Order for three 
years after her husband's death. 

2. Victoria Crow.— Instituted by Royal Warrant, January 29, 
^S^A A bronze Maltese Cross, \\ in. diameter, with, in th« 

ceatre, the Royal Crest (lion and crowo), and below it a scroll 

jMcribed ^*FOR VALOUR." There is a bronze laureated bat 
lor auftpeDsion, connected with the cross by a V. The reverse is 
plain, but the namt, rank and corps of the recipient are engraved 
oil the back ol the laureated bar. Ribbon: Red for the army; 
blue far the navv. Clasp: For every additional act of bravery 
a cl34p, braiing the due of such act. may be awarded. 

Nothing save " the merit of conspicuous bravery " ^ives claim 
for [he deooj^tiofi, and it must be evinced by " some sienal act of 
vabur or devotion to their country " periormed " in ute presence 
fij (he enemy" (The regulation italicized was for a short time 
abTO|aied> but soon n stored to force.) The orieinal Royal Warrant 
hai been bupplcmi-nicd by various Royal V^rrants (Ckrt. 1857, 
Aug. and Di'c, 1858, Jan, 1867, April and Aug. 1881), and now 
fvcry E^ide and rank of all ranks of all branches of His Majesty's 
i-Drce«. BriLJ&h and Colonial, are eligible, with the single exception 
of native ranks oE the Indian army, who have an equivalent decora- 
tion in their own Order of Merit In the case of recipients who 
are not c^ comcni^^ioried rank, the Cross carries with it a pension 
of £10 a yt4r» and an additional £5 a vear for each clasp. A larger 
grant i» lomctinics {^iven to holders of the V.C. who are in need of 
mon«-iary htlp. In all, up to 1904, the Cross was awarded to 521 
rcripienti t^f^cludinj; 15 posthumous awards). 

3< PijJiiJifunW CLflBtfiic/ in the Field {ArmyS. — Instituted by 
Roval Warrant H Stpitmber 30, 1862. Obverse: A military trophy, 
idltn* tit The cctitre, ihe Royal Arms (as in the Long Service and 
r.ood Conduct Mi-^iils). Reverse: inscribed "FOR DISTIN- 
GUISHED CON DUCT IN THE FIELD." Ribbon : Three stripes 
equal, niidiK* out^ltli;! red. centre blue (Plate II.). Clasp: Royal 
Warrant, 7tK of February 1881, authorized award of clasps for 
subsfqueni acEi of gallantry. 

" individual acts of distineuished conduct in the field in any 
part of the warld " entitle to this medal, and only non-commissioned 
officers and men of the British forces are eligible for the award. 
Priof to ill initltution, distinguished gallantry was rewarded by 
the " Merilorious Service " medal. Single clasps have been con- 
iianity conrcrred* and there is more than one case of a recipient 
hn vi n^ earncK] 1 wo c1:t s^pa to his medal. 

4. Aibfrt Medal {ior saving life at sea). — Instituted by Royal 
Warrant » 7ih of Marth 1866. Gold oval badge, enamelled in dark 
blue, with a foonogram composed of the letters V and A, inter- 
laced wUh an anchor erect, all in gold, surrounded with a garter 
in bronfc.% instriWd in raised letters of gold " FOR GALLANTRY 
IN SAVE KG LIFE AT SEA," and surmounted by a representation 
tA the crowii of the prince consort, the whole edged with %cM. 
Ribbtin; dark blLje» with two white stripes. Clasps are awarded 
for any subsequent acts of bravery. By a subsequent Royal 
VVarrant of the j 3ih df April 1867, the decoration was reconstituted 
in two claises. as follows. 1st Class — Badge precisely as already 
described. Ribbon L Dark blue, with fow white stripes (ii in. 
wide:). Cbjbp€: As authoriaed in original warrant. 2nd Class — 
Badge exactly simibr to that of the ist Class, except that it is 
entirely worked in b^Dnze, instead of sold and bronae. Ribbon: 
Dark bluct with ^bv white stripes. Clasps: As authorized for 
i»[ Cla!». 

The decoration » awarded only to thoae who "have, in sa%ang 
Of i-ndcavDuring to mvc the lives of others from shipwreck or other 
peril of the sea, embngered their own lives." The ist Class is 
confined " to cases o\ extreme and heroic daring "; the 2nd for acts 
whieh. though great courage may be shown, ^' are not sufficiently 
diitinBul$h<-J to descrM^c " the 1st Class of the decoration. 

5. Netn Zealand Crpj*.— Instituted by an Order of the governor 
of N'ew Zealand jn council. loih of March, 1869. Silver Maltese 
Croas with ^old $rar on each of the four limbs and in the centre, 
in a circle within a gold laurel wreath, NEW ZEALAND. Above 
the Cross a crown iit gold, and connected at the top by a V, to a 
iilver bsT ornamented with laurel in gold. The name of recipient 
i^cngravLd on fevcfse. Width of Cross, \\ in. Ribbon: Crimson. 
(Tbip;!^ Authorised for subsequent acts of valour. In authorizing 
this decoration Sir G. F. Bowen. the then governor, went outside 
hb authority, but the queen ratified the colonial order in council, 
and intimatfd '" Her gracious desire that the arrangements made 
by it may be considered as established from that date by Her. 
direct authority." It was, however, stipulated that the occasion 
was in no way to form a precedent. The award was to be for those 
"who may particubriy distinguish themselves by their bravery 
In action, or devotion to their duty while on service," and only 
local "Militia, Volunteers or Armed Constabulary" were to be 
eligible^ In all only nineteen of these decorations were awarded. 
No clasps were awarded. . 

6h ConipkuQuy Gallantry fiVary).— Instituted by an Order of 
the quern in Courtcil. 7th of July, 1 874. Obverse: Head of Queen 
Victoria, by W. Wyon, R.A. (as on China Medal). » . Rewfse.- A 
laurel wruath, and within FOR CONSPICUOUS GALLANTRY. 
Above, a 4rrown* Ribbon: Three stripes of equal width, outside 
blue, centre white (Plate II.). Clasps: none authorized. 

To reward *'acis of pre-eminent bravery m Action with the 
Enemy/' Only petty officers and seamen of the Royal Navy, 

» Now Daval effigy of King Edward VII.. as 00 Transport Service 



SiAgCra t.uhi, Co . BMt'*'« ^' V 



iad ooo-oommiHaoiwd oflkcn and privstet of the Rofyal Marines, 
ue eligible for thb decontion. Prior to the institutioii of thb 
decoratioa, acts of gallantry by sailors and marines weire rewarded 
by the same medal as that given to the army before the " medal 
for disunguisbed conduct in the field " was instituted, vix. the 
"Meritorious Service " mcdaL If the bolder be a Chief or First 
Que Petty OfBcer, or a Sergeant of Marines, the award carries 
with it an annuity of £20 per annum; and if a recipient's service 
ends before his reaching one of those ranks, he may receive a 
gratuity of £20 on discharge. 

7. AlbeH Medal (for saving life 00 land).— Instituted by Royal 
Warrant. 30th of April i877> 1st Class— Similar to that of the 
1st Class for savins life at sea. but the enamelling is in red 
instead of blue, ana there is no anchor interlaced witn the mono- 
mm V.A. Ribbon: Crimson, with four white stripes. Claras: 
tor subsrouent acts of same character, and Class — Badge similar 
to that oc the and Class for saving;^ life at sea, but the enamelling 
is in red instcssd of blue, and there is no anchor interlaced with the 
monogram V.A. Ribbon : Crimson, with two - white stripes. 
Clasps: As authorised for 1st Class. 

The conditions governing the award of this decoration are the 
ume that govern the award for saving life at sea. Originally the 
award was restricted to acu of gallantry performed within British 
dominions, but this restriction was removed by Royal Warrant, 
5th of June 1905* 

8. Distintuisked Condtut in Ike Fidd (CeWotim/)-— Instituted by 
a Royal Warrant. 24th of May 1894, which was later cancelled 
and supeneded by Royal Warrant, jist of Mav 1895. Obverse: 
same as " Distinsruishcd Conduct in the Field " (Army). Reverse: 
same as " Army medal, but with the name of the colony inscribed 
above the words " For Distinguished Conduct in the Field." 
RiUwn: Crimson, \(rith a line oi the colonial colour in the centre. 
Clasps: Authorized for subsequent acts of valour, Eveiv colony 
or FHTotectorate, havii^ permanently embodied forces, draws up 
r^ulatiotts to govern the issue of these medals as puit its own 
particular requirements, but in all essentiab these regulations are 
modelled on those that govern the award of the Distinguished 
Conduct in the Field (Army). 

9. CcHspiemcus Sentu Cross. — Instituted by an Order in Council. 
15th of June 1901. Stiver cross, with the reverse side plain; on 
the obverse, in the centre, the imperial and Royal Cypher, E.R.I.. 
surmounted by the imperial crown. Ribbon: Three stripes equal 
width, outside white, centre blue. CHasps: none authorized. 

This award is to recognize " Distinguished Service before the 
Enemy." Its grant is confined to '^Warrant Officers or Sub- 
ordinate Officers " of the Royal Navy. Such, not being of " lower- 
deck rating." are not eligible for the " Conspicuous (Gallantry " 
medal: also. they. " by reason of not holding a commission in the 
Ro>al Navy, arc not eligibk to any existing Order or DecoiBtion." 

10. Edward Medal. — Founded in 1907 to reward acts of courage 
in saving life in mines, this medal was extended in 1909 (R.W. 
Dec. 3) so as to be awarded " to those who in course of industrial 
employment endanger their own lives in saving or endeavouring 
to save the lives 01 others from perils incurred in connexion with 
such industrial employment." 

Certain important medaU and decorations for saving life 
are not the gift of the Crown. These are allowed to be worn 
in uniform on the right breast. They are the medals of the 
Royal Humane Society, those given by the Board of Trade 
for gallantry in saving life at sea, the medals of the Royal 
National Lifeboat Institution, those of the Shipwrecked Fisher- 
men and Mariners' Royal Benevolent Society, Lloyd's Honorary 
Silver Medal, Liverpool Shipwrecked and Humane Society's 
Medals, and the Sunhope Gold Medal. 

All these are suspended from a dark blue ribbon with the exception 
of the medals of the S.F. and M. Roya^ Benevolent S^itlv, vhkh 
has a light blue ribbon, and the StsnhD[je GbU] Medial whirh hdi 
a broad dark blue centre, edged with yellow^ ai^d bUcW borJpn, 
These medals are usually struck in lilver or bmnze^ but DCcasionall^ 
gold medals are awarded. The Stanhope C^ld M^fidl b annuAUy 
awarded for the most gallant of all the acts of rvifue for T^hich 
the society have awarded medals during the vtan Thi* award has 
been frequently earned by oflicera or men 01 iJnr Rtiyat Navy, tt 
is, in fact, the " Victoria Cross " of awards of this character. 

The following are decorations for special merit:— 

I. Order of British India. — Instituted by General Order of 
(Governor-General of India. 17th of April 1837. 1st Class— A 
pdd star of eight pdnts radiated, if in. in diameter, between 
the two top points the crown of England. In the centre, on a 
rround of fight blue enamel, a gold lion statant. within a band of 
dark blue enamel, containing in gold letters ORDER OF BRITISH 
INDIA, the whole encircled by a gold laurel wreath. The whole 
i»nn from the ribbon by a gold loop attached by a rins to the top 
if the crown, and is worn round the neck, outside the uniform. 
Itlbfaon: originally sky-blue, changed to crimson 1838. and Cliss — 
(ioU star similar to that of the 1st Class, but smaller. 1 1 in. diameter. 

and without the crown. The centie also Is similar to that of the 
1st Cfaus star, but the enamelling is all dark blue. Suspended and 
worn as in the 1st Class. Ribbon: As in ist CTlasa. 

This, the highest miliury distinctbn to which in the ordinary 
course native oJScers of the Indian Army can attain, and confined 
to them, is a reward for k>ng, honourable and specially meritorious 
service. The 1st Class is composed exclusively of officers of and 
above the rank of Subadar in the artillery and infantry, or of 
a correspondii^ rank in the other branches of the service. The 
and Class is open to all native commissioned officers, irrespective 
of their rank. Originally the order was limited to 100 in the 
1st Class and the same number in the and, but it now comprises 
315 in the ist Class and 32^ in the and Class. Officers in the 
1st Class are entitled to the title of " Sirdar Bahadur." and receive 
a daily alh>wance of two rupees in addition to the pay. allowances 
or pension of their rank, while those of the and Class are styled 
" Bahadur," and receive an extra one rupee per diem. 

a. Ability and Good Condtut. — Instituted in 184a. Obverse: 
A paddle-wheel steamship. Reverse: Crown and anchor, and 
None authorized. 

No official documents as regards the institution of this decoration 
are now to be found at the Admiralty, but only engineers were 
eligible for the award, and it carried no gratuity or annuity. Only 
six were ever awarded. When, in 1847. engineers were raised to 
the rank of warrant officers, the issue of this decoration was dit- 
continocd. It had a ring for suspension, and was probably worn 
with the narrow navy blue ribbon of the " Long Service and Good 
(Conduct " medal of the period. 

3. Meritorious Service (Army and Royal Marines). — Iiistituted 
by Royal Warrant, 19th December 18^5, for army only: grant 
extended to Royal Marines by Order in Council, i^th January 
1849. Obverse: Head of Queen Victoria as on China medal.' 
Reverse: FOR MERITORICJUS SERVICE, within a laurel wreath, 
Ritibon: Crimsofi for atwy (Pbie 11.)^ navy blue for Royal 
Marines. Only non-cam missioned offiecn of or above the rank 
of sergeant are eliifible for thia decoration. It carries with it an 
annuity not eiceedini^ £jd per annum; bt^t^ as the total sum avail- 
able IS icrictly limited, the number cf the% medals that is issued 
IS nmall, and a non-com mk^iqEied ol^ici^r who is recommended may 
have to wrait many yean bcfcire hi^ ttjrn comes and he rec^ves 
the award. The qualiftcation for rccotnmendation is long, efficient 
and meritoriaui sen'ice, and need not necciidrily, although in many 
€as€% it dnes, include any special di^pU^ of personal gallantry in 
action. For many yean the " mentoraous service " medal was 
Considered to cancel the *' tung service and good conduct " medal, 
but bv ArO. 7^0 of rqoa both medals can bo worn together.' 

)[. The Dislirtiuiihfd Servue Ordtr (see Knighthood) is given 
y to oRi€cr9 (and n^vaJ and ntilkary a/Fuials of officer rank, not 
incmdin]; Indian native oflicersj Inr ^rvices in war. Often it is 
the reward of actual conapicuous ^lUntry under fire, but its purpose, 
a& defined in the Royal Warmnt in&iittiting the order, is to reward 
'' individual instances of meritorious or ^listinguishcd service in 
war; " and the eame document declan^ that only those shall be 
eligible who have been menLianed *' in iJ^f patches for meritorious 
or diatin{;ui!jhed service in the Aeld^ or |jt:fc>re the enemy." In the 
main, therefore, it is awarded for specijl -M^rviccs in war, and not 
necessarily under Hre; and all hough the ii<?ryiccs rewarded are as 
a lace generally renderefl in action, the onlcr is in no sense a sort 
of second riass ol the Victoria Cntjss. Like the latter, the Dis- 
tinj;ui*hed Service Order in generally refLTixJ to by its initials. 

5. Thf Jfoyai /?^d Crati is al^i !\t] Membership is re- 
stricted to women (not necessarily British subjects), and is given as 
a reward for naval or military nursing service. Instituted 1883. 

6. The Kaisar-i-Hind Medal is given Tor public services in India. 

7. The Volunteer Officers' Decoration. — Instituted in 1892. An 
oval of silver, crossed at intervals with gold, in the centre the 
monogram V.R. and crown in gold. Worn from a ring. Ribbon: 
Dark green. 

This decoration was instituted in 1892. and is the reward of 
twenty vcars* service in the commissioned ranks of the volunteer 
force. It is generally called the " V.D. " Since the conversion of 
the Volunteer into the Territorial Force (1908) it has been replaced 
of the Royal Naval Reserve ami of the Royal Naval Volunteer 
Reserve arc elifi^ble for a similar decoration (1910). 

8. The Long Service and Good Conduct (Army) Medal was instituted 
in iSti. Obverse: A trophy of arms.* Reverse: FOR LONG 
SERVICE AND GOOD CONDUCT. Ribbon: Crimson, as for 
" Meritorious Service " medal (Plate II.). 

This is a reward for " long service with irreproachable character 
and conduct," the qualifying period of service being 18 years. _^ 

* Now naval effigy of King Edward VII., as on Transport Service 

• Other " Meritorious " or " Long Service " medab worn with 
a crimson ribbon are the former Long Service medal of the H.E.I. 
Company's European troops and the Meritorious and Long Service 
medals of the Indian Native Army. 

' Now replaced by military effigy of King Edward VI I. 



9^ Tb« Lffng Sertke and G^k>d Conduct (Kwy) Utdol wur In* on the nvervc u CAmpcnH ol C^^ An ueIc pcTrlipd tin a cajmoil, 
:^.fc-j !_ .a.. ii:i.i„_, &♦.._ ^j.i. >..u:** _**^ rm^,^ ir I *uppf>fu?d by fivT it^ndftrdi (typifyiag the five great wars o* the 

sdtutjed in i§t[. Ribbon: Blur, with white idgm (PlAU IL). 

10. The Vkunte^ Lmt Serwi^t Afe^jJ,— Ift*titutftl ta 1894. 
Has a gri-pn nhbon. Obwersfr; Effley cff Qar*i\ Victona. Revcft*; 
A MrrolT wiihln a wfrcath, infrrihwl FOR LONG SERVICE IN THE 
VOLUNTEER FORCE. Re^^bKcd by tbe TirrHerisl Ung ^nk4 
Mtdal (iqoS). of which the nhbon i* (t«*ri with a ytUow centre i 
*iid I he obvcne a buit of the king. The Militia Lmi Service 
M^dal (1004) ha* a Xi^ht. blue dbboo, the tmberiai Yeam&nrj Loni 
Semee MfJai s. yulbw ribbon^ ibe Hmtn^ahU AftiUery C(mpanf*t 
Uedid m. blaclct "^ aQ^ yeilow ribboiL All thcK a» ihown on 
PUte II.« 

11. The Medal for the Best Shot in the Army was instituted in 
1869 Obverse: Bust of Queen Victoria (now effigy of King 
Edward VII.). Reverse: A^ winged Victory crowning a warrion 
Ribbon: Red. with two narrow blaclc stripes on each edge, the 
two black stripes being divided by a narrow white one. There is 
also a ** Best Shot " Medal for the Indian Native Army, which 
has an orange ribbon. 

I a. The Medal for JVaM/CimfKry was instituted ini903. Ribbon: 
Red centre, flanked by two narrow white stripes, two broad blue 
stripes at edges (Plate II.). 

Amongst medals of the last class may be mentioned the Jubilee 
Medals of 1887 and 1807, the Coronalion Medal of 1902. the Royal 
Vietorian Medal (this, however, b a sort of sixth class of the Royal 
Victorian Order, for whkh see Knightb<5oo) and the medals 
awarded for Durban^ 

United States.— The war medals and decorations of the 
United States, although few in number, are interesting, as 
they follow a peculiar system in the colours of the ribbons. 

The primripl militapy decoration of (he United Statei is the 
" Medal of Honor/' which iwas founded for the reward of unusud 
bfwery or ftpecLst good conduct during the Civil War. in it» 
inncnt form it is a five- pointed star* with a iiiedaElion in the 
centre bearing a head of Mmerva and ffiand it UNITED isTATES 
OF AMERICA in relief. On each ray nf the itar la an oak-leaf, 
aod the pciint* themscJvrt arc trefoil shaped. A laurcf wreath, 
in |;re<rn onaentl. cncinrln the whole, and ihid wreath u «tirniouiitcd 
by VALOR, which in turn is surmouniLtl by an eagk that attajchct 
tnt decointion to its ribboiu Thb last 1^ bme^ with thirtnrn while 
star* worlccd on it in ailk* Accompany; njii: this decoration there is 
a badge or bpel hutf(?n, hri^igonal, and mid'^ of bhi-^ ^ilk with the 
thirteen stjrt \n v:\y\n\ 

The original form of the decoration had no encircling wreath; 
CD the rays, instead of the oak-leaves, were small wreaths of laurel 
and oak, and the design in the central medallion was a figure of 
Minerva standing, with her left hand resting upon a consul's fasces 
and her right waging off with a shield the figure of Discord. The 
bacl^round was formed by thirty-four stars. The decoration 
was surmounted by a trophy of crossed guns, swords, &c., with 
eagle above, and the ribbon was designed of the national colours, 
as follows: thirteen alternate red and white stripes, and across 
the ribbon at the top a broad band of blue (palewiae gules and 
argent and a chief azure). The ribbon, was attached to the coat 

&f a clasp badge bearing two cornucopias and the arms of the 
.S. The present decoration does not have this badge, but a 
nispendcd from a concealed bar brooch. 

Another special decoration is the " Merit " Medal. This bears 
on the obvcrK an eagle, surrounded by the inscription VI RTVTIS 
reverse the inscription FOR MERIT, surrounded by an oak-leaf 
wreath; in the upper part of the exeigue b UNITED STATES 
ARMY, in the lower thirteen stars. The ribbon b red. white and 
blue, in six stripes, two red stripes divided by a fine white line 
in the centre, two white on cither side of the red and two blue 
forming the two outer edges. 

We come now to the war medab proper, issued generally to all 
those who took part in the events commemorated. 

The Civil War Medal bears on the obverse the portrait of Lincoln, 

United Statei )> rifle*. Indian shiFld. apcar and arrow*, Filipino 
dag&{terdi%d Cuban machete; Ih'i be Vow tnti tniphy the words FOR 
SERVICE; (tj in exergue, abovu. UNITED STATES ARMV, 
below, thirteen stars. 

Ribboft of the tndtati Medal, vermilion, with deep red ed^ei. 

The " WiLr with Spain *' Medol bears on the obverse a cattle 
with two flmkinK tower*; tn ej(crEut, above. WAR WITH SFAIN^ 
bekiw. the date i&r^, with, oil one ude of it , a branch of the tobacco- 
platiCt and on. the other a vu^r-canci^ Revcf^c: A» for '* Indian 
War&" MedaL K^hboo: Centre Kolden -yellow, with two red 
stripes d»e to the edges, the edges themsclvis being narrow s^rtpci 
of blue. 

The " PhitippLne Iiuurrection " Medal bean on the obverse « 
eoco-nut palm tree. with, on the left of it, a lamp (typifying En- 
liizhtenmeFir). and on the right a balance (repre*entiinE Justice}, 
This ij encireled by the Initription PHILIPPI NE 1N5U RRECTlON 
1894. The ribbon is blue, with two red ctripea near the edgek 
Reverie: As in " I ad ian Wan *\ MedaL 

Another medal eonnected with the Filipino) insuTrection i» the 
do-called '* CoFi£re99ionaL ** Medals vhich was designed to com memo- 
rate the pttrticipation in' the war of r^vUr» and volunteers^ North- 
'rnen and Southefncj^* nd* by sidew On the obvrne is a colour- 

surrounded by an inscription taken from his famous Second Inau- 
FOR ALL. On the reverse b the inscription THE CIVIL WAR. 

1861 -1865 surrounded by a wreath of oak leaves and olive branches. 
The ribbon b somewhat similar to that last described; the blue 
stripe, however, is in the centre, divided as before by a white line, 
and the red stripes form the outer edges. 

The " Indian Wars " Medal b interesting from the fact that its 
reverse was copied on other medals, thb making it, in a sense, a 
" general service " medal. On the obverse b a mounted Indian 
in war costume bearing a spear, in the upper part of the exergue 
INDIAN WARS, in the lower a buffalo's skull with arrow-heads 
on either side. What we have called the " general service ^ design 

* By Royal Warrant of 31st of May 1895. medals both for 
dbtinguished conduct in the field and tor long service were author- 
ized to be awarded by the various colonies possessinj; regular or 
vcJu nteer troops, " under regulations similar, as fat as circumstances 
/>ermic. to thoae aotimnking for Our Regular and Auxiliary Forces." 

party of infuntry with ihe natioftsJi flag, the fly uf the tlag e^tendinc 
almost to the cdfire of the mwht, Bulow \*. the date. 1099. and 
above, in a semicircle* PHILfPf-lNE IN'lJUkRErTlON/ The 

reverie has the inscription FOR PATRIOTISM, FORTITl^DE 
ASI> LOYALTY, suiTogiidcd bv a wreath of oik lL'av« ((ypifjing 
the N^irthV and pilm bc»nche» (typifying the South). The ribboa 
it blue, edfed by narrow stripes of the n^ttonat ccJours, the blue 
)x\^t n^areit the ed^e and the red nGimt the centre. 

The " Chitia f^tef " Medal bears 00 the obvt-rw a Chinese 
dm son, turrounded by the inseription CHINA RELIEF EX- 
PEDITION, and at bottom^ the date i^oo-t. Reverse: As for 
'Mndian Wars" niedal. Ribbon: Leraon~>-ellow, with narrow 
blue ed^ei. 

It is interesting to note that in the case oC two of the« medals 
the natioiul csotour* of the enemy (Spain and China] furnish thore 
of the ribbon. The national colour^ adopied by the Filifiini^ were 
ted atvij blue* ond these also heuie^ in spite 01 thctr ^imiiariiy^ to 
the U-S. ry]:tianal colours, on the ribbons of the '' Fitipino " and. 
" CongresiMEjnii '" Medal ji. The Indian ribbon is, &imilarl^', of the 
coltHtr of the enemy's war paint^-^vermllion. Bee, for illustr^tioru 
and further details of all these medals and decorations, Joufmaloi 
the \U.S\ Miiitary Servkt Imtiitttiim, May^June 1409. Some of 
the bodges oC membenhip ol aMociarions of vetenn^, sueh a*, the 
Loyal Legion, are allowed to be worn as war m^'dali in uniform. 
The '* Re*eue " Medal, in gpld or advert is awarded for bravery in 

Other Countries.-rAB has been mentioned above, foreign 
decorations for military service usually take the form of Orders 
in many classes. There are, however, numerous long service 
decorations, which need not be specified. The most famous 
of the European war and service decorations are the Prussian 
Iron Cross, the French Midaille MUitaire, and the Russian 
St George's Cross; all these are individual decorations. 

The Iron Cross b given to officers and soldiers lor dtstineuishcd 
service in war. It was founded, in the enthusbsm of the War of 
Liberation movement, on the loth of March 1813, and revived at 
the outbreak of the " War for Unity " against France, 19th of luly 
1870. The cross is a Maltese cross of cast iron edged 'with silver. 
The 1813-15 crosses have the initbls F. W. (Friedrich Wilhelm) 
in the centre, a crown in the upper limb of the cross, and the date 
in the lower. Those of 1870 have W. (Wilhelm) in the centre, 
crown on the upper and date on the lower limb of the cross. There 
are certain distmctions between the Grand Cross, whkh b worn at 
the neck, the i&t Class Cross whu:h b worn as an Order suspended 
from a ribbon, and the and Class Cross, which b worn on the breast. 
In 1870 war medals were given, bearing on the obverse a Maltese 
cross superposed on a many-pointed star, and having in its centre 
1870-1871 within a wreatfi. The reverse has W. and a crown, 
with, for combatants the inscription Dem siegreicken Heere» and 
for non-combatants Pur PflichUreue im Kriege, in each case sur- 
rounded by the words CoU war mil uns 1km set die Ekre. The 
award of the Iron Cross to the rank and file carries with it an allow- 
ance of 3-6 marks monthly. (H. L. S. ; C. F. A.) 

MEDBA (Gr. MM^a), in Greek legend, a famous sorceress, 
daughter of Aeetes, king of Colchis. Having been thrown 
into prison by her father, who was afraid of being injured by 
her witchcraft, she escaped by means of her art and fled to the 
temple of Helios the Sun-god, her reputed grandfather. She 
fell in love with Jason the Argonaut, who reached Colchb at 
thb time, and exacted a terrible revenge for hb faithlessness 
(tee Argonauts and Jason). After the murder of Jason's 



aecood wife mnd her own chndren, she fled from Corinth in her 
car drawn by dragons^ the ipft of Helios, to Athens, where 
she married king Aegeus, by whom she had a son,.Medus. But 
the discovery of an attempt on the life of Theseus, the son of 
Aegeus, forced her to leave Athens (ApoUodorus L 9, 28; 
Pausanias ii. 3, 6-1 1; Diod. Sic. iv. 45, 46, 54-56). Accom- 
panied by her son, she returned to Colchis, and restored her 
father to the throne, of which he had been deprived by his own 
broiber Perses. Medus was regarded as the eponymous hero 
and progenitor of the Medes. Medea was honoured as a goddess 
at Corinth, and was said to have become the wife of Achilles 
in the Elysian fields. The chief seat of her cult, however, was 
Tbessaiy, which was always regarded as the home of magic. 
As time went on her character was less favourably described. 
In the case of Jason and the Argonauts, she plays the part of 
a kindly, good-natured fairy; Euripides, however, makes her a 
barbarous priestess of Hecate, while the Alexandrian writers 
depicted her in still darker colours. Some authorities regard 
lledea as a lunar divinity, but the ancient conception of her 
as a Thessalian sorceress is probably correct. The popularity 
of the story of Jason and Medea in antiquity is shown by the 
large amount of literature on the subject. The original story 
was probably contained in an old epic poem called lAiMvat 
wmJtnt, the authorship of which was ascribed to Prodicus of 
Phocaea. It is given at some length in the fourth Pythian ode 
of Pindar, and forms the subject of the Argonautica of Apollonius 
Rhodtus. There is a touching epistle {Uedea to Jason) in the 
Htrndts of Ovid. Medea is the heroine of exunt tragedies 
of Euripides and Seneca; those of Aeschylus and Ennius (adapted 
from Euripides) are lost. Neophron of Sicyon and Melanthius 
wrote pbys of the same name. Among modem writers on the 
same theme may be mentioned T. Corneille, F. Grillparzer 
and M. Chenibini (opera). 

The death of Glauce and the murder of her children by Medea 
was frequently represented in ancient art. In the famous 
picture of Tomomachus of Byzantium Medea is deliberating 
whether or not she shall kill her children; there are copies of 
this painting in the mural decorations of Herculaneum and 

See Lion Mallinger. Midie: itude sur la litUrature comparie, an 
accDUBt of Medea in Greek, Roman, middle age and modern literature 
(1896): and the articlei in Darembere and Saglio't Dictionnaire des 
aadiuiiis and Roscher's Lexikon der iiytholoiie, 

MEDBUJH* a city of Colombia and capital of the department 
of Antioquia, 150 m. N.W. of Bogota, on a plateau of the Central 
Cordillera, 4823 ft. above sea-level. Pop. (1906 estimate), 
So,ooou Medellin, the foundation of which dates from 1674, 
stancb in the valley of the Porce, a tributary of the Cauca, and 
is reputed to be one of the healthiest as well as one of the most 
attractive cities of the republic. It has a university, national 
college, school of mines and other educational institutions, 
aauying and refining laboratories, a public library and a mint. 
The principal industry of the surrounding country is mining, 
and gold and silver are exported in considerable quantities. 
Coffee and hides are also exported, but the trade of the city 
bas been greatly impeded by difficulties of transportation. A 
nilway from Puerto Berrio, on the Magdalena, was begun many 
jrears before the end of the 19th century, but political and 
fm*nria\ difiicuities intcTposed and work was suspended when 
otAy 43 m. were finished. The completion of the remaitiing 
80 ffl. was part of a larger scheme proposed in 1906 for bring- 
ing the Cauca Valley into railway communication with the 
national capitaL 

HBDEMBUK, a seaport of Holland, on the Zuider Zee, the 
terminus of a branch railway from Hoorn, 10} m. S. Pop. 
(1903), 30x3. Once the capital of West Friesland and a pro- 
^>enxis town, many of its streets and quays are now deserted, 
though the docks and basins constructed at the end of the i6th 
and beginning of the 17th centuries could still afford excellent 
accommodation for many ships. Close to the harbour entrance 
stands the castle boih by Florens V., count of Holland, in 1285. I 
It has been restored, and b used as a court of Justice. Tbe ' 

West church, formerly called after St Boniface, the apostle of 
Germany, was once the richest in Friesland, and belong from 
an eariy date to the cathedral chapter at Utrecht, where, until 
the Reformation, the pastor of Medemblik had a seat in the 
cathedral. It contains the tomb of Lord George Murray (q.t.). 
Among the public buildings are the town-hall (17th century), 
weigh-house, orphanage, the old almshouse, the house (1613) 
of the Water Commissioners, and a large building formerly 
belonging to the admiralty and now used as a state lunatic 
asylum. There are many interesting brick bouses, dating chiefly 
from the first half of the 17th century, with curious gabln 
and picturesque ornamentation, carvings and inscriptions. 

MEDFORD, a city, including several villages, of Middlesex 
county. Massachusetts, U.S.A., on the Mystic river and Lakes, 
5 m. N. by W. of Boston. Pop. (1900), 18,244, of whom 4327 
were foreign-bom; (1910 census) 23,150. The city is served 
by the Southern Division and a branch of the Western Division 
of the Boston & Maine railroad, and is connected with Boston 
and neighbouring cities by electric railways. The Mystic 
River, a tidewater stream, is navigable for small craft as far 
as the centre of the dty. There are manufactures of considerable 
importance, including bricks and tiles, woollen goods, carriages 
and wagons, food products, iron and steel building materials 
and machinery. The dty covers a land area of about 8 sq. m., 
along the Mystic river, and extending to the hills. The western 
portion borders the Upper and Lower Mystic Lakes, which are 
centres for boating. In the north-west portion of Medford is 
a part of the Middlesex Fells, a heavily wooded reserve bek>nging 
to the extensive MetropoUun Park System maintained by the 
state. The broad parkways of this system also skirt the Mystic 
Lakes, and here is the greater part (1907, 267 out of 291 acres) 
of the Mystic River Reservation of the Metropolitan System. 
Among the city parks are Hastings, Brooks, Logan, Tufts and 
Magoun. Within the city limits are some of the oldest and 
most interesting examples of colonial domestic architecture 
in America, including the so-called " Cradock Hotise " (actually 
the Peter Tufts house, built in 1677-1680), the "Wdlington 
House," built in 1657, and the " Royall House." The last was 
built originally by Governor John Winthrop for the tenanu 
of his Ten Hills Farm, and was subsequently enlarged and 
occupied. l>y Lieut.-Governor John Usher, and by Isaac Royall* 
{c. 1 7 20-1 781) and bis son, Isaac Royall, Jun. 

Medford has a public library of about 35,200 volumes, housed 
in the colonial residence (reconstructed) of Thatcher Magoun. 
The city bas also a dty ball, a high school and manual training 
school, an opera house, and one of the handsomest armory 
buildings in the country (the home of the Lawrence Light 
Guard), presented by General Samuel C. Lawrence (b. 1832), 
a liberal benefactor of Medford institutions and the first mayor 
of the city (1892-1894). The Salem St. Burying Ground, 
dating from 1689, is one of the oldest burial places in America. 
The Medford Historical Society maintains a library and museum 
in the birthplace of Lydia Maria Child. Medford is the seat 
of Tufts College, planned and founded as a Universalist institu> 
tion in 1852 by Hosea Ballou, its first president, and others, 
and named in honour of Charles Tufts (i 781-1876), a successful 
manufacturer, who gave the land on which it stands. The 
college, which had 11 20 students and 217 instructors in 1909, 
comprises a college of letters, a divim'ty school, and a school 
of engineering (all in Medford), and medical and dental schools 
in Boston; it is now undenominational. Among the twenty 
college buildings, the Barnum Museum of Natural History 
(1885) founded by Phineas T. Barnum, and the Eaton Memorial 
Library (1907), presented by Mrs Andrew Carnegie in memory 
of her pastor, are noteworthy. The college endowment amounted 
in 1908 to $2,300,000. 

Medford was first settled in 1630. A considerable portion 
of its area formed the plantation of Matthew Cradock (d. 1641), 
first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Company, who in 1630 

• A prominent Loyalist, whose estate was seized during th^ V/^x 
of Independence, but was restored to Vvs Wvts 3\^uV \V». >\^ 
endowed the first professorship ol \aw \n Kmwca— w. ^w>rtx^ 



sent out agents to settle his lands. John Winthrop's " Ten 
Hills Farm," partly within the present limits of Medford, was 
settled soon afterwards. One of the earliest industries was 
ship-building, John Winthrop's " Blessing of the Bay," built on 
the Mystic in 1631-1632, being one of the first keels laid on the 
continent. In 1802 Thatcher Magoun began building sea-going 
vessels, and many of the famous privateers of the War of 181 2 
were constructed here. By 1845 Medford employed fully a 
quarter of all the shipwrights of the state. The industry gradually 
lost its importance after the introduction of steamships, and 
the last keel was laid in 1873. Another early industry was 
the distilling of rum; this was carried on for two centuries, 
e^)eciaUy by the Hall family and, after about 1830, by the 
Lawrence family, but was discontinued in 1905. The manufac- 
ture of brick and tile was an important industry in the 17th 
century. The Cradock bridge, the first toll-bridge in New 
England, was built across the Mystic in 163$; over it for 
1 50 years ran the principal thoroughfare, from Boston to Maine 
and New Hampshire. The course of Paul Revcre's ride lay 
through Medford Square and High Street, and within a half- 
hour of fab passage the Medford minute men were on their way 
to Lexington and Concord, where they took part in the engage- 
ments with the British. After the Battle of Saratoga many of 
Burgoyne's officers were quartered here for the winter. The 
Middlesex Canal was opened through Medford in 1803, and 
the Boston & Lowell railroad (now the southern division 
of the Boston & Maine) in 1831. Medford was chartered as a 
city in 1892. 

bee Charles Brooks. History of the Town of Medford (Boston, 1855; 
cnlareed by J. M. Usher, Boston, 1886); Historical Register of the 
Mcdiord Historical Society (1898 et scq.) ; Proceedings of the systh 
Annitersary of the Settlement ^ Medford (Medford. 1905): S. A. 
Drake, Htslorv of Middlesex County (2 vols., Boston, i88o) and 
Helen Tildcn Wild, Medford in the Revolution [Medtortl, 1903). 

MEDHANKARA, the name of several distinguished members, 
in inedicval times, of the Buddhist order. The oldest flourished 
about A.D. X20O, and was the .author of the Vinaya Artha 
SamuccQya, a work in the Sinhalese language on Buddhist 
canon law. Next to him came Araftf^ka Medhankara, who 
presided over the Buddhist a>uncil held at Polonnaruwa, then 
the capital of Ceylon, in 1 250. The third Vanaratana M^han- 
kara, flourished in 1280, and wrote a poem in Pali, Jina Carita^ 
on the life of the Buddha. He also wrote the Payoga Siddki. 
The fourth was the celebrated scholar to whom Ring Parftkrama 
B&hu IV. of Ceylon enuusted in 1307 the translation from Pali 
into Sinhalese of the Jdtaka book, the most voluminous extant 
work in Sinhalese. The fifth, a Burmese, was called the Sang- 
bar&ja Nava Medhankara, and wrote in Pali a work entitled 
the Loka Padlpa Sdra, on cosmogony and allied subjects. 

See the Journal of the Pali Text Society, 1882, p. 126; 1886. pp. 62, 
67. 72; 1890, p. 63; 1896, p. 43;. if oMtufpua, ch. xl.. verse 85. 

(T. W. R. D.) 

MEDHURST, WALTER. HENRY (1796-1857). English Con- 
gregationalist missionary to China, was born in London and 
educated at St Paul's school. He learned the business of a 
printer, and having become interested in Christian missions 
he sailed in 1816 for the London Missionary Society's station 
at Malacca, which was intended to be a great printing-centre. 
He became proficient in Malay, in a knowledge of the written 
characters of Chinese, and in the colloquial use of more than 
one of its dialects. He was ordained at Malacca in 181 9, and 
engaged in missionary labours, first at Penang, then at Batavia, 
and finally, when peace was concluded with China in 1842, 
at Shanghai. There he continued till 1856, laying the foundations 
of a successful mission. His principal labour for several years, 
as one of a committee of delegates, was in the revision of existing 
Chinese versions of the Bible. The result was a version (in High 
Wen-li) marvellously correct and faithful to the original. With 
John Stronach he also translated the New Testament into the 
Mandarin dialect of Nanking. His Chinese-English and English- 
Chinese dictioimries (each in 2 vols.) are stiD valuable, and to 
him the British public owed its understanding. of the teaching 
of Hung-Sew-Tseuen, the leader of the Tai-ptng rising (185X-64). 

The university of New York conferred upon him in 1843 the 
degree of D.D. Medhurst left Shanghai in 1856 in failing 
health, and died two days after reaching London, on the 24th 
of January 1857. His son. Sir Walter Henry Medhurst (1822- 
1885), was British consul at Hankow and afterwards at Shanghai. 

If E^IA, the ancient name of the north-western part of Iran, 
the country of the Medes, corresponding to the modern provinces 
of Azerbaijan, Ardelan, Irak Ajemi, and parts of Kurdistan. 
It is separated from Armenia and the lowlands on the Tigris 
(Assyria) by the mighty ranges of the Zagros (mountains of 
Kurdistan; in its northern parts probably called Choatras, 
Plin.,v. 98), and in the north by the valley of the Araxes (Aras). 
In the east it extends towards the Caspian Sea; but the high 
chains of mountains which surround the Caspian Sea (the 
Parachoalhras of the ancients and the Elburz, separate it from 
the coast, and the narrow plains on the border of the sea (Gilan, 
the country of the Gelae and Amardi, and Mazandaran, in 
ancient times inhabited by the Tapuri) cannot be reckoned 
as part of Media proper. The greater part of Media is a mountain- 
ous plateau, about 3000-5000 ft. above the sea; but it contains 
some fertile plains. The climate is temperate, with cold winters, 
in strong contrast to the damp and unwholesome air of the 
shores of the Caspian, where the mountains are covered with a 
rich vegetation. Media contains only one river, which reaches 
the sea, the Sefid Rud (Amardus), which flows into the Caspian; 
but a great many streams are exhausted after a short course, 
and in the north-west is a large lake, the lake of Urtuniah or 
Urmia.* From the mountains in the west spring some great 
tributaries of the Tigris, viz. the Diyala (Gyndes) and the Kerkheh 
(Choaspes). Towards the south-east Media passes into the 
great central desert of Iran, which eastwards of Rhagae (mod. 
Rai, near Teheran), in the region of the " Caspian gates," 
reaches to the foot of the Elburz chain. On a tract of about 
150 m. the western part of Iran is connected with the east 
(Khorasan, Parthyaea) only by a narrow district (Choarene and 
Comisene), where human dwellings and small villages can exist. 

The people of the Mada, Medes (the Greek form Mrjiioi is 
.Ionian for Moboi) appear in history first in 836 B.C., when 
the Assyrian conqueror Shalmaneser II. in his wars against 
the tribes of the Zagros received the tribute of the Amadai 
(this form, with prosthetic a-, which occurs only here, has many 
analogies in the names of Iranian tribes). His successors under- 
took many expeditions against the Medes (Madai). Sargon in 
715 and 7x3 subjected them " to the far mountain Bikni," i.e. 
the Elburz (Demavend) and the borders of the desert. They 
were divided into, many districts and towns, under petty local 
chieftains; from the names which the Assyrian inscriptions 
mention,, we learn that they were an Iranian tribe and that 
they had already adopted the religion of Zoroaster. In spite 
of different attempts of some chieftains to shake off the Assyrian 
yoke (cf. the infprmation obtained from prayers to the Sun-god 
for oracles against these rebels: Knudtzon, Assyrische Gebett 
an den Sotmengott), Media remained tributary to Assyria under 
Sargon's successors, Sennacherib, Esar-haddon and Assur-bani- 

Herodotus, I. xox, gives a list of six Median tribes {ykp^o), 
among them the Paraetaceni, the inhabitants of the mountainous 
highland of Paraetacene, the distria of Isfahan, and the Magoi, 
i.e. the Magians, the hereditary caste of the priests, who in 
Media took the place of the " fire-kindlers " {athravan) of the 
Zoroastrian religion, and who spread from Media to Persia 
and to the west. But the Iranian Medes were not the only 
inhabitants of the country. The names in the Assyrian inscrip- 
tions prove that the tribes in the Zagros and the northern 
parts of Media were not Iranians nor Indo-Europeans, but an 
aboriginal population, like the early inhabitants of Armenia, 
perhaps coimected with the numerous tribes of the Caucasus. 

*Anc. Mantiane, Strabo xi. 529: Martiane, Ptol. vi. 2, ^, 
probably identical with the name Matiane, Matiene, bywhicn 

Herodotus i. i89r 202, tii. 94. v. 40, ^ (in i. 72 and vii. 72 they 
to be a different people in Asia Mine ' " ■ • 

part 01 Media. 

to be a different people in Asia Mfnor); Polyb. v. 44.' o: Strabo L 
xi. 509, 514. 523, 525: Plin vL 48, designate the northern 



We can see how the Iranian dement gradoaOy became dominant: 
piiaocs with Iranian names occasionaliy occur as rulers of these 
tribes. But the Gdae, Tapuri, Cadnsii, Amardi, Utii and other 
tribes in northern Media and on the shores of the Caspian were 
not Iranians. With them Polsrbius v. 44, 9, Strabo zi. 507, 
S08, sx4t And Pliny vi 46, mention the Anariad, whom they 
couider as a particular tribe; but in reality their name, the 
** Not-Arians," is the comprehensive designation of all these 
smafl tribes. 

In the second half of the 7th century the Medians gained their 
independence and were united by a dynasty, which, if we may 
trust Herodotus, derived its origin from Ddoces (q.v.), a Median 
chidtain in the Zagros, who was, with his kinsmen, transported 
by Sargon to Hamath (Hamah) in Syria in 715 B.C. The 
kLigs, who created the Median Empire, were Phraortes and his 
son Cyaxares. Probably they were chidtains of a nomadic 
Median tribe in the desert, the Manda, mentioned by Sargon; 
for the Babylonian king Nabom'dus designates the Medians 
and tbdr kings always as Manda. The origin and history 
of the Median Empire is quite obscure, as we possess almost 
no contemporary information, and not a single monument 
or inscription from Media itself. Our prindpal source is 
Herodotus, who wrongly makes Ddoces the &rst king and 
uniter of the whole nation, and dates their independence from 
c. 710 — t^ from the time when the Assyrian supremacy was 
at itt height. But his account contains real historical dements, 
whereas the story which Ctesias gave (a list of nine kings, begin- 
ning with Arbaces, who is said to have destroyed Nineveh 
abont 880 BX., preserved in Diod. ii. 32 sqq. and copied by many 
later authors) has no historical value whatever, although some 
of his names may be derived from local traditions. According 
to Herodotus, the conquests of Cyaxares were interrupted 
by an invasion of the Scythians, who founded an empire 
in western Asia, which lasted twenty-eight years. From 
the Assyrian prayers to the Sun-god, mention^ above, we 
learn that the Median dynasts, who tried rebellions against 
the Assyrians in the time of Esar-haddon and Assur-bani-pal, 
were allied with chidtains <A the Cimmerians (who had come 
from the northern shore of the Black Sea and invaded Armenia 
and Asia Minor), of the Saparda, Ashguza and other tribes; and 
from Jeremiah and Zephaniah we know that a great invasion 
of Syria and Palestine by northern barbarians really took place 
in 626 B.C. With these facts the traditions of Herodotus must 
in some way be connected; but at present it is impossible to 
regain the history of these times. The only certain facts are that 
in 606 Cyaxares succeeded in destroying Nineveh and the other 
cities of Assyria (see Phsaortes and Deioces). 

From then the Median king ruled over the greatest part of 
Iran, Assyria and northern Mesopotamia, Armenia and Cappa- 
docia. His power was very dangerous to their neighbours, 
and the exiled Jews expected the destruction of Babylonia by 
the Medes (Isa. xiii., xiv., xxi.; Jerem. 1. li.). When Cyaxares 
attacked Lydia, the kings of Cilida and Babylon intervened and 
negotiated a peace in 585, by which the Halys was established 
as the boundary. Nebuchadrezzar married a daughter of Cya- 
xares, and an equilibrium of the great powers was maintained 
t21 the rise of Cyrus. 

About the internal organization of the Median Empire we 
know only that the Greeks derive a great t>art of the ceremonial 
of the Persian court, the costume of the king, &c., from Media. 
But it is certain that the national union of the Median dans 
was the work of their kings; and probably the capital Ecbatana 
(f^.) was created by them. 

By the rebellion of Cyrus, king of Persia, against his suzerain 
Astyafes, the son of Cyaxares, in 553, and his victory in 550, 
the Medes were subjected to the Persians. In the new empire 
they retained a prominent position; in honour and war they 
itood next to the Pftsians; the ceremonial of their court was 
adopted by the new soverdgns who in the summer months 
raided in Ecbatana, and many noble Medes were employed 
ts officials, satraps and generals. After the assassination of the 
isvper Smeidis, a Mede Fravartish (Phraortes), who pretended 

to be of the race of Cyaxares, tried to restore the Median 
kingdom, but was ddeated by the Persian generals and executed 
in Ecbatana (Darius in the Behistun inscr.). Another rebellion, 
in 409, against Darius II. (Xenophon, HeiUn. L 2, 19) was of 
short duration. But the non-Aryan tribes of the north, espedally 
the Cadusians, were always troublesome; many abortive expe- 
ditions of the later kings against them are mentioned. 

Under the Persian rule the country was divided mto two 
satrapies. The south, with Ecbatana and Rhagae (Rai), 
Media proper, or " Great Media," as it is often called, formed 
in Darius' organization the deventh satrapy (Herodotus iii. 
92). together with the Paricanians and Orthocorybantians; the 
north, the district of Matiane (see above), together with the 
mountainous districu of the Zagros and Assyria proper (east 
of the Tigris) was united with the Alarodians and Saspirians in 
eastern Armenia, and formed the eighteenth satrapy (Herod, 
iii. 94; rf. V. 49, 52, vii. 72). When the empire decayed and 
the Carduchi and other moimtainous tribes made thcmsdves 
independent, eastern Armenia became a special satrapy, while 
Assyria seems to have been united with Media; therefore 
Xenophon in the Anabasis ii. 4, 27; iii. 5, 15; vii. 8, 25; d. iii. 
4, 8 sqq. always designates Assyria by the name of Media. 

Alexander occupied Media in the summer of 330; in 328 he 
appointed Atropates, a former general of Darius (Arrian iii. 
8, 4), as satrap (iv. 18, 3, vi. 29, 3), whose daughter was married 
to Perdiccas in 324 (Arrian vii. 4, 5). In the partition of his 
empire, southern Media was given to the Macedonian Pcithoo; 
but the north, which lay far o£f and was of little importance 
for the generals who fought for the inheritance of Alexander, 
was Idt to Atropates. While southern Media with Ecbatana 
passed to the rule of Antigonus, and afterwards (about 310) to 
Sdeucus I.; Atropates maintained himself in his satrapy and 
succeeded in founding an independent kingdom. Thus the 
partition of the country, which the Persian had introduced, 
became lasting; the north was named Atropatene (in Plin.' 
vf. 42, Atrapatene; in Ptolem. vi. a, 5, Tropatene; in Polyb. 
V. 44 and 55 corrupted in rd carpartia Kakoiffiofo), after the 
founder of the dynasty, a name which is preserved in the 
modem Azerbaijan; d. N5ldeke, "Atropatene," in Zeilsckrift 
der deutschen morgenl, GeseUschaft^ 34, 692 sqq. and Marquart, 
Eranskahr, p. 108 sqq. The capital was Gazaca in the central 
plain, and the strong castle Phraaspa (Dio Cass. xlix. 26; Plut. 
Anton. 38; Ptol. vi. 2, 10) or Vera (Strabo xi. 523), probably 
identical with the great ruin Takhti Suleiman, with remains 
of Sassanid fire-altars and of a later palace. The kings had a 
strong and warlike army, especially cavalry (Polyb. v. 55; 
Strabo xi. 253). Neverthdess, King Artabazanes was forced 
by Antiochus the Great in 220 to condude a disadvantageous 
treaty (Polyb. v. 55), and in later times the rulers became 
in turn dependent on the Parthians, on Tigranes of Armenia, 
and in the time of Pompey who defeated their king Darius 
(Appian, Mithr. 108), on Antonius (who invaded Atropatene) 
and on Augustus of Rome. In the time of Strabo (a.d. 17), 
the dynasty existed still (p. 523); in later times the country 
seems to have become a Parthian province. 

Atropatene is that country of western Asia which was least of 
all influenced by Hellenism; there exists not even a single coin 
of its rulers. But the opinion of modern authors — that it had 
been a spedal rduge of Zoroastrianism — is based upon a wrong 
etymology of the name (which is falsely explained as " country 
of fire-worship "), and has no foundation whatever. There can 
be no doubt that the kings adhered to the Persian religion; 
but it is not probable that it was deeply rooted among their 
subjects, especially among the non- Aryan tribes. 

Southern Media remained a province of the Scleucid Empire 
for a century and a half, and Hellenism was introduced every- 
where. " Media is surrounded everywhere by Greek towns, in 
pursuance of the plan of Alexander, which protect it against the 
neighbouring barbarians," says Polybius (x. 27). Only Ecbatana 
retained its old character. But Rhagae became a Greek town, 
Europus; and with it Strabo (xi. 524) names Laodicea, Apamea, 
Heraclea or Acbais (cf. Plin. vi. 48). Most of them were founded 



by Sdeacus I. and his son Antiochus I. In aax, the satrap 
Molon trie4 to make himself independent (there exist bronze 
coins with his name and the royal title), together with his brother 
Alexander, satrap of Persis, but they were defeated and killed 
by Antiochus the GreaL In the same way, in i6i, the Median 
satrap Timarchus took the diadem and conquered Babylonia; 
on his coins he calls himself *' the great king Timarchus"; 
but this time again the legitimate king, Demetrius 1., succeeded 
in subduing the rebellion, and Timarchus was slain. But 
with Demetrius 1. the dissolution of the Seleudd Empire 
begins, which was brought on chiefly by the intrigues of the 
Romans, and shortly afterwards, about 150, the Parthian king, 
Mithradates I. (g.v.)^ conquered Media (Justin xli. 6). From 
this time Media remained subject to the Arsacids, who changed 
the name of Rhagae, or Europus, into Arsada (Strabo xL 
Sh)> &nd divided the country into five small provinces (Isidorus 
Charac.)- From the Arsacids or Parthians^ it passed in aj>. 226 
to the Sassanids, together with Atropatene. By this time 
the old tribes of Aryan Iran had lost their character and had 
been amalgamated into the one nation of the Iranians. The 
revival of Zoroastrianism, which was enforced everywhere 
by the Sassanids, completed this development. It was only 
then that Atropatene became a principal seat of fire-worship, 
with many fire^tars- Rhagae now became the most sacred 
dty of the empire and the seat of the head of the Zoroastrian 
hierarchy; the Sassanid Avesla and the tradition of the Parsees 
therefore consider Rhagae as the home of the family of the 
Prophet. Henceforth the name of Media is used only as a 
geographical term and begins to disappear from the living 
language; in Persian traditions it occurs under the modem 
form if ah (Armen. Mai; in Syriac the old name Madai is 
preserved; cf. Marquart, Eranshahrf z8 seq.)> 

For Mahommedan history see Caliphate; for later history 
Seljuks and Persia. (Ed. M.) 

MEDIATION (Lai. medius, middle), in the international 
sense, the intervention of a third power, on the invitation 
or with the consent of two other powers, for the purpose of 
arranging differences between the latter without recourse to 
war. Mediation may also take place after war has broken 
out, with a view to putting an end to it on terms. In dther 
case the mediating power negotiates on behalf of the parties 
who invoke or accept its aid, but does not go farther. Unlike 
an arbitrating power the mediator limits his intervention to 
suggestion and advice. His action is liable to be arrested at 
any time at the will of dther party unless otherwise agreed, in 
which case to arrest it prematurely would be a breach of good 
faith. The difference between mediation and arbitration may 
be sUted in the words of the Digest (lib. iv. tit. 8, f 13): 
" Recepisse autem arbitrium videtur, ut ait Pedius, qui judicis 
partes suscepit finemque se sua sententia controversiis imposi- 
turum pollicetur. Quod si hactenus intervenit ut experiretur 
an condUo suo vd auctoritate discuti litem paterentur, non 
videtur arbitrium recepisse." 

Some writers distinguish mediation from "good offices," 
but the distinction is of little practical value. We may, if we 
please, regard " good offices " as inchoate mediation, and 
** mediation " as good offices brought to the birth. Thus we 
may say that a third power renders " good offices " when it 
brings the parties together so as to make diplomatic negotia- 
tions between them possible; whilst if it takes an active 
part in those negotiations it becomes for the time being a 
mediator. The spontaneous yet successful effort made by 
President Roosevelt in 1905 to bring together the Russian 
and Japanese governments, and to secure their appointing 
delegates to discuss terms of peace, although not strictly 
mediation, was dosely akin to it. 

Of successful mediation in the strict sense there have been 
many instances: that of Great Britain, in 1825, between Portugal 
and Brazil; of France, in 1849-1850, when diffefences arose 
between Great Britain and Greece ; of the Great Powers, in 
1868-1869, when the relations of Greece and Turkey were strained 
to breaking-point by reason of the insurrection in Crete; of 

Pope Leo Xm., in 1885, between Germany and Spain in the 
matter of the Caroline Islands. Jn these cases mediation averted 
war. The Austro- Prussian War of 1866, the war between 
Chile and Peru in 1882, and that between Greece and Turkey 
in 1897, are instances of wars brought to a close through the 
mediation of neutral powers. Mediation has also been occasion- 
ally employed where differences have arisen as to the interpreta- 
tion of treaties or as to the mode in which they ought to be 
carried out: as when Great Britain mediated between France 
and the United States with regard to the Treaty of Paris of 
the 4th of July 1830. In one case at least mediation has been 
successful after a proposal for arbitration had failed. In 1844, 
when war between Spain and Morocco was threatened by reason 
of the frequent raids by the inhabitants of the Rif on the Spanish 
settlement of Ceuta, Spain declined arbitration on the ground 
that her rights were too dear for argument. But both she and 
Morocco subsequently accepted joint mediation at the hands 
of Great Britain and France. 

The cause of mediation was considerably advanced by the 
Declaration of Paris of 1856. The plenipotentiaries of Great 
Britain, France, Austria, Russia, Sardinia and Turkey recorded 
in a protocol, at the instance of Lord Clarendon, their joint wish 
that " states between which any misunderstanding might arise 
should, before appealing to arms, have recourse so far as drcum- 
stances might allow (en tant que Us circonstatues I'admeUraient) 
to the good offices of a friendly power." Article 8 of the Treaty 
of Paris, conduded in the same year, stipulated that " if there 
should arise between the Sublime Porte and one or more of 
the other signing powers any misunderstanding which might 
endanger the maintenance of their relations, the Porte and each 
of such powers, bdore having recourse to the use of force, shall 
afford the other contracting parties the opportunity of preventing 
such as extremity by means of mediation." These precedents 
(in which it will be seen that " good offices " and " mediation " 
are used interchangeably) were followed in the general act 
agreed to at the Conference held at Berlin in 1884-1885 the 
object of which was to secure religious and commerdal liberty 
and to limit warlike operations in the Congo basin. 

A special form of mediation was proposed by a ddegate 
from the United States at the Peace Conference held at the 
Hague in 1899, and was approved by the representatives of 
the powers there assembled. The dause in which this proposal 
was embodied provided in effect that, whenever there is danger 
of a rupture between two powers, each of them shall choose a 
third power to which these differences shall be referred, and that, 
pending such reference, for a period not exceeding thirty days 
(unless, the time is extended by agreement) the powers at 
issue shall cease to negotiate with each other and leave the 
dispute entirely in the hands of the mediating powers. The 
powers thus appealed to occupy a position analogous to that 
of seconds in a duel, who are authorized to arrange an " affair of 
honour " between their principals. This novd device has the 
advantage of toning. down, if not of eliminating, personal and 
national prejudices by which controversy is frequently em> 
bittered. It also gets over the difficulty, often met with in 
arbitration, of choosing a referee satisfactory to both parties. 
The closer the relations between states become, the more thdr 
commercial interests are intertwined, the larger the part which 
mediation seems destined to play. It is true that states 
which have accepted the intervention of a mediator remain 
free to adopt or reject any advice he may give, but the advice of 
a disinterested power must always add considerable moral weight 
to the side towards which it inclines. (M. H. C.) • 

MEDUTIZATION (Ger. Mediatisierung, from Lat. mediatus, 
mediate, middle), the process by which at the beginning of the 
19th century, a number of German princes, hitherto sovereign 
as holding immediaUly of the emperor, were deprived of thdr 
sovereignty and mediatised by being placed under that of other 
sovereigns. This was first done on a large scale in 1803, when 
by a recess of the imperial diet many of the smaller fiefs were 
mediatized, in order to compensate those German princes who 
had been forced to cede their territories on the left bank of the 



RUae to Fnnce. In x8o6 the formation of the Confederation 
of the Rhine involved an extension of this mediatizing process, 
though the abolition of the empire itself deprived the word 
** mediatization " of its essential meaning. After the downfall 
of Kapoleon the powers were besieged with petitions from 
the mediatized princes for the restoration of their " liberties "; 
but the congress of Vienna (1815) further extended the process 
ci mcdiatization by deciding that certain houses hitherto 
immeiiaU (i^. Salro, Isenburg, Leyen) should only be represented 
niediately in the diet of the new Confederation. On the other 
hand, at Aiz-la-Chapelle (18 18) the powers, in response to the 
representations of the aggrieved parties, admonished the German 
sovereigns to respect the rights of the mediatized princes subject 
to them. Of these rights, which included the hereditary right 
to a seat in the estates, the most valued is that of EhenbUrtigkeU 
(equality of birth) .which, for purposes of matrimonial alliance, 
ranks the mediatized princes with the royal houses of Europe. 

See August WUbelm Heffter, Die SonderreckU ier Sovaer&nen und 
ier Mwdtatisirien, vormais reichssldndischen Hduser DeutscUands 

iBcffitt. 1 871 ). The mediatized families are included in the Almanack 

MEDICAL EDUCATIOH. Up to 1858 each University, 
Royal College of Physicians or of Surgeons, and Apothecaries' 
Ctattf Hall in Great Britain and Ireland laid down its 

'own regulations for study and examination, and 
granted its degree or licence without any State 
In that year, pursuant to the Medical Act, 
it k. 22 Vict. c. 90, the General Medical Council of Medical 
Education and Registration was established, consisting of 
tweaty-ihree members, of whom seventeen were appointed 
by the various licensing bodies and six by the Crown. This 
was increased by the amended act of 1886 to twenty- 
, three of the six additional members being elected by the 
" direct " representatives. The object of the 
act was " to enable persons requiring medical aid to distinguish 
qnafificd from unqualified practitioners." To this end the 
** Medical Rq;ister " was established, on which no person's 
nanx could be inscribed who did not hold a diploma or licence 
from one or more of the licensing bodies after examination. 
By the 1886 act a qualifying examination was defined as " an 
cxunination in medicine, surgery, and midwifery," conducted 
by universities or by medical corporations, of which one must 
be capable of granting a diploma in medicine, and one in surgery. 
The Coundl is authorized to require from the licensing bodies 
iafbrmation as to courses of study and examinations, and 
generally as to the requisites for obtaining qualifications; and 
to vnit and inspect examinations either personally or by 
deputy. If the visitors think the course of study and exami- 
natioo of any licensing body is not sufficient to ensure that 
candidates obtaining its qualification possess the requisite 
knowledge and skill for the efficient practice of their profession 
the Council, on a report being made, may represent the same 
to the Privy Council. The Privy Council may, if it sees 
fit, deprive the accused body of its power to grant registrable 
qieafifications. From thb statement it will be seen that the 
powers of the Council are limited; nevertheless, by their cautious 
applicatioD, and by the loyal manner in which the licensing 
bo^Bes have acted on the recommendations and suggestions 
uhich have from time to time been made, the condition of 
aeifical education has been improved; and although there is 
aoc a omform standard of examination throughout the United 
the Council has ensured that the minimum require- 
I of any licensing body shall be sufficient for the production 
of trustworthy practitioners. 

One of the first subjects to which the Council applied itself 
vas the establishment of a system of examinations in general 
kaowfedse. Such examinations have to be passed before 
beginning medical study. On presentation of a certificate to 
tl)e registFars of the Coundl, and on evidence being produced 
ibat the candidate is sixteen years of age, his name is inscribed 
oa the " Stttdenu' Register." The subjects of examinations 
tre: (a) ir-»^t^ language, including grammar and composition 

(marks not exceeding 5% of the total obtainable in this section 
may be assigned to candidates who show a competent knowledge 
of shorthand); (6) Latin, including grammar, translation from 
specified authors, and transbtion of easy passages not taken 
from such authors; {c) mathematics, comprising arithmetic; 
algebra, as far as simple equations inclusive; geometry, the 
subject-matter of Euclid, Books I., II. and III., with easy 
deductions; (</) one of the following optional subjects — Greek, 
French, German, Italian or any other modern language. 
Certificates are accepted from all the universities of Great 
Britain and Ireland, from the leading Indian and colonial 
universities, from government examination boards, and from 
certain chartered bodies. The German Abiturienten Examen 
of the gymnasia and f«o/-gymnasia, the French diplomas of 
Bachelier ds Lettres and Bachclier ^ Sciences, and corresponding 
entrance examinations, to other continental universities are 
also accepted. 

As regards professional education, the Council divided its resolu- 
tions into "requirements" and " recommendations " ; the former 
consisting of demands on the licensing bodies, non-compliance with 
which renders them liable to be reported to the Privy Council; the 
latter are regarded merely as sunjcstions for the general conduct 
of education and examination. The requirements may be sum-, 
marized as follows: (a) Registration as a medical student. (6) 
FivL' years oi bona-ftdt studji' between the date of registration and 
the date of the final examination far siny diploma entitling the 
holder to be rc^giucivd under the Medknl Atts. [c) In every course 
or firafcKimnal study and «sATniiU3tton th« Mowing subjects murt 
tje c^^rlLamcd^ the Council o^cring no opinion a» to the manner in 
mhifh they ahoutd be distributed or corribtned for the purposes of 
teaching or ciuimiiiattan, this being tcft to the cii^riition 01 the bodies 
or of rh*E student — fij physk9» including the srirmcntary mechanics 
of 9ol>d$ and fluida, and the rudiments of heat, iii^tit and electricity; 
(ii.) chtmt^ry, including the principles of the Hiiince, and the details 
which bear on the sEudy of medicine; (iii.) elemcncary biology; (iv.) 
anatomy: (w) phj^oloey; (vi.^ materia mcdioi and pharmacy: 
(vil> pathology : (vui,) thctapcuUcs; (iat.) medicine, including medical 
aiiacom.v and ehnical mcd;tifie* (it) tur^ry, including surgical 
anatomy and clinical furuery; (xi,) midwdery, including diseases 
peculiar to women and to new-born childnfn: (xii.). theory and 
practice of vaeetnation^ fnii.) forensic in«^lii:iftc; (xiv.) hygiene: 
{%v) mentiil diaeaiie, {d) The firtt ot th<? fcuf yf irs must be passed 
at a school or schools of rnedicine re«jgnJ-&fd by any of the licensing 
bodies; provid«l that the first year may be parv^d at a university 
or teaching; inbtitutiuti where the iubjccts ol physics, chemistry and 
bk^k^jjy jtf- t.ifi^ln; :in*! th-\t ^fid\ixi'-<. in .iris 4)r science of any 
university recognized by the Council, who shall have spent a year 
in the study of these subjects, and have passed in them, shall be held 
to have completed the hrst of the five years of medical study, (e) 
The study of midwifery practice must consist of three months' 
attendance on the indoor practice of a lying-in hospital, or the 
student must have been present at not less than twenty labours, 
five of which shall have been conducted throughout under the direct 
supervision of a registered practitioner. 

The fifth year of study is intended to be devoted to clinical work 
and may be passed at any one or more public hos(>itals or dispen- 
saries, British or foreign, recognized by the licensing authorities; 
six months of this year may be passed as a pupil to a practitioner 
posscsjiinK such opportunitits of im^ijjfELng practicjl knowledge a« 
shall be iatisfactory to the medkal authontie:^. This letter method 
IS rarely employed. 

The " recommcndationa " of the Council contain »ucttestiona 
which may or may not be acted on by the bodies. For tut most 
part ihty fire comj^tied with in connection with the system of practical 
and clinical Teaching. 

The Council sitiahes itstlf that its reauirtments are acted on, and 
that the ejaminatif^na arc '* sufficient/' by C3^I« of inspection about 
rvery five j-eara. The ejta mi nation of each licensing body ja visited 
Jjy an in^pcclof, whO' forwani* his repiori 10 the Cou ncitn whtch sends 
each rf fxJrt to the bodj^ \ot it* information and rrmarks^. As yet 
it has nc^'tr bc«n the duty of the Council to report to the I*nvy 
Council that any e*amination has rot been fnund sufficient. 

Most universities exact ^Lttendanceat mon: cU*5« than the eolte^es 
and ha]h; for instance, botany and natural history art tanght to 
their sludienta, who are also <rxamined in theni. But with these 
exceptions the system ol professional education ia fairly uniform. 
Since 1875 attendance on ' practical " classes has been called for in 
all subjects. Under this system the larger classes in which the 
subjects are taught systematically are broken up, and the students 
are taught the use of apparatus and the emjjloyment of methods 
of investigation and observation. Tutorial instruction is supcrj 
imposed on teaching by lecture. Much the same plan is adopted 
in respect of clinical instruction: not only is the student taught at 
the bedside by the lecturer, but he receives, either from the house- 
surgeon or house-physadan or from a specially appointed dmical 



tulor, «it Iiut^ht inCe ntetisods at n^mtnatioa of diseases, and learns 
practkally the use ot the Ettetho^ope iind other aids to dia^osis. 
and of frur^ica! and obitetrlcal instrucnonts. In fact, it may be said 
that each jfubj^t oi instruction ii duplicated. If this is taken into 
account, ii must be evid^Mit chat tht Ume of the student is fully 
occupied, and the btllef is rapidly gnotRring that five years is too 
short a period ol «tudy. Aa a. niaLter of fact, the average time taken 
to obuiin a BntiAh licence to pr,acEise h upwards of six years. The 
probabiEity i« that the solution of the difficulty will be found, in the 
inclusion of iuch subjects as phytici,, biology and chemistry in a 
" preliminary scienttBc '* examination, which may have to be under- 
tuKeo before regisTr^tion as a niediri'Lt student, thus leaving the 
wbole five jcan to be devoted to purely professional study. 

The German regulations in regard to professional study are 
few. They are those for the Staais Examen, for which the 
q^^^ university degree is no longer necessary. The regu- 
* lations for the admission of candidates to the Stoats 
ExamensLTe contained in the royal proclamations, of the 22nd of 
June 18S3. They comprise: (a) Certificate of a course of study 
at a classical gymnasium of the German Empire. In exceptional 
cases, the same from a classical gymnasium outside the German 
empire may be considered sufficient. (For details of the course 
of study and examinations, see Minutes of ike General Medical 
Council^ voL xxvii. appendix 3.) (6) Certificate from a univer- 
sity, certifying a course of medical study of at least nine half- 
years at a university of the German empire, (c) Certificate that 
the candidate has passed, entirely at a German university, the 
medical VorprUfung^ and thereafter has attended for at least 
four half-years the medical studies of a university. (<0 The 
spedal testimony of the clinical directors bearing witness that 
the candidate has taken part as Praktikant (dcrk or dresser) 
during two half-years at the medical, surgi(^, and gynaeco- 
logical clinics; has himself delivered two cases of labour in the 
presence of his teachers or assistant physicians; and has attended 
for a half-year as Praktikant the clinic for diseases of the eye. 

The medical VortrHfung referred to b necessary alike for the 
&aats Examen and the degree of Doctor of Medicine. It takes place 
at the end of the second year (fourth semestre), and includes the 
subjects of experimental physics, chemistry, botanv, xoology, 
anatomy and ptiysiology. It is conducted by a board appointed 
yeariy by the Mmister of Education. 

No one can practise medicine in France who does not possess 
the diploma of Doctor of Medicine of a French university. The 
-. _^ qualification of Officier de santS is no longer granted. 
Before he can inscribe as a student of medicine the 
applicant must have obtained the diplomas of Bachelier is lettres 
and Bachelier is sciences. Although the course of professional 
study may be completed in four years, a longer time is generally 
taken before the student proceeds to the final examination for 
the doctor's degree. Each year is divided into four trimestres; 
at each trimestre the student must make a new inscription. The 
trimestres are (i) November and December, 56 days; (2) January, 
February, March, 86 days; (3) April, May, June, 86 days; (4) 
July, August, 56 days. Practically there are no regtdations 
determining the division of the various subjects, or the number 
of lectures in each course, or requiring the student to attend the 
courses. The medical faculty of each university puts before 
the student a scheme recommending a certain order of studies 
(Division des itudes) for each of the four years of the medical 
course, and, as a matter of fact, this order of study is enforced 
by the system of intermediate examinations {^camens du Jin 
d'annie). All the lecture courses are free, as also are the clinics 
and the hospital service, and there is no system of ascertaining 
the regularity of attendance at lectures, or of certificate of attend- 
ance. If, however, the student fails to pass the Examen du fin 
d'annie he is debarred from making the next trimestral inscrip- 
tion, and thus loses three months. The lectures are, however, 
closely attended. In contrast to the freedom in regard to atten- 
dance on systematic lectures, there are strict direction and control 
in regard to hospital attendance and practical courses. The 
student is required to sign a register ad hoc each time he goes 
in and ouL From the beginning of the third year, e.g. from the 
ninth quarterly inscription, hospital attendance is enforced till 
the end of the fourth year. No one can renew his trimestral 
insaiptioii without produciDg a schedule of his last trimestral 

stage, showing that during it he had not absented himself more 
than five times without {explanation. Practical work is obliga- 
tory during each of the four years. 

Besides systematic courses of lectures, Conflrencts are held by the 
asnstant-professors ifigrigts) in natural history, physiok^, general 
pathology, internal pathology, external pathology. At the end of 
the first year the student is examined in osteoloey, myology and the 
elements of physioloffy ; at the end of the second year, in anatomy 
and physiology in all their branches; at the end of the third year, 
in medicine and surgery ; at the end of the fourth year, an examina- 
tion is held over the whole field of study. 

No one is allowed to enter on the study of medidne without 
passing the Artium examen of a secondary school. This is the 
equivalent of the German Abiturienten Examen of 0„j|M,rtt 
a dassical gymnasium. After study for two semestres 
an examination must be passed in psychology, logic and history. 
The spedal professional examinations consist of (i) preliminary 
sdentific, in botany, xoology, physics, chemistry; (2) first spedal 
or professional, anatomy (orally and by dissections), physiology, 
and pharmacology; (3) second spedal or professiomd, written 
examinations in medicine, surgery, medical jurisprudence; 
practical and oral in operative surgery, in clinical medicine, and 
clinical surgery; and oral in pathological anatomy, medidne, 
surgery; and midwifery. The completion of the full medical 
course takes six years, of which the first two are devoted to the 
study of the natural sdences. 

^ AtfTHORitiEi. — The history of the developrrvent ol mrd^l educa- 
tion frOin the earliest times down to JS94 will be fijund treated of 

fUipEig, iSfl^icjOS) tranfilated by E- H, HifC (London, i8gi). 
ThcFSc deaiiine more special Lnforniation an the Eubject in regard to 
the dclaili of Brit is n institutiom labfiuld consuk the annals of 
the various universities and colleges q( Great ^rilaiEi and Irelii^d. 
The following woika supply much interesting information regarding 
the e^radual rise and developtncni of te^icKing and eitainioatlon: 
Annals iff the Bathtr Sur^eons^by Sydney Young (1^90); History 
o{ iht R&ytil CoUt^ of Suft^oni of Jrtiani, by Cameron (iSJi6): 
EaWy Days of the Kaytil Colif^r of Phyiutant of Bdinbur^, by FVtl 
Ritchie ((899)1 Hiitorkal Sktuh Qf tht Koyui CoUrie cf Suritom af 
Edinburgh, t»y Gairdner (i A60J j M^'nurriali ofiU Farttity ofPkyikwns 
and Suttfons ofGiojitrw, hy Duncan {i8t(6J ; Tk^ Siory 0) ike UriKw 
fiiy pf Edinburfth, by Sir A* Grant (1S84J; UnitxrsUyttfGLaifiFUr, by 
St™art (i89t), a B.T.) 

As late as 1880 medical education in the United States was 
in a deplorable condition. In the early history of the country, 
before and shortly after the beginning of the 19th 
century, the few medical colleges had shown a dis- suum. 
position to require a liberal education on the part of 
those who entered upon their courses, and some effort was made, 
through the agency of state boards, to control the licence to 
practise. But as the country increased in population and wealth 
preliminary requirements were practically abolished, the length of 
the courses given each year was shortened to four or five months 
or less, and in the second and final year there was simply a repe- 
tition of the courses given during the first year. This is to be 
attributed mainly to the fact that there was no general national 
or state supervision of medical training. Medical colleges could 
obtain incorporation under state laws without difficulty, and 
brought considerable advantages in the way of prestige and 
increased practice to those concerned. That the existence of a 
college depended solely upon the fees of the students encouraged 
the tendency to make both entrance and graduation requirements 
as easy as possible, especially as there was no state supervision, 
and the mere possession of a diploma entitled the bolder to 
practise. Fortunately, during this period the practical character 
of the clinical instruction given in the better colleges fitted the 
graduates in some measure for the actual necessities of practice, 
while the good traditions of medicine as a learned profession 
stimulated those who adopted it as a career, so that in the main 
the body of practitioners deserved and held the confidence and 
respect of the community. From the middle of the 19th century 
there has been constant agitation on. the part of the physicians 
themselves for an improvement in medical education. The first 
notable result was an increase in the time of instruction from 
two to three years (Chicago Medical College, 1859; Harvard 
Medical School, 1871), the lengthening of each session to six 


I or more, and the introductioD of graded courses instead 
of a repetition of tlie same lectures eveiy year. The improve- 
ment thus begun became marked during the decade 1890-1900, 
amoonting ahnost to a revolution in the rapidity with which 
the coarse of instruction was amplified. Many factors co-oper- 
ated to produce this result: the general development of scientific 
isstmctlon in the Colleges and secondary schools, the influence 
of the large number of medical graduates who completed their 
traimng by study in European schoob, the adoption by many 
states of stringent regulations regarding the licence to practise 
within their borders, the good examples set by many leading 
schools in voluntarily raising their requirements for entrance and 
Snuiuatioi&, and, perhaps above all in its general effect, the 
igiution continually maintained by several national or state 
tsaodations which in a measure have exerted the general 
regulating control that in other countries has been enforced by 
Batiooal legislation. Among the most influential of these 
asBodations are the American Medical Association, the American 
Academy of Medicine, the Association of American Medical 
CbOe^es, the Illinob Sute Board of Health, and the University 
of the State of New York. 

The different suies make their own general regulations as to 
the practice of medicine within their borders. Certain states 
tmpnrr the medical diplomas granted by other states having 
equivaknt standards of examination. Such certificates are 
fenenlly required to be (a) of graduation from a " zepuUble 
medical school," (b) certificates of moral character, (c) the 
applicant must be at least twenty-one years of age. These 
caabfe the candidate to present himself before the state board 
lor the state examination. In many sUtes the applicant must 
Mtiify the board not only as to his professional, but as to his 
general education. The sUnding of the various medical schools 
is usually left to the sUte boards, each one determining the 
matter for its own state, consequently a school may confer a 
degree recognized as repuUble in several states but not in 
others. Only three or four states regulate the chartering of 
ioBtitatioitt. In other states any body of men may sectire 
articles of incorporation of a college or school by paying the 
neceasaiy state fee, without question as to the ability of the 
incocptwator to furnish an education. So strong, however, has 
been the growth of American public opinion that a four-years' 
ODttise of medical training has become the standard in medical 
schools, and in the majority this is in addition to one or two 
years* training in the natural sciences. There are dome sixty- 
Bve sute boards, and many have adopted strong medi<^ 
practice acts. 

The standard of preliminary requirements for entrance to the 
medical schools is being gradually raised, and a large number of 
the states demand a certincate of a high school education, while the 
comprising the Association of Medical Colleges, which 
I more than half the American medical schools, accept as an 

: standard a certificate of at least one year's study at a high 

KhooL In the report for 1908 of the United Sutcs bureau of 
cdncat ioo of 71 schools, which report the number of their students 
having an arts degree, it b stated that a degree was held by only 
»% of the candidates in medicine. These students were mostly 
tetrflMited between the Johns Hopkins Medical School (which from 
the date of its foundation in 1803 has only admitted college gradu- 
sees, and has in addition stipulated that candidates shau have a 
of French and German and have already completed a 
'. itumt ficitnces). Harvard Medical School 
L I'--, .".ry, and the Diedic^J departments of the 
ii Cj^iELfornla, Mtchlgan and Chicago (Hush Medical 
J ire cm entrance the cqnivaJiQiit of a two- yean' college 
h fliyrt ificludc French and German, together with 
Ti«ry and bi^ilofjy. Thia tendency ii in accordance 
rnm^ndc4 Btan'krd of medical education augct^ted by 
o( Mt^iral Bdycaticm and adopted by the House of 
I fw American Jtledical Aiiuciatlon^of wlucb the following 
isasammary: — 

I. (a) Tne ixelimlnary of a four-^rs' high school education 

or aa examination such as would admit to a recognized university. 

(I) la addition a year of not less than nine months devoted 

to caenustiv, physics and biology and one language (preferably 

Freach or German) to be taken at a college of the liberal arts. 

a. ft^ey i o us to entering a medical college every student should re- 
ceive from the state boara a " medical student's entrance certificate " 
to be gK««a 00 the pfoductioo of cre^tiab of traming as above. 




3- Four years of study in a medical college 'having a minimum 
of a 30-weeks course each year, with not less than 30 hours' work 
per week. 

4. Craduatkm from college to entitle a candidate to present 
himself for examination before a state board. 

5- A satisfactory examination to be passed before the sute 

Practically ajZ mcdicat echoota admit women, but ihtrc are three 
separate schioo!* of medicine for women ^ TKc Women'* Medical 
Collpge of Phllaildplita. E^nnsytvania ; Wamfn's Medical CoileRP, 
Rjjtimare, Maryland; New Vorfc Medical CpltrgB and Ho^pttal for 
Women — %ht bi« being one ol the eifihtcort tiomaeop^thic college? 
of Ihc L'nitc^d ^atc^ 

Avtit oiti Tj Ei. —J , M. Tower, CottiHhutwns It> ike A n nals p/ Mnlkai 
Protreix attd Xttdical Edu^alioa it$ ihe Uniied StQtru bijori and d\tr\n^ 
ikt Wa.f iif Indtpfudtnct (W^jfhirictnn Oowrn merit Prirnir^tf Ollicc, 
1^74) J N. S. Davi^. IliiimyoJ Mrditd Edui:ainm and InitituHani im 
thf Ujtitfd Statei (Chirngjo, iSji); Cfyrfirihutieni ta fA< ttistf?Ty e^ 
AfMk^ Edttialion tiful MfdicnJ InjtUuiwni in the Vniitd ^ata 
(Wn-fhrnRion. Govern nit m rrintintr Office, ift??); J. B, Ikcfc. Am 
UiitQriciii Skekk of ih^ Staif of Mrdtttve in ike Amtri^iin Cpi&miet 
(AlEany. 1830); Buil^iins ef tkf Aaurifaa Acadimy of M^uim 
(The <.hemic]%1 PuUiiihlFtx Company, Eaifon, Pa. I; H. L Taybr, 
" rrolc4Bion>"il Eidut^tinn In. the United Stjtcn/' Cotlcige Dt'p.trtmti'nt, 
Univeraiiy of the Stale of N'ew York, SvdifHn f , tSap, and BMletinS^ 
J poo: *' Course?* of Stgdv in Medical 5c hook" kr^ri of ihi Com- 
miniim^i of Edue^iaH {WastiinKton. tQOfl); F. R. Patkard, M,D., 
Tki History of JifetiiciTHf in tke Umiitd State i (t90(); fau^n^i ef 
Amtric^n Mmit^ Aiffyiiation (Aug. t^^ 1909); A. Fic^nert Medii^<d 
Edncnitom in ike U.S. and Canada. U^io}. ( W. H. H ► ; H , 1* H. ) 

MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE, or Forensic Medicine, that 
branch of state medidne which treats of the application of 
medical knowledge to certain questions of civil and criininal law. 
The term " medical jurisprudence," though sanctioned by long 
usage, is not really appropriate, since the subject i» strictly a 
branch of medicine rather than of jurisprudence; it does not 
properly include sanitation or hygiene, both this and medical 
jurisprudence proper being distinct branches of state medicine. 
The connexion between medidne and the law was perceived long 
before medical jurisprudence was recognised, or had obtained a 
distinct appellation. It first took its rise in Germany, and more 
tardily received recognition in Great Britain. Forensic medidne, 
or medical jurisprudence proper as distinguished from hygiene, 
embraces all questions which bring the medical man into contact 
with the law, and embraces (i) questions affecting the dvil rights 
of individuals, and (2) injuries to the person. 

i. — quesnons amcting the civil or sooal rights of 

I. Development of the Human Frame.— Tht development of 
the physical and mental powers of the human being is a factor 
of great consequence in determining criminal responsibility, 
dvil responsibility, or the power of giving validity to dvil 
contracts, and in determining the personal identity of a living 
person or of a corpse. Human life is usually divided into the 
five periods of infancy, childhood, youth, manhood and old age. 
Some writers increase the number of these unnecessarily to seven 

Infancy is the period from birth till the first or milk set of teeth 
beg;in to be shea — usualljr about the seventh year. During this 
period the body increases in size and stature more, relatively, than 
at any other period of existence; and the mental faculties undergo 
great development. The milk teeth, twenty in number, arc evolved 
m a definite order. bc|^inning with the central incisors at about six 
months, and ending with the second molars about the termination 
of the second vear. From the size and stature of the body, the 
development of the teeth, and the more or less advanced state of 
ossification or solidification of the bony skeleton, conclusions may 
be drawn as to the probable age of the infant. 

Childhood extends from the ruirnnitiuicmcnt of the ^hcddine ol 
the milk teeth to the age of psjJi^Tty— uj^uaily from the seventh to 
the fourteenth or fifteenth y«;Mr. Duting thi* period the body 
expands, as well as the bony stntrtun-!!!. withnui any clearly nnarlced 
ditterence in structure being oh^rvsble l»etween the $eKe« except 
as regards the genitals, so that it is impaiisibk to dL^tinguUh ahao- 
lutcly between the male and the formal*? ik^leton during thta period. 
The milk teeth are shed, and arc replan?d by the iixc^ti or per- 
manent set, thirty-two in number, though these da not Ubually 
all make thdr appearance during chitdhwjpd- Marked difl<rcnfe» 
between the proclivities of the wxei are notkwihie even at an early 
period of childhood, and lon^ befcr^ the characterutic functiona 
begin to be devdoped. 



Youth b marked at its commencement by the changes which occur 
at puberty — the development of the genitals in both sexes, the 
appearance of hair on the genitals, the appearance of a beard in 
the male, the development of the breasts in the female, the 
appearance of the monthlv flow in the female, and the ability 
to secrete semen in the male. Marked mental changes now occur, 
and the generative functions are perfected. Youth terminates at 
the age of legal majority,, twenty-one years, or perhaps the period 
ought to be extendra to twenty-bve years ol age, as it is with some 

Manhood (or Wotnanhood) is the period of perfection of all the 
bodily and mental powers. It ceases in woman with the cessation 
of the monthly flow at about forty-five years of age; but in man it 
often extends to a much later period of life. 

Old Age begins with the decay of the bodilv and mental faculties, 
and is characterized by wrinkling of the skin, loss of the teeth, 
whitening of the hair, and feebleness of the limbs. In its later stages 
decay of the mental faculties, deafness, obscurity or loss of vision, 
and bowing of the spine are added. 

3. Duration of Human Life. — The chances of human life form 
an important subject of inquiry, and on deductions from com- 
parisons of birth and death rates is founded the system of annui- 
ties, insurance against loss in sickness, and the insurance of 
Uves. Since the establishment of compulsory r^istration of 
deaths, our knowledge of the ordinary and extraordinary chances 
of human life has been extended, and surer data are avaikble 
for calculations of probabilities of life, of survivorships, and of 
the payments which ought to be made in benefit clubs (see 

'3, Personal Identity. — Where the identity has to be established 
or disproved after long absence, exposure to foreign climates and 
hardships, wounds, &c., the problem has often been extremely 
difficult. The data for identifying a person are individual 
and family likeness, stature, the colour of the eyes, peculiarities 
of garb and manner, recollection of antecedent events, but more 
especially marks on the persons either congenital or acquired. 
Such are naevi or mother's marks, scars, and disunited or badly 
united fractures, known to have exbted upon the missing person 
(see Identikcation). In the case of the living, identification is 
more often a matter for the police officer than for the medical 
man. Bertillon and Galton have each devised methods for the 
identification of criminals (see Anthropometry, and Finger- 

4. Marriage. — Under this head the medical jurist has to deal 
principally with the nubile age, viewed in the light of nature and 
according to legislative enactments, and with such physical cir- 
cumstances as affect the legality of marriages, or justify divorce. 

In Great Briuin the a^ at which the sexes are first capable of 
propagating the species is later than in more southern climes. 
Ordinarily it docs not occur before fifteen years of age for the male 
and fourteen for the female; exceptionally it occurs at the ages of 
thirteen and of twelve (or even less) respectively in the male and 
female. By law, nevertheless, parents and guardians may, in England 
at all events, forbid the marriage of young people till the age oflegal 
majority. The only physical circumstances which in Great Britain 
form a bar to marriaee are physical inability to consummate, and 
the insanity of one ot the parties at the time of marriage. Both 
those circumstances have been pleaded and sustained in the law 
courts. In other countries minor physical circumsUnces, as disease, 
are held to invalidate marriage. 

5. Impotence and Sterility.— These are of importance in con- 
nexion with legitimacy, divorce and criminal assaulu. Impo- 
tence and sterility may arise from organic or from functional 
causes, and may be curable or incurable. Impotence (q.v.) is 
taken cognisance of by the law courts as a ground of divorce, and 
might, of course, be urged as a defence in a case of rape. Sterility 
is not a ground of divorce, but might be a question of importance 
in cases of legitimacy. 

6. Pregnancy.— This subject presents one of the widest fields 
for medico-legal evidence. The limits of agel)etween which it is 
possible, the limits of utero-gestation, and the signs of pregnancy 
may all in turn be the subjects of investigation. 

The limits of age between which pregnancy is possible are usually 
fixed by the appearance and cessation of the monthly flow; and these 
ordinarily begin about fourteen and cease at forty-five years of age. 
Exceptionally they appear as early as the tenth year, and may not 
cease till the end uf the fifth decade of life. Cases, however, have 
occurred where a woman has conceived before menstruating; and 
a few doubtful cases of conception are recorded in women upwards 

of fifty or evtn sixty yvAn ol agt. Tht ^neral fact of pregnancy 
Ireing lifniccd by the ogc of pLjE.>f rty on the one hand and the cessation 
of the monthly flow — or (ifty-chrcv or fifLy-four years as theextrcme 
linilL of aju^t?^ — must \x acccpttrd a> the uk>st guide in practice. ^ 

The limiti of utcxo-tfistation pBtt not in England fixed by legisla- 
tion. Thr French code fixes the extreme limit of three hundred 
daya. The ordinary period is forty wcscka and a half, or two hundred 
ana eight y'thfiec d^vs from the cessation of the la^ monthly flux. 
Thf ILinit of three hundred days, as Axed by the French code, is 
perhspi never cKreLded, if ever reached. The uncertainty of 
liiinalea in fixing the exAct date ol concepuon has given rise to tlw 
di«frfpant opimons of phy^logi^ts on the subject. It is well 
known, however, that among the hii^her animals the period is not 
pri'^sc: It ad imprcgiutiofl and conccpiJOD need not necessarily be 

The signs ot pn?gnAi]cy are oJ the utmost importance to the 
medical jurist. He may be called upon to pronounce upon the virtue 
ol a female, to &u.«taln or rebut a pica Tor divorce, to determine 
whether a capital H'ntence shall be earned out. or to determine 
w h ether k is probable t hat an heir will be Ln jm to an estate. Medical 
jurii^t!. claasiry the sijjns of prt?giiancy as uncertain or certain; it u 
the lorraer which art mc«t rt?K^rdeiJ by the public, but the latter 
nrc alone ol probative value to the jurist. The usual and uncertain 
BiRTit arta the c«ution of the martthly llow, nausea, sickness, a 
darkcniinc ol the Areola and the formation of a secondary areola 
arouEi^l the nipple^ enlargement of the bn^osts, increased size of the 
■iEhJ<i?TriM:3i the KrrmaLion of a tumour in the womb, quickening, and 
the motions of the foetus. Ako ancertain are the uterine souffle, 
which h a peculiar solt sound heard over the abdomen and syn* 
1; hf onous wit h the maternal pulse and bolloctemcnt or the examination 
for & &oa.iitig tumour in the abdomen between the fifth and eighth 
months of pregnancy. The ctrrtain sijins of pregnancy are the 
foetal limbs paTpated through I he abdomen by the physician, the 
pulsations of the loetal heart htarrj by means of the stethoscope, 
the pulsations being mi^h quicker and not synchronous with 
the maternal pulses This latto" Is inapplicable before the fourth 
month of gestation. 

7. PariuriHm, — The innBtrtflK^ of the process of parturition 
IS of comparatively Httle interesl to the medical jurist; but the 
signs of T€i€nt delivery are all^irnp^rtant. These signs are the 
bruised, iwoUenr and lacerated state of the external genitals, 
retaxatioti and dilalatioti of the vagina and womb, the existence 
of a peculiar vaginal dischargf' known as. the lochia, a relaxed and 
tisstiied conditido of the bbdotntniil i^alls, a peculiar aspect of 
the Eroiintenantc^, and the distended state of the breasts due to the 
secretion of jnilk. The lochial discharge is the most character- 
istic ^gn. AU tht signs may disappear within ten days of 
delivery r though this Is not usual. 

Connected with pmiriiiofi. the question of viability (potentiality 
for life} of the child is not uniniportant. After the intra-uterine 
ag« of seven months is feoched a child is certainly viable. The 
period at which the foetua becomes viable cannot be suted with 
certairtty: but five calendar months, or one hundred and fifty days, 
\i perhijp* the nearest appraKimatiun. The viability of a child ia 
judgol by tsu site and weight, ita general BUte of development; the 
state of ine sldit4 hair, and nail« ; it* sirtnEih or fccblencss.the ability 
to cry, and its power of laking in,ilernal nourishment. The questioa 
of viability has important bearings uptm the crime of infantktde. 
\n the case of auccvssion to property the meaning of " bom alive ** 
is different from the meaning of the same cxpresMon as used respect- 
\f\g infanticide^ In questions of tf nancy by the curtesy iq.v.) it has 
been decided that any kind of motion ftf the child, as a twitching 
Lifid trcinulotis motion ol tho Tips, i* -iafTiciicnt evidence of live-birth. 
By tlie French code, howcvd-^ noehiljthjt is bom alive can inherit, 
unkt> it is born \iablc As rfifanls infjnticidc, proof of a conclu- 
ijve siipamtc Existciiee of the Child is dcnandcd before live-birth is 

The luhjoct ot lufxrforUiiktH and iMperfe^undatum, or the possibility 
of two cotttentsons having occitrfrsd re«u icing in the birth of twins 
with a contldtrablc intcrveninif intcrvjl, is obscure and has given 
rijte to much controversy. There Is much, however [e.g. the existence 
ol a double or bihd utefus), to countenance the view that a double 
CffiDceptiort » possible. 

8. MoKstiTS and Hermaphr&diks^—To destroy any living 
humnn birthT however unlike a human creature it may be, is to 
commit a crime. Blackstont stales that a monster which hath 
not the shape of mankind halh n» inheritable blood; but the law 
has not defined a tnonst^r, nor what constitutes a human form. 
Tlie same author stales that if, in spite of deformity, the product 
of birth hoi huniiin shapi?, it may be an heir. Hermaphrodites 
are bi.'in^ with mal!arinatJons ol the sexual organs, simulating 
a double *cx. Phy5io]ogist& do not admit, however, the existence 
of true hermaphrodiies with double perfect organs, capable of 
poIttimiDg the lunclions of both i 


9. PuUrmUy and AjfiliaHon. — ^These are often matters oCgxtaii 
doubt. A considerable time may elapse between the absence or 
deatb ci a father and the birth of his reputed child. As has 
already been said, three hundred days is the utmost limit to 
which physiologists would extend the period of utero-gestation. 
This subject involves questions riespecting children bom during 
a second mairiage of the mother, posthumous children, bastardy, 
and aliased cases of posthumous children. 

10. Fresnmptum of Surnvorskip. — When two or more persons 
perish by a common accident, when a mother and her new-bom 
diild are found dead, and in a few analogous cases, important 
civil rights may depend upon the question which lived the longest; 
and great ingenuity has been displayed in elucidating the dilutes 
which have arisen in the law courts in such cases. 

11. Maladus exempiing from Discharge of Public Duties 
frequent^ demand the attention of the medical man. He may 
be caUed upon to dcdde whether a man is able to undertake 
militaiy or naval service, to aa as a juryman without serious risk 
to life or health, or to attend as a witness at a triaL 

12. Peigiud and SimuiaUd Diseases often require much skill 
and caution in order to detect the imposture. 

13. Tke Signs of Death.— -The determination of the actual 
oistciice of death assumes a certain importance in tropical 
oountries, where the necessity for speedy interment may involve 
a risk of borial alive. Such an accident cannot well occur where 
a medical man confirms the existence of death, and in the United 
Kiogdocn, where burial rarely takes place before the lapse of 
forty-eiglit Iwurs, such changes usually occur in the body as to 
leader any error practically impossible. Within a varying 
period, nsually not more than twelve hours, the body becomes 
rigid, owing to the development of rigor mortis or post mortem 
rigidity. The blood, which during Ufe is equally distributed 
tkroQgliottt the body, gravitates to the most dependent parts 
and develops a discoloration of the skin which is known as 
post mortem lividity or post mortem staining. At a variable 
period of time, dependent on the cause of death, also the tempera- 
ture and moisture of the air to which the body is exposed, de- 
oooiposition or putrefaction sets in. These changes after death 
aic of great importance, not only as affording certain proof 
of death, but also because they furnish valuable information 
•9 to the probable time at which it occiirred, and from the 
bet that they may alter or destroy evidence as to the cause of 

14. IfumnUy or Mental Alienation. — A medical man may be 
nqoired to give evidence in any of the law courts, civil, criminal 
w ecdesiastical, before commissions de lunatico inquirendOf or 
bdore a magistrate, as to the sanity or insanity of an individual; 
tad he may Inve to^ign certificates of unsoundness of mind with 
the view oi providing for the safe custody and proper treatment 
of a lunatic Hence he must be familiar with the chief forms 
of insanity (see Insanxty), and be able to distinguish and treat 
cscfa of these. He will also be required to detect feigned insanity, 
tad to »TJi«niiw persons charged with crime with the view of 
preventing real lunatics from being treated as criminals. 

II.— Injuries to the Pesson 

1. DejhraSian. — ^The signs of defloration are obscure and 
Bcertain; and it is rather by the coexistence of several of the 
■sal marks than the existence of any one sign, that any just 
coodusion can be arrived at. 

2. Rape. — ^This crime consists in the carnal knowledge of a 
VMBon forcibly and against her will. The proofs of rape apart 
bcm the consistency of the woman's story, mainly depend on the 
pRseooe of marks of violence, stains, &c. In all charges of rape, 
tbe woman and her assailant should be examined as soon as 
peaible by a medical man, but such examination, it is important 
to ronember, can only be carried out with the free consent of the 
puty to be examined. It is to be noted that according to English 
h« the slightest degree of penetration is sufficient to constitute 
Ik crime of rape. 

5. Mutilation. — This may consbt in the cutting or maiming of 
■qr member; castration is the most important, and perhaps but 


rarely effectM/u a crime. Self-mutHation, giving rise to false 
accusations, is occasionally resorted to. 

4. Criminal Abortion. — ^This crime consists in unlawfully 
procuring the expulsion of the contents of the gravid uterus at 
any period short of full term. It must be noted that while this 
definition may be held to recognize the induction of premature 
labour by medical men in certain circimistanccs, yet, when the 
operation is necessary, a medical man should always protect 
himself from possible misconstmction of his action (i.e. criminal 
intent) by having a consultation with another practitioner. The 
means employed in criminal abortion to procure the desired 
result may be classed under three heads: (i) general violence to 
the body, (2) administration of drugs supposed to have aborti- 
facient qualities, (3) instrumental interference with the contents 
of the uterus. Among the drugs Trequently employed for the 
purpose, although by no means always successfully, are ergot, 
strong purgatives, iron, me, pennyroyal, savin. 

5. Hvmicide. — The legal sense of the term homicide excludes 
such injuries as are the result of either accident or of suicide. It 
embraces murder or wilful homicide, mansbughter or culpable 
homicide, casual homicide, and justifiable homicide. 

Ordinary homicide may be accomplished by several modes 
that may sometimes be ascertained by examination of the body, 
e.g. poison. 

As a preliminary in all cases of homicide, it is the duty of the 
medical jurist in the first pUce to ascertain the fact of death, and 
to distinguish between real and apparent death; and then to 
determine, if possible, the period at which death took place. 

Infanticide, or child murder, is by the British law treated with 
the same severity as the murder of an adult. Indeed infanticide 
as a crime distinct from murder has no legal recognition. Practi- 
cally this severity defeats itself, and hence an alternative charge 
of concealment of birth in England, or concealment of pregnancy 
in Scotland, is usually preferred in such cases. 

The iniquity of the old law which threw the onus of proof of stilU 
birth on the mother now no longer exists, and the law demands 
strict proof of live-birth at the bands of the prosecution. Hence 
the subject involves nice points of forensic medicine. The child 
must be proved to have arrived at the period when there was a 
protnbilit)r of its living (proof of viability) ; and as the establishment 
of respiration is necessary to prove live-birth the evidences of thiH 
act must be carefully investigated. The uze and position of the 
lungs, and the state of the vessels concerned in foetal circulation, 
roust be carefully noted. The foetal lungs are dark, dense and liver- 
like in appearance and consistence, and sink when immersed in 
water; whilst the fully respired lungs arc rosy, marbled, and soft 
and crepitant when handled. Minor degrees of respiration are 
recognized by the appearance of little groups of dilated air- vesicles, 
and by the fact that, although the lungs as a whole may sink in water, 
certain portions of them, mto which respired air has penetrated, 
float in water even after subjection to firm pressure in the hand. 
Care must be taken, neverthdcss, to exclude buoyancy of the lung 
due to putrefaction ; in this case the air may be expelled by gentle 
pressure, and the previously buoyant portion of lung now sinks in 
water. It is impossible, however, to distinguish certainly between 
a lung naturally inflated and one artificially msufflated. 

It must be borne in mind that, although live-birth cannot be 
affirmed in the absence of signs of respiration, the presence of these 
signs is not proof of live-birth in the legal sense 01 the term. The 
law demands for live-birth a separate existence of the child after 
delivery ; and breathing may take place whilst the child is still cither 
wholly or partially within the maternal passages, and in some special 
cases whilst still within the uterus itself. 

When proofs of respiration — it may be to such an extent as to 
leave no doubt as to live-birth — have been found, the cause of death 
is then to be investigated. Wounds, and other forms of injury, 
must be sought for. There may be signs of strangulation, suffoca- 
tion, puncture of the fontanellcs and consequent injury to the brain, 
the administration of a poison, or other means of procurinff death. 
It must be borne in mina that some of these causes may be brought 
about by omission, or even by accident. Thus strangulation may 
arise from natural and unrelieved pressure of the navel-string on 
the neck of the child ; suffocation from immersion of the face of the 
child in the maternal discharges, or by pressure of clothes on the 
mouth. Death may result from haemorrhage through neglect to 
tic the navel-string, or the infant may perish from exposure to cold. 

In the case of exposed infants it is important to ascertain the real 
mother. As such exposure usually takes place soon after birth, 
comparison of the age of the infant with the signs of recent 
delivery in the suspected mother is the best method of proving the 



De^from Asphyxia.-^Among the forms of violent death due 
to this cause are drowning, hanging, strangulation, garotting, 
smothering, suffocation from choking, mechanical interference 
with the expansion of the chest walls, as when persons are crushed 
together during a panic in a fire, breathing poisonous gases, such 
as carbonic add or carbonic oxide. Suicide and accidental 
death from these causes are still more common. 

Drotming is thought to produce death occasionally by the sudden- 
ness of the shock causing suspension of the functions of circulation 
and respiration — by shock without a .struggle. The usual mode of 
death appears, however, to be by the circulation of unoxygenatcd 
blood through the brain acting as a poison upon that orsan ; and 
this is attended with all the phenomena of asphyxia, as in suffocation. 
The phenomena attending asphyxia are as follows. As soon as the 
oxygen in the arterial blood, through exclusion of air. sinks below 
the nornul. the r(.!-fjiralory iv. ■ i ■ . .^r and al I he 

tame litnc more frcqueri't; buih ::ii_ j_i_,j.ij.i: .^y and expiratory 

EtiAtes arc exaggerated, the aiftpitriii^nury rt>[jifatoc>[ muscles are 
roMcht into play^ ^nd the breathing becomes hurried. Ai the 
blooa bccumca more and jnorc vcnoui, the ttip^niory mfl^vemcnti 
continue to incrt^st both in force and frequcnty. Very won tht 
C)ipir£ttory movements ticeamc more marked than the intptratory, 
and ev^try muscle which can in any way a:$^i»t irt cxpirnucin ii brought 
into pUiy* The orderly enpiraiory mt^vcmrcnts culmirLite in ea- 
piTator>' convLiUions; thcac violent cff43rl* npocdiEy cxh;iutt tht 
jKrvou» sy attm, and the convulsions iiUdUcnly ccaee and an: rollQwt.-d 
by a period o[ calm. The calm i^ one til exhau^Uon; all expiratory 
active moyements have ceased, and alt ihe ntu^le^ of the body arc 
flaccid and quiet- But at I^ne inttrvab lengthened deep Lnipiratory 
movtrituenu take pla«; then tnesc moveinentfi become lc» Trcqupnt ; 
tJw rhythm bccomea irrc-gular, »o that each bft*ith l^ctomca a more 
and more prolnng,i*d gasp, which becomes at last a coavulaivc stretch- 
log of the whole bodyj and with cxttndc>d Umbi and a stralghtencHJ 
trunk, wiith the head thrown back, the mouth widely open, the fare 
drawn and the no*trila dilated, tht bit breath is Uken. The above 
phenomena are not all obicrvifd! extent in ca&ci ol mudd^n and enitre 
excluaon of air from the lungi. In slow asphyxia, where the supply 
of air U gmduatly dlminiihcd (^ f. in dfOwnin(^), the phcncmena 
ate lunda men tally the tame* but with minor differences. The 
appcrarances of the body after dt^ath from drowning are various. 
There may be fialbr of the countenance, or this niay be livid and 
swollen. The air pasioses are filled wiUn frothv mucu*, and there 
may be water in the ftomach. The endi of xhc fingtra art oftt^n 
excoriated from Era«ping at objects; and weed*, &C-, are aomciimc^a 
found graipcd in, the hands. ITic dis'ti notion between murder and 
suicide by drowning can raftly be m^ide out by examination of the 
body alone, and n usually decided iTOm colbtc^ril circumstance? 
Or marks of a ^niKgle. Attention must also be paid to the exi jtmcc 
of wounds on the tvldy, marks ot str^ngubtion on the neck, and the 

Hanging may result in death from asphyxia, or, as is more parttcu- 
larly the case in judicial hanging, some mjury is inflicted on the upper 
portion of the spinal cord, resulting in instant death. The ordinary 
appearances of death from asphyxia may be found: dark fluid blood, 
congestion of the brain, intcnsefy congested lungs, the right cavities 
of the heart full, and the left comparativefy empty of blood, and 
general engorgement of the viscera. Ecchymosis may be found 
beneath the site of the cord, or a mere parchmenty appearance. 
There may even be no mark of the cord visible. The mark, when 
present, usually follows an oblique course, and is high up the neck. 
The fact that a body may be suspended after death, and that if this 
be done speedily whilst the body is still warm there may be a post- 
mortem mark undistinguishable from the mark observed in death 
from hanging, tnust not be forgotten. 

Sufocation may occur from the impaction of any substance in ihe 
glottis, or by .covering up the mouth and nose. It ]» frequently of 
accidental origin, as when substances become accidentally imr^cttd 
in the throat, and when infants are overlaid. The phenomena are 
those of pure asphyxia, which have already been deiailed. On 
post-mortem examination the surface of the lungs is found covcrtd 
with minute extravasations of blood, known a^r punctated eccby moAds. 

Strangulation may be accompltdied by drawing a cord tightly 
round the neck, or by forcibly compressing the windpipe (throttling). 
Hence there may be either a circular mjrk round the neck, not m 
oblique as after hanging, or the marks of tht fingers may be found 
about the region of Uie larynx. The cart iUginoua itructurea of the 
larynx and windpipe may be broken. The mark of the ligature is 
often k)w down in the neck. The signs of asphyxia are present in 
a marked degree. 

Metkitism.— In the United Kingdom this last form of death 
usualfy results accidentally from an escape of lighting gas, the danger 
has been much increased in many towns owing to the addition of 
carburetted water-gas to the ordinary supply. Carbonic oxide 
gas is contained in ordinary lighting gas to the extent of about 
6 to 8 %, and is extremely fatal when inhaled. Carburetted water- 
gas contains about a8 %. and when mixed with ordinary lightiM 
ns the percentage of carbonic oxide is thus very much tncreaseo. 
Aa a mode of assassination it is sekiom employed, but is frequently 

resorted to on the continent of Europe by luictdes, charcoal fumes 
being commonly used for the purpose. 

6. Death from Starvation. — Cases occur in which it is importaot 
to distinguish this from other modes of death. In such cases the 
skin becomes harsh and dry, and may acquire a peculiar odour; 
the subcutaneous fat disappears; the gums shrink away from the 
teeth; the tongue and mouth become dark-coloured and dry; 
the eyes are bloodshot; the intestines become thin and their 
coats translucent; the {^-bladder is distended. The period of 
total abstinence from food required to kill an adult is unknown, 
and greatly depends upon whether there be access to liquid. In 
some cases persoivt have been able to subsist on little or no 
nourishment for long periods, the body being in a state of 

7- Death from Extremes of Temperature. — (i) Death from cold 
is not often observed in the British Isles. A portion only of the 
body, as the extremity of a limb, may perish from extreme cold. 
After the first sensation of tingling experienced on exposure to 
severe cold, loss of sensation supervenes, with languor and an 
irresistible propensity to sleep. The tendency to this forms an 
extreme danger in such cases. (2) Death from extreme heat 
usually occurs in the form of burning and scalding, attended with 
destruction of a large portion of the cutaneous structures. Here 
the cause of death is obvious. The human ,body is capable of 
exposure to very hot air — as is seen in Turkish baths — ^for a 
considerable period with impunity. Sunstroke is a cerebral 
affection brought on by too great exposure to a hot atmosphere, 
especially whilst undergoing fatigue. 

8. Death by Lightning. — Lightning or an electric current may 
cause instant death. No visible marks of the effects of the 
electric current may be left, or the body may be singed or 
discoloured, or the skin may be perforated at one or two spots. 

9. Injuries or Wounds. — These include in a medico-legal sense 
not only those characterized as incised, punctured, contused, 
lacerated, stab wounds, but also bums, injuries produced by 
firearms, fractures, dislocations, &c. One of the chief questions 
which have to be decided in all forms of violent death is whether 
it was the result of accident, suicide or murder. In cases of 
fatal wounding, among the poinU to be noted, which will help to 
decide the question, are the situation; direction and extent of. the 
wound, the position in which the body and any weapon nuiy be 
found, together with the presence and distribution of any bkxxl 
marks and the signs of a struggle. In wounds caused by fire- 
arms the injury, if suiddal, is usually situated in a vital and acces- 
sible part of the body, the temple, mouth, and chest being the 
favourite situations; but such an injury also presents, as a rule, 
the characteristic appearances resulting from the discharge of 
the weapon close to the body, viz. besides the wound of entrance 
of the bullet, there are singeing of the cuticle and hair, and 
blackening of the area immediately surrounding the wound, from 
particles of imconsumed powder being driven into the skin and 
from the smoke of the discharge. These effects are naturally 
not produced when the weapon is discharged at a distance exceed- 
ing 3 or 3 ft., as usually happens in cases of homicidal shooting. 
They may also be wanting in undoubted suicidal wounds 
produced by revolvers and cartridges filled with amberite or 
other smokeless powders. Death from burning is generally 
accidental, very rarely suicidal, and when homicidal is usually 
employed to conceal traces of other violence inflicted upon the 
body. In large conflagrations death is not always due to burning. 
Charred bodies may be found presenting various injuries due 
to the fall of beams, crushing, the trampling of others trying to 
escape, &c, or fractures and lacerations may be due simply to 
the action of the heat. Death may result from such injuries, or 
from suffocation by the gases of combustion, before the victim 
is affected by the actual fire. Spontaneous combustion of the 
body has been stated to occur, but the evidence upon which the 
cases rest is not well authenticated. 

Punctured wounds or stabs require minute attention: for there 
have been instances in which death has been produced by an instru- 
ment so small as a pin thrust into a vital-part. Wounds of the head 
are always dangerous, especially if the blow has been severe. The 
person so wounded may die without division of the skin, or fracturt 


off die boQca. m hftppena in what is known m concussion of the bfain. 
I which dp not chyide the sldn may fracture the skull ; 

or the inner tnUe of the skull may be fractured without the outer 
bdM broken or depressed. Even wounds of the scalp may prove 
fataC from inflammation extending towards the brain. Punctured 
wounds of the head are more dangerous than cuts, as more likely 
Co excite fatal inflammation. When the brain and its membranes 
are injured, all such wounds are generally fatal. Wounds of the 
face or organs of sense are often dangerous, always disfiguring, and 
productive of serious inconvenience. IVonnds of tk* neck are always 
serious whenever more than the skin u divided. The danger of 
openii^ laiige bkod-vessels. or wounding important nerves, is 
inmtnent ; even the division of a large vein in tne neck has proved 
immecfiatdy faUl. from the entrance of air into the vessel, and its 
speedy conveyance to tt^ heart. A bk>w on the neck has instantly 
pcovcd fatal, from mjury to an impoitant nerve, senerally the 
pncumogastric or the sympathetic Dislocations ana fractures of 
the bones of the neck prove insuntly fatal Wounds of the chest 
are always serious when the cavity is penetrated, though persons 
may reco v er from wounds of the lungs, and have even survived 
for some time considerable wounds oTthe heart. This last b an 
important fact ; because we are not always to consider the spot where 
the body of a person killed by a wound of the heart, and apparently 
reaaining where he fell, is found as that in which the fatal wound 
was inflicted. Instances have occurred of persons surviving severe 
wounds of the heart for several days. Broken ribs are never without 
danger; and the same mav be said of severe contusions of the chest, 
from the chance of inflammation extending inwards. Wounds 
penetrating both sides of the chest are generally considered as fatal ; 
bat possibly there may be recovery from such. Wounds of the 
§tdmmn, when they do not completely penetrate, may be considered 
as ample wounds, unless when inflkrted with great force, so as to 
brake the contents of the abdominal cavity; in that case they may 
prodoce death without breach of surface, from rupture of some viscus, 
times happens from bk>ws or kicks upon the belly. Wounds 
; the peritoneum are highly perilous, from the risk of severe 
lation. Wounds of the stomach or intestines, or of the gall- 
bladder, generally prove mortal, from the effusion of their contents 
into the peritoneal cavity producing fatal inflammation. Wounds 
of the Uver, spleen or kidneys are generally soon mortal, from the 
great vaaculanty of thoK or^ns. wounds of the extremities, when 
fatal, nay geneially be considered so from excessive haemorrhage, 
fron the consequences of inflammation and gangrene, or from the 
Aock to the system when large portions of the limb are forcibly 
removed, as in accidents from machinery, and in wounds from 

Biood Staiiu. — ^The examination of blood stains is a frequent 
and important operation in criminal charges. Blood stains when 
fresh and abundant can be recognized without difficulty, but 
when old, or after being acted upon by certain subsUnces, their 
identity is not readily determined. 

I ■■- '■■ ■ * ■.. ;. I" !> !■ ►. -•-ri-\- ■■'» xo 3. luspnted rtain opnust of; 
(i) 14/ mu:7<}iiopu Uit. A portion of tKc stAJn i& toAked in a drop 
of some fi0i<! wnicli wifU soften and cauw Hpa ration of the dfkd 
Uond corptj4dc« without alteritig their characteristic aprpeamnce. 
Svch fli^mare solutioni of glycerine and watirr of a &pceinc gravity 
ef poal or jo% csuotic poiijiih. The recogniti<^n ol blood corpuKlei 
affaidfe evidence of the nature of the Main, (j) Ckemtcai umr (d) 
|is«t appGed to a tolution obt^ified hy wa^\Lmg «OTne of the stamed 
faiiiieu ooM nler^ A blood ioliition i« ix-d. And lo^cs \\% ncd colour 
m. ap^lfaatfea of heatt vhik ^X the «ime time a buET^oloured pre- 
dpftatr vi loroud^ <fr) Oti Applying a dmp of frtvhly prepared 
tincture of fuuBCtim and then some oionlc ether or peroxide of 
hvdrDfei) to tW stain, a blue colour if obtained i\ blood be preitent. 
Many other «jb«anec% however, give the same rmction. (0 \S* 
even to the unalkst partiek of dried bkiod. a IraEment of commpon 
wit vnd wmc ^Ifcial acetic acid be added, and the Latter ii then 
fietied to ebuUitioEi and allowed to evaporate away, amall browti 
rhumboid cr>italf — ^haemen crystals — wiU be found to have formed , 
SAd they c^n be recogniied under the microscope, [j) Sp^firmt&ptc 
itfi^ A solution of blood obtained from a &Eain will anow a spectrum 
havisfl turn dark bands beiween Frautihofer'a line* D ind B (ojsy- 
hfci II imlnhi n 1 On addinfi^ ammonium fiiilphidv to the wbiion 
ibr ^i-T-^^i^-^^^fn '■■ r'-^.v■H iH ••'M- -n^' ^n-H rhric band is seen 
tredi-- ' ■■:.'•.■■■ •M-.h lo 3 solution 

of blood, alkaline haematin is formed, and this again is transformed 
oa the farther addition of ammonium sulphide into reduced haematin 
or kaemochromogen, which ^ves a very characteristic spectrum 
of two dark bands situated m the yellow part of the spectrum. 
The prodoction of these three dUTerent spectra from a red-coloured 
Blut¥» is diaracteristic of blood. Old blood stains are insoluble 
in water, wbereas recent stains are readily soluble in cold water* 
yiehlioc a red solution. The application of hot water or washing 
mth soap tends to fix or render blood stains insoluble. Vegetable 
dyes my likewise g;ive red stdutions. but they may be distinguished 
mm bk»od by the addition of ammonia, whtch afters the colour of 
^bt fomcr. but nther intensifies the red colour of a blood solution. 

The diffcfentiation between human blood stains and those pro> 


dooed by the blood of other animals, more especially domestic 
animals, u a matter of great importance to the medical jurist. 
When the blood stain is fresh, measurement of the corpuscles may 
dvcic!<? the ctui.'r-t 1^^.11, but in J^v- u^-a -..i ■[.\ and old stains it is im- 
poi^ble to make the distinct wn, A mi.-Uiixl has been discovered, 
however, which enables the dii^tiiiction lo Ik made not only between 
human blood and that <^ other animal? (with the exception of 
Simiidae)^ but alio between the bloods af different animals. The 
method dependA upon the fact that if an animal (A), such as a dog 
or rabbit, i$- inoculated with the blood or aerum of another animal 
(B)» then the bbod or t«rum of A ta found to produce a specific 
reaction (namely, the production of a cloudiness or precipitate) 
when added to a solution of the blood of a similar animal to B. and 
that !ipecics of animal only* If^ therefore^ human blood serum is 
mjected into an jiniFaal. it* blood after a time affords an " anti- 
serum '* which produces the ipecilic reaction only in human blood 
Botution^ and not in those formed from the blood of other animals. 

to. Poisoning. — ^There is no exact definition of a poison (q.v.). 
Popularly, substances which destroy or endanger life when 
swallowed in small quantity are called poisons, but a scientific 
definition woidd also include many substances which are injurious 
to health in large doses or only after repeated administration, 
and which act not only when swallowed, but also when taken into 
the system through other channels, e.g. the skin or the lungs. 
The branch of science which relates to poisons, their nature, 
methods of detection, the symptoms produced by them, and 
treatment of poisoning, is called Toxicology, and is one of the 
most important subjects included imder the term Medical 

The medical evidence in cases of poisoning rests upon — (i) 
the symptoms produced during life; (2) the post mortem Tippear- 
ances; (3) the chemical analysis and detection of the sul^tance 
in the body, or in the excretions and vomited matters, or in 
articles of food; (4) experiments on animals in the case of certain 
poisons where other conclusive evidence is difficult to obtain 
The treatment of cases of poisoning will vary according to the 
substance taken, but the general principles which should be 
followed are: (a) to get rid of the poison by means of the stomach- 
pump, or by washing out the stomach with water through a 
soft rubber tube, or by giving an emetic such as mustard, sulphate 
of zinc, ipecacuanha; (6) to neutralize the poison by giving a 
substance which will fcrm with it an innocuous compound (e.g. 
in the case of the strong acids by administering magnesia or 
common whiting), or which has an opposite physiological action 
(e.g. atropine in opium poisoning) , (c) to promote the elimination 
from the body of the poison which has been already absorbed; 
(</) general treatment of any dangerous symptoms which 
appear, as by stimulation in collapse or artificial respiration in 

Food Poisoning (see also Adulteration).— Foods may prove 
noxious from a variety of causes: (i) The presence of metallic 
poisons, as in peas artificially coloured with copper salts, in 
tinned foods from dissolved tin salts, &c. (2) The contami- 
nation of any food with the specific germs of disease, as for 
example, milk infected with the germ of enteric fever, (3) The 
presence in meat of parasites, such as the Trichina spiralis, or 
of disease in animals, capable of transmission to man, such as 
tuberculosis, or the presence of poison in the flesh of animals 
which have fed on substances harmless to them but poisonous to 
human beings. Grain may be infected with parasitic fungi of a 
poisonous character, as for example Ctaviceps purpurea, causing 
epidemics of ergotism. (4) Foods of various kinds may contain 
saprophytic bacteria which elaborate certain poisons, either 
before or after the food is taken. It is chiefly in relation to food- 
poisoning from the last-mentioned cause that our knowledge has 
been increased in recent years. 

Many cases of food-poisoning, previously of mysterious origin, 
can now be explained by the action of bacteria and the products 
which they give rise to — tox-albumoses, ptomaines, toxins — by 
splitting up proteid substances. It is not necessary that the food 
snould show evident signs of putrefaction. It may not do so, and 
yet on being eaten produce violent symptoms of gastro- intestinal 
irritation almost immediately, followed by various nervous synip* 
toms. In such cases a chemical poison, developed by putrefactive 
bacteria before the food was eaten, quickly acts upon the system. 
On the other hand, symptoms may not appear for many hours after 
' ingestion of the food, and then come on suddenly and with great 


•everitv — there has been a period of incubation. In such cases the 
food when swallowed has contained the bacteria, but the poisonous 
toxin has been elaborated by them afterwards in the system during 
the period preceding the onset of symptoms. In both varieties 
of poisoning the symptoms are similar, consisting of gastro-intestinal 
irritation — vomiting, purging and pain in the abdomen — together 
with pneat prostration, fever, muscular twitchiiq;s, disturbances 
of vision, delirium and coma. The varieties of meat which have 
most FiLi'iLir, ml;. i;ivt'ii rise to [>*■'' ■ =- : '^ " ■■"" -i ' .^- i .1.. I^iin, 
veal, «du^>j,t-=i, Lj'^wn, Viiricau:^ kiFiniri -ji (\u-n. |.'l^^ .^ini t^i^'UcLl mv^rft. 
Pig flf^h iippc^rt to be spcci»ily liabk: to b«ome inlected, A point 
of caniidcr.ib1e interest, which ha^ tometiiDcs given riie to doubt 
ai to the pal»nDUi< character oi cncat in certain in Glances, !&, that 
th« same fcMid may be poiBonouii at one Lime and not at another, 
Thut it may be harming when frc-ohJy preparcdi cauific fatal effects 
if eaten a day or two aflerwarda, and fihortly after thi^t a^ain provi? 
ptfitct\y innocuoujv Thb U explained by the (act that the touc 
sAMtaiKea takv tnmt time to df v^lop, and after development art stiU 
[wthef spill tip by the bacteria into oi her todie* of a h^trmku naiure. 
in. some fi»h— f-i, Tn^iktrtuj dratc, or id weaver— the poison i» a 

Ehysoloslcal produci of teruin ^iancl:^ In othcts the pQiiori ia not 
nown^ a* in ihe family Sctnnbi^idae, to which the di«eai« Kakki hA* 
been attributed, Irt the United Kinsdom the poisonous effect* pro- 
duced by fi^ are due to bacteiidl agency after death, and iFiUantct 
have Dccuired from the eating of hrrrinss, mackerel, dried salt 
codfith, cavLare^ tinned salmcrn aiid Unned sardines. Shellfish 
may produce pOk&onous efTeet^ from putrefactive changed Or from 
the devfJopment in them (oysleri and mussels) ol ptomaincv 
Brieser diicovered a ptomaine in poisonout mutieti to which he 
gave the name my^ilotoxin. tt k now fully proved that oyttcr* 
and mu^^-la may became eonLaminated with the organism of typhoid 
fever U placed in specihcalily polluted water, and thua transmit the 
dlsrase to human beia|;s^ Milk, a^ already itated^ may be contami- 
nated and convey the infection of ^arleT fcvtfr and other diMrases. 
!i miy .•.'-■■• > ■.<:.' .'<i<,- -•- ■"■F !.".■:■ rlrt ur^jm, v- hTh r..-.- j:'...-.jbly 
the cause of infantile diarrhoea, and others, having a fatal effect upon 
adults. Cheese has frequently caused' poisoning. Vaughan dis- 
covered a toxic substance in milk and cheese — tyrotoxicon — but 
there are other toxic substances of bacterial origin sometimes present 
in cheese to which poisonous effects have probably been due. Mush- 
room-poisoning resulu from the eating of poisonous fungi in mistake 
for the edible mushroom. The poisonous element in most cases is 
either muscarin contained in the fungus Amaniia muscana, or phallin 
in Amanita pkaUoides, 

History op Forensic Medicine 
The true origin of medical jurisprudence is of comparatively 
-recent date, although traces of its principles may be perceived 
in remote times. Among the ancient Greeks the principles of 
medical science appear only to have been applied to legislation 
in certain questions relating to legitimacy. In the writings of 
Galen we find, however, remarks on the differences between the 
foetal and the adult lungs; he also treats of the legitimacy of 
•even months' children, and discusses feigned diseases. Turning 
to Rome, we find that the laws of the Twelve Tables fix three 
hundred days as the extreme duration of utero-gcstation. It 
is doubtful whether the Roman law authorized medical inspec- 
tions of dead bodies. In the code of Justinian we find De 
statu hominum; De poenis et manumissis; De sicariis; De 
inspiciendo ventre eustodiendoque partu; De muiiere quae 
peperit undecimo mense; De impoUntia; De hermapkrodilis — 
titles which show obvious traces of a recognized connexion 
between medicine and law. It was not, however, by the 
testimony of living medical witnesses that such questions were 
to be settled, but on the authority of Hippocrates. 

Medical jurisprudence, as a science, dates only from the i6th 
century. In 1507 the bishop of Bamberg introduced a penal 
code in which the necessity of medical evidence in certain cases 
was recognized; and in 1532 the emperor Charles V'. persuaded 
the Diet of Ratisbon to adopt a tmiform code of German penal 
jurisprudence, in which the civil magistrate was enjoined in all 
cases of doubt or difficulty to obtain the evidence of medical 
witnesses, — as in cases of personal injuries, infanticide, pretended 
pregnancy, < simulated diseases, and poisoning. The true dawn 
of forensic medicine dates, however, from the publication in 
1553 of the Constitutio criminalis Carolina in Germany. A few 
years later Weiher, a physician, having undertaken to prove 
that witches and demoniacs are, in fact, persons subject to 
hypochondriasis and hysteria, and should not be punished, 
aroused popular indignation, and was with diffictilty rescued from 
the flames by his patron, William duke of Cleves. 


At the dose of the i6th century Ambrose Par6 wrote on 
monsters, on simulated diseases, and on the art of drawing up 
medico-legal reports; Pineau also published his treatise on vir- 
ginity and defloration. About the same time as these stimuli to 
the study of forensic medicine were being made known in Paris, 
the first systematic treatise on the science appeared in Sicily in the 
form of a treatise De rdationilms medicorum by Fidele. Paulo 
Zacchia, the illustrious Roman medical jurist, moreover, published 
from 1621 to 1635 a work entitled Quaestiones medko^egatts, 
which marks a new era in the history of the science — a work 
which displays an immense amount of learning and sagacity in 
an age when chemistry was in its infancy, and physiology very 
imperfectly understood. The discovery of the circulation of 
the blood by Harvey soon followed, and gave a new impetus 
to the study of those branches of forensic medicine having direct 
relations to physiology; and to Harvey we owe the idea how to 
apply Galen's observations on the differences between the foetal 
and the adult lungs to the elucidation of cases of sui^xised 
infantidde. About this time, too, Sebiz published two treatises, 
on the signs of virginity and on the examination of wounds 
respectively. In the former he contended that the hymen was 
the real mark of virginity; but this was denied by Augenio and 
Gassendi. In 1663 Thomas Bartholin investigated the period 
of human uterine gestation, a subject which had engaged the 
attention of Aristotle. He also proposed the " hydrostatic 
test " for the determination of live-birth — a test still in use, and 
applied by observing whether the lungs of an infant float or sink 
in water. J. Swammerdam exphuned the rationale of the process 
in 1677; but it was not till 1683 that it was first practically 
applied by Jan Schreyer. 

Germany, ever the leader in questions of forensic medicine, 
introduced the first public lectures on medical jurisprudence. 
Michaelis gave the first course about the middle of the 17th 
century in the university of Leipzig; and these were followed 
by the lectures of Bohn, who also published De renunciationt 
vulnerum; cut accesserunt dissertationes binae de partu enccato, 
et an quis vivus nwrtuuste aquis submenus, slrangulatus, aut 
vulneratus fuerity and De qjkiis medici duplicis, ciinici et 
forensis. Welsch and Anunan wrote on the fatality of wounds, 
and Licetus on monsters. 

From the time of Ambrose Par6 the mode of conducting investi- 
gations in forensic medicine had attracted attention in France; 
and in 1603 Henry IV. authorized his physician to appoint 
persons skilled in medicine and surgery to make medico-legal 
inspections and reports in all cities and royal jurisdictions; in 
1692, difficulties having arisen, Louis XIV. created hereditary 
royal physicians and surgeons for the performance of like duties. 
These, having become a corrupt and venal body, were suppressed 
in I7QO. The only works on forensic medicine which appeared 
in France during the 17th century, however, were Gendry's 
Sur Us moyens de hien rapporter d justice and Bl^gny's Doctrine 
des rapports en chirurgie. At the beginning of the i8th century 
the latter was superseded as a text-book by Devaux'sL*i4r/ de 
/aire des rapports en chirurgie. Valentini followed with two 
works, which were finally incorporated in his Corpus juris medico- 
legate which appeared in 1722. This work is a vast storehouse 
of medico-legal information, and a summary of the knowledge of 
the time. 

Professorships for teaching the subject were founded in the 
German universities early in the i8th century, and numerous 
treatises on forensic medicine were published. Teichmeyer's 
Institutiones medicinae legalis long formed the text -book of the 
subject; and Albert!, professor of legal medicine at Halle, in his 
Systema gave to the world a most complete and laborious treatise 
on the science. His industrious collection of facts renders his 
works a precious mine of information. Indeed towards the close 
of the i8th century the Germans were almost the only cultivators 
of legal medicine. But in France the celebrated case of ViUe- 
blanche attracted attention to the subject, and called forth 
Louis, who in a memoir on utero-gestation attacked with power- 
ful arguments the pretended instances of protracted pregnancy, 
I and paved the way for the adoption in the Code Napolion of 


three handred dayi u the limit of utero-gwution, a period in 
pndae accordance with the ancient Roman law of the Twelve 
Tables. Louis also wrote on death from hanging, and pointed 
oat the mode by which we may distingtiish murder from suicide 
nodcr such circumstances. It is be who is credited with having 
been the fint in France to publicly teach the just application 
of medical knowledge to jurisprudence. Foder6's celebrated 
Traiii ie wUdecim UgaU appeared in 1798, and marks a new era 
in the annals of l^(al medicine. 

No British author wrote systematically on forensic medicine 
tin 1788, when Dr Samuel Farr published a short treatise on the 
EUmeuU of Medical Jwrispntdenu\ but this was merely an 
abridgment of an earlier work of Fazelius. Previous writers — 
as Mead, Munro, Denman, Perdval and the two Hunters— had, 
however, dealt with fragments of the subject; nevertheless the 
sdeace as a whole was httle appreciated or recognized in this 
country during the iSth century. 

In the 19th century France took the lead; and the institution 
of three professonhips of forensic medicine at the end of the xSth 
century produced excellent fruits. In 18 14 Orfila, a Spaniard by 
birth, bul naturalized in France, published his Toxkologief a work 
which revolutionized this branch of medical juri^rudence, and 
first placed the knowledge of poisons upon a scientific basis. 
Since the u'me of Orfila, France has never ceased to have one or 
more living medical jurists, among the most recent of whom we 
must enomerateTardieu, whose treatises on abortion, on poisons, 
on wounds, &c., are justly celebrated. Germany too industri- 
ously pursued the subject, and Casper's great work on forensic 
racdkine will ever remain a classic in the science. In Russia 
Dragendorff greatly contributed to our knowledge of poisons. 

Thooffa forenSNC medicine may be said to have been entirely 
iieglect«l in Engbnd till the beginning of the 19th centurv. its 
piuy e sft has since been by no means slow or unimportant ; and the 
wbMct DOW forms a recognized and obligatoiy portion of medical 
stndy. The first lectures delivered in Great Britain were given in 
the university of Edinburgh in 1801 by the elder Dr Duncan; and 
the 6nt proiessorahip was held by his son in 1803. Dr Alfred 
Siuia« Taylor gave the first course of lectures delivered in England, 
at Guy's Hospital in 1831; and in 186^ the university of London 
nude forensic medicine a separate subject for examination and 
honours for medical graduates. In 1822 there was not in the 
&^ish language any treatise of authoruy fit her on medic;]! juri^ 
pnMJence or on any important division of the tubicct l Tor it vat not 
tin the fdUowing year that the useful com pend torn ol Paria and 
Fonblanque was published; and even in tnr middle of the t9th 
century medical jurisprudence may be aaid to have Ufn alma^t in 
its infancy as compared with what it it now. From i^jg Greai 
Britain produced an abundant crop of liters rure on lcrcfi«ic medicine. 
Sir Robert Chiistison's admirable treat i^ on Ttfftiofif^y, Dr A. S. 
Ta>ior's PrincitUs and Practice of Mrduat Junspftidrnie {190S 
edition, by F. V Smith), the same author'? Eii-tnma ff Mcdkat 
Junsfirudence, ur Guy's Forensic Mai •':. .pi ! ''K\ ,'.<,'nTfi 

M Medical Jurispmdence have become well-known and widely circu- 
lated works. The separate memoirs of Taylor, Christison, Guy and 
«4J*en irt al^i i^torehQUK-^ pf Iia,ri5 iincj octjucrnmii m the :yiE?nce. 
Aiaerca. too, has not hcen behind ti^nd in the f^ce. F. Whanon :ind 
|(L SChlU't Mo-tKimi. Wormtey'i Tvii^oioxy, and the worlu ol Bei;k 
vA Reese hAve furthered the study of the Kience. 

SttatsD Diiccfi M^nn, Foftnsic Mrduine and T^xii-tftoiy (London, 
•foa); WVntrr Blyth, Pmioni: JAnr Efftm and Dtifefinn (London. 
l9Qr||); AnbuTt and Rolle«an, A System of MedUin^, vol- ii. " Intoxi- 
cattDDs" (Loridi^ci, iqo^)', Vaughan. TvMnitelk C/mtury Fraittif of 
MtdMtnf. vc4. xiil. Jirtkle *' ProituiiJie*. Toxins and LeucomQint* ' 
O^Mdos, l^h IkldichkaH Hartdbnck dtr itrickittchen M^dkm 
(TtbinBEiit ]ft8i'ft>fi]: Hofnunn, Lehhinh der geTuklil£h^m 
Midkm (Wkn, t§98): Sirdftfmafifl. Lihrbvtk der gerickiftjitun 
Mt^m CStutigan^ 1*95): Kunfci-L Hondbmih dtr Ti^sikdo^e 
Oe«a. 1690): Brouankl, L'/s/iHiNcitdf. La Ptndaisffn, &c. (Paris. 
1897). (H. H.L.:T.A.I.) 

MEDICI, the name of a family renowned in Italian history for 
the extraordinary number of statesmen to whom it gave birth, 
and for its magnificent patronage of letters and art. They 
emerged from private life and rose to power by means of a very 
subtle policy that was persistently pursued from generation to 
fSmeration. The origin of the family is buried in obscurity 
Some court historians indeed declare it to have been founded 
by Perseus, and assert that Benvenuto Cellini's bronze Perseus 
holding on high the head of Medusa was executed and placed in 
the Loggia dci Lana at Florence to symbolize the victory of the 


Medici over the republic. But this only proves that the real 
origin of the family is unknown, and equally unknown is the 
precise signification of the Medicean arms— six red balls on a 
field of gold. 

The name appears in Florentine chronicles as early as the close 
of the X2th century, although only casually mentioned in con- 
nexion with various offices of the republic. The _ ^ 
first of the family to be a distinct figure in history ^^ 
was Salvestro dd Medici, who, in 1378, took an active ^^ 
part in the revolt of the Ciompi— so called because it 
was led by a wool-carder (ciompo), one Michele di Lando, and 
because the chief share in it was taken by the populace, who held 
the reins of government for some time, and sought to obtain 
extended political rights. Although Michele di Lando was the 
nominal chief of the revolt, Salveslro dei Medici was its real 
leader. The latter, although a member of the greater gilds, 
had joined the lesser and sought to be at their head, in order to 
lay the foundation of his own power and that of his kindred by 
attacking the Albizzi, who were the leading men of c^^^^ 
the greater gilds. The victory of the Ciompi, ^■'^•*^ 
however, was brief, for the excesses of the lower classes brought 
about a reaction, in which they were crushed, and Michele di 
Lando sent into banishment. Nevertheless the lesser gilds had 
gained some ground by this riot, and Salvestro dei Medici the 
great popularity at which he had aimed. His policy during 
that period had traced the sole possible road to power in 
liberty-loving Florence. This was the road henceforth pursued 
by the Medici. 

On Salvestro's death in 1388 the Albizzi repossessed them- 
selves of the government, and conducted the wars of the republic. 
Vieri dei Medici, who seems to have been the next 
head of the family, understanding the temper of *'*** 
the times, abstained from becoming a popular leader, and left 
it to his successors to prosecute the task under easier conditions. 
Then, in the person of Giovanni, son of Averardo Bicci dei Medici 
(1360-1429), another branch of the family arose, and became 
its representative branch. Indeed this Giovanni may be con- 
sidered the actual founder of Medicean greatness. He took little 
part in political affairs, but realized an immense fortune by trade 
— establishing banks in Italy and abroad, which in his successor's 
hands became the most efficient engines of political power. The 
Council of Constance (14 14-14 18) enabled Giovanni dei Medici 
to realize enormous profits. Besides, like his ancestor Salvestro, 
he was a constant supporter of the lesser gilds in Florence. 
Historians record *his frequent resistance to the Albizzi when 
they sought to oppress the people with heavier taxation, and his 
endeavours to cause the chief weight to fall upon the richer 
classes. For this reason he was in favour of the so-called law of 
catasto, which, by assessing the property of every citizen, 
prevented those in power from arbitrarily imposing taxes that 
unjustly burdened the people. In this way, and by liberal loans 
of money to all who were in need of it, he gained a reputation 
that was practically the foundation-stone of the grand family 
edifice. Giovanni dei Medici died in 1429 leaving two sons, 
Cosimo ( 1 389-1 464) and Lorenzo (1395-1440). From the former 
proceeded the branch that held absolute sway for many genera- 
tions over the nominal republic of Florence, and gave to Italy 
popes like Leo X. and Clement VII. On the extinction of this 
elder line in the i6th century, the younger branch derived from 
Lorenzo, Cosimo's brother, seemed to acquire new life, and for 
two centuries supplied grand-dukes to Tuscany. 

Cosimo, sumamed Cosimo the Elder, to distinguish him from 
the many others bearing the same name, and honoured after his 
death by the title of paler patriae, first succeeded ^^ 
in solving the strange problem of becoming absolute pu^ 
ruler of a republic keenly jealous of its liberty, with- 
out holding any fixed office, without suppressing any 
previous form of government, and always preserving the 
appearance and demeanour of a private citizen Bom in 1389, 
he had reached the age of forty at the time of his father's death. 
He had a certain amount of literary culture, and throughout 
his life showed much taste and an earnest love both for letters 



and art. But his father had mainly trained him to commerce, 
for which he had a spedai liking and aptitude. He was*devoted 
to business to the day of his death, and like his forefathers 
derived pecuniary advantage from his friendly relations with the 
papal court. He accompanied Pope John XXIII. to the Council 
of Constance, transacted a vast amount of business in that city, 
and made very large gains. He then travelled in Germany, and 
after his return to Fk>rence discharged several ambassadorial 
missions. At the death of his father he was possessed of a vast 
fortune and an extended experience, and inherited the leadership 
of the opposition to the then dominant party of the greater gilds 
headed by Rinaldo degli Albizd, PaUa Strozzi and Niccold da 
Uzzano. Of gentle and kindly manners, generous in lending and 
even in giving money whenever he could gain popularity by 
that means, at critical moments he frequently came to the 
succour of the government itself. He was very dexterous in 
turning his private liberalities to account for the increase of his 
political prestige, and showed no less acumen and still fewer 
scruples in making use of his political prestige for purposes of 
pectmiary profit. Indeed, whenever his own interests were at 
stake, he showed himself capable of positive villainy, although 
thb was always tempered by calculation. COsimo proved his 
skill in these knavish arts during the war between Florence and 
Lucca. He had joined the Albizd in urging on this war, and 
many writers assert that he turned it to much pecuniary advan- 
tage by means of loans to the government and other banking 
operations. When, however, military affairs went badly, Cosimo 
joined the discontented populace in invectives against the war 
and those who had conducted it. This won him an enormous 
increase of popularity, but the hatred of the Albizzi and their 
friends augmented in equal degree, and a conflict became 
inevitable. The Albizzi, who were far more impetuous and im- 
patient than Cosimo, were now bent upon revenge. In 1433 
one of their friends, Bernardo Guadagni, was elected gonfalonier, 
and thereupon Cosimo dei Medici was called to the palace and 
summarily imprisoned in the tower. A general assembly of the 
people was convoked and a bulla chosen, which changed the 
government and sent Cosimo into exile. Undoubtedly the 
Albizzi party would have preferred a heavier sentence, but they 
did not dare to attempt their enemy's life, being well aware of the 
great number of his adherents. Cosimo had some apprehension 
that he might be poisoned in prison, but Federigo dei Malavolti, 
captain of the palace guard, showed him the utmost kindness, 
and, to soothe his fears, voluntarily shared his meals. On the 
3rd of October the prisoner was sent to Padua, his allotted 
place of exile. 

The Albizzi speedily saw that they had done either too much 
or too little. While seeking to keep the government entirely 
in their own hands, they beheld the continual growth of the 
Medici party. When it was necessary to make a campaign in 
Romagna against the mercenary captains commanding the 
forces of the duke of Milan, it was plainly seen that in banishing 
Cosimo the republic had lost the only citizen banker in a position 
to assist it with considerable loans. The Florentines were 
defeated by Piccinino in 1434, and this event greatly increased 
the public exasperation against the Albizzi. Meanwhile Cosimo, 
who had gone to Padua as a private individual, was entertained 
there like a prince. Then, being permitted to transfer his resi- 
dence to Venice, he entered on a course of lavish expenditure. 
He was overwhelmed with letters and appeals from Florence. 
Finally, on the ist of September 1434, a signory was elected 
composed of his friends, and his recall was decreed. Rinaldo 
degli Albizzi determined to oppose it by force, and rushed to the 
Piazza with a band of armed men; but his attempt failed, and 
he left the country to return no more. The Medici were now 
reinstated in all their former dignities and honours, and Cosimo, 
on the evening of the 6th of September, rode past the deserted 
mansions of the Albizzi and re-entered his own dwelling after an 
exile of a year. For three centuries, dating from that moment, 
the whole history of Florence was connected with that of the 
bouse of Medici. 

Cosiffio's first thought was to secure himself against all future 


risk of removal from Florence, and accordingly he drove tbe 
most powerful citizens into exile to all parts of Italy. Nor did 
he spare even his former political adversary, Palla -..__ 
Strozzi, although the latter had been favourable to JJ^fJT^ 
him during the recent changes. His rigour in this pianmm. 
particular case was universally censured, but Cosimo 
would tolerate no rivals in the city, and was resolved to abase the 
great families and establish his power by the support of tbe lower 
classes. He was accustomed to say that states could not be 
ruled by paternosters. Still, when cruelty seemed requisite, 
he always contrived that the chief odium of it should fall upon 
others. When Neri Capponi, the valiant soldier and able 
diplomatist, gained great public favour by his military prowess, 
and his influence was further increased by the friendship of 
Baldaccio d'Anghiari, captain of the infantry, Cosimo resolved to 
weaken his position by indirect means. Accordingly, when in 
144X a partisan of the Medici was elected gonfalonier, Baldaccio 
was instantly summoned to the palace, imprisoned, murdered, 
and his body hurled from the window. No one could actually 
fix this crime upon Cosimo, but the majority believed that he 
had thus contrived to rid himself of one enemy and cripple 
another without showing his hand. It was impossible for Cosimo 
openly to assume the position of tyrant of Florence, nor was 
it worth his while to become gonfalonier, since the term of ofiBce 
only lasted two months. It was necessary to discover some other 
way without resorting to violence; he accordingly employed what 
were then designated " civil methods." He managed to attain 
his object by means of the balie. These magistracies, which 
were generally renewed every five years, placed in the ballot* 
bags the names of the candidates from whom the signory and 
other chief magistrates were to be chosen. As soon as a bolla 
favourable to Cosimo was formed, he was assured for five years 
of having the government in the hands of men devoted to bis 
interests. He had comprehended that the art of politics depended 
rather upon individuals than institutions, and that he who nikd 
men could also dictate laws. His foreign policy was no less 
astute. His great wealth enabled him to supply money not 
only to private individuals, but even to foreign potentates. 
Philippe de Comines tells us that Cosimo frequently furnished 
Edward IV. of England with sums amounting to many hundred 
thousand florins. When Tommaso Parentucelli was still a 
cardinal, and in needy circumstances, Cosimo made him consider- 
able loans without demanding guarantees of payment. On the 
cardinal's accession to the tiara as Nicholas V. he was naturally 
very well disposed towards Cosimo, and employed the Medid 
bank in Rome in all the affairs of the curia. At the time when 
Francesco Sforza was striving for the lordship of Milan, Cosimo 
foresaw his approaching triumph, showed him great friendship, 
and aided him with large sums of money. Accordingly, when 
Sforza became lord of Milan, Cosimo's power was doubled. 

Without the title of prince, this merchant showed royal 
generosity in his expenditure for tbe promotion of letters and 
the fine arts. Besides his palace in the dty, he constructed noble 
villas at Careggi, Ficsole and other places. He 
built the basilica of Fiesole, and that of St Lorenzo ^^y|J^^^ 
in Florence, and enlarged the church and monastery otArt. 
of St Mark. Even in distant Jerusalem he endowed 
a hospice for the use of pilgrims. The artists of the day 
comprised men like DonateUo, Bnmelleschi, Ghibcrti, Luca 
della Robbia, and many others, and Cosimo's magnificent com> 
missions not only developed their powers but stimulated other 
men of wealth to the patronage of art. Without being a schoUr, 
Cosimo had a genuine taste for letters. He purchased many 
Greek and Latin manuscripts; he opened the first public library 
at St Mark's at his own expense, and founded another in the 
abbey of Fiesole. The Greek refugees from Constantinople 
found a constant welcome in his palace. During the Council of 
Florence (1439-1442). GemistusPletho spoke to him with enthusi- 
asm of the Platonic philosophy. Cosimo was so deeply attracted 
by the theme that he dedded to have the young Marsilio Ficino 
trained in philosophy and Greek learning in order to make a 
Latin translation of the complete works of Plato. And thus a 


was p rod uc ed tliat is still considered one of the best 
extant, and that Platonic academy was founded which led to 
sach important results in the history of Italian philosophy and 
letters. On the ist of August 1464 Cosimo breathed his last, at 
the a^e d seventy-five, while engaged in listening to one of 
Plato's dialogues. 

The concluding yean of his life had been years of little happi- 
ness for Florence. Being old and infirm, he had left the govern- 
ment to the management of his friends, among whom Luat Pitti 
was one of the most powerful, and they had ruled with disorder, 
corruption and cruelty. The lordship of Florence accordingly 
did not pass without some difficulty and danger into the hands of 
^^ Piero, sumamed the Gouty, Cosimo's only surviving 
^g^f^ legitimate son. Afflicted by gout, and so terribly 
crippled that he was often only able to use hU 
tongue, the new ruler soon discovered that a plot was on foot 
to overthrow his power. However, showing far more courage 
than be was supposed to possess, he had himself borne on a 
litter from his villa to Florence, defeated his enemies' designs, 
and firmly re-established his authority. But his success may 
be mainly attributed to the enormous prestige bequeathed 
by Cosimo to his posterity. Piero died at the end of five years' 
teign, on the 3rd of December 1469, leaving two sons, Lorenzo 
(144Q-1493) and Giuliano (1453-1478). The younger, the 
gentler and less ambitious of the pair, was quickly removed 
from the world. Lorenzo, on the contrary, at once seised 
the reins of state with a firm grasp, and was, chronologically, 
the second of the great men bestowed upon Italy by the 
hoose of Medici. In literary talent he was immensely 
superior to Cosimo, but greatly his inferior in the conduct 
of the commercial affairs of the house. In politics he had 
■obler conceptions and higher ambitions, but he was more 
eas3y carried away by his passions, less prudent in hu revenge, 
and maie disposed to tyranny. He had studied letters from his 
caihest years under the guidance of Ficino and other leading 
litterati of the day. At the age of eighteen he visited the different 
courts of luly. At his father's death he was only twenty-one 
Limmm >**" ^^' **"' Instantly showed his determination 
to govern Florence with greater despotism than his 
father or grandfather. He speedily resorted to the system of the 
beUe, and was very dexterous in causing the first to be chosen 
to suit his purpose. He then proceeded to humiliate the great 
families and eult those of little account, and this was the policy 
he constantly pnirsued. His younger brother Giuliano, being of 
a fluM and yielding disposition, had only a nominal share in the 

Lorenao's policy, although prosecuted with less caution, was 
sttD the old astute and fortunate policy initiated by Cosimo. 
Bat the grandson bestowed no care upon his commercial interests, 
ahboogh squandering his fortune with far greater lavishness. 
Accordingly be was sometimes driven to help himself from the 
pabHc purse without ever being able to assist it as Cosimo had 
done. An this excited bUme and enmity against him, while 
bis greed in the matter of the alum mines of Volterra, and the 
sabaequent sack of that unhappy city, were crimes for which 
there was no excuse. Among his worst enemies were the Pazzi, 
zzd, as tlwy formed a very powerful clan, he sought their ruin 
t^ competing with them even in business transactions. They 
were 00 the point of inheriting the large property of Giovanni 
Borromeo when Lorenzo hurriedly caused a Uw to be passed 
tkat altered the right of succession. The hatred of the Pazzi 
wu thereby exasperated to fury. And in addition to these 
tUngs there ensued a desperate quarrel with Pope Sixtus IV., 
a man of very impetuous temper, who, on endeavouring to erect 
a ttate on the frontiers of the Florentine republic for the benefit 
of his nephews, found a determined and successful opponent in 
Lorenao. Consequently the Pazzi and Archbishop Salviati, 
aaotber enemy of Lorenzo, aided by the nephews of the pontiff, 
vbo was hintfdf acquainted with the whole matter, determined 
to pot an end to the family. On the 36th of April 1478, while 
GialiaDO and Lorenzo were attending high mass in the cathedral 
of Flofc&cc, the former was mortally subbed by conspirators. 


but the latter was able to beat back his assailanu and escape 
into the sacristy. His life preserved, and no longer having to 
share the government with a brother, Lorenzo profited by the 
opportunity to wreak cruel vengeance upon his foes. Several 
of the Pazzi iind their followers were hanged from the palace 
windows; others were hacked to pieces, dragged through the 
streets, and cast into the Amo, while a great many more were 
condemned to death or sent into exile. Lorenzo seemed willing 
and able to become a tyrant. But he stopped short of this 
point. He knew the temper of the dty, and had also to look 
to fresh dangers threatening him from without. The pope had 
exconununicated him, put Florence under an intercUct, and, 
being seconded by the Neapoliun king, made furious war 
against the republic. The Florentines began to tire of submitting 
to so many hardships in order to support the yoke of a fellow- 
citizen. Lorenzo's hold over Florence seemed endangered. 
But he rose superior to the difficulties by which he was encom- 
passed. He boldly journeyed to Naples, to the court of King 
Ferdinand of Aragon, who was reputed to be as treacherous as 
he was cruel, and succeeded in obtaining from him an honourable 
peace, that soon led to a reconciliation with Sixtus. Thus at 
last Lorenzo found himself complete master of Florence. But» as 
the balle changed every five years, it was always requisite, 
in order to retain his supremacy, that he should be prepared 
to renew the usual manoeuvre at the close of that term and have 
another elected equally favourable to his aims. This was often 
a difficult achievement, and Lorenzo showed much dexterity in 
overcoming all obstacles. In 1480 he compassed the institution 
of a new council of seventy, which was practically a permanent 
balia with extended powers, inasmuch as it not only elected 
the chief magistrates, but had also the administration of numer- 
ous state affairs. This permanent council of devoted adherents 
once formed, his security was firmly established. By this 
means, the chroniclers tell us, " liberty was buried," but the chief 
affairs of the state were always conducted by intelligent and 
experienced men, who promoted the public prosperity. Florence 
was still called a republic; the old institutions were still preserved, 
if only in name. Lorenzo was absolute lord of all, and virtually 
a tyrant. His immorality was scandalous; he kept an army of 
spies; he frequently meddled in the citizens' most private affairs, 
and exalted men of the lowest condition to important offices of 
the state. Yet, as Guicciardini remarks, " if Florence was to 
have a tyrant, she could never have found a better or moie 
pleasant one." In fact all industry, commerce and public 
works made enormous progress. The civil equality of modern 
states, which was quite unknown to the middle ages, was more 
developed in Florence than in any other city of the world. 
Even the condition of the peasantry was far more prosperous 
than elsewhere. Lorenzo's authority was not confined to Tus- 
cany, but was also very great throughout the whole of Italy. 
He was on the friendliest terms with Pope Innocent VHL, from 
whom he obtained the exaltation of his son Giovanni to the 
cardinalate at the age of fourteen. This boy<ardinal was after- 
wards Pope Leo X. From the moment of the decease of 
Sixtus IV., the union of Florence and Rome became the basis of 
Lorenzo's foreign policy. By its means he was able to 
prevent the hatreds and jealousies of the Sforzas of Milan and 
the Aragonese of Naples from bursting into the open conflict 
that long threatened, and after his death actually caused, the 
beginning of new and irreparable calamities. Hence Lorenzo 
was styled the needle of the Italian compass. 

But the events we have narrated cannot sufi^ce for the full 
comprehension of this complex character, unless we add the 
record of his deeds as a patron of letters and his achievements as 
a writer. His palace was the school and resort of illustrious men. 
Within its walls were trained the two young Medici afterwards 
known to the world as Leo X. and Clement VII. Ficino, 
Poliziano, Pico della Mirandola and all members of the Platonic 
academy were its constant habitu6s. It was here that Puici 
gave readings of his Morgante, and Michelangelo essayed the 
first strokes of his chisel. Lorenzo's intellectual powers were 
of exceptional strength and versatility.- He could speak with 


equal fluency on painting, sculpture, music, philoaophy and 
poetxy. But his crowning superiorily over every other Maecenas 
known to history lay in his active participation in the intellectual 
labours that he promoted. Indeed at certain moments he was 
LwvasoM positively the leading spirit among the lltterati of his 
mMsaoi time. He was an elegant prose writer, and was 
L0mn. likewise a poet of real originality. At that period 
Italians were forsaking erudition in order to forward the revival 
of the national literature by recurring to the primitive sources 
of the spoken tongue and popular verse. It is Lorenzo's lasting 
glory to have been the initiator of this movement. Without 
being — as some have maintained — a poet of genius, he was 
certainly a writer of much finish and eloquence, and one of the 
first to raise popular poetry to the dignity of art. In his Ambra^ 
his Caccia dd Jalcone and his Nencia da BarberinOy he gives 
descriptions of nature and of the niral life that he loved, with the 
graphic power of an acute and tasteful observer, joined to an 
ease of style that occasionally sins by excess of homeliness. 
Both in his art and in his politics he leant upon the people. 
The more oppressive his government, the more did he seek in his 
verses to incite the public to festivities and lull it to slumber by 
sensual enjoyments. In his Ballate, or songs for dancing, and 
more especially in his carnival songs, a kind of verse invented by 
himself, Lorenzo displayed all the best qualities and worst defects 
of his muse. Marvellously and spontaneously elegant, very 
truthful and fresh in style, fertile in fancy and rich in colour, they 
are often of a most revolting indecency. And these compositions 
of one filling a princely station in the city were often sung by 
their author in the public streets, in the midst of the populace. 
Lorenzo left three sons — Pietro (1471-1503), Giovanni 
(1475-1521) and Giuliano (1479-1516). He was succeeded by 
Pietro, whose rule lasted but for two years. During this brief 
term he performed no good deeds, and only displayed inordinate 
Vanity and frivolity. His conduct greatly helped to foment the 
hatred between Lodovico Sforza and Ferdinand of Naples, 
which hastened the coming of the French under Charles VIII., 
and the renewal of foreign invasions. No sooner did the French 
approach the frontiers of Tuscany than Pietro, crazed with fear, 
hastened to meet them, and, basely yielding to every 
demand, accepted terms equally humiliating to him- 
self and the state. But, returning to Florence, he found that 
the enraged citizens had already decreed his deposition, in order 
to reconstitute the republic, and was therefore compelled to 
escape to Venice. His various plots to reinstate himself in 
Florence were all unsuccessful. At last he went to the south of 
Italy with the French, was drowned at the passage of the 
Garigliano in 1503, and was buried in the cloister of Monte 
Cassino. . 

The ensuing period was adverse to the Medici, for a republican 
government was maintained in Florence from 1494 to 1513, and 
the dty remained faithful to its alliance with the French, who 
were all-powerful in Italy. Cardinal Giovanni, the head of the 
family, resided in Rome, playing the patron to a circle of littcrati, 
artists and friends, seeking to increase his popularity, and calmly 
waiting for better days The battle of Ravenna wrought the 
downfall of the fortunes of France in Italy, and led to the rise 
of those of Spain, whose troops entered Florence to destroy the 
republic and reinstate the Medici. Pietro had now been dead 
for some lime, leaving a young son, Lorenzo (149^-1 5» 9) 1 who 
was afterwards duke of Urbino. The following year (1513) 
Cardinal Giovanni was elected pope, and assumed the name of 
Cmnttmsl ^'^ ^* ^^ accordingly removed to Rome, leaving 
Ohvmaal his brother Giuliano with his nephew Lorenzo in 
{LeoX.), Florence, and accompanied by his cousin Giulio, 
OMimao, ^|^q ^^ ^ natural son of the Giuliano murdered 
*^*'"' in the conspiracy of the Pazzi, and was soon destined 
to be a cardinal and ultimately a pope. Meanwhile his kinsmen 
in Florence continued to govern that city by means of a 
bdia. And thus, being masters of the whole of central Italy, 
the Medici enjoyed great authority throughout the country 
and their ambition plumed itself for still higher flights. This 
was the moment when Niccolo Mackiavelli, in his treatise The 


Prince^ ootmsdled them to accomplish the unity of Italy 1^ 
arming the whole nation, and expelling its foreign invaders. 

Leo X., who is only indirectly connected with the history of 
Florence, gave his nazne to the age in which he lived in conse- 
quence of his magpificent patronage of art and letters in Rome. 
But he was merely a clever amateur, and had not the liteiaiy 
gifts of his father Lorenzq. He surrounded himself with versi- 
fiers and inferior writers, who enlivened hu board and accom- 
panied him wherever he went. He liked to lead a gay and 
untroubled life, was fond of theatrical performances, satires and 
other intellectual diversions. His patronage of the fine arts, his 
genuine affection for Raphael, and the numerous works be caused 
to be executed by him and other artists, have served to confer 
an exaggerated glory on his name. He had not the remotest 
idea of the grave ijnportance of the Reformation, which indeed 
he unconsciously promoted by his reckless and shameless sale 
of indulgences. The whole policy of Pope Leo X. consisted in 
oscillating between France and Spain, in always playing fast and 
loose, and deceiving both powers in turn. Yet the evil results 
of this contemptible policy never seemed to disturb his mind. 
He finally joined the side of the emperor Charles V., and in 1521, 
at the time of the defeat of the French by the Spanish troops 
on the river Adda, he ceased to breathe at his favourite villa of 

Giuliano dei Medici had died during Leo's reign, in 1516, 
without having ever done anything worthy of record. He was the 
husband of Philibcrta of Savoy, was duke of Nemours, and left a 
natural son, Ippoliio dei Medici (151 1-1535), who afterwards 
became a cardirul. Lorenzo, being of more ambitious temper, 
was by no means content to remain at the head of the Florence 
government hampered by many restrictions imposed by republi- 
can institutions, and subject to the incessant control of the pope. 
In his eagerness to aggrandize his kinsmen, the latter had further 
decided to give Lorenzo the duchy of Urbino, and formally 
invested him in its rights, after expelling on false pretences its 
legitimate lord, Francesco Maria della Rovcre. This prince, 
however, soon returned to Urbino, where he was joyously 
welcomed by his subjects, and Lorenzo regained possession only 
by a war of several months, in which he was wounded. In 15 19 
he also died, worn out by disease and excess. By his marriage 
with Madeleine de la Tour d'Auvergne, he had one daughter, 
Caterina dei Medici (1 519-1589), married in 1533 to Henry, 
duke of Orleans, afterwards king of France. She played a long 
and sinister part in the history of that country. Lorenzo also 
left a natural son named Alessandro, inheriting the frizzled hair 
and projecting lips of the negro or mulatto slave who had given 
him birth. His miserable death will be presently related. Thus 
the only three surviving representatives of the chief branch of 
the Medici, Cardinal Giulio, Ippoliio and Alessandro were all of 
illegiiimate birth, and left no legitimate heirs. 

Cardinal Giulio, who had laboured successfully for the rein- 
statement of his family in Florence in 1512, had been long 
attached to the person of Leo X. as his trusted factotum and com- 
panion. He had been generally regarded as the mentor of the 
pope, who had no liking for hard work. But in fact, his frivolity 
notwithstanding, Leo X. always followed his own inclinations. 
He had much aptitude for command, and pursued his shuffling 
policy without any mental anxiety. Giulio, on the contrary, 
shrank from all responsibility, muddled his brains in weighing 
the reasons for and against every possible decision, and was 
therefore a belter tool of government in others' hands than he 
was fit to govern on his own account. When Giuliano and 
Lorenzo died, the pope appointed the cardinal to the government 
of Florence. In that post, restncted within the limits imposed 
by republican institutions, and acting under the continual 
direction of Rome, he performed his duties tairly well. He 
caressed the dlizens with hopes of extended liberties, cmMm^ 
which, although never destined to be fulfilled, long OMto 
served to keep men's minds in a pleasant flutter of ^^"^'^ 
expectation; and when the more impalieni spirits ^* 

attempted to raise a rebellion he speedily quenched it in blood. 
When, after the death of Leo X. and the very brief pon " 


of Adriui VI., be wis dected pope (1533) under the name of 
aeiDCot VIL. lie entrusted the government of Florence to 
Cardinal Silvio Passerini conjointly with Alessandro and Ippo- 
fito, *lio were still too young to do much on their own account. 
Tbe pontificate of Leo X. had been a time of felicity to himself 
if of disaster to Italy and tbe Church. The reign of Clement, 
00 the contrary, was fatal to himself as well. His policy, like 
that of Leo X., consisted in perpetual oscillation between France 
and Spain. By his endeavours to trick all the world, he fre- 
quently ended in being tricked himself. In 1525 he was the 
ally of the French, who then suffered a terrible defeat at Pavia. 
where tlicir king Francis I. was taken prisoner. The armies of 
Charles V. triumphantly advanced, without Clement being able 
to oppose any effeaual resistance. Both Rome and Florence 
were threatened with a fearful catastrophe. 

This far we have had no occasion to speak of the younger 
branch of tbe Medid, descended from Lorenzo, brother to Cosimo 
the ddcr. Always in obscurity, and hitherto held in check by 
the ehler fine, it fiist entered the arena of history when the other 
was on the point of extinction. In fact the most valiant captain 
of the papal forces was Giovanni dei Medici, afterwards known 
by the name of Giovanni delle Bande Nere. His father was 
Giovanni, son of Tier Francesco, who was the son of Lorenzo, 
the brother of Cosimo dei Medici. History has little to tell of 
the elder Giovanni; but his wife Caterina Sforza, of whom he was 
the third husband, was a woman of more than masculine vigour. 
Giovaani dei Medici married her in 1497, but died in 1498, 
having her with one son who was christened Lodovico, but after- 
wards took his father's name of Oioyanni (1498- 
**'''' K26). Trained to arms from his eariiest years, this 
t^^ ytNith inherited all the energy of his mother, whose 
Sforza blood seemed to infuse new life into the 
yoanger branch of the Medici. Notwithstanding his extreme 
youth, he bad already achieved the title of the best captain in 
Italy. He had always fought with immense dash and daring, 
tad was devotedly loved and obeyed by his soldiery. He was 
the oaly leader who opposed a determined resistance to the 
ja^aial (onxs. He was seriously wounded at Pavia when 
fightii^ oa the French side. On his recovery he joined the army 
of the League, and was much enraged by finding that the duke 
of Urbino, commander of the Venetian and papal forces, would 
sever decide on attacking. When the imperial troops were 
oniggCng through the marshes of Mantua, surrounded on every 
■de, and without stores or ammunition, Giovanni could not 
loigB himself to inactivity like his colleagues in command. 
He was igixrant that the imperialists had just received supplies 
and artillery from the duke of Ferrara, and therefore daringly 
utacked them with a small body of men without taking any 
preraatioos for defence. One of the first shots fired by the 
nemy injured him so fatally that he died a few days after. 
He was married to Maria Salviati, by whom he had one son, 
CoBDo (1519-1574)* who became the first grand duke of 
Tacany, and indeed the founder of the grand duchy and the 
lev dynasty. 

Sfcanwhile tbe imperial army pursued its march upon Rome, 
optned the Eternal City after a few hours' combat, and cruelly 
SKked it daring many days (1527). Thanks to his perpetual 
sfcflA'ng and excessive avarice, the pope found himself utterly 
iMsaken, aiKl was obliged to seek refuge in the castle of St 
Ai^Ho, whence he only effected his escape after some months. 
Be then signed a treaty of alliance with the emperor (i539)« 
«bo sent an army to besiege Florence and restore the Modici, 
vhoB the people had expelled in 1527 on the re-establishment 
«f the republic After an heroic defence, the city was forced 
to srarender (1530); and, although it was expressly stipulated 
tkat the ancient liberties of Florence should be respected, every 
cue foresaw that the conditions would be violated. In fact, 
pope and emperor immediately began to dispute as to which 
ihoald be the new lord of the city. Clement VII. had inherited 
the fraditjonal family dislike for the younger branch of his kin, 
and 90 the choice lay between the two bastards Ippolito and 
Alosandco. The former being a cardinal, tbe latter was chosen. 


Alessandro, who already bore the title of duke of Citti di Penna, 
came to Florence in 1531, and by imperial patent was nominated 
head of the republic. According to the terms of this 
patent, the former liberty enjoyed under the Medicean ^ 
rule was to remain intact. But no previous ruler 
of the city had enjoyed hereditary power confirmed by 
imperial patent, and such power was incompatible with the 
existence of a republic. Moreover, Clement VH. showed dis- 
satisfaction with the uncertainty of the power conferred upon 
his kinsnian, and finally succeeded in obtaim'ng additional 
privileges. On the 4th of April 1532 a parliament was convoked 
for the last time in Florence, and, as usual, approved every 
measure proposed for acceptance. Accordingly a new council 
was formed of two hundred citizens elected for life, forty-eight 
of which number were to constitute a senate. Alessandro, as 
duke of the republic, filled the post of gonfalonier, and carried 
on the government with the assistance of three senators, changed 
every three months, who took the place of the supprea^ 

The duke's chief advisers, and the contrivers of all these 
arrangements were Baccio Valori, Francesco Vettori and above 
all Francesco Guicclardini— men, especially the latter two, of 
lofty political gifts and extensive influence. The mind and 
character of Duke Alessandro were as yet comparatively un- 
known. At first he seemed disposed to rule with justice and 
prudence. But encountering difficulties that he was unable to 
overcome, he began to neglect the business of the state, and 
acted as if the sole function of government consisted in lulling 
the people by festivities and corrupting it by the dissolute life 
of which he set the example. The question of the moment was 
the transformation of the old republican regime into a princedom; 
as an unavoidable result of this change it followed that Florence 
was no longer to be the ruling city to whose inhabitants alone 
belonged the monopoly of political office. When the leading 
Florentine families realized not only that the republic was 
destroyed, but that they were reduced to equality with those 
whom they had hitherto regarded as their inferiors and subjects, 
their rage was indescribable, and hardly a day passed without 
the departure of influential citizens who were resolved to achieve 
the overthrow of their new ruler. They found a leader in Cardi- 
nal Ippolito dei Medici, who was then in Rome, cardiaml 
embittered by the preference given to Alessandro, ippoiuo. 
and anxious to become his successor with the least 
possible delay. Under the pressure of terror the duke at once 
became a tyrant. He garrisoned the different cities, and began 
the erection in Florence of the Fortezza da Basso, built chiefly 
at the expense of Filippo Strozzi, who afterwards met his death 
within its walls. 

In 1534 Clement VII. died, and the election fell on Paul III., 
from whom Cardinal Ippolito hoped to obtain assistance. 
Accordingly the principal Florentine exiles were despatched to 
Charles V. with complaints of Alessandro's tyranny and his 
shameless violation of the terms upon which the city had surren- 
dered. Cardinal Ippoloto also represented his own willingness 
to carry on the government of Florence In a more equitable 
manner, and promised the emperor a large sum of money. 
Reply being delayed by the emperor's absence, he became so 
impatient that he set out to meet Charies in Tunis, but on the 
loth of August 1535 died suddenly at Itri, poisoned by order 
of Alessandro. Such at least was the general belief, and it was 
confirmed by the same fate befalling other enemies of the duke 
about the same time. On the emperor's return from Africa, 
the exiles presented themselves to him in Naples, and the vener- 
able patriot Jacopo Nardi pleaded their cause. Duke Alessan- 
dro, being cited to appear, came to Naples accompanied by 
Francesco Guicciardini, who by speaking in his defence rendered 
himself odious to all friends of liberty, and irretrievably tarnished 
his illustrious name. The cardinal being dead, it was hard to 
find a successor to Alessandro. On this account, and perhaps 
to some extent through the emperor's personal liking for the 
duke, the latter rose higher than before in the imperial favour, 
married Margaret of Austria, the natural daughter of Charles, 




and returned to Florence with increased power. And now 
AJessandro indulged unchecked in the lowest excesses of tyranny, 
and although so recently a bridegroom gave way to increased 
libertinism. His whole time was passed in vicious haunts and 
in scandalous adventures. In order to conceal the obscurity of 
his birth, he left his mother to starve, and it was even asserted 
that he finally got rid of her by poison. 

His constant associate in this disgraceful routine v/as his 
distant kinsman Lorenzo, generally known as Lorenzino del 
Lttrm iM ^*^^^°'- ^^ ^^^ younger branch of the Medici, the 
dftM^McL ^^^^^ w^s second cousin of the Cosimo already 

mentioned as the son of Giovanni delle Bande Nere 
He had much culture and literary talent, but led an irregular 
life, sometimes acting like a madman and sometimes like a 
villain. He was a writer of considerable elegance, the author 4>f 
several plays, one of which, the Aridosio,Mtas held to be among 
the best of his age, and he was a worshipper of antiquity. Not- 
withstanding these tastes, when in Rome he knocked off the 
heads of some of the finest statues of the age of Adrian, an act 
by which Clement VII. was so incensed that he threatened to 
have him hanged. Thereupon Lorenzino fled to Florence, 
where he became the friend of Duke Alessandro, and his partner 
in the most licentious excesses. They went together to houses 
of ill-fame, and violated private dwellings and convents. They 
often showed themselves in public mounted on the same horse. 
All Florence eyed them with disgust, but no one foresaw the 
tragedy that was soon to take place. 

On the evening of the 5th of January 1537, after a day passed 
in the usual excesses, Lorenzino led the duke to his own lodging, 

and left him there, promising shortly to return with 

the wife of Leonardo Ginorr. Alessandro, worn out 
), by the exertions of the day, fell asleep on the couch 

while awaiting Lorenzino's return. Before long the 
latter came accompanied by a desperado known as the Scoron- 
concolo, who aided him in falling on the sleeper. Roused by 
their first thrusts, the duke fought for his life, and was only 
despatched after a violent struggle. The murderers then lifted 
the body into a bed, hid it beneath the clothes, and, Lorenzino 
having attached a paper to it bearing the words tincii amor 
patriae, laudumqiu immensa cupido, they both fled to Venice. 
In that city Lorenzino was assassinated some ten years later, in 
1548, at the age of thirty-two, by order of Alessandro 's successor. 
He wrote an Apologia, in which he defended himself with great 
skill and eloquence, saying that he had been urged to the deed 
solely by love of liberty. For this reason alone he had followed 
the example of Brutus and played the part of friend and courtier. 
The tone of this Apologia is so straightforward, sometimes even 
so eloquent and lofty, that we should be tempted to give it 
credence were it possible to believe the assertions of one who not 
only by his crime but by the infamy of his previous and subse- 
quent career completely gave the lie to his vaunted nobility of 
purpose. By Alessandro's death the elder branch of the Medici 
became extinct, and thus the appearance of the younger line 
was heralded by a bloody crime. 

When the duke's absence from his own palace was discovered 
on the morning of the 6th of January he was at first supposed to 
-^ . have spent the night with one of his mistresses^ but 

soon, some alarm being felt, search was made, and 
Cardinal Cybo was the first to discover the murder. Enjoining 
the strictest secrecy, he kept the corpse concealed for three days, 
and then had it interred in the sacristy of San Lorenzo. Mean- 
while he had hastily summoned Alessandro Vitclli and the other 
captains, so that, by the time Alessandro's death was made 
public, the city was already filled with troops. The cardinal 
then convoked the council of forty-eight to decide upon a sue* 
cessor. Alessandro's only issue was a natural son named Giulio, 
aged five. The cardinal favoured his election, in the hope of 
keeping the real sovereignty in his own hands. But he speedily 
saw the impossibility of carrying out a design that was ridiculed 
by all. Guicdardini. Vettori and others of the leading citizens 
favoured the choice of Cosimo, the son of Giovanni delle Bande 
Nere. He was already in Florence, was aged seventeen, was 

keen-witted and aspiring, strong and handsome in person, heir 
to the enormous wealth of the Medici, and. by the terms of the 
imperial patent, was Alessandro's lawful successor. Charles V. 
approved the nomination of Cosimo, who without delay seized 
the reins of government with a firm grasp. Like Alessandro, he 
was named head of the republic; and Guicdardini and others who 
had worked hardest in his cause hoped to direct him and keep 
him under their control. But Cosimo soon proved that, his 
youth notwithstanding, he was resolved to rule unshackled by 
republican forms and unhampered by advisers disposed to act 
as mentors. The Florentines had now an absolute prince who 
was likewise a statesman of eminent ability. 

On learning the death of Alessandro and the election of 
Cosimo, the exiles appreciated the necessity for prompt action, 
as delay would be fatal to the overthrow of the Medicean rule. 
They had received money and promises from France; they were 
strengthened by the adhesion of Filippo Strozzi and Bacdo 
Valori, who had both become hostile to the Medici through the 
infamous conduct and mad tyranny of Alessandro; and Strozzi 
brought them the help of his enormous fortune and the pro«-ess 
of that very distinguished captain, his son Piero. The exiles 
assembled their forces at Mirandola. They had about four 
thousand infantry and three hundred horse; among them were 
members of all the principal Florentine families; and thdr 
leaders were Bernardo Sal via ti and Picro Strozzi. They 
marched rapidly, and entered Tuscany towards the end of July 
1537. Cosimo on this occasion displayed signal capadty and 
presence of mind. Informed of the exiles' movements by his 
spies, he no sooner learned their approach than he ordered 
Alessandro Vitelli to collect the best German, Spanish and Italian 
infantry at his disposal, and advance against the enemy without 
delay. On the evening of the 31st of July Vitelli marched towards 
Prato with seven hundred picked infantry and a band of one 
hundred horse, and on the way fell in with other Spanish foot 
soldiers who joined the expedition. At early dawn the following 
morning he made a sudden attack on the exiles' advanced guard 
close to Montemurlo, an old fortress converted into a villa be- 
longing to the Nerli. Having utterly routed them, he proceeded 
to storm Montemurlo, where Filippo Strozzi and a few of hit 
young comrades had taken refuge. They made a desperate 
resistance for some hours, and then, overwhelmed by superior 
numbers, were obliged to yield themselves prisoners. The main 
body of the army was still at some distance, having been detained 
in the mountains by heavy rains and difficult passes, and, on 
learning the defeat at Montemurlo, its leader turned back by the 
way he had come. Alessandro Vitclli re-entered Florence with 
his victorious army and his fettered captives. Cosimo had 
achieved his first triumph. 

All the prisoners, who were members of great families, were 
brought before Cosimo, and were received by him with courteous 
coldness. Soon, however, a scaffold was erected in the Piazza, 
and on four mornings in succession four of the prisoners were 
beheaded. Then the duke saw fit to stay the executions. 
Baccio Valori, however, and his son and nephew were beheaded 
on the 2oih of August in the courtyard of the Bargello. Filippo 
Strozzi still survived, confined in the Fortezza da Basso, that had 
been built at his expense. His family was illustrious, he had 
numerous adherents, and he enjoyed the protection of the 
French king. Nevertheless Cosimo only awaited some plausible 
pretext to rid himself of this dreaded enemy. He brought him 
to trial and had him put to the question. But this cruelly led 
to nothing, for Strozzi denied every accusation and bore the 
torture with much fortitude. On the i8th of December he was 
found dead in his prison, with a blood -stained sword by hb side, 
and a slip of paper bearing these words: exorian aliquis nastrit I 
ex ossibus ultor. It was believed that, having renounced all ^ 
hope of his life bdng spared, Strozzi had preferred suicide to ' 
death at the hands of the executioner. Some, however, thought ^ 
that Cosimo had caused him to be murdered, and adopted thk <= 
mode of concealing the crime. The young prince's cold-blooded ^ 
massacre of his captives cast an enduring shadow upon his rei^ ^ 
and dynasty. But it was henceforward plain to all that he was e 


a nMB of stem ittohre, who went stniglit to his end without 
samples or half-messoxes. Before long he was regarded by many 
as the inramation of Machiavelli's Prince, " inasmuch as he 
jotDcd daring to talhit and prudence, was capable of great 
duehy, and yet could practise mercy in due season." Guicdar- 
dini, who still pretended to act as mentor, and who on account 
of his many services had a certain influence over him, was obliged 
to withdraw from public life and busy himself with writing his 
History at his villa of AroetrL He died in this retreat in 1540, 
and it was immediately rumoured that the duke had caused hini 
to be poisoned. This shows the estimation in which Cosimo 
was now held. He punished with death all who dared to resist 
his wjlL By 1 540 sentence of death had been pronounced against 
foar hondred and thirty contumacious funtives, and during his 
feign one hundred and forty men ana six women actually 
ascended the scaffold, without counting those who perished in 
faccign lands by the daggers of his assassins. He reduced the 
old rqwUkan institutions to empty forms, by making the magis- 
trates mere creatures of his wilL He issued the sternest edicts 
against the rebels, particularly by the law known as the " Pol- 
veiina,** from the name of its proposer Jacopo PolverinL This 
bw decreed not only the confiscation of the property of exiles, 
bat likewise that of their heirs, even if personally acquired by 
the latter. Cosimo ruled like the independent sovereign of a 
great state, and always showed the capacity, finnness and 
coofige dexnanded by that station. Only, his state being small 
and weak, he was forced to rely chiefly upon his personal talent 
and wealth. It was necessary for him to make heavy loans to 
the <^erent European sovereigns, especially to Charles V., the 
nost rapacious of them all, and to give enormous bribes to their 
ambassadors. Besides, he had to carry on wars for the exten- 
sion of his dominions; and neither his inherited wealth nor the 
large soms gained by confiscating the estates oi rebellious 
subjects sufficed for aU this outlay. He was accordingly com- 
pelled to burden the people with taxes, and .thus begin at onoe to 
diminish its strength. 

Codmo bore a special grudge against the neighbouring 
republics of Siena and Lucca. Although the latter was 

small and weak, and the former garrisoned by 
j^^^,^^,^ Spaniards, yet the spectacle of free institutions at 

the frontiers of his own sute served as a continual 
incitement to subjects disaffected to the new regime. In fact 
Francesco Burlainacchi, a zealous Lucchese patriot, had con- 
ceived the design of re-establishing republican government in 
afl the cities of Tuscany. Cosimo, with the emperor's help, 
Mcoeeded in having him put to death. Lucca, however, was 
sa insignificant state making no pretence of rivalry, whereas 
Sesa was an old and formidable foe to Florence, and had always 
given protection to the Florentine exiles. It was now very 
rdoctantly submitting to the presence of a Spanish garrison, 
and, being stimulated by promises of prompt and efficacious 
wi^anrr from France, rose in rebellion and expelled the Span- 
iards in 1552. Cosimo instantly wrote to the emperor in terms 
tkat appealed to his pride, asked leave- to attack Siena, and 
begged for troops to ensure the success of his enterprise. As no 
knmediate answer arrived,, he feigned to begin negotiations with 
Henry H. of France, and, by thus arousing the imperial jeafpusy, 
"MiirtHI a contingent of German and Spanish infantry. SictH 
was besieged for fifteen months, and its inhabitants, aided by the 
vabmr of Piero Strozzi, who fought under the French flSg, made 
a most heroic resistance, even women and children helping on 
tfac walls. But fortune was against them-. Piero Strozzi sus- 
tained sevex^ defeats, and finally the Sienese, having exhausted 
their ammunition and being decimated by famine and the sword, 
vere obliged to capitulate on honourable terms that were shame- 
lessly violated. By the varied disasters of the siege and the 
comber of fugitives the population was reduced from forty to 
dght thousand inhabitants. The republicans, still eager to 
resist, withdrew to Montaldno. Cosimo now ruled the city and 
territory of Siena in the name of Charles V., who always refused 
lam its absolute possession. After the emperor's abdication, 
ud the succession of Philip II. to the Spanish throne, Cosimo 


at last obtained Siena and Porto Ferraio by giving up his daim 
to a sum of 300,000 ducaU that he was to have received from 
Charles V. 

In 1559 Cosimo also captured Montalcino, and thus formed the 
grand-duchy of Tuscany, but he continued to govern the new 
state — i.e. Siena and its territories — separately from 
the old. His rule was intelligent, skilful and des- ^ 
potic; but his enormous expenses drove him to raise J" 
large sums of money by special contrivances unsuited 
to the country and the people. Hence, notwithstanding the 
genius of its founder, the grand-duchy held from the first the 
elements of its future decay. Cosimo preferred to confer office 
upon men of humble origin in order to have pliable tools, but he 
also liked to be surrounded by a courtier aristocracy on the 
Spanish and French pattern. As no Tuscan aristocracy any 
longer existed, he created new nobles, and tempted foreign ones 
to come by the concession of various feudal privileges; and, to 
turn this artificial aristocracy to some account, he founded the 
knightly order of St Stephen, charged with the defence of the 
coast against pirates, which in course of time won much honour 
by its prowess. He also established a small standing army for 
the protection of his frontiers; but he generally employed German 
and Spanish troops for his wars, and always had a foreign body- 
guard. At the commencement of his reign he opposed the popes 
in order to maintain the independence of his own state; but later, 
to obtain help, he truckled to them in many ways, even to the 
extent of giving up to the Inquisition his own confidant, Piero 
Carnesecchi, who, being accused of heresy, was beheaded and 
burnt in 1567. In reward for these acts of submission, the popes 
^owed him friendship, and Pius V. granted him the title of 
grand-duke, conferring the patent and crown upon him in Rome, 
although the emperor had always withheld his consent. The 
measure most injurious to Tuscany was the fiscal system of 
taxes, of which the sole aim was to extort the greatest possible 
amount of money. The consequent damage to industry, com- 
merce and agriculture was immense, and, added to the devasta- 
tions caused by the Sienese War, led to their utter ruin. Other- 
wise Cosimo did not n^lect useful measures for the interior 
prosperity of hisT state. He was no Maecenas; nevertheless he 
restored the Pisan university, enlarged that of Siena, had the 
public records classified, and also executed public works like 
the Santa Triniti bridge. During the great inundations of 1557 
he turned his whole energy to the relief of the sufferers. 

In 1539 he had espoused Eleonora of Toledo, daughter of the 
viceroy of Naples, by whom he had several children. Two died 
in 1562, and their mother soon followed them to the grave. It 
was said that one of these boys, Don Garcia, had murdered the 
other, and then been killed by the enraged father. Indeed, 
Cosimo was further accused of having put his own wife to death; 
but neither rumour had any foundation. He now showed signs 
of illness and failure of strength. He was not old, but worn by 
the cares of state and self-indulgence. Accordingly in 1 564 he 
resigned the government to his eldest son, who was to act as his 
lieutenant, since he wished to have power to resume the sceptre 
on any emergency. In 1570, by the advice of Pope Pius V., he 
married Camilla Martelii, a young lady of whom he had b^n 
long enamoured. In 1574 he died, at the age of fifty-four 
years and ten months, after a reign of thirty-seven years, 
leaving three sons and one daughter besides natural children. 
These sons were Francesco, his successor, who was already at 
the head of the government. Cardinal Ferdinand, and Piero. 

Francesco I., bom in 1541, began to govern as his father's 
lieutenant in 1564, and was married in 1565 to the archduchess 
Giovanna of Austria. On beginning to reign on his avockmo L 
own account in 1574, he speedily manifested his real 
character. His training in the hands of a Spanish mother had 
made him suspicious, false and despotic. Holding every one 
aloof, he carrini on the government with the assist|ince of a few 
devoted ministers. He compelled his step-mother to retire to a 
convent, and kept his brothers at a distance from Florence. He 
loved the privileges of 'power without its burdens. Cosimo had 
known how to maintain his independence, but Francesco cask 



himsdf like a vassal at Austria's feet. He reaped his reward by 
obtaining from Maximilian II. the title of grand-duke, for which 
Cosimo had never been able to win the imperial sanction, but 
he forfeited all independence. Towards Philip II. he showed 
even greater subroissiveness, supplying him with large sums of 
money wrung from his overtaxed people. He held entirely 
aloof from France, in order not to awake the suspicions of his 
protectors. He traded on his own account, thus creating a 
monopoly that was ruinous to the country. He raised the tax 
upon com to so high a rate that few continued to find any profit 
in growing it, and thus the Maremmc, already partly devastated 
during the war with Siena, were converted into a desert. Even 
industry declined under this system of government; and, 
although Francesco founded porcelain manufactories and pietra 
dura works, they did not rise to any prosperity until after his 
death. His love of science and letters was the only Medicean 
virtue that he possessed. He had an absolute passion for 
chemistry, and passed much of his time in his laboratory. Some- 
times indeed he gave audience to his secretaries of state standing 
before a furnace, bellows in hand. He took some useful measures 
to promote the rise of a new city at Leghorn, which at that time 
had only a natural and ill-sheltered harbour. The improvement 
of Leghorn had been first projected by Cosimo I., and was 
carried on by all the succeeding Medici. Francesco was a slave 
to his passions, and was led by them to scandalous excesses and 
deeds of bloodshed. His example and neglect of the affairs of 
the state soon caused a vast increase of crime even among the 
people, and, during the first eighteen months of his reign, there 
occurred no fewer than one hundred and sixty-eight murders. 

In default of public events, the historians of this period enlarge 
upon private incidents, generally of a scandalous or sanguinary 
kind. In 1575 Orazio Pucci, wi^ng to avenge his father, whom 
Cosimo had hanged, determined to get up a conspiracy, but, 
soon recognizing how firmly the Medicean rule had taken root 
in the country, desisted from the attempt. But the grand-duke, 
on hearing of the already abandoned plot, immediately caused 
Pucci to be hanged from the same window of the Palazzo 
Vecchio, and even from the same iron stanchion, from which his 
father before him had hung. His companions, who had fled 
to France and England, were pursued and murdered by the ducal 
emissaries. Their possessions were confiscated, and the " Pol- 
verina " law applied, so that the conspirators' heirs were reduced 
to penury, and the grand-duke gained more than 300,000 

Next year Isabella dei Medici, Francesco's sister, was strangled 
in her nuptial bed by her husband, Paolo Giordano Orsini, whom 
she had betrayed. Piero dei Medici, Francesco's brother, 
murdered his wife Eleonora of Toledo from the same motive. 
Still louder scandal was caused by the duke's own conduct. 
He was already a married man, when, passing one day through 
the Piazza of St Mark in Florence, he saw an exceedingly beautiful 
woman at the window of a mean dwelling, and at once conceived 
a passion for her. She was the famous Bianca Cappello, a 
Venetian of noble birth, who had eloped with a young Florentine 
named Pietro Buonaventuri, to whom she was married at the 
time that she attracted the duke's gaze. He made her acquaint- 
ance, and, in order to see her frequently, nominated her husband 
to a post at court. Upon this, Buonaventuri behaved with so 
much insolence, even to the nobility, that one evening he was 
found murdered in the street. Thus the grand-duke, who was 
thought to have sanctioned the crime, was able to indulge his 
passion unchecked. On the death of the grand-duchess in 1578 
he was privately united to Bianca, and afterwards married her 
publicly. But she had no children, and this served to poison 
her happiness, since the next in succession was her bitter enemy, 
the cardinal Ferdinand. The latter came to Florence in 1587, 
and was ostentatiously welcomed by Bianca, who was most 
anxious to conciliate him. On the i8th of October of the same 
year the grand-duke died at his villa of Poggio a Caiano, of a 
fever caught on a shooting excursion in the Maremme, and the 
next day Bianca also expired, having mined her health by dmgs 
Jtaken to cure her sterility. But rumour asserted that she bad 

prepared a poisoned tart for the cardinal, and that, when he 
suspiciously insisted on the grand-duke tasting it first, Bianca 
desperately swallowed a slice and followed her husband to the 

Such was the life of Francesco dei Medici, and all that can be 
said in his praise is that he gave liberal encouragement to a few 
artists, including de Giovanni Bologna (g.v.). He was the 
founder of the Uffizi gallery, of the Medici theatre, and the villa 
of Pratolino; and during his reign the Delia Cruscan academy 
was instituted. 

Ferdinand I. was thirty-eight years of age when, in 1587, be 
. succeeded his brother on the throne. A cardinal from the age 
of fourteen, he had never taken holy orders. He_^^, 
showed much tact and experience in the manage- 
ment of ecclesiastical affairs. He was the founder of the Villa 
Medici at Rome, and the purchaser of many priceless works of 
art, such as the Niobe group and many other statues afterwards 
transported by him to Florence. After his accession he retained 
the cardinal's purple until the time of his marriage. He was 
in all re^)ects his brother's opposite. Affable in his manners 
and generous with his purse, be chose a crest typical of the 
proposed mildness of his rule^a swarm of bees with the motto 
MajesUUe tanlutn. He instantly pardoned all who had opposed 
him, and left his kinsmen at liberty to choose their, own place 
of residence. Occasionally, for political reasons, he committed 
acts unworthy of his character; but he re-established the adminis- 
tration of justice, aiid sedulously attended to the business of the 
state and the welfare of his subjects. Accordingly Tuscany 
revived under his mle and regained the independence and 
political dignity that his brother had sacrificed to love of ease 
and personal indulgence. He favoured commerce, and effectually 
ensured the prosperity of'Leghom, by an edict enjoim'ng tolera- 
tion towards Je\vs and heretics, which led to the settlement 
of many foreigners in that city. He also im'proved the harbour 
and facilitated communication .with Pisa by means of the 
Naviglio, a canal into which a portion of the water of the Arno 
was turned. He nevertheless retained the reprehensible custom 
of trading on his own account, keeping banks in many cities 
of Europe. He successfully accomplished the draining of the 
Val di Chiana, cultivated the plains of Pisa, Fucecchio and 
Val di Nievole, and executed other works of public utiUty at 
Siena and Pisa. But his best energies were devoted to the 
foreign policy by which he sought to emancipate himself from 
subjection to Spain. On the assassination (1589) of Henry III. 
of France Ferdinand supported the claims of the king of Navarre, 
undeterred by the opposition of Spain and the Catholic League, 
who were dismayed by the prospect of a Huguenot succeeding to 
the throne of France. He lent money to Henry IV. , and strongly 
urged his conversion to Catholicism; he helped to persuade the 
pope to accept Henry's abjuration, and pursued this policy with 
marvellous persistence until his efforts were crowned 'with 
success. Henry IV. showed faint gratitude for the benefits 
conferred upon him, and paid no attention to the expostulations 
of the grand-duke, who then began to slacken his relations with 
France, and showed that he could guard his independence by 
other alliances. He gave liberal assistance to Philip III. for 
the campaign in Algiers, and to the emperor for the war with the 
Turks. Hence he was compelled to burden his subjects with 
enormous taxes, forgetting that while guaranteeing the inde« 
pendence of Tuscany by his loans to foreign powers he was 
increasingly sapping the strength of future generations. He 
at last succeeded in obtaining the formal investiture of Siena, 
which Spain had always considered a fief of her own. 

During this grand-duke's reign the Tuscan navy was notably 
increased, and did itself much honour on the Mediterranean. 
The war-galleys of the knights of St Stephen were despatched 
to the coast of Barbary to attack Bona, the headquarters of 
the corsairs, and they captured the town with much dash and 
bravery. In the following year ( 1 608) the same galleys achieved 
their most brilliant victory in the archipelago over the stronger 
fleet of the Turks, by taking nine of their vessels, seven hundred 
prisoners, and jewels of the ^ue of 3,000,000 ducats. 


FerdinaDd I. died in 1609, leaving four sons, of whom the 
ddest, Cosimo II., succeeded to the throne at the age of nineteen. 
C^g^m^m. ^^ *^*^ ^^ ^'^ assisted in the government by his 
mother and a council of regency. He had a good 
disposition, and the fortune to reign during a period when 
Europe was at peace and Tuscany blessed with abundant 
harvests. Of his rule there is little to relate. His chief care 
was given to the galleys of St Stephen, and he sent them to assist 
the Druses against the Porte. 0^ one occasion he was involved 
ia a quand with France. Condno ConcinT, the Marshal d'Aacre, 
being assassinated in 161 7, Louis XIII. claimed the right of 
transferring the property of the murdered man to De Luynes. 
Cosimo, refusing to recognize the confiscation decreed by the 
French tribunals, demanded that Concini's son should be allowed 
to inherit. Hence followed much ill-feeling and mutual reprisals 
between the two countries, finally brought to an end by the 
intervention of the duke of Lorraine. 

like his predecessors, Cosimo II. studied to promote the 
prosperity of Leghorn, and he deserves honour for abandoning 
all CDmmerce on his own account. Biit it was no praiseworthy 
act to pass a law depriving women of almost all rights of inheri- 
tance. By this means many daughters of the nobility were 
driven into convents against their wilL He gave scanty atten- 
tion to the general affairs of the state. He was fond of luxury, 
spent freely on pubh'c festivities and detested trouble. Tuscany 
was apparently tranquil and prosperous; but the decay of 
which the seeds were sown under Cosimo I. and Ferdinand I. 
was rapidly spreading, and became before long patent to all and 
beyond all hope of remedy. The best deed done by Cosimo II. 
was the protection accorded by him to Galileo Galilei, who 
had removed to Padua, and there made some of his grandest 
discoveries. The grand duke recalled him to Florence in 16x0, 
and nominated him court mathematician and philosopher. 
Cosimo died in February 162 x. Feeling hu end draw near, 
when be was only aged thirty and all his sons were still in their 
dnkihood, he hastened to arrange his family affairs.' His 
moilMr. Crutina of Lorraine, and his wife, Maddalena of Austria, 
were nominated regents and guardians to his eldest son Ferdinand 
II., a boy <rf ten, and a council of four appointed, whose functions 
Here regulated by law. After Cosimo's death, the yotmg Ferdi- 
nind was sent to Rome and Vienna to complete his education, 
aad the government of Tuscany remained in the hands oi 
two jealous and quarrelsome women. Tlius the administration 
of justice and finance speedily went to ruin. Out of sub- 
missivcness to the pope, the regents did not dare to maintain 
ibeir legitimate right to inherit the duchy of Urbino. They 
c(Hirerrcd exaggerated privileges on the new Tuscan nobility, 
vhich became increasingly insolent and worthless. They 
resumed the practice of trading on their own account, and, 
without reaping much benefit thereby, did the utmost damage 
to private enterprise. 

In 1627 Ferdinand III, then aged seventeen, returned to Italy 
ajxi assumed the reins of government; but, being of a very gentle 
ruMuum^n ^disposition, he decided on sharing his power with 
the regents and his brothers, and arranged matters in 
such wise that each was almost independent of the other. He 
pined the love of his subjects by his great goodness; and, when 
Fbreoce and Tuscany were ravaged by the plague in 1630, 
be showed admirable courage and carried out many useful 
measures. But he was totally incapable of energy as a states- 
man. When the pope made bitter complaints because the 
board of health had dared to subject certain monks and priests 
to the necessary quarantine, the grand-duke insisted on his 
(^ficers asking pardon on their knees for having done their duty. 
On the death in 1631 of the last duke of Urbino, the pope was 
allowed to ^ize the duchy without the slighcst opposition on 
the part of Tuscany. As a natural consequence the pretensions 
of the Roman curia became increasingly exorbitant; ecclesiastics 
usurped the functions of the state; and the ancient laws of the 
republic, together with the regulations decreed by Cosimo I. as 
a check upon similar abuses, were allowed to become obsolete. 
Oa the eztioctioa of the line of the Gonzagas at Mantua in 1627, 


war broke out between France on the one side and Spain, 
Germany and Savoy on the other. The grand duke, uncertain 
of his policy, trimmed his saib according to events. Fortunately 
peace was re-established in 1631. Mantua and Monferrato fell 
to the duke of Nevers^ vi France had always desired. But 
Europe was again, in arms for the Thirty Years' War, and Italy 
was not at peace. Urban VIII. wished to aggrandize his nephews, 
the Barberini, by wresting Cai(tro and Ronciglione from Odoardo 
Famese, duke of Parma and brother-in-law to Ferdinand. 
Famese marched his army through Tuscany into the territories 
of the pope, who was greatly alarmed by the attack. The grand- 
duke was drawn into the war to defend his own state and his 
kinsman. His military operations, however, were of the feeblMt 
and often the most laughable character. At last, by means of the 
French intervention, peace was made in 1644. But, although 
the pope was forced to yield, he resigned none of his ecclesiastical 
pretensions in Tuscany. It was during Ferdinand's reign that 
the septuagenarian Galileo was obliged to appear before the 
Inquisition in Rome, which treated him with infamous cruelty. 
On the death of this great and unfortunate man, the grand-duke 
wished to erect a monument to him, but was withheld by fear 
of the opposition of the clergy. The dynasty as well as the 
country now seemed on the brink of decay. Two of the grand- 
duke's brothers had already died childless, and Ippolito, the sole 
survivor, was a cardinal The only remaining heir was his son 
Cosimo, bom in 1642.. 

Like nearly all his predecessors, Ferdinand tl. gave liberal 
patrohage to science and letters, greatly aided therein by his 
brother Leopold, who had been trained by Galileo Galilei, and 
who joined with men of learning in founding the celebrated 
academy Dd Cimento, of which he was named president. This 
academy took for its motto the words Provando e riprowindo, 
and followed the experimental method of Galileo. Formed in 
1657, it was dissolved in 1667 in consequence of the jealousies 
and dissensions of its members, but during its brief existence 
won renown by the number and importance of its works. 

Cosimo III. succeeded his father in 1670. He was weak, vain, 
bigoted and hypocritical. In 166 1 he had espoused Louise of 
Orleans, niece of Louis XIV., who, being enamoured cmimo UL 
of duke Charles of Lorraine, was very reluctant to 
come to Italy, and speedily detested both her husband and his 
country, of which she refused to learn the language. She had 
two sons and one daughter, but after the birth of her third child, 
Giovan Gastonc, her hatred for her husband increased almost 
to madness. She first withdrew to Poggio a Caiano, and then, 
being unable to get her marriage annulled, returned to France, 
where, although supposed to live in conventual seclusion, she 
passed the greater part of her time as a welcome visitor at court. 
Even her testamentary dispositions attested the violence of her 
dislike to her husband. 

Cosimo's hypocritical zeal for religion compelled his subjects 
to multiply services and processions that greatly infringed upon 
their working hours. He wasted enormous sums in pensioning 
converts — even those from other countries — and in giving rich 
endowments to sanctuaries. Meanwhile funds often failed for 
the payment of government clerks and soldiers. His court 
was composed of bigots and parasites; he ransacked the world 
for dainties for his table, adorned his palace with costly foreign 
hangings, had foreign servants, and filled his gardens with exotic 
plants. He purchased from the emperor the title of " Highness " in 
order to be the equal of the duke of Savoy. He remained neutral 
during the Franco-Spanish War, and submitted to every humilia- 
tion and requisition exacted by the emperor. He had vague 
notions of promoting agriculture, but accomplished no results. 
At one time he caused eight hundred families to be brought over 
from the Morca for the cultivation of the Marcmmc, where all 
of them died of fever. But when, after the revocation of the 
Edict of Nantes, French Huguenots offered to apply their labour 
and capital to the same purpose, the grand duke's religious 
scruples refused them refuge. So ruin fell upon Tuscany. 
Crime and misery increased, and the poor, who only asked for 
work, were given alms and sent oftener to church. This period 



witnessed the rise of many charftable institutions of a religious 
character under the patronage of the grand-duke, as for instance 
the congregation of San Giovanni Battista. But these could 
not remMly the general decay. 

Cosimo's dominant anxiety regarded the succession to the 
throne. His eldest son Ferdinand dfed childless in 1715. The 
pleasure-loving Giovan Gastone was married to Anna Maria of 
Saxe-Lauenburgi widow of a German prince, a wealthy, coarse 
woman wholly immersed in domestic occupations. After living 
with her for some time in a Bohemian village, Giovan Gastone 
yielded to his dislike to his wife and her country, withdrew to 
France, and ruined his health by his excesses. After a brief 
return to Bohemia he finally separated from his wife, by whom he 
had no family. Thus the dynasty was doomed to extinction. 


thought on ascending it was to regain strength enough to ptm 
the remainder of his days in enjoyment. He dismissed the spies, 
parasites and bigots that had formed his father's court, abolished 
the pensions given to converts, suppressed several taxes, and pro- 
hibited the organized espionage established in the family drde. 
He wished to live and let live, and liked the people to be amused. 
Everything in fact bore a freer and gayer aspect under his reign, 
and the Tuscans seemed to feel renewed attachment for the 
dynasty as the moment of its extinction drew near. But the 
grand-duke was too feeble and incapable to accomplish any real 
improvement. Surrounded by gay and dissipated young men, 
he entrusted all the cares of government to a certain Giuliano 
Dami, who drove a profitable trade by the sale of offices and 
privileges. In this way all things were in the hands of oomipC 


domaiil d'Avcfacdo. knows as Giovanni di Bkci, ij6o-i4>0 
-Piccarda Bum. 

Cobw the Ekkr, 1389-1464- Comcsaina de* Battf. 

Piera, 1416-1469 

. ^ l,ti4«a 


Giovanni. *fi'*;}jifis^ 

nnl. 14; 

LBrroto, g9S-i44« 
—Cinrvra dvalcara 

Pier Francesco, 1 1467 
* Laudonia Acciaiuoil 



GiulLi . 

I4$J-U78. -Cuj 

1449- 1 49> I del 

Clanre Onlnl. Giulio(aenent 
ti4M. VII.). i47»-iSi4. 

Nannina Maria fnat.) 

— Bernardo - lionello 

RuceUai. de' RosiL 

ranai, i4< 


» Alfonsina 

duke of* 


de la Tour 


t «$I9. 



duke of 
of Savoy. 


Lticrciia Maddalena Conieisinn 
-Giacomo •Franccschetto -Piero 
SalyiaU. C^bo. Ridolfi. 


1 1537. 

Giovanni Mark Elena 

Salxitti. -Giovanni -lacopoV. 
caidinal. delle B«ade Appiani. 




Giovanni, 1467-iMS 
-Caterina Sforza Rurio^ 


Giovanni dclle Bande Nere, 


-Maria Sal viali. 

1 1 54 J. 

t. Camilla Martdli. 


Pier Francesco, t ts»5 
-Maria SodcftaL 

i I 

Laudomia. Maddalena Gtuli 

;• -Picro -Roberto bislicpoi 

Stroui. Stroui. "-^ — 

Fkanccsco.&O 6 I 

' - .2- *■♦ 

isi9-isf9 Innocrn<o Crbo. Lorenzo Cybo Caierina CrbOb 
■ Henry II., caxdiaal. -Rkdarda ' * 

king of Malaspina. 

rnaa pnnrestof 

J. Joanna 
uf Austria, 

a. Banra 


t IS*?- 

^ 1 Cosmo II., 

Maria, isoo-1621 

tift4»^„ -Mann 

-HrnrylV.. MadAilena 

king of of Austria. 

France. f jOji. 

i i i r 

E«DiMANoI., Pietro, lubella, "^ 

tM9-t609 1554 1604 l54»-isr6 

• Cristinaof -Eleoonra -Paolo "S d'Esie. 

Loiraine. of Toledo, Giordano »S duke of 

ti637. ti576. OruaL r ff ' 

■^i d'Eaie. 



Roverr, 1 1694. 



1 1675. 



Giovanni Anra 

Carlo. -Ferdinand 

cardinal, of Austrian 

ti66t- Tyrol 

Calerina- Clawfin 
Ferdinand -1. Fcdcfi«B 
Coaaaga. delta Rovcn. 
duke of ftrreditanr 





CostMOlll.. i64>-l7>J 

■Marguerite Louite of Orleans, t i7'i> 

FrancrKO Maria. 1660-1711 (cardinal until i709> 
-EUconura Cooraga. 

Ferdinand. 1663-1715 
■Violante of Bavaria, f 1731. 

Giovan Gastone. i67i-i'»37 
"Anna Maria of Saie Lauenburg. t i74i' 

Cosimo had a passing idea of reconstituting the Florentine 
republic, but, this design being discountenanced by the Euro> 
pean powers, he determined to transfer the succession, after 
the death of Giovan Gastone, to his sister Anna Maria Louisa, 
who in fact survived him. For this purpose he proi>osed to 
annul the patent of Charles V., but the powers objected to this 
arrangement also, and by the treaty of 17 18 the quadruple 
alliance of Germany, France, England and Holland decided that 
Parma and Tuscany should descend to the Spanish Infante Don 
Carlos. The grand-duke made energetic but fruitless protests. 

Cosimo III. had passed his eightieth year at the time of his 
decease in October 1723, and was succeeded by his son Giovan 

^ Gastone, then aged fifty-three. The new sovereign 

fftrffgf ^^^ "* ^^^ health, worn out by dissipation, and had 

neither ambition nor aptitude for rule. His throne 

was already at *ht disposal of foreign povrers, and his only 

Anna Maria Luisa, 1667-1743 
- John William of the Palatinate 

individuals; while the grand-duke, compelled to pass the greater 
part of his time in bed, vainly sought diversion in the company 
of buffoons, and was only tormented by perceiving that all the 
world disposed of his throne without even asking his advice. 
And when, after prolonged opposition, he had resigned himself 
to accept Don Carlos as his successor, the latter led a Spanish 
army to the conquest of Naples, an event afterwards leading 
to the peace of 1735, by which the Tuscan succession was trans> 
ferred to Francesco II., duke of Lorraine, and husband of Maria 
Theresa. Giovan Gastone was finally obliged to submit even to 
this. Spain withdrew her garrisons fmm Tuscany, and Austrian 
soldiers took their place and swore fealty to the grand-duke on 
the 5th of February 1737. He expired on the 9th of July of 
the same year. Such was the end of the younger branch of the 
Medici, which had found Tuscany a prosperous country, where 
art, letters, ^commerce, industry and agriculture flourished. 



and left bcr poor And dectyed in all wayi,dnined by Uzation, 
and o ppff c d by laws contiary to every principle of tound 
coooDOijr, downt r odden by the clergy, and burdened by a weak 
and vkaoos axistocxacy. 

ffloreBoe* i£'7^T ^' 1** Feitcili, Hiilmrt dt FlifFtm^ dfpMts ia 
mmmimitiam dts liidkit jw^'A ta ekttit dt ia ripuiJt4Sii£ (Pam, i^^^^^ 
S^i; W. RoBoe, L4ft of Lenmaa df Mfdiii (n<w M., l^ndon. [B7}) 
^md ^ft ^^^^ Jf- (Lonckinp ift^fe); A. von Ren mom. GtHkitku 
TAca^fft dill der Ende dfi ficrtnl^ Frtiitaat^ (j viiU,, Gotha, lUjb) 
9ad Imwmar dt^ Uisdizi (Lcipfif. 1A74J ; A. Fabronii, Ui-utcniii Meduri 
■VfP^a vftHa t3 voIl^ Pisa^ t7^) and A/a|iii' Coiimi Mtdicei v%ia 
ig woia.» Pin. 17^)1 BuKr, Lhrff%^ dt' Mtdki alt ikiiimiicker 

Ff*»ir*^ (Lei 

' ud W( 

(Leipci;^ t^T^J And 0f4 i^^TifAunim dtr If ali^wr n 

' , 1879); E. Armstrong K Larefisg de' MediH 

iUari, La SKorvd di Gtr^^jiw Sownarp/a (Flurf nci^. 

*i^) and Mcf-fciifiti^i (floTTetice, iSjIi-lftit. irveral nubicqucni 
edil»iH) ; Ca}ltL&i^ Stari^ dti ^anduc^o di Taj€ana loUo d gistermy 
4i fi»a 3i€dKi (5 vdIi., Flonercc, 17^7); E. Robiony^ Gk miiimi 
J fi di c i (FlomncvK 1905 »; E, L. S. HDrhburghn J>ffflui 1m A|{ifniVk<7t/ 
«^ fiffrnur en Jbcr GflUcm ^fe <i^) ; and jaiur t Rds«» £r«x ^/ iki 
Mtdad /f«» fknr £dij£cn [1910), 5« *l*o uiMkr FtOBSSCft ami 
Tt'iCAMt. (p. V.) 

MEDICI, GIAOOMO (xSzy-zSSa), Italian patriot and soldier, 
was bom at Milan in January 1817. Exiled in 1836, be fought 
in Spain against the Carlisu between 1836 and 1840, and in 
1846 joined Garibaldi at Montevideo. Returning to Italy with 
Garibaldi in 1848, he raised a company of volunteers to fight 
apqnst Austria, and commanded the volunteer vanguard in 
Lombardy, proceeding thence to Rome, where he gained dis- 
tinction by defending the " Vascello," a position near the Porta 
San Pancnuio, against the French. During the siege of Rome 
he himaelff was wounded. In the war of 1859 be commanded 
a volunteer regiment, and was sent by Cavour into Tirol In i860 
he tried in vain to dissnsde Garibaldi from the Marsala expedi- 
tiaa, but, after liis chiefs departure, he sailed for Sidly with the 
second expedition, taking part in the whde campaign, during 
which he forced Messina to capitulate after an eight days' siege. 
Joining the regular army, be was appointed military com« 
Hiandanr of Palarmo, in which capacity he facilitated the abortive 
campaign of Garibaldi in 1862. In x866 he commanded the 
division which invaded Tirol, but the effect of his victories 
vas neutralised by the conclusion of peace. Returning to 
Palermo be did good work in restoring order in Sidly. He 
became a senator in 1870, and marquis of the " Vascello " and 
fast aide-de-camp to the king in 1876. He died on the 9th of 
Uirch 1883. 

HBDICnnL — ^The sdence of medidne, as we understand it, 
has for its province the treatment of disease. The word 
** medidne " (LaL medkina: sc ars, art of healing, from mederi, 
to heal) may be used very widdy, to indude Falkdcgy (g.v.), 
the theory of the causation of disease, or, very narrowly, to 
Bean only the drug or form of remedy prescribed by the 
physician — this being more properly the subject of Therapeutics 
(ft.) and Pkanmacology (?.?.). But it is necessary in practice, for 
Ustorical onnprehensiveness, to keep the wider meaning in view. 

Disease (see Pathology) is the correUtive of health, and the 
vord is not capable of a more penetrating definition. From 
tk time of Gakn, however, it has been usual to speak of the 
ifc of tbe body dther as proceeding in accordance with nature 
(«ar4 ^6^v, stcundmm naturam) or as overstepping the bounds 
ef nature (wapd ^6eiy, fraeUt noiwranC). Taking disease to 
be a deflexion from the line of health, the first requisite of 
mM\^r%^ is an extensive and intimate acquaintance with the 
aonn of tbe body. The structure and functions of the body 
fonn tbe subject of Anaiomy (9.?.) and Pkysiolcgy (q.9.). 

Tbe ntedical art (ars medendi) divides itself into departmenU 
tad subdepartments. The most fundamental division is into 
iatemal and external medidne, or into medicine proper and 
sargexy iq.9.). The treatment of wounds, injtuies and de- 
focmitlca, with operative interference in general, is the special 
departflseat of surgical practiccT (the corresponding parts of 
patbolegy, infhtH«"g inflammation, repair, and removable 
tamoors, are sometimes grouped together as surgical pathology) ; 
and whefe the work of tbe profession is hi|^y subdivided. 

surgery becomes the exdosive province of the surgeon, while 
internal medicine remains to the physician. A third great 
department of practice is formed by obstetric medicine or 
midwifery (see Obstetsics); and dentistry (^.r), or dental 
surgery, is given up to a distinct branch of the profession. 

A state of war, actual or contingent, gives occasion to special 
developments of medical and surgical practice (military hygiene 
and military aurgery). Wounds caused by projectiles, sabres, 
&c., are the special. subject of naval and military surgery; while 
under the head of military hygiene we may indude the general 
subject of ambulances, the sanitary arrangements of camps, 
and the various forms of epidemic camp sickness. 

The administration of the dvil and criminal law involves 
frequent relations with medicine, and the professional subjects 
most likdy to arise in that connexion, together with a summary 
of causes ciUbreSt are formed into the department of Medical 

JuaiSPRUDENCS (^.f.). 

In preserving the public health, the medical profession is 
again brought into direct relation with the state, through the 
public medical officers. 

HxsTOKY or Medicine 

Medicine as Portrayed in the Homeric Poems. — In the state 
of sodety pictured by Homer it is dear that medicine has already 
had a history. We find a distinct and organized profession; we 
find a system of treatment, especially in regard to injuries, 
which it must have been the work of long experience to frame; 
we meet with a nomenclature of parts of the body substantially 
the same (according to Daremberg) as that employed long 
afterwards in the writings of Hippocrates; in short, we find a 
sdence and an organization which, however imperiect as com- 
pared with those of later times, are yet very far from being in 
their beginning. The Homeric heroes tbemsdves are repre- 
sented as having considerably skill in surgery, and as able to 
attend to ordinary wounds and injuries, but there is also a 
professional class, represented by Machaon and Podalirius, the 
two sons of Asdepius, who are treated with great respect. It 
would ai^>ear, too, from the Aetkiopis of Archinus (quoted by 
Welcker and Hftser) that the duties of these two were not 
predsely the same. Machaon's task was more especially to 
heal injuries, while Podalirius had recdved from his father the 
gift of " recognizing what was not visible to the eye, and tending 
what could not be healed." In other words, a rough in- 
dication is seen of the separation of medidne and surgery. 
Asdepius appears in Homer as a Thessalian king, not as a god,' 
thou^ in later times divine honours were paid to him. There 
is no sign in the Homeric poems of the suboixiination of medicine 
to religion which is seen in andent Egypt and India, nor are 
priests charged, as they were in those countries, with medical 
funaions— all drcumstances which throw grave doubts on the 
commonly recdved opinion that medicine derived its origin 
in all countries from religious observances. | 

A] though ibi^ ^t-iLiji u[:,^LlIJ■#^■]l^t^ of medidne amon^ the Homeric 
C-reeks wAi thu» quite diKinct from religion, the worthip oi Asdepius 
(or At^^ubpiua) Ai The Kcid of htilitig^ dcniind* some notice. This 
cult apftad very widk^ly acnang th« Crwlts: it had great civil im- 
ponamre, and lasted even into Chnstlin tirnc«; but thtri: is no reason 
to attribute to it any tpectal connesion with the development of 
the science or prufewon ol niDdicioe. Sick persons repaired, or 
were conveyed, to the temples of Asclepiut in order to be healed. 
lii< hi in ntodern tirm^s rebel ii sought h^ a di^votioc^^il ptlffrimage 
pr from the it^tcrb of •ome sacred npnng, and then a» now tne neaiinjK 
influence w^t^mctimea soui^ht by ^puty. The «ick person, or his 
ftpffrKTitativc, after abluLion, prayer and ncriSce, was made to 
ftJc^-p on the hide of the sacrifKcd animal qf at the feet of the statue 
of the god, while iacred Tite» w^re performed- In hh tieep (incubatio, 
iywotiiitut) the appropriate rtioeily wis indicated by a dream. 
Moral Of dietetic reined icf were rtiore often prescribed than drun.' 
The record of the cure *a» inicobtd on the columns or walls Of the 
temple; and it hat brtii thought thit b ibis iray v^s introduced 
the custcm of " rrfarding cd^iT?," and thnt the physicians of the 
IVn • --i ■>.'.' :. ■. :' !' >•■ ■ 10 arcumubtc clmio] experience. 
But the priests of Asdepius were not physicians. Although the 
latter were often called Asclepiads, this was in the first place to 
indicate their real or supposco descent from Asdepius, and in the 
second place as a complimentary title. No medical writing of 
antiquity apeak* of the worship of Asdepius in such a way as to 




Imply any connexion with the ordinary art of healing. The two 
syitems appear to have existed side by side, but to have been distinct, 
aiid if thcv were ever united it must have been before the times of 
which we have any record. The theory of a development of Greek 
medicine from the rites of Asciepius, though defended by eminent 
names, must acccmlingly be rejected. 

DeoehpmefU of Medicine in Greece. — ^It is only from non- 
medical writers that anything is known of the development of 
medicine in Greece before the age of Hippocrates. The elaborate 
collections made by Daremberg of medical notices in the poets 
and historians illustrate the relations of the profession to society, 
but do little to prepare us for the Hippocratic period. Nor is 
much importance to be attached to the influence of the philo- 
sophical sects on medicine except as regards the school of 
Pythagoras. That philosopher and several of his successors 
were physidans, but we do not know in what relation they stood 
to later medical schools. We must therefore hasten onward to 
the age of Pericles, in which Hippocrates, already called " the 
Great," was in medicine as complete a representative of the 
highest efforts of the Greek intellect as were his contemporaries 
the great philosophers, orators and tragedians. The medical 
art as we now practise it, the character of the physician as we 
now understand it, both date for us from Hippocrates. The 
justification of this statement is found in the literary collection 
of writings known by his name. Of these certainly many arc 
falsely ascribed to the historidl Hippocrates of Cos; others are 
almost as certainly rightly so ascribed; others again arc clearly 
works of his school, whether from his hand or not. But which 
are to be regarded as the " genuine works " is still uncertain, 
and authorities are conflicting. There are clearly two schools 
represented in the collection — that of Cnidus in a small pro- 
portion, and that of Cos in far the larger number of the works. The 
latter was that to which Hippocrates belonged, and where he 
gave instruction; and accordingly it may be taken that works 
of this school, when not obviously of a different date, are 
Hippocratic in doctrine if not in actual authorship. 

Hippocratic Medicine.-^The first grand characteristic of Hippo- 
cratic medicine is the high conception of the duties and status of 
the i^ysician. shown in the celebrated " Oath of Hippocrates " and 
elsewhere — equally free from the mysticism of a priesthood and 
the vulgar pretensions of a mercenarv craft. So matured a ]^n>- 
fessionai sentiment may perhaps have Dccn more the growth of tmic 
and organization than the work of an individual genius, but certainly 
corresponds with the character universally attributed to Hippocrates 
himself. The second great quality is the singular artistic skill and 
balance with which the Hippocratic physician used such materials 
and tools as he possessed. Here we recognize the true Greek vcd^peofoir. 
But this artistic completeness was closely connected with the third 
cardinal virtue of Hippocratic medicine — the dear recognition of 
disease as being equally with life a process governed bv what we 
should now call natural laws, which could be known by observation, 
and which indicated the spontaneous and normal direction of 
recovery, by following which alone could the phvMcian succeed. In 
the fourth place, these views of the " natural history of disease " 
(in modem language) led to habits of minute observation and accu- 
rate interpretation of symptoms, in which the Hippocratic school 
was unrivalled in antiquity, and has been the model tor all succeeding 
ages, so that even in these days, with our enormous advances in 
knowledge, the true method of clinical medicine may be said to be 
the metmxl of Hippocrates. 

The actual science of the Hippocratic school was of course very 
limited. In anatomy and physiology little advance had been made, 
and so of pathology in the sense of an explanation of morbid processes 
or knowledge of diseased structures there could be very little. The 
most valuable intellectual possession was a large mass of recorded 
observations in individual cases and epidemics of disease. Whether 
these observations were systematic or individual, and how they were 
recorded, are points of which we are quite ignorant, as the theory 
that the votive tablets in the temples supplied such materials must 
be abandoned. 

Though the Hippocratic medicine was so largely founded on 
observation, it would be an error to suppose that dogma or theory 
had no place. The dominating theory ojf disease was the humoral, 
which has never since ceased to influence medical thought and 
practice. According to this celebrated theory, the body contains 
tour humours — blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile, a right 
proportion and mixture Of which constitute health; improper 
proportions or irregular distributionj disease. It is doubtful whether 
the treatise in which this theory m fully expounded («-cpl ^6«^iot 
hSpinrov) is as old as Hippocrates himself: but it was regarded as 
a Hippocratic doctrine, and, when taken up and expanded by Galen, 
its terms not only became the common property of the profession, 

but passed Into general titeratvre and common language. Aooth^ 
tlippocn&tic d(K trine, the JnOutiice pI v^hich i) not even yet exhauurd, 
i« thitof the healing powtr of namre. Not that Hippocrates tAught^ 
at he wmt aftcrvtarU^ re&roachtd with teaching, that iwurc is 
sufBcient tor the cure of diicaic*5 'or he held itront^ly tht efficacy 
[}[ art. But he recagmzcd, at least in acute d)«asc^, « natucu 
procev which the humours wen through — being hrst of dl cm/iL 
then paMing throui^K Mc/itm or digestion, and fifully bein^ pxpelted 
by resolution ar friiif through oru^ of the lutumL channcU of the 
body. Tht duty oi the phy^t^rin vm to lorcsce thest chan^t^ 
'* to assist or not to hiddcf thcnii" »o that '] the i-iclf tnan might 
conquer the di&caie with the help of the phyiician-" The time« at 
which criKs were to be c\pecied wcj^ naturally looked for with 
anxiety; and it was a candiiiA^ point in the Hippocratic system to 
foretell them with pn«:Uion. Jiipftncr^lc*, in^uenccd at is thought 
by the Pythagorean doctrines of number, uiu|ht that they were to 
be expected an days hxed by ceftain numericjt^l rules, in some cajei 
on cjad* in others on even numbers^ — the celebrated docttiiw of 
^' critical diye." This«e pmriuon can have had no practical 
value, but may have enforced habits of minute cb^rvatioo. It 
fallows from wKai hai been said that prugt^aH), or the art of fort* 
telling the coui^e and event of the d'i^fOj', WAS a strong pi>int vith 
tht Htppocratic physiciani. In this they have perhaps never been 
cxrclLed. Diagnoiit, or recognition ol the dW^**:, mutt have 
been neceifiarily imperfect^ when no scientific noiology or ^ttetn 
of disea^ existed, and the knowledge of anatofny wnA quite in^ 
adequate to allow of a piredse determination of the Mat of diaea^e^ 
but iymptoms were no doubt observed and interpreted skillutly. 
The pulse If not spoken of in any of the works now attributed to 
Hippocrates hintielf, though it 'n mentioned in dther works ol the 

In the treatment of discaje. the Hippocratic school attached great 
importance to diet, the variatiotu nixeasary in different dJMSei 
being minutely defined. Medicines were regarded aa ol «ecQiidary 
importance, but not neglected, two hundred and siMy-five drufs 
being mentioned at dfScrent pbces an the Hippocratic wwln. 
Blood letting was known, but not ^reatlv practised. The highest 
tniportance was attached to nppJytng all leraedies at the nght 
momenta and the general principle enforced of making nil influences 
— iniCfnal and external— co-operate fi:^r the relief of the patient. 
The prifieiplci of trvalment just mentioned apply more especiaUy 
to the cure of acute di«a$e&; but they arc the moit nalient character^ 
istica of the Hippocratic athooL In chronic cases diet, exercise aod 
natural methods were chiefly reJicd upon. 

The schuol of CnidU4, m distinguished from that of Cob. qI which 
Hippocrates is the rrpn^cntatlve, appean to have diflercd in attach^ 
ing mOTT importance to the diffefCDces of special dLsca&efi. and to 
have made more use ot dfu^ A treaiiat on the diuaies of womcn^ 
contained En the Hippoctatw; co[lectii>nH and of remarkable practical 
value, h attributed tu this srhouL. 

The above sketch of Hiprjocrtitic medicine will make it less 
ncce$L^ry to dwell upon the detaiU relating to subsequent medical 
QchooU of sects in ancient liflKi The general concept inn ol the 
physician** aim and taak rentain^l the same, though, aa knowledge 
ii4icteued, there wa* much div-et^entx both in theory and practice — 
even oppo^ng schools wen; found to be developing some part of the 
Hippocratic system. Direct opponenta or repudiators of the autho< 
rity of Hippocntcii were rafc. all generally appealing to his autharitv. 
But, inscn*ibly. the kast valuable part of the Hippocratk wode^ 
the theory H was made permanent; the most valuable, the pmctical. 

F£iii-Hipp&Cfaiic JlfifiliitM*.^^ After Hippcjcratea the prttgrea of 
medicine la Gncrce d<^t not call for any special remark in such a 
tketch a*thi5.butmentionDiiuatbcmadeofone great name. T hough 
none of Ari»toi1c'e wTitiii|s are atrictiy medical, be hat by his 
re&irchts in artatomy and physiology contributed greatly to ihe 
progres* of medio nc. It ihoufd aVso be remembered that he was 
of an Avlcpiad family, and received that partly medical educattoo 
which wa4 tmdiiipnal In such fa mi Lies, and also himself ii said to 
have practised medicine as an aniateur. Mom-Twr. his works on 
natural history douhtleu furthered the prepress among the Greeks 
of Aciences tnlHitary to medicine, though the only specimena of 
euch wurki which have come down to us from the Peripatetic 
schoo} are those of Theophrasiua, who may be eon^dered the 
founder of the scientific tftudy of botany. Among his encyxlopaedic 
writitigr* wert some on medical subjects^ of which fragments only 
have been preacTvcd. The Peripatetic school may have bern mom 
favourable to the development of medicine, aa of other departments 
of natural knowledge, than any other; but there ii no evidence ihac 
any of the philosophical ichwaU had important influence on the 
progress of medicine. The fniit of Ari*lotIe's teaching and ejujnpk 
wan seen later on in the schools of Akxandda. 

The century after the death of Hippocratei it a time atmort blank 
in mediual annaR It is probable that the tcicnce, like oiheri, 
sh4nrt1 in the general intellectual decline of Greece after the Mace- 
donian euprcmacyt but the works of physician* of the period art 
almpflt entirely loit, and were so even in the time of Galen. Gikn 
c[a!^& them all as of the dogmatic school; but^ whatever may haw 
been ibeir characterisllca, they are o\ no importance in the Uitory 
of ihe scieoce. 




Aksminam Sckoel ef if «itnM.— The dispenbn of Greek 
wdatot and intellectaal activity through the world by the 
cooqnests of Alexander and his successors led to the formation 
of more than one learned centre, in which medicine among other 
scimcrs was represented. Fergamum was early distinguished 
for its medical school; but in this as in other respects iu repu- 
tation was ultimately effaced by the more brilliant fame of 
Alexandria. It is here that the real continuation and develop- 
ment of Hippocratic mrdirine can be traced. 

In one department the Alexandrian school rapidly surpassed 
its Greek original — namely, in the study of anatomy. The 
dissection of the human body, of which some doubtful traces or 
hints only are found in Greek times, was assiduously carried out, 
being Uvoured or even suggested perhaps by the Egyptian 
custom of disembowelling and embalming the bodies of the 
dead. There is no doubt that the organs were also examined 
by opening the bodies of living perK>na— criminals condemned 
to dnth being given over to the anatomists for this purpose. 

Two eminent names stand in the first rank as leaders of the 
two earliest scboob of medicine which arose in Alexandria, 
fierophilus and Erasistratus. 

Hcrophiliis (A3X-280 b.c.) was a Greek of Chakedon, a pupU of the 
achoob both oTCos and of Cnidus. He was especially noted for 
his praCoaad fcaearcbes in anatomy (see i. 803), and in the know- 
ledge and practice of medicine he appears to have been equally 
tenowned. He professed himself a ctose adherent of Hippocrates, 
MvA adopted his theocv of the humours. He also made extensive 
oe of onigs and of bleedii^. The reputation of Herophilus is 
J by the fact that four considerable physicians wrote works 
him and his writings, and he is furtner spoken of with 



the kqgbest regpect by Galen and Celsus. 

. . ._, , , By the general 

of tke medical world of antiquity he was placed only second 

k (d. 2to B,c.) waa the cqntfmporuy and rival of 
Little u hxiown at his ljfe„ accept that he spent some 
e'm the court of Seteucus Nicator at Aotioch before coming to 
aadfia, and that he cultivated anatonny tate in tife, after he 
kat taken up hii abode in the latter axy, Hh nurmTrjus works 
vt ska alnott entirely tt^^ fra^Tncnit^ ontv beirg^ prv-tierved by 
dlen »ad otben. ErojiifTratus^ insiead cf (oUaving Hippocrates 
at Heniphllus did. depreciated him. and iecmi to hav« been rather 
tigfttmn and iiidrprndrnt in his viewL He appears to have leaned 
tp MciianioLl expLi nations of the cymptomi of diirase^ as was 
^tlL^ the ca^ with inHamfnatiofi, of which be |;ave the first 

Dtiooaii though nccca&arily inadequate^ theory. 

TV TWO KhoQpIs composed of the (olbwcrs of Kcraphilus and 
En^HTfarui rrspcctivrly lonu divided brtwren tbt-m the medical 
> ■" ' r A"' •. ■ i:'.! T'-- ::;■,:■- .3 r'..Ty i -r. .h'r- ' L : i. timbers of 
both sects have been preserved, but it would be useless to repeat 
them. The Herophilists still reverenced the memory of Hippocrates, 
sad wrote numerous commentaries on his works. They produced 
may eminent anatomists, but in the end seem to have become lost 
is thoaredcal subtleties, and to have maintained too high a standard 
of Etciary cultivation. The school of Erasistratus was less distin- 
guished in anatomy than that of Herophilus, but paid more attention 
to the special symptoms of diseases, and employed a great variety 
d dr^B. It was longer-lived than that of Herophilus, for it still 
sambered many adherents in the 2nd century aftef Christ, a century 
after the latter had become extinct. 

• The Erasistrateans paved the way for what was in some respects 
At most important school whkh Alexandria produced, that known 
as the emptTK, which, though it recognised no master by name, may 
beiwisidcfed to have been founded by Philinus of Cos (280 B.C.). a 
papfl of Herophilus: but Serapion, a great name in antiquity, and 
GJandas of Tarentum. who traced the empirical doctrine back to 
the writings of Hippocrates, are also named among its founders. 
The most strikinf( peculiarity of the empirics was that they rejected 
anatomy, regarduig it as usdess to inquire into the causes of things, 
and thus, as they contended, being the more minute in their observa- 
tion of the actual phenomena of disease. They professed that'their 
whole practice was based upon experience, to which word theyjg;ave 
a speoal meaning. Three sources, and three only, could experience 
(kaw from: obsnvation, history (i^. recorded observation), and 
jsdrroent by analosy. These three bases of knowledge were known 
as the " tripod " of the empirics. ^ It should not, however, be for- 
Sotten that the empirics read and industriously commented on the 
works of Hippocrates. They were extremely successful in practical 
Btttters. especially in surgery and in the use of drugs, ana a large 
part of the routine knowledge of diseases and remedies which became 
ttadixional in the tiroes of the Roman empire is believed to have 
been derived from them. In the 2nd century the school became 
dosdy ooonected with the philosophical sect of the Sceptics, whose 
kader. Sextos (200 ■.€.). was an empirical physician. It lived and 
' ' 1 far beyond this time, when transplanted to Rome, not ll 

l«s th^xi m iti native Alrxandrta. and appears to be recognisable 
even up to the begin fitng of the middle ages. 

If we look at the work of the Alexandrian schools in medidne 
u a whole, wc must admit that the progress made was great 
and permaneni. The greatest service rendered to medicine 
was undoubtedly tlie syitcmatic study of anatomy. It is dear 
I hit the knowledge of fund ion (physiology) did not by any 
Qiean^ keep pace with the knowledge of structure, and th^ 
was probably the reason why the important sect of the empirics 
were able ctitirely to dispense with anatomical knowledge. The 
doctrines of Hippociatfs, though lightly thought of by the 
Er^iiiratcans, still were no doubt very widely accepted, but 
the practice of the Hippocr^iic school had been greatly improved 
in almost every depart tnent — stirgery and obstetrics being 
probibly tbose in which the Alexandrian practitioners could 
compare most favourably with those of modem times. We 
have BOW to trace the fortune^ of this body of medical doctrine 
and practice when transplanted to Rome, and ultimately to 
the whole Roman world. 

Ritm4» Mtdkine. — The Romans caimot be said to have at 
any time originated or possessed an independent school of 
medicine^ They had from cariy times a very complicated 
$y&tem of superstitious medicine, or religion, related to disease 
und the cure of dkeosc, borrowed, as is thought, from the 
Etniwtrts; and, though the sa^ying of Pliny that the Roman 
people got on for six hundred years without doctors was 
doubtless ii> exaggeration, and not, literally speaking, exact, 
it must be accepted for the broad truth which it contains. 
When a medical profession appears, it is, so far as we are able 
to trace it, OS an importation from Greece.' 

The Am Greek physkriao whose name is p reser ved as having 
ntip-aicd to flome was Afvha^athus, who came over from the 
Pelopannesuji in iifi a.c; but there were probably others before 
bim. When Greece wat made a Roman province, the number of 
luch phyMcUits vho sought thdr fortunes m Rome must have been 
yerv Urge. The bitter words of M. Pordus Cato, who disliked them 
as he did other irrprtrsentativvs of Greek culture, are evidence of 
thiL The JDCUE eminent of these earlier Greek physicians at Rome 
was AacJepiideSi the friend of Cicero (bom 124 tf.c. at Prusa in 
Bitbynki}^ He came to Rome £i» a young man, and soon became 
distingubbcd both for hb meiical skill and his oratorical power. 
He introduced a system which. k> far as we know, was his own, 
thouj^h lounded upon the Epicurean philosophical creed; on the 
fjrajrtical lidc it coniTanTied pri'tty closely to the Stoic rule of life, 
thus adapting iticlf to thr Icanin^^s of the better stamp of Romans 
in the later timei of the republic. According to Asclepiades all 
disca^cB depended tipon altef^itioiiB in the size, number, arrangement 
or movement of the '* atom^^ " uf which, according to the doctrine 
of Epicurus, thu tuxJy consisted* These atoms were united into 
rjatajgefi (rfp^t) ihrougb which the juices of the body wereconveyed. 
This qw:trifle, of which the dcv^Eopments need not further be followed* 
was important chiefly in so /ar that it was perfectly distinct from, 
and opposed to, the humoral ftathology of Hippocrates. In the 
treatment of di«cau Asclcpiadt;^ sltachcd most importance to diet, 
cKcrcise, patitjve rricntrfnent* or frictions, and the external use of cold 
water—in short, to a nK^lfied athletic training.^ He rejected the 
vii m^durairix natMTCr, pointing out that nature in many cases not 
orily did not help but manrd the cure. His knowledge of disease 
and aurgk^a] skill were, as appears from the accounts ^iven by 
Ceiaus^ ami CaeliuJ AurelLanu*, very considerable. Asclepiades had 
many pupih who adhf-mj mote i>r less closely to hb doctrines, but 
it was especially one of thijm, Thcmison, who gave permanence to 
the teachings of hi^ n^ster by framing out of them, with some 
modi 5e.3t bos, a new aystem of medical doctrine, and founding on 
this ba»si a tchoril which bited for some centuries in successful 
rivalry with th« Hippocratic trad h ion, which, as we have seen, was 
up to that time the prevailing influence in medicine. 

This jiy^eiti wai known as methodism, its adherents as the 
racthodict or ituMhodistJi. Ita main principles were that it was 
uiiele» to consider the causes of a disease, or even the organ affected 
by the disease, and that it was sufficient to know what was common 
to all di!X!a4Be4. vii. thdr common fiualiiies (communitates.KOii'ATin-ft). 
Of these thei^ were three possible forms— ji) relaxation, (2) con- 
c faction of tht minute p^t^jtages or rSpoi, and (3) a mixed state, partly 
U*. partly constrktcd. The signs of these morbid states were to 
be kiutid in the general conititutimn of the body, especially in the 
excretioni. B»tde& thii it was important only to consider whether 
the diM^ave was scute or chronic^ whether it was increasing, declining 
or stationary. Treatment of diacaie was directed not to any spc^Jfl 
ori^n, nor to producing the eriscs and critical discharges of the 
tfippociatic ichool, but to correcting the morbid common condition 
or ■'community," relajdng the body if it was constricted, causing 




contraction if it was too lax, and in the " mixed state " acting accocd- 
ing to the predominant condition. Thu «mple rule of treatment 
was the system or " method " from which the school took its name. 

The methodists agreed with the empirics in one poiAt, in their 
contempt for anatomy; but, strictly speaking, they were d«^matists, 
though with a dogma different from that oT the Hippocratic school. 
Benoes Themison, its systematic founder, the ichool boasted many 
physicians eminent in tneir day, among whom Thessalus of Tralles, 
a half-educated and boastful pretender, was one of the most popular. 
He reversed the Hippocratic maxim " art is long," promising his 
flcholan to teach them the whole of medicine in six months, and had 
inscribed upon his tomb . Urpopk^, as being superior to all living 
and bygone physicians. 

In the 2nd century a much greater name appeare among the 
methodists, that of Soranus of EphesuSj a physician mentioned with 
praise even by TertuUian and Augustine, who practised at Rome 
in the rcjgns of iiniJ M:i.ffri:in. Sir.miL- i- x:i...vmi Ny ri work, 
at ill evLiLnt in Ibe Greek (origjirut, an the dtsifd^^ of WL>cncri, and aUu 
by the Latin work of Caehua Aun'UaniJS, thirc ce^nturici latrr, on 
acute and chronic diseases, which is based upon, if not, as some thinki 
an actual translatio'n of, thi^ chief work of ScrraauA, and whkh is the 
principal flounie of our knowledge of the methodk ichool. The 
work on diseaBes of women is the only cncnplete work on that flubject 
which haa come down to ui fracn antiquity, and thowA remarkable 
Fullnc^a of practical knowledge in relation to it& subject, ft b 
notable that an important instrument ol rtsearch^ the ipeculum, 
which ha» been reinvented in modem tirne^p wa$ uwd by Soranui; 
and wccimenis of fttlll earlier date, showing gr^^t mechanjrcal perfec- 
tion, have hcf-n found among the ruini of Poiript^ii- Th? work on ' 
acute and chronic disca^« Ls also full of practica] knowledge, but 
p&netraLed with the theorici gf the mcthodist*. 

The methodic Kh»i lasted ccruinly for some centuna» and 
InducncH the nivivnl of medical acknci! m the middle afic*. though 
overshadowed by the cr^atcr rrputaliiin of Galen, It wis the first 
deAnite product of Girtk medicine on Roinan #oil, bur was destined 
to be foilciwcd by o[hc», which kept up a more or lea* successful 
rivalry with it^ and with the Hippocntic tradition. ' 

The »-<!alled pneumatic school was foundnj by Athenaeui, in the 
Ut century after Christ. According to its doctrines the normal 
ai well aj diseased actions of the body ^-eie to be rEfcrred to th< 
Operation of the pneuma or univer§al soul. This doctrine, crudely 
Eranftferred from philosophical speculation^ was intended to reconcile 
the butnoral (or Hippcicjatic]i and solidist (or methodic] school*; 
but the methodists leetn to have claimed Atbenaeui as one of 

The conflicts of the oppoung schools, and the obvious deficiencies 
of each, led many physicians to try and combine the valuable parts 
of each system, and to call themselves eclectics. Among these were 
found many of the most eminent physicians of Graeco-Roman tinles. 
It may be sufficient to name Ruius or Ephesus (2nd cwitury A.D.), 
and Archigenes (JL a.d. 90), who is mentioned by JuvenaL 

Although no system or important doctrine of medicine was 
originated by the Roman intellect, and though the practice of 
the profession was probably almost entirely in the hands of the 
Greeks, the most complete picture which we have of medical 
thought and activity in Roman times is due to a Latin pen, 
and to one who w&s, in all probability, not a physician. 
A. Cornelius Celsos, a Roman patrician, who lived probably in 
the xst century, appears to have studied medicine as a branch 
of general knowledge. Whether be was a practising physidan or 
not has been a matter of controversy. The conclusion supported 
by most evidence seems to be that he practised on his friends 
and dependants, but not as a remunerative profession. His 
well-known work, De medkina, was one of a series of treatises 
intended to embrace all knowledge proper for a man of the world. 
It was not meant for the physicians, and was certainly little 
read by them, as Celsus is quoted by no medical writer, and 
when referred to by Pliny, is spoken of as an author not a 
physician. There is no doubt that his work is chiefly a com- 
pilation; and Daremberg, with other scholars, has traced a 
large number of passages of the Latin text to the Greek originals 
from which they were translated. In the description of surgical 
operations the vagueness of the language seems sometimes to 
show that the author had not performed such himself; but in 
other parts, and especially in his historical introduction, he 
speaks with more confidence; and everywhere he compares 
and criticizes with learning and judgment. The whole body of 
medical literature belonging to the Hippocratic and Alexandrian 
times is ably summarized, and a knowledge of the state of 
medical sdence up to and during the times of the author is 
thus conveyed to us which can be obtained from no other source. 
The work of Celsus b thus for us only second in importance to 

the Hippocratic writings and the woiks of Galen; but it it 
valuable rather as a part of the Bistoiy Of medicine than as tlie 
subject of that histoiy. It forms no link in the general chain 
of medical tradition, for the simple reason that the infhmKe 
of Celsus (putting aside a few scanty allusioos in medieval 
times) commenced in the xsth century, when his works wevs 
first discovered in manuscript or committed to the press. Since 
then, however, he has been almost up to our own times the most 
popular and widely read of all medical classics, partly for the 
qualities already indicated, partly because he was one ol tlie 
few of those classics accessible to readers of Latin, and partly 
also because of the purity and classical perfection of his language. 

Of Pliny, another encyclopaedic writer, a few words must be 
said, thou^ he was not a physician. In his Natural History 
we find as complete a sunmiary of the pc^ular medidne oC hb 
time as Celsus gives of the scientific medicine. Pliny disliked 
doctors, and lost no opportimity of depreciating regular medicine; 
nevertheless he has left many quotations from, and many details 
about, medical authors which are of the bluest value. He is 
useful to us for what he wrote about the history of medidne, 
not for what he contributed. Like Celsus, he had little influence 
on succeeding medical literature or practice. 

We now come to the writer who, above all others, gathered 
up into himself the divergent and scattered threads of andcnt 
medidne, and out of whom again the greater part of modem 
European medicine has flowed. Galen was a man furnished 
with all the anatomical, medical and philosophical knowledge 
of his time he had studied all kinds of natural curiosities, and 
had stood in near relation to important political events; he 
possessed enormous industry, great practical sagadty and 
unbounded literary fluency. He had, in fact, every quality 
necessary for an encydopaedic writer, or even for a literary and 
professional autocrat. He found the medical profession of his 
time split up into a number of sects, medical sdence confounded 
under a multitude of dogmatic systems, the social status and 
moral integrity of physicians degraded. He appears to have 
made it his object to reform these evils, to reconcile sdentific 
acquirements and practical skill, to bring hack the unity of 
medicine as it had been understood by Hippocrates, and at the 
same time to raise the dignity of medical practitioners. 

Galen was as devoted to anatomical and, bo far as then uhderatood, 
physiological research as to practical medicine. He worked enthusi- 
astically at dissection, though, the liberty of the Alexandrian schools 
no longer existing, he could dissect only animals, not the human 
body. In his anatomical studies Galen had a twofold object — a 
philosophical, to show the wisdom of the Creator in making every- 
thing fit to serve its purpose; and a practical, to aid the diarncMOb 
or recognition, of disease. The first led him into a teleologicu 
system so minute and overstrained as to defeat its own end; the 
second was successfully attained by giving greater prediioo Mod 
certainty to medical and surreal practice in difficult cases. His 
general phvsiology was essentially founded upon the Hippocrati c 
theory ot the four elements, with which he combined the notion of 
spirit (pneuma) penetrating all parts, and mineled with the hurooun 
in different, proportions. It was on this field that he most vehe- 
mently attacked the prevailing atomistic and materialistic views 
of the methodic school, and his conception of the pneuma beoune 
in some respects half metaphysical. His own researches in spedal 
branches 01 physiology were important, but do not strictly belong 
to our present subject. 

The application of physiology to the explanation of diseases, and 
thus to practice, was chiefly by the theory of the temperaments or 
mixtures whkh Galen founded upon the Hippocratic doctrine of 
humours, but developed with marvellous and fatal ingenuity. The 
normal condition or temperament of the body depended upon a 
proper mixture or proportion of the four elements-— hot, cokl, wet 
and dry. From faulty proportions of the same arose the hUemperia 
(" distempen "), which, though not diseases, were the occask»n 
of disease. Equal importance attached to faulty mixtures or 
dyscrasiae of the blood. By a combination of these morbid pie- 
dispositions with the action of deleterious influences from without 
all diseases were produced. Galen showed extreme inaenuity in 
explaining all symptoms and all diseases on his system. No pheno> 
menon was without a name, no problem without a solution. And. 
though it was precisely in his fine-spun subtlety that he departed 
furthest from scientific method and cHractical utility, it was this very 
quality whkrh seems in the end to nave secured hb popularity and 
established hb pre-eminence in the medical worid. 

Galen's use of drugs was influenced largely by the same theories. 
In dn^ were to be recognized the same elementary qualtttes-^iot» 


ooU* BKiiit* dryi Ac'-m in the Inmiaii bodvj tMO, on tott pnmaMc 
of cariaf by ooBtraries. the me of one or other was indicated. The 
■ liliqma of Galen contain lew of ample objective obeervattons than 
tine of aevcral other ancient phyncians, all being swept into the 
c i if re at of dofmarir exposition. But there b enough to show the 
thorou^inesa and extent of hu practical knowledge. Unfortunately 
It was nei t her this nor his seal for research that chiefly won him 
foOowcn. but the oompleteneas of his theoretical explanations, 
wUdi fell ia with the mental habits of succeeding centuries, and 
were wmdk as have flattered the intellectual indolence of all ages. 
But the repotatioo of Galen grew slowlv; he does not appear to have 
cnioved any pre-eainence over other iMijpcians of his time, to roost 
of wbom he was strongly opposed in opinion. In the next seneration 
he bcgaa to be esteemed onW as a phQoeopher; gradually his system 
was implicitly accepted, and it enjoyed a great though not exclusive 
r— f ff-T''^'*T T till the fall of Roman civilisation. When the 
Arabs pnirisrri themselves of the scattered remains of Greek 
cidture, the works of Galen were more highly esteemed than any 
others except those of Aristotle. Through the Arabs the Galenical 
svHem found its way back a^in to western Europe. Even when 
Affsbiaa medicine gave way before the direct teaching of the Greek 
aittfaors rescued from n^lcct, the authority of Galen was increased 
isatesd of being diminished ; and he assumed a position of autocracy 
in medical science which was only slowly undermined by the growth 
of modem science in the 17th and l8th centuries. 

The histofy of medicine in Roman times is by no means the 
tame thing as the history of the fate of the works of Galen. For 
tone centuries the methodic school was popular at Rome, and 
prodnced one physician, Caelius Aurelianus, who must be pro- 
nooBccd, next to Celsus, the most considerable of the Latin 
medical writers. His date was in all probability the end of the 
4th or the beginning of the 5th century. The works bearing 
hb name are, as has been said, entirely based upon the Greek 
of Sonaas, but are important both because their Greek originals 
aie kst, and because they are evidence of the state of medical 
practice in his own time. The popularity of Caelius is evidenced 
by the fact that in the 6th century an abridgment of his larger 
«»ric was recommended by Cassiodonis to the Benedictine monks 
for the study of medicine. 

Before quitting this period the name of Aretaeus of Cappadocia 
Bst be meationed. So little is known about him that even 
his date cannot be fixed more closely than as being between 
the second half of the ist century and the beginning of the 3rd. 
His wocks have been much admired for the purity of the Greek 
style, and his accurate descriptions of disease; but, as he quotes 
DO medical author, and is quoted by none before Alexander of 
Aphrodisias at the beginning of the 3rd century, it is clear that 
k be l o n ge d to no school and founded none, and thus his position 
is the chain of medical tradition is quite uncertain. Alexander 
ef Aphrodisias, who lived and wrote at Athens in the time of 
Sqitimins Severus, is best known by his commentaries on 
Aristotle, but also wrote a treatise on fevers, still extant. 

Amdemi Uadicime mfkr Gbiim.— The Byxantine school of medicine, 
«bch dooefy corresponds to the Byxantine literary and historical 
sdKMis, followed ckioely in Galen's footsteps, and its writers were 
chiefly oonaptleffs and encyclopaedists. The cariiest b Oribasius 
(326-^p3), whose date and position are fixed by hb being the friend 
sad court physician of JuOan the Apostate. He was a Greek of 
feiamum, educated in Alexandria, and long resident in Byzantium. 
Hiigfcat work ZMwiwysi Impvuvk, di which only about one-third 
hMbeen pceserved, was a medical encyclopaedia founded on extracts 
fam HipfMicrates. Galen, Dioscondes iJL a.d. 50) and certain 
Gfeek writera who are otherwise very imperfectly known. The 
work B thus cue of great historical value but 01 no orbinality. 
The next name iriiich requires to be mentioned b that 01 Aetius 
(A.D. SSi^)* * compiler who closely followed Oribanus, but with 
iaferior powers, ana whose work also has an historical but no original 
valoe. Ahigher rank amoc^ medical writers b assigned to Alexander 
«f Tialles (535-605), whose doctrine was that of an eclectic Hb 
pnK^cal and therapeutical rules are evidently the fruit of hb own 
qpefbnc e , though it would be difficult to attribute to him any 
deckled advance in ntrdify? knowledge. But the most prominent 
ffwc ia Byzantine medidne b that of Paul of Aegina (Paulus 
Aegiaeta), who lived probably in the eariy part of the 7th century. 
His dkill. espedaUy in surgery, must have been considerable, and 
hb Icr^MA fives a very complete picture of the achievements of 
the Gfwcha m thb department. Another work, on obstetrics, now 
kit, was equally famous, and procured for him, among the Arabs, 
the aaoie of " the Obstetrician." Hb repuution lasted through 
the middle ages, and was not less in the Arabian schoob than in the 
^'-^ la this respect Paulus b a most important influence in the 
oMot of medkhif. Hb great work on surgery was eariy 



translated Into Arabic, and became the fonndatlofi of the turgerv 
of Abukasis. which in turn \\q anticipit^) w44 cmi? of the ehij^ 
sources of surgical knowledge ta Eur^^pt m the rnidrJk o^ci. The 
succeeding period of Byxantine history hjj^ so lUtle Uvourablr to 
science that no name worthy of note occyn agiin (thoush many 
medical works of thb period air stiM c^xtAnt} till the t^th century, 
when we meet with a group of whten. Dtmetnu^ PefLifiDmenuv 
Nicolaus Myrepsus andjonannn, cilted Act nanus, vbo liouhihcd 
under the protection of the fatieologi. The work of ihc Ust ha» 
some independent merit; but lU arr interrstin^ jl^ ^ho^in-E d fiuioa 
of Greek and Arabbn medicine^ the Utter haviEjg begun to cxeruiiie 
even in the nth century a rrflrTs influence on the schoctU of By- 
zantium. Something was borr , ! from the &rhaol of Salcma, 
and thus the close of Byzanti. \^ brought infO conncusn 
with the dawn of science in modern burope. 


Cai . , . 

must be mentioned as showing the perustence of the methodic 
schooL An abridgment of one of hb writings, with the title of 
Aurdius, became the most popular of all Latin medical works. As 
a writer he was worthy of a better period of medical literature. 
Little else was produced in these times but compilations, of the most 
meagre kind, chiefly of the nature of herbals, or domestic receipt- 
boon; among the authors of which it may be sufficient to name 
Serenus Sammonicus ^rd century), Gargilius Martialb (^rd century) 
and Marcellus Empincus (sth century). Certain compilations atUI 
extant bear the falsely-assumed names of eminent writers, such as 
Pliny and Hippocrates. A writer with the (perhaps assumed) name 
of Apuleius Platonicus produced a herbal which held its ground 
till the 15th century at least, and was in the 9th translated into 
Anglo-Saxon. Thoe poor coimMlations, together with Latin 
translations of certain works of Galen and Hippocrates, formed a 
medical literature, meagre and unprogressive indeed, but of which 
a great part suryived through the middle ages till the discovery 6f 
printing and revival of leammg. It b important to remember that 
thb otMCure stream of tradition flowed on, only partially affected 
by the influx of Arabian, cr even the eariy revival of purer classical 

Arabian Medicine. — ^The rise of the Mahommedan Empire, 
which influenced Europe so deeply both politically and intel- 
lectually, made its mark also in the history of medicine. As in 
the parallel case of the Roman conquest of Greece, the superior 
culture of the conquered race asserted its supremacy over their 
Arab conquerors. After the Mahommedan conquests became 
consolidated, and learning began to flourish, schools of medicine, 
often connected with hospitab and schoob of pharmacy, arose 
in all the chief seats of Moslem power. At Damascus Greek 
medicine was zealously cultivated with the aid of Jewish and 
Christian teachers. In Bagdad, imder the rule of HftrOn el 
Rashid and hb successors, a still more flourishing school arose, 
where numerous translations of Greek medical works were made. 
The names of Mesua, or Yal^yft ibn Mftsawaih (d. a.d. 857-858), 
celebrated for his knowledge of drugs, and ^onein ibn Is^aq el 
*IbftdI (d. 873) or Joannitius, the translator and commentator of 
Hippocrates and Galen, belong to thb period. Certain writings 
of Joannitius, translated into Latin, were popular in the middle 
ages in Europe, and were printed in the i6th century. At the 
same time the Arabs became acquainted with Indian medicine, 
and Indian physicians lived at the court of Bagdad. The 
Islamite rulers in Spain were not long behind those of the 
East in encouraging leanung and medical science, and developed 
culture to a still higher degree of perfection. In* that country 
much was due to the Jews, who had already established schoob 
in places which were afterwards the seats of Moslem dominion. 
From the xoth to the 13th century was the brilliant period of 
Arabian medicine in Spain.* 

The claviic^l period of Arabbn medicine begins with Rhazes (AbO 
Bakr Muftmrnmad ibn j^kany^ el-KAri, K.x>r 925-^26), a native of 
Rum in the province of D^iikm (Perjii), n ho j>ractised with distinc- 
ikin at Bagdad; he followed thp doctrirtea of Galen, but learnt much 
from Hippocfatw, He was xhc^ hr*t of ihe Arabs to treat medicine 
in a comprehtrttive and encyclopaedic manner, surpassing probably 
m volijmir>ou5nif*Si Ga3*n himself, though but a small oroportion 
of hi* works anr cjrtant, RhaZJC4 is dewiTedly remembered as having 
first d«icnbed imall poi and meoatei in an aocurate manner. Hah, 
ij. 'AU ibn el-*AbM», a Pt'raian^ wrote a medical textbook, 
known as tlie '' Rc>>^aV Bctok/' which waa the standard authority 
among the Arabs up to The time of Avkcnna (a.D. 980-1037) ana 
wa« more th&n onee ti^mUted into Latin and printed. Other 

* See Docy, Cat. Cod. Or. Lug. BaL vL 296. 




writen ci iMs centuiy need not be mcntiorkcd hcrcj but (lie next, 
the Illh cCTiLjry. a given as the probable thoujj;ti urtcntain iJaic 
of a wnicf whi5 had a grkrit tnHucntc on European medicine, Mcsua 
the youngcf of DamaHrus. vhoii per»n;itity is ob*cu remand of whoic 
very eKi^cncf some ht»ti7rian!i K;3ive doubted^ thinking that the 
name wai auumed by ^d/rre meJicvali Ldtin wcUer. I'he work De 
simUiciifui. which Itcar* bi» naine, was kr ccnturic* a fttandanj 
autnoiity on what wcultl no* be called matem itiedkiiH was printed 
in tweniy-sLx cdiiion» in the 151K century and later^ and «a& used 
in the Icirmation of the hr&t Loiidon pKa^Fnacopoeta,. i^ued Uy the 
College o( PhyMcian^ tit the rekn of JamiA L Either to the loib 
or the 1 ith century tnu&t be nlvncd the name of another Axabi<in 
physician who has a.\x> nttaincd the puiitlon of a. claasic, Abu' I 
vi^Lsim or Abulcasts, of £l-Zahrai near Cordova, in Spain. His 
great vitttk, AitafriJ, a. medical encyclopaedia, is chicBy valued tot 
Its surcic^d portion [alnzarly mentioned), which was translated into 
Latin iri the I6th ccniur^\ and waa for some cenEuricfl a standjsrd 
if not the standard authority on surgery in Europe. Among hi« 
own count ry men the fame 3.mi position of Abulcaus were soon 
eclipsed by the grenter name oi Avkmnna. 

Avicenna h^ »lwfi>-s been regarded a& the chid representative of 
Arabian mrdkine^ He wrote on philosophy also, and tn both 
Mibjects acquii^ the hijjhe^t reputation through the whole of 
eastern Utamt In Mahiunmedan Spain he was Jess regardcid, but 
in Europe his worka rven ecli|>ied nnd tuperseded tho^e of llippo' 
crates and Galen. His style and esL|x»itory power are hi^jhly praised^ 
but the &ubjcct-matler shoH's littk' originality. The workoy which 
he is chiefly known, the celebrated ** canon," js an encyclopaedia 
of medical and siir^icral knowledge, founded upon G^len, Ariniotle, 
the later Greek physieian^, and the earlier Arabuin writerit, unifularly 
compkte and syaittmatic, but is thought not to ihow the practical 
experience of its author. As in the case of Galen, the formal and 
encvdcpawJic trhamcter of Avicenna'a worka was the chief cause 
of his popularity and aiccndancyt though 10 moderii times the» 
very quahtics in a wciciitiric or niedlcal writer would rather cauftc 
him to l^aromc more speedily antiquated. 

In the long list of Arabian medical writers none can here be 
mentioned excvpt the jgreat names ol the Hispano-Kfoorish achooh 
a school both philaKophiciiUy and medically antagoni^^tic to that 
of Avifenna, (Jf these the earliest if Av£N£t>AR or AbumeiX)n» that 
is. Aba ^ien^^tn *AM al-Mahk IbnZuhr [beginnin|^of iitht^ntary), 
a member of a famity which gave several diiiinguished memliers to 
the medical profet.^ion. His chief work, Al-Teysir (facilitatiolt b 
thought to show more practical experience than the writings tif 
Avicenna, and to be lesn based upon diEilccticat ^bik'titfi. It was 
trandated into Latiit* and more than once printed^ a% were ^me of 
his lesser works, whkh thus formed a part of the contribution made 
by the Arabians to European mefbcine, HLi friend and pupil 
AvBRKOES of Cordova (ff »)> m well known for his philosophical 
writings, was also an rttithor in medical subjects, and m such widely 
read in Latin, The famoui Rabbi Maimqkides (a.o. tij5-i204> 

S.o.) doses for us the foil of medical writers oi the Arabi.Tn school, 
is work* exist chiefly in the original Arabic or in HeUrew transla- 
tions; only some smalkf ircatijwa have been translated into Lutin, 
so that no deAnite opinion can be fonned ajt to their imxiical value* 
But, so far as i^ knowu, the independent and rational let io soint 
which the two last -named wrire« ^owed in philosophy did not lead 
them to take any origin at point of view in medidncK 

The works of the Airibi^n nu^ical writer* who have now been 
mentioned form a vi-ry small fraction of the t-xl»ting literature. 
Three hundred mculical writers in Aribic art- enumerated by Ferdi- 
nand VVuitenfcld {i8oS-ia'»), and tithcr hi^torbns have enlarfR] the 
list (Hriierl, but only three liave hmn printed in the originaU a 
certam number more 5 re known through old L^tin translations, and 
the great majority still enist in manuBcriptH II ii thus evident that 
the circumstance of having been transbti^J (which may have been 
in some cases almost an accicleni) is what has chiefly determined 
the inftucntc of parlicubr writers en Wt-^tcm m^kine. But it is 
improbable that further reuearrh will alter the general estimate of 
the value of Arabian medicine:. There can be no doubt that it 
was in the main Greek medicine, modiBed to suit other climates, 
habits and national tastes* ami with «ome important additions 
from Oriental sources. The greater patt is taken from Hippocrates, 
Galen, Oioacoridea and tatcr Greek writers. The Latin medical 
writers were necessarily unknown to the Arabs; ar>d this was partly 
the cauif that even in Europe GaWnic medicine auumed such a 
preponcteranee, the methodic school and Cdsus beinj^ forcotten or 
neglected, tn anatomy and phy^olo^ the Arabians distinctly 
went Wck; in surgery they showed no advance upon the Greek»; 
in p.-actic^t medicine nothing new can be traced, eiscept the descrip- 
tion of ccnain di^a«e» (e.f^ amall-pcK and measles) unknown or 
imperfectly known to the Greeks; the only real advance was in 
pharmacy and the thtrapeurical use of drugs. By their rtbtions 
with the farther East, the AraU became acquainted with valuable 
new remedies which have held their ground till modem times; and 
their skill in chemistry enabled them to prepafie new chemical 
remedies, and form many combinations of those already in use. 
They ^mjduced the firat pharmacopoeia, and established the first 
apochccaiica' shops. Many of tbe moca tod maay Ibtmi «f jnedi- 

cines now used, and in fact the general outline of modem pfaarmacv, 
except ao far as modified by modem chemistry, started with toe 
Arabs. Thus does Arabian medicine appear as judged from a 
modem standpoint; but to medieval Europe, when tattle bat a 
tradition remained of the great ancient schools, it was invested with 
a far higher degree of originality and importance. 

It is now necessary to consider what was the state of medicine 
in Europe after the fall of the Western Empire and before the 
influence of Arabian science and literature began to be feh. 
This we may call the pre-Arabian or Salemitan period. 

Medicine in the Early Middle Ages: School 0/ SaUmo.—ln 
medical as in dvil history there is no real break. A continuous 
thread of learning and practice must have connected the lasl 
period of Roman medicine already mentioned with the dawn of 
science in the middle ages. But the intellectual thread is 
naturally traced with greater diffictilty than that which is the 
theme of dvil history; and in periods such as that from the 
5th to the xoth century in Europe it is almost lost. The chief 
homes of medical as of other learning in these disturbed times 
were the monasteries. Though the sdcnce was certainly not 
advanced by their labours, it was saved from total oblivion, and 
many andent medical works were preserved either in Latin or 
vernacular versions. The Anglo-Saxon Lecchdoms ^ of the nth 
century, published in the Rolls series of medieval chronicles 
and memorials, admirably illustrate the mixture of magic and 
superstition with the rdics of andent sdence which constituted 
monastic medicine. Similar works, in Latin or other languages, 
exist in mantiscript in all the great European libraries. It wfs 
among the Benedictines that the monastic study of medicine first 
received a new direction, and aimed at a higher standard. The 
study of Hippocrates, GaJcn, and other dassics was recommended 
by Casslodorus (6th century), and in the original mother-abbey of 
Monte Cassino medicine was studied; but there was not there 
what could be called a medical school; nor had this foimdation 
any connexion (as has been supposed) with the famous school 
of Salerno.* 

The origin of this, the most important source of medical knoir- 
ledge in Europe in the early middle ages, is involved in obscurity. 
It is known that Salerao, a Roman colony, in a situation noted 
in ancient times for its salubrity, was in the 6th century at least 
the seat of a bishopric, and at the end of the 7th century of a 
Benedictine monastery, and that some of the prelates and hi^icr 
clergy were distinguished for learning, and even for medical 
acquirements. But it has by recent researches been deariy 
established that the celebrated Schola sakmitana was a purdy 
secular institution. All that can with certainty be said is that 
a school or collection of schools gradually grew up in which 
espedally medicine, but also, in a subordinate degree, law and 
philosophy were taught. In the 9th century Salemitan physicians 
were already spoken of, and the dty was known as Cinias 
hippocratica. A little later we find great and royal perscmages 
resorting to Salerno for the restoration of their health, among 
whom was William of Normandy, afterwards the Conqueror. 
The number of students of medicine must at one time have been 
considerable, and in a corresponding degree the number of 
teachers. Among the latter many were married, and their wives 
and daughters appear also in the lists of professors. The most 
noted female professor was the cdebrated Trotida in the xxth 
century. The Jewish dement appears to have been important 
among the students, and possibly among the professors. The 
reputation of the school was great till the 12th or 13th century, 
when the introduction of the Arab medicine was gradually fatal 
to it. The foundation of the imiversity of Naples, and the rise 
of Montpellier, also contributed to its decline. 

The teachings of the Salemitan doctors are pretty well known 
through existing works, some of which have only recently been 
discovered and published. The best-known is the rhyming Latin 
poem on health by Joannes de Mcditano, Regimen sanitatis Salemi. 
professedly written lor the use of the " king of England," supposed 
to mean William the Conqueror; it had an immense reputation 
in the middle ages, and was afterwards manytimes printed, and 
translated into most European Unguages. This was a popular 
work intended for the hiity ; but there are others strictly professionaL 

* Derived from the Anglo-Saxon laece, a physictan, and dom, a law. 




Anioag tibe viicen it nmv be mfScieiit to mention htm Garfopontus; 
Cbfdio* irfw wroce the Awatowte porci, a well-known mcdicrval booki 
Jonaan Phteariiu, fint of a family of physicians bearing tht same 
■aoae; whose Fraciica, or medical compendium, wd5 arterwArd» 
■eveial tunes printed; and Trotula, believed to be the wife oi the 
lart-naawd. All of these fall into the fint period befgir the advent 
of Aiabiaa medicine. In the transitbnal period, whi^n the Araban 
school began to influence Eurouan medicine, but before the Salcmi- 
tans vefe superseded, comes Nicolau» Praepositus, who wr^Ec the 
A n lH t tariw m, a collection of formulae for compound medicines, 
which b ecame the standard work on the subject, and th« foundjiion 
of naoy later compilations. An equally {wpular writer was Gillcs 
de Garbeil (Aegidius Corboliensb}. at one time a teacher at Sale; no, 
afcerwafds court physidan to Philip Augustus of France, who com- 
posed several poems in Latin hexameters on medical mibjtzcts. 
Two of then, on the urine and the pulse reflectively, aecaLncd the 
pfifinn of hk'^'t^I classics. 

None of these Salemitan works rise much above the rmk dt 
cnmpilation^ being founded on Hippocrates, Galen and later Greek 
writers, with an unmistakable mixture of the doctrines of the 

But they often show much nractk^l ex|:>eric-iicCi and 

the naturalistic method of the liippocratic schooU The 

1 plan of treatment u dietetic rather than pharmaceulicati 
VxtoA the art of preparing drugs had reached a high degree of 
foinnle iit y at Salerno. Anatomy was as little regarded ss k VAi 
ia the later ancient schooli, the empiric and methodu:, but demon- 
strations of the p^rtfi of the body were given on swine. Althouf^h 
it f»i»iwy be sud that the icience ol tnedkine waji advanced at 
Sslerao, still its decline was irreincd at a time wht-n every other 
faraadi of learning W4$ rapndly UUin^ into decay; and there can be 
nodoabt that the ob4crvatiOTt of p$ti<^nt$ in hofpilalf, and proMbly 
diaical instruction* wf/^ nuidc u^c c4 in karnin^ and teaching. The 
Khool of Salerno thui forms ii b^id^^ between the anCMrnt and the 
oodim medicine, mori: dirtrc though less eonspicuou^ than that 
dreatoits route, through Byiantium, Bagdad and Cordova^ by 
which Hippocrates and Carcn, in Arabian drts», again entered 
Ike European world. Thc^ch the glory of Salerno had departed, 
the Kbooi actually existed till it wa» Anally dissolved by an edict of 
thecnqiexor Napoleon 1. in the y^r i^tt- 

Jnlndmetion of Arabian Medicine: The Sckeioifk Period.^ 

AboQt the middle of the xxth century the Ar&bisui medical 

vriters began to be known by Latin translations in the Weatem 

VDihL Constantinus Africanus, a monk, was the author of 

the eazUcst of such versions (a.d. 1050) ; his labours were direetcd 

duefy to the less important and less bulky Arabian authots^ of 

shorn Haly was the most noted; the real classic? «erc not 

Btrodoccd tUl later. For some time the Salemitun medicine 

Ud its ground, and it was not till the conquest of Toledo by 

' Aipbonso of Castile that any lai:ge number of Western Kholan 

cime in contact witli the learning of the Spanish Moots, and 

Qstematic efforts were made to translate their phtlo^^i^phica] 

ud medical works. Jewish scholars, often under the patronage 

of Christian bishops, were especially active in the work, 1ft 

£ci]y also the Oriental tendencies of Frederick BarbaTo$^ 

and Frederick II. worked in the same direction. Gerard of 

Ciemona, a physician of Toledo (11x4-1187), made transLations, 

it is said by command of Barbarossa, from Avicenna and others. 

It is needless to point out the influence of the crusades in making 

Eistem ideas known in the Western world. The influence of 

Aohian medicine soon began to be felt even in th^ flippocriitic 

dty of Salerno, and in the xjth century is said to have held an 

r?ni balance with the older medicine. After this lime the 

brrign influence predominated; and by the time thai the Aristo- 

t^u dialectic, in the introduction of which the Arabs had so 

htfe a share, prevailed in the schools of Europe, the Arabian 

version of Greek medicine reigned supreme in the meditxil world. 

That this movement coincided with the establishment of $ome of 

[be older European universities is well known. The hi^lnry of 

medicine in the period now opening is closely combmed with the 

history of scholastic philosophy. Both were infected with the 

saoe dialectical subtlety, which was, from the nature of the 

Sbbject. especially injurious to medicine. 

At the same time, through the rise of the universities, medical 
laming was much more widely diffused, and the first definite 
fward movement was seen in the school of MontpclLier, where 
ft Bedical faculty existed early in the 12th century^ tifterw,irds 
touted with faculties of law and philosophy. The medical school 
owed its foundation largely to Jewish teachers, themsclvci 
■*y^1n1 in the Moorish schools of Spain, and imbued^ with the 

intenectud independence of the Averroista. Its rising prosperity 
coincided with the dccJixie of the school of Salcmo. fttontpcliier 
became distinguished for the practical and empirical spirit of 
its medicine, 3S contrasted with (he dogmatfc and schcila^tic 
teaching of Paris and other univct^itles^ In Italy, Bologna 
and Padua were ewllest disiingtiished for medical studies— the 
former preserving m<yrt of the Galenical tradition, the latter 
being more progressive and Avierroist* The northern univer- 
sities conLnbuted lit Lie— the fcpuLafion even of Paris being of 
later growth. 

The supremacy of Arabian medicine lasted till the revival oE 
learning, when the study of the medical dassjcs in tbcir original 
language worked another revolution. The medical writers of 
this period, who chiefly drew from Arabian sources^ have been 
called Arabists (though it is difficult to give any clear meaning 
to this term), and were afterwards known as the neolcrica. 

The medical titeracurc of thU period i^ cxt namely volummqui, 
biit e«Acntully •ccond'handr roasiMio^ mainly of commenurics on 
Hippocmte^T G^ltn, Ayiti^nna and ottiers, ca of c^^mpilationi and 
tempfttdiii fXiW k-st original than cammentariei. Among these may 
be mentioned the CsncUtftior of l^tcr ol Abano ((350-1^)15), the 
At^regnfw oi Jacob dc Dondi (i39»-J-J5o), bcth of the ethuol of 
Pddu:i. and the Pandtclae: mrdkinat cif the Saternitan Matthaeui 
Sylvatkua (d. 1342). a iort of medic j1 filo«ary and dicltorujV' But 
for uft the most intenestine fact ii the firat appearance pf bCnplishmen 
aji authcira. o( medif^l worts hav^ing a European r^pyLat;oii. disp^ 
tingui^hfd, accordinji to the testirtiony of iSflscr, by a practical 
tendency characteristic oE the British race, and fostered in the Khool 
of MompeUier. 

The hnt o\ these worki ii the CffmPcndium mtiuinae, abo called 
Laurta or R&m anttkana. of Gilbert (GiFbertu^ Aniflicut. atpout 
1.^90^, said to eofilain j^cximI obscryationt on kprosiy. A more im- 
ponant work, the Practua st¥ tiiiam nKdiciniie^ of Ikrmard Cordon, 
a Scottiih prolej*or at MontpeliJer (written in the yiair t307), wa* 
more widely sprrad, bejn^ trantlaled into French and Itcbrew, and 

Erin led in «evciaL editions. Of these two physicians the first pro 
ably, the Latter certainly, was educated and praetiited abroad, but 
John Gaddesden ([Jto?-[^6i)i (he nuthor of Rosa anf^lva ifU 
firatiiia nedkinar (between T305 and J^i?)* was a g^faduatc id 
medicine of Mertfln College, UKfonJ, ami toiirt phy&^cian, HU 
compendtum is entirely wanting in originality, and perhaiH uniitualty 
destitute of common sense, but it became so popubr as to be n^ 
printed up to the end of the i6tb century. Works of thii kind 
became still moti: abundant in the uth and in the ^rst h,ill of the 
15th century, till the iKrider distribution of the medical clauica in 
the orig^ina! put them out of fashion. 

In surgery I hit period was far more productive than in medicine, 
eapectally'in Italy and Francei but the limits of our &ubjcct only 
permit us to mention Guljtiniu* dc Salicetoof E^iacen^a (about 127SJ1 
Lanlrancbi of Milan (died about 1 306). the Krtnch »ui%t4r3, Guy de 
Chauliac (about t^^o) and the Lnqtishman, John Ardexn (about 
1350). in anatomy alio the bcf^innint; o( a ne*f epoch was made 
by Mondino dc Liucei or Mundinus (iJ7S"ij2(j)» and his followers. 
The medical wriUngs of ArnalJ dc VUlanova {c. IJ3S"<J13> (if the 
Brtriarium prazikae be rightly ascribed to hiinj rise above the rank 
ofcomptbtiDns^ Finally, m the ijtth and especially the t^th century 
we find, under the name of cunJi'/ta, the nrst mcdiwal report* of 
medical ca&eii which ate prrscrvcsJ iti such a fnrm as to k- intcUigihle. 
CoU«-tiotis of €oniUia wc-rip puhlinhed, among others, by Gen ti lis 
Ful|rineu$ before 134(5^ by Bartnlomco Montafjnaria (d, i*70j, and 
by Ba vcri lis de Baveri;^ of Imola (aliout 1450J. The to&t-iiamed 
contains much that is intemtin|f and readable. 

Pitiad of Ike RePitai of Linrnitft.— The impulse which dl 
departments of intellectual activity received from the revival 
of Greek literature in Europe was felt by medicine emong the 
rest. Not that the spirit of the sciente^ or olits corresponding 
practice, was at once changed. The basis of tnetiicinc through 
the middle ages had been lileraty and dogmatic, and it was 
literary and dogmatic still; but ihe medical literature now 
brought lo light — including as it did the more important work* 
of HipjMcrates and Galen, many of them hitherto unknowi*, 
and in addition the forgotten element of Latin medicine, 
especially the work of Celsus— uas in itself f^r superior to the 
second-hand compilations and incoincct versioiis which had 
formerly been accepted as standards. The classical nt>rks, 
though still teprded with unreasoning reverence, were found 
to have a germinalivc and vivifying poweT that carried the 
mind out of the region of dogma, and pteparol the way for the 
scientific movement isvbich has^ been growing in strength up to 
our own di^. 




Two of the most important results of the revivtl of learning 
were indeed such as are excluded from the scope of this brief 
sketch — namely, the reawakening of anatomy, which to a large 
extent grew out o£ the study of the works of Galen, and the 
investigation of medicinal plants, to which a fresh impulse 
was given by the revival of Dioscorides (a.d. 50) and other 
ancient naturalists. The former brought with it necessarily 
a more accurate conception of physiology, and thus led up 
to the great discovery of Harvey, which was the turning- 
point in modern medicine. The latter gave rise, on the one 
hand, to the modern science of botany, on the other to a more 
rational knowledge of drugs and their uses. At the same time, 
the discovery of America, and increased intercourse with the 
East, by introducing a variety of new plants, greatly accelerated 
the progress both of botany and pharmacology. 

But it was not in these directions that improvement was 
first looked for. It was at first very naturally imagined that 
the simple revival of classical and especially of Greek literature 
would at once produce the same brilliant results in medicine 
as in literature and philosophy. The movement of reform 
started, of necessity, with scholars rather than practising 
physicians — more precisely with a group of learned men, 
whom we may be permitted, for the sake of a name, to call 
the medical humanists, equally enthusiastic in the cause of 
letters and of medicine. From both fields they hoped to expel 
the evils which were summed up in the word barbarism. Nearly 
all medieval medical literature was condenued under this name; 
and for it the humanists proposed to substitute the originals of 
Hippocrates and Galen, thus leading back medicine to its 
fountain-head. Since a knowledge of Greek was still confined 
to a small body of scholars, and a still smaller proportion of 
physicians, the first task was to translate the Greek classics 
into Latin. To this work several learned physicians, chiefly 
Italians, applied themselves with great ardour. Among the 
earliest were Nicolaus Leonicenus of Vicenza (1428-1524), 
Giovanni de Monte or Montanus (1498-1552), and many others 
in Italy. In northern Europe should be mentioned Gulielmus 
Copus (1471-1532) and GUnther of Andcmach (1487-1584), 
better known as Guinterius Andemacensis, both for a time 
professors at Paris; and, among the greatest, Thomas Linacre 
(about 1460-1524; see Linacre). A little later Janus Comarius 
or Hagenbut (1500-1558) and Leonhard Fuchs (1501-1566) in 
Germany, and John Kaye of Caius (1510-1572) in England, 
carried on the work. Symphorien Champier (Champerius 
or Campegius) of Lyons (1472-1539), a contemporary of Rabelais, 
and the patron of Servetus, wrote with fantastic enthusiasm 
on the superiority of the Greek to the Arabian physicians, and 
possibly did something to enlist in the same cause the two 
far greater men just mentioned. Rabelais not only lectured 
on Galen and Hippocrates, but edited some works of the latter, 
and Michael Servetus (1511-1553), in a little tract Syruporum 
universa ratio, defended the practice of Galen as compared 
with that of the Arabians. The great Aldine Press made an 
important contribution to the work, by ediliones principes of 
Hippocrates and Galen in the original. Thus was the campaign 
opened against the medieval and Arabian writers, till finally 
Greek medicine assumed a predominant position, and Galen took 
the place of Avicenna. The result was recorded in a formal 
manner by the Florentine Academy, sometime shortly before 
1535: " Quae, excusso. Arabicae et barbarae servitutis medicae 
jugo, ex professo se Galenicam appellavit et profligato barbaro- 
rum exercitu unum totum et solum Galenum, ut optimum 
artis medicae authorem, in omnibus se sequuturam pollicita 
est." Janus Comarius, from whom this is quoted, laments, 
however, that the Arabians still reigned in most of the schools 
of medicine, and that the Italian and French authors of works 
called Practice were still in high repute. The triumph of Galen- 
ism was therefore not complete by the middle of the i6th century. 
It was probably most so, and eariiest, in the schools of Italy 
and in those of England, where the London College of Physicians 
might be regarded as an offshoot of the Italian schools. Paris 
was the stronghold of conservatism, and Germany was stirred 

by the teachings of one who must be considered apart from all 
schools— Paracelsus. The nature of the struggle between the 
rival systems may be well illustrated by a formidable contro- 
veisy about the rules for bleeding in acute diseasea. This 
operation, according to the Arabian practice, was always 
performed on a vein at a distance, from the organ affect«L 
The Hippocratic and also Galenic rule, to let Mood from, or 
near to, the diseased organ, was revived by Pierre Brissot 
(1470-1522), a professor in the university of Paris. His attempt 
at reform, which was taken to be, as in effect it was, a revolt 
against the authority of the Arabian masters, led to his ezpuiaioii 
from Paris, and the formal prohibition by the parliament of 
his method. Upon this apparently trifling question arose 
a controversy which lasted many years, occupied several uni- 
versities, and led to the interposition of personages no less 
important than the pope and the emperor, but which is thought 
to have largely contributed to the final downfall of the Arabian 

Paracdsus and Chemical Medicine. — Contemporary with 
the school of medical humanists, but little influenced ^ them, 
lived in Germany a man of strange genius, of whose character 
and importance the nu>st opposite opinions have been expressed. 
The first noticeable quality in Paracelsus (c. 149&-1S41) is 
his revolutionary independence of thought, which was supported 
by Jiis immense personal arrogance. Himself well trained 
in the learning and medical adence of the day, be despised 
and trampled upon all traditional and authoriutive teachings. 
He began his lectures at Basel by burning the books of Avicenna 
and others; he afterwards boasted of having read no books 
for ten years; he protested that his shoe-buckles were more 
learned than Galen and Avicenna. On the other hand, he 
spoke with respect of Hippocrates, and wrote a commentary 
on his Aphorisms. In this we see a spirit very different from 
the enthusiasm of the himianists for a purer and nobler philo- 
sophy than the scholastic and Arabian versions of Greek thought. 
There is no record of Paracelsus' knowledge of Greek, and as, 
at least in his student days, the most important works of Greek 
medicine were very imperfectly known, it is probable he had 
little first hand acquaintance with Galen or Hippocrates, while 
his breach with the humanists is the more conspicuous from 
his lecturing and writing chiefly in his native German. 

Having thus made a clean sweep of nearly the whole of 
the dogmatic medicine, what did Paracelsus put in its place? 
Certainly not pure empiricism, or habits of objective observation. 
He had a dogma of his own— one founded, according to his 
German expositors, on the views of the Neoplatonists, of which 
a few disjointed specimens must here suffice. The human body 
was a " microcosm " which corresponded to the " macrocosm," 
and contained in itself all parts of visible nature, — sun, moon, 
stars and the poles of heaven. To know the nature of man 
and how to deal with it, the physician should study, not anatomy, 
which Paracelsus utterly rejected, but all parts of external 
nature. Life was a perpetual germinative process controlled 
by the indwelling spirit or Archeus; and diseases, according 
to the mystical conception of Paracelsus, were not natural 
but spiritual. Nature was sufiident for the cure of most 
diseases; art had only to interfere when the internal physidan, 
the man himself, was tired or incapable. Then some remedy 
had to be introduced which should be antagonistic, not to the 
disease in a physical sense, but to the spiritual seed of the disease. 
These remedies were arcana— 2t, word corresponding partly 
to what we now call spedfic remedies, but implying a mysterious 
connexion between the remedy and the " essence " of the 
disease. .Arcana were often shown to be such by thdr physical 
properties, not only by such as heat, cold, &c, but by fortuitous 
resemblances to certain [>arts of the body; thus arose the famous 
doctrine of "signatures," or signs indicating the virtues and 
uses of natural objects, which was afterwards developed into 
great complexity. Great importance was also attached to 
chemically prepared remedies as containing the essence or 
spiritual quality of the material from which they were derived. 
The actual therapeutical resources of Paracelsus induded a 




Imiye Bumber of meullic prepantions, in the introduction 
of tome of which he did (ood service, and, among vegetable 
p wp ara t ioBs, the tincture of opium, still known by the name 
be ^vc it, laudanum. In this doubtless be derived much 
advaBta^e horn his knowledge of chemistry, though the science 
«as as yet not disentangled from the secret traditwns of alchemy, 
and was often mixed up with imposture. 

; of medicine attach great importance to the 
revok of Faiacebus against the prevailing systems, and trace in 
kii wridogs antictpations of many sdentihc truths of later times. 
That his penooality was influential, and his intrepid oriffinality of 
great value as an example in his own country, is undeniable. As a 
he has been not inaptly compared to Luther. 
at in the universal history of medicine we cannot 
J. The chief immediate result we can trace is the 

I certain mineral remedies, especially antimony, the 

«e of which became a kind of badge of the discif^ of Paracebus. 
The use of these remedies was not. however, necessarily connected 
villi a belief in his system, which seems to have spread little beyond 
bis own country. Of the followers of Paracelsus some became mere 
■ystical qmcks and impostors. Others, of more learning and better 
icputa, were distinguisned from the regular physicians chiefly by 
their oae of chemical remedies. In Prance the introduction of 
s ariawm y gwc rise to a bitter controversy which lasted into the 
I7th oesttury, and led to the expulsion of some men of mark from 
the Paris faculty. In England '* chemical medicine " is first heard 
of B the ran of Elizabetn. and was in like manner contemned and 
aasied by the College of Physicians and the Society of Apothecaries. 
Bst it should be remembered that all the chemical physicians did 
sot caE Panoeisas master. The most notorious of that school in 
Eoilsad, Fiancu Anthony (1550-1623). never quotes Paracelsus. 
apoa Amald de Villanova and Raimon LulL From this 

, it is always possible to trace a school of chemical 

j who, though condemned by the orthodox Galenists, 

i their gro un d, till in the 17th century a successor of Paracelsus 
anseia tbe celebrated J. B. Van HelmonL 

r of Ike Rerifol of Ancient Medicine,— Tht revival 
of Gakoic and Hippocratic medidne, though ultimately it 
mnf e ii t d the greatest benefits on medical sciences, did not 
isaediatcly puroduce any important or salutary reform in 
pactial medidne. The standard of excellence in the andent 
viitcis was indeed fair above the levd of the i6th century; but 
the fatal habit of taking at second hand what should have been 
acqaired by direct observation retarded progress more than the 
poacsskm of better models assisted it, so that the fundamental 
fu^ of medieval sdence remained uncorrected. 

Nevertbelen loaie progress has to be recorded, even if not 
dae directly to the study of andent medidne. In the first 
place the X 5th and i6th centuries were notable for the outbreak 
of certain epidemic diseases, which were unknown to the old 
phjpsiciaiis. Of these the chief was the " sweating sickness " 
or** English sweat," especially prevalent in, though not confined 
to, the cDoitry whence it is luuned. Among many descriptions 
ef this disease, that by John Kaye or Caius, already referred 
ta, was one of the best, and of great importance as showing 
tlttt the works of Galen did not comprise all that could be 
known in medirine The spread of syphilis, a disease equally 
mknown to the andents, and the. failure of Galen's remedies 
to cure it, bad a similar eff ecL 

In another direction the foundations of modem medidne 
ncR being laid during the i6th century— namdy, by the intro- 
^actkm of dinical instruction in hospitals. In this Italy, 
and especially the renowned school of Padua, took the first 
step, where Gsovanni De Monte (Montanus), (1498-1552), 
already mentioned as a humanist, gave clinical Iiectures on the 
patients in- the hospital of St Frands, which may still be read 
with interest. Pupils flocked to him from all European coun- 
txies; Germans are especially mentioned; a Polish student 
Rpofted and puUished some of his lectures; and the English- 
Ban K^ye was a zealous disdple, who does not, however, 
SBBBB to have done an3rthing towards transpbnting this 
method of instruction to his own coimtry. Inspections of 
the dead, to ascertain the nature of the disease, were made, 
though not without difficulty, and thus the modem period 
«f the sdence of morbid anatomy was ushered in. 

MtOcime m Iftr iTtk Century.— Tht medidne of the early 
XTih cemury presents no features to distinguish it from that 
jcvm z 

of the preceding century. The practice and theory of medicine 
were mainly founded upon Hippocrates and Galen, with ever- 
increasing additions from the chemical school. But the develop- 
ment of mathematical and physical science soon introduced 
a fundamental change in the habits of thought with respect 
to medical doarine. 

These discoveries not only weakened or destroyed the respect 
for authority in matters of sdence, but brought about a marked 
tendency to mechanical explanations of life and disease. When 
William Harvey by his discovery of the circulation furnished 
an explanation of many vital processes which was recondlable 
with the ordinary lavrs of mechanics, the efforts of medical 
theorists were naturally directed to bringing all the departments 
of medidne under similar bws. It is often assumed that the 
writings and influence of Bacon did much towards introducing 
a more scientific method into medicine and physiology. But, 
without discussing the general philosophical position or historical 
importance of Bacon, it may safely be said that his direct 
influence can be little traced in medical writings of the first 
half of the 17th century. Harvey, as is well known, spoke 
slightingly of the great chancellor, and it is not till the rapid 
development of physical science in England and Holland in the 
latter part of the century, that we find Baconian principles 
explidtly recogm'zed. 

The dominant factors in the xyth-century medicine were 
the discovery of the drculation by William Harvey (published 
in 1628), the mechanical philosophy of Descartes and the 
contemporary progress of physics, the teaching of Van Helmont 
and the introduction of chemical explanations of morbid pro- 
cesses, and finally, combined of all these, and inspiring them, 
the rise of the spirit of inquiry and innovation, which may be 
called the sdentific movement. Before speaking in detail of 
these, we may note that by other influences quite independent 
of theories, important additions were made to practical medicine. 
The method of clinical instruction in hospitals, commenced 
by the Italians, was introduced into Holland, where it was 
greatly developed, especially at Leiden, in the hands of Francis 
de la Bo€, called Sylvius (1641-1672). It is noteworthy that 
concurrently with the rise of clinical study the works of Hippo- 
crates were more and more valued, while Galen began to sink 
into the background. 

At the same time the discovery of new diseases, unknown 
to the andents, and the keener attention which the great 
epidemics of plague caused to be paid to those already known, 
led to more minute study of the natural history of disease. 
The most important disease hitherto imdcscribed was rickets, 
first made known by Arnold de Boot, a Frisian who practised 
in Ireland, in 1649, and afterwards more fully in the celebrated 
work of Francis Glisson (1597-1677) in 1651. The plague 
was carefully studied by Isbrand de Diemerbrock, in his De 
Peste (1646), and others. Nathaniel Hodges of London (1629- 
x688) in 1665 seems to have been the first who had the courage 
to make a post mortem inspection of a plague patient. Chris- 
topher Bennet (161 7-1655) wrote an important work on con- 
simiption in 1654. During the same period many new remedies 
were introduced, the most important being dnchona-bark, 
brought to Spain in the year 1640. The progress of pharmacy 
was shown by the publication of Dispensatories or Fharma- 
copoeiae— such as that of the Royal (Allege of Physidans of 
London in 1618. This, like the earlier German works of the 
same kind (on which it was partly founded), contains both 
the traditional (Galenical) and the modem or chemical remedies. 

Van Hdmont. — ^The medicine of the 17th century was especially 
distinguished by the rise of sytems; and we must first speak of an 
eccentric genius who endeavoured to construct a system for himself, 
as original and opposed to tradition as that of Paracelsus. J. B. 
Van Helmont (1578-1644) was a man of noble family in Brussels, 
who, after mastering all other branches of learning as then under- 
stood, devoted himself with enthusiasm to medidne and chemistry. 
By education and position a little out of the regular lines of the 
profession, he took up in medicine an independent attitude. Well ac- 
quainted with the doctrines of Galen, he rejected them as thoroughly 
as Paracelsus did, and borrowed from the latter some definite ideas 
as well as hb revolutionary spirit. Tbe archeus of Paracelsus 




appean again, but with still further compUcattont--the whole body 
bein^ controlted by the archeus influus, and the organ of the soul 
and Its various parts by the arcket ituiti, which are subject to the 
central archeus. Many of the symptoms of diseases were caused 
by the passions and perturbations of the archeus, and medicines 
acted by modifying the ideas of the same archeus. These and other 
notions cannot be here sutcd at sufficient length to be intelligible. 
It is enough to say that on this fantastic basis Helmont constructed 
a medical system which had some practical merits, that his thera- 

Eeutical methods were mild and in many respects happy, and that 
e did service by applying newer chemical methods to the prepara- 
tion of drugs. He thus had some share, though a share not generally 
recognized, in the foundation of the tatro-cnemical school, now to 
be spoken of. But his avowed followers formed a small and dis- 
credited sect, which, in England at least, can be clearly traced in 
the btter part of the century. 

|. Diuovery of the Circulation of the Blood. — The influence of Harvey's 
discovery began to be felt before the middle of the century. Its 
merits were recognized by Descartes, among the first, nine years 
after its publication. For the history of the discovery, and its 
a>nsequences in anatomy and physiology, we must refer to the article 
Harvey. In respect of practical medicine, much less effect was at 
first noticeable. But this example, combined with the Cartesian 
principles, set many active and ingenious spirits to work to recon- 
struct the whole of medicine on a physiological or even a mechanical 
basis — to endeavour to form what we should now call physiological 
or scientific medicine. The result of this was not to eliminate dogma 
from medicine, though it weakened the authority of the old dogma. 
The movement led rather to the formation of schools or systems 
of thought, which under various names lasted on into the i8th 
century, while the belief in the utility or necessity of schools and 
systems lasted much longer. The most important of these were 
the so-called iatro-physical m' mechanical and the iatro-chemicat 

lolfif-Pkysi^iii Schoal,-^Thc: ij.ira-phy^Ci:il schocil of medkinr 
erew out of phy^iulogical the^riffl. In founder ii ht\d la have been 
G. A. QomU (160^1679)^ wtioac treatise De motu aKimaiiitmy 
publijhi?d la 16^4 ii regarded a» marking an epoch in phy^ioEo^y. 
The tendency of the ichgal was 10 ex pb in the actiuiu and tunf liont 
of the body on phy^aln and especially on mKhanical, principles. 
The movcmenta of bones and muH:l» were referred to the theory 
of Jcvcrst the proce^ oS digestion wai ri^afded as esacntially a 
process of triiurjtioa; nutrition ^nd seeretian were shown to be 
dependent upufl the tension of the vesscU, and so forth. The 
develop nient-» of this school beEong rather to the history of phyMology, 
where they apptfi^r, seen in the hght of modeni bcicnee, as excellent 
though prematufe endcavoLirs in a scientific direction. But the 
influence of thts* theories on practical tnedidne was not gtc^l. 
The moTt j^diciotis of the mKhnnieai or phyai^al school refrained, 
ai a judicioLia modem physiologist does, imm loo immediate 
an applies tiDQ of their principles to daily praclice^ Mechanical 
thcones vfvn introduced into pathology, in ex pb nation ol the 
processes of fever and the like, but had link or no infliuence on 
therapeutics. The mo*E important men in thi» schwl after BoreUi 
were Nicclius Sfen-^n (5tejio)» (ifejI-rSSb), Giorgio B^^Uvj (1669- 
1707) and Ljirren^o [Wlj[m (1643-1704). An English nhysicu^n, WiiliAm 
Cole (.i635-i7i(>), is also usually ranked with ifujm* One of the 
moit ebtiomte developments of the e>'5tctn was that of Arxrhibald 
Fitcairne (1652-1713), a Scoui*h phystddD wlio became professor 
at Leiden, to be spoken of hereafter. 

lairo-CktmUiii 5rA*flrf,— The so<alted iatrr^heidical ichtxA ttocd 
in a much closer rcbt ion to pfactical n^idne than the i^iro- 
phyiural. The principle which mainly distinguished it wm* not 
tnerely the use of chemical medicines in addition to the traditiorkal, 
or, as they were called in distinciiODi " Galenical '* rtmcdin^ bat 
a theory of ptithology or causa iii>D of discaje entirti^ly different from 
the prevailiniE '* humoral " patholoinr'. lis chief aim was to reconcile 
the new viewi in physioloKy and coemlsiTy *ith practkal medicine, 
jfi some theoretical vic*s, and in the use of cenain tv medics, the 
school owed something to Van Helmont and PiracvUns. but rtMlc 
in the main an independent posidon. The founder of the iatro- 
chemical school was S>lvius {ibi^-idiTi}, who belon^td to a French 
family settled in flalland, and was for fourteen years professor of 
medicine at Leiden, wher* he attracted ttudenis from all quarters 
ef Eufupe. He made a resolute attempt to reconstruct medicine 
on the t«H> bases of the doctrine of the circulation of the biood and 
the new views of chemistry. Fermentation, which waa supposed 
to take place in the itomach, played an important part in the vital 

SrfKcsses. Chemical dlst urba ncea of t hcse pnscesscs , called airuHiirs . 
t-i were the cause of fcvTn and oihvr diseases, Somcttfrncs acid 

IDmctimCS alkaline prnf^rtiL-^ firL-L.nnrnUH in thi' LiSM-^* and 

srcfetions of the botk . ' ' ''.inces. 

In nervous dist-ases d. . moat 

important. Still in some parts of his system Sylvius shows an 
anxiety to base his pathology on anatomical changes. The remedies 
he employed were partly galenical, partly chemical He was very 
moderate in the use of bleeding. 

The doctrines of Sylvius be:amc widely spread in Holland and 
Germany: less so in France and Italy. In England they were not 

generally accepted till adopted with some inodi6catioos by Thomas 
Willis the great anatomist (1621-1675), who is the chief English 
representative of the chemical school. Willis was as thorough-going 
a chemist as Sylvius. He regarded all bodies, organic and inorganic, 
as composed of the three elements — spirit, sulphur and salt, the 
first being only found abundantly in animal bodies. The " intestine 
movement of particles " in every body, or fermentation, was the 
explanation of many of the processes of life and disease. The sen> 
sible properties and physical alterations of animal fluids and solids 
depended upon different proportions, movements and combinations 
of these particles. The elaborate work Pharnuueulice ralionalit 
(1674), based on these materials, had much influence in iu time, 
though it was soon forgotten. But some parts of WiUi**» wafVsL, 
such as his de^riptions of ncTvwis dueiscs, and his account 
Uhe earliest? of diabeie^ are cla^ical cofltribMtions to scienli^ 
medicine. In the application of chemislry to the examination (4 
secretions WiHis made same inif;)ortan^ *ieps. The chemical school 
met with violent oppo&ition^ P^i^ly from Hie adheitfnts of ihc ancient 
medicine^ pariEy from the at ro^ mechanical uhoo] To Hoards ihe 
end of the 17th century appeared an En^liih medical reformer who 
sided with none of the«>e ichook, but rnay be said in tome respects 
to \\iivc surpassed and dispen^d with I hem. 

Sydi^nkum and LM-tr.— Thomas Sydenham ([6;4-i6S9} wai 
educated at Oxford <3nd at Montpelller. He was well atauaintedl 
with the works of the ancient physicians, and probably fairly so 
with chemistry. Of hii knowledge of anatomy nothing definite 
can be said, as he seldom refers to it. Hi* main avowed^ pfinciplc 
was to do without hypothesis, and study the attual di^ea^fs in an 
unbiassed manner As his model in mmical methodA, Syilenhjim 
repeatedly arid pointedly relera to Hlppocr^les^ and he has n>Oi 
unfairly been called the English Hippwrtiies. He re^mbled hU 
Greek master tn the hi^h value he set on the tiudy of the " oalural 
history of disease "\ in the importance he attached to '* epidemic 
canititution ''-^that is, to the inHnence of weather and other natunl 
causes in modifying disease; and further in his conception of th^ 
heading poxLicr of nature in disease^ a doctrine which he even 
expanded beyond the teaching of Hippocrates. According to Syden- 
ham, a dtM^ase is nothing more than an effort of tvature to nestorv 
the health of the patient by the climinaLion of the morbific matter. 
The extent to which his practice was inHuenced by this and other 
a priori conceptions prevents us from classing Sydenkim as a pure 
empiric; but he had the rajre merit of never permitting himjidf to be 
en>s.iaved even by his own theories. Still less was his mind warped 
by either of the two crcat ey stems, the classiLdl and the chemical, 
which then divided tne medicil world. S)^dcn ham's influence on 
Europe-in medicine was very p-eat. His principles were wetcorrted. 
as a TL'E . ■ : -[■•'• M . - ■ h tl-. ■ ■- v:\ v.w r ,■ V. , I - ■ ■ . ■■! t !-■■ ■■■-■r^\r:,'\ -V, pi: V- 

He introduced a milder and better way of treating fevers— especially 
»[m\ll|' ..:, ' , nfic medicines — 

csptcii.illy Jv■flJ^'<,Lf^ ^j,j1v. ilv ^.1^ JiJ j.j^uH.,iik ^ bleeding, and 
often carried it to et,cc**. Another important point in Sydenham's 
dciclrine is bia clear recOfljniiii>n of many di^ea^-* as mnng what 
would be now callcrl ip^ajift and not due raerL'ly to an alteratioa 
in the primary (jualiiic» or humours of the older schools. From 
tht* spnngs hi* hish appfiKtition of specific medicines. 

One name ehouTd always be mentioned along with Sydenham— 
that ol his friend John Locke. The great senutional philosopher 
was a thoroughly traiticd physiciann and practised privately. He 
sfiared and dvf ended many of Sydeiiham'a prlncipEc^, and in the few 
me^lical obscrvariLm.), he has left ihows himacli to be even more 
thorou^h-EoinB fhan the ** English Hippocrates/* It is deeply to 
be regretted in the interests of medicine that he did not write more, 
ft is, hotvever, n;asona ble to suppose that his commanding intellect 
often makes itself felt in the words of Sydenham, One sentence 
of Locke's, in a tetter to William Molvneux, sumj up the practical 
side of !^ydcnham's teaching: — 

" You Ginnot imagine how far a little observation carefully made 
by a nun not lied up to the four humours fGaleni, or sal, sulphur 
and mercury fParaceUusl, or to acid and alcaii [Sylvius and Willis) 
which hat of late prx'vailcd, wid carry a man in the curing of diseases 
though very stubborn and dangerous; and that with very little and 
common things, and almost no medicine at all/' 

We thus see that, wiiile the ^rcat anatomists, physicists and 
chcmLsts — men of the ty|*e of Willis, Bonulli and Boyle^were laying 
found itions which were later on built up into the labric of scientific 
mcniicine, little good wa* done by the premature application of their 
half understood prifldule* to practice. The reform of practical 
medicine was effiaried by men who aimed at, and paKly succeeded 
in, reicciing all hypothesis and feturning to the unbiassed study of 
natural proccsst-s, as shown in health and diseajie. 

Sydenham showed that these prt)a»ses might be profitably studied 
and dealt with without explaining them; and. by turning men's 
minds away from exobnation* and^ fixing them on facts, he enriched 
medicine with a mrtkad more fruitful than any discoveries in detail 
from this lime forth the reign of canonical authority in medicim 
wai at an cndr though the dogmatic spirit long eurvived. 

The i8th Century.— The medicine of the i8tb century is 
notable, like that of the latter port of the lyih, for the strisrinf 




after complete theoretical lystemt. Tlic influence of the 

latfx>-f»iiy»cal school was by no means exhausted; and in 

Rngfaiad, especially through the indirect influence of Sir Isaac 

Newton's (1642-1717) great astronomical generalizations, it 

took 00 «. mathematical aspect, and is sometimes known as 

iatiD-mathematicaL This phase is most dearly developed in 

AirhibaM Fitcainie (1652-17 13), who, though a determined 

opponent of meta[Aysical explanations, and of the chemical 

dortrinfm, gave to his own rude mechanical explanations of life 

and disease almost the dogmatic completeness of a theological 

system. His countryman and pupil, George Cheyne (1671- 

i74j)» who lived some years at Bath, published a new theory of 

fevers on the mechanic^ system, which had a great reputation. 

Their English contemporaries and successors, John Frcind, 

William Cole, and Richard Mead, leaned also to mechanical 

explanations, but with a distrust of systematic theoretical 

compleCeneas, which was perhaps partly a national characteristic, 

pertly the result <d the teaching of Sydenham and Locke. 

Freind (1675-1728) in his Emmenologia gave a mechanical 

cxplanatioa oi the [Aenomena of menstruation. He is also 

one of the most distinguished writers on the history of medicine. 

Cole (1635-1716) (see above) published mechaniad hypotheses 

conoeming the causation of fevers which closely agree with those 

of the Italian iatro-mechanical schooL More distinguished 

ia his own day than any of these was Mead (1673-1754), one 

of the most accomplished and socially successful physicians 

of iDodem times. Mead was the pupil of the equally popular 

acd successful John Radcliffe (1650-1714), who had acqtiired 

fnxB Sydenham a contempt for book-learning, and belonged 

to DO school in medicine but the school of common sense. Rad- 

difie left, however, no work requiring mention in a history of 

Bfdirinr. Mead, a man of great learning and intelleaual 

aoirity, was an ardent advocate of the mathematical doctrines. 

" It is very evident," he says, " that all other means of improving 

■Hrrinr have been found ineffectual, by the stand it was 

at for two thousand years, and that, since mathematicians 

have set themselves to the study of it, men already begin to 

talk so intelligibly and comprehensibly, even about abstruse 

Bitters, that it is to be hoped that mathematical learning 

wiB be the distinguishing mark of a physician and a quack." 

His If ccAdnicu/ Account of Poisons, in the first edition (1702), 

pn an explanation of the effects of poisons, as actingf'only 

•a the bkiod. Afterwards he modified his hypothesis, and 

Rferrcd the disturbances produced to the " nervous liquor," 

viucfa he supposed to be a quantity of the " universal clastic 

■alter " diffused through the universe, by which Newton 

opIaiDed the phenomena of light — i.e. what was afterwards 

ailed the luminiferous ether. Mead's treatise on Tke Paveer 

tftke Sun and Moon over Human Bodirs (1704), equally inspired 

ij Newton*s discoveries, was a premature attempt to assign 

the influence of atmospheric pressure and other cosmicol causes 

ID producing disease. His works contain, however, many 

ori^nal experiments, and excellent practical observations. 

Janes Keill (1673-1719) applied Newtonian and mechanical 

pcindples to the explanation of bodily functions with still 

peater accuracy and completeness; but his researches have more 

"T**MT""^» for physiology than for practical medicine. 

Boerhaau. — None of these men founded a school— a result due 
is part to their intellectual character, in part to the absence in 
En^Und of medical schools equivalent in position and importance 
to the univerHties of the Continent. An important academical 
pQKtkxi was. on the other hand, one of the reasons why a physician 
bx very different in his way of thinking from the English physicians 
of the aj^e of (^ueen Anne was able to take a far more predominant 
pnitMM in the medical world. Hermann Boerhaave (1668-1738) 
VIS emphatically a fcreat teacher. He was for many years profei>sor 
H nedicnse at Leiden, where he lectured five hours a day, and 
eKxiled in influence and reputation not only his greatest fore- 
naexn, Montanus of Padua and Sylvius of Leiden, but probablv 
tvay subsequent teacher. The hcwpital of Leiden, though with 
ordy twelve beds available for teaching, became the centre of 

As the ormniser, and almost the constructor, of the modem method 
of clinical instruction, the services of Boerhaave to the progreis of 
medkine were immense, and can hardly be overrated. In his teach- 
ing, as in his practice, he avowedly fullowed the method of Hippo- 
crates and Sydenham, both of whom he enthusiastically admired. 
In his medical doctrines ho must be pronounced an eclectic, though 
taking his stand mainly on the iatro-mechanical schooL The be^- 
known parU of Boerhaavc's system are his doctrines of inflamma- 
tion, obstruction and " pkrthora. ' By the last named especially 
he was k>ng remembered. Hb object was to make all the anatomical 
and physiok)]pcal acquisitions of his age, even microscopical ana- 


and founded the noted Vienna school of medicine. 

tomy. which he diligently studied, available for use in the practice 
of medicine. He thus differed from Sydenham, who took almost 
as little account of modern science as of ancient dognuu Boerhaave 
may be in some respects compared to Galen, but again differed 
from him in that he always abstained from attempting to reduce 
his knowledge to a uniform and coherent system. Boerhaave 
attached great importance to the study of the medical classka. 
but rather treated them historically than quoted them as canonical 
authorities. It almost follows from the nature of the case that the 
great task of Boerhaavc's life, a synthesis of ancient and modem 
medicine, and the work in whkh this is chiefly conuined, his 
celebrated InstUuiions, could not have any great permanent value. 
Nearly the same thing is true c\cn of the Aphorisms, in which, 
followmg the example of Hippocrates, he endeavoured to sum up 
the results of his k>ng experience. 

Hoffmann and Siakl.—We have now to speak of two writers in 
whom the systematic tendencv of the i8th century showed itself 
most completely. 

Fricdrich Hoffmann (1660-1742), like Boerhaave. owed his 
influence, and perhaps partly his intellectual characteristics, to 
his academical position. He was in 1693 apiwinted the first pro- 
fessor of medicine in the university of Halle, then iust founded by 
the elector Frederick III. Here he became, as did his contemporary 
and rival Stahl. a popular and influential teacher, though their 
university had not the European importance of Leiden. Hoffmann's 
" system " was apparently intended to reconcile the opposing 
" spiritual " and materialistic " views of nature, and is thoueht 
to nave been much influenced by the philosophy of Leibnitx. His 
medical theories rest upon a complete theory of the universe. Life 
depended upon a universally diffused ether, which animals breathe 
in from the atmosphere, and which is contained in all parts of the 
body. It accumulates in the brain, and there generates the " nervous 
fluid " or pncuma — a theory closely resembling that of Mead on the 
" nervous liquor," unless indeed .Mead borrowed it from Hoffmann. 
On this system are explained all the phenomena of life and disease. 
Health depends on the maintenance of a proper " tone " in the 
tiody — *oine diseases being produced by excess of tone, or " spasm "; 
Qthcrs by "' atony," or want of tone. But it is impossible here to 
fallow ita further developments. Independently of his system, 
whiirh h^ lang ceased to exert any influence, Hoflmann made some 
contnbutJon^ to practical medicine; and his great knowledge of 
chemwiO' (lubletl him to investigate the subject of mineral waters., 
tk wa-^ ^^inally skilful in pharmacy, but lowered his position by 
the prncuirr. which would be unpardonable in a modem physician, 
r,{ tr-.tT,. L:;-.- in secret remedies. 

George Earnest Stahl (1O60-17.VI) was for more than twenty 
years professor of medicine at Hallc. and thu.« a colleague of Hon- 
mann, whom he resembled in constructing a complete theoretical 
system, though their systems had liiile or nothing in common. 
Stahl's chief aim was to oppose materialism. For mechanical 
conceptions he substituted the theory of "animism " — attributing 
to the soul the functions of ordinary animal life in man, while the 
life of other cneatua^ was k-ft to mechanical laws. The symptoms 
of disease were explained as efforts of the soul to rid itself from 
morbid influences, the soul acting reasonably with respect to the 
end of self-preservation. The anima thus corresponds partly to 
the " nature " of Sydenham, while in other respects it resembles 
the archcus of Van Hclmont. Animism in its completeness met 
with little acceptance dunng the lifetime of itji author, but influ- 
enced some of the iatro-physical school. Stahl was the author of 
the theory of " phlogiston ' in cheinistr>% which in its day had 
great importance. 

Halter and Morgagni. — From the subtleties of rival systems it is 
a satisfaction to turn to two movements in the medicine of the 
1 8th century which, though they did not extinguish the spirit of 
system-making, opened up paths of investigation by which the 
systems were ultimately suixrsedwl. These are physiology in the 
modern sense, as dating from ilaller, and pathological anatomy, 
as dating from Morgagni. 

Albrecht von Ilaller (1708-1777) was a man of e\'en more encyclo- 
paedic attainments than Boerhaave. He advanced chemistry, 
botany, anatomy, as well as phyHiology, and was incessantly 
occupied in endeavouring to apply nis scientific studies to practical 
mc(licine. thus continuing the work of his great teacher Boerhaave. 
Besides all this he was probably more profoundly acquainted with 
the literature and bibli<>praphy of medicine than any one iK'fore 
or since. Ilaller occupied in the new university of Gottingcn 
(founded 1737) a position corresponding to that of Boerhaave at 
Leiden, and in like manner influenced a very brgc circle q( ^\x\^ 




The appreciation of his work in physiology belongs to the history 
of that science; we are only concerned here with its influence on 
medicine. Haller's definition of irriubility as a property of muscular 
tissue, and iu distinction from sensibility as a property of nerves, 
struck at the root of the prevailing hypothesis respecting animal 
activity. It was no longo- necenary to suppose that a half- 
conadouB "anima" was directing every movement. Moreover, 
Haller's views did not rest on a priori speculation, but on numerous 
experiments. He was among the first to investigate the action of 
niMlicines on healthy persons. Unfortunately the lesson which 
his contemporaries learnt was not the imporunce of experiment, 
but only the need of contrivine ether " systems " less open to objec- 
tion; and thus the influence of Haller led directly to the theoretical 
subtleties of \^illiam Cullen and John Brown, and only indirectly 
and later on to the general anatomy of M. F. X. Bichat. The great 
name of Haller does not therefore occupy .a very prominent ^ace 
in the history of practical medicine. 

The work ot Giovanni Ujtti^tj. Mor^aKm ( 169 7- 1 771) had artd 
still preserv'ta a permanent irnportoncc cjcyond that oi all xhe 
contemparLry Uicnriatii. In a leries q( IptterSr J^f stdihiu tl tauiii 
morborufn ptr anaioiiKn indagaiiiy pubLi&hed vhtn he was Jit his 
eightkth year, be describes tiije apptaranm met ^ith at the posi 
mortcrti e^trtminadoa as well zm the ^inptomB during Life in a 
numtier ot owes cf vuknit diaosc^ It waa not the first work pf 
the kirtd* The Swiss phytician, ThfaphUff Bonet (L630-i6l9t)) 
had published hi*. Stfimnlmm in t^T^; jirid Db^efvaiioni of pott 
mi^rteiTi appcafmncci bad been made by Alonunus, P. Tulp, 
RajTHond Vieufwnt, A^M, VaJlsalva, G, M. Landsi^ Haller »nd 
others. But fi^tr before *is so b/gu a colleciion of cases broug^ht 
together, described with such Accuracy, vf illustrated with equal 
anatomical and jnediral knowIedlKc. Morsagni'ji work at once 
made an epoch in the icienc^. Slorbid itiitomy now bccainc a 
ix-cogniied branch of medical rusoarch^ aad the xnovtmtRt was 
started which has lasted till our own day. 

The contribution of Morgai^ni to medical science must be regarded 
as ID some rftjiiects the counterpart of Sydenham's. The latter 
had. in i3i.irh\ r iny anjitoniy, ncjiiected the most solid baEd» Jor 

Bti3il;-ii' ii'- rj !■■ !.r. .i .:: -L';; though perhaps it vu less 

froii' ' i, ^ ■ L.e, ai he was not attached to a 

liospital, gave him no opportunities. But it is on the combination of 
the two methods — that of Sydenham and of Morgagni — that modem 
medicine rests; and it is through these that it has been able to make 
steady progress in its own field, independently of the advance of 
physiology or other sciences. ^ .^ ^ 

The method of Morgagni found many imitators, both in his own 
oountrv and in others. In England the first imporunt name in 
this field is at the same time that of the first writer of a systematic 
work in any language on morbid anatomy, Matthew Baillie (1761- 
1823). a nephew of John and William Hunter, who published his 
treatise in 1705. 

CuUen and Brown. — It remains to speak of two systematic 
writers on medicine in the i8th century, whose great reputation 
|>revents them from being passed over, though their real contribu- 
tion to the progress of medicine was not great — Cullen and Brown. 

William CulTcn (1710-ijQo) was a most eminent and popular 
professor of medicine at Edinburgh. The same academical influ- 
ences as mrrounded the Dutch and German founders of systems 
were doubtless partly concerned in leading him to form the plan 
of a comprehensive system of medicine. Cullen's system was 
largely based on the new physiological doctrine of irritability, but 
is especially noticeable for the importance attached to nervous 
action. Thus even gout was regarded as a *' neurosis." These 
pathological principles of CuUen are contained in his First Lines oj 
the Practice of Physic^ an extremely popular book, often reprinted 
and translated. More importance is to be attached to his Nosology 
or Classificalion of Diseases. The attempt to classify diseases on 
a natural-history plan was not new, having been commenced by 
Sauvages and others, and is perhaps not a task of the highest 
importance. CuUen drew out a classification of great and needless 
complexity, the chief part of which is now forgotten, but several 
of his main divisions are still preserved. 

It is difficult to form a clear estimate of the importance of the 
last systcmatizer of medicine — John Brown (1735-1788) — for, though 
in England he has been but little regarded, the wide though short- 
lived popularity of his system on the Continent shows that it must 
have contained some elements of brilliancy, if not originality. 
His theory of medicine professed to explain the processes of life 
and disease, and the methods of cure, upon one simple principle — 
4hat of the property of *' excitability, in virtue of which the 
" exciting powers," defined as being (S) external forces and (2) the 
functions of the system itself, call forth the vital phenomena " sense, 
motion, mental function and passion." All exciting powers are 
stimulant, the apparent debilitating or sedative effect of some 
being due to a aeficiencv in the degree of stimulus; so that the 
final conclusion is that the whole phenomena of life, health as 
well as disease, consist in stimulus and nothing else." Brown 
reco^ized some diseases as sthenic, others as asthenic, the latter 
■requirine stimulating treatment, the former the reverse; but his 
practical conclusion was that 97% of all diseases required a " stimu- 
UxxDg '* treatment. In this he claimed to have made the most 

salutary reform became all * physiciaiia fnmi Hippocrates had 
treated diseases by depletion and debiliuting measurea with the 
object of cudog by elimination. It would be tmprafiuble to 
attempt a complete analysis of the Brunonian system; and it is 
difficult now to understand why it attracted so much attention in 
its day. To us at the present time it seems merely a dialectical 
construction, having its beginning and end in definitions: the wonb 
power, stimulus, &c, being used in such a way as not to co r re ap o n d 
to any precise physical conoepdons, still less to definite nAterial 
objects or forces. One recommendation of the system was that 
it favoured a milder system of treatment than was at that time in 
vogue; Brown may be said to have been the first advocate of the 
modem stimulant or feeding treatment of fevers. He advocated 
the use of *' animal soups " or beef-tea. Further, he had the 
disoemment to see that certain symptoms— such as convulsioos 
and delirium, which were then commonly held always to indicate 
inflammation — were often really signs of weakness. 

The fortunes of Brown's system (called, from having been origitt- 
ally written in Latin, the Brunonian) form orie of the straageat 
chapters in the history of medicine. In Scotland, Brown ao Car 
won the sympathy of the students that riotous tonflicu took pboe 
between his partisans and opponents. In England his s^rtcm 
took little root. In Italy, on the other hand, it received enthusiastic 
support, and, naturally, a corresponding degree of oppositioii. 
The most important adherent to BroWn^ system was 1. Rasori 
(1763-1837), who taught it as professor at Favia, but afterwards 
substituted his own system of contra-stimulus. The theoretical 
differences between this and the " stimuli^s '* theory need not be 
expounded. The practical difference in the corresponding treat- 
ment was very great, as Rasori advocated a copious use of Ueedioff 
and of depressing remedies, such as antimony. Joseph FranK 
(1774-1841), a German professor at Pavia, afterwards of Vienna, 
the author of an encyclopaedic work on medicine now fotgot t cn, 
embraced the Brunonian system, though he afterwards introduced 
some modificationsj and transplanted it to Vienna. Many names 
are quoted as partisans or opponents of the Brunonian system in 
Italy, but scarcely one of them has any other daim to be rtiufi - 
bered. In Germany the new system called forth, a little latec« 
no less enthusiasm and oontroverual heat. C. Girtanner (1760- 
1800) first began to spread the new ideas (though giving tnem 
out as his own), but Weikard was the first avowed advocate of 
the system. Rtechlaub (i 768-1 835) modified Brown's system into 
the theory of excitement (Erreguntstheorie), which for a time was 
extremely popular in (Germany. The enthusiasm of the younger 
Brunonians in Germanjr was as great as in Edinburgh or in Italy, 
and led to serious riots in the umversity of GOttingen. In America 
the system was enthusikstically adopted by a noted physician. 
Benjamin Rush (1745-1813}, of Philadelphia, who was followed 
by a considerable school. France was not more influenced by the 

new school than Ei 
positive science am 

neland. In both countries the tendency towards 
nd progress by objective investigation was too 
marked for any theoretical system to have noore than a passtng 
influence. In France, however, the influence of Brown's tneories 
is very clearly seen in the writings of Francois J. V. Brousaais, 
who, though not rightly classed with the system-makers, since his 
conclusions were partly based upon anatomical investi^tion* 
resembled them in tiis attempt to unite theory and practice tn one 
comprehensive synthesis. The explanation oil the meteoric nkfl- 
dour of the Brunonian system in other countries seems to be a* 
follows. In Italy the period of intellectual decadence had set in, 
and no serious scientific ardour remained to withstand the novdtics 
of abstract theory. In (Germany the case was somewhat different. 
Intellectual activity was not wanting, but the great achievements 
of the 1 8th century in philosophy and the moral sciences had 
fostered a love of abstract speculation; and some sort of *'^*wqiral 
or general system was thought indispensable in every department 
of special science. Hence another generation had to pass away 
before Germany found herself on the level, in scientific investigatioi^ 
of France and England. 

Before the theoretic tendency of the i8th century was quite 
exhausted, it displayed itself in a system which, though in some 
respects isolated in the histoiy of medicine, stands nearest to that 
of Brown — ^that, namely, of Hahnemann (see Homobopatht). 
S. C. F. Hahnemann (i 753-1 844) was in conception as revolutionary 
a reformer of medicine as Paracelsus. He professed to base c " ' 

entirely on a knowledge of symptoms, re^rding all investigation 
of the causes of symptoms as useless. While thus rejecting all the 
lessons of morbid anatomy and pathology, he put lorward views 
respecting the causes of dis^^e which hardly bear to be seriouriy 
stated. All chronic maladies result either from three di seases 
psora (the itch), syphilis or sycosis (a skin disease), or else ace 
maladies produced by medicines. Seven-eighths of all chronic 
diseases are produced by itch driven inwards.^ (It is fair to say 
that these views were published in- oiie of his later works.) In 
treatment of disease Hahnemann rejected entirely the notion of 
a vis medicalrix naturae, and was guided by his well-known principle 

* The itch (scabies) is really an affection produced by the |l 

in the skin of a species of mite (Acarus scabiei), and when this is 
destroyed or removed the disease is at an end. 




''aimSta sinMlifHia rurafltur," vrhidi lie €£pl&in«i u depeadkFiE on 

tl^ la« tbiil m ordcf to |Ft rid ol i disease some remedy muiEt L>i; 

pvt^ -mhicb should Eutntitute fi>r the dixa^c an aclion dyrumicatly 

mmSUt bdt vntAkcr. The original rn;iLiidy brin^ tliu» ^m rid q(, 

ttc vidll fofCt «^uld easily be able to cape with ^nd extiaifuiib 

Ifat ii||btiEf dt^urbance caused by the remedy. SomethinR very 

imihf v&i hdd by Srown, who tiucht that " indirect debility ' 

vom JO be Cured by a I^^ct degree ai the lafne Atimulus as had 

t^Bfld tbc ririfinAl dialurbance. GcncraUy^ however, Hahnemann's 

tfMitrajdici ibov of Brovn* cJhhieIi moving flocneirhac in the 

pUor. Jq order to tdcet panBoies whkh should fulhl the 

&! pfodm-iflff »yinpffflii» Itkc tho*e ol the dL^eaw. Hahne- 

Ee irany ohscrvitioii* oC the action of drugs on heaUtiy 

He did not on|i(iai:e this line of rcMSfth, (or it hii4 been 

FifFi-'- it not onEimfcd*, by H4ileT, and cultivaitetd ty^tematicaLty 

Vf TftwiiM»ai. an Italian '^' comra-$ticnLili»t. "; but nc carmtj U 

isi vitlt pmcb eUbor^tJon. Ht» re»ulu> neverthel£». were vitlaied 

bw bcBBf obtai/ied in the intereac of a theory, and by fJnguUr w;irtt 

J dktnnunatJDiv liv hi> ««Ofid pciiod h* developed tile iheory 

d " potMitiality " oc dyiumfatioo — liamtly. that meditin» paintd 

is Aftitgt^ by being diluted, if the dilutiofi was accompanied by 

lh4.lun£ crt" pDiii]dini£« which w^* iupjpOKd La '* pctenEialize " or 

iStrca* ih€ potency of the medicine. On thiji principle t'l.ihficmann 

BrtcT^ hta orufinal tincturta lo be nxluccd in strength to one- 

ifdcth; ttttnt^ iTm dilutii^msafcain to one-hfti<rih; and w on, 4:vcn 

til iM ihrnicth dilottcin, which he him^']f used b^ preferences and 

Dfrvtdch be *imbcd the highest " poutitiality/' From a. theorcLical 

pane i3( v'l^w Hah mr man n't ii one o1 the abstract ijyiiems+ pretend- 

■C to tiiiL^^r^lity, which modem medicine neither accept 5 nor 

fad^il wdTih while to controvert, tn the treatment of dijrcaie hii 

poetical ioDOvations came at a fortunate time, when the excesses 

«f the depftetoiy system had only partially been superseded by the 

cmulf iajorious opposite extreme of Brown's stimulant treatment. 

luaeaaan'a u»e of mild and often quite inert remedies contrasted 

fnwobly. with both of these. Further, he did good by insisting 

BVn wnpicsty in prescribing, when it was the custom to give a 

■nfarr oi drugs, often beterofl;encous and inconsistent, in the same 

pRscription. But these indirect benefits were quite independent 

of tketrath or Cakity of hb theocetical system. 

Ptsiiite Progress im ike tStk Century.— In looking back on 
tk repeated attempu in the i8th century to construct a uni- 
veml syatcn of medicine, it is impossible not to regret the waste 
tf bcSiaiit gjfts and profound acquirements which they involved. 
It WM fofttinate, however, that the accumulation of positive 
kBOwkdfe in medicine did not cease. While Germany and 
Scotland, as the chief homes of abstract speculation, gave 
both to most of the theories, progress in objective science 
vas most marked in other countries — ^in Italy first, and after- 
Kaids in England and France. We must retrace our steps a 
little to cnuxnerate several distinguished names which, from the 
uainxt of the case, hardly admit of classification. 

In Italy the tradition of the great anatomists and physiolo- 
gists of the 17th century produced a series of accurate observers 
aad practitioners. Among the first of these were Antonio 
Maria Valsalva (1666-17 23), still better known as an anatomist; 
Cioranni Maria Landsi (1654-1720), also an anatomist, the 
a^kor of a classical work on the diseases of the heart and 
aneurisms; and Ippolito Francisco Albertini (1662-1738), 
arkoae researches on the same class of diseases were no less 

la France, Jean Baptiste S^nac (1693-1770) wrote also an 
iaportant work on the affections of the heart. Sauvages, 
•iherwae F. B. de Lacroiz (i 706-1 767), gave, under the title 
lf«$tlapa wtetkodUa, a natural-history classification of diseases; 
Jean Astruc (1684-1766) contributed to the knowledge of 
fracraJ dffr»fM But the state of medicine in that country 
til the end of the 18th century was unsatisfactory as compared 
mth some other parts of Europe. 

In England the brilliancy of the early part of the century 
in prKtical medicine was hardly maintained to the end, and 
pRMnted, Indeed, a certain contrast with the remarkable and 
■■•"gging progress of surgery in- the same period. The roll 
•f the College of Physicians does not furnish many distinguished 
BSBcs. Among these should be mentioned John Fothergill 
(2712-1780), who investigated the " putrid sore throat " 
Hw caUed diphtheria, and the form of neuralgia popularly 
known as tic douloureux. A physician of Plymouth, John 
Bvham (1694-1768), made researches on epidemic fevers, 
a the spirit of Sydenham and Hippocrates, which are of the 

highest importance. William Heberden (1710-1801), a London 
physician, called by Samuel Johnson ultimus Rvmanorum, 
** the last of our learned physicians," left a rich legacy of practical 
observations in the Commenkiries published after his death. 
More imporunt in their resulu than any of these works were 
the discoveries of EowAROjENNEi(f. 9.) , respecting the preven- 
tion of snuill-poz by vaccination, in which he superseded the 
partially useful but dangerous practice of inoculation, which 
had been introduced into Englanc* in 1721. The history of 
this discovery need not be told here, but it nuiy be pointed out 
that, apart from its practical imporUnce, it has had great 
influence on the scientific study of infectious diseases. The name 
of John Pringle (1707-1782) should also be mentioned as one of 
the first to study epidemics of fevers occurring in prisons and 
camps. His work, entitled Observations on the Diseases of am 
Army, was translated into many European languages and 
became the standard authority on the subject. 

In Germany the only important school of practical medicine was 
that of Vienna, as revived by Ckrard van Swieten (1700-1772), 
a pupil of Boerhaave, under the patronage of Maria Theresa. 
Van Swieten 's cominentaries on the aphorisms of Boerhaave are 
thought more valuable than the original text. Other eminent 
names of the same school are Anton de Ha£n (1704-1776), 
Anton Stdvck (1731-1803), Maximilian Stoll (1742-1788), and 
John Peter Frank (i 745-1821), father of Joseph Frank, before 
mentioned as an adherent of the Brownian system, and like 
his son carried away for a time by the new doctrines. This, 
the old " Vienna School," was not distinguished for any notable 
discoveries, but for success in clinical teaching, and for its 
sound method of studying the actual facts of disease during 
life and after death, which largely contributed to the establish- 
ment of the " positive medicine " of the 19th century. 

One novelty, however, of the first importance is due to a 
Vienna physician of the period, Leopold Auenbrugger (1722- 
1809), the inventor of the method of recognizing diseases of 
the chest by percussion. Auenbrugger's method was that 
of direct percussion with the tips of the fingers, not that which 
is now used, of mediate percussion with the intervention of a 
finger or plessimcter; but the results of his method were the 
same and its value nearly as great. Auenbrugger's great 
work, the Inventum novum, was published in 1761. The new 
practice was received at first with contempt and even ridicule, 
and afterwards by Stoll and Peter Frank with only grudging 
approval. It did not receive due recognition till 1808, when 
J. N. Corvisart translated the Inventum novum into French, 
and Auenbrugger's method rapidly attained a European repu- 
tation. Surpassed, but not eclipsed, by the still more important 
art of auscultation introduced by R. T. H. Laennec, it is hardly 
too much to say that this simple and purely mechanical invention 
has had more influence on the development of modem medicine 
than all the " systems " evolved by the most brilliant intellects 
of the i8th century. 

Rise of the Positive School in Prance. — The reform of medicine 
in France must be dated from the great intellectual awakening 
caused by the Revolution, but more definitely starts with the 
researches in anatomy and physiology of Marie Francois Xavier 
Bichat (1771-1802). The importance in science of Bichat's 
classical works, especially of the Anatomic ginirale, cannot be 
estimated here; we can only point out their value as supplying 
a new basis for pathology or the science of disease. Among 
the most ardent of his followers was Francois Joseph Victor 
Broussais (177 2-1838), whose theoretical views, partly founded 
on those of Brown and partly on the so-called vitalist school 
of Th6ophile Bordeu (1722-1776) and Paul Joseph Barthez 
( 1 734-1806), differed from these essentially in being avowedly 
based on anatomical observations. Broussab's chief aim was 
to find an anatomical basis for all diseases, but he b especially 
known for hb attempt to explain all /evers as a consequence 
of irritation or inflammation of the intestinal canal (gastro- 
em^rite). A number of other maladies, especially general 
diseases and those commonly regarded as nervous, were attri- 
buted to the same cause. It would be impossible now to trace 




the steps which led to this wild and iBfUg rince exploded theory. 
It led, among other consequences, to an enormous misuse of 
bleeding. Leeches were his favourite instruments, and so much 
so that be is said to have used 100,000 in his own hospital 
wards during one year. He was equalled if not surp^sed 
in this excess by his follower Jean BouiUaud (1796-1881), known 
for his important work on heart diseases. Broussais's S3rstem, 
to which he gave the name of " Midedne physiologique," 
did much indirect good, in fixing attention upon morbid changes 
in the organs, and thus led to the rise of the strongly opposed 
anatomical and pathological school of Corvisart, Laennec 
and Bayle. 

Jean Nicolas Corvisart (1755-1821) has already been mentionad 
as ibk translator and introducer into France of Auenbrugger's work 
on percussion. He introduced some improvements in the method, 
but the only real advance was the introduction of mediate percus- 
sion by Piore Adolphe Piorry (i 794-1879) in 1828. The discovery 
had, nowever, yet to be completed by that of auscultation, or 
Uttttmng to feQundfr produced In tbc ^h^ by breathing, the move- 
tattiti ol the heart, &c. The combination q\ ih^^: rK-th<>d« con- 
ttituteji what ia now known n pkyjuiat diag,ni?st^. Kenc Tti^ophllp 
Hyacinth^ Laennec (17^1-18^^^ w^u the inventor of this mo^t 
IntpDirtant pcfhap^ of all methodj o\ medkal research. Ex»pt for 
•ome tricing nances of u>und!9 heard in certain dt^eajies^ this method 
wat entirely (Ww. It was definitely expounded in an almost 
compute lorm m hU work De Vausatitaiion mMioit, pubiish^d in 
18 1 Q. LacnnCT attajehcd undue importance ta the ii«e of the 
stethoscDpe. and Uid too much weij^ht on specific »i£ni of apoci/ic 
dueatcsi, mherwbe hi^ method m iiA nmt\ features hai itmaintd 
uncbanKcd. The r«yH ol hi* discovery wai ah entire revalue ion 
ill the knowledge d dL$eiUiei of thv chc^t; but it would be a mistake 
to torget thai «n essentuxL Cactor in ibis revolution wa.> the »mul- 
Utwout study of the cofidttion of the disea^ ^^^m u tccn after 
death. Without the litter, it h di^{;ult to *e* how the inlormation 
cmivey^ by wund> could ever have beeu verified. This increaic 
ot knowledge it Therefore due. not to auscultation alone, but to 
auKultdtion contbJFied with morbid anatomv. In the case of 
Laennec himself thi* qualiAcatiun talcus noihing from his fame, 
for he «cudied 10 minutely the rebliom of post-mortem appearances 
to symptoms during life thm^ hid he not discovered auscultation. 
His mcdfrchcs in morbid anatomy w«juld have made him famous. 
The pBihologico- anatomical method was also followed with great 
«al and tucccs« by Gatipard Laurent Bayle (1774-1816). whose 
researches on tubercle, and the change? of the lungs and other organs 
in coniumption, arc the found^iion of most that has been done 
sinrr Hi- rimr. Ir «-h* f<-\ mur*-- ,in>ecedent to the discovery of 
auscultation. Starting from these men arose a school of physicians 
who endeavoured to give to the study of symptoms the same pre- 
cision as belonged to anatomical observations, and by the combina- 
tion of both methods made a new era in clinical meaicine. Among 
these were Auguste Francois Chomel (1788-1858). Picne Charles 
Alexandre Louis (1787-1872), Jean Cruveilhier (1791-1874) and 
Gabriel Andral (1797-1876). Louis, by his researches on pulmo- 
nary consumption and typhoid fever, had the chief merit of refuting 
the doctrines of Broussais. In another respect also he aided in 
establishing an exact science of medicine by the introduction of 
the numencal or statistical method. By this method only can the 
fallacies which are attendant on drawing conclusions from isolated 
cases be avoided; and thus the chief objection which has been 
made to regarding medicine as an inductive science has been re- 
moved. Louis's method was improved and systematized by 
Loub Denis Jules Gavarret (1809-1890): and its utility is now 
universally recognized. During this brilliant period of French 
medicine the superiority of the school of Paris could hardly be 
contested. We can only mention the names of Pierre Bretonneau 

i 1771-1863), Louis L^n Rostan (1790-1866). Jean Louis D'Alibert 
1766-1837), Pierre Francois Olive Rayer (1793-1867) and Armand 
'rousaeau (1801-1866), the eloquent and popular teacher. 

English Medicine from 1800 to 1840. — The progress of medicine 
in England during this period displays the same characteristics 
as at other times, viz. a gradual and uninterrupted development, 
without sUrtUng changes such as are caused by the sudden 
rise or fall of a new school. Hardly any theoretical system is 
of English birth; Erasmus Darwin (i 731-1803), the grand- 
father of the great Charles Darwin, alone makes an exception. 
In his Zoonomia (1794) he expounded a theory of Ufe and 
disease which had some resemblance to that of Brown, though 
arrived at (he says) by a different chain of reasoning. 
\ Darwin's work shows, however, the tendency to connect 
medicine with physical science, which was an immediate con- 
sequence of the scientific discoveries of the end of the i8th 
centtiry, when Priestley and Cavendish in England exercised 

the same influence as Lavoisier in France. The Eogliah school 
of medicine was also profoundly stirred by the tfarhings of 
the two brothers William and John Hunter, eqiedaUy the 
latter — who must therefore be briefly mentioiMd, tbou^ 
their own researches were chiefly concerned with subjects 
lying a little outside the limits of this sketch. Wiiliam Hunt« 
(17 18-1783) was known in London as a brilliant teacher of 
anatomy and successful obstetric physician; his younger brother 
and pupil, John Hunter (i 728-1793), was also a teacher of 
anatomy, and practised as a surgeon. His immense contribii- 
tiohs to anatomy and pathology cannot be estimated hen^ 
but his services in stimulating research and training invati> 
gators belong to the history of general medidne. They ait 
sufficiently evidenced by the fact that Edward Jenner mmA 
Matthew BaiUie were his pupils. 

The same scientific bent is seen in the greater attentioa 
paid to morbid anatomy (which dates from Baillie) and tht 
more scientific method of studying diseases. An instanos 
of the latter is the work of Robert Willan (1757-18x2) on diieaaci 
of the skin — a department of medicine in which liMtxact aad 
hypothetical views had been especially injurious. WiUan^ 
by foUowing the natural-history method of Sydenham, at 
once put the study on a sound basis; and his work has beta 
the starting-point of the most important modem researdicib 
About the same time William Charles Wells (1757-1817). a 
scientific investigator of remarkable power, and the author 
of a celebrated essay on dew, published observations on altera- 
tions in the urine, which, though little noticed at the 
were of great value as assisting in the important discovery 
some years afterwards by Richard Bright. 

These observers, and others who cannot be mentioned hocv 
belong to the period wtien EnglJih medicine wa^ stiU Uitle 
Infliiienced by ihc French iichooL Shortly after 1815^ howev^^ 
when the con tine n I of Europe wu again open to Engibh travd* 
lers, many English doctors studied in Paris, and the discovetia 
of Lhelr great French contemporaries began to be known. 
The method of aiucultation was won introdticed into England 
by pupils of Laeimtc. John Forbes {1787-1861) m 18^4, 
VViUlam Stohts (i&a4-t87S) of Dublin in 18 is, published 
treatises on the use of the ^tirthoscope, Forbes also translated 
the works of Laennec and Auenbruggtr, and an entire revolutioa 
was soon effected in the knowledge of diseases of the chest. 
Jamei Hope (1801-1841) and Peter Mere Latham (178^1875) 
further developed this subject, and the former was also knows 
for his researches in morbid anatomy. The combination of 
etjnjcal and anatonucal research led, a^ in the hands of the 
great French physicians, to impnrlant disfoveries by Engtiifc 
invesiigators- The discovery by Richard Bright (1780-1 8 58I 
of the di^eue of the kidneys known by his name provett 10 bt 
otie ol the most momentous of the century. It vras pubiljihed 
in ReporU of Medical Cases iiif-lSji. Thomas Addiiwn {ilf^^ , 
1S60) Laku, somtwhjt later, a scarcely inferior place. The 
remarkable physiological dl^covf^rics of Sir Charles Bell (1771- 
184 j) and Marshall Hail {i7g<3-jSs7) for the first time rendered 
possible the dijacntnLnation of di^ases of the spinal coid 
Several of these physician* were also eminent for their diak^ 
teaching— an art in which Englishmen had up till then beea 
greatly deficient. 

Ahhongli many name* of scarcely less note miirht be mentionei 
Among the London ph>$ician$ of the early part of iht centufy. ve 
must pjH them over tu consider the progr^^ of medicine in ScotUnd 
And treUnd, Jn Edinburgh the adimir^bk leaching of Culkn had. 
raiwd the medic;il faculty to a h*j|ht of pr&jfjcritv of which his 
iuccessor. JjTnct Grcgofy ( 175^-1 fji), *as nut unwortf>y. Nil 
nrphcw, Willum Puttency Alc^n (l7^)0^[S^e>), ^vai even md« 
widely known. Thw* freat teacher^ mainljimed in the northnv 
univeriity a continuoui tradition of succ(M4fu] teathing, ^fikh th« 
difference in ac^idemical and other rirtumiiances r^rdcrHJ liirdly 
po&sible in London. Nor was th^^ nonhern KhocI warning in ipecid 
invrstieator^. *uch as John Abercromblt fi 780-1 844 K \nown fqf 
hi« work on diKa^u of the bnin and spinal cord, published in iftilt 
and many others- Tornine to Tnelandn it ihouldf be laid that tl« 
Dyblin school in I hi* periiM_pfoduafd two physiciani of tht hieHgl 
distinct 100 Robcn James Grave* (17Q6-i85J) wai a moat eitioiciit 
^ teacher and obaerver, who«e tecturet ara r^arded «• 

and '^- 




dfancal teachinf. and indeed lerved as such to tbe most 
tmcher of the niris school in the middle of this century, 
u William Stdces (1804-1878) was especially known for 
on diaeaaea of the chest and of the heart, and for his 

t Mtikinefrom tSoo to 1840. — Of the other countries 
V it is now only necessary to mention Germany. Here 
home of positive medicine was still for a long time 
rhere the " new Vienna school " continued and sur- 
* glory of the old. Joseph Skoda (1805-1881) extended, 
oae respects corrected, the art of auscultation as left 
MC Karl Rokitansky (1804-1878), by his colossal 
laced the science of morbid anatomy on a permanent 
I enriched it by numerous discoveries of detaiL Most 
lent cultivators of this science in Gcmany in the next 
I were his pupils. In the other German schools, 
ae great names might be found, as Morits Heinrich 
(1795-1873), the founder of the modem era in the 
nervoos diseases, the general spirit was scholastic 
esult barren till the teaching of one man, whom the 
lerman physicians generally regard as the regenerator 
ic medicine in their country, made itself felt. Johann 
iSnkin (1793-1864) was first professor at WUrzburg, 
i at Ztirich, and for twenty years at Berlin (from 
t). Sch6nlein's positive contributions to medical 
ere not large; but he made in 1839 one discovery, 
f small, but in reality most suggestive, namely, 
mitagious disease of the head called favus is produced 
owth in the hair of a parasitic fungus. In this may 
be germ of the startling modem discoveries in parasitic 

His systematic doctrines founded the so-called 

history school *' ; but his real merit was that of the 
r introducer of a method. In the words of H. Hftser: 
a has the incontesuble merit of having been the first 
ih in Germany the exact method of the French and 
(h, and to impregnate this method with the vivifying 
Icrman research." (J. F. P.) 

Progress. — In recent times the positive bent of modem 
i and methods in other spheres of science and thought, 
iaUy in biology, has influenced medicine profoundly. 
ccuracy of observation was inculcated by the labours 
ling of the great anatomists of the 17th century; 
oodem times, experimental physiology was instituted 
y, anatomy having done little to interpret life in its 
ispects. For medicine in England Harvey did what 
Gilbert did for physics and Robert Boyle for chemistry: 
d upon direct interrogation of natural processes, 
iby annihilated the ascendancy of mere authority, 
hile nations were in the making, was an essential 
a the welding together of heterogeneous and turbulent 
The degradation of medicine between Galen and 
i in part it consisted in the blind following of the 
of the former physician, was primarily due to other 
id its new development was not due to the discovery 
perimental method alone: social and political causes 
oocemed in the advance even of the exact sciences. 
ch contributory causes is the more familiar intercourse 

nations which we enjoy in our own day; the ideas 
tion rapidly permeate neighbouring nations, and by 
\ of printed books penetrate into remoter provinces 
iistant lands. Hence the description of the advance 
le in western Europe and America may for the latest 
.aken as a whole, without that separate treatment, 

nation, which in the history of eariier times was 

Italy lost the leading place she had taken in the 

opment of science. The several influences of modern 

France and America became of the first importance 
I medicine; but these tides, instead of pursuing their 

independent streams, have become confluent. The 
leodor Schwann (1810-1882), Johannes MUlIer (1809- 
idolph Virchow and Karl Ludwig (1816-1895) in 
of R. T. H. Laennec and Qaude Bernard in France, 
ted in England, at that of Matthew Baillie, Charles 

Bell. Bright, Graves and othen of the British school, quickly 
made itself felt abroad. 

The character of modem medidne cannot he summed in 
a word, as, with more or less aptness, that of some previous 
periods may be. Modem m«lidne, like modem ggfgf§, 
science, is as boldly speculative as it has been in anmui 
any age, and yet it is as observant as in any natural f****^ _ 
istic period; its success lies in the addition to these '*"V*'mA 
qualities of the method of verification; the fault of previous 
times being not the activity of the q>eculative faculty, without 
which no science can be fertile, but the kuJi of methodical 
reference of all and sundry propositions, and parts of |Moposi- 
tions, to the test of experiment. In no department is the 
experimental method more continually justified than in that 
of the natural history of disease, which at first sight would 
seem to have a certain independence of it and a somewhat exclu- 
sive value of its own. Hippocrates had no opportunity of 
verification by necropsy, and Sydenham ignored pathology; 
yet the clinical features of many but recently described diseases, 
such, for example, as that named after Grkves, and m3rxoedema, 
both associated with perversions of the thyroid gland, lay 
as open to the eye of physicians in the past as to our own. 
Again, to the naturalist the symptoms of tabes dorsalis were 
distinctive enough, bad he noted them. No aid to the trained 
eye was necessary for such observations, and for many other 
sqch; yet, if we take Sir Thomas Watson (X793-X883) as a 
modem Sydenham, we may find in his lectures no suspicion 
that there may be a palsy of muscular co-ordination apart from 
deprivation of strength. Indeed, it does not seem to have 
occurred to any one to compare the muscular strength in the 
various kinds of paraplegia. Thus it was, partly because 
the habit of acceptance of authority, waning but far from 
extirpated, dictated to the clinical observer what he should 
see; partly because the eye of the clinical observer lacked that 
special training which the habit and influence of experimental 
verification alone can give, that physicians, even acute and 
practised physicians, failed to see many and many a sympto- 
matic series which went through iu evolutions conspicuously 
enough, and needed for its appreciation no unknown aids 
or methods of research, nor any further advances of patho- 
logy. We see now that the practice of the experimental method 
endows with a new vision both the experimenter himself and, 
through his influence, those who are associated with him in 
medical science, even if these be not themselves actually 
engaged in experiment; a new discipline is imposed upon old 
faculties, as is seen as well in other sdences as in those 
on which medicine more directly depends. And it is not 
only the perceptions of eye or ear which tell, but also the 
association of concepts behind these adits of tbe mind. It 
was the concepts derived from the experimental methods of 
Harvey, Lavoisier, Liebig, Claude Bernard, Kelmholtz, Darwin, 
Pasteur, Lister and others which, directly or indirectly, trained 
the eyes of clinicians to observe more closely and accurately; 
and not of clinicians only, but also of pathologists, such a% 
Matthew Baillie, Craveilhier, RokiUnsky, Bright, Virchow— 
to name but a few of those who, with (as must be admitted) 
new facilities for necropsies, began to pile upon us discoveries 
in morbid anatomy and histology. If at first in the 1 8th century, 
and in the earlier 19th, the discoveries in this branch of medical 
knowledge had a certain isolation, due perhaps to the pre- 
possessions of the school of Sydenham, they soon became the 
property of the physician, and were brought into co-ordination 
with the clinical phenomena of disease. The great Morgagni, 
the founder of morbid anatomy, himself set the example of 
carrying on this study parallel with clinical observation; and 
always insisted that the clinical story of the case should be 
brought side by side with the revelations of the necropsy. In 
pathology, indeed, Virchow's (1 821-1902) influence in the 
transfiguration of this branch of science may almost be compared 
to that of Darwin and Pasteur in their respective domains. 
In the last quarter of the 19th century the conception grew 
clearer that n^rbid anatomy for the most part demonstrates 




disease in its static aspects only, and also for the most part 
in the particular aspect of final demolition; and it became 
manifest as pathology and clinical medicine became more and 
more thoroughly integrated, that the processes which initiate 
and are concerned in this dissolution were not revealed by the 

Again, the physician as naturalist, though stimulated by 
the pathologist to delineate disease in iu fuller manifestations, 
yet was hampered in a measure by the didactic method of 
constructing " types " which should command the attention 
of the disciple and rivet themselves on his memory; thus too 
often those incipient and transitory phases which initiate the 
paths of dissolution were missed. Not only so, but the physician, 
thus fasdnated by " types," and impressed by the silent monu- 
mentsof the pathological museum, was led to localize disease too 
much, to isolate the acts of nature, and to forget not only the 
continuity of the phaste which lead up to the ezemphiry forms, 
or link them together, but to forget also that even between 
the types themselves relations of affinity must exist — and these 
oftentimes none the less intimate for apparent diversities of 
form, for types of widely different form may be, and indeed 
often are, more closely allied than types which have more 
superficial resemblance — and to forget, moreover, how largely 
negative is the process of abstraction, by which types are 
imagined. Upon this too static a view, both of clinical type 
and of post-mortem-room pathology, came a despairing spirit, 
almost of fatalism, which in the contemplation of organic ruins 
lost the hope of cure of organic diseases. So prognosis became 
pessimistic, and the therapeutics of the abler men negative, 
until fresh hopes arose of stemming the tides of evil at their 
earliest flow. 

Such was medicine, statically ordered in pathology, sutically 
ordered in its clinical concepts, when, on the 24th of November 
1859, the Origin of Species was published. It is no 
exaggeration to say that this epoch-making work 
brought to birth a world of conceptions as new as 
the work of Copernicus. For the natural philosopher the whole 
point of view of things was changed; in biology not only had the 
anthropocentric point of view been banished, but the andent 
concept of perpetual flux was brought home to ordinary men, and 
entered for good into the framework of thought. The study 
of comparative pathology, yet in an inchoate stage, and of 
embryology, illuminated and enlarged biological conceptions, 
both normal and abnormal; and the ens reale subsisUns in corpcre 
disappeared for ever — at any rate from physiology and medidne. 
Before Darwin — ^if the name of Darwin may be used to signify 
the transformation of thought of which he was the chief artificer 
— natural objects were regarded, not in medicine and pathology 
only, as a set of hidebound events; and natural operations as 
moving in fixed grooves, after a fashion which it is now difficult 
fpr us (o realize. With the melting of the ice the more daring 
spirits dashed into the new current with such ardour that for 
them all traditions, all institutions, were thrown into hotchpot; 
even elderly and sober physidans took enough of the infection to 
liberate thdr minds, and, in the field of the several diseases and 
in that of post-mortem pathology, the hollownessof classification 
by superfidal resemblance, the transitoriness of forms, and the 
flow of processes, broke upon the view. Thus it came about 
not only that classifications of disease based on superficial like- 
ness — such as jaundice, dropsy, inflammation — were broken up, 
and their parts redistributed, but also that even more set dis- 
eases began to lose their settlements, and were recognized as 
terms of series, as transitory or cxdminatiLg phases of perturba- 
tions which might be traced to their origins, and in their earlier 
stages perhaps withstood. 

The doctrine of heredity in disease thus took a larger aspect; 
the view of morbid series was no longer bounded even by the 
life of the individual; and the propagation of taints, and of mor- 
bid varieties of man, from generation to generation proved to be 
no mere repetition of fixed features but, even more frequently, 
to be modes of development or of dissolution betraying them- 
selves often in widdy diaamilar forms, in series often eitcnding 

over many lives, the terms of which at first sight had 
wholly disparate. Thus, for example, as generations succeed 
one another, nervous disorders appear in various guise; cpi]epqr» 
megrim, insanity, asthma, hysteria, neurasthenia, a motkj 
array at first sight, seemed to reveal themsdves as terms of 
a morbid series; not only so, but certain disorders of otbcs 
sjrsteros also might be members of the series, such as certate 
diseases of the skin, and even peculiar su8ceptU>ilities or immaai- 
ties in respect of infections from without. On the other handt 
not a few disorders proved to be alien to classes to whidi nar> 
rower views of causation had referred them; of such are tabci 
dorsalis, neuritis, infantile palsy or tetanus, now removed fraoi 
the category of primary nervous diseases and placed in one or 
other of the class of infections; or, conversely, certain forms of 
disease of the joinU are now regarded with some certainty at 
members of more than one series of diseases chiefly i««t»tf*^ jm 
the nervous S3rstem. In the effects of simpler poisons the ieoaf» 
nilion of unity in diversity, as in the aflUiation of a peripheiil 
neuritis to arsenic, illustrated more definitely this serial or 
etiological method of dassifying diseases. On the other liaBi^ 
inheritance was dismissed, or survived only as a " 
bility," in the cases of tubercle, leprosy and some other 
now recognized as infectious; while in others, as in qrphiBit It 
was seen to consist in a translation of the infectious doBtat 
from parent to offspring. These new conceptions of the uraltik 
plidty in unity of disease, and of the fluidity and continuity cf 
morbid processes, might have led to vagueness and over-I 
in speciilation and reconstruction, had not the 
method been at hand with dues and tests for the several seriSi 
Of this method the rise and wonderful extension of the sdcnosflf 
bacteriology also furnished no inconsiderable part. 

In the disease of the scalp called favus, Schdnldn had dil> 
covered a minute mycelial fungus; a remarkable disooveiy, far 
it was the first conspicuous step in the attribution _ , ^ 
of diseases to the action of minute parasites. Schdn- iHSr^ 
lein thus did something to introduce new and positive 
conceptions and exacter methods into Germany; but 
nately his own mind retained the abstract habit of his 
and his abilities were dissipated in the mere speculations 
Schelling. Similarly Karl Hoffmann of Wtirzburg wasted Hi i 
appreciations of the newer schools of developmental biology li ^ 
fandful notions of human diseases ar reversions to nonnal 
of lower animals; scrofuU being for him a reversion to the 
rickets to the mollusc, epilepsy to the osdllaria, and so 
Even that distinguished physiologist Johannes MttUer 
a staunch vitalist. Fortunately Germany, which at the 
ning of the century was delivered over to Brownism and 
and was deaf to Bichat, was rescued from this sort of 
by the brilliant experimental work of Claude Bernard and ftt* 
teur in France — work which, as regards the attenuated idraL| 
was a development of that of Edward Jenner, and indeed dK| 
Schwann, Robert Koch worthily following Pasteur with his 1 
on the bacillus of anthrax and with his discovery of that of tn 
culosis; and by the cellular doctrine and abundant labovn^} 
pathology of Virchow. Ludwig Brieger then discovered tiff 
toxins of certain infections; and Emil A. von Behring < 
the ^here of the new study by his discovery of the antitOBMl 
diphtheria and tetanus. In practical medidne the sul 
results of Behring and his followers have in diphtheria atti 
a signal therapeutical success. If the striking conceptions 4 
Paul Ehrlich and Emil Fischer continue to im>ve as fertile \ 
inspiring and directing research as at present they seem to I 
another wide sphere of conceptions will be opened out, 1 
bacteriology only, but also in biological chemistry ai 
molecular physics. Again, besides giving us the due I 
nature of many diseases and to the continuity of many 1 
series, by bacteriology certain diseases, such as acti 
have been recognized for the first time. 

As the prevalence of the conceptions signified and ] 
by the word " phlogiston " kept alive ontological not 
disease, so the dissipation of viulistic conceptions in the i 
of physics prepared men's minds in patholosy for the 






views opened by the discoveries of Pasteur on the side 
of pathogeny, and of j. F. Cohnhcim (1839-1884) and of 
Iliya Metchnikoff on the dynamical side of his- 
JUJj^JJ^Jf tology. Of the older ontological notions of disease 
g^Mfc ^^ strongest were those of the essence of fever and 
of the essence of inflammation. Broussais had done 
much to destroy the notion of fever as an entity, but by extrava- 
gances in other directions he had discredited the value of his 
ouia propositions. Yet, although, as Andral and other French 
physicians proved, it was extravagant to say that all fevers 
take their origin from some local inflammation, it was true and 
Bost useful to insist, as Broussais vehemently insisted, that 
" fever " is no substance, but a generalization drawn from sym- 
ptoms comnum to many and various diseases springing from many 
rarious and often local causes; from causes agreeing perhaps 
only in the factor of elevation of the temperature of the body. 
To the establishment of this new conception the improvement 
and general use of the clinical thermometer gave invaluable ad- 
vaatagea. This instrument, now indispensable in our daily work 
It the bedside, had indeed long been known both to physiolo- 
psts (Haller) and to clinicians. In the i8th century A. de HaSn, 
and, in the United Kingdom, George Cleghom (i 716-1789) of 
Dublin and James Currie (1756-1805), carried on the use of the 
tbcmometcr in fevers; and on the continent of Europe in later 
yean F. G. F. von Barensprung (1823-1865) and Ludwig Traube 
(iSLft-x376) did the same ser\'ice; but it is to the work of Karl 
Amnst Wunderlich (iSi 5-1877) that we owe the esUblishmcnt 
of this means of precision as a method of regular observation 
both in pathology and in clinical medicine. By his almost 
ahauuive comparison of febrile movements as symptomatic 
processes Wunderlich dealt the last blow to the expiring doctrine 
of the "entity" of " fever "; while on the clinical side Breton- 
neau and Louis, in 1862-1873, by their careful clinical and patho- 
kpcal studies of forms of fever, relieved the new doctrine 
of the extravagances of Broussais, and prepared the way for 
llie important distinction of enteric from typhus fever by 
A. P. Stewart (1813-1883), William Jenner, William Budd 
(iaci-i83o), Charles Murchison (1830-1879), J. H. F. 
Ajtecricth (1772-1835). Heinrich Gustav Magnus (1802-1870), 
Hma and others. By the learned and acco^npliahed Armand 
Trousseau British and German influences were carried into 

Meanwhile Cohnhcim and Metchnikoff were engaged in 
■lesiroying the ontological conception not of fever ^nly, but also 
of isSammation. of which, as a local event, an ontological con- 
cqMFon was no less strongly implanted. By his researches on 
Che Bugration of the white corpuscles of the blood Cohnheim, 
oe the bases laid by Virchow, brought the processes of inflam- 
catkMi «>-i:hin the scope of the normal, seeing in them but a modi- 
iotioD of normal processes under perturbations of rehitively 
Ktcmal incidence; e\'en the formation of abscess was thus 
bfoaght by him within the limits of perversion of processes not 
dibrisg essentially from those of health; and " new formations," 
'pU&:ic exudations," and other discontinuous origins of an 
"essential " pathology, fell into oblivion. And it is not alien 
Iraai the present point of view to turn for a moment to the light 
Ifirgvn on the cardio-arterial pulse and the measurement of its 
■oiions by the more intimate researches into the phenomena of 
the circulation by many observers, among whom in the 19th 
caiDr>- James Hope. £. J. Marey (i 830-1904) and C. F. W. 
lodvig will alwa>-s take a leading place. By them the demon- 
Kiuioo of Har\-cy that the circulation of the blood is in large 
put a mechanical process, and nowhere independent of mechani- 
al hv\, was considerably enlarged and extended. In particular 
tW fuctuations of the pulse in fevers and inflammations were 
heAet understood, and accurately registered; and we can scarcely 
leiJiae now that before Harvey the time of the pulse seems 
BK to have been counted by the watch. Discovery in these 
virioes directions then led physicians to regard fever and inflam- 
■sijoa not as separable entities, but as fluctuating symptom- 
due to swcrvings of function from the normal balance 
coDtin^ent forces. 

As to such reforms in our conceptions of disease the advances 
of bacteriology profoundly contributed, so under the stress of 
consequent discoveries, almost prodigious in their 
extent and revolutionary effect, the conceptions of the JJjJJ^^J^ 
etiology of disease underwent no less a transforma- EUohgy, 
tion than the conceptions of disease itself. It is 
proper to point out here how intimately a pathology thus 
regenerated modified current conceptions of disease, in the 
linking of disease to oscillations of health, and the regarding 
many diseases as modifications of the normal set up by the 
impingement of external causes; not a few of which indeed may 
be generated within the body itself—" autogcnetic poisoning." 
The appreciation of such modifications, and of the working of 
such causes, has been facilitated greatly by the light thrown 
upon normal processes by advances in physiology; so dependent 
is each branch of knowledge upon the advances of contiguous and 
incident studies. To biological chemistry we have been deeply 
indebted during the latter half of the lOth century. In 1872, 
Hoppe-Seyler (1825-1895) gave a new beginning to our know- 
ledge of the chemistry of secretion and of excretion; and Utter 
students have increased the range of physiological and patho- 
logical chemistry by investigations not only into the several 
stages of albuminoid material and the transitions which all food- 
stuffs undergo in digestion, but even into the structure of proto- 
plasm itself. Digestion, regarded not long ago as little more 
than a trituration and " coction " of ingcsta to fit them for 
absorption and transfer them to the tissues, now appears as an 
elaboration of peptones and kindred intermediate products 
which, so far from being always bland, and mere bricks and 
mortar for repair or fuel for combustion, pass through phases of 
change during which they become so unfit for assimilation as to 
be positively poisonous. The formation of prussic add at a 
certain period of the vital processes of certain plants may be given 
as an example of such phases; and poisons akin to muscarin 
seem to arise frequently in development or regression, both in 
animals and plants. Thus the digestive function, in its largest 
sense, is now seen to consist, not only in preparation and supply, 
but in no small measure also of protective and antidotal conver- 
sions of the matters submitted to it; coincidcntly with agents of 
digestion proper are found in the circuit of normal digestion 
" anti-substances " which neutralize or convert peptones in 
their poisonous phases; an autochthonous ferment, such as 
rennet for instance, calling forth an anti-rennet, and so on. 
Now as our own bodies thus manipulate substances poisonous 
and antidotal, if in every hour of health we are averting self- 
intoxication, so likewise are we concerned with the various 
intruding organiiims, whose processes of digestion arc as danger- 
ous as our own; if these destructive agents, which no doubt are 
incessantly gaining admission to our bodies, do not meet within 
us each its appropriate compensatory defensive agent, dissolution 
will begin. Thus, much of infection and immunity are proving 
to be but special cases of digestion, and teleological conceptions 
of protective processes are modified. 

Under the name of chemotaxis (W. Pfeffcr) are designated 
certain of the regulative adaptations by which such ends arc 
attained. By chemical warnings the defensive 
processes seem to be awakened, or summoned; and i^^ittMae*, 
when we think of the infinite variety of such possible 
phases, and of the multitude of corresponding defensive agents, 
we may form some dim notion of the complexity of the animal 
blood and tissues, and within them of the organic molecules. 
Even in normal circumstances their play and countcrplay, 
attractive and repellent, must be manifold almost beyond con- 
ception; for the body may be regarded as a collective organiza- 
tion consisting of a huge colony of micro-organisms become 
capable of a common life by common and mutual arrangement 
and differentiation of function, and by toleration and utilization 
of each other's peculiar products; some organs, such as the liver, 
for example, being credited with a special power of neutraliiing 
poisons, whether generated under normal conditions or under 
abnormal, which gain entrance from the intestinal tract. As a 
part of these discoveries has arisen another but kindred doctrine 




that of honnones (Starling), juices prepared, not for excretion, not 
even for partial excretion, but for the fulfilment of physiological 
equilibrium. Thus the reciprocity of the various organs, main- 
tained throughout the divisions of physiological labour, is not 
merely a mechanical stability; it is also a mutual equilibration in 
functions incessantly at work on chemical levels, and on those 
levels of still higher complexity which seem to rise as far beyond 
chemistry as chemistry beyond physics. Not only are the 
secreted juices of specialized cells thus set one against another 
In the body, whereby the various organs of the body maintain 
a mutual play, but the blood itself also in its cellular and fluid 
parts contains elements potent in the destruction of bacteria 
and of their secretions. Thus endowed, the blood, unless over- 
whelmed by extraordinary invasions, does not fail in subility 
and self-purification. So various are the conditions of self- 
regulation m various animals, both in respect of their peculiar 
and several modes of assimilating different foods, and of protect- 
ing themselves against particular dangers from without, that, 
as we might have expected, the bloods taken from different 
species, or even perhaps from different individuals, are found to 
be so divergent that the healthy serum of one species may be, 
and often is, poisonous to another; not so much in respect of 
adventitious substances, as because the phases of physiological 
change in different species do not harmom'ze; each by its peculiar 
needs has been modified until, in their several conditions of 
life, they vary so much about the mean as to have ))^come, 
almost if not quite alieh one (o another. 

In the preservation of immunity then, in its varipus degrees 
and kinds, not only is the chemistry of the blood to be studied, 
but also its histology. By his eminent labours in cellular 
pathology, Virchow, and Metchnikoff later, gave the last blow 
to the mere humoral pathology Which, after an almost unchal- 
lenged prevalence for some two thousand years, now finds a 
resting-place only in our nurseries. Now the cellular pathology 
of the blood, investigated by the aid of modem staining methods, 
is as important as that of the solid organs; no clinical investigator 
^— inde^, apart from research, no practitioner at this day — can 
dispense with examination of the blood for purposes of diagnosis; 
its coagulability and the kinds and the variations of the cells it 
contains being evidence of many definitely morbid states of the 
body. Again, not only in certain diseases may strange cells be 
found in the blood (e.g. in myelogenic leucaemia), but parasites 
also, both in man, as those of malaria, of sleeping sickness, of 
kala-azar.and in animals, as redwater, yellow fever, n'gana have 
beendiscovered,tothe great advantage of preventive medicine. 
For some of these, as redwater (pyrosoma), antidotes are already 
found; for others, as for yellow fever -^ of which the parasite is 
unknown, but the mode of its transmission, by the mosquito, 
discovered (Finlay-Reed)— preventive measures are reducing the 

It is obvious that the results of such advances prescribe for 
the clinical physician methods which cannot be pursued without 
g.^>«.ii. expert assistance; a physician engaged in busy prac- 
^**^"'* tice cannot himself undertake even the verifications 
required in the conauct of individual cases. Skill in modem 
laboratory work is as far out of the reach of the untaught as 
performance on a musical instrument. In spite, therefore, of 
the encyclopaedic tradition which has persisted from Aristotle 
through the Arab and medieval schools down to Herbert Spencer, 
it is forced upon us in our own day that in a pursuit so many- 
sided as medicine, whether in its scientific or in its practical 
aspect, we have to submit more and more to that division of 
labour which has been a condition of advance in all other walks 
of life. It is now fully recognized that diseases of infants and 
children, of the insane, of the generative organs of women, of 
the larynx, of the eye, have been brought successively into the 
light of modern knowledge by " specialists," and by them dis- 
tributed to the profession; and that in no other way could this 
end have been attained. That the division of labour, which may 
seem to disintegrate the calling of the physician, really unites 
it, is well seen in the clinical laboratories which were initiated 
in the later 19th century, and which are destined to a great 

future. By the approach of skilled pathologists to the dinicd 
wards, a link is forged between practitioners and the men of 
sdence who pursue pathology disinterestedly. The first dinicd 
laboratory seems to have been that of Von Ziemssen (1829-1902) 
at Munidi, founded in 1885; and, although his example has nol 
yet been foUowed as it ought to have been, enough has been done 
in this way, at Johns Hopkins University and elsewhere, to 
prove the vital importance of the system to the progress of 
modem medicine. At the same time provision must be made 
for the integration of knowledge as well as for the winning of it 
by several adits. A conspicuous example of the incalculable 
evil wrought by lack of mtegration is well seen in the radiad 
divorce of surgery from medicine, which is one of the moit 
mischievous legacies of the middle ages — one whose mischief ii 
scarcely yet fully recognized, and yet which is so deqply rooted 
in our institutions, in the United Kingdom at any rate, as to bi 
hard to obliterate. That the methods and the subject-mattcf 
of surgery and of medicine are substantially the same, and that 
the advance of one is the advance of the other, the division befng 
purely artificial and founded merely on accidents of personal 
bent and skill, must be insisted upon at this time of our histqiy. 
The distinction was never a scientific one, even in the sense in 
which the word science can be used of the middle ages; it origi- 
nated in social conceits and in the contempt for mechanical arta 
which came of the cultivation of " ideas " as opposed to convcsae 
with " matter," and which, in the dawn of modem methods, led 
to the derision of Boyle by Oxford humanists as one given up Co 
" base and mechanical pursuits." Had physicians been brou|^ 
into contact with facU as hard as those face^ by the surgeons of 
the i6th century (cf. Ambrose Par^), their art would not have 
lain so long in* degradation. It is under this closer occupation 
with mechanical conditions that surgery to-day is said — not 
without excuse, but with no more than superficial truth— to 
have made more progress than medicine. Medicine and suigeiy 
are but two aspects of one art; Pasteur shed light on both suifeiy 
and medicine, and when Lister, his disdple, penetrated into 
the secrets of wound fevers and septicaemia, he illuminated 
surgery and medicine alike, and, in the one sphere as in the other, 
co-operated iii the destruction of the idea of " essential fevers " 
and of inflammation as an "entity." Together, then, withtht 
necessary multiplication of specialism, one of the chief iessoos 
of the latter moiety of the igth century was tht unity of medicint 
in all its branches — a unity strengthened rather than weakened 
by special researches, such as those into " medical " and " sin^ 
gical " pathology, which are daily making more nuuifest tht 
absurdity of the distinction. Surgeons, physicians, oculistib 
laryngologists, gynaecologists, neurologists and the rest, all afS 
working in allotments of the same field, and combining to t 
common harvest. 

While pathology then, which is especially the *' science of 
medicine," was winning territory on one side from physiology, 
of which in a sense it is but an aspect, and on another 
by making ground of its own in the post mortem room fSSm 
and museum of morbid anatomy, and was fusing 
these gains in the laboratory so as to claim for itself, as a spedd 
branch of science by virtue of peculiar concepts, itsdueplacs 
and provision — provision in the establishment of chairs and of 
special laboratories for its chemical and biological subdivisions- 
clinical medicine, by the formal provision of disciplinary clas8e^ 
was illustrating the truth of the experience that teaching and 
research must go hand-in-hand, the one reinforcing the othcn 
that no teacher can be efficient unless he be engaged in reseaidl 
also; nay, that for the most part even the investigator needs tht 
encouragement of disciples. Yet it was scarcely until the ImI 
quarter of the 19th century that the apprenticeship systeoi, 
which was a mere initiation into the art and mystery of a Cfafl« 
was recognized as antiquated and, in its virtual exclusion of 
academic study, even mischievous. In place of it, systemaUe 
clinical classes have become part of the scheme of every e6Eiciaift 
school of medicine. A condition of this reform was the need df 
a preliminary training of the mind of the pupil in pure scieoc% 
even in physics and chemistry; that is to say, before introduction 




into his professioDal studies. The founding of new teaching 
universities^ in which England^ and even France, had been at 
some disadvantage as compared with Scotland and Germany, 
strengthened the movement in favour of enkrging and liberal- 
izing technical training, and of anticipating techniod instruction 
by some broader scientific discipline; though, as in all times of 
tnnsitioa, something was lost temporarily by a departure from 
the old discipline of the grammar school before a new scheme of 
traioing the mind in scientific habits and conceptions was estab- 
fished or fully apprehended. Yet on the whole, even from the 
beginning, the revolt was useful in that it shook the position of 
the '* learned physidan,'* who took a literary, fastidious and 
meditative rather than an experimental interest in his profession, 
and, as in great part a descendant of the humanists, was never 
in fun sjnnpathy with experimental science. At the risk no 
doubt of some defects of culture, the newer education cleared the 
way for a more positive temper, awoke a new sense of accuracy 
and of verification, and created a sceptical attitude towards all 
ODBvcntions, whether of argument or of practice. Among the 
drawbacks oi this temper, which on the whole made for progress, 
VII the rise of a school of excessive scepticism, which, forgetting 
tbc value of the accumulated stores of empiricism, despised 
those degrees of moral certainty that, in so complex a study and 
ID teatative a practice as medicine, must be our portion for the 
pKseot, and even for a long future, however great the triumphs 
of oedidne may become. This scepticism took form in the 
Kbool, most active between i860 and 1880, known as the 
Kknl d "Expectant Medicine." These teachers, genuinely 
toadied with a sense of the scantiness of our knowledge, of our 
coafidQDce in abstract terms, of the insecurity of our alleged 
"bets," case-histories and observations, alienated from tradi- 
tioaal dogmatisms and disgusted by meddlesome polypharmacy 
— enUgfatened, moreover, by the issue of cases treated by means 
JKh ts the homoeopathic, which were practically " expectant " 
— vfed that the only course open to the physician, duly 
fdnsckms of his own ignorance and of the mystery of nature, 
B to pot his patient under diet and nursing, and, relying on the 
tesdency of all equilibriums to recover themselves under 
poturfaation, to await events (Vis medkatrix naturae). Those 
piijrskians who had occupied themselves in the study. of the 
exacter sciences, or more closely or more exclusively of the 
vTtckage of the post mortem room, were the strongest men of 
tisis Khool, whether in England or abroad. 

But to sit down helpless before human suffering is an un- 
eodnrable attitude. Moreover, the insight into origins, into 
initial morbid processes revealed by the pathologists, 
awoke more and more the hope of dealing with the 
dements of disease, with its first beginnings; and in 
tlie field of therapeutics, chemical and biological experiment, as in 
iht case of digitalis, mercury and the iodides, was rapidly sim- 
piJfTifig remedies and defining their virtues, so that these agents 
cojid be used at the bedside with more precision. Furthermore, 
the aversion from drugging had the advantage of directing men's 
Binds to remedies taken from the region of the physical forces, 
of electricity (G. B. Duchenne, 1806-1875), of gymnastics (Ling, 
1 776-1 839), of hydropathy (V. Priessnitz), of massage (Weir 
Mhchell), of climate (James Clarke), of diet (R. B. Todd, King 
Chambers. &c.). and even of hypnotbm (James Braid 1795?- 
fS6e), whfle with the improvement of the means of locomotion 
caae the renewal of the old faith and the establishment of new 
methods in the use of mineral springs. These and such means, 
cCicn in combination, took much of the place formerly given to 
the Qse of drugs. 

Again, a like spirit dictated the use of the physical or " natu- 
nl'* methods on a larger scale in the field of prevention. 
_^^ From the new regard given by physiologists and 
**** pathologists to the study of origins, and in the new 
hopes of thus dealing with disease at its springs, not in indivi- 
duh only but in cities and nations, issued the great school 
tf Preventive Medicine, initiated in England— E. A. Parkes 
(1819-1876). J. Simon, Sir B. W. Richardson (1828-1896), Sir 
B. W. AcUnd (1815-1900), Sir G. Buchanan (1831-1895), and 

forwarded in Germany by Max von Pettenkofcr (1818-1901). 
Hygiene became for pathology what " milieu " is for physiology. 
By the modification of physical conditions on a national scale a 
prodigious advance was made in the art of preventing disease. 
The ghastly roll of infantile mortality was quickly purged of iu 
darkest features (Ballard and others); aided by bacteriology, 
sanitary measures attained some considerable degree of exact- 
ness; public medicine gained such an ascendancy that special 
training and diplomas were offered at universities; and in 187$ 
a consolidated act was passed for the United Kingdom establish- 
ing medical officers of health, and responsible by sanitary 
authorities, with no inconsiderable powers of enfordng the 
means of public health in rural, urban, port and other jurisdic- 
tions, with summary methods of procedure. A department of 
public health was formed within the precincts of the Local 
Government Board; government laboratories were established, 
and nu&chinery was devised for the notification of infectious 
diseases. The enormous growth of towns during the second 
half of the 19th century was thus attended with comparative 
safety to these great aggregates of mankind; and the death-rates, 
so far from being increased, relatively decreased in substantial 
proportions. In 1878 an act was passed giving like powers in 
the case of the infectious diseases of animals. The establishment 
in England of the Register of qualified practitioners and of the 
General Medical Council (in 1858) did something, however 
imperfectly, to give unity to the profession, unhappily bisected 
by " the two colleges "; and did much to organize, to strengthen 
and to purify medical education and qualification. In 1876 
women were admitted to the Register kept by the Council. 
In 1871 the Anatomical Act of 1832 was amended; and in 1876 
the Vivisection Act was passed, a measure which investigators 
engaged in the medical sciences of physiology and pathology 
resented as likely to prevent in England the advance of know- 
ledge of Uving function, both in its normal balance and in its 
aberrandcs, and moreover to slacken that habit of incessant 
reference of propositions to verification which is as necessary to 
the clinical observer as to the experimentalist. However the 
opinion of later generations may stand in respect of the Vivisec- 
tion Act. it will surely appear to them that the other acts, largely 
based upon the results of experimental methods, strengthening 
and consolidating the medical profession, and fortifying the 
advance of medical education, led directly to a fundamental 
change in the drciunstanccs of the people in respect of health. 
The intelligent classes have become far better educated in the 
laws of health, and less disposed to quackery; the less intelligent 
are better cared for and protected by municipal and central 
authority. Thus the housing of the poor has been improved, 
though this difficult problem is yet far from solution; not the 
large towns only, but the larger villages also, are cleansed and 
drained; food has been submitted to inspection by skilled officers; 
water supplies have been undertaken on a vast scale; personal 
cleanliness has been encouraged, and with wonderful success 
efforts have been made to bring civilized Europe back from the 
effects of a long wave of Oriental asceticism, which in its neglect 
and contempt of the body led men to regard filth even as a 
virtue, to its pristine cleanliness under the Greeks and Romans. 
During the latter half of the 19th century the death-rate of many 
towns was reduced by something like 50%. Some plagues, 
such as typhus fever, have been dispelled; others, such as enteric 
fever, have been almost banished from large areas; and there is 
much reason to hope that cholera and plague, if introduced, 
could not get a footing in western Europe, or in any case could be 
combated on scientific principles, and greatly reduced. Tem- 
perance in the use of alcohol has followed the demonstration not 
only of its unimportance as a food or tonic, but also of its harm- 
fulness, save in very small quantities. In the earlier part of the 
19th century, and in remoter districts even in its later years, the 
use of alcohol was regarded not as a mere indulgence, but as 
essential to health; the example of teetotallers, as seen in private 
life and in the returns of the insurance offices, has undermined 
this prepossession. From the time of Plato medicine has been 
accused of ministering to the survival of unfit persons, and to 




their propagation of children. But bodily defect is largely a 
result of evil circumstances, in the prevention of which the 
physician is not unsuccessfully engaged, and the growth of 
sympathy means a stronger cement of the social structure. At 
any rate the mean standard of health will be raised, perhaps 

In the tropics, as well as in Europe, such methods and such 
researches threw new light upon the causes and paths of the 
terrible infections of these climates. In 1880, two years before 
Koch discovered the bacillus of tubercle, C. L. A. Laveran 
(b. 1845) discovered the parasite of malaria, and truly conceived 
its relations to the disease; thus within two years were made two 
discoveries either of which was sufficient to make the honour of a 
century. Before the end of the XQth century .this discovery of 
the blood parasite of malaria was crowned by the hypothesis of 
Patrick Manson, proved by Ronald Ross, that malaria is propa- 
gated by a certain genus of gnat, which acu as an intermediate 
host of the parasite. Cholera (Haffkine) and yellow fever 
are yielding up their secrets, and falling under some control. 
The aoth century, by means of this illumination of one of the 
darkest regions of disease, may diminish human sufifering enor- 
mously, and may make habitable rich and beautiful regions of 
the earth's surface now, so far as man's work is concerned, con- 
demned to sterility. Moreover, freedom of trade and of travel 
has been promoted by a reform of the antiquated, cumbrous, 
and too often futile methods of quarantine — a reform as yet very 
far from complete, but founded upon a better understanding of 
the nature and propagation of disease. 

Special Departments. — Hitherto we have presented a survey 
of the progress of the science and practice of medicine on general 
iBffrihtaw ^°^' *^ rcntiains to give some indication of the 
advance of these subjects of study and practice in 
particular departmenu. As regards infections, it is not to be 
supposed that our knowledge of these maladies has been ad- 
vanced by pathology and bacteriology only. In the clinical 
field also it has received a great enlargement. Diphtheria, long 
no doubt a plague among mankind, was not carefully described 
until by Pierre Bretonncau in 1826; and since his time our con- 
ception of this disease has been extended by the study of later, 
secondary and incidental phases of it, such as neuritis, which had 
always formed part of the diphtheritic series, though the con- 
nexion had not been detected. Influenza, again, was well known 
to us in 1836-1840, yet clinical observers had not traced out those 
sequels which, in the form of neuritis and mental disorder, have 
impressed upon our minds the persistent virulence of this infec- 
tion, and the manifold forms of its activity. By the discovery 
of the bacillus of tubercle, the physician has been enabled to 
piece together a long and varied list of maladies under several 
names, such as scrofula and lupus, many of them long suspected 
to be tuberculous, but now known to belong to the scries. It is 
on clinical grounds that beriberi, scarlet fever, measles, &c., are 
recognized as belonging to the same class, and evolving in phases 
which differ not in intimate nature but in the more superficial 
and inessential characters of time, rate and polymorphism; and 
the impression is gaining strength that acute rheumatism belongs 
to the group of the infections, certain sore throats, chorea and 
other apparently distinct maladies being terms of this series. 
Thus the field of disease arising not from essential defect in the 
body, but from external contingencies, is vastly enlarging; 
while on the other hand the great variability of individuals in 
susceptibility explains the very variable results of such extrinsic 
causes. Coincidently therewith, the hope of neutralizing infec- 
tions by fortifying individual immunity has grown brighter, 
for it appears that immunity is not a very radical character, 
but one which, as in the case of vaccination, admits of modifica- 
tion and accurate adjustment in the individual, in no long time 
and by no very tedious methods. Evidence is accumulating 
which may end in the explanation and perhaps in the prevention 
of the direst of human woes— cancer itself, though at present 
inquiry is being directed rather to intrinsic than to extrinsic 

When, leaving the infections, we look for evidence of progress 

in our knowledge of more or less local diseases, we may begin with 
the nervous system. It is in this department, from its abttruse- 
ness and complexity, that we should expect the 
advance of anatomy and physiology — ^normal and ' 
morbid — to be most delayed. If we consult the medical \ 
even of the middle of the zpth century we shall find that, in the 
light of the present time, accurate knowledge in this sphere, 
whether clinical, pathological or therapeutical, could scarcely 
be said to exist. Even in the hands of J. A. Lockhart Clarke 
(181 7-1880), one of the earliest investigators of nervous 
pathology, the improvement of the compound microscope had 
not attained the achromatism, the penetration and the magnifi- 
cation which have since enabled J. L. C. Schroeder-van der Kolk 
(1797-1862), Albert von Kdlliker, Santiago Ramon y Cajal, 
C. Golgi (b. 1844) and others to reveal the minute anatomy of 
the nervous centres; while the discrimination of tissues and moi^ 
bid products by stains, as in the silver and osmic acid methods, 
and in those known by the names of Carl Weigert or Maichi, 
had scarcely begun. In England the Hospital for the Paralysed 
and Epileptic was founded in 1859, where Charles E. Biowa- 
S6quard (18x7-1894), J. Hughlings-Jackson, Thomas Buzzard, 
Henry C. Bastian (b. 1837), Sir W. R. Cowers and David Ferricr 
(b. 1843) found an adequate field for the clinical and patho- 
logical parts of their work. In France, in the wards of the H6tcl 
Dieu, Guilhiume Benjamin Duchcnne (1806-1875), in assodatka 
with Trousseau and in his private clinic, pursued his memorable 
clinical and therapeutical researches into the diseases of the 
nervous system; and Jean M. Charcot (1825-1893) in that great 
asylum for the wreckage of humanity— the Salp6tri2re--di>- 
coverqd an unworked mine of chronic nervous disease. M. H. 
Romberg (i 795-1873) and Theodor Meynert (1833-1892) also 
were pioneers in the study of nervous diseases, but it was not 
till later in the century that Germany took a high place in tUl 
department of medicine. The discoveries of the separate paths 
of sensory and motor impulses in the spinal cord, and come- 
quently of the laws of reflex action, by Charles Bell and Marshal 
Hall respectively, in their illumination of the phenomena of 
nervous function, may be compared with the discovery in the 
region of the vascular system of the circulation of the blood; for 
therein a key to large classes of normal and aberrant functloM 
and a fertile principle of interpretation were obtained. Nor 
was the theory of reflex action confined to the more " mechao* 
ical " functions. By G. H. Lewes and others the doctrine of 
"cerebral reflex" was suggested, whereby actions, at fint l 
achieved only by incessant attention, became organized tt ) 
conscious or subconscious habits; as for instance in the playiiif \ 
on musical or other instruments, when acts even of a vtsf r 
elaborate kind may directly follow the impulses of scnsatioiai |= 
conscious adaptation and the deliberate choice of meaia beiag ^ 
thus economized. This law has important ethical and polidcu 1 
bearings; but in the province of disease this advance of what mqr !*■ 
be compared to the interiocking of points and signals has 1 
wide influence not only in altering our conceptions of ( 
but also in enlarging our views of all perturbations of functMNL 
The grouping of reflex " units," and the paths wherein impidast 
travel and become associated, have been made out by the phyrio* 
logist (Sherrington and others) working on the healthy i 
as well as by the record of disease; and not of spontaneous c 
alone, for the artificial institution of morbid processes in i _ 

has led to many of these discoveries, as in the method of A. V. ^ 
Waller (i 816-1870), who tracked the line of nervous strands Iff -"^ 
experimental sections, and showed that when particular straaoi'^ 
arc cut off from their nutritive centres the consequent degenen* ^ 
tion follows the line of the separated strands. By simibr :^ 
methods nature, unassisted, betrays herself but too often; H,^ 
many instances — probably originating primarily in the nervoM J^ 
tissues themselves — the course of disease is ol»erved to foQoV 'f 
certain paths with remarkable consistency, as for instance llt'^ 
diseases of particular tracts of the spinal cord. In such cases thfer^ 
paths of degeneration are so neatly defined that, when the tknH^^ 
are prepared after death by modern methods, they are plaU^^'* 
to be seen nmning along certain columns, the subdiviskl^ _. 

nay f- 
had jh 




of wfakh in the nonnal tUle my hardly be distinguishable one 
from another: some run in strips along the periphery of the 
tpmal cord, at Its anterior, middle or posterior segments, as the 
case may be; in oth» cases such strips occur within iu substance, 
whether along columns of cells or of white matter. It is needless 
to point out how such paths of disease, in their association with 
characteristic symptoms, have illuminated the clinical features 
of disease as wdl as the processes of normal function. 

Not, however, all diseases of the nervous system conduct them- 
selves on tl^ese definite paths, for some of them pay no attention 
to the geography of structure, but, as one may say, blunder 
ittdisaiminately among the several parts; others, again, pick 
out particular parts definitely enough, but not parts immedktely 
continuous, or even contiguous. Diseases of the latur kind are 
cspcdaOy interesting, as in them we see that parts of the 
MrvoQS structure, separated in space, may neverthdess be asso- 
ciated in function; for instance, wasting of a group of muscles 
aaodated in fimction may depend on a set of central degenera- 
tions concurring in parts whose connexion, in spite of dissociation 
ia Htace, we thus perceive. The undiscriminating diseases, on 
the other hand, we suspect not to be primarily of nervous 
origin, but to depend rather on the agency of other constituent 
tiMoes of this system, as of the blood-vessels or the connective 
Amt,^f^ Thtis, arguing inversely, we may learn something of 
tbe respective natures of these inQuences and of the way in 
vUch the nervous system is affected secondarily. 

Yet even the distribution of toxic matters by the blood is not 
irrrgfrily followed by general and indiscriminate injury to the 
nervous elements. In. infantile palsy, for example, 
and in tabes dorsalis, there is good reason to believe 
that, definitely as the traces of the disease are 
found in certain physiologically distinct nervous 
they are due nevertheless to toxic agents arriving 
by way of the blood. Here we enter upon one of the most 
iotcresting chapters of disorders and modes of disorder of this 
and of other systems. It has come out more and more clearly 
of late years that pcnsons do not betray even an approximately 
imfilEefent affinity for all tissues, which indeed a little reflection 
would tdl us to be a priori improbable, but that each tends 
to fix itself to this cdl group or to that, picking out parts 
for which they severally have affinities. Chemical, physio- 
logical and pathological research is exploring the secret of 
these more refined kinds of "anchorage" of molecules. In 
i86S Drs A. Crum Brown and T. R. Fraser proved that by 
sobttitution of molecules in certain compounds a stimu- 
lant could be converted into a sedative action; thus by 
the addition of the methyl group CHs to the molecule 
•f strychnine, thebaine or brudne, the tetanizing action 
•f these drugs b converted into a paralysing action. The 
' of these instances, and the variety of them, are now 
1 to be very large; and it is supposed that what is true of 
these simpler agenu is true also of far more elaborate phases 
of vital metabolism. Now, what is remarkable in these and 
■any other reactions is not only that effects apparently very 
' ; may result from minute differences of molecular con- 
ttnKtion, but also that, whatever the construction, agents, not 
r indifferent to the body or part, tend to anchor themselves 
lo organic mcdecules in some way akin to them. Highly com- 
plex as are aU animal tissues, or nearly all, yet in this category 
flf Ugh complexity are degrees higher and higher again of which 
I form little conception, so elaborate they are, so peculiar 
ia their respective properties, and probably so fugitive. It is 
this wide range of dynamic peculiarities above the common 
_ : of known physical and chemical molecules which excites 
•■r'woader; and a reflection of these peculiar properties is seen 
ii their ffffiniti»* for this or that toxic or constructive agent, 
^ the peculiarity, for example, of a particular kind of 
serve oefl may be altered, antagonized, reinforced or converted. 
Oi the other hauxl, the reagents by which such modifications 
e apt to be produced are not necessarily simple; many of them 
! are known to be of very high degrees of complexity, 
; perhaps in complexity the molecules to which thqr 

are akb. Of such probably are the toxins and antitoxins of 
certain infections, which, anchoring themselves not by any means 
indiscriminately, but to particular and concerted molecules, by 
such anchorage antagonize them or turn them to favourable 
or imfavourable issues. Toxins may thus become so closely 
keyed into their corresponding atom groups, as for instance in 
tetanus, that they are no longer free to combine with the anti- 
toxin; or, again, an antitoxin injected before a toxin may antici- 
pate it and, preventing its mischievous adhesion, dismiss it for 
excretion. In the mutual behaviour of such cells, toxins, and 
antitoxins, and again of microbes themselves, we may demon- 
strate even on the field of the microscope some of the modes 
of such actions, which seem to partake in great measure at any 
rate of a chemical quality (agglutinins, coagulins, chemotaxis). 
It is convenient here to add that such reactions and modifica- 
tions, if more conspicuous in the nervous system, are of course 
not confined to it, but are concerned in their degree in all the 
processes of metabolism, being most readily traced by us in the 

Many other diseases formerly regarded as primarily diseases 
of the nervous system are not such; but, by means of agenU 
either introduced into the body or modified there, establish 
themselves after the affinities of these in contiguous associated 
parts of the structure, as in vascular, membranous or connective 
elements, or again in distant and peripheral parts; the perturba- 
tions of nervous function being secondary and consequential. 
Of such are tetanus and diphtheria, now known to be due to 
the establishment from without of a local microbic infection, 
from which focus a toxin is diffused to the nervous matter. 
The terrible nervous sequels of some forms of inflanmiation 
of the membranes of the brain, again, are due primarily to 
microbic invasion rather of the membranes than of their 
nervous contents; and many other diseases may be added to 
this list. The grave palsies in such diseases as influenza, 
diphtheria, beriberi, cr ensuing on the absorption of lead, are 
in the main not central, but due to a symmetrical peripheral 

Among diseases not primarily nervous, but exhibited in certain 
phenomena of nervous disorder, are diseases of the blood-vessels. 
Much light has been thrown upon the variations of 
arterial and venous blood pressures by Karl Ludwig ^JJjjJ'J/ 
(1816-1895) and his many followers: by them not ojimm. 
only the diseases of the circulatory system itself are 
elucidated, but also those of other systems — the nervous, for 
instance — which depend intimately on the mechanical integrity 
of the circulation of the blood as well as on the chemical integrity 
of the blood itself. With changes of the pressures of the blood 
in arteries, veins or capillaries, and in the heart itscU and its 
respeaive chambers, sUtic changes are apt to follow in these 
parts; such as degeneration of the coats of the arteries, due 
either to the silent tooth of time, to persistent high blood pres- 
sures, or to the aaion of poisons such as lead or syphilis. Syphi- 
litic ledon of the arteries, and likewise of other fibrous tissues, 
often involves grave consequential damage to nervous structures 
fed or supported by such parts. Some of the most successful 
of the advances of medidne as a healing art have followed the 
detection of syphilitic disease of the vessels, or of the supporting 
tissues of nervous centres and of the peripheral nerves; so that, 
by specific medication, the treatment of paralytic, convxilsive, 
and other terrible manifestations of nervous disease thus second- 
arily induced is now undertaken in early stages with definite 
prospect of cure. 

Not of less importance in this respect, and in other disorders 
many of them of grave inddence, is the knowledge of the pheno- 
mena of embolism and of thrombosis^ also gained during the latter 
half of the 19th century— W. S. Kirkes (1823-1864), R. Virchow. 
By embolism is meant the more or less sudden stoppage of a 
vessel by a plug of solid matter carried thither by the current 
of the blood; be it a little dot from the heart or, what is far 
more pemidous, an infective fragment from some focus of 
infection in the body, by which messengers new fod of infection 
may be scattered about the body. Thrombosis is an acddent 




of not dissimiUr chancier, whereby a vessel is blocked not by a 
travelling particle, but by a clotting of the blood in sUUf probably 
on the occasion of some harm to the epithelial lining of the vessel 
Such injuries are apt to occur in syphilitic endarteritis, or senile 
arterial decay, whereby an artery may be blocked permanently, 
as if^with an embolus, and the area supplied by it, in so far as it 
was dependent upon this vessel, deprived of nutrition. These 
events, although far more mischievous in the brain, the functions 
of which are far-reaching, and the collateral circulation of which 
b ill-provided, are seen very conmionly in other parts. 

It is in the structure of the brain itself that modem research 
has attained the most remarkable success. In 1861 an alleged 
" centre " of speech was detected, by a combination of clinical 
and pathological researches, by Paul Broca (1824-1880). By 
these means also, in the hands of Hughlings- Jackson, and more 
conclusively by experimental research initiated by G. T. 
Fritsch (b. 1838) and T. E. Hitzig (b. 1838), but pursued inde- 
pendently and far more systematically and thoroughly by 
David Ferrier (b. 1843) and his disciples, it was proved that the 
cerebrum is occupied by many such centres or exchanges, which 
preside over the formulation of sensations into purpouve groups 
of motions — kinaesthesis of H. Charlton Bastian (b. 1837). The 
results of these experimental researches by many inquirers into 
the constitution of the brain have transformed our conceptions of 
cerebral physiology, and thrown a flood of light on the diseases 
of the brain. Not only so, but this mapping of the brain in 
areas of function now often enables the clinical physician to 
determine the position of dbease; in a certain few cases of 
tumour or abscess, so precisely that he may be enabled to open 
the skull above the part afFectcd and to extirpate it — opera- 
tions which are surely a triumph of science and technical skill 
(Lister, W. MacEwen, V. Horsley). 

The remarkable discovery of the dual nature of the nervous 
system, of its duplex development as a lower and upper system of 
" neurons," has shed much light upon the problems of practical 
medicine, but this construction is described under Bsain; 
Neuropathology; Muscle and Nerve, &c. 

In menial diseases little of first-rate importance has been done. 
The chief work has been the detection of chronic changes in the 
cortex of the brain, by staining and other histological methods, 
in degenerative afifections of this organ — ^Theodor Meynert 
(1833-1892), W. Griesingcr (181 7-1868), Bevan Lewis — and 
in the separation from insanity due. to primary disease or defect 
of nerve dements of such diseases as general paralysis of the 
insane, which probably arise, as we have said, by the action of 
poisons on contiguous structures — such as blood-vessels and 
connective elements — ^and invade the nervous matter second- 
arily. Some infections, however, seem to attack the mental 
fabric directly; intrinsic toxic processes which may be suspected 
on the detection of neurin and cholin in the fluids of the brain 
(F. W. Mott). Truer conceptions of normal psychology have 
transfoimed for us those of the morbid— P. Pinel (1745-1826), 
Griesinger, Henry Maudsley (b. 1835), Mercicr, Kr£pclin, Rivers 
— and indicated more truly the relations of sanity to insanity. 
In the treatment of insanity little has been done but to com- 
plete the non-restraint system which in principle belongs to 
the earlier part of the 19th century (Pinel, Tuke, R. G. Hill, 
J. Conolly). An enormous accimiulation of lunatics of all 
sorts and degrees seems to have paralysed public authorities, 
who, at vast expense in buildings, mass them more or less indis- 
criminately in barracks, and expect that their sundry and difficult 
disorders can be properly studied and treated by a medical 
superintendent charged with the whole domestic establishment, 
with a few young assistants imder him. The life of these insane 
patients is as bright, and the treatment as humane, as a barrack 
life can be; but of science, whether in pathology or medicine, 
there can be little. A considerable step in advance is the estab- 
lishment by the London County Council of a central laboratory 
for its asylums, with an eminent pathologist at its head: from 
this Uboratory valuable reports are in course of issue. Provision 
for the reception and treatment of insanity in its earliest and more 
curable stages can scarcely be said to exist. Sufferers from 

mental disease are still regard^ too much as troublcaome 
persons to be hidden away in humane keeping, rather than as 
cases of manifold and obscure disease, to be studied and treated 
by the undivided attention of physicians of the hij^est »H11 
Tlie care and education of idiots, initiated by Guggenbuhl and 
others, is making way in En^and, and if as yet inMilfiri^nt^ ^ 
good of its kind. 

By the genius of Ren6 Th£ophile Laennec (x78x-x8a6), 
diseases of the lungs and heart were laid on a foundation so broad 
that his successors have been occupied in detail and refinement 
rather than in reconstruction. In heart disease the chief woik 
of the latter half of the 19th century was, in the first quarter, 
such clinical work as that of William Stokes and Peter Mere 
Latham (1789-1875); ^nd in the second quarter the fuller com- 
prehension of the vasoilar system, central and peripheral, with 
its Qrdes and variations of blood pressure, venous and arterial. 
Moreover, the intricades of structure and function within the heart 
itself have been more fully discriminated (W. H. Gaskell, Aschoff, 
A. Keith, Wenkebach, J. Mackenzie). By the greater thorough- 
ness of our knowledge of the physics of the circulation— £tienne 
Marey (b. 1830), Karl Ludwig (1816-1895), Leonard Hill— we 
have att&ined to a better conception of such events as arterial 
disease, apoplexy, " shock," and so forth; and pharmacologists 
have defined more predsdy the virtues of curative drugs. To 
the discovery of the parts played in disease by thrombosis and 
embolism we have referred above. With this broader and more 
accurate knowledge of the conditions of the health of the 
circulation a corresponding efficiehcy has been gained in the 
manipulation of certain remedies and new methods of treatment 
of heart diseases, especially by baths and exercises. 

As regards pulmonary disease, pneumonia has passed more and 
more definitely into the category of the infections: the modes of 
invasion of the lungs and pleura by tuberculosis has been more 
and more accurately followed; and the treatment of these 
diseases, in the spheres both of prevention and of cure, has under- 
gone a radical change. Instead of the close protection from the 
outer air, the respirators, and the fancy diets of our fathers, the 
modem poiirinaire camps out in the open air in all weathers, is 
fed with solid food, and in his exercise and otherwise is ruled with 
minute particularity according to the indications of the clinical 
thermometer and other symptoms. The almost reckless reliance 
on climate, which, at Davos for instance, marked the transition 
from the older to the modem methods, has of late been sobered, 
and supplemented by more systematic attention to all that con- 
cerns the mode of life of the invalid. The result is that, both 10 
ph3rsicians and in the public, a more hopeful attitude in respect 
of the cure of phthisis has led to a more earnest grappling with 
the infection in its earliest stages and in every phase, with a cor- 
respondingly large improvement in prevention and treatment. 
Indeed, m such early stages, and in patients who are enabled to 
command the means of an expensive method of cure, phthisis ii 
no longer regarded as desperate; while steps are bdng taken to 
provide for those who of their own means are unable to obtain 
these advantages, by the erection of special sanatoriums on a 
more or less charitable basis. Perhaps no advance in medicine 
has done so much as the study of tuberculosis to educate the 
public in the methods and value of research in medical subjects, 
for the results, and even the methods, of such hibours have been 
brought home not only to patients and their friends, but also to 
the farmer, the dairyman, the butcher, the public carrier, and, 
indeed, to every home in the land. 

It was in the management of pleurisies that the aid of surgical 
means first became eminent in inward disease. In the treatment 
of effusions into the pleura and, though with less advantage,. of 
pericardial effusions, direct mechanical interference was practiMd 
by one physician and another, till these means of attaining ra|»d 
and complete cure took their places as indispensable, and were 
extended from thoracic diseases to those of the abdominal and 
other inner parts formerly beyond the reach of direct therapeutici. 
Lord Lister's discoveries brought these new methods to bear with 
a certainty and a celerity previously undreamed of; and many 
visceral maladies, such as visceral ulcers^^ disease of the pancreas, 




atooe of the kidney or gall-bladder, perityphlitis, ovarian dropsy, 
whidi in the earlier part of the igtb century were either fatal or 
czippling, are now taken promptly and safely in hand, and dealt 
with socccnfully. Even for internal cancer cure or substantial 
rchef is not infrequently obtained. We have said that this 
advance is often qiaoted, not very wisely, to signify that in 
modem progress " medicine " has fallen behind surgery— as if 
the art of the physician were not one and indivisible. That 
certain Fellows of the College of Physicians (especially in gynae- 
cology) have personally taken operative procedures in hand 
ii some good omen that in time the unreal and mischievous 
schism between medicine and surgery may be bridged over. 

In the department of abdominal disease progress has been 
Bade, not only in this enormous extension of means of cure by 
operative methods, but also in the verification of diagnosis. The 
fiot recognition c4 a disease may be at a necropsy, but then 
vaaQy by irresponsible pathologists; it is another matter when 
the physadan himself comes under rebuke for failing to seize a 
wty to cure, while the chance remained to him, by section of the 
abdomen during life. The abdomen is still " full of surprises "*, 
sad he who has most experience of this deceptive region will have 
kut confidence in aq>res8ing positive opinions in particular 
cases of disease without operative investigation. Besides the 
attainments mentioned above, in respect of operative progress, 
■any important revisions of older rule-of-thumb knowledge have 
oooe about, and not a few other substantial discoveries. Among 
the revisions may be adduced some addition to our knowledge 
of dyspepsia, attained by analytic investigations into the 
coBtents of the stomach at various stages of digestion, and by 
watmiti'wg the passage of opaque substances through the primae 
Me by the Rfiotgen rays. Thus the defects, whether of this 
Hcxction or of that, and again of onotor activity, the state of the 
nhrular jnnctions, the volume of the cavities, and their position 
m the abdcMDen, may be ascertained, and dealt with as far as may 
be; so that, although the fluctuations of chemical digestion are 
ttifl very obscure, the application of remedies after a mere tradi- 
tjooai routine is no longer excusable. In our conceptions of the 
hter stages of assimilation and of excretion, with the generation 
of poisons (auto-intoxication) in the intestinal tract, there is still 
such obscurity and much guess-work; yet in some directions 
positive knowledge has been gained, painly by the physiologist, 
partly by the physician himself. Of such are the better under- 
standing of the functions of the Uver in normal catabolism, in the 
Destrahzation of poisons absorbed from the intestines or else- 
where, in the causation of jaundice, and in diabetes [Bernhardt 
Naunyn (b. 1839) and F. W. Pavy]. Nor must we forget the 
■nfdding of a new chapter of disease, in the nosology of the 
pancreas. In diabetes this organ seems to play a part which 
ii not yet predsdy determined; and one fell disease at least has 
been traced to a violent access of inflammation of this organ, 
caused perhaps by entry of foreign matters into its duct. The 
part of the pancreas in digestion also is better understood. The 
part of the spleen in the motley group of dyspepsias and anaemias, 
ooospicnous as it often is, still remains very enigmatic. 

The peritoneum is no longer regarded with awe as inviolable; 
by modem methods, if not as manageable as other lymphatic 
sacs, it is at any rate accessible enough without considerable risk 
to life. Not only in its bacteriological relations are the conditions 
of peritonitb recognized in its various kinds, but also the state 
known as '* shock '* turns out to be quasi-mechanical, and 
SToidable by measures belonging in considerable part to this 
ategory. Thus, by the avoidance both of toxaemia and of shock, 
peritonitis and other dangers of the abdomen, such as strangu- 
lations or intussusceptions of the bowels, formerly desperate, 
can in many cases be dealt with safely and effectively. 

Oar knowledge of diseases of the kidneys has made no great 
advance since the time of Richard Bright. In the sphere of 
physiology and in the interpretation of associated arterial 
<fiseases much obscurity still remains; as, for instance, concerning 
the nature of the toxic substances which produce those bilaterd 
changes in the kidneys which we call Bright 's disease, and bring 
about the " usaemia " which-is chancteristic of iL Lardaceous 

disease, however, here and in other regions, now appears to be 
due to the specific toxins of pyogenetic micro-organisms. In 
stone of the kidney a great advance has been made in treatment 
by operative means, and the formation of these stones seems 
to recent observers to depend less upon constitutional bent 
(gout) than upon unhealthy local conditions of the passages, 
which in their turn again may be due to the action of micro- 

To Thomas Addison's descriptions of certain anaemias, and 
of the disease of the suprarenal capsules which bears his name, 
something has been added; and W. Hunter's researches on 
the severer anaemias are doing much to elucidate these subtle 
maladies. And on the influence of these inconspicuous bodies 
and of the pituitary body in sustaining arterial bkxxi pressures 
physiologists have thrown some important light. 

The secret of the terrible puerperal septicaemia was read by 
J. P. Semmelweiss (g.v.), wherein he proved himself to be the 
greatest of Lister's forerunners (see Lister). 

The diseases peculiar to women (see Gynaecology) have 
received attention from early times, but little progress had been 
made in their interpretation till the 19th century. In the 
middle part of the century, by a natural exaggeration of the 
importance of newly-discovered local changes in the pelvic 
organs, much harm was done to women by too narrow an atten- 
tion to the site, characters and treatment of these; the meddle- 
someness of the physician becoming in the temperament of woman 
a morbid obsession. To James Matthews Duncan (1826-1890) 
we chiefly owe a saner and broader comprehension of the 
relative importance of the local and the general conditions 
which enter into the causation of uterine and ovarian disorders. 
In operations for diseases of the pelvis, ovfuian dropsy, cancer 
of the uterus, and other grave diseases of the region, success has 
been stupendous. 

In the subject of diseases of Ike skin much has been done, in 
the minuter observation of their forms, in the description of 
forms previously unrecognized, and in respect of bacterial and 
other causation and of treatment; The comparison of observa- 
tions in various climates and peoples has had some weight; 
while in the better knowledge of their causes their treatment has 
found permanent advantage. Not only is the influence of bacteria 
in the causation of many of them newly revealed, but it is now 
recognized also that, even in skin diseases not initiated by micro- 
bic action, microbes play a considerable and often a determining 
part in their perpetuation; and that the rules of modem aseptic 
surgery are applicable with no little success to skin therapeutics. 
We have learned that " constitutional " causes play a smaller 
part in them than was supposed, that a large number of diseases 
of the skin, even if initiated by general disorder, are or soon 
become local diseases, being, if not initiated by local infection 
yet perpetuated thereby, so that, generally speaking, they are to 
be cured by local means. 

The diseases of children have not lacked the renewed attention, 
the successful investigation, and the valuable new lights which 
have been given to other departments of medicine. That infan- 
tile paralysis is an infection, and that its unhappy sequels are 
now treated with more hope of restoration, has been indicated 
already. Infantile diarrhoea has also been recognized as a 
common infection (Ballard), and the means of its avoidance and 
cure ascertained. The conditions of diet and digestion in children 
are now far better understood, and many of their maladies, 
formerly regarded as organic or incomprehensible, are cured or 
prevented by dietetic rules. Rickets, scurvy and " marasmus " 
may be instanced as diet diseases in children. Acute inflamma- 
tion of the ear, with its alarming extensions to the cerebral 
cavity, is now dealt with successfully by surgical means, and 
infected sinuses or even encephalic abscesses are reached and 
cleansed. The origins, kinds and processes of meningitis are 
more clearly distinguished, and referred each to its proper cause 
— for the inost part bacterial. 

As by the discovery of stelhoscopy by Laennec a new field of 
medical science and art was opened up, so, more recently, 
inventions of other new methods of investigation in medicine 



have opened to us other fields of little less interest and im- 
portance. Of such is the ophthalmoscope, invented by H. 
von Helmholtx in 1851. By the revelations of this 
raunogn ijjjjrument not only have the diseases of the eye been 
illuminated, but much light has been thrown also upon the part of 
the eye in more general maladies; as, for instance, in syphilis, 
in diabetes, in kidney diseases, and in diseases of the brain— 
F. C. Donders (1818-1889), Alfred von Grife (1830-1809) and 
others. A remarkable help to the cure of headaches and 
wider nervous disorders has come out of the better appreciation 
and correction of errors of refraction in the eye. Radiography 
has done great things for surgery; for medicine its services are 
already appreciable, and may prove more and more valuable 
hereafter. In 1879 the use of the spectroscope in medicine 
was pointed gut by Dr Charles A. MacMunn (b. 1853) 
By E. du Bois-Reymond, Robert Remak (1815-1865), Carlo 
Matteucd (181 1-1868), Guillaume Duchenne (1806-1875), the 
value of electricity in medicine, greater in diagnosis perhaps than 
in therapeutics, was demonstrated. By the sphygmograph (E. J. 
Marey, 1863) attention was drawn to the physical features of 
the circulation, to the signs of degeneration of the arterial tree, 
and less definitely to the fluctuations of blood pressure; but 
as we have said under the consideration of diseases of the heart, 
the kymographs of Ludwig and his pupils brought out these 
fluctuations far more accurately and completely. By these, and 
other instruments of precision, such as the thermometer, of which 
we have already spoken, the eminently scientific discipline of the 
measurement of functional movements, so difficult in the complex 
science of biology, has been cultivated. By the laryngoscope, 
invented about 1850 by Manuel Garcia the celebrated singing 
master, and perfected by Johann Czermak (1828-1873) and 
others, the diseases of the larynx also have been brought into the 
general light which has been shed on all fields of disease; and 
many of them, previously known more or less empirically, 
submitted to precise definition and cure. Of such we may cite 
tuberculosis of the larynx, formerly as incurable as distressing; 
and " adenoids " — a disease revealed by intrascopic methods— 
which used grievously to thwart and stifle the growth both of 
mind and body in children, are now promptly removed, to the 
infinite advantage of the rising generation. To the value of 
stains in clinical diagnosis, especially in investigation of perver- 
sions of the blood in many maladies, we have already made 
some reference. The discovery of the Rdntgen rays has also 
extended the physician's power of vision, as in cases of aortic 
aneurysm, and other thoracic diseases. 

By photography and diagrammatic records the clinical work 
of hospital wards has been brought into some better definition, 
and teaching made more accurate and more impressive. The 
separation of the alkaloids belongs rather to the earlier part of 
the 19th century, but the administration of these more accurate 
medications by means of hypodermic injection (see Thera- 
peutics) belongs to the hitter. The ancient practice of trans- 
fusion has been placed on a more intelligible footing, and by the 
method of saline injections made more manageable as a means 
of relief or even of cure. Finally, calculation by statistics 
(William Farr, Kari Pearson, and others) has been brought into 
line with other scientific methods: the method is a diflicult one, 
and one full of pitfalls for the unwary, yet when by co-operation 
of physician and mathematician its applications have been 
perfected its services will appear more and more indispensable. 

Among the achievements of the medicine of the 19th century 
the growth of the medical press must not be forgotten. In 
England, by the boldness of the Lancet (founded in 1823), the 
tyranny of prescription, inveterate custom, and privilege abused 
was defied and broken down; freedom of learning was regained, 
and promotion thrown open to the competent, independently 
of family, gild and professional status. For the record and 
diffusion of rapidly growing knowledge, learned societies, univer- 
sities and laboratories, greatly increased in number and activity. 
issue their transactions in various fields; and by means of year- 
books and central news-sheets the accumulation of knowledge is 
organized and made accessible. 

It is interesting to find that, with all this activity In the pretent 
reformed methods of research and verification are not confined to 
the work of the passing day; in the brilliant achievemenu of 
modem research and reconstruction the maxim that " Thith b 
the daughter of Time " has not been forgotten. In the field of 
the History of Medicine the work of scholars such as Franda 
Adams of Banchory (1796-1861), William A. Greenhill (1814- 
1894) and C. Creighton in England, Maximilien P. Littr6 (1801- 
1881) and Charles V. Daremberg (1817-1872) in France, and 
Hdnrich Hiser (181 1-1888) and August Hiisch, Dieis, Wdt- 
mann and Julius Pagd in Germany, will prove to our childreii 
that tradition was as safe in our hands as progress itself. 

(T. C. A.) 

Bibliography.— Osier and McCrae. ModerH Medicuu; F. T. 
Roberts, The Praaiu of Medidtu (1909); Hermann Nochnacd, 
ItUemationaU Bettrdt* *^ inneren Median (1903); Ed. Brovaidel. 
TratU de mAimM 71895-1902); T. D. Savill. Clinical Medidm 

(1909): W. Osier. Tke Principles and Practice of Medicine (1909); 
Allbutt and Rolleston. A System of Medicine (1906-1910); Str 
Patrick Manaon, Tropical Medicine (1907); Frederick Taylor, A 
Manual of the Practice of Medicine (1908). 

MBDIHA. JOSE TORIBIO (1853- ), Chflean bibliographer, 
was bom at Santiago, and was educated for the bar. His fint 
publication, when a very young man, was a metrical translaUoa 
of Longfellow's Evangeline. When twenty-two he was appointed 
sccreUry to the legation at Lima. After his retum he publiibed 
a history of Chilean literature (1878), and a work upon the 
aboriginal tribes (1884). In this latter year he was appointed 
sccreUry of legation in Spain, and availed himself of tike oppor- 
tunity of examining the treasures of the old Spanish librariet. 
These researches, repeated on subsequent visits to Spain, and 
also to France and England, enriched him with a mass of historical 
and bibliographical material Among his publications may be 
mentioned the Biblioteca hispano-americana, a catalogue of aU 
books and pamphlets relating to Spanish America printed in 
Spain; the Biblioteca hispano-ckilena, a similar work, com- 
menced in 1897; the standard and magnificent history of printing 
in the La Plata countries (1892); comprehensive works on the 
Inquisition in Chile, Pem and the Philippines; and the standard 
treatise on South American medals (1899). In addition, Sefior 
Medina produced the fullest bibliographies yet attainable of 
books printed at Lima, Mexico and Mam'la, and a number of 
memoirs and other minor writings. No other man had rendered 
anything like the same amount of service to the literary histoiy 
and bibliography of the Spanish colohies. 

MEDINA, or rather Al-Meoina (the dty), or MEftncAT Rasul 
Allah (the dty of the apostle of God), a town of the Hejas in 
Arabia, about 820 m. by rail S.S.E. of Damascus, in 35* N., 
40" E.,* the refuge of Mahomet on his emigration from Mecca, 
and a renowned place of Moslem pilgrimage, consecrated by the 
possession of his tomb. The name Medina goes back to the 
Koran (sur. xxxiii. 60) ; the old name was Yathrib, the Lathrippa 
of Ptolemy and lathrippa of Slephanus By7.antius. 

Medina stands in a basin at the northem extremity of an 
elevated plain, on the western skirt of the mountain range which 
divides the Red Sea coast-lands from the central plateau of 
Arabia. At an hour's distance to the north it is dominated by 
Mount Ohod, an outlying spur of the great mountains, the scene 
of the well-known battle (see Mahomet), and the site of the 
tomb and mosque of the Prophet's uncle Hamza. To the east 
the plain is bounded by a long line of hills ei^t or ten boun 
distant, over which the Nejd road runs. A number of torrent 
courses (of which Wadi Kanat to the north, at the foot of Mount 
Ohod, and W. Akik, some miles to the south, are the most 
important) descend from the mounuins, and converge in the 
neighbourhood of the town to unite farther west at a place called 
Zaghaba. whence they descend to the sea through the " mountains 
of the Tehama "—the rough country between Medina and its 

* This is a very rough estimate. The road from Yarobu 00 the 
Red Sea. which runs somewhat north of cast, is by Burton's estimate 
132 m. From Medina to Mecca by the inland or hisfa road he 
makes 248 m. The usual road near the coast by Rabigh and 
Khulesa and thence to W. Fatima cannot be very different in 
length. Caravans traverse it in about ten or eleven days. 



port of Yambtt— under the name of W. Idam. Southwards from 
Medina the plain extends unbroken, but wiih a slight rise, as 
far as the eye can reach. The convergence of torrent-courses 
in the neighbourbood of Medina makes this one of the best- 
watered spots in northern Arabia. The city lies close to one of 
the great volcanic centres of the peninsuhi, which was in violent 
cmptlon as late as aj>. i 366, when the hiva stream approached 
vithin an hour's distance of the walls, and dammed up W. Kanat. 
The result of this and older prehistoric eruptions has been to 
confine the underground water, so important in Arabian tillage, 
which can be reached at any point of the oasis by sinking deep 
wtlls. Many of the wells are brackish, and the natural fertility 
of the volcanic soil is in many places impaired by the salt with 
which it is impregnated, but the date-palm grows well every- 
where, and the groves, interspersed with gardens and cornfields, 
which surround the city on all sides except the west, have been 
fimous from the time of the Prophet. Thus situated, Medina 
WIS originally a city of agriculturists, not like Mecca a city of 
aeichanu; nor, apart from the indispensable trade in provisions, 
hat it ever acquired commercial imporunce like that which 
Mecca owes to the pilgrimage.* Landowners and cultivators 
ve still a chief element in the population of the city and suburbs. 
The latter, who are called Nakhlwila, and more or less openly 
profess the Shraopinions, marry only among themselves. The 
townsmen proper, on the other hand, are a very motley race.' 
New settlers remain behind with each pilgrimage; attracted by 
Uk many offices of profit connected with the mosque, the stipends 
psid by the sultan to every inhabitant, and the gains to be derived 
by (nlgrim-cicerones (Muxawwirs) or by those who make it a 
business to say prayers at the Prophet's mosque for persons who 
lead a fee from a distance^ as well as the alms which the citizens 
ue accustomed to collect when they go abroad, especially in 
Tukcy. The population of the city and suburbs may be from 
16,000 to 20,000. 

The dty proper is surrounded by a soUd stone wall,* with 
bmcfs and four massive gateways of good architecture, forming 
aa irregular oval running to a kind of angle at the north-west, 
wbere stands the castle, held by a Turkish garrison. The houses 
vt good stone buildings similar in style to those of Mecca; the 
Kreets are narrow but clean, and in part paved.* There is a 
copious supply of water conducted from a tepid source (ez- 
Zuki) at the village of Kuba, 2 m. south, and distributed in under- 
ground dstems in each quarter.* The glory of Medina, and the 
only important buOding, is the mosque of the Prophet, in the 
eastern part of the city, a spacious enclosed court between 400 
aod SCO ft. in length from north to south, and two-thirds as much 
in breadth. The minarets and the lofty dome above the sacred 
graves are imposing features; but the circuit is hemmed in by 
booses or narrow lanes, and is not remarkable except for the 
principal gate (Bab al-Salam) at the southern end of the west 
front, facing the sacred graves, which is richly inlaid with marbles 
and fine tiles, and adorned with golden inscriptions. This gate 
leads into a deep portico, with ten rows of pillars, running along 
the southern walL Near the farther end of the portico, but not 

'The pilgrimage to Medina, though highly meritonous. is not 
Mifitory, and it is not tied to a single season : so that there is no 
leoeral concourse at one time, and no fair like that of Mecca. 

'A small number of families in Medina still claim to represent 
the aacicflt iliuar, the "defenders" of Mahomet; there arc also 
sofoe Siddiqiyak, claiming descent from Abu Bekr. But in fact 
the did population emigrated en masse after the sack of Medina by 
Moslim in 683. and passed into Spain in the armies of Musa. In 
the 13th century one old man of the Khazraj and one old woman 
of the Aus tribe were all that remained of the old stock in Medina 
(^laqqari, L 187: Dozy. Mus. d'EsfHsgne, i. in). The aristocratic 
bfl^y of the Bern Hosain, who claim descent from the martyr of 
Kcxbda. and so from the Prophet, have apparently a better cstab- 
Uicd pedsree. 

* According to Ibn Khattikan (Slane's trans, iii. 027) the walls 
aieof the 12th century, the work of Jam&l ud-Din ai-lspahftni. 

^TbeBaOt or great paved street of Medina, a very unusual 
featttie in an Eastern town, dates from the ist century of Isl&m. 
fSce WOstenfeki's abstract of SamhOdi. p. 115) . .. , ^ , ^ 

* KufaA is famous as the place where the Prophet lived before he 
catered Medina, and the site of the first mosque in which he prayed, 
k fies ai^dst occhaxds in the richest part of the oasis. 

adjoining the walls, is a sort of dooriea house or chamber hung 
with rich curtains, which is supposed to contain the graves of 
Mahomet, Abu Bekr and Omar. To the north of this is a smaller 
chamber of the same kind, draped in black, which is said to 
represent the tomb of Fatima. Both are enclosed with an 
iron railing, so closely interwoven with brass wire-work that 
a glimpse of the so-called tombs can only be got through 
certain apertures, where intercessory prayer is addressed to 
the prophet, and pious salutations are paid to the other 
saints.* The portico in front of the raiUng is not ineffective, 
at least by nightlight. It is paved with marble, and in the 
eastern part with mosaic, laid with rich carpets; the southern 
wall is clothed with marble pierced with windows of good stained 
glass, and the great railing has a striking aspect; but an air of 
tawdrincss is imparted by the vulgar painting of the columns, 
especially in the space between the tomb and the pulpit, which 
has received, in accordance with a tradition of the Prophet, the 
name of the Garden (rau4a), and is decorated with barbaric 
attempts to carry out this idea in colour.' The throng of visitors 
passing along the south wall from the Bab al-Salam to salute 
the tombs is separated from the Garden by an iron railing. The 
other three sides of the interior court have porticoes of less depth 
and mean aspect, with three or four rows of pillars. Within the 
court are the well of the Prophet, and some palm-trees said to 
have been planted .by Fatima; this " grove " is separated from 
the rest of the court by a wooden partition. 

The original mosque was a low building of brick, roofed with 
palm-branches, and much smaller than the present structure. 
The wooden pulpit from which Mahomet preached appears to 
have stood on the same place with the present pulpit in the 
middle of the south portico. The dwelling of the Prophet and 
the huts of his women adjoined the mosque. Mahomet died in 
the hut of Ayesha and was buried where he died; Abu Bekr and 
Omar were afterwards buried beside him. In a.d. 7 i i the mosque, 
which had previously been enlarged by Omar and Othman, 
was entirely reconstructed on a grander scale and in Byzantine 
style by Greek and Coptic artificers at the command of the caliph 
Walid and under the direction of Omar Ibn Abd-al-Aziz. The 
enlarged plan included the huts above named, which were pulled 
down. Thus the place of the Prophet's burial was brought 
within the mosque; but the recorded discontent of the city at this 
step shows that the feeling which regards the tomb as the great 
glory of the m(»que, and the pilgrimage to it as the most meri- 
torious that can be undertaken except that to Mecca, was still 
quite unknown. It is not even certain what was done at this 
time to mark off the graves. Ibn *Abd Rabbih, in the beginning 
of the loth century {'Hd, Cairo ed., iii. 366), describes the 
enclosure as a hexagonal wall, rising within three cubits of the 
ceiling of the portico, clothed in marble for more than a man's 
height, and above that height daubed with the unguent called 
khalAk. This may be supplemented from I$takhri, who calls 
it a lofty house without a door. That there are no gravestones 
or visible tombs within is certain from what is recorded of 
occasions when the place was opened up for repairs. Ibn Jubair 
(p. 193 seq.) and SamhadI speak of a small casket adorned with 
silver, fixed in the eastern wall, which was supposed to be opposite 
the head of the Prophet, while a silver nail in the south wall 
indicated the point to which the corpse faced, and from which 
the salutation of worshippers was to be addressed (Burton 
misquotes). The European fable (mentioned and refuted, e.g. in 
Histoire des Arahcs par VahH de Marigny, I. i. p. 46, Paris, 1750) 
of the coffin suspended by magnets is totally unknown to Moslem 
tradition. The smaller chamber of Fatima is comparatively 
modern. In the time of Ibn Jubair and of Ibn Batuta (unless 

•The space between the railing and the tomb is seldom entered 
except by the servants of the mosque. It contains the treasures 
of the mosque in jewels and plate, which were once very consider- 
able, but have been rcpcatcclly plundered, last of all by the Wahhabis 
in the beginning of the 19th century. 

^ The word rautfa also means a mausoleum, and is applied by 
Ibn Jubair to the tomb itself. Thus the tradition that the space 
between the pulpit and the tomb was called by the Prophet one of 
the gardens of Paradise probably arose from a mistake. 



the latter, as is so often the case, is merely copying his prede- 
cessor) there was only a small marble trough north of the rau^a 
(or grave) which " is said to be the house of Fatima or her 
grave, but God only knows." It is more probable that Fatima 
was buried in the Bal^J, where her tomb was also shown in the 
1 3th century (Ibn Jubair, pp. 198 seq.). 

The mosque was again extended by the caliph Mahdl (a.d. 781) 
and was burned down in 1 256. Of its appearance before the fire 
we have two authentic accounts by Ibn *Abd Rabbih early in 
the 10th century, and by Ibn Jubair, who visited it in z 184. The 
old mosque had a much finer and more regular appearance than 
the present one; the interior walls were richly adorned with marble 
and mosaic arabesques of trees and the like, and the outer walls 
with stone marquetry; the pillars of the south portico (seventeen 
in each row) were in white plaster with gilt capitals, the other 
pillars were of marble. Ibn *Abd Rabbih speaks of eighteen 
gates, of which in Ibn Jubair's time, as at present, all but four 
were walled up. There were then three minarets. After the 
fire which took place just at the time of the fall of the caliphate, 
the mosque long lay in a miserable condition. Its repair was 
chiefly due to the Egyptian sultans, especially to IsAit Bey, 
whose restoration after a second fire in 148 1 amounted almost to 
a complete reconstruction. Of the old building nothing seems 
to have remained but some of the columns and part of the 
walls. The minarets have also been rebuilt and two new ones 
added. The great dome above the tomb, the railing round it, 
and the pulpit, all date from l^&il Bey's restoration. 

The suburbs, which occupy as much space as the city proper, 
and are partly walled in, lie south-west of the town, from which 
they are separated by an open space, the halting-place of cara- 
vans. Through the suburbs runs the watercourse called Wadi 
Buthan, a tributary of W. l^anit, which the Yanbu* road crosses 
by a stone bridge. The suburbs are the quarter of the peasants. 
Thirty or forty families with their cattle occupy a single court- 
yard (hdsh), and form a kind of community often at feud with 
its neighbours. The several clans of Medina must have lived 
in much the same way at the time of the Prophet. The famous 
cemetery called Bal^' el-Ghar^ad, the resting-place of a multi- 
tude of the " companions " of the Prophet, lies immediately to 
the west of the city. It once contained many monuments, the 
chief of which are described by Ibn Jubair. Burckhardt in 181 5 
found it a mere waste, but some of the mosques have since been 

History. — The story of the Amalekites in Yathrib and of their 
conquest by the Hebrews in the time of Moses is purely fabulous 
(see Noldeke, Ober die Amalckiter, 1864, p. 36). The oasis, when 
it first comes into the light of history, was held by Jews, among 
whom emigrants from Yemen afterwards settled. From the 
time of the emigration of Mahomet (a.d. 622) till the Omayyads 
removed the seat of empire from Medina to Damascus, the town 
springs into historic prominence as the capital of the new power 
that so rapidly changed the fate of the East. Its fall was not 
less rapid and complete, and since the battle of Harra and the 
sack of the city in 683 it has never regained political importance 
(see Caliphate, B. §§ i, 2, &c.). Mahomet invested the country 
round Medina with an inviolable character like that of the Haram 
round Mecca; but this provision has never been observed with 
strictness. After the fall of the caliphs, who maintained a 
governor in Medina, the native amirs enjoyed a fluctuating 
measure of independence, interrupted by the aggressions of the 
sherifs of Mecca, or controlled by an intermittent Egyptian 
protectorate. The Turks after the conquest of Egypt held 
Medina for a time with a firmer hand; but their rule grew weak, 
and was almost nominal long before the Wahhibls took the city 
in 1804. A Turko-Egyptian force retook it in 181 2, and the 
Turks now maintain a pasha with a military establishment, while 
the cadi and chief agha of the mosque (a eunuch) are sent from 
Constantinople. In late years the influence of the Turkish 
government has been much strengthened, an important factor in 
its consideration being the construction of the railway from Syria 
to the Hejaz. Railway communication between Damascus and 
Medina was effected in 1908. 

A UT HOAi Ttss, — Medi na ha 9 bw n df^sc ribed from penonal otMerva* 
tion by Burckhardt who vmted it in [815, and Burton, who made 
ihc pil^rima^- [a 1 8 5^ . Sad] icr on >i j<y j aumey from Katif to Yambu 
(I St 9)' wi$ not al lowed to enu-r tht.' holy city. Burckhardt was 
prevented by ill-hralth from. ejLi mining the city and country with 
ni« li&uijil thoroughncu, Lit tie ti LieiJi.-tj to our information oy the 
report oi 'AM ct-RjuIq, who pcrfurcncd ihe pilgrimage in 1878, 
on 4 nttdical comniiigion from the English government. The 
chkt Arabic authoriiy b(.>^d« )hn 'Abd Rabbih and Ibn Jbbair 
ift SamhQdi, of whose htstofy VVustcnfeld publithcd an abstract 
in the G^tfingcn AbhandiuftgeH, vol. ix. (1861). It goes down to 

the CEid of the isth century. The tonography of the country about 
Mcfjjrt^ h mivreiUne both hUtorkally and geographically: Bakri. 
Yii^ili and other Arabic gco^i^ranhrr^. supply much material on this 

topic^ Soxne good ififofcnation rL^nccrnmR Medina is containol 
in the 2ad volume ol Ooujihty'fi Travth in Aralna Deserta. 

(W. R. S.; 

HEDINA,a village of Orleans county, in north-west New York, 
U.S.A., about 40 m. N.E. of Buffalo, and on Oak Orchard Cnek. 
Pop. (1900), 4716, (857 foreign-born); (1905, state census), 5114; 
(1910) 5683. It is served by the New York Central & Hudson 
River railroad, by the Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester (inter- 
urban) railway, and by the Erie Canal. On Oak Orchard Creek 
and near the 'city are electric power plants, at the Medina Falls 
and at a Urge storage dam (60 ft. high ) for water power, built in 
1902. In the neighbourhood are extensive apple, peach and pear 
orchards; and vegetables, especially beans, are grown. There 
are valuable quarries of Medina sandstone, a good building-, 
paving- and flag-stone, varying in colour from light grey to 
brownish red, readily shaped and split, and less likely than 
limestone to crack or than granite to wear slippery; it was 
first found at Medina in 1837. There was a saw-mill on the 
creek near here in 1805, but the place was little settled before 
1824, and its growth was due to the Erie Canal. It was incor- 
porated in 1832. 

BUENO, 7TH Duke of (1550-1615), the commander-in-chief U 
the Spanish Armada, was bom on the loth of September 1550. 
He was the son of Don Juan Claros de Guzman, eldest sod of 
the 6th duke, and of his wifeDofiaLeonor Manrique de Zuftigay 
Sotomayor. His father died in 1555, and Don Alonso became 
duke, and master of one of the greatest fortunes in Europe, <» 
the death of his grandfather in 1539. The family of Guzman 
was originally lords of Abiados, on the southern slope of the 
Picos de Europa in the hill country of Leon. The name it 
believed to be a contraction or corruption of Gundamaris, t.e. 
son of Gundamar. An early family tradition represents them 
as having come from Britain, and they may have descended from 
one of the Scandinavian invaders who attacked the north coast 
of Spain in the loth century. It is in the loth century that they 
first appear, and they grew great by the reconquest of the 
country from the Mahommedans. The branch to which the 
dukes of Medina Sidonia belonged was founded by Alonso Peret 
de Guzman (i 256-1309), sumamed El Bueno, the good, in the 
sense of good at need, or stout-hearted. In 1296 he defended 
the town of Tarifa on behalf of Sancho IV., and when the be- 
siegers threatened to murder one of his sons whom they held as 
a prisoner if he did not surrender, he allowed the boy to be killed. 
He was rewarded by great grants of crown land. The dudiy of 
Medina Sidonia. the oldest in Spain, was conferred by John II. 
in 1445 on one of his descendants, Juan Alonzo de Guzman, 
count of Niebla. The addition " £1 Bueno " to the family name 
of Guzman was used by several of the house, which included 
many statesmen, generals and colonial viceroys.^ The 7th 
duke was betrothed in 1 565 to Ana de Silva y Mendoza, who was 
then four years of age, the daughter of the prince of Eboli. In 
IS? 2 when the duchess was a little more than ten years of age, 
the pope granted a dispensation for the consummation of the 
marriage. The scandal of the time, for which there appears to 
be no foundation, accused Philip II. of a love intrigue with the 
princess of Eboli. The unvarying and unmerited favour he 
showed the duke has been accounted for on the ground that be 

* The titles and grandeeship passed, in accordance with CaatiKaa 
law, by marriage of a daughter and heiress in 1777. to the marqucH 
of Villafranca. and have since remained in that house. 



tDok a paternal interest in the duchess. Don Alonso, though he 

boie the name of El Bueno, was a man of mean spirit. He made 

DO serious effort to save his mother-in-law from the persecution 

ihe suffered at the hands of Philip IL His correspondence is 

fall of whining complaints of poverty, and appeals to the king 

for pecuniary favours. In 1581 he was created a knight of the 

Golden Fleece, and was named captain-general of Lomhardy. 

By pressing supplications to the king he got himself exempted 

on the ground of poverty and poor health. Yet when the 

marquess of Santa Cruz (q.v.) died, on the 9th of February 1588, 

Philip insisted on appointing him to the command of the Armada. 

He was chosen even before Santa Cnu was actually dead, and 

was forced to go in spite of his piteous declarations that he had 

neither experience nor capacity, and was always sick at sea. His 

conduct ol the Armada justified his plea. He was even accused 

ol showing want of personal courage, and was completely broken 

by the sufferings of the campaign, which turned his hair grey. 

ilie duke retained his posts of " admiral of the ocean " and 

captain-general of Andalusia in spite of the contempt openly 

cspressed for him by the whole nation. When an English and 

Datch armament assailed Cadiz in 1596 his sloth and timidity 

were largely responsible for the loss of the place. He was held 

«p to ridkule by Cervantes in a sonnet. Yet the royal favour 

coDiinned nnabated even under the successor of Philip II. In 

1606 the obstinacy and folly of the duke caused the loss of a 

sqoadron which was destroyed near Gibraltar by the Dutch. 

Hedkd in 1615. 

See CeBsrio Duro, La Armada invincible (Madrid, 1884), which 
gives Bumerous references to authorities. 

■ZDIXA nOOIfIA, or MsoiNASiDOinA, a town of southern 
%UD, in the province of Cadiz, 21 m. by road E.S.E. of Cadiz. 
hip. (xgoo), 11,040. Medina Sidonia is built on an isolated 
M surrounded by a ctiltivated plain. It contains a fine Gothic 
church, several convents, and the ancestral palace of the dukes of 
Medina Sidonia. It has a small agricultural trade, chiefly in 
vheat, olives and oats. 

Medina Sidonia has been identified by some with the Asido 
of Pliny, but this is uncertain. Under the Visigoths the place 
vxs erected into a bishopric (Assidonia), and attained some 
unportance; in the beginning of the 8th century it was taken by 
Tariq. In the time of Idrisi (12th century) the province of 
Skadlbta or Skidona included, among other towns, Seville and 
Carmona; later Arab geographers place ShadHna in the province 
of Seville. 

HEDIOlAinni, or Mediolanium (mod. Milan, q.v.), an ancient 
city of Italy, and the most important in Gallia Transpadana. 
LJvy attributes its foundation to the Galii Insubrcs under 
Beilovesus after their defeat of the Etruscans, in the time of the 
older Tarquin. According to other authorities, the Etruscan 
city of Melpum which preceded it was destroyed in 396 B.C. 
Objecu of the Bronze age have been found outside the city on 
the south. The name itself is Celtic. The Romans defeated the 
losubres in 225-223 B.C., and stormed Mediolanum itself in the 
latter year. Its inhabitants rebelled some twenty years later in 
the Hannibalic War, but were defeated and finally reduced to 
obedience in 196 B.C. They probably acquired Latin rights in 
89, and full civic rights in 49 B.C., as did those of the other towns 
of Gallia Transpadana. It appears later on (but not before the 
3cd century aj>.) to have become a colony It acquired a 
certain amount of literary eminence, for we bear of youths going 
from Comum to Mediolanum to study. In Strabo's time it was 
00 an equality with Verona, but smaller than Patavium, but in 
the later times of the empire its importance increased. At the 
end of the 3rd century it became the seat of the governor of 
Aemilia and Liguria (which then included Gallia Transpadana 
also, thus consisting of the 9th and nth regions of Augustus), 
sad at the end of the 4th, of the governor of Liguria only, 
Aemilia having one of its own thenceforth. From Diocletian's 
tiaie miwards the praefectus praetorio and the imperial vicar of 
Italy abo had their seat here: and it became one of the principal 
ffints of the empire. The emperors of the West resided at 
num during the 4th centuiy, until Honorius preferred 

Ravenna, and in 402 transferred his court there. Its importance, 
described in the poems of Ausonius, is demonstrated by its 
many inscriptions, and the interest and variety of their contents. 
In these the rarity of the mention of its chief magistrates is 
surprising: and it is not impossible that owing to its very impor- 
tance the right of appointing them had been taken from it (as 
Mommsen thinks). The case of Ravenna is not dissimilar. 
The inscriptions indicate a strong Celtic character in the popula- 
tion. Procopius speaks of it as the first city of the West, after 
Rome, and says that when it was captured by the Goths in 539, 
300,000 of the inhabitants were killed. It was an important 
centre of traffic, from which roads radiated in several directions 
—as railways do to-day — to Comum, to the foot of the Lacus 
Verbanus (Lago Maggiore), to Novaria and Vercellae, to Ticinum, 
to Laus Pompeia and thence to Placentia and Cremona, and to 
Bcrgomum. None of these roads had an individual name, so 
far as we know. To its secular power corresponds the indepen- 
dent position which its Church took in the time of St Ambrose 
{q.v.), bishop of Milan in 374-397, who founded the church 
which bears his name, and here baptized St Augustine in a.d. 
387, and whose rite is still in use throughout the diocese. Theo- 
dosius indeed did penance here at Ambrose's bidding for his 
slaughter of the people of Thessalonica. After his death the 
period of invasions begins; and Milan felt the power of the Huns 
under Attila (452), of the Heruli under Odoacer (476) and of the 
Goths under Thcodoric (493). When Belisarius was sent by 
Justinian to recover Italy, Datius, the archbishop of Milan, 
joined him, and the Goths were expelled from the city. But 
Uraia, nephew of Vitigis the Gothic king, subsequently assaulted 
and retook the town, after a brave resistance. Uraia destroyed 
the whole of Milan in 539; and hence it is that this city, once so 
important a centre of Roman civilization, possesses so few 
remains of antiquity. Narses, in his campaigns against the 
Goths, had invited the Lombards to his aid. They came in a 
body under Alboin, their king, in 568, and were soon masters of 
north Italy. They entered Milan in the next year, but Pavia 
became the Lombard capital. 

Of Roman remains little is to be seen above ground, but 
a portico of sixteen Corinthian columns near S. Lorenzo, 
which may belong to the baths of Hercules, mentioned by 
AusQnius, or to the palace of Maximian. Close to the Torre 
del Carrobio remains of an ancient bridge and (possibly) 
of the walls of Maximian were found: and many remains 
of ancient buildings, including a theatre, have been dis- 
covered below ground-level. The objects found are preserved 
in the archaeological museum in the Castello Sforzesco. (See 


See Th. Mommsen in Corp. inscript. Latin. (Berlin. 1883), v. 617 
sqq. (with full bibliography) ; Nolixie degli Scavi, passim. 

(J. As.) 

MEDITERRANEAN SEA. The Mediterranean is all that 
remains of a great ocean which at an early geological epoch, 
before the formation of the Atlantic, encircled half the globe 
along a line of latitude. This ocean, already diminished in 
area, retreated after Oligocene times from the Iranian plateau, 
Turkestan, Asia Minor and the region of the north-west Alps. 
Next the plains of eastern Europe were lost, then the AraJo- 
Caspian region, southern Russia and finally the valley of the 
Danube. The " Mediterranean region," as a geographical 
unit, includes all this area; the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmora 
are within its submerged portion, and the climate of the whole 
is controlled by the oceanic influences of the Mediterranean 
Sea. Professor Suess, to whom the above description is due, 
finds that the Mediterranean forms no exception to the rule in 
affording no evidcnceof elevation or depression within historic 
times; but it is noteworthy that its present basin is remarkable 
in Europe for its volcanic and seismic activity. Submarine 
earthquakes are in some parts sufficiently frequent and violent 
as seriously to interfere with the working of telegraph cables. 
Suess divides the Mediterranean basin into four physical regions, 
which aflord probably the best means of description : (i) The 
western Mediterranean, from Gibraltar to Malta and Sicil/, 



enclosed by the Apennines, the mountains of northern Africa, 
and of southern and south-eastern Spain (CordUUre hitique). 
(2) The Adriatic, occupying the space between the Apennines 
and the Dinaric group (Suess compares the Adriatic to the valley 
of the Brahmaputra). (3) A part surrounded by the fragments 
of the Dinaro-Taurus arch, especially by Crete and Cyprus. 
This includes the Aegean and the Black Sea, and its margin 
skirts the south coast of Asia Minor. These three parts belong 
strictly to Eurasia. (4) Part of the coastal region of Indo- 
Africa, terraced downwards in successive horizontal planes 
from the Shot, reaching the sea in the Little Syrte, and con- 
tinuing to the southern depressions of S3rria. Malta and 
Gozo are the only islands of the Mediterranean which can be 
associated with this section, and, per contra, the mountain 
chain of north-west Africa belongs to Eurasia. Murray 
(1888) estimates the total area of the Mediterranean at 
813,000 sq. m. Karstens (1894) breaks it up into parts as 
follows: — 

Western Mediterranean 811,593 sq. km. 

• Sicilian-Ionian basin . . 767,058 „ 

Greece and Levant basin 769,652 „ 

Adriatic Sea .... 130,656 ,. 



A more recent calculation by Krtimmel gives the total area 
u 2,967,570 sq. km. or 1,145,830 sq. m. (See Ocean.) Murray 
estimates the total surface of the Mediterranean drainage area, 
with which must be included the Black Sea, at 2,934,500 sq. m., 
of which 1,420,800 are Eurasian and 1,5x3,800 are African. 
The principal rivers entering the Mediterranean directly are 
the Nile from Africa, and the Po, jlhone and Ebro from 

The physical divisions of the Mediterranean given above hold 
good in describing the form of the sea-bed. The western 
Mediterranean is cut off by a bank crossing the narrow strait 
between Sicily and Cape Bon, usually known as the Adventure 
Bank, on which the depth is nowhere 200 fathoms. The mean 
depth of the western basin is estimated at 881 fathoms, and 
the deepest sounding recorded is 2040 fathoms. In the eastern 
Mediterranean the mean depth is nearly the same as in the 
western basin. The Sicilian-Ionian basin has a mean depth of 
885 fathoms, and the Levant basin, 793 fathoms. Deep water 
is found close up to the coast of Sicily, Greece, Crete and the edge 
of the African plateau. The steepest slope observed occurs off 
the island of Sapienza, near Navarino, where 1720 fathoms has 
been obtained only xo miles from land. In 1897 the ship 
" Washington " obtained depths of 2220 fathoms in the middle 
of the eastern Mediterranean; and the Austrian expeditions in 
the " Pola •* discovered in the " Pola Deep " (35" 44' N., 21"' 45' 
£.), south-west of Cape Matapan, a maximum depth of 2046 
fathoms. Between these two deep areas a ridge runs in a 
north-westerly direction 550 fathoms from the surface— possibly 
a projection from the African plateau. Another bank iioo 
fathoms from the surface runs south from the east end of Crete, 
separating the Pola Deep from the depths of the Levant basin, 
in which a depth of i960 fathoms was recorded near Makri on 
the coast of Asia Minor. The later e]Q>edition of the " Pola ** 
discovered the " Rhodes Deep " (36" 5' N., 28' 36' E.), with a 
maximum depth of 21 10 fathoms: this deep is closed to the 
south-east by a ridge running south-east, over which the depth 
is 1050 fathoms. Off the coast of Syria the " Pola " obuincd 
four soundings of more than xioo fathoms, and between Cyprus 
and the coast of Asia Minor only two over 550 fathoms. Murray 
gives the following figures for the areas and volumes of the 
Mediterranean at different depths:— 





Sq. Miles. 

Cub. Miles. 

0- 100 



100- 500 









Over 2000 





which gives a mean depth over all of 768 fathoms. Thefdbwii^ 
table is due to Karstens: — 

Volume. Mean Depth. 

Cub. Km. Fathoms. 

Western Mediterranean 1*356,512 881 

Sicilian-Ionian basin 1,242,549 885 

Levant if 116,599 793 

Adriatic Sea 3I1844 135 

Krtimmel gives the total volume of the basin as 4,249,020 cubic 
kilometres or 1,019,400 cubic statute miles, and the mean dq>Ui 
as 782 fathoms. (See Ocean.) 

MeUorologpf. — As already stated, ^he " Mediterranean .^ 

forms a distinct climatic unit, chiefly due to the form and position 
of the Mediterranean Sea. The prevailing winds in this regioa, 
which the sea traverses longitudinally, are wttteriy, but the aea 
itself causes the formation of bands of low barometric pressure 
during the winter season, within which cyclonic disturtMtnces 
frequently develop, while in summer the r^on comes under the 
influence of the polar margiA of the tropical high pressure belc 
Hence the Mediterranean region is characteristically one of winter 
rains, the distinctive feature becoming less sharply defined from 
south to north, and the amount of total annual fail increasu^ in 
the same direction. The climate becomes more continental in type 
from west to east, but there aue great local irregularities — the ele- 
vated plateaus of Algeria and Spain cause a rise of pressure in wi.^ter 
and delay the rainy seasons: the rains set in eaulier in the west 
than in the east, and the total fall is greater. Temperature varies 
greatly, the annual mean varying from 56* F. to 77* F. In the 
west the Atlantic influence limits the mean annual range to about 
10"— 12" F.. but in iht ta^t this increases to 36* and even 40'- 
Autumn is warmiirr than sprtrijf^ especially in the tioAstai regiorts^ 
and this is exa^gc'^'il in the vafitcrn region by local L^nd vindi, 
which replace tnc ctxil Ka-brcCf^'^ of summer: Dvtrco4ts are ordi' 
narily worn in Spaiii and haly till Juty, and trc thtn put aside till 
October. Local winds lorm an important leaiurc iti nearly all 
the coast climate^ of the Mrdi^errB^ntan, FipecLaMy In wintEr, whtnt 
they are primarily caused by the rapid change gf (timperattire 
from the sea to the tnow-clad tiinterlandft. Cold dry windi, olteii 
of great violence, txrcui- in the Rhone valley (tht Mi$tral}, in tM.m, 
and Dalmatia (the Bora}, and in the wcfltern CaiJca«JJ>, In mmmrr 
a north-west " trade " wind^ the Maeitm, occurs in the Adriatic 
The Sirocco is a cyclonic wind charactcriittc of thr winter rainy 
season: in the Adriatic it Li usually accdrnp^nicd by cloud «nd 
moisture, often by rain. In Sicily and southern Italy the Sirocco 
occurs at all sca^n?.; it ij a dry, du^iy wind from »uth-<easi or 
south-west. The do^t i^ chiefly of local oHfiin, but partly comes 
from the Sahara- Similar wind* ine met with in Spain tthe Lev*ch*), 
but they reach their pircate^t dtrvelapment in the Simoo^i of Alfens 
and Syria, and the Kham>in cf E^ypt. 

Temperature.— Thv mean surface temperature ol the watets cX 
the Mcditcrran* ^ "; ' '1'-^ f-c^r^ ^'-ith-^-nM, whene it 14 over 70* F,, to 
north-west, the ■ ^ the Crulf of Lyons Mnsfio*. 

The isothermal of 65'' runs from Gibraltar to the north of Sarainia, 
and thence by the Strait of Messina to the Gulf of Corinth. A 
similar distribution is found 1 00 fathoms from the surface, tempera- 
ture falling from 60* in the Levant to 55* east of Gibraltar. At 
200 fathoms temperature falls in the same way from ^* to s«*, 
but below 250 fathoms temperatures are practically uniform to the 
bottom, SS'S" in the western basin and 56*5* in the eastern. The 
bottom temperature observed in the Pola Deep was 56-3*. 

Salinity. — In the extreme west the salinity of the surface water 

is about '36*3 per mille. and it increases eastwards to 37*6 east of 
Sardinia and ^9*0 and upwards in the Levant. Observations of 
salinity in the depths of the western Mediterranean are very deficient. 

but the average is probably between 38-0 and 385. In the eastern 
basin the " Pola " expedition observed salinities of 38-7 to 39*0 to the 
east of a line joining Cape Matapan with Alexandria, and 38'2 to 
387 to the west of it. The Salter watere apparently tend to make 
their way westwards close to the African coast, and at the bottom 
the highest salinities have been observed south of Crete. Evnitaki 
states that the saltest water of the whole basin occurs in the A^ean 

Circii/fl/ttm.— There is little definite circulation of water within 
the Mediterranean itself. In the straits joining it with the Atlantic 
and the Black Sea the fresher surface waters of these seas flow 
inwards to assist in making good the loss by evaporatkm at the 
surface of the Mediterranean, and in both cases dense water makes 
its way outwards along the bottom of the channels, the outflowing 
currents being less in volume and delivery than the inflowing. 
Elsewhere local surface currents are developed, either drifts due 
to the direct action of the winds, or streams produced by wind 
action heapine water up against the land ; but these nowhere rise to 
the dignitv of a distinct current system, although they are often 
sufficient to obliterate the feeble tidal action charactenstk: of the 
Mediterranean. Dr Nattcrer, the chemist of the " Pola " expeditions, 
has expressed the opinion that the poverty of the pelagic fauna 
is solely due to the want of circulation in the depths. 



DtpuHx. — ^A great part of the bottom of the Mediterranean is 
cowt r ed with blue muds, frequently with a yellow upper layer 
containing a considerable proportion of carbonate of lime, chiefly 
shells of pelagk Foraminifera. In many parts, particularly in 
the eastern basin, a calcareous or siliceous crust, from half an inch 
to three inches in thickness, is met with; and Natterer sug^e^ed 
that the formation of this crust may be due to the production of 
carbonate of ammonium where deposits containing or^nic matter 
are undergoing oxidation, and the consequent precipitation of 
oibooate of time and other substances from the waters nearer 
the surface. This view, however, has not met with general 
aocepiance. (H. N. D.) 

■EDIUlf, primarily a person through whom, as an inter- 
nediate, communication is deemed to be carried on between 
Gving men and spirits of the departed, according to the spiritistic 
bypothcss; such a person is better termed sensitive or auto- 
natist. The phenomena of mediumship fall into two classes, 
(i) ** physical phenomena ** {q,v.) and (2) trance and automatic 
phenomena (utterances, script, &c); both these may be mani- 
fetfed by the same person, as in the case of D. D. Home and 
Stainton Moses, but are often independent. 

L No sufficient mass of observations is to hand to enable us 
to distinguish between the results of trickery or hallucination 
w the one hand, and genuine supernormal phenomena on the 
other; but the evidence for raps and lights is good; competent 
observers have witnessed supposed materializations and there 
ii lespectabfe evidence for movements of objects. 

Mediumship in the modem sense of the term may be said to 
have originated with the Rochester rappbgs of 1848 (see 
SnuTUAUSv); but similar phenomena had been reported by 
foch authors as ApoUonius of Tyana; they figure frequently in 
the Hves of the saints; and the magician in the lower stages of 
cihure is in many respects a counterpart of the white medium. 
Among physical mediums who have attained celebrity may be 
OKOtioned D. D. Home {q.v.), Stainton Moses and Eusapia 
hdbdino; the last has admittedly been fraudulent at times, 
bol no deceit was ever proved of Home; Stainton Moses sat in a 
private circle and no suspicion of his good faith was ever aroused. 
W. Stainton Moses (1839-189 2) was a man of university educa- 
tkm, a clergyman aund a schoolmaster. In 1872 he became 
mterested in spiritualism and soon began to manifest medium- 
isttc phenomena,which continued for some ten years. These 
included, besides trance communications, raps, telekinesis, 
levitation, production of lights, perfumes and musical sounds, 
apports and materialized hands. But the conditions under 
iriiich the experiments were tried were not sufficiently rigid to 
exdude the possibility of normal causes being at work; for no 
smount of evidence that the normal life is marked by no lapse 
from rectitude affords a presumption that uprightness will 
duxacterizc States of secondary personality. 

Eusapia Palladino has been observed by Sir O. Lodge, Pro- 
fessor Richet, F. W. H. Myers, and other eminent investigators; 
the first named reported that none of the phenomena in his 
\ went beyond what could be accomplished in a normal 
r by a free and uncontrolled person; but he was convinced 
that movements were produced without apparent contact. 
Amof^ other phenomena asserted to characterize the medium- 
diip <A Eusapia are the production of temporary prolongations 
from the medium's body; these have been seen in a good light 
by competent witnesses. It was shown in some sittings held 
at Cambridge in 1895 that Eusapia produced phenomena by 
fraudulent means: but though the evidence of this is conclusive 
it has not been shown that her mediumship is entirely fraudulent. 
Automatic records of seances can alone solve the problems 
raised by physical mediumship. It has been shown in the Davey- 
Hodgson experiments that continuous observation, even for a 
short period, is impossible, and that in the process of recording 
Hx observations many omissions and errors are inevitable. 
Even were it otherwise, no care could provide against the 
possibility of hallucination. 

H. The genuineness of trance mediumship can no longer be 
called in question. The problem for solution is the source of 
the information. The best observed case is that of Mrs Piper 
of Bostooi at the outset of her career, in 1884, she did not differ 

from the ordinary American trance medium. In 1885 the 
attention of Professor William James of Harvard was attracted 
to her; and for twenty years she remained under the supervision 
of the Society for Psychical Research. During that period three 
phases may be distinguished: (i) 1 884-1 891, trance utterances 
of a ** control " calling himself Dr Phinuit, a French physician, 
of whose existence in the body no trace can be found; (2) 
1892-1896, automatic writing by a '* control " known as " George 
Pelham," the pseudonym of a young American author; (3) 
1896 onwards, supervision by " controls " purporting to be 
identical with those associated with Stainton Moses. There is 
no evidence for regarding Mrs Piper as anything but absolutely 
honest. Much of the Piper material remains unpublished, 
partly on account of its intimate character. Many of those to 
whom the communications were made have been convinced 
that the " controls " are none other than discamate spirits. 
Probably no absolute proof of identity can be given, though the 
reading of sealed letters would come near it; these have been left 
by more than one prominent psychical researcher, but so far 
the " controls " who claim to be the writers of them have failed 
to give their contents, even approximately. 

Professor Floumoy has investigated a medium of very differ- 
ent type, known as H^lene Smith; against her good faith nothing 
can be urged, but her phenomena — trance utterance and glosso- 
lalia — have undoubtedly been produced by her own mind. 
These represent her to be the reincarnation of a Hindu princess, 
and of Marie Antoinette among others, but no evidence of 
identity has been produced. The most striking phenomenoh 
of her trance was the so-called Martian language, eventually 
shown by analysis to be a derivative of French, comparable 
to the languages invented by children in the nursery, but more 

AuTHORiTrES,— F. W. H. Myers, Human Personality; F. Podmore, 
Modem Sptrilualism; the Proceedings and Journal of the Society 
for Psychical Research, passim; for a convenient survey of the 
Piper case, see F. Sage, Madame Piper; J. Maxwell. Les Phi-, 
nomknes psychioues (1903; Ene. trans. 1905); Th. Flournov. Des 
Indes d la planku Mars. For fraudulent methods, sec Confessions 
of a Medium (London. 1883); TrucfKlell. Bottom Facts of Spiritualismt 
and works cited by Myers, II., 502-503. (N. W. T.) 

MEOJIDIE, or Mejidie. the name of a military and knightly 
order of the Turkish Empire, and also of a silver Turkish coin, 
worth twenty piastres. The coin was first struck in 1844, and 
the order was instituted in 1852 by the sultan Abd-ul-Mejid, 
whose name was therefore given to them. (See Knighthood 
AND Chivalry: $ Orders of Knighthood.) 

MEDLAR, MespUus germanica, a tree of the tribe Pomeae of 
the order Rosaceae, closely allied to the genus Pyrus, in which it 
is sometimes included; it is a native of European woods, &c., 
from Holland southwards, and of western Asia. It occurs in 
hedges, &c., in middle and south England, as a small, much- 
branched, deciduous, spinous tree, but is not indigenous. The 
medlar was well known to the ancients. Pickering {Chron. Hist. 
PI. p. 201) identifies it with a tree mentioned in a Siao-ya ode 
{She-King, ii. i, 2), 827 B.C. It is the luov'ikri of Theophrastus 
and MespUus of Pliny. The Latin mespilus or mespilum became 
in Old French mesle or medic, "the fruit," meslier, medlier, "the 
tree." The modern French ntfle is from a corruption nespilum of 
the Latin. The German Mispel preserves the original more closely. 
The well-known fruit is globular, but depressed above, with 
leafy persistent sepals, and contains stones of a hemispherical 
shape. It is not fit to eat until it begins to decay and becomes 
" bletted," when it has an agreeable acid and somewhat astrin- 
gent flavour. Several varieties are known in cultivation. . The 
large Dutch medlar, which is very widely cultivated, has a 
naturally crooked growth; the large, much-flattened fruit is 
inferior in quality to the Nottingham, which is a tree of upright 
habit with fruits of about i in. diameter, superior to any other 
variety. There is also a stonelcss variety with still smaller 
fruits, but the quality is not so good. 

The medlar is propagated by budding or grafting upon the 
white-thorn, which is most suitable if the soil is dry and sandy, 
or on the quince if the soil is moist; the pear slock also succeeds 



well on ordinary aoib. It produces the best fruit in rich, loamy, 
iomewhat moist ground. The tree may be grown as a standard, 
and chiefly requires pruning to prevent the branches from rub- 
bing each other. The fruit should be gathered in November, 
on a dry day, and laid out upon shelves. It becomes " bletted " 
and fit for use in two or three weeks. The Japanese medlar is 
Eriobotrya japonica (see Loquat), a genus of the same tribe of 

1|6dOC, a district in France adjoining the left bank of the 
Crironde from Blanquefort (N. of Bordeaux) to the mouth of 
the Gironde. Its length is about 50 m., its breadth averages 
between 6 and 7 m. It is formed by a number of low hills, 
which separate the Landes from the Gironde, and is traversed 
only by small streams; the Gironde itself is muddy, and oftfen 
enveloped in fog, and the region as a whole is far from 
picturesque. Large areas of its soil are occupied by vineyards, 
the products of which form the finest growths of Bordeaux. 
(See WiKE.) 

MEDUSA, the name given by zoologists to the familiar marine 
animals known popularly as jelly-fishes; or, to be more accurate, 
to those jelly-fi&hcs^ in which the form of the body resembles 
that of an umbrella, bell or parachute. The name medusa is 
suggested by the tentacles, usually long and often numerous, 
implanted on the edge of the umbrella and bear the stinging 
organs of which sea-bathers are often disagreeably aware. The 
tentacles serve for the capture of prey and are very contractile, 
being often protruded to a great length or, on the other hand, 
retracted and forming corkscrew-like curls. Hence the animals 
have suggested to vivid imaginations the head of the fabled 
Gorgon or Medusa with her chevdure of writhing snakes. 

The medusa occurs as one type of individual in the class 
Hydrozoa {q.v.)^ the other type being the polyp {q.v.). In a 
typical medusa we can distinguish the following parts. The 
umbrella-like body bears a circle of tentacles at the edge, whereby 
the body can be divided into a convex exumbreJla or exumbral 
surface and a concave subumbrella or subumbral surface. The 
vast majority of jelly-fish float in the sea, with the exumbrclia 
upwards, the subumbrella downwards. A few species, however, 
attach themselves temporarily or permanently to some firm 
object by the exumbral surface of the body, and then the sub- 
umbral surface is directed upwards. From the centre of the 
subumbral surface hangs down the manubrium, like the handle 
of an umbrella or the clapper of a bell, bearing the mouth at its 
extremity. In addition to the tentacles, the margin of the 
\imbrella bears sense-organs, which may be of several kinds 
and may attain a high degree of complexity. 

Medusae capture their prey, consisting of small organisms of 
various kinds, especially Crustacea, by means of the tentacles 
which hang out like fishing-lines in all directions. When the 
prey comes into contact with the tentacles it is paralysed, and 
at the same time held firmly, by the barbed threads shot out 
from the stinging organs or ncmatocysts. Then by contraction 
of the tentacles the prey is drawn into the mouth. Medusae 
thus form an. important constituent of the plankton or floating 
fauna of the ocean, and compete with fish and other animals for 
the food-supply furnished by minuter forms of life. 

A medusa has a layer of muscles, more or less strongly 
developed, running in a circular direction on the surface of the 
subumbrella, the contractions of which are antagonized by the 
elasticity of the gelatinous substance of the body. By the con- 
traction of the subumbral circular muscles the concavity of the 
subumbrella is increased, and as water is thereby forced out of 
the subumbral cavity the animal is jerked upwards. In this 
way jelly-fish progress feebly by the pumping movements of 
the umbrella. Besides the circular subumbral muscles, there 
may be others running in a radial direction, chiefly developed 
as the longitudinal retractor muscles of the manubrium. In 
some cases the circular subumbral muscles form a rim known as 
the velum (v., see fig. i), projecting into the subumbral cavity just 
within the ring of marginal tentacles. The two principal 

'The jrooscbcrry-like or band-shaped jelly-fishes belong to the 
class Ctenophora (9.V.). 

divisions of the medusae are characteriied by the presence or 
absence of a velum. 

Correlated with the well-developed muscular system and 
sense-organs of the medusa, we find also a distinct nervous 
system, either, when there is no velum, in the form of concentra- 
tions of nervous matter in the vicinity of each sense-organ, or, 
when a velum is present, as two continuous rings running round 
the margin of the umbrella, one external to the velum (exumbral 
nerve-ring, n>*, see fig. i), the other internal to it (subumbral 
nerve-ring, »./*.). The exumbral nerve-ring is the larger and 
supplies the tentacles; the subumbral ring supplies the velum. 

Evei^ posMble variety of body-form compatible with the fore- 
going description may be exhibited by different species of medusae. 
The Dody may show modifications 01 form which can be compared 
to a shallow saucer, a cup, a bell or a thimble. The marginal 
tentacles may be very numerous or may be few in number or even 
absent alt(»cther; and they may be simple filaments, or branched 
in a complicated manner. The manubrium may be excessively 
long or very short, and in rare cases absent, the mouth then being 
flush with the subumbral surface. The mouth may be circular or 
four-cornered, and in the latter case the manubrium at the angles 
of the mouth may become drawn out into four lappets, the oral 
arms, each with a groove on its inner side continuous with the comer 


Fig. I. 
Diagram of the structure of a medusa : the ectoderm is left clear, 
the cndodcrm is dotted, the mcsogloca is shaded black; 0-6. 
principal axis (sec Hydrozoa); to the left of this line the section 
IS supposed to paits throueh an inter-radius (I.R.); to the right 
through a radius (R). The exumbral surface is upperntost, the 
subumbral surface, with the manubrium and mouth, is facing 

St. Stomach. G. Gonads. 

rx. Radial canal. fi.r.' Exumbral (so-called 

ex. Circular or ring-canal. upper) nerve-ring. 

e.t. Endoderm-lamclla. n.r.* Subumbral (so-called 

V. Velum. k>wer) nerve-ring. 

(For other figures of medusae see Hydrozoa.) 

of the mouth. The oral arms are the starting-point of a further 
series of variations: they may be simple flaps, crinkled and folded 
in various ways, or they maybe subdivided, and then the branches 
may simulate tentacles in appearance. In the genus Rkisostomat 
common on the British coasts and conspicuous on account of its 
large size, the oral arms, originally distmct and four in number, 
undergo concrescence, so that the entrance to the mouth is reduced 
to numerous fine pores and canals.* 

Like the external structure, the internal anatomy of the medusa 
shows a complete radial symmetry, and is simple in plan but often 
complicated m detail (sec fig. i). As in all Hydrozoa (g.v.) the body 
wall is composed of two cell-layers, the ectoderm and endodcrm. 
between which is a structureless gelatinous secreted layer, the 
mesogloea. As the name jelly-fish implies, the mesogloea is greatly 
developed and abundant in quantity. It may be traveraed by 
processes of the cells of the ectoderm and cndoderm, or it may 
conuin cells which have migrated into it from these two layers. 
The ectoderm covers the whole external surface of the animal, 
while the endodcrm lines the coelentcron or gastrovascular space; 
the two layers meet each other, and become continuous, at the edge 
of the mouth. 

The mouth leads at once into the true digestive cavity, divisible 
into an oesophageal region in the manubrium and a more dilated 
cavity, the stomach (sL), occupying the centre of the umbrella. 
From the stomach, canals arise termed the radial canals (rx.); 
typically four in number, they run in a radial direction to the edge 

* For other variations of the medusa, often of importance for 
systematic classification, see Hyoeomeousai and ScyrHOaiKoasA& 



of the anibrelh. There the ndtal cuiali ak loined by a nng- 
canal icx.) which runs nwnd the margin or the umbrclb. From 
the ring-canal are given off tentacle<anals which run down the 
am of each tentacK; in many cases, howc'vtr, tht cavity of the 
tcntaclr is obliterated and instead of a can^l the tentacle cgnuiris 
a solid cove of endoderro. Oesophagus, »tOTnacb. ndial caiuli, 
ring-canal and tentacle<anals. constitute t[:isfihcr the enttro- 
"Vascular system and are lined throughout by rndcKkmi^ which 
forms also a Bat sheet of cells connecting: the radb! can,ifs and 
rioff canal to^^ether like a web; this is the ' ' 'I > f r' r . . . ' : ^tUa 
ifJ.), a most important feature of medusan morpholoey. the nature 
cf wUch win be apparent when the development is described. As 
a Benerat rule the mouth is the only aperture of the gastrovascular 
ijrstem: in a few cases, however, excretory pores are found on the 
raw-canal, but there b never any anal opening. 

The sense-organs ci medusae are of two classes: (i) pigment 
^»ts, sensitive to light, termed oceUi, which may become ebiborated 
iato eye-like structures with lens, retina and vitreous body: 
U) organs of the sense of balance or orientation, commonly termed 
«t$cysis or st^ocysU, The sense-organs are always situated at the 
■argia of the unbrdla and may be distinguished from the morpho- 
logiol point of view into two categories, according as they are,' or 
ue sot, derived from. modifications of tentacles; in the former case 
they are termed tenlaculocysts, (For fuller information upon the 
lense-organs sec Hydbomedusab.) 

Medusae are neariy alwa^of separate sexes, and instances of 
kemufdiroditism are tare. The gonads or generative oreans may 
be prMuced either in tlw ectodeirm or the cndoderm. When the 
fonads are endodermal. they are formed on the floor of the stontach : 
vhen ectodermal (G, see fig. i}, they are formed on the subumbral 
Mirface. either on the manubrium or under the stomach or under 
the radial canals, or in more than one of these regions. Medusae 
often have the power of budding, and the buds are formed either 
oa tbe manubrium, or at the margin of the umbrella, or on an out- 
growth or " stolon '* produced from the cxumbral surface. 

The internal anatomy of the medusa is as variable as its external 
features. The roouth may lead directly into the stomach, without 
any oesophagus. The stomach may be situated in the disk, or 
stay be drawn out into the base of the manubrium, so that the 
diik is occupied onlv by the radial canals. On the other hand the 
stomach may have fobcs extending to the ring-canal, so that radial 
canals may be very short or absent. The radial canals may be 
fcwr. nxfSLy six, or a multiple of these numbers, and may be very 
Bonerous. They may be rimple or branched. (For other ana- 
tonical variations see Hvdromedusab and Scyphomedusab.) 

In development the medusa can be derived ea&ily by a process 
of differential growth, combined with concrescence of cell-layers, 
from the actinuu-larva. (For figures see Hydrozoa.) The actmula 
is polyp-like, with a sack-like or rounded body; a crown of tentacles 
nrrounds a wide peristome, in the centre of which is the mouth, 
BMially raised on a conical process termed the hypostome. To 
produce a medusa the actinula grows greatly along a plane at right 
angles to the vertical axis of the bodv, whereby tnc aboral surface 
of the actinula becomes the exumbrclfa, and the peristome becomes 
the subumbrella. The crown of tentacles thus comes to form 
a fringe to the margin of the bodv, and the hvpostomc becomes 
the nunubrium. As a result of this change of form the gastric 
cavity or coclenteron becomes of compressed lenticular form, and 
the emfedcrm lining it can be distinguished as an upper or cxumbral 
lay^r and a bwer or subumbral bycr. The next event is a great 
growth in thickness of the gelatinous mesogloca, especially on the 
cxumbral side; as a result the flattened coelcnteron is still further 
compressed so that in certain spots its cavity is obliterated, and its 
exumbral and subumbral layers of endoderm come into contact 
and undergo concrescence. As a rule four such areas of concrescence 
or caUuimnutta (E. Haeckel) are formed. The cathammal areas 
Buy remain very small, mere wedge-shaped partitions dividing 
up the coelcnteron into a four-lobed stomach, the lobes of* which 
communicate at the periphery of the body b^ a spacious ring-canal. 
More usually each cathamma is a wide triangular area, reducing 
tbe peripheral portion of the coelcnteron to the four narrow radial 
canals and the ring-canal above described. The two apposed 
byers of endoderm in the cathammal area undergo complete f^usion 
to form a single byer of epithelium, the endodcrm-braelb of the 
aduU medusa. 

Medusae, when they reproduce themselves by budding, always 
produce medusae, but when they reproduce by the sexual method 
tbe embryos produced from the egg grow into medusae in some 
cases, in other cases into polyps which bud medusae in their turn. 
In this way complicated cycles of alternating generations arise, 
vfaicfa are described fully in Hydromedusae and Scypiiomedusae. 
Medusae are exclusively aquatic animals and for the most part 
narine. but at least two frcsn-water species are known.* Limno- 
cedimm sowerb j i was first discovered swimming in the tank in which 
the water-lily, Victoria regia, is cultivated in Kew Gardens, and 

•C. L. Boukrnger (Proc. Zocl. Sot. of London, 1007, p. 516) 
recorded the discox-ery of a third species by himself and \V. A. 
Connington, in the brackish water 01 bkc Birkct cl Kerun in the 
igypciaa Fayum. 

has since been found tporadicaDy in a stroi&r situation in other 
bounkal gardens, its most recent appearance being ar Lille. 
These jelly-fishes are probably budded from a minute polyp-stock 
introduced with the roots of the lily. Another fresh-water form is 
Limnocnida tanganyicae, discoverea first in bke Tanganyika, and 
now known to occur also in the Vkrtoria Nyanza and in the Niger. 
A medusa with a remarkable habit of life b Mnestra parasttes, 
whkh is parasitic on the pelagic mollusc Phyiiirrkoe, attaching itself 
to the host by its subumbral surface; its tenudes. no longer required 
for obtaining food, have become rudimentary. A parasitic mode of 
life b abo seen in medusae of the senus Ciintna during the brval 
condition, but the habit b abandoned, in thb case, when tne medusae 
become adult. 

For figures of medusae see (i) E. Haeckel, " Das System der 
Medusen," Denkukriften med-natwiss. Ces, Jena (18^, a vols.); 
(2) Id.. "Deep-Sea Medusae," CkalUnger Retorts, Zoology, IV. 
pt. ii. (1883); (3) O. Maas, " Die craspcdoten Medusen," Ergehn. 
Plankton-Expedttion, II. (1801): (4) id.. " Die Medusen," Mem, 
Mus. Comt. Zool. Harvard, XXIII. (1897): (5) C. J. AUraan, "A 
Monograph of the Gymnobbstic or TuDulanan Hydroids," Ray. 
Soc, (1871-1872). (E. A. M.) 

MEDWAT, a river in the south-east of Engbnd. It rises 
in the Forest Ridges, S.W. of East Grinstead in Sussex, and, 
increased by many feeders from these picturesque hiUs, has an 
easterly course to the county boundary, which it forms, turning 
northward for a short distance. Entering Kent near Ashurst, 
its course becomes north-easterly, and thb direction b generally 
maintained to the mouth. The river passes Tonbridge, receiving 
the Eden from the west, and later the Tebe and Beult from the 
south and east, all these streams watering the rich Weald (f.v.) 
to the south of the North Downs. These hilb are breached by 
the Medway in a beautiful valley, in which lies Maidstone, 
generally much narrower than the upper valley. The charac- 
teristic structure of thb part of the valley b considered under the 
heading Downs. Below Maidstone the valley forms a perfect 
basin, the hilb descending upon it closely above Rochester. 
Below this city the river enters a broad, winding estiuiry, passing 
Chatham, and at Shcemcss joining that of the Thames, so that 
the Medway may be considered a tributary, and its drainage area 
of 680 sq. m. reckoned as part of that of the greater river. 
The length of the Medway is about 60 m., excluding its many 
lesser windings. The estuary b navigable for sea-going vessels 
drawing 24 ft. up to Rochester Bridge. A considerable trafKc 
is carried on by small vessels up to Maidstone, and by barges up to 
Tonbridge, the total length of the navigation being 43 m. The 
marshy lowlands along the course of the river have yielded exten- 
sive rtmains of Roman pottery, a plain ware of dark slate-colour. 

MEEANEB. or Miani, a village in Sind, India, on the Indus 
6 m. N. of Hyderabad. Pop. (1901), 962. It b famous as the 
scene of the battle in which Sir Charles Napier, with only 
2800 men, broke the power of the mirs of Sind on the 17th of 
February 1843. The result of thb victory was the conquest 
and annexation of Sind. 

MEEK, FIELDING BRADFORD (181 7-1876), American 
geologist and palaeontologist, the son of a lawyer, was born at 
Madison, Indiana, on the loth of December 1817. In early 
life he was in business as a merchant, but his leisure hours were 
devoted to collecting fossils and studying the rocks of the neigh- 
bourhood of Madison. Being unsuccessful in business he turned 
hb whole attention to science, and in 1848 he gained employ- 
ment on the U.S. Geological Survey in Iowa, and subsequently in 
Wisconsin and Minnesota. In 1852 he became assistant to Pro- 
fessor James Hall at Albany, and worked at palaeontology with 
him until 1858. Meanwhile in 1853 he accompanied Dr F. V. 
Hayden in an exploration of the " Bad Lands " of Dakota, and 
brought back valuable collections of fossils. In 1858 he \vent 
to Washington, where he devoted his time to the palacontological 
work of the United States geological and geographical surveys, 
hb work bearing " the stamp of the most faithful and con- 
scientious research," and raising him to the highest rank as a 
palaeontologist. Besides many separate contributions to science, 
he prepared with W. M. Gabb (1839-1878), two volumes on 
the palaeontology of California (1864-1869); and also a Report 
on the Invertebrate Cretaceous and Tertiary Fossils oj tJie Upper 
Missouri Country (1876). He died at Washington, on the 22Dd 
of December 1876. 




JAN VAN DBR (1632-1675), more often called 
Vermeer of Delft— not to be confounded with the elder (1628- 
1691) or younger (1656-1705) Van der Meer of Haarlem, or with 
Van der Meer of Utrecht— is one of the excellent Dutch painters 
about whom the Dutch biographers give us little information.* 
Van der Meer, or Vermeer, was born in Delft, and was a pupil 
of Care! Fabritius, whose junior he was by only eight years. 
The works by Fabritius are few, but his contemporaries speak 
of him as a man of remarkable power, and the paintings now 
ascertained to be from his hand, and formerly ascribed to Rem- 
brandt, prove him to have been deeply imbued with the spirit 
and manner of that master. Whether Van der Meer had ever 
any closer relation to Rembrandt than through companionship 
with Fabritius remains uncertain. In 1653 he married Catherine 
Bolenes, and in the same year he entered the gild of St Luke of 
Delft, becoming one of the heads of the gild in 1662 and again 
in 1670. He died at Delft in 1675, leaving a widow and eight 
children. His circumstances cannot have been flourishing, for 
at his death he left twenty-six pictures undi^Msed of, and his 
widow had to apply to the court of insolvency to be placed under 
a curator, who was Leeuwenhoek, the naturalist. 

For more than two centuries Van der Meer was almost com- 
pletely forgotten, and his pictures were sold under the names 
and forged -signatures of the more popular De Hooch, Metsu, 
Ter Borch, and even of Rembrandt. The attention of the art- 
world was first recalled to this most original painter by Thor6, 
an exiled Frenchman, who described his then known works in 
Musies de la HoUande (1858-1860), published under the assumed 
name of W. Barger. The result of his researches, continued in 
his Galerie Suermondl and Calerie d'Arenberg^ was afterwards 
given by him in a charming, though incomplete, monograph 
{Gazette des beaux-arU, 1866, pp. 297, 458, 542). The task was 
prosecuted with success by Havard (Les Artistes holiandais), 
and by Obreen (Nederlandsche Kunstgeschiedcnis, DI. iv.), and 
we are now in a position to refer to Van der Meer's works. His 
pictures are rarely dated, but one of the most important, in 
the Dresden Gallery, bears the date 1656, and thus gives us a 
key to his styles. With the exception of the " Christ with 
Martha and Mary " in the Coats collection at Glasgow, it is 
perhaps the only one, hitherto recognized, that has figures of 
life size, though his authorship is claimed for several others. 
The Dresden picture of a " Woman and Soldier," with other 
two figures, is painted with remarkable power and boldness, 
with great command over the resources of colour, and with 
wonderful expression of life. For strength and colour it more than 
holds its own beside the neighbouring Rembrandts. To this early 
period of his career belong, from internal evidence, the "Reading 
Giri " of the same gallery, the luminous and masterly " View of 
Delft " in the museum of the Hague, the " Milk-Woman " and 
the small street view, both identified with the Six collection at 
Amsterdam, the former now in the Rijksmuseum; the magnifi- 
cent "The Letter" also at Amsterdam, "Diana and the Nymphs" 
(formerly ascribed to Vcrmccr of Utrecht) at the Hague Gallery, 
and others. In all these we find the same brilliant style and 
vigorous work, a solid impasto, and a crisp, sparkling touch. His 
first manner seems to have been influenced by the pleiad of 
painters circling round Rembrandt, a school which lost favour 
in Holland in the last quarter of the century. During the final 
ten or twelve years of his life Van der Meer adopted a second 
manner. We now find his painting smooth and thin, and his 
colours paler and softer. Instead of masculine vigour we have 
refined delicacy and subtlety, but in both styles beauty of tone 
and perfect harmony are conspicuous. Through all his work 

*This undeserved neglect seems to have fallen on him at an 
early period, for Houbrakcn (Croole Sckauburgk, 1718), writing little 
more than forty years after his death, docs not even mention him. 
The only definite information we have from a contemporary is 
given by Bleyswijck {Beschrijving der Stad Delfl. 1687), who tells 
us that he was born in 1632, and that he worked with Carel Fabritius, 
an able disciple of Rembrandt, who lost his life by an explosion 
of a powder magazine in Delft in 1654. It is to the patient researches 
of W. BUrger (Th. Thor6), Havard, Obreen. Soutendam. and others, 
that we owe our knowledge of the main facts of his life, discovered 
in the archives of his native town. 

may be traced his love of lemon-yellow and of blue of aU shades. 
Of his second style typical examples are to be seen in ** The 
Coquette" of the Brunswick Gallery, in the "Woman Reading'* 
in the Van der Hoop collection now at the Rijksmuseum at 
Amsterdam, in the " Lady at a Casement " belonging to Lord 
Powerscourt (exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1878) and in 
the " Music Master and Pupil " belonging to the King (exhibited 
at "the Royal Academy, 1876). 

Van der Meer's authentic pictures in public and private 
collections amount to about thirty. There is but one in the 
Louvre, the "Lace Maker"; Dresden has the two afore- 
mentioned, while Berlin has three, all acquired in the Suennondt 
collection, and the Czernin Gallery of Vienna is fortunate in 
possessing a fine picture, believed to represent the artist in his 
studio. In the Arenberg Gallery at Brussels there is a remark- 
able head of a giri. half the size of life, which seems to be inter- 
mediate between his two styles. Several of his paintings are 
in private foreign collections. In all his work there is a singular 
completeness and charm. His tone is usually silvery with 
pearly shadows, and the- lighting of his interiors is equal and 
natural. In all cases his figures seem to move in light and air, 
and in this respect he resembles greatly his fellow-worker De 
Hooch. It is curious to read that, at one of the auctions in 
Amsterdam about the middle of the i8th century, a De Hooch 
Is praised as being " nearly equal to the famous Van der Meer of 

Sec also Havard, Van der Meer (Paris, 1888): Vanzype, Vermeer 
de Delfl (Brussels, 1908). and Hofstedc de Groot, Jan Vermeer von 
Delft (Leipzig, 1909). 

MBERANB, a town in the kingdom of Saxony, 9 m. N. of 
Zwickau and 37 S. of Leipzig by rail Pop. (1905), 26,005. It con- 
tains a fine medieval church (Evangelical). It is one of the most 
important industrial centres of Germany for the manufacture 
of woollen and mixed cloths, and in these products has a large 
export trade, especially to America and the Far East. There 
are also extensive dyeworks, tanneries and machine factories. 
Sec Leopold. Ckronik und Beuhteibung der Fabrik- und Handel- 
stadt Meerane (1863). 

MEERSCHAUM, a German word designating a soft white 
mineral sometimes foimd floating on the Black Sea, and rathei 
suggestive of sea-foam {Meerschaum), whence also the French 
name for the same substance, Icume de mer. It was termed 
by E. F. G locker sepiolite, in allusion to its remote resemblance 
to the " bone " of the sepia or cuttle-fish. Meerschaum is 
an opaque mineral of white, grey or cream colour, breaking 
with a conchoidal or fine earthy fracture, and occasionally 
though rarely, fibrous in texture. It can be readily scratched 
with the nail, its hardness being about 2. The specific gravity 
varies from 0988 to 1-279, but the porosity of the mineral may 
lead to error. Meerschaum is a hydrous magnesium silicate, 
with the formula HiMgzSijOio, or MgsSiiOv 2HsO. 

Most of the meerschaum of commerce is obtained from Asia 
Minor, chiefly from the plain of Eski-Shehr, on the Haidar 
Pasha-Angora railway, where it occurs in irregular nodular 
masses, in alluvial deposits, which are extensively worked for 
its extraction. It is said that in this district there are 4000 
shafts leading to horizontal galleries for extraction of the 
meerschaum. The principal workings are at Sepetdji-Odjaghi 
and Kcmikdji-Odjaghi, about 20 m. S.E. of Eski-Shehr. The 
mineral is associated with magnesite (magnesium carbonate), 
the primitive source of both minerals being a serpentine. When 
first extracted the meerschaum is soft, but it hardens on exposure 
to solar heat or when dried in a warm room. Meerschaum 
is found also, though less abundantly, in Gieece, as at Thebes, 
and in the islands of Euboca and Samos; it occurs also in 
serpentine at Hrubschitz near Kromau in Moravia. It is found 
to a limited extent at certain localities in France and Spain, 
and is known in Morocco. In the United States it occurs in 
serpentine in Pennsylvania (as at Nottingham, Chester county) 
and in South Carolina and Utah. 

Meerschaum has occasionally been used as a substitute for 
soap and fuller's earth, and it is said also as a building material; 
but its chief tise is for tobacco-pipes and dgar-holders^ The 



BBbml Bodnks aie fint Boiped to remove the red earthy 
natrix, thien dried, again acnped and polished with wax. 
The ruddy shiqped maaies thus prepared are sent from the 
East to Vienna and other manufacturing centres, where they 
are turned and carved, smoothfd with gUss-paper and Dutch 
tushes, heated in wax or stearine, and finally polished with 
bone-ash, frc Imitations are made in plaster of Paris and 
other preparations. 

The soft, iHiite, earthy mineral from Lingbanshyttan, in 
Vermland, Sweden, known as aphrodite (&4p^> foam), is 
dosdy rdated to meerschaum. It may be noted that meer- 
tchanm has sometimes been called magnesite iq.v.), 

HBRUT, a dty, district and division of British India. 
m the United Provinces. The dty is half-way between the 
Ganges and the Jumna, and has two stations on the North- 
Wcttcm railway, 37 m. N.E. from DelhL Pop. (1901), 
iiSfiag^ The dty proper lies south of the cantonments, and 
although dating back to the days of the Buddhist emperor Asoka 
(c iy> B.C.) Meerut owes its modem importance to its selection 
by the British government as the site ot a great military station. 
In 180S it is mentioned as "a ruined, depopulated town.'' 
Tbe cantonment was established in 1806, and the population 
rose to ^,or4 in 1847, and 82,035 in 1853. The town is an 
inportant centre of the cotton-trade. It is the headquarters 
of the 7th division of the northern army, with accommodation 
for hone and field artillery, British and native cavalry and 
isiuitry. It was here that the first outbreak of the Mutiny 
of 1857 took place. (See Indian Mutiny.) 
I The Dbtsict or Meekut forms part of the upper Doab, 
« tiaa between the Ganges and the Jimma, extending from 
mcr to river. Area, 2354 sq. m. "Diough well wooded in 
piaos and abundantly supplied with mango groves, it has but 
lev patches of jungle or waste land. Sandy ridges run along 
tbe low watersheds which separate the minor channels, but 
vith this exception the wh<^e district is one continuous expanse 
of cucful and prosperous tillage. Its fertility is largely due 
to the system of irrigation canals. The Eastern Jumna canal 
rtuB through the whole length of the district, and supplies 
the rich tract between the Jumna and the Hindan with a network 
of distributary streams. The main branch of the Ganges canal 
poses across the centre of the plateau in a sweeping curve 
and waters the midland tract. The AnQpshahr branch supplies 
irrigation to the Ganges slope, and the Agra canal piisses through 
the southern comer of Loni pargana from the Hindan to the 
Jumna. Besides these natural and artificial channels, the 
country is everywhere cut up by small water-courses. The Burh 
Gangs, or ancient bed of the Ganges, lies at some distance from 
the modem stream; and on its bank stood the abandoned dty 
of Hastinapur, the legendary capital of the Pandavas at the 
period of the Mahdbhdrata, said to have been deserted many 
centuries before the Oiristian era, owing to the encroachments 
ftf the river. 

The comparatively hi^ latitude and elevated position of 
Meerut make it- one of the healthiest districts in the plains of 
India. The average temperature varies from 57^ F. in January 
to 87* in June. The rainfall is small, less than '30 in. annually. 
The only endemic disease in the district is malarial fever; but 
small-pox and cholera occasionally visit it as epidemics. The 
population in 190X was 1,540,175, showing an increase of 
10-6% in the decade. The prindpal crops are wheat, pulse, 
miDet, sugar-cane, cotton and indigo, but this last crop has 
dedined of late years almost to extinction. The district is 
tnversed by the North-Westem railway, and also contaiiis 
China had, the terminus of the East Indian system, whence a 
branch runs to Delhi, while a branch of the Oudh 81 Rohil- 
khand railway from Moradabad to Ghaziabad was opened in 

The authentic history of the district begins with the Moslem in- 
vaaons. The first undoubted Mahommedan invasion was that 
of Kutbeddin in z 191, when Meerut town was taken and all the 
Hindu temples turned into mosques. In 1398 Timar captured 
the fort of Loni after a desperate resistance, and put all his Hindu 

prisoners to death. He then proceeded to Ddhi, and after 
his memorable sack of that dty returned to Meerut, captured 
the town, raxed all the fortifications and houses of the Hindus, 
and put the male inhabitants to the sword. The establishment 
of the great Mogul dynasty in the x 6th century, imder Baber 
and his successors, gave Meerat a period of internal tranquillity 
and royal favour. After the death of Aurangzeb, however, 
it was exposed to alternate Sikh and Mahrattt invasions. 
From 1707 till 1775 the country was the scene of perpetual 
strife, and was only rescued from anarchy by the exertions 
of the military adventurer Walter Reinhardt, afterwards the 
husband of the celebrated Begum Samru, who established 
himself at SardhAna in the north, and ruled a large estate. 
The southem tract, however, remained in its anarchic condition 
under Mahrattt exactions until the fall of Delhi in 1803, when 
the whole of the country between the Jumna and the Ganges 
was ceded by Sindhia to the British. It was formed into a 
separate district in 18x8. In the British period it has become 
memorable for its connexion with the Mutiny of 1857. 

The Division or Meerut comprises the northem portion 
of the Doab. It consists (d the ix districts of Dehra Dun, 
Saharanpur, Muzaffamagar, Meerut, Bulandshahr and Aligarh. 
Area, 11,303 sq. m.; pop. (1901), 5,979,7x1, showing an increase 
of 12*3% in the decade. 

See lieeriU Distria Gaa$Ueer (Allahabad. 1904). 

MEBmiO (from " to meet," to come together, assemble, 
O. Eng. mitan ; d. Du. moeUu, SAred. mdla, GotL gamotjan, &c., 
derivatives of the Teut. wOrd for a meeting, seen in O. Eng. mdt, 
moot, an assembly of the people; d. wUanagemot), a gathering 
together of persons for the purpose of discussion or for the 
transaction of business. Public meetings may be dther those 
of statutory bodies or assemblies of persons called together 
for sodal, political or other purposes. In the case of statutory 
bodies, by-laws usually fix the quorum necessary to constitute 
a legal meeting. That of limited companies may be dther 
by reference to the capital hdd, or by a fixed quorum or one 
in proportion to the number of shareholders. It has been 
held that in the case of a company it takes at least two persons 
to constitute a meeting {Sharp v. Daws^ 1886, 2 Q.B.D. 26). In 
the case of public meetings for social, political or other purposes 
no quorum is necessary. They may be hdd, if they are for a lawful 
purpose,, in any i^Uce, on any day and at any hour, provided they 
satisfy certain sUtutory provisions or by-laws made under the 
authority of a statute for the safety of persons attending 
such meetings. If, however, a meeting is held in the street 
and it causes an obstruction those convening the meeting may 
be proceeded against for obstructing the highway. The control 
of a meeting and the subjects to be discussed are entirdy within 
the discretion of those convening it, and whether the meeting 
is open to the public without payment, or subject to a charge or 
to membership of a specified body at sodety, those present are 
there merdy by virtue of a licence of the conveners, which 
licence may be revoked at any time. The person whose licence 
is revoked may be requested to withdraw from the meeting, 
and on his refusal may be ejected with such force as is necessary. 
If he employs violence to those removing him he commits a 
breach of the peace for which he may be given into custody. 
An important English act has dealt for the first time with the 
disturbance of a public meeting. The Public Meeting Act 1908 
enacted that any person who at a lawful public meeting acts in 
a disorderly manner for the purpose of preventing the trans- 
action of the business for whidi the meeting was called together 
shall be guilty of an offence, and if the offence is committed at a 
political meeting hdd in any parliamentary constituency 
between the issue and return of a writ, the offence is made 
an illegal practice within the meaning of the Corrupt and Illegal 
Practices Prevention Act 1883. Any person who indtes another 
to conmiit the offence is equally guilty. A public meeting is 
usually controlled by a chairman, who may be appointed by 
the conveners or dected by the meeting itself. On the chairman 
falls the duty of preserving order, of calling on persons to speak, 
dedding points of order, of putting questions to the meeting 



for dedsion, and declaring the result and other incidental 

In England it is illegal, by a sUtute of Georjpe III. (Seditious 
Meetings Act 1817), to hold a public meeting in the open 
air within i m. of Westminster Hall during the sitting of 

See C. P. Blackwell's Law of Meetings (1910). 

MEGALOPOLIS, an ancient dty of Arcadia, Greece, situated 
in a plain about 20 m. S.W. of Tegea, on both banks of the 
Helisson, about 2| m. above its junction with the Alpheus. Like 
Messene, it owed its origin to the Theban general Epaminondas, 
and was founded in 370 B.C., the year after the battle of 
Leuctra, as a bulwark for the southern Arcadians against Sparta, 
and as the seat of the Arcadian Federal Diet, which consisted 
of ten thousand men. The builders were protected by a Theban 
force, and directed by ten native oecists (official " founders "), 

an attempt to reduce Megalopolis; but the Thebans tent 
assistance and the dty was rescued. Not sure of this assist- 
ance, the Megalopolitans had appealed to Athens, an appeal 
which gave occasion to the oration of Demosthenes, Titfl 
MeyaXos-oXiTwv. The Spartans were now obliged to condude 
peace with Megalopolis and acknowledge her autonomy. 
Nevertheless their feeling of hostility did not cease, and 
Megalopolis consequently entered into friendly relations with 
Philip of Macedon. Twenty years later, when the Spartans 
and their allies rebelled against the power of Macedon, 
Megalopolis remained firm in its allegiance, and was 
subjected to a long siege. After the death of Alexander, 
Megalopolis was governed by native tyrants. In the war 
between Cassander and Polyperchon it took part with the 
former and was besieged by the latter. On this occa«on it 
was able to send into the fidd an army of fifteen thousand. 


who likewise attended to the peopling of the new dty, which 
apparently drew inhabitants from all parts of Arcadia, but 
espcdally from the neighbouring districts of Maenalia and 
Parrhasia. Forty townships are mentioned by Pausanias 
(viii. 27, 3-5) as having been incorporated in it. It was 
50 stadia in circumference, and was surrounded with strong 
walls. Its territory was the largest in Arcadia, extending 
northward 24 m. The city was built on a magnificent scale, 
and adorned with many handsome buildings, both public and 
private. Its temples contained many ancient statues brought 
from the towns incorporated in it. After the departure of 
Epaminondas, Lycomedes of Mantineia succeeded in drawing 
the Arcadian federation away from its alliance with Thebes, 
and it was consequently obliged to make common cause with 
Athens. An attempt on the part of the federation to use the 
treasures of the temple of Zeus at Olyropia led to internal 
dissensions, so that in the battle of Mantineia (362) one half of 
the Arcadians fought on the side of the Spartans, the other 
on that of the Thebans. After this battle many of the 
inhabitants of Megalopolis sought to return to their former 
homes, and it was only by the assistance of three thousand 
Thebans under Pammenes that the authorities were able to 
prevent them from doing so. In 353, when Thebes had her 
hands full with the so-called Sacred War, the Spartans made 

In 234 B.C. Lydiades, the last tyrant of Megalopolis, voluntarily 
resigned his power, and the dty joined the Achaean League. 
In consequence of this it was again exposed to the hatred of 
Sparta. In 222 Cleomenes plundered it and killed or dispersed 
its inhabitants, but in the year following it was restored and its 
inhabitants rdnstated by Philopoemcn, a native of the dty. 
After this, however, it gradually sank into insignificance. The 
only great men whom it produced were Philopoemen and 
Polybius the historian. Lycortas, the father of the latter, 
may be accounted a third. In the time of Pausanias the 
city was mostly in ruins. 

The site of Megalopolis was excavated by members of the 
British School at Athens in the years 1890-1892. The description 
of Pausanias is so clear that it enabled Curtius, in his Pelopon- 
nesoSf to give a conjectural plan that was found to tally in most 
respects with the reality. The town was divided into two 
approximately equal parts by the river Helisson, which flows 
through it from east to west. The line of the walls may be 
traced, partly by remains, partly by the contours it must have 
followed, and confirms the estimate of Polybius that they bad 
a drcuit of 50 stades, or about 5} m. It b difficult to see 
how the river bed, now a broad and shingly waste, was dealt 
with in ancient times; it must have been embanked in some way, 
but there are no remains to show whether the fortification wall 



was carried acroas the river at either end or along the paraUd 

rmhankments so as to make two separate enclosures. There 

most haw been, in all probability, a bridge to connect the 

two halves ol the dty, but the foundations seen by Leake and 

others, and commonly supposed to bek>ng to such a bridge, 

f»oved to be only the substructures of the precinct of Zeus Soter. 

The buildings north of the river were municipal and were 

grouped round the square agora. One, of which the complete 

pUn has been recovered, is the portico of Philip, a splendid 

biulding. which bounded the agora on the north; it was 300 ft.. 

long, with three rows of columns running its whole length, 

three in the outer line to each one in the two inner lines; it had 

s sfightly projecting wing at either end. At the south-west 

o( the agora was found the precinct of Zeus Soter: it consists 

d a square court surrounded by a double colonnade, and faced 

00 the west side by a small temple; on the east side was an 

CQtraoce or pcopylacum approached by a ramp. In the midst 

of the court was a substructure which has been variously 

interpreted as an altar or as the base of the great group of 

Zeus snd Megalopolis, which is recorded to have stood here. 

North of tbb was the Stoa MyropoUs, forming the east boundary 

of the agora, and, between this and the Stoa of Philip, the 

Arcbeii or municipal offices. These buildings were of various 

dstes, but seem all to fit into an harmonious plan. The buildings 

oa the south and west of the agora have been almost entirely 

destroyed by the Helisson and a tributary brook. On the 

south bank of the river were the chief federal buildings, the 

thntre (noted by Pausanias as the largest in Greece), and the 

ThersiUon or parliament hall of the ten thousand Arcadians. 

These two buildings form part of a common design, the great 

portico of the Thersilion facing the orchestra of the theatre. 

As a consequence of this arrangement, the plan of the theatre 

is abnormal. The auditorium has as its lowest row of seats 

a set of " thrones " or ornamental benches, which, as well as 

the gutter in front, were dedicated by a certain Antiochus; the 

orchestra is about 100 ft. in diameter; and in place of the 

western parados is a closed room called the Scanotheca. The 

chief peculiarity, however, lies in the great portico already 

mentioned, which has its base about 4 ft. 6 in. above the 

level of the orchestra. It was much too lofty to serve as a 

proscenium; yet, if a proscenium of the ordinary Greek type 

vert erected in front, it would hide the lower part of the columns. 

SocH a proscenium was actually erected in later times; and 

beneath it were the foundations for an earlier wooden proscenium, 

vhicb was probably erected only when required. In later times 

s:eps were added, leading from the base of the portico to the 

level of the orchestra. The theatre was probably used, like 

the theatre at Athens, for political assemblies; but the adjoining 

Thersilion provided covered accommodation for the Arcadian 

ten thotisand in wet weather. It is a building unique in plan, 

sloping up from the centre towards all sides like a theatre. 

The roof was supported by columns that were placed in lines 

radiating from the centre, so as to obscure as little as possible 

the view of an orator in this position from all parts of the 

building; there were two entrances in each side. 

See Excavttlicns at Megalopolis (E. A. Gardner, W. Loring. G. C. 
Rkhards. W. J. Woodhousc; Architecture, by R. W. Schultz); 
Scppiementary Paper issued by the Society for the Promotion of 
Hrilenic Studies, 1892: Journal of Hellenic Studies, xiii. 328. 

A G. Bather; p. 319. E- F- Benson ("Thersilion "); i89«, p. 15, 
" B. Bury (" Double City ") ; W. Ddrpfcld (" Das eriechische 
ater "): O. Pochstein, " Gricchische BOhne " (Theatre). 

MEGANUCLEUS (also called Macronucleus), in Infusoria 
iqjt.)., the large nucleus which undergoes direct (amitotic) 
Prison in fission, and is lost during conjugation, to be 
replaced by a nucleus, the restilt of the karyogamy of the 

HEGAPODB (Gr. M^af, great and roit, foot), the name given 
generally to a small but remarkable family of birds, characteristic 
ci sonw parts of the Australian region, to which it is almost 
pecufiar. The Uegapodiidae, with the Cracidae and Pkasianidae, 
form that division of the sub-order Colli named by Huxley 

Perisleropodes (Proc. Zool, Soe., iS6S^ p. 196). Their most 
remarkable habit is that of leaving their eggs to be hatched 
without incubation, burying them in the ground (as many 
reptiles do), or in a mound of earth, leaves and rotten wood 
which they scratch up. This habit attracted attention nearly 
four hundred years ago,* but the accounts given of it by variotis 
travellers were generally discredited, and as examples of the 
birds, probably from their unattractive plumage, appear not 
to have been brought to Europe, no one of them was seen by 
any ornithologist or scientifically described until near the end 
of the first quarter of the 19th century. The first member 
of the family to receive authoritative recognition was one of 
the largest, inhabiting the continent of Australia, where it is 
known as the brush-turkey, and was origimilly described by J. 
Latham in 1821 under the misleading name of the New Holland 
vulture. It is the Catketurus latkasni of modern ornithologists, 
and is nearly the size of a hen turkey. This East Australian 
bird is of a sooty-brown cobur, relieved beneath by the lighter 
edging of some of the feathers, but the head and neck are nearly 
bare, beset with fine bristles, the skin being of a deep pinkish- 
red, passing above the breast into a large wattle of bright yellow. 
The tail is commonly carried upright and partly folded, some- 
thing like that of a domestic fowL Allied to it are three or 
four species of TakgaUus, from New Guinea and adjacent 

Another form, an inhabitant of South and West Australia, 
commonly known in England as the mailee-bird, but to the 
colonists as the " native pheasant "—the Lipoa ocelUUa, as 
described by J. Gould in the Proc. Zool. Soc. (1840), p. 126, 
has much shorter tarsi and toes, the head entirely clothed, 
and the tail expanded. Its plumage presents a combination 
of greys and browns of various tints, interspersed with black, 
white and buff, the wing-coverts and feathers of the back 
bearing each near the tip an oval or subcircular patch, whence 
the scientific name of the bird is given, while a stripe of black 
feathers with a median line of white extends down the front of 
the throat from the chin to the breast. There is but one species 
of this genus known, as is also the case with the next to be 
mentioned, a bird long known to inhabit Celebes, bi>t not fully 

* Antonio Pigafetta, one of the survivors of Magellan's voya^, 
records in his iournal, under date of April 1521^ among the peculia- 
rities of the Philippine Islands, then first discovered by Europeans, 
the existence of a bird there, about the size of a fowl, which laid its 
eggs, as big as a duck's, in the sand, and left them to be hatched 
by the heat of the sun {Premier voyage aulour du monde, ed. Amor- 
etti, Paris, A.R. ix. 88). More than a hundred years later the 
Jesuit Niercmberg, in his Historia naturae, published at Antwerp 
m 1635, described (p. 207) a birtl called *' Daie." and by the natives 
named " Tapun," not larger than a dove, which, with its tail (!) 
and feet excavated a nest in sandy places and laid therein eggs bigger 
than those of a goose. The publication at Rome in 1651 oT Hernan- 
dez's Hist, avium novae Hispaniae shows that his papers must have 
been accessible to Nicremberg, who took from them the passage just 
mentioned, but, as not unusual with him, misprinted the names which 
stand in Hernandez's work (p. 56, cap, 220) " Daic " and " Tapum " 
respectively, and omitted his predecessor's important addition 
" Viuit in Philippicis," Not long after, the Dommican Navarrete, 
a missionary to China, made a considerable stay in the Philippines, 
and returning to Europe in 1673 wrote an account of the Chinese 
empire, of which (Churchill (Collection of Voyages and Travels. 
vol. i.) gave an English translation in 170^. It is therein stated 
(p. 4S) that in many of the islands of the Malay Archipelago " there 
is a very singular bird call'd Tabon*' and that " What I and many 
more admire is, that it being no bigger in body than an ordinary 
chicken, tho* long legg'd, yet it lays an egg larger than a gooses, 
so that the egg is bigger than the bird itself. ... In order to lay 
its eggs, it digs in the sand above a yard in depth ; after laving, it 
fills up the hole and makes it even with the rest; there the eggs 
hatch with the heat of the sun and sand." Gemelli Careri, who 
travelled from 1663 to 1699. and in the latter year published an 
account of his voyage round the world, gives similar evidence 
respecting this bird, which he calls " tavon," in the Philippine 
Islands {Voy. du tour du monde, ed. Paris. 1727. v. 157, 158). 
The megapode of Luzon is fairly described by Camel or CamcUi 
in his olMervations on the birds of the Philippines communicated bv 
Petiver to the Royal Society in 1703 {Phil. Trans, xxiii. 1398). 
In 1726 Valentyn published his elaborate work on the East Indies, 
wherein (deel iii. bk. v, p. 320) he correctly describes the megapode 
of Amboina under the name of " malleloe," and also a larger kind 
found in Celebes, 



described untU 1846,* when it received from Salomon MUller 
{Arch. f. Naturgeschicktef xil. pt. i, p. 116) the name of 
Uacrocephalon maleo^ but, being shortly afterwards figured by 
Gray and Mitchell {Gen. Birds, iii. pi. 123) under the generic 
term of Megacephahn, has since commonly borne the latter 
appellation. This bird bears a helmet-like protuberance on 
the back of its head, aU of which, as well as the neck, is bare 
and of a bright red colour; the plumage of the body is glossy 
black above, and beneath roseate- white. 

Of the megapodes proper, constituting the genus Megapodius, 
about fifteen species are admitted. The birds of this genus 
range from the Samoa Islands in the east, through the Tonga 
group, to the New Hebrides, the northern part of Australia, 
New Guinea and its neighbouring islands, Celebes, the Pelew 
Islands and the Ladrones, and have also outliers in detached 
portions of the Indian Region, as the Philippines (where indeed 
they were first discovered by Europeans), Labuan, and even the 
Nicobars — though none is known from the intervening islands 
of Borneo, Java or Sumatra. Within what may be deemed 
their proper area they are found, says A. R. Wallace (Ceogr. 
Distr. Animals, ii. 341), " on the smallest islands and sandbanks, 
and can evidently pass over a few miles of sea with ease." 
Indeed, proof of their roaming disposition is afforded by the 
fact that the bird described by Lesson {Voy. Coquillc: Zoologie, 
p. 703) as Alecthdia urvUlii, but now considered to be the 
young of Megapodius freycineti, flew on board his ship when 
more than 2 m. from the nearest land (Gucb^), in an exhausted 
state, it is true, but that may be attributed to its youth. The 
species of Megapodius are about the size of small fowls, the 
head generally crested, the tail very short, the feet enormous, 
and, with the exception of M. wallacii {Proc. Zool. Soc, 
i860, Aves, pi. 171), from the Moluccas, all have a sombre 

Megapodes are shy terrestrial birds, of heavy flight, and 
omnivorous diet. In some islands they are semi-domesticated, 
although the flesh is dark and general!) unpalatable. (A. N.) 

MBOARA, an ancient Greek town on the road from Attica 
to Corinth. The country which belonged to the city was 
called Vitrtapli or 4 Meyapix^; it occupied the broader part 
of the isthmus between Attica, Boeotia, Corinth, and the two 
gulfs, and its whole area is estimated by Clinton at 143 sq. m. 
The range of Mount Gerancia extends across the country from 
cast to west, forming a barrier between continental Greece 
and the Peloponnesus. The shortest road across this range 
passes along the eastern side of the mountains, and the most 
difficult part is the celebrated Scironian rocks, the mythic 
home of the robber Sciron. The only plain in the rugged 
little country was the White Plain, in which was situated the 
only important town, Megara. The modem town of Megara 
is situated on two low hills which formed part of the ancient 
site; it is the chief town of the eparchy of Megaris; pop. about 
6400. It contains few remains of antiquity, except of the 
aqueduct and basin, said to have been made by the architect 
Eupalinus for the tyrant Theagenes. (E. Gr.) 

From the somewhat conflicting evidence of mythology it 
may be gathered that in prehistoric days Megara had maritime 
intercourse with the southern Aegean. The early inhabitants, 
whose race is unknown, were extirpated or absorbed in the Dorian 
migration, for in historic times the city had a homogeneous 
Dorian population. Favoured by its proximity to two great 
waterways and by its two ports, Nisaea on the Saronic and Pegae 
on the Corinthian Gulf, Megara took a prominent part in the 
commercial expansion of Greece from the 8th century onwards, 
and for two hundred years enjoyed prosperity out of proportion 
to the slight resources of its narrow territory. Its trade was 
mainly directed towards Sicily, where Mcgarian colonies were 
established at Hybla (Megara Hyblaea) and Selinus, and towards 
the Black Sea, in which region the Megarians were probably 

*As we have seen, it was mentioned in 1726 by Valcntyn. and 
a youn^ example was. in 1810 described and figured bv Quoy 
and Gaimard (Voy. del'AstrcMbe : Oiseaux, p. 339. pi. 25) as the 
Megapodius mbripes of Temminck, a wholly different bird. 

pioneers of Greek commerce. In the Sea of Mannora they 
had to face the competition of the Samians, with whom ihey 
waged a war concerning the town of Perinthus, and of Milet(»; 
but on the Bosporus they established themselves by means of 
settlements at Chalcedon and, above all, Byzantium (founded^ 
according to tradition, 675 and 658 respectively). In the 
Black Sea they exploited the shores of Pontus and Scythia, 
whose products they exchanged for textiles spun from the 
wool of their own country. Their chief colonies in this sea 
were Astactis and Heraclea in Bithynia, and another Heradea 
in the Crimea. In the later 7 th century this current of trade 
dwindled in face of the great commercial and colonising activity 
of Miletus; it probably received further injury through the 
subsequent interference of Athens on the Hellespont. Simul- 
taneously Megarian conmierce in Sicily began to be supplanted 
by Corinth and Corcyia. 
Me^ra's economic development entailed a change in the dis- 

tribution of wealth, and consequently of political power, which 
the elegies of Theoenis ((f.*.)-. The 

commented upon in 1 


land-holding aristocracy, which had probably initiated and for 
a time monopolized commerce, was partly supplanted by prosperous 
upstarts, and with the general increase of prosperity began to lose 
its hold upon the community of artisans. In the ensuing party 
struggles the city passed under a tyrant. Theagenes (about 640). 
whose rule was too brief to produce great changes. The power of 
the nobles would seem to have been more effectively broken in a 
war with Athens, in which Megara ultimately lost the island of 
Salamis (about 570. see Solon), for shortly afterwards the con- 
stitution was changed to a democracy, and eventually %vas fixed 
,:' ; ■!.,,!;■ I"jy ^f ^ niod(-r;ite type. 

iJurimy the Persian wars the state, which had recently joined 
I he Kcloponnpsian L^Hlgu1:, could still muster 3000 hoplites. But 
thp sLbsequcnt cNpansion of Athens ruined the commerce of Megara, 
and thi; town Usi'ir was thri .icned with absorption by some powerful 
i>c>ighbour. 1 n 459 an attack by Corinth, which had always coveted 
Mf^an'i territory^ in<luceiJ the people to summon the aid of the 
Athcnian^^ who securtd Megara m battle and bv the construction 
of loni^ wrWa between the capital and its port Nisaea. In 44^ a 
revubicin ol feeling; M the Mcjearians to massacre their Athenun 
prri&OEi^ The Athembns retaliated by placing an embaigo upon 
Me^rlin trade thrttUHhout their empire (433), and in the Pelopon- 
nr-sun W^^r, which ilic Megarians had consequently striven f 
h > '. i-i.diict:4 :>iLir neighbours to misery by blockade and 

devastations. In 434 they nearly captured Megara, in collusion 
with a democratic party within the town, and succeeded in securing 
Nisaea, which they held till 410. In the 4th century Megara re- 
covered some measure of prosperity, but played an insignificant 
part in politics, its only notable move being the participation in 
the final conflict against Philip II. of Macedon (338). During the 
Macedonian supremacy the town passed in turn from Cassander 
and Demetrius Poliorcetes to Antigonus Gonatas, and finally was 
^,,^..;JJ..-^!^^. \-'. ;^L A..:i.Li..i: L.eaguc. Megara suffered severely 
during the ilivW Wjr of 4^ BX,, but seems at some later period to 
have received new scttlens. \i maintained itself as a place of some 
fiize in subsequent ecnturiefr, but was depopulated by the Venetians 
in A.o. r^fx). The inhiibitantfl of the modem village are mostly 
ui\ AlbAninn origin. 

[fi Jiicratu ft Megara fig^jrei as the reputed home of the comedian 
SuKtrion. and in the 4th century (^ave iu name to a schod of phik>- 
sopby iDiindcd by Euclid. 

5ec Slrabo ix. jg 1^395: Theognis; Thucydides i.-iv.; Aristo- 
pSanci, Atkarmanj, 73^835; F. Caucr, Parteien und Peiitilur in 
M€gara and Atium (Stuttjjartn i8i)o). pp. 1-44: B. V. Head, Hisioria 
nvtmomm (Oxford ^ 1SB7}. pp. J29-330; R. DelbrQck and K. G. 
Vullnnitlerp " Das Brunnenhau^ des Theagenes," in MitUU. d. 
dtuiiik. Imt Aihin. XXV. {\^j). (M. O. B. C.) 

MEGARA HYBLAEA (perhaps identical with Hybla Majok), 
an ancient city of Sicily, on the E. coast, 12 m. N.N.W. of 
Syracuse, founded in 728 B.C. by Megarean colonists, who had 
previously settled successively at Trotilon, Leontini and 
Thapsus. A hundred years later it founded Selinus, apparently 
because it had no room for development. It never seems to 
have been a town of great importance, and had no advantages 
of position. It was destroyed by Gclon about 481 B.C., and its 
walls seem to have been razed 10 the ground. In the Athenian 
expedition against Syracuse (415-413) Lamachus proposed 
(it being then deserted) to make it the Athenian base of opera- 
tions; but his advice was not taken, and in the next spring 
the Syracusans fortified it. In 309 it was still fortified; but, 
after Marcellus captured it, in 214, we hear little more of it. 
Excavations carried on in 1891 led to the discovery of the 



Borthern portion of the western town wall, which in one section 
served at the same time as an embankment against, floods 
(it was apparently more conspicuous in the time of P. Cluver, 
SkiU, p. IS3), of an extensive necropolis, about looo tombs 
of which have been explored, and of a deposit of votive objects 
hom a temple. The harbour lay to the north of the town. 

See P. Om in MonnmenU dei Lincei (1891). i. 689-950: 
id cgmgttsso ddU scUnu stoncke^ v, 181 (Rome, 1904). 

and Atii 
(T. As.) 

buDded by Eudides of Megara, one of 
the pupils of Socrates. Two main ele- 

nents went to make up the Megarian^ 

doctrine. Like the Cynics and the 

Cyrenaics, Eudides started from the 

Sooatic principle that virtue is know- 
ledge. But into combination with this 

he brought the Eleatic doctrine of Unity. 

Petcriving the diflliculty of the Socratic 

dktum he endeavoured to give to the 

word *' knowledge " a definite content by 

divorcing it absolutely from the sphere 

of sense and experience, and confining it 

to a sort of transcendental dialectic or 

bpc. The Eleatic unity is (joodness, 

lod a beyond the sphere of sensible 

apprehension. This goodness, therefore, 

aiiMie exists; matter, motion, growth 

and decay arc figments of the senses; 

they have no existence for Reason. 

" Whatever is, is I " Knowledge is of 

ideas and is in conformity with the 

necessary laws of thought. Hence Plato 

in the Scpkisi describes the Megarians 

IS "the friends of ideas." Yet the 

Megarians were by no means in agreement with the Platonic 

idealism. For they held that ideas, though eternal and im- 

aovable, have neither life nor action nor movement. 

This dialectic, initiated by Eudides, became more and more 
opposed to the testimony of experience; in the hands of Eubulides 
and Alezinus it degenerated into hairsplitting, mainly in the 
form of the reduaio ad absurdum. The strength of these men 
by in destructive criticism rather than in construction: as 
dialecticians they were successful, but they contributed little 
to ethical speculation. They spent their energy in attacking 
Plato and Aristotle, and hence earned the opprobrious epithet 
of Eristic, They used their dialectic subtlety to disprove 
the possibOity of toiotion and decay; unity is the negation of 
change, increase and decrease, birth and death. None the less, 
m ancient times they received great respect owing to their 
iotellectaal pre-eminence. Cicero {Academics, ii. 43) describes 
their doctrine as a "ix>bilis disciplina," and identifies them 
dosriy with Parmenides and 2U:no. But their most immediate in- 
fiaence was upon the Stoics (9.9.), whose founder, Zeno, studied 
Boder Sulpo. This philosopher, a man of striking and attractive 
penooality, succeeded in fusing the Megarian dialectic with 
C>iiic naturalism. The result of the combination was in fact 
a juxtaposition rather than a compound; it is manifestly impos- 
sible to find an organic connexion between a practical code 
like Cynicism and the transcendental logic of the Megarians. 
Bat it served as a powerful stimulus to Zeno, who by descent 
*as imbi"!^ with oriental mysticism. 

For biblicwraphical information about the Megarians. see 
Eccuocs: Eubulides: Diodorus Cronus: Stilpo. See also 
Eleatic School : Cynics; Stoics; and, for the connexion between 
the Menrians and the Eretrians, Menedemus and Piiaedo. Also 
Zefler. Socrates and the Socratic Schools', Dyeck, De Megaricorum 

been found at Tiryns and Mycenae, and references are made 
to it in the Hiad and the Odyssey. 

MBGATHBRIUM (properly Megalotkerium), a huge extinct 
edentate mammal from the Pleistocene deposits of Buenos 
Aires, typifying the family Megatheriidae (or Megalotkeriidae), 
and by far the largest representative of the Edentata. Except, 
indeed, for its relatively shorter limbs Megatherium americanum 
rivalled an elephant in bulk, the total length of the skeleton 
being iS feet, five of which are taken up by the tail. The 
Megatheriidae, which include a numberofgenera, are collectively 


iactrima (Bonn. 1827): Mallet. Histoire de t'icole de Migare (Paris, 
i4i$): Ritter. Obir die Philosophie der meg. Schule; " 
CexkidUe der Logik, i. 32: Henne, L'ic<de de Migare (Paris, 
(MMprrz, Creek rkimitrs (Eng. trans. 1905), ii. 170 seq. 

the prindpal hall of the andent Greek palace, 
the andron or men's quarter. Examples have 

ttoated in 

Fig. I. — Skeleton of the Megatherium, from the specimen in the Museum of the Royal 
College of Surgeons of Lngland. 

known as ground-sloths, and occupy a position intermediate 
between the sloths and the ant-eater: their skiilis being of the 
type of the former, while their limbs and vertebrae conform in 
structure to those of the latter. As in the other typical South 
American edentates, there are no teeth in the front of the jaws, 
while those of the check-series usually comprise five pairs in the 
upper and four in the lower. In nearly all the other Plebtocene 
forms these teeth were subcylindrical in shape, with the summit 
of 1 the crown (except sometimes in the first pair) forming a 
cup-like depression; enamel being in all 
cases absent. From all these Mega- 
therium differs in the form and struc- 
ture of the teeth. 

In form, as shown in fig. a, the teeth 
are quadrangular prisms, each of which is 
surmounted by a pair qf transverse ridges. 
They grew apparently throughout life, 
and were implanted to a great depth in 
the jaws, being 7 or 8 in. in length, with 
a cross-section of at least an inch and a 
half. The ridges on the crown are due 
to the arrangement of the vertical layers 
of hard dentine (fig. 3, d). softer vaso- 
<ienfinip (r) and cement (c). The skull 
ia rcLtivciy smalt, with the lower jaw 
very deep in iu central portion, and pro- 
duced in part into a long anout-likc 
AymphysiA for the reception, doubtless, 
of a large and fleahy tongue (fig. 2). 
LTnEikf iloih). the megal herium lias seven 
cervical vertebrae; and the Eipinrs of all 
the trunk- vertebrae incline unckwards. 
Tht prlvii and hmd-limbf are much 
inorf* prjwtrful than fhe fore-quarters; 
[hereby eiiAMing ihe$e animal*, in all 
pR3baLi!iiy, to ivar rhCTflfttlvw on their 
hinid-nu,iii:er?. and thu* piill down the 
bra nt fn» of f rets . if not , Indf r . I , i n some 
cases to bodily uproot the trees them- 
selves. Large chevron-bones are sus- 
pended to the vertebrae of the tail, 

which was massive, and probably afforded a support when the 
monster was sitting up. The humerus has no foramen, and the 

(From Owen ) 

Fig. 2.— Lower Jaw and 
Teeth of Megatherium, 



whole fore-limb was very mobile. The first front toe was rudimen- 
tary, having no phalanges, but the fifth was rather less aborted, al- 
though clawless: the other three carried enormous claws, protected 
by reflected sheaths. The hind-foot is remarkable for the great back- 
ward projection of the calcancum, and likewise for the peculiar shape 
of the astragalus; the middle toe alone carries a claw, this being 
of huge size, and ensheathed like those of the fore foot. No trace 


Fig. 3. — Section of Upper Molar Teeth of Megatherium. 
of a bony armour in the skin has been detected: but, from the 
evidence of other genera, it may be assumed that the body was 
clothed in a coat of long, coarse hair. Although similar teeth 
occur in the phosphorite beds of South Carolina, which may have 
been transported from elsewhere, no undoubted remains of Mega- 
therium are known from North America. 

The typical species ranged from Argentina and Chili to Brazil. 
Por certam small ground-sloths from ratagonia with M«gnfherium- 
Uke teeth, see Mylodon. IM-L.*) 

MBGHNA, a river of India. It forms, in the lower part of its 
course, the great estuary of the Bengal delta, which conveys to 
the sea the main body of the waters of the Ganges and the 
Brahmaputra, which unite at Goalanda in Faridpur district. 
The united waters, turbid and of great depth, are sometimes split 
into half a dozen channels by sand-banks, sometimes spread mto 
a wide sheet of water. The river ent«rs the sea by four principal 
mouths, enclosing the three large islands of Dakshin Sbahbazpur, 
Hatia and Sandwip. It is navigable by native boats and river 
steamers all the year; but the navigation is difficult and some- 
times dangerous on account of shifting sand-banks and snags, 
and boisterous weather when the monsoon is blowing. The most 
favourable season is between November and February. Alluvion 
and diluvion are constantly taking place, especially along the 
seaboard, and in Noakhali district the land is said to have made 
rapid advance on the sea; while the islands fringing the mouth 
are annually being cut away and redeposited in fresh shapes. 
The regtilar rise of the tide is from 10 to 18 ft., and at springs 
the sea rushes up in a dangerous bore. It is greatest at the time 
of the biennial equinoxes, when navigation is sometimes impeded 
for days together. The tidal wave advances like a wall topped 
with foam of the height of nearly 30 ft., and at the rate of 15 m. 
an hour; in a few minutes it is past, and the river has changed 
from ebb to flood tide. A still greater danger is the " storm 
wave " which occasionally sweeps up the Meghna under a 

MBHAdIA, a market town of Hungary, in the county of 
Krassd-Szdr^ny, 287 m. S.E. of Budapest by rail. Pop. (1900), 
3492. The town is the site of the ancient Roman colony Ad 
Mediam, near which passed the Roman road from the Danube 
to Dacia. It contains the ruins of a fortress, and other Roman 
remains. In its neighbourhood are the famous Hercules baths 
(Hungarian. HerkidesfUrdd). These are situated in a narrow 
rocky ravine in ihe valley of the Cserna, where there are 22 hot 
springs, of which nine are in use, the most powerful being the 
Hercules spring. The springs are all strongly impregnated with 

salts of sulphur, iodine, bromine and chlorine, and their 1 _ 
temperature is 70* to 145** F. They were famous in the Romaii 
period under the name of Thermae Herculis or Pontes Herctdis. 
Their popularity is attested by numerous inscriptions and relics. 
After the fall of the Roman Empire they fell into disuse until 1 735, 
but in modern times they have been much frequented. 

MEHEIIET AU (1769-1849). pasha and afterwards viceroy of 
Egypt, was born at Kavala, a small seaport on the frontier of 
Thrace and Macedonia. His father, an Albanian, was an aga, a 
small yeoman farmer, and he himself lived in his native town for 
many years as a petty official and trader in tobacco. In 1798 
he became second in command of a regiment of bashi-bazouks, or 
volunteers, recruited in his neighbourhood to serve against 
Napoleon in Egypt. He took part in the battle of Aboukir 
(July 25, 1799), was driven into the sea with the routed Turks, 
and was saved from drowning by the gig of the British admiral. 
Sir Sidney Smith. In 1801 he returned to Egypt, in command 
of his regiment, and on the 9th of May distinguished himself 
by heading a bold cavalry charge at the battle of Rahmanieh. 
In the troubled years that followed, Mehemet All, leader of a 
compact body of Albanian clansmen, was in the best position to 
draw advantage from the struggle for power between the Mame- 
lukes and the representatives of the Porte. In 1803 he cast in 
his lot with the former; in 1804 he turned against them and 
proclaimed his loyalty to the sultan; in 2805 the sheiks of Cairo, 
in the hope of putting a stop to the intolerable anarchy, elected 
him pasha, and a year later an imperial firman confirmed their 
choice. The disastrous British expedition of 1807 followed; 
and while at Constantinople the prestige of the sultan was being 
undermined by the series of revolutions which in 1808 brought 
Mahmud II. to the throne, that of Mehemet Ali was enhanced by 
the exhibition at Cairo of British prisoners and an avenue of 
stakes decorated with the heads of British slain. 

The situation revealed to the astute Albanian boundless 
possibilities for gratifying his ambition. In ^ite of his chance 
victories, he was too shrewd an observer not to recognize the 
superiority of European methods of warfare; and as the first step 
towards the empire of which he dreamed he determined to create 
an army and a fleet on the European model. In 1808 the build- 
ing and organization of the navy was begun with the aid of French 
officers and engineers. In 181 1 the massacre of the Mamelukes 
left Mehemet Ali without a rival in Egypt, while the foundations 
of his empire beyond were laid by the war against the Wahhibb 
and the conquest of the holy cities of Mecca and Medina. The 
WahhabI War, indeed, dragged on till 1818, when Ibrahim (g.».), 
the pasha's son, who in 1816 hacl driven the remnant of the 
Mamelukes into Nubia, brought it to an end. This done, the 
pasha turned his attention southward to .the vast country 
watered by the Upper Nile. In 1820 the oasis of Siwa was 
subdued by his arms; in 1823 he laid the foundations of 

By this time Mehemet Ali was the possessor of a powerful fleet 
and of an army of veterans disciplined and drilled by European 
officers. To obtain these money had been necessary; and to 
raise money the pasha had instituted those internal " reforms *' 
— the bizarre system of state monopolies and the showy experi- 
ments in new native industries which are described in the article 
Eg>'pt {q.v.). The inherent viclousness of these expedients had, 
however, not as yet been revealed by their inevitable results, 
and Mehemet Ali in the eyes of the world was at once the 
most enlightened and the most powerful of the sultan's valis. To 
Mahmud II., whose whole policy was directed to strengthening 
the authority of the central pwwer, this fact would have sufficed 
to make him distrust the pasha and desire his overthrow; and 
it was sorely against his will that, in 1822, the ill-success of 
his arms against the Insurgent Greeks forced him to summon 
Mehemet Ali to his aid. The immediate price was the pashalik 
of Crete; in the event of the victory of the Egyptian arms the 
pashaliks of Syria and Damascus were to fall to Mehemet Ali, 
that of the Morca to his son Ibrahim. The part played by Mehe- 
met Ali in the Greek War is described elsewhere (see TvaiL-sv: 
History) Greece: History; Greek I.ndepenoence, Wxa o»; 



iBtAsm). The interventioii of the powers, culminating in the 
shattering of the Egyptian fleet at Navarino (q.v,), robbed him 
of his reward so far as Greece was concerned; the failure of his 
arms io face oi this intervention gave Sultan Mahmud the excuse 
be desired for withholding the rest of the stipulated price of his 

This disappointment of his ambition would not perhaps in 
itself have sufficed to stir Mehemet Ali to revolt against his 
master; but it was ominous of perils to come, which the astute 
pasha thought it wise to forestall. The sultan's policy had been 
a»si^ently directed to crushing the overgrown power of his 
vusak, in the spring of 1831 two rebellious pashas, Hussein of 
Bcsoia and Mustafa of Scutari, had succumbed to his arms; 
and. since he was surrounded and counselled by the personal 
enttnies of the pasha of Egypt, it was likely that, so soon as he 
should feel himself strong enough, he would deal in like manner 
with Mehemet Ali. It was to anticipate this peril that Mehemet 
Ali determined himiself to open the struggle: on the ist of Novem- 
ber 1831 a force of qooo Egyptian infantry and 3000 cavalry 
ooiicd the frontier into Syria and met at Jaffa the fleet which 
brought Ibrahim as commander-in-chief. The combined forces 
at ooce laid siege to St Jean d'Acre. 

The stubborn resistance of the garrison delayed Ibrahim's 
progress; and. meanwhile, wild rumours went abroad as to Mehe- 
Bct All's intentions. He was master of the holy cities, and the 
offidal UoniUur Ottoman denounced his supposed plan of aiim'ng 
at the cafa'phate in collusion with the sherif of Mecca. As for 
the pasha himself, he loudly disclaimed any such disloyal pre- 
tensioas, his aim was to chastise Abdulla, pasha of Acre, who had 
fcarboared refugees from his " reforms "; to overthrow Khusrev, 
«f» had encouraged him in his refusal to surrender them; to 
seaire the fulfUroent of the sultan's promise with regard to Syria 
aod Damasctis. Mahmud, on the other hand, was torn between 
hatred of the pasha and hatred of the Christian powers which 
bad forced him to make concessions to the Greeks. Voices urged 
hin to come to terms with Mehemet Ali, secure peace in Islam, 
tad turn a united face of defiance against Europe; and for a while 
he bariwured the idea. He was conscious of bis own intense 
■npopttlarity, the outcome of his efforts at reform; he knew 
tbat in popular opinion Mehemet Ali was the champion of Islam 
against the infidel caliph, and that the issue of a struggle with him 
vas more than doubtful. He was hampered by the unpaid debt 
to Russia; by unrest in Bosnia and Albania; above all, by the 
revolt of the Greek Islands, which had left his navy, deprived 
of its best sailors, in no condition to dispute the Egyptian com- 
m^ad of the sea. In the end, however, his pride prevailed ; in 
April 1833 the Turkish commander-in-chief Hussein Pasha left 
Constantinople for the front ; and in the third week in May the 
ban of outlawry was launched against Mehemet Ali. 

Meanvhile, Ibrahim had occupied Gaza and Jerusalem as well 
as Taffa, on the 27th of May, a few days after the publication 
CI :te ban. Acre was stormed; on the isth of June the Egyptians 
occupied Damascus. Ibrahim pressed on with characteristic 
ra^iy, his rapid advance being favoured by the friendly 
altitude of the various sections of the Syrian population, whom 
be had been at pains to conciliate. He defeated the Ottoman 
advaoce-guard at Homs on the gth of July and at Hamah on 
the nth, entered Aleppo on the 17th. and on the 20th inflicted 
a crushing defeat on the main Turkish army under Hussein 
Puba at the pass of Beilan. All Syria was lost to the sultan, 
and the Egyptian advance-guard passed the mountain defiles 
into Adana in Asia Minor. 

Mahmud. in desperation, now turned for help to the powers. 
Rusftiao aid. though promptly offered, was too double-edged a 
vrapoo to be used save at the last extremity. Austrian diplo- 
macy was. for the mon>ent. that of Russia. France had broken 
her kmg tradition of friendship for Turkey by the occupation 
of Algiers. Great Britain, prodigal of protestations of goodwill, 
aVme remained; and to her Mahmud turned with a definite offer 
o( an offensive and defensive alliance. Stratford Canning, who 
was at Constantinople for the purpose of superintending the 
KSBtiatioiis for the dcUnuUtion of the frontiers of Greece, wrote 

home urging the government to accept, and suggesting a settle- 
ment of the Egyptian question which foreshadowed that of 1841. 
Palmerston, however, did not share Canning's belief in the 
possible regeneration of Turkey; he held that an isolated inter- 
vention of Great Britain would mortally offend not only Russia 
but France, and that Mehemet Ali, disappointed of his ambitions, 
would find in France a support that would make him doubly 

In the autunm Sultan Mahmud, as a last independent effort, 
despatched against Ibrahim the army which, under Reshid 
Pasha, had been engaged in pacifying Albania. The result was 
the crowning victory of the £g3rptians at Konia (Dec. 21). The 
news reached Constantinople at the same time as Count Muraviev 
arrived on a special mission from the tsar. The Russian offrrs 
were at once renewed of a squadron of battleships and of a land 
force for the protection of the capital. Efforts were made to 
escape the necessity of accepting the perilous aid. Ottoman 
agents, backed by letters from the French charg6 d'affaires, were 
sent to Mehemet Ali and to Ibrahim, to point out the imminence 
of Russian mtervention and to offer modified terms. Muraviev 
himself went to Alexandria, where, backed by the Austrian agent. 
Count Prokesch-Osten, he announced to the pasha the tsar's 
immutable hatred of rebels. Mehemet Ali merely protested the 
complete loyalty of his intentions, Ibrahim, declaring that as a 
soldier he had no choice but to obey his father's orders, advanced 
to Afium-Karahissar and Kutaiah, whence he wrote to the sultan 
asking his gracious permission to advance to Brusa. He was at 
the head of 100,000 men, well organized and flushed with victory; 
the Ottoman army survived only as demoralized rabble. Panic 
seized the Seraglio; and at the beginning of February the assis- 
tance of Russia was formally demanded. The representatives 
of France and Great Britain made every effort to secure a 
reversal of this fatal step; but, while they were threatening 
and promising, Russia was acting, and on the 3oth of February 
a Russian squadron entered the Bosporus. 

In view of this it became necessary for the objecting powers to 
take a new line. The new French ambassador. Admiral Roussin, 
had arrived on the 17th; he now, with the full concurrence of 
Mandeville, the British charg£ d'affaires, persuaded the Porte to 
invite the Russians to withdraw, undertaking that France would 
secure the acceptance by Mehemet Ali of the sultan's terms. 
A period of suspense followed. The Russian squadron was 
detained by contrary winds, and before it could sail peremptory 
orders arrived from the tsar for it to remain until Ibrahim should* 
have repassed the Taurus mountains. Meanwhile, Mehemet Ali 
had scornfully rejected the offers of the Porte; he would be con- 
tent with nothing but the concession of his full demands — Syria, 
Icheli, Aleppo, Damascus and Adana. France and Great Britain 
now urged the sultan to yield, and in March a Turkish agent 
was sent to Ibrahim to offer the pashaliks of Syria, Aleppo and 
t>amascus. The crisis was precipitated by the arrival on the 5th 
of April of a second division of the Russian fleet in the Bosporus, 
and of a Russian force of 6000 men, which landed on the Asiatic 
shore. The Porte now tried once more to modify its terms; but 
the Western pwwers were now intent on getting rid of the Russians 
at all costs, and as a result of the pressure they brought to bear 
on both parlies the preliminary convention of Kutaiah, conced- 
ing all the Egyptian demands, was signed on the 8th of April, and 
Ibrahim began his withdrawal. The convention stipulated for 
the bestowal of the pashalik of Adana on Ibrahim; but when on 
the i6th he received the official list of appointments, he found 
that Adana had been expressly reserved by the sultan. He at 
once arrested his march; but the pressure of famine in the capital, 
caused by the cutting off of supplies from Asia and the presence 
of the large Russian force, compelled Mahmud to yield, and on the 
3rd of May a firman ceded Adana to Ibrahim under the pretext of 
appointing him muhassil, or collector of the revenue. 

When Lord Ponsonby, the new British ambassador, arrived at 

* Canning's original memorandum is in the Foreign Office Records 
in the volume marked F.O., Turkey: From Sir Stratford Canning 
(August to December. 18^2). It bears elaborate pencil notes in 
Palroerston's handwriting, m part alrcaoy obliterated. 



Constantinople on the ist of May he found Russia practically in 
possession. Sultan Mahmud was to the last degree embittered 
against the powers which, with lively protestations of friendship, 
had forced him to humiliate himself before his haled vassal. 
Russia had given him deeds, not words; and to Russia he com- 
mitted himself. A further contingent of six or seven thousand 
Russians had arrived on the 2 and of April; Russian engineers 
were busy with the fortifications along the Straits; Russian 
agents alone were admitted to the sultan's presence. *' It is 
manifest," wrote Lord Ponsonby, " that the Porte stands in the 
relation of vassal to the Russian govenunent."^ The relation 
was soon to be yet more manifest. Before, on the gth of July, 
the Russian fleet, with the Russian troops on board, weighed 
anchor for the Black Sea, there was signed at the palace of 
Unkiar Skelassi the famous treaty (July 8, 1833) which, under 
the guise of an offensive and defensive alliance, practically 
made Russia the custodian of the gates of the Black Sea. (See 
Turkey: History.) 

Mehemet Ali had triumphed, but he was well aware that he 
held the fruits of his victory by a precarious tenure. ' He was 
still but a vali among the rest, holding his many pashaUks 
nominally by the sultan's will and subject to annual re- 
appointment; and he knew that both his power and his life 
would be forfeit so soon as the sultan should be strong 
enough to deprive him of them. To achieve this one end 
had, indeed, become the overmastering passion of Mahmud's 
life, to defeat it the object of all Mehemet Ali's policy. So 
early as 1834 it seemed as though the struggle would be 
renewed; for Mehemet Ali had extended to his new pashaliks 
his system of monopolies and conscription, and the Syrians, 
finding that they had exchanged Turkish whips for Egyptian 
scorpions, rose in a passion of revolt. It needed the inter- 
vention of Mehemet Ali in person before, in the following year, 
they were finally subdued. Meanwhile it had needed all the 
diplomatic armoury of the powers to prevent Mahmud hastening 
to the assistance of his "oppressed subjects." The threats of 
Great Britain and France, the failure of Russia to back him up, 
induced him to refrain; but sooner or later a renewal of the war 
was inevitable; for the sultan, with but one end in view, was 
reorganizing his army, and Mehemet Ali. who in the autumn of 
1834 had assumed the style of viceroy and sounded the powers 
as to their attitude in the event of his declaring his complete 
independence, refused to continue to pay tribute which he knew 
would be used against himself. 

The crisis came in 1838. In March the Egyptians were severely 
defeated by the revolted Arabs of the Hauran; and the Porte, 
though diplomatic pressure kept it quiet, hurried on prepara- 
tions for war. Mehemet Ali, too, had small reason for p<»t- 
poning the conflict. The work of Moltke. who with other 
German oflicers who had been engaged in organizing the Turkish 
army, threatened to destroy his superiority in the field; the 
commercial treaty signed by the Ottoman government with 
Great Britain (Aug. 16), which applied equally to all the 
territories under his rule, threatened to destroy at a blow the 
lucrative monopolies which supplied him with the sinews of war. 
Months of suspense followed; for the powers had threatened to 
cast their weight into the scale against whichever side should 
prove the aggressor, and Mehemet' Ali was too astute to make 
the first move. In the end Mahmud's passion played into his 
hands. The old sultan thirsted to crush his rebellious vassal, 
at any cost; and on the 21st of April 1839 the Ottoman army, 
stationed at Bir on the Euphrates, crossed the stream and invaded 
Syria. On the 23rd of June it was attacked and utterly routed 
by Ibrahim at Nezib. On the 1st of July the old sultan died, 
unconscious of the fatal news, leaving his throne to Abd- 
ul- Mejid, a lad of sixteen. To complete the desperateness of 
the situation the news reached the capital that Ahmed Pasha, 
the Ottoman admiral-in-chief, had sailed to Alexandria and 
surrendered his fleet to Mehemet Ali, on the preiext that the 
sultan's advisers were sold to the Russians. 

So far as the forces of the Ottoman Empire were concerned, 
' From Lord Ponsonby, F.O., Turkey, May aa, 1833. 

Mehemet Ali was now absolute master of the situation. The 
grand vizier, in the sultan's name« wrote beseeching him to 
avoid the further shedding of Mussulman blood, offering him a 
free pardon, the highest honours of the sUte, the hereditary 
pashalik of Egypt for himself, and Syria for Ibrahim until he 
should succeed his father in Egypt. Mehemet Ali replied diplo- 
matically; for, though these offers fell far short of his ambitions, 
a studious moderation was essential in view of the doubtful 
attitude of the European powers. 

On the 27 th of July the ambassadors of the five powers pre- 
sented to the Porte a joint note, in which they declared that an 
agreement on the Eastern (^estion had been reached by the five 
Great Powers, and urged it " to suspend all definite decision made 
without their concurrence, pending the effect of their interest in 
its welfare." The necessity for showing a united front juslifiol 
the diplomatic inexactitude; but the powers were agreed on 
little except the need for agreement. Especially was this need 
realized by the British government, which feared that Rusaa 
would seize the occasion for an isolated intervention under the 
treaty of Unkiar Skelessi. On the ist of August Palmcrston 
wrote to Ponsonby impressing upon him that the representatives 
of the powers, in their communications with the Porte, " should 
act not only simultaneously in point of time, but idaUicaUy m 
point oj manner " — a principle important in view of later develop- 
ments. Yet it was a task all but impossible to preserve tUs 
appearance of unanimity in view of the divergent views within 
the concert. France and Great Britain had hitherto acted 
together through common opposition to the supposed designs ol 
Russia. Austria, too, now that the revolutionary q>ectres of 
1830 had been laid, was reverting to her traditional (^position 
to Russia in the affairs of the Near East, and Mettemich sup- 
ported Palmerston's proposal of an international conference at 
Vienna. Everything depended on the attitude of the emperor 
Nicholas. This was ultimately determined by his growing dis- 
trust of Austria and his perennial hatred of the democratic regime 
of France. The first caused him to reject the idea of a conference 
of which the activities would have been primarily directed against 
Russia; the second led him to drive a wedge into the Anglo- 
French entente by making direct overtures to Great Britain. 
Palmerston likened to the tsar's proposals, conveyed throu^ 
Baron Brunnow, " with surprise and admiration." The emperor 
Nicholas was prepared to accept the views of Great Britain on the 
Turco- Egyptian question; to allow the Treaty of Unkiar Skelean 
to lapse; to act henceforth in the Ottoman Empire only in conceit 
with the other powers, in return for an agreement closing the 
Dardanelles to the war-ships of all nations and to extend the same 
principle to the Bosporus. Finally, Brunnow was empowered 
to arrange a coalition of the great powers with a view to the 
settlement of the Egyptian question; and in this coaUtion the 
tsar was willing, for poUtical reasons, that France should be 
included, though he stated his personal preference for her 

To these views Austria and, as a natural consequence, Prussia 
acceded without difliculty. The attitude of France was a more 
doubtful quantity. In France Mehemet Ali had become a 
popular hero; under him French civilization had gained a foothold 
in Egypt; he was regarded as invincible; and it was hoped that 
in alliance with him French influence in the Mediterranean would 
be supreme. Palmerston, on the other hand, believed that the 
Ottoman empire would never be secure until " the desert had 
been placed between " the pasha of Egypt and the sultan; and 
the view that the coalition should be directed against Mehemet 
Ali was shared by the other powers. In the circumstancci 
France should either have loyally accepted the deciuon of the 
majority of the concert, to which she had committed herself by 
signing the joint note of the 27th of July, or should have frankly 
stated her intention of taking up a position outside. The fact 
that she did neither led to a crisis that for a moment threatened 
to plunge Europe into war. 

For nearly a year the diplomatic pourparlers continued without 
an agreement being reached; France insisted on Mehemet Ali*k 
receiving the hereditary pashalik of Syria as well as that of 



Egypt, a praposition to which Pahttenton; though siocerdy 
aimous to preserve the Anglo-French entenU, refused to a^rec. 
The tension of the situation was increased when, on the 20th of 
February 1840, Thiers came into power. The diplomacy of 
Gulaot. backed now by Austria and Prussia, had succeeded in 
persuading Palmerston to concede the principle of allowing 
Mefaemet Ali to receive, besides Egypt, the pashalik of Acre as 
far as the frontiers of Tripoli and Damascus (May 7). Thiers, 
bowevtf, refused to listen to any suggestion for depriving him 
of any part of Syria; but, instead of breaking off the corre-. 
spondence and leaving the concert, he continued the negotiations, 
ud before long circumstances came to the knowledge of the 
British government which seemed to prove that he was only 
doing so with a view to gaining time in order to secure a separate 
settlement in accordance with French views. 

The opportunity for this arose from a change in the situation 
at Constantinople, where the dismiwal of Khusrev Pasha had, in 
Mefaemet Ali's view, removed the main obstacle to his recondlia-i 
tbo with the sultan. He proposed to the French consul-general 
at Akiandria to make advances to the Porte, and suggested 
nding back the Ottoman fleet as an earnest of his good inten- 
tions, a course which, it was hoped, " would lead to a direci and 
aoucaUe arrangement of the Turco-Egyptian question." On 
the 2ist of June his envoy, Sami Bey, actually arrived at Con- 
stiBtinople, ostensibly to congratulate the sultan on the birth of a 
^ughter, really to make use <^ the French influence now supreme 
at the Porte in order to effect a settlement. In the circumstances 
tilt proper course for Thiers to have pursuM would have been to 
kve communicated to the powers, to whom he was bound by 
tbe moral engagement of the 27th of July 1839, the new conditions 
arising out of Mehemet Ali's offer. Instead he wrote to Guizot, 
00 the 30th of June, sajring that the situation argued strongly 
in favour ot postponing any decision in London, adding: *' 1 
hsve written to Alexandria and Constantinople to counsel 
Boderation on both sides; but I have been careful to forbid the 
agents to enter on their own account, and as a French under- 
taking, on a negotiation of which the avowed aim is a direct 
arrangement. If such an enterprise is imputed to us, you will be 
ia a position to deny it." 

The discovery of what seemed an imderhand intrigue on the 
part of France produced upon the powers exactly the effect that 
Tkieis had foreseen and deprecated. They regarded it as an 
attempt to ruin the work of the concert and to secure for France 
t " comi^ete individual triumph " at Alexandria and Constanti- 
itople; aiid their countermove was to sign at London on the 15th 
of July, without the concurrence of France, a convention with 
the Porte for the settlement of the affairs of the Levant. By this 
iastrument it was agreed that the terms to be offered to Mehemet 
AC having been concerted with the Porte, the signatory powers 
vould unite their forces in order to compel the pasha to accept 
the settlement. As to the terms to be offered, it was arranged 
that, in the event of Mehemet Ali yielding within ten days, he 
ihould receive the hereditary pashalik of Egypt and the admini- 
I Kration for life of southern Syria, with the title of Pasha of Acre 
and the possession of the fortress of St Jean d'Acre. At the end 
of ten da>-s, should he remain obdurate, the offer of Syria and 
Aoe would be withdrawn; and if at the end of another ten days 
he was still defiant, the sultan would hold himself at liberty to 
withdraw the whole offer and to take such measures as his own 
iatncsts and the counsels of his allies might suggest to him. 

The news of this " mortal affront " to the honour of France 
caocd immense excitement in Paris. The whole press was 
damoroos for war; Thiers declared that the alliance with Great 
Britain was shattered, and pressed on warlike preparations; 
nrea Louis Philippe was carried away by the fever. The 
tKBiHiate effect was that Mehemet Ali, confident of French 
ttbtance, maintained a defiant attitude. The situation, 
kovever, was rapidly changed by the unexpected results of the 
tnaed intervention of the Allies. The appearance of the com- 
biaed British, Austrian and* Russian fleets, under Sir Charles 
Kapicr, off Bdrat (Aug. xi) was the signal for a general rising 
if tbe Syrians afaiost Ibrahim's tyranny. On the xxth of 
XViD i* 

September, Suleiman Pasha not having obeyed the summons 
to evacua'te the town, the bombardment was begun, and Otto- 
man troops were landed to co-operate with the rebels. On the 
3rd of October Beirut fell; and Ibrahim, cut off from his com- 
munications by sea, and surrounded by a hostile population, 
began a hurried retreat southward. On the 3rd of November 
Acre surrendered to the allied fleet. Mehemet Ali's power in 
Syria had collapsed like a pricked bubble; and with it had gone 
for ever the myth of his humane and enlightened rule. The sole 
question now was whether he should be allowed to retain 
Egypt itself. 

On the 15th of September the sultan, who had broken off all 
negotiations with Mehemet Ali on receipt of the news of the 
Syrian revolt, aaing on the- advice of Lord Ponsonby, declared 
the pasha deposed, on the ground that the term allowed by the 
Convention of London had expired, and nominated his successor. 
Mehemet Ali received the news with his accustomed sang-froid, 
observing to the consuls of the four powers, who had come to 
notify their own removal, that " such denunciations were nothing 
new to him; that this was the fourth, and that he hoped to get 
over it as well as he had done the other three, with the help of 
God and the Prophet." In the end his confidence proved to be 
justified. The news of the events in Syria and especially of the 
deprivation of Mehemet Ali had produced in France what 
appeared to be an exceedingly dangerous temper; the French 
government declared that it regarded the maintenance of Mehe- 
met Ali in Egypt as essential to the European balance of power; 
and Louis Philippe sought to make it clear to the British govern- 
ment, through the king of the Belgians, that, whatever might 
be his own desire to maintain peace, in certain events to do so 
would be to risk his throne. Palmerston, indeed, who did not 
believe that under the Bourgeois Monarchy France would trans- 
late her brave words into action, was in favour of settling the 
Turco-Egyptian question once for all by depriving Mehemet Ali 
of Egypt as well. The influences against him, however, were too 
powerful. Mettemich protested against a course which would 
result, in his opinion, either in a war or a revolution in France; 
King Leopold enlarged on the wickedness and absurdity of 
risking a European war for the sake of putting an end to the 
power of an old man who could have but few years to live; 
Queen Victoria urged her ministers to come to terms with France 
and relieve the embarrassments of the '* dear King "; and Lord 
Melbourne, with the majority of the cabinet, was in favour of 
compromise. When therefore, on the 8th of October, Guizot, 
in an interview with Palmerston, presented what was practically 
an ultimatum on the part of France, " it was determined that this 
intimation should be met in a friendly spirit, and that Lord 
Palmerston should see the Ministers of the other powers and agree 
with them to acquaint the French that they with England would 
use their good offices to induce the Poite not to insist on the 
deprivation of Mehemet Ali so far as Eg>pt is concerned." In 
accordance with this Palmerston instructed Ponsonby to press 
upon the sultan, in the event of Mehemet Ali's speedy submission, 
not only to withdraw the sentence of deprivation but to confer 
upon him the hereditary pashalik of Eg>'pt. 

For a while it seemed that even this would not avert a Euro- 
pean war. Thiers still maintained his warlike tone, and the 
king's speech prepared by him for the opening of the Chambers 
on the 28th of October was in effect a declaration of defiance to 
Europe. Louis Philippe himself, however, was not prepared 
to use this language; whereupon Thiers resigned, and a new 
cabinet was formed under Marshal Soult, with Guizot as foreign 
secretary. The equivocal tone of the new speech from the Throne 
raised a storm of protest in the Chambers and the country. It 
was, however, soon clear that Palmcrston's diagnosis of the 
temper of the French bourgeois was correct; the clamour for war 
subsided; on the 4th of December the address on the Egyptian 
Question proposed by the government was carried, and peace was 
assured. Nine days earlier Sir Charles Napier had appeared with a 
British squadron off Alexandria and. partly by persuasion, partly 
by threats, had induced Mehemet Ali to submit to the sultan 
and to send back the Ottoman fleet, in return fot «i f;oAX«A\xft 



of the hereditary paahalik of Egypt. This Arrangement was 
ratified by Paimerston; and all four powers now combined to 
press it on the reluctant Porte, pointing out, in a joint note of the 
30th of January 1841, that " they were not conscious of advising 
a course out of harmony with the sovereignty and legitimate 
ri^ts of the sultan, or contrary to the duties imposed on the 
Pasha of Egypt as a subject appointed by His Highness to govern 
a province of the Ottoman Empire." This principle was elabor- 
ated in the firman, issued on the X3th of February, by which the 
sultan conferred on Mehemet Ali and his heirs by direct descent 
the pashalik of Egypt, the greatest care being taken not to bestow 
any rank and authority greater than that enjoyed by other 
viziers of the empire. By a second firman of the same date 
Mehemet Ali was invested with the government of Nubia, Darf ur, 
Khordofan and Sennaar, with their dependencies. On the loth 
of June the finnan was solenmly promulgated at Alexandria. 

Thus ended the phase of the Egyptian Question with which 
the name of Mehemet Ali is specially bound up. The threatened 
European conflict had been averted, and presently the wounded 
susceptibilities of France were healed by the invitation extended 
to her to take part in the Straits Convention. As for Mehemet 
Ali himself, he now passes off the stage of history. He was an 
old man; his mind was soon to give way; and for some time 
before his death on the and of August 1849 the reins of power were 
held by his son and successor Ibrahim. 

Probably no Oriental ruler, not even excepting Ali of lannina, 
has ever stirred up so much interest among his contemporaries 
as Mehemet Ali. The spectacle of an Eastern despot apparently 
advancing on the lines of European progress was in itself as 
astonishing as new. Men thought they were witnessing the 
dawn of a new era in the East; Mehemet Ali was hailed as the 
most beneficent and enlightened of princes; and political philo- 
sophers like Jeremy Bentham, who sent him elaborate letters 
of good advice, thought to find in him the means for developing 
their theories in virgin soil In fact the pasha was an illiterate 
barbarian, of the same type as his countryman Ali of lannina, 
courageous, cruel, astute, full of wiles, avaricious and boundlessly 
ambitious. He never learned to read or write, though late in life 
he mastered colloquial Arabic; yet th(»e Europeans who were 
brought into contact with him praised alike the dignity and 
charm of his address, his ready wit, and the astonishing 
perspicacity which enabled him to read the motives of men 
and of governments and to deal effectively with each situation 
as it arose. 

The latest account of Mehemet Ali and the European crias 
arising out of his revolt is that by W. Alison Phillips in vol. x. 
ch. xvii. of the Cambridge Modern History ^1907). The biblio- 
graphy atuched to this chapter (p. 853) gives a list of all the principal 
publisned documents and works, together with some analysis 
€d the unpublished Foreign Office records bearing on the subject. 
Of the works mentioned C. de Freycinet's La Question d'Egypie 
(Paris, 1905) gives the most authoritative account of the diplomatic 
developments. (W. A. P.) 

MEHIDPUR, or Mahidpxts, a town of India, in Indore 
state of Central India, on the right bank of the Sipra, 1543 ft. 
above the sea, and 24 m. N. of Ujjain. Pop. (1901), 6681. 
Though of some antiquity and frequented by Hindu pilgrims, 
it is best known for the battle fought in the neighbourhood 
on the 20th of December 181 7, in which Sir John Malcolm 
defeated the army of Holkar. The result was the Treaty of 
Mandasor and the pacification of Malwa. Mehidpur was 
again the scene of some sharp fighting during the Mutiny. 
The British cantonment, placed here in 18x7, was removed 
in 1882. 

m6hUL, firiENNB HENRI (or £tienne Nicolas) (1763- 
181 7), French composer, was born at Givet in Ardennes, on 
the 24th of June 1763. His father being too poor to give him 
a regular musical education, his first ideas of art were derived 
from a poor blind organist of Givet; yet such was his aptitude 
that, when ten years old, he was appointed organist of the con- 
vent of the Rteollcts. In 1775 an able German musician and 
organist, Wilhelm Hauser^ was engaged for the monastery 
of lAvaldieu, a few miles from Civet, and M^ul became his 

occasional pupil. In 1778 he was taken to Paris by a miliuxy 
oflBcer, and placed himself under Edelmann, a good musidan and 
harpsichord player. His first attempts at instrumental conv 
position in 1781 did not succeed, and he therefore turned hb 
attention to sacred and dramatic music. Gluck gave him advior 
in his studies. After various disappointments during hit 
efforts for six years to obtain, at the Grand Op£ra, a representa- 
tion of his Cora et Alonso, he offered to the Op£ra Comique 
his Eupkrosine et Coradin, which, being accepted and perfomied 
in 1790, at once fixed his reputation. His opera of Straiomu 
was also received with enthusiasm in 1792. After several 
unsuccessful operas, his Adrien appeared, and added much 
to his fame, which was further increased by his three best 
works, Le Jeune Henri, Uthal and Joseph, the finest of the 
series. UUtal was written for an orchestra without violins. 
M^ul held a post as one of the four inspectors of the Paris 
Conservatoire, but this office made him feel continually the 
insufficiency oif his early studies, a want which he endeavoured 
to remedy by incessant application. TimcUon, Ariedaid 
and Bion followed. Epicure was composed by Mfhul and 
Cherubini jointly; but the superiority of the latter was evidenL 
M6hurs next opera, Lltato, failed. After wridng forty-two 
operas, besides a number of songs for the festivals of the republic, 
cantatas, and orchestral pieces of various kinds, his health 
gave way, from an affection of the chest, and he died on the. 
i8th of October 1817 in Paris. 

See Lives by Pougin (1889), Viellard (1859), and Quatxcnere de 
Quincey (1818). 

MEIBOM, HEINRICH (1555-1625), German historian and 
poet, was bom at Lemgo on the 4th of December 1555, and 
died on the 20th of September 1625, at Helmstedt, where he 
had held the chair of history and poetry since 1583. He was 
a writer of Latin verses {Parodiarum horatianarum libri III. 
et sylvarum libri II., 1588); and his talents in this direction 
were recognized by the emperor Rudolph II., who ennobled him; 
but his claim to be remembered rests on his services in duddat- 
ing the medieval history of Germany. 

His Opusctda historica ad res itrmanicas spedantia was edited 
and published in 1660 by his grandson, Heinrich Meibom (1638- 
1700), who was professor of medicine and then of history and jwetiy 
at Helmstedt, and incorporated his grandfather's work with his 
own Rerum germanicarum scriptores (1688). 

MEIDERICH, a town of Germany, in the Prussian 'Rhine 
province, 2I m. by rail N.E. of Ruhrort, whose river harbour 
is in great part within its confines. Pop. (1905), 40,822. Iron 
and steel works, coal-mines, saw-mills, brickworks, and machine- 
shops furnish the principal occupations of the inhabitants. 
Meiderich, which is first mentioned in 874, was united with 
Duisburg in 1905. 

See Gracber, Tausendjahrige GeschichU von Meiderich (1893). 

MEIKTILA, a district and division in Upper Burma. The 
district is the most easterly of the districts in the dry zone, 
and has an area of 2183 sq. m. It lies between KyauksC, 
Myingyan, YamSthin, and on the east touches the Shan States. 
It is a slightly undulating plain, the gentle slopes of which are 
composed of black " cotton " soil and are somewhat arid. The 
only hills above 300 ft. are on the slopes of the Shan hflls^ 
The lake is the chief feature of the district. It is artificial, 
and according to Burmese legend was begun 2400 years afO 
by the grandfather of Gautama Buddha. It is 7 m. long, * 
averages half a mile broad, and covers an area of 3I sq. m. 
With the Minhla and other connected lakes it irrigates a large 
extent of country. 

There are small forest reserves, chiefly of cutch. Large 
numbers of cattle are bred. The chief agricultural products 
are rice, sesamum, cotton, peas, maize, millet and gram. Fap» 
(1901), 252,305. Famines in 1891, 1895 and 1896 led to con- 
siderable emigration. The climate is healthy except in the 
submontane townships. The temperature rises to 100* F. 
and over between the months of March and June, and the 
mean minimum in January is about 61°. The rainfall is uncer- 
tain (36-79 in. in 1893, 25-59 in 1891).. The vast nu^jocity 



of the popoUtion are Buddhists. The headquarters town, 
Hektila, stands on the banks of the lake, which supplies 
food drinking water. Pop. (1901), 7203. A wing of a British 
Rginient h stationed here. A branch railway connects it 
at Thaxi station with the Rangoon-Mandalay line, and continues 
vcsttrard to its terminus on the Irrawaddy at Myingyan. 

The division includes the districts of Meiktila, KyauksC, 
Yamethin and Myingyan, with a total area of 10,852 sq. m., 
and a population (igox) of 992,807, showing an increase of 
io-a% in the preceding decade, and giving a density of 91 
jahabifants to the square mile. All but a small portion of the 
divisioa lies in the dry zone, and cultivation is mainly dependent 
c a irrig ation. 

■HLHAC HENRI (Z831-Z897), French dramatist, was' 
bora in Paris on the azst of February 1831, and while a young 
man began writing fanciful articles for the newspapers and 
MMfewBer for the theatres, in a vivacious bouUvardier spirit 
which brought him to the front. About i860 he met Ludovic 
EaKvy, and the two began a collaboration in writing for the 
ftage which lasted for twenty years. An accotmt of their 
wo^ IS given under HaiivY. Meilhac wrote a few pieces 
«ith leaser coDaboraton. In 1888 he was elected to the 
A cademy. H e died at Paris in 1897. 

■HHBBRO, a village and watering-place of Germany, in 
the principality of Lippe Detmold, situated in a pleasant valley 
voder the Teutoburger Wald, 12 m. S.E. from Detmold by the 
raSway to Altenbeken. Pop. (1905), z3oa The waters of 
Ifcinbeig, which attract annually about 1200 visitors, are 
nlphor springs, and are used for drinking, bathing and inhala- 
tioB. They became known in the i8th century. 

See Gilbert and Blcissoer, Bad MeinUrg und mne KwrmiuA 
(Bcrfin, 190a). 

mbmbkb: johamw albrecht fribdrich august 

(1790-1870), German classical ;scholar, was bom at Soest in 
Westphalia on the 8th of December 1790. After holding 
cdocational. posts at Jenkau and Danzig, he was director of 
the Joadnoathal gymnasium in Berlin from 1826 to 2856. 
He died at Berlin on the Z2th of December 1870. He was 
<fiaingnisbed in amjectural criticism, the comic writers and 
Akzandiine poets being his favourite authors. 

His most important works are: Gratcomm comicorum fragmenla 
(i839~l8S7t the first volume of which contains an essay on the 

(£iieaiitf(^ t!K fn^jnentA of RJiianus, Euphorion, Al^Jundcr oi 
Attoiiai, tad Funhtmiiit} ; CallimActnu ttS*jj): ThcocrituA, Bkm, 
*l«chi» i^rd td . iSS^Jt Aldphron (l*sij3 Slrabot3nd«]..ieft6) 
and Vmdicix sfr(j^ji?tat»«f (165?): Sicbaeu* (tAjS-iSdi); Aihrtucua 
' " ~ phsbyF,Raniwri87iKH.^t]f--'^""" 


{itj^tStfj}^ Sraf mcinoeinipbs by F, Ritikc (l 871 )i H Sitmoc 
tmd^ F^tevtcmaDn in AUtrmetKe {kHisthe Bifriratfkie. XXL U^^5)t 
iteSaSiyi^ Hitf. Odxi. Schoi. U^). m. 117. 

HEUUHvEN, a town of Germany, capital of the duchy of 
Saae-Meiningen, romantically situated in forests on the right 
baak of the Werra, 40 m. S. of Eisenach by rail. Pop< (1905), 
15,989. It consists of an old town and several handsome 
saborfas^ but much of the former has been rebuilt since a fire 
ia 1874. The chief building is the Elisabethenburg, or the 
tkl ducal palace, containing several collections; it was built 
Bsialy about 1680, although part of it is much older. Other 
bBiMings are the Henneberger Haus with a collection of antiqui- 
ties, and the town church, with twin towers, built by the emperor 
Beniy IL in the xxth century. The theatre enjoyed for many 
jfcais (1875-1890) a European reputation for its actors and 
imic effects. The English garden, a beautiful public park, 
contains the ducal mortuary chapel and several monuments, 
indiMling busts of Brahms and Jean Paul Richtcr. 

Heiningen, which was subject to the bbhops of Wtirzburg 
(1000-1542), came into the possession of the duke of Saxony 
H 1583, having in the meantime belonged to the counts of 
Baaebcrf. At the partition of z66o it fell to the share of 
Sue-AItcnborg, and in x68o became the capital of Saxc- 

Sce E. DObner, Bauskine s» titur CesckkhU ier Stadt Meiningen 
(Uciaiagea. 19M). 

MEIR, Jewish rabbi of the 2nd century, was bom in Asia 
Minor and according to legend was a descendant of the family 
of Nero. He was the most notable of the disciples of Aqiba 
(9.9.), and after the Hadrianic repressions of a.d. 135 was 
instrumental in refounding the Palestinian schools at Usha. 
Among his teachers was also Elisha ben Abuya {q.v.), and 
MeXr continued his devotion to Elisha after the latter's apostasy. 
He is said to have visited Rome to rescue his wife's sister. 
His wife, Beruriah, is often cited in the Talmud as an exemplar 
of generosity and faith. She was a daughter of the martyr 
gananiah ben Teradion. On one occasion Meir, who had 
been frequently troubled by his ungodly neighbours, uttered 
a prayer for their extinction. " Nay," said Beruriah, " it is 
written (Ps. civ. 35) let sins be blotted out, not sinners "; 
whereupon MeIr prayed for the evildoers' conversion. But 
she b best known for her conduct at the sudden death of her 
two sons. It was the Sabbath, and Melr returned home towards 
sunset. He repeatedly asked for the children, and Beruriah, 
after parrying his question, said: " Some time ago a precious 
thing was left with me on trust, and now the owner demands 
its return. Must I give it back ? " " How can you question 
it? " rejoined her husband. Beruriah- then led him to the bed 
whereon were stretched the bodies of the children. Melr burst 
into tears. But the wife explained that this was the treasure 
of which she had spoken, adding the text from Job: "The 
Lord gave and the Lord hath taken away; blessed be the name 
of the Lord." Melr himself was the author of many famous 
sayings: " Look not to the flask, but to its contents. Many 
a. new vessel contains old wine, but there are old casks which 
do not contain even new wine." " Condole not with a mourner 
while his dead is laid out before him." " Man cometh into 
the world with closed hands as though claiming the ownership 
of all things; but he departeth hence with hands open and 
limp, as if to show that he taketh naught with him." " What 
God does is well done." " The tree itself supplies the handle 
of the axe which cuts it down." His wisdom was proverbial, 
and to him was in particular assigned an intimate acquaintance 
with fables, and he is reported to have known 300 Fox-Fables. 
" With the death of Rabbi Melr," says the Mishnah {Sota ix. 15), 
" Fabulists ceased to be." 

Melr's wide sympathies were shown in his inclusion of all 
mankind in the hopes of salvation (Sifra to Leviticus xviii. 
5). He was certainly on friendly terms with heathen scholars^ 
Melr contributed .largely to the material from which finally 
emerged the Mishnah. His dialectic skill was excessive, and 
it was said jestingly of him that he could give 150 reasons to 
prove a thing clean, and as many more to prove it unclean. 
His balanced judgment fitted him to carry on Aqiba's work, 
sifting and arranging the oral traditions, and thus preparing 
the ground for the Mishnaic Code. 

Melr left Palestine some time before his death, owing to 
disagreements between him and the Patriarch. He died in 
Asia Minor, but his love for the Holy Land remained dominant 
to the last. " Bury me," he said, " by the shore, so that the 
sea which washes the land of my fathers may touch also my 
bones." The tomb shown as that of Melr at Tiberias is 

Sec Bachcr, Agada der TannaiUn, vol. il. ch. i.; Gractz, Histcry of 
the Jews (Eng. trans.), vol. 11. ch. w'u; Jewish Encyclopedia (whence 
some of the above cited sayings are quoted), viii. 432-435- On 
Meir's place in the history of the fable, see J.Jacobs, The Fables oj 
Aesop, 1. Ill, &c. (see Index s.v.). (1. A.) 

MEIR OF ROTHENBURG {c. 1215-1293), German rabbi and 
poet, was born in Worms c. 1215. He played a great part in 
organizing the Jewish communal life of the middle ages. In 
1286 for some unknown reason he was thrown into prison in 
Alsace, where he remained until his death in 1393. His friends 
offered to find a ransom, but he declined the suggestion, fearing 
that the precedent would lead to extortion in other cases. 
He wrote glosses to the Talmud (tosaphot) and many Rcsponsa 
of the utmost value for historical research. Through his disciples 
Asher ben Yeljiel and Mordecai ben Hillel, Meir exercised much 



influence on subsequent developments of Judaism. He was 
also a liturgical poet of considerable merit. One of his finest 
elegies is translated into English in Nina Davis's Songs of ExiU. 
Sec L. Ginzberg, Jewish Encyclopedia, viii. 437-440- (I- A.) 
MEIRINGEN, the principal village on the Hasle (or the upper 
Aar) valley in the Swiss canton of Bern. It is built at a height 
of 1969 ft. on the right bank of the Aar and on the level floor of 
the valley, but is much exposed to the south wind (or F6hn)^ 
and has several times been in great part destroyed by fire (1632, 
1879 and 1891). It has 3077 inhabitants, all German-speaking 
and Protestants. The parish church is ancient, and above 
it are the ruins of the medieval castle of Resti. Meiringen 
is frequented by travellers in summer, as it is the meeting-point 
of many routes: from Interlaken by the lake of Brienz and 
Brienz, from Lucerne by the Briinig railway (28 m.), from 
Engelberg by the Joch Pass (7267 ft.), from the upper Valais 
by the Grimsel Pass (7100 ft.), and from Grindelwald by the 
Great Scheidcgg Pass (6434 ft.). Many waterfalls descend 
the hill-sides, the best known being the Reichenbach and the 
Alpbach, while the great gorge pierced by the Aar through 
the limestone barrier of the Kirchet is remarkable. The village 
and valley belonged of old to the emperor, who in 1234 gave 
the advowson to the Knights of St Lazarus, by whom it was 
sold in 1272 to the Austin Canons of Interlaken, on the sup- 
pression of whom in 1528 it passed to the state. In 13 10 the 
emperor mortgaged the valley to the lords of Weissenburg, 
who sold it in 1334 to the town of Bern. (W. A. B. C.) 

' MEISSEN, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Saxony, 
on both banks of the Elbe, 15 m. N.W. from Dresden, on the 
railway to Leipzig via Ddbeln. Pop. (1905), 32,336. The old 
town lies on the left bank of the river, between the streams 
Meisse and Tricbisch, and its irregular hilly site and numerous 
fine old buildings make it picturesque. Most of its streets 
are narrow and uneven. The cathedral, one of the finest early 
Gothic buildings in Germany, stands on the Schlossberg, x6o ft. 
above the town. It is said to have been founded by the emperor 
Otto the Great, but the present building was begun in the 13th 
century and was completed about 1450. Here are tombs of 
several rulers and princes of Saxony, including those of Albert 
and Ernest, the founders of the two existing branches of the 
Saxon house. The cathedral also contains works by Peter 
Vischer and Lucas Cranach and several other interesting monu- 
ments. A restoration, including the rebuilding of the two 
towers, was carried out in 1903-1908. Adjoining the cathedral 
is the castle, dating from 1471-1483, but restored and named 
the Albrcchtsburg about 1676. Another restoration was 
undertaken after i860, when a series of historical frescoes was 
painted upon its walls. A stone building of the X3th century 
connects the Schlossberg. with the Afraberg, which owes its 
name to the old convent of St Afra. The convent was suppressed 
by Duke Maurice in 1543, and was by him converted into 
a school (the FUrsten Schule), one of the most renowned 
classical schools in Germany, which counts Lessing and 
Gellert among its former pupils. Other public buildings of 
interest are the town-hall, built in 1479 and restored in 
2875; the fine town church, called the Frauenkirche or 
Marienkirche; the Ntkolaikirche and the Afrakirche. The 
Franciscan church is now used as a museum of objects 
connected with the hbtory of Meissen. Since 1710 Meissen 
has been the seat of the manufacture of Dresden china. Till 
i860 the royal porcelain factory was in the Albrechtsburg, 
but in that year it was transferred to a large new building in 
the Triebischtal, near the town. Meissen also contains iron 
foundries, factories for making earthenware stoves and pottery, 
sugar refineries, breweries and tanneries. A considerable trade 
is carried on in the wine produced in the surrounding vineyards, 
and other industries are spinning and weaving. 

Meissen was founded about 920 by Henry the Fowler (see 
Meissen, Margraviaie). From 968 to 1581 Meissen was the 
seat of a line of bishops, who ranked as princes of the empire. 
During the 15th century the town suffered greatly from the 
Hussites, and it was captured by the imperial troops during 

the war of the league of Schmalkalden, and again in the Tliiitjr 
Years' War. In 1637 it suffered much from the Swedes, and 
in 1745 it fell into the hands of the Prussians. The bridge over 
the Elbe was destroyed by the French in 18x3, and again by 
the Saxons in June 1866 in order to impede the march of the 
Prussians on Dresden. CdUn on the right bank of the Elbe 
was incorporated with Meissen in 1 901. 

See Rdnhard, Die Stadt Meissen, ihre MerkwHrdigkeiUn (MeineB, 
1829); Loose, AU-Metssen in Biidem (Meissen. i88q); Jftachke, 
Meissen und seine Kirchen (Leipzig, 1902) ; and Gersdori, Urktmdmh 
Imch der Stadt Meissen (Leipzig. 1873). 

MEISSEN, a German merged in the kingdom 
of Saxony. The mark of Meissen was originally a distzkt 
centring round the castle of Meissen or Misnia on the Middle 
Elbe, which was built about 920 by the German king Henry I., 
the Fowler, as a defence against the SUvs. After the death 
of Gero, margrave of the Saxon east mark, in 965, his territoiy 
was divided into five marks, one of which was csilled Meissen. 
In 98s the emperor Otto UI. bestowed the office of margrave 
upon Ekkard I., margrave of Merseburg, and the district com* 
pris^ig the marks of Meissen, Merseburg and TmXz was generally 
known as the mark of Meissen. In 1002 Ekkard was succeeded 
by his brother Gunzelin, and then by his sons Hermann I. and 
Ekkard U. Under these margraves the area of the mark 
was further increased, but when Ekkard II. died in 1046 it 
was divided, and Meissen proper was given successively to 
William and Otto, counts of Weimar, and Egbert II., count of 
Brunswick. Egbert was a rival of the emperor Henry IV. 
and died under the imperial ban in 1089, when Meissen was 
bestowed upon Henry I., count of Wettin, whose mother was 
a sister of the margrave Ekkard II. Henry, who already ruled 
lower Lusatia and the new and smaller Saxon east mark, was 
succeeded in 1103 by his cousin Thimo, and in 1104 by hi^ son 
Henry II., whose claim on the mark was contested by Thimo't 
son Connid. When Henry died without issue in 11 23 Meissen 
was given by the emperor Henry V. to Hermann IL, cxmnt 
of Wintzenburg; but, renewing his claim, Conrad won* the 
support of Lothair, duke of Saxony, afterwards the e m p eror 
Lothair II., and obtained possession in 1130. Conrad, taOed 
the Great, extended the boundaries of Meissen before abdicating 
in 1 1 56 in favour of his son Otto, known as the Rich. Otto 
appointed hb younger son Dietrich as his successor and was 
attacked and taken prisoner by his elder son Albert; but, 
after obtaining his release by order of the emperor Frederick L, 
he had only just renewed the war when he died in 1 190. During 
his reign silver mines were opened in the Harz Mountains, 
towns were founded, roads were made, and-the general conditioa 
of the country was improved. Otto was succeeded by hift 
son Albert, called the Proud, who was engaged in waxfaie 
with his brother Dietrich until his death in 1195. As Albert 
left no children, Meissen was seized by the emperor Henry VL 
as a vacant fief of the empire; but Dietrich, called the OppresMd, 
secured the mark after Henry's death in 1 197. Dietrich married 
Jutta, daughter of Hermann I., landgrave of Thuringia, and 
was succeeded in 1221 by his infant son Henry, sumiained 
the Illustrious; who on arriving at maturity obtained u 
reward for supporting the emperor Frederick II. against the 
pope a promise to succeed his uncle, Henry Raspc IV., bs land- 
grave of Thuringia. In 1243 Henry's son Albert was betrothed 
to Margaret, daughter of Frederick II.; and Pleissnerland, 
a district west of Meissen, was added to his possessions. Having 
gained Thuringia and the Saxon palatinate on his uncle's deatll 
in 1247, he granted -sections of his lands to his three sons in 
1265, but retained Meissen. A series of family feuds followed. 
His second son Dietrich died in 1285, and on Henry's own 
death in 1288 Meissen was divided between his two remaining 
sons, Albert (called the Degenerate) and Frederick, and Ym 
grandson Frederick Tutta, the son of Dietrich. Albert vat 
engaged in struggles with his three sons, who took him prisoner 
in 1288; but he was released the following year by order of the 
German king Rudolph I. Abont this time he sold his poitioft 
of Meissen to his nephew Frederick Tutta, who held the litll 



I and ruled tlie greater part of the mark untfl his 
ieath in 1291. Albert's two remaining sons, Frederick and 
)ietridi or Diezmann, then claimed Meissen; but it was seized 
ij King Adolph of Nassau as a vacant fief of the empire, 
ind was for some time retained by him and his successor King 
Ubert L ' In the cotuse of constant efforts to secure the mark 
jke brothen Frederick and Dietrich defeated the troops of 
Ijag Albert at Lucka in May 1307 and secured partial possession 
af their lands. ' In this year Dietrich died and Frederick became 
Rooodled with his father, who, after renouncing his claim on 
Uessen for a yeariy payment, died in 13x4. Having obtained 
poaiession of the greater part of the mark, Frederick was invested 
viih it by the German king Henry VII. in 13x0. During these 
ycais the part of Meissen around Dresden had- been in the 
pMKBiion of Frederick, youngest son of the nuugrave Henry the 
IBBitrioas, and when he died in 13x6 it came to his nephew 
Fnderick. About 13x2 Frederick, who had become involved 
B a dispute with Waldemar, margrave of Brandenburg, over 
the possession of lower Lusatia, was taken prisoner. Sur- 
iwdning fewer Lusatia he was released, but it was only 
iftcr Waldemar's death in 13x9 that he obtained undisputed 
possession ol MeisseiL Frederick, who was sumamed the 
Ftascefol, died in 1323 and was followed as margrave by his 
saa Frederick II., callni the Grave, who added several counties 
to his inheritance. From this latter Frederick's death in X349 
Dtil 138X the lands of the family were ruled by his three sons 
Jointly; but after the death of his eldest son Frederick III. 
ia Z3SX a division was made by which Meissen fell to his youngest 
son Vraiiam L In 1407 William was succeeded by his nephew 
firdrrirk, called the Warlike, who in X423 received from the 
cafiaw Sigismund the electoral duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg. 
The mark then became merged in the duchy of Saxony, and 
it the partition of 1485 fell to the Albertine line. As Meissen 
■as idieved from tl:^ attacks of the Slavs by the movement 
flf the German boundary to the east, its prosperity increased. 
Many towns were founded, among which were Dresden, Leipzig 
aad Freiburg; Chemnitz began its textile industry; And although 
the condition of the peasants was wretched, that of the townsmen 
was improving. The discoveries of silver brought great wealth 
lo the margraves, but they resorted at times to bedcs, which 
•ere contributions from the nobles and ecclesiastics who met 
ia a kind of diet. During this period the mark of Meissen 
biy on both banks of the Elbe, and stretched from Bohemia 
to the dnchy of Saxe-Wittenberg, embracing an area of about 
3000sq.n1. _ "^ 

See O. Pn—e, Die Markgrafen wm Meissen und das Ham Wettin 
(Lapag, 1881} ; F. W. Tittmann, GeschicfUe Hemricks des erlaucklen 
Utrlmfeu s» Meissen (Dresden, 1845-1846): C. F. von Poscrn- 
IQm, Zur Cesekukte der Verfassung der Markgrafschaft Meissen im 
Q. J^hrkmrndert <L«pzig, 1 863). Stt also Urkunden der Markgrafen 
tm Meissen nnd Landtrafen von Th&ringim, edited by E. G. Gersdorf 
(LapBC. 1864) : and H. B. Meyer, HoJ- und Zenlralverwaltung der 

r (Leipzig. 1902), 

JEAV LOUIS ERNEST (18x5-1x891), French 
pBBter, was bom at Lyons on the 2 xst of February 1 8 1 5. From 
la schooldays he showed a taste for painting, to which some early 
Ae&cfaes, dated 1823, bear witness. After being placed with 
idrasgbt, he obtained leave from his parents to become an 
tojaij and, owing to the recommendation of a painter named 
htier, hinaelf a second class Prix de Rome, he was admitted 
to lion Cogniet's studio. He paid short visits to Rome and 
to Switzerland, and exhibited in the Salon of X83X a picture 
then called ** Les Bourgeois Flamands " (" Dutch Burghers ")t 
kit also known as " The Visit to the Burgomaster," subsequently 
pachaied by Sir Richard Wallace, in whose collection (at 
ficnford House, London) it is, with fifteen other examples 
ifthb painter. It was the first attempt in France in the 
Nrticnlar gfnre whidi was destined to make Meissonier famous: 
tiaoKopic painting — miniature in oils. Working hard for 
^Jr brnd at illustrations for the publishers — Curmer, Hetzcl 
lad Dubocber — he also exhibited at the Salon of X836 the 
* Chess Player " and the " Errand Boy." After some not very 
kippr attempts at religious painting, he returned, under the 

influence of Chenavard, to the dass of work he was bom to 
excel in, and exhibited with much success the " Game of Chess " 
(X841), the "Young Man playing the 'Cello" (1842), "The 
Painter in his Studio " (1843), " The Guard Room," the " Young 
Man looking at Drawings," the " Game of Piquet " (1845), 
and the " Game of Bowls " — works which show the finish and 
certainty of his technique, and assured his success. After 
his " Soldiers " (X848) he began " A Day in June," which was 
never finished, and exhibited " A Snraker " (1849) and " Bravos " 
(" Les Bravi," X852). In 1855 he touched the highest mark 
of his achievement with " The Gamblers " and " The (;hiarrel " 
(" La Rixe"), which was presented by J^apoleon III. to the 
English Court. His triumph was sustained at the Salon of 
1857, when he exhibited nine pictures, and drawings; among 
them the " Young Man of the Time of the Regency," " The 
Painter," " The Shoeing Smith," " The Musician," and " A 
Reading at Diderot's." To the Salon of i86x he sent "The 
Emperor at Solferino," "A Shoeing Smith," "A Musician," 
" A Painter," and " M. Louis Fould "; to that of J864 another 
version of " The Emperor at Solferino," and " 1814." He 
subsequently exhibited " A Gamblers' (parrel " (1865), and 
"Desaix and the Army of the Rhine" (1867). Meissonier 
worked -with eUiborate care and a scrupulous observation of 
nature. Some of his works, as for instance his " X807," remained 
ten years in course of execution. To the gtcat Exhibition 
of 1878 he contributed sixteen pictures: the portrait of 
Alexandre Dumas which had been seen at the Salon of 1877, 
" Cuirassiers of 1805," " A Venetian Painter," " Morcau and his 
Staff before Hohenlinden," a " Portrait of a Lady," the " Road 
to La Salice," " The Two Friends," " The Outpost of the Grand 
Guard," " A Scout," and " Dictating his Memoirs." Thence- 
forward he exhibited less in the Salons, and sent his work to 
smaller exhibitions. Being chosen president of the Great 
National Exhibition in 1883, he was represented there by such 
works as " The Pioneer," " The Army of the Rhine," " The 
Arrival of the Guests," and " Saint Mark." On the 24th of May 
1884 an exhibition was opened at the Petit Gallery of Meissonier's 
collected works, including X46 examples. As president of the 
jury on i>ainting at the Exhibition of 1889 he contributed some 
new pictures. In the following year the New Salon was formed 
(the National Society of Fine Arts), and Meissonier was president. 
He exhibited there in X890 his picture " 1807 "; and in 1891, 
shortly after his death, his " Barricade " was displayed there. 
A less well-known doss of work than his painting is a series 
of etchings: "The Last Supper," "The Skill of Vuillaumc 
the Lute Player," " The Little Smoker," " The Old Smoker," 
the " Preparations for a Duel," " Anglers," " Troopers," 
" The Reporting Sergeant," and " Polichincllc," in the Hertford 
House collection. He also tried lithography, but the prints 
are now scarcely to be found. Of all the painters of the century, 
Meissonier was one of the most fortunate in the matter of 
payments. His " Cuirassiers," now in the late due d'Aumalc's 
collection at Chantilly, was bought from the artist for £10.000, 
sold at Brussels for £ii>ooo, and finally resold for £16,000. 
Besides his genre portraits, he painted some others: those 
of " Doctor Lefevre," of " Chenavard," of " Vandcrbilt," 
of " Doctor Guyon," and of " Stanford." He also collaborated 
with the painter Francais in a picture of " The Park at St Cloud." 
In 1838 Meissonier married the sister of M. Steinheil, a painter. 
Meissonier was attached by Napoleon III. to the imperial 
staff, and accompanied him during the campaign in Italy and 
at the beginning of the war in 1870. During the siege of Paris 
in 1 87 1 he was colonel of a marching regiment. In 1840 he 
was awarded a third-class medal, a second-class medal in 1841, 
first-class medals in X843 and 1844 and medals of honour at 
the great exhibitions. In 1846 he was appointed knight of 
the Legion of Honour and promoted to the higher grades in 
1856, X867 (June 29), and 1880 (July 12), receiving • the 
Grand Cross in 1889 (Oct. 29). He nevertheless cherished 
certain ambitions which remained unfulfilled. He hoped to 
become a professor at the £cole des Beaux Arts, but the appoint-' 
ment he desired was never given to him. On various occasions; 



too, he aspired to be chosen deputy or made senator, but he 
was not elected. In 1861 he succeeded Abel de Pujol as member 
of the Academy of Fine Arts. On the occasion of the centenary 
festival in honour of Michelangelo in 1875 he was the delegate 
of the Institute of France to Florence, and spoke as its represen- 
tative. Meissonier was an admirable draughtsman upon wood, 
his illustrations to Les Conies Rimois (engraved by Lavoignat), 
to Lamartine's FaU oj an Angel, to Paui and Virginia, and to 
The French Painted by Themselves being among the best known. 
The leading engravers and etchers of France have been engaged 
upon plates from the works of Meissonier, and many of these 
plates command the highest esteem of collectors. Meissonier 
died in Paris on the aist of January zSgi. His son, Jean 
Charles Meissonier, also a painter, was his father's pupil, and 
was admitted to the Legion of Honour in 1889. 

See Alexandre, Histoire de la peinture militaire en France (Paris, 
1891): Laurens, Notice sur Meissonier (Paris, 1892}: Grdard, Meis- 
sonier (Paris and London, 1897); T. G. Dumas, Mattres modemes 
(Paris, 1884); Ch. Formenttn, Meissonier, sa vie — son etuvre (Paris, 
1901} ; J. W. MoUett, lUustraUd Biographies of Modem Artists : 
Meissonier (London, 1882). (H. Fr.) ,- 

MEISSONIER, JUSTE AURiLE (1695-1750), French gold- 
smith, sculptor, painter, architect, and furniture designer, 
was bom at Turin, but became known as a worker in Paris, 
where he died. His Italian origin and training were probably 
responsible for the extravagance of his decorative style. He 
shared, and perhaps distanced, the meretricious triumphs 
of Oppenard and Germain, since he dealt with the Baroque 
in its most daring and flamboyant developments. Rarely 
does he leave a foot or two of undecorated space; the effect 
of the whole is futile and fatiguing. It was because Meissonier 
carried the style of his day to its extreme that he acquired 
so vast a popularity. Like the English brothers Adam at 
a later day he not only as architect built houses, but 
as painter and decorator covered their internal walls; he 
designed the furniture and the candlesticks, the silver and 
the decanters for the table; he was as ready to produce a 
snuff-box as a watch case or a sword hilt. Not only in 
France, but for the nobility of Poland, Portugal and other 
countries who took their fashions and their iaste from Paris, 
he made designs, which did nothing to improve European 
taste. Yet his achievement was not wholly without merit. 
His work in gold and silver-plate was often graceful and some- 
times bold and original. He was least successful in furniture, 
where his twirls and convolutions, his floral and rocaille motives 
were conspicuously offensive. He was appointed by Louis XV. 
Dessinateur de la ckambre et du cabinet du roi; the post of 
designer pour les pompes Junibres et galatUes was also held along 
with that of Orjtvre du roi. 

For our knowledge of his work we arc considerably indebted 
to his own books of design: Livre d'omements en trente piices; 
Livre d'orf^rerie d'iglise en six piices, and Omements de la carte 

MEISTERSINGER (Ger. for " master-singer "), the name 
given to the German lyric poets of the x^th, x5th and i6th 
centuries, who carried on and developed the traditions of the 
medieval Minnesingers (q.v.). These singers, who, for the most 
part, belonged to the artisan and trading classes of the German 
towns, regarded as their masters and the founders of their 
gild twelve poets of the Middle High German period, among 
whom were Wolfram von Eschenbach, Konrad von Wttrzburg, 
Rcinmar von Zweter and Frauenlob. The last mentioned 
of these, Frauenlob, is said to have established the earliest 
Meistersinger school at Mainz, early in the X4th century. This 
is only a tradition, but the institution of such schoob originated 
undoubtedly in the upper Rhine district. In the X4th century 
there were schools at Mainz, Strassburg, Frankfort, Wiirzburg, 
Zurich and Prague; in the 15th at Augsburg and Nuremberg, 
the last becoming in the following century, under Hans Sachs, 
the most famous of all. By this time the Meistersinger schools 
had spread all over south and central Germany; and isolated 
gilds were to be found farther north, at Magdeburg, Breslau, 
Gdrlitz and Danzig. 

Each gild numbered various classes of meRtben^^ tingfof 
from beginners, ot Schiilcr (cornaponrliag to LradF-«pprent}ces), 
and Schulfreunde (who were equivalent to GaeUcn or journey^ 
men), to Meister, a MciiUr being k poet who w;is not merely 
able to write new verses to citing melodies but had himself 
invented a new melody. The poem waa techaically known u 
a Bar or Gesetx, the mdmly as a T&n or Weis. The ionp 
were all sung in the $chodb ^iihoul accompaniEnenL The 
rules of the art wcifc set down in the so-called Tabtdaiur « 
law-book of the gild. The meetings took plncc either in the 
Rathaus, or townhdir or, when they were htld — at ws* y^uaHy 
the case — on Sund^syi in the church; and three times a yor, 
at Easter, WhitsunUdc and ChiistmaE, sptdol failv^b 4nd 
singing competitions were instituted. At $uch comjKtiticrm 
or Schulsingen judges were appointed, the jo-e&lled Metkit. 
whose duty it was to cnticijcc the competitors &nd note tbdr 
offences against the rules of the Ti^bufiiiur. 

The literary value ol the Meistersinger poetry waa hu€kjf 
in proportion to the brge p^rt it played in the life of the Germai 
towns of the 15th and i6th centuries. As the medieval lytk 
decayed, more and more attcrition was given to the cxlemali 
of poetic composition, the torm^ the number of syllablrs, iht 
melody; and it was such e^iternals that attracted iht; interefl 
of these burgher- poets. Poetry was to them a mecbaoial 
art that could be learned by diligent appLicatJon, and iM* 
prizes they had tt? bestow were the rewards of ingenuity, Mt 
of genius or inspiratioii. Consequently we find an extraordjiQaii 
development of stnophic forms corresponding to the many ne* 
" tones " which every Mcitter^ingci- reg^irded it as lits duty M 
invent — tones which bore the most remarkable and often ridt 
culous names, sucK as Gcjtrci/tsaJranbiiimiHntceis, Fdtd^cks^^ 
Viel/rassweis, gebiilmte Pafntiicswcit^ li^c. The verses imv 
adapted to the musiciJ strophes by a merely mrchaniul 
counting of syllables, regardless of rhythm or sense. The meiB^ 
ing, the sentiment, the thou^^ht, were the la^t things lo whldl 
the Meistersingers gave heed. At the same time there wid 
a certain healthy aspect in the culdvation of the Meistergesioc 
among the German middle classes of the 1 5th and i6tb centuries; 
the Meistersinger poctryt if not great or even reaJ poetry, bad 
— especially in the hands of a poet Uke Hans Sachs — many 
germs of promise for the future. It reflected without exaggerv 
tion or literary veneer the faith of the German burgher, hit 
blunt good sense and honesty of purpose. In thi^ respect it 
was an important factor in the rise of that middle-class litcraturt 
which found its most virile eiq^ression in the pericMl of the 
Reformation. The Mcistergcsang reached its highest point 
in the x6th century-; and it can hardty be said to have outliVTfd 
that epoch, although the traditions of the Meistersinger schools 
lingered in south German lo^nseven as Late as the igth century. 

Specimens of Mtislerfiioaw poftry will be found in vvioiui 
collections, such as J. J. Uirre*. AiideulKhi Votki- uikf Mftsierifekf 
(1817); K. Bartsch, MeitirHifdir dit Ktrimarer Hfitidsehtijt (Pubt 
of the Stuttgart LUrramcAtr V^fftin. voV tisviij. : ift&j). Of ibe cidrir 
sources of infofmaiion abowt ibc Mctfltcrritrtger ihe most impOfTjiot 
are Adam Puschnunn. GruHdiuhir Bcrkhi des druiickm Mvittif- 
^sangs tusamt der TcbvJitlur (1571; reprinted in \V. BrauorV 
Tfeudrucke deutscher LitcmlnrvxTht dts i6. and 17. Jakrk.. 7J. iHSB), 
and J. C. WagensciL Df chelate Nohbtrgrnsi (1697), Sec further 
J. Grimm. Ober dett oIidruticfi<n McisUrtesajie {iUtt)*, F. 5c|iikmt 
von Carolsfeld, Zur GeKhichie dei /tfutuhm Mftiitrie$0nit (iSj^), 


R. von Lilicncron, 6^^^ den Inhaii der athfrntrnm BUd^mg. «« m0 
- ■ ■ - - _ ^, 

neer " {ZriifcArififur diui. Alierti , - , - , ^ , , „.„ 

Minne- und Mei5tcf%esam^ (\Mi^\ IC Mey, Dn UfiiltT]^-uLui m 

Zeit der Scholastik (1870 : G. Jacob sit haL 
der Meistersinger " {ZeiischTihjut dtui. A 

ff 11 
ic tnu»lk4l>scheBi1diiififl 


Geschichte und Kunsi (i*qj>. The art of the Melstersineen hat bctt 
immortalized by Richard Wagner in his muuc drama, Die Mtiiiti^ 
singer (1868). (J- C. R4 

MEKONG, or Ms Nav Kokg (pronounced Ksvmi), $ometlracs 
known as the Cambodia. River, the great river of lndo-Chin»p 
having its origin in the Tibetan highlands. It i» the third of 
fourth longest river in Asia and the seventh or eighth in OtB 
world. It is about aSoo m Jei length, of which 1 joo flow thtou|^ - 
portions of the Chinese Empire ind Tibet and 1600 Ihroi^ - 
French territory. Its sources are not definitely settled, butfc 
is supposed to rise 00 the slopes of Dza-Nag-Lun^-Mong In ^M^ 



23* N., 93* E., at tn altitude of 16,700 ft. above sea-IeveL 
Througbout the greater part of its course in Tibet, where it is 
called tlie Dza-Cbu, it flows south-eastwards to Chiamdo, on the 
great cast and west caravan route from China to Lhasa. At 
tikis point it is about xo,ooo ft. above sea-level. From here 
k iows southwards through little-known mountain wastes. 
Below Dayul in lat. 39" it is known by the Chinese name of 
Laatsan Kiang. For the next 300 m. of its course the Lantsan 
Kiang. or, as it soon becomes known among the Thai peoples 
inhabiting its rugged valley, the Mekong, is very little known to 
m. The river flows beneath bare and rocky walb. A few scat- 
iocd villages of Lusus and Mossos exist in this region; there is 
■0 trade from north to south. In 25** 18' N. the Tali-Bhamo 
caravan route, described by Colborne Baker, crosses the river 
by one of those iron suspension bridges which are a feature of 
Yon-nan, at a height of 4700 ft. above sea-level. From this 
point to Chieng or Keng Hung, the head of the old confederacy 
of the Sibsawng Punna or Twelve States, it is little known; the 
fact that it falls some 900 ft. for each degree of latitude indi- 
cates the diaracter of the river. Under the provisions of the 
Aaglo-French agreement of January 1896, from the Chinese 
frontier southwards to the mouth of the Nam Hok the Mekong 
liviBS the frontier between the British Shan States on the west 
aad the territories acquired from Siam by France in 1893. By 
thetreaty of 1893, from that point southwards to about 13'' 30' N. 
it is also the frontier between French Indo-China and Siam, 
aadi a zone extended 25 kilometres inland from the right bank, 
withia which the Siamese government agreed not to construct 
any fortified port or maintain any armed force. This 25 kilo- 
metre neutral zone was abolished in 1905 when France surren- 
dered Chantabun to the Siamese, who in their turn ceded the 
port of Krat and the provinces of Melupre and Bassac, together 
with various trading concessions to France on the right bank 
9i the Mekong. Below the Siamese Shan town of Chieng Sen 
the river takes its first great easteriy bend to Luang Prabang, 
being joined by some important tributaries. This portion is 
obstructed by rapids. The country is mountainous, and the 
vegetation of the lower heights begins to assume a tropical 
aspect. From Luang Prabang the river cuts its way southwards 
for two degrees through a lonely jungle country among receding 
kak of low elevation. From Chieng Khan the river again turns 
castirards along the i8th parallel, forcing its way through its 
mail serious rapid-barrier, and receiving some imporUnt tribu- 
taries from the highlands of Tung Chieng Kum and Chieng 
Kvacg, the finest country in Indo-China. In 104° E. the river 
icsanes a southerly course through a country thinly peopled. 
At Kemarat (i6' N.) the fourth serious rapid-barrier occurs, 
mat 60 m. {n length, and the hist at Khong in 14° N. From 
bere to it^ outfall in the China Sea the river winds for some 
400 m. through the French territories of Cambodia and Cochin 
Ckina. and to its annual overflow these countries owe their 
citraordinary fertility. The French have done much to render 
the river navigable. Steamers ply rcgulariy from Saigon through 
Mythe to Pnompenh, and launches proceed from this place, 
tfK capital of Cambodia, to the Preapatano rapids, and beyond 
(kis a considerable portion of the distance to Luang Prabang, the 
jtomey being finished in native boats. (J. G. Sc.) 

■SLA. POHPONIUS (ft. c. a.d. 43), the earh'cst Roman 
fBOgrapher. His little work (De situ orhis libri III.) is a mere 
fOBpcttdium, occupying less than one hundred pages of ordinary 
yriat, dry in style and deficient in method, but of pure Latinity, 
ind occasionally relieved by pleasing word-pictures. Except- 
im the geographical parts of Pliny's Historia naturaJis (where 
Ueia B cited as an important authority) the De situ orhis is the 
Sil> formal treatise on the subject in classical Latin. Nothing 
il kaotrn of the author except his name and birthplace — the 
Mill town of Tingentera or Cingentcra in southern Spain, on 
A^ectras Bay (Mela ii. 6, \ 96; but the text is here corrupt). 
The date of his writing may be approximately fixed by his 
ilosioB (iii. 6 { 49) to a proposed British expedition of the 
tt^aiag emperor, almost certainly that of Gaudius in a.d. 43. 
Til this passage cannot refer to Julius Caesar is proved by 

several references to events of Augustus's reign, especially to 
certain new names given to Spanish towns. Mela has been 
without probability identified by some with L. Annaeus Mela of 
Corduba, son of Seneca the rhetorician, and brother of the great 

The general views of the De situ orhis mainly agree with those 
current amone Greek writers from Eratosthenes to Strabo; the 
latter was probably unknown to Mcb. But Pomponius is unique 
among anaent geographers in that, after dividing the cafth into 
five cones, of which two only were hubitablc, he asserts the existence 
of antickthones, inhabiting the southern temperate zone inacccstublc 
to the folk of the northern temperate regiuns from the unbearable 
heat of the intervening torrid belt. On the divisions and bound- 
aries of Europe, Asia and Africa, he repeats Eratosthenes; like all 
classical geoeraphers from Alexander the Great (except Ptolemy) 
he regards the Caspian Sea as an inlet of the Northern Ocean, 
corresponding to the Persian and Arabian (Red Sea) gulfs on the 
south. . His fndian conceptions are inferior to those of some earlier 
Greek writers; he follows Eratosthenes in supposing that country 
to occupy the south-eastern angle of Asia, whentte the coast trended 
northwards to Scythia, and then swept round westward to the 
Caspian Sea. As usual, he places the Rhipaean Mountains and the 
Hyperboreans near the Scythian Ocean. In western Europe hb 
knowledge (as was natural m a Spani^ih subject of Imperial Komc) 
was somewhat in advance of the Greek gco^phcrs. He defines 
the western coast-line of Spain and Gaul and its indentation by the 
Bay of Biscay more accurately than Eratosthenes or Strabo, his 
ideas of the British Isles and their position arc also dearer than 
his predecessors*. He is the first to name the Orcadcs or Orkneys, 
which he defines and locates pretty correctly. Of northern Europe 
his knowledge was imperfect, out ne speaks vaguely of a great bay 
{■■ ( ; .. irth of Germany, among whose many 

iiJ.ii.ii, ^.L& .^,u. L^J.i^^,.ylp■iJ,■' of ore-emment size; this name 
rtjp[>oar5 in Pliny as " Scandinavia. Mela's descriptive method 
i^ l>i:ulk^r and {^convenient' Ln&it^d of treating each continent 
nLpiXtAXklf he bctina at the Straits dt Gibraltar, and describes the 
tutifiEric? arljoiriiiii^ the south coast of il>c Mediterranean; then he 
moves round by ^yria and Asia Miaor to the Bbck Sea, and so 
fi'turns to Spain ttlang the iWTth shore of the Euxinc. Propontis, Ac. 
After treating the Xicditerrancan islands, he next takes the ocean , 
littoral — to wcft, north, cast and south successively — from Spain 
d^^d Gaul round to India, fium lutila to Persia, Arabia and Ethiopia; 

ani - I '■ ■- n.^iirid South Africa. Like naost 

classical geographers he conceives the Dark Continent as surrounded 
by sea and not extending very far south. 

The first edition of Mela was publibhed at Milan in 1471 ; the first 
good edition was by Vadianus (Basel, 1522), superseded by those 
of Vosa (1658). J. Gronovius (1685 and 1696). A Gronovius (1722 
and 1728), and Txschucke (1806-1807), in seven parts (Leipzig; 
the most elaborate of all); G. Parthey's (Berlin, 1867), gives the 
best text. The English trans, by Arthur Golding (1585), is famous; 
see also E. H. Bunbury, Ancient Geography, ii. 3^-368, and 
D. Detlefsen, QuelUn una Forschungen tur alien Cesck. und Ceog. 
(1908). (E. H. B.;C. R.B.) 

MELACONITB, a mineral consisting of cupric oxide, CuO, 
and known also as black copper ore. In appearance it is 
strikingly difTercnt from cuprite (^.r.) or red copper ore, which is 
cuprous oxide. Crystals are rare; they belong to the mono- 
clinic, or possibly to the anorthic system, and have the form of 
thin triangular or hexagonal scales with a stccl-grcy colour and 
brilliant metallic lustre. More often the mineral is massive, 
earthy or pulverulent, and has a dull iron-black colour. Hence 
the name mclaconite, from the Greek fukai, black and nlwii, 
dust, which was originally given by F. S. Bcudant in 1832 in 
the form mclaconise. The crystallized Vcsuvian mineral was 
later named tcnorite, a name commonly adopted for the species. 
The hardness of the crystals is 3-4, but the earthy and powdery 
forms readily soil the fingers; the spec. grav. is 5-9. Crystals 
have been found only at Mt Vesuvius, where they encrust lava, 
and in Cornwall. The other forms of the mineral, however, 
are common in copper mines, and have resulted by the alteration 
of chalcocite. chalcopyrite and other copper ores, on which 
they often form a superficial coating. (L. J. S.) "* 

MELAMPUS, in Greek legend, a celebrated seer and physician, 
son of Amythuon and Eidomene, brother of Bias, mythical 
eponymous hero of the family of the Mclampodidae. Two 
young serpents, whose life he had saved, licked his ears while he 
slept, and from that time he imdcrstood the language of birds 
and beasts. In the art of divination he received instruction 
from Apollo himself. To gain the consent of Neleus, king of 
Pylos, to the marriage of his daughter Pero with Bias, Melamptxs 



undertook to obtain possession of the oxen of the Thessalian 
prince Iphiclus. A$ ^Iclampus had foretold, he was caught and 
imprisoned, but was released by Phylacus (the father of Iphidus) 
on giving proof of his powers of divination, and was finally 
presented with the oxen as a reward for having restored the 
virility of the son. Melampus subsequently obtained a share in 
the kingdom of Argos in return for having cured the daughters 
of its king Proetus, who had been driven mad for offering resis- 
tance to the worship of Dionysus or for stealing the gold from 
the statue of Hera. At Aegosthcna in Megara there was a 
sanctuary of Mebmpus, and an annual festival was held in his 
honour. According to Herodotus, l)e introduced the cult of 
Dionysus into Greece from Egypt, and his name (" black foot ") 
is probably " a symbolical expression of his character as a 
fiacchic propitiatory priest and seer " (Preller). According to 
the traditional explanation, he was so called from his foot 
having been tanned by exposure to the stm when a boy. In his 
character of physician, he was the reputed discoverer of the herb 
melampodiiun, a kind of hellebore. Melampus and Bias are 
symbolical representatives of auming and force. 

See ApoIIodorus i. 9, 11, 12} il 2,, 21 Odyssey, yv. 225-940; 
Diod. Sic. iv. 68; Herodotus ii. 49;- ix. ^; Pausanias iL 18, 4; 
iv. 36. 3; scholiast on Theocritus liL 43; Ovid, Metam. xv. 325: 
C. Eckennann, Melampus und sein Gesckuckt (iSio). 

Melampus is also the name of the author of a snort extant treatise 
of little value on Divination by means of Palpitation (IIaX|iwv) 
and Birthmarks ('BXaiwv). It probably dates from the time of 
Ptolemy Philadclphus (3rd cent. B.C.). Edition by J. G. Frana in 
ScripUnres physiognomiae veteres (1780). 

MELANCHLAENI (from Gr. m^os, and xXaii^a, "Black- 
cloaks '*)> an ancient tribe to the north of Scythia, probably 
about the modem Kyazan and Tambov (Herodotus iv. xo6). 
They have been identified with the Finnish tribes Merja 
(now extinct) and Chercmis, now driven north-east on to the 
middle Volga. These, till recently, wore black. There has 
been confusion between this tribe and another of the same 
name mentioned by Pliny {N. H, vi. 15), and Ptolemy in the 
Caucasus. (E. H. M.) 

MELANCHOLY (Gr.At€Xa7XoXta, from filXas, black, and xoX^, 
bile), originally a condition of the mind or body due to a supposed 
excess of black bile, also this black bile itself, one of the chief 
" humours " of the body, which were, according to medieval 
physiology, blood, phlegm, cholcr and melancholy (see Humour) ; 
now a vague term for desponding grief. From the xyth century 
the name was used of the mental disease now known as 
," melancholia " (see Insanity), but without any reference to 
the supposed cause of it. 

I MELANCHTHON, PHILIP? (1497-1560), German theologian 
and reformer, was born at Bret ten in Baden on the x6th of 
February 1497. His father, George Schwartzerd, was an 
armourer uiidcr the Palatinate princes. His mother, Barbara 
Renter, a niece of Johann Reuchlln, was shrewd, thrifty and 
affectionate.^ Her father, Johann Rcuter, long burgomaster 
of Brctten, supervised the education of Philipp, who was taught 
first by Johannes Hungarus and then by Georg Simler at the 
academy of Pfortzheim. Rcuchlin took an interest in him, 
and, following a contemporary custom, named him Mclanchthon 
(the Greek form of Schwartzerd, black earth). In October 
1509 he went to Heidelberg, where he took the B.A. degree, 
afterwards proceeding M.A. at Tubingen. The only other 
academic distinction he accepted was the B.D. of Wittenberg 
(1519). He would never consent to become a "doctor," be- 
cause he thought the title carried with it responsibilities to which 
he felt himself unequal. At Tubingen he lived as student and 
teacher for six years, until on Rcuchlin's advice, the elector of 
Saxony called him to Wittenberg as professor of 1518. 

* Her character is evidenced by the familiar proverb— 
Wcr mchr will verrchrcn 
Dcnn .scin Pflug kann erchren, 
Dcr muM zuletzt vcrdcrbcn 
Und viclleicht am Galgcn stcrben— 
of which Mebnchthon said to his students " Didici hoc a mea 
roatrc, vos ctiam obser\-atc." (For Mclanchthon's Latin version 
of the saying mm: Corpus rejormatorumj x. 469.) 

This appointment marked an epoch in German univenity 
education; Wittenberg became the school of the nation; the 
scholastic methods of instruction were set aside, and in a Dis- 
course on Reforming the Studies of Youth Melanchthon gave 
proof, not only that he had caught the Renaissance spirit, but 
that he was fitted to become one of its foremost leaders. He 
began to lecture on Homer and the Epistle to Titus, and in con- 
nexion with the former he announced that, like Solomon, he 
sought Tyrian brass and gems for the adornment of God's Temple. 
Luther received a fresh impulse towards the study of Greek, 
and his translation of the Scriptures, begun as early as 1517, 
now made rapid progress, Melanchthon helping to collate the 
Greek versions and revising Luther's translation. Melanchthon 
felt the spell of Luther's personality and spiritual depth, and 
seems to have been prepared on his first arrival at Wittenberg 
to accept the new theology, which as yet existed mainly in sub- 
jective form in the person of Luther. To reduce it to an 
objective system, to exhibit it dialcctically, the calmer mind ol 
Melanchthon was requisite. 

Melanchthon was first drawn into the arena of the Reformi- 
tion controversy through the Leipzig Disputation (June 27-July 
8> i5i9)> ftt which he was present. He had been reproved 1^ 
Johann Eck for giving aid to Carlstadt (" Tace tu, PhiUppe, ac 
tua studia cura nee me perturba "), and he was shortly after> 
wards himself attacked by the great papal champion. Melanch- 
thon replied in a brief and moderately worded treatise, setting 
forth Luther's first principle of the supreme authority of Scrip> 
ture in opposition to the patristic writings on which Eck relied. 
His marriage in 1520 to Catharine Krapp of Wittenberg gave a 
domestic centre to the Reformation. In xsax, during Luth^s 
confinement in the Wartburg, Melanchthon was leader of the 
Reformation cause at the university. He defended the actioa 
of Carlstadt, when he dispensed the Eucharist in an " evangelical 
fashion." * 

With the arrival of the Anabaptist enthusiasts of Zwi^n, 
he had a more difficult task, and appears to have been irresolute. 
Their attacks on infant baptism seemed to him not altogether 
irrational, and in regard to their claim to personal inspiratioa 
he said " Luther alone can decide; on the one hand let us beware 
of quenching the Spirit of God, and on the other of being led 
astray by the spirit of Satan." In the same year, 1521, be 
published his Loci communes rerum theologicaruMf the firrt 
systematized presentation of the reformed theolf^y. From 
1522 to 1524 he was busy with the translation of the Bible and in 
publishing commentaries. In 1 524 he went for reasons of health 
into southern Germany and was urged by the papal legate 
Campegio to renounce the new doctrines. He refused, and 
maintained his refusal by publishing his Summa icOrinM 

After the first Diet of Spires (1526), where a precarious pean 
was patched up for the reformed faith, Melanchthon was deputnl 
as one of twenty-eight commissioners to visit the reformed states 
and regulate the constitution of churches, he having just 
published a famous treatise called the Liheilus HsilaUritUt ^ 
directory for the use of the commissioners. At the Marburg con* 
ference (1529) between the German and Swiss reformers, Luther 
was pitted against Oecolampadius and Melanchthon agaiaA 
Zwingli in the discussion regarding the real presence in the sacn- 
ment. How far the normally conciliatory spirit of Melanchthoo 
was here biased by Luther's intolerance is evident from tte 
exaggerated accounts of the conference written by the former 
to the elector of Saxony. He was at this time even more emfaitf 
tered than Luther against the Zwinglians. At the Diet of Aup^ 
burg (1530) Melanchthon was the leading representative of thi 
reformation, and it was he who prepared for that diet the seven- 
teen articles of the Evangelical faith, which are known as tfas 
" Augsburg Confession." He held conferences with Roma 
divines appointed to adjust differences, and afterwards wralt 
an Apology for the Augsburg Confession. After the Aupbaff 

' He read the usual service, but omitted everything that tamIC . 
a propitiatory sacrifice; he did not elevate the Host, and begavt . 
both the bread and the cup into the hands of every c 



conference further tttempta were made to settle the Refoimation 
controversy by a compromise, and Melanchthon, from his concili- 
atory spirit and facility of access, appeared to the defenders of 
the old faith the fittest of the reformers to deal with. His 
historical instinct led him ever to revert to the original unity of 
the church, and to regard subsequent errors as excrescences 
aiher than proofs of an essentially anti-Christian system. He 
ma weary of the rabies Iheologorum^ and dreamed that the evan- 
pUcal leaven, if tolerated, would purify the church's life and 
(bclrine. In 1537, when the Protestant divines signed the 
Lutheran Articles of Schmalkalden, Mclanchthon appended to 
his signature the reservation that he would admit of a pope 
provided be allowed the gospel and did not claim to rule by 
di\ine right. 

The year after Luther's death, when the battle of MUhlberg 
(1547) had given a seemingly crushing blow to the Protestant 
uuse. an attempt was made to weld together the evangelical 
and the papal doctrines, which resulted in the compilation by 
Pdug. Sidonius and Agricola of the Augsburg " Interim." This 
vas proposed to the two parties in Germany as a provisional 
KTOuad of agreement till the decision of the Council of Trent. 
IfcUnchtbon, on being referred to, declared that, though the 
Interim was inadmissible, yet so far as matters of indifference 
(fldifxphora) were concerned it might be received. Hence arose 
that " adi^horistic " controversy in connexion with which he has 
been misrepresented as holding among matters of indifference 
such cardinal doctrines as justification by faith, the number of 
the sacraments, as well as the dominion of the pope, feast-days, 
and so on. The fact is that Mclanchthon sought, not to minimize 
differences, but to veil them under an intentional obscurity of 
expresMon. Thus he allowed the necessity of good works to 
salvation, but not in the old sense; proposed to allow the seven 
sacraments, but only as rites which had no inherent efficacy to 
salvation, and so on. He afterwards retracted his compliance 
with the adiaphora, and never really swerved from the views 
Kt forth in the Loci communes; but he regarded the surrender 
of more perfect for less perfect forms of truth or of expression as 
a painful sacrifice rendered to the weakness of erring brethren. 
L;ithcr, though he had probably uttered in private certain 
expressions of dissatisfaction with Mclanchthon, maintained 
unbroken friendship with him; but aftci* Luther's death certain 
s.*naUer men formed a party emphasizing the extrcmest points 
of his doctrine.* Hence the later years of Mclanchthon were 
occupied with controversies within the Evangelical church, and 
fruitless conferences with his Romanist adversaries. He died 
io bb lixty-third year, on the igth of April 1560, and his body 
vas laid beside that of Martin Luther in the Schlosskirche at 

Hb r^ady pen. dear thought and elegant style, made him the 
«nbe df the Reformation, mokt public documents on that side 
bcio; dnvn up by him. He never attained entire independence 
cf Ltitber, though he gradually modified some of his {x>sitions 
firvn thoae of the pure Luthcrism with which he set out. His 
dn^kipmcnt is chiefly noteworthy in regard to these two leading 
pt-xt5— the rtlacion of the evamgelium or doctrine of free grace 
to 10 free will and moral ability, and (2) to the law and poeniUntia 
•r ihe fwxl work» connected with repentance. At first Luther's <V>ccrine of grace appeared to Mclanchthon inconsistent 
•ita any view of free will; and, following Luther, he renounced 
An<orle and philosophy in general, since " philosophers attribute 
rvt?ythin2 to human power, while the sacred writings represent 
all Koral po*er as lost by the fall." In the first edition of the 
Uci {1531) he hrld, to the length of fatalism, the Augustinian 
4%tr)nc \i irrcM«tililc grace, workmg according to CkxI's immutable 
deems, ami denied freedom of will in matters civil and religious 
»5ke. In thr. .Au^sburf Confeswon (i$;jo), which was largely due 
to k'm. frcvdom is claimed for the wm in non-religious matters, 
aa4 in the Led of 15^ he calls the denial of freedom Stoicism, 
aof{ ho!d4 that in justification there is a certain causality, though 
■oc vDrthinrw. in the recipient, subordinate to the EMvinc causality. 
1^ I5U. combating Laurentius Valla, he did not deny the spiritual 
■Bcapachy of the will per se, but held that this is strengthened by 
iW word of God. to which it can cleave. The will co-operatea 
mch the word and the Holy Spirit. Finally, in 1543, he says that 
the <9»mt of the difference of final dc^iny among men lies in the 
' It muA be admitted, however, that Matthias Flacius saved 

different method of treating grace which is possible to believen as 
to others. Man may pray for help and reject grace. This he calls 
free will, as the power of laying hold of^ grace. Melanchthon's 
doctrine of the three concurrent causes in conversion, viz. the 
Holy Spirit, the word, and the human will, suggested the semi- 
Pelagian position called Synergism, which was held by some of bb 
immediate followers. 

In regard to the relation of grace to repentance and good works, 
Luther was disposed to make faith itself the principle of sanctifi- 
cation. Mclanchthon, however, for whom ethics possessed a special 
interest, laid more stress on the law. He began to do this in 1527 
in the LibcUus viiitatorius, which urges pastors to instruct their 
people in the necessity of repentance, and to bring the threatenings 
of the law to bear upon men in order to faith. This brought down 
upon him the opposition of the Antinomian Johannes Agricola. 
In the Loci of 153^ Mclanchthon sought to put the fact of the 
co-existence of justification and good works in the believer on a 
secure basis by declaring the latter necessary to eternal life, though 
the believer's destiny thereto is already fully guaranteed in his 
justification. In the Loci of 1543 he did not retain the doctrine 
of the necessity of good works in order to salvation, and to this he 
added, in the Leipzig Interim, " that this in no way countenances 
the error that eternal life is merited by the worthiness of our own 
works." Mclanchthon was led to lay more and more stress upon 
the law and moral ideas; but the basis of the relation of faith and 

are necessary by reason of immutable Divine command. 

BiBLiocKAPiiv. — The principal works of Mclanchthon, with the 
bulk of his correspondence, are contained in the Corpus reforma- 
torum (vols, i.-xxviii.; Halle, 1834-1850), etiitcd by Bretschncider 
and Bindseil, to which must be added Bindseil's Sup^emenia 
(Halle, 1874). Melanchthon's earliest and best biographer was 
his friend Joachim Camerarius (1566), a new annotatra edition of 
which is much needed. The best modern life is that by Georg 
ElEinecr <0.i:rlln, tgoj); otxi is that of Karl ^Schmidt fEUjcrlLld^ 
1861 Jl The ci^lebratitjn in 1 B97 of the 4001 H aiintvcrur>' of Mi^bnch- 
thon's birth prod need many short bit>gmnhir%And Ffj/rrJfpi, ajnong 
them works by J. W. Ru:hard {N*.-* York arid London, iB^fl)^ 
George Wil«oEi (Londcrn, 1897]-: Karl Sell (Hi^tlc, 1^7}: Ftrdiciancl 
Cohri (Ijallc^ i>^7>: Dcys^^hla^ and Harnark (ili97>. Rithard 
koihc'i Feitrede {JB60J also ii Ruod. The moKt kumcd of modtro 
McUinchihon schoUiis wias prx>bab3y Karl H^itfflckr^ who wrute 
Fkdipp Mchnfkik^^ 5li PrUfcepitfr CermaHiae (Ikrtinp 1899); 
M^liitiththirHmHa piij-di^^Bikii (Lcipfig. i8i»J), giving in ihf first 
named two full bibEiagmpna'i, one of at! works written on Mclanch- 
thon, tht other of all works wriitcfl by him (in chmnologlcal order/. 
Hartfc^ldfr believed that a ftrXHj di jl ol unpublishefi material is 
it ill Itlt in German and foreign libraries. Thus ihrt-ti lone unknown 
letters are pubii^bed in tht Quelien und Fiitiihunityi qf uie Kc^nigl. 
PreuM. Inst. Hi§i. at Rome, vol. ii. Two arc to ihij Cardinal o£ 
Auc4burR and one to La ranis von SchwendL. Melanchlhon was 
on nta w.iy ■ ■ r! , 1 .imcil of Trent as dcleRitc of the tle<:t>f uf 
Saxony and the cardinal had offered to mei't him at Dillingcn. He 
writes " ingeminating peace," deploring that the council was nut 
a national synod, which would have been a better means of arriving 
at the truth. 

MELANESIA, one of the three great divisions of the oceanic 
islands in the central and western Pacific. It embraces the 
Bismarck Archipelago, N.E. of New Guinea, the Louisiade, 
Solomon, Santa Cruz, New Hebrides and Loyalty islands, New 
Caledonia, Fiji and intervening small groups. The name (Gr. 
/liXas, black, and i^<ro;, island) is derived from the black 
colour of the prevailing native race, the Papuan and its allied 
tribes. Many of these diflfer widely from the parent race, but 
all the Melanesian peoples have certain common characteristics' 
which distinguish them sharply from the inhabitants of Poly- 
nesia and Micronesia. Their civilization is lower. The Melan- 
csians arc mostly " negroid," nearly black, with crisp, curly hair 
elaborately dressed; their women hold a much lower position 
than among the Pol>'ncsians; their institutions, social, political 
and religious, are simpler, their manners ruder; they have few 
or no traditions; cannibalism, in different degrees, is almost 
Universal; but their artistic skill and taste, as with some 
of the lower African negroes, arc remarkable, and they arc 
amenable to discipline and fair treatment. Their languages, 
which exhibit considerable difference among themselves, have 
features which mark them off clearly from the Polynesian, 
notwithstanding certain fundamental relations with the latter. 

5Vxr R. H. Codrington, The Melanesian Languages (Oxford. 1885) 
and The Melaneiians (Oxford, 1891); the articles and 
Pacific Ocean ; also those on the several island-groups, &c. 



MBLAMTHIUS, a noted Greek painter of the 4th century b.c. 
He belonged to the school of Sicyon, which was noted for fine 

MBLBA [Nexxie Porter Armstrong] (1859- ), British 
operatic soprano, nie Nellie Porter Mitchell, was bom at Burnley, 
near Melbounie, Australia, her father being a contractor, of 
Scottish blood. She sang at a local concert when six years old, 
and was given a good musical education. In x88a she married 
Captain Charles Armstrong, and in 1886 went to study singing 
in Paris under the famous teacher, Madame Matbildc Marches!, 
whose daughter, Madame Blanche Marchesi, also a famous singer, 
was associated with her. In 1887 she made her d£but in opera 
at Brussels, taking the stage-name of Madame Melba from her 
connexion with Melbourne. In the next year she sang the part 
of Luda, which remained one <^ her famous r61es, at Covent 
Garden, London; and, though critics complained of her cold- 
ness as an actress, her liquid voice and brilliant execution hence- 
forth made her famous as the greatest successor to Patti, in 
pure vocalization, on the operatic stage. She maintained this 
position for over twenty years, her triumphs being celebrated in 
every country. 

See the " authorized " biography by Agnes G. Murj^y (1909). 

MELBOURNE. WILUAM LAMB. aNo Viscount (1779-1848), 
English statesman, second son of the ist Viscount Melbourne, 
by his marriage with the daughter of Sir Ralph Milbanke, bart., 
was bom on the 1 5th of March 1779. His father, Peniston Lamb 
(1748-1829), was the son of Sir Matthew Lamb, bart. (d. 1768), 
who made a large fortune out of the law, and married Miss 
Coke of Melbourne Hall; in 1770 he was made baron and in 
1781 Viscount Mi^bourne in the Irish peerage, and in 181 5 was 
created an English peer. After completing his course at Trinity 
College, Cambridge, William Lamb studied law at the university 
of Glasgow, and was called to the bar in 1 804. In 1 805 he married 
Lady Caroline Ponsonby (1785-182S), daughter of the 3rd earl 
of Bessborough. She was, however, separated from him in 
1825. Lady Caroline Lamb acquired some fame as a novelist 
by her romance of CUnarvon, which was pubUshed anonymously 
in 181 6 and was afterwards (1865) re-issued under the title of 
The Fatal Passion. On entering parliament in 1806 the Hon. 
William Lamb (as Lord Melbourne then was) joined the opposi- 
tion under Fox, of whom he was an ardent admirer; but his 
Liberal tendencies were never decided, and he not infrequently 
supported Lord Liverfxx)! during that statesman's long tenure 
of office. During the short ministry of Canning in 1827 he was 
chief secretary for Ireland, but he afterwards for a time adhered 
to the small remnant of the party who supported the duke of 
Wellington. The influence of Melbourne as a politician dates 
from his succee<ling to the peerage in 1829. Disagreeing with 
the duke of Wellington on the question of parliamentary reform, 
he entered the ministry of Grey as home secretary in 1830. 
For the duties of this office at such a critical time he was deficient 
in insight and energy, but his political success was independent 
of his oflicial capacity; and when the ministry of Grey was 
wrecked on the Irish question in July 1834 Melbourne was 
chosen to succeed him as prime minister. In November follow- 
ing he had to give place to a Conservative ministry under Peel; 
but he resumed ofiice in April 1835, and remained prime minister 
till 1841. He died at Melbourne House, Derbyshire, on the 
24th of November 1848. 

Lord Melbourne was without the qualification of attention to 
details, and he never displayed those brilliant talents which 
often form a substitute for more solid acquirements. Though 
he possessed a fine and flexible voice, his manner as a speaker 
was ineffective, and his speeches were generally ill-arranged and 
destitute of oratorical point. His political advancement was 
due to his personal popularity. He had a thorough knowledge of 
the private and indirect motives which influence politicians, 
and his genial attractive manner, easy temper and vivacious, if 
occasionally coarse, wit helped to comer on him a social distinc- 
tion which led many to take for granted his eminence as a 
statesman. His favourite dictum in politics was, " Why not 
leave it alone?" His relations with women gave opportunity 

for criticism though not open icuidal; but the action braqglit 
against him in 1836 by Mr George Chq>ple Norton in r^^id to 
the famous Mrs Caroline Norton (9.9.) was deservedly nntnfaa 
fuL The most notable and estimable feature of hb poKticd 
conduct was his relation to Queen Victoria {q.v.), whom he initi- 
ated into the duties of sovereign with the most delicate tad and 
the most paternal and conscientious care. 

Melbourne was succeeded as 3rd viscount by his bretlier, 
Frederick James Lamb (1782-1853), who was British 1 
sador to Vienna from 1831 to 1841. On the 3rd visamnt't i 
the titles became extinct, but the estates passed to Us 1 
Emily Mary (i 787-1869), the wife of Lord Palmenton. 

See W. McC. Torrent. Memoirs of Lord Mettourm (itTt); 
Lloyd Sanders. Lord Mdhourne's Papers (1889): A. Haywanfi 

essay (from the Quarterly Review^ 1878) in " Enuncnt " * 


MELBOURNE, the capital of Victoria, and the mc 
city in Australia. It is situated on Hobson's Bay, a northerf 
bend of the great harbour of Port Phillip, in Bourke county, 
about 500 m. S.W. of Sydney. The suburbs extend along thi 
shores of the bay for more than 10 m., but the part Hitin^. 
ively known as the " dty " occupies a site about 3 m inland 
on the north bank of the Yarra river. The appearance d 
Melbourne from the sea is by no means picturesque. The bu^ 
shipping suburbs of Port Melbourne and Willianostown occupy 
the flat alluvial land at the mouth of the Yarra. But the dty 
itself has a different aspea; its situation is relieved by numeracs 
gentle hills, which show up its fine public buildings tc great 
advantage; its main streets are wide and weU kept, and it hasai 
air of prosperity, activity and comfort. The part espedaQy 
known as the " city " occupies two hills, and ak>ng the nlBgf 
between them mns the thoroughfare of Elizabeth Street. PanlM 
to this is Swanston Street, and at right angles to thoe, 
parallel to the river, are Bourke Street, Collins Street and 
Flinders Street — the first being the busiest in Mdboume, the 
second the most fashionable with the best shops, and the third, 
which faces the river, given up to the maritime trade. TImm 
streets arc an eighth of a mile apart, and between each b a 
narrower street bearing the name of the wider, with the prdta 
" Little." The original plan seems to have been to constnid 
these narrow streets to give access to the great business liousci 
which, it was foreseen, would be built on the frontage of the mail 
streets. This plan, however, miscarried, for q)ace grew m 
valuable that large warehouses and business establishment! 
have been erected in these lanes. Little Flinders Street, is 
which the great importers' warehouses are mainly situated, ii 
locally known as " the Lane." In the centre of the dty some d 
the office buildings are ten, twelve or even fourteen storeyi 
high. The main streets are 99 ft. wide, and the lanes somewhat 
less than half that width. Round the dty lies a drcle of popu* 
lous suburbs— to the north-east Fitzroy (pop. 31,687) and 
CoUingwood (32,749), to the cast Richmond (37.824), to the 
south-east Prahran (40,441), to the south South Melboumc 
(40,619), to the south-west Port Melbourne (12,176), and to the 
north-west North Melbourne (18,120). All these suburbs lie 
vi-ithin 3 m. of the general post office in Elizabeth Street; but 
outside them and within the 5 m. radius is another drcle — ic 
the east Kcw (9469) and Hawthorne (21,430), to the south-east 
St Kilda (20,542) and Brighton (10,047), to the souih-wcat 
Williamstown (14,052) and Fooiscray (18,318), to the north-west 
Esscnden (17,426), and Fleminglon and Kensington (10.946), 
and to the north Brunswick (24,141). Numerous small subiubl 
fill the space between the two drcles, the chief being Northcote, 
Preston, CambcrwcU, Toorak, Caulfield, Elsternwick and Coburg 
Some of these suburbs are independent cities, others separati 
munidpalities. In spite of the value of land, Mdboume is not 
a crowded city. 

The Parliament House, standing on the crown of the easten 
hill, is a massive square brick building viiih a pillared fceestoM 
fagade approached by a broad flight of steps. The interior fe 
lavishly decorated and contains, besides the legislative chambcni 
a magnificent library of over 52,000 volumes. At the top d 


and Environs. 

¥ ^. *f I 

U. rtrtmft mmrltftt 

U. St fialrirki Callit^rmt 

... A 4fpi;HtM fVith^V*/ 




CoDiDs Street a biulding in brown freestone b occupied by the 
Treasury, behind which and fronting the Treasury Park another 
palatial building houses the government offices. A little further 
on is St Patrick's Roman Catholic cathedral, the seat of the 
archbisbqp o( Melbourne, a building of somewhat sombre blue- 
stone. Two striking churches face each other in Collins Street, 
the Scots church, a Gothic edifice with a lofty spire, and the 
Independent church, a fine. Saracenic building with a massive 
campanile. The seat of the Anglican bishop, St Paul's cathe- 
dral, has an elegant exterior and a wealth of daborate workman- 
ship within, but stands tow and is obscured by surrounding 
warehouses. On the western hill are the law courts, a fine bk>ck 
cf buildings in classic style surmounted by a central dome. In 
SwAnston Street there is a large building where under one roof 
are fotmd the public library of over 100,000 volumes, the museum 
of sculpture, the art gallery, and the museums of ethnology and 
technology. In connexion with the art gallery there is a travel- 
ling scholarship for art students, endowed by the state. The 
Exhibition Bufldings are situated on a hill in Carlton Gardens; 
they consist of a large cruciform hall surmounted by a dome and 
fianked by two annexes. Here on the 9th of May 1901 the first 
federal parliament of the Australian commonwealth was opened 
by King George V. (as duke of Cornwall and York). The 
Trades HaU at Carlton is the meeting-place of the trades-union 
societies of Victoria, and is the focus of much political influence. 
Tbe Melbourne town hall contains a central chamber capable of 
accommodating 3000 people. The suburban cities and towns 
ha\-e each a town hall. The residence of the governor of the 
colony is in South Melbourne, and is surrounded by an extensive 
domain. The university b a picturesque mass of buildings in 
large grounds about a mile from the heart of the city. It com- 
pfi3C9 the university buildings proper, the medical school, the 
natural hbtory museum, the Wilson Hall, a magnificent building 
in the Perpendicular style, and the three affiliated colleges, 
Trinity College (Anglican), Ormond College (Presbyterian) and 
Queen's College (Wcsleyan). The university, cstabUshcd in 1855, 
b undenominational, and grants degrees in the faculties of arts, 
Uw. medicine, science, civil engineering and music; instruction in 
theology a left to the affiliated colleges. Melbourne has numer- 
ous stale schoob, and ample provision b made for secondary 
education by the various denominations and by private enter- 
prise. Of theatres, the Princess and the Theatre Royal are the 
most important. Other public buildings include the mint, 
the ob7>er\'atory, the Victoria markets, the Melbourne hospital, 
the general post office, the homoeopathic hospital, the custom 
house aad the Alfred hospital. Many of the commercial 
buildings are of architectural merit, notably the banks, of which 
tlK bank of Australasia, a massive edifice of the Doric order, 
and the Gothic Australian bank are the finest examples. 

The public gardens and parks of Melbourne arc extensive. 
Ul:hin the city proper the Fitzroy Gardens are a network 
of avenues bordered with oak, elm and plane, with a " fcrn- 
ircc gully " in the centre; they arc ornamented with casts of 
hnurjs statues, and ponds, fountains and cbssic temples. The 
Treasury, Flagstaff and Carlton Gardens are of the same class. 
Around the city lie five great parks— Royal Park, in which are 
eicdient zoological gardens; Yarra Park, which contains the 
icadi.ig cicket grounds; the Botanical Gardens, sloping down to 
\he bsaks of the river; Albert Park, in which b situated a lake 
ccch used for boating; and Studley Park on the Yarra river, 
a favourite resort which has been left in a natural state. Besides 
tbse parks, each suburb has its public gardens, and at Fleming- 
toi th«rc b a fine race-course, on which the Melbourne cup races 
arc run every November, an event which brings in a large influx 
of visitors from all parts of Australia. Melbourne has a complete 
itimvzy sv-sicm; all the chief suburbs are connected with the 
dtjr by cable trams. The tramways arc controlled by a trust, 
rrpnsenting twelve of the metropolitan municipalities. The 
ch'.ef monuments and statues of the city are the statue of Queen 
Victoria in the vestibule of the Houses of Parliament, and a 
cd1o«iI group commemorating the explorers Robert O'Hara 
Bourfcc Cb. x8io) and William John Wilb (b. 1834)1 who died of 

starvation in 1861 on an ezpeditbn for the crossing of Auitnlia 
from south to north. There are also the statue to Sir Redmond 
Barry, first chancellor of the university, outside the public 
library, the Gordon sutue in Spring Street, a replica of that in 
Trafalgar Square, London, and a statue of Daniel O'Connell, 
outside St Patrick's cathedral 

Port Melbourne, originally called Sandridge, b about 2| m. 
distant from the city, with which it b connected by rail and 
tramway. It has two brge iners, abngsidc of which vesseb of 
almost any tonnage can lie. One of these piers b served by the 
railway, and here most of the great liners are berthed. Vesseb 
drawing 22 ft.«of water can ascend the river Yarra to the heart 
of the dty. There are 2 m. of wharves along each bank of 
the river, with two brge dry-docks and ship-repairing yards and 
foundries. Below (^een's Bridge b an expansion of the river 
known as the Pool, in which the largest ships using the river 
can turn with ease. Leading from a point opposite the docks b 
the Coode canal, by means of which the journey from the dty 
to the mouth of the river b shortened by over a mile. As a 
port Melbourne takes the first pbce in Australia as regar(b 
tonnage. It b also a great manufacturing centre, and both 
dty and suburbs have thdr distinctive industries. The chief 
are tanning, fcUmongery, wool-washing, bacon-curing, flour 
milling, brewing, iron-founding, brick-making, soap-boiling, the 
manufacture of pottery, candles, cheese, cigars, snuff, jams, 
biscuits, jewelry, fumiture, boots, dothing and leather and 
woollen goods. 

The climate of Mdboume b exceptionally fine; occasionally 
hot winds blow from the north for two or three days at a time, 
but the proportion of days when the sky b clear and the air dry 
and mild b large. Snow b unknown, and the average annual 
rainfall b 25-58 in. The mean annual temperature b 
57'3° F., corresponding to that of Washington in the United 
States, and to Lisbon and Messina in Europe. The city b 
supplied with water from the Yan Yean works, an artificial 
lake at the foot of the Plenty Range, nearly 19 m. dbtant. 

The little settlement of the year 1835, out of which Melbourne 
grew, at first bore the native name of Dootigala, but it was 
presently renamed after Viscount Melbourne, premier of Great 
Britain at the time of its foundation. In June 1836 it consbted 
of only thirteen buildings, eight of which were turf huts. For 
two years after that date a constant stream of squatters with their 
sheep flowed in from around Sydney and Tasmania to settle in 
the Port Phillip dbtrict, and by 184 1 the popubtion of the town 
had grown to 11,000. The discovery of gold at Ballarat in 1851 
brought another influx of popubtion to the district, and the 
town grew from 30,000 to 100,000 in the course of two or three 
years. In 1842 Melbourne was incorporated and first sent 
members to the New South Wales parliament. A strong 
popular agitation caused the Port Phillip district to be separated 
from New South Wales in 1851, and a new colony was formed 
with the name of Victoria, Mcltwume becoming its capital. In 
1901 Melbourne became the temporary capital of the Australian 
commonwealth pending the selection of the permanent capital 
in New South Wales. The population of the city proper in 
1901 was 68,374, and that of " greater Melbourne " was 496,079. 

MELBOURNE, a market town in the southern parliamentary 
division of Derbyshire, Engbnd, 8 m. S.S.E. of Derby, on the 
Midbnd railway. Pop. (1901), 3580. It lies in an undulating 
dbtrict on a small southern tributary of the Trent, from which 
it b about 2 m. dbtant. The church of St Michael is a fine 
example of Norman work, with certain late details, having 
clercstoricd nave, chancel and aisles, with central and two 
western towers. Melbourne Hall, a building of the time of 
William III., surrounded by formal Dutch gardens, stands in 
a domain owned at an early date by the bishops of Carlisle, 
whose tithe barn remains near the church. They obtained the 
manor in 1133. In 131 1 Robert de Holland fortified a mansion 
here, and in 1327 ihb castle belonged to Henry, earl of Lancaster; 
but it was dismantled in 1460, and little more than the site b 
now traceable. The title of Viscount Melbourne was taken from 
thb town. There arc manufactures of silk, and boots and shoes. 



MBLCHERS. (JULIUS) QARI (i860- ), American artist, 
was bom at Detroit, Michigan, on the ixth of August x86o. 
The son of a sculptor, at seventeen he was sent to DOsseldorf to 
study art under von Gebhardt, and after three years went to 
Paris, where he worked at the Acad^mie Julien and the £cole 
des Beaux Arts. Attracted by the pictorial side of Holland, he 
settled at Egmond. His first important Dutch picture, '* The 
Sermon," brought him honourable mention at the Paris Salon 
of 1S86. He became a member of the National Academy of 
Design, New York; the Royal Academy of Berlin; Sod£t£ 
Nationale des Beaux Arts, Paris; International Society of 
Painters, Sculptors and Engravers, London, and the Secession 
Society, Mimich; and, besides receiving a number of medals, his 
decorations include the Legion of Honour, France; the order 
of the Hed Eagle, Germany; and knight of the Order of St 
Michael, Bavaria. Besides portraits, his chief works are: 
" The Supper at Emmaus," in the Krupp collection at Essen; 
" The Family," National Gallery, BerUn; " Mother and Child," 
Luxembourg; and the decoration, nt the Congressional Library, 
Washington, " Peace and War." 

MBLCHIADE8, or Miltiaoes (other forms of the name being 
Meltiades, Melciades, Mildades and Miltides), pope from the 
and of July 310, to the xith January 314. He appears to 
have been an African by birth, but of his personal history 
nothing is known. The toleration edicts of Galerius and of 
Constantine and Lidnius yrere published during his pontificate, 
which was also marked by the holding of the Lateran synod in 
Rome (313) at which Caedlianus, bishop of Carthage, was 
acquitted of the charges brought against him and Donatus 
condemned. Melchiadcs was preceded and followed by 
Eusebius and S ilvester I. respectively. 

MBLCHITES Git. Royalists, from Syriac melcha, a king), 
the name given in the sth century to those Christians who 
adhered to the creed supported by the authority of the Byzantine 
emperor. The Melchites therefore are those who accept the 
decrees of Ephesus and Chalcedon as distinguished from the 
Nestorians and Jacobite Church (qq.v.). They follow the 
Orthodox Eastern liturgy, ceremonial and calendar, but acknow- 
ledge the papal and doctrinal authority of Rome. They number 
about 80,000, are found in Syria, Palestine and Egypt, and are 
under the immediate rule of the patriarch of Damascus and 
twelve bishops. 

MBLCHIZEDBK (Heb. for "king of righteousness"; or, 
since §edeV is probably the name of a god, " ^deV is my king"),* 
king of Salem and priest of "^ supreme £1 " {El *cly<m)f in the 
Bible. He brought forth bread and wine to Abraham on his 
return from the expedition against Chedorlaomer, and blessed 
him in the name of the supreme God, possessor (or maker) of 
heaven and earth; and Abraham gave him tithes of all his booty 
(Gen. xiv. 18-20). Biblical tradition tells us nothing more 
about Melchizcdek (of. Heb. vii. 3); but the majestic figure of 
the king-priest, prior to the priesthood of the law, to whom 
even the father of all Israel paid tithes (cf. Jacob at Bethel, Gen. 
xxviii. 22), suggested a figurative or typical application, first in 
Psalm ex. to the vicegerent of Yahwch, seated on the throne of 
Zion, the king of Israel who is also priest after the order of 
Melchizcdek, and then, after the Gospel had ensured the 
Messianic interpretation of the Psalm (Matt. xxii. 42 seq.), to 
the kingly priesthood of Jesus, as that idea is worked out at 
length in the Epistle to the Hebrews. 

The theological interest which attaches to the idea of the pre- 
Aaronic king-priest io these typical applications is practically 
independent 01 the historical questiuns suggested by the narrative 
of Grien. xiv. The episode of Melchizcdek. though connected with 
the main narrative by the epithets given to Yahwch in Gen. xiv. 22, 
breaks the natural connexion of verses 17 and 21, and may perhaps 

have come originally from a separate source. At the narrative 
now stands Salcm must be sought in the vicinity of " the king's 
dale," which from 2 Sam. xviii. 18, probably, but not necessarily, 

now stands Salcm must be sought in the vicinity of " the king's 
dale," which from 2 Sam. xviii. 18, probably, but not necessarily, 
lay near Jerusalem. That Salcm is Jerusalem, as in Psalm Ixxvi. 3, 

' It b to be noted also that the name is of the same form as 
Adoni-zedek, king of Jerusalem (Josh. x. i), and that the un- 
Hebraic Araunah of 3 Sam. xxiv. .16 is probably a corruption 
of the similar compound Adonijah (so Cheyne, Ency. Bib. col. 290). 

is the ancient and common view; but even in the I Sth ceatury BjC 
Jerusalem was known as Uru-ialim. Jeronoe and others hftvc 
identified Salim with one or other of the various places which bear 
that name, e.g. the ZaX<(M of John iiL 23, 8 m. south of Bcth- 
shean. In a genuine record of extreme antiquity the naion of 
king and priest in one person, the worship of El as the supreme 
deity by a Canaanite,* and the widespread practice of the consecra- 
tion of a tithe of booty can present no difficulty ; but, if the historical 
character of the narrative is denied, the date ol the conceptioa 
must be placed as late as the rise of the temporal authority 01 the 
high priests after the exile. So far no evidence has been UNind ia 
the cuneiform inscriptions or elsewhere in support either of the 
genuineness of the e(>isode in its present form, or of the antiquity 
which is attributed to it (see further, J. Skinner, Genesis, pp. 269 sqq.). 
An ancient legend identifies Melchizcdek with Shem (Palestinian 
Targum, Jerome on Isa. xli., Ephraem Syrus m ioco). 

See further the literature on C^en. xiv., and the articles Abrarail 
Gbmesis. (W. R. S. : S. a. C.) 

1762), English politician. His father's name was Bubb, bat 
the son took the name of Doddington on inheriting a Urge 
property by the death of an tmde of that name (1720). He 
was educated at Oxford. In 1 71 5 he was returned to parliament 
as member for Winchelsea, and was sent as envoy extraordinary 
to Spain. He carried on a scandalous traffic in the five or six 
parliamentary votes which he controlled, his tergiversatioo 
and venality furnishing food for the political satirisu and 
caricaturists of the day. His most estimable political action 
was his defence of Admiral Byng in the House of Commons 
(1757)* From X722 to 1754 he sat in parliament for Bridge- 
water; from 1724 to 1740 was a lord of the treasury; and, in 
1744, became treasurer of the navy under Henry Pelham, and, 
again in 1755, tmder Newcastle and Fox. In April 1761 be was 
raised to the peerage as Baron Melcombe of Melcombe Regis ia 
Dorsetshire. He died at La Trappe, his Hammersmith house, 
on the 28th of July 1762. His wife, acknowledged only after 
the death of another lady to whom he had given a bond that he 
would marry no one else, died without issue. He was a wit and 
a friend of wits, a good scholar, and something of a Maecenas; 
Thomson's " Sunmier " was dedicated to him. Fielding addressed 
to him an epistle and Edward Young a satire. He was a leading 
spirit of the " Hell-fire " Club, whose members, called *' Fran> 
ciscans," from their founder Sir Francis Dashwood (d. 1781), 
held their revels in the ruined Cistercian abbey of Medmenbam, 

His diary, published in 1784. reveals him in his character of 
place-hunter and throws a curious light on the political methods 
of the time. 

MELEAGER (Gk. UiXiaypot), in Greek legend, the son of 
Oeneus, king of Calydon, and Althaea. His father having 
neglected to sacrifice to Artemis, she sent a wild boar to ravage 
the land, which was eventually slain by Mcleager. A war bn^e 
out between the Calydonians and Cureles (led by Althaea^ 
brothers) about the disposal of the head and skin, which Meleager 
awarded as a prize to Atalanta, who had inflicted the first 
wound; the brothers of Althaea lay in wait for Atalanta and 
robbed her of the spoils, but were slain by Meleager. When 
Althaea heard this, she cursed Meleager, who withdrew, and 
refused to fight until the Curetes were on the point of capturing 
the city of Calydon. Then, yielding to his wife's entreaties, 
he sallied forth and defeated the enemy, but was never seen 
again, having been carried of! by the Erinyes, who had heard hb 
mother's curse (or he was slain by Apollo in battle). According 
to a later tradition, not known to Homer, the Moerae appeared 
to Althaea when Meleager was seven days old. and announced 
that the child would only live as long as the log blazing on the 
hearth remained unconsumed. Althaea thereupon seized the 
log, extinguished the flames, and hid it in a box. But, after her 
brothers' death, she relighted the log, and let it bum away until 
Meleager died.' Then, horrified at what she had done, she 
hanged herself, or died of grief. The sisters of Meleager were 

'The god 'EXtoOv was also Phoenician; see Driver, Genesis, 
p. 165; Lagrange, Religions Sfmiiiques, Index, s.v. 

*0n the torch as repre%nting the light of life, see E. Kuhneit 
in Rheinisckes Museum, xlix.. 1894, and J. Grimm, Teutonic Mylk»^ 
logy (Eng. trans, by J. Sullybrasa, 1880), ii. 853. 



chinged by Artemis oat ci compassion into guinea fowls and 
Tsmoved to the island of Leros, where they mourned part of the 
year for their brother. The life and adventures of Meleager 
were a favourite subject in ancient literature and art. Meleager 
b rq>tcsented as a tall, vigorous youth with curly hair, holding 
t iavelin or a boar's head, and accompanied by a dog. 

See R. Kekul^ De fabtila meUapea dissertatio (1861); Surber, 
Die ileUagersage (ZOrich. 1880): articles on "Meleager" and 

** Mdeagridcs " in Roacher's Lexikon der Mythologie; L. Preller. 

OnKidscha Mythotoeiei Apollodorus i, 8; Homer. Iliad, ix. 527; 

Diod. Sic iv. 34; Dio Chrysostom. Or. 67; Hyginus, Fab. 171; 

Ovid, Mttam. viiL 260-545. In the article Greek Art (fig. 41) 

the hunting of the Calydonian boar is represented on a fragment 

of a f nene from a beroum. 

lELKDA (Serbo-Croatian, Mijd; Lat. iidUa), the most 
tOQtkrly and easterly of the larger Adriatic islands of the 
Aastrian province of Dalmatia. Pop. (1900), 1617. Meleda 
fics south of the Sabioncello promontory, from which it is divided 
hy the Meleda ChanneL Its length is 23 m. ; its average breadth 
am. It is of volcanic origin, with numerous chasms and gorges, 
of which the longest, the Babinopolje, connects the north and 
mith of the island. Port Palazzo, the principal harbour, on 
the north, is a port of call for tourist steamers. Meleda has 
been regarded as the Melita on which St Paul was shipwrecked, 
ths view being first expounded, in the zoth century, by Con- 
stantine PorphyiOigenitus. As at Malu, a " St Paul's Bay " is 
fiHI shown. 

HELEGNANO (formerly Marignano)^ a town of Lombardy, 
Idly, in the province of Milan, xx m. S.E. of that city by the 
nilway to Piacenza, 289 ft. above sea-level. Pop. (1901), 6782. 
There are remains of a castle of the Visconti. Its military 
importance is due to its position at the crossing of the river 
Lambro. It was a stronghold of Milan in her great struggle 
•gainit Lodi, and is famous for the victory of Francis L of 
France over the Swiss in 15x5, known as the battle of Marignan, 
and for the action between the French and Austrians iq 1859. 

HELDTDBZ VALDiS, JUAN (i754-x8x7)> Spanish poet, was 
bora at Ribeca del Fresno, Badajoz, on the nth of March 1754. 
Destined by his parents for the priesthood, he graduated in 
liv at Salamanca, where he became indoctrinated with the 
fcieas of the French philosophical schooL In 1780 with BatUo^ 
a pastoral in the manner of Garcilaso de la Vega, he won a 
pnze offered by the Spanish academy; next year he was intro- 
duced to JovelLinos, -through whose influence he was appointed 
to a professorship at Salamanca in 1783. The pastoral scenes 
ia Lu Bodas de Camacho (1784) do not compensate for its 
codramatic nature, but it gained a prize from the municipality 
of Madrid. A volume of verses, lyrical and pastoral, published 
io 1785, caused Melendez Vald^s to be hailed as the first Spam'sh 
poet of his time. This success induced him to resign his chair 
at Salamanca, and try his fortune in politics. Once more the 
friend^p of Jovellanos obtained for him in 1789 a judgeship 
at Saragossa, whence he w^^ transferred two years later to a 
post in the chancery court at Valladolid. In 1797 he dedicated 
to Godoy an enlarged edition of his poems, the new matter 
ooasisting principally of unsuccessful imitations of Milton and 
Thomson; but the poet was rewarded by promotion to a high 
post in the treasury at Madrid. On the fall of Jovellanos in 
1798 Meiendez Vald^ was dismissed and exiled from the capital; 
be returned in x8o8 and accepted office under Joseph Bonaparte. 
Re had previously denounced the French usurper in his verses. 
He DOW outraged the feelings of his coiuitrymen by the grossest 
Cattery of his foreign master, and in 1813 he fled to Alais. Four 
years later he died in poverty at Montpellier. His remains 
were removed to Spain in 1900. In natural talent and in 
acquired accompUshment Meiendez Vald6s was not surpassed by 
any contemporary Spaniard; he failed from want of character, 
aod his profound insincerity affects his poems. Yet he has fine 
noments in various veins, and his imitation of Jean Second's 
BuU is Twtabk. 

■ELBTIUS OF AMTIOCH (d. 381), Catholic bishop and saint, 
vas bom at Mditene in Lesser Armenia of wealthy and noble 
parents. He first appears (c. 357) as a supporter of Acacius, 

bishop of Caesarea, the leader of that party in the episcopate 
which supported the Homoean formula by which the emperor 
Constantius sought to effect a compromise between the Homoe- 
usians and the Homousians. Meletius thus makes his d6but as 
an ecclesiastic of the court party, and as such became bishop 
of Sebaste in succession to Eustathius, deposed as an Homousian 
heretic by the synod of Mclitene. The appointment was 
resented by the Homoeusian clergy, and Meletius retired to 
Beroea. According to Socrates he attended the synod of 
Seleucia in the autumn of 359, and then subscribed the 
Acacian formula. Early in 360 he became bishop of Antioch, 
in succession to Eudoxius, who had been raised to the see of 
Constantinople. Early in the following year he was in exile. 
According to an old tradition, supported by evidence drawn 
from Epipham'us and Chrysostom, this was due to a sermon 
preached before the emperor Constantius, in which he revealed 
Homousian views. This explanation, however, is rejected by 
Loofs; the sermon contains nothing inconsistent with the 
Acacian position favoured by the court party; on the other 
hand, there is evidence of conflicts with the clergy, quite apart 
from any questions of orthodoxy, which may have led to the 
bishop's deposition. 

The successor of Meletius was Euzoeus, who had fallen with 
Arius imder the ban of Athanasius; and Loofs explains the 
subilafidei mutatio which St Jerome {ann. Ahr. 2376) ascribes 
to Meletius to the dogmatic opposition of the deposed bishop 
to his successor. In Antioch itself Meletius continued to have 
adherents, who held separate services in the "Apostolic" 
church in the old town. The Melctian schism was complicated, 
moreover, by the presence in the city of another anti-Arian sect, 
stricter adherents of the Homousian formula, maintaining the 
tradition of the deposed bishop Eustathius and governed at 
this time by the presbyter Paulinus. The synod of Alexandria 
sent deputies to attempt an arrangement between the two 
anti-Arian Churches; but before they arrived Paulinus had been 
consecrated bishop by Lucifer of Calaris, and when Meletius— 
free to return in consequence of the emperor Julian's contemp- 
tuous policy — reached the city, he found himself one of three 
rival bishops. Meletius was now between two stools. The 
orthodox Nicene party, Notably Athanasius himself, held 
communion with Paulinus only^, twice, in 365 and 37i'or 372, 
Meletius was exiled by decree of the Arian emperor Valcns. A 
further complication was added when, in 375, Vitalius, one of 
Meletius's presbyters, was consecrated bishop by the heretical 
bishop ApoUinaris of Laodicca. 

Meanwhile, under the influence of his situation, Meletius 
had been more and more approximating to the views of the 
newer school of Nicene orthodoxy. Basil of Caesarea, throwing 
over the cause of Eustathius, championed that of Meletius who, 
when after the death of Valens he returned in triumph to 
Antioch, was hailed as the leader of Eastern orthodoxy. As such 
he presided, in October 379, over the great synod of Antioch, 
in which the dogmatic agreement of East and West was estab- 
lished; it was he who helped GrcRory of Nazianzus to the see 
of Constantinople and consecrated him; it was he who presided 
over the second oecumenical council at Constantinople in 381. 
He died soon after the opening of the council, and the emperor 
Theodosius, who had received him with especial distinction, 
caused his body to be carried to Antioch and buried with the 
honours of a saint. The Meletian schism, however, did not end 
with his death. In spite of the advice of Gregory of Nazianzus 
and of the Western Church, the recognition of Paulinus's sole 
episcopate was refused, Flavian being consecrated as Meletius's 
successor. The Eustathians, on the other hand, elected Evagrius 
as bishop on Paulinus's death, and it was not till 415 that* 
Flavian succeeded in re-uniting them to the Church. 

Meletius was a holy man, whose ascetic h"fe was all the 
more remarkable in view of his great private wealth. He was 
also a man of learning and culture, and widely esteemed for 
his honourable, kindly and straightforward character. He is 
venerated as a saint and confessor in both the Roman Catholic 
and Orthodox Eastern Churches. 



See the article G. F. Lo6f« in Herzp^-Hauck, ReaUitcyUop6dU 
(ed. 1897, Leipxag), xii. 552, ajid authorities there cited. 

MELETIUS OF LYCOPOUS (4th century), founder of the 
sect known after him as the '* Meletians," or as the " dhurch 
of the Martyrs^" in the district of Thebes in Egypt With 
Peter, archbishop of Alexandria, he was thrown into prison 
during the persecution under Diocletian. His importance is 
due to his refusal to receive, at least until the persecution had 
ceased, those Christians who during the persecutions had 
renounced their faith, and then repented. This refusal led to 
a breach with Peter, and other Egyptian bishops who were 
willing to grant absolution to those who were willing to do 
penance for their infidelity. Meletius, after regaining his 
freedom, held his grotmd and drew around him many supporters, 
extending his influence even so far away as Palestine. He 
ordained 39 bishops and encroached upon Peter's jurisdiction. 
The Council of Nicaea in 325 upheld the bishops, but Meletius 
was allowed to remain bishop of Lycopolis though with merely 
nominal authority. His death followed soon after. His 
followers, however, took part with the Arians in the controversy 
with Athanasius and existed as- a separate sect till the 5th 

See Achelis in Herzog-Hauck. Realeneyk. xti. (1903) 558, with the 
authorities there quoted, and works on Church History. 

MELPI, a city aijd episcopal see of Basilicata, Italy, in the 
province of Potenza, 30 m. by rail N. of the town of that namtf. 
Melfi is picturesquely situated on the lower slopes of Monte 
Vulture, 1591 ft. above sea-level. Pop. (1901), 14,547. The 
castle was originally erected by Robert Guiscard, but as it now 
stands it is mainly the work of the Dona family, who have 
possessed it since the time of Charles V.; and the noble cathedral 
which was founded in 11 53 by Robert's son and successor, 
Roger, has had a modern restoration (though it retains its 
campaniles) in consequence of the earthquake of 1851, when 
the town was ruined, over one thousand of the inhabitants 
perishing. It is the centre of an agricultural district which 
produces oil and wine. In the town hall is a fine Roman 
Sarcophagus found 6 m. W. of \'ciicJSa. 

Mdfi ao€t nof 5ccfn to occypy an atKicnt site, and its oricin b 
unexruiti. By the Sorm^io^^ it n-ns midc the Cdpiut <i( Apulia m 
lOiT, and fortified. The council held by Nicholas J^ In 1059, that 
of Urban fl. Ln \oS^. the a^bcUi^n against RogiT iit 1 [ jj and ihe 
subsequent p'jniihmetili the plunder of the town by BadtaJiassa 
in T167, the attack by Richard, cdunt of Actrra in ItOo* and the 
■JBrliament of 12JJ, in livhich FreiJerick [[. establisbed the convtiru^ 
tion of the kingdoffi of N^ple^n iartn the prindpal podnts of tnCerat 
in the ann!\U of Mel6. In 1^8 Joanna 1. of Nipla bettoved the 
dry on Nktolo Acciajuoli; but it was shortly afterwards captured. 
alter a ux months' si«tt by the king of Hungary, who imnsftmed 
tc to Conmd the Wolr m i^qi Coffrtdo Mariana was made 
count of Melfi i but Joanna U, granted (he lordship to the Caracciolo 
family » and they rouincd it for one hundred and aeven years till 
the lime of Charles V, An c^b*tinate ri^Liiancc was offend by the 
city to Lautrec de Poi* in 15^8; and hi* enCf;Lnce within its walU 
was followed by the maMacrc, it h said, of iftgOoo of *ti citiixfis. 

See C+ de f^rcnxo^ Venoia e ia rfgiene del ViJture (Bergamo, 

MBUCERTES, in Greek legend, the son of the Boeotian 
prince Athamas and Ino, daughter of Cadmus. Ino, pursued by 
her husband, who had been driven mad by Hera because Ino 
had brought up the infant Dionysus, threw herself and Mcliccrtes 
into the sea from a high rock between Megara and Corinth. 
Both were changed into marine deities — Ino as Lcucothea, 
Melicertes as Palaemon. The body of the latter was carried 
by a dolphin to the Isthmus of Corinth and deposited under 
a pine tree. Here it was found by his imcle Sisyphus, who had 
it removed to Corinth, and by command of the Nereids instituted 
the Isthmian games and sacrifices in his honour. There seems 
little doubt that the cult of Melicertes was of foreign, probably 
Phoenician, origin, and introduced by Phoenidan navigators 
on the coasts and islands of the Aegean and Mediterranean. 
He is a native of Boeotia, where Phoenician influences were 
strong; at Tenedos he was propitiated by the sacrifice of children, 
which seems to point to his identity with Mclkart. The 
premature death of the child on the Greek form of the legend is 
probably an allusion to this. 

The Romans lEJcntifR-d Palaiznian with Portaiitis <the jhafboqr 
gpd). No ■atisiactory onipn oi (he name Palaemon has been 
sivcn. It ha! been suj^se^tcd that it mea^s the "wrestler" or 
_' itrucglcf '* (vttXtUu) and it an epithet of Heracles, who is often 
tdcntijiod with Melkart, but then: tltM.-s not appear to be any 
tfaditional eonncxicrn between Hemcle^ and Puaemon. Meli* 
CLTtes being PhoenicianH Paia^inon also has been explained as the 
" bumtnii lord " (Daal^hanian), but theiv seems littw in oommoa 
between a Rod of the &ea and a gi»d of fire- 
See Apollodqnis iii. 4^ 3; Qvid^ Meiam. iv. 416-542, Fast!, 
vi. 4^5: HvEintia. F<A. 2; Fausani.ts i. 44, iL i; Philostratus, 
hdn^i, 11. 16 ; artkEen by Toutain in Da rem berg and Saglio's Dictum- 
nairf dft anltfjttiiti and by Stoll in Rmrlicr'* Lexikon der Mythohnie; 
L* Preller, Grifihiifhe Mythtsipi^ie; R, Bjruwn, Semitic Infiwau* is 
tietlnt it Myikotogy ( i S^tt ). 

MELILLA* a Spanish fiorttlied station and penal settlement 
on the north coast of Morocco, south of Cape Tres Forcas and 
135 m- ES.Ep of Ccuta, Fop. about gooo. The town is built 
on a. huge rock connected with the maJtikind by a rocky isthmus. 
^Hiere is a b^bouft only acccsaible to small vessels; the roadstead 
outnide is safe and has deep water a mile to the east t>f the 
fortress. From the tandingplace, where a mole is cut out of 
the rockr there is a steep ascent to the upper town, charac- 
teristicaXly Spanish in appearance. The town is walled, and 
the jsthmus protected by a chain of small forts. A Moorish 
ciuitDin -house h placed on the Spanish border beyond the fort 
of Santn IstibeL and is the only authorized centre of trade on 
the RifT coast between Tctuan and the Algerian frontier. It 
thus forms the entrcpAt for the commerce of the Riff district 
and its hinterlands Goat skins, eggs and beeswax are the 
principal exportSi cotton goods, teaj sugar and candles being 
the chief imports. For the period 1Q00-1905 the annual value 
of the trade was about £700,000, Melllla, the first place captured 
by Spain on the Afric3.n mainland, was seized from the Moors 
in [490^ The Spaniards have had much trouble with the 
neighbouring tribe*— turbtiknt RiSians, hardly subject to the 
stiltan of Morocco, The limii$ of the Spanish territory round 
the forifcsa were fijtcd by treaties with Morocco in i8sg, i860, 
i^fii and iSf>4. In jS9j the Riflians besieged Melilla and 
35,000 men had to be despatched ttgi]mst them. In 1908 two 
companies, Under the protection, of El Roghi, a chieftain then 
rulitag the Riff region 1 started mitiing lead and iron some 15 m. 
from Ale! ilia and a railway to the mines was begun. In October 
of that year the RiffjanJ revolted from the Roghi and raided the 
mines, which remained do^d lintii June 1909. On the 9th of 
July tlie workmen were again attacked and several of them. 
kUlcdH Severe fighting between the Spi^niardsand the tribesmen 
followed. The RifTi^is having submitted, tUe Spaniards, in 
1910, rr?t£iricd the miiics and undertook harbour works at 
Mot Chica^ 

See Budget! Meakm, The Land of ike Moors (London. iQOl). 
chr %\\,, and the auEhorities there cited; P. Barr6, " Melilia et 
lea presides eipagnola/' Rxr. jran^uist (tgoS). ' 

MfiLIHE, FftUX JULES fiSjS- )» French statesman, waA 
born at Reniiremont on the JOlb of May 1838. Having adopted 
the bw OS bis profeasion, be *ai chosen a deputy in 1872, and 
in 1S7Q he was for a short time under- secretaiy to the minister 
of the interior. In tJJSo he come to the front as the leading 
spokesman of the parly whteh favoured the protection of French 
industries, and he had a con^derablc share in fashioning the 
protectionist legislation of the years 1890-1902. From 1883 
to cBEji Meline was minister for agricuJture, and in 1888-1889 
he was president of the Chamber oi Deputies. In 1896 he 
became premier {pr^^idcni du cemcil) and minister for agriculture, 
oRice* which he vacated tn 1S98* At one time he edited La 
Ripubliijuc fran^aiit, and after his retirement from public life he 
wrote Ic kctouT d la Urrc €t ta Murproduction industridU, tout 
cff/arfwr df VaKruuiiurc (1905). 

HfiUHGUE. tHEHNE HARI» (1808-1875), French actor 
and sculptor, was bont la. Cocn, the son of a volunteer of 1792. 
He cirly went to Paris and obtained work as a sculptor on the 
church of the Madeleine, but his passit>n for the stage soon led 
turn to join a stroUinjt cdnnpany of comedians. Finally chance 
nave him an opportunity to show his talents, and at the Porte 
Saint Martin he became Lhe popular interpreter of romantic 



dEUBA of the Alenndre Domas type. One of his greatest 
w a rrrm s et was as Benvenuto Cellini, in which he displayed his 
ability both as an actor and as a sculptor, really modelling 
before the eyes of the audience a statue of Hebe. He sent a 
■amber of statuettes to the various exhibitions, notably one 
of Gilbert Louis Duprez as William TelL MeUnguc's wife, 
Tbtodorine Thiesset (1813-1886), was the actress selected by 
Vktor Hugo to create the part of Guanhumara in Burgraves at 
tke Com£die Frangaise, where she remained ten years. 
See Dumas, Vue Vit fartisU (1854). 

DLIORISM (Lat. mdicr, better), in philosophy, a term given 
to that view of the world which believes that at present the sum 
ofgood exceeds the stmi of evil and that, in the future, good will 
oootiBually gain upon eviL The term is said to have been 
isTeaied by George Eliot to express a theory mediating between 
optimism and pessimism. The pragmatic movement in philo- 
apliy which puts stress upon the duty and value of effort is 
utuaUy favourable to the melioristic view: the best things 
that have been said recently in favour of it are found in books 
adi as William James's Pragmatism. 

OUSSUS OP 8AM08, Greek philosopher of the Eleatic 
School {q.9.), was bom probably not hter than 470 B.C. Accord- 
iig to Dkq^enes LaCrtius, ix. 34, he was not only a thinker, 
btt also a political leader in his native town, and was in command 
el the fleet which defeated the Athenians in 442. The same 
lathority says he was a pupil of Parmenides and of Hcraclitus, 
but the statement is improbable, owing to discrepancy in dates. 
His works, fragments of which are preserved by Simplicius 
sad atte^ed by the evidence of Aristotle, are devoted to the 
deidxe of Parmenides' doctrine. They were written in Ionic 
SBd consist of long series of argument. Being, he says, is 
eternaL It cannot have had a beginning because it cannot have 
began from not-being (cf. ex nihUo nihil), nor from being (cti} 
yifi Ar oprtf Kol 06 yipoiTo). It cannot suffer destruction; 
it b impMsible for being to become not being, and if it became 
another being, there would be no destruction. According to 
SmpHdus {Pkysica, I. a^b), he differed here from Parmenides 
in distioguishing being ami absolute being {r6 inrkui tbv). He 
goes on to show that eternal being must also be unlimited in 
magnitude, and, therefore, one and unchangeable. Any change 
whether from internal or external source, he says, is unthinkable; 
the One is unvarying in quantity and in kind. There can be 
no division inside this unity, for any such division implies 
space or void; but void is nothing, and, therefore, is not. It 
ioikms further that being is incorporeal, inasmuch as all body 
has size and parts. The fundamental difficulty underlying this 
k)gic is the paradox more dearly expressed by Zeno and to a 
large extent represented in almost all modem discussion, namely 
that the evidence of the senses contradicts the intellect. Abstract 
argument has shown that change in the unity is impossible; 
yet the senses tell us that hot becomes cold, haid becomes soft, 
the living dies, and so on. From a comparison of Melissus with 
Zeno of Elea, it appears that the spirit of dialectic was already 
tentatively at work, though it was not conscious of its own 
power. Neither Melissus nor Zeno seems to have observed that 
the application of these destraciive methods stmck at the root 
not only of multiplicity but also of the One whose existence they 
maintained. The weapons which they forged in the interests 
of Parmenides were to be used with equal effect against them- 

See RItter and Preller, (( 159-166; Brandis, Commenlationum 
deoiicarum. pt. I.p. 185; Mullach. AristoUlis de Melisso, Xenophane, 
Cthui : Pabsc. De Melissisamii/ragmeHtis (Bonn. 1889), and histories 
o( philosophy. 

MBUTO, bishop of Sardis, a Giristian writer of the 2nd 
century, mentioned by Eusebius {Hist. Ecd. iv. 21) along with 
Hegesippus, Dionysius of Corinth, Apollinaris of Hierapolis, 
Irenaeus, and others, his contemporaries, as a champion of 
orthodoxy and upholder of apostolic tradition. Of his personal 
history nothing is known, and of his numerous works (which 
are enumerated — with quotations — by Eusebius) only a few 
Ingm^ats are extant. They included an Apologia addressed to 

Xntoninus some time between a.d. 169 and 180, two books 
relating to the paschal controversy, and a work entitled 'Eickayai 
(selections from the Old TesUment), which contained the first 
Christian list of " the books of the Old Covenant." It excludes 
Esther, Nehemiah and the Apocrypha. The fragments have 
been edited with valuable notes by Routh (Reliquiae sacrae, 
vol. i., 1814). These are sufficient to show that Melito was an 
important figure in Asia Minor and took much part in the 
paschal, Marcionite and Montanist controversies. 

It seems more than doubtful whether the Apologia of Melito 
" the Philosopher," discovered in a Syriac transbtion by Henry 
Tattam (i 789-1 868), and subsequently edited by W. Cureton and 
by Pitra-Renan, ought to be attributed to this writer and not to 
another of the same name. The KX<{t (cbvis), edited by Pitra- 
Renan. is a much later Latin collection of mystical explanations 
of Scripture. 

See A. Hamack. Texle und Untersuchungen, i. 240-278 (Leipzig, 
1882); Erwin Preuschen, s.v. "Melito" m H^rzoe-Hauck. Rtal' 
etuykiopddie, xii., 1903, giving full list of works and bibliography. 

MELKSHAM, a market town in the Westbury parliamentary 
division of Wiltshire, England, 95 i m. W. of London by the 
Great Western railway. Pop. of urban district (1901), 2450. 
It lies in a valley sheltered by steep chalk hills on the east, 
its old-fashioned stone houses lining a single broad street, which 
crosses the Upper Avon by a bridge of four arches. The church 
preserves some remnants of Norman work and a Perpendicular 
south chapel of rare beauty. Melksham possesses doth-mills 
where coco-nut fibre and hair doth are woven, flour-mills and 
dye-works. On the discovery of a saline spring in 1816, baths 
and a pump-room were opened, but although two other springs 
were found later, the attempt to create a fashionable health 
resort failed. The surrounding deer-forest was of ten^ visited by 
Edward I. Lacock Abbey, 3 m. distant, was founded in 1232 
for Austin canonesses, and dissolved in 1539. Portions of the 
monastic buildings remain as picturesque fragments in and 
near the modem mansion called Lacock Abbey. 

MELLB, a town of westem France, capital of an arrondisse- 
ment in the department of Deux-S^vres, on the left bank of the 
B6ronne, 21 m. E.S.E. of Niort by raiL Pop. (1906), 2231. 
Melle has two churches in the Romanesque style of Poitou, 
St Pierre and St Hilaire, the latter ornamented with sculptured 
arcading. The hospital has a richly carved doorway of the 
17th century. The church of St Savinien (nth century) serves 
as a prison. The town has trade in farm-produce, mules and 
other live stock; distilling is carried on. Melle {MelaUum) 
derives its name trom the lead mine worked here during the 
Roman occupation and in the early middle ages. At the latter 
period it had a mint. In later times it was a possession of the 
counts of Maine. 

MELUnC ACID (benzene hexacarboxyUc acid), a(COOH)«, 
was first discovered in 1799 by M. H. Klaproth in the mineral 
honeystone, which is the aluminium salt of the acid. The 
acid may be prepared by warming honeystone with ammoiuum 
carbonate, boiling off the excess of the ammonium salt and 
adding ammonia to the solution. The precipitated alumina is 
filtered off, the filtrate evaporated and the ammonium salt of the 
acid purified by recrystalUzation. The -ammonium salt is then 
converted into the lead salt by precipitation with lead acetate 
and the lead salt decomposed bv sulphuretted hydrogen. 

The acid may also be prepared by the oxidation of pure carbon, 
or of hcxamcthyl benzene, in the cold, by alkaline potassium 
permanganate (F. Schulze,Bfr., 1871. 4, p. 802: C. Friedcl and J. M. 
Crafts, Ann. chim. phys., 1884 (61. i, p. 470). It cr>'stallizcs in fine 
silky needles and is soluble in water and alcohol. It is a very stable 
compound, chlorine, concentrated nitric acid and hydnodic acid 
having no action upon it. It is decomposed, on dry disrillation. 
into carbon dioxide and pyromellitic acid. CioHtOg; when distilled 
with lime it gives carbon dioxide and benzene. Long digestion of 
the acid with excess of phosphorus pentachloride results in the 
formation of the acid chloride. C«(COCI)«. which crystallizes in 
needles, melting at 190** C. By heating the ammonium salt of the 
acid to 150-160** C. as long as ammonia is evolved, a mixture of 

paramide (mellimide), C«((;^q > NHjj, and ammonium euchroate is 

obtained. The mixture may be separated by dissolving out the 
ammonium euchroate with water. Paramide is a white amorphous 
powder, insoluble in water and alcohoL 



■BLLITUS (d. 624), bishop of Lotadbn and archbishop of 
Canterbury, was sent to England by Pope Gregory the Great in 
(k>i. He was consecrated by St Augustine before 604, and a 
church was built for him in London by Aethelberht, king of 
Kent; this chtirch was dedicated to St Paul, and Mellitus became 
'first bishop of London. About ten years later the East Saxons 
reverted to heathenism and the bishop was driven from 
his see. He took refuge in Kent and then in Gaul, but 
soon Yetumcd to England, and in 619 became archbishop of 
Canterbury in succession to Laurentlus. He. died on the 24th 
of April 624. 

MELLONI, MACEDONIO (179S-1854), Italian physicist, was 
bom at Parma on the nth of April 1798. From 1824 to x8jx 
he was professor at Parma, but in the latter year he was compelled 
to escape to France, having taken part in the revolution. In 
1839 he went to Naples and was soon appointed director of the 
Vesuvius obsf'rvatory, a post which he held until 1848. Melloni 
received the Rumford medal of the Royal Society in 1834. 
In 1835 he Wc J elected correspondent of the Paris Academy, and 
in 1839 a foreign member of the Royal Society. He died at 
Portid near Naples of cholera on the nth of August 1854. 
Melloni's reputation as a physicist rests especially on his dis- 
coveries in radiant heat, made with the aid of the thcrmo- 
multiplier or combin|ition of thermopile and galvanometer, 
which, soon after the discovery of thermoclectridly by T. J. 
Seebeck, was employed by him jointly with L. Nobili in 1831. 
His' experiments were cspcdally concerned with the power of 
transmitting dark heat possessed by various substances and with 
the changes produced in the heat rays by passage through 
different materials. Substances which were comparativdy 
transparent to heat he designated by the adjective "diathcr- 
mane," the property being " diathermaneU^," while for the heat- 
tint or heat-coloration produced by passage through diflercnt 
materials he coined the word " diathcrmansie." In English, 
however, the terms were not well understood, and " diather- 
mancy," was generally used as the equivalent of " diatherma- 
n£lt6." In consequence McUoni about 1841 began to use 
" diathermique " in place of " diathcrmane," " diathcrmasie " 
in place of "diatherman6ll6," and " thermocrose " for " diather- 
mansie." His most important book, La thermocrose ou la 
coloration calorifique (vol. i., Naples, 1850), was unfinished at 
his death. He studied the reflection and polarization of radiant 
heat, the magnetism of rocks, electrostatic induction, daguer- 
xotypy, &c. 

MELODRAMA (a coined word from Gr. /teXos, music, and 
jpa/xa, action), the name of several species of dramatic com- 
position. As the word implies, " melodrama " is properly a 
dramatic mixture of music and action, and was first applied 
to a form of dramatic musical composition in which music 
accompanied the spoken words and the action, but in which 
there was no singing. The first example of such a work has 
generally been taken to be the Pygmalion of J. J. Rousseau, 
produced in 1775. This is the source of romantic dramas 
depending on sensational incident with exaggerated appeals to 
conventional sentiment rather than on play of character, and 
in which dramatis personae follow conventional types — the 
villain, the hero wrongfully charged wth crime, the persecuted 
heroine, the adventuress, &c. At first the music was of some 
importance, forming practically a running accompaniment 
suitable to the situations — but this has gradually disappeared, 
and, if it remains, is used mainly to emphasize particularly strong 
situations, or to bring on or off the stage the various principal 
characters. Such plays first became popular in France at the 
beginning of the 19th century. One of the most prolific writers 
of melodramas at that period was R. C. G. de Pixericourt 
(1773-1844). The titles of some of his plays give a sufiidcnt 
indication of their character; e.g. Victor ^ ou V enfant de la foret 
(1797); CarlinOf ou Venfattt du mysibre (i8or); Le Monaslbre 
abartdonniy ou la malediction patemellc (1816). Another form 
of melodrama came from the same source, but developed on 
lines which laid more emphasis on the music, and is of some 
importance in the history of opera. Probably the first of this 

type is to be found in Georg Benda's Ariadne aufNasos (1774). 
The most familiar of such melodramas is Gay's Beua^s Optra. 
In these the dialogue is entirely spoken. In true opexM, the 
spoken dialogue was replaced by redtative. It may be noticed 
that the speaking of some parts of the dialogue is not tuffident 
to dass an.opera as a '* mdodrama " in this sense, as is proved 
by the spoken grave-digging scene, accompanied by music, in 
Fidelio, and the incantation scene in Der FreisckUtz, To this the 
English term " declamation " is usually applied; the Germans 
use Mdodram. But see Opera. ; 

MELODY (Gr. luKuila^ a choral song, from peXof, tune, 
and ^1^, song). In musical philosophy and history the word 
" melody " must be used in a very abstract sense, as that aspect 
of music which is concerned only with the pitch of successive 
notes. Thus a " melodic scale " is a scale of a kind of music 
that is not based on an harmonic system; and thus we call 
andent Greek music " melodic." The popular conception of 
melody is that of " air " or " tune," and this is so far from bdng 
a primitive conception that there are few instances of such 
melody in recorded music before the 17th century; and even folk- 
songs, unless they are of recent origin, deviate markedly from 
the criteria of tunefulness. The modem conception of mdody 
is based on the interaction of every musical category. For us 
a melody is the surface of a series of harmonies, and an unac- 
companied melody so far implies harmony that if it so behaves 
that simple harmonies expressing dear key-relationships would 
be difficult to find for it, we feel it to be strange and vague. 
Again, we do not feel music as melodious unless its rhythm is 
symmetrical; and this, taken together with the harmonic 
rationality of modem melody, brings about an equally intimate 
connexion between melody on a large scale and form on a small 
scale. In the article on Sonata Forics it is shown that there 
are gradations between the form of some kinds of single mdody 
like " Barbara Allen " (see Ex. i) and the larger dance forms of 
the suite, and then, again, gradations between these and the 
true sonata forms with their immense range of expression and 
development. Lastly, the element that appears at first sight 
most strictly melodic, namely, the rise and fall of the ptch, is 
intimately connected by origin with the nature of the human 
voice, and in later forms is enlarged fully as much by the char- 
acteristics of instruments as by paralld developments in rhythm, 
harmony and form. Thus modem melody is the musical 
surface of rhythm, harmony, form and instrumentation; and, if 
we take Wagnerian Leitmotif into account, we may as well 
add drama to the list. In short, mdody is the surface of music 

We may here define a few technicalities which may be said to 
come more definitely under the head of melody than any other; 
but see also Harmony and Rhythm. 

r. A theme is a melody, not necessarily or even usually complete, 
except when designed for a set of variations (q.v.), but of sufficient 
independent coherence to be, so to speak, an intelligible musical 
sentence. Thus a fugue-subject is a theme, and the first and 
second subjects in sonata form are more or less complex groups 
of themes. 

2. A figure is the smallest fragment of a theme that can be 
recognized when transformed or detached from its surroundings. 
The grouping of figures into new melodies is the most obvious 
resource of " development " or " working-out " in the sonata-forms 
(ice Ex. 2-7), besides being the main resource by which fugues are 
carried on at those moments in which the subjects and counter- 
subjects are not present as wholes. In i6lh-century polyphony 
melody consists mainly of figures thus broken off from a canto 
fcrmo (sec Contrapuntal Forms). 

3. Pqlyphony is simultaneous multiple melody. In 16th-century 
music and in fugue-writing every part is as melodious as every 
other. The popular cry for melody as an antidote to polyphony 
is thus really a curious perversion of the complaint that one may 
have too much of a good thing. Several well-known classical 
melodies are polyphonically composite, being formed by an inner 
melody appcarin(^ as it were through transparent places in the 
outer melody, which it thus completes. This is especially common 
in music for the pianoforte, where the tone of long notes rapidly 
fades; and the works of Chopin are full of examples. In Bach s 
works for keyed instruments figures frequently have a double mean- 
ing on this principle, as. for instance, in the peculiar kind of counter- 
subject in the 15th fut;ue of the 2nd book of the Wokliem^erirtes 
Ktavier. A good familiar example of a simple mekxly which, as 
written by the composer, would need two voices to ting it, is that 



bcsfas the aeoood mbject of Beethoven's WaUsUin Sonata Wagner, whoie metodiet aie almost always of instrumental origin, 
3, brsc nowement, bars 35-42. where at the third bar of the is generally dbjunct in diatonic mekxly and conjunct in chromatic 

(Ex. a, fig. C. is a disjunct ftguie not forming an arpeggio). 

For various other melodic devices, such as inversion, augmenta* 
tion and diminution, see Contrapuntal Forms. 

We subjoin some musical illustrations showing the treatment' 
of figures m melody as a means of symmetry (Ex. i), and develop 
ment ( Ex. 2-7), and (Ex. 8-13) some modem melodic transforma- 
tions, differing from earlier methods in being immediate instead of 
gradual. (D. F. T.) 

Ex. I. **Bcrhara Alien" (showing the germ of binary f orm in the b alance between A* on the dominant and A* on the tonic). 

nsi 1 _ . rr* — 1 

r> 35-43, where at the third bar of the 

, a l u w cr voice enters and finishes the phrase). 

^ (•) CMt/wKf m mt eme nt b the movement of melody aloiu; 
M^cent degrees of the scale. A lan» proportion of Beethoven s 
■docfies are conjunct (see Ex. 3, fig. 6). 

4 (h) Disjunct mtoHment^ the opposite of conjunct, tends, though 
\ff BO means always, to produce arpeggio types of melody, t^. 
' " '^ sol a chord, (^eitai 

up and down the notes of a chord. 

types of such melody are highly characteristic of Brahms; and 

Ez.3. Main theme ofthefint movement of Beethoven's Trio in Bb, Op. 97. 

J L5!_l i^ I 

Ci. 3. Figure A of above developed in a new pdyphonic 4-bar phrase. Ex. 4. Further sequential developments of A. 

Ex. 5. Devdopment of C with B. 

l_E I f 

I "^ I 



El. 6. FanbcT devdopment of .B by diminutioii, in conbinatioa with the trills derived from C 
C*t Ir 

a M -n 

El 7. Further devdopment of B by diminution and contrary motioti 

Ex. 9. A ^nd B* diminished. 


Ex. 8. Brahms, Quintet, Op. 34- 



Ex. II. The Rkeindauihter's Toy. Wa gner. Dsa Rheingold, 


E«. la. The Nibdun^s Talisman, 


^ Prf g^^ 




Transverse section of the 
fruit of the melon (Cucutnis 
iN«fo) , showing the placentas (p/) , 
with the seeds attached to them. 
The three carpels forming the 

Eare separated by partitions 
From the centre, processes 
> todrcumferenceCO, ending 
in curved placentaries bearing 
the ovules. 

MELON (Late Lat. melo, shortened form of Gr. ftiKowiwv, 
a kind of gourd; m^Xof, apple, and ir^rur, ripe), Cucumis meU>, 
a polymorphic species of the order Cucurbitaceae, including 
numerous varieties.^ The melon is an annual trailing herb 
with palmately-lobed leaves, and bears tendrils by means of 
which it is readily trained ovier trellises, &c. It is monoecious, 
having male and female flowers 
OD the same plant; the flowers 
have deeply five-lobed campanu- 
2 late corollas and three stamens. 
Naudin observed that in some 
varieties {e.g. of Cantaloups) 
fertile stamens sometimes occur 
in the female flowers. It is a 
native Of south Asia " from the 
foot of the Himalayas to Cape 
Comorin,"* where it grows spon- 
tanMUsly, but is cultivated in 
the temperate and warm regions 
of the whole world. It is vari- 
able both in diversity of foliage 
and habit, but much more so in 
the fruit, which in some varieties 
is no larger than an olive, while 
in others it rivals the gourd 
{Cucurbiia maxima). The fruit is 
globular, ovoid, spindle-shaped, 
or serpent-like, netted or smooth-skinned, ribbed or furrowed, 
variously coloured externally^ with white, green, or orange flesh 
when ripe, scented or scentless, sweet or insipid, bitter or even 
nauseous, &c. Like the^ourd, the melon undergoes strange meta- 
morphoses by crossing its. varieties, though the latter preserve 
their characters when alone. The offspring of all crossings are 
fertile. As remarkable cases of sudden changes produced by 
artificially crossing races, M. Naudin records that in 1859 the 
offspring of the wild melons m. sauvage de VInde (C. melo agrestis) 
and m. s. d^AfriquCf le peiit m. de Figari bore different fruits 
from their parents, the former being ten to twelve times their 
size, ovoid, white-skinned, more or less scented, and with reddish 
flesh; though another individual bore fruits no larger than a nut. 
The offspring of m. de Figari after being crossed bore fruits of the 
serpent-melon. On the other hand, the serpent-melon was made 
to bear ovoid and reticulated fruit. 

Naudin thinks it is probable that the culture of the melon in 
Asia is as ancient as that of all other alimentary vegetables. The 
Egyptians grew it, or at least inferior races of melon, which were 
either indigenous or introduced from Asia. The Romans and 
doubtless the Greeks were familiar with it, though some forms 
may have been described as cucumbers. Columella seems to 
refer to the serpent-melon in the phrase tU coluber .^.venire 
cubat flexo. Pliny describes them as pepones (xix. 23 to xx. 6) 
and Columella as meloncs (xi. 2, 53). The melon began to be 
extensively cultivated in France in 1629, according to Olivier de 
Serrcs. Gerard {Herhall, 772) figured and described in 1597 
several kinds of melons or pompjons, but he has included gourds 
under the same name. 

The origin of some of the chief modem races, such as " Canta- 
loups," " Dudaim," and probably the netted sorts, Is due to 
Persia and the neighbouring Caucasian regions. The first of 
these was brought to Rome from Armenia in the i6th century, 
and supplies the chief sorts grown for the French markets; but 
many othera arc doubtless artificial productions of west Europe. 

The water-melon {CitruUus vulgaris) is a member of a different 
genus of the same order. It has been cultivated for its cool 
refreshing fruit since the earliest times in Egypt and the Orient, 
and was known before the Christian era in southern Europe and 
The melon requires artificial heat to grow it to perfection, the 

* For a full account of the species of Cticumis and of the varieties 
of melon by Charles Naudin, see Annales des sciences naturelUs^ 
tier A, vol. XI. p. 34 (1859). 

' Naudin, loc. cit. pp. 39, 76. 

rock and cantaloup varieties succeeding with a bottom heat 6f 70* 
and an atmospheric temperature of 7j$*, rising with sua hnt 
to 80*, and the Persian varieties requiring a bottom beat of l$\ 
gradually increasing to So*, and an atmospheric tempefaum 
ranging from 75* to 80* when the fruit is swelling, as much sua 
■heat as the plants can bear being allowed at all times. The mdou 
grows best m rich turfy loam, somewhat heavy, with uriiich a Utsll 
well-rotted dung, especially that of pigeons or fowb, shouhl bt 
used, in the proportion of one-fifth mixai in the compost of loaa. 
Melons are grown on hotbeds of fermenting manure, when the ao9 
should be about a foot in thickness, or in pits heated either by hoi 
water or fermenting matter, or in houses heated by hot water, fa 
which case the soil bed should be 15 or 18 in. thick. The fer 
menting materials should be well prepared, and, since the heat hai 
to be kept up by lining[s, it is a good plan to introduce one or tvt 
layers ot faggots in building up the bed. A 'mixture of dang aad 
leaves gives a more subdued but more durable heat. 

For all ordinary purposes February w eariy enough for sowing thi 
first crop, as well-flavoured fruits can scarcely be looked for befon 
May. The seeds may be sown singly in 3-in. pots in a mixture d 
leaf-mould with a little loam, the pots being plun^ in a bottoa 
heat of 75* to 80*, and as near the glass as possible, m order that thi 
young plants may not be drawn up. The hill or ndge of soil shoidi 
be about a foot in thickness, the rest of the surface bein^ af terwaid 
made up nearly to the same level. If the fruiting-bed is not read] 
when the roots have nearly filled the pots, they must be shiftac 
into 4-inch pots, for they must not get starved or pot-bound. Twc 
or three planu are usually planted in a mound or ridge of soi 
pLiL^iJ [ii i:ic ^^i.L.-L- ul l^.Ij ].f,;iL, „;.■: i:,^: rest of the surface ii 
covcFtd over to a sJiiikUf depth oji noan its the roots haye madl 
thc^ir way thrtsugh the mound' 

The melon bcin^ ane of those pbEiiE. which produce distiact 
male and fcmjilc lio«-i!n, it 14 necK&^ry to its fertility that both 
ahauld be product, and th;it the pallen of ihe male flower shoidd» 
cither naturally by Imcct agency, or artlEicLilly by the cultivatoc^ 
manipulition, be eonve^ed to the stigma o( iae female flower; 
ihi$ ficUing pf the fruit t$ often done by stripping a male flower ef 
i[i corutb, and inverting it in the centT? of tne fniit-bearifly flower. 
.Mtcr The fruit ha^ Aft and bm erown to the size of an egg, it should 
W preserved fmrn o^nlatt with the soil by placing it on a piece of 
lilc or slate; or if grown on a trclli* by a little swinging woodea 
shelf, jurt large encti^h 10 hold it. In either case the material ussi 
Should be titled a littk 10 one «idc, sa a* to permit water to 
away. Before the pf<r>cc$^ of ripening commences, the roots 
hnive a ;T 1. if 1 i .<i mDisture. so that none may be 
Jron t\< ■■• ■ ir.iit 13 cut. 

When the melon is grown in a house there should be a good depth 
of drainage over the tank or other source of bottom heat, a«l 
on this should be placed turfs, grass side downwards, bekyw dhl 
soil, which should not be less than 15 and need not be more thaa 
18 in. in thickness. The compost should be made roodenttdy 
firm, and only half the bed should be made up at first, the rest beam 
added as the roots require it. The melon may also be grown ii 
large pots, supplied with artificial manure or manure water. Thi 
stems may be trained up the trellis in the usual way. or the raftcn 
of a pine stove may be utilized for the purpose. If the tr^is h 
constructed in panels about the width of the ^hts, it can be takci 
down and conveniently stowed away when not m use. 

The presence of too much moisture either in the atmosphere a 
in the soil is apt to cause the plants to damp ofl^ at the neck, but dM 
evil may be checked by applying a little fresh-slaked Une ronad 
the stem of the plant. 

Melons are liable to the attack of red spider, which are bHl 
removed by syringing with rain-water, and prevented by keepia| 
a fairly humid atmosphere ; green or black fly should also be w a tchw 
for and removed by fumigation with tobacco smoke or bf 
" vaporizing." 

The varieties of melon are continually receiving additions, aai 

as newer varieties spring into favour, so the older ones drop onl 

of cultivation. A great deal depends on getting the varieties trai 

to name, as they are very liable to get cross-fertilized by imtel 

. ,. Sonus ol thi. ' - ' rr. ?nt arc: 

.^1 J^/(^JffJ*/((.— lilcrihrii.i I ge, Frogmore Orange, Invindfal^ 
SuttHjn'a Scarlt't, and Triniiii ! 

WhiiffUskrd.—C.rAd€ti })!... J r Hero of Lockinge, Loogktt, 

P^.^rfiTiioni RoyaJ^'avouritc,!;;l<raatr^ 

, Koyal 

British Queen^ Epicure, Exquisite, 

J h« m<arkct 'gardeners rouncl Paris and other parts of FrudI 
chi^^tiy cultivate varieti<rs of Cnint^loup melon known as the PresoMl 
hStif A. ehat^b and Prcseott fond blanc — both excellent in flavoA. 
The plants are grown in fnunei* on hotbeds, and only one fag" 
[riujt i» allowed to ^nature on each plant. If secured early in A: 
seiwn— say in Jyiw^from 35 to 35 francs can be obtained for «!■! 
fruit in the Paris markets; later fruits, however, drop down l»t^ 
franrs each, or ev*n Ics* when there is a glut (see J. Weath W i ; 
fremh Mufket-Gi^rdming)^ 

MELORIA, a rocky islet, surrounded by a shoal, ahMIt, 
opposite Le^om. It was the scene of two naval battles of iki. 



L Tlie fint, on the 3rd of May 1241, was fought 
i fleet of the emperor Frederick II. HohensUufen, 
tnpor Mundi, in alliance with Pisa, against a Genoese 
tinging a nomber of English, French and Spanish 
ittend the a>uncil summoned to meet at the Lateran 
ex. Three Genoese galleys were sunk and twenty- 

Several of the prelates perished, and many were 
oners to the camp of the emperor. The second, 
mday the 6th of August x 284, was of higher historical 

It was a typical medieval sea-fight, and accom- 
min of Pisa as a naval power. The long rivalry of 
d of Genoa had broken out for the last time in 1282, 
kte cause being the incompatible claims of the two 
fcreignty over the islands of Sardinia and Corsica. 
oomiUcts of the war in 1282, 1283 and the spring of 
)cen unfavourable to Pisa. Though the city was 
the Catalans and with Venice in hostility to Genoa, 
it had chosen a Venetian, Alberto Morosini, as its 
-eceived no help from either. The Genoese, who had 
id more efficient fleet, sent their whole power against 
r. When the Genoese appeared oflf Mcloria the 
lying in the river Amo at the mouth of which lay 

tne port of the dty. The Pisan fleet represented 
»wer of the dty, and carried members of every family 

1 most of the great officers of state. The Genoese, 
draw their enemy out to battle, and to make the 
ive, arranged their fleet in two lines abreast. The 
mposed according to Agostino Giustiniani of fifty- 
s, and eight panjUi^ a dass of light galleys of eastern 
d after the province of Pamphylia. Uberto Doria, 
t admiral, was stationed in the centre and in advance 

To the right were the galleys of the Spinola family, 
of the eight ** companies " into which Genoa was 
tsteUo, Piazzalunga, Macagnana and Son Lorenzo, 
were the galle3rs of the Dorias, and of the other four 
Porta, Soziglia, Porta Nuova and II Borgo. The 
of twenty galleys, under the command of Benedetto 
rZaccharie), was placed so far behind the first that 
xnild not see whether it was made up of war-vessels 
craft meant to act as tenders to the others. Yet it 
nigh to strike in and decide the battle when the action 
The Pisans, commanded by the Podesta Morosini 
tenants Ugolino della Gherardescha and Andrcotto 
une out in a single body. It is said that while the 
was blessing the fleet* the silver cross of his archi- 
iff fell off, but that the omen was disregarded by the 
of the Pisans, who declared that if they had the 
>tild do without divine help. They advanced in line 
»eet the first line of the Genoese, fighting according 
cval custom to ram and board. The victory was 
[>noa by the squadron of Giacaria which fell on the 
; Pisans. Their fleet was nearly annihilated, the 
I taken, and Ugolino fled with a few vessels. As 
yo attacked by Florence and Lucca it could never 
disaster. Two years later Genoa took Porto Pisano, 
> the harbour. The count Ugolino was afterwards 
leath with several of his sons and grandsons in the 
ie famihar by the 32nd canto of Dante's Inferno. 
'4 dellc Tcputiica di Cenowx, by Agostino Giustiniani 
Genoa, 1854). (D- H.) 

ood. Milo), an island of the Aegean Sea (Cydades 
le S.W. comer of the archipelago, 75 m. due £. from 
Laconia. From £. to W. it measures about 14 m., 
S. 8 m., and its area is estimated at 52 sq. m. The 
[00 is rugged and hilly, culminating in Mount Elias 
(2538 ft.). Like the rest of the duster, the island 
c origin, with tuff, trachyte and obsidian among its 
cks. The natural harbour, which, with a depth 
from 70 to 30 fathoms, strikes in from the north- 
} cut the island into two fairly equal portions, with 
lot more than i} m. broad, is the hollow of the prin- 
In one of the caves on the south coast the heat is 

still great, and on the eastern shore of the harbour there are hot 
sulphurous springs. Sulphur is found in abundance on the top 
of Mount Kalamo and elsewhere. In andent times the alum of 
Melos was reckoned next to that of Egypt (Pliny zxxv. 1$ [52]), 
and millstones, salt (from a marsh at the east end of the harbour), 
and gypsum are still exported. The Melian earth (yrj MifXiAs) 
was employed as a pigment by andent artists. Orange, ohve, 
cypress and arbutus trees grow throughout the island, which, 
however, is too dry to have any profusion of vegetation. The 
vine, the cotton plant and barley are the main objects of culti- 
vation. Pop. (1907), 4864 (commune), 12,774 (province). 

The harbour town is Adamanta; from this there is an ascent 
to the plateau above the harbour, on which are situated Plaka, 
the chief town, and Kastro, rising on a hill above it, and other 
villages. The andent town of Melos was nearer to the entrance 
of the harbour than Adamanta, and occupied the slope between 
the village of Trypete and the landing-place at Klima. Here is a 
theatre of Roman date and some remains of town walls and other 
buildings, one with a fine mosaic excavated by the British school 
at Athens in 1896. Numerous fine works of art have been found 
on this site, notably the Aphrodite of Mdos in the Louvre, the 
Asdepius in Ihe British Museimi, and the Poseidon and an 
archaic Apollo in Athens. The position of Mdos, between 
Greece and Crete, and its possession of obsidian, made it an 
important centre of early Aegean dvilization. At this time 
the chief settlement was at the place now called Phylakopi, 
on the north-east coast. Here the excavations of the British 
school cleared many houses, induding a palace of " Mycenaean " 
type; there is also a town wall. Part of the site has been washed 
away by the sea. The antiquities found were of three main 
periods, all preceding the Mycenean age of Greece. Much 
pottery was found, including examples of a peculiar style, with 
decorative designs, mostly floral, and also considerable deposits 
of obsidian. There are some traditions of a Phoenician occupa- 
tion of Mdos. In historical times the island was occupied by 
Dorians from Laconia. In the 6th century it again produced 
a remarkable series of vases, of large size, with mythological 
subjects and orientalizing ornamentation (see Greek Amt, fig. 9), 
and also a series of terra-cotta reliefs. 

Though Melos inhabitants sent a contingent to the Greek fleet 
at Salamis, it hdd aloof from the Attic league, and sought to 
remain neutral during the Peloponnesian War. But in 416 B.C. 
the Athenians, having attacked the island and compelled the 
Mclians to surrender, slew all the men capable of bearing arms, 
made slaves of the women and children, and introduced 
500 Athenian colom'sts. Lysandcr restored the island to its 
Dorian possessors, but it never recovered its former prosperity. 
There were many Jewish settlers in Melos in the beginning of the 
Christian era, and Christianity was early introduced. During 
the " Prankish " period the island formed part of the duchy 
of Naxos, except for the few years (1341-1383) when it was a 
separate lordship under Marco Sanudo and his daughter. 

Antimdos or Antimiio, 5} m. north-west of MUo, is an un- 
inhabited mass of trachyte, often called Eremomilo or Desert 
Melos. KimoloSt or Argentiera, less than i m. to the north-east, 
was famous in antiquity for its. figs and fuller's earth (Kt/iwXIa 
7^), and contained a considerable city, the remains of which 
cover the cliff of St Andrews. Polinos, Polybos or Ptdivo (anc. 
Polyaegos) lies rather more than a mile south-cast of Kimolos. 
It was the subject of dispute between the Mclians and Kimolians. 
It has long been almost uninhabited. 

Sec Leycester, " The Volcanic Group of Milo, Anti-Milo, &c.,'* 
in Jour. Roy. Geog. Soc. (1852) ; Toumcfort, Voyage; Leake, Northern 
Greece, iii.; Prokesch von Ostcn, Denkwiirdigkexten, &c.; Bursian, 
Geog. von Griechentand, ii. ; Joum. Heii. Stud, xvi., xvii., xviii.; 
Excavations at Phylakopi; Inscr. graec. xii. iii. 197 sqq.; on coins 
found in 1909, see Jameson in Rev. Num. 1909, 188 sqq. (E. Gr.) 

MELOZZO DA FORLI (c. 1438-1494), Italian painter, the first 
who practised foreshortening with much success, was bom at 
Forll about 1438; he came, it is supposed, of a wealthy family 
named Ambrosi. In all probability, Mdozzo studied painting 
under Piero de' Franceschi, of Borgo St Sepolcro; he seems also 
to have been well acquainted with Giovanni Santi, the father oC 



Raphael. It has been said that he became a journeyman and 
colour-grinder to some of the best masters, in order to prosecute 
his studies; this lacks confirmation. Only three works are 
extant which can safely be assigned to Melozzo: those in the 
Louvre, the National Gallery, London, and the Barberini Palace, 
Rome, are disputable, (i) He painted in 1472 the vault of the 
chief chapel in the church of the ApostoU in Rome, his subject 
being the " Ascension of Christ "; the figtire of Christ is so.boldly 
and effectively foreshortened that it seems to " burst through 
the vaulting "; this fresco was taken down in 171 1, and the figure 
of Christ is now in the Quirinal Palace, not worthy of special 
admiration save in its perspective quality; while some of the 
other portions, almost Raphaelesque in merit, are in the sacristy 
of St Peter's. (2) Between 1475 ^^^ '4^ he executed a fresco, 
now transferred to canvas, and placed in the Vatican picture- 
gallery, representing the appointment of Platina by Pope Sixtus 
IV. as librarian of the restored Vatican library. (3) In the 
Collegio at Fori! is a fresco by Melozzo, termed the " Pestapepe," 
or Pepper-grinder, originally painted as a grocer's sign; it is an 
energetic specimen of rather coarse realism, now much damaged. 
Melozzo also painted the cupola of the Capuchin church at Forll, 
destroyed in 165 1; and it has been said that he executed at 
Urbino some of the portraits of great men (Plato, Dante, Sixtus 
IV., &c.) which are now divided between the Barberini Palace 
and the Campana collection in Paris; this, however, is doubtful, 
and it is even questionable whether Melozzo was ever at Urbino. 
In Rome he was one of the original members of the academy of 
St Luke, founded by Sixtus IV. He returned to "FotU, probably 
towards 1480, and died in November 1494. He contributed 
sensibly to the progress of pictorial art; and, without being re- 
markable as- a colourist, gave well graded lights, with general 
care and finish, and fine dignified figures. His works bear a 
certain resemblance to those of his contemporary Mantcgna. 
Marco Palmezzano was his pupil; and the signature " Marcus dc 
Melotius " on some of Palmezzano's works, along with| the general 
affinity of style, has led to their being ascribed to Melozzo, who 
has hence been incorrectly called " Marco Melozzo." 

MELROSE, a city of Middlesex county, Massachusetts, U.S.A., 
about 7 m. N. of Boston. Pop. (1890), 8519; (1900), 12,962, of 
whom 2924 were foreign-born and 130 were negroes; (1916 cen- 
sus) 15,715. It is served by the Boston & Maine railroad, 
and by inter-urban electric railwa3rs. The city covers 48 sq. m. 
of broken, hilly country, in which is a part of the state park of 
Middlesex Fells; it includes the villages of Melrose, Melrose High- 
lands, Wyoming and Fells. In 1905 the total factory product 
was valued at $9,450,929 (an increase of 176-6% over th^ value 
of the factory product in 1900). The principal products arc 
rubber shoes (at the village of Fells), skirts (at the village of 
Wyoming), and leather and silverware (at Melrose Highlands). 
The water supply of Melrose, like that of Stoncham and of Med- 
ford, is derived from the metropolitan reservoir called Spot Pond 
in Stoneham, immediately west of Melrose. The city was the 
home of Samuel Adams Drake (1833-1905), American historian, 
whose History of Middlesex County (Boston, 1880; vol. 2, " Mel- 
rose," by E. H. Goss) should be consulted; and of William 
Frederick Poole (1821-1894), the librarian and the originator of 
indexes of periodical literature. Melrose was settled about 1633, 
and was a part of Charlestown until 1649, ^nd of Maiden until 
1850. The eastern part of Stoneham was annexed to it in 1853. 
In 1899 it was chartered as a dty ; the charter came into effect in 
1900. The name is said to be due to a resemblance of the scenery 
to that of Melrose, Scotland. 

MELROSE, a police burgh of Roxburghshire, Scotland. Pop. 
(looi), 2195. It lies on the right bank of the Tweed, 37^ m. 
S.E. of Edinburgh, and 19 m. N.W. of Jedburgh, via St 
Boswells and Roxburgh, by the North British railway. The 
name — which Bede (730) wrote Mailros and Simeon of Durham 
(i 130) Melros — is derived from the Celf'c maol ros, " bare moor," 
and the town figures in Sir Walter Scott's Abbot and Monastery 
as " Kennaquhair." In consequence of the beauty of its situa- 
tion between the Eildons and the Tweed, the literary and 
historical associations of the district, and the famous ruin of 

Melrose Abbey, the town has become residential and a holiday 
resort. There is a hydropathic establishment on Skirmish Hill, 
the name commemorating the faction fight on the 35th of July 
1526, in which the Scotts defeated the Doughses and Ken. 
Trade is almost wholly agricultural. The main streets run from 
the angles of the triangular market-place, in which stands the 
market cross, dated 1642, but probably much older. Acroa 
the river are Gattonside, with numerous orchards, and Allerly, 
the home of Sir David Brewster from 1827 till his death in 

The original Columban monastery was founded in the 7th 
century at Old Melrose, about 2} m. to the east, in the loop of a 
great bend of the Tweed. It was colonized from Lindisfame, 
Eata, a disdple of Aidan, being the first abbot (651), and Boisfl 
and Cuthbert being priors here. It was burned by Koinelh 
Macalpine in 839 during the wars between Scot and Saxon, and, 
though rebuilt, was deserted in the middle of the nth century. 
The chapel, dedicated to St Cuthbert, continued for a period to 
attract many pilgrims, but this usage gradually declined and the 
building was finally destroyed by English invaders. MeanwhOe 
in XI 36 David I. and founded an abbey dedicated to the Virgin, 
a little higher up the Tweed, the first Cistercian settlement in 
Scothnd, with monks from Rievaulx in Yorkshire. Lying in the 
direct road from England, the abbey was frequently assaulted and 
in 1322 was destroyed by Edward II. Rebuilt, largely by means 
of a gift of Robert Bruce, it was nearly burned down in 1385 by 
Richard II. Erected once more, it was reduced to ruin by the 
earl of Hertford (afterwards the Protector Somerset) in 1545. 
Later the Reformers dismantled much of what was left. Tlw 
adaptation of part of the nave to the purposes of a parish church 
and the use of the building as a quarry did*further damage. 
The ruins, however, now the property of the duke of Bucdeuch, 
are carefully preserved. Of the conventual buildings apart 
from the church nothing has survived but a fragment of the 
cloister with a richly-carved round-headed doorway and some 
fine arcading. The abbey, cruciform, is in the Decorated and Per- 
pendicular styles, with pronounced French influence, due probaUj 
to the master mason John Morow, or Morreau, who, according 
to an inscription on the south transept wall, was bom in Paris. 
The south front is still beautiful. The west front and a large 
portion of the north half of the nave and aisle have perished, but 
the remains include the rest of the nave, the two transepts, the 
chancel and choir, the two western piers of the tower and tho 
sculptured roof of the east end. From east to west it measured 
258 ft., the nave is 69 ft. wide and the width of the transepts from 
north to south is 1 1 s| ft. The nave had an aisle on each aide, 
the north noticeably the narrower, the south furnished with 
eight chapels, one in each bay. Both transepts contained aa 
eastern aisle, and the chancel a square chapel at its west end on 
each side. Over the south transept aisle, which was the chapd 
of St Bridget, is the clerestory passage, which ran all round the 
church. The choir extended westwards for three bays beyowl 
the tower and terminated in a stone rood-screen. Sir Walter 
Scott has immortalized the east window, in The Lay of the Lasi 
Minstrel, but the south window with its flowing tracery is even 
finer. In the carving of windows, aisles, cloister, capitals, bosses 
and doorhcads no design is repeated. The heart of Robert 
Bruce was buried at the high altar, and in the chancel are the 
tombs of Sir William Douglas, the Knight of Liddesdale (1500- 
1353). James 2nd earl of Douglas (1358-1388), the victor of 
Otterburn; Alexander II.; and Michael Scot "the Wizard" 
(11 75-1 234) — though some authorities say that this is the tomb 
of Sir Brian Layton, who fell in the battle of Ancrum Moor (i 544). 
At the door leading from the north transept to the sacristy is ths 
grave of Joanna (d. 1 238), queen of Alexander II. 

The muniments of the abbacy, preserved in the archives of te 
carl of Morton, were edited by Cosmo I noes for the Bannatyat 
Club and published in '1837 under the title of Libtr 
Marie de Melros. Among the documents is one of the ( 
specimens of the Scots didfoct. The Chronica de Mailros, pn 
among the Cotton MSS., was printed at Oxford in 1684 by V^^lfiuB 
Kulman and by the Bannatyne Club in 1835 under the editonlri^ 
of John Stevenson. 


WBJOM MOWBRAT, a market town in the Melton parlia* 
mentary division of Ldccsterahire, England, pleasantly situated 
in a fertile vale, at the coofluen^ of the Wreake and the Eye. 
Pop. of urban district (1901), 7454. It is 105 m. N.N.W. from 
Loodoo by the Midland railway, and is served by a joint branch 
of the London & North Western and Great Northern railways. 
The church of St Mary, a fine crudform structure. Early En^ish 
and later, with a lofty and richly ornamented central tower, was 
enlarged in the reign of Elizabeth. Melton is the centre of a 
celebrated hunting district, in connexion with which there are 
laige stables in the town. It is known for iu pork pies, and has 
a trade in Stilton cheese. There are breweries and tanneries and 
an important cattle market. There are blast furnaces in the 
neighbouring parish of Asfordby for the smelting of the abun- 
dant supply of iron ore in the district. During the Civil War 
Melton was in February 1644 the scene of a defeat of the parlia- 
mentary forces by the royalists. It is the birthplace of John 
Henley the orator (1692-1759). 

MBLUir, a town of northern France, capital of the department 
of Seine-et-Mame, situated north of the forest of Fontainebleau, 
28 m. S.S.E. of I^ris by rail. Pop. (1906), 11,3x9. The town 
is divided into three parts by the Seine. The principal portion 
Ees OQ the slope of a hill on the right bank; on the left bank is the 
most modern quarter, while the old Roman town occupies an 
islaad in the river. On the island stands the Romanesque 
dburcfa of Notre- Dame (nth and 12th centuries), formerly part 
of a nunnery, the site of which is occupied by a prison. The 
other public buildings are on the right bank of the river. Of 
these, the most striking is the church of St Aspais, an irregularly 
shaped stniaure of the 15th and i6th centuries, on the apse of 
vhkh may be seen a modem medallion in bronze, the work of 
the sculptor H. Chapu, representing Joan of Arc as the liberator 
ofMehin. Theh6tel-<ie-ville(i847)— in the construction of which 
aa old mansion and turret have been utilized — and the tower 
of St Bartholomew of the i6th and z8th centuries are also of 
iBtercst. In the courtyard of the former there is a monument to 
Jacques Amyot, the translator of Plutarch, who was bom at 
lldim in 15 13. Among the rich estates in the neighbourhood 
the most reinarkable is the magnificent chAteau of Vaux-le- 
Vlcomte, which belonged to Nicholas Fouquet, intendant of 
fioances under Louis XIV. Melun is a market for grain and farm 
' produce, and its industries include brewing, tanning, distilling, 
awing and the manufacture of agricultural implements, clogs, 
hf garments, lime, cement and plaster. 

In Caeor's Gallic war* Melun (Mehdunum) was taken by his 
Geuteoant Labienus. in order to faciliute the attack of Lutetia 
by the right bank ojf the Seine. It was pllaged bv the Normans, 
aad afcerwards became the favourite residence of the first kings of 
the nee of Capet; Robert and Philip I. both died here. In 1359 
Udua was given up by Jeanne of Navarre to her brother, Charles 
titt Bad. but was reukcn by the dauphin Charles and Bcrtrand 
DmescUn. In 1430 it made an heroic defence aflninst Henrv V. 
tf bi^nd and his ally the duke of Burgundy. Ten years later 
the people of Melun. with the help of Joan of Arc, drove out the 
Eofluh. It was occupied by the League in 1589, and retaken by 
Hory IV. in the following year. 

MtUSKKE, the tutelary fairy of the house of Lusignan, was 
tlse eldest daughter of the fairy Pressine, to avenge whose wrongs 
she shut up her father in a mountain in Northumberland. For 
t!tn she was condemned to be metamorphosed every Saturday 
isto a wmnan-serpent — that is, to be a serpent from the hips 
downwards. She might, however, be eventually saved from this 
ponishment if ahc could find a husband who would never see 
her on a Saturday. Such a husband was foimd in Raymond, 
Bepfaew of the a>unt of Poitiers, who became rich and powerful 
thmgfa the machinations of his wife. She built the castle of 
'^fTTft and many other of the family fortresses. When at 
Ingth her husband gave way to his curiosity, and saw her taking 
the bath of purification on a Saturday she flew from the castle 
ia the form of a serpent. Thenceforward the death of a member 
of the house of Lusignan was heralded by the cries of the fairy 
leipcBt. " FoMSser dts cris de Milusine " is still a popular 

This history is reUted at length, with the adventures of 


M61usine's numerous progeny, by Jean d* Arras, in his Ckronutue if 
la prineesse, written in 1387 at the desire of John, duke of Berry, 
for the amusement of the duke and of his sister Marie of France, 
duchess of Bar. It is one of the most charming of the old prose 
romances in manner and style, and is natural in spite of the free 
use of the marvellous. An attempt has been made by Jules 
Baudot in Les Princesses Yolande et Us ducsde Bar ^Paris, 1900) to 
make it a roman d cU and to idenu'fy the personages. M61usine, 
Mellusine or Meriusine is, however, simply the spirit of the 
fountain of Lusignan, and the local Poitevin myth is atUched to 
the origin of the noble house. Hie etymology of the word has 
been variously and fancifully given. Some writers have supposed 
Meriusine to be a corruption of mdre Ludne {mater Lucim^, the 
deity invoked in child-birth. She has been identified with 
Mdisende, widow of a king of Jerusalem, and with Mervant, wife 
of Geoffrd de Lusignan. 

'The Milusine of lean d' Arras was printed by Adam Steinschaber 
at Geneva in 1^78, and was reprinted many times in the isth 

The English transbtion was edited from a unique MS. in the 
British Museum by A. K. Donald for the E.E.T.S. (1895). The tale 
was versified in the 14th century by a poet called Couldrette. 
whose poem was published in 1854 by Francisque Michel See 
further J. C. Dunlop. HisL of Fiction, ii. aQi-493 (new ed., 1888); 
S. Baring-Gould, Curious Myths of the Middle Ages, pp. 470 seq. 
(new ed.. 1881); and J. C Brunet, Manuel du libraxre (vol. iil, 1862, 
S.V. Jean d'Anas). 

MELVILLE. ANDREW (1545-1622), Scottish schola^ theo- 
logian and religious reformer, was the youngest son of Richard 
Melville (brother to Melville of Dysart), proprietor of Baldovy 
near Montrose, at which pUce Andrew was bom on the ist of 
August 1545. His father fell at the battle of Pinkie (1547), 
fighting in the van of the Scottish army, and, his wife having died 
soon after, the orphan was cared for by his eldest brother 
Richard (1532-1575). At an eariy age Melville began to show a 
taste for learning, and his brother did everything in his power 
to give him the best education. The mdiments of Latin he 
obtained at the grammar school of Montrose, after leaving which 
he learned Greek for two years under Pierre de Marsilliers, a 
Frenchman whom John Erskine of Dim had induced to settle 
at Montrose; and such was Melville's proficiency that on going 
to the imiversity of St Andrews he excited the astonishment of 
the professors by using the Greek text of Aristotle, which no one 
else there understood. On completing his course, Melville left 
St Andrews with the reputation of " the best poet, philosopher, 
and Grecian of any young master in the land." He then, in 
1564, being nineteen years of age, set out for France to perfect 
his education at the university of Paris. He there applied 
himself to Oriental hinguages, but also attended the last course 
of lectures delivered by Turnebus in the Greek chair, as well as 
those of Peter Ramus, whose philosophical method and plan of 
teaching he afterwards introduced into the universities of Scot* 
land. From Paris he proceeded to Poitiers (1566) to study dvil 
law, and though only twenty-one he was apparently at once made 
a regent in the college of St Marceon. After a residence of three 
years, however, political troubles compelled him to leave France, 
and he went to Geneva, where he was welcomed by Theodore 
Beza, at whose instigation he was appointed to the chair of 
humanity in the academy of Geneva. In addition to his teaching, 
however, he also applied himself to studies in Oriental literature, 
and in particular acquired from Cornelius Bertram, one of his 
brother professors, a knowledge of Syriac. While he resided at 
Geneva the massacre of St Bartholomew in 1572 drove an 
immense number of Protestant refugees to that city, including 
several of the most distinguished French men of letters of the 
time. Among these were several men learned in dvil law and 
political sdence, and their society increased Melville's knowledge 
of the world and enlarged his ideas of dvil and ecdesiastical 
liberty. In 1574 Melville returned to Scotland, and almost 
immediately received the appointment of prindpal of Glasgow 
University, which had fallen into an almost ruinous state, the 
college having been shut and the students dispersed. Mdville, 



however, set himself to establish a good educational system. He 
enlarged the curriculum at the college, and established chairs 
in languages, science, philosophy and divinity, which were 
confirmed by charter in 1577. His fame spread through the 
kingdom, and students flocked from all parts of Scotland and 
even beyond, till the class-rooms could not contain those who 
came for admission. He assisted in the reconstruction of 
Aberdeen University in 1575, and in order that he mi^^t do for 
St Andrews what he had done for Glasgow, he was appointed 
principal of St Mary's College, St Andrews, in 1580. His duties 
there comprehended the teaching, not only of theology, but of 
the Hebrew, Chaldee, Syriac and Rabbinical languages. The 
ability of his lectures was universally acknowledged, and he 
created a taste for the study of Creek literature. The reforms, 
however, which his new modes of teaching involved, and even 
some of bis new doctrines, such as the non-infallibUity of Aristotle, 
brought him into collision with other teachers in the university. 
He was moderator of the General Assembly in 1582, and took 
part in the organization of the Church and the Presbyterian 
method. Troubles arose from the attempts of the court to force 
a system of Episcopacy upon the Church of Scotland (see Scot- 
land, Chukch of), and Melville prosecuted one of the " tulchan " 
bishops (Robert Montgomery, d. 1609). In consequence of this 
he was summoned before the Privy Council in February 1584, 
and had to flee into England in order to escape an absurd charge 
of treason which threatened imprisonment and not improbably 
his life. After an absence of twenty months he returned to 
Scotland in November 1585, and in March 1586 resumed his 
lectures in St Andrews, where he continued for twenty years; 
he became rector of the university in 1590. During the whole 
time he protected the liberties of the Scottish Church against 
all encroachments of the government. That in the main he and 
his coadjutors were fighting for the constitutionally guaranteed 
rights of the Church is admitted by all candid inquirers (see in 
particular The History of England from 1603 to i6i6f by S. R. 
Gardiner, vol. i. chap. ix.). The diicf charge against Melville 
is that his fervour often led him to forget the reverence due to an 
" anointed monarch." Of this, however, it is not easy to judge. 
Manners at that time were rougher than at present. When the 
king acted in an arbitrary and illegal manner he needed the 
reminder that though he was king over men he was only " God's 
•illy vassal." Melville's rudeness (if it is to be called so) was the 
outburst of just indignation from a man zealous for the purity 
of religion and regardless of consequences to himself. In 1599 
he was deprived of the rectorship, but was made dean of the 
faculty of theology. The dose of Melville's career in Scotland 
was at length brought about by James in characteristic fashion. 
In 1606 MelviUe and seven other clergymen of the Church of 
Scotland were summoned to London in order " that his majesty 
might treat with them of such things as would tend to settle the 
peace of the Church." The contention of the whole of these 
faithful, men was that the only way to accomplish that p\irpose 
was a free Assembly. Melville delivered his opinion to that 
effect in two long speeches with his accustomed freedom, and, 
having shortly afterwards written a sarcastic Latin epigram on 
some of the ritual practised in the chapel of Hampton Court, and 
some eavesdropper having conveyed the lines to the king, he 
was committed to the tower, and detained there for four years. 
On regaining his liberty, and being refused permission to return 
to his own country, he was invited to fill a professor's chair in the 
university of Sedan, and there he spent the last eleven years of his 
life. He died at Sedan in 1622, at the age of seventy-seven. 

See McCrics, Andrew Melville (cd. 1819); Andrew Lang, History 
of Scotland (1902). (D. Mn.) 

MELVILLE, ARTHUR (1858-1904), British painter, was born 
in Scotland, in a village of Haddingtonshire. He took up paint- 
ing at an early age, and though he attended a night-school and 
studied afterwards in Paris and Grez, he learnt more from 
practice and personal observation than from school training. 
The remarkable colour-sense which is so notable a feature of his 
work, whether in oils or in water-colour, came to him during his 

travels in Persia, Egypt and India. MelviUe, though < 
tively little known during his lifetime, was one of the ' 
powerful influences in contemporary art, especially in his broad 
decorative treatment with water-colour. Though his vivid 
impressions of colour and movement are apparently recorded 
with feverish haste, they are the result of careful deliberation 
and selection. He was at his best in his water-colours of Eastern 
life and colour and his Venetian scenes, but he also painted several 
striking portraits in oils and a powerful colossal composition of 
" The Return from the Crucifixion " which remained unfinished 
at his death in 1904. At the Victoria and Albert Miiseum is one 
of his water-colours, " The Little Bull-Fight— Bravo, Torol " and 
another, " An Oriental Goatherd," is in the Weimar Museum. 
But the majority of his pictures have been absorbed by private 

A comprehensive memorial exhibition of Melville's works was 
held at the Royal Institute Galleries in London in 1906. 

MELVILLE. HENRY DUNDAS, xST Viscount (X742-X811). 
British statesman, fourth son of Robert Dundas (1685-1753), 
lord president of the Scottish court of session, was bom at 
Edinburgh in '1742, and was educated at the high school and 
university there. Becoming a member of the faculty of advo- 
cates in 1763, he soon acquired a leading position at the bar; 
and he had the advantage of the success of his half-brother 
Robert (1713-1787), who had become lord president of the court 
of session in 1760. He became solicitor-general to Scotland in 
1766; but after his appointment as lord-advocate in 1775, he 
gradually relinquished his legal practice to devote his attention 
more exclusively to public business. In 1774 he was returned to 
parliament for Midlothian, and joined the party of Lord North; 
and notwithstanding his provincial dialect and ungraceful manner, 
he soon distinguished himself by his clear and argumentative 
speeches. After holding subordinate ofiices under the marquesi 
of Lansdowne and Pitt, he entered the cabinet in 1791 as home 
secretary. From 1794 to 1801 he was secretary at war under 
Pitt, who conceived for him a special friendship. In 1803 he 
was elevated to the peerage as Viscount Melville and Baion 
Dunira. Under Pitt in 1804 he again entered office as first k>rd 
of the admiralty, when he introduced numerous improvements 
in the details of the department. Suspicion had arisen, however, 
as to the financial management of the admiralty, of which 
Dundas had been treasurer between 1782 and x8oo; in 1802 t 
commission of inquiry was appointed, which reported in 1805. 
The result was the impeachment of Lord Melville in x8o6, on 
the initiative of Samuel Whitbread, for the misappropriation of 
public money; and though it ended in an acquittal, and iwthing 
more than formal negligence lay against him, he never again held 
office. An earldom was offered in 1809 but declined; and be died 
on the s8th of May 18x1. 

His son Robert, and Viscount Melville (1771-18SX), filled 
various political offices and was first lord of the admiialty from 
x8i2 to 1827 and from X828 to 1830; his name is perpetuated 
by that of Melville Soimd, because of his interest in Arctic 
exploration. His eldest son, Henry Du2n>AS, 3rd Viscount 
(i8oi>x876), a general in the army, played a distinguished part 
in the second Sikh War. 

See Hon. J. W. Fortescue, History of the British Amiy, vol hr. 

MELVILLE, HERMAN (1819-1891), American author, was 
bom in New York City on the 1st of August 1819. He shipped 
as a cabin-boy at the age of eighteen, thus being enabled to make 
his first visit to England, and at twenty-two sailed for a tong 
whaling cruise in the Pacific. After a year and a half he deserted 
his ship at the Marquesas Islands, on account of the cruelty of the 
captain; was captured by cannibals on the island of Nukahiva, 
and detained, without hardship, four months; was rescued by 
the crew of an Australian vessel, which he joined, and two yean 
later reached New York. Thereafter, with the exception of a 
passenger voyage around the worid in i860, Melville remained 
in the United States, devoting himself to literature—though for a 
considerable period (1866-1885) he held a post in the New York 
custom-house — and being perhaps Hawthorne's most intimate 


the Etenry men of America. His writings are 
, and of varsring merit; his verse, patriotic and other, 
is totgotten; and his works of fiction and of travel are of irregular 
qec n t ioa. Nevertheless, few authors have been enabled so 
ffceij to introduce romantic personal experiences into their 
books: in his first work, Typee: A Peep at Polynesian Life, or 
Fvm UomOu^ lUsidenu in a Valley of the Marquesas (1846), he 
d es cribed his escape from the cannibaJs; while in OmoOj a Narra- 
Um of Adoemtures in the Souik Seas (i847)> WhiU Jacket, or The 
WoHd w a Mar^f'War (1850), and especially Moby Dick, or Tke 
WkaU (1851), he portrayed seafaring life and character with 
vigrar and originality, and from a personal knowledge equal to 
that of Cooper, Marryat or Clark Russell. But these records of 
adventure were followed by other tales so turgid, eccentric, 
opinionative, and loosely written as to seem the work of another 
antbor. Mdville was the product of a period in American 
literatuxe when the fiction written by writers below Irving, Poe 
and Hawthorne was measured by humble artistic standards. He 
di ed in New York on the 38th of September 1891. 

MELVUIE, JAMES (1556-1614), Scottish reformer, nephew 
e( Andrew Melville (q.v.), was bom on the 26th of July 1556. He 
was edwated at Montrose and St Leonard's College, St Andrews. 
In 1574 he proceeded to the university of Glasgow, of which his 
vnde was principal, and within a year became one of the regents. 
When hb uncle was appointed, in 1580, principal of the New 
(liter, St Mary's) Coll^, St Andrews, he was transferred to the 
dair of Oriental languages there. For three and a half years 
k lect u red in the university, chiefly on Hebrew, but he had to 
flee to Berwick in May 1584 (a few months after his uncle's exile) 
to escape the attacks of his ecclesiastical enemy. Bishop Adam- 
Mo. After a short stay there and at Newcastle-on-Tyne, and 
again at Berwkk, he proceeded to London, where he joined some 
of the leaders of the Scottish Presbyterian party. The taking 
of Stirling Castle in 1585 having changed the political and 
ecclesiastical positions in the north, he returned to Scotland 
m November of that year, and was restored to his office at St 
Andrews. From 1586 to his death he took an active part in 
Grarch controversy. In 1589 he was moderator of the General 
Assembly and on several occasions represented his party in 
coaferences with the court. Despite his antagonism to James's 
qxscopal schemes, he appears to have won the king's respect. 
He answered, with his uncle, a royal summons to London in 
1606 for the discussion of Church policy. The uncompromising 
attitude of the kinsmen, though it was made the excuse for send- 
ing the elder to the Tower, brought no further punishment to 
James than easy detention within ten miles of Newcastle-on- 
Tyne. During his residence there it was made clear to him by 
the king's agents that he would receive high reward if he sup- 
ported the royal plans. In 16 13 negotiations were begun for his 
return to Scotland, but his health was broken, and he died at 
Berwkk in January 1614. 

Mdville has left ample materials for the history of his time from 

" andpoint, in (a) correspondence with his uncle 

, IS. in the library of the university of Edinburgh). 

ud (6) a diary (MS. in the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh). The 

latter is written in a vigorous, fresh style, and is especially direct in 

its descriptions of contemporaries. His sketch 01 John Knox at 

St Andrews is one of his best passages. 
As a writer of verse he compares unfavourably w