(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Encyclopaedia Britannica Dict.A.S.L.G.I.11thEd.Chisholm.1910-1911-1922.33vols."

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at http : //books . google . com/| 




f ^ f . ■ -■ ' -i ' "^yii?jM.iMN ^ 



THE 



ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA 



ELEVENTH EDITION 



FIRST 


•dldoo, pablUhcd la thrat 


fdnM, 


I7«8-X77i. 


SECOND 


»f $f 


ten 




f* 


1777—1784. 


THIRD 


n w 


eighteoi 




n 


1788-1797. 


FOURTH 


>• »i 


twenty 




If 


1801— 1810. 


HFTH 


$9 n 


twenty 




If 


18x5—1817. 


SIXTH 


u >• 


twenty 




If 


1833—1824. 


SEVENTH 


t> f« 


twenty-one 




fi 


1830-1843. 


EIGHTH 


>t tf 


twenty-two 




ft 


1853-1860. 


NINTH 


n *•> 


twenty-five 




M 


1875-1889. 


TENTH 


„ ninth nditinn and eleven 










WPf 


ilemcntery Tolumes, 




igoa-igoj. 



ELEVENTH 



poUiahcd in twenty-nine volttnci, 19x0— xgxx. 



THE 

ENCYCLOPiEDIA BRITANNICA 

A 

DICTIONARY 

OF 

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL 

INFORMATION 

ELEVENTH EDITION 



VOLUME XIX 
MUN to ODDFELLOWS 



NEW YORK 
THE ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA COMPANY 

1911 



5 



Copyright, in the United Sutcs of Americe, 1911, 
TheEncycbpadin Britannica Conptny. 



INITIALS USED IN VOLUME XIX. TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL 

CONTRIBUTORS,* WITH THE HEADINGS OF THE 

ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME SO SIGNED. 



A.A.W.H. 

A.Ch. 
A.K.S. 

A.F.P. 



A.Gtu 


A.Oa« 


A.Bk 


A.SA 


A.J.O. 


A.U 


A.LLSk 


A.JLa 



A.P.H. 

A.R.& 
A.ft.B. 



Amxosius AsKOiD Willem Hubiecht, LL.D., D.Sc., Pb.D. f 

Profenor of Zoolocy, and Director oC the loititute of Zoology b th« UmverMty < 
ot UtrechL Author of Ntmertiius. t 

AiTHUi Caylky, LL.D., F.R.S. 

See the biognphkal article: Catlbt, AsTBUt. 

AxTHUi EvEXETT Sbipuey, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S. 

Master of Christ's CoUm, Cambridge. Reader in Zoology, Cambridge Unavcrsity. ' 
Jmnt-editor of the CamMdge Natural History. 

AlBEBT FSEDEUCE POLLAID, M.A., F.R.HIST.S. 

Profes s or of English History in the Univerrity of London. Fellow of All Souls 
CoUege, Oxford. Aasisunt Editor of the Dictwmary t^ National Biography, 1893- - 
1901. Lothian Prixeman, Oxford, iSoa; Arnold Pnxeman. 1898. Author of 
Bt^and undtr tko Frdedor SoiMrsd; Hmtry VllL ; LiSo ^ Tkamu Oommt; &c 
Sn AscBZBAiD Gedoe, K.C.B. J 

See the biographical article : Cbuub, Sii AlCBiBALa \ 

Rev. Alezandee Gobdom, MiA. 

Leaurer in Church History in the Univenitxillt Manchestcn 

Adolf Habnacs, Ph.D. 

See the biographical artide: Habmace, Aoolf. 

Sn A. HOUTUM-SCHXNDLEB, CLE. 

Genexal in the Persian Army. Author of fatfem Peritoii /raJL 

Rev. Alezamdbb Takes Gbieve, M.A., B.D. 

Professor of New Testament and Church History at the United Independent. 
College, Bradford. Sometime Registru' of Madras University and Member of 
Mysore Educational Sendee. 

Ajobew Lano, LL.D. 

See the biogiBphical artide: Lang, Andbew. 

Abtbub Llewexxtn Davies (d. 1907). 

Trinity College, Cambridge; Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. Formerly Assistant 

Reader in Common Law under the Council of Legal Education. 
Agves Mubiel Clat (Mrs Edward Wilde). 

Late Resident Tutor of Lady BCaigaret Hall, Oxfbcd. Joint-editor of Somhm* of 

Rman History, /jj-70 B.C. 



AiiBED Newton, F.R.S. 

See the biognphkal article: NEWtON, Alfbeo. 



illlimlMn* 



impart). 

PtfttttOBOL 
(in part); 

(in 'part). 



Moithnoibtrlud, John Dudky* 
duki oL 



AiFBED Peteb Hxlueb, M.D., M.P. 

President. South African Medical Congress, 1893. Author of SotUk Afriean Stmdies ; 
Ac Served in Kaffir War, 1878-1879. Partner with Dr L. S. Jameson in medical . 
practice in South Africa till 1896. Member of Reform Committee, Johannesburg, ^ 
and Political Prisoner at Pcetoria, 1895-1896. M.P. for Hitchin division of Herts, 
191a 

Sib Alesandeb Russell Sdcpson, M.D.. LL.D., D.Sc., F.R.S. (Edln.). 

Emeritus Professor of Midwifery. Edinourgh University. Dean of the Faculty of 
Medicine and Professor in the University, 1870-1905. 

Abtbub Stanley Eodincton, M.A., M.Sc., F.R.A.S. 

Chief Asnstant at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich. Fellow of Trinity College, 
Cambridge. 

* A oomplete fist diowing all individual contributon^ BppCBn In the final ^rolumck 



llireoBliii. FMtditeh; 
Ll^ooBlnit OswbH. 



impart) 



{in part); 
Hostortiis {in fart); 
Hew JeniSBleBi Chonh; 
meholas of BbmL 
Hytbology; 

Hbbm {Locai and Personal 
Names). 

MegUsraet. 



HoBlelpliUB. 



HidlfleattoB (in part); 
mghtlDgBto; noddy; 
Hnteraekar; HBthateh; 



Katal {in part). 



Ohfttetrlei. 



VI 

A.Tk 

A.W.H.* 
A.W.HIL 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



B.S.P. 

O.F.H.B. 

C.H.Ha. 

C.H.W.1. 

C.K.8. 

CWL 

an. 

aPL 
aB.B. 

D.B.IIIL 

D.r.T. 
iLaH. 



Amdiew Setb Pkingle-Pattison. ma., LL.D., D.C.L. 

Profeaaor of Logic and MeUpnyaict in the University of Edinbarsh. 



^ . , ^_ GIffoniJ 

Ijecturer in the Untventty of Aberdeen, 1911. Fellow of the British Academy. I 
Aixthor oi Mau*M Ptau in tk» Cosmos; The PkitcwpUcal RttdicaUi &C. ^ 

AlSEKT T^OKAS. f- • w 

Member of the French Chamber of Depotiea. Contributor to VoL sL of tbe-f lltpOtoon UL 
Cambridijs Modtm History, Aatbor ci L$ soeond Empiro, doc I 

Akthuk William Holland. f»._ ,. 

Formerly Scholar of St John's CoUcge, Oxford. Bacon Scholar of Gra/s Inn. 1900. \ WBjnwn. 

A&THUK Wollaston Hutton. 



Rector of Bow Church, Cheapside, London. Formeriy Librarian of the Nattonal J 
Liberal Club. Author of Lifo of Cardinal Manning. Editor of Newman's Lioes 1 
of tkoEnt^isk Saints, ac I 

LoBD Balcasbss, F.SJV., M.P. 

Trustee of National Portrait Gallery. Hon. Secretary of Society for Protection 
of Andent Buildings *, Vice-Chainpan of National Trust. Junior Lord of the' 



Treasury, 1901-1905. M.P. for Chorley division of Lanes from 1895. 
heir of the aotn earl of Crawford. 



Son and 



OudlaiL 



«CAii. 



SB BovEXTON RiDWOOO, D.S&, F.ILS. (Edin.), FJ.C., A8s0c.I2ffiT.CX., 
M.INST.M.E. 
Adviser on Fetroktim to the Admirslty, Home Cntice, India Office, Corporation of 
London, and Pbrt of London Authority. President of the Society of Chemical 
Industry. Member of the Council of the Chemical Society. Membo- of Council of 
Institute of Chemistry. Author of QuUor Ltetnns on Fotroknmi Pttroknm and 

pZKTHA SuxTEES Phxlpotts, M.A. (DubUn). 

Formerly Librarian of Girton College, Cambrid^B. 

BlCKLES WILL8ON. 

Author of Th* Hudson's Bay Company; Thi Romanc* of Canada; Ac. 

CHARLES FSEOEUC MOBEILY BSLt. 

Managing Director of Tko Times. Correspondent in Egypt, i86s-l89a Author of 
Khedioes and Pashas; From Pharaoh to Fatah; &c 

Caelton Huhtlbt Hayes. A.M., Ph.D. 

Aisisunt Professor of History at Columbia Univernty, New York Qty. Member 
of the American Historical Association. 

Rsv. Claude Heekann Walter Johns, M.A., Litt.D. 

Master of St Catharine's College, Cambridfe. Canon of Nocvich. Author of 

Clement King Shorter. 

Editor of the Sphero, Author of ChariolU Bronti andHor CtnU; Th$ Brontls: 
Ufo and Lttttrs; &c 

Carl T^odor Mirbt, D.Tb. 

Professor of Church History in the University of Marburg. Author of PnUioistih 
im Zeitalter Cregor VJJ. ; QueUen snr CeschiehU des Papstthnms; &c. 

CbEDOHILLE MnATOVICB. 

Senator of the Kingdom of Servia. Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleni- 
poteotiarv of the King of Servia to the Court of St James's, 1895-1900, and 1909- 
1903. 

Christian VnsTER, D.-is L. 

Professor at the Sorbonne, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of 
£tM'l€S sur U ripu do Robert le Pienx, 

Charles Raymond Beazley, M.A., D.Litt. 

Professor of Modem History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow 
of Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography. 
Author of Henry the Naoigator; The Dawn of Modem Geography; &c 

Charles Scott Sherrington, D.Sc., M.D., M.A., F.R.S., LL.D. 

Professor of Physiology, University of Uverpo(rf. Foreini Member of Academies 
of Rome, Vienna, Brussels, GOttingen, Ac Author of Tfts Jntegratioe Actiou of 
the Nervous System, 

Duncan Black Macdonald, M.A.. D.D. 

Professor of Semitic Languages, Hartford Theological Seminary, U.S. A. Author of 
Development of Muslim Theology, Jurisprudence and Co nstihtti ofta i Thmryi Setae- 
ticnsfrom Ihn Khaldun; Rdigious Attitude and Life in Islam; Ac. 

Donald Francis Tovey. 

Balliol College, Oxford. Author of Essays in Musical Analysis: comprising The 
Classical Concerto, The Goldberg Variations, and analyses of many other classical 
works. 

David George Hogarth. M.A. I 

Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford Fellow of Masdal^n College. Oxford. 
Fellow of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, i88iB: Naucnids.i89Q and 1 
1903: Ephcsus, 1904-190S'. Assiut. 1906-1907. Director, British School at 
Athens, 1897-1900. Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899. I 



|Kannf: Early History. 



llQbtf 

Nleliolas. UL, IV. 

ipopet). 



i V. 



Ittustraled Papen, 
RleMi, Ootmell oL 



HlkitlB: 



■Bdltrw. 



ItaAKQiUlL 



Vyn. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



vu 



aM.w. 

BLB.T. 

B.r.flL 



K.1LfB. 
K.nr. 

B.P.& 



&ft.a 


&Wa. 


S.W.H.* 


r.s.B. 


p.as.& 


p.&r. 



Davd HAmtAY. 

Fonneriy British Vice-Contul at Buodona. 
Msvjf ; Ltft pf BmUic Castdari &c 



Author of Skeri Hiskfj tf Om Eoyal 



Su DowALD Mackenzie Wallace, K.C.I.E., K.C.V.O. 

Extra Groom-in-WaitioK to H.M . King Gcocge V. Director of the Fomen Depart* 
meat of Tht Tinus, 1891-1899. Joint-editor of new volumet (loth edition) of the 
EMcyt»opa€dia Britannua, Author of Rusna; Egypt and tk» Bgjfptian QutstiMi 
TktwSrfEmpini^c, 

DiARiUD Noel Paton, M.D., F.R.C.P. (Edin.). 

fU^ios ProfeMor 01 PhyUology in the Univenity of Giaagow. FormeHy Super- 
intendent of Research Laboratory of Royal CoUm of Phyaidans, Edinburgh. 
Biological Fellow of Ediobuigh Untveraity, 1884. Author of Etttnlial$ tf Humam 
Phystohgyi &c 

Daniel Wbicbt. M.D. 

Tranalated tlie History ef Ntpaml, from the Pkrbatiya, with an " Introductory 
Sketch of the Country and Ptople of NepauL'* 

EoWAED AucosTUS Freeman, LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Fubman, E. A. 

Edwabd BiriNETT Tylos, D.C.L., LL.D. 

See the biographical article : Tylok, Eowaeo .Buiiibtt. 

Eowabd Fairbsotbee Stbance. 

Aaaiaunt Keeper. Victoria and Albert Muaeum. South Keoainfton. If ember of 
Council, japan Society. Author of numeroua worka on art subjecta. Joint-editor ' 



Natal operations', 
Havariiio, Battle of; Ktvy 
Kikb Battle of the. 



Hotiltioii. 



(in part). 




of BeU'a '* Cathedral '' Series. 

Eomumd Gosse. LL.D. 

See the bk)paphical article: GossB, Eomumd. 

Ernest Arthur Gardner, M.A. 

See the biographical article: Carombr, Percy. 

Edward Heawooo. M.A. 

Gooville and Caiua College. Cambridge. Librarian of the Royal Geographical 
Society, London. 

Ellb Hovell Minns. M.A. 

Univenity Lecturer in Palaeogni^y. Cambridge. Lecturer and Aasiatant Librarian 
at Pembroke College. Cambridge. Formerly Fellow of PMnbioke College. 

Edward Meyer. Ph.D., D.LrrT. (Oxon.). LL.D. f 

Profeaaor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. Author of GeschukU des < 
AUertktami GtsekkhU its ailt» Aegyptens; Dm Isradiion mid ikn Nackbarstdmmt. { 

Eustace Neville-Rolfe. C.V.O. (1845-1908). J 

Fonneriy H.M.Cbnaul-General at Napka. Author d NapUsititho' Nineties iStc \ 

Edgar Prestace. 

Lecturer in 



Hnnkaeqr. 

Horton, Thomae; 

Rorwajr: Norwegian Literature: 



Hjaa. 



{King oj Persia). 



... Portugueae Literature in the Univenity of 

in Portuguese in the Univenitiea of London, Manchester, ftc. 

mendador, Portuguese Order of S. Thiago. " 
Royal Academy « Sciences, Lisbon Geograj 
^ a Fortugatse Nun; Aaurara'a Ckronute qf 



Manchester. 

- - J &c. Com- 

0. Corresponding Member of Lisbon ' 
iphical Society. Ac Editor of Letters 
Guinea\9tc. 

E. p. Catbcart. M.D. 

Grieve Lecturer in Chemi cal Physiology, University of Gbi^gow. 

Sn Edwin Ray Lanxester, K.C.B^ F.R.S.. M.A.. D.Sc.. LL.D. 

Hon. FeOow of Exeter CoUm. Oxford. President of the British Aiaodation. IQ06. 
Profeaaor of Zocdogy and Comparative Anatomy in University College, London, 
1874-1890. Linacre Professor of Comparative Anatomy at Oxford. 1 891-1898. 
Director of the Natural History Departments of the British Museum, 1898-1907. 
Mioe-VxtMieaX. of the Royal Society. 1896. Romanes Lecturer at Oxford, 1905. 
Author of DegpieraUen; The Adnncement sf Scienux The Kingdom of Man; Ac. 

Edwin Stephen Goodrich, M.A.. F.R.S. 

Fellow and Librarian of Merton College. Oxford. Aldrichian DemooaMtor of Com- 
parative Anatomy, Univenity Muaeum, Oxford. 

Rev. Edmond Warre, M.A^ D.D., D.C.L., C.B. CV.O. 

Provost of Eton. Hon. Fellow of Balliol College, Oxford. Headmaster of Eton • 
College, 1884-1905. Author of G^aaniiar tf Rowtng ; &c. 

Sir Edward Walter Havilton, G.C.B.. K.C.V.O. (1847-1908). 

Joint Permanent Secretary to H.M. Treasury. I9(»-19(^. Author of National. 
J)eU Coneersion and Redemption^ 

FiANX EvERS Beddard. M.A., F.R.S. 

Prosector of the Zoological Society. London. Tormcrly Lecturer ui Biokwy at 
Guy's Hospital, London. Naturalist to *' Challenger ** Expedition Commisswn, 
1882-1884. Author of Ttxt-Boolt of Zoogtog^pky; Animal Coloration ; ftc. 

FuDERiCK George Meeson Beck, M.A. 

Fellow and Lectutcr of Clare College, Cambridge. 

Frederick Gymer Parsons, F.R.C.S., F.Z.S.. F.R.Anthrof.Inst. 

Vice-President. Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Lecturer on 
Anatomy at St Thomas's Hospital and the London School of Medidne for Women. ' 
Formeriy Hunterian Profeaaor at the Royal College of Surgeons. 



/imtiltfam {in part). 



(m part). 



Oar. 

national Debt: 

Conversions {in parfi. 



{in part). 



RofthiuntebL 



Renrovi System. 



F.L.L. 


F.I.B. 


p.B.a 


P.W.Ha.. 


P.W.Ho. 


G.A.C* 


G.B.a. 


G.C.L. 



vlii INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 

F. J. EL Feamos John Ravektield, M.A.. LL.D., F.S.A. f 

Camden Professor of Ancient Histoiy in the University of Oxford. Fellow of I 
Breaenoae College. Fellow of the British Academy. Senior Censor, Student, Tutor < 
and Librarian of Christ Church. Oxford. 1891-1907. Author of MooQgniphs on 
Roman History, especially Roman Britain ; oc. [ 

F. £L G« FKAMcaa Llewellyn GximTB, M.A., Pr.D.. F.S.A. f 

Reader in Egyptology, Oxford University. Editor of the Archaeological Survey and J 
Archaeological Reports of the Egypt Exploration Fund. Fellow of Imperial ] 
German Archaeological Institute. I 

Lady Litgaxo. /Ifoaaiawi; 

See the bicgnphical articles Lucaid, Sift F. J. D. \ Mlgtlll. 

Col. Fkedesic Natusch Maude, C.B. f WMoiMiiite 

Lecturer in MiUtary History. Manchester University. Author of War OMd Aei t^,lZ 
World's Policy', The Leiput Campaigit ; Tko Jena Campaign ; Ac I ^UUary. 

Fkane R. Cana. r Hltal (in part); lifBT; 

Author of South Africa from the Great Treh to the Union. \ Mlb (w fiarth 

Feedesick Wxluah Haslitck, M.A. f 

Assistant Director, British School of Archaeology, Athens. Fellow of King's -{ Myili. 
College, Cambridge. Browne's Medallist. 1901. L 

FsEDEsicx Walker MoTT, F.R.S., M.D., F.R.C.P. C ._. « ^^ 

Physician to Charing Cross Hospital, London. Patholofpst to the London County J munlgia; HeiingtlMIIUi; 
Asylums. FuUerian Professor 01 Physiology, Royal Institutioa, Editor of Archiees | Msiiropatliotogy* 
of Neuroloiy, I 

Rev. Geoigb Albekt Cooks, M.A., D.D. f 

Oriel Professor of the Interpretation of Holy Scripture. Univerrity of Oxford. J 
Fellow of Oriel CoUege: Canon of Rochester. Hon. Canon of St Mary^s Cathedral, | 
Edmbuxgb. Formeny Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. I 

Gborce Ballaxo Matbsws, M.A., F.R.S. f 

Professor of Mathematics, University College of N. Wales, Bangor, I884-1896. \ HlllDlNr. 
Formeriy Fellow of St John's CoUege, Cambridge. I 

Gbokce Collins Levey. C.M.G. [ 

Member of Board of Advice to Agent-Genera! for Victoria. Formerly Editor and -_ «,...„. ~,^ 
Proprietor of the Mdboume Herald. Secretary. Colonial Committee of Royal Com- \ MW Sonib WaM: Hitkfry^ 
mission to Paris Exhibition, loop. Secretaiy to Commissioners for Victoria at the I 
Exhibitions in London, Paris, Vienna, Philadelphia and Melbourne. '^ 

0.& Kxv. George Edicun^on, M.A., F.R.Hist.S. I 

Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Brasenose CoUege, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1900^ J 
1910. Employed by British Government in preparation of the British Case in the \ 
British Guiana- Venezuelan and British Guiana-Brazilian Boundaxy Arbitrations. \ 

G. F. H.* George Francts Hill, M.A. f 

Assutant in the Department of Coins, British Museum. Corresponding Member of J 
the German and Austrian Archaeological Institutes. Author of Coins of Ancient \ 
Sicily; Historical Greeh Coint\ Histortcal Roman Coins; &c L 

G. H. Bo. Rev. George Herbert Box, M.A. f 

Rector of Sutton Sandy, Bedfordshire.. Lecturer in Faculty of Theology. Uni- J 
versity of Oxford, I90fr-I909. Author of Short Introduction to Literature tjihe Old \ 
Testament; &c. I 

G. H. CL George Herbert Carpenter, B.Sc. (Lend.). f^ , 

Professor of Zoology in the Ruyal CoUege of Sdenoe, Dublin. Author of Insects: < HMinptalt. 
their Structure and Life, [ 

G. J. T. George James Turner. f 

Barrister-at-Uw, Lincoln's Inn. Editor of Sdea Pleat ef the ForesU for the SeMen \ HortllUiylailt Avto oL 
Society. I 

G. K. G. Grove Karl Gilbert. LL:D. r 

Geologist. U.S. Geological Survey< President of the American Geological Society. J wt-nr* 
1802-1893 ^i^d iQOO-ioio. Formeriv Soecial Lecturer at Cornell. Columbia And 1 <*'■•■■■• 
Johns Hop 



Bq3 and 1909-1910. Formeriy Special Lecturer at Cornell, Columbia and 1 
tlopkins Universities. Author of O^terj aiu<G^ta^i0fi',&c I 

O.W.T. I^EV. GRirriTHES Wheeler Thatcher, M.A., B.D. Twvi-fc. i*i.«fc-««». 

Warden of Camden College. Sydney, k.S.W. Formeriy Tutor in Hebrew and Old J ^^^ ™*™5?^ 
Testament History at Mansfield CoUege. Oxford. \ ■AWiWi; Hosalns. 

~ ' ~ ~ ;rbert Afpold Grueber, F.S.A. r 

Keeperof Coins and Medals. British Museum. Treasurer of the Egypt Exploration I , «. /. _Jk 

Fund. Vice-President of the Royal Numismatic Society. Author of Coins of the i aa inlim il M i (m panh 
Roman Republic; &c \ 



H.Ch. Hugh Chisholit, M.A. rflfttfiMial Datat (in «AtV 

Formerly Scholar of Corpus Christi CoUege. Oxford. Editor of the lith edition of 4 5*°^ff "7 ^ '^'' 
the Encyclopaedia Britannica; Co-editor (tf the loth edition. [ new^spaiB. 

H. D. T. H. Dennis Taylor. / -.ki^^^- 



Inventor of the Coohe Photographic Lenses. Author of A System ef Applied Optics. | 



H. B» Karl Hermann Eth£, M.A., Ph.D. 

Professor of Oriental Languages. University College. Aberystwyth (University of J HIST Khosn; 
Wales). Author of Catalogue of Persian Mannscrtpts in the India Offiu Lihrary^ '^ — --— - 
London (Clarendon Press) ; &c 



■■I 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



IX 



ar.o. 



{■: 



Nt^amiCtiUm- 



B.r.r. 


B.LBL 


H.M.G 


S.B.ft. 


fl.M.T. 


H.B.a 


&B.IL 



LA. 

JLA.a 
J.A.H. 

1.A.UB. 
I.A.P.* 






Hams Frieouch Gadow. F.R'.S., Ph.D. 

ScrkkhodCuntor and LectuiwoQ Zoology in the Univcraity of CaabridCB. Audior 
cC " Amphibia and Repdlet." in the ComM^ Natanl Hulary. 

Hembt FkANCB Pelham, LL.b., D.C.L. 

See the biogiaphical article: Pklham, Hbnet Fbakos. 

Hams Lien Bsaekstad. f 

V ice-Co nsul for Nonniy hi Loodon. Author o£ He Cnuffihitfni <^ II0 JTAffdoNi o/-{ lonraj: SiMory, i8t4'tg07. 

Sector Mointo CHia>wxcK, M.A. f 

Libcariaa and Fellow of CUre Collen. Cambridse, and UnivefBity Lectorer ml tmUL 
Scandioavian. Author U Shidus om Anifo-^axM InUUuliouu I 

Bzmv Morse Stephens, M.A. f 

BaOiol College. Oxford. Profeseor of History and Director of Univenity Ezteneion, J »anfcM^ /^ ^^a 
Univernty of California. Author of History ef tk» F^mek Rnalm^i Modem\ **""^ ^^ '^^* 
Etvoptam History; &c. 

Henry Marttn Tayior. M^A^ F-R-S., F.R.A.S. 

Fetlov of Trinity College. Cambridge: formerly Tutor and Lectmw. Smith' 
Priaeman, 1865. Editor of the Pitt Prem £acftd. 

Henry Newton Dicrson, M.A., D.Sc., F.R,S. CEdin.), F.R.G.S. 

Profeaapr of Geography at Univernty Collese. Reading. Formeriy Vice-President, 



,*s|lMon» ar bii 
>ity.|MonraftaBfl«. 



iinfart). 



{impart). 



Royal Meteorological Society. Lecturer in Physical Geography, Chdotd Univerrity. 

Author of Mdeerolocyi Blemtntt ef Wtatktr and aimalt; Ac. 
Hugh Robert Mill, D.Sc., LL.D. 

Director of British Rainfall OrBanization. Formeriy Pnsideot of tha Royal 

Meteorological Society. Hon. Member of Vienna Geographical Society. Hon. 

Corresponding Member of Geographical Societies of Paris. Beriin. Budapest, St 

PietersDuig, Amsterdam, Ac British Delegate to International Conference on the 

Exploration of the Sea at Christiania, 1901. Author of Tkt Roalm of Natmrt: Tho 

Ctydt Sea Arm; Tha Engfisk Laktsi Tka Inttmo H oHo l Ceograpky. Editor cC 

British RaimfaU. 
Henry Sturt, M.A. J 

Author of Jdola Tkeairi; Tho Moa of a Fttt dtvd; Ptrumdl Meatism, 1 

Henry William Carless Davis, M.A. 1 

FeOov and Tutor of Balliol College. Oxford. Feilov of All Souls' College, Oxford, A 
1895-1902. Author of Eagtoad under tka NorwuMSOMdAmtieokui C kar Umap io. \ 

mjOR-GSNERAL HeNRY WyLIE, CS.I. I 

Oflkiating Agent to the Govemor-Genexal of Ia^ for Balnchiitan, l89ft-i9oaH 
Resident at Nepal, 1891-1900. I 

Rev. Henry Wheeler RobinsOn. M.A. 

Professor of Church History in Rawdon College, Leeds. Senior Kennicott Schohir. 
(Mord, 1901. Author of '* Hebrew Psychology in Relation to Pauline Anthrop- 
ology,'* in Mansfield CoUef Essays; &c 

Uiael Abrahaks, ma. 

Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature, University of Cambridge. President, 
Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A Short Histfy ofjomish LiterO' 
imn\ Jemish Life in the Middte Ag/u, 

Sir Joseph Archer Crowe, K.C.M.G. 

See the biographical article: Crowe, Sir Jossni Archer. 

JOBN Allen Howe, B.Sc. (Lond.). f 

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Pnctkal Geology, London. Author cii 
The Geology of Buildini Stones. L 

John Atbelstan IjitTRiE Rhey, M.A. f 

Ftaibroke College, Oxford. Author of i4llM,erll0irMMlaui<^lArJkrMJb;ftc. \ 

Rev. Janes Alexander Paterson, M.A.. D J>. 

Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Exegesis, New College, Edutbttigh. Editor 
of Booh of Numbers in the " Polychrome " Bible; Ac 1. 

James David Bourcuier, M.A^ F.R.G.S. r 

King's College. Cambridge. Correspondent of The Times in Sooth-Eastem Europe. J HlehollS (JtMg 0/ Moid§' 
Commander of the Ordere of Prince Danilo of Montenegro and of the Saviour of 1 lutro) 
Greece, and Officer of the Order of St Alexander of Bulgaria. [ ^^^'' 

jAMES FnZMAURICE-KELLY, LiTT.D., F.R.HlST.S. f 

Gilmour Professor of Sipanish Language and Uterature, Liverpool Univernty. I 
Norman McCoIl Lecturer, Cambridge University. Fellow of the British Academy. \ luHei ds AfOt. 



llajug; 



{iMT, Van d« (di-^optf). 



(m parii. 



If ombMi, Book oL 



It Commander of the Order of 



Member of the Royal Spanish Academy. Knieht Command 
Alphonso XI L Author 01 A History of Spanish LUerature; &c 

JOBN HOLUNGSHEAO (1827-1904). I 

Founder of the Gaiety Theatre, London. Member of Theatrical lirfming Reform H 
Committee, 1866 and 1892. Author of Gaiety Chrouieles; Ac I 

John Henry Freese. M.A. J 

Fonnerty Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge. 

John Henry Middleton, M.A., Lrrr.D., FS.A., D.C.L. (1846-1896). 

Slade Prof essor of Fine Art in the Univenity of Cambridge. 1886-1895. Director 
of the Fttxwilliam Museum, Cambridge, 1889-1892. Art Director of the South. 
Kensington Museum, 1892-1896. Author of 7m Entraved Gems of Classical Times; 
Illuminated Manuscripts in Classical and Mediaemd Times, 



[Mtme: Creth and Roman 
Names; 
HorleuiiL 



(In part); 



z 

J.H.B. 
J.HLB. 

J.Jft. 

J.J.Lr. 
J. L. B. D. 

J.1L1L 
J.P.Flk 

X8L* 

J. 8. p. 
J.8.K. 

J.T.Be. 
J.T.O. 

J.W. 

J.W.* 
J110.W. 

I.W.O* 
J.W.I..O. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 

JOBM HOSACB ROUMD. M^., LLJ^. f 

Author of Feudai Btufand; StuHts m Pesntt amd Family Hutaryi Pmoi^ amd\ KaflllB (FoMMljr). 

John Houamd Rose, M.A.. Lm.D. f 

Chmt'a Collet Cambridge.^ Lecturer on Modern Hi^ory^ to the Camfafidge^ Uni- J 



verrity Local Lectures Syndicate. Author ol t«/r ef Napoleom /.. Napoleank] 
Sitidiu; Tlu DepdopmeiU 9/ Ihg Etiroptan NaUausi Tk* U^ </ PiU; Ac 



JosKFB Jacobs. Lnr-D. 

Pro(e«or 01 Engluh Literature in the New York lewuh Tbeolorical Semuiary oT 

^ '" •* — =-*— -^ -*-- ' — Hh Historical Society of Eoglaod. Corre- 

o( History. Madrid. Author of /<»« «/ 



America. Fonneriy President d the levish Historical Society of England. 

monding Member of the Rani Academy of History, 

Angmn Emglandi SiMdiu m Biblical ilrctaMf^gy; Ac 



JosEFH Jackson Lxstbk, M.A., F.R.S. 
Fellow of St John's College. Caflibcklge. 



John Louis Eiol Drzyek. 

Director of Annagh Observatory. 



Author of Plamaary SfsHms from Tkaks loi Obswvatoiy. 



{' 



{ 

IN Malcolm Mitchell. r 

Sometime Scholar of Queen's Collen, Oxford. Lecturer in Classics, East London < 
College (University oCLondon). Jomt-editor of Grate's ffiKory^GrscM. { 



J. M. Brydon. 

Architect of Chelsea Town Hall and Polytechnic, 

John Malcolm Mitchell. 



(in part). 



Rev. John Punnett Peteis. Ph.D., D.D, 

^ -^ ■ iry.P.ETCai 

ity of Pennsyhrani , , .- 

1888-1895. Author of Nipputt or BxploraHoiu aad AdoaUures ou lAs EmpkraUs. 



C^non Residentiary, P. E. Cathedral of New Yoric Pormeriy Profei 

the Univerrity of Pennsylvania. Director of the Univernty Expedition to Babylonia, 



r of Hebrew in ^ 



Rev. James Sibree, F.R.G.S. 

Principal Emeritus, United College (L.MS. and F.F.M.A.),' Antananarivo, 
Eascar. Member de I'Acadteiie Majgache. Author of Madagascar 
Madagascar bejorc Iks Qmquesi\ A Madagascar Bibliog^pky; ftc 

Rev. John Suthekland Black, M.A., LL.D. 

Assistant-editor of the oth edition of the EMcychpaadia Brttannica. Joint-editor of 
the Eucychpaedia Bibliea, 



■ytonlto; 

Meek; Mephelliie-Syeiilte: 
ObddiML 



John Smith Flett, D.Sc., F.G.S. 

Pelrographer to H.M. Geological Survey. Pormeriy Lecturer on Petrology in J 

Edinburgh University. Neill Medallist of the Royal Society of Edinbufgh. Bigsby ] 

Medallist of the Geological Society of London. ' 

John Scott. Keltie, LL.D., F.S.S., F.S.A. (Scot.). 

Secreury, Royal Geographical Society. Knight of Swedish Order of North Sur. , _ _ 

Commander of the Norwegian Order of St Olaf. Hon. Member. Geogiaphical •( RallODal Debt (tn part). 

Societies of Paris, Beriin. Rome. Ac. Editor of SlaUsmam^s Ytar Book, Editor of 

the Geotraphical Journal. ' 

John Thomas Bealby. rRlkoIiiiV (t» part); 

Joint-author of Stanford's Europe. Pormeriy Editor of the SeottiskGtqgrapkual \ Rlshnij-Roviorod (m part); 

Magasine, Translator of Sven Hedin's Through Asia, Control Asia and Tibet ; ftc [ RovgOfOd (m part). 

Joseph Thomas Cunnincham, M.A., F2.S. f mbsuI rf« aa*<V 

Lecturer on Zoology at the South-Westem Polytechnic. London. Pormeriy J T^mL ^ '^ 
Fellow of Universi^ Collen, Oxford. Assistant Professor of Natural History in 1 "•Vuiu; 
the University of Edinbuiv>- Naturalist to the Marine Biological Association. i. f 



irinJ 
nia, I 

'. L 

Lnarivo, Mada- J 
ondtCf Pso^: I 

{ 

■■{ 



Rejef; 
Rlppor. 



(mi part). 



James Thomson Shotwell, Ph.D. 

Professor of History in (>>lumbia University, New York Qtv 

James Williams, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D. r 

All Soub* Reader in Ronian Law in the University of Oxford, and Fellow of Lincoln J 
College. \ 

James Ward. LL.D. / 

Sec the biographical article: Ward,. Jambs. \ 

JciHN Westlake. K.C., LL.D., D.C.L. 

Professor of International Law. Cambridge, 1888-1908. One of the Members for 
United Kingdom of International Court of Arbitration under the Hague Cbnventbn. . 
1900-1906. Author of A Treatise ou PrieaU international Lam. or the Conflia ef^ 
Jjomsi Chapters on Iho Prindples of international Lam: part L '* Pteace ": part it. 



(in part). 



RavlfEtloB U«8. 



John Walter Gregory, D.Sc., F.R.S. 

Professor of, GeolMy. at the University of Glasgow. 



Profei 



Mineraioffy in the Oniversity of Melbottrne, 1900-1904. Author of The ijSd Heart ' 

James Whitbread Lee Giaisber, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S. 

Fellow of Trinity College. Cambridge. Pormeriy President of the Cambridge 
Philosophical Society, and the Royal Astronomical Society. Editor of Messongor 
of Mathematia and the Quarltrly Journal ef Pure amd Applied Mathematics. 

Kathleen Schleswcbr. 

Editor of the Portfolio ef Musical Ardutology. Author of The inslrumonts ef Iho' 
Orchestra. ' ' •^ 



Ifow Smifh Wilis: Geologyi 

' Geohgy. 



Mmletl Boi; 

RrQ Vlollnr 

Hsy; Oboe («fi part). 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 

IfcJ.S. LsoNABD James Spences, MA. fMiiiflovlte* 

Assistant ia Departinent of Mineralogy, British Miueora. Formerly Scholar of J m^^mZitmlt 
Sidney Sussex College, Cambridffe, and HarknsM Scholar. Editor of the Minera- 1 "f '"^P"* 

L. B. F. Lswis RiCBABO Fasnexx, M.A., Lrrr.D. 

Fellow and Senior Tutor o( Exeter College, Oxford Univenity Lecturer in Claseica] 
Archaeology; Wilde Lecturer in Comparative Religion. Corresponding Member 
of Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Author o( Etolutiou of Raigion; Ac 

L. v.* LUICI ViLLASI. 



Ifc W. K. Leonaed WauAii King, M.A., F.S.A. 



I- 

SI VILLASI. f 

Italian Foreign OflSce (Emimtion Dept.). Formerly Newspaper Correspondent J -._,^ , 
b East of Europe. Italian Vice-Consul in New Orieans, 1906. Philadelphia, 1907, 1 M^iMi < 
and Boston, U.SA., 1907-1910. Author of Jialiau UJe in Town and Comntryx &c. t 

NAED WauAii King, M.A., F.S.A. r 

King's Collen. Cambridge. AssisUnt in Department of Egyptian and Assyrian J wtmn.** rt- n^..^ jr.^.^^« 
AntHjuitiesTfiritish Museum; Lecturer in As^n at King's College and Undon 1 «'W"« ^*« ^^i*^ PFagmmt. 
University. Author of Tk* Seven TabUU of Creaiion; Ac I 

■• Ja. Mouus Jasteow, Pr.D f ||.|^. wm«i- iniini< 

Professor of Semitic Languages, Univenity of Ptonsylvania. Author of Religion i 2 "?!. "r**"* ninw, 
of ike Babylonians and Assynam; ice. [Mosku; 

H. ■. T. Mabcus Niebubr Tod, M.A. r 

Fellow and 'Tutor d Oriel College, Oxford. Univenity Lecturer in Epigraphy. < 
Joint-author of Catalogue of tke Sparta Musenm. [ 

K. The Rt. Hon. Lord Noktbcuffe. f 

Founder of the Daily Mail; Chief Proprietor of The Times, and other papers and J ■•WSpEpen: Priu of News- 
periodicals. Chairman of the Associated Newspapen, Ltd., and the Amalgamated ] papers^ 

K. D. H. Newton Dennison Mereness, A.M., Ph.D. f «k. ymA tim hnw/\ 

Author of Maryland as a Proprietary Prooince. \ ™ "" ^"* ^^f'' 

0. J. k. H. OsBERT John Radcutfe Howarth, M.A. f Harwav n^M^^hh^ nmA 

Christ Church. Oxford. Geographical Scholar. 1901. Assistant Secretary of the i ^^l-^f^^^ 
British AiKxnation. p ^ 7 ^ Staiutta. 



Ooeui ud OflttBOgm^ (in 

part). 

New SIMrhi Arehipebigo; 
NlkolayfV(ifi^/); 
Nlthniy-RovgofOd (m part); 
Kovgorod {in part). 



0. K. Otto KrOvmel, Ph.D. 

Professor of Geography In the University of Kiel, and Lecturer in the Imperial 
Naval Academy. Author of Handbuch der Oteanographie. 

F. A. K. Prince Fvter AixxEivncn Kropotkin. 

See the biographical article: Keofotun, Prince P. A. 

P. G. Percy Gardner, LL.D., Lrrr.D., F.S.A. 

See the biographical article: Gardner, Percy. 

F. GL Pbter Giles, M.A., LL.D., Litt.D. f 

Fellow and Classical Lecturer of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and University J H* 
Reader in Comparative Philology. Formeriy Secretary of the Cambridge Philo- | 0. 
logical Society. Author ol Manual of ComparaHoe Philology, I 

F. C S. Paul George Konody. f 

Art Critic of the Observer and the Daily MaU. Formeriy Editor of Tke ArtisL i Heer, Van der (m parO> 
Author of Tke Art of Waller Crane; Velasquez, Life and Work; Ac. I 

F. la. ' Philip Lake, M.A., F.G.S. f 

Lecturer on Physical and Regional Geography in Cambridge University. Formerly J m, ,_ pi«-.v^f /-^-,« al« 

of the Geological Survey of India. Author of Monograpk 0/ BrUuk Cambrian] ■"'*y« -r*yw« Oeograpky, 
Trilobites. Translator and Editor of Keyser's Comparattoe CeMogy. L 

B. A. W. Robert Alexander Wahab, C.6., C.M.G., CLE. f 

Colonel, Royal Engineers. Formerly H.M. Commissioner, Aden Boundaiy De-J nMi 
limitation, and Superintendent, Survey of India. Served with Tirah Expeditionary 1 ^^ 
Force, 1897-1898; Anglo-Russian Boundary Commission, Pamirs, 1895; &c. I 

B. C. T. SxK Richard Carnac Temple, Bart., CLE. f 

Lieut.-Colonel. Formeriy Chief Commissioner, Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Hoa.< RloolMr Uands. 
Fellow of Trinity Hall, Cambridge. Joint-author of iiiufamaiMM lanciiace: &c. [ 

B. G. Richard Garnett, LL.D., D.C.L. / Mewmjui, Vtaneb Wmiun; 

See the biographical article: Garmstt. Richard. \ Xewtoa, Sir C. T. 

B. J. H. Ronald John MacNeill. M.A. f 

Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. Formeriy Editor ci tht St James's < Homy. Loid George. 
CatetU, LoaAaa. I 

B. L.* Richard Lydekxeb, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S. f Honf]ae; 

Member of the Staff 01 the Geological Survey of India, l874'l882. Author of J Musk Ox* 
Catalogue of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in Britisk Museum; Tke Deer] w^J^^ ' 
efAUlands; Tke Game Animals of Africa; Ac. I ■y»aoiL 

B. Ia* Robert Latouche. f 

Archivist of the department of Tarn et Garonne. Author of Histoire dm eonM du •{ NonnaildF. 
Maine auX.etau XI, sikde, I 






Xll 
R.8.& 

as. P. 

B.S.T. 
8.A.C. 

sta 

8.H.V.* 

8.K. 

8.1. 
T.Al* 

T.A.C. 

T.A.L 
T.A.J. 

T.B». 

T.Ra 
T.H. 

T.ILI.. 
T.W.B.a 

V.H. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



RoBEST Nbbet Bain (d. igog). 

AnisUnt Librarian,. British Muteam, 188A-1909. Author of Scandinttwia: the 
Poliiical History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, titJ-lQOO: The First Romances, < 
J6i3~t7i<( : Slaponic Eairope: Ike Political His/ory of Poland and Russia from '4^ 
tot7fiO;SK. 

Sa RoBEXT Staweu Ball, F.R.S., LL.D. 

Lowndean Professor of Astronomy and Geometry. Univeruty of Cambridec. . 
I^rector of the Cambridge Observatory and Fellow of King's College. Royal 
" ' '-^ " "keHi 



nuudji 



Mibular TI1M17. 



i MnmlniaUa (m par(^. 



Astrooomer of kdand, i874-i89a. Author of Tke Story of the Heaeens; &c 

Rbginald Stvakt Poolb, LL.D. 

See the biosraphica article: Pools, Rbcmald Stuakt. 

Ralph STOcxicAif Tabs. 

Professor of Physical Geography. Cornell University. Special Field Assistant of the < M«W York (tn parO' 
VS. X;eoloKiaa Survey. Author of Pkyskal Geography of New York SlaU. ' 

SlAlfLBY AkTHXTB COOK, M^ 

Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac, and formeriy Fellow, Gonville and Caius College. 

Cambridge. Editor for the Palestine Exploration Fund. Examiner in Hebrew and Nabataeans (m parf^i 

Aramaic. London University. 1904-1908. Council of Royal Asiatic Society, 1904- ' Maiailte (in Parti 

1905. Author of Glossary of Aramaic Inscriptions ; The Law of Moses and the Code of \ r^ 1 

Hammurabix Critical Notes on Old Testament History; Rdigjun ef Ancient 

Palestine', &c 

Viscoxmr St Cyres. f 

See the biographical article, iDDSSLBroB, ist Earl of. \ 

Sydney Howabd Vimes, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S., F.L.S. f 

Professor of Bouny in the University of Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College, J 
Oxford. Hon. Fellow of Christ's College. Cambridge. Fellow of the University of 1 
London. Author of Slwdgnfi Text Book of Botany; Ac «> 

Sten Konow, Ph.D. r 

Professor of Indian Philology in the University of Christiania. Ofikier de 1* Acadtoie J 
Francaise. Author of Stamaoidkana Braktnana\ Tko Karpnramat^jari', Munda ) 
and Draoidian, «> 

SncoN Newcomb, D.Sc., LL.D. f 

See the biographical article: NBBrcoiCB.Stlioii. \ 

THOMAS AsBBY, M.A., Lnr.D. fwi.it • m - 

Director of British School of Archaeology at Rome. Formeriy Scholar of Christ "•»? Bomenttlll, VU; 
Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow. 1897. Conington Prizeman. 1906. Member of the* Momentum; Hon; Norba; 
Imperial Gernuin Archaeological Institute. Alithor of The C l assi cal Topography of Hovafi; Haeerfa AUateroi; 
ike Roman Campa^na. I Mnon. 

'HkOTHY AuCirSTXNE COCBLAN, I.S.O. f M ««!.»• 

Agent-General for New South Wales. Government Stattstidan. New South Wales. J "•* SOQfh Walw: 
1886-190S. Author of Wealth and Progress of New South Wales ; Statistical Account | Geography and Statisttct, 
of Australia and New Zealand; Ac I 

TtoOMAS Allan Incsam. M.A., LLJ). / Mame: Law; 



{FlaneO. 



lOctroL 



Hon. Sec. Anthropo- \ Ifagro {in parti* 



Trinity College. Dublin. 

TtoOMAS Atbol Joyce, M.A. 

Assisunt in I>epartment of Ethoognphy, Britlah Museum. 

logical Society. 1 

Sib Thomas Barclay. I 

Member of the Institute of International Law. Member of the Supreme Council of J 
the Congo Free State. Officer of the Legion of Honour. Author of ProUems of 1 
International Practice and Diplomacy; &c M.P. for Blackburn. 1910. | 

TtoEoooRE Freylinchuysen Coluer. Ph.D. 

Assistant Professor of History, Williams College. Williamstown, Mai 

TtoouAS HoDCKiN. LL.D.. Lrrr.D. 

See the biographical article: HoocKiN. Thomas. 

Sn Thomas Hungerpord Holdxch, K.C.M.G., K.C.I.E., D.Sc.. F.R.S. I 

Colonel in the Royal Engineers. Superintendent. Frontier Surveys. India. 1893- J 
1898. Gold Medallist, R.G.S. (London), 1887. H.M. Commissioner for the Perso- 1 
Beluch Boundary, 1896. Author of The Indian Borderland; The CaUs of India; Ac ' 

Rev. Thomas Martin Lindsay, M.A., D.D, 

Principal and Professor of Church History. United Free Church College, Glasgow. 
Author of Life of Luther; Ac 



RentraUty; 

North Saa FlilierlaB Comaii- 



|lfeo-Ca0sana, 9yD0d oL 
I Kanas {Roman General^. 

Unseal; 

North-Wast Vtontlar Pito- 



•( 



Oeeam, WUDam oL 



T&omas Wiluam Rhys Davids, LL.D., Ph.D. 

Professor of Comparative Religion, Manchester University. President of the Pali I 

Text Society. Fellow of the British Academy. Secretary and Librarian of Royal < Nlglrjaiia; MlUiya. 

Asiatic Society. 1885-1903. Author of Buddhism: Sacred Books of the Buddhtsts; 

Early Buddhism; Buddhist India; Dialogues of the Buddha; &c 



4 



Victor Charles MAnaLON. 

Principal of the Conservatoire Royal de Masque at Bruseeli. 
Legion of Honour. 



Chevalier of the \ ObM {in part^. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



xUi 



W.A.B.a 

W.A.F. 
W.BL 

W.B.O. 
W.F.C. 
W.F.B. 
W.F.W. 

w.a* 

W.ILBe. 

W.ILF. 
W.ILP. 

W.J.IL 

W.LF. 

w.i-a 

W.Sb. 
W.X.D. 

W.H.B. 

w.aiL 

W.F.R. 
W.S.S.B, 



Rev. WxLZJAii Aucustos Bxkvoobt Cooudgb, M.A., F.R.G.S.. Pa.D. (Bern). 
Fellow ol Magdalen CoUwe. Oxford. Profenor of Enfl^ish History. St David'* 
College, Lampeter. 1880-1881. Author of Gmds dm Haut Dampkini; The Rangii of 
Ikt T6di: Gmdt to Grinddwaid: Gmdo la SwiiMertand: The Alps in Natwre and i» 
History; Ac Editor of The Alpim Joumat, 1880-1881 ; Ac 

Waltek Alison Przllifs. M.A. 

Formerly Exhibitioner of Merton Colkgie and Senior Scholar of St John's G>Ucce. 
Oxford. Author of Afotfem Europe ;&c. 

William Blaxm, C.B. (d. 1908) 

Principal Clerk and First Treasury Officer of Aooottoti* 1903-1908. 

Walter Csane. 

See the biographical aztide: Cranb. Waltbe. 

Sn William Edmumd Garstin. G.C.M.G. 

Govemiiw Director, Sues Canal Co. Formerly Inspector-General of Irrigation, 
Egypt. Adviser to the Ministry of Public Works in Egypt, 1904-1908. 

William Feuoem Csaies. M.A. 

Barristcr-at-Law, Inner Temple. Lecturer on Criminal Law, IGng't Cblkgei 
London. Editor of Archbokl's Crimmal Pleading (a3rd edition). 

William Fidoiam Reddaway, M.A. 

Censor of Noo-CoUenate StudenU, Cambridge. Fellow and Lecturer of King's 
College. Author of ^Scandinavia." in Vol. £ of the Cambridts Modern History. 

Walter Francis Wnxcox, LL.B., Pb.D. 

Chief Sutistidan, Umted States Ctasus Bureau. Professor of Sodal Science and 
Statistics. Cornell University. Member of the American Social Sdenoe Aasodation 
1 Secretary of the American 
UemtAMy 



Protiemtt t 



Economical Association. Author of The Dioorce 
in Staiistiesi Social StaUslia oj tke United Slates; &c 



Waixx)t Gibson. D.Sc., F.G.S. 

H.M. Geological Survey. Author of The Gold-Bearint Rocks of th» S. TVamsaaf; 
Mineral Wealth of Africa; Tke Geology of Coal and Caci-wnnini; &c 

Rev. William Henry Bennett, M.A., D.D.. D.Litt. 

Pr o fessor of Okl Testament Exegesis in New and Hackney Colleges, London. 
Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge: Lecturer in Hebrew at Firth 
College. Sheffidd. Author of Religion of the Post-Exilic PropkeU; Ac 

Sn William Henry Flower. F.R3. 

Sec the biogra^phical article: Flower. Sir W. H. 

Walter Herries jcolloce. M.A. 

Trinity College, Cambridse. Editor of Salnrday Review, 1 883-1 894. Author of 
LeUnras on French Poets; Impressions of Henry Irving; Ac 

WnxiAM Jacob Holland, A.M.. D.D., LL.D.. D.Sc., Pb.D. 

Director of the Carnegie Institute, Pittsbun President of the American Association 
of Museums, 1907-1909. Editor of Annali and Memain of CameB^ Museum. 

Walter Lynwood Tlmmiho, A.M.. Ph.D. 

Professor of History in Louisiana State University^ Author of Docnmenlary 
History rf Raconsiniekom;da:m 

William Lawson Grant. M.A. 

Professor of Cokmial History, Queen's University. Kinraton, Canada. Formerly 
Beit Lecturer in Colonial History, Oxford University. Editor of AcU of the Privy 
CMMof (Canadian Series). ' ^ ^ 

WmiAM MORRB. 

See the biographical article: Morris, WaUAM. 

WmxAM Morris Davis, D.Sc., Pb.D. 

Professor of Geology in Harvard University. Fonnerly Professor of Phyrical 
Geography. Author of PAystcol Gso£rapAjr; &c 

WnxiAM Michael Rossettl 

See the biognaphkal article: Rossbtti. Dante G. * 

WniiAM O'Connor Morrb (d. i904>. 

Formerly Judge of County Courts, Ireland ; and Professor of Law to the King's 
Inns, Dublin. Author of Great Commamdets of Modem Times; Irish History; 
Irdandt 1798-1898; Ac. 

Tte Hon. William Pember Reeves. | 

Director of London School of Economics. Agent-General and High Commissioner 
for New Zealand, 1896-1909. Minister of Education, Labour, and Justice. New-^ 
Zealand. 1891-1896. Author of The Long White Cloud: a Hutory of Now Zealand; 



MOe (m ^orO. 



ineholisLCtf/ifatMia). 

RalloDil IMM: Cmnv^Mt 
{im parti. 



{inpa^. 



GbiOMiitF. 

Honnif: HiOerf, t39T'tSt4. 

Rtgro {Unitad States). 

Xtiil: Goolag,. 
miiirod; 




Rsw BmnsvlSk (Canada), 

Hani Diaontloa (•• pari^. 
Horth 



WnxiAM RiCBARD Eaton Hodoeinson, Ph.D., F.R.S. (£din.), F.C.S. 

Professor of Chemistry and Physics. Ordnance College, Woolwich. Formerly 
Professor of Chemistry and Physics, R.M JC, Woolwich. Put-author of Valentin< 
Hodgkinsoo's Practice Chomistry; &c 



riyj 
in. I 



W.ILH, 

W.B.1L* 

W.B.8. 
W.8.1L 



W.T. 
W.W. 



A. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



'{ 



WnxjAM RicHAso Mosmx, M^ (d. 1910). 

Fonnerty Profowr of Rubbuui and other Slavonic Languages !n the Univenlty 
Oxfocd. Curator of the Taytorfan Imtitutioa* Oxford. Aathor ci Russia; Slaoomic 
Litenluni&c. 

WiLLiAX Robert Maitin. 

Captain, R.N. Formerly Lecturer at the Royal Naval College, Greenwich. Author 
of lYtaUse cm NamiiUiam and NasUkal Astronomy i &c 

WnXIAK ROBEKTSON SlOTB, LL.D. 

See the biographical article: SmitBi Wouam RoBBRTaoN. 



HaTlgiUloii. 



WxuiAic Syiunoton M'Couock, M.A., LL.D. f 

Secretary to the Camnie Trust of the Scottish Universities. Formerly Professor •{ OeelsVB. 
of English, Univenity College, Dundee. Author of L<ctaruMLtfera<ifr<;&c L 

Wauzr Taixmadoe Abndt, M JL 

WnxiAX Waixbr Rockwbxx, LicTheol. 

Assistant r rofcssor of Church History. Union Theological Seminary. New York. 



{inparth 
JUMMMXttib (in part); 
Mnmaral; 

(in part). 



j V«ir York (in part). 



Hand. 



PRINCIPAL UNSIGNED ARTICLES 



ManottoB. 
Mai 



Htmaslto, Dnkat oL 


MlOB. 


Morth Dakota. 




MiakBL 


Morthamkariaiid* 


HewBnglaDd. 


MlghtlBcab, noranea. 


DidMoL 


MewGoliieB. 


MlllMi. 


Morthnmbariaad. 


HewnuBiMhln. 




Morwieb. 


Mew HehrtdM. 


MltrogML 


MotttofkaBL 


Mbw Jtrwy. 


Motfolk. Bun aitf DnkM 




Mbw MoiIm. 


oL 


Movaya ZMBHa. 


Maw OrlMUMk 


Morfolk. 


Munmbafff. 


Maw York Qtf. 


Mofthamptoiw Buk and 


Munliv. 


Mqr. 


MarqnMMi of. 


Mat 


Mluk-Mlam. 




Oak. 


MlBaiifaa. 


Morfh Guolloa. 


Oataiilltaa. 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA 

ELEVENTH EDITION 

VOLUME XIX 



HUH, ADRIEN ALBERT MARIB DB, Count (1841- ), 
French politician, was born at Lumigny, in the department of 
Seine-et-Manie, on the 28th of February 1841. He entered the 
army, saw much service in Algeria (i86a), and took part in 
the fighting around Metz in x87a On the surrender of Metz, 
he was sent as a prisoner of war to Aix-Ia-Chapelle, whence he 
retomed in time to assist at the capture of Paris from the 
Commone. A fervent Roman Catholic, he devoted himself 
to advocating a patriarch type of Christian Socialism. His elo- 
qneiKe made him the most prominent member of the Cerdes 
Catholiqucs d'Ouvriers. and his attacks on Republican social 
policy at last evoked a prohibition from the minister of war. 
He thereupon resigned his commission (Nov. 1875), and in the 
following February stood as Royalist and Catholic candidate 
for Pontivy. The influence of the Church was exerted to secure 
his election, and the pope during its progress sent him the order 
of St Gregory. He was returned, but the election was declared 
invalid. He was re-elected, however, in the following August, 
and for many years was the most conspicuous leader of the 
anti-Republican party. " We form," he said on one occasion, 
*' the irreconcilable Countcr-Revolution." As far back as 1878 he 
had declared himself opposed to imiversal suffrage, a declaration 
that lost him his seat from 1879 to x88i. He spokt strongly 
against the expulsion of the French princes, and it was chieffy 
through his influence that the support of the Royalist party was 
given to General Boulanger. B ut as a faithful Catholic he obeyed 
the encydical of 1892, and declared his readiness to rally to a 
Repabtican government, provided that it respected religion. 
In the following January he received from the pope a letter 
comnxxuiing his action, and encouraging him in his social 
retonu. He was defeated at the general election of that 
year, but in 1894 was returned for Finistere (Morlaix). In 
idQ7 be succeeded Jules Simon as a member of the French 
Academy. This honour he owed to the purity of style 
and remarkable eloquence of his speeches, which, with a few 
pamphlets, form the bulk of his published work. In Ma voca- 
tian socraU (1908) be wrote an explanation and justification of 
his career. 

mm, THOMAS (1571-1641), English writer on economics, 
was the third son of John Mim, mercer, of London. He began 
by enga^ng in Mediterranean trade, and afterwards settled 
down in London, amassing a large fortune. He was a member 
of the committee of the East India Company and of the standing 
commission on trade appointed in 1622. In 1621 Mun published 
A Disantrse of Trade from Engfand unto the East Indies. But 
it is by his En^ond's Treasure by Forraign Trade that he is 



remembered in his history of economics. Although written 
possibly about 1630, it was not given to the public until 1664, 
when it was " published for the Common good by his son John," 
and dedicated to Thomas, earl of Southampton, lord high 
treasurer. In it we find for the first time a clear statement of 
the theory of the balance of trade. 

MUNCHAUSBN, Bakon. This name is famous in literaxy 
history on account of the amusingly mendadous stories known as 
the Adventures of Baron Munchausen. In 1785 a little shilb'ng 
book of 49 pages was pubb'shed in London (as we know from the 
Critical Review for December 1785), called Baron Munchausen's 
Narrative of his Marvellous Travds and Campaigns in Russia. 
No copy is known to exist, but a second edition (apparently 
identical) was printed at Oxford early in 1786. The publisher 
of both these editions was a certain Smith, and he then sold it 
to another bookseller named Kearsley, who brought out ia 
1786 an enlarged edition (the additions to which were stated in 
the 7th edition not to be by the original author), with illustra- 
tions under the title of Gulliver Revived: the Singular Travels, 
Campaigns, Voyages, and Sporting Adventures of Baron Munnih- 
houson, commonly pronounced Munchausen; as he rdates them 
over a bottle when surrounded by his friends. Four editions 
rapidly succeeded, and a free German translation by the poet 
Gottfried August BQrger, from the fifth edition, was printed 
at Gdttingen in 1786. The seventh English edition (1793), 
which is the usual text, has the moral sub-title. Or the Vice of 
Lying properly exposed, and had further new additions. In 1 792 a 
Sequel appeared, dedicated to James Bruce, the African traveller, 
whose Travels to Discover the Nile (1790) had led to incredulity 
and ridicule. As time went on Munchausen increased in popu- 
larity and was translated into many languages. Continuations 
were published, and new illustrations provided (e.g. by T. 
Rowlandson, 1809; A. CrowquiU, 1859; A. Cruikshank, 1869; the 
French artist Richard, 1878; Gustave Dor6, 1862; W. Strang 
and J. B. Clark, 1895). The theme of Baron Munchausen, 
the " drawer of the long-bow " par excellence, has become part 
of the common stock of the world's story-telling. 

The original author was at first unknown, and until 1824 
he was generally identified with Biirger, who made the German 
translation of 1786. But Burger's biographer, Karl von Rein- 
hard, in the Berb'n Gesellschafter of November 1824, set the 
matter at rest by stating that the real author was Rudolf Erich 
Raspe iq.v.). Raspe had apparently become acquainted at 
Gdttingen with Hieronymus Karl Friedrich, Freiherr von 
MUnchhausen, of Bodenwerder in Hanover. This Freiherr von 
MQnchhausen (17 20-1797) had been in the Russian service and 



MUNCH-BELLINGHAUSEN— MUNDAS 



served against the Turks, and on retiring in 1760 he lived on 
his estates at Bodenwerder and used to amuse himself and his 
friends, and puzzle the quidnuncs and the dull-witted, by 
relating extraordinary instances of his prowess as soldier and 
sportsman. His stories became a byword among his drcle, 
and Raspe, when hard up for a living in London, utilized the 
suggestion for his little brochure. But his narrative owed much 
also to such sources, known to Raspe, as Hetnrich Bebel's 
Facetiae bebelianae (1508), J. P. LAnge's Ddkiae academicae 
(1665), a section of which is called Mendacia ridicula, 
Castiglione's Cortegiano (1528), the Travels of the Fittkenritter, 
attributed to Lorenz von Lauterbach in the x6th century, and 
ot'uer works of this sort. Raspe can only be held responsible 
for the nucleus of the book; the additions were made by book- 
sellers* hacks, from such sources as Lucian*s Vera historia, or 
the Voyages tMaginaires (1787), while suggestions were taken 
from Baron de Tott's Memoirs (Eng. trans. i785)« the contem- 
porary aeronautical feats of Montgolfier and Blanchard, and any 
topical " sensations " of the moment, such as Bruce's explora- 
tions in Africa. Munchausen is thus a medley, as we have 
it, a classical instance of the fantasUcal mendacious literaiy 
genre. 

See the introduction by T. Seccombe to Lawrence and Bullen's 
edition of 189^. Adolf Ellisen, whose father visited Freiherr von 
Munchhauaen in 1795 and found him very uncommunicative, brousht 
out a German edition in 1649. with a valuable essay on paeudolotfy 
in general. There is useful material in Cari MuUer-Fraureuth's ute 
deutuhen LUgendicktungen auf Munchhausen (i 881 ) and in Griesboch's 
edition of BQrger's translation (1890). 

KONCH-BBLUNGHAUSEN, EUGIUS FRAMZ JOSEPH. 
Freihesr von (1806-187 i), Austrian poet and dramatist (who 
wrote under the pseudonym " Friedrich Halm "), was bom at 
Cracow on the and of April 1806, the son of a district judge. 
Educated at first at a private school in Vienna, he afterwards 
attended lectures at the university, and in 1826, at the early 
age of twenty, married and entered the government service. 
In 1840 he became Rcgierungsrat, in 1845 Hofrat and custodian 
of the royal library, in 1861 life member of the Austrian Herren- 
haus (upper chamber), and from 1869 to 1871 was intendant 
of the two court theatres in Vienna. He died at Hatteldori 
near Vienna on the 22nd of May 1871. MUnch-Bellinghausen's 
dramas, among them noUbly Griseldis (1835; publ. 1837; nth 
ed., 1896), Der Adept (1836; pubL 1838), Camoens (1838), Der 
Sohn der Wiidnis (1842; loth ed., 1896), and Der Pechter von 
Ravenna (1854; publ. 1857; 6th ed., 1894), are distinguished by 
elegance of language, melodious versification and clever constmc- 
tion, and were for a time exceedingly popular. 

His poems, CedkkU, were published in Stungart, 1850 (new ed.. 
Vienna. 1877). His works, Sdmtiicke Werke, were published in 
eight volumes (1856-1864), to which four posthumous volumes were 
added in 187a. Tkusgewdhlte Werke, ed. by A. Schbssar, 4 vols. 
(1904). See F. Pachler. Jueend und Leknahre des Dichlers F. Halm 
(1877): J. Simiani, Cedenkbl&Uer an P. Halm (1873)- Halm's 
correspondence with Enk von der Burg has been published by 
R. Schachinger (1890). 

MUNCIB. a dty and the cotmty-seat of Delaware county, 
Indiana, U.S.A., on the West Fork of the White river, about 
S7 m. N.E. of Indianapolis. Pop. (1880), 5210; (1890), 11,345; 
(1900) ao,942, of whom 1235 were foreign-bom; (19x0 census) 
24,005. It is served by the Central Indiana, the Chicago, 
Cincinnati & Louisville, the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & 
St Louis, the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis, the Fort 
Wayne, Cincinnati & LouisvUle, and the Lake Erie & Western 
railways, and by the Indiana Union Traction, the Dayton & 
Munde Traction, and the Munde & Portland Traction (electric 
inter-urban) railways. The dty is built on le\'el ground (altitude 
950 ft.), and has an attractive residential section. It is one 
of the prindpal manufacturing centres in Indiana, owing largdy 
to its situation in the natural gas bdt. In 1900 and in 1905 
it was the largest producer of glass and glassware in the 
United Sutes, the value of its product in 1905 bdng $2,344,462. 
Munde (named after the Munsee Indians, one of the three 
prindpal divisions of the Delawarcs) was settled about 1833 
and was chartered as a dty in 1865. 



MUNDiS. The Mundl (Mu^dd) family is the least numerous 
of the linguistic families of India. It comprises several, dialects 
spoken in the two Chota Nagpur plateaux, the adjoining districts 
of Madras and the Central Provinces, and in the Mahadeo hills. 
The number of speakers of the various dialects, according to 
the census of 1901, are as follow: Santlll, i. 795.1 13; Mundirt, 
460,744; Bhumij, 111,304; Birh&r, 536; K6di. a3.873; H6. 
371,860; TQif, 3880; Asurl, 4894; Korwt, 16,442; KorkO, 87,675: 
Kharil, 82,506; Julng, 10,853; Savara, 157.136; Gadabft, 37,230; 
total, 3>i64>036. Santlll, MundArl, Bhumij. Birh&r. K6dfl, H6, 
TOrl, Asuif and Korwg are only slightly differing forms of one 
and the same language, which can be called Kherwflrt, a name 
borrowed from SanttU tradition. Kherwirf is the prindpal 
Mund& language, and quite 88% of all the speakers of Mundfl 
tongues bdong to it. The Korwi dialect, spoken in the western 
part of Chota Nagpur, connects Kherwirl with the remaining 
Mund& languages. Of these it is most dosdy related to the 
KQrkQ language of the Mahadeo hills in the Central Provinces. 
KQrkQ, in its tum, in important points agrees with Kharift and 
Juftng, and Kharii leads over to Savara and GadabS. The 
two last-mentioned forms of speech, which are spoken in the 
north-east of the Madras Presidency, have been much influenced 
byDravidian languages. 

The MundA dialects are not in sole possession of the territory 
where they are spoken. They are, as a rale, only found in the 
hills and jun^^es, while the plains and valleys are inhabited by 
people speaking some Aryan language. When brought into 
close contact with Aryan tongues the Mundl forms of speech are 
apt to give way, and in the course of time they have been 
partly superseded by Aryan dialects. There are accordingly 
some Aryanized tribes in northern India who have formerly 
belonged to the Mundl stock. Such are the Cheros of Behar 
and Chota Nagpur, the Kherwars, who are found in the same 
localities, in Mirzapur and elsewhere, the Savaras, who formerly 
extended as far north as Shahabad, and others. It seems 
possible to trace an old Munda clement in some Tibeto-Burman 
dialects spoken in the Himalayas from Bashahr eastwards. 

By race the MundAs are Dra vidians, and thdr langxiage was 
likewise long considered as a member of the Dravidian family. 
Max MtUler was the first to distinguish the two families. He 
also coined the name Mundft for the smaller of them, which haa 
later on often been spoken of under other denominations, such as 
Kolarian and Kherwarian. The Dravidian race is generally 
considered as the aboriginal population of southern India. The 
Mundfts, who do not appear to have extended much farther 
towards the south than at present, must have mixed with 
the Dravidians from very early times. The so-called Nah&II 
dialect of the Mahadeo hills seems to have been originally a 
MundA form of speech which has come under Dravidian influ- 
ence, and finally passed under the spell of Aryan tongues. The 
same is perhaps the case with the numerous dialects spoken by 
the Bhils. At all events, MundA languages have apparently 
been spoken over a wide area in central and north India. They 
were then early superseded by Dravidian and Aiyan dialects, 
and at the present day only scanty remnants are found in the 
hills and jungles of Bengal and the Central Provinces. 

Though the MundA family is not connected with any other 
languages in India proper, it does not form an isolated group. It 
bdongs to a widdy spread family, which extends from India in 
the west to Easter Island in the eastem Pacific in the east. In 
the first place, we find a connected language spoken by the 
Khasis of the KbasI hills in Assam. Then follow the M6n- 
KhmCr languages of Farther India, the dialects spoken by the 
abori^nal InhabitanU of the Malay Peninsula, the Nancowry 
of the Nicobars, and, finally, the numerous dialects of Austro- 
nesia, viz. Indonesic, Mdanesic, Polynesic, and so on. Among 
the various members of this vast group the MundA languages 
are most dosely related to the MOn-RhmCr family of Farther 
India. KtirkO, KhariA, JuAng, Savara and GadabA are more 
dosely related to that family than is KherwAxf, the prindpal 
MundA form of speech. 

We do not know if the MundAi entered India from without. 



MUNDAY 



If »» they can only have immignted from the cast At aU 
events ihty must have been settled in India from a very early 
period. The Sabaias, the ancestois of the Savaras, are already 
mentioocd tk old Vcdic literature. The MundA languages 
seem to have been influenced by Dravidian and Aryan forms 
of speech. la most characteristics, however, they differ widely 
from the neighbouring tongues. 

The MandK languages abound in voweb, and alio ponese a richly 
developed syitefli of oonaonanta. Like the Dravidian languaees, 
they avoid begixmins a word with more than one conaonant. While 
those latter forms oTqwech shrink fiom pronouncing a short conao- 
nant at the end of words, the MundSs have the opponte tendency, 
viz. to shorten such sounds still more. The usual stopped consonants 
— 'vix. k, c (Le, English ci), I and ^— are formed bv stopping the 
current of breath at different points m the mouth, and then letting it 
pass oot with a kind of explosion. In the MundA language this 
operation can be abruptly checked half-way, so that the breath does 
not touch the organs of speedi in passing out. The result is a sound 
that makes an aonipt impreaBion on the ear, and has been described 
as an abrupt tone. SuchfloundsarecomroonintbeMundftUnguages. 
Tbey are usually written k\ e\ f and p'. Stmibr sounds are also 
fosnd in the Moa-KJbAiiir languages and in Indo-Chinese. 

The vowels of consecutive syllables to a certain extent approach 
each other in aound. Thus in KhCrwiri the onen sounds d (ncariy 
Eiwlish a in all) and d (the a in care) agree with each other and not 
with the cor r e sp onding close sounds o (the o in pole) and « (the * in 
pen). The SantiS paadve suffix (A* accordingly becomes ah* after 
d or d ; canpaie idn-dl', go, but doA^ik*. to be itfuck. 

Words are formed from mooo»vIlabic bases by means of various 
' AS, niffixes (such as are added after the base), prefixes (whkrh 
t the base) and infixes (whkh are inserted into the bare ttselO* 
> play a great r61e in the inflexion of words, while prefixes and 
are of greater importance as formative additions. Compare 
Korku k-im^ Savara As, son; Kharia fo-mcug, Kherwiri m4, nose; 
SaatSli ter, to Icar; bo4o^t feu; dal, to strike; da-pa4t to strike each 
other. 

The various daases of words ase not cleariy distinguished. The 
same base can often be used as a noun, an adjective or a verb. The 
simply denote some being, object, quality, action or the like, 
ey do not tell us how they are oonoeivied. 



bnttkey 

laflexioo is effected in the usual agglutinative way by means of 
additians which are ** glued " or |utncd to the unchanged base, 
lo many respects, however, Mundi mflcxion has struck out peculiar 
Kaes. Thus there b no grammatical distinction of gender. Nouns 
can be (fivided into two classes, vis. those that denote animate 
beings and those that denote inanimate otHects respectively. There 
are three numbers— the singular, the dual and the plural. On the 
other hand, there are no real cases, at least in the most ts'pical 
Mnndft languages. The direct and the indirect object are indicated 
by means of certain additions to the verb. Certain relations In 
tune and space, however, are indicated by means of suffixes, which 
have probably from the beginning been separate words with a definite 
meaning. The genitive, which can be considered as an adjective 
pcecetfittg the governing word, is often derived from such forms 
: locality. Compare Santlli Adr-rd, in a man; Adr-rda, of 



Hwher numbers are counted b twenties, and not in tens as in the 
DnvMfian bnguages. 

The pronouns abound in different forms. Thus there are double 
■cs of the dual and the plural of the pronoun of the first person, one 
mrliuling and the other excluding the person addressed. The Rev. 
A, Nettrott aptly illustrates the importance of this distinction by 
remarking bow it b necessary to uie the exclusive form if telling the 
aerraot that " we shall dine at seven." Otherwise the speaker will 
BBvite the servant to partake of the meal. In addition to the usual 
personal pronouns there are also short forms, used as suffixes and 
mfixes, which denote a direct object, an indirect object, or a genitive. 
There b a cormponding richness in the case of demonstrative 
pRMoans. Thus the pronoun " that " in SantUi has different forms 
to denote a living being, an inanimate object, something seen, some- 
tbiag heard, and so on. On the other hand, there is no rebtive 
praooan. the want being supplied by the use of indefinite forms of the 
verbal bases, which can m this connexion be called rebtive participles. 

The most characteristic feature of Mundft grammar is the verb. 
eipecially in Kherwiri. Every independent word can perform the 
foaction of a verb, and every vertial form can, in its turn, be used as a 
noun or an adjective. The bases of the different tenses can there- 
lore be dcsrriLcd as indifferent words which can be used as a noun, 
as an adject ive. and as a verb, but which are in reality none of them. 
Each dmoies simply the root meaning as modified by time. Thus 
in Sam&li the base dst-kef. struck, whkh b formed from the base 
isi, by adding the suffix kef of the active past, can be used as a noun 
fooenpare dal-ket-ko, strikers, those that struck), as an adjective 
(compare iai-kef-kHr, struck man, the man that struck), and as a 
verb. In the bst case it b necessary to add an a if the action really 
Ukes pboe: thus, dal-kef-a, somebody strack. 

It has already been remarked that the cases of the direct and 
iadbvct object aic tadkated by adding forms of the personal 



pronouns to tiie verb. Siich pronominal affixes are inserted before 
the assertive particb a. Thus the affix denoting a direct object of the 
third perron singular is e, and by inserting it in do/-Jbl'<a we arrive 
at a form dal-km-t-a, romebody struck him. Similar affixes can be 
added to denote that the object or subject of an action belongs to 
somebody. Thus SantiU Mpdir-tg-s dai-Jbl'-<aJfco-/»g-o, ron-my-he 
struck-theirs-mine, my son who belongs to me struck theirs. 

In a sentence such as kar kihH^ dat-ked-t'ii, man boy-he struck- 
htm, the man struck the boy, the Santab first put together the ideas 
man, boy. and a striking in the past. Then the « telb us that the 
striking affects the boy, and finally the -a indicates that the whole 
action really takes pbce. It will he seen that a singb verbal form 
in thb way often corresponds to a whole sentence or a series of sen- 
tences in other bnguages. If we add that the most developed 
Mundl bnguages possess different bases for the active, the middb 
and the passive, that there are different causal, intensive and recipro- 



cal bases, which are conjugated throughout, and that the person of 
the subject b often mdicated in the verb, it will be understood that 
Mundl conjugation presents a romewhat bewildering aspect. It 
is, however, quite regubr throughout, and once the mind becomes 
accustomed to these peculiarities, they do not present any difficulty 
to the undersunding. 

Bibliography.— -Max MQller, Letter to Chevaiier Bunsen en the 
Classification 9/ the Turttman LantftafjU, Reprint from Chr. K. I. 
Bunsen. Christianity and Mankind, vol. lii. (London. 1854), 
especblly pp. I7S and sqq.; Fricdrich MQller, Crundriss der Sprack- 
wtssenuhan, vol iiL part 1. (Wien, 1884), pp. 106 and sqq.. vol. iv. 
part L (Wien. 1888), p. 239: Sten Konow, " Mundil and Dravidian 
Languages " in Grierson's Ltagimfic Survey of India, iv. i and sqq. 
(Ca&it&, 1906). (S.K.) 

HUVDAT (or Monday), AMTHONT (c. 1553-1633)1 English 
dramatist and miscellaneous writer, son of Christopher Monday, 
a London draper, was bom in X553~i554' He had already 
appeared on the stage when in 1576 be bound himseU 
apprentice lor eight yean to John Mde, the stationer, an 
engagement from which he was speedily released, for in 
1578 he was in Rome. In the opening lines of bb English 
Roputyne Lyfe (1582) he avers that in going abroad he 
was actuated solely by a desire to see strange cotmtrics and 
to learn foreign languages; but he must be regarded, if 
not as a spy sent to report on the English Jesuit College in 
Rome, as a joumalbt who meant to make literary capital out of 
the designs of the English Catholics resident in France and' 
Italy. He says that he and hb companion, Thomas Nowell, 
were robbed of all they possessed on the road from Boulogne to 
Amiens, where they were kindly received by an English priest^ 
who entrusted them with letters to be delivered in Reims. 
These they handed over to the English ambassador in Paris, 
where under a false name, as the son of a well-known English 
Catholic, Munday gained recommendations which secured hb 
reception at the Englbh College in Rome. He was treated with 
special kindness by the rector, Dr Morris, for the sake of bb 
supposed father. He gives a detailed account of the routine of 
the place, of the dispute between the English and Webb students, 
of the carnival at Rome, and finally of the martyrdom of Richard 
Atkins (? 1 559-1 581). He retuVned to England in 1 578-1 579, and 
became an actor again, being a member of the Earl of Oieford's 
company between 1579 and 1584. In a CathoKc tract entitled 

A True Reporte of the death of Af. Campion (1581), Munday 

b accused of having deceived his master Allde, a charge which 
he refuted by publishing AUde's signed declaration to the con* 
trary, and he is also said to have been hissed off the stage. He 
was one of the chief witnesses against Edmimd Campion and 
bb assocbtcs, and wrote about thb time five anti-popbh 
pamphlets, among them the savage and bigoted tract entitled A 
Discoverie of Edmund Campion and his Confederates— Vfhereto 
is added the execution of Edmund Campion, Raphe Sherwin, and 
Alexander Brian, the first part of' which was read aloud from 
the scaffold at Campion's death m December 1 581. Hb political 
services against the Catholics were rewarded in 1 584 by the post 
of messenger to her Majesty's chamber, and from thb time he 
seems to have ceased to appear on the stage. In 1 598-1 599, when 
he travelled with the earl of Pembroke's men in the Low 
Coyntries, it was in the capacity of playwright to furbish up old 
pbys. He devoted himself to writing for the booksellers and 
the theatres, compiling religious works, translating Amadis de 
Gaule and other French romances, and putting words to popular 
airs. He was the chief pageant-writer for the City from 1605 



MUNDELLA— MUNDT 



to 1616, and it is likely that he supplied most of the pageants 
between 1593 and 1605, of which no authentic record has been 
kept. It is by these entertainments of his, which rivalled in 
success those of Ben Jonson and Middleton, that he won his 
greatest fame; but of all the achievements of his versatile talent 
the only one that was noted in his epitaph in St Stephens, 
Coleman Street, London, where he was buried on the loth of 
August 1633, was his enlarged edition (1618) of Stow's Survey of 
London. In some of his pageants he signs himself " citizen and 
draper of London," and in his later years he is said to have 
followed his father's trade. 

Of the eighteen plays between the dates of 1584 and 1603 which 
are assigned to Munday in collaboration with Henry Chettle, Michael 
Drayton. Thomas Dekker and other dramatists, only four are cxunt. 
John a Kent and John a Cumber, dated I59<;, is supposed to be the 
same as Wiseman of West Chester, produced by the Admiral's men 
at the Rae Theatre on the 2nd of December 159!. A ballad of British 
Sidanen, on which it may have been founded was entered at 
Stationers' Hall in 1 579. The Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntingdon, 
afterwards called Robin Hood of merrie Sherwodde (acted in February 
9) was followed in the same month by a second part, The Deaut 



1 Earl of Huntingdon (printed 1601), in which he collaborated 
with Henry Chettle. Munday also had a liiare with Michael Dray- 
ton, Robert Wilson and Richard Hathway in the First Part of the 
history oj the life 0' "• '^ /-- f,. f^rtr^ t--^ ^>Vi was 
printed m 1600, witii tfic nninLr of Wjtium l^liAkL^^iK.ire. wlnth was 
speedily withdrawn^ on the titl* paj^c. Will ia in Wtbbe {Diitourse 
<i English Poetrie, ipSO) praiwd him for his p^Eior^iU. of which there 
remains only the titk. Sict€i Si^hs. and Amarcui Campfiiini.% of Shep- 
herds and Nymphs; and Francis, Mrrc* {Ptithdii Tamia. isgji) fftves 
him among dramatic wTitcra the cxag^ented praiie of bcing^ " our 
best plotter." Ben JoD=on rjdicuk»d him in Ttu^ Cast u Aih'red 
as Antonio Balladina, pcii^cant pocL Munda>''« works luvti.illy 
appeared under his ou^-n n^me^, but he totneiimos ufod thf pscudoiii/m 
of '' Lazarus Piot." A. H. BuUcn idcniifiea him with the Shepherd 
Tony " who contribute ** Beauty t^t Ljjthin^^y a spring " «nd six 
other lyrics to £«f /a T.i"t/fp/ifrjn (cd. BuHt-n, 1699, p- ij)- 

The completest a * i:.f An horny Munday ta T. Seccombe's 

article in the Diet, j .-, A life and bthliog^raphy t-^v pre6wd 

to the Shakespeare '■•- irprint of John a Kent and Jahn a 

Cumber (ed. J. P. C.r.,.i, ,6^,1). His two " RoWr Hood" plays 
were edited by J. P. i: other in (^d Plays fi^^a), and hiRi Exglish 
Romayne Lyfe vras printed in the HaHevan Miscfitany, vil 136 $isi. 
(cd. Park, 181 1). For an arrount of hia city fagi^ant^ '-f-f F W. 
Fairholt,£orilfay0r': Ftigiranii [Percy Soc., No. jfl, t&;^y 

MUNDELLA, ANTHONY JOHN (1825-1897), English educa- 
tional and industrial reformer, of Italian extraction, was bom at 
Leicester in 1825. After a few years spent at an elementary 
school, he was apprenticed to a hosier at the age of eleven; He 
afterwards became successful in business in Nottingham, filled 
several civic offices, and was known for his philanthropy. He 
was sheriff of Nottingham in 1853, and in 1859 organized the 
first courts of arbitration for the settlement of disputes between 
masters and men. In November 1868 he was returned to 
parliament for Sheffield as an advanced Liberal. He represented 
that constituency until November 1885, when he was returned 
for the Brightside division of Sheffield, which he continued to 
represent until his death. In the Gladstone ministry of 1880 
Mundella was vice-president of the coundl, and shortly after- 
wards was nominated fourth charity commissioner for England 
and Wales. In February 1886 he was appointed president 
of the board of trade, with a seat in the cabii>et, and was sworn 
a member of the privy council. In August 1892, when the 
Liberals again came into power, Mundella was again appointed 
president of the board of ' trade, and he continued in this 
position until 1804, when he resigned office. His resignation 
was brought about by his connexion with a financial company 
which went into liquidation in circumstances calling for the 
official intervention of the board of trade. However innocent 
his own connexion with the company was,. it involved him in 
unpleasant public discussion, and his position became untenable. 
Having made a dose study of the educational systems of Germany 
and Switzerland, Mundella was an early advocate of compulsory 
education in England. He rendered valuable service in con- 
nexion with the Elementary Education Act of 1870, and the 
educational code of 1882, which became known as the " Mundella 
Code," marked a new departure in the regulation of public 
elementary schools and the conditions of the Government 



grants. To his initiative was chiefly due the Factory Act 
of 187 s, which established a ten-hours day for women and 
children in textile factories; and the Conspiracy Act, which 
removed certain restrictions on trade tmions. It was he 
also who established the labour department of the board of 
trade and founded the Labour Gazette. He introduced and 
passed bills for the better protection of women and children in 
brickyards and for the limitation of their labours in factories; 
and he effected substantial improvements in the Mines Regula- 
tion Bill, and was the author of much other useful legislation. 
In recognition of his efforts, a marble bust of himself, by Boehm, 
subscribed for by 80,000 factory workers, chiefly women and 
children, was presented to Mrs Mundella. He died in London 
on the 3ist of July 1897. 

HUNDEN, JOSEPH SHEPHERD (1758-1832), English actor, 
was the son of a London poulterer, and ran away from home 
to join a strolling company. He had a long provincial experience 
as actor and manager. His first London appearance was in 
1790 at Covent Garden, where he practically remained until 
x8ii, becoming the leading comedian of his day. In 1813 he 
was at Drury Lane. He retired in 1824, and died on the 6th 
of February 1832. 

MONDBN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of 
Hanover, picturesquely situated at the confluence of the Fulda 
and the Werra, 21 m. N.E. of Cassel by rail. Pop. (1905), 
xo,755* It is an ancient pkce, mimidpal rights having been 
granted to it in 1 247. A few ruins of its former walls still survive. 
The large Lutheran church of St Blasius (i4th-i5th centuries) 
contains the sarcophagus of Duke Eric of Bnmswick-Calenberg 
(d. 1540). The 13th-century Church of St Aegidius was injured 
in the siege of 1625-26 but was subsequently restored. There is 
a new Roman Catholic church (1895). The town hall (1619), 
and the ducal castle, built by -Duke Eric II. about 1570, and 
rebuilt in 1898, are the principal secular buildings. In the 
latter is the munidpal museimi. There are various small 
industries and a trade in timber. Mtlnden, often called " Hanno- 
versch-Mtinden " (t.e. Hanoverian Mtlnden), to distinguish it 
from Prussian Minden, was founded by the landgraves of 
Thuringia, and passed in 1247 to the house of Bnmswick. It 
was for a time the residence of the dukes of Brunswick-Ltineburg. 
In 1626 it was destroyed by Tilly. 

See Willigerod, GeschichU von MUnden (Gfittingen, 1808): and 
Henze, FOhrer dutch Munden und Umgegend (MOnden. 1900). 

HUNDRUCUS, a tribe of South American Indians, one of the 
most powerful tribes on the Amazon. In 1788 they completely 
defeated their andent enemies the Muras. After 1803 they 
lived at peace with the Brazih'ans, and many are dvilized. 

MUNDT, THEODOR (1808-1861), German author, was bom 
at Potsdam on the 19th of September 1808. Having studied 
philology and philosophy at Beriin, he settled in 1832 at Leipzig, 
as a joumalist, and was subjected to a rigorous police supervision. 
In 1839 he married Rlara Mtiller (1814-1873), who imder the 
name of Luise MUhlbach became a popular novelist, and he 
removed in the same year to Berlin. Here his intention of 
entering upon an academical career was for a time thwarted 
by his collision with the Prussian press laws. In 1842, however, 
he was permitted to establish himself as privatdocent. In 1848 
he was appointed professor of literature and history in Brcslau, 
and in 1850 ordinary professor and librarian in Beriin; there he 
died on the 30th of November 1861. Mundt wrote extensively 
on aesthetic subjects, and as a critic he had considerable influence 
in his time. Imminent among his works ane Die Kunst der 
deutschen Prosa (1837); Gcschichle rfcr Liter atur der Gegenwart 
(1840); Aesthelik; die Idee der Schfinheit und des Kunstwcrks im 
LichU unserer Zeit (1845, new ed. 1868); Die Gdttenvelt der 
alien Vdlher (1846, new ed. 1854). He also wrote several 
historical novels; Thomas MUnzer (1841); Mendoza, der Voter 
der Schelmen (1847) and Die Matadore (1850). But perhaps 
Mimdt's chief title to fame was his part in the emandpation of 
women, a theme which he daborated in his Madonna, Unter- 
haltungen mil einer Heiligen (1835). 



MUNICH 



■UmCU' (Ger. MUneUn)^ a city of Gennany, capital of 
the kingdom of Bavaria, and the third largest town in the 
German Empire. It is situated on an elevated plain, on the 
river Isar, 25 m. N. of the foot-hills of the Alps, about midway 
between Strassburg and Vienna. Owing to its lofty site (i 700 ft. 
above the sea) and the proximity of the Alps, the climate is 
changeable, and its mean annual temperature, 49** to 50** F., 
h little higher than that of many places much farther to the 
Dorth. The annual rainfall is nearly 30 in. Munich lies at 
the centre of an important network of railways connecting 
it directly with Strassburg (for Paris), Cologne, Leipzig, Berlin, 
Rosenheim (for Vienna) and Innsbruck (for Italy via the Brenner 
pass), which converge in a central station. 

Munich is divided into twenty-four municipal districts, nine- 
teen of which, including the old town, lie on the left bank of the 
Isar, while the suburban districts of Au, Haidhausen, Giesingi, 
Bogenhausen and Ramexsdorf are on the opposite bank. The 
old town, containing many narrow and irregixlar streets, forms a 
semkirde with its diameter towards the river, while round 
its periphery has sprung up the greater part of modem Munich, 
induding the handsome Maximilian and Ludwig districts. 
The walb with which Munich was formerly surrounded have 
been palled down, but some of the gates have been left. The 
nsost interesting is the Isartor and the Karlstor, restored in 
iSjs and adorned with frescoes. The Siegestor (or gate of 
victory) is a modem inu'tation of the arch of Constantine at 
Rome, while the stately Propylaea, built in 1854-1862, is a 
reproduction of the gates of the Athenian Acropolis. 

Munich owes its architectural magnificence largely to Louis I. 
of Bavaria, who ascended the throne in 1825, and his successors; 
while its orflections of art entitle it to rank with Dresden and 
Berlin. Most of the modem buildings have been erected after 
celebrated prototypes of other countries and eras, so that, as 
has been said by Moria Carridre, a walk through Munich affords 
a picture of the architecture and art of two thousand years. 
In carrying out his plans Louis I. was seconded by the architect 
Leo von Klenae, while the external decorations of painting and 
sculpture were mainly designed by Peter von Cornelius, WUhelm 
von gfniKarh and Schwanthalcr. As opportum'ty offers, the 
narrow streets of the older city are converted into broad, straight 
boulevards, lined with palatial mansions and public buildings. 
The hygienic improvement effected by these changes, and by 
a new and excellent water supply, is shown by the mortality 
a ^tiages 4 0-4 per thousand in 1871-1875, 30-4 per thousand 
in 1881-1885, and 20-5 per thousand in 1903-1904. The archi- 
tectural style which has been principally followed in the later 
pabfic buikiings, among them the law courts, finished in 1897, 
the German bank, St Martin's hospital, as well as in numerous 
private dwdlings, is the Italian and French Rococo, or Renais- 
sance, adapted to the traditions of Munich architecture in the 
17th aad i8th centuries. A large proportion of the most notable 
boBdings in Munich are in two streets, the Ludwigstrasae and 
the Maximalianstrasse, the creations of the monarchs whose 
names they bear. The former, three-quarters of a mile long 
and 40 yds. wide, chiefly contains buildings in the Renaissance 
style by Friedrich von G&rtner. The most striking of these are 
the palaces of Duke Max and of Prince Luitpold; the Odeon, a 
large building for concerts, adorned with frescoes and marble 
biuts; the war office; the royal library, in the Florentine palatial 
^yle; the Ludwigikirche, a succosful reproduction of the 
Ita&an Romanesque style, built in 1829-1844, and containing 
a huge fresco of the Last Judgment by Cornelius; the blind 
asjriom; and, lastly, the university. At one end this street {« 
tcniinated b^ the Siegestor, while at the other is the Fddher- 
raballe (or lutll of the marshals), a copy of the Loggia dd Land 
at Fbrenoe, containing statues of Tilly and Wrede by Schwan- 
tbaJer. Adjacent is the church of the Theatines, an imposing 
tboq^ somewhat over-ornamented example of the Italian 
Rococo style; it contains the royd burid vault. In the Maxi- 
wwiwitytrai^ which cxtcttds from Haidhausen on the right bank 
of the Isar to the Max- Joseph Platz, King Maximilian II. tried 
Co intTDdttce an entirely novd style of domestic architecturei 



formed by the combination of older forms. At the east end it 
is closed by the Madmilianeum, an extensive and impodng 
edifice, adomed externdly with large sculpturd groups and 
internally with huge paintings representing the chief scenes in 
the history of the world. Descending the street, towards the 
west are passed in succession the old buildings of the Bavarian 
nationd museum, the government buikiings in which the Com- 
podte style of Madmilian has been most consistently carried 
out, and the mint. On the north dde of the Max- Joseph Plata 
lies the royd pahce, consisting of the Alte Residenz, the 
Kbm'gsbau, and the Festsadbau. The Alte Residenz dates 
from 160X to 1616; its apartments are handsomely fitted up 
in the Rococo style, and the private chapel and the treasury 
contain severd crowns and many other interesting and vduable 
objects. The Festsadbau, erected by Klenze in the Itdian 
Renaissance style, is adorned with murd pdntings and scdp- 
tures, while the RSnigsbau, a reduced copy of the Pitti Palace 
at Florence, contains a series of admirable frescoes from the 
Niebdungenlied by Julius Schnorr von Carolsfcld. Adjoining 
the palace are two theatres, the Reddenz or private theatre, 
and the handsome Hof theater, accommodating 2500 spectators. 
The Allerheiligen-Hofkirche, or cuurt-church, is in the Byzantine 
style, with a Romanesque facade. 

The Ludwigstrasse and the Madmilianstrassc both end at 
no great distance from the Frauenplatz in the centre of the old 
town. On this square stands the Frauenkirche, the cathedrd 
church of the archbishop of Munich-Freising, with its lofty cupola 
capped towers dominating the whole town. It is imposing from 
its size, and interesting as one of the few examples of indigenous 
Munich art. On the adjacent Marienplatz are the old town- 
hall, dating from the 14th century and restored in 1865, and 
the new town-hall, the latter a magnificent modern Gothic 
erection, freely embellished with statues, frescoes, and stained- 
glass windows, and edarged in 1 900-1 905. The coluihn in the 
centre of the square was erected in 1638, to commemorate the 
defeat of the Protestants near Prague by the Bavarians during 
the Thirty Years* War. 

Among the other churches of Munich the chief place is due to 
St Boniface's, an admirable copy of an early Christian basilica. 
It is adomed with a cyde of religious pdntings by Heinrich 
von Hess (1798-1863), and the dome is supported by sixty- 
four monoliths of grey Tyrolese marble. The parish church of 
Au, in the Early Gothic style, contains gigantic stained-glass 
windows and some excellent wood-carving; and the church 
of St John in Hddhausen is another fine Gothic stmcture. 
St Michad's in the Renaissance style, erected for the Jesuits in 
1 583-1595, contains the monxmient of Eugdne Bcauharaais by 
Thorwd<bien. The facade is divided into storeys,- and the 
generd effect is 'by no means ecclesiastical St Peter's is inter- 
esting as the oldest church in Munich (12th century), though no 
trace of the origind basilica remains. Among newer churches 
the most noticeable are the EvangeUcd church of St Luke, a 
Transitiond building, with an imposing dome, finished in 1896, 
and the (}othic parochid church of the Giesing suburb, with a 
tower 3x2 ft. high and rich interior decorations (1866-1884). 

The vduable collections of art are enshrined in handsome 
buildings, mostly in the Maximilian suburb on the north side 
of the town, lie dd Pinakothek, erected by Klenze in 1826- 
1836, and somewhat resembling the Vatican, is embellished 
externally with frescoes by Cornelius and with statues of twenty- 
four celebrated painters (rom sketches by Schwanthder. It 
contains a vduable and extensive collection of pictures by the 
earlier masters, the chief treasures bdng the early German 
and Flemish works and the unusually numerous examples of 
Rubens. It also affords accommodation to more than 300,000 
engravings, over 20,000 drawings, and a brge collection of 
vases. Opposite stands the new Pinakothek, built 1846-1853, 
the frescoes on which, designed by Kaulbach, show the effects of 
wind and weather. It is devoted ^o works by painters of the 
last century, among which Karl Rottmann's Greek landscapes 
are perhaps the most important. The Glyptothek, a building by 
Klenze in the lomc style, and adorned with severd groups and 



MUNICH 



single statues, contains a valuable series of sculptures, extending 
from Assyrian and Egyptian monuments down to works by 
Thorwaldsen and other modem masters. The celebrated 
Aegiuetan marbles preserved here were found in the island of 
Aegina in 1811. Opposite the Glyptothek stands the exhibition 
building, in the Corinthian style, it was finished in 1845, and is 
used for periodic exhibitions of art. In addition to the museum 
of plaster casts, the Antiquarium (a collection of Egyptian, Greek 
and Roman antiquities under the roof of the new Pinakothek) 
and the Maillinger collection, connected with the historical 
museum, Munich also contains several private galleries. Fore- 
most among these stand the Schack Gallery, bequeathed by 
the founder, Count Adolph von Schack, to the emperor William 
II. in i8q4, rich in works by modem German masters, and the 
Lotzbeck collection of sculptures and paintings. Other struc- 
tures and institutions are the new buildings of the art association; 
the academy of the plastic arts (1874-1885), in the Renaissance 
style; and the royal arsenal (Zeughaus) with the military 
museum. The Schwanthaler museimi contains models of most 
of the great sculptor's works. 

The immense scientific collection in the Bavarian national 
museum, illustrative of the march of progress from the Roman 
period down to the present day, compares in completeness 
with the similar collections at South Kensington and the Muste 
de Cluny. The building which now houses this collection was 
erected in 1894- 1900. On the waUs is a series of well-executed 
frescoes of scenes from Bavarian history, occupying a space of 
16,000 sq. ft. The ethnographical museum, the cabinet of 
coins, and the collections of fossils, minerals, and physical 
and optical instruments, are also worthy of mention. The art 
union, the oldest and most extensive in Germany, possesses a 
good collection of modem works. The chief place among the 
scientific institutions is due to the academy of science, founded 
in 1759. The royal library contains over 1,300,000 printed 
volumes and 30,000 manuscripts. The observatory is equipped 
with instmments by the celebrated Josef Fraunhofer. 

At the head of the educational institutions of Munich stands 
the university, foimded at Ingolstadt in 1473, removed to 
Landshiit in 1800, and transferred thence to- Munich in 1826. 
In addition to the four usual faculties there is a fifth — of political 
economy. In connexion with the university are medical and 
other schools, a priests' seminary, and a library of 300,000 
volimies. The polytechnic institute {Tecknische Hochsckuk) in 
1899 acquired the privilege of conferring the degree of doctor 
of technical science. Munich contains several gymnasia or 
grammar-schools, a military academy, a veterinary college, an 
agricultural college, a school for architects and builders, and 
several other technical schools, and a conservatory of music. 
The general prison in the suburb of Au is considered a model 
of its kind; and there is also a large military prison. Among 
other public buildings, the crystal palace {Glas-pclasl)^ 765 ft. 
in length, erected for the great exhibition of 1854, is now used, 
as occasion requires, for temporary exhibitions. The Wittelsbach 
palace, built in i843~x85o, in the Early English Pointed style, is 
one of the residences of the royal family. Among the numerous 
monuments with which the squares and streets are adomed, 
the most important are the colossal statue of Maximilian II. 
in the Maximilianstrasse, the equestrian statues of Louis I. and 
the elector Maximilian I., the obelisk erected to the 30,000 
Bavarians who perished in Napoleon's expedition to Moscow, 
the Wittelsbach fountain (1895), the monimient conunemorative 
of the peace of 1871, and the marble statue of Justus Liebig, 
the chemist, set up in 1883. 

The English garden {Engliscker CttrUn)t to the north-east of 
the town, is 600 acres in extent, and was laid out by Count 
Rumford in imitation of an English park. On the opposite bank 
of the Isar, above and below the Maximilianeum, extend the 
Gasteig promenades, conunandlng fine views of the town. To 
the south-west of the town is the Tlieresienwiese, a large common 
where the popular festival is celebrated in October. Here is 
situated the Ruhmeshalle or hall of fame, a Doric colonnade 
containing busts of eminent Bavarians. In front of it is a 



colossal bronie statue of Bavaria, 170 ft. high, designed by 
Schwanthaler. The botanical garden, with iu large palm-house, 
the Hofgarten, surrounded with arcades containing frescoes of 
Greek landscapes by Rottmann, and the Maximilian park to 
the east of the Isar, complete the list of pubUc parks. 

The peculation of Munich in 1905 was 538,393. The per- 
manent garrison numbers about 10,000 men. Of the population, 
84% are Roman Catholic, 14% ProtesUnts, and 2% Jews. 

Munich is the seat of the archbishop of Munich-Freising 
and of the general Protestant consistory for Bavaria. About 
twenty newspapers are published here, including the AUgemeine 
ZeUung. Some of the festivals of the Roman Church are cele*- 
brated with considerable pomp; and the people also cling to 
various national f€tes, such as the Metzgersprung, the SchiLffler- 
tanz, and the great October festival. 

Munich has long been celebrated for its artistic handicrafts, 
such as bronze-founding, glass-staining, silversmith's work, and 
wood-carving, while the astronomical instruments of Fraunhofer 
and the mathematical instrxmients of Traugott Lieberecht von 
Ertel (1778-1858) arc also widely known. Lithography, which 
was invented at Munich at the end of the i8th century, is 
extensively practised here. The other industrial products 
include wall-paper, railway plant, machinery, -gloves and 
artificial flowers. The most charaaeristic industry, however, 
is brewing. Four important markets are held at Munich 
annually. The city is served by an extensive electric tramway 
system. 

History.— The Villa Munichen or Porum ad monackos, so 
called from the monkish owners of the ground on which it lay, 
was first called into prominence by Duke Henry the Lion, who 
established a mint here in 11 58, and made it the emporium for 
the salt coming from Hallein and Reichenhall. The Bavarian 
dukes of the Wittelsbach house occasionally resided at Munich, 
and in 1255 Duke Louis made it his capital, having previously 
surrounded it with walls and a moat. The town was almost 
entirely destroyed by fire in 1327, after which the emperor Louis 
the Bavarian, in recognition of the loyalty of the citizens, 
rebuilt it very much on the scale it retained down to the beginning 
of the X9th century. Among the succeeding rulers those who did 
most for the town in the erection of handsome buildings and the 
foundation of schools and sdenufic institutions were Albert V^ 
William V., Maximilian I., Max Joseph and Charles Theodore. 
In 163a Munich was occupied by Gustavus Adolphus, and in^ 
1705, and again in 1742, it was in possession of the Austrians. 
In 179X the fortifications were razed. 

Munich's importance in the history of art is entirely of modem 
growth, and may be dated from the acquisition of the Aeginttan 
marbles by Louis I., then crown prince, in 1812. Among the 
eminent artists of this period whose names are more or less 
identified with Munich were Leo von Klenze (1784- 1864), 
Joseph Daniel Ohlmiiller (i 791-1839), Friedrich von Girtncr 
(1792-1847), and Georg Friedrich Ziebland (1800-1873), the 
architects; Peter von Comelius (1783-1867), Wilhelm von Kaul- 
bach (1804-1874), Juh'us Schnorr von Carolsfeld (1794-1872), 
and Karl Rottmann, the painters; and Ludwig von Schwanthaler, 
the sculptor. Munich is still the leading school of painting in 
Germany, but the romanticism of the earlier masters has been 
abandoned for drawing and colouring of a realistic character. 
Karl von Piloty (1826-1886) and Wilhelm Diez (1839-1907) long 
st<^'--! .-ii iW held f.r ilii^ school* 

h-tc .Urj'.'Ji.-u'rrFTifru .f-, 3:r.t:'.thcin'« Burrav-t dfr Siadt Mfimhfn (vols. 
i.-v , lS^5-f833); Srijkl, Mtimkfn mii jfMrt i'mirbtt*tftn M«54): 
Rt "i.^r^ Biiui^Jiitijt htf FukF£f durch dU Stadi Afiinthtit {%iijb) ; Daniel, 
Hondhtick dtf Cenifdt'kif (citw «Lh IP*J5): Frantl, Geichnhte der 
Ltdu-is-Mtij'fni'iftat Univtrsitct Ofiumch^ ift^j); GocfinK, w Jahre 
MuTihfn (Municti. 1004); ¥00 Ari motif Di^ Grrmd ww ^timken 
geiii:'ff'i:h tfithihit^ri (Xlijnicrh^ (^5^^ Kroncsji, lllttilfttrlt GrstkickU 
dtr j^i-sJi Munf^n (MunJcti, J 905): the Jakfbxik Jvlr M^nthener 
Gt'-^ufiit^ cditcrj by Rein hard atSttficr nnd TrautrnaDn {Munich, 
l8":7-iS<)4\; Aufl'OStcf and TrsutmannK Ait'^f1inthrn in Bti4 una 
W.^f fMunlrh^ 1895)1 Rohttird^r, Mum km ah Handihstoit (Munich, 

V. rrtfjt, Gfichinhie iir ttiuftthener Kanit tm i^t Jahrkvndtft\\^^xn^c\^, 
l8?rr&) ; flMfJ Triutwcirt, Fultrtr dank Munchm both cd,, 1906). There 
u fin En^li>b book vn Munich by H^ R. WiiUttieh (igio). 



MUNICIPALITY— MUNICIPIUM 



MUnCIPAIJnr, a modem tenn (derived from Lat. mMfi*- 
tipium; see below), now used both for a dty or town which 
is organized t<x sdif-govermnent under a municipal corporation, 
and also for the governing body itself. Such a corporation 
in Great Britain consists of a head as a mayor or provost, and 
of superior members, as aldermen and coundllors, together with 
the simple corporators, who are represented by the governing 
body; it acts as a person by its common seal, and has a perpetu J 
succession, with power to hold lands subject to the restrictions 
of the Bfortmain laws; and it can sue or be sued. Where 
necessary for its primary objects, every corporation has power 
to make by-laws and to oiforce them by penalties, provid^ they 
are not unjust or unreisonable or otherwise inconsistent with 
the objects of the charter or other instrument of foundation. 

See BoBOUGB, Cobcmonb, CoapoaAnoK, Local GovEaNMSNT, 
FciAMCB, Sec, and for details of the funciions of the municipal 
govcnuzKOt we the sections under the ^neral headings of the 
different countries and the sections on the history of these countries. 

■UnGPnJM (Lat. munus, a duty or privilege, capere, to 
take), in az^ent Rome, the term api^ed primarily to a status, 
a certain rdation between individuals or communities and the 
Roman state; subsequently and in ordinary usage to a com- 
munity, standing in such a relation to Rome. Whether the 
name signI6es the taking up of burdens or the acceptance of 
• privileges is a disputed point. But as andent authorities are 
unanimous in giving munus in this connexion the sense of 
"duty" or "service," it is probable that the chief feature 
of munidpafity was the performance of certain services to 
Rome.* This view is confirmed by all that we know about 
the towns to which the pame was applied in republican times. 
The status had its origin in the conferment of dtizenship upon 
Tusculum in 381 B.C. (Livy vi. 36; d. Cic pro Plane. 8, xg), 
and was widdy extended in the settlement made by Rome at 
the dose of the Latin War in 338 B.C. (see Rome, History). 
Italian towns were then divided into three dasses: (i) Coloniae 
ciriuM Romanorumf whose members had all the rights of dtizen- 
ship; (2) mmnidpiaf which recdved partial dtizenship; (3) feeder- 
atae ciataies (induding the so-called Latin colonies), which 
remained entirely separate from Rome, and stood in relations 
with her which were separatdy arranged by her for each state by 
treaty (Joedus). The mumcipia stood in very dififcrent degrees 
of dqiendence on Rome. Some, such as Fundi (Livy viii. 14; 
d. ibii. 19), enjoyed a local self-government only limited in the 
matter of jurisdiction; others, such as Anagnia (Livy ix. 43; 
Festos, 4* verb, significatione, s.v. ** munidpium," p. 127, ed. 
MfiQer), were governed directly from Rome. But they all had 
certain features in common. Their dtizens were called upon 
to pay the same dues and perform the same service in the legions 
as full Roman dtizens, but were deprived of the chief privileges 
of dtizenship, those of voting in the COmitia (;m suffragii^j and 
of holding Roman magistracies (jus konorum). It would also 
appear from Festus {op. cU. s.v. praefeclura, p. 233) that juris- 
dkikfu was entrusteid in every municipium to praefecii juri 
Hamd^ sent out from Rome to represent the Praetor Urbanus.' 
The conferment of munidpality can therefore hardly have been 
icprded as other than an imposing of burdens, even in the 
case of those dties which retained control of their own affairs. 
But after the dose of the second Punic War, when Rome had 
become the chief power, not only in Italy, but m all the ndgh- 
booring lands round the Mediterranean, we can trace a growing 
tendency among the Italian dties to regard dtizenship of this 
great state as a privilege, and to daim complete dtizenship as 
a reward of their services in hdping to build up the Roman 
power. During the 2nd century b.& the Jus sufragii and jus 
ha iur mm were conferred upon numerous mumcipia (Livy xxxviiL 
36* 37)t vhose dtizens were then enrolled in the Roman tribes. 
They can have ezerdsed thdr public rights but seldom, owing to 
their distance from Rome; but the consulships of C Marius, 

f For a contrary view, however, see Marquardt, Rihn, Staatsoera. 
L pL 26k n. a (and ed., Lnpaa. 1881). and authoritks there dted. 

<For a diffeient view seTwU' - ■■ 

(Loavaai, 1874)* 



Villems, DroU ptMU romaim. p. 381 



a mumetps/A Arpinum (between 107 and 100 B.a), and the 
strength of the support given to Tiberius Gracchus in the 
assembly by the voters from Italian towns (133 B.c) ^ow what 
an important influence the members of these municipia could 
occasionally exercise over Roman politics. The dties thus 
privileged, however, though recdving complete Roman dtizen- 
ship, were not, as the k>gic of public law might seem to demand, 
incorporated in Rome, but continued to exist as independent 
urban units; and this anomaly survived in the munidpal system 
which wss devdoped, on the basis of these grants of dtizen- 
ship, after the Social War. That system recognized the municeps 
as at once a dtizen of a self-governing dty community, and 
a member of the dty of Rome, his dual capadty being illustrated 
by his right of voting both in the election of Roman magistrates 
and in the election of magistrates for his own town. 

The result of the Social War which broke out in 91 B.a 
(see Roue: History) was the establishment of a new uniform 
munidpality throi^out Italy, and the obliteration of any 
important distinction between the three classes established 
after the Latin War. By the Lex Julia of 90 B.C. and the 
Lex Pkutia Papiria of 89 B.C every town in Italy which made 
application in due form recdved the complete dtizenship. 
The term municipium was no k)nger confined to a particular 
class of Italian towns but was adopted as a convenient name 
for all urban communities of Roman dtizens in Italy. The 
organization of a munidpal system, which should regulate the 
governments of all these towns on a uniform basis, and define 
thdr relation to the Roman government, was probably the work 
of Sulla, who certainly gave great impetus to the foundation 
in the provinces of dtizen colonies, which were the earliest 
municipia outside Italy, and enjoyed the same status as the 
Italian towns. Julius Caesar extended the sphere of the Roman 
munidpal system by his enfranchisement of Cisalpine Gaul, 
and the consequent indusion of all the towns of that region 
in the category of municipia. He seems also to have given 
a more definite organization to the municipia as a whole. But, 
excepting those in Cisalpine Gaul, the munidpsl system still 
embraced no towns outside Italy other than the dtizen colonies. 
Augustus and his successors adopted the practice of granting 
to existing towns in the provinces either the full dtizenship, 
or a partial citiias known as the jus LatiL This partial civitas 
does not seem to have been entirdy repUced, as in Italy, by 
the grant of full privileges to the communities possessing it, 
and the distinction survived for some time in the provinces 
between coloniae, municipia juris Romans, and municipia juris 
Latini. But the uniform system of administration gradually 
adopted in all three classes rendered the disUnction entirely 
unimportant, and the general term municipium is used of all 
alike. The incorporation of existmg towns, hitherto non-Roman, 
in the uniform munidpal system of the prindpate took place 
mainly in the eastern part of the Empire, where Greek dviliza- 
tion had long fostered urban life. In the west dty commu- 
nities rapidly sprang up under direct Roman influence. The 
devdopment of towns of the munidpal type on the sites where 
legions occupied permanent quarters can be traced in sev^al 
of the western provinces; and it cannot be doubted that this 
devdopment became the rule wherever a body of Roman 
subjects settled down together for any purpose and permanently 
occupied a region. At any rate by the end of the ist century 
of the prindpate municipia are numerous in the western as 
well as the eastern half of the Empire, and the towns are every- 
where centres of Roman influence. 

Of the internal life of the municipia very little is known 
before the Empire. For the period after Julius Caesar, however, 
we have two important sources of information. A series of 
munidpal laws gives us a detailed knowledge of the constitution 
imposed, with slight variations, on all the municipia] and a 
host of private inscriptions gives particulars of thdr social life. 

The munidpal constitution of the ist century of the prindpate 
is based upon the type of government common to Greece and 
Rome from earliest times. The government of each town 
consists of magistrates, senate and assembly, and is entirely 



8 



MUNICIPIUM 



independent of the Roman government except in certain cases 
of higher dvil jurisdiction, which come under the direct cog- 
nisance of the praetor urbanus at Rome. On the other hand, 
each community is bound to perform certain services to the 
Imperial government, such as the contribution of men and 
horses for military service, the maintenance of the imperial 
post through its neighbourhood, and the occasional entertain- 
ment of Roman of&cials or billeting of soldiers. The citizens 
were of two classes: (i) cives, whether by birth, naturalization 
or emancipation, (2) inadae, who enjoyed a partial citizenship 
based on domicile for a certain period. Both classes were 
liable to civic burdens, but the incdae had none of the privi- 
legeaL of citizenship except a limited right of voting. The 
citizens were grouped in either tribes or curiae^ and accordingly 
the assembly sometimes bore the name of Comitia Tributa, 
sometimes that of Comitia Curiata. The theoretical powers 
of these comitia were extensive both in the election of magis- 
trates and in legislation. But the growing influence of the 
senate over elections on the one hand, and on the other hand the 
increasing reluctance of leading citizens to become candidates 
for office (see below), gradually made popular election a mere 
form. The senatorial recommendation of the necessary number 
of candidates seems to have been merely ratified in the comitia; 
and a Spanish munidpal law of the ist century makes special 
provision for occasions on which an insuffident number of 
candidates are forthcoming. In Italy, however, the reality of 
popular elections seems to have survived to a later date. The 
inscriptions at Pompeii, for instance, give evidence of keenly 
contested dections in the 2nd century. The local sexuite, or 
curia, always exercised an important influence on. munidpal 
poKtics. Its members formed the local nobility, and. at an 
early date special privileges were granted by Rome to provindals 
who were senators in their native towns. For the composition, 
powers, and history of the provindal senate see Decukio. 
The magistrates were dected annually, and were six in number, 
forming three pairs of colleagues. The highest magistrates 
were the Ilviii {Duonrt) juri dicundc, who had charge, as their 
name implies, of all local jurisdiction, and presided over the 
assembly. Candidates for this office were required to be over. 
95 years of age, to have hdd one of the minor magistrades, 
and to possess all the qualifications required of members of the 
local senate (see Decuxio). Next in dignity were the Ilviri 
aediles, who had charge of the roads and public buildings, the 
games and the com-sup]^y, and exercised police control through- 
out the town. They appear to have been regarded as sub- 
ordinate colleagues {ccUegae minores) of the Ilviri juri dicundo, 
and in some towns at least to have had the right to convene 
and preside over the comitia in the absence of the latter. Indeed 
many inscriptions speak of IVviri (Quattuoniri) consisting of 
two IVviri Juri dicundo and two IVviri aediUs; but in the 
majority of cases the former are regarded as distinct and 
superior magistrates. The two quaeslores, who appear to have 
controlled finance in a large number of municipia, cannot be 
traced in others; and it is probable that in the municipia, as 
at Rome, the quaestorship was locally instituted, as need arose, 
to relieve the supreme magistrates of excessive business. Other 
munidpal magistrates frequently rderred to in the inscriptions 
are the quin4tuennales and pra^edi. The quinguetmaUs super- 
seded the Ilviri or IVviri juri dicundo every five years, and 
differed from them only in possessing, in addition to thdr other 
powers, those excrdsed in Rome before the time of Sulla by the 
censors. Two dasses of praefedi are foimd in the munidpidities 
under the Empire, both of which are to be distinguished from 
the officials who bore that name in the municipia before the 
Sodal War. The first dass consists of those praefedi who were 
nominated as temporary ddegates by the Ilviri, when through 
illness or compulsory absence they were unable to discharge 
the duties of their office. The second dass, referred to in 
inscriptions by the name of praefedi ah decurionibus creaii 
lege Petronia, seem to have been appointed by the local senate 
in case of a complete absence of higher magistrates, such as 
would have led in Rome to the appointment of an tnterrex. 



From a sodal point of view the municipia of the Roman Empire 
may be treated under three beads: (i) as centres of local kU- 
govemment, (2) as religious centres, (3) as industrial centres, (i) 
The chief feature of the local government of the towns is the wide- 
spread activity of the munidpal authorities in improving the general 
conditions of life in the town. In the municipalities, as in Rome, 
provision was made out of the public funds for feeding the poorest 
part of the population, and providing a supply of com whicn could 
be bought bjr ordinary dtizens at a moderate price. In Pliny's 
time there existed in many towns public schools contfX)lled by the 
munidpal authorities, concerning which Pliny remarks that they 
«ere a source of considerable disturbance in the town at the times 
when it was necessary to appoint teachers. He himself encourag^ 
the establishment of another kind of munidpal school at Como, 
where the leading townspeople subscribed for the maintenance of 
the school, and the control, mduding the appointment of teachers, 
remained in the hands of the subscribers. Physidans seem to have 
been maintained in many towns at' the public enwnse. The water- 
supply was also providcdout of the munidpal budget, and controUed 
by magistrates appointed for the purpose. To enable it to bear the 
expense involved m all these undertaking the local treasury was 
eenerally asasted by large benefactions, either in money or in works, 
from individual dtizens; but direct taxation for muniand purposes 
was hardly ever resorted to. The treasury was filled out of the 
proceeds ol the landed posoesaons of the community, especially such 
fruitful sources of revenue as mines and quarries, and out of import 
and export duties. It was occasionally subsidiied by the emperor 
on occasimis of sudden and exceptionaicalamity. 

2. The chief feature in the religious life ot the towns was the 
important position they occupied as centres for the cult of the 
emperor. Caesar-worship as an organized cult devdoped sponta- 
neously in many provindal towns during the fdgn of Augustus, 
and was fostered by him and his successors as a means of promoting 
in these centres of vigour and prosperity a strong loyalty to Rome 
and the emperor, which was one of the firmest supports of the latter's 
power. The order of AugustaUs, officials appointed to regulate the 
worship of the emperor in the towns, occupied a position of dimity 
and importance in provindal sodety. It was composed of the lead- 
ing and the wealthiest men among the lower classes of the popula- 
tion. By the organization, of the order on these lines Augustus 
secured the double object of maintaining Caesar-wor^tp in all the 
most vigorous centres of provincial life, and attracting to himself 
and his successors the special devotion of the industriafdaas which 
had its origin in the munidpia of the Roman Empire, and baa beoome 
the greatest political force in modem Europe. 

3. The development of this free industrial class is the chief feature 
of the municipia considered as centres of industry and handicraft. 
The rise to power of the equestrian order in Rome during the last 
century of the Republic had to some extent modified the old Roman 
prindple that trade and commerce were beneath the dignity of 
the governing class ; but long after the fall of the Republic the aristo- 
cratic notion survived in Rome that industry and handicrafts were 
only fit for slaws. In the provincial towns, however, this idea was 
rapidly disappearing in the early years of the Empire, and even in 
the country towns of Italy the inscriptions give evidence not much 
later of the existence of a large and flourishmg free industrial dasa, 
proud of its occupation, and bound together by a strong esprit da 
corps. Already the members of this class show a strong tendency 
to bind themselves together in gilds (coUegiat sodalitatetj, and the 
existence of countless associations of the kind is revealed by the 
inscriptions. The formation of sodeties for religioua and other 
purposes was frequent at Rome from the earliest times in all dasses 
of the free population. After the time of Sulla these aodetiea were 
regarded by the govemment with suspicion, mainly on account (rf the 
political uses to which they were tumed, and various measures were 
passed for their suppression in' Rome and Italy. This policy was 
continued by the early emperors and extended to the whole Empire, 
but in spite of opposition thej^lds in the provindal towns grew and 
flourished. The ostensible objects of nearfy all 1 * " ' ' - - - 



we have any knowledge were twofold, 



such collegia of which 
the maintenance of the 



worship of some god, and proviaon for the performance of proper 
funerary rights for its members. But under cover of these two main 
objects, the only two purposes for which such combinations were 
allowed under the Empire, associations of all kinds grew up. The 
organization of the gilds was based on that of the munidpality. 
Each elected its officers and treasurers at an annual meeting, and 
every five years a revision of the list of members was held, correspond- 
ing to that of the senators held quinquennially by the dty magia- 
tratea. It is doubtful how far these sodeties served to organize 
and improve particular industries. There is no evidence to ahcyw 
that any sodeties during the first three centuries conasted solely 
of workers at a nngle cralt. But there can be little doubt that the 
later craft gilds were a development, through the industrial gilda 
of the provindal towns, of one of the most andent features of Roman 
Ufe. 

Remarkable concord seems generally to have existed in the 
municipia between the various dasses of the population. This 
is accounted for partly by the strong dvic feeling which fonned 
a bond of unity stronger than most sources of fdctioQ, mnd 



MUNIMENT— MUNKACS 



partly to the general i»osperity of the towns, which removed 
any acute discontenL The wealthy citizen seems always to 
have had to bear heavy financial burdens, and to have enjoyed 
in reiom a dignity and an actual political preponderance which 
made the genual character of mnniripal constitutions distinctly 
timocratic 

The policy adopted by the early emperors of encovraging, 
within the limits of a uniform system, the independence and 
civic patriotism of the towns, was superseded in the 3rd and 
4th centuries by a deliberate effort to use the towns as instru* 
nients of the imperial government, under the direct control of 
the emperor or his representatives in the provinces. This 
policy was accompanied by a gradual decay of civic feeUng and 
municipal enterprise, which showed itself mainly in the un- 
willingness of the townsmen to become candidates for local 
magistrades, or to take up the burdens entailed in membership of 
the municipal senate. Popular control of the local government 
of the towns was ceasing to be a reality as ^ly as the end of 
the ist century of the Empire. Two centuries later local 
government was a mere form. And the self-governing com- 
munities of the middle ages were a restoration, rather than a 
development, of the flourishing and independent municipalities 
of the age of Augustus and his immediate successors. 

AuTBOKiTiBS. — C. Bmns. Pontes juris nmani, c. III., No. 18. 
and c IV. (FreiburKt i8^3)> for Municipal Laws and references to 
Monrasea's commentary in C.I.L. ; E. Kuhn, Siddtische u. bUrgerlicke 
VerfassKHg des rdm. Reicks (Ldpzig, i8^« Marquardt. R6miuh$ 
StaaisaersBoUuni, I. t. (Leipriff, 1S81); Toutain, in Darcmbcr^- 
Saglio Dictunstudre des anii^ifius grecques et romaines, s.v. " Munici* 
pium ": S. Dill. Raman Societvfrom Nero to Marcus Aurdius, c 2 
and 3 (London. 1904). For the gilds ace Moromsen, Dt coUegiis et 
sodaSciis Ramanorum (Keil, 1843); Licbenam, CeschickU u: Organi- 
— -~i d€S rdm. Yeremswesens (Leipxig, 1890). (A. M. Cl.) 



• a word chiefly used in the plural, as a collective 
term for the documents, charters, title-deeds, &c. relating to 
the property, rights and privileges of a corporation, such as a 
allege, a family or private person, and kept as " evidences " 
fior defending the same. Hence the medieval usage of the word 
muMitnentum, in classical Latin, a defence, fortification, from 
fluniire, to defen d. 

MUHI RIVER 8BTTLE1IEIITI, or Spanish Gxtinea, a Spanish 
protectorate on the Guinea Coast, West Africa, rectangular 
in form, with an area of about 9800 sq. m. and an estimated 
population of 150,000. The protectorate extends inland about 
175 miles and b bounded W. by the Atlantic, N. by the German 
colony of Cameroon, E. and S. by French Congo. The coast- 
fine, 75 m. long, stretches from the mouth of the Campo in 
s* 10^ N. to the mouth of the Muni in i** N., on the north arm 
of Corisco Bay. The small islands of Corisco {q.v.\ Elobey 
Grande, Elob^ Chioo and Bana in Corisco Bay also belong 
to Spain. 

From the estuaxy of the Campo the coast trends S.S.W. in 
a series of shallow indenUtions, until at the bold bluff of Cape 
San Juan it turns eastward and forms Corisco Bay. The coast 
plain, from 12 to 35 m. wide, is succeeded by the foot-hills of 
the Co"*^ Mountains, which traverse the country in a north 
to south direction. Tliese are a table-land, from which rise 
granitic hills 700 to zaoo ft. above the general level, which is 
about 2500 ft. above the sea. The mountainous region, which 
extends inland beyond the Spanish frontier, contains many 
narrow valleys and marshy depressions. The greater part of 
the country forms the basin of the river Benito, which, rising 
la French Congo a little east of the frontier, flows through the 
centre of the Spanish protectorate and enters the sea, after a 
onuse of 300 m., about midway between the Campo and Muni 
estuaries. The southern bank of the lower course of the Campo 
axd the northern bank of the lower course of the Muni, form 
part of the protectorate. The mouths of the Campo and 
Benito are obstructed by sand bars, whereas the channel leading 
to the Muni is some 36 ft. deep and the river itself is more than 
double that depth. It is from this superiority of access that 
the country has been named after the Muni River. The course 
ef all the rivers is obstructed by rapids in their descent from 



the table-land to the plain.' The greater part of the country 
is covered with dense primeval forest. This forest growth is 
due to the fertility of the soil and the great rainfall, Snanish 
Guinea with the neighbouring Cameroon country possessing 
one of the heaviest rain records of the world. Tttt humidity 
of the climate joined to the excessive heat (the average tempera- 
ture is 78** F.) makes the climate trying. In the' eastern parts 
of the protectorate the forest is succeeded by more open country. 
Among the most common trees are oil-palms, rubber-trees, ebony 
and mahogany. The forests are the home of monkeys and of 
innumerable birds and insects, often of gorgeous colouring 
In the north-east of the country elephants arc numerous. 

The inhabitants are Bantu-Negroid, the largest tribe repre- 
sented being the Fang (?.«.), called by the Spaniards Famues. 
They are immigrants from the Congo basin and have pushed 
before them the tribes, such as the Benga, which now occupy 
the coast-lands. The villages of the Fang arc usually placed 
on the top of small hills. Tliey cultivate the yam, banana and 
manioc, and are expert fishers and hunters. The European 
settlements are confined to the coast. There are trading stations 
at the mouths of the Campo, Benito and Muni rivers, at Bata, 
midway between the Campo and Benito, and on Elobey Chico. 
There are cocoa, coffee and other plantations, but the chief 
trade is in natural products, rubber, palm oil and palm kernels, 
and timber. Cotton goods and alcohol are the principal imports. 
Trade is largely in the hands of British and German firms. The 
annual value of the trade in 1903-1906 was about £100,000. 

Spain became possessed of Fernando Po at the end of the 
i8tb century, and Spanish traders somewhat later established 
" factories " on the neighbouring coasts of the mainland, but 
no permanent occupation appears to have been contemplated. 
During the 19th century a number of treaties were concluded 
between Spanish naval oflicers and the chiefs of the lower 
Guinea coast, and when the partition of Africa was in progress 
Spain laid daim to the territory between the Campo river and 
the Gabun. Germany and France also claimed the territory, 
but in 1885 Germany withdrew in favour of France. After 
protracted negotiations between France and Spain a treaty 
was signed in June 1900 by which France acknowledge^! Spanbh 
sovereignty over the coast region between the Campo and 
Muni rivers and the hinterUnd as far east as zx** 20' E. of 
Greenwich, receiving in return concessions from Spain in the 
Sahara (see Rio de Org), and the right of pre-emption over 
Spain's West African possessions. In Z90Z-1902 the eastern 
frontier was delimited, being modified in accordance with 
natural feattires. The newly acquired territories werepbced 
under the superintendence of the governor-general of Fernando 
Po, sub-governors being stationed at Bata, Elobey Chico and 
Corisco. 

See R. Beltrin y R6zpide, La Guinea espailola (Madrid, t90i), 
and Guinea continental espafiola (Madrid, 1903) ; H. Lorin, " Lcs 
colonies cspsupnoles du goffe de Guinde " in QiusL dip, et cot., vol. 
xxi. (1906) ; E. L. Perea, " Estado actual de los territorios cspafiolcs . 
de Guinea " in Reoista de geog. colon, y mercantil (Madrid, 1905) ; J. B. 
Roche, Aupays des Pahouins (Paris, 1904). A good map compiled 
by E. d' Almonte on the scale of i :200,ooo was published in Madrid 
in t903. Consult also the works cited under Fbrnanoo Pa 

MUNKAcS, a town of Hungary, in the county of Bcreg, 
220 m. E.N.E. of Budapest by raJL Pop. (t90o), Z3,640. It 
is situated on the Latorcza river, and on the outskirts of the 
East Beskidcs mountains, where the hills touch the plains. Its 
most noteworthy buildings are the Greek Catholic cathedral 
and the beautiful castle of Coubt Schonbom. In the vicinity, 
on a steep hill 580 ft. high, stands the old fort of Munk&cs, 
which played an important part in Hungarian history, and was 
especially famous for its heroic defence by Helcne Zrinyi, wife 
of Emeric Tdkdii and mother of Francis Rik6czy II., for three 
years against the Austrians (Z685-Z688). It was afterwards 
used as a prison. Ypsilanti, the hero of Greek liberty, and 
Kozinczy, the regenerator of Hungarian letters, were confined in 
it. According to tradition, it was near Munkics that the 
Hungarians, towards the end of the 9th century, entered the 
country. In 1896 in the fort was built one of the " miilesnial 



lO 



MUNKACSY— MUNRO, R. 



tttabltthcd at Mven different poinu of the 



monuments 
kingdom. 

MUNKACSY, MICHAEL VON (1844-1900), Hungarian painter, 
whose real name was Michael (Miska) Leo Lies, was the third 
son of Michael Lieb, a collector of salt-tax in Munkics, Hungary, 
and of Qlcilia Rdck. He was bom in that town on the 20th 
of February 1844. In 1848 his father was arrested at Miskolcz 
for complicity in the Hungarian revolution, and died shortly 
after his release; a little earlier he had also lost his mother, 
and became dependent upon the charity of relations, of whom 
an uncle, Rflck, became mainly responsible for his maintenance 
and education. He was apprenticed to a carpenter, Langi, in 
1855, but shortly afterwards made the acquaintance of the 
painters Fischer and Szamossy, whom he accompanied to Arad 
in 1858. From them he received his first real instruction in 
art. He worked mainly at Budapest during 1863-1865, and 
at this time first adopted, from patriotic motives, the name by 
which he is always known. In 1865 he visited Vienna, returning 
to Budapest in the following year, and went thence to Munich, 
where he contributed a few drawings to the Fliegende BUUUr. 
About the end of 1867 he was workhig at Diisseldorf, where he 
was much influenced by Ludwig Knaus, and painted <i868- 
1869) his first picture of importance, "The Luist Day of a 
Condemned Prisoner," which was exhibited in the Paris Salon 
in 1870, and obtain^ for him a midailte unique and a very 
considerable repuution. He had already paid a short visit to 
Paris in 1867, but on the 35th of January 187a he took up his 
permanent abode in that city, and remained there during the 
rest of his working life. Munkacsy's other chief pictures are 
"Milton dicuting Paradise Lost to his Daughters" (Paris 
Exhibition, 1878), " Christ before Pikte " (1881), " Golgotha " 
(1885), " The Death of Mozart " (1884), " Arpad, chief of the 
Magyars, taking possession of Hungary," painted for the new 
House of Parliament in Budapest, and exhibited at the Salon 
in 1893, and ** Ecce Homo." He had hardly completed the 
latter work when a malady of the brain overtook him, and he 
died on the 30th of April 1900, at Endenich, near Bonn. Just 
before his last illness he had been offered the directorship of 
the Hungarian State Galleiy at Budapest. Munkacsy's masterly 
characterization, force and power of dramatic composition 
secured him a great vogue for his works, but it is doubtful if 
hb reputation will be maintained at the level it reached during 
his lifetime. " Christ before Pilate " and " Golgotha " were sold 
for £33|Ooo and £35,000 respectively to an American buyer. 
Munkacsy received the following awards for his work exhibited 
at Paris: Medal, 1870; Medal, 2nd class; Legion of Honour, 
1877; Medal of Honour, 1878; Officer of the Legion, 1878; Grand 
Prix, Exhibition of 1889; Commander of the Legion, 1889. 

See F. Walther Ilgcs. " M. von Munkacsy." KUusOer Mono- 
rrapkien (1899): C. Scdelmever, Christ before Pilate (Paris, 1886); 
J. Beavington Atkinson, " Michael Munkacsy," Maganne of Art 
I1881). (E.F. S.) 

MUNNICH. BURKHARD CHRISTOPH, Count (1683-1767), 
* Russian soldier and statesman, was bom at Neuenhuntorf , in 
Oldenburg, in 1683, and at an early age entered the French 
service. Thence he transferred successively to the armies of 
Hesse-DarmsUdt and of Saxony, and finally, with the rank of 
general-in-chief and the title of count, he joined the army of 
Peter II. of Russia. In 173a he became field-marshal and 
president of the council of war. In this post he did good 
service in the reorganization of the Russian army, and founded 
the cadet coipa which was destined to supply the future genera- 
tions of officers. In 1734 he took Danzig, and with 1736 began 
the Turkish campaigns which made MOnnich's repuUtion as a 
soldier. Working along the shores of the Bbck Sea from the 
Crimea, he took Ochakov after a celebrated siege in 1737, and 
in 1739 won the battle of Stavutachina, and took Khotin (or 
Choczim), and established himself firmly in Moldavia. Marshal 
Mannich now began to take an active part in political affairs, 
the particular tone of which was given by his rivalry with Biron, 
or Bieren, duke of Courland. But his activity was brought to 
a close by the revolution of 1741; he was arrested on his way 
to the frontier, and condemned to death. Brought out for 



execution, and withdrawn from the scaffold, lie was later sent to 
Siberia, where he remained for several years, until the accession 
of Peter III. brought about his release in 176a. Catherine II., 
who soon displaced Peter, employed the old field-marshal 
as director-general of the Baltic ports. He died in 1767. Feld- 
marschall Mannich was a fine soldier of the professional type, 
and many future commanders, notably Loudon and Lacy, 
served their apprenticeship at Ochakov and Khotin. As a 
statesman he b regarded as the founder of Russian Philhellenism. 
He had the grade of count of the Holy Roman Empire. The 
Russian 37th Dragoons bear his name. 

He wrote an Ebaucke pour donner une idie de la forme de Vempire 
de Russie (Leipzig. 1774), and hu voluminous diaries have appeared 
in various publications— Herrmann, Beitrdee tur Cesehickle des russi- 
scken Reicks (Leipzig. 1843). See Hempcl, LeboH Munmehs (Bremen. 
1742); Halcm. CeukUhU des P, if. Craien Minnick (Okienburg. 
1803 : and ed.. 1838) ; Kostomarov, Peidmarschail MUnmck {RussiseMe 
Cesckickte inBiogra^iieu,v, 2). 

MUNRO. SIR HECTOR (1726-1805), British general, son of 
Hugh Munro of Novar, in Cromarty, was bom in I7a6, and 
entered the army in 1749. He went to Bombay in 1761, in 
command of the 89th regiment, and in that year effected the 
surrender of Mah£ from the French. Later, when in command of 
the Bengal army, he suppressed a mutiny of sepoys at Patna, 
and on the a3rd of October 1764 won the victory of Buxar 
against Shuja-ud-Dowlah, the nawab wazir of Oudh, and Mir 
Kasim, which ranks amongst the most decisive battles ever 
fought in India. Returning home, he became in 1768 M.P. 
for the Inverness Burghs, which he continued to represent in 
parliament for more than thirty years, though a considerable 
portion of this period was spent in India, whither he returned 
in 1778 to take command of the Madras army. In that year 
he took Pondicherry from the French, but in 1 780 he was defeated 
by Hyder Ali near Conjeevcrara, and forced to fall back on 
St Thomas's Mount. There Sir Eyre Coote took over command 
of the army, and in 1781 won a signal victory against Hyder Ali 
at Porto Novo, where Munro was in command of the right 
division. Negapatam was taken by Munro in November of' 
the same year; and in 1782 he returned to England. He died oa 
the 27th of December 1805. 

MUNRO. HUGH ANDREW JOHNSTONE (1819-1885), British 
scholar, was bora at Elgin on the X9th of October 1819. He 
was educated at Shrewsbury school, where he was one of 
Kennedy's first pupils, and proceeded to Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, in 1838. He became scholar of his college in 1840. 
second classic and first chancellor's medallist in 1842, and 
fellow of his college in 1843. He became classical lecturer at 
Trinity College, and in 1869 was elected to the newly-founded 
chair of Latin at Cambridge, but resigned it in 1872. The 
great work on which his reputation b mainly based is his 
edition of Lucretius, the fruit of the labour of many years (text 
only, I vol., i860; text, commentary and translation, 2 vols., 
1864). As a textual critic his knowledge was profound and 
his judgment unrivalled; and he made close archaeological 
studies by frequent travels in Italy and Greece. In 1867 he 
published an improved text of Aetna with commentary, and 
in the following year a text of Horace with critical introduction, 
illustrated by specimens of ancient gems selected by C. W. King. 
His knowledge and taste are nowhere better shown than in his 
CrUidstns and Elucidations of Catullus (1878). He was a master 
of the art of Greek and Latin verse composition. Hb contri- 
butions to the famous volume of Shrewsbury verse, Sabrinae 
corolla, are among the most remarkable of a remarkable coUec* 
tion. Hb Translations into Latin and Greek Verse were privately 
printed in 1884. Like hb translations into English, they are 
characterized by minute fidelity to the original, but never cease 
to be idiomatic. He died at Rome on the 30th of March 1885. 
. See Memoir by J. D. Duff, prefixed to a re-ts«ie of the trans, of 
Lucretius in " Bohn's Classical Library " (1908). 

MUNRO. MoNBO or Monsob, ROBERT (d. c, x68o), Scots 
general, was a member of a well-known family in Ross-shire, 
the Munroes of Foulis. With several of hb kinsmen he served 
in the continental wars under Gustavus Adolphua; and he 



MUNRO, SIR T.— MUNSTER 



II 



appears to have returaed to Scotland about 1638, and to have 
taken some part in the early incidents of the Scottish rebellion 
against Charles I. In 1642 he went to Ireland, nominally as 
second in command under Alexander Leslie, but in fact in chief 
command of the Scottish contingent against the Catholic rebels. 
After taking and plundering Newry in April 1642, and ineffec- 
tually attempting to subdue Sir Phelim O'Neill, Munro succeeded 
in taking prisoner the earl of Antrim at Dunluce. The arrival 
of Owen Roe O'Neill in Ireland strengthened the cause of the 
rebels (see O'Neill), and Munro, who was poorly supplied with 
provisions and war materials, flowed little activity. Moreover, 
the dvil war in England was now creating conf uaon among parties 
in Ireland, and the king was anxious to come to terms with 
the Catholic rebels, and to enlist them on his own behalf against 
the parliament. The duke of Ormonde, Charles's lieutenant- 
general in Ireland, acting on the king's orders, signed a cessation 
of hostilities with the Catholics on the xsth of September 1643, 
and exerted himself to despatch aid to Charles in England. 
Munro in Ulster, holding his commission from the Scottish 
parliament, did not recognize the armistice, and his troops 
accepted the solemn league and covenant, in which they were 
joined by many English soldiers who left Ormonde to join him. 
In April 1644 the English parliament entrusted Munro with the 
command of all the forces in Ulster, both English and Scots. 
He thereupon seized Belfast, made a raid into the Pale, and 
nnsucrrssfully attempted to gain possession of Dundalk and 
Dro^tedA. His force was weakened by the necessity for sending 
troops to Scotland to withstand Montrose; while Owen Roc 
O'Neill was strengthened by receiving supplies from Spain and 
the pope. On the 5th of Jime 1646 was fought the battle of 
Benbuxb, on the Blackwater, where O'Neill routed Munro, but 
suffered him to withdraw in safety to Carrickfergus In 1647 
Ormonde was compelled to come to terms with the English 
parliament, who sent commissioners to Dublin in June of that 
year. The Scots under Munro refused to surrender Carrick- 
fergus and Belfast when ordered by the parliament to return 
to Scotland, and Munro was superseded by the appointment of 
M«ik to the chief command in Ireland. In September 1648 
Carrickfergus was delivered over to Monk by treachery, and 
Munro was taken prisoner. He was committed to the Tower 
of London, where he remained a prisoner for five years. In 
1654 he was permitted by Cromwell to reside in Ireland, where 
he had estates in right of his wife, who was the widow of Viscount 
Montgomery of Ardes. Munro continued to live quietly near 
Comber, Co. Down, for many yeais, and probably died there 
about 16S0. He was in part the original of Dugald Dalgetty in 
Sir Walter Scott's Legend of Montrose. 

Sec Thomas Carte, History of the Life of James, Duke of Ormonde 
(6 vola., Oxford, 1851); Sir J. T. Gilbert, ConUmporary History of 
Afairs in Ireland 1641-1652 (3 vols., Dublin. 1879-1880) and 
History of the Irish Confederation and the War in Ireland (7 vols.. 
Dublin. 1881-1891): John Spalding, Memorials of the Troubles in 
ScetUnd and Engfand (3 vols.. Aberdeen, 1850); T%e Montgomery 
MSS^ 1603-1703, edited by G. Hill (Belfast. 1869); Sir Walter 
Scott, TkelLegend of Montrose, author's preface. 

HUHRO. SIR THOMAS (X76X-X827), Anglo-Indian soldier and 
statesman, was bom at Glasgow on the 27th of May 1761, the 
son of a merchant. Educated at Glasgow University, he was 
at first intended to enter his father's business, but in 1789 he 
was appointed to an infantry cadetship in Madras. He served 
with his regiment during the hard-fought war against Hyder 
All (1780-83), and again in the first campaign against Tippoo 
(1790-92). He was then chosen as one of four military 
officers to administer the Baramahal, part of the territory 
acquired from Tippoo, where he remained for seven years, 
Utin»t«g the principles of revenue survey and assessment which 
he afterwanb applied throughout the presidency of Madras. 
After the final downfall of Tippoo in 1799, he spent a short time 
restoring order in Kanara; and then for another seven years 
(1800-1807) he was placed in charge of the northern districts 
"ceded*' by the nizam of Hyderabad, where he introduced 
the ryohoari system of land revenue. After a long furlough 
in England, during which he gave valuable evidence upon 



matters connected with the renewal of the company's charter, 
he returned to Madras ini8i4 with special instructions to reform 
the judicial and police systems. On the outbreak of the Pindari 
War in 18x7, he was appointed as brigadier-general to conunand 
the reserve division formed to reduce the southern territories of 
the Peshwa. Of his signal services on this occasion (inning 
said in the House of Commons: " He went into the field with 
not more than five or six hundred men, of whom a very small pro- 
portion were Europeans. . . . Nine forts were surrendered to him 
or taken by assault on his way; and at the end of a silent and 
scarcely observed progress he emerged . . . leaving everything 
secure and tranquil behind him." In 1820 he was appointed 
governor of Madras, where he founded the systems of revenue 
assessment and general admixiistration which substantially 
remain to the present day. His official mmutes, published by 
Sir A. Arbuthnot, form a manual of experience and advice for 
the modem civilian. He died of cholera on the 6th of July X827, 
while on tour in the " ceded " districts, where his name is preserved 
by more than one memorial An equestrian statue of him, by 
Chantrey, stands in Madras dty. 

See bioRraphics by G. R. Gleig (1830), Sir A. Arbuthnot (1881) 
and J. Bradshaw (1894). 

MUNSHI, or Moonshx, the Urdu name of a writer or secretary, 
used in India of the native language teachers or secretaries 
employe d by Europeans. 

MOnSTBR, GEORO, Count zu (1776-1844), (}erman palae- 
ontologist, was born on the X7th of Febmary X776. He formed 
a famous collection of fossils, which was ultimately secured by the 
Bavarian state, and formed the nucleus of the palaeontological 
museum at Munich. Count Mttnster assisted Goldfuss in his 
great work Pctrefacta Cermaniae, He died at Bayreuth on the 
23rd of December X844. 

MONSTBR, SEBASTIAN (1489-1552), German geographer, 
mathematician and Hebraist, was bom at Ingclheim in the 
Palatinate. After studying at Heidelberg and Tubingen, he 
entered the Franciscan order, but abandoned it for Luther- 
anism about 1539. Shortly afterwards he was appointed court 
preacher at Heidelberg, where he also lectured in Hebrew and 
Old Testament exegesis. From 1536 he taught at Basel, where 
he published his Cosmographia universalis in 1544, and where 
he died of the plague on the 23rd of May 1552. A disciple 
of Elias Levita, he was the first (German to edit the Hebrew 
Bible (2 vols., fol., Basel, x 534-1535); this edition was accom- 
panied by a new Latin translation and a large number of anno- 
tations. He published more than one Hebrew gramnuu', and 
was the first to prepare a Crammatica chaldaica (Basel, 1527). 
His lexicographical labours included a Dictionarium chaldaicum 
(1527), and a Dictionarium Irilingue, of Latin, Greek and 
Hebrew (1530). But his most important work was his Cosmo- 
graphiOf which also appeared in German as a Besckreibung alia 
Ldnder, the first detailed, scientific and popular description of 
the world in Mtinster's native language, as well as a supreme 
effort of geographical study and literature in the Reformation 
period. In this MUnster was assisted by more than one hundred 
and twenty collaborators. 

The most valued edition of the Cosmographia or Beschreibung 
is that of 1550, especially prized for its portraits and its city ano 
costume pictures. Besides the works mentioned above we may 
notice MQnster's (7crmanta« descriptioof 1530. his Nonts orbis ol 
1^33. his Ma^pa Eurotae of 1536, his Rhaetta of 1538. his editions 
of Solinus, Mela and Ptolemy in 1538-1540 and among non- 
geographical treatises his Horciogiographia, 1531, on dialling (see 
Dial), his Organum uranicum of 1536 on the planetary motions, and 
his Rudimenta mathematica of 1551. His published maps numbered 
14a. 

See V. Hantzsch. Sebastian M&nster (1898). in vol. xviii. of the 
Publications of the Royal Society of Sciences of Saxony, Histoncal- 
Philological Section). 

HONSTER, a town of Germany, In the district of Upper 
Alsace, 16 m. from Colmar by rail, and at the foot of the Vosges 
Mountains. Pop. (1905), 6078. Its principal industries arc 
spinning, weaving and bleaching. The town owes its origin 
to a Benedictine abbey, which was founded in the 7th century, 
and at one time it was a free city of the empire. In Us 



12 



MUNSTER— MUNSTERBERG, H. 



ndghb«urhood is the ruin of Schwarzenberg. The Mdnstertal, 
or Gregoriental, which ii watered by the river Fecht, is famous 
for its cheese. 

See Rathgeber. Munsler-tm-CregorieiUal (Strassburg, 1874) and 
F. Hcclcer, Die Stadt und das Tat tu MAnster im S Gregoriental 
(MQnstcr, 1890). 

MOnSTER* a town of Germany, capital of the Prussian pro- 
vince of Westphalia, and formerly the capital of an important 
bishopric. It lies in a sandy plain on the Dortmund-Ems canal, 
at the junction of several railways, 107 m. S.W. of Bremen 
on the line to Cologne. Pop. (1885), 44i06o; (1905) 81,468. 
The town preserves its medieval character, especially in the 
" Prinzipal-Markt " and other squares, with their lofty gabled 
houses and arcades. The fortifications were dismantled during 
the 1 8th century, their place being taken by gardens and prome- 
nades. Of the many churches of Mttnster the most important 
is the cathedral, one of the most striking in Germany, although 
disfigured by modem decorations. It was rebuilt in the 13th 
and 14th centuries, and exhibits a combination of Romanesque 
and Gothic forms; its chapter-house is specially fine. The 
beautiful Gothic church of St Lambert (14th century) was 
largely rebuilt after 1868; on its tower, which is 313 ft. in height, 
hang three iron cages in which the bodies of John of Leiden 
and two of his followers were exposed in x 536. The church of 
St Ludger, erected in the Romanesque style about 11 70, was 
extended in the Gothic style about 200 years later; it has a 
tower with a picturesque lantern. The church of St Maurice, 
founded about 1070, was rebuilt during the 19th century, and 
the Gothic church of Our Lady dates from the 14th century. 
Other noteworthy buildings are the town-hall, a fine Gothic 
building of the 14th century, and the Stadtkeller, which contains 
a collection of early German paintings. The room in the town- 
hall called the Friedens Saal, in which the peace of Westphalia 
' was signed in October 1648, contains portraits of many ambas- 
sadors and princes who were present at the ceremony. The 
Schloss, built in 1767, was formerly the residence of bishops of 
MQnstcr. The private houses, many of which were the winter 
residences of the nobility of Westphalia, are admirable examples 
of German domestic architecture in the i6th, 17th and i8th 
centuries. The university of MQnster, founded after the Seven 
Years' War and closed at the beginning of the X9th century, 
was reopened as an academy in 181 8, and again attained the 
rank of a universiiy in 1902. It possesses faculties of theology, 
philosophy and law. In connexion with it are botanical and 
zoological gardens, several scientific collections, and a library of 
120,000 volumes. Miinster is the seat of a Roman Catholic 
bishop and of the administrative and judicial authorities of 
Westphalia, and is the headquarters of an army corps. The 
Wcstphalian society of antiquaries and several other learned 
bodies also have their headquarters here. Industries include 
weaving, dyeing, brewing and printing, and the manufacture of 
furniture and machines. There is a brisk trade in cattle, grain 
and other products of the neighbourhood. 

His/ory.— Munster is first mentioned about the year 800, 
when Charicmagnc made it the residence of Ludger, the newly- 
appointed bishop of the Saxons. Owing to its distance from 
any available river or important highway, the growth of the 
settlement round the monasterium was slow, and it was not 
until after 11 86 that it received a charter, the name MQnster 
having supplanted the original name of Mimcgardevoord about 
a century cariier. During the 13th and X4th centuries the 
town was one of the most prominent members of the Hanseatic 
League. At the time of the Reformation the citizens were 
inclined to adopt the Protestant doctrines, but the excesses 
of the Anabaptists led in 1535 to the armed intervention of 
the bishop and to the forcible suppression of all divergence 
from the older faith. The Thirty Years* War, during which 
Miinster suffered much from the Protestant armies, was ter- 
minated by the peace of Westphalia, sometimes called the peace 
of Monster, because it was signed here on the 34th of October 
1648. The authority of the bishops, who seldom resided at 
Monster, was usually somewhat limited, but in x66i Bishop 



Christoph Bemhard von Galen took the place by force, buflt a 
citadel, and deprived the dtizens of many of their privileges. 
During the Seven Years' War MUnster was occupied both 
by the French and by their foes. Towards the close of the 
i8th century the town was recognized as one of the intellectual 
centres of Germany. 

The bishopric of MOnster embraced an area of about 2500 sq. m. 
and contained about 350,000 inhabitants. Its bishops, who 
resided generally at Ahaus, were princes of the empire. In 
the 17th century Bishop Galen, with his army of 20,000 men, 
was so powerful that his alliance was sought by Charles II. of 
England and other European sovereigns. The bishopric was 
secularized and its lands annexed to Prussia in 1803. 

See Getsbeig. MerkwUrdigkeiten der Sladt Munster (1877): Erhard, 
GesckickU Munsters (1837): A.Tibut. Die Stadt Jl/iiiisler (MOnster, 
1862): Helltnghaus, QuiUen und Forschungen tur GesckickU der 
Stadt MUnsUr (MOnster. 1898); Picper. Die alte Universitdt MUnster 
t773-t8i8 (MOnster. 190a). See also TOcking. Gesckickte des Stifts 
Miinster unter C. B. von Gaien (MOnster. 1865). 

MUNSTER, a province of Ireland occupying the S.W. part of 
the island. It includes the counties Clare, Tippcrary, Limerick, 
Kerry, Cork and Waterford {q.v. for topography, &c.). After, 
the occupation of Ireland by the Milesians, Munster (AfttmAa) 
became nominally a provincial kingdom; but as the territory was 
divided between two families there was constant friction and 
it was not until 237 that Oliol Olum established himself as king 
over the whole. In 248 he divided his kingdom between his 
two sons, giving Desmond (7.9., Des-Mumka) to Eoghan and 
Thomond {Tuadh-Mumka) or north Munster to Cormac. He 
also stipulated that the rank of king of Munster should belong 
in turn to their descendants. In this way the .kingship of 
Munster survived until 1x94; but there were kings of Desmond 
and Thomond down to the i6th century. Munster was originally 
of the same extent as the present province, excepting that it 
included the distria of Ely, which belonged to the O'Carrols 
and formed a part of the present King's County. During the 
1 6th century, however, Thomond was for a time included in 
Connaught, being declared a county under the name of Clare 
iq.v.) by Sir Henry Sidney. Part of Munster had been included 
in the system of shiring generally attributed to King John. In 
1570 a provincial presidency of Munster (as of Connaught) 
was established by Sidney, Sir John Perrot being the first 
president, and lasted until 1672. Under Perrot a practically 
new shiring was carried out. 

MONSTER am STEIN, a watering-place of Germany, in the 
Prussian Rhine province, on the Nahe, 2} m. S. of Kreuznach, 
on the railway from BingerbrOck to Strassburg. Pop. (1905), 
915. Above the village are the ruins of the castle of Rhein- 
grafenstein (12th century), formeriy a seat of the count palatine 
of the Rhine, which was destroyed by the French in 1689, and 
those of the castle of Ebernburg, the ancestral seat of the lords 
of Sickingen, and the birthplace of Franz von Sickingen, the 
famous landsknecht captain and protector of Ulrich von Huttcn, 
to whom a monument was erected on the slope near the ruins 
in 1889. The spa (saline and carbonate springs), specific in 
cases of feminine disorders, is visited by about 5000 patients 
annually. 

See Welsqh. Das Sol- und Tkermalbad Munster am Stein (Kreuz- 
nach, 1886) and Messcr. Fukrer durck Bad Kreuznack und Munster 
am Stein (Kreuznach, 1905). 

MONSTERBERG, HUGO ( 1 863- ) , German- American psycho- 
physiologist, was bom at Danzig. Having been extraordinary 
professor at Freiburg-im-Breisgau, he became in 1892 pro- 
fessor of psychology at Harvard University. Among his more 
important works are Beitrdge zur experimentellen Psyckotogie 
(4 vols., Freiburg, 1889-1892); Psyckology and Life (New 
York, 1899); Crundziige der Psychdogie (Leipzig, 1900); 
American Trails from the Point of View of a German (Boston, 
1901); Die Amerikaner (several ed.; Eng. trans. 1904); Science 
and Idealism (New York, 1906); Philosophie der Werte (Leipzig, 
1908); Aus Deutsch-Amerika (Beriin, 1908); Psychology and 
Crime (New York, 1908). He has been prominently identified 
with the modem developments of experimental psychology 



MUNSTERBERG— MUNZER 



13 



(Ke Psychology), and his sodologlal writings display the 
acotenesB oC a Gennan philosophic inind as applied to the study 
of American life and manners. 

MOMSTERBERO, a town of Germany, in the Prussian pro- 
vince of Silesia, on the Ohlau, 36 m. by rail S. of Brcslau. Pop. 
(igos), 8475. It *s partly surrounded by medieval walls. It 
has manufactures of drain-pipes and fireproof bricks; there are 
also sulphur brings. M&nsterberg was formerly the capital 
of the principality of the same name, which existed from the 
14th century dovm to 1791, when it was purchased by the 
Prussian crown. Near the town is the former Cistercian abbey 
of Heinrichau. 

■UHTANEB* RAMON (i 265-1336?), Catalan historian, was 
born at Pcralada (Catalonia) in 1265. The chief events of his 
career axe recorded in his chronicle. He accompanied Roger dc 
Flor to Sicily in 1300, was present at the siege of Messina, 
served in the expedition of the Almogavares against Asia Minor, 
and became the first governor of Galiipoli. Later he was 
appointed governor of Jcrba or Zerbi, an island in the Gtilf of 
Gabes, and finally entered the service of the infante of Majorca. 
On the 15th of May 1325 (some editions give the year 1335) he 
began his Ckronica, descripcio dels fdSt e kcaatuu dd iiulyt 
rey Don laupte Primer, in obedience, as he says, to the express 
command of God who appeared to hhn in a vision. Muntaner's 
hocAi, which was first printed at Valencia in 1558, is the chief 
authority lox the events of his period, and his narrative, though 
occasionally prdix, uncritical and egotistical, is faithful and 
vivid. He is said to have died in 1336. 

His chronicle is most accessible in the edition published by Karl 
Lanz at Stuttgart in 2844. 

MUittiAC, the Indian name of a small deer typifying the 
genus Cemdus, all the members of which are indigenous to the 
southern and eastern parts of Asia and the adjacent islands, 
and are separated by marked characters from all their allies. 
For the distinctive features of the genus see Deer. As regards 
general characteristics, all muntjacs are small compared with 
the majority of deer, and have long bodies and rather short 
Embs and neck. The antlers of the bucks are small and simple; 




The Indian Muntjac {Cemdus muntjac). 
the main stem or beam, after giving off a short brow-tine, in- 
dizung backwards and upwards, being unbranched and pointed, 
and when fuUy developed curving inwards and somewhat down- 
wards at the tip. These small antlers are supported upon 
pedicles, or processes of the frontal bones, longer than in any 
other deer, the front edges of these being continued downwards 
ts strong ridges passing along the sides of the face above the 
eyes. From this feature the name rib-faced deer has been 
suggested for the muntjac The upper canine teeth of the males 
are lax^ge and sharp, jwojecting outside the mouth as tusks, and 
loosely implaated in their sockets. In the females they are 
m qrfh smaller. 



Muntjacs are solitary' animals, even two being rarely seen 
together. They are fond of hilly ground covered with forests, 
in the dense thickets of which they pass most of their time, only 
coming to the skirts of the woods at morning and evening to 
graze. They cany the head and neck low and the hind-quarters 
high, their action in running being peculiar and not elegant, 
somewhat resembling the pace of a sheep. Though with no 
power of sustained speed or extensive leaping, they are remaric- 
able for flexibility of body and facility of creeping through 
tangled underwood. A popular name with Indian sportsmen 
is " barking deer," on account of the alarm-cry— a kind of short 
shrill bark, like that of a fox, but louder. When attacked by 
dogs, the males use their sharp canine teeth, which inflict deep 
and even dangerous wounds. 

In the Indian muntjac the height of the buck is from 20 to 22 in. ; 
allied types, tome of which have received distinct names, occur in 
Burma and the Malay Peninsula and Islands. Among these, the 
Burmese C. muntjac trandicomis is noteworthy on account of its 
large antlers. The Tibetan muntjac (C. tachrymans), from Moupin 
in eastern Tibet and Hangchow in China, is somewhat smaller than 
the Indian animal, with a bright reddish-brown coat. The smallest 
member of the genus (C. reevesi) occurs in southern China and has a 
reddish-chestnut coat, speckled with yellowish grey and a black 
band down the nape. Tne Tcnasserira muntjac (C. feae), about the 
uze of the Indian species, is closely allied to the hairy-fronted 
muntjac (C. crinifrons) of eastern China, but lacks the tuft of hair 
on the forehead. The last-mentioned species, by its frontal tuft, 
small rounded ears, general brown coloration, and minute antlers, 
connects the typical muntjacs witK the small tufted deer or tufted 
muntjacs of the genus Elapkodus of eastern China and Tibet. These 
last have coarse bristly hair of a purplish-brown colour with light 
markings, very large head-tufts, almost concealine the minute 
antlers, of which the pedicles do not extend as ribs down the face. 
They include £. uphalophus of Tibet, E. mickianus of Ninepo, and 
E. ickangensis of the mountains of Ichang. (K. L.*) 

MOnZER, THOMAS {c. 1489-1525), German religious enthu- 
siast, was bom at Stolberg in the Harz near the end of the xsth 
century, and educated at Leipzig and Frankfort, graduating in 
theology. He held preaching appointments in various places, 
but his restless nature prevented him from remaining in one 
position for any length of time. In 1520 he became a preacher 
at the church of St Mary, Zwickau, and his rude eloquence, 
together with his attacks on the monks, soon raised him to 
influence. Aided by Nicholas Storch, he formed a sodety the 
principles of which were akin to those of the Taborites, and 
claimed that he was under the direct influence of the Holy 
Spirit. His zeal for the purification of the Church by casting 
out all unbelievers brought him into conflict with the governing 
body of the town, and he was compelled to leave Zwickau. He 
then went to Prague, where his preaching won numerous ad- 
herents, but his violent language brought about his expulsion 
from this dty also. At Easter 1523 MUnzer came to Aibtedt, 
and was soon appointed preacher at the church of St John, 
where he made extensive alterations in the services. His 
violence, however, aroused the hostility of Luther, in retaliation 
for which MUnzer denoimced the Wittenberg teaching. His 
preaching soon produced an uproar In Allstedt, and after holding 
his own for some time he left the town and went to MUhlhausen, 
where Heinrich Pfeiffer was already preaching doctrines similar 
to his own. The union of MOnzer and Pfeifler caused a disturb- 
ance in this dty and both were expelled. Manzer went to 
Nuremberg, where he issued a writing against Luther, who had 
been mainly instrumental in bringing about his expulsion from 
Saxony. About this time his teaching became still more violent. 
He denounced established governments, and advocated common 
ownership of the means of life. After a tour in south Germany 
he returned to MOhlhausen, overthrew the governing body of 
the dty, and established a communistic theocracy. The 
Peasants' War had already broken out in various parts of 
Germany; and as the peasantry around MUhlhausen were imbued 
with MUnzer's teaching, he collected a large body of men to 
plunder the surrounding country. He established his camp at 
Frankenhausen; but on the xsth of May 1525 the peasants were 
dispersed by Philip, landgrave of Hesse, who captured MUnzer 
and executed him on the 27th at MUhlhausen. Before his 



1+ 



MUNZINGER— MURAD 



death be is said to have written a letter admitting the jusU'ce of 
his sentence. 

Hb AussteMlckU BmpUssuni des faluken Clanbtns has been 
edited by R. Jordan (MQhlhausen, 1901). and a life oC MQiuer. 
Die Histori von Thome M6ntier des Anf enters der duringischen 
Uffrnr, has been attributtKi to Philip Mclanchtnon (Hagenau, 1525). 
See G. T. Strobcl, Leben, Schriften und Lehren ThomA MUnteers 



MUNZINGER, WERNER (1832-1875), Swiss linguist and 
traveller, was bom at Olten in Switzerland, on the axst of April 
1833. After studying natural science, Oriental languages and 
history, at Bern, Munich and Paris, he went to Egypt in 1852 
and spent a year in Cairo perfecting himself in Arabic. Entering 
a French mercantile house, he went as leader of a trading expe- 
dition to various parts of the Red Sea, fixing his quarters at 
Massawa, where he acted as French consul. In 1855 he removed 
to Keren, the chief town of the Bogos, in the north of Abyssinia, 
which country he explored during the next sue years. In x86i 
he joined the expedition under T. von Heuglin to Central Africa, 
but separated from him in November in northern Abyssinia, 
proceeding along the Gash and Atbara to Khartum! Thence, 
having meantime succeeded Heuglin as leader of the expedition, 
he travelled in 1862 to Kordofftn, failing, however, in his attempt 
to reach Darfur and Wadaj. After a short stay in Europe in 
1863, Munzinger returned to the north and north-east border- 
lands of Abyssinia, and in 1865, the year of the annexation of 
Massawa by Egypt, was appointed British consul at that town. 
He rendered valuable aid to the Abyssinian expedition of 
1867-68, among other things exploring the almost unknown 
Afar country. In acknowledgment of his services he received the 
C.B. In 1868 he was appointed French consul at Massawa, and 
in 1 87 1 was named by the khedive Ismail governor of that town 
with the title of bey. In 1870, with Captain S. B. Miles, Mun- 
zinger visited southern Arabia. As governor of Massawa he 
annexed to Egypt the Bogos and Hamiuen provinces of northern 
Abyssinia, and in 1872 was made pasha and governor-general 
of the eastern Sudan. It is believed that it was on his4idvice 
that Ismail sanctioned the Abjrssinian enterprise, but on the war 
assuming larger proportions in 1875 the command of the Egyptian 
troops in northern Abyssinia was taken from Munzinger, who was 
selected to command a small expedition intended to open up 
communication with Menclek, king of Shoa, then at enmity with 
the negus Johannes (King John) and a potential ally of Egypt. 
Leaving Tajura Bay on the 27th of October 1875 Munzinger 
started for Ankober with a force of 350 men, being accompanied 
by an envoy from Menelek. The desert country to be traversed 
was in the hands of hostile tribes, and on reaching Lake Aussa 
the expedition was attacked during the night by Gallaa— Mun- 
zinger, with his wife and nearly all his companions, being 
killed. 

Mufizine^'e comtrlbuHoru to the knowWge of the country, 
pteplc &nd la^^£<^« of north esitcm Africi nre of solid value. 
bcc Ptec. RrC.Sii vol ml\ Jj^nrn. itG.S^, vok. ^txix., xlL and xlvi. 
(abittiary Ciotictn Pft^rmanws MiittiJungm lot 1858, 1867, 1872 
et fpq.: DieCschi anrJ Wcbcr, Werner }t't»'-- er, ein Lebensbild 

iiajSl; J- V, Kc!lcf-Z*chokki;, Wemj-r ter Pasha (1890). 

luojins^r published the folia Kin^ wrir. aie SiUen und das 

fiti.hu dtr Ba(;Of (i ftgrj) ; Osi^Jrikaniuhe S-.-. - I64; 2nd ed., 1 883 ; 

hH cnoH valt»ab]t^b«>kJ : Die dcuisfAe ExpeAUmK mOstafrika (1865}: 
YfitaHlaire de la hintve de Fij^rl (il3f6s). b^itl^ papers in thegeo- 
fmptijcal «cHiiIi referred td, And a meniDir on tiT* northern boraera 
of XbyRsiaiA in tbe Zeiisiiuifi /wr aHi^meiite Efdhmde, new series, 
voU m- 

MURAD, or Amitrath, the name of five Ottoman sultans. 

MiTKAD I., sumamed Khudavendighiar (1319-1389), was the 
son of Orkhan and the Greek princess Nilofer, and succeeded 
his father in 1359, He was the first Turkish monarch to obtain 
a definite footing in Europe, and his main object throughout 
his career was to extend the European dominions of Turkey. 
The revolts of the prince of Caramania interfered with the 
realization of this plan, and trouble was caused from this quarter 
more than once during his reign until the decisive battle of Konia 
(1387), when the power of the prince of Caramania was broken. 



The sute of Europe facilitated Murad's projects: dvfl war and 
anarchy prevailed in most of the countries of Central Europe, 
where the feudal system was at its last gasp, and the small 
Balkan states were divided by mutual jealousies. The capture 
of Adrianople, followed by other conquests, brought about a 
coalition under the king of Hungary against Murad, but his able 
Ueutenant Lalashahin, the first beyUrbey of Rumtiia, defeated 
the allies at the battle of the Maritsa in 1363. In 1366 the 
king of Servia was defeated at Samakov and forced to pay 
tribute. Kustendil, Philippopolis and Nish fell into the hands 
of the Turks; a renewal of the war in 1381 led to the capture 
of Sofia two yeais later. Europe was now aroused; Lazar, 
king of Servia, formed an alliance with the Albanians, the 
Hungarians and the Moldavians against the Turks. Murad 
hastened back to Europe and met his enemies on the field of 
Kossovo (1389). Victory finally inclined to the side of the 
Turks. When the rout of the Christians was complete, a Servian 
named Milosh Kabilovich penetrated to Murad's tent on pretence 
of communicating an important secret to the sultan, and stabbed 
the conqueror. Murad was of independent character and 
remarkable intelligence. He was fond of pleasure and luxury, 
cruel and ctmning. Long relegated to the command of a distant 
province in Asia, while h^ brother Suleiman occupied an enviable 
post in Europe, he became revengeful; thus he exercised great 
cruelty in the repression of the rebellion of his son Prince &iuji, 
the finl instance of a sultan's son taking arms against his father. 
Murad transferred the Ottoman capital from Brusa to Adrianople, 
where he built a palace and added many embellishments to 
the town. The development of the feudal system of timan and 
aamets and its extension to Europe was lar^y his work. 

MusAD II. (1403-1451) succeeded his father Mahommed L 
in X421. The attempt of hb uncle Prince Mustafa to usurp 
the throne, supported as it was by the Greeks, gave trouble at 
the outset of his reign, and led to the unsuccessful siege of 
Constantinople in 1422. Murad maintained a long struggle 
against the Bosnians and Hungarians, in the course of which 
Turkey sustained many severe reverses through the valour of 
Janos HunyadL Accordingly in 1444 he concluded a treaty at 
Szegedin for ten years, by which he renounced all claim to Servia 
and recognized George Brancovich as its king. Shortly after 
this, being deeply affected by the death of his eldest son Prince 
Ala-ud-din, he abdicated in favour of Mahommed, his second 
son, then fourteen years of age: But the treacherous attack, in 
violation of treaty, by the Christian powers, imposing too hard 
a task on the inexperienced young sovereign, Murad returned 
from his retirement at Magnesia, crushed his faithless enemies 
at the battle of Varna (November 10, 1444), and again withdrew 
to Magnesia. A revolt of the janissaries induced him to return 
to power, and he sptni the remaining sue years of his life in 
warfare hi Europe, defeating Hunysdi at Kossovo (October 
17-19, X448). He died at Adrianople in 1451, and was buried 
at Brusa. By some considered as a fanatical devotee, and by 
others as given up to mysticism, he is generally described as 
kind and gentle in disposition, and devoted to the interests of 
his country. 

MusAD ni. (1546-1595), was the eldest son of Selim II., 
and succeeded his father in 1574. His accession marks the 
definite bejeiinning of the decline of the Ottoman power, which 
had only been maintained under Seh'm II. by the genius of the 
all-powerful grand vizier Mahommed SokoUL For, though 
Sokolli remained in office until his assassination in October 1578, 
his authority was undermined by the harem influences, which 
with Murad IIL were supreme. Of these the most powerful 
was that of the sultan's diief wife, named Safi£ (the pure), a 
beautiful Venetian of the noble family of Baffo, whose father 
had been governor of Corfu, and who had been captured as a 
child by Turkish corsairs and sold into the harem. This Udy, 
in spite of the sultan's sensuality and of the efforts, temporarily 
successful, to supplant her in his favouri retained her ascendancy 
over him to the last. Murad had none of the qualities of a 
ruler. He was good-natured, though cruel enough on occasion: 
his accession had been marked by the murder, according to the 



MURAENA 



15 



tlm established, of hit five bfothen. Hb will-power 
bad early been uzidermined by the opium habit, and was further 
weakened by the sensual excesses that ultimately killed him. 
Nor had he any taste for rule; his days were spent in the sodety 
of ransldans, buffoons and poets, and he himself dabbled in 
viose-iziaking d a mystic tendency. 

His one attempt at reform, the order forbidding the sale of 
intoxicants so as to stop the growing intemperance of the 
janissaries, broke down on the opposition of the soldiery. He 
was the first sultan to share personally in the proceeds of the 
comiptioQ which was undermining the state, realizing especially 
large sums by the sale of offices. This corruption was fatally 
apparent in the army, the feudal basis of which was sapped by 
the confiscation of fids for the benefit of nominees of favourites 
of the harem, and by the intrtision, through the same influences 
of foreigners and rayahs into the corps of janissaries, of which 
the discipline became more and more relaxed and the temper 
increasini^y turbulent. In view of this general demoralization 
not even the victorious outcome of the campaigns in Georgia, 
the Crimea, Daghestan, Yemen and Persia (157^x590) could 
prevent the decay of the Ottoman power; indeed, by weakening 
the Mussulman sUtes, they hastened the process, since they 
facilitated the advance of Russia to the Black Sea and the 
Ca^ian. 

Murad, who had welcomed the Persian War as a good oppor- 
tunity for ridding himself of the presence of the janissaries, 
whom he dreaded, had soon cause to fear their triumphant 
return. Incensed by the debasing of the coinage, which robbed 
them of part of their. pay, they invaded the Divan clamouring 
for the heads of the sultan's favourite, the beylerbcy of Rumelia, 
and of the dtjterdar (finance minister), which were thrown to 
tbem (April 3, 1589). This was the first time that the janissaries 
had invaded the palace: a precedent to be too often followed. 
The outbreak of another European war in 1592 gave the sultan 
an opportunity of ridding himself of their presence. Murad died 
in X 595, leaving to his successor a legacy of war and anarchy. 

It was undo- Murad IIL that England's relations with the 
Porte began. Negotiations were opened in 1579 with Queen 
Elizabeth through certain British merchants; in 1580 the first 
Capiiulations with England were signed; in 1583 William 
Harebone, the first British ambassador to. the Porte, arrived 
at Constantinople, and in 1593 commercial Capitulations were 
signed with England granting the same privileges as those 
enjoyed by the French. (See Capitulations.) 

MiTKAD IV. (X61X-X640) was the son of Sultan Ahmed I., 
and succeeded his uncle Mustafa L in 1623. For the first nine 
years oC his reign his youth prevented him from taking more than 
an observer's part in affairs. But the lessons thus learnt were 
saffidcntly striking to mould his whole character and policy. 
The miiKyrity of the sultan gave full play to the anarchic elements 
in the state; the soldiery, q>ahis and janissaries, conscious of 
\\ssiT power and reckless through impunity, rose in revolt 
vhtnever the whim seized them, demanding privileges and the 
faeadb of those who displeased them, not sparing even the 
Kilian's favourites. In 1631 the spahis of Asia Minor rose in 
revc^, in protest against the deposition of the grand vizier 
Khosrev; their representatives crowded to Constantinople, 
stoned the new grand vizier, Hafiz, in the court of the palace, 
aztd pursued the sultan himself into the inner apartments, 
ciamouring for seventeen heads of his advisers and favourites, 
on penalty of his own deposition. Hafiz was surrendered, a 
voluntary martyr; other ministers were deposed; Mustafa 
Pasha, aga of the janissaries, was saved by his own troops. 
But Murad was now beginning to assert himself. Khosrev was 
executed in Asia Minor by his orders; a plot of the spahis to 
depose him was frustrated by the loyalty of Koes Mahommed, 
aga of the janissaries, and of the spahi Rum Mahommed 
(Mahommed the Greek); and on the 29th of May 1632, by a 
SQCcessfui personal appeal to the byaJty of the janissaries, 
Murad crushed the rebels, whom he surrounded in the Hippo- 
drome. At the age of twenty he found himself possessed of 
edective autocratic power. 



Eb severity has remained legendary. Death was the penalty 
for the least offence, and no past services^as Koes Mahonuned 
was to find to his cost — ^were admitted in extenuation. The use 
of tobacco, coffee, opium and wine were forbidden on pain 
of death; eighteen persons are said to have been put to death in 
a sin^e day for infringing this rule. During his whole rdgn, 
indeed, supposed offenders against the sultan's authority were 
done to dMth, singly or in thousands. The tale of his victims is 
said to have exceeded xoo,ooo. 

But if he was the most cruel, Murad was also one of the most 
manly, of the later sultans. He was of gigantic strength, which 
he maintained by constant physical exercises. He was also 
fond of hunting, and for this reason usually lived at Adrianople. 
He broke through the alleged tradition, bequeathed by Suleiman 
the Magnificent to his successors, that the sultan should not 
conunand the troops in person, and took command in the 
Persian war which led to the capture of Bagdad (1638) and the 
conclusion of an honourable peace ( May 7, 1639). Early in 1640 
he died, barely twenty-nine years of age. The cause of his death 
was acute gout brought on by excessive drinking. In spite of 
his drunkenness, however, Murad was a bigoted Stmni, and the 
main cause of his campaign against Persia was his desire to 
extirpate the Shia heresy. In the intervals of his campaignings 
and cruelties the sultan would amuse his entourage by exhibit- 
ing feats of strength, or compose verses, some of which were 
published under the pseudonym of MuradL 

See. for detaibof the lives of the above. J. von Hammer-PurfataQ, 
Cesckicku des osmaniscken Reickez (Pest, 1840), where further 
authorities are cited. 

MtTRAD V. (1840-1904), eldest son of Sultan Abd-uI-Mejid, 
was bom on the 21st of September 1840. On the accession of 
his uncle Abd-ul-Aziz, Prince Mahonuned Murad Effendi — 
as he was then called — ^was deprived of all share in public 
affairs and imprisoned, owing to his opposition to the sultan's 
plan for altering the order of succession. On the deposition of 
Abd-ul-Aziz on the 30th of May 1876, Murad was haled from his 
prison by a mob of softas and soldiers of the " Young Turkey " 
party under Suleiman Pasha, and proclaimed " emperor by the 
grace of God and the will of the people." Three months later, 
however, his health, undermined by his long confinement, gave 
way; and on the 31st of August he was deposed to make room 
for his younger brother, Abd-ul-Hamid U. He was kept in 
confinement in the Cheragan palace till his death on the 29th of 
August X904. 

See K^ratry, Mourad V., prince, sultan, prisonnier d'SbU 1840- 
2876 (Paris. 1878): Djemaleddin Bey, Sultan Murad 7., the Turkish 
Dynasty Mystery, 1876-J8QS (London, 1895). 

MURAENA, the name of an eel common in the Mediterranean, 
and highly esteemed by the ancient Romans; it was afterwards 




Muraena picta, from the Indo-Pacific 



applied to the whole genus of fishes to which the Mediterranean 
species belongs, and which is abundantly represented in tropical 
and sub-tropical seas, especially in rocky parts or on coral reefs. 
Some ninety species are knoiKTi. In the majority a long fin 
runs from the bead along the back, round the tail to the vent. 



i6 



MURAL DECORATION 



but all are destitute of pectoral and ventral fins. The skin is 
scaleless and smooth, in many species ornamented with varied 
and bright colours, so that these fishes are frequently mistaken 
for snakes. The mouth is wide, the jaws strong and armed with 
formidable, generally sharply pointed, teeth, which enable the 
Muraena not only to seize its prey (which chiefly consists of 
other fishes) but also to inflict serious, and sometimes danger- 
ous, wounds on its enemies. It attacks persons who approach 
its places of concealment in shallow water, and is feared by 
fishermen. 

Some of the tropical Murdenas exceed a length of xo ft., but 
most of the species, among them the Mediterranean species, 
attain to only half that length. The latter, the " morena " of 
the Italians and the Muraena Helena of ichthyologists, was 
considered by the ancient Romans to be one of the greatest 
delicacies, and was kept in large ponds and aquaria. It is not 
confined to the coasts of southern Europe, but is spread over the 
Indian Ocean, and is not uncommon on the coasts of Australia. 
Its body is generally of a rich brown, marked with large yellowish 
spots, each of which contains smaller brown spots. 

MURAL DECORATION, a general term for the art of ornament- 
ing wall surfaces. There is scarcely one of the numerous 
branches of decorative art which has not at some time or other 
been applied to this purpose.* For what may be called the 
practical or furnishing point of view, see Wall-coverincs. 
Here the subject is treated rather as part of the history of art. 
' I. Reliefs sculptured in Marble or Stone. — ^This is the oldest 
method of wall-decoration, of which numerous examples exist. 
The tombs and temples of Egypt are rich in this kind of mural 
ornament of various dates, extending over nearly 5000 years. 
These sculptures are, as a nile, carved in low relief; in many cases 
they arc " counter-sunk," that is, the most projecting parts of 
the figures do not extend beyond the flat surface of the ground. 
Some unfinished reliefs discovered in the rock-cut tombs of 
Thebes show the manner in which the sculptor set to work. 
The plain surface of the stone was marked out by red lines into a 
number of squares of equal size. The use of this wab probably 
twofold: first, as a guide in enlarging the design from a small 
drawing, a method still commonly practised; second, to help the 
artist to draw his figures with just proportions, following the 
strict canons which were laid down by the Egyptians. No 
excessive realism or individuality of style arising from a careful 
study of the life-model was permitted.* When the surface had 
been covered with these squares, the artist drew with a brush 
dipped in red the outlines of his relief, and then cut round them 
with his chisel. 

When the relief was finished, it was, as a rule, entirely painted 
over with much minuteness and great variety of colours. More 
rarely the ground was left the natural tint of the stone or marble, 
and only the figures and hieroglyphs painted. In the case of 
sculpture in hard basalt or granite the painting appears often 
to have been omitted altogether. The absence of perspective 
effects and the severe self-restraint of the sculptors in the matter 
of composition show a sense of artistic fitness in this kind of 
decoration. That the rigidity of these sculptured pictures did 
not arise from want of skill or observation of nature on the part 
of the artists is apparent when we examine their representations 
of birds and animals; the special characteristics of each creature 
and species were unerringly caught by the ancient Egyptian, 
and reproduced in stone or colour, in a half-symbolic way, 
suggesting those peculiarities of form, plumage, or movement 
which are the " differentia " of each, other ideas bearing less 
directly on the point being eliminated. 

The subjects of these mural sculptures are endless; almost 
every possible incident in man's life here or beyond the grave 
is reproduced with the closest detail. The tomb of Tlh at 
Sakkarah (about 4500 B.C.) has some of the finest and eariiest 
specimens of these mural sculptures, especially rich in illustra- 

* SeealsoCERAMics; Mosaic; Paintikc;Sculpture;Tapestry: 
Tiles; also Egypt ; Art and Archaeology iGueek Art ; Roman Art ; 
&c. 

• During the earliest times — more than 4000 years before our era 
—there appear to have been exceptions to this rule. 



tionsof the domestic life and occupations of the Egyptians. 
The latter tombs, as a rule, have sculptures depicting the religious 
ritual and belief of the people, and the temples combine th.-se 
hieratic subjecU with the history of the reigns and victories of 
the Egyptian kings. 

The above remarks as to style and manner of execution may 
be applied also to the wall-sculptures from the royal palaces of 
Nineveh and Babylon, the finest of which are shown by inscrip- 
tions to date from the time of Sennacherib to that of Sardana- 
palus (from 705 to 625 B.C.). These are carved in low relief with 
almost gem-like delicacy of detail on enormous slabs of white 
marble. The sacred subjects, generally representing the king 
worshipping one of the numerous Assyrian gods, are mostly 
large, often colossal in scale. The other subjects, illustrating 
the life and amusements of the king, hb prowess in war or 
hunting, or long processions of prisoners and tribute-bearers 
coming to do him homage, are generally smaller and in some cases 
very mbute in scale (fig. x). The arrangement of these reliefs 




FiC. I.— Assyrian Relief, on a Marble Wall-slab from the Palace 
of Sardanapalus at Nineveh. 

in long horizontal bands, and their reserved conventional treat- 
ment are somewhat similar to those of ancient Egypt, but they 
show a closer attention to anatomical truth and a greater 
love for dramatic effect than any of the Egyptian reliefs. As in 
the art of Egypt, birds and animals are treated with greater 
realism than human figures. A relief in the British Museum, 
representing a lioness wounded by an arrow in her spine and 
dragging helplessly her paralysed hind legs, affords an example 
of wonderful truth and pathos. Remarkable technical skill is 
shown in all these sculptures by the way in which the sculptors 
have obtained the utmost amount of effect with the smallest 
possible amount of relief, in this respect calling strongly to mind 
a similar peculiarity in the work of the Florentine Donatello. 

The palace at Mashita on the tajj road in Moab, built by the 
Sasam'an Chosroes II. (a.d. 614-627), is ornamented on the 
exterior with beautiful surface sculpture in stone. The designs 
are of peculiar interest as forming a link between Assyrian and 
Byzantine art, and they are not remotely connected with the 
decoration on Moslem buildings of comparatively modern 
date.' 
Especially in Italy during the middle ages a similar treatment 
' Among the Mashita carvings occurs that oldest and most widely 
spread of all forms of Aryan ornament— the sacred tree between two 
animals. The sculptured slab over the " lion-gate " at Mycenae 
has the other common variety of this motive— the fire-alur between 
the beasts. These designs, occasionally varied by figures of human 
worshippers instead of the beasts, survived long after their meaning 
had been forgotten; even down to the present day they frequently 
appear on carpets and other textiles of Oriental manufacture. 



MURAL DECORATION 



17 



cf marble in low relief was frequently used for wall-decoration. 
The most notable example is the beautiful series of reliefs on the 
west front of Orvieto Cathedral, the work of Giovanni Pisano and 
his pupils in the early part of the 14th century. These are small 
reliefs, illustrative of the Old and New TestamenU, of graceful 
design and skilful execution. A growth of branching foliage 
serves to unite and frame the tiers of subjects. 

Of a widely different class, but of considerable importance in 
the history of mural decoration, are the beautiful reliefs, sculp- 
tured in stone and marble, with which Moslem buildings in 
many parts of the world are ornamented. These are mostly 
geometrical patterns of great intricacy, which cover large 
uufaces. frequently broken up into pands by bands of more 
flowing ornament or Arabic inscriptions. The mosques of 
Cairo, India and Persia, and the domestic Moslem buildings of 
Spain are extremely rich in this method of decoration. In 
vesiem Europe, especially during the xsth century, stone 
paneUed-work with rich tracery formed a large part of the scheme 
of decoration in all the more splendid buildings. Akin to this, 
though without actual relief, is the stone tracery — inlaid flush 
into rough flint walls — which was a mode of ornament largely 
used for enriching the exteriors of churches in the counties of 
Norfolk and Suffolk. It is almost peculiar to that district, and 
is an example of the skill and taste with which the medieval 
builders ada p ted their method of ornamentation to the materials 
in hand. 

2. iiarbU Veneer. — Another widely used method of mural 
decoration has been the application of thin marble linings to 
wall -surfaces, the decorative effect being produced by the natural 
beauty of the marble itself and not by sculptured reliefs. One of 
the oldest buildings in the world, the so-^lled " Temple of the 
Sphinx " among the Giza pyramids, is built of great blocks of 
granite, the inside of the rooms being lined with slabs of semi- 
transparent Afriaui alabaster about 3 in. thick. In the ist cen- 
tury thin veneers of richly coloured marbles were largely used 
by the Romans to decorate brick and stone walls. Pliny (H. N. 
xxxvL 6) speaks of this practice as being a new and degenerate 
invention in his time. Klany examples exist at Pompeii and in 
other Roman buildings. -Numerous Byzantine churches, such 
as St Saviour's at Constantinople, and St George's, Thessalonica, 
have the lower part of the internal walls richly ornamented in 
this way. It was commonly used to form a dado, the upper part 
of the building being covned with mosaic. The cathedral of 
Monreale and other Sicuk>-Norman buildings owe a great deal 
of their splendour to these linings of richly variegated marbles. 
In most cases the main surface is of light-coloured marble or 
alabaster, inlaid bands of darker tint or coloured mosaic being 
used to divide the surface into panels. The peculiar Italian- 
Gothic of northern and central Italy during the X4th and 15th 
centuries, and at Venice some centuries earlier, relied greatly 
for its effecu on this treatment of marble. St Mark's at Venice 
and the cathedral of Florence are magnificent examples of this 
work used externally. Both inside and out most of the richest 
examples of Moslem architecture owe much to this method of 
decoration; the mosques and palaces of India and Persia are in 
many cases completely lined with the most brilliant sorts of 
marble of contrasting tints. 

3. Watt-lMUttgs ^ CUued Bricks or TUes.—Th^ is a very 
important dass of decoration, and from its almost imperishable 
nature, its richnen of cobur, and its brilliance of surface is 
capable of producing a splendour of effect only rivalled by glass 
mosaics. In the less important form— that of bricks modelled 
or stamped in relief with figures and inscriptions, and then coated 
with a brilliant cokmr in siliceous enamel— it was largely used 
by the andent Egyptians and Assyrians as well as by this later 
Sasanians of Persia. In the x xth and x 2th centuries the Moslems 
of Peista bfougbt this art to great perfection, and used it on a 
large sole, chiefly, though not invariably, for internal walls. 
The main surfaces were covered by thick earthenware tiles, 
overlaid with a white enamel. These were not rectangular, but 
9i various shapes, mostly some form of a star, arranged so as t^ 
fit ck)sely together. Delicate aod minute patterns were then 



painted on the tiles, after the first firing, in a copper-like colour' 
with strong metallic lustre, produced by the deoxidization of 
a metallic salt in the process of the second firing. Bands and 
friezes with Arabic inscriptions, modelled boldly in hig^ relief, 
were used to break up the monotony of the surface. In these, 
as a rule, the projeaing letters were painted blue, and the flat 
ground enriched with very minute patterns in the lustre-colour. 
This combination of bold relief and delicate painting produces 
great vigour and richness of effect, equally telling whether viewed 
in the mass or closely examined tile by tile. In the xsth century 
lustre-colours, though stUl largely employed for plates, vases and 
other vessels, especially in Spain, were little used for tiles; and 
another class of ware, rich in the variety and brilliance of its 
colours, was extensively used by Moslem builders all over the 
Mahonunedan world. The most siunptuous sorts of tUcs used 
for wall-coverings are those of the so-called "Rhodian"and 
Damascene wares, the work of Persian potters at many places. 
Those made at Rhodes are coarsely executed in comparison with 
the produce of the older potteries at Isfah&n and Damascus 
(see Cekamics). These are rectangular tiles of earthenware, 
covered with a white " slip," and painted in brilliant colours with 
slight conventionalized representations of various flowers, 
especially the rose, the hyacinth and the carnation. The red 
used is applied in considerable body, so as to stand out in slight 
relief. Another class of design is more geometrical, forming 
regular repeats; but the most beautiful compositions are those 
in which the natural growth of trees and flowers is imitated, the 
branches and blossoms spreading over a large surface covered by 
hundreds of tiles without any repetition. One of the finest 
examples is the " Mecca* wall " in the mosque of Ibrahim Agha, 
Cairo; and other Egyptian mosques are adorned in the same way 
(fig. 2). Another variety, the special production of Damascus, 




Fio. 2.— One of the Wall-tiles from the Mosque of Ibrahim 
Agha, Cairo, (ro in. square.) 

has the deagn almost entirely executed in blue. It was about 
A.D. 1600, in the reign of Shah Abbas I., that this class of jittery 
was brought to greatest perfection, and it is in Persia that the 
most magnificent examples are found, dating from the X2th to 
the. X 7th centuries. The most remarkable examples for beauty 
and extent are the mosque at Tabriz, built by All Khoja in the 
12th century, the ruined tomb of Sultan Khodabend (a.d. 1303^ 
13 16) at SulUniyas, the palace of Shah Abbas I. and the tomb 
of Abbas 11. (d. a.d. 1666) at Isfahftn, all of which buildings are 
covered almost entirely inside and out. 

Another imporUnt class of wall-tHes are those manufactured 
by the Spanish Moors, called " azulejos," especially during the 
X4th century. These are in a very different style, being designed 

la 



i6 



MURAL DECORATION 



but all are destitute of pectoral and ventral fins. The skin is 
scalelcss and smooth, in many species ornamented with varied 
and bright colours, so that these fishes are frequently mistaken 
for snakes. The mouth is wide, the jaws strong and armed with 
formidable, generally sharply pointed, teeth, which enable the 
Muraena not only to seize its prey (which chiefly consists of 
other fishes) but also to inflict serious, and sometimes danger- 
ous, wounds on its enemies. It attacks persons who approach 
its places of concealment in shallow water, and is feared by 
fishermen. 

Some of the tropical Uurdenas exceed a length of lo ft., but 
most of the species, among them the Mediterranean species, 
attain to only half that length. The latter, the " morena " of 
the Italians and the Muraena Helena of ichthyologists, was 
considered by the ancient Romans to be one of the greatest 
delicacies, and was kept in large ponds and aquaria. It is not 
confined to the coasts of southern Europe, but is spread over the 
Indian Ocean, and is not uncommon on the coasts of Australia. 
Its body is generally of a rich brown, marked with large yeUowish 
spots, each of which contains smaller brown spots. 

MURAL DECORATION, a general term for the art of ornament- 
ing wall surfaces. There is scarcely one of the numerous 
branches of decorative art which has not at some time or other 
been applied to this purpose.* For what may be called the 
practical or furnishing point of view, see Wall-coverings. 
Here the subject is treated rather as part of the history of art. 

I. Reliefs sculptured in Marble or Stone. — This is the oldest 
method of wall-decoration, of which numerous examples exist. 
The tombs and temples of Egypt are rich in this kind of mural 
ornament of various dates, extending over nearly 5000 years. 
These sculptures are, as a nile, carved in low relief; in many cases 
they are " counter-sunk," that is, the most projecting parts of 
the figures do not extend beyond the flat surface of the ground. 
Some unfinished reliefs discovered in the rock-cut tombs of 
Thebes show the manner in which the sculptor set to work. 
The plain surface of the stone was marked out by red lines into a 
number of squares of equal size. The use of this ^is probably 
twofold: first, as a guide in enlarging the de^gn from a small 
drawing, a method still commonly practised; second, to help the 
artist to draw hb figures with just proportions, following the 
strict canons which were laid down by the Egyptians. No 
excessive realism or individuality of style arising from a careful 
study of the life-model was permitted.' When the surface had 
been covered with these squares, the artist drew with a brush 
dipped in red the outlines of his relief, and then cut round them 
with his chiseL 

When the relief was finished, it was, as a rule, entirely painted 
over with much minuteness and great variety of colours. More 
rarely the ground was left the natural tint of the stone or marble, 
and only the figures and hieroglyphs painted. In the case of 
sculpture in hard basalt or granite the painting appears often 
to have been omitted altogether. The absence of perspective 
effects and the severe self-restraint of the sculptors in the matter 
of composition show a sense of artistic fitness in this kind of 
decoration. That the rigidity of these sculptured pictures did 
not arise from want of skill or observation of nature on the part 
of the artists is apparent when we examine their representations 
of birds and animals; the special characteristics of each creature 
and species were unerringly caught by the ancient Egyptian, 
and reproduced in stone or colour, in a half-symbolic way, 
suggesting those peculiarities of form, plumage, or movement 
which are the " differentia " of each, other ideas bearing less 
directly on the point being eliminated. 

The subjects of these mural sculptures are endless; almost 
every possible incident in man's life here or beyond the grave 
is reproduced with the closest detail. The tomb of Tlh at 
Sakkarah (about 4500 B.C.) has some of the finest and eariicst 
specimens of these mural sculptures, especially rich in illustra- 

* SeealsoCERAMics:MosAic: Painting;Sculpture:Tapestry: 
Tiles; also Egypt \Art and Archaeology; Cheek Art ; Roman Art ; 
&c. 

• During the earliest times — more than 4000 years before our era 
—there appear to have been exceptions to this rule. 



tbnsof the domestic life and occupations of the Egyptians. 
The latter tombs, as a nde, have sculptures depicting the religious 
ritual and belief of the people, and the temples combbe th .-se 
hieratic subjects with the history of the reigns and victories of 
the Egyptian kings. 

The above remarks as to style and manner of execution may 
be applied also to the wall-sculptures from the royal palaces of 
Nineveh and Babylon, the finest of which are shown by inscrip- 
tions to date from the time of Sennacherib to that of Sardana- 
palus (from 705 to 625 B.C.). These are carved in low relief with 
almost gem-like delicacy of detail on enormous slabs of white 
marble. The sacred subjects, generally representing the king 
worshipping one of the numerous Ass3rrian gods, are mostly 
large, often colossal in scale. The other subjects, illustrating 
the life and amusements of the king, his prowess in war or 
hunting, or long processions of prisoners and tribute-bearers 
coming to do him homage, are genmlly smaller and in some cases 
very minute in scale (fig. i). The arrangement of these reliefs 




Fig. I.— Assyrian Relief, on a Marble Wall-slab from the Palace 
of Sardanapalus at Nineveh. 

in long horizontal bands, and their reserved conventional treat- 
ment are somewhat similar to those of ancient Egypt, but they 
show a closer attention to anatomical truth and a greater 
love for dramatic effect than any of the Egyptian reliefs. As in 
the art of Egypt, birds and animals are treated with greater 
realism than human figures. A relief in the British Museum, 
representing a lioness wounded by an arrow in her spine and 
dragging helplessly her paralysed hind legs, affords an example 
of wonderful truth and pathos. Remarkable technical skill is 
shown in all these sculptures by the way in which the sculptors 
have obtained the utmost amount of effect with the smallest 
possible amount of reUef , in this respect calling strongly to mind 
a similar peculiarity in the work of the Florentine DonateUo. 

The palace at Mashita on the ^jj road in Moab, built by the 
Sasanian Chosroes II. (a.d. 614-627), is ornamented on the 
exterior with beautiful suriace sculpture in stone. The designs 
are of peculiar interest as forming a link between Assyrian and 
Byzantine art, and they are not remotely connected with the 
decoration on Moslem buildings of comparatively modern 
date.' 
Especially in Italy during the middle ages a similar treatment 
* Among the Mashiu carvings occurs that oldest and most widely 
spread of all forms of Aryan ornament — the sacred tree between two 
animals. The sculptured sbb over the " lion-gate " at Mycenae 
has the other common variety of this motive — the fire-altar between 
the beasts. These designs, occasionally varied by figures of human 
worshippers instead of the beasts, survived long after their meaning 
had been forgotten; even down to the present day they frequently 
appear on carpeU and other textiles of Oriental manufacture. 



MURAL DECORATION 



17 



of maxUe in low relief was frequently used for wall-decoration. 
The moat notable example is the beautiful series of reliefs on the 
west front of Ovieto Cathedral, the work of Giovanni Pisano and 
his pupib in the early part of the 14th century. These are small 
reliefs, illustrative of the Old and New Testaments, of graceful 
design and skilful execution. A growth of branching foliage 
serves to unite and frame the tiers of subjects. 

Of a widely different dass, but of considerable importance in 
the history of mural decoration, are the beautiful reliefs, sculp- 
tured in stone and marble, with which Moslem buildings in 
many parts of the world are ornamented. These are mostly 
geometrical patterns of great intricacy, which cover large 
surfaces, frequently broken up into panels by bands of more 
flowing ornament or Arabic inscriptions. The mosques of 
Cairo, India and Persia, and the domestic Moslem buildings of 
Spain are extremely rich in thb method of decoration. In 
western Europe, especially during the 15th century, stone 
panelled-work with rich tracery formed a large part of the scheme 
of decoration in all the more splendid buildings. Akin to this, 
though without actual relief, is the stone tracery — inlaid flush 
into rough flint walls — which was a mode of ornament largely 
used for enriching the exteriors of churches in the counties of 
Norfolk and Suffolk. It is almost peculiar to that district, and 
is an example of the skill and taste with which the medieval 
builders adapted their method of ornamentation to the materials 
in hand. 

>. iiarbU Veneer, — Another widely used method of mural 
decoration has been the application of thin marble linings to 
wall-surfaces, the decorative effect being produced by the natural 
beauty of the marble itself and not by sculptured reliefs. One of 
the oldest buildings in the world, the so-called " Temple of the 
Sphinx '* among the Ciza pyramids, is built of great blocks of 
granite, the inside of the rooms being lined with slabs of semi- 
transparent Afriaui alabaster about 3 in. thick. In the ist cen- 
tury thin veneers of richly coloured marbles were largely used 
by the Romans to decorate brick and stone walls. Pliny (H. N. 
xxxvL 6) speaks of this practice as being a new and degenerate 
invention in his time. NIany examples exist at Pompeii and in 
other Roman buildings. -Numerous Byzantine churches, such 
as St Saviour's at Constantinople, and St George's, Thessalonica, 
have the lower part of the internal walls richly ornamented in 
this way. It was commonly used to form a dado, the upper part 
of the building being covned with mosaic. The cathedral of 
Monreak and other Sicuk>-Norman buildings owe a great deal 
of their ^lendour to these linings of richly variegated marbles. 
In roost cases the main surface is of light-coloured marble or 
alabaster, inlaid bands of darker tint or coloured mosaic being 
used to divide the surface into panels. The peculiar Italian- 
Gothic of northern and central Italy during the X4th and xsth 
centuries, and at Venice some centuries earlier, relied greatly 
for its effects on this treatment of marble. St Mark's at Venice 
and the cathedral of Florence are magnificent examples of this 
work used externally. Both inside and out most of the richest 
examples ol Moslem architecture owe much to this method of 
decoration; the mosques and palaces of India and Persia are in 
many cases oompleuly lined with the most brilliant sorts of 
marble of contrasting tints. 

5. WaO-Linings of Claud Bricks or Tiles.— ThSa is a very 
important dass of decoration, and from its almost imperishable 
nature, its richness of cokmr, and iu brilliance of surface is 
capable of producing a splendour of effect only rivalled by glass 
mosaics. In the less important form — ^that of bricks modelled 
or sumped in relief with figures and inscriptions, and then coated 
with a brilliant colour in siliceous enamel— it was Urgely used 
by the andent Egyptians and Assyrians as well as by the later 
^f^nian^ of PcTsia. In the I ith and i >th centuries the Moslems 
of Peoia brought this art to great perfection, and used it on a 
large scale, chiefly, though not invariably, for internal walls. 
The main surfaces were covered by thick earthenware tiles, 
overlaid with a white enamel These were not rectangular, but 
of various shapes, mostly some form of a star, arranged so as t^ 
fit dosdy together. Delicate and minuU patterns were then 
XIX t* 



painted on the tiles, after the first firing, in a copper-like colour' 
with strong metallic lustre, produced by the deoxidization of 
a metallic salt in the process of the second firing. Bands and 
friezes with Arabic inscriptions, modelled boldly in high relief, 
were used to break up the monotony of the surface. In these, 
as a rule, the projecting letters were painted blue, and the flat 
ground enriched with very minute patterns in the lustre-colour. 
This combination of bold relief and delicate painting produces 
great vigour and richness of effect, equally telling whether viewed 
in the mass or dosely examined tile by tile. In the xsth century 
lustre-coburs, though still largely empbyed for plates, vases and 
other vessels, espedally in Spain, were little used for tiles; and 
another class of ware, rich in the variety and bxilliance of its 
colours, was extensivdy used by Moslem builders all over the 
Mahommedan world. The most sumptuous torts of tiles used 
for wall-coverings are those of the so<alled " Rhodian " and 
Damascene wares, the work of Persian potters at many places. 
Those made at Rhodes are coarsdy executed in comparison with 
the produce of the older potteries at IsfahAn and Damascus 
(see Cekaiocs). These are rectangular tiles of earthenware, 
covered with a white " slip," and painted in brilliant colours with 
slight conventionalized representations of various flowers, 
especially the rose, the hyacinth and the canuttion. The red 
used is applied in considerable body, so as to stand out in slight 
rdief. Another class of design is more geometrical, forming 
regular repeats; but the most beautiful compositions are those 
in which the natural growth of trees and flowers is imitated, the 
branches and blossoms spreading over a large surface covered by 
hundreds of tiles without any repetitioxL One of the finest 
examples is the " Mecca wall " in the mosque of Ibrahim Agha, 
Cairo; and other Egyptian mosques are adorned in the same way 
(fig. 3). Another variety, the special production of Damascus, 




Fig. 3.— One of the Wall-tiles from the Mosque of Ibrahim 
Agha, Cairo. (10 in. square.) 

has the design almost entirely executed in blue. It was about' 
A.D. 1600, in the reign of Shah Abbas I., that this class of jittery 
was brought to greatest perfection, and it is in Persia that the 
most magnificent examples are found, dating from the X2th to 
the .17th centuries. The most remarkable examples for beauty 
and extent are the mosque at Tabriz, built by All Khoja in the 
1 2th century, the ruined tomb of Sultan Khodabend (a.d. 1303- 
13x6) at Sultaniyas, the palace of Shah Abbas I. and the tomb 
of Abbas II. (d. a.d. x666) at Isfahftn, all of which buildings ars 
covered almost entirdy inside and out. 

Another imporUnt class of wall-tHes are those manufactured 
by the Spanish Moors, called " azulejos," especially during th« 
X4th century. These are in a very different style, bdng designed 



i8 



MURAL DECORATION 



to suggest or Imitate mosaic They have intricate inter- 
lacing geometrical patterns marked out by lines in slight 
relief; brilliant enamel colours were then burned into the tile, 
the projecting lines forming boundaries for the pigments. A 
rich effect is produced by this combination of relief and colour. 
They are mainly used for dadoes about 4 ft. high, often sur- 
mounted by a band of tiles with painted inscriptions. The 
Alhambra and Generalife Palaces at Granada, bcgim in the 
13th century, but mainly built and decorated by YOsuf I. and 
Mahommed V. (a.d. 1333-1391), and the Alcazar at Seville have 
the most beautiful examples of these " azulejos." The latter 
building chiefly owes its decorations to Pedro the Cruel (a.d. 
1364), who employed Moorish workmen for its tile-coverings 
and other ornaments. Many other buildings in southern Spain 
are enriched in the same way, some as late as the x6th century. 

Almost peculiar to Spain are a variety of wall-tile the work of 
Italians in the i6th and 17th centuries. These are effective, 
though rather coarsely painted, and have a rich yellow as the 
predominant colour. The Casa dc Pilatos and Isabel's Chapel 
in the Alcazar Palace, both at Seville, have the best specimens 
of these, dating about the year 1500. In other Western countries 
tiles have been used more for pavements than for wall-decoration. 

4. Wan-Coverings of Hard Stucco^ frequatUy enriched Vfith 
Reliefs.— The Greeks and Romans possessed the secret of making 
ajiard kind of stucco, creamy in colour, and ci^ble of receiving 
a polish like that of marble; it would stand ejqaosure to the 
weather. Those of the early Greek temples which were built, 
not of marble, but of stone, such as the Doric temples at Aegina, 
Phigaleia, Paestum and Agrigentum, were all entirely coated 
inside and out with this material, an admirable surface for the 
further polychromatic decoration with which all Greek buildings 
seem to have been ornamented. Another highly artistic use 
of stucco among the Greeks and Romans, for the interiors of 
buildings, consisted in covering the walls and vaults with a 
smooth coat, on which while still wet the outlines of figures. 




Fig. 3.— Modelled Stucco Wall-Relief, from a Tomb in Magna 
Graecia. (About half full size.) 

groups and other ornaments were sketched with a point; more 
stucco was then applied in lumps and rapidly modelled into 
delicate relief before it had time to set. Some tombs in Magna 
Graecia of the 4th century B.C. are decorated in this way with 



figures of nymphs, cupids, animals and wreaths, all of which are 
models of grace and elegance, and remarkable for the dexterous 
way in which a few rapid touches of the modelling tool or thumb 
have produced a work of the highest artistic beauty (fig. 3). 
Roman specimens of this sort of decoration are common, fine 
examples have been foimd in the baths of Titus and ntmierous 
tombs near Rome, as well as in many of the houses of PompeiL 




Fig. 4.— Stucco Wall-Relief, from the Alhambra. 

These are mostly executed with great skill and frequently 
with good taste, though in some cases, especially at Pompeii, 
elaborate architectural compositions with awkward attempts at 
effects of violent perspective, modelled in slight relief on flat 
wall-suriaces, produce an unpleasing effect. Other Pompeian 
examples, where the surface is divided into flat panels, each 
containing a figure or group, have great merit for their deh'cate 
richness, without offending against the canons of wall-decoration, 
one of the first conditions of which is that no attempt should be 
made to disguise the fact of its being a solid wall and a fiat 
surface. 

The Moslem architects of the middle ages made great use ot 
stucco ornament both for external and internal walls. The 
stucco is modelled in high or low relief in great variety of geo- 
metrical patterns, alternating with bands of more flowing 
ornament or long Arabic inscriptions. Many of their buildings, 
such as the mosque of Tuliin at Cairo (a.d. 879), owe nearly all 
their beauty to this fine stucco work, the purely architectural 
shell of the structure being often simple and devoid of ornament. 
These stucco reliefs were, as a nde, further decorated with 
delicate painting in gold and colours. The Moorish tower at 
Segovia in Spain is a good example of this class of ornament used 
externally. With the exception of a few bands of brick and the 
stone quoins at the angles, the whole exterior of the tower is 
covered with a network of stucco reliefs in simple geometrical 
patterns. The Alhambra at Granada and the Alcazar at Seville 
have the richest examples of this ^K'ork. The lower part of the 
walls is lined with marble or tiles to a height of about 4 ft. and 
above that in many cases the whole surface is encrusted with 
these reliefs, the varied surface of which, by producing endless 
gradations of shadow, takes away any possible harshness from 
the brilliance of the gold and colours (fig. 4). 

During the i6th century, and even earlier, stucco wall-reliefs 
were used with considerable skill and decorative effect in Italy, 
England and other Western countries. Perhaps the most graceful 



MURAL DECORATION 



19 



emnpics arte the reliefs with which Vasari in the i6th centiuy 
encnxsted piUars and other parts of the court in the Florentine 
Palazzo Vecchio, built of plain stone by Michelozzo in 1454. 
Some are of flowing vines and other plants winding spirally 
roand the columns. The English examples of this work are 
effectively df^gned, though coarser in execution. The outside 
of a half-timbered house in the market-place at Newark-upon- 
Trcnt has high reliefs in stucco of canopied figures, dating from 
the end of the x 5th century. The counties of Essex and Suffolk 
are rich in exaihplcs of this work used externally; and many 
x6th-€entary houses in Engkuid have fine internal stucco 
decoration, especially Hardwicke Hall (Derbyshire), one of the 
room of which has the upper part of the wall enriched with 
life-sized stucco figures in high relief, forming a deep frieze all 
iouxkL 

5. SgraJUc—Tba is a variety of stucco work used chiefly in 
Italy from the x6th century downwards, and employed only for 
exteriors of buildings, especially the palaces of Tuscany and 
northern Italy. The wall is covered with a coat of stucco made 
black by an admixture of charcoal; over this a second thin coat 
of white stucco is laid. When it is all hard the design is produced 
by cutting and scratching away the white skin, so as to show the 
black under-coat. Thus the drawing appears in black on a white 
ground. This work is effective at a distance, as it requires a 
bold style of handling, in which the shadows are indicated by 
cross-hatched lines more or less near together.^ Flowing ara- 
besques mixed with grotesque figures occur most frequently in 
Sgraffito. In recent years the sgraffito method has been revived; 
and the result of Mr Moody's experiments may be seen on the 
east wall of the Royal College of Science in Exhibition Road, 
London. 

6. Stamped Leather. — ^This was a magnificent and expensive 
form of wall-hanging, chiefly used during the x6th and X7th 
centuries. Skins, generally of goats or calves, were well tanned 
and cut into rectangular shapes. They were then covered with 




Fig. 5.~Italiatt Stamped Leather; x6th century, 
filver leaf, which was varnished with a transparent yellow lacquer 
Bukii^ the silver look like gold, llie skins were then stamped 
or embossed with patterns in rdief, formed by heavy pressure 
from metal dies, one in relief and the other sunk. The reliefs 
were then painted by hand in many colours, generally brilliant 

* A food dncriptioo of the process b given by Vasari. Tre arti id 

— n, cap. XXVI 



in tone; Italy and Spain (especially (Cordova) were important 
seau of this manufacture; and in the 17th centitry a large 
quantity was produced in France; Fig. $ gives a good example 
of Italian stamped leather of the i6th century. In England, 
chiefly at Norwich, this manufacture was carried on in the 
17 th and x8th centuries. In durability and richness of effect 
stamped leather surpasses most other forms of movable wall- 
decoration. 

7. Fainted Clotk. — ^Another form of wall-hanging, used most 
largely during the 1 5th and x6th centuries, and in a las extensive 
way a good deal evlier, is canvas painted to imitate tapestry. 
English medieval inventories both of ecclesiastical and domestic 
goods frequently contain items such as these: " stayned cloths 
for hangings," ** paynted doths with stories and batailes," or 
" paynted cloths of beyond sea work," or " of Flaunder's work." 
Many good artists working at Ghent and Bruges during the first 
half of the 15th century produced fine work of this class, as well 
as designs for real tapestzy. Several of the great Italian artists 
devoted their skill in composition and invention to the paintixig 
of these wall-hangings. The most important existing example 
is the series of paintings of the triumph of Julius Caesar executed 
by Andrea Mantegna (148 5-1493) for Ludovico Gonzaga, duke 
of Mantua, and now at Hampton Court These are usually, 
but wrongly, called " cartoons," as if they were designs meant 
to be executed in tapestry; this is not the case, as the paintings 
themselves were used as wail-hangings. They are nine in nimiber 
and each compartment, 9 ft. square, yrts separated from the next 
by a pilaster. They form a continuous procession, with life- 
sized figures, remarkable for their composition, drawing and 
delicate colouring — the latter unfortunately much disgiiiscd by 
"restoration." Like most of these painted wall-hangings, 
they are executed in tempera, and rather thinly painted, so 
that the pigment might not crack off through the doth falling 
slightly into folds. Another remarkable series of painted doth 
hangings are those at Reims Cathedral. In some cases dyes 
were used for this work. A* MS. of the xsth century give^i 
recdpts for ** painted cloth," showing that sometimes they were 
dyed in a manner similar to those Indian stuffs which were 
afterwards printed, and are now called chintzes. These 
receipts are for real dyes, not for pigments, and among them 
is the earliest known description of the process called "setting" 
the woad or indigo vat, as well as a receipt for removing or 
" discharging " the colour from a cloth already dyed. Another 
method employed was a sort of " encaustic " process; the doth 
was rubbed aU over with wax, and then painted in tempera; 
heat was then applied so that the colours sank into the mdting 
wax, and were thus firmly fixed upon the doth. 

8. Printed Hangings and Wall- Papers.— Tht printing of 
various textiles with dye-colours and mordants is probably one 
of the most andent arts. Pliny (H. N. xxxv.) describes a 
dydng process employed by the andent Egyptians, in which 
the pattern was probably formed by printing from blocks. 
Various methods have been used for this work— w^od blocks in 
relid, engraved metal plates, stencil plates and even hand- 
painting; frequently two or more of these methods have 
been employed for the same pattern. The use of printed stuffs 
is of great antiquity among the Hindus and Chinese, and 
was certainly practised in western Europe in the 13th century, 
and perhaps earlier. The Victoria and Albert Museum has 
X3th-century specimens of block-printed silk made in Sicily, of 
beautiful design. Towards the end of the 14th century a 
great deal of block-printed linen was made in Flanders, and 
largely imported into England. 

WaJl-papers did not come into common use in Europe till the 
18th century, though they appear to have been used much 
earlier by the Chinese. A few rare examples exist in England 
which may be as early as the x6th century; these are imitations, 
generally in flock, of the fine old Florentine and Genoese cut 
velvets, and hence the style of the design in no way shows the 
date of the wall-paper, the same traditional patterns bdng 
reproduced for many years with little or no change. Machinery 
enabling paper to be made in long strips was not invented till 



20 



MURAL DECORATION 



the end of the x8th century, and up to that time wall-papers 
were printed on small square pieces of hand-made paper, difficult 
to hang, disSgured by numerous joints, and comparatively 
costly; on these accounts wall-papers were slow in superseding 
the older modes of mural decoration. A little work by Jackson 
of Batteraea, printed in London in 1744, throws some light on 
the use of wall-papers at that time. He gives reduced copies 
of his designs, mostly taken from Italian pictures or antique 
sculpture during his residence in Venice^ Instead Of flowing 
patterns covering the wall, his designs are all pictures— land- 
scapes, architectural scenes 6r statues— treated as panels, with 
plain paper or painting between. They are all printed in oil, 
with wooden blocks worked with a rolling press, apparently an 
invention of his own. They are all in the worst possible taste, 
and yet are offered as great improvements on the Chinese papers 
which he says were then in fashion. Fig. 6 is a good English 




Fig. 6.— Early 18th-century Wall-Paper. (22 in. wide.) 
example of tSth-century wall-paper printed on squares of stout 
hand-made paper 72 in. wide. The design is apparently copied 
from an Indian chintz. 

In the 19th century in England, a great advance in the 
designing of wall-papers was made by William Monis and his 
school. 

9. Painting.— Thia is naturally the most important and the 
most widely used of all forms of wall-decoration, as well as 
perhaps the earliest. 

Egypt (see Egypt: Art and Archaeology) is the chief store- 
house of ancient specimens of this, as of almost all the arts. 
Owing to the intimate connexion between the 
sculpture and painting of early times, the remarks 
above as to subjects and treatment under the head 
of Egyptian wall-scxilpture will to a great extent apply also to 
the paintings. It is an important fact, which testifies to the 
antiquity of Egyptian dvilizatton, that the earliest paintings, 
dating more than 4000 years before our era, are also the cleverest 
both in drawing and execution. In later times the influence of 
Egyptian art, especially in painting, was important even among 



Egypilam 



distant nations. In the 6th century b.c. Egyptian colonists,' 
introduced by Cambyses into Persepolis, influenced the painting 
and sculpture of the great Persian Empire and throughout the 
valley of the Euphrates. In a lesser degree the art of Babylon 
and Nineveh had felt considerable Egyptian influence several 
centuries earlier. The same influence affected the early art of 
the Greeks and the Etrurians, and it was not till the middle of 
the 5th century B.C. that the further development and perfecting 
of art in Greece obliterated the old traces of Egyptian mannerism. 
After the death of Alexander the Great, when Egypt came into 
the possession of the Lagidae (320 B.C.), the tide of influence 
flowed the other way, and Greek art modified though it did not 
seriously alter the characteristics of Egyptian painting and 
sculpture, which retained much of their early formahsm and 
severity. Yet the increased sense of beauty, especially in the 
human face, derived from the Greeks was counterbalanced by 
loss of vigour; art under the Ptolemies became a dull copyism 
of earlier traditions. 

The general scheme of mural painting in the buildings of 
ancient Egypt was complete and magnificent. Columns, 
mouldings and other architectural features were enriched with 
patterns in brilliant colours; the flat wall-spaces were covered 
with figure-subjects, generally in horizontal bands, and the 
ceilings were ornamented with sacred symbols, such as the vulture 
or painted blue and studded with gold stars to symbolize the 
sky. The wall-paintings are executed in tempera on a thin skin 




Fig. 7. — Egyptian Wall-Painting of the Ancient Emjure 
in the Bulak Museum. 

of fine lime, laid over the brick, stone or marble to form a smooth 
and slightly absorbent coat to receive the pigments, which were 
most brilliant in tone and of great variety of tint. Not employing 
fresco, the Egyptian artists were not restricted to " earth colours," 
but occasionally used purples, pinks and greens which would 
have been destroyed by fresh lime. The blue used is very 
beautiful, and is generally laid on in considerable body — it is 
frequently a " smalt " or deep-blue glass, coloured by copper 
oxide, finely powdered. Red and yellow ochre, carbon-black, 
and powdered chalk-white are most largely used. Though in 
the paintings of animals and birds considerable realism is often 
seen (fig. 7), yet for human figures certain conventional colours 
are employed, e.g. white for females' flesh, red for the males, or 
black to indicate people of negro race. Heads are painted in 
profile, and little or no shading is used. Considerable knowledge 
of harmony is shown in the arrangement of the colours; and 
otherwise harsh combinations of tints are softened and brought 
into keeping by thin separating lines of white or yellow. Though 
at first sight the general colouring, if seen in a museum, nnay 
appear crude, yet it should be remembered that the intern^ 
paintings were much softened by the dim light in Egyptian 
buildings, and those outside were subdued by contrast with the 
brilliant sunshine under which they were always seen. 

The rock-cut sepulchres of the Etrurians supply the only 
existing specimens of their mural painting; and, unlike the 
tombs of Egypt, only a small proportion appear to 
have been decorated in this way. The actual dates ni^c^j 
of these paintings are very uncertain, but they range 
possibly from about the 8th century B.C. down to almost the 
Christian en. The tombs which possess these paintings are 



MURAL DECORATION 



21 



mostly square-shaped rooms, with slightly-arched or gabled roofs, 
excavated in soft sandstone or tufa hillsides. Th^ earlier ones 
show Egyptian influence in drawing and in composition: they 
are broadly designed with flat unshaded tints, ^e laces in profile, 
except the eyes^ which are drawn as il seen in front. Colours, as 
in Egsrpt, are used conventionally^— male flesh red, white or 
pale ydlow for the females, black for demons. In one respect 
these paintings differ from those of the Egyptians; few colours 
are Taed — ^red, brown, and yellow ochres, carbon-black, lime or 
chalk-white, and occasionally blue are the only pigments. The 
nxk-waOs are prepared by being covered with a thin skin of 
lime stucco, and lime or chalk is mixed in small quantities with 
all the coioun; hence the restriction to " earth pigments," made 
necessary by the dampness of these subterranean chambers. 
Hie ptooeas employed was in fact a kind of fresco, though jthe 
stucco ground was not applied in small patches only sufficient 
for the day's work; the dampness of the rock was enough to 
keep the stucco skin moist, and so allow the necessary infiltration 
o£ cokMir from the surface. Many of these paintings when first 
discovered were fresh in tint and uninjured by time, but they are 
soon dulled by exposure to light. In the course of centuries 
great changes of style naturally took place; the early Egyptian 
influmrr, probably brought to Etruria through the Phoenician 
traders, was succeeded by an even more strongly-marked Greek 
influence — at first archaic and stiff, then developing into great 
beauty of drawing, and finally yielding to the Roman spirit, as 
the degradation of Greek art advanced under their powerful but 
nartistic Roman conquerors. 

Tbiooglioot this succession of styles— Egyptian, Greek and 
Graeco-Roman — there runs a distinct undercurrent of individu- 
ality doe to the Etruscans theznselves. This appears not only 
in the drawing but also in the choice of subjects. In addition 
to pktoics of banquets with musicians and dancers, hunting 
aad radng scenes, the workshops of different craftsmen and other 
dom e stic subjects, all thoroughly Hellenic in sentiment, other 
ftwtiwgK occur which are very un-Greek in feeling. These 
represent the judgment and punishment of souls in a future life. 
M antns, Charun and other infernal deities of the Rasena, 
hideous in aspect and armed with hammers, or furies depicted 
as black-beaided demons winged and brandishing. live snakes,. 
.terrify or torture shrinking human souls. Others, not the earUest 
in date, represent human sacrifices, such as those at the tomb of 
Patrodos — a dass of subjects which, though Homeric, appears 
rarely to have been selected by Greek painters. The constant 
import into Etruria of large quantities of fine Greek painted 
vaaes appears to have contributed to keep up the supremacy of 
Hrilmir influence during many centuries, and by their artistic 
superiority to have prevented the development of a more original 
sad native school of art. Though we now know Etruscan 
paJBltng only from the tombs, yet Pliny mentions (H. N. xxzv. 3) 
that fine wall-paintings existed in his time, with colours yet 
bah, on tbe walls of ruined temples at Ardea and Lanuvium, 
caeoited, be says, before the founding of Rome. As before men- 
tioaed, the actual dates of the existing paintings are uncertain. 
It cannot therefore be asserted that any existing specimens are 
math older than 600 B.C., though some, especially at Veii, 
certain^ appear to have the characteristics of more remote 
aattqaity. The most important of these paintings have been 
diitowied in the cemeteries of Veii, Caere, Tarquinii, Vuld, 
CcTvctri and other Etruscan dties. 

Even in Egypt the use of colour does not appear to have been 
aoieimiversal than it was among the Gredu (see Greek Ast), 
- - who applied it fredy to their marble statues and 
pSL^ idiefi, the whole of their buildings inside and out, 
mB wdl as for the decoration of flat wall-suriaces. 
lliey appeal to have cared little for pure form, and not to have 
vahsed the delicate ivory-like tint and beautiful texture of their 
fiaoe Pieatdic and Parian marbles, except as a ground for coloured 
cnkamc&L A whole dass of artists, called iyakiiATUip lyanvtfrai, 
were occupied in colouring marble sculpture, and their services 
were very highly valued.' In some cases, probably for the sake of 

'Thispnoai, oirvfMifMb, is mentkmed by Pliny (H. N. xxxv. 40). 



hiding the joints and getting a more absorbent surface, the 
marble, however pure and fine in texture, was covered with a 
thin skin of stucco made of mixed lime and powdered marble. 
An alabaster sarcophagus, found in a tomb near Cometo, and 
now in the Etruscan museum at Florence, is decorated outside 
with beautiful purely Greek paintings, executed on a stucco 
skin as hard and smooth as the alabaster. The pictures represent 
combats of t^e Greeks and Amazons. The colouring, though 
rather brilliant, is simply treated, and the figures are kept 
strictly to one plane without any attempt at complicated 
perspective. Other valuable spedmens of Greek art, found at 
Herctflaneum and now in the Naples MuseUm, are some small 
paintings, one of girls pbiying with dice, another of Theseus and 
the Minotaur.. These are painted with miniature-like delicacy on 
the bare surface of marble slabs; they are almost monochromatic, 
and are of the highest beauty both in drawing and in gradations 
of shadow— quite unlike any of the Gr^k vase-paintings. The 
first-mentioned painting is signed AAEHANAP02 A6HNAI0Z. 
It is probable that the strictly archaic paintings of the Greeks, 
such as those of Polygnotus in the 5th century B.C., executed 
with few and simple colours, had much resemblance to those on 
vases, but Pliny is wrong when he asserts that, till the time of 
Apelles (c. 35o->3io BX.), the Greek painters only used black, 
white, red and yellow.* Judging from the peculiar way in which 
the Greeks and their imitators the Romans used the names of 
cobuis, it appears that they paid more attention to tones and 
reiaticru of colour than to actual hues. Thus most Greek and 
Latin colour-names are now untranslatable. Homer's " wine- 
like sea " (oCro^), Sophodcs's ** wine<oloured ivy " ((Ed. Col.), 
and Horace's " purpureus olor '* probably refer less to what we 
should call colour than to the chromatic strength of the various 
objects and their more or less strong powers of reflecting Ught, 
either in motion or when at rest. ' Nor have we any word like 
Virgil's " flavus," which could be applied both to a lady's hair 
and to the leaf of an olive-tree.* 

During the best periods of Greek art the favourite classes of 
subjects were scenes from poetry, especially Homer and con- 
temporary history. The names vinuooA^xif and orodi vocx^ 
were iiven to' many public buildings from their walls being 
covered with paintings. Additional interest was given to the 
historical subjects by the intraductk>n of portraits; e^g. in the 
great picture of the battle of Marathon (490 b.c.), on the walls of 
the 0roA roidhi in Athens, portraits were given of the Gredc 
generals Miltiades, Callimachus, and others. This picture was 
painted about forty srears after the battle by Polygnotus and 
Micon. One of the earliest pictures recorded by Pliny (xxxv. 8) 
represented a battle of the Magnesians (c. 7x6 B.a); it was 
painted by Bularchus, a Lydian artist, and bought at a high 
price by King Candaules. Many other important Greek 
historical paintings are mentioned by Pausanias and earlier 
writers. The Pompeian mosaic of the defeat of the Persians by 
Alexander a probably a Romanised copy from some cdebrated 
Greek painting; it obviously was not designed for mosaic 
work. 

Landscape painting appears to hav6 been unknown among the 
Greeks, even as a background to figure-subjects. The poems 
especially of Homer and Sophodes show that this was not through 
want of appreciation of the beauties of nature, but partly, 
probably, because the main object of Greek painting was to tell 
some definite story, and also from their just sense of artistic 
fitness, which prevented them from attempting in their mural 
decorations to disguise the flat solidity of the walls by ddusive 
effects of aerial perspective and distance. 

It is interesting to note that even in the time of Alexander 
the Great the somewhat archaic works of the eariier painters 
werestHl appreciated. In particular Aristotle praises Polygnotus, - 

* Pliny's remarks on subjects such as thu should be received with- 
caution. He was neither a scientific archaeologist nor a practkal 
artist. 

* So also a meaning unlike ours is attached to Greek technical 
words— by Hfoa they meant, not ** tone,*' but the gradationt of: 
H^ht and shade, and by toiuy^ the relations of colour. See Pliny^ 
H. N. xxxv. 5; and Ruakin, Mod. Painlers, pt. iv. cap. 13. 



22 



MURAL DECORATION 



both for bis power of combining truth with idealization 
in his portraits and for his skill in depicting men's mental 
characteristics; on this account be calb him 6 ifiayfA^. 
Lucian too praises Polygnotus alike for his grace, drawing and 
colouring. Later painters, such as Zeuxis and Apelles, appear 
to have produced easel pictures more than mural paintings, 
and these, being easy to move, were mostly carried off to Rome 
by the early emperors. Hence Pausanias, who visited Greece 
in the time of Hadrian, mentions but few works of the later 
artists. Owing to the lack of existing specimens of Greek 
painting it would be idle to attempt an account of their technical 
methods, but no doubt those employed by the Romans described 
below were derived with the. rest of their art from the Greeks. 
Speaking of their stucco, Pliny refers its superiority over that 
made by the Romans to the fact that it was always made of 
lime at least three years old, and that it was well mixed and 
pounded in a mortar before being laid on the wall; he is here 
speaking of the thick stucco in many coats, not of the thin skin 
mentioned above as being laid on marble. Greek mural painting, 
like their sculpture, was chiefly used to decorate temples and 
public buildings, and comparatively rarely either for tombs* or 
private buildings— at least in the days of their early republican 
simplicity. 

A large number of Roman mural paintings (see also Roman 
Art) now exist, of which many were discovered*in the private 
houses and baths of Pompeii, nearly all dating 
between a.d. 63, when the city was ruined by an 
earthquake, and a.d. 79, when it was buried by 
Vesuvius. A catalogue of these and similar paintings from Hcrcu- 
laneum and Stabiae, compiled by Professor Hclbig, comprises 1966 
specimens. The excavations in the baths of Titus and other 
ancient buildings in Rome, made in the early part of the i6th 
century, excited the keenest interest and admiration among the 
painters of that time, and largely influenced the later art of the 
Renaissance. These paintings, especially the " grotesques '* 
or fanciful patterns of scroll-work and pilasters mixed with 
semi-realistic foliage and figures of boys, animals and birds, 
designed with great freedom of touch and mventive power, seem 
to have fascinated Raphael during his later period, and many of 
his ptipils and contemporaries. The " loggie " of the Vatican 
and of the Famcsina palace are full of carefully studied 
x6th-century reproductions of these highly decorative paintings. 
The excavations in Rome have brought to light some mural 
paintings of the ist century a.d., perhaps superior in execution 
even to the best of the Pompcian series (see Plate). 

The range of subjects found in Roman mural paintings is large 
—mythology, religious ceremonies, genre, still life and even 
landscape (the latter generally on a small scale, and treated in an 
artificial and purely decorative way), and lastly history. Pliny 
mentions several large and important historical paintings, such 
as those with which Valerius Maximus Messala decorated the 
walls of the Curia Hostilia, to commemorate his own victory over 
Hiero tl. and the Carthaginians in Sicily in the 3rd century B.C. 
The earliest Roman painting recorded by Pliny was by Fabius, 
surnamed Pictor, on the walls of the temple of Salus, executed 
about 300 B.C. {H.N, xxxv. 4). 

Pliny (xxxv. i) laments the fact that tne wealthy Romans 
of his time preferred the costly splendours of marble and por- 
phyry wall-linings to the more artistic decoration of paintings 
by good artists. Historical painting seems then to have gone 
out of fashion; among the numerous specimens now existing 
few from Pompeii represent historical subjects; one has the 
scene of Massinissa and Sophonisba before Scipio, and another 
of a riot between the people of Pompeii and Nocera, which 
happened 59 a.d. 

Mythological scenes, chieliy trom Greek sources, occur most 
frequently: the myths of Eros and Dionysus are especial 
iavourites. Only five or six relate to purely Roman mythology. 

> One insunce only of a tomb-painting is mentioned by Pau^ntas 
(vii. 32). Some fine specimens nave been discovered in the Crimea, 
but not of a very early date; see Stephani, Compte rendut &c., 
(St Petersburg, 1878), &c. 



We have reason to think that some at least of the Pompeian 
pictures are copies^ probably at third or fourth hand, from 
celebrated Greek originals. The frequently repeated subjects 
of Medea meditating the murder of her children and Iphigenia 
at the shrine of the Tauric Artemis suggest that the motive 
and composition were taken from the originals of these subjects 
by Timanthes. Those of lo and Argus, the finest example of 
which is in the Palatine " villa of Livia " and of Andromeda 
and >Pet3eus, often repeated on Pompeian walls, may be from 
the originals by Nicias. 

In many cases these mural paintings are of high artistic 
merit, though they are probably not the work of the most 
distinguished painters of the time, but rather of a humbler 
class of decorators, who reproduced, without much original 
invention, stock designs out of some pattern-book. They 
are, however, all remarkable for the rapid skill and extreme 
" verve " and freedom of hand with which the designs are, as 
it wcre> flung on to the walls with few but effective touches. 
Though in some cases the motive and composition are superior 
to the execution, yet many of the paintings are remarkable 
both for their realistic truth and technical skill. The great 
painting of Ceres from Pompeii, now in the Naples Museum, 
is a work of the highest merit. 

In the usual scheme of decoration the broad wall-surfaces are 
broken up into a series of panels by pilasters, columns, or other 
architectural forms. Some of the panels contain pictures with 
figure-subjects; others have conventional ornament, or hanging 
festoons of fruit and flowers. The lower part of the wall is 
painted one plain colour, forming a dado; the upper part some- 
times has a well-designed frieze of flowing ornaments. In the 
better class of painted walls the whole is kept flat in treatment, 
and is free from too great subdivision, but in many cases great 
want of taste is shown by the introduction of violent effects of 
architectural perspective, and the space is broken up by com- 
plicated schemes of design, studded with pictures in varying 
scales which have little relation to their surroundings. The 
colouring is on the whole pleasant and harmonious— unlike the 
usual chromo-lithographic copies. Black, yellow, or a rich deep 
red are the favourite colours for the main ground of the walls, 
the pictures in the panels being treated separately, each with its 
own background. 

An interesting series of early Christian mural pamtings exists 
in various catacombs, especially those of Rome and Naples. 
They are of value both as an important link in the g^^ 
history of art and also as throwing light on* the r ' * 
mental state of the early Christians, which was dis- ^ 
tinctly influenced by the older faith. Thus in the *^* 
earlier paintings of about the 4th century we find Christ repre- 
sented as a beardless youth, beautiful as the artist could make 
him, with a lingering tradition of Greek idealization, in no degree 
like the " Man of Sorrows " of medieval painters, but rather 
a kind of genius of Christianity in whose fair outward form- 
the peace and purity of the new faith were visibly symbolized, 
just as certain distinct attributes were typified in the persons 
of the gods of ancient Greece. The favourite early subject, 
" Christ the Good Shepheni " (fig. 8), is represented as Orpheus 
playing on his lyre to a circle of beasts, the pagan origin of the 
picture being shown by the Phrygian cap and by the presence of 
lions, panthers and other incongruous animals among the listen- 
ing sheep. In other cases Christ is depicted standing with a sheep 
borne on His shoulders like Hermes Criophoros or Hemes 
Psychopompos — favourite Greek subjects, especially the former, 
a statue of which Pausanias (ix. 32) mentions as existing at 
Tanagra m Boeotia. Here again the pagan origin of the type 
is shown by the presence in the catacomb paintings of the pan- 
pipes and pedum, special attributes of Hermes, but quite forc^^ 
to the notion of Christ. Though in a degraded form, a good 
deal survives in some of these paintings,^ especially in the earb'er 
ones, of the old classical grace of composition and beauty of 
drawing, notably in the above-mentioned representations where 
old models were copied without any adaptation to their new 
meaning. Those of the 5th and 6th centuries follow the classical 



^rt R.\L DECORATIOX 




L VMX rAfNInX^ LN 



A|flUSAU«» AT fcOMlL. FUk>^ a MOUA.V Vli.i,A £*lSOJ%£AtU IN la?!*, CARLV U4f t^JLXL ^tVtl. 



MURAL DECORATION 



23 



fines, though in « rapidly deteriorating style, until the introduc- 
tion of a foreigtt'lhe Byzantine— element, which aeated a 
fresh starting-point on different lines. The old naturalism and 
survival of classical freedom of drawing is replaced by stiff, 
conventionally hieratic types, superior in dignity and strength 
to the feeble compositions produced by the degradation into 
which the native art of Rome had fallen. The designs of this 
second period of Christian art are similar to those of the mosaics, 




Fig. 8. — Punted V»uU from the Catacombs of St Callixtus, Rome. 
In the onitre Orpheus, to represent Christ the Good Shepherd, 
and cxMmd are smaller paintings of various types of Christ. 

such as many at Ravenna, and also to the magnificently illumi- 
nated MSS. For some centuries there was little change or 
dcvek^ment in this Byzantine style of art, so that it is impossible 
in most cases to be sure from internal evidence of the date of 
any painting. This to some extent applies also to the works 
cf the earlier or pagan school, though, roughly speaking, it may 
be said that the least meritorious pictures are the latest in 
date. 

These catacomb paintings range over a long space of time; 
tome may possibly be of the ist or and century, e.g, those 
b the cemetery of Domitilla, Rome; othen are as late as the 
gib century, e.g. some full-length figures of St Cornelius and 
St Cyprian in the catacomb of St Callixtus, under which earlier 
paiotix^ may be traced. In execution they somewhat resemble 
ibe Etruscan tomb-paintings; the walls of the catacomb passages 
and chambers, excavated in soft tufa, are covered with a thin 
skin of white stucco, and on that the mural and ceiling paintings 
ire simply executed in earth colours. The favourite subjects 
cf the earliest paintings are scenes from the Old Testament 
wfaicfa were supposed to typify events in the life of Christ, such 
as the sacrifice of Isaac (Christ's death), Jonah and the whale 
(the Resurrection), Moses striking the rock, or pointing to the 
oanna (Christ the water of life, and the Eucharist), and many 
othecs. The later paintings deal more with later subjects, 
diber events in Christ's life or figures of saints and the miracles 
they performed. A fine series of these exists in the lower church 
of S. Ckmente in Rome, apparently dating from the 6th to the 
loih centuries; among these are representations of the passion 
&od death of Christ— subjects never chosen by the earlier 
Qristians, except as dimly foreshadowed by the Old Testament 
tjpes. When Christ Himself is depicted in the early catacomb 
paintings it is in glory and power, not in H& human weakness and 
scSering. 

Other early Italian pdntings exist on the walls of the church 
of the Tre Footane near Rome, and in the CapeUa di S. Urbano 
aHa r^fhf*^*, executed in the early part of (he nth century. 
The atrmm <rf S. Lorenzo fuori le roura, Rome, and the church 
cf the Quattro Santi Incoronatl have fnural paintings of the 



first half of the 13th century, which show no artistic improve- 
ment over those at S. Clemente four or five centuries older. 

Jt was not in fact till the second half cf the 13th century 
that stiff traditional Byzantine forms and colouring began 
to be superseded by the revival of native art in Italy by 
the painters of Florence, Pisa and Siena. During the first 
thirteen centuries of the Christian era mural painting appears 
to have been for the most part confined to the repre- 
sentation of sacred subjects. It is remarkable that during 
the earlier centuries council after council of the Christian 
Church forbade the painting of figure-subjects, and especially 
those of any Person of the Trinity; but in vain. In spite 
of the zeal of bishops and others, who sometimes with their 
own hands defaced the pictures of Christ on the walls of 
the churches, in spite of threats of excommunication, the for- 
bidden paintings by degrees became more numerous, till the walls 
of almost every church throughout Christendom were decorated 
with whole series of pictured stories. The useless prohibition 
was becoming obsolete when, towards the end of the 4th century, 
the learned Paulinus, bishop of Nola, ordered the two basih'cas 
which he had built at Fondi and Nola to be adorned with wall- 
paintings of sacred subjects, with the special object, as he says, 
of instructing and refining the ignorant and drunken people. 
These paint^ histories were in fact the books of the unlearned, 
and we can now hardly realize their value as the chief mode of 
religious teaching in ages when none but the clergy could read 
or write. 

During the middle ages, just as long before among the ancient 
Greeks, coloured decoration was used in the widest possible 
manner not only for the adornment of flat walls, BagOth 
but also for the enrichment of sculpture and all the JHurmi 
fittings and architectural features of buildings, ^''""v- 
whether the material to be painted was pUister, stone, marble 
or wood. It was only the damp and frosts of northern climates 
that to some extent limited the external use of colour to the less 
exposed parts of the outsides of buildings. The varying tints 
and texture of smoothly worked stone appear to have given no 
pleasure to the medieval eye; and in the rare cases in which the 
poverty of some country church prevented its walls from being 
adorned with painted ornaments or pictures the whole surface 
of the stonework inside, mouldings and carving as well as 
fiat wall-spaces, was coveted with a thin coat of whitewash. 
Internal rough stonework was invariably concealed by stucco, 
forming a smooth groimd for possible future paintings. Un- 
happily a great proportion of mural paintings have been de- 
stroyed, though many in a more or less mutilated state still exist 
in England. It is difficult (and doubly so since the so-called 
** restoration " of most old buildings) to realize the splendour 
of effect once possessed by every important medieval church. 
From the tiled floor to the roof aU was one mass of gold and 
colour. The brilliance of the mural paintings and richly 
coloured sculpture and mouldings was in harmony with the 
splendour of the oak-work — screens, stalls, and roofs— all 
decorated with gilding and painting, while the light, passing 
through stained glass, softened and helped to combine 
the whole into one mass of decorative effect. Colour was 
boldly applied everywhere, and thus the patchy effect was 
avoided which is so often the result of the modem timid and 
partial use of painted otnament. Even the figure-sculpture 
was painted in a strong and realistic manner, sometimes by a 
wax encaustic process, probably the same as the circumlUio 
of classical times.. In the accounts for expenses in decorating 
Orvieto cathedral wax is a frequent item among the materials 
used for painting. In one pbce it is mentioned that wax was 
supplied to Andrea Pisano (in 1345) for the decoration of the 
beautiful reh'efs in white marble on the lower part of the west 
front. 

From the nth to the 16th century the lower part of the walls, 
generally 6 to 8 ft. from the floor, was painted with a dado— 
the favourite patterns till the 13th century being either a sort 
of sham masonry with a flower in each rectangular space 
(fig. 9), or a conventional representation of a. curtain with 



24 



MURAL DECORATION 



regular folds stiffly treated. Above this dado ranges o^ 
pictures with figure-subjects were painted in tiers one 
— J .. - ^ V^ k^, L -J v^ ■ iBove the other, each picture 

^^1 (T'\^L ^3\l?C 15 Y frequently surrounded by 



V^^ 



painted frame with arch and 

J gable of architectural design. 

9 Painted bands of chevron or 

other geometrical ornament 

till the 13th century, and 

flowing ornament afterwards, 

usually divide the tiers of pic- 

— j—j tures horizontally and form the 

^ _ r> j» | top and bottom boimdaries of 

Fio.9.-WaU.Paintingcfthei3th ^« ^\ In the case of a 
century. " Masonry pattern." church, the end walls usuaUy 
have figures to a larger scale. 
On the east wall of the nave over the chancel arch there was 
generally a large painting of the " Doom " or Last Judgment. 
One of the conunonest subjects is a colossal figure of St Chris- 
topher (fig. 10) usually on the nave wall opposite the principal 




Pig. 10.— Wall-Pamting of St Christopher. (Large life-«ixe.) 

entrance— selected because the sight of a picture of this saint 
was supposed to bring good luck for the rest of the day. Figures 
were also often painteid on the jambs of the windows and on the 
piers and soffit of the arches, especially that opening into the 
chancel. 

The little Norman church at Kempley in Gloucestenhire (date 
about 1 100) has perhaps the best-preserved specimen of the com- 
plete eariy decoration of a chancel.^ The north and south walls 
are occupied by figures of the twelve apostles in architectural 
niches, six on each side. The east wall had single figures of saints 
at the sides of the central window, and the stone barrel vault is 
covered with a representation of St John's apocalyptic vision — 
Christ in majesty surrounded by the evangelbtic beaists, the seven 
candlestick* and other figures. The chancel arch itself and the 
jambs and mouldings of the windows have stiff geometrical designs, 
and over the arch, towards the nave, is a large picture of the 
" Doom." The whole scheme is very complete, no |3art of the 
internal plaster or stonework being undccorated with colour. 
Though tne drawing is rude, the fij^ures and their drapery are 
treatM broadly and with dignity. Simple earth colours are used, 
painted in rempera on a i^n whire ground, which covers alike 
both the plaster of the rough walls and. the smooth stone of the 
ardhtes ana jambs. 

In the 13th century the painters of England reached a high 
point of artistic power and technical skill, so that paintings were 
produced by native artists equal, if not superior, to those of 
the same period anywhere on the Continent. The central 
paintings on the walls of the chapter-house and on the retable 
of the high altar of Westminster Abbey are not surpassed by 

^ See ilrrAaeo^Cia, vol. xlvi. (1880). 



any of the smaller works even of such men as Cimabue and Duccio 
di Buoninsegna, who were living when these Westminster 
paintings were executed. Unhappily, partly through the 
poverty and anarchy brought about by the French wars and 
the Wars of the Roses, the development of art in England made 
little progress after the beginning of the 14th oentuiy, and it 




Fig. 1 1.— 15th-century English Paintmg— St John the Evangelist. 



was not till a time when the renaissance of art in Italy had fallen 
into decay that its influence reached the British shores. In 
the. Z5th century some beautiful work, somewhat affected by 
Flemish influence, was produced in England (fig. 11), chiefly 
in the form of figures painted on the oak panels of chancel 
and chapel screens, especially in Noriolk and Suffolk; but these 
cannot be said to rival Ihe works of the Van Eycks and other 
painters of that time in Fhuiders. To return to the 13th 
century, the culminating period of English art in painting and 
sculpture, much was owed to Henry III.'s love for and patronage 
of the fine arts; he employed a large number of painters, to 
decorate his various castles and palaces, especially the palace of 
Westminster, one large hall of which was known as the " painted 



MURAL DECORATION 



25 



dtamber " from tlie rows of fine pictures with which its walls 
were covered. After the x^th century the " masonry pattern " 
was dwwted fw the lower parts of walls, and the cbevrony and 
other stiff patterns for the borders were replaced by more flowing 
designs. The character of the painted figures became less 
moonmental in style; greater freedom of drawing and treatment 
was adopted, and they cease to recall the archaic majesty and 
grandeur ol the Byzantine mosaics. 

It may be noted that during the r4th century wall-spaces 
unoccupied by figure-subjects were often covered by graceful 
flowing patterns, drawn with great 
freedom and rather avoiding geo- 
metrical repetition. Fig. 12, from 
the church of Stanley St Leonard's, 
Gloucestershire, is a good character- 
istic specimen of X4th-century decora- 
tion; it is on the walls of the chancel, 
filling up the ^>aces between the 
painted figures; the flowers are blue, 
and the lines red on a white ground. 
In some cases the motive of the 
_ « • ou dwiff* i* taken from encaustic tiles, 

tuvy WaU^^'aitttiiig. ^^^ ^"^i ^ divided into squares, each 

containing an heraldic lion. This 
iautative notion occurs during all periods— masonry, hanging 
curtains, tiles and architectural features such as niches and 
canopies being very frequently represented, though always 
in a simple decorative fashion with no attempt at actual 
deception — not probably from any fixed prindple that shams 
were wrong, but because the good taste of the medieval 
painters Uui^t them that a flat unrealistic treatment gave 
the best and most decorative effect. Thus in the 15th. and 
x6th centuries the commonest forms of unpictorial wall- 
deooratioa were various patterns taken from the beautiful 
^«— A* and cut velvets of Sidly, Florence, Genoa and other 
l^aces in Italy, some form of the "pine-apple "or rather " arti- 
choke " pattern being the favourite (fig. 1$), a design which, 





Fia. i3.-»isth«enturv Wall-Painting. taken from a Genoese 
or Fbrentine velvet design. 
developed partly from Oriental sources, and coming to perfection 
at the eod of the 15th century, was copied and reproduced in 
textiles, printed stuffs and wall-papers with but little change 
down to the present century— a remarkable instance of survival 
in design. Fig. 14 is a specimen of 15th-century English decora- 
tive painting, copied from a 14th-century Sicilian silk damask. 
Diapers, powderingi with flowers, sacred monograms and 
qxrays of blossom were frequently used to ornament large 
florfaces in a simple way. Many of these are extremely beautiful 

(fins). 



Subjects ef Mtdiaal WaO-Paintints.—ht churches and domestic 
buildings alike the usual subjects represented on the walls were 
specially selected for their moral and religious teaching, cither 




Fic. 14.— 15th-century Wall-Paintinff, the design copied from 
a 13th-century Sicilian suk ^yr^TV. 

stories from the Bible and Apocrypha, or from the fives of taints, 

or, lastly, symbolical representations setting forth some important 

thcologica] truth, such as figures of virtues and vices, or the Scala 

kumanat sdvaiionis, showing the perils and temptations of the 

human soul in its struggle to escape hell and gain paradise— a rude 

foreshadowing of the great scheme worked out with such perfection 

by Dante in his Conunedia, A fine example of this subject exists 

on the walls of Chaldon church, Surrey.' In the selection of saints 

for paintings in England, 

those of English origin are 

naturally most frequently 

represented, and different 

districts had certain local 

favourites. St Thomas of 

Canterbury was one of the 

most widely popular; but 

few examples now remain, 

owing to Henry Vlll.'s 

special dislike to this saint 

and the strict orders that 

were issued for all pictures 

of him to be destroyed. 

For a similar reason most 

paintings of saintly popes 

were obliterated. 

Methods of Execution.-^ 
Though Eraclius. who 
probably wrote before the 
loth century, mentions 
the use of an oil-medium, 
yet till about the 13th 
century mural paintings 
appear to have been exe- 
cuted in the most simple 
way, in tempera mainly 




with earth cMours applied 



Fig. 15.— Powdering; used in 15th- 
century WaU-Painting. 



on dry stucco: even when a smooth stone surface was to be 
painted a thm coat of whitening or fine gesso was laid as a 
ground. In the 13th century, and perhaps earlier, oil was com- 
monly uscxi both as a medium for the pigments and also to make 
a varnish to cover and fix tempera paintings. The Van Eycks 
introduced the use of dryers of a better kind than had yet been 
used, and so laii|ely extended the application of oil-painting. 
Before their time it seems to have been the custom ro dry wall- 
paintings laboriously by the use of charcoal brasiers. if thi^were 
in a position where the sun could not shine upon them. This is 



* See CoikctioHS of Surrey Ar^haeol. Soc. voL v. pt. ii. (1871). 



26 



MURANO 



specially recorded in the valuable series of accounts for the expenses 
of wall-paintings in the royal oalace of Westminster during the 
reign of Henry HI., printed in Vetusta monumenta, vol. vi. (1842). 
All the materials used, including charcoal to dry the paintings and 
the wages paid to the artists, are given. The materials mentioned 
are plumbum album et rubieum, viridus, vermilio, synople^ ocre, 
azura, aurum, argentum, collis, oleum, vemix. 

Two foreign painters were employed — Peter of Spain and William 
of Florenoe — at sixpence a day, but the English painters seem to 




I 



Fic. 16. — Pattern in Stamped and Moulded Plaster, decorated with 
gilding and transparent colours; 15th-century work. 

haw done most of the work and received higher pay. William, 
an English monk in the adjoining Benedictme abbey of West- 
minster, received two shillings a day. Walter of Durham and 
various members of the Otho family, royal goldsmiths and rooneyers. 
worked for many years on the adornment of Henry Hl.'s palace 
and were well paid for their skill. Some fragments of paintings 
from the royal chapel of St Stephen are now in the British 
Museun). Tney are delicate and carefully tainted subjects from 
the Old Testament, in rich colours, each with explanatory inscrip- 
tk>n underneath. The scale is small, the figures being scarcely 
a foot high. Their method of execution b curious. Firrt the 
smooth stone wall was covered with a coat of red. painted in oil. 
probably to keep back the damp; on that a thin skin of fine gesso 
(stucco) has been applied, and the outlines of the figures marked 
with a point; the whole of the background, crowns, borders of 
dresses, and other ornamental parts have then been modelled and 
stamped with very minute patterns in slight relief, impressed on 
the surface of the gesso while it was yet soft. The figures have then 
been painted, apparently in tempera, gold leaf has been applied 
to the sUmped reliefs, and the whole has been covered with an oil 
varnish. It is difficult to realize the labour required to cover large 
halls such as the above chapel and the " pointed- chamber." the 
latter about 83 ft. by 27 ft., with this style of decoratbn. 

In many cases the grounds were entirely covered with shining 
metal leaf, over which the paintings were executed; those parts, 
such as the draperies, where the metallk lustre was wanted, were 
painted in oil with transparent cok>urs. while the flesh was painted 
tn opaque tempera. The effect of the bright meul shining through 
the ricn colounng is magnificent. This minuteness of much of the 
medieval wall-decoration is remarkabk:. Large wall-surfaces and 
intricate mouldings were often comj^etely covered by elaborate 
gesso patterns in relief of almost microscopic delicacv (fig. 16). 
The cost of sUmps for this is among the items in the Westminster 
accounts. These patterns when set and dry were further adorned 
with gold and colours. So also with the architectural painting; 
the artist was not content simply to pick out the various members 
of the mouldings in different colours, but he also frequently covered 
each bead or fillet with painted flowers and other patterns, as 
delicate as those in an illuminated MS. — so minute and highly- 
finished that they are almost invisible at a little distance, but yet 
add greatly to the general richness of effect. All this is neglected 
in modem reproductions of medieval painting, in which both 
touch and colour are coarse and harsh— caricatures of the oki 
work, such as disfigure the Sainte Chapelle in Paris, and many 
crthcdrals in Franre. Germany and England. Ciold was never 
uv-1 ill large quantities without the ground on which it was laid 



being broken. up by tome such delicate reliefs as that shown m 
fig. 16, so its effect was never dazzling. (W. Mo. ; J. H. M.) 

Mural painting in England fell into disuse in the 1 6th century, 
until attempts to revive it were made in the 19th century. 
For domestic purposes wood panelling, sUmped leatheri and 
tapestry were chiefly used as wall-coverings. In the reign of 
Henry VIII., probably in part through Holbein's influence, a 
rather coarse tempera wall-painting, German in style, appears 
to have been common.^ A good example of arabesque painting 
of this period in black and white, rudely though boldly drawn 
and Holbeinesquein character, was discovered in i88x behind the 
panelling in one of the canons' houses at Westminster. Other 
examples past at Haddon Hall (Derbyshire) and elsewhere. 

Many efforts have been made in England to revive fresco 
painting. The Houses of Parliament bear witness to this, the 
principal works there being those of William Dyce and Daniel 
Madise. That of G. F. Watts, whose easel work also is generally 
distinguished by its mural feeling, is full of serious purpose and 
dignity of conception. " Buono fresco " (the p&inting in tempera 
upon a freshly laid grotmd of plaster while wet), " spirit fresco " 
or Gambier-Parry method (the painting with a ^irit medium 
upon a specially prepared plaster or canvasground '),and "water- 
glass " painting (wherein the method is similar to water-colour 
painting on a prepared plastered wall, the painting when finished 
being covered with a chemical solution which hardens and 
protects the sturface), have all been tried. Other processes are 
also in the experimental stage, such as that known as Keim's, 
which has been successfully tried by Mrs Merritt in a series of 
mural paintings in a church at Chilworth. Unless, however, 
some means can be found of enabling the actual painted wall 
to resist the natural dampness of the English climate, it does not 
seem likely that true fresco painting can «ver be naturalized in 
Great Britain. Of two of the few modem artists entrusted 
with important mural work in England, Ford Madox Brown 
and Frederick J. Shields, the former distinguished especially for 
his fine series of mural paintings in the Manchester town-hall, in 
the later paintings there adopted the modem method of painting 
the design upon canvas in flat oil colour, using a wax medium^ 
and afterwards affixing the canvas to the wall by means of white 
lead. This is a usual method with modem decorators. Mr 
Shields has painted the panels of his scheme of mural decoration 
in the chapel, of the Ascension at Bayswaur, London, also 
upon canvas in oils, and has adopted the method of fixing them 
to slabs of slate fadng the wall so as to avoid the risk of damp 
from the wall^ itself. Friezes and frieze panels or ceilings in 
private houses 'are usually painted upon canvas in oil and affixed 
to the wall or inserted upon their strainers, like pictures in a 
frame. (Walter Crane has used fibrous plaster panels, painting in 
ordinary oil colours with turpentine as a medium, as in Redcross 
Hall.) Recently there has been a revival of tempera painting, 
and a group of painters are producing works on panel and canvas 
painted in tempera or fresco secco, with yolk of egg as a medium, 
according to the practice of the early Italian painters and the 
directions of Cennino Cennini. A pure luminous quality of 
colour is produced, valuable in xnural decoration and also 
durable, especiaUy under varnish. (W. Cs.) 

MURANO (anc. Ammariuno), an island in the Venetian lagoon 
about I m. north of Venice. It is 5 m. in circumference, 
and a large part of it is occupied by gardens. It contained 5436 
inhabitants in 1901, but was once much more populous than 
it is at present, its inhabitants numbering 30,000. It was a 
favourite resort of the Venetian nobility before they began to 
build their villas on the mainland; and in the 15th and i6tb 
centuries its gardens and casinos, of which some traces remain, 
were famous. It was here that the literary clubs of the Vigilanti. 
the Studios! and the Occulti, used to meet. 

» Shakespeare, JUnry IV., Part. II. act n. sc. I: " Pdlstaff. And 
for thy walls, a pretty slight drollery, or the story of the prodigal, 
or the German hunting in waUrwork, is worth a thousand of these 
bed-hangings and these fly-bitten tapestries." 

* It was in this method that the lunettes by Lord Ldghton at the 
Victoria and Albert Museum were paintcdion the plaster wall. The 
same painter produced a fresco at Lyndhurst Church, Hants. 



MURAS— MURAT 



27 



Tbe town is built upon one broad: main canil, where the 
tidal cQirent runs with great force, and upon leveral smaller 
ones. The cathedral, S. Donato, is a fine basilica, of the lath 
century. The pavement (of 11 11) is as richly inlaid as that of 
St Mark's, and the mosaics of the tribune are remarkable. The 
exterior of the tribune is beautiful, and has been successfully 
ic^orcd. Tbe church of St Peter the Martyi (i 509) contains a 
fine picture by Gentile Bellini and other works, and S. Maria degli 
Aag^ also contains several interesting pictures. Murano has 
from ancient times been celebrated for its glass manufactories. 
When and bow the ait was introduced is obscure, but there 
are notices of it as early as the xith century; and in 1250 Christo- 
foro Bxiani attempted the imitation of agate and chalcedony. 
From the labours of his pupil Bfiotto q>rang that branch of 
the glass trade which is ooncenied with the imitation of gems. 
In tbe X5th century the first oystals were made, and in the 
]7tb tbe various gradations of coloured and iridescent glass 
were invented, together with the composition called " aventu- 
rine "; the manufacture of beads is now a main branch of the 
tndt. The art of the glass-worken was taken under the 
protection of the Government in 1375, and regulated by a special 
code of laws and privileges; two fairs were held annually, and 
tbe esport of all materials, such as alum and sand, which enter 
into the composition of glass was absolutely forbidden. With 
the decay of Venice the importance of the Murano glass-works 
dedioed; but A. Sahdati (1816-2890) rediscovered many of the 
old processes, and ei|^t firms are engaged in the trade, the 
most i c no w ed being the Venezia Murano 0>mpany and Salviati. 
Tbe municipal mtiseum contains a collection of glass illustrating 
the histoiy and progress of the art. 

The island of Murano was first peopled by the inhabitants 
ol Altino. It oris^nally enjojred independence under the rule 
of its tribunes and judges, and was one of the twelve confederate 
islands of the lagoons. In the lath century the doge Vital 
Micfaeli n. incorporated Murano in Venice and attached it to 
the Sesticre of S. Croce. From that date it was governed by 
a Venetian nobleman with the title of podesti whose office 
lasted sixteen months. Murano, however, retained its original 
constitution of a greater and a lesser council for the transaction 
of nnmidpal business, and also the right to coin gold and silver 
as wen as its judicial poweis. The interests of the town 
wen watched at the ducal palace by a nundo and a solicitor; 
and this constitution xemained in force till the fall of the 
republic. 

See Vemetia t It me Lapnu*, Paoletti. H Fiore di Venesia; Bu»- 
solin, Cuida aUe fabbriche vttrarit di Murano i Romania. Storia 
dccwmemiain di Vennia, L 41. 

■UBAS, a tribe of South-American Indians Uving on the 
Amazon, from the Madeira to the Funis. Formerly a powerful 
people, they were defeated by their neighbours the Mundrucus 
in 1788. They are now partly civilized. Each village has 
a chief whose ofike b hereditary, but he has little power. The 
Moras are among the lo west of all Amaxonian tribes. 

■UilAT. JOACHIM (1767-18x5), king of Naples, younger 
SOD of an innkeeper at La Bastide-Fortuni^ in the department 
of Lot, France, was bom on the 2Sth of March 1767. Destined 
for the priesthood, he obtained a bursary at the coUege of Cahors, 
proceeding afterwards to the university of Toulouse, where 
be studied canon law. His vocation, however, was certainly 
not sacerdotal, and after dissipating his money he enlisted in a 
cavalry regiment. In 1789 he had attained the rank of marlchal 
des hfis, but in 1790 he was dismissed tbe regiment for in- 
sttbordiiMtion. After a period of idleness, he was enrolled, 
through the good offices of J. B. Cavaignac, in the new Constitu- 
tional Guard of Louis XVI. (x79i)> In Paris he gained a reputa- 
tion for his good looks, his swaggering attitude, and the violence 
of his revolutionary sentiments. On the 30th of May 1792, tbe 
fuard having been disbanded, he was appointed sub-lieutenant 
in the sxst Chasseurs i cheval, with which regiment he served 
in the Argonne and the Pyrenees, obtaining in tbe latter campaign 
the ownmand of a squadron. After the 9th Thermidor, however, 
and the proscription of the Jacobins, with whom he had 



conspicuously identified himself, be feD under suspicion and 
was recalled from the front. 

Returning to Paris (i79s)> ^^ made the acquaintance of 
Napoleon Bonaparte, another yoxmg officer out of employment, 
who soon gained a complete ascendancy over his vain, ambitious 
and unstable nature. On the xjth Vendfmiaire, when Bonaparte, 
commissioned by Barras, beat down with cannon the armed 
insurrection of the Paris sections against the Convention, Murat 
was his most active and courageous lieutenant, and was rewarded 
by tbe lieutenant-colonelcy of the 21st Chasseurs and the appoint- 
ment of first aide de camp to General Bonaparte in Italy. In 
the first battles of the famous campaign of 1796 Murat so 
distinguished himself that he was chosen to carry the captured 
flags to Paris. He was promoted to be general of brigade, and 
retuxned to Italy in time to be of f^smtial service to Bonaparte 
at Bassano, Corona and Fort St Gk>igio, where he was wounded. 
He was then sent on a diplomatic mission to Genoa, but returned 
in time to be present at Rivoli. In the advance into Tirol in 
the summer of X797 he commanded the vanguard, and by his 
passage of the Tagliamento hurried on the preL'minaries of 
Leoben. In x 798 he was for a short time commandant at Rome, 
and then accompanied Bonaparte to Egypt. At the battle 
of the Pyramids he led his first famous cavalry charge, and so 
distinguished himsdf in Syria that he was made general of 
division (October, 1799). He returned to France with Bonaparte, 
and on the 1 8th Brumaire led into the orangery of Saint Cloud 
the sixty grenadiers whose appearance broke up the Council 
of Five Himdrcd. After the success of the coup d*itai he was 
made commandant of the consular guard, and on the 20th of 
January x8oo he married Caroline Bonaparte, youngest sister 
of the first consul. He commanded the French cavalry at 
the battle of Marengo, and was afterwards made governor in 
the Cisalpine Republic. As commander of the army of observa- 
tion in Tuscany he forced the Neapolitans to evacuate the Papal 
States and to accept the treaty of Florence (March 28, i8oi)- 
In January 1804 he was given the post of governor of Paris, 
and in this capacity appointed the miUtary commission by which 
the due d'Enghien was tried and shot (Mut± 30) ; in May he was 
made marshal of the empire; in February X805 he was made 
grand admiral, with the title of prince, and invested with the 
grand eagle of the Legion of Honoxir. He commanded the 
cavalry of the Grand Army in the German campaign of X805, 
and was so conspicuous at Austerlitz that Napoleon made him 
grand duke of Berg and Cleves (March 15, x8o6). He com- 
manded the cavalry at Jena, Eyiau, and Fricdland, and in 
1808 was made general-m-chief of tbe French aimies in Spain. 
He entered Madrid on tbe 2Sth of March, and on the 2nd of 
May suppressed an insurrection in the city. He did much to 
prepare the events which ended in the abdication of Charles IV. 
and Ferdinand VII. at Bayonne; but tbe hopes he had cherished 
of himself receiving the crown of Spain were disappointed. On 
the ist of August, however, he was appointed by Napoleon to 
the throne of Naples, vacated by the transference of Joseph 
Bonaparte to Spain. 

King Joachim Napoleon, as he styled himself, entered Naples 
in September, his handsome presence and open manner gaining 
him instantaneous popularity. Almost his first act as king 
was to attack Capri, which he wrested from the British; but, 
this done, he returned to Naples and devoted himself to establish- 
ing his kingship according to his ideas, a characteristic blend 
of the vulgarity of a parvenu ^ith the essential principles of 
the Revolution. He daizled the lazzaroni with the extravagant 
splendour of his costumes; he set up a sumptuous court, created 
a new nobility, nominated marshals. With an eye to the over- 
throw of his legitimate rival in Sicily, he organized a large army 
and even a fleet; but he also swept away the last relics of the 
effete feudal system and took effident measures for suppressing 
brigandage. From the first his relations with Napoleon were 
strained. The emperor upbraided him sarcastically for his 
"monkey tricks" (singeries); Murat ascribed to the deh'berate 
ill-will of the French generals who served with him, and even to 
Napoleon, the failure of his attack on Sicily in x 8 1 o. He resent ed 



28 



MURAT 



bis subordination to the emperor, and early began his pose as an 
Italian king by demanding the withdrawal of the French troops 
from Naples and naturalization as Neapolitans of all Frenchmen 
in the service of thi sUte (i8x i). Napoleon, of course, met this 
demand with a curt refusal. A breach between the brothers- 
in-law was only averted by the Russian campaign of z8za and 
Napoleon's invitation to Murat to take command of the cavalry 
in the Grand Army. This was a call which appealed to all 
his strongest military instincts, and he obeyed iL During the 
disastrous retreat he showed his usual headstrong courage; but 
in the middle of December he suddenly threw up his. command 
and returned to Naples. The reason of this was the suspicion, 
which had been growing on him for two years past, that Napoleon 
was preparing for him the fate of the king of Holland, and that 
his own wife. Queen Caroline, was plotting with the emperor 
for his dethronement. To Marshal Davout, who pointed out to 
him that he was only king of Naples " by grace of the emperor 
and the blood of Frenchmen," he replied that he was king of 
Naples as the emperor of Austria was emperor of Austria, and 
that he could do as he liked. He was, in fact, already dreaiming 
of exchanging his position of a vassal king of the French Empire 
for that of a national Italian king. In the enthusiastic reception 
that awaited him on his return to Naples on the 4th of February 
there was nothing to dispel these illusions. All the Italian 
parties flocked round him, flattering and cajoling him: the 
patriots, because he seemed to them loyal and glorious enough 
to assume the task of Italian unification; the partisans of the dk- 
possessed princes, because they looked upon him as a convenient 
instrument and as simple enough to be made an ea^ dupe. 

From tliis moment dates the importance of Murat in the 
histoiy of Europe during the next few years. He at once, 
without consulting his minister of foreign affairs, despatched 
Prince Cariati on a confidential mission to Vienna; if Austria 
would secure the renunciation of his rights by King Ferdinand 
and guarantee the possession of the kingdom of Naples to himself, 
he would place his army at her disposal and give up his claims 
to Sicily. Austria herself, however, had not as yet broken 
definitively with Napoleon, and before she openly joined the 
Grand Alliance, after the illusory congress of Prague, many 
things had happened to make Murat change his mind. He was 
offended by Napoleon's bitter letters and by tales of his sUghting 
comments on himself; he was alarmed by the emperor's scarcely 
veiled threats; but alter all he was a child of the Revolution 
and a born soldier, with all the soldier's instinct of loyalty to 
a great leader, and he grasped eagerly at any excuse for believing 
that Napoleon, in the event of victory, would maintain him 
on his throne. Then came the emperor's advance into Germany, 
supported as yet by his allies of the Rhenish Confederation. 
On the fatal field of Leipzig Murat once more fought on Napo- 
leon's side, leading the French. squadrons with all his old valour 
and dash. But this crowning catastrophe was too much for 
his wavering faith. On the evening of the z6th of October, 
the first day of the battle, Mettemich found means to open a 
separate negotiation with him: Great Britain and Austria 
would, in the event of Murat's withdrawal from Napoleon's 
army and refusal to send reinforcements to the viceroy of Italy, 
secure the cession to him of Naples by King Ferdinand, guarantee 
him in its possession, and obtain for him further advantages 
in Italy. To accept the Austrian advances seemed now his 
only chance of continuing to be a king. At Erfurt he asked 
and obtained the emperor's leave to return to Naples; " our 
adieux," he said, '* were not over-cordial." 

He reached Naples on the 4th of November and at once 
informed the Austrian envoy of his wish to join the Allies, 
suggesting that the Papal States, with the exception of Rome 
and the surrounding district, should be made over to him as 
his reward. On the jxst of December Count Neipperg, after- 
wards the lover of the empress Marie Louise, arrived at Naples 
with powers to treat. The result was the signature, on the nth 
of January 1814, of a treaty by which Austria guxiranteed to 
Murat the throne of Naples and promised her good offices to 
•ecure the assent of the other Allies. Secret additional articles 



stipulated that Atistria would use her good offices to secure the 
renunciation by Ferdinand of his rights to Naples, in return 
foe an indemnity to hasten the conclusion of peace between 
Naples and Great Britain, and to augment the Neapolitan 
kingdom by territory embracing 400,000 souls at the expense 
of the sUtes of the Church. 

The project of the treaty having been communicated to 
Castlereagh, he replied by expressing the willingness of the 
British government to conclude an armistice with *' the person 
exercising the government of Naples " (Jan. as), and this was 
accordingly signed on the 3rd oi February by Bentinck. It 
was dear that Great Britain had no intention of ultimately 
recognizing Murat's right to reign. As for Austria, she would 
be certain that Murat's own folly would, -sooner or later, give 
her an opportunity for repudiating her engagements. For the 
present the Neapoh'tan alliance would be invaluable to the Allies 
for the purpose of putting an end to the French dominion in 
Italy. The plot was all but spoilt by the prince royal, of Sicily, 
who in an order ox the day announced to his soldiers that their 
legitimate sovereign had not renounced his rights to the throne 
of Naples (Feb. 20); from the Austrian point of view it was 
compromised by a proclamation issued by Bentinck at Leghorn 
on the Z4th of March, in which he called on the Italians to rise 
in support of the "great cause of their fatherland." From 
Dijon Castlereagh promptly wrote to Bentinck (April 3) to say 
that the proclamation of the prince of Sicily must be disavowed, 
and that if King Ferdinand did not behave properly Great 
Britain would recognize* Murat's title. A letter from Mettemich 
to Manhal Bellegarde, of the same place and date, insisted 
that Bentinck's operations must be altered; the last thing that 
Austria desired was an Italian national rising. 

It was, indeed, by this time clear to the allied powen that 
Murat's ambition had o'erleaped the bounds set for them. 
"Murat, a true son of the Revolution," wrote Mettemich, 
in the same letter, " did not hesiute to form projecU of con- 
quest when all his care should have been limited to simple 
calculations as to how to preserve his throne. ... He dreamed 
of a partition of Italy between him and us. . . . When we refused 
to annex all Italy north of the Po, he saw that his calculaUona 
were wrong, but refused to abandon his ambitions. His attitude 
is most suspicious." " Press the restoration of the grand-duke 
in Tuscany," wrote Castlereagh to Bentinck; " this is the trae 
touchstone of Murat's intentions. We must not suffer him to 
carry out his plan of extended dominion; but neither must 
we break with him and so abandon Austria to his augmented 
intrigues." 

Meanwhile, Murat had formally broken with Napoleon, and 
on the z6th of January the French envoy quitted Naples. But 
the treason by which be hoped to save his throne was to make 
Its loss inevitable. He had betrayed Napoleon, only to be made 
the cat's-paw of the Allies. Great Britain, even when con- 
descending to negotiate with him, had never recognized his 
title; she could afford to humour Austria by holding out hopes of 
ultimate recogjhition, in order to detach him from Napoleon; for 
Austria alone of the Allies was committed to him, and Castle- 
reagh well knew that, when occasion should arise, her obliga- 
tions wquld not be suffered to hamper her Interests. With the 
downfall of Napoleon Murat's defection had served its turn; 
moreover, his equivocal conduct during the campaign in Italy' 
had blunted the edge of whatever gratitude the powers may 
have been disposed to feel; his ambition to unite all Italy south 
of the Po under his crown was manifest, and the statesmen 
responsible for the re-establishment of European order were 
little likely to do violence to their legitimist principles in order 
to maintain on his tlirone a revolutionary sovereign who was 
proving himself so potent a centre of national unrest. 

At the very opening of the congress of Vienna Talleyrand, 
with astounding effrontery, affeaed not to know " the man " 

* He had contributed to the defeats of the viceroy Prince Eugene 
in January and February 1814. but did not show any eagerness to 
press his victories to the advantase of the Allies, contenting himself 
with occupying the principality of Be 



iBeoevento. 



MURAT 



29 



«iM> had been casoaDy refened to. as " the Ung of Naples "; 
sad he made it the prime object of his policy in tlie weeks thftt 
followed to secure the itptidiation by the poweia of Mont's 
title, and the restoration of the Bourbon king. The powers, 
indeed, were Yoy ready to accept at least the principle of this 
polky. " Great Britain," wrote Castlereagh to Lord Liverpool 
en the s*^ of September from Geneva, " has no objection^ but 
the reverse, to the restoration of the Bourbons in Naples."^ 
PrxBsia saw in Murat the protector of the malcontents hi Italy." 
Alexander L of Russa had no sympathy for any champion of 
Liberalism bx Italy save himself. Austria confessed "sub 
BgOlo " that she shared " His Most Christian Majesty's views 
as to the icstoiation of andent dynasties."* The main difficul- 
ties in the way were Austria's treaty obligations and the means 
Igr which the desired result was to be obtained. 

TaOeyrand knew well that Austria, in the loog fun, would 
break faith with Murat and prefer a docile Bouibon on the throne 
of Naples to this mcakukble child of the Revolution; but he 
had his private reasons for desiring to " score off " Mettemich, 
the continnance of whose quasadiplomatic Naisom with Caroline 
Moral he ri^tly suspected.. He proposed boldty that, since 
Austria, in view of the treaty of Jan. xx, X814, was naturally 
rductant to undertake the task, the restored Bourbon king 
of France should be empowered to restore the Bourbon king of 
Naples by French aims, thus reviving once more the andent 
Habsboig-Bouibon rivalry for dominion in Italy.* 

Mettendcfa, with characteristic skHl, took advantage of this 
sstaatkn at once to checkmate France and to disonbarrass 
Aostria of its obligations to MuraL While secretly assuring 
Louis XVin., through his confidant Blacas, that Austria was 
in favour of a Bourbon restoration in Naples, he formally 
intimated to Talleyrand that a French invasion of Italian soil 
woold mean war with Austria.* To Murat, who had appealed 
to the treaty of 18x4, and demanded a passage northward^ for 
the troops destined to oppose those of Louis XVIII., he explained 
that Aostria, by her ultimatum to France, had already done all 
that was necessary, that any movement of the Neapolitan 
troops oataide Naples would be a useless breach of the peace 
of ItaJy, and that it would be regarded as an attack on Austria 
and n rupture of the alliance. Murat's sospidons of Austrian 
sincerity were now confirmed;* he realized that there was no 
f^estkm now of his obtaining any extension of territory at the 
expense of the states of the Church, and that m the Italy as 
xecoostmcted at Vienna his own position would be intolerable. 
Thns the very motives which had led him to betray Napoleon 
now led him to break with Austria. He would secure his throne 
by pnxlaiming the cause of united Italy, chasing the Austrians 

> Fja Vieona Conncss. viL 

*Mcm. of Uardenbeig, P.O. COng. Pnisau Ardi. sa Aug. 14- 
Jane IS 

•Mcnennch to BombeOea. Jan. 13, 18x5. enckvod in Caatle- 
naoj^ to liverpoot of Jan. as F'O. Congr. Vieana, xL 

•Sorel, viii4ix seq. 

* Cf. a *' most aeciec " communication to be made to M. de Blacas 
Oa Mctteraich to Bombelles, Vienna. Jan. 13, 1815). Murat's 
apjUvmv L at titude , and the unrest in Italv. are largely due to the 
tBraBtcniag attitude of France. ... H.I.M. is not prepared to 
rnk a risina of Ita^ under " the natk>nal flag." How will France 
coeree Naples? By sending an army iqto Italy acroos our states, 
whkh wooSd thns beoome infected with revolutionary views? .... 
The eaip cr u r ooold not allow such an expedition. When Italy is 
«ctled-nnd we will not allow Murat to keep the Marches . . . 
he wffl kMc prcstigew and then . . . will be the time for Austria to 
eve cfoct to the views which, all the time, she shares with His 
Most Chrtetan Maies^." (In Castleresgh to Liverpool, " private," 
Jan. 2S» 18x5. F.O. Vienna Congr. xL) 

•That th^ were fully justified is dear from the following ex- 
tract from a letter of Mettemich to Bombelles at Paris (dated 
Vteaaa, Jan. 13, 18x3). *' Whether Joachim or a Bourbon reigns 
at Mardes is for s« a very subordinate question. . . . When Europe 
u *^«faB«»— ** on solid foundations the fate of Joachim will no longer 
be iiiifJiniilii 111, but do not let us risk destroying Austria and 
Ffiaoe and Europe, in order to solve this question at^ the worst 
suannt it wooM be put on the tapis, . . . This u no business of 
tibe CoineBS, but Ui us Bomrbam Pcwerr dedan that they maintain 
ftnr cMu.** dn Castlereagh's private letter to Lord Uvcrpool. 
Jaa. IS. X8X5, F.O. Vienna Congr. xi) 



from the peninsula, and fstaWishfng himself as a national 
king. 

To contemporary observers in the best position to judge 
the enterprise seemed by no mesns hopeless. Lord William 
Bentinck, the commander of the English forces in Italy, wrote 
to Castlereagh ' that, ** having seen more of Italy," he doubted 
whether the whole force of Austria would be able to expel Murat ; 
" he has said clearly that he will raise the whole of Italy; and 
there is not a doubt that undergo standard of Italian indepen- 
dence the whole of Italy will rally." This feeling, contmued 
Bentinck, was due to the foolish and illiberal conduct of the 
restored sovereigns; the inhabitants of the states occupied by 
the Austrian troops were " discontented to a man "; even in Tus- 
cany " the same feeling and desire " universally prevailed. AH 
the provinces, moreover, were full of unemployed officers and 
soldiers who, hi wpite of Murat's treason, would rally to his 
standard, especially as he would certainly first put lusuelf into 
communication wiUi Napoleon in Elba; while, so far as Bentinck 
could hear of the disposition of the FWnch army, it would be 
" dangerous to assemble it anywhere or for any puxpose." The 
urgency of the danger was, then, fully realized by the powers 
even before Napoleon's return bom Elba; for they were well 
aware of Murat's correspondence with him. On the first news 
of Napoleon's landing in France, the British government wrote 
to Wellington* that this event together with " the proofs of 
Murat's treacheiy " had removed ** all remaining scruples " on 
their part, and that they were now " prepared to enter into a 
concert for his removal," adding that Murat should, m the event 
of his resigning peaceably, receive " a pension and all considera- 
tion." The rapki triumph of Napoleon, however, altered this 
tone. " BonafMUte's successes have altered the situation," wrote 
Castlereagh to Wellington on the 94th, adding that Great Britain 
would enter into a treaty with Murat, if he would give guarantees 
" by a certain redistribution of his forces" and the like, and 
that in spite of Napoleon's success he would be " true to Europe." 
In a private letter enclosed Castlereagh suggested that Murat 
might send an auxiliary force to France, where " his personal 
presence would be unseemly."* 

Qearly, had King Joachim played his cards well he had the' 
game m his hands. But it was not in his nature to phiy them 
well. He should have made the most of the chastened temper 
of the Allies, either to secure favouiable terms from them, or 
to hold them in phiy until Napoleon was ready to take the field. 
But his head had been turned by the flatteries of the " patriots "; 
he believed that aU Italy would rally to his cause, and that alone 
he would be able to drive the " (Sermans " over the Alps, and 
thus, as king of united Italy, be in a position to treat on equal 
terms with Napoleon, should he prove victorious; and he 
determined to strike without delay. On the a3rd the news 
reached Mettemich at Vienna that the Neapolitan troops were 
on the inarch to the frontier. The Allies at once decided to 
commission Austria to deal with Murat; in the event of whose 
defeat, Ferdinand IV. was to be restored to Naples, on promising 
a general amnesty and giving guarantees for a " reasonable" 
system of government.** 

Meanwhile, in Naples itadf there were signs enous^ that 
Murat's popularity had disappeared. In (Calabria the indiscrimi- 
nate severity of (kneral Manhis in suppressing brigandage had 
made the government hated; hi the capital the general dis- 
affection had led to rigorous policing, while conscripts had to 
be dragged m chains to join their regiments." In these circum- 
stances an outburst of national enthusiasm for King Joachim 
wss hardly to be expected; and the campaign in effect proved a 
complete fiasco. Rome and Bologna were, indeed, occupied with- 
out serious opposition; but on the xath of April Murat's forces 
received a check from the advancing Austrians at Ferrara and 
on the and of May were completely routed at Tolentino. The 

* Letter dated Florence, Jan. 7. 18x5. P.O. Vienna Conor. xL 

* P.O. Vienna Congr. xiu. Draft to Wellington dated Maxch la. 



* P.O. Vienna Congr. xiL 

* Ibid. Wellington to Ca« 
" F.O. Cong. xL; Munster to 



Vienna, March as. 

'1, Naples, Jan. 29. 



3° 



MURATORI 



AustiUns advanced on Naples, when Fetdinand IV. was duly 
restored, while Queen Caroline and her children were deported to 
Trieste. 

Murat himself escaped to France, where his offer of service - 
was contemptuously refused by NapoleOn. He hid for a 
while near Toulon, with a price upon his head; then, after 
Waterloo, refusing an asylum in England, he set out for Corsica 
(August). Here he was joined by a few rash spirits who urged 
him to attempt to recover his kingdom. Though Mettemich 
offered to allow him to join his wife at Trieste and to secure 
him a dignified position and a pension, he preferred to risk 
aU on a final throw for power. On the 28th of September he 
sailed for Calabria with a flotilla of six vessels carrying some 
a$o armed men. Four of lus ships were scattered by a storm; 
ofle deserted him at the last moment, and on the 8th of October 
he landed at Pizzo with only 30 companions. Of the popular 
enthusiasm for his cause which he had been led to expect there 
was less than no sign, and after a short and uneqiial contest he 
was taken prisoner by a captain named Trenu-Capilli, whose 
brother had been executed by General Manhes. He was im- 
prisoned in the fort of Pizzo, and on the 13th of October 18x5 
was tried by court-martial, under a law of his own, for disturbing 
the public peace, and was sentenced to be shot in half an hour. 
After writing a touching letter of farewell to his wife and children, 
he bravely met his- fate, and was buried at Pizzo. 

Though much good may be said of Murat as a king sincerely 
anxious for the welfare of his adopted country, his most abiding 
title to fame is that of the most dashing cavalxy leader of the 
age. As a man he was rash, hot-tempered and impetuously 
bcave; he was adored by hi^ troopers who followed their 
idol, the " golden eagle," into the most terrible fire and against 
the most terrible odds. Napoleon lived to regret his refusal 
to accept his services during the Hundred Days, dedaring that 
Murat's presence at Waterloo would have given more con- 
centrated power to the cavalry charges and mi^t possibly have 
changed defeat into victory. 

By his wife Maria Annundata Carolina Murat had two sons. 
The elder, Napoleon Achille Murat (Z801-Z847), during his 
father's reign prince royal of the Two Sicilies, emigrated about 
x8az to America, and settled near Tallahassee, Florida, where 
in 1826-1838 he was postmaster. In 1836 he married a 
great-niece of Washington. He published Lettres d*un citoyen 
des ^kUS'Unis dunde ses amis d* Europe (Paris, 1830); Es'quisse 
morale et politiqve des £tats-Unis (ibid. x83a); and Exposition des 
principes du gouvernemetU ripuUicain Id gu'U a iU perfecliontU en 
Amirique (ibid. 1833). He died in Florida on the 15th of April 

1847. 

The second son. Napoleon Luoen Charles Mxtrat (1803- 
1878), who was created prince of Ponte Corvo in 18x3, lived 
with his mother in Austria after 18x5, and in 1824 started to 
join his brother in America, but was shipwrecked on the coast 
of Spain and hdd for a while a prisoner. Arriving in X825, 
two years later he married in Baltimore a rich American, 
Georgina Frazer (d. X879); but her fortune was lost, and for 
some years his wife supported herself and him by keeping a 
girls' schooL After several abortive attempts to return to 
France, the revolution of 1848 at last gave him his opportunity. 
He was elected a member of the Constituent Assembly and of 
the Legislative Assembly (1849), was minister plenipotentiary 
at Turin from October 1849 to March x8so, and after the coup 
d*tUU of the and of December X85X was made a member of the 
consultative commission. On the proclamation of the Empire, 
he was recognized by Napoleon HI. as a prince of the blood royal, 
with the title of Prince Murat, and, in addition to the payment 
of a,ooo,ooo fr. of debts, was given an income of x 50,000 fr. 
As a member of the Senate he distinguished himself in x86x 
by supporting the temporal power of the pope, but otherwise 
he played no conspicuous part. The fall of the Empire in Sep- 
tember 1870 involved his retirement into private Ufe. He died 
on the xoth of April 1878, leaving three sons and two daughters, 
(x) Joachim, Prince Murat (1834-X90X), in 1854 married Maley 
Berthier, daughter of the Prince de Wagram, who bore him a 



son, Joachim (b. 1856), who succeeded him as head of the family, 
and two daughters, of whom the younger, Anna (b. 1863), 
became the wife >of the Austrian minister Count Goluchowski. 
(a) Achille (X847-X895), married Princess Dadian of Mingrelia. 
(3) Louis (b. Z85X), married in 1873 to the widowed Princess 
Eudoxia Orbeliani (nie Somov), was for a time orderly officer 
to Charles XV. of Sweden. (4) Caroline (b. X832), married in 
Z850 Baron Charles de Chassiron and in X872 Mr John Garden 
(d. 1885). (5) Anna (b. 1841), married in 1865 Antoine de 
Noaillcs, due de Mouchy. 

AcTHOKiTiBS.— See A. Sorel, VEurope et la r^vdutum fmngaise 
(8 vols., i88^-i8q2) passim, but especially vol. viii. for Murat's 
policy after the 1812; Helfert, Joachm Murat, seine Utsten Kdmpfe 
und sein Ende (Vienna, 1878); G. Romano, Ricordi muratiani 
(Pavia, 1800); Conespondatue de Joachim Murat, Juiilet irgi^ 
Juiliei 1808, ed A. Lumbroso (Nlilan, xSoo); Count Murat, Murat, 
lieutenant de Fempereur en Espagne (Paris, 1807); Guardione, 
Gioacchino Murat tn Italia (Palermo, 1890); M. H. Weil, Prince 
Eughte et Murat (5 vols., Paris, X901-1904) ; Chavcnon and Saint- 
Yves, Joachim Murat (Paris, 1905); Lumbroso, L'Ajonia di vn 
rerno; doacchino Murat al Pisao (Milan, X904). See also the 
bibliography to Napoleon I. (W. A. P.) 

MURATORI. LUDOVICO AMTONIO (X672-X7S0), Italian 
scholar, historian and antiquary, was bom of poor parents at 
Vignola in the duchy of Modena on the axst of October x67a. 
While young he attracted the attention of Father Bacchini, 
the librarian of the duke of Modena, by whom his literary tastes 
were turned toward historical and antiquarian research. Having 
taken minor orders in x688, Muratori proceeded to his degree 
of doctor ill $Uroqucjurehdon X694, was ordained priest in X69S 
and appointed by Count Carlo Borromeo one of the doctors 
of the Ambrosian library at Milan. From manuscripts now 
placed under his charge he made a selection of materials for 
several volumes (Anecdota), which he published with notes. 
The reputation he acquired was such that the duke of Modena 
offered him the situation of keeper of the public archives of the 
duchy. Muratori hesitated, until the offer of the additional 
post of librarian, on the resignation of Father Bacchini, deter- 
mined him in X700 to return to Modena. The preparation of 
numerous valuable tracts on the history of Italy during the middle 
ages, and of dissertations and discussions on obscure points 
of historical and antiquarian interest, as well as the publication 
of his various philosophical, theological, legal, poetical and 
other works absorbed the greater part of his time. These' 
brought him into communication with the most distinguished 
scholars of Italy, France and Germany. But they also exposed 
him in his later years to envy. His enemies spread abroad 
the rumour that the pope, Benedict XIV., had discovered in his 
writings passages savouring of heresy, even of atheism. Muratori 
appealed to the pope, repudiating the accusation. His Holiness 
assured him of Ids protection^ and, without expressing his 
approbation of the opinions in question of the learned antiquary, 
freed him from the imputations of his enemies. Muratori 
died on the 23rd of January 17 50, and was buried with much 
pomp in the church of Santa Maria di Pomposa, in connexion 
with which he had laboured as parish priest for many years. 
His remains were removed in 1774 to the church of St Augustin. 

Muratori is rightly regarded as the " father of Italian history." 
This is due to his great collection, Rerum italicarum scriptcres, 
to which he devoted about fifteen years* work (X723-X738). 
The gathering together and editing some 25 huge folio 
volumes of texts was followed by a series of 75 dissertations 
on medievsLl Italy (Antiquitates italicae medii am, X738-X74a, 6 
vols, folio). To these he added a Novus thesaurus inscripHonum 
(4 vols., X 739-1743), which was of great importance in the develop- 
ment of epigraphy. Then, anticipating the action of the learned 
societies of the xoth century, he set about a popular treatment 
of the historical sources he had published. These Annati 
d'ltalia (1744-X749) reached xa volumes, but were imperfect and 
are of little value. In addition to this national enterprise 
(the Scriptores were published by the aid of the Sodeti palatina 
of Milan) Muratori published Antcdota ex amhrosianae biblio- 
thecaecodd. (a vols. 4to, Milan, 1697, X698; Padua, X7X3); 
Anecdote graeca (3 vols. 4to, Padua, 1709); Antichita Esteas 



MURAVIEV— MURCHISON 



31 



(» vols. foL, Modena, 17 17); Vi^^ t rimedi P. Fdrvca (17x1)1 
and Vite ti operedi L. Castdvetro (1727). 

la biblical scbolanhip Muntori a chiefly known at the ois- 
covocr of the 8o<aUed Muratorian Canon, the name given t6 a 
fragment (85 fines) of eariy Chiistian literature, which he found 
in 1740, embedded in an Sth^entury codes which forms a 
oompendiam of theoIogicBl tracts followed by the five early 
Ouistian creeds. The document rontstnft a list of the books of 
the New Testament, a fimilar list concerning the Old Testament 
having apparently preceded it. It is in barbarous Latin which 
has probably been translated from origimd Greek — the language 
prevailing in Christian Rome until c. aoo. There is little doubt 
that it was composed in Rome and we may date it about the 
year 190. U^tifoot inclined to Hippolytus as its author. It 
b the earliest document known whidi enumerates the books in 
order. 

The first line of the fragment is broken and speaks of the 
Gospd of St Mark, but there is no doubt that its compiler 
knew also of St Matthew. Acts is ascribed to St Luke. He 
names thirteen letten of St Paul but says nothing of the Epistle 
to the Hebrews. The alleged letters of Paul to the Laodiceans 
and .Mezandrians he rejects, '* for gall must not be mixed with 
booey." The two Epbtles of Peter and the Epistle of James 
air not referred to, but that of Jude and two of John are accepted. 
He includes the Apocaljrpse of John and also the Apocalypse 
of Peter. The Shepherd of Hennas he rqects as not of apostolic 
origin, but this test of canonidty is not consistently applied 
for he allows the ** Wisdom written by the friends of Solomon in 
fab honour." He rejects the writing of th« Gnostics Valentinus 
and Basilides, and of Montanus. 

The list b not an authoritative decree, but a private regbter 
of what the author considers the prevailing Chrbtian sentiment 
in fab neighbourhood. He notes certain differences among 
the Gospels, because not all the evangelbts were eye-witnesses 
of the life of Jesus; yet Mark and Luke respectively have behind 
them the authority of Peter and of Paul, who b thus regarded 
as 00 a footing with the Twelve. The Fourth Gospel was 
written by John at the recpiest of the other apostles and the 
btsfaops on the basb of a rcvelatk>n made to Andrew. The 
letters of Paul are written to four individuab and to seven 
dif erent churches, like the seven letters in the Apocalypse of 
John. 

It b interesting to notice the cofaiddence of hb Ibt with the 
evidence gained from Tertullian for* Africa and firoip Irenaeus 
for Gaul and indirectly for Asia Minor. Before the year soo 
there was widc^wead agreement in the sacred body of apostolic 
writings read in Chrbtian churches on the Lord's Da/ along with 
theOld Testament 

Mnratori** Letters, with a Lif9 prefixed, were published by Laezan, 
(1 vob, Venice, 1783). Hu n«>hew, F. G. Muratori, also wrote 
a Vtto del cdOire Ludoo. AnL Muratori (Venice, 1756). See also 
A.G.SaindU** BtbliognphbdcIlelettereesUmoadtL. A. Muratori " 
in BotUtimo deiF institmto storico italiano (1888), and Carducci's 
meface to the sew Seriplores, The Muratorian Canon b siven 
la fan with a ttansbtion in H. M. Gwatkin's Selections from Early 
C^istian Writers, It b abo pobliahcd as No. I of H. UeUmann^ 
Kksme Texte /Or theeloriscke Vorlesunzen (Bonn, 1902). See abo 
Jommal of Tkodopal Studies, viil. 537.- 

MURAVnnr, HICHAEL mKOLAIWICH, Count (1845-1900), 
RnsBian statesman, was bom on the xgth of April 1845. He 
was the son of (general Count Nicholas Muraviev (governor of 
Grodno), and grandson of the Count Michael Muraviev, who 
beosme notorious for hb drastic measures in stamping out the 
PoGsh insorrection of 1863 in the Lithuanian provinces. He was 
cdocsted at a secondary school at Poltava, and was for a short 
time at Heiddberg University. In 1864 he entered the chancel- 
lery of the minister for foreign affairs at St PetersbuxK, and was 
soon afterwards attached to the Russian legation at Stuttgart, 
where be attracted the notice of Queen 01^ of Wttrttemberg. 
He was transferred to Berlin, then to Stockholm, and back 
a^ to Berlin. In 1877 he was second secretary at the Hague. 
During the Russo-Turkish War of 1878 he was a delegate of the 
Red Croas Sodety In charge of an ambulance train provided 



by Queen (^ of Wttrttemberg. After the war he was succes> 
sively first secretary at Parb, chancellor of the embassy at Berlin, 
and then minbter at Copenhagen. In Denmark he was brought 
much mto contact with the imperial family, and on the death of 
Prince Lob&nov in 1897 he was appointed by the T^nr Nicholas II. 
to be hb minbter of foreign affairs. The next three and a half 
years were a critical time for European dipbmacy. The Chinese 
and Cretan questions were dbturbing factors. As regards Crete, 
Count Muraviev's policy was vadUating; in (^hina hb hands were 
forced by (krmany's action at Kiaochow. But he acted with 
singular Ugtreti with regard at all evenU to hb assurances to 
Great Britain respecting the leases of Port Arthur and Talienwan 
from China; he told the British ambassador that these would 
be "open ports," and afterwards essentially modified tfab 
pledge. MThen the Tsar Nicholas inaugurated the Peace Con- 
ference at the Hague, Count Muraviev extricated hb country 
from a situation of some embarrassment ; but when, subsequently, 
Russian agents in Manchuria and at Peking connived at the 
agitation which culminated in the Boxer rising of 1900, the 
rebtions of the responsible foreign minbter with the tsar became 
strained. Muraviev died suddenly on the sxst of June 1900, 
of apoplexy, brought on, it was said, by a stormy interview 
with the tsar. 

■URGHISOlf, 8IR RODERICK IMPET (i79a-x87x), Britbh 
geologist, was bom at Tarradale, in eastern Ross, Scotland, on 
the 19th of February 1793. Bis father, Kenneth Murchison 
(d. 1796), came of an old Highland clan in west Ross-shire, and 
having been educated as a medical man, acquired a fortune in 
India; iriiile still in the prime of life he returned to Scotland, 
where, marrying one of the Mackenzies of Fairbum, he purchased 
the estate of Tarradale and settled for a few years as a resident 
Highland landlord. Young Murchison left the Highlands when 
three years cJd, and at the age of seven was sent to the grammar 
school of Durham, where he remained for six years. He was then 
placed at the military college. Great Marlow, to be trained for 
the army. With some difficulty he passed the examinations, 
and at the age of fifteen was gaxetted ensign in the 36th regiment. 
A year later (x8o8) he landed with Wellesley in Galida, and was 
present at the actions of Rorica and Vimiera. Subsequently 
under Sir John Moore he took part in the retreat to Corunna 
and .the final battle there. Thb was hb only active service. 
The defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo seeming to dose the prospect 
of advancement in the military profession, Murchison, after 
eight years of service, quitted the army, and married the daughter 
of General Hugonm, of Nursted House, Hampshire. With her 
he then spept rather more than two years on the Continent, 
particularly in Italy, where her cultivated tastes were of signal 
influence in guiding hb pursuits. He threw himself with all the 
enthusiasm of hb character into the study of art and antiquities, 
and for the first time in hb life tasted the pleasures of truly 
intellectual pursuits. 

Returning to England in x8x8, he soia ms paternal property 
in Roaa^hire and settled in England, where he took to fidd 
sports. He soon became one of the greatest fox-himters in the 
midland counties; but at last, getting weary of such pursuits and 
meeting Sir Humphry Davy, who urged him to turn hb energy 
to sdence, he was induced to attend lectures at the Royal 
Institution. Thb change in the current of hb occupations 
was much helped by the sympathy of hb wife, who, besides her 
artbtic acquirements, took much interest in natural hbtory. 
Eager and enthusiastic in whatever he undertook, he was fasci- 
nated by the young sdence of geology. He joined the Geological 
Sodety of London and soon showed himself one of its most 
active members, having as hb colleagues there such men as 
Sedgwick, W. D. Conybeare, W. Buckland, W. H. Fitton and 
Lyell. Exploring with hb wife the geology of the south of 
England, he devoted spedal attention to the rocks of the north- 
west of Sussex and the adjoining parts of Hants and Surrey, on 
which, aided by Fitton, he wrote hb first sdentific paper, read 
to the sodety in 1825. Though he had reached the age of thirty- 
two before he took any interest in sdence, he devdoped his 
taste and increased hb knowledge so rapidly that in the first 



32 



MURCIA 



three yean of his scientific career he had explored large parts 
of England and Scotland, had obtained materials for three 
important memoirs, as well as for two more written in conjunction 
with Sedgwick, and had risen to be a prominent member of the 
Geologiad Society and one of its two secretaries. Turning his 
attention for a little to Continental geology, he explored with 
Lyell the volcanic region of Auvergne, parts of southern France, 
northern Italy, Tirol and Switzerland. A little later, with 
Sedgwick as his companion, he attacked the difficult problem 
of the geological structure of the Alps, and their joint paper 
giving the results of their study will always be regarded as one of 
the classics in the h'terature of Alpine geology. 

It was in the year 1831 that Murchison found the field in which 
the chief work of his life was to be accomplished. Acting on 
a suggestion made to him by Buckland he betook himself to 
the borders of Wales, with the view of endeavouring to discover 
whether the greywacke rocks underlying the Old RmI Sandstone 
could be grouped into a definite order of succession, as the 
Secondary rocks of England had been made to tell their story by 
William Smith. For several years he continued to work vigor- 
ously in that region. The result was the establishment of the 
Silurian system— under which were grouped for the first time a 
remarkable series of formations, each replete with distinctive 
organic remains older than and very different from those of 
the other rocks of England. These researches, together with 
descriptions of the coal-fields and overlying formations in south 
Wales and the English border counties, were embodied in The 
Silurian System (London, 1839), a massive quarto in two parts, 
admirably illustrated with map, sections, pictorial views and 
plates of fossils. The full import of his discoveries was not at 
first perceived; but as years passed on the types of exi&lcnce 
brought to light by him from the rocks of the border counties 
of England and Wales were ascertained to belong to a geological 
period of which there are recognizable traces in almost all parts 
of the globe. Thus the term "Silurian," derived from the 
name of the old British tribe Silures, soon passed into the 
vocabulary of geologists in every country. 

The establishment of the Silurian system was followed by 
that of the Devonian system, an investigation in which, aided 
by the palaeontological assistance of W. Lonsdale, Sedgwick 
and Murchison weres fellow-labourers, both in the south-west 
of England and in the Rhineland. Soon afterwards Murchison 
projected an important geological campaign in Russia with the 
view of extending to that part of the Continent the classification 
he had succeeded in elaborating for the older rocks of western 
Europe. He was accompanied by P. E. P. de Vemeuil (1805- 
1873) and Count A. F. M. L. A. von Keyserling (x8i 5-1891), in 
conjimction with whom he produced a magnificent work on 
Russia and the Ural Mountains. The publication of this mono- 
graph in 1845 completes the first and most active half of Murchi- 
son's scientific career. In 1846 he was knighted, and in the 
same year he presided over the meeting of the British Association 
at Southampton. During the later years of his life a large part 
of his time was devoted to the affairs of the Royal Geographical 
Society, of which he was in 1830 one of the founders, and he was 
president 1843-1845, 1851-1853, 1856-1859 and Z863-1871. So 
constant and active were his exertions on behalf of geographical 
exploration that to a large section of the contemporary public he 
was known rather as a geographer than a geologist. He particu- 
larly identified himself with the fortunes of David Livingstone 
in Africa, and did much to raise and keep alive the sympathy 
of his fellow-countrymen in the fate of that great explorer. 

The chief geological investigation of the last decade of his life 
was devoted to the Highlands of Scotland, where he believed 
be had succeeded in showing that the vast masses of qystalline 
schists, previously supposed to be part of what used to be termed 
the Primitive formations, were really not older than the Silurian 
period, for that underneath them lay beds of limestone and 
quartzite containing Lower Silurian (Cambrian) fossils. Subse- 
quent research, however, has shown that thb infraposition of 
the fossiliferous rocks is not their original place, but has been 
brought about by a gigantic system of dislocations, whereby 



successive masses of the oldest gneisses have been torn up from 
below and thrust bodily over the younger formations. 
. In 1855 Murchison was appointed director-general of the 
geobgicrl survey and director of the Royal School of Mines and 
the Museum of Practical Geology in Jermyn Street, London, in 
succession to Sir Henry De la Beche, who had been the first to 
hold these offices. Official routine now occupied mudi of his 
tmie, but he found opportunity for the Highland researches 
just alluded to, and also for preparing successive editions of his 
work Siluria (1854, ed. 5, 187a), which was meant to present 
the main features of the original Silurian System together with 
a digest of subsequent discoveries, particularly of those which 
showed the extension of the Silurian classification into other 
countries. His official position gave him further opportunity 
for the exercise of those social functions for which he had always 
been distinguished, and which a considerable fortune inherited 
from near relatives on his mother's side enabled him to display 
on a greater scale. His house in Belgrave Square was one of the 
great centres where science, art, literature, politics and social 
eminence were brought together in friendly intercourse. In' 
r863 he was made a K.C.B., and three years later was raised 
to the dignity of a baronet. The learned societies of his own 
country bestowed their highest rewards upon him: the Koyal 
Sodety gave him the Copley medal, the Geological Society its 
Wollaston medal, and the Royal Society of Edinburgh its 
Brisbane medal. There was hardly a foreign scientific society 
of note which had not his name enrolled among jta honorary 
members. The French Academy of Sciences awarded him the 
prix Cuvier, and elected him one of its eight foreign members in 
succession to Faraday 

One of the closing public acts of Muiduson's life was the 
founding of a chair of geology and mineralogy in the university 
of Edinburgh, for ^Hiiich he gave the sum of £6000, an aimual 
sum of £300 being likewise provided by a vote in parliament for 
the endowment of the professorship. While the negotiations 
with the (k»vemment in regard to this subject were still in 
progress, Murchison was seized with a paralytic affection on 
3ist of November x87a He rallied and was able to take 
interest in current affairs until the early autumn of the follow- 
ing year. After a brief attack of bronchitis he died on the 
23nd of October 187Z. Under his will there was established 
the Murchison Medal and geological fund to be awarded 
annually by the council of the Geological Sodety in London. 

See the Life of Sir Roderick L Murchison, by Sir A. Geikie (2 vols.. 
X875). (A.GB.) 

MURCIA. a maritime province of south-eastern Spain, bounded 
on the E. by Alicante, S.E. and S. by the Mediterranean Sea, W. 
by Almcrfa and Granada and N. by Albacete. Pop. (1900), 
577(9^7; Area, 4453 sq. m. The extent of coast is about 75 m.; 
from (iape Palos westwards to Villaricos Point (where Almerfa 
begins) it is fringed by hills reaching their greatest devation 
immediately east of Cartagena; northwards from Cape Palos 
to the Alicante boundary a low sandy tongue endoscs the 
shallow lagoon called Mar Menor. Eastward from the Mar 
Menor and northward from Ca r tagena stretches the plain known 
as El Campo de Ca r tagena, but the surface of the rest of the 
province is diversified by ranges of hills, bdonging to the same 
system as the Sierra Nevada, which coimect the mountains of 
Almeria and Granada with those of Alicante. The general 
direction of these ranges is from south-west to north-east; they 
reach thdr highest point (5150 ft.*) on the Sierra de E^uf&a, 
between the Mula and Sangonera vaUeys. They are rich m 
iron, copper, argentiferous lead, alum, sulphur, and saltpetre. 
Mineral springs occur at Mula^ Archena (hot sulphur), and 
Albania (hot chalybeate). The greater part of the province 
drains into the Mediterranean, chiefly by the Segura, which 
enters it in the north-west bdow Hellin in Albacete, and leaves 
it a little abdve Orihuela in Alicante; within the province it 
receives on the Idt the Arroyo dd Jua, and on the right the 
Caravaca, (^ipar, Muk, and Sangonera. The smaller streams 
of Nogalte and Albujon fall directly into the Mediterranean and 
the Mar Menor respectively. . The climate is hot and dry, and 



MURCIA— MURDOCK 



33 



agricoltixre is krgdy dependent on irrigation, which, where 
pncticable, lims been carried on since the time of the Moors. 
Wheat, barley, maise, hemp, oil, and wine (the latter somewhat 
roogfa in quality) are produced; fruit, especially the orange, is 
abundant along the course of the S^gura; mulberries for seri- 
culture are extensively grown around the capital; and the 
number of bees kept is exceptionally large. Esparto grass is 
gathered on the sandy tracts. The live stock consists chiefly of 
asses, mules, goats and pigs; horses, cattle and sheep being 
relatively few. Apart from agriculture, the principal industry 
is miniq^ which has its centre near Cartagena. Large quantities 
of lead and esparto, as well as of zinc, iron and copper ores, and 
sulphur, are exported. The province is traversed by a railway 
which connects Murda with Albacete and Valmda; from 
AlrantarilU there is a branch to Lorca and Basa. Near the 
capital and other large towns there are good roads, but the 
c»ans of communication are defective in the remoter districts. 
This deficiency has somewhat retarded the development of 
mining, and, although it has been partly overcome by the 
construction of Ught railways, many rich deposits of ore remain 
unworked. The chief towns are Murda, the capital, Cartagena, 
Lorca, La Uni6n, Mazarr6n, Yeda, Jumilla, Aguilas, Caravaca, 
Totana, Cieza, MuU, Moratalla, and Cehegfn. Other towns 
with more than 7000 inhabitants are Alhama, Bullas,- Fuente 
Alamo, M<dina and Torre Facheco. 

The province of Muida was the first Spanish possession of 
the rarthaginlans, by whom Nova Carthago was founded. The 
iUnnans induded it in Hispa.nia . Tarraconensis. Under the 
Moots the province was known 'as Todmfr, which induded, 
according to Edrisi, the dlies Murda, Orihuek, Cartagena, 
Lorca, Mala and Chinchilla. The kingdom of Murda, which 
cane into independent existence after the fall of Omayyads 
(see Caupbate) induded the present Albacete as well as Murda. 
It became subject to the crown of C^tile in the xjth century. 
Until 1833 the province of Murda also induded Albacete. 

ITDBCIA, the qapiul of the Spanish province of Murda; 
dk the liver Segura, 35 m. W. of the Mediterranean Sea. Pop. 
(1900), xxi,S39> Murda is connected by rail with all parts 
of Spain, and b an important industrial centre, sixth in respect 
of p<^u]ation among the dties of the kingdom. It has been an 
cf^oopal see since 1291. It is built nearly in the centre of a 
low-lying fertile plain, known as the kuerta or garden of Murda, 
which ioidadcs the valleys of the Segura and its right-hand tribu- 
tary the Sangonera, and is surrounded by mountains. Despite 
the proximity of the sea, the climate is subject to great varia- 
tioss^ the summer heat being severe, while frosts are common in 
winter. The dty is built mainly on the left bank of the Segura, 
whkh carves north-eastward after recdving the Sangonera bdow 
Murda, and falls into the Mediterranean about 30 m. N.E. A 
fine stone bridge of two arches gives access to the suburb of San 
Benito, which contains the bull-ring. As a rule the streets are 
broad, straight and planted with avenues of trees, but the 
CaBe de Platexfa and Calle de la Traperia, which contain many 
cf the prindpal shops, are more characteristically Spanish, being 
Ened with old-fashioned balconied houses, and so narrow that 
wheeled traffic is in most parts impossible. In summer these 
tbofonghfazes are shaded by awnings. The Malecon, or embank- 
ment. Is a. fine {womenade skirting the left bank of the Segura; 
the river is here crossed by a weir and supplies power to several 
aik-miQs. The prindpal square is the Arenil or Plaza de la 
Congtituci6n, planted with orange trees and adjoining the 
dorieU Park The cathedral, dating from Z38S-X467, is. the 
vxk of many architects; in the main it is hite Gothic, but a 
Renaissance dome and a tower 480 ft. high were added in X52X, 
while a Corinthian fa^de was erected in the z8th century. 
There axe some good paintings and fine wood-carvihg in the 
interior. Other noteworthy buildings are the colleges of San 
Folgencio and San Iridxo, the bishops' palace, the hospital of 
San Joan de Dios, the Moorish Alhondiga, or grain warehouse, 
the bmlding^ of the mtmidpal and provincial coundk and 
the Contraste, which » adorned with sculptured coats-of-arms, 
aad was oxii^aally designed to contain standard weights and 



measures; it has become a picture-gallery. There are two 
training schools for teachers, a provincial institute and a museum. 
Since X875 the industrial importance of Murda has steadily 
increased. Mulberries (for silkworms), oranges and other fruits 
ure laigely cultivated in the kuerta, and the silk industry, which 
dates from the period of Moorish rule, is still carried on. Manu- 
factures of woollen, linen and cotton goods, of saltpetre, flour, 
leather and hats, have been established in more modem times, 
and Murda is the chief market for the agricultural produce of 
a large district. A numerous colony of gipsies has settled in the 
west of the dty. 

Murda was an Iberian town before the Punic Wars, but its 
nkme then, and under Roman rule, is not known, though some 
have tried to identify it with the Roman Vergilia. To the Moors, 
who took possession early in the 8th century, it was known as 
Mcdinat Mursiya. Edrisi described it in the X2th century as 
populous and strongly fortified. After the fall of the caliphate 
of Cordova it passed successively under the rule of Almerfa, 
Toledo and Seville. In x z 7 2 it was taken by the Almohades, and 
from X223 to X243 it became the capital of an independent 
kingdom. The Castilians took it at the end of this period, 
when laige numbers of immigrants from north-eastern Spain 
and Provence settled in the town; French and Catalan names are 
still not uncommon. Moorish princes continued to rule in name 
over this mixed population, but in x 269 a rising against the 
suzerain, Alphonso the Wise, led to the final incorporation of 
Murda (whkh then induded the present province of Albacete) 
into the kingdom of Castile. During the War of the Spanish 
Succession Bishop Luis de Belluga defended the dty against 
the archducal army by flooding the kuerta. In x8xo and i8xs 
it was attacked by the French under Marshal Soult. It suffered 
much from floods in X65X, X879 and X907, though the construc- 
tion of the Malecon has done much to keep the Segura within 
its own channel In X829 many buildings, induding the 
cathedral, were damaged by an earthquake. 

MURDER, in law, the UiUawful killbig of a person with malice 
aforethought (see HoiaciDE). The O. £ng. morVor comes ulti- 
matdy from the Indo-European root mar-, to die, which has 
also given Lat. mors, death, and all its derivatives in English, 
French and other Rom. languages; d. Gr. ppor^, for itoprln, 
mortal. The O. Eng. form. Latinized as murdrum, mmrlrum, 
whence Fr. meurtre, is represented in other Teutonic languages 
by a cognate form, e.g. Ger. Mord, Du. moord. 

MURDOCK, WILUAM (1754-1839), British inventor,- was 
bom near the village of AucMnleck in Ayrshire on the 21st of 
August X754. His father, John Murdoch (as the name is spelt 
in Scotland), was a millwright and miller, and William was 
brought up in the same occupation. In X777 he entered the 
employment of Boulton & Watt in the Soho works at Birming- 
ham, and about two years afterwards he was sent to Cornwall to 
superintend the fitting of Watt's engines. It is said that while 
staying at Redruth he carried a series of experiments in the 
distillation of coal so far that in X792 he was able to light his 
cottage and offices with gas, but the evidence is not conclusive. 
However, after his retum to Birmingham about 1799, he made 
such progress in the discovery of practical methods for making, 
storing and purifying gas that in 1802 a portion of the exterior 
of the Soho factory was lighted with it in cdcbration of the peace 
of Amiens, and in the following year it was brought into use 
for the interior. Murdock was also the inventor of important 
improvements in the steam-engine. He was the first to devise 
an oscillating engine, of which he made a modd about X784; in 
X786 he was busy^-somewhat to the annoyance of both Boulton 
and Watt — ^with a steam carriage or road locomotive; and in 
^799 he invented the long D slide valve. He is also believed to 
have been the real deviser of the sun and planet, motion patented 
by Watt in X 78 1. In addition his ingenuity was directed to 
the utilization of compressed air, and in X803 he constructed 
a steam gun. He retired from business in 1830, and died at Soho 
on the X5th of November X839. 

bust 
oaumeot. 



At the celebration of the centenary of fpa lightine in 1893. a t 
of Murdock was unveiled by Lord Kelvin m the Wallace Moaunu 



3+ 



MURE— MURGER 



Stirling, and there it also a bust of him by Sir F. L. Chantrey at 
Handsworth Church, where he was buried. His *' Account <M the 
Application of Gas from Coal to Economical Purposes " appeared 
in • he Fkil. Trans, for 1808. 

MURE, SIR WILLIAM (1594-1657), Scottish writer, son of 
Sir William Mure of Rowallan, was bom in 1594. His motker 
was Elizabeth, sister of the poet Alexander Montgomcrie {g.v.). 
He was a member of the Scottish parliament in 1643, and took 
part in the English campaign of 1644. He was wounded at 
Marston Moor, but a month later was commanding a regiment 
at Newcastle. He died in 1657. He wrote Dido and Aeneas; 
a translation (1628) of Boyd of Trochrig's Latin Hecalomhe 
Christiana; The True Crucifixe for True Catholikes (1629); a 
p&raphrase of the Psalms; the Historie and Descent of the 
House of RowaUane; A Counter-buf to Lysimackus Nieanor; 
The Cry of Blood and of a Broken Covenant (1650); besides much 
miscellaneous verse and many sonnets. 

A complete edition of his works was edited by William Tough 
for the Scottish Text Society (3 vols., 1898). Mure's Lute-Book, 
a musical document of considerable interest, b preserved in the 
Laing collection of MSS. in the library of the university of 
Edinburgh. 

MURB, WILLIAM (X799-Z860), Scottish classical scholar, 
was born at Caldwell, Ayrshire, on the 9th of July I7<99. He 
was educated at Westminster School and the universities of 
Edinburgh and Bcnn. From 1846 to 1855 he represented the 
county of Renfrew in parliament in the Conservative interest, 
and was lord rector of Glasgow University in 1847-1848. For 
many years he devoted his leisure to Greek studies, and in 
1 850-1 85 7 he published five volumes of a Critical History of 
the Language and Literature of Ancient GreecCf which, though 
uncompleted and somewhat antiquated, is still usefuL He died 
in London on the ist of April x86o. 

MURENA, the name of a Roman plebeian family from 
Lanuvium, belonging to the Licinian gens, said to be derived 
from the fondness of one of the family for lampreys {murenae). 
The principal members of the family were Lucius Licinius 
Murena, who was defeated by Mithradates in Asia in 81 B.C., and 
his son Lucius Licinius Murena, who was defended by Cicero 
in 62 B.C. against a charge of bribery (Cic. Pro Murena). The 
son was for several years legate of Lucius Licinius Lucullus 
in the third Mithradatic War. In 65 he was praetor and made 
himself popular by the magnificence of the games provided by 
him. As administrator of Transalpine Gaul after his praetorship 
he gained the goodwill of both provincials and Romans by his 
impartiality. In 62 he was elected consul, but before entering 
upon office he was accused of bribery by Servius Sulpidus,an 
unsuccessful competitor, supported by Marcus Pordus Cato 
the younger and Servius Sulpicius Ruifus, a famous jurist and 
son of the accuser. Murena was defended by Marcus Licinius 
Crassus (afterwards triumvir), Quintus Hortensius and Cicero, 
and acquitted, although it seems probable that he was guilty. 
During his consulship he p&sstd a law (lex Junia Licinia) which 
enforced more strictly the provision of the lex CaecUia Didia— 
that laws should be promulgated three nundinae before they 
were proposed to the comitia, and further enacted that, in order 
to prevent forgery, a copy of every proposed statute should be 
deposited before witnesses in the aerarium. 

MURETUS, the Latinized name of Makc Antoine Muret 
(i 526-1 585), French humanist, who was bom at Muret near 
Limoges on the Z2th of April 1526. At the age of eighteen he 
attracted the notice of the elder Scaliger, and was invited to 
lecture in the archiepiscopal college at Auch. He afterwards 
taught Latin at Villeneuve, and then at Bordeaux. Some time 
before 1552 he delivered a course of lectures in the college of 
Cardinal Lemoine at Pari5, which was largely attended, Henry 
II. and his queen being among his hearers. His success made him 
many enemies, and he was thrown into prison on a disgraceful 
charge, but released by the intervention of powerful friends. 
The same accusation was brought against him at Toulouse, and 
he only saved his life by timely flight. The records of the town 
show that he was burned in effigy as a Huguenot and as shame- 
fully immoral (1554). After a wandering and insecure life of 



some years in Italy, he received and accepted the invitation of 
the Cardinal Ippolyte d'Este to settle in Rome in 1559. In 
1561 he revisited France as a member of the cardinal's suite 
at the conference between Roman Catholics and Protestants held 
at Poissy. He returned to Rome in 1563. His lectures gained 
him a European reputation, and in 1578 be received a tempting 
offer from the king of Poland to become teacher of jurisprudence 
in his new college at Cracow. Muretus, however, who about 
1576 had taken holy orders, was induced by the Uberality of 
Gregory XIII. to remain in Rome, where he died on the 4tli of 
June 1585. 

Cumptctfr edttloiu of his worki; cdiiio princeps, Verona (1727- 
1750); tjy D- Ruhnlcen (1789), by C H. Frotschcr (1834-1841); 
two votucnra of Scripta seUcta^ by J. Froy (1871); Variae Uction^s, 
bv F. A. Wolf and J. 11. Fsisi (1791^132^). Murctuscdited a number 
of cUukral authors with leamtd ai>d scholarly notes. His other 
work^ include Jmvniiia rt ptvmalo paria, orationes and epistotae. 

S« mofiggr^ph by C, Dviub (Vans, 1881); J. E. Sandys, /fu/. 

MURBXIDB (NH4CsH4N|Oi,H30), the ammonium salt of 
purpuric acid. It may be prepared by heating alloxantin in 
ammonia gas to 100* C, or by boiling uramil with mercuric oxide 
a. V. Liebig, F. Wdhler, Ann., 1838, 26, 319), 2C4H»NaOi+0- 
NH4Cai4N,Oi+HaO. W. N. Hartley {Jour. Chem. Soc., 1905, 
87, 1 791) found considerable difficulty in obtaining specimens 
of murexide sufficiently pure to give concordant results when 
examined by means of their absorption spectra, and conse- 
quently devised a new method of preparation for murexide. In 
this process alloxantin is dissolved in a large excess of boiling 
absolute alcohol, and dry ammonia gas is passed into the solution 
for about three hours. The solution is then filtered from the 
precipitated murexide, which is washed with absolute alcohol 
and dried. The salt obtained in this way is in the anhydrous 
state. It may also be prepared by digesting alloxan with 
alcoholic ammonia at about 78*^ C; the purple solid so formed 
is easily soluble in water, and the solution produced is 
indistinguishable from one of murexide. 



On the constitution of murexide see also O. Piloty (Ann., 190^. 
33;Si 30); R. Mohlau (Ber., 1904, 37, 2686); and M. Slimmer and J. 
SticgUu {Amer. Chem. Jour., 1904, 31, 661). 

MURFREESBORO. a city and the county-seat of Rutherford 
county, Tennessee, U.S.A., near the Stone River, 32 m. S.E. of 
Nashville. Pop. (1890), 3739; (1900), 3999 (2248 negroes); 
(1910), 4679. It is served by the Nashville Chattanooga & St 
Louis railway. It is in an agricultural region where cotton is 
an important crop, and has a considerable trade in red cedar, 
hardwood, cotton, livestock and grainy it has also various 
manufactures. At Murfreesboro are Soule College for girls 
(Methodist Episcopal South; 1852), Tennessee College for girls 
(Baptist, 1906), Mooney School for boys (1901), and Bradley 
Academy for negroes. Murfreesboro was settled in i8z i ; was 
incorporated in 181 7, and from 1819 to 1825 was the capital 
of the state. It was named in honour of Colonel Hardy 
Murfree (1752-1809), a native of North Carolina, who served as 
an officer of North Carolina troops in the War of Independence, 
and after 1807 lived in Tennessee. About 2 m. west of the 
city the battle of Murfreesboro, or Stone River (q.v.), was 
fought on the 31st of December 1862 and the 2nd of January 
1863. 

MUROBR. HBNRT (1822-1861), French man of letters, was 
bom in Paris on the 24th of March 2822. His father was a 
German concierge and a tailor. At the age of fifteen Murgcr was 
sent into a lawyer's office, but the occupation was uncongenial 
and his father's trade still more so; and he became secretaiy to 
Count Alexei Tolstoi. He published in 1843 a poem entitled 
Via dolorosa, but it made no mark. He also tried journalism, 
and the paper £e Castor, which figures in his Vie de Bohim€ 
as having combined devotion to the interests of the hat trade 
with recondite philosophy and elegant literature, is said to have 
existed, though shortlived. In 1848 appeared the collected 
sketches called Schnes delaviede Bohime. This book describes 
the fortunes and misfortunes, the loves, studies, amusements 
and sufferings of a group of impectmious students, artists and 



MURGHAB— MURILLO 



35 



meD of letters, of whom Rodolphe represents Mui^ger himself, 
while the others have been more or less positively identified. 
Murger, in fact, belonged to a clique of so-called Bohemians, the 
most remarkable of whom, besides himself, were Privat d' Angle* 
moot and Champfleiuy. La Vie de Bokhmtt atranged for the 
stage in coUabontioa with Theodore Barri^, was produced 
at the Vari£t£s on the ssnd of November 1849, and was a 
triumphant success; it afterwards formed the basis of Puccini's 
opera. La Bokime (1898). From this time it was easy for 
Mttrger to live by journalism and general literature. He was 
intxodxacedmiSsi to the Roue da deux mtondts. But he was a 
slow, fastidious and capridous worker, and his years of hardship 
and dissipation had impaired his health. He published among 
other works Ciamde et Mariatme in 2851 ; a comedy, Le Bonkcmme 
Jadis ia 1852; Le Pays LaHn in 1852; Adeline Protat (one of the 
most graceful and innocent if not the most original of his tales) 
in 1853; and Les Buvews d*eau in 1855. This last, the most 
powerful of his books next to the Vie de Boktme, traces the fate 
of certain artists and students who, exaggerating their own 
powen and disdaining merely profitable work, come to an evil 
end not less rapidly than by dissipation. Some years before 
bis death, which took place in a maison de santi near Paris on 
the 28th of January z86i, Murger went to live at Marlotte, near 
Foatainebleau, and there he wrote an unequal book entitled 
Lt Sabci rouge (i860), in which the character of the French 
peasant is unoomplimentarily treated. 

See an article by A. de Pontmartin in the Reeue des deux mmdes 
(October 1861). 

MtnOHAB. a river of Afghanistan, which flows into Russian 
territory. It rises in the Firozkhoi highlands, the northern 
Kaip of which is defined by the Band-i-Turkestan, and after 
tzavcfsing that plateau from east to west it turns north through 
deep defiks to Bala Murghab. Beyond this, in the neighbour- 
hood of Mamchak, it fonns for a space the boundary-line between 
A^ian and Russian Turkestan; then joining the Kushk river 
si Pul-i-Khishti (Tash Kupri) it runs north to Mcrv, losing itself 
is the sands of the Merv dcBert after a course of about 450 m., 
iu exact source being unknown. In the neighbourhood of 
Bala Murghab it is 50 jrds. broad and some 3 ft. deep, with a 
rapid current. In the lower part of its course it is flanked by 
a remarkable network of canals. The ancient city of Merv, 
which was on its banks, was the great centre of medieval Arab 
trade, and Buddhist caves are found In the scarped cliffs of iU 
right bank near Panjdeh. 

MURI, a province of the British protectorate of Northern 
Nigeria. It lies approximately between 9* and zx" 40' £. and 
7* x</ and 9* 40' N. The river Benue divides it through iU 
leogth, and the portion on the southern bank of the river is 
watered by streams flowing from the Cameroon region to the 
Besue. The province is bordered S. by Southern Nigeria, 
S.E. by German territory (Cameroon), £. by the province of 
Yolo, N. by Bauchi, W. by Nassarawa and Bassa. The district 
of Katsena-Allah extends south of the Benue considerably 
west of 9* £., the approximate limit of the remainder of the 
province. Muri has an area of 25,800 sq. m. and an estimated 
popolatioa of about 828,000. The province is rich in forest 
products and the Niger Company maintains trading stations 
GB the river. Cotton is grown, and spinning thread, weaving 
and dyeing afford occupation to many thousands. The valley 
cf the Benue has a climate generally unhealthy to Europeans, 
but there are places in the northern part of the province, such 
21 the Fula settlement of Wase on a southern spur of the 
Murchison hills, where the higher altitude gives an excellent 
climate. Muri includes the ancient Jukon empire together with 
various small Fula states and a number of pagan tribes, among 
whom the Monshi, who extend into the provinces of Nassarawa 
and Bassa, are among the most turbulent. The Munshi occupy 
aboet 4000 sq. m. in the Katsena-AIlah district. The pagan 
tribes in the north of the province are lawless cannibals who by 
cKotant outrages and murders of traders long rendered the main 
trade route to Bauchi unsafe, and cut off the markets of the 
Benue valley and the Cameroon from the Hausa states. Only 



two routes, one via Wase and the other via Gatari, pass through 
this belt. In the south of the province a similar belt of hostile 
pagans dosed the access to the Cameroon except by two routes, 
Takum and Bell. For Hausa traders to cross the Muri province 
was a work of such danger and expense that before the advent 
of British administration the attempt was seldom made. 

Muri came nominally under British control in 1900. The 
principal effort of the administration has been to control and 
open the trade routes. In 1904 an expedition against the 
northern cannibals resulted in the capture of their principal 
fortresses and the settlement and opening to trade of a large 
district, the various routes to the Benue being rendered safe. 
In 1905 an expedition against the Munshi, rendered necessary 
by an unprovoked attack on the Niger Company's station at 
Abinsi, had a good effect in reducing the riverain portion of 
this tribe to submission. The absence of any central native 
authority delayed the process of bringing the province under 
administrative control. Its government has been organised 
on the same system as the rest of Northern Nigeria, and is under 
a British resident. It has been divided into three administrative 
divisions— east, central and west — with their respective head- 
quarters at Lau, Amar and Ibi. Provincial and native courts 
of justice have been established. The telegraph has been 
carried to the town of MurL Muri is one of the provinces in 
which the slave trade was most active, and its position between 
German territory and the Hausa states rendered it in the early 
days of the British administration a favourite route for the 
smuggling of slaves. 

MURILLO, BART0L0H6 ESTBBAN (1617-1682), Spanish 
painter, son of Caspar Esteban Murillo and Maria Perez, was 
bom at Seville in 16x7, probably at the end of the year, as he 
was baptized on the first of January 1618. Esteban-Murillo 
appears to have been the compound surname of the father, 
but some inquirers consider that, in accordance with a frequent 
Andalusian custom, the painter assumed the surname of his 
maternal grandmother, Elvira Murillo, in addition to that of 
his father. His parents (the father an artisan of a huml^le 
class), having been struck with the sketches which the bpy 
was accustomed to make, placed him under the care of their 
distant relative, Juan del Castillo, the painter. Juan, a correct 
draughtsman and dry colourist, taught him all the mechanical 
parts of his profession with extreme care, and Murillo proved 
himself an apt pupil. The artistic appliances of his master's 
studio were not abundant, and were often of the simplest kind. 
A few casts, some stray fragments of sculpture and a lay figure 
formed the principal aids invailable for the Sevillian student of 
art. A living model was a luxury generally beyond the means 
of the school, but on great occasions the youths would strip in 
turn and proffer an arm or a leg to be studied by their fellows. 
Objects of still life, however, were much studied by Murillo, 
and he early learnt to hit off the ragged urchins of Seville. 
Murillo in a few years painted as well as his master, and as 
stiffly. His two pictures of the Virgin, executed during this 
period, show how thoroughly he had mastered the style, with all 
its defects. Castillo was a kind man, but his removal to Cadiz 
in Z639-1640 threw his favourite pupil upon his own resources. 
The fine school of Zurbaran was too expensive for the poor 
lad; his parents were either dead or too poor to help him, and 
he was compelled to earn his bread by painting rough pictures 
for the " feria " or public fair of Seville. The religious daubs 
exposed at that mart were generally of as low an order as the 
prices paid for them. A " pintura de la feria " (a picture for 
the fair) was a proverbial expression for an execrably bad one; 
yet the street painters who thronged the market-place with 
their "clumsy saints and unripe Madonnas" not unfrequently 
rose to be able and even famous artists. This rough-and-ready 
practice, partly for the market-place, partly for converts in 
Mexico and Peru, for whom Madonnas and popular saints 
were produced and shipped off by the dozen, doubtless increa«ed 
Murillo's manual dexterity; but, if we may judge from the 
picture of the "Virgin and Child" shown in the Murillo-room at 
Seville as belonging to this period, he made little improvement 



36 



MURILLO 



in colouriDg or in general strength of design. Struck by the 
favourable change which travel had wrought upon the style 
of his brother artist Pedro de Moya, Murillo in 1642 resolved 
to make a journey to Flanders or Italy. Having bought a large 
quantity of canvas, he cut it into squares pf different sizes, which 
he converted into pictures of a kind likely to sell. The American 
traders bought up his pieces, and he found himself sufficiently 
rich to carry out his design. He placed his sister, who was 
dependent on him, under the care of some friends, and without 
divulging his plans to any one set out for Madrid. On reaching 
the capital he waited on Velazquez, his fellow-townsman — then 
at the summit of his fortune— and asked for some introduc- 
tion to friends in Rome. The master liked the youth, and 
offered him lodging in his own house, and proposed to procure 
him admission to the royal galleries of the capital. Murillo 
accepted the offer, and here enjoyed the masterpieces of Italy 
and Flanders without travelling beyond the walls of Madrid. 
The next two years were chibfly spent in copying from Ribera, 
Vandyck and Velazquez; and in 1644 he so astonished the latter 
with some of his efforts that they were submitted to the king 
and the court. His patron now urged him to go to Rome, 
and offered him letters to smooth his way; but Murillo preferred 
returning to his sister and his native Seville. 

The friars of the convent of San Francesco in Seville had 
about this time determined to adorn the walls of their small 
cloister in a manner worthy of their patron saint. But the 
brotherhood had no money; and after endless begging they found 
themselves incapable of employing an artist of name to execute 
the task. Murillo was needy, and offered his services; after 
balancing their own poverty against his obscurity the friars 
bade him begin. Murillo covered the walls with eleven large 
pictures of remarkable power and beauty — displaying by turns 
the strong colouring of Ribera, the Ufelike truthfulness of 
Velazquez, and the sweetness of Vandyck. Among them were 
to be found representations of San Francesco, of San Diego, of 
Santa Clara and of San Gil. These pictures were executed 
in his earliest style, commonly called hh frio or cold style. It 
was based chiefly on Ribera and Caravaggio, and was dark with 
a decided outline. This rich collection is no longer in Seville; 
Marshal Soult carried off ten of the works. The fame of these 
productions soon got abroad, and " £1 Claustro Chico " swarmed 
daily with artists and critics. Murillo was no longer friendless 
and unknown. The rich and the noble of Seville overwhelmed 
him with their commissions and their praises. 

In 1648 Murillo married a wealthy lady of rank, Dofia Beatriz 
dc Cabrera y Sotomayor, of the neighbourhood of Seville, and 
his house soon became the favourite resort of artists and 
connoisseurs. About this time he was associated with the land- 
scape-painter Yriarte — the two artists interchanging figures and 
landscapes for their respective works; but they did not finally 
agree, and the co-operation came to an end. Murillo now 
painted the well-known " Flight into Egypt," and shortly 
afterwards changed his earliest style of painting for his calido 
or warm style. His drawing was still well defined, but his 
outlines became softer and his figiu-es rounder, and his colouring 
gained in warmth and transparency. His first picture of this 
style, according to Cean Bermudez, was a representation of 
" Our Lady of the Conception," and was painted in 1652 for 
the brotherhood of the True Cross; he received for it 2500 reals 
(£26). In 1655 he executed his two famous paintings of " San 
Leandro " and " San Isidoro " at the order of Don Juan Federigo, 
archdeacon of Carmona, which are now in the cathedral of 
Seville. These are two noble portraits, finished with great care 
and admirable effect, but the critics complain of the figures 
being rather short. His next picture, the " Nativity of the 
Virgin," painted for the chapter, is regarded as one of the most 
delightful specimens of his calido style. In the following year 
(1656) the same body gave him an order for a vast picture of San 
Antonio dc Padua, for which he received xo,ooo reals (£104). 
This is one of his most celebrated performances, and still hangs 
in the baptistery of the cathedral. It was " repaired " in 1833; 
the grandeur of the design, however, and the singular richness 



of the colouring may still be traced. The same year saw him 
engaged on four large semicircular pictures, designed by his 
friend and patron Don Justino Neve y Yevenes, to adorn the 
walls of the church of Santa Maria la Blanca. The first two 
(now in Madrid) were meant to illustrate the history of the 
Festival of Our Lady of the Snow, or the foundation of the 
Roman basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore. The one represents 
the wealthy but childless Roman senator and his lady asleep 
and dreaming; the other exhibits the devout pair relating 
their dream to Pope Liberius. Of these two noble paintings 
the Dream is the finer, and in it is to be noticed the commence- 
ment of Murillo's third and last style, known as the vaporoso or 
vapoury. It should be noted, however, that the three styles 
are not strictly separable into date-periods; for the painter 
alternated the styles accordingly to his subject-matter or the 
mood of his inspiration, the calido being the most frequent. In 
the taporoso method the well-marked outlines and careful 
drawing of his former styles disappear, the outlines are lost 
in the misty blending of the light and shade, and the general 
finish betrays more haste than was usual with Murillo. After 
many changes of fortune, these two pictures now hang in the 
Academy at Madrid. The remaining pieces executed for this 
small church were a " Virgin of the Conception " and a figure of 
" Faith." Soult laid his hands on these also, and they have hot 
been recovered. 

In 1658 Murillo undertook and consummated a task which 
had hitherto baffled all the artists of Spain, and even royalty 
itself. Thb was the establishing of a public academy of art. By 
superior tact and good temper he overcame the vanity of Valdes 
Leal and the presumption of the younger Herrera, and secured 
their co-operation. The Academy of Seville was accordingly 
opened for the first time in January z66o, and Murillo and the 
second Herrera were chosen presidents. The former continued 
to direct it during the following year; but the calls of his studio 
induced him to leave it in other hands. It was then flourishing, 
but not for long. 

Passing over some half-length pictures of saints and a dark- 
haired Madonna, painted in x668 for the chapter-room of the 
cathedral of his native dty, we enter upon the most splendid 
period of Murillo's tareer. In z66i Don Miguel Mafiara Vicen- 
tdo de Leca, who had recently turned to a life of sanctity from 
one of the wildest profligacy, resolved to raise money for the 
restoration of the dilapidated Hospital de la Caridad, of whose 
pious gild he was himself a member. Mafiara commissioned 
his friend Murillo to paint eleven pictures for this edifice of San 
Jorge. Three of these pieces represented the " Annunciation," 
the " Infant Saviour," and the " Infant St John." The remaining 
eight are considered Murillo's masterpieces. They consist of 
" Moses striking the Rock," the " Return of the Prodigal," 
" Abraham receiving the lliree Angels," the "Charity of San 
Juan de Dios," the " Miracle of the Loaves and Fishes," " Our 
Lord healing the Paralytic," " St Peter released from Prison by 
the Angel," and " St Elizabeth of Hungary." These works 
occupied the artist four years, and in 1674 he received for his 
eight great pictures 78,xi5 reals or about £800. The " Moses, '* 
the " Loaves and Fishes," the " San Juan," and the three 
subjects which we have named first, are still at Seville; the 
French carried off the rest, but the " St Elizabeth " and the 
" Prodigal Son " are now back in Spain. For compass and 
vigour the " Moses " stands first; but the " Prodigal's Return '* 
and the "St Elizabeth" were considered by Bermudez the 
most perfect of all as works of art. The front of this famous 
hospital was also indebted to the genius of Murillo; five large 
designs in blue glazed tiles were executed from his drawings. 
He had scarcely completed the undertakings for this edifice 
when his favourite Franciscans again solicited his aid. He 
accordingly executed some twenty paintings for the humble 
h'ttle church known as the Convent de los Capudnos. Seventeen 
of these Capuchin pictures are preserved in the Museum of 
Seville. Of these the f* Charity of St Thomas of Villanueva " 
is reckoned the best. Murillo himself was wont to call it " su 
lienzo " (his own picture). Another little piece of extraordinary 



MURIMUTH— MURNER 



37 



ant, vfaidi ODoe liiing in (hb iimA, b the " Viigin of the 
Napldii." bdieved to have been peinted on a " lervilleU " and 
pRscBtcdto the cook of the Capnrhin brotherhood a» a piemorial 
of the artist's pendL 

In 1670 MuxiUo is aaid to have declined an invitation to ooort, 
preferring to labour among the brown coats of Seville. Eight 
years afterwards his friend the canon Justino again employed 
him to paint three pieces for the Hospital de los Venerables: 
the "Mystery of the Immamlstr Conception," "St Peter 
Weeping," and the " Blessed Virgin." As a mark of esteem, 
HniiOo iKxt painted a foll-length portrait of the canon. The 
spaniel at the feet of the priest has been known to caU forth a 
saail from a living dog. His portraits generally, thou^ few, 
arc of great beanty. Towards the ckise of Us life MuiiUo 
cnciited a series of pictures illustrative of the life of " the 
gforkns doctor " for the Augustinian convent at Seville. This 
faiinsi « to the last work of the artist Mounting a scaffolding 
one day at Cadis (whither he had gone in z68i) to execute the 
higher parts of a large picture of the " Espousal of St Catherine," 
on which he was engaged for the Capuchins of that town, he 
starabfed, and fcU so violently that he received a hurt from which 
he never r ecove r ed. The great picture was left unfinished, and 
the artist returned to Seville to die. He died as Jie had lived, 
ahnmble, pious, brave man, on the 3rd of April 2682 in the arms 
<i the chevalier Pedro Nulkes de Villavicencio, an intimate 
fiiend and one of his best piqals. Another of hb numerous 
pupils was Sebastian Gomez, named "Muzillo's Muktto." 
Mmiilo kft two sons (one of them at first an indifferent painter,- 
afterwards & priest) and a daughter— his wife haidng died 
before hini. 

MoriDo has always been one of the most popular of painters— 
not in Spain akme. His works show great terhmfal attainment 
without much style, and a strong feeling for ordinary nature 
and for truthful or sfntimmfsl expression without lofty boiuty 
or ideal elevation, ffis entasies of Madonnaf and Saints are 
the themes of some of his most celebrated achievements. Take 
as an rrampl^ the " Immaculate Conception " (or " Assumption 
of the Virghi," for the titles may, with reference to Murillo's 
treatmenu of this subject, almost be interchanged) in the 
Louvre, a picture for which, on iu sale from the Soult collection, 
one of the largest prices on record was given in 1852, some 
it^faoo. His subjects may be divided into two great groups— 
the scenes from low life (which were a new experiment in Spanish 
art, so far as the subjects of children are concerned), and the 
Scriptural, legendary and religious works. The former, of 
which some salient sperimens are in the Dulwich Gallery, are, 
shboggh undoubtedly truthful, neither ingenious not sym- 
pathetic; socdui unrightliness and roguish squalor are thdr 
foeadation. Works of this dass belong mostly to the earlier 
jtxn of MnriOo's pnctioe. The subjecU in which the painter 
Bast exoeb are crowded compositions in which some act of 
MistKnfss, involving the ascetic or self-morlifying element, 
ii being performed— subjects which, while repulsive in some of 
their details, miphawre the broadly human and the expressly 
Calbolic conceptions of life. A famous example is the picture, 
Bowia the Madrid Academy, of St Elizabeth of Hungary washing 
pttients afiiicted with the scab or itch, and hence commonly 
aaaied " El Tifloao." Technically considered, it unites his three 
aiTles of pninfing, more especially the cold and the warm. His 
power of giving a tmosp here to combined groups of figures is one 
ef the marked charactoistics of MuriHo's art; and he may be said 
to have excelled in this respect all hit predecessors or con- 
tBBpQories of whatever school 

SeriOe most still be visited by perwns who wish to study 
If (BJBo tfaomghly. A large number of the works which used 
to adorn this dty have, however, been transported else- 
vhkher. In the Ptado Museum at Madrid are forty-five 
Vedaens of Morilla— the " Infant Christ and the Baptist " 
(su&ed " Los I>raios delU Concha ")« *' St Bdefonso vested with 
aOiasubfe by the Madonna," &&; in the Museo della Trinklad, 
"Qnit and the \lrgxn appearing to St Fnmds in a Cavern " 
^BBBcnecompoeition)* and various otherk In the National 



Gaflery, London, the chief example is the " Holy Family "; this 
waa one of the master's Utest works, painted in Cadis. In 
public galleries in the United Kingdom there are altogether 
twenty-four examples by Murillo; in those of Spain, seventy-one. 
Murillo, who was the last pre-eminent painter of Seville, was 
an indef a ti ga b l e and prolific worker, hardly leaving his painting- 
room save lor his devotions in church; he realized large prices, 
according to the standard of his time, and made a great fortune. 
His charscter is recorded aa amiable and soft, yet independent, 
subject abo to sodden impulses, not unmixed with passion. 

See Stiriing, Amub tf Om Artists sf Spam (3 vob., London. 
1848): Richard Ford, Bamdbookfer Spmn O^ondon. 1855); Curtis, 
CalaUpmcfAs Wcrkstf VSawtmand Murilh (iS8^)X Alfonso, 
MmriOo, d AoMbv, Ac (18K); C. Jutti, MuriOe (iUustnted, 
1893) : P. Lefort, limtUc tt $ts 4(W» (1893) ; P. M. Tubinq, Murillo, 
su cAko. Ac (1864: Eog. tians.. 1870); Dr G. C. Williamson, 
ir«rab(i9u):C.&Rkketts, rk« Aad0(i9O3). (W. M. R.) 

■UHuiUTB, ADAM («. is74-x347)i EngUsh ecclesiastic and 
chronicler, was bom in 1274 or 1375 and educated in the dvil 
law at Oxford. Between 1312 and 1318 he practised in the 
papal curia at Avignon. Edward IL and Archbishop Winchebey 
were among hb dients, and hb legal services secured for him 
canonries at Hereford and St Paul's, and the precentorship 
of Exeter CathedrsL In 1331 he retired to a country living 
(Wraysbury, Bucks), and devoted himself to writing the history 
of hb own times. Hb ConHmiatio ckromcanm, begun not 
earlier than 1335, starU from the year 1303, and was carried 
up to Z347, the year of hb death. Meagre at first, it becomes 
fuller about 1340 and b specially valuable for the hbtory of the 
French wars. Murimuth has no merits of style, and gives a 
bald narrative of events. But he inoorjwrates many, documents 
in the latter part of hb book. The annab of St. Paul's which 
have been edited by Bishop Stubbs, are closely related to the 
work of Murimuth, but probably not from hb pen. The 
OmtkiuaHo was carried on, after hb death, by an anonymous 
writer to the year X38a 

The only complete edition of the OmUnwOU ekronkantm b that 
by E. M. Thomnon (Rolb series, 1889). The preface to this edition, 
and to W. Stubbs's CknmcUs of Edward I. and II., vol i. (Rolb 
series, 1883), shoukl be consulted. The anonymous continuation 
b printed in T. Hog's edition of Murimuth (Esf . HisL Soe., London, 
1846). 01. W. C D.) 

■uiUBH, 1H01EA8 (Z475-1537?), German satirbt, was 
bom on the 24th of December 1475 at Oberehnheim near Strsss- 
buxg. In 1490 he entered the order of Franciscan monks, and 
in Z495 bqjan a wandering life, studying and then teaching and 
preadung in Freiburg in-Breisgau, Paris, Cracow and Strassburg. 
The e mp eior Marimilian I. crowxied him in 1505 poeta laMreatus; 
in Z506, he was created doctor theolopae, and in 1513 was ap- 
pointed custodian of the Franciscan monastery in Strassburg, 
an office which, on account of a scunilous publication, he was 
forced to vacate the following year. Late in life, in 1518, he 
began the study of jurisprudence at the university of Basel, 
and in 1519 to<^ the degree of doctor juris. After journeys in 
Italy and EngUnd, he again settled in Strassburg, but, disturbed 
by the Reformation, sought an exOe at Lucerne in Switzerbnd 
in 1536. In ZS33 he was appointed priest of Oberehnhdm, 
where he died in Z537, or, according to some accounts, in Z536. 
Mumer was an energetic and passioiute character, who niade 
enemies wherever he went. There b not a trace of human 
kindness in hb satires, which were directed against the cor- 
ruption of the times, the Reformation, and especially against 
Luther. Hb most powerful sathfe— and the most virulent 
Cierman satire of the period— b Vam dem grossen lutkerischen 
Narrm, trie ikn Dr Mwmer be s ckwor m haL Among othen 
may be mentioned DU Narrmbesekwdrumg (1512); Die Sckdmen- 
Munft (i5Z3); Die GSuckmaU, which treats of enamoured foob 
(tsx9), and a translation of Vhgfl's Aetieid (15x5) dedicated to 
the emperor Maximilian I. Mumer abo wrote the humor- 
oua CkttriUsidutm lopcae (1507) and the Ludus studentum 
freiburgfinrium (x$zx), besides a transbtion of Justinian's 
InsHttUiones (15x9). 

AH Muner's mora hnportant works have been republished in 



J 



38 



MUROM— MURRAY, A. S. 



critical editions: a adection waapubliabed by G. Bailee in KOracb- 
ner's Deutsche NationaUiteratur O^Qo). Cf. W. Kawcrau, Mumer 
und die Kirche des MitUlalters (1S90); and by the same writer, 
Murner und die deutscke Reformatiou (1891}; aUo K. Ott, Vber 
Mumers Verhcliniss tuGeiler (1896). 

MUROM, a town of Russia, in the government of Vladimir, 
on the craggy left bank of the Oka, close to its confluence with 
the Tesha, xo8 m. by rail S.E. of the dty of Vladimir. Pop. 
(1900), 12,874. Muron has an old cathedraL It is the chief 
entrep6t for grain from the basin of the lower Oka, and carries 
on an active trade with Moscow and Nizhniy^Novgorod. It is 
famed, as in andent times, for kitchen-gardens, eq>eciaUy for 
its cucumbers and seed for canaries. Its once famous tanneries 
have lost their importance, but the manufacture of linen has 
increased; it has also steam flour-mills, distiUedes, manufac- 
tories of soap and of iron implements. 

MURPHY, ARTHUR (1737-1805), Irish actor and dramatist, 
son of a Dublin merchant, was bom at Clomquin, Roscommon, 
on the 37th of December 1727. From 1738 to 1744, under 
the name of Arthur French, he was a student at the English 
college at St Omer. He entered the coimting-house of a mer- 
chant at Cork on recommendation of his unde, Jeffery French, 
in 1747. A refusal to go to Jamaica aUenated French's interest, 
and Mivphy exchanged his situation for one in London. By 
the autumn of 1752 he was publishing the Grays Inn Journal, 
a periodical in the style of the Spectator, Two years later he 
became an actor, and appeared in the title-r61es of Richard J2 1. 
and Othdlo'f as Biion in Southerners Fatal Marriage\ and as 
Osmyn in Congreve's Mourning Bride, His first farce, Tlu 
Apprentice, was given at Drury Lane on the and of January 
1756. It was followed, among other plays, by The Upholsterer 
(1757), The Orphan of China (1759), The Way to Keep Him 
(1760), AUinthe Wrong (1761), The Grecian Daughter (x772)» 
and Know Your Own Mind (1777). These were almost all 
adaptations from the French, and were very successful, securing 
for their author both fame and trcalth. Murphy edited a 
political periodical, called the Test, in support of Henry Fox, by 
whose influence he was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn, 
although he had been refused at the Middle Temple in 2757 
on account of his connexion with the stage. Murphy also 
wrote a biography of Fielding, an essay on the life and graius 
of Samud Johnson and translations of Sallust and Tadtus. 
Towards the dose of his life the office of a commissioner of 
bankrvpu and a pension of £200 were oonfened upon him 
by government. He died on the i8th of June 1805. 

MURPHY, JOHN FRANCIS (1853- ), American Umdscape 
painter, was bom at Oswego, New York, on the xxth of 
December X853. He first exhibited at the National Academy 
of Design in 1876, and was made an associate in X885 and a 
full aoademidan two years later. He became a memba of the 
Sodety of American Artists (xgox) and of the American Water 
Color Sodety. 

MURPHY, ROBERT (X806-X843), British mathematician, the 
son of a poor shoemaker, was born at Mallow, in Ireland, in 
x8o6. At the age of thirteen, while working as an apprentice 
in his father's shop, he became known to certain gentlemen in 
the neighbourhood as a self-taught mathematician. Through 
their exertions, after attending a classical school in his native 
town, he was admitted to Caius College, Cambridge, in X825. 
Third wrangler in 1829, he was elected in the same year a feUow 
of his coUi^ A course of dissipation led him into debt; his 
fellowship was sequestered for the benefit of his creditoxa, and 
he was obliged to leave Cambridge in December 1832. After 
living for some time with his relations in Ireland, he repaired 
to London in X836, a penniless literary adventurer. In 1838 
he became examiner in mathematics and physics at London 
University. He had already contributed several mathematical 
papers to the Cambridge Philosophical Transactions (i83X~x836), 
Philosophical Magasine (1833-X842), and the Philosophioal 
Transactions (1837), and had published Elementary Principles of 
the Theories of Electricity (1833). He now wrote for the " Library 
of Useful Knowledge " a Treatise on the Theory of Algfbrokal 
Equations (1839). He died on the xath of March 2843. 



MUBPHY8B0R0, a dty and the county-ceftt of Jackaoa 
county, Illinois, U.S.A., m the south part of the state, on the 
Big Muddy River, about 57 m. N. of Cairo. Pop. (1890), 3880; 
(X900), 6463, induding 557 fordgn-bom and 456 negroes; (1910), 
7485. It is served by the Illinois Central, the Mobile & Ohio 
and the St Louis, Iron Mountain & Southem railwayi. It is 
the centre for a fanning region, in which there are deposits of 
coal, iron, lead and shale, and there are various manufactures 
in the dty. Murphysboro was incorporated in 1867, and re- 
incorporated in 1875. 

MURRAIN (derived tfanm^ O. Fir. marine, from Lat. mori, to 
die), a general term for various virulent diseases in domesticated 
animals, synonymous with plague or epixooty. The prindpal 
diseases are dedt with under Rimdespest; PixuBO-FMxmiONiA; 
Anthrax; and Foot and Mouth Djdbeasb. See also Vetee- 
IN AEY S cience. 

MURRAY (or Mosay), BARL8 OF. The caxldomof Moray was 
one of the seven original earldoms of Scotland, its lands corre- 
sponding roughly to the modem counties of Inverneu axui Rosa. 
Little is known of the earls until about 13x4, when Sir Thomas * 
Randolph, a nephew of King Robert Brace, was created eazl 
of Moray (q.v.), and the Randolphs held the earldom until 1346, 
when the childless John Randolph, 3rd eari of this line -and a 
soldier of repute, was killed at the battle of Neville's Cross. 
According to some authorities the earldom was then held by 
John's sister Agnes (c. 13x2-1369) and her husband, Patrick 
Dunbar, earl of March or Dunbar (c. 1285-X368). However 
this may be, in 1359 an £n|^ish prince, Henry Plantagenet, 
duke of \anrHMrT (d. 1361), was made eul of Moray by King 
David n.; but in 1372 John Dunbar (d. 139X), a grandson of 
Sir Thomas Randidph and a son-in-law of Robort U., obtained 
the earldom. The last of the Dunbar eaxls was James Dunbar, 
who was murdered in August 1429, and after this date hi^ 
daughter Elizabeth and her husband, Archibald Douc^(d. 1455), 
called themsdves earl and countess of Moray. 

The next family to bear this title was an illfgitiroate branch 
of the royal house of Stuart, James IV. creating his natural 
son, James Stuart (e, 1499-*! 544), eari of Moray. James died 
without sons, and after the title had been home for a short time 
by (jeoige Gordon, 4th eari of Huntly (c. isi4-x562), who 
was killed at (^orrichie in. 1562, it was bestowed in X562 by 
Mary Qmea of Scots upon her half-brother, an illegitimate son 
of James V. This was. the famous regent, James Stuart, eail 
of Moray, or Murray (see below), who was murdered in January 
X570; after this event a third James Stuart,. who had married 
the regent's daughter Elizabeth (d. X59X), hdd the earldom. 
He, who was called the " bonny earl," was killed by his heredi- 
tary enemies, the (jordons, in February 1592, when Us son James 
(d. X638) succeeded to the title. The earldom of Momy has 
remained in the Stuart family since this date. Alexander, the 
4th eari (d. 1701), was secretary of state for Scotland from x68o 
to X689; and in 1796 Frands, the 9th earl (X737-X8X0), was 
made a peer of the United Kingdom as Baron Stuart. 

See vol. vL of Sir R. Douglas's Peerage of Scotland, new ed. by 
Sir J. b. Paul (1909). 

MURRAY. ALEXAHDER CTUART (X84X-X904), British 
srchseobgist, was bom at Arbroath on the 8th of January 1841, 
and educated there, at Edinburgh high school and at the 
universities of Edinbtirgh and Berlin. In 1867 he entered the 
British Museum tut an assistant in the department of Greek and 
Roman antiquities under Sir Charies Newton, whom he suc- 
ceeded in x8i36. His younger brother, George Robert Milne 
Murray (b. X858), was made keeper of the botanical department 
in X89S, the only instance of two brothers becoming heads of 
departments at the museum. In X873 ^' Murray published a 
Manual of Mythology, and in the following year contributed to 
the Contemporary Renew two articles— one on the Homeric 
question— which led to a friendship with Mr Gladstone, the 
other on Greek painters. In 1880-1883 he brought out his 
History of Creeh Sculpture, which at once became a stsndaid 
work. In 1886 he was sdected by the Society of Antiquaries of 
Scotland to deliver the Rhind iKturcs on archaeology, out of 



MURRAY, D.— MURRAY, LORD GEORGE 



39 



which grew ids Handbook of Creek Archaeology (189a). In 
1894-1896 Dr Murray directed some excav&tions in Cyprus 
undertaken by means of a bequest of £2000 from Mjss Emina 
Toumour Turner. The objects obtained are described and 
Shsstrated in Excaoations m Cyprus, published by the trustees 
of the muMum in 2900^ Among Dr Murray's other official 
twblicadnns are three folio volumes on Terracotta Sarcophagi, 
WkUa AthetuoM Vases and Designs from Greek Vases, In 1898 
be wrote for the Portfolio a monog*tiph on Greek bronzes, 
fo u n d ed oa lectures delivered at the Royal Academy in that 
year, aod he contributed many articles on archaeology to 
standard publications. In recognition of his services to archaeo- 
logy be was made LLD. of Glasgow University in 1887 and 
elected a corresponding member of the Bedin Academy of 
Sc iences in 1900. He died in March 1904. 

■UBRAT, DAVID (1849- ), Scottish painter, was bom in 
Glasgow, and spent some years in commercial purniiu before 
he piacdsed as an artist. He was elected an associate of the 
Rcyyal Academy in 2891 and academician in 1905; and also 
beoune an associate of the Royal Scottish Academy and of 
the VUayil Society of Painters in Water Colours, and a member 
of the Royal Scottish Water Colour Sodety. He is a Undscape 
painter of disdnction, and two of his pictures* " My Love is 
gone »«uUng " (1884) and " In the Country of Constable " 
(i909)> have been bought for the National Gallery of British 
Art. " Young Wheat," painted in 1890^ is one of his most 
noteworthy works. 

HURRAY. RD8TAGB CLARB QRBHVIUB (1824-1881), 
English journalist, was bom in 1824, the natural son of the and 
duke of Buckingham, Educated at Magdalen Hall (Hertford 
CoOege), (Mocd, he entered the diplomatic service through the 
wffwriwT of Lord Falmerston, and in 1851 joined the British 
cmbusy at Vienna as attachA At the same time he agreed 
to act as Viemia correspondent of a London daily paper, a 
breach o< the conventions of the British Foreign Office which 
cost ham his post. In 1852 he was transferrKi to Hanover, 
and thence to Constantinople, and finally, in 1855, was made 
ooDsal-gencnl at Odessa. In z868 he returned to England, 
aad devoted himself to journalism. He contributed to the 
culy nombeis of Vanity Fair, and in 1869 founded a clever but 
abusive society paper, the Queen's Messenger. For a libel 
FiHV»H in this paper Lord Carrington honewhipped him 
on the doorstep of a London dub. Murray was subsequently 
diaiged with perjury for denying on oath his authorship of the 
artide. Remanded on bail, he escaped to Paris, where he 
nbseqnently lived, acting as correspondent of various London 
papeis. In 1874 he hdped Edmund Yates to found the World, 
Monay died at Pas^ on the aoth of December 1881. 

Hk aooiw of books, several of which were translated into French 
1 in Parts, inclade FrentM Pictures in Eugfish Chalk 



■TORAY, U>RD GBOROB (169^1760), Scottish Jacobite 
general, fifth son of John, zst duke of AthoU, by his first wife, 
Catherine, dajighter of the 3rd duke of Hamilton, was bom 
at Hsntingtower, near Perth, on the 4th of October 1694. 
He joined the army in Flanders in June 27x2; In 1715, contrary 
to their father's wishes, he and his brothen, the marquis o£ 
TalEbaidiiie and Lord Charles Murray, joined the Jacobite rebels 
aader the eari of Mar, each brother commanding a regiment of 
men ol AthoO. Lord Charles was taken prisoner at Preston, 
bat aficr the oollapie of the rising Lord George escaped with 
TaJEbardiiie to Smith Uist, and thence to Fkanoe. In 1719 
liarray biok part in the Jacobite attempt hi conjunction with 
the Spantaxds in the western highlands, under the command of 
Ts&banfine and the earl marischal, which terminated in *' the 
affair of GlensbSd ' on the roth of June, when he was wounded 
vUie ooimna&ding the right wing of the Jacobites. After 
Udiag Jor aune months in the hif^ilands he reached Rotter- 
dam ID May r72a ' There is no evidence for the statement that 
Usinv sovscTIa the Sarrfiniiin aaajfajnd little it known of his 



life on the continent till 1724, when he returned to Scotland, 
where !n the following year he was granted a pardon. The duke 
of AthoU died in 1 724 and was succeeded in the title by his second 
son James, owmg to the atuinder of Tullibardine; and Lord 
<jeorge leased from his brother the old family property of 
Tullibardine in Stratheam, where he lived till 1745. 

On the eve of the Jacobite rising of 1745 the duke of Perth 
made overtures to Lord George Murray on behalf of the 
Pretender; but even after the landing of Charles Edward in 
ScotUnd in July, accompanied by Tullibardine, Murra/s attitude 
remained doubtfuL He accompanied his brother the duke to 
Crieff on the 2xst of August to pay his respects to Sir John Cope, 
the commander of the government troops, and he permitted 
the duke to appoint him deputy-sheriff of Perthshire. It has 
been suggested that Murray acted with duplidty, but his 
hesitation was natural and genuine; and it was not till early in 
September, when Charles Edward was at Bhur Castle, which had 
been vacated by the duke of AthoU on the prince's approach, 
that Murray dedded to espouse the Stuart cause. He then 
wrote to his brother ezpbuning that he did so for consdentious 
reasons, whUe realizing the risk of ruin it involved. On joining 
the Jacobite army Lord George received a commission as Ueu- 
tenant-general, though the prince ostentatiously treated him 
with want of confidence; and he was flouted by the Irish adven- 
turers who were the Pretender's trusted advisers. At Perth 
Lord George exerted himself with success to introduce disdpline 
and organiaation in the army he was to command, and he gained 
the confidence of the highland levies, with whose habits and 
methods of fighting he was familiar. He also used his influence 
to prevent the exactions and arbitrary interference with dvil 
rights which Charles was too ready to sanction on the advice of 
others. At Preslonpans, on the 2xst of September, Lord George, 
who led the Jacobite left wing in person, was practically com- 
mander-in-chief, and it was to his able generalship that the 
victory was mainly due. During the six weeks' occupation of 
Edinburgh he did useful work in the further organization and 
disdplining of the army. He opposed Charles's plan of invading 
England, and when his judgment was overruled he prevailed 
on the prince to march into Cumberland, which he knew to be 
favourable ground for highlander tactics, instead of advancing 
against General Wade, whose army was posted at Newcastle. 
He conducted the siege of Carlisle, but on the surrender of the 
town on the X4th of November he resigned his command on 
the ground that his authority had been insuffidently upbdd by 
the prince, and he obtained permission to serve as a volunteer 
in the ranks of the AthoU levies. The dissatisfaction, however, 
of the army with the appointment of the duke of Perth to 
succeed him compeUed Charles to reinstate Murray, who accord- 
ingly commanded the Jacobites in the march to Derby. Here 
on the 5th of December a council was hdd at which Murray 
urged the necessity for retreat, owing to the failure of the English 
Jacobites to support the invasion and the absence of aid from 
France. As Murray was supported by the council the retreat 
was ordered, to the intense chagrin of Charles, who never forgave 
him; but the failure of the enterprise was mainly chargeable 
to Charles himself, and it was not without justice that Mui ray's 
aide de camp, the chevalier Johantone, dedared that "had 
Prince Charles slept during the whole of the expedition, and 
aUowed Lord George Murray to act for him according to his 
own judgment, he would have found the crown of Great Britain 
on his head when he awoke.'^ Lord George commanded the 
rear-guard during the retreat; and this task, rendered doubly 
dangerous by the proximity of Cumberland in the rear and Wade 
on the flank, was made stiU more difficult by the incapadty 
and petulance of the Pretender. By a skilfully fought rear- 
guard action at Oifton Moor, Lord George enabled the army to 
reach CarUsle safdy and without loss of stores or war material, 
and on the 3rd of January X746 the force entered Stirling, where 
they were jomed by remforcements from Perth. The prince 
laid siege to StirUng Castle, while Murray defeated General 
Hawley near Falkirk; but the losses of the Jacobites by sickness' 
and desertion, and the aDsroachof Cumfaeiiandt.made retreat 



MURRAY, JAMES— MURRAY, EARL OF 



40 

to the Highlands an immediate necessity, in which the prince 
was compelled to acquiesce; his resentm en t was such that he 
gave ear to groundless suggestions that Murray was a traitor, 
which the tatter's failure to capture his brother's stronghold 
of Blair Castle did nothing to refute. 

In April 1746 the Jacobite army was in the neighbourhood 
of Inverness, and the prince decided to give battle to the duke 
of Cumberland. Charles took up a position on the left bank of 
the Nairn river at CuUoden Moor, rejecting Lord George's Murray 
advice to select a much stronger position on the opposite bank. 
The battle of CuUoden, where the Stuart cause was ruined, 
was fought on the x6th of April 1746. On the following day the 
duke of Cumberland intimated to his troops that " the public 
orders of the rebels yesterday was to give us no quarter"; 
Hanoverian news-sheets printed what purported to be copies 
of such an order, and the historian James Ray and other con- 
temporary writers gave further currency to a calumny that has 
been repeated by modem authorities. Original cc^ies of Lord 
George Murray's " orders at CuUoden " are hi existence, one of 
which is among Cumberiand's own papers, while another was 
in the possession of Lord Hardwicke, the judge who tried the 
Jacobite peers in 1746, and they contain no injunction to refuse 
quarter. After the defeat Murray conducted a remnant of the 
Jacobite army to Ruthven, and prepared to organise further 
resistance. Prince Charles, however, had determined to aban- 
don the enterprise, and at Ruthven Lord George received an 
order dismissing him from the prince's service, to which he replied 
in a letter upbraiding Charles for his distrust and mismanage- 
ment. Charles's belief in the general's treachery was shared 
by several leading Jacobites, but there appears no ground for 
the suqiidon. From the moment he threw in his lot with the 
exiled prince's cause Lord George Murray never deviated in his 
byalty and devotion, and his generalship was deserving of the 
highest praise; but the discipline he enforced and jealousy of 
his authority made enemies of some of those to whom Charles 
was more inclined to listen than to the general who gave him 
sound but unwelcome advice. 

Murray escaped to the continent in December 1746, and was 
graciously received in Rome by the Old Pretender, who granted 
him a pension; but in the following year when he went to Paris 
Charles Edward refused to see him. Lord George lived at 
various places abroad until his death, which occurred at Medem- 
blik in Holland on the rzth of October 1760. He married 
in 1728 Amelia, daughter and heiress of James Murray of 
Strowan and Glencarse, by whom he had three sons and two 
daughters. His eldest son John became 3rd duke of AthoU in 
1764; the two younger sons became lieutenant-general and 
vice-admiral respectively in the British service. 

See A Military History of Perthskirt, ed. by the marchioneas of 
TuUibatdinc {2 vols.. London, 1908), ooataining a memoir of Lord 
George Murray and a facnmile copy of hb ordera at CuUoden; 
The AthoU Chronides, ed. by the duke of AthoU tprivatdy printed) : 
The Chevalier James de Jjonnstone, Memoirs uf m« Rebdfion m I74< 
(xrd ed., London. 182a) ; James Ray, Compleai Historit ef the Rebd- 
hon, t/4S-J7A6 (London, 1734): Robert Patten, History rf tho lato 
Rehdlton (2nd ed., London. 1717) • Memoirs of Sir John Murray ef 
Broughton, cd. by R. F. Bell (Edinburgh, 1898); Andrew Henderson, 
History pf the Rebellion, 1745-1746 (and ed., London, 1748). 

(R. J. M.) 

MURRAY. JAMBS (e, 17x9-1794), British governor of Canada, 
was a younger son of Alexander Murray, 4th Lord Elibank 
(d. 1736). Having entered the British army, he served with the 
15th Foot in the West Indies, the Netherhmds and Brittany, and 
became lieutenantpoolond of this rei^ent by purchase in 1751. 
In 1757 he led his men to North America to take part in the 
war against France. He commanded a brigade at the siege of 
Louisburg, was one of Wolfe's three brigadiers in the expedition 
against (^ebec, and commanded the left wing of the army in 
the famous battle in September 1759. After the British victory 
and the capture of the city, Murray was left in command of 
Quebec; having strengthened its fortifications and taken 
measures to improve the morsle of his men, he defended it in 
April and May 1760 against the attacks of the French, who were 
soon oonqwUed to raise the siege. .The British troops had been 



dedmated by disease, and it was only a remnant that Murray 
now led to join General Amherst at Montreal, and to be present 
when the last batch of French troops in Canada surrendered. 
In October 1760 he was appomted governor of Quebec, and he 
became governor of Canada after this country had been formaUy 
ceded to Great Britain in 1763. In this year he queUed a 
dangerous mutiny, and soon after?rards his aUeged partiality for 
the interests of the French Canadians gave offence to the British 
settlers; they asked for his recaU, and in 1766 he retired from his 
post. After an inquiry in the House of Lords, he was exonerated 
from the charges wUch had been biou^t against him. In 
1774 Murray was sent to Mmorca aa governor, and hi 1781, 
while he was in charge of this island, he was besieged hi Fort 
St PhiUp by a large force of French and Spaniards. After a 
stubborn resistance, which lasted neariy seven months, he was 
obUged to surrender the place; and on his return to Eng^d 
he was tried by a court-martUd, at the histanoe of Sir WUliam 
Draper, who had served under him hi Mmorca aa Ueutenant- 
govemor. He was acquitted and he became a general hi 1783. 
He died on the x8th of June 1794. Murrajr's only son was 
James Patrick Mortay (1782-1834), a major-goiaal and member 
of parliamenL 

MURRAY. SIR JAMB AUQUSTUS HnRY (1837- ). 
British lexicographer, was bom at Denholm, near Hawick, 
Roxburgfashuie, and after a local elementary edncation.prooeeded 
to Edmbmg^, and thence to the university of London, where 
he graduated B.A. in 1873. Sir James Murray, who received 
honorary degrees from several universities, both British and 
foreign, was engaged hi scholastic work for thuty years, from 
1855 to i88s, chiefly at Hawick and MiU HiU. During this time 
his reputation as a philologist was increasing, and he was 
assistant exandner hi English at the University of London from 
1875 to r879 and president of the Phikkigical Society of London 
from X878 to x88o, and again from 1882 to 1884. It was in 
connexion with this society that he undertook the chief work 
of his life, the editing of the Ifew EngUsk Dictionary^ bssed on 
materials coUected by the sodety. These materials, which had 
accumukted since 1857, when the sodety first projected the 
pubUcation of a dictkinary on philological prindples, amounted 
to an enormous quantity, of wl^ch an idea may be fonned from 
ihe fact that Dr FumivaU sent in " some ton and three-quarters 
of materials which had accumulated under his roof." After 
negotiations extendmg over a considerable period, the contracts 
between the sodety, the delegates of the Cbrendon Press, and 
the editor, were signed on the xst of March 1879, and Murray 
began the exammation and arrangement of the raw material, 
and the stiU more troublesome work of re-animating and main- 
tainhig the enthusUsm of " readers." In x88$ he removed from 
MiU HiU to Oxford, where his Scriptorium came to rank among 
the institutions of the University dty. The first volume of 
the dictionary was printed at the Clarendon Press, Oxford, 
in x888. A fuU account of its beginning and the manner of 
working up the materials wiU be found m Murray 's presidential 
address to the PhOological Sodety m 1879, whUe reporU of 
iU progress are given m the addresses by hunself and other 
presidents hi subsequent yeark In addition to his work n & 
phUobgist, Murray was a frequent contributor to the transac- 
tions of the various antiquarian and archaeological sodetles of 
which he is a member; and he wrote the article on the Engliah 
hmguage for this Encydopaedia. In z88$ he recdved the 
honorary degree of M.A. from BaUiol CoUege; he was an origmal 
feUow of the British Academy, and hi Z908 he was knif^ted. 

MURRAY (or Mo»ay), JAMB STUART, Eau. or (c. ZS3X* 
1570), regent of Scotland, was an Ulegitimate son of James V. 
of Scotland by Margaret Erskine, daughter of John Erskine, 
eari of Mar. In 1538 he was appomted prior of the abbey of 
St Andrews hi order that James V. might obtam possession of 
iU funds. Educated at St Andrews University, he attacked* 
in September 1549, an EngUsh force which had made a descent 
on the Fife coast, and routed it with great slaughter. In 
addition to the priory of St Andrews, he recdved those abo of 
PittcDweem and MAoon hi Fxuoe, but minifffltcd no jfocatioa. 



MURRAY, JOHN 



for a monastic life. The discounes of KnoXt which he heard 
at Calder, won his approval, and shortly after the return of the 
itforoKr to Scotland in 1559, James Stuart left the party of the 
queen regent and joined Uie lords of the congregatbn, who 
resolved forcibly to abolish the Roman service. After the 
return of Queen Maxy in 15S1, he became her chief adviser, and 
his cautious firmness was for a time effectual in inducing her 
to adopt a policy of moderation towards the reformers. At the 
beginning of 1563 he was created earl of Murray, a dignity also 
held by George Gordon, earl of Huntly, who, however, had 
lost the queen's favour. Only a few days later he was made earl 
of Mar, but as this title was claimed by John, Lord Erskine, 
Siuart resigned it and received a second grant of the earldom of 
Murray, Hunily by this time having been killed in battle. 
HeiKeforward he was known as the earl of Moray, the alternative 
Murray being a more modem and less correct variant. About 
this time the earl married Anne (d. 1583), daughter of William 
Kdth. ist Earl MarischaL 

After the defeat and death of Huntly, the leader of the 
Catholic party, the pdicy of Murray met for a time with no 
ohsude, but he awakened the displeasure of the queen by his 
e£orts in behalf of Knox when the latter was accused of high 
treas<ni; and as he was also opposed to her marriage with 
Damlcy, he was after that event declared an outlaw and took 
refuge in England. Returning to Scotland after the murder 
of Rizzio, he was pardoned by the queen. He contrived, 
however, to be away at the time of Damley's assassination, 
asd avoided the tangles of the marriage with BothweU by going 
to France. After the abdication of Queen Mary at Locblevcn, 
in July ZS67, be was appointed regent of Scotland. When 
IrXaiy escaped from Locbleven (May a, 1568), the duke of Ch&lcl- 
hcrault and other Catholic nobles rallied to her standard, 
bet Murray and the Protestant lords gathered their adherents, 
defeated her forces at Langside, near Glasgow (May 13, 1568), 
sad compelled her to flee to England. Murray displayed 
prompiocss in baffling Mary's schemes, suppressed the border 
thieves, and ruled firmly, resisting the temptation to place the 
crown 00 his own head. He observed the forms of personal 
piety; poasSbUy he shared the zeal of the reformers, while he 
moderated their bigotry. But he reaped the fruits of the 
ccQ^ades which led to the murders of Rizzio and Damlcy. 
He amassed too great a fortune from the estates of the Church 
to be deemed a pure reformer of its abuses. He pursued his 
sbler with a cakubted animosity which would not have spared 
her life had this been necessary to his end or been favoured by 
Elizabeth. The mode of producing the casket letters and 
the fahe charges added by Buchanan, deprive Murray of any 
daim to have been an honest accuser. His reluctance to charge 
Mary with complicity in the murder of Damley was feigned, 
tad hs object was gained when he was allowed to table the 
accusation without being forced to prove it. Mary remained 
a captive under suspicion of the gravest guilt, while Murray 
ruled Scotland in her stead, supported by nobles who had taken 
{art in the steps which ended in BoihwcU's deed. During the 
year between his becoming regent and his death several events 
Gccuncd for which he has been censured, but which were 
cecessary for his security: the betrayal to Elizabeth of the duke 
cf Korfclk and of the secret plot for the liberation of Mary; the 
imprisonment of the earl of Northumberland, who after the 
(ulare of his rising in the north of En^^nd had Uken refuge' 
is ScotlazKl; and the charge brought against Mailland of Lelh- 
isgion of complicity in Damley's murder. Lethington was 
Gocmiitcd to custody, but was rescued by Kirkaldy of Grange, 
»bo held the castle of Edinburgh, and while there " the chame* 
koa," as Buchanan named Maitbnd in his famous invective, 
gained over those in the castle, including Kirkaldy. Murray 
was afraid to pnxxed with the charge on the day of trial, while 
Kirkaldy and Maitland held the castle, which became the 
stronghold of the deposed queen's party. It has been suspected 
that Maitland and Kirkaldy were cognizant of the design of 
Hamiltoo of BothweUhaugh to murder Murray, for he had been 
with. them In the castk. This has been ascribed to private 



4« 

vengeance for the ill-treatment of his wife, but the feud of the 
Hamiltons with the regent is the most reasonable explanation. 
As he rode through linlitbgow Murray was shot on the 21st of 
January 1 570 from a window by Hamilton, who had made careful 
preparation for the murder and bis own escape. He was buried 
in the south aisle of St Giles Cathedral, Edinburgh, amid general 
mourning. Knox preached the sermon and Buchanan furnished 
the epitaph, both panegyrics. The elder of his two daughters, 
Elizabeth, married James Stuart (d. 1592), son of James, 1st 
Lord Doune, who succeeded to the earldom of Murray in right 
of his wife. 

The materials for the life of Murray are found in the records and 
documents of the time, prominent among which arc the various 
CeUndars ef State Papers. Mention must also be made of the many 
books which treat of Mary. Queen of Scots, and of the histories of 
the time— especially I. A Froude, Historf of England, and Andrew 
Lang. History of Scotland. 

MURRAY, JOHN, the name for several generations of a great 
firm of London publishers, founded by John McMurray (1745- 
1793), A native of Edinburgh and a retired lieutenant of marines, 
who in 1768 bought the book business of William Sandby in 
Fleet Street, and. dropping the Scottish prefix, called himself 
John Murray. He was one of the twenty original proprietors 
of the Morning Chronicle, and started the monthly English 
Review (1783-1706). Among his publications were Mil ford's 
Greece, Langhome's Plutarch's Lives, and the first part of Isaac 
D'Israeli's Curiosities of Literature, He died on the 6th of 
November 1793. 

John Murray (2) (1778-1843), his son, was then fifteen. 
During his minority the business was conducted by Samud 
Highlcy, who was admitted a partner, but in 1803 the partner- 
ship was dissolved. Murray soon began to show the courage 
in literary speculation which earned for him later the name 
given him by Lord Byron of " the Anak of publishers." In 
1807 he took a share with Constable in publishing Marmion, 
and became part owner of the Edinburgh Review, although with 
the help of Canning he bunched in opposition the Quarterly 
Review (Feb. 1809), with Willbm Gifford as its editor, and Scott, 
Canning, Southey, Hookham Frere and John Wilson Croker 
among its earliest contributors. Murray was closely connected 
with Constable, but, to his distress, was compelled in 1813 to 
break this assodation on account of Constable's business methods, 
which, as he foresaw, led to disaster. In 181 1 the first two 
cantos of Childe Harold were brought to Murray by R. C. Dallas, 
to whom Byron had presented ihcm. Murray paid Dallas 
500 guineas for the copyright. In 18x2 he bought the pub- 
lishing business of William Miller (1769-1844), and migralcid to 
so, Albemarle Street. Literary London flocked to his house, and 
Murray became the centre of the publishing world. It was in 
his drawing-room that Scott and Byron first met, and here, in 
1824, after the death of Lord Byron, the MS. of his memoirs, 
considered by Gififord unfit for publication, was destroyed. 
A close friendship existed between Byron and his publisher, 
but for political reasons business relations ceased after the 
publication of the 5th canto of Don Juan. Murray paid Byron 
some £20,000 for his various poems. To Thomas Moore he 
gave nearly £5000 for writing the life of Byron, and to Crabbe 
£3000 for Tales of the Hall. He died on the 27lh of June 1843. 

His son, John Murray (3) (1808-1892), inherited much of 
his business tact and judgment. " Murray's Handbooks " for 
travellers were issued under his editorship, and he himself wrote 
several volumes (see his article on the " Handbooks " in Murray's 
Magazine, November 1889). He published many books of 
travel; also Campbell's Lives of the Chancellors, The Speaker's 
Commentary, Smith's Dictionaries; and works by Halbm, 
Gbdstone, Lycll, Layard, Dean Stanley, Borrow, Darwin, Living- 
stone and Samuel Smiles. He died on the and of April 1892, 
and was succeeded by his eldest son, John Murray (4) (b. 1851), 
under whom, in assodation with his brother, A. H. HaUam 
Mumiy, the firm was continued. 

See Samuel Smiles. A Publisher and his Friends, Memoirs and 



Correspondence of the late John Murray . . . (1891), for the second 
John Murray; a leries of three artides by F. Espir 



pinasae on " The 



4-2 

House of Murray," in Tlte Critic (Tan. i860) ; and a |>aper by the 
same writer in Harper's New Morohly Uagasine (Sept. 1885). See 
the Letters and Journals of Byron (cd. Prothcro, 1 898-1901). 

MURRAY, JOHN (1778-1820), Scottish chemist, was bom at 
Edinburgh in 1778 and died there on the 2and of July 1820. 
He graduated M.D. at St Andrews in 1814, agd attained some 
reputation as a lecturer on chemistry and materia medica. He 
was an opponent of Sir Humphry Davy's theory of chlorine, 
supporting the view that the substance contained oxygen, and 
it was in the course of experiments made to disprove his argu- 
ments that Dr John Davy discovered phosgene or carbonyl 
chloride. He was a diligent writer of textbooks, including 
Elements oj Chemistry (1801); Elements of Materia Medica and 
Pharmacy (1804); A System of Chemistry (1806), and (anony- 
mously) A Comparative View of the Huttonian and Neptunian 
Systems of Geology. He is sometimes confused with another 
John Murray (1786-1851), a popular lecturer at mechanics' 
institutes. The two men carried on a dispute about the inven- 
tion of a miners' safety lamp in the Phil. Mag. for 181 7. 

MURRAY, SIR JOHN (1841- ), British geographer and 
naturalist, was bom at Coburg, Ontario, Canada, on the 
3rd of March 1841, and after some years' local schooling studied 
in Scotland and on the Continent. He was then engaged for 
some years in natural history work at Bridge of Allan. In 
1868 he visited Spitsbergen on a whaler, and in 1872, when the 
voyage of the " Challenger " was projected, he was appointed 
one of the naturalists to the expedition. At the conclusion of 
the voyage he was made principal assistant in drawing up the 
scientific results, and in 1882 he became editor of the Reports, 
which were completed in 1896. He compiled a summary of the 
results, and was part-author of the Narrative of the Cruise and of 
the Report on Deep-sea Deposits. He also published numerous 
important papers on oceanography and marine biology. In 
1898 he was made K.C.B., and the received many distinctions 
from the chief scientific societies of the world. Apart from his 
work in connexion with the " Challenger " Reports, he went in 
18S0 and 1882 on expeditions to explore the Facroc Channel, 
and between 1882 and 1894 was the prime mover in various 
biological investigations in Scottish waters. In 1897, with 
the generous financial assistance of Mr Laurence Pullar and a 
staff of specialists, he began a bathymclrical survey of the 
fresh-water lochs of Scotland, the results of which, with a 
fine series of illustrations and maps, were published in iqio 
in six volumes. He took a leading part in the expedition 
which started in April 1910 for the physiological and biological 
investigation of the North Atlantic Ocean on the Norwegian 
vessel " Michael Sars." 

MURRAY, LINDLEY (i 745-1826), Anglo-American gram- 
marian, was bom at Swatara, Pennsylvania, on the 22nd of 
April 1745. His father, a (^aker, was a leading New York 
merchant. At the age of fourteen he was placed in his father's 
office, but he ran away to a school in Burlington, New Jersey. 
He was brought back to New York, but his arguments against 
a commercial career prevailed, and he was allowed to study 
law. On being called to the bar he practised successfully in 
New York. In 1783 he was able to retire, and in 1784 he left 
America for England. Settling at Holgate, near York, he 
devoted the rest of his life to literary pursuits. His first book 
was Power of Religion on tlte Mind (1787). In 1795 he issued 
his Grammar of the English Language. This was followed, 
among other analogous works, by English Exercises, and the 
English Reader. These books passed through several editions, 
and the Grammar was the standard textbook for fifty years 
throughout England and America. Lindley Murray died on 
the i6th of January 1826. 

Sec the Memoir of^ the Life and Writings of Lindley Murray 
(partly autobiographical), by Elizabeth Frank (1826); Life of 
Murray, by W. H. Eglc (New York, 1885). 

MURRAY (or Moray). SIR ROBERT (c. 1600-1673)^ one of 
the founders of the Royal Society, was the son of Sir Robert 
Murray of Crafgie, Ayrshire, and was bom about the beginning 
of the 17th century. In early life he served in the French army, 
and, winning the favour of Richelieu, rose to the rank of colonel. 



MURRAY, J.— MURREE 



On the outbreak of the Civil War he retumed to Scotland and 
collected recmits for the royal cause. The triumph of Cromwell 
compelled him for a time to return to France, but he took part 
in the Scottish insurrection in favour of Charles II. in 1650, and 
was named lord justice clerk and a privy councillor. These 
appointments, which on account of the overthrow of the royal 
cause proved to be at the time only nominal, were confirmed at 
the Restoration in 1660. Soon after this Sir Robert Murray 
began to Uke a prominent part in the deliberations of a club 
instituted in London for the discussion of natural science, or, 
as it was then called, the " new philosophy." When it was 
proposed to obtain a charter for the society he undertook to 
interest the king in the matter, the result being that on the 
15th of July 1663 the club was incorporated by charter under 
the designation of the Royal Society. Murray was its first 
president. He died in June 1673. 

MURRAYt the largest river in Australia. It rises in the 
Australian Alps in 36" 40' S. and 147^ E., and flowing north-west 
skirts the borders of New South Wales and Victoria until it 
passes into South Australia, shortly after which it bends south- 
ward into Lake Alexandrina, a shallow lagoon, whence it makes 
its way to the sea at Encounter Bay by a narrow opening at 
SS" 35' S. and 138" 5 S' E. Near its source the Murray Gates, 
precipitous rocks, tower above it to the height of 3000 ft.; 
and the earlier part of its course is tortuous and uneven. 
Farther on it loses so much by evaporation in some parts as to 
become a series of pools. Its length till it debouches into Lake 
Alexandrina is 11 20 m., its average breadth in summer is 240 ft., 
its average depth about 16 ft.; and it drains an area of about 
270,000 sq. m. For small steamers it is navigable as far as 
Albury. Periodically it overflows, causing wide inundations. 
The principal tributaries of the Murray are those from New 
South Wales, including the Edward River, the united streams of 
the Murmmbidgce and Lachlan, and the Darling or Callewatta. 
In 1829 Captain Sturt traced the Murmmbidgee River till it 
debouched into the Murray, which he followed down to Lake 
Alexandrina, but he was compelled, after great hardships, to 
relum without discovering its mouth. In 1831 Captain Barker, 
while attempting to discover this, was murdered by the natives. 

MURRAY COD {Oligorus macquariensis), one of the largest 
of the numerous fresh-water Perciform fishes of Australia, and 
the most celebrated for its excellent flavour. It belongs to 
the family Serranidae. Its taxonomic affinities lie in the direc- 
tion of the perch and not of the cod family. The shape of the 
body is that of a perch, and the dorsal fin consists of a spinous 



^£^^''""""''"""" " 



Murray Cod. 

and rayed portion, the number of spines being eleven. The 
length of the spines varies with age, old individuals having 
shorter spines— that is, a lower dorsal fin. The form of the 
head and the dentition also resemble those of a perch, but 
none of the bones of the head has a serrated margin. The 
scales are small. The colour varies in different localities; it 
is generally brownish, with a greenish tinge and numerous 
small dark green spots. As impUed by the name, this fish has 
its headquarters in the Murray River and its tributaries, but it 
occurs also in the northem parts of New South Wales. It is the 
most important food fish, of these rivers, and is said to attain 
a length of more than 3 ft. and a weight of 1 20 lb. 

MURREE, a town and sanatorium of British India, in the 
Rawalpindi district of the Punjab, 7517 ft. above the sea, about 
five hours' joumey by cart-road from Rawalpindi town, and 
the starting-point for Kashmir. The houses arc built on the 




MURSHIDABAD— MUSCAT 



43 



sammit and skies of an irreguUr ridge, and command magnifi- 
cent views over forest-clad hills and deep valleys, studded with 
villages and cultivated fields, with the snow-covered peaks of 
Kashmir in the background. The population in 1901 was 1844; 
but these figures omit the summer visitors, who probably number 
10,000. The garrison generally consists of three mountain 
batteries. Since 1877 the summer offices of the provincial 
government have been transferred to Simla. The Murrcc 
bcewcry, one of the largest in India, is the chief industrial 
establishment. The Lawrence Military Asylum for the children 
of European soldiers is situated here. 

MUBSHIDABAD. or Moossheedabad, a town and district 
of British India, in the Presidency division of Bengal. The 
administrative headquarters of the dbtrict axe at Berhampur. 
The town of Murshidabad is on the left bank of the Bhagirathi 
or oJd sacred channel of the Ganges. Pop. (1901), 15,168. 
The city of Murshidabad was the latest Mahommedan capital 
of Bengal. In 1704 the nawab Murshid Kulia Khan changed 
the seat of government from Dacca to Maksudabad, which he 
called after his own name. The great family of Jagat Seth 
maintained their position as state bankers at Murshidabad 
from generation to generation. Even after the conquest of 
Bengal by the British, Murshidabad remained for some time 
the seat of administration. Warren Hastings removed the 
supreme dvil and criminal courts to Calcutta in 1773, but in 
1775 the latter court was brought back to Murshidabad again. 
In 1790^ uiKier Lord Cbmwallis, the entire revenue and judicial 
staffs were fixed at Calcutta. The town is still the residence 
of tfie nawab, who ranks as the first nobleman of the province 
wkh tbe style of nawab bahadur of Murshidabad, instead of 
nawab nazim of Bengal. His palace, dating from 1837, is a 
ma^iificent building in Italian style. The city is crowded with 
other palanes mosques, tombs, and gardens, and retains such 
indostries as carving in ivory, gold and silver embroidery, and 
sSk-veaving. A college is maintained for the education of the 
nawab's family. 

Tbe DisnacT or Mitsshidabad has an area of 2143 sq. m. 
It is divided into two nearly equal portions by the Bhagirathi, 
the ancient channel of the Ganges. The tract to the west, 
known as tbe Rarh, consists of hard clay and nodular limestone. 
The general level is high, but interspersed with marshes and 
seamed by hill torrents. The Bagri or eastern half belongs to 
alluvial {dains of eastern Bengal. There are few permanent 
swamps; but the whole country is low-lying, and liable to annual 
inundation. In the north-west are a few small detached hillocks, 
said to be of basaltic formation. Pop. (zgoi), 1,333,184, show- 
ing an increase of 6-6% in the decade. The principal industry 
is that of silk, formerly of much importance, and now revived 
with government assistance. A narrow-gauge railway crosses 
the district, from the East Indian line at Nalhati to Azimganj 
on the Bhagirathi, the home of many rich Jain merchants; and 
a branch of the Eastern Bengal railway has been opened. 

HUB. the name of a Roman family of the plebeian Dedan 
gens, (i) PuBtius Decius Mus won his first laurels in the 
Samnite War, when in 343 B.C., while serving as tribtme of the 
scddiers, he rescued the Roman main army from an apparently 
hopeless poaitk>n (Livy vii. 34). In 340, as consul with T. 
Manlius Torquatus as colleague, he comnianded in the Latin 
War. The decisive battle was fought near Mt Vesuvius. 
The consuls, in consequence of a dream, had agreed that the 
^neral whose troops first gave way should devote himself to 
destruction, and so ensure victory. The left wing under Decius 
became disordered, whereupon, repeating after the chief pontiff 
the solemn formula of self-devotion he dashed into the ranks 
of the Latins, and met his death (Livy viii. 9). (2) His son, 
also called Pitblivs, consul for the fourth time in 295, followed 
the omrni^e of his father at the battle of Scntinum, when the 
left wing which he commanded was shaken by the Gauls (Livy 
X. a8}. The story of the elder Decius is regarded by Mommsen 
as an imhistorical " doublet te " of what is related on better 
a uthori t y of the son. 

■DlABirS, tbe name of three Greek poets, (i) The first was 



a mythical seer and priest, the pupil or son of Orpheus, who was 
said to have been the founder of priestly poetry in Attica. 
According to Pausanias (i. 25) he was buried on the Museum hill, 
south-west of the Acropolis. He composed dedicatory and 
purificatory hymns and prose treatises, and oracular responses. 
These were collected and arranged in the time of Pcisistratus 
by Onomacritus, who added interpolations. The mystic and 
oracular verses and customs of Attica, especially of Eleusis, 
are connected with his name (Herod, vii. 6; viiL 96; ix. 43). 
A TUatumachia and Thcogtmia are also attributed to him 
(G. Kinkel, Epicorum graecorum /ragmenla, 1878). (2) The 
second was an Ephesian attached to the court of the kings of 
Pergamum, who wrote a Perscis, and poems on Eumenes and 
Attalus (Suldas, s.v.). (3) The third (called Grammaticus in 
all the MSS.) is of uncertain date, but probably belongs to the 
beginning of the 6th century aj>., as his style and metre are 
evidently modelled after Nonnus. He must have lived before 
Agathias (530-582) and is possibly to be identified with the 
friend of Procopius whose poem (340 hexameter lines) on the 
story of Hero and Leandcr is by far the most beautiful of the age 
(editions by F. Passow, 18 10; G. H. Schafcr, 1825; C. Dilthcy, 
1874). The little love-poem Alpluus and Arclhusa {Anthol. pal. 
ix. 362) is also ascribed to Musacus. 

MUSA KHEL, a Pathan tribe on the Dcra Ghazi Khan border 
of the Punjab province of India. They are of Kakar origin, 
numbering 4670 fighting men. They enter British territory 
by the Vihowa Pass, and carry on an extensive trade, but are 
not dependent on India for the necessaries of life. They are 
a peaceful and united race, and have been friendly to the British, 
but at enmity with the Khclrans and the Baluch tribes to the 
south of their country. In 1879 the Musa Khcls and other 
Pathan tribes to the number of 5000 made a demonstration 
against Vihowa, but the town was reinforced and they dispersed. 
In 1884 they were punished, together with the Kakars, by the 
Zhob Valley Expedition. 

UUS&US. JOHANN KARL AUGUST (1735-1787). German 
author, was born on the 29th of March 1735 at Jena, studied 
theology at the university, and would have become the pastor 
of a parish but for the resistance of some peasants, who objected 
that he had been known to dance. In 1 760 to 1 762 he published 
in three volumes his first work, Crandison dcr Zweite, afterwards 
(in 1 781-1782) rewritten and issued with a new title, Dcrdeutsche 
Crandison. The object of this book was to satirize Samuel 
Richardson's hero, who had many sentimental admirers in 
Germany. In 1763 MusSus was made master of the court pages 
at Weimar, and in 1769 he became professor at the Weimar 
gymnasium. His second book — Physiognomischc Rcisen — did not 
appear until 1 778-1 779. It was directed against Lavatcr, and 
attracted much favourable attention. In 1782 to 1786 he 
published his best work VdksmHrchen der DeiUschen. Even 
in this series of tales, the substance of which Musaus collected 
among the people, he could not refrain from satire. The stories, 
therefore, lack the simpUcity of genuine folk-lore. In 1785 
was issued Freuttd Hetns Erscheinungcn in Holheins Manier by 
J. R. Schellenberg, with explanations in prose and verse by 
Musfius. A collection of stories entitled Slraussfedem, of which 
a volume appeared in 1787, Musaus was prevented from com- 
pleting by his death on the 28th of October 1787. 

The Volksmarchen have been frequently reprinted (DOsseldori. 
1903, &c.). They were translated into French in 1844, and three 
of the stories are included in Cariylc's German Romance (1827); 
Musaus's NackgeUusene Scriflen were edited by his relative, A. von 
Kotzcbue (1 791). Sec M. Muller, J. K. A. Mus&us (1867), and an 
essay by A. Stem in Beilrdge xur Literalurguchichte des 18. Jakr- 
hunderts (1893). 

MUSCAT, MtTSKAT or Maskat, a town on the south-east 
coast of Arabia, capital of the province of Oman. Its value 
as a naval base is derived from its position, which commands 
the entrance to the Persian Gulf. The town of Gwadar, the 
chief port of Makrin, belongs to Muscat, and by arrangement 
with the sultan the British occupy that port with i 
station of the Indo-Pcrsian telegraph service, 
political residency is established at Muscat. 



I by arrangement I 

with a telegraph 
ice. An Indian 

■■"J 



44 



MUSCATINE— MUSCLE AND NERVE 



position it is isolated from the interior of the continent. The 
mountains rise behind it in a rugged wall, across which no road 
esdsts. It is only from Matrah, a northern suburb shut off by 
an intervening spur which reaches to the sea, that bmd com> 
munication with the rest of Arabia can be maintained. Both 
Muscat and Matrah are defended from incursions on the land- 
ward side by a wall with towers at intervals. Muscat rose to 
importance with the Portuguese occupation of the Persian Gulf, 
and is noted for the extent of Portuguese ruins about it. Two 
lofty forts, of which the most easterly is called JalAli and the 
western Merini, occupy the summits of hills on either side the 
cove ovef looking the town; and beyond them on the seaward 
side are two smaller defensive works called Sirat. All these 
are ruinous. A low sandy isthmus connects the rock and 
fortress of Jal&ll with the mainland, and upon this isthmtis stands 
the British residency. The sultan's palace is a three-storeyed 
building near the centre of the town, a relic of Portuguese 
occupation, caUcd by the Arabs El Jereca, a corruption of 
Igrczia (church). This term b probably derived from the chapel 
once attached to the buildings which formed the Portuguese 
governor's residence and factory. The bazaar is insignificant, 
and its most considerable trade appears to be in a sweetmeat 
prepared from the gluten of maize. Large quantities of dates 
are also exported. 

History.— The early history of Muscat is the history of Portu- 
guese ascendancy in the Persian Gulf. When Albuquerque first 
burnt the place after destroying Kary&t in 1508, Kalhat was 
the chief port of the coast and Muscat was comparatively 
unimportant. Kalhat vas subsequently sacked and burnt, the 
great Arab mosque being destroyed, before Albuquerque returned 
to his ships, " giving many thanks to our Lord." From that 
date, through 114 years of Portuguese ascendancy, Muscat was 
held as a naval station and factory during a period of local 
revolts, Arab incursions, and Turkish invasion by sea; but it 
was not till 1622, when the Portuguese lost Hormuz, that Muscat 
became the headquarters of their fleet and the roost important 
place held by them on the Arabian coast. In 1650 the Portu- 
guese were finally expelled from Oman. Muscat had been 
reduced previously by the humiliating terms imposed upon the 
garrison by the imam of Oman after a siege in 1648. For five 
years the Persians occupied Oman, but they disappeared in 
1 74 1. Under the great ruler of Oman, Said ibn Sultan (1804- 
1856), the fortunes of Muscat attained their zenith; but on his 
death, when his kingdom was divided and the African possessions 
were parted from western Arabia, Muscat declined. In 1883- 
1884, when Turki was sultan, the town was unsuccessfully 
besieged by the Indabayin and Rchbayin tribes, led by Abdul 
Aziz, the brother of Turki. In 1885 Colonel Miles, resident at 
Muscat, made a tour through Oman, following the footsteps of 
Wcllsted in 1835, and confirmed that traveller's report of 
the fertility and wealth of the province. In 1898 the French 
acquired the right to use Muscat as a coaling station. 

. Sec Stiffe. " Trading Ports of Persian Gulf." vol. ix. Ceot. Journal, 
and the political reports of the Indian eovcrn men t from the Persian 
Gulf. Colonel Milcs's explorations in Oman will be found in vol. vil. 
Ceog. Journal (1896). . (T. H. R*) 

HUSCATINB, a dty and the county-seat of Muscatine county, 
Iowa, U.S.A., on the Mississippi river (here crossed by a wagon 
bridge), at the apex of the " great bend," in the south-east part 
of the state. Pop. (1890), 11,454; (1900), 14,073, of whom 
3352 were foreign-bom; (19x0 census) 16.178. It is served 
by the Chicago Milwaukee & Saint Paul, the Chicago Rock 
Island & Pacific, and the Muscatine North & South railways. 
It is built on high rocky bluffs, and is the centre of a pearl- 
button industry introduced in 189 1 by J. F. Boepple, a German, 
the buttons being made from the shells of the fresh-water 
mussel found in the neighbourhood; and there are other manu- 
factures. Coal is mined in the vidnity, and near the dty are 
large market-gardens, the water-melons growing on Muscatine 
Island (below the city) and sweet potatoes being their most 
important products. The munidpah'ty owns and operates the 
waterworks. Muscatine began as a trading-post in 1833. It 



was laid out in 1836; incorporated as a town under the name 
of Bloomington in 1839, and first chartered as a dty, under its 
present name, in 185 1. 

UU8CHBLKALK, in geology, the middle member of the 
German Trias. It consists of a series of .calcareous, marly 
and dolomitic beds which lie conformably between the Bunter 
and Keuper formations. The name Muschelkalk (Fr., catcaire 
coquillier; cmuhylUn, formation of D'Orbigny) indicates a 
characteristic feature in this series, viz. the frequent occurrence 
of lenticular banks composed of fossil shells, remarkable in the 
midst of a singularly barren group. In its typical form the 
Muschelkalk is practically restricted to the German region 
and its immediate neighbourhood; it is found in Thuringia, 
Haiz, Franconia, Hesse, Swabia, and tlie Saar and Alsace 
districts. Northward it extends into Silesia, Poland and Heligo- 
land. Representatives are found in the Alps, west and south 
of. the Vosges, in Moravia, near Toulon and MontpcUicr, 
in Spain and Sardinia; in Rumania, Bosnia, Dalmatia, and 
beyond this into Asia in the Himalayas, (^hina, Australia, 
California, and in North Africa (Constantine). -From the nature 
of the deposits, as well as from the impoverished fauna, the 
Muschelkalk of the type area was probably laid down within 
a land-locked sea which, in the earlier portion of its existence, 
had only imperfect communications with the more open waters 
of the period. The more remote representatives of the formation 
were of coune deposited in divert conditions, and are only to 
be correlated through the presence of some of the Muschelkalk 
fossils. 

In the '* German " area the Muschelkalk Is from 950-^350 ft. 
thick; it is readily divisible into three groups, of which the 
upper and lower are pale thin-bedded limestones with greenish- 
grey marls, the middle group being mainly composed of 
gypsiferous and saliniferotis marb with dolomite, lie Lower 
Muschelkalk ojtasists, from bebw upwards, of the following 
rocks, the ochreous Wellen Dolomit, lower Wdlen Kalk, upper 
Wellcn Kalk (so called on account of the wavy character of the 
bedding) with beds of " Schaumkalk " (a porous cellular lime- 
stone), and Oolite and the Orbicularis beds (with Myopkoria 
orbicularis). In the Saar and Alsace districts and north Eifd, 
these beds take on a sandy aspect, the " Muschdsandstein." 
The Middle Muschelkalk or Anhydrite group, as ahready indi- 
cated, consists mainly of marls and dolomites with beds of 
anhydrite, gypsum and salt. The salt beds are worked at 
Hall, Friedrichshall, Heilbronn, Stettin and Erfurt. It is from 
this division that many of the mineral springs of Thuringia and 
south Germany obtain their saline contents. The cellular 
nature of ' much of the dolomite has given rise to- the term 
" ZeUendolomit." The Upper Muschelkalk iHauptmusckdkalk, 
Priedrickshallkalk of von Albcrti) consists of regular beds of 
shelly limestone alternating with beds of mari. The lower 
portion or *' Trochitenkalk " is often composed entirely of the 
fragmentary stems of Encrinus liliiformis; higher up come the 
"Nodosus" beds with Ceratiks compressus, C. nodesus, and 
C semipartitus in ascending order. In Swabia and Franconia 
the highest beds are phity dobmites with Tringouodus Sander^ 
gensis and the crustacean Bairdia, Stylolites are common in 
all the Muschelkalk limestones. The Alpine Muschelkalk differs 
in many respects from that of the type area, and shows a doser 
relationship with the Triassic Mediterranean sea; the more 
important local phases will be found tabulated in the artide 
Trias. 

In addition to the fosals meintloncd above, the folk>wing are 
.Muschdkalk forms: Terebrotulina ndgfuris, Spiriferina Mantwdi 
and 5. kirsula, Myophoria vulgaris, RkynchoHtes ktnmdo, CeratiUs 
MUnsteri, Ptychites studeri, BeJaUmites balatonicus, Aspidura scutH' 
lata, DaoneUa Lommeli, and In the Alpine region several. rock- 
forming Algae, Bactryllinm, Cyroporella, Diphpora, &c 

MUSCLE AND NERVE (Pkysiolegy)} Among the properties 
of living material there is one, widdy though not universally 
present in it, which forms the pre-eminent characteristic of 

> The anatomy of the muscles is dealt with under Muscular 
System, and of the nerves under NsavB and Nbrvous System. 



MUSCLE AND NERVE 



45 



nKBCDlar cdfa. Tlus property b the libentloa of some of 
the enefsy contained in the chemical compounds of the cells 
^ , in such a way as to pve mechanical woik. The 

mechanical work is obtained by movement resulting 
from a change, it is supposed, in the elastic tension of the 
framework of the living oeU. In the fibrils existing in the 
cdl a sudden alteration of elasticity occurs, resulting in an 
increased tension on the points of attxurhment of the ccU to the 
ndgfabooring elements of the tissue m which the cell is placed. 
These jrield under the strain, and the cell shortens between 
those points of its attachment. This shortening is called 

C4mlracium. But the volume of the cell is not 
Sy*^ appreciably altered, despite the change of its shape, 

lor its one diameter increases in proportion as its- 
otho" IS diminished. The manifestations of contractility by 
muscle are variota in mode. By tonic contraction is meant 
a prolonged and equable state of tension which yields under 
analysis no element of intermittent character. Tins b mani- 
fested by the muscular walls of the hollow viscera and of the 
heart, where it is the expression of a continuous liberation of 
energy in process in the muscular tissue, tho outcome of the 
iatter's own intrinsic Ufe, and largely independent of any con- 
nexion with the nervous system. The muscular wall of the 
blood-vessels also exhibits tonic contraction, which, however, 
seems to be mainly traceable to a continual excitation of the 
muscle cells by nervous influence conveyed to them along their 
nerves, and originating in the great vaso motor centre in the bulb. 
In the ordinary striped muscles of the skeletal musculature, e.g. 
tfistracnemius, tonic contraction obtains; but this, like the last 
mentioned, b not autochthonous in the muscles themselves; it 
b indirect and neural, and appears to be maintained reflexly. 
The reeeptPK organs of the muscular sense and of the semi- 
circular canab are to be regarded as the sites of origin of thb 
riifEez tonus of the skeletal muscles. Striped muscles possessing 
an autochthonous tonus appear to be the various sphincter 



Another mode of manifestation of contractility by musaes 
b the rkytknuc. A tendency to rhjrthmic contraction seems dis- 
coverable in almost all muscles. In some it b very marked, for 
examf^ in some viscera, the spleen, the bladder, the ureter, the 
ntenis, the intestine, and especially in the heart. In several of 
these it appears not unlikely that the recurrent explosive libera- 
tions of energy in the muscle tissue are not secondary to recurrent 
explosions in nerve celb, but are attributable to decompositions 
arising sua sponte in the chemical substances of the muscle celb 
themselves in the course of their living. Even small strips of 
the maade of the heart, if taken immediately after the death of 
the animal, continue, when kept mobt and warm and supplied 
with oxygen, to " beat " rhythmically for hours. Rhythmic 
CQotractioa b also characteristic of certain groups of skeletal 
raiacles, e.^* the respiratory. In these the rhythmic activity b, 
however, deariy secondary to rhythmic discharges of the nerve 
crib constituting the respiratory centre in the bulb. Such 
^charges descend the nerve fibres of the spinal cord, and through 
the intermediation of various spinal nerve celb excite the 
respiratory muscles through their motor nerves. A form of 
oootraction intermedbte in character between the tonic and 
the rhythmic b met in the auridc of the heart of the toad. . There 
dowly successive phases of increased and of diminished tonus 
Rgnbily alternate, and upon them are superposed the rhythmic 

* beats " of the pulsating heart. 

"The beat," f.«. the short-lasting explosive contraction of 
the heart mvsdt, can be eh'dted by a single, even momentary, 
a^ilicatioo of a stimulus, e.g. by an induction shock. Similarly, 
aufa a sio^ stimulus elidts from a skeletal musde a single 

* beat," or, as it b termed, a " twitch." In the heart muscle 
during a brief period after each beat, that b, after each 
sagb contraction of the rhythmic series, the musde becomes 
■KsdtsMr. It cannot then be exdted to contract by any 
•eeat, tlwugh the inexcitable period b more brief for strong 
thia for weak stimuli But in the skdetal, voluntary or 
ttxiped musdes a second stimulus succeeding a previous so 



quickly as to fall even during the continuance of the contraction 
exdted by a first, elidts a second contraction. Thb second 
contraction starts from whatever phase of previous contraction 
the musde may have reached at the time. A third stimulus 
exdtes a third additional contraction, a fourth a fourth, and so 
on. The increments of contraction become, however, less and 
less, unto the succeeding stimuli serve merely to maintain, not 
to augment, the exbting degree of contraction. We arrive thus 
by synthesb at a summation of " beats " or of simple contrac> 
tions in the compound, or " tetanic," or summed contraction of 
the skeletal muscles. The tetanic or summed contractions are 
more extensive than the simple, both in space and time, and 
liberate more energy, both as mechanical work and heat. The 
tension devdoped by their means in the musde is many times 
greater than that devdoped by a simple twitch. 

Musde celb respond by changes in thdr activity to changes 
in their environment, and thus are said to be "exdtable." 
They are, however, less exduble than are the nerve 
celb which innervate them. The change which ^^ 
exdtes them b termed, a stimulus. The least 
stimulus which suffices to exdte b known as the stimulus of 
threshold value. In the case of the heart musde thb threshold 
stimulus evokes a beat as extensive as does the strongest 
stimulus; that b, the intensity of the stimulus, so long as it 
b above threshold value, b not a function of the amount of the 
muscular response. But in the ordinary skdetal muscles the 
amount of the muscular contraction b for a short range of 
quantities* of stimulus (of above threshold value) proportioned 
to the intensity of the stimulus and increases with it. A value 
of stimulus, however, b soon reached which evokes a maximal 
contraction. Further increase of contraction does not follow 
further increase of the intensity of the stimultis above that 
point 

Just as in a nerve fibre, when exdted by a localized stimulus, 
the exdted state spreads from the exdted point to the adjacent 
unexdted ones, so in musde the " contraction," when excited 
at a point, spreads to the adjacent uncontracted paru. Both 
in musde and in nerve this spread b termed conduction. 
It b propagated along the musde fibres of the skeletal musdes 
at a rate of about 3 metres per second. In the heart muscle 
it traveb much more slowly. The dbturbance traveb as a 
wave of contraction, and the whole extent of the wave-h'ke 
dbturbance measures in ordinary musdes much more than the 
whole length of any single musde fibre. That the exdted state 
spreads only to previously unexdted portions of the musde 
fibre shows that even in the skeletal variety of musde there 
exists, though only for a very brief time, a period of inexcitability. 
The duration of thb period b about j\^ of a second in skeletal 
musde. 

When musde that has remained inactive for some time b 
exdted by a series of single and equal stimuli succeeding at 
intervab too prolonged to cause summation the succeeding 
contractions exhibit progressive increase up to a certain degree. 
The tenth contraction usually exhibits the culmination of this 
so-called "staircase effect." The explanation may lie in the 
production of COi in the musde. That substance, in small 
doses, favours the contractile power of musde. The musde 
b a machine for utilizing the energy contained in its own chemical 
compounds. It b not surprising that the chemical substances 
produced in it by the decomposition of its living material should 
not be of a nature indifferent for muscular life. We find that 
if the series of excitations of the musde be prolonged beyond 
the short stage of initial improvement, the contractions, after 
being well maintained for a time, later decline in force and 
speed, and ultimately dwindle even to vanishing point. This 
decline b said to be due to muscular fatigue. The musde 
recovers on being allowed to rest unstimulated for a while, 
and more quickly on being washed with an, innocuous but non- 
nutritious solution, such as '6%, NaG in water. The washing 
Seems to remove excreta of the musde's own production, and 
the period of repose removes them perhaps by diffusion, perhaps 
by breaking them down into innocuous material. Since the 



46 



MUSCLE AND NERVE 



musde produces lactic adds during activity, it has been sug- 
gested that acids are among tlie "fatigue substances" with 
which muscle poisons itself when deprived of circulating blood. 
Muscles when active seem to pour into the circulation substances 
which, of unknown chemical composition, are physiologically 
recognizable by their stimulant action on the respiratory nervous 
centre. The effect of the fatigue substances upon the contrac- 
tion of the tissue is manifest especially in the relaitation process. 
The contracted sute, instead of rapidly subsiding after dis- 
continuance of the stimulus, slowly and only partially wears 
off, the muscle remaining in a condition of physiological 
"contracture." The alkaloid veratrin has a similar effect 
upon the contraction of muscle; it enormously delays the 
return from the contracted state, as also does epinephrin, an 
alkaloid extracted from the suprarenal gland. 

Nervous System.— The work of Camillo Golgi (Pavia, 1885 
and onwards) on the minute structure of the nervous system has 

led to great alteration of doctrine in neural physi- 
55Ji^. ology. It had been held that the branches of the 

nerve cells, that is to say, the fine nerve fibres— 
since all nerve fibres are nerve cell branches, and all nerve cell 
branches are nerve fibres— which form a close felt-work in the 
nervous centres, there combined into a network actually con- 
tinuous throughout. This continuum was held to render possible 
conduction in all directions throughout the grey matter of the 
whole nervous system. The fact that conduction occurred 
preponderantly in certain directions was explained by appeal 
to a hypothetical resistance to conduction which, for reasons 
unascertained, lay less in some directions than in others. The 
intricate felt-work has by Golgi been asceruined to bo a mere 
interlacement, not an actual anastomosis network; the branches 
springing from the various cells remain lifelong unattached and 
unjoined to any other than their own individual cell. Each 
neuron or nerve cell is a morphologically distinct and discrete 
unit connected functionally but not structurally with its neigh- 
bours, and leading its own life independently of the destiny of 
its neighbours. Among the properties 6f the neuron is con- 
ductivity in all directions. But when neurons are linked together 
it is found that nerve impulses will only pass from neuron A to 
neuron B, and not from neuron B to neuron A; that is, the 
transmission of the excited state or nervous impulse, although 
possible in each neuron both up and down its own cell branches, 
is possible from one nerve cell to another in one direction only. 
That direction is the direction in which the nerve impulses 
flow under the conditions of natural life. The synapse, therefore, 
as the place of meeting of one neuron with the next is called, 
is said to valve the nerve circuits. This determinate sense 
of the spread is called the law of forward direction. The synapse 
appears to be a weak spot in the chain of conduction, or rather 
to be a place which breaks down with comparative ease under 
stress, e.g. imder effect of poisons. The axons of the motor 
neurons are, inasmuch as they are nerve fibres in nerve trunks, 
easily accessible to artificial stimuli. It can be demonstrated 
that they are practically indefatigable — repeatedly stimulated 
by electrical currents, even through many hours, they, unlike 

muscle, continue to respond with unimpaired reaction. 
JJJJbT*^ Yet when the muscular contraction is taken as index 
* of the response of the nerve, it is found that unmis- 
takable signs of fatigue appear even very soon after commence- 
ment of the excitation of the nerve, and the muscle ceases 
to give any contraction in response to stimuli applied indirectly to 
it -through iu nerve. But the muscle will, when exdted directly, 
e.g. by direct application of electric currents, contract vigorously 
after all response on its part to the stimuli (nerve impulses) 
applied to it indirectly through its nerve has failed. The 
inference is that the "fatigue substances "generated in the 
muscle fibres in the course of their prok>nged contraction injure 
and paralyse the motor end plates, which are places of synapsis 
between nerve cell and muscle cell, even earlier than they harm 
the contractility of the muscle fibres themselves. The alkak>id 
curarin causes motor paralysis by attacking in a selective way 
this junction of motor nerve cell and striped muscular fibre. 



Non-myelinate nerve fibres are as resistant to fatigue as are 
the myelinate. 

The neuron is described as having a cell body or perikaryon 
from which the cell branches— dendrites and axon— extend, 
and it is this perikaiyon which, as its name implies, 
contains the nuckus. It forms the trophic centre of ^/SmwT 
the cell, just as the nucleus-containing part of every 
cell is the trophic centre of the whole cell. Any part of the cell 
cut off from the nudeus^ontaining part dies down: this is as 
true of nerve cells as of amoeba, and in regard to the neuron 
it constitutes what is known as the Wallerian degeneration. 
On the other hand, in some neurons, after severance of the axon 
from the rest of the cell (spinal motor cell), the whole ner\'e 
cell as well as the severed axon degenerates, and may eventu- 
ally die and be removed. In the severed axon the degenera- 
tion b first evident in a breaking down of the naked nerve 
filaments of the motor end plate. A little later the breaking 
down of the whole axon, both axis cylinder and myelin sheath 
alike, seems to occur simultaneously throughout its entire 
length distal to the place of severance. The complex fat of 
the myelin becomes altered chemically, while the other com- 
ponents of the sheath break down. This death of the sheath as 
well as of the axis cylinder shows that it, Uke the axis cylinder, 
is a part of the nerve cell itself. 

In addition to the trophic influence exerted by each part 
of tlie neuron on its other parts, notably by the perikaryon 
on the cell branches, one neuron also in many instances in- 
fluences the nutrition of other neurons. When, for instance, 
the axons of the ganglion cells of the retina are severed by 
section of the optic nerve, and thus their influence upon the 
nerve cells of the visual cerebral centres is set aside, the nerve 
ceUs of those centres undergo secondary atrophy (Gadden's 
trophy). They dwindle in sixe; they do not, however, die. 
Similarly, when the axons of the motor spinal cells are by 
severance of the nerve trunk of a muscle broken through, the 
muscle cells undergo " degeneration " — dwindle, become fatty, 
and alter almost beyond recognition. This trophic influence 
which one neuron exerts upon others, or upon the cells of aa 
extrinsic tissue, such as muscle, is exerted in that 
direction which is the one normally taken by the JjJJ^^ 
natural nerve impulses. It seems, especially in a^mmm. 
the case of the nexus between certain neurons, 
that the influence, loss of which endangers nutrition, is associ- 
ated with the occurrence of something more than merely the 
nervous impulses awakened from time to time in the leading 
nerve cell. The wave of cbange (nervous impulse) induced 
in a neuron by advent of a stimulus is after all only a sudden 
augmentation of an activity continuous within the neuron — 
a transient accentuation of one (the disintegrative) phase, of 
the metabolism inherent in and inseparable from its life. The 
nervous impulse is, so to say, the sudden evanescent glow of an 
ember continuously black-hot. A continuous lesser " change " 
or stream of changes sets through the neuron, and is distributed 
by it to other neurons in the same direction and by the same 
ftynapses as are iu nerve impulses. This gentle continuous 
activity of the neuron is called iU tonus. In tracing the tonus 
of neurons to a source, one is always led link by link against 
the current of nerve force— so to say, " up stream " — to the 
first beginnings of the chain of neurons in the sensifadent surfaces 
of the body. From these, as in the eye, ear, and other sense 
organs, tonus is constantly . initiated. Hence, when cut off 
from these sources, the nutrition of the neurons of various 
central mechanisms suffers. Thus the tonus of the motor 
neurons of the spinal cord is much lessened by rupture of the 
great afferent root cells which normally play upon them. 
A prominent and practically important illustration of neural 
tonus is given by the skeletal musdes. These musdes exhibit 
a certain constant condition of slight contraction, which dis- 
appears on severance of the nerve that innervates the muscle« 
It is a muscular tonus of central source consequent on 
the continual glow of exdtement in the spinal motor neuron » 
whose outgoing end plays upon the musde cells, whose ingoing 



MUSCLE AND NERVE 



47 



cad is played upoo by other neurons— spinal, cerebral and 
ociebellar. 

It a with the neural dement of muscle tonus that tendon pkeno- 
mac axe imimatdy aHodated. The earliest-studied of these, the 
" kme-jerk" may serve as example of the dass. It is a brief ex* 
tcnsioa of the limb at the kiiee*joint, due to a simple contraction of 
tbe extensor muscle, didted by a tap or other short mechanical 
stimulus applied to the muscle fibres through the tendon of the 
moKle. Inie jerk is obtainable only from rousde fibres possessed 
of neural toousL If the sensory nerves of the extensor muscle be 
severtd. the " jerk " is lost. The brevity of the interval between 
tbe tap on the knee and the beginning of the resultant contraction 
cf tbe mnsde seems such as to exclude the possibility of reflex 
de%-dopment. A little experience in observations on the knee-jerk 
impoits a notion of tbe average strength of tbe "jerk." wide 
departures from tbe normal standard are met with and are sympto- 
cutic of certain nervous conditions. Stretching of the muscles 
antaeonistjc to the extensors — namdy, of the flexor muscles— 
rrducrs tbe jerk by inhibiting the extensor spiiud nerve cdls through 
tbe nervous impulses generated by the tense flesEor mufclea. Hence 
a favourable pcMture of the limb for elidting the jerk is one ensuring 
idaxation oT the hamstring muscles, as when tbe leg has been 
cixMsed upon the other. In sleep the jerk is diminished, in deep 
skep quite abolished. Extreme bodily lati^e diminishes it. Con- 
versdy. a a>ld bath increases it. The turning of attention towards 
tbe knee interferes with tbe jerk; hence the device of directing the 
penoQ to perform vigorously some movement, which does not 
involve tbe muscles of the lower limb, at the moment when the 
Eeht blow is dealt upon the tendon. A slight degree of contraction 
d musde seems the snbMtratum of all attention. The direction of 
attention to the p e rf o r mance of some movement by the arm ensures 
that l o osenes s and freedom from tension in the thigh muscles which 
is essential tor the provocation of the jerk. The motor cdls of 
tbe extensor muscles, when preoccupied by cerebral influence, 
appear rdractory. T. Ziehen has noted exaltatMU of the jerk to 
follow extirpation of a cortical centre. 

Altboosb the cell body or perikaryon of the neuron, with 
its conU^ied nucleus, is essential for the maintenance of the 
c^^g^gg^^ ^* of the cell branches, it has become recognized 
linn 11 SSI ^^^ ^^ actual process and function of "con- 
duction '' in many neurons can, and does, go on 
withovit the cell body bdng dircaly concerned in the conduction. 
S. Ezner first showed, many years ago, that the nerve impulse 
travels through the spinal ganglion at the same speed as along 
the other parts of the nerve trunk— that is, that it suffers no 
dr!ay in transit through the petikarya of the afferent root- 
cruronsw Bethe has succeeded in isolating their perikarya 
from certain of the afferent neurons of the antennulc of 
Carcinus. Tbe conduction through the amputated cell branches 
continues unimpaired for many hours. This indicates that 
the conjunction between .the conducting substance of the 
doidrons and thdt of the axon can be effected without the 
ictermediation of the cell body. But the proper nutntion 
of the conducting substance is indissolubly dependent on the 
cdl branches being in continuity with the cell body and nucleus 
it contains. Evidence Olustrating this nexus is found In the 
v^ible changes produced in the perikaryon by prolonged 
activity induced and maintained in the conducting branches 
d tbe cell. As a result the fatigued cells appear shrunken, 
£od their reaction to staining reagents alters, thus showing 
chemical alteration. Most marked is the decrease in the 
vohunc of the nudetis, amounting even to 44% of the initial 
volume. In the myelinated cell branches of the neuron, that 
is. in the ordinary nerve fibres, no visible change has ever been 
demonstrated as the result of any normal activity, however 
fTcat—a striking contrast to the observations obtained on 
the pcfikarya. The chemical changes that accompany activity 
io the nerve fibre must be very small, for the production of 
COfe is barely measurable, and no production of heat is 
observable as the result of the most forced tetanic activity. 

The nerve cells of the higher vertebraU, unlike their blood 
cdh, their connective tissue cells, and even their muscle cells, 
early, and indeed in embryonic life, lose power of 
multiplication. The number of them formed is 
definitely closed at an early period of the individual 
Ue. Ahhough, unlike so many other cells, thus early sterile for 
rrpnxiuaton of their kind, they retain for longer than most cells 
a hi«fa power of individual growth. They cootiooe to grow, and 



to thrust out new branches and to lengthen existing branches, 
for many years far into adult life. They simiUirly possess power 
to repair and to regenerate their cell branches where these are 
injured or destroyed by trauma or disease. This is the explana- 
tion of the repair of nerve trunks that have been severed, with 
consequent degeneration of the peripheral nerve fibres. As a 
rule, a longer time is required to restore the motor than the 
sensory functions of a nerve trunk. 

Whether examined by functional or by structural features, 
the conducting paths of the nervous system, traced from 
beginning to end, never lermMo/e in the centres of 
that system, but pass through them. All ultimatdy SUJIr 
emerge as efferent channels. Every efferent 
channd, after entrance in the central nervous system, sub- 
divides; of its subdivisions some pass to efferent channek 
soon, others pass further and further within the cord and brain 
before they finally reach channels of outlet. All the longest 
routes thus formed traverse late in thdr course the cortex of 
the cerebral hemisphere. It is this relativdy huge development 
of cortex cerebri which b the pre-eminent structural character 
of man. This means that the number of "longest routes" 
in man is, as compared with lower animals, disproportionately 
great. In the lower animal forms there is no such nervous 
struaure at all as the cortex cerebri. In the frog, lizard, and 
even bird, it is thin and poorly developed. In the marsupials 
it is more evident, and its exdtation by dectric currents evokes 
movements' in the musculature of the crossed side of the body. 
Larger and thicker In the rabbit, wheb excited it gives rise in 
that animal to movements of the eyes and of the fore-limbs 
and neck; but it is only in much higher types, such as the 
dog, that the cortex yields, under experimental exdtation, 
definitely localized fod, whence can be evoked movements 
of the fore-limb, hind-limb, neck, eyes, ears and face. In 
the monkey the proportions it assumes are still greater, and 
the number of fod, for distinct movements of this and that 
member, indeed for the individual joints of each limb, are 
much more numerous, and together occupy a more extensive 
surface, though relatively to the total surface of the brain a 
smaller one. 

Experiment shows that in the manlike (anthropoid) apes the 
differentiation of the fod or "centres " of movement in the motor 
field of the cortex is even more minute. In them areas are found 
whence stimuli exdte movements of this or that finger alone, 
of the upper lip without the lower, of the tip only of the tongue, 
or of one upper eyelid by itself. The movement evoked from 
a point of cortex is not always the same; its character is 
determined by movements evoked from neighbouring points 
of cortex immediately antecedently. Thus a point A will, when 
excited soon subsequent to point B, which latter yields pro- 
trusion of lips, itself yield lip-protrusion, whereas if exdtcd 
after C, which yields lip-retraction, it will itself yield lip-retrac- 
tion. The movements obtained by point-to-point excitation 
of the cortex are often evidently imperfect as compared with 
natural movements— that is, are only portions of complete 
normal movements. Thus among the tongue movements 
evoked by stigmatic stimulation of the cortex undeviated 
protrusion or retraction of the organ is not found. Again, 
from different points of the cortex the assumption of the 
requisite positions of the tongue, lips, cheeks, palate and 
epiglottis, as components in the act of sucking, can be pro- 
voked singly. Rarely can the whole action be provoked, and 
then only gradually, by prolonged and strong excitation 
of one of the requisite points, e.g. that for the tongue, with 
which the other points are functionally connected. Again, 
no single point in the cortex evokes the act of ocular converg- 
ence and fixation. All this means that the execution of natural 
movements employs simultaneous co-operative activity of a 
number of points in the motor fields on both sides of the brain 
together. 

The accompanying simple figure indicates better than any 
verbal description the topography of the main groups of foci 
in the motor field of a manlike ape (chimpanzee). It will be 



48 



MUSCLE AND NERVE 



noted from it that there is no direct relation between the extent of 
a cortical area and the mass of muscles which it controb. 
The mass of muscles in the trunk is greater than in the leg» and 
in the leg is greater than in the aim, and in the arm is many times 
greater than in the face and head; yet for the last the cortical 
area is the most extensive of all, and for the first-named is 
the least extensive of alL 

The motor field of the cortex is, taken altogether, relatively 
to the size of the lower parts of the brain, larger in the anthropoid 
than in the inferior monkey brains. But in the anthropoid 




SuMB csrtiroUs. 



come to be furnished more and more with fibres that are fully 
myelinate. At the beginning of its history each is unprovided 
with myelinate nerve fibres. The exduble foci of the cerebral 
cortex are well myelinated long before the unexciuble are so. 
The regions of the cortex, whose conduction paths are early 
completed, may be arranged in groups by their connexions 
with sense-organs: eye-region, ear-region, skin and somaesthetic 
region, olfactory and taste region. The areas of intervening 
cortex, arriving at structural completion later than the above 
sense-spheres, are called by some association-sphereSf to indicate 
the view that they contain the neural mechanisms of 
reactions (some have said " ideas ") associated with 
the sense perceptions elaborated in the several sense- 
spheres. 

The name " motor area ** is given to that region 
of cortex whence, as D. Ferrier's investigations 
showed, motor reactions of the facial and 
limb muscles are regularly and easily 
evoked. This region is often called the 
sensori-motor cortex, and the term somaestk^ic has 
also been used and seems appropriate. It has been 
found that disturbance of sensation, as well as 
disturbance of movement, is often incurred by its 
injury, Patients in whom, for purposes of diagnosis, 
it has been electrically exdted, describe, as the 
initial effect of the stimulation, tingling and obscure 
but locally-limited sensations, referred to the part 
whose muscles a moment later are thrown into 
co-ordinate activity. The distinction, therefore, 
between the movement of the eyeballs, elicited from 
the occipital (visual) cortex, and that of the hand, 
elicited from the cortex in the region of the central 
sulcus (somaesthetic), is not a difference between 



/itatic^^^jn csiJtf motor and sensory, for both are sensori-motor in the 

Diagram of the Topography of the Mdn Groups of Foci in the Motor Field nature of their reactions; the difference is only a 
of Chimpanzee. difference between the kind of sense and sense-organ 

brain still more increased even than the motor field are the great in the two cases, the muscular apparatus in each case being 



regions of the cortex outside that field, which yield no definite 
movements under electric excitation, and are for that reason 
known as " silent.'' The motor field, therefore, though absolutely 
larger, forms a smaller fraction of the whole cortex of the brain 
than in the lowet forms. The statement that* in the anthropoid 
(orang-ouUn) brain the groups of foci in the motor fields of the 
cortex are Uiemselves separated one from another by sur- 
rounding inexcitable cortex, has been made and was one of 
great interest, but has not been confirmed by subsequent 
observation. That in man the excitable fod of the motor 
field are islanded in exdtable surface similarly and even more 
extensivdy, was a natural inference, but it had its chief basis 
in the observations on the orang, now known to be erroneous. 

Ip the diagram there is indicated the situation of the cortical 
centres for movement of the vocal cords. Their situation is 
at the lower end of the motor fidd. That they should lie 
there is interesting, because that place is close to one known 
in man to be. associated with management of the movements 
concerned in speech. When that area in man is injured, the 
ability to utter words is impaired. Not that there is paralysis 
of the musdes of speech, since these musdes can be used perfectly 
for all acts other than speech. The area in man is known as 
the motor centre for speech; in most persons it exists only in 
the left half of the brain and not in the right. In a similar way 
damage of a certain small portion of the temporal lobe of the 
brain produces loss of intelligent apprehension of words spoken, 
although there is no deafness and although words seen are 
perfectly apprehended. Another region, " the angular region," 
is simiUriy related to intelligent apprehension of words seen, 
though not of words heard. 

When this differentiation of cortex, with its highest expres- 
sion in man, is collated with the devdopment of the cortex 
as studied in the successive phases of its growth and ripening 
In the human infant, a suggestive analogy is obvious. The 
nervous paths in the brain and cord, as they attain completion. 



an appanage of the sensual. 

That the lower types of vertebrate^ such as fish, e.g. carp, 
possess practically no cortex cerebri, and neverthdess execute 
" volitional " acts involving high co-ordination and suggesting 
the possession by them of associative memory, shows that for 
th^ existence of these phenomena the cortex cerebri is in them 
not essential. In the dog it has been proved that after removal 
from the animal of every vestige of its cortex cerebri, it still 
executes habitual acts of great motor complexity requiring 
extraordinarily delicate adjustment of muscular contraction. 
It can walk, run and feed; such an animal, on wounding its 
foot, will run on three legs, as will a normal dog under similar 
mischance. But signs of associative memory are almost, if 
not entirely, wanting. Throughout three years such a dog 
failed to learn that the attendant's lifting it from the cage at a 
certain hour was the preliminary circumstance of the feeding- 
hour; yet it did exhibit hunger, and would refuse further food 
when a sufficiency had been taken. In man, actually gross 
sensory defects follow even limited lesions of the cortex. Thus 
the rabbit and the dog are not absolutely blinded by removal 
of the entire cortex, but in man destruction of the ocdpital 
cortex produces total blindness, even to the extent that the 
pupil of the eye does not respond when light- is flashed into 
the eye. 

Examination of the cerebellum by the method of Wallerian 
degeneration has shown that a large number of spinal and 
bulbar nerve cells send branches up into it. These p,|,|t,B^„ 
seem to end, for the most part, in the grey cortex 
of the median lobe, some, though not the majority, of 
them decussating across the median line. The organ seems 
also to receive many fibres from the parietal region of the 
cerebral hemisphere. From the organ there emerge fibres 
which cross to the opposite red nudeus, and directly or 
indirectly reach the thalamic region of the crossed hemi- 
sphere. The pons or middle pedunde, which was .r^garded^ 



MUSCLE AND NERVE 



49 



on the luxntain ground of naked-eye dtssection of 
uutomy, as comiidasanl between the two lateral lohea of 
the ccrdwllom, is now known to constitute chiefly a cerebro- 
cerefaeOar decussating path. Certain cerebellar ceDs send 
pnoesies down to the cell-group* in the bulb known as the 
Dsdeus of Dciters, which latter projects fibres down the 
qjinal oofd. Whether there is any other or direct emergent 
path from the cerebeUum into the spinal cord is a matter 
oo whkh opinion is divided. 

Injuries of the oerebdlum, if large, derange the power of 
executing movements, without producing any detectable 
denngement of sensation. The derangement gradually dis- 
appears, unless the damage to the organ be very wide. A 
ledlng gait, oscillations of the body which impart a zigzag 
&ectkm to the walk, difficulty in standing, owing to unsteadi- 
ness of fiflob, are common in cerebellar disease. On the other 
kand, congenital defect amounting to absence of one cerebellar 
hesB^idiere has bc«n found to occasion practically no symptoms 
vfaatioever. Not a hundredth part of the cerebellum has 
lemsined, afid jtX, there has eadsted ability to stand, to walk, to 
handle and lift objects in a faidy normal way, without any trace 
of impairxxient of cutaneous or muscular sensitivity. The 
damage to the cerebdOnm must, it would seem, occur abruptly or 
^nckiy in order to occasion marked derangement of function, 
nd then tlie derangement falls on the execution of movements. 
One aspect oi. this derangement, named by Ludani astasia, 
a a txeosor hdghtened by or only appearing when the musdes 
enter opoo actSoor-" intention tremor." Vertigo is a frequent 
Rsolt of cexebeDar injury: animals indicate it by their actions; 
patients desaribe it. To interpret this vertigo, appeal must 
be made to disturbances, other than cerebellar, which like- 
vise ocmirion vertigo. These indude, besides ocular squint, 
many spatial positions and movements unwonted to the body: 
the looking from a height, the gliding over ice, sea-travel, to 
some persons even travelling by train, or the covering of one 
eye. Cowimnin to all these conditions is the synchronous rise 
of perceptions of spatial relations between the self and the 
e avircmnimt which have not, or have rardy, before arisen in 
syncfaroDOUS comhinatioiL The tactual organs of the soles, and 
the muacoiar sense organs of limbs and trunk, are originating 
perceptions that indicate that the self is standing on the 
soiid earth, yet the eyes are at the same time originating 
peroqrtiooa that indicate that, the solid earth is far away 
bdow the sfanding self. The combination is hard to harmonize 
a first; it is at kast not given as innately harmonised. Per- 
cqjtions regarding the "me" are notoriously highly charged 
viih " feeCng," and the conflict occasions the feeling insuffi- 
ciently described as "giddiness." The cerebellum recdves 
paths fnotn most, if not from all, of the afferent roots. With 
certain of these it stands associated most dosdy, namely, 
vith the vcstibolar, representing the sense< organs which fumisk 
data §at appndziion of positions and movements of the head, 
and. with the rtiannrh, conveying centripetal impressions from 
the apparatus of skeletal movement. Disorder of the dere- 
beOam sets at variance, brings discord into, the space-percep- 
tions cootributory to the moyement The body's movement 
beoamcs thus imperfectly adjusted to the q>atial requirements 
of the set it would perform. 

In the pfaysiokgical basts of sense exist many impressions 
vhkh, apart from and devoid of psychical accompaniment, 
TdSafy infiocnce motor (muscular) ixmervatioiL It is with 
this sort of hahitnaUy apsychical reaction that the cerebellum 
ii, it would seem, employed. That it is apparently devoid of 
psyducal concomitant need not imply that the impressions 
oiiiccmed in it are crude and indaborate. The seeming want 
of reaction of so mudi of the cerebeUar structure under aritifidal 
stimslatjon, and the complex rday system revealed In the 
histokigy of the cerebdlimi, suggest tluit the impressbns are 
daborate. Its reacti6n preponderantly hdps to secure co* 
sn£nate innervation of the skdetal musculature, both for 
■axnteoance of attitude and for execution of movements. 

Sleep. — ^Ihe more obvious of the characters of sleep (j.v.) are 

AK 2 



essentially nervous. In deep sleep the threshold-value of the 
stimuli for the various senses is very greatly raised, rising 
rapidly during the first hour<and a half of sleep, and then declining 
with gradually decreasing decrements. The musdes become less 
tense than in thdr waking state: their tonus is diminished, the 
upper eydid falls, and the knee-jerk is hi abeyance. The 
respiratory rhythm is less frequent and the breathing leas deep; 
the heart-beat is leas frequent; the secretions are las copious; 
the pupil is narrow ; in the brain there exists arterial anarmia with 
venous congestion, so that the blood-flow there is less than in the 
waking state. 

It has been suggested that the gradual cumulative result 
of the activity of the nerve cells during the waking day is to 
load the bndn tissue with "fatigue-substances" n§utggof 
which dog the action of the ceDs, and thus period!- jj^ 
cally produce^ that loss of consdousness, &c., which 
is sleq>. Such a drugging of tissue by its own excreta is known 
in muscular fatigue, but the fact that the depth of sleep piogres- 
sivdy incresses for an hour and more after iu onset prevents 
complete explanation of sleep on sunilar lines. It has been 
urged that the neurons retract during sleep, and that thus at the 
synapses the gap between nerve cell and nerve cell becomes 
wider, or that the supportmg ceDs expand between the nerve 
cdls and tend to isolate the latter one from the other. Certainltis 
that In the course of the waking day a great, number of stimuli 
play on the sense organs, and through these produce disintegra- 
tion of -the living molecules of the central nervous system. 
Hence during the day the assimilatory processes of these cells 
are overbalanced by their wear and tear, and the end-resuh is 
that the cdl attains an atomic condition leas favourahle to 
further dismtegration than to reintegration. That phase of 
cell life which we are accustomed to call " active " is accompanied 
always by dishitegration. When in the cdl the assimilative 
processes exceed dlssimilativB, the estbmal manifestations of 
energy are h'able to cease or diminish. Sleep is not exhaustion 
of the neuron in the sense t|iat pfdonged activity has reduced 
iu exdtability to aero. The nerve cdl just prior to sleep is still 
wdl capable of response to sdmuli, although perhaps the thres- 
hold-vdue of the stimulus has become rather high, whereas after 
entrance upon sleep and contlnuanre of sleq> for several hours, 
and more, when all spur to the dissimilation process has been 
long withhdd, the threshold-valuft of the sensory stimulus 
becomes enormously higher than before. The exdting cause 
of deep is therefore no complete exhaustion of the available 
material of the cdls, nor is it entirdy any paralysing of them by 
their excreta. It is more probably abeyuce of external function 
during a periodic internal asaimHatory phase. 

Two pr oc c i a ca ooojotn to initiate the asBtmiUitory phase. There 
is dose intetcoonexion between the two aspects ol the double 
activity that in physiological theory constitute the chemical life of 
protoplasm, between diwimilation and aasimilatioa. Hering has 
long insisted on a sdf-regu!ative adjustment of the cdl metabolism, 
so that action involves reaction, increaaed catabolism necesdtates 
after-increase of anaboUsm. The long-continued indtement to 
catabdism of the waking day thus of itself predispoaea the nerve 
cdls towards rebound into the oppodte phaM; the increased cata- 
bdism due to the day's stimuli induces increase of anabdism, and 
though recuperation goes oo to a laxse extent during the day itself, 
the recuperative process is dower than, and bas behind, the dis- 
intnTBtive. Hence there occurs a cumulative effect, progrearivdy 



dis- 

fect, progrearivdy 

The second 



intq;xative. 

•increasing from the opening till the dodng fa 
factor inducing the assimilative diaiige is the withdrawal of the 
nervous system from sensual stimuUtion. The eyes are doaed, 
the maintenance of posture by active contraction is replaced bv the 
recumbent pose which can be maintained by static action and the 
mere mechanical oondstenra of the body, the ears are screened 
from noise in the quiet chamber, the skin from localised pressure 
by a soft, yidding couch. The ^ect of thus redudng the exdtant 
action of the environment is to give cdnsdousness over more to 
mere revivals by memory, and gradually consdousness lapses. A 
remarkable case b wdl authenticated, where, owing to disease, a 
young man had lost the use of all the senses save of one eye and of 
one ear. If these last channels were seded, in two or three nunutea' 
time he invariably fdl adeep. 

If natural deep b this expreauon of a phase of decreased exdt- 
ability due to thesettmg in of a tide of anabdism in the oelb of the 
nervous system, what b the action of narcotics? They lower the 

la 



so 



MUSCOVITE 



external activitin of the cells, but do they not at the same time 
lower the internal, reparative, aasimilative activity of the cell that 
in natural sleep flt)es vigorously forward preparing the system for 
the next day's drain on energy? In most cases they seem to 
u ^^irm lower both the internal and the external activity of the 
!«»•««.«. Qgj^yg ^^ fQ lessen the cdl's entire metabolism, to 
reduce the speed of its whole chemical movement and life. Hence 
it is not scrprinng that often the refreshment, the recuperation, 
obtained from and felt after sleep induced by a drug amounts to 
nothing, or to worse than nothing. But very often refreshment 
b undoubtedly obtained from such narcotic sleep. It may be 
supposed that in the latter case the effect .of the drug has been to 
ensure occurrence of that second predisposing factor mentioned 
above, of that withdrawal of sense impulses from the nerve centres 
that serves to usher in the state of sleep. In certain conditions it 
may be well worth while by means of narcotic drugs to close the 
portals of the aenses for the salw of thus obtaining stillness in the 
chambers of the mind: their enforced quietude may induce a 
period in which natural rest and repair continue long after the 
initial unnatural arrest of vitality due to the drug itaeuhaa passed 
away. 

HypHoHsm,— The physiology of this group of " sUtes " is, 
as regards the real understanding of their production, eminently 
vague (see also Hypnotism). The conditions which tend to in- 
jduce them contain generally, as one element, constrained visual 
attention prolonged beyond ordinary duration. Symptoms 
attendant on the hypnotic state are closure of the eyelids by 
the hypnotizer without subsequent attempt to open them by 
the hypnotized subject; the pupils, instead of being constricted, 
as for near vision, dUate, and there sets in a condition supezfidally 
resembling sleep. But in natural sleep the action of all parts 
of the nervous system is subdued, whereas in the hypnotic the 
reactions of the lower, and some even of the higher, parts are 
exalted. Moreover, the reactions seem to follow the sense 
impressions with such fatality, that, as an inference, absence of 
will-power to control them or suppress them is suggested. This 
reflex activity with '* paralysis of will " is characteristic of the 
somnambtdistU state. The threshold-value of the stimuli 
adequate for the various senses may be extraordinarily lowered. 
Print of microscopic size may be read; a watch ticking in another 
room can be heard. Judgment of wdght and texture of surface 
Is enlted; thus a card can In a dark room be felt and then 
re-sdected from the re^huflied pack. Akin to this condition is 
that in which the power of maintaining muscular effort is in- 
creased; the individual may lie stiff with merely head and feet 
supported on two chain; the limbs can be held ouUtretched for 
boun at a time. This is the catakptie state, the phase of hypno- 
tism which the phenomena of so-called " animal hypnotism " 
resemble most. A frog or fowl or guinea-pig held in some 
ufinatuial pose, and retained so forcibly for a time, becomes 
" set " in that pose, or rather in a posture of partial recovery of 
the normal posture. In this state it remains motionless for 
various periods This condition is more than usually readily 
induced when the cerebral hemispheres have been removed. 
The decerebrate monkey exhibiu '' cataleptoid " reflexes. 
Father A. Kircher's experimenhtm mirabiU with the fowl and 
the chalk line succeeds best with the decerebraU hen. Tbe 
attitude may be described as due to prolonged, not very intense, 
discharge from reflex centres that regulate posture and are 
probably intimately connected with the cerebellum. A sudden 
intense sense stimulus usually suffices to end this tonic discharge. 
It completes the movement that has already set in but had been 
checked, as it were, half-way, though tonically maintained. 
Coincidently with the persistence of the tonic contraction, the 
higher and voh'tional centres seem to lie under a spell of 
inhibition; their action, \^ich would complete or cut short the 
posture-q>asm, rests in abeyance. Suspension of cerebral 
influence exists even more markedly, of oouxae, when the 
cerebral hemispheres have been ablated. 

But a potent— according to some, the most potent— factor 
in hypnotism, namely, suggestioHf is unrepresented in the 
production of so-called animal hypnotism. We know that one 
idea suggests another, and that volitional movements are the 
outcome of ideation. If we assume that there is a material 
process at the basis of ideation, we may take the analogy of the 
concomitance between a spinal reflex movement and a skin 



sensation. The physical " touch ** tbat initiates the psychical 
" touch " initiates, through the very same nerve channels, a 
reflex movement responsive to the physical " touch," just as the 
psychical " touch " may be considered also a response to the 
same physical event. But in the decapitated animal we have 
good arguments for belief that we get the reflex movement alone 
as response; the psychical touch drops out. Could, we assume 
that there is in the adult man reflex machinery which is of higher 
order than the merely spinal, which employs much more complex 
motor mechanisms than they, and is connected with a much 
wider range of sense organs; and could we assume that thi^ 
reflex machinezy, although usually associated in its action with 
memorial and volitional processes, may in certain circumstances 
be sundered from these latter and unattendant on them — may 
in fact continue in work when the higher processes are at a 
standstill— then we might imagine a condition resembling that 
of the somnambulistic and cataleptic states of hypnotism. 

Sudi assumptions are not wholly unjustifiibd. Actions of great 
complexity and delicacy of adjustment are daily executed by each 
of us without what is ordinarily understood as volition, and without 
more than a mere shred of memory attached thereto. To take 
one's watch from the pocket and look at it when from a familiar 
dock-tower a familiar bdl strikes a familiar hour, is an instance of 
a habitual action initiated by a sense perception outside attentive 
consciousness. We may suddenljr remember dimly afterwards that 
we have donfe so, and we quite fail to recall the difference between 
the watch time and the dock time. In many instances hypnotism 
seems to establish quickly reactions similair to such as usually 
result only from long and dosdy attentive practice. The sleeping 
mother rests undisturbed by the various noises of the house and 
street, but wakes at a slight murmur from her child; The ship's 
engineer, engaged in conversation with some visitor to the engine^ 
room, talks apparently undisturbed by all the multifold noise ami 
rattle of the machinery, but let the nmse alter in some item which* 
though unnoticeable to the visitor, betokens importance to the 
trained ear, and his pasnve attention is in a moment caught. The 
warders at an asylum have been hypnotized to sleep by the bedside 
of dangerous patients, and " suggested " to awake the instant the 
patients attempt to get out of bed, sounds which had no import for 
them bdng inhibited by suggestion. Warders in this way worked 
all day andperformed night duty also for months without showing 
fatigue. This is akin to the " repetition '* which, read by the 
schoolboy last thing overnight. Is on waking " known by heart.** 
Most of us can wake •ooiewhere about a desired although unusually 
early hour, if overnight we desire much to do io. 

Two theories of a physiok>gical nature have been proposed 
to account for the separation of the complex reactions of 
these conditions of hypnotism from volition and from memory. 
R. P. H. Hddenhain's view is that the cortical centres of the 
hemisphere are inhibited by peculiar conditions attaching 
to the initiatory sense stimulL W. T. Preyer's view Is that the 
essential condition for Initiation is fatigue of the will-power 
under a prolonged effort of undivided attention. 

Hypnotic somnambulism and hypnotic catalepsy are not the 
only or the most profound changes of nervous condition that 
hypnosis can induce. The physiological derangement which 
is the basis of the abeyance of volition may, if hypnotism be 
profound, pass into more widespread derangement, exhibiting 
itself as the hypnotic lethargy, lliis is associated not only with 
paralysis of will but with profound anaesthesia. Proposals 
have been made to employ hypnotism as a method of produdng 
anaestheda for surgical purposes, but there are two grave 
objections to such employment. In order to produce a suflkient 
degree of hypnotic lethaiisy the subject must be made extremely 
susceptible, and this can only be done by repeated hypnotization. 
It is necessary to hypnotise patients every day for several weeks 
before they can be got into a degree of stupor suflBdent to allow 
of the safe execution of a surgical operation. But the state 
itself, when reached, Is at least as dangerous to life as is that 
produced by inhalation of ether, and it is more diflkult to 
recover f roor. Moreover, by the processes the subject has gone 
through he has had those physiological activities upon which 
his voliticoal power depends excessivdy deranged, a&d not 
improbabl y per manently enfeebled. (C. S. S.) 

MUSOOVITB, a rock-forming mineral belonging to the mica 
group (see Mica). It Is also known as potash-mica, bdng a 
potassium, hydrogen and aluminium orthosUicate, H«£Ali(§iO«)«* 



MUSCULAR SYSTEM 



51 




As the common white mica obtainable in thin, transparent 
deava^ sheets of huge size it was formerly used in Russia for 
window panes and known as " Muscovy gUss "; hence the name 
nuscimte, proposed by J. D. Dana in 1850. It crystallizes in 
the mooodinic system; distinctly developed crystals, however, 
are rare and have the form of rough six-sided prisms or plates: 
thin scales without definite crystal outlines are more common. 
The most pnnninent feature is the perfect cleavage parallel to 
the basal plane (c in the figure), on 
which the lustre is pearly in character. 
The hardneaw is 2-2}, and the spec, 
grav. 2-S-2-9. The phme of the optic 
axes is perpendicular to the plane of 
symmetry and the acute bisectrix nearly normal to the cleavage; 
the optic axial angle is 60-70**, and double refractioa is strong 
and iwgative in sign. 

Mosoovite frequently occurs as fine scaly to almost compact 
aggregates, espedaDy when, as is often the case, it has resulted 
by the alteration of some other mineral, such as felspar, topaz, 
cyaniteiy &c.; several varieties depending on di£ferences in 
stnutore have been distinguished. Fine scaly varieties are 
damoorite, margarodite (from Gr. pap7aptn}Y, a pearl), gilber- 
tite, secidte (from 0ifpui6f, silky), &C In seriate the fiine scales 
are united in fibrous aggregates giving rise to a silky lustre: 
this variety is a common constituent of phyllites and seridte- 
sdusts. Oncosine (from 5Y«D<ns, intumescence) is a compact 
variety forming rounded aggregates, which swell up when 
heated bdore the blowpipe. Closdy related to oncosine are several 
compact minerals, indudcd together under the name pinite, 
whidi have resulted by the alteration of iolite, spodumene and 
other minerals. Other varieties depend on differences in 
fKpmifail compositiffli. Fuchsite or " chrome-mica " is a bright 
green mnacovite containing chromium; it has been used as a 
decorative stone. Oellacherite is a variety contaming some 
bariuni. In phengite there is more silica than usual, the com- 
position approximating to HsKAIi(Si«Ofe)i. 

Muscovite is of wide distribution and is the commonest of the 
micas. In igneous rocks it is found only in granite, never in 
rckzmc rocks; but it is abundant in gneiss and mica-schist, 
and in phyllites and day-slates, where it has been, formed at 
the expend oi alkali-felspar by dynamo-metamorphic processes. 
In pegmatite-veins traversing granite, gneiss or mica-schist it 
oocnrs as large ^eets of commercial value, and is mined in India, 
the United States and Brazil (see Mica), and to a limited extent, 
topther with felspar, in southern Norway and in the Urals. 
Large sheets of muscovite were formerly obtained from Solovetsk 
Island, Archange L (L. J. S.) 

■DSCULAR SYSTEM (Anatomy^), The muscular tissue 
(Lat. mtucUlus, from a fancied resemblance of certain mtisdes 
to a Cttle mouse) is of three kinds: (i) voluntary or striped 
vmsde; (2) ineolwUary or unstriped musde, found in the skin, 
«al]s of hollow viscera, coats of blood and lymphatic vessds, &c. ; 
(3) heart mtusde. The miooscc^ical differences of these different 
kinds are discussed in the artide on Conkectxve Tissues. Here 
caily the vc^untary musdes, which are under the control of the 
wSl, are to be considered. 

The voluntary muscles form the red flesh of an animal, and 
are the structures by which one part of the body is moved at 
viQ upon another. Each muscle is said to have an origin and 
aa insertion, the former bdng that attachment which is usually 
core fixed, the latter that which is more movable. This 
distinction, however, although convenient, is an arbitrary one, 
aad an example may make this dear. If wetake the Ppctorelis 
93J9r, which is attached to the front .of [the .<:htst <on the one 
hand and to the upper part of the arm b6ne pn the other, the 
eiect of its contraction will obviously be to draw the arm towards 
the chest, so that its origin under ordinary drcumstances is said 
to be from the chest while its insertion is into the arm; but if, 
in climbing a tree, the hand grasps a branch above, the muscular 
contraction will draw the chest towards the arm, and the latter 
viQ then become the origin. Generally, but not always, a 
> For l^ysiQlosyt see >f 99^m A|ID NEf^ys.. 



f,. 



muscle is partly fleshy and partly tendhious; the fleshy conttactile 
part is attached at one or both ends to cords or sheets of white 
fibrous tissue, which in some cases pass round pulliet and to 
change the direction of the musde's 
action. The other end of these cords 
or tendons is usually attached to the 
periosteum of bones, with which it 
blends. In some cases, when a 
tendon passes round a bony pulley, 
a sesamoid bone is devdoped in it 
which diminishes the effects of fric- 
tion. A good example of this is the 
patella in the tendon of the rectni 
femoris (fig. i. P.). 

Every muscle is supplied with blood 
vessels and lymphatics (fig. i, t, a, /)» 
and also with one or more nerves. 
The nerve supply is very important 
both from a medical and a morpho- 
logical point of view. The approxi- 
mate attachments jure also important, 
because unless they are realized 
the action of the muscle cannot be 
understood, but the exact attach- 
ments are perhaps laid too great stress 
on in the anatomical teaching of 
medical students. The study of the 
actions of musdes is, of course, a 
physiological one, but teaching. the 
subject has been handed over to the 
anatomists, and the results have been 
in some respects unfortimate. Until 
very recently the anatomist studied 
only the deaid body, and his one idea 
of demonstrating the action of a 
muscle was to expose, and then to Fic.i.— The Rectus Mus- 
puU it, and whatever happened he de of the Thigh; to 
said was the acUon of that muscle. "ho*' )*« constituent 
It is now generally recognized that RP¥?4«hy bdly 

no movement is so simple that only '-' •»• — • ' ~•-^- 

one musde is concerned in it, and that 

what a musde may do and what it 

really does do are not necessarily the 

same thing. As far as the deeper 

musdes are concerned, we still have 

only the anatomical method to depend 

upon, but with the superficial mtisdes it should be checked by 

causing a living person to perform certain movements and then 

studying .which muscles take part in them. 

For a modem study of muscular actions, see C. E. Beevor's 
Croonian Leduresfor igoj (London, X904). 

Musdes have various shapes: they may be fusiform, as in fig. i, 
conical, riband-like, or flattened into triangular or quadrilateral 
sheets. They may also be attached to skin, cartih^ or fascia 
instead of to bone, while certain muscles surround openings 
which they constrict and are called sphincters. The names of the^ . 
musdes have gradually grown up, and no settled plan has been * 
used in giving them. Sometimes, as in the coraco-brachiafif and • 
tJtyro-hyoid, the name describes the origin. and insertion of the 
musde, and, no doubt, for the student of human anatomy this ' 
is the most satisfactory plan,, since by learning ^he name the . 
approximate attachments $ire also learnt. Sometimes the name . 
pnly indicates some peculiarity in the shape of the musde and 
l^ives no due to its position in the body or its attachments; 
examples of this SLte biceps, semitendinosus and pyriformis. 
Sometimes> as in the fiexor carpi ulnaris and corrugator supercilii, 
the use of the muscle is shown. At other times the position in 
the body is indicated, but not the attachments, as in the tibialis 
anticus and peroneus longus, while, at other times, as in the case 
of the pectineus, the name is only misleading. Fortunatdy the 
names of the describers themselves are very sddom applied to 
jnusdes; among the few examples ztt Horner^ s muscle jind the 



Tendon of origin. 
Tendon of insertion. 
Nerve of supply. 
Artery of supply. 
Vdn. 

Lymphatic vessel. 
The patella. 



52 



MUSCULAR SYSTEM 



muscular hand of Treilx. The Geraum anatomists at the Basel 
conference lately proposed a uniform Latin and Greek nomencla- 
ture, which, though not altogether satisfactory, is gaining ground 
on the European continent. As there are some four hundred 



trantvene wrinkles in the forehead. The amterior, posterior and 




superior auricular musdes are present but are almost functionleas 
in man. The orbicularis palpebrarum fonna a sphincter round the 
eyelids, whkh it ck)ses. though there u little doubt that parts of the 
muscle can act separately and cause various expressions. Thesideof 



TvumtM 






Qk.fr.K: ETUUtB Ota 



ETJWTNAnm 



Fkom A. IL Pstaaoo, Canaia^ham's Tat Botk tfAmhmif. 

Fig. 2.— The Muscles of the Face and S^p (muscles of expression). 



muscles on each side of the body it will be impossible here to 
attempt more than a mere sketch of them; for the details the 
anatomical textbooks must be consulted. 

MuscLBS OP THK Hbad AND Facb (see fig. 3).— The scalp b 
moved by a large flat muscle called the ouipUo-frontalis^ which has 
two muscular bellies, the occipitalis SLodfroiUalis, and an mtervening 
epicramal aponeurosis; this muscle moves the scalp and causes the 



the nose has several muscles, the actions of whkh are indicated by their 
names; they are the compressor^ two dilatores and the depressor aloe 
nasif while the levator laoii superioris et alae na- i sometimes goes to 
the nose. Raising the upper lip, in addition to the Last named, are 
the levator labii superions proprius and the levator anguli oris, while 
the aytomaticus major draws the angle of the mouth outward. The 
lower Tip is depressed by the depressor labH inferioris and depressor 
anguli oris, while the oroictdaris oris acu as a 4>hincter to the mouth. 



fTnii|wnl bmncbaof 
jtUcnor muJIkiy wim 



^^ IxiTMMhL iTllVC«& 




BA.If. 



Fig. 3.— Pterygoid Region. 



MUSCULAR SYSTEM 



S3 



The hmeeimalar mmseU in the wfastanoe of the cheeks rites from the 
vpftee and lower jaws and runs forward to blend with the orbicularis 
ons. AD the fonsotng are known as muscles of expression and all 
are siqyplied by the seventh or facial nerve. The temporal muscle 
at the side of the cranium (fig. 3) and the masseter (fip. 3), which 
rises fnMB the sygoma, close the mouth, since both are inserted into 
the^cuntts of the mandible; while, rising from the ptei 
are the eatiermal wad idtemal tterygoid muscles (f 
which polls forward the condyle, and so the whv«: ••••••uiuic. «....« 

the Utter helps to close the moutn by acting on the angle of the k>wer 
jaw. This mop of muscles forms the masticatory set, all of which 
are soppfied by the third division of the fifth nerve. For the 
muscles of the ortxt, see Etv; for those of the soft palate and pharynx. 
He P&uiTVX; and lor those of the tongue, see ToNCtxi 



the pterygoid plates, 
(fig- 3). the former of 
rhole mandible, while 



both triangles to the hyoid bone. Where it passes deep to the 
stemo-mastoid it has a central tendon which is bound to the first 
rib by a loop of cervical fascia. Rising from the styloid process are 
three muscws, the stylo-glossus, styUhhyoid and st^o-pkarynteuSt 
the names of which mdicate their attachments. Covering these 
muscles of the anterior triangle is a thin sheet, close to the skin, 
called the platysma. the upper fibres of which run back from the 
mouth over the cheek and are named the risorius (Bg. 2) ; this sheet 
b one of the few remnants in man of the skin musculature or pamni- 
cuius camosus of bwer Mammals. With regard to the nerve supply 
of the anterior triangle muscles, all those which go to the tongue 
are supplied by the hypoglossal or twelfth cranial nerve, while the 
muscles below the hyoid bone are apparently supplied from thu 
nerve but really from the upper cervical nerves (see NitVB, 




Fig. 4.— The Triangles of the Neck (muscles). 



Mijscxas or rm Neck (fig. 4).— Just bek>w the mandible b the 
ii^ssiric, wfaidi. as its name shows, has two bellies and a central 
leadoa; the anterior belly, supplied by the fifth nerve, is attached to 
the mandible near the symphysis, the posterior supplied by the 
seveath qf dte. mastoid process, while the central tendon u bound 
to the favoid bone. Stretching across from one side of the k>wer jaw 
CO tiie ooier and f ooning a floor to the mouth b the m^tf- A>iMi flPii(w<r ; 
p ost e ri u rt y thb reaches the hyoid bone, and in the mid-line has a 
vmiiMW raphe sepantii^ the two halves of the muscle. Rising 
tram the manubrium stemi and inner part of the clavicle b the 
nrm dtidi t mar toid, which b inserted into the mastoid process and 
sDperior curved fines of the occipital bone; when it contracts it 
Bskcs the face look over the opposite shoulder, and it b supplied 
bjr the aoiaal accesaory nerve as well as by branches from' the 
' plexna. It b an important surgical landmark, and forms a 
I across the quadrihtteral outline of the side of the neck. 



Ending it into an anterior tKanvle with its apex downward and a 

' r with its apex upward. In the anterior triangle the reUtive 

' the hvoid bone, thyroid cartilage and sternum should 

and then the hyo-ihssus, tkyro-kyoid, stemo-kyoid and 

1 muades are exphuned bjr their "^ 

IfOBi the uppct' border 



vmiMMm of the hvoid bone, thyroid cartilage and sternum should 
be nafiaed. and then the hyo-ihssus, tkyro-kyoid, stemo-kyoid and 
I are exphuned by their names. The omo-kyoid 
r of the scapula and nins across 



Cranial: and Nbrve, Spinal). The posterior triangle b formed 
by the stemo-mastoid in front, the trapezius behind, and the clavicle 
below ; in its floor from above downward part of the following muscles 
are seen: complexus, sptenius^ leoator anguli scatulae, scalenus 
medius and scalenus anticus. Sometimes a smaU piece of the 
scalenus posticus is caught sight of behind the scalenus mediats. The 
splemtu rotates the head to its own side, the levator anguli scapulae 
raises the upper angle of the scapula, while the three scalenes n^n 
from the transverse processes of the cervical vertebrAe atid fix or 
raise the upper ribs. The Irapenus (fig. 5) arises from the spines 
of the thoracic vertebrae and the ligamentum nuchae, and b inserted 
into the outer third of the clavicle and the spine of the scapula: it b 
used in shrugging the shoulders and in drawing the upper part of the 
scapula toward the mid-dorsal line. Its nerve MipplY b the spinal 
accessory and third and fourth cervical nerves. When the super- 
ficial muscles and complexus are removed from the back of the neck, 
the sub-occipital triangle b seen beneath the occipital bone. Exter- 
nally it b bounded by the superior oblique, running from the trans* 
verse process of the atlas to the lateral part of the occipiul bone, 
internally by the rectus capitis posticus major, passing from the spine 
of the axis to the Uteral part of the occipital bone,'and inferioriy by 
the inferior oblique joining the spine of the axb to the transverse 



5+ 



MUSCULAR SYSTEM 



iprocew of the fttlat. These muadet move the bead on the atlu 
and the atlas on the axis. They are supplied by the posterior branch 
of the first cervical nerve. 

MuscLis OP THB Trunk.— The trapanus has already been de- 
scribed as a superficial muscle of the upper part of the back; in the 
loin region the latissimns dorsi (fig. 5) is the superficial muscle, its 
origin being from the lower thoradc q>inss, lower ribs and lumbar 



forming the semispinalit and mnUifidus spinat musdea. The 
latissimus dorsi and rhomboids are supplied by blanches of the 
brachial plexus of nerves, while the deeper muscles get their nerves 
from the posterior primary divisions of the spinal nerves (see Nbbve. 
Spinal). On the anterior part of the thoracic region the fmtoralis 
major runs from the clavicle, sternum and ribs, to the humerus (fig. 6) ; 
deep to this IS the pectcraiis minor, passing from the upper ribs to 




Ffoa A. II. Patoaoa. daaiaKham'* Tcrf Bttk tf AuUmj. 

Fig. 5.— Superficial Muscles of the Back. 



fascia, and it is inserted into the upper part of the arm bone or 
humerus. When the trapezius it cut. the rhomboid muscles (major 
and minor) passing from the upper thoracic spines to the vertebral 
.border of the scapula are seen, and deep to these u the serratus 
posticus superior passing from neariy the same spines to the upper 
ribs. On reflecting the latissimus dorsi the serratus posticus inferior 
is seen running from the lower thoracic spines to the lower ribs. 
When these muscles are removed the great mass of the erector spinae 
is exposed, familiar to every one as the upper cut of the sirioin or ribs 
of beef; it runs all the way up the dorsal side of the vertebral column 
from the pelvis to the occiput, the complexus already mentioned 
being its extension to the head. It is longitudinally segmented 
into many different bundles to which special names are given, and it 
is attached to the various vertebrae and ribs as it goes up, thus 
straightening the spinal column. Deep to the erector spinae are 
found shorter bundles passing from one vertebra to another and 



the coracofd process. The serratus magnus Is a laii^ muscle riainc, 
by serrations from the upper eight ribs, and running back to the 
vertebral border of the scapula, which it draws fon*ard as in the 
fencer's lunge. Between the ribs are the external and interMtl imUr- 
costal muscles; the former beginning at the tubercle and ending at 
the junctions of the ribs with their cartilages, while the latter only 
begin at the angle of t|ie ribs but are protonged on to the sternum, ao 
that an interchondral as well as an mtercostal part of each muscle 
is recogniced. The fibres of the external intercostals ran downward 
and forward, those of the internal downward and backward (aee 
Respiration). The abdominal walls are formed of three aheeta 
of muscle, of which the most superficial or external obUgue (fig. 6) 
is attached to the outer surfaces of the k>wer ribs; its fibres run 
downward and forward to the pelvis and mid-line of the abdomen, 
the middle one or internal oblique b on the same plane as the riba, 
and iu fibres run downward aiod backward, while the m mt m rs alis 



MUSCULAR SYSTEM 



55 



b cttached to the deep sorfacai of the ribt. and tt» fibres run horuon- 
tafiyiorwanL Below, all these miMcfes are attached to the crest of 
the Oimn and to Poupart's ligament, which is really the lower free 
cdce of the eztemal oblique, while, behind, the two deeper ones, 
at all events. Mend with the fascia lumborum. As they approach 
the raid-vential line they become aponeurotic and form the sheath 
of the ndms. The rtOms abdominis (6g. 6) b a flat muscular band 
whkh runs up on each side of the lineaalba o^ nud-ventral kne of the 
ab4pni'»ti irom the pubb to the ribs and sternum. Thb muscle 
stain tendinous iatersections or Uneae transversae, the positions 



rotating muscles pass from the scapula to the upper end of the 
humerus: these are the subscapvlaris passing in front of the shoulder 

joint, the ) •• • -. • - --^. ^ 

terts minor I 



'i supraspinatus above the joint, and the infraspinatus and 
or behind. The teres major (fig. S) comes from near the 



bwer angle of the scapula, and b inserted with the latisumus doni 
into the iront of the suigii 

brachialis (fig. 7) passes irc— , 

the humerus in front of the shoulder joint, while the hrackialtt 



into the Iront of the 'surgical neck of the humerus. The coraco- 
I from the coracotd process to the middle of 



anticus passes in front of the elbow from tne humerus to the coronoid 
process of the ulna. Passing in front of both shoulder and elbow b 




nasi A. U. PftUnaa, CsBoIofhsm't Tul B^t ^ Aaaltmf. 

Fig. 6.— Anterior Muscles of the Trunk. 



of which are noticed in the article Anatomt (Superficial and Artistic), 
sad the nMrphology of which b referred to Uter. In front of the 
bwetf part of the rectus b sometimes a small trbngular muscle 
calk4 the pyramiialis. The ouadratus lumborum b a muscle at the 
bsdc of the abdominal wall wnich runs between the last rib and the 
csett of the tUunu In front of the bodies of the vertebrae b a 
psevcrtebrtl or hypaaial. musculature, of which the rectiu capitis 
V and MUMT muscles and ((mfaii coUt in the neck and the 
i kxns form the diief parts, the latter being familbr as 
t of the sirkxn of beef, while the pdvb b doeed bckm by 

r Boor formed by the levator am and coccygeus muscles. 

The dbphiagm b fTpbinrd in a separate article. 
Uv9CLMa or ths Umt Extkbmitt.— The ddtoid (see figs.7and8^ 



m the onade whUi forms the shoulder cap and b used in abaucting 
the ans to a right angle with the trunk; it runs from the clavicle. 
' pcooeaa and spine of the scapub. to the middle of the 
w and i» anpplbd by the dicumfler nerve. Several short 



the bicePs ffiff. 7). the long head of which rises £n>m the top of the 
SfnSdS^^ iSwe tiSl&nt, while the i^«t bead ccm^^ 
ooraooid process. The insertion b into the tubercle of the radtus. 
These thm muscles are all supplied by the same (muKnUojCutaneous) 



nerve. At the back of the arm is the trtufs^ ^H'^l7!^!^'._ 
behind both shouMer and elbow jomts »«>.»• ^.««*L**^°!5J 
muscle of them; its bnff head nsea from }»1^Z^t^^^^ 
cavity of the scapula, whfle the inner and outer heads come from the 
back of the humerus. It b inserted into the olecranonjnocess of 



the uba and b supplied by the musculo-spinal nerve. The musdn 
of the front of the forearm form superficial and deep sets (tee ng. jY 
Most of the suoerfidal muscles come from the internal condyle d 



of 

fOdM 



the humerus. Trom without inward they are the frcnaiorndu 
teres going to the radius. the>I«»r carPt raduUts to the base of Uie 
index meracaipal bone, the palmaris Imgusto the palmar fasda. 
the>toa»r sublwUs digitorum to the middle phalanges of the fin^^ 
and the Jlexor carpi ulmaris to the pbiform bone. The important 



58 



MUSCULAR SYSTEM 



and the fiaaar tongus kattucis from within outward. Their tendon* 
all paM into the sole, that of the flexor longua dighonim being 
inserted into the terminal phabnges of the four outer toes, the flexor 
longut hallucis into the terminal phalanx of the big toe. while the 
tibialn posticus sends expansions to most of the tarsal bones. The 
nerve supply of this group is the posterior tibial. On the dorsum of 
Che foot M the extensor brevis digitorum (fig. 1 1). which helps to extend 




Fran A. If. Puenoo, Ouuuoghun'a Tal Bttk tf Amatmy. 
Fig. II.— Muscles of the Front of the Right Leg and Dorsum 
of the Foot, 
the four inner toes, while in the sole are four layers of short muscles, 
the most superficial of which consists of the abductor kaUiuis, the 
flexor brevis dicUorum, and the abductor minimi digiti, the names of 
which indicate their atuchments. The second layer is formed by 
muscles which are attached to the flexor longus digitorum tendon; 
they are the auessorius, running forward to the tendon from the 
lower surface of the calcaneum, and the four lumbricaUs, which rise 
from the tendon after it has split for the four toes and pass 
between the toes to be inserted uito the tendons of the extensor 
longus digitorum on the dorsum. The third laver comprises the 
flexor brevis kaUucis, adductor oidiquus and adductor Iransversus 
hallucis and the flexor brevis minimi dtgiti. The fourth layer contains 
the three plantar and four dorsal interosseous muscles, rising from 
the metatarsal bones and inserted into the proximal phsilangcs 
and extensor tendons in such a way that the plantar muscles draw 
the toes towards the line of the second toe while the dorsal draw 
them away from that line. Of these sole muscles the flexor brevis 
digitorum, flexor brevis hallucis, abductor hallucb and the innermost 
lumbrical are supplied by the internal plantar nerve, while all the 
rest are supplied by the external plantar. 



Bmbfycloiyt 
The development of the muscular tyttera Is partly known from 
the resulu of direct observation, and partly inferred from the study 
of the part of the nervous system whence the innervation u derived. 
The unstriped muscle is formed from the mesenchyme cells of the 
somatic and splanchnic layers of the mesoderm (see Ejibbyolocy). 
but never, as far as we Imow, from the mesodermic somites. The 
heart muscle u also developed from mesenchymal cells, though the 
chanees producing its feebly striped fibres are more xompbcsted. 
The skeletal or real striped muscles are derived either from the meao> 
dermic somites or from the branchial arches. As the mesodermic 
somites are placed on each side of the neural canal in the eariy 
embryo, it is obvious that the sreater part of the trunk musculature 
spreads gruiually round the Body from the dorsal to the ventral 
side and consists of a series of plates called myotomes (fig. la). The 
muscle fibres in these plates run in the long axis of the embryo, and 
are at first separated from those of the two neighbouring plates by 
thin fibrous intervals called myocommata. In some cases these 




Froo A. M. PstcaoQ. Cuaniacham'* Text Book tifAwakmy 
Fig. la.— Scheme to Illustrate the Disposition of the Myotomes 
in the Embryo in Relation to the Head, Trunk and Umbs. 
A. B, C. First three cephalic myotomes. 
N, I, 3, 3. 4, Last persisting cephalic myotomes. 
C. T. L. S, Co.. The myotomes of the cervical, thoracic, lumbar. 

sacral and caudal regions. 
I., II., III.. IV., v.. VI.l^II.. VIll.. IX., X., XI.. XII.. Refer to 
the cranial nerves and the structures with which they may be 
embryologically associated. 

myocommata persist and even become ossified, as in the ribs, but 
more usually they disappear early, and the myotomes then unite with 
one another to form a great muscular sheet. In the whole length of the 
trunk a longitudinal cleavage at right angles to the surface occurs, 
splitting the musculature into a dorsal and ventral part, supplied 
respectively by the dorsal and ventral primary divisions of the spinal 
nerves. From the dorsal part the various muscles of the erector 
spinae scries are derived by further longitudinal clea^'agcs either 
tangential or at right angles to the surface, while the ventral part 
is again longitudinally split into mesial and lateral portions. A 
transverse section of the tnmk at this stage, therefore, would show 
the cut ends of three longitudinal strips of muscle: (1) a mesial 
ventral, from which the rectus, pyramidalis stemo-hyoid. omo- 
hyoid and stemo-thyrotd muscles are derived: (2) a lateral ventral 
forming the flat muscles of the abdomen, intercostals and part of 
the stemomastoid and trapezius; and (3) the dorsal portion already 
noticed. The mesial ventral part is remarkable for the persistence 
of remnants of myocommata in it, forming the lineae transversae 
of the rectus and the central tendon of the omo-hyoid. The lateral 
part in the abdominal region splits tangentially mto three layers. 



MUSES, THE 



59 



iIk exteraftl and internal obOqne and the tnntvenalit, the fibres 
flf vliifch become differently directed. In the thoracic rcgbn the 
intcrcQetala probably indicate a funher tangential •pUtting of the 
middle or internal oblique layer, because toe external oblique is 
continued beadward super6ciaily to the ribs and the transvenalis 
deeply to tbem. The more cephalic part oC the external oblique 
layer probably disappears by a process oC pressure or crowding out 
ovii^ to the encroachment of the serratus magnus, a muscle which 
its nerve supply indicates is derived from the lower cervical myo- 
tomes^ Tbe dwper parts of the lateral mass of muades spread to 
the ventral surface of the bodies of the vertebrae, and iurm the 
kypfjnal mmdn — such as the psoas, longus colli and recti capitis 
antid. The nerve supplv indioites that the lowest myotomes taking 
part in the formation of the abdomtnal walls are those supplied by 
the first and second lumbar nerves, and are represented by the 
oemaster muscle in the scrotum. In the perineum, however, the 
third and fourth sacral myotomes are represented, and these muscles 
axe differentiated lar^ly from the primitive sphincter which sur- 
fouads the doacal orifice, though partly from vestigial tail muscles 
(see P. Thompson, Joum, Anat, and Phys., vol. xxxv; and R. H. 
Puamore, Lamxt, May 3i, loio). In the head no distinct myotomes 
have beea demonstrated In the mammalian embryo, but as they are 
present in more lowly Tertebrates, it is probable that their develop- 
ment has been slurred over, a process often found in the embryolocy 
of the hsher forms. Probably nine cephalic myotomes originally 
exisKed. oi which the fint raves rise to the eye muscles supplied by 
tbe third nerv«, the second to the superior oblique muscle supplied 
by the fourth nerve, and the third to the external rectus supplied by 
the sntb nerve. The fourth, fifth and sixth myotomes are sup- 
pressed, but the seventh, elshth and ninth possibly form the muscles 
of the toogiie supplied by the twelfth cranial nerve. 

Tanans nosr to the branchial arches, the first branchiomere is 
ittMrvatea by the fifth cranial nerve, and to it beloiw the masseter, 
temfoal, pterygoids, anterior belly of the dieastnc, mylo-hyoid, 
lensor tympam and tensor palati, while from the second branchio- 
aere, snpplied bv the seventh or facial nerve, all the facial muscles 
of I us I' Minn and the etylo-hyoid and posterior belly of the digastric 
are d er ive d, as well as tbe platysma, which is one of the few remnants 
of die pannimlus camosus or skin musculature of the lower num- 
malsL Fran tbe third branchiomere, the nerve of which is the ninth 
or gloasopharyngeal, the stylo-pharyneeus and upper part of the 
pharyngeal ooostrictora are formed, while the fourth and fifth gill 
aicbes 0nre rise to the muscles of the larynx and the lower part of 
the constrictors supplied by the vagus or tenth nerve. It is possible 
that paits of the stemo-mastoid and traperius are also branchial 
in their origin, nnce they are supplied by. the spinal accessory or 
' ierv<e, but this is unsettled. The limb musculature is 
arded as a sleeve*like outpushlng of the external oblique 

J the lateral ventral musculature of the trunk, and it is 

believed that parts of several myotomes are in this way pushed out 
is the growth of the limb bud. This process actually occurs in the 
bwer vertebrates, and the nerve supplies provide strong presumptive 
e > id en c e that this is the real i^ylocieneticnistory of the hieher forms, 
thoBgh direct observation shows that the limb muscles ol mamnuils 
are lormed from tbe central mesoderm of the limb and at first are 
<^3ite daadnct from the myotomes of the trunk. A possible expbna- 
tMQ of the diflBcuky is that this is another example of the slurring 
over of stages in phykjgenv, but this is one of many obscure morpho- 
k)gtcal points. The muscles of each limb are divided into a dorsal 
aad ventral series, supplied by dorsal and ventral secondary divisions 
of the nerves in the limb plexuses, and these correspond to the original 
positioo of the limbs as they grow out from the embryo, so that in 
the upper extremitv the back of the arm. forearm and dorsum of the 
hand are dorsal, while in the lower the dorsal surface is the front of 
the thkh and leg and the dorsum of the foot. 

For fnrther details see Development of the Human Body, by J. P. 
McMurrich (London. 1906), and the writings of L. Bolk, Morphol. 
Jakrb. vols, xxi-xxv. 

Comparatne Anatomy, 

la the aciania (r.g. ampbioxus) the simple arrangement of myo- 
tomes and myocommau seen in the early human embryo is perma- 
aeau The myotomes or muscle plates are < shaped, with their 
apices pointing towards the head end. each being supplied by its 
own spinal nerve. In the fishes this arrangement is largely persis- 
tent, but each limb of the < is bent on itself, so that the myotomes 
have now the shape of a $. the central angle of which corresponds 
to tbe lateral Goe of the fish. In the abdominal region, however, 
the oiyotoraes fuse and rudiments of the recti and obliqui abdominis 
nmsrles of hsgber types are seen. In other regions too, such as the 
fiasof fish and the tongue of the Cyclostomata (lamprey), specialized 
noscahr bundles are separated off and are coincident with the 
aoquirnnent of movements of these parts in different directions. 
la the Amphibia the limb musculature becomes much more complex 
■Btheioints ate formed, and manv of the muscles can be homologized 
nrith tnose of mammals, thou^ this is by no means always the case, 
wUe. in the abdominal region, a superficial delamination occurs, 
so that in many forms a superficial ana deep rectus abdominis occurs 
as wcQ as a culaneus abdcminis delaminated from the external 
o*)fique. It b probable that this delamination is the precursor of 



the penniculos camotus or skin muscubture of mammals. The 
branchial musculature also becomes much more complex, and the 
mylo-hyoid muscle, derived from the first branchial areh and lying 
beneath the floor of the mouth, is very noticeable and of great 
importance in breathing. 

In the reptiles further differentiation of the muscles Is seen, and 
with the acquirement of costal respiration the external and internal 
intercostals are formed by a delaminatk>n of the internal oblique 
stratum. In the dorsal region several of the longitudinal musoea 
which together make up the erector q>inae are distinct, and a very 
definite sphincter cloacae is formed round and ck>aad aperture. 
In mammals certain muscles vary in their attachments or presenoei 
and absence in different orders, sub-orders and families, so that, 
were it not for the large amount of technical knowledge required 
in recognizing them, they might be useful from a classificatory point 
of view. There is, however, a neater gap between the musculature 
of Man and that of the other Primates than there is be tw een many 
different orders, and this is usually traceable dtber direct^ oc 
indirectly to the assumption of the erect position. 

The chief causes which produce changes of mnsralature are: 

ii) splitting, (2) fusion. (3) suppression either partial or complete, 
4) shifting of ori^n, (5) shifting of insertion, (6) new formation, 
7) transference oipart of one muscle to another. In many of these 
cases the nerve supply gives an important clue to the change which 
has been effected. Splitting of a muscular mass b often (be result 
of one part of a muscle being used separately, and a good example 
of this IS the deep flexor mass of the forearm. In the lower mammals 
this mass rises from the flexor surface of the radius and ulna, and 
supplies tendons to the terminal phalanges of all five digits, but in 
man the thumb is used separately, and, in response to this, that 
part of the mass which eoes to the thumb is comfdetely wpWt off into 



a separate muscle, the flexor k>ngus pollkis. Tlw process, however, 
is going farther, for we have acquired the habit 01 using our index 
finger alone for many purposes, and the index slip of the flexor 



profundus digitorum is in us almost as distinct a muscle as the flexor 
longus pollicis. Fusion may be either collateral or longitudinal. 
The former is seen in the case of the flexor carpi ulnaris. In many 
mammals (e.g. the dog), there are two muscles inserted separately 
into the pisiform bone, one rising from the Internal condyle of the 
humerus, the other from the olecranon process, but in many others 
(e.g. man) the two muscles have fused. Longitudinal fusion is seen 
in the digastric, where the anterior belly is part of the first (man- 
dibular) branchbl areh and the posterior of the second or hyoid areh ; 
in this case, as one would expect, the anterior belly is supplied by 
the fifth nerve and the posterior by the seventh. Partial suppression 
of a muscle is seen in the rhomboid sheet; in the lower mammab 
this rises from the head, neck and anterior toephalic) thoracic q>ines, 
but in man the head and most of the necic part b completely sup- 
pressed. Complete suppression of a muscle b exemplified m the 
omo-trachclian, a muscle which runs from the cervkal vertebrae 
to the-acromian process and fixes the ecapob for the strong action 
of the triceps in pronograde mammals; in man this strong action 
of the triceps is no longer needed for prcvression, and the fixins 
muscle has disappeared. Shifting of origin is seen in the short head 
of the biceps femoris. Thb in many kywer mammab {e.g. rabbit) 
is a muscle running from the tail to the lower leg; in many othere 
(e.g. monkeys and man) the origin has slipped down to the femur, 
and in the great anteater it is evident that the agitator caudae has 
been used as a muscle slide, because the short head of the biceps 
or tenuisstmus has once been found rising from the surface of this 
muscle. Shitting of an insertion is not neariy as common as shifting 
of an origin ; it is seen, however, in the pcroneus tertius of man, in 
which part of the extensor longus digitorum has acquired a new 
attachment to the base of the fifth metatarsal bone. The new 
formation of a muscle is seen in the styio-hyoideus alter, an occasional 
human muscle; in this the stylo-hyoid ligament has been converted 
into a muscle. The transference of part of one muscle to another 
is well shown by the human adductor magnus; here the fibres which 
pass from the tuber ischii to the condyle of the femur have a nerve 
supply from the great sdatk instead of the obturator, and in most 
lower mammals are a separate part of the hamstrings known as the 
presem imembranosus. 

For further details see Bronn's Classen und Ordnunffm des Tkier' 
reichs; " Tbe Muscles of Mammals," by F. G. Parsons, Jour, Anat. 
and Phys, xxxii. 428; also accounts of the muscubture of mammala, 
by VVindle and Parsons, in Proc. Zool. Soc (1894, seq.); Humphry, 
Observations in Myology (1874). (F. G. P.) 

MUSES, THB (Or. MoMreu, the thinkers), in Greek myth- 
ology, originally nymphs of springs, then goddesses of song, and, 
later, of the different kinds of poetiy and of the arts and sciences 
generally. In Homer, who says nothing definite as to their 
names or number, they are simply goddesses of song, who dwell 
among the gods on Olympus, where they sing at their banquets 
under the leadership of Apollo Musagetes. According to Hesiod 
(Tkeog. 77), who first gives tbe usually accepted names and 
number, they were the daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne, the 
personification of memory; others made them children of 



6o 



MUSET— MUSEUMS OF ART 



Uranus and Gaca. Three older Muses (Mneme, Melete, Aoide) 
were sometimes distinguished, whose worship was said to have 
been introduced by the Aloidae on Mt Helicon (Pausanias iz. 29). 
It is probable that three was the original number of the 
Muses, which was increased to nine owing to their arrangement 
in three groups of three in the sacred choruses. Round the 
altar of Zeus they sing of the origin of the world, of gods and men, 
of the glorious deeds of Zeus; they also honour the great heroes; 
and celebrate the marriages of Cadmus and Peleus, and the 
death of Achilles. As goddesses of song they protect those who 
recognise their superiority, but punish the arrogant — such as 
Thamyris, the Thradan bard, who for having boasted himself 
their equal was deprived of sight and the power of song. From 
their connexion with ApoUo and their original nature as inspiring 
nymphs of springs they also possess the ^t of prophecy. They 
are closely related to Dionysus, to whose festivals dramatic 
poetxy owed its origin and development The worship of the 
Muses had two chief seats— on the northern slope of Mt 
Olympus in Pieria, and on the slope of Mt Helicon near 
Ascra and Thespiae in Boeotia. Their favourite haunts were the 
springs of Castalia, Aganippe and Hippocrene. From Boeotia 
their qilt gradually spread over Greece. As the goddesses who 
presided over the nine principal departments of letters, their 
names and attributes were: Calliope, epic poetry (wax tablet and 
pendl); Euterpe, lyric poetry (the double flute); Erato, erotic 
poetry (a small lyre); Melpomene, tragedy (tragic luask and ivy 
wreath); ThaUa, comedy (comic mask and ivy wreath); Pdly- 
hymnia (or Polymnia), sacred hymns (veiled, and in an attitude 
of thought); Terpsichore, choral song and the dance (the lyre); 
Clio, history (a scroll); Urania, astronomy (a celestial globe). 
To these Arethusa was added as the muse of pastoral poetry. 
The Roman poets identified the Greek Muses with the Italian 
Camenae (or Casmenae), prophetic iiymphs of springs and god- 
desses of birth, who possessed a grove near the Porta Capena 
at Rome. One of the most famous of these was Egeria, the 
counsellor of King Numa. 

See H. Deiters, Ueber die Venkrung der Musen M den Griechen 
(1863): P. Decharme, I«i Muses (i860); J. H. Krauae. Die Musen 
(1871): F. Rddiger, Die Musen (187^); O. Navarre in Darembers 
ana Saglio's DtcUonnaire des aniiqutUs, and O. Hie in Roacher^ 
Lexikon der Mylhologiet the latter chiefly for repreaentations of the 
Muses in art. 

- MUSBT, COLIN (fi. 1200), French troinhre, was poet and 
musician, and made his living by wandering from castle to castle 
singing his own songs. These are not confined to the praise of 
the conventional love that formed the usual topic of the tromhes, 
but contain many details of a singer's life. Colin shows naive 
gratitude for presents in kind from his patrons, and recommends 
a poet repulsed by a cruel mistress to find consolation in the 
bans morceaux qu*on mange devant nn g^and feu. One of his 
patrons was Agn^ de Bar, duchess of Lorraine (d. 1 226). 

Set Hist. lilt, de la France, xxiii. 547-553 ; ako a thesis, De Nicolas 
Museto (1893). by J. Bddier. 

MUSEUMS OP ART.* The kter rgth century was remarkable 
for the growth and development of museums, both in Great 
Britain and abroad. This growth, as Professor Stanley Jevons 
predicted, synchronises with the advancement of education. 
Public museums are now universally required; old institutions 
have been greatly improved, and many new ones have been 
founded, lie British parliament has passed statutes conferring 
upon local authorities the power to levy rates for library and 
museum purposes, while on the continent of Europe the collection 
and exhibition of objects of antiquity and art has become a 
recognized duty of the state and mum'dpality alike. 

A sketch of the history of museums in general is given bdow, 
under Musedms or Science. The modem museum of art differs 
essentially from its earlier prototypes. The aimless collection 
of curiosities and bric-4-brac, brought together without metliod 

. * Under the term *' museum " (Gr. nanouam, temple of the muses) 
we accept the ordinary distinction, by which it covers a collection of 
all ioru of art objects, while an art gallery (s.s.) confines itself 
practically to pictures. 



or system, was the feature of certain famous coDectioos in by- 
gone days, of which the Tradescant Museum, formed in the 17th 
century, was a good example. This museum was a miscellany 
without didactic value; it contributed nothing, to the advance- 
ment of art; its arrangement was unscientific, and the public 
gained little or no advantage from its existence. The modem 
museum, on the other hand, should be organized for the public 
good, and should be a fruitful source of amusement and instruc- 
tion to the whole community. Even when Dr Waagen described 
the collections of En^and, about 1840, private individuab 
figured chiefly among the owners of art treasures. Nowadays in 
rnaking a record of this nature the. collections belonging to the 
puhlic would at tract most attentioiL This fact is hffoming more 
obvious every year. Not only are acquisitions of great value 
constantly made, but the principles of museum administration 
and development are being more closely defined. What Sir 
William Flower, an eminent authority, called the " new museum 
idea " {Essays on Musdums, p. 37) is pervading the treatment of 
all the chief museums of the world. Briefly stated, the new 
principle of museum development— first enunciated in 1870, but 
now beginning to receive general support — is that the first aim of 
public collections ,shaU be education, and their second recreation. 
To be of teaching value, museum arrangement and da^fication 
must be carefully studied. Acquisitions must be added to -their 
proper sections; random purdiase of " curios " must be avoided. 
Attention inust be given to the proper display and cataloguing 
of the exhil>its, to their housing and preservation, to the lighting, 
comfort and ventilation of the galleries. Furthermore, facilities 
must be allowed to those who wish to make spedal study of 
the objects on view. " A museum is like a living organism: 
it requires continual and tender care; it must grow, or it will 
perish " (Flower, p. 13). 

Great progress has been made in the classification of objects, 
a hi^y important branch of museum work. There are three 
possible systems— luunely, by date, by matirial and 
by nationality. It has been fotmd possible to ^^^^*^ 
combine the systems to some extent; for instance, 
in the ivory department of the Victoria and Albert Museun% 
South Kensington, London, where the broad classification ii 
by material, the objects being further subdivided according to 
their age, and in a minor degree according to their nationality. 
But as yet there is no general preference of one system to another. 
Moreover, the principles of classification are not easOy laid down; 
e.g. musical instruments: should they be included in art exhibits 
or in the ethnographical section to which they also pertain? 
Broadly speaking, objects must be rlawifird according to the 
quality (apart from their nature) for which they are most remark- 
able. Thus a musket or bass viol of the i6th century, inlaid 
with ivory and highly decorated, would be properiy induded in 
the art section, whereas a conunon flute or weapon, noteworthy 
for nothing but its interest as an instrument of music or destruc- 
tion, would ht suitably classified as ethnographic. In England, 
at any rate, there is no uniformity of practice in this respect, 
and though it is to be hoped that the ruling desire to daaaify 
according to strict sdentific rules may not become too preva- 
lent, it would nevertheless be a distinct advantage if, in one or 
more of the British museums, some attempt were made lo 
illustrate the growth of domestic arts and crafu according to 
cl assi fic ation by date. Examples of this classification in Munich, 
Amsterdam, Basd, ZOrich and elsewhere afford excellent lessons 
of history and art, a series of rooms being fitted up to show 
in chronological order the home life of our ancestors. In the 
National Museum of Bavaria (Munich) there is a superb suite of 
rooms illustrating the progress of art from Merovingian times 
down to the 19th century. Thus classification, though studied, 
must not check the elastidty of art museums; it should not be 
allowed to interfere with the mobility of the exhibits— that is to 
say, it should always be possible to withdraw spedmens for the 
doser inspection of students, and also to send examples on loan 
to other museums and schools of art— an invaluable system long 
in vogue at the Victoria and Albert Museum, and one whith 
should be still more widdy adopted. An axiom of museum law 



MUSEUMS OF ART 



6i 



is that the exhibits shall be properly shown. ** The value of a 
museoin is to be tested by the treatment of Its contents" 
(Flower, p. 24). But in many museums the chief hindrance to 
study aikd enjoyment Is overcrowding of exhibits. Although 
a tiuism, it is necessary to sute that each object should be 
properly seen, dcaned and safeguarded; but all over the world 
this rule is forgotten. The rapid acqui^lion of objects Is one 
cause of overcrowding, but a faulty appreciation of the didactic 
purpose of the collection is more frequently responsible. 

In Great Britain, museum progress is satisfactory. Visitors 
are niunbered by millions, access is now permitted on Sundays 
cj«— ffcjjj"*^ week-days alike, and entrance fees arc being con- 
^^^^^^ sisteniiy reduced; in this the contrast between Great 
Britain and some fordgn countries is singular. A 
generation or so ago the national collections of Italy used to be 
always open to the public Pay-days, however, were gradually 
established, with the result that the chief collections arc now 
only visible without payment on Sundays. In Dresden payment 
is obligatory five days a week. The British Museum never 
charges for admission. On the other hand, the increase in 
continental collections b more raiHd than in Great Britain, where 
acquisitkHis arc only made by gift, purchase or bequest. In 
other European countries enormous collections have been 
obtained by revolutions and conquest, by dynastic changes, and 
by secularizing rdigioua foundations. Some of the chief 
treasures of provincial museums in France were spoils of the 
Napi^eonic armies, though the great biUk of this loot was returned 
in 18x5 to the original owners. In Italy the conversion of a 
monastery into a museum is a simple process, the Dominican 
house of San Biaroo in Florence offering a typical example. A 
further stimulus to the foundation of museums on the continent 
is the comparative ease with which old buildings are obtained 
and adapted for the collections. Thus the Germanisches Museum 
of Nuremberg is a secularized church and convent ; the enormous 
coUectJons belongmg to the town of Ravenna arc housed in an 
old Camaldulenslan monastery. At Louvain and Florence 
municipal palaces of great beauty arc used; at Nlmes a famous 
Roman temple; at Urbino the grand ducal palace, and so on. 
There are, however, certain disadvantages in securing both 
building and colIectx>n ready-made, and the special care devoted 
to museums in Great Britain can be traced to the faa that their 
cost to the community is considerable. Immense sums have 
been spent on the buildings alone, nearly a million sterling being 
de\noted to the new buildings for the Victoria and Albert Museum 
in London. Had it been possible to secure them without such 
an outlay the colleaions themselves would have been much 
increased, though in this increase itself there would have been a 
danger, prevalent but not yet fully realized in other countries, 
of crowding the vacant space with specimens of inferior quality. 
The result is that fine things are badly seen owing to the masses 
of second-rate examples; moreover, the ample space available 
induces the authorities to remove works of art from their original 
places, in order to add theAi to the museums. Thus the statue 
of St George by Donatello has been taken from the church of Or 
San Michde at Florence (on the plea of danger from exposure), 
and is now placed in a museum where, being dwarfed and under 
cover, its chief artistic value Is lost. The desire to make financial 
profit from works of art is a direct cause of the noodern museum 
n»vement in Italy. One result is to displace and thus depredate 
many works of art, beautiful in their original places, but quite 
iifsignififaftt when put into a museum. Another result is that, 
owing to high entrance fees, the humbler class of Italians can 
rardy see the art treasures of thdr own country. There are 
other coEections, akin to art museums, which would best be 
called biogiaphical museums. They illustrate the life and work 
of great artisu or authors. Of these the most notable are the 
muenms commemorating Diirer at Nuremberg, Beethoven at 
Boon, Thorwaldsen at Copenhagen, Shakespeare at Stratford 
and Micbdangdo at Florence. The sacristies of cathedrals often 
ocmtain ecclesiastical objects of great value, and are shown 
to the public as museums. Cologne, Aachen, Milan, Monza and 
I lave famous treasuries. Many Italian cathedrals have 



small museums attached to them, usually known as ".Opera del 
Duomo." 

United KingdoM.^The influence and rcpuUtion of the British 
Museum are so great that its original purpose, as stated in th* 
preamble of the act by which it was founded (i7S3f ......^ 

c. 33), may be quoted: " Whereas all arU and sdences 
have a connexion with each other, and discoveries 
in natural philosophy and other branches of speculative know- 
ledge, for the advancement and improvement whereof the said 
museum or collection was intended, do, or nuiy in many instances 
give help and success to the most useful experiments and under- 
takings . . ." The "said museum " above mentioned referred 
to the collection of Sir Hans Sloanc, to be purchased under the 
act just quoted. Sir Hans Sloane is therein stated, " through 
the course of many years, with great labour and expense, to 
have gathered together whatever could be procured, dther in 
our own or foreign countries, that was rare and curious." In 
order to buy his collections and found the museum a lottery of 
£300,000 was authorized, divided into 50,000 tickets, the prizes 
varying from £10 to £10,000. Provision was made for the 
adequate housing of Sir Robert Cotton's books, already bought in 
1700 (x3 and X3 Win. III. c. 7). This act secured for the nation 
the famous Cottonian manuscripts, "of great use and service for 
the knowledge and preservation of our constitution, both in 
church and state." Sir Robert's grandson had preserved the 
collection with great care, and was willing that It should not be 
" disposed of or embeziled," and that it should be preserved for 
public use and advantage. This act also sets forth the oath to 
be sworn by the keeper, and deals with the appointment of 
trustees. This is still the method of internal govetnment at the 
British Museum, and additions to the Board of Trustees are made 
by statute, as in 1824, In acknowledgment of a bequest. The 
trustees are of three classes: (a) three prindpal trustees, namely 
the Primate, the Lord Chancellor and the Speaker; {b) generd 
trustees, entitled ex officio to the position in virtue of ministerial 
office; (c) family, bequest and nominated trustees. A standing 
committee of the trustees meets regularly at the museum for the 
transaction of business. The great departments of the museum 
(apart from the sdentific and zoological collections, now placed 
in the museum in Cromwell Road, South Kensington) are of 
printed books, MSS., Oriental books, prints and drawings, 
Egyptian and Assyrian antiquities, British and medieval 
antiquities, coins and medals. Each of these eight departments 
is under a keeper, with an expert staff of subordinates, the head 
executive officer of the whole museum bdng styled director and 
chief librarian. The museum has been enriched by bequests 
of great importance, especially in the library. Recent legacies 
have included the porcelain bequeathed by Sir Wollaston Franks, 
and the valuable collection of works of art (chiefly enamels and 
gold-smithery) known as the Waddesdon bequest — a legacy of 
Baron F. de Rothschild. The most important group of acquisi- 
tion by purchase in the history of the museum is the series of 
Greek sculptures known as the Elgin Marbles, bought by act of 
parliament (56 Geo. III. c. 99). 

There are four national museums controlled by the Board of 
Education, until recently styled the Department of Sdence and 
Art. The chief of these is the Victoria and Albert MaM«m« Af 
Museum at South Kensington. This museum has a t^ Board at 
dependency at Bethnal Green, the Dublin and*|*'^* 
Edinburgh museums having been now removed from its direct 
charge. There is. also a museum of practical geology in Jermyn 
Street, containing valuable specimens of pottery and majolica. 
The Victoria and Albert Museum owed its inception to the 
Exhibition of 1851, from the surplus funds of which xa acres of 
land were bought in South Kensington. First known as the 
Department of Practical Art, the musetmi rapidly established 
itself on a broad basis. Acquisitions of whole collections and 
unique spedmens were accumulated. In 1857 the Sheepshanks 
gallery of pictures was presented; in 1879 the India Office trans- 
ferred to the department the collection of Oriental art formerly 
bdonging to the East India Company; in i88a the Jones bequest 
of French furniture and decorative art (1740-X810) was recdvcd; 



62 



MUSEUMS OF ART 



in 1884 the Patent Museum was handed over to the department. 
Books, prints, MSS. and drawings were bequeathed by the Rev. 
A. Dyce and Mr John Forster. Meanwhile, gifts and purchases 
had combined to make the collection one of the most important 
in Europe. The chief features may be summarized as consisting 
of pictures, 'nduding the Raphael cartoons lent by the king; 
textiles, silks and tapestry; ceramics and enamels; ivory and 
plastic art, metal, furniture and Oriental collections. The 
guiding principle of the museum is the illustration of art applied 
to industry. Beauty and decorative attraction is perhaps the 
chief characteristic of the exhibits here, whereas the British 
Museum is largely archaeological. With this object in View, 
the museum possesses numerous reproductions of famous 
art treasures: casts, facsimiles and electrotypes, some of 
them so well contrived as to be almost indistinguishable 
from the originals. An art library with 75,000 volumes 
and 35,000 prints and photographs is at the disposal of 
students, and an art school is also attached to the museum. 
The museum does considerable work among provincial schools 
of art and museums, *' circulation " being its function in 
this connexion. Works of art are sent on temporary loan to 
local museums, where they are exhibited for certain periods 
and on being withdrawn arc replaced by fresh examples. The 
subordinate museum of the Board of Education at Belhnal 
Green and that at Edinburgh call for no comment, their contents 
being of slender value. The Dublin Museum, though now 
controlled by the Irish Department, may be mentioned here as 
having been founded and worked by the Board of Education. 
Apart from the fact that it is one of the most suitably housed 
and organized museums in the British Isles, it is remarkable for 
its priceless collection of Celtic antiquities, belonging to the 
Royal Irish Academy, and transferred to the Kildare Street 
Museum in 1890. Among its most famous specimens of early 
Irish art may be mentioned the shrine and bell of St Patrick, 
the Tara brooch, the cross of Cong and the Ardagh chalice. The 
series of bronze and stone implements is most perfect, while 
the jewels, gold ornaments, torques, fibulae, diadems, and so 
forth are such that, were it possible again to extend the galleries 
(thus allowing further classification and exhibition space), the 
collection would surpass the Danish National Museum at 
Copenhagen, its chief rival in Europe. 

The famous collections of Sir Richard Wallace (d. 1890) having 
been bequeathed to the British nation by his widow, the public 
1^^^ has acquired a magnificent gallery of pictures, 
NaiiQata together with a quantity of works of art, so important 
madQuuh as to make it necessary to include Hertford House 
iHifMtfau. *"**"8 national museums. French art predominates, 
and the examples of bronze, furniture, and porcelain 
are as fine as those to be seen in the Louvre. Hertford House, 
however, also contains a most remarkable collection of armour, 
and the examples of Italian faience, enamels, bijouterie, &c., 
are of first-rate interest. The universities of Cambridge and 
Oxford have museums, the latter including the Ashmolean collec- 
tions, a valuable bequest of majolica from D. Fortnum, and some 
important classical statuary, now in the Taylorian Gallery. 
Christ Church has a small museum and picture gallery. Trinity 
College, Dublin, has a miniature archaeological collection, 
containing some fine examples of eariy Irish art. The National 
Museum of Antiquities of Scotland, controlled by the Board of 
Manufactures, was formed by the Scottish Society of Antiquaries, 
and has a comprehensive collection of Scottish objects, lay and 
religious. The Tower of London contains armour of historic 
and artistic interest, and the Royal College of Music has an 
invaluable collection of musical instruments, presented by Mr 
George Donaldson. Art museums are also to be found in several 
public schools in the United Kingdom. 

The Museums Act of 1845 enabled town councils to found and 
maintain museums. This act was superseded by another passed 
Mankiaai ^" '*^®* ^^ ^^ William Ewart, which in its turn has 
mHaZu, ^^^^ replaced by amending statutes passed in 1855, 
1866, x868 and 1885. The Museums and Gymna- 
siums Act of 1891 sanctioned the provision and maintenance of 



museums for the reception of loatl antiquities and other objects 
of interest, and allows a |d. rate, irrespective of other acts. 
Boroughs have also the right to levy special rates under private 
municipal acu, Oldham affording a case in point. Civic museums 
must still be considered to be in their infancy. Although 
the movement is now firmly established in mimicipal enterprise, 
the collections, taken as a whole, are still somewhat nondacript. 
In many cases collections have been handed over by local 
societies, particularly in geology, zoology and other scientific 
departments. There arc about twelve museums in which Roman 
antiquities are noticeable, among them being Leicester, and the 
Civic Museum of London, at the Guildhall. British and Anglo- 
Saxon relics are important features at Sheffield and Liverpool; 
in the former case owing, to the Bateman collection acquired in 
1876; while the Mayer collection presented to the latter city 
contains a highly important scries of carved ivories. At Salford, 
Glasgow and Manchester industrial art is the chief feature of the 
collections. Birmingham, with perhaps the finest provincial 
collection of industrial art, is supported by the rates to the extent 
of £4 300 a year. Its collections (indudiag here, as in the majority 
of great towns, an important gallery of paintings) are entirely 
derived from gifts and bequests. Birmingham has made a 
reputation for special exhibitions of works of art lent for a time 
to the corporation. These loan exhibitions, about which 
occasional lectures are given, and of which cheap illustrated 
catalogues are issued, have largely contributed to the great 
popularity and efficiency of the museum. Liverpool, Preston, 
Derby and Sheffield owe their fine museum buildings to private 
generosity. Other towns have museums which are chiefly 
supported by subscriptions, e.g. Chester and Newcastle, where 
there is a fine collection of work by Bewick the engraver. At 
Exeter the library, museum, and art gallery, together with 
schools of science and art, are combined in one building. Other 
towns may be noted as having art museums: Stockport, Notting- 
ham (Wedgwood collection), Leeds, Bootle, Swansea, Bradford, 
Northampton (British archaeology), and Windsor. There are 
museums at Belfast, Lame, Kilkenny and Armagh. The cost 
of the civic museum, being generally computed with the mainten> 
ance of the free library, is not easily obtained. In many cases 
the librarian is also curator of the museum; elsewhere no curator 
at aU is appointed, his work being done by a caretaker. In 
some museums there is no classification or cataloguing and 
the value of existing collections is impaired both by careless 
treatment and by the too ready acceptance of worthless 
gifts; often enough the museums are governed by committees 
of the corporation whose interest and experience are not 
great. 

Foreipt Museums. — Art museums are far more numerous 
on the continent of Europe than in England. In Germany 
progress has been very striking, their educational aspect being 
closely studied. In Italy public collections, which are ten times 
more numerous than in England, are chiefly regarded as financial 
assets. The best examples of classification are to be found 
abroad, at Vienna, Amsterdam, Zurich, Mimich and Gizeh in 
Egypt. The Mus^ Camavalet, the historical collection of the 
city of Paris, is the most perfect civic museum in the world. 
The buildings in which the objects can be most easily studied are 
those of Naples, Berlin and Vienna. The value of the aggregate 
collections in any single country of the great powers, Russia 
excepted, probably exceeds the value of British collections. At 
the same time, it must be remembered that masses of foreign 
collections represent expropriations by the dty and the state, 
together with the inheritance of royal and semi-royal collectors. 
In Germany and Italy, for instance, there are at least a dozen 
towns which at one time were capitals of principalities. In 
some countries the public holds over works of art the pre-emptive 
right of purchase. In Italy, under the law known as the Editto 
Pacca, it is illegal to export the more famous works of art. 
Speaking generally, the cost of maintaining municipal museums 
abroad is very small, many being without expert or highly-paid 
officials, while admission fees are often considerable. Nowhere 
in the United Kingdom are the collections neglected in a manner 



MUSEUMS OF ART 



63 



tbooi^ which ceruin towns in Italy and Spain have gained an 
ooenviable name. 

Berlin and Vienna have collections of untold richness, and the 
puUic are freely admitted. Berlin, besides its picture gallery 
Ottmmmy *^ architectural museum, has a collection of Christian 
— < antiquities in the university. The old museum, a 

^"^if^ royal foundation, is renowned for its classical sculp- 
ture and a remarkable collection of medieval statuary, in 
which Italian art is wdl represented. The new museum is 
also n o t ew ort hy for Greek marbles, and contains bronzes and 
engravings, tofj^ther with one of the most typical collections of 
Egyptian art. Schliemann's discoveries are housed In the 
Ethnographic Museum. The Museum of Art and Industry, 
dosdy similar in object and arrangement to the Victoria and 
Albert Moseum in London, contains collections of the same 
character— enamels, furniture, ceramics, &c. Vienna also has 
one of these museums (Knnstgewerbe), in which the great value 
of the examples is enhanced by their judicious arrangement. 
The Historical Museum of this city is interesting, and the 
Imperial Museum (of which the structure corresponds almost 
exactly with a plan of an ideal museum designed by Sir William 
Flower) is one of the most comprehensive extant, containing 
annoor of world-wide fame and the choicest specimens of indus- 
trial art. Prague, Innsbruck and Budapest arc respectively 
the homes of the national museums of Bohemia, Tirol and 
Hungary. The National Museum of Bavaria (Munich) has been 
oompleted, and its exhibition rooms, loo in number, show the 
most recent methods of classification, Nuremberg, with upwards 
of eighty rooms, being its only rival in southern Germany. 
Mainz auKi Trier have Roman antiquities. Hamburg, Leipzig and 
Breslan have ^xkI ^ Knnstgewerbe " collections. In Dresden 
there are fonr great museums — the Johanneum, the Albertinum, 
the Zwinger and the Grflne Gewolbc — in which opulent art can 
best be appreciated; the porcelain of the Dresden galleries is 
superb, and few branches of art are unrepresented. Gotha is 
remarkable for its ceramics, Brunswick for enamels (in the 
ducal cabinet). Museums of minor importance exist at Hanover, 
dm, Wflrtburg, Danzig and Liibeck. 

The central museum of France, the Louvre, was founded 
as a public institution during the Revolutionary period. It 
j^,, contains the collections of Francois I., Louis XIV., 

and the Napoleons. Many works of art have been 
added to it from royal palaces, and collections formed by dis- 
tingtrished connoisseurs (Campana, Sauvageot, La Caze) have 
been incorporated in it. The Greek sculpture, including the 
. Venus of Melos and the Nik£ of Samothrace, is of pre-eminent 
fame. Other departments are well furnished, and from a 
technical point of view the manner in which the officials have 
overcome structural difficulties in adapting the palace to the 
needs of an art museum is most instructive. The Cluny 
Museum, bought by the dty in 1842, and subsequently 
transfefTcd to the state, supplements the medieval collections 
of the Louvre, being a storehouse of select works of art. It 
su&i^ however, from being overcrowded, while for purposes 
of study it is badly lighted. At the same time the Maison 
Cluny b a wcU-fumished house, decorated with admirable 
things, and as such has a special didactic value of its own, 
correspooding in this respect with Hertford House and the 
i*oldi-Pezzo!i Gallery at Milan — collections which are more than 
museums, since they show in the best manner thcadaptation of 
artistic taste to domestic life. The French provincial museums 
are numerous and important. Twenty-two were established 
eaiiy in the 19th century, and received 1000 pictures as gifts 
from the state, numbers of which were not returned in 181 5 to 
the coontries whence they were taken. The best of these 
museums are at Lyons; at Dijon, where the tombs of Jean sans 
Pear and Philip the Bold are preserved; at Amiens, where the 
capital Mnsfe de Picardie was built in 1850; at Marseilles and at 
Bajreux, where the " Tapestry " is wdl exhibited. The collcc- 
tiims of Lille, Bordeaux, Toulouse, and Avignon are also impor- 
tant. The objects shown in these museums are chiefly local 
, consisting largely of church plate, furniture, together 



with sculpture, carved wood, and pottery, nearly everything 
being French in origin. In many towns Roman antiquities and 
early Qiristian relics are preserved (e.;. Autun, Nlmes, Aries 
and Luzeuil), Other collections controlled by munidpalities 
are kept at Rouen, Douai, Montpellier, Chartres (14th-century 
sculptures), Grenoble, Toulon, Ajaccio, £pinal (CaroUngian 
objects), Besancon, Bourges, Le Mans (with the remarkable 
enamd of Geoffrey of Anjou), Nancy, Aix and in many other 
towns. As a rule, the public a admitted free of charge, spedal 
courtesy bdng shown to fordgners. In many cases the collections 
are ill cared for and uncatalogued, and little money is provided 
for acquisitions in the dvic museums; indeed, in this respect the 
great national institutions contrast unfavourably with British 
establishments, to which purchase grants are regularly made. 

The national, dvic and papal museums of Italy are so numerous 
that a few only can be mentioned. The best arranged and best 
classified collection is the Museo Nazionale at Naples, ^^ 
containing many thousand examples of Roman ^^' 
art, chiefly obtained from the immediate neighbourhood. For 
historical importance it ranks as primus inter pares with the 
collections of Rome and the Vatican. It is, however, the only 
great Italian museum where scientific treatment is consistently 
adopted. Other museums of purdy dassical art arc found at 
Syracuse, Cagliari and Palermo. Etruscan art is best displayed 
at Arezzo, Perugia (in the university), Cortona, Florence (Museo 
Archeologico), Volterra and the Vatican. The Florentine 
museums arc of great importance, consisting of the archaeological 
museum of antique bronzes, Egyptian art, and a great number of 
tapestries. The Museo Nazionale, housed in the Bargello (a.d. 
1260), is the central depository of Tuscan art. Numerous 
examples of Delia Robbia ware have been gathered together, 
and are fixed to the walls in a manner and position which reduce 
their value to a minimum. The plastic arts of Tuscany are 
represented by Donatdlo, Verrocchio, Ghiberti, and Cellini, 
while the Carrand collection of ivories, pictures, and varied 
medieval spedmens is of much interest. This museum, like so 
many others, is becoming seriously overcrowded, to the lasting 
detriment of churches, market-places, and streets, whence these 
works of art are being ruthlessly removed. The public is admitted 
free one day a week, and the receipts are devoted to art and 
antiquarian purposes (" tasse . . . destinate . . . alia conver- 
sazione dei monument!, all' ampliamento dcgli scavi, ed' all* 
increraento dei instituti . . . nella cittiL."— Law of 1875, (5). 
The museums of Rome are numerous, the Vatican alone contain- 
ing at least six— Museo Clementino, of classical art, uith the 
Laocoon, the Apollo Belvedere, and other masterpieces; the 
Chiaramonti, also of classical sculpture; the Gallery of Inscrip- 
tions; the Egyptian, the Etruscan and the Christian museums. 
The last is an extensive coUcction corresponding with another 
papal museum in the Lateran Palace, also known as the Christian 
Museum (founded 1843), and remarkable for its sarcophagi and 
relics from the catacombs. The Lateran has also a second 
museum known as the Museo Profano. Museums belonging 
to the state arc equally remarkable. The Kirchcr Museum deals 
with prehistoric art, and contains the " Prencste Hoard." The 
Museo Nazionale (by the Baths of Diocletian), the Museo Capi- 
tolino, and the Palazzo dei Conservatori contain innumerable 
spedmens of the finest classical art, vases, bronzes, mosaics, 
and statuary, Greek as well as Roman. Among provincial 
museums there are few which do not possess at least one or two 
objects of signal merit. Thus Brescia, besides a medieval 
collection, has a famous bronze Victory. Pcsaro, Urbino, and 
the Museo Correr at Venice have admirable examples of majolica; 
Mflan, Pisa and Genoa have general archaeology combined with 
a good proportion of mediocrity. The civic museum of Bologna 
is comprehensive and well arranged, having Egyptian, classical, 
and Etruscan collections, besides many things dating from the 
"Bella Epoca" of Italian art. At Ravenna alone can the 
Byzantine art of Italy be properly understood, and it is most 
deplorable that the superb collections in its fine galleries should 
remain uncatalogued and neglected. Turin, Siena, Padua, and 
other towns have dvic museums. 



6+ 



MUSEUMS OF SCIENCE 



The Ryks Museum at Amsterdam, containing the national 
collections of Holland, is a modern building in which a series 

of historical rooms are furnished to show at a glance 

the artistic progress of the Dutch at any given period. 

Nine rooms are also devoted to the chronological 
display of ecclesiastical art. Besides the famous paintings, this 
museum (the sole drawback of which is the number of rooms 
which have no top light) contains a library, many engravings, a 
comprehensive exhibit of armour, costume, metal-work, and a 
department of maritime craftsmanship. Arnhem and Haarlem 
have municipal collections. At Leiden the university maintains 
a scholarly collection of antiquities. The Hague and Rotterdam 
have also museums, but everything in Holland is subordinated 
to the development of the great central depository at Amsterdam, 
to which examples are sent from all parts of the country. In 
Belgium the chief museum, that of ancient industrial art, is at 
Brussels. It contains many pieces of medieval church furniture 
and decoration, but in this xespea differs only in size from the 
civic museums of Ghent and Luxemburg and the Archbishop's 
Museum at Utrecht. In Brussels, however, there is a good show 
of Frankish and Carolingian objects. The dty of Antwerp 
maintains the Mus^ Flantin, a printing establishment which has 
survived almost intact, and presents one of the most charming 
and instructive museums in the world. As a whole, the 
museums of Belgium are disappointing, though, per contra^ the 
churches are of enhanced interest, not having been pillaged for 
the benefit of museums. 

New museums are being fotmded in Russia every year. 
Rharkoff and Odessa (the university) have already large coUec- 
ffonli. ^><>^> ^^^ ^^ ^h® mo&l remote parts of Siberia it is 

curious to find carefully chosen collections. Krasno- 
yarsk has X 2,000 specimens, a storehouse of Buriat art. Irkutsk 
the capital, Tobolsk, Tomsk (university), Khabarovsk, and 
Yakutsk have now museums. In these Russian art naturally 
predominates. It is only at Moscow and St Petersburg that 
Western art is found. The Hermitage Palace in the latter city 
contains a selection of medieval objects of fabulous value, there 
being no less than forty early ivories. But from a national point 
of view these collections are insignificant when compared with 
the gold and silver objects illustrating the primitive arts and 
ornament of Scythia, Crimea and Caucasia, the high standard 
attained proving an advanced stage of manual skill. At Moscow 
(historical museum) the stone and metal relics are scarcely less 
interesting. There is also a museum of industrial art, the speci- 
mens of which are not of unusual value, but being analogous to 
the Kunstgewcrbe movement in Germany, it exercises a whole- 
some influence upon the designers who study in its schools. 

American museums are not oonunitted to traditional systems, 
and scientific treatment is allowed its fullest scope. They exist 
MB9rkM, *° great numbers, and though in some cases their 

exhibits are chiefly ethnographic, a far wider range 
of art objects is rapidly being secured. The National Museum 
at Washington, a bmnch of the Smithsonian Institution (9.9.), 
while notable for its American historical and ethnological 
exhibits, has the National Gallery of Art. The Metropolitan 
Museum of Art (held by trustees for the benefit of the city 
of New York) has in the Ccsnola collection the most complete 
series of Cypriot art objects. It has also departments of coins, 
Greek sculpture and general examples of European and American 
art. The Museum of Fine Arts at Boston is very comprehensive, 
and has a remarkable collection of ceramics, together with good 
reproductions of antique art. There are museums at St 
Louis, Chicago, Pittsburg, Brooklyn, Cincinnati, Buffalo and 
Washington, as well as Montreal in Canada; and the universities 
of Harvard, Chicago, Pennsylvania and Yale have important 
collections. 

The Swiss National Museum is situated at Ztlrich, and though 
of medium siae (50 rooms), it is a model of arrangement and 
vmrkmm <>'S<'^°i^^<'°* Besidcs the special feature of rooms 
CaaaSn, ^Uustrating the historical progress of art, its collection 

of stained glass is important. Basel also (historical 
museum) is but little inferior in contents or system to the Zttxich 



it (Geneva has three collections. Lausanne holds 
the museum of the canton, and Bern has a municipal collection. 
All these institutions are well supported financially, and are 
much appreciated by the Swiss public The art museums of 
Stockholm, Christlania and Copenhagen rank high for their 
intrinsic excellence, but still more for their scientific and didactic 
value. Stockholm has three museums: that of the Royal 
Palace, a collection of costume and armour; the Northern 
Museum, a large collection of domestic art; the National 
Museum, containing the prehistoric collections, gold omamenta, 
&c., classified in a brilliant manner. The National Museum 
of Denmark at Copenhagen is in this respect even more famous, 
being probably the second national collection in the world. The 
arrangement of this collection leaves little to be desired, and it 
is to be regretted that some British collections, in themselves of 
immense value, cannot be shown, as at Copenhagen, in a manner 
which would display their great merits to the fullest degree. 
There is also at Copenhagen a remarkable collection of antique 
busts (Gamie Glyptotek), and the Thorwaldsen Museum con- 
nected with the sculptor of that name. Norse antiquities are 
at Christiania (the university) and Bergen. Athens has three 
museums, all devoted to Greek art: that of the Acropolis, that 
of the Archaeological Society (vases and terra-cotta) and the 
National Museum of Antiquities. The state owns all discoveries 
and these are accumulated at the capital, so that local museums 
scarcely exist. The collections, which rapidly increase, are of 
great importance, though as yet they cannot vie with the 
aggregate in other European countries. The Museum of 
Egyptian Antiquities (Cairo), founded by Mariette Bey at Bulak, 
afterwards removed to theGiza palace and developed by Maspero, 
is housed in a large building erected in 1902, wdl classified, and 
h'berally supported with money and fresh acquisitions. Minor 
museums exist at Carthage and Tunis. At Constantinople the 
Turkish Museum contains some good classical sctilpture and a 
great deal of rubbish. The Museo del Prado and the Archaeo- 
logical Museum at Madrid are the chief Spanish collections, 
containing niunerous classical objects and many specimens of 
Moorish and early Spanish art. In Spain museums are badly 
kept, and their contents are of indifferent value. The museums 
of the chief provinces are situated at Barcebna, Valencia, 
Granada and Seville. Cadiz and Cordova have also sadly 
neglected dvic collections. The National Museum of Portugal at 
Lisbon requires no special oonunent. The progress of Japan 
is noticeable in its museums as in its industrial enterprise. The 
National Museum(Weno Park, TOkyO) is large and well arranged 
in a new building of Western architecture. KiOtG and Nara 
have excellent museums, exclusively of Oriental art, and two or 
three other towns have smaller establishments, induding oom- 
merdal museums. There are several museums in India, the 
chief one being at Calcutta, devoted to Indian antiquities. 

The best history ctf museums can be found in the prefaces and 
introductions to their official catalogues, but the following works 
will be useful for reference: Annual Reports presented to Parliament 
(official) of British Museum and Board of Education; Civil Service 
Estimates, Class IV., annually presented to Parliament; Second 
Report of Select Committee of House of Commons on Museums of 
Science and Art Department (offidal: i vol., 1898); Annual Reports 
of the Museum Association (London); Edward Edwards, The Fine 
Arts in England (London, 1840); Professor Stanley Jevons, " Use 
and Abuse of Museums," printed in Methods of Social Reform 
(London, 1882); Report of Committee on Provmdal Museums. 
Report of British Association (London, 1887): Thos. Greenwood, 
Museums and Art Galleries (London, 1888) ; Professor Brown Goode, 
Museums of the Future, Report on the National Museum for 1889 



. --^-,. - ___,,-_ ,..' ror^itisatit.. 

dans les musies de la Grande Bretatne (offidal; Pans, 1805); 
^r William Flower, Essavs on Museums f London, 1898); Le CclUrie 
nazionali Haliane h vols., Rome, 1894); D. Murray, Museums: 
Their History and Use, wttk Bibliography and List of Museums in 
the United Kingdom (3 vols., 1904). (B.) 

MUSEUMS OF SCIENCE. The ideal museum should cover 
the whole fidd of human knowledge. It should teach the 
truths of all the sdences, induding anthropology, the sdence 
which deals with man and all his works in every age.- All the 



MUSEUMS OF SCIENCE 



6S 



idcBces and all the arts are correlated. The wide separation 
of collections iUustrative of the arts (see MusEOUS or AaT above) 
ftom tboae illustrative of the sciences, and their treatment as 
if bdonging to a wholly different sphere, is arbitrary. Such 
■epaiation, which is to-day the rule rather than the exception, 
b doe to the circumstances of the origin of many collections, 
or in other cases to the limitations imposed by poverty or lack 
of space. 3iany of the national museums of continental Europe 
had their heginningt in collections privately acquired by 
monardis, who, at a time when the modem sciences were in their 
infancy, entertained themsdves by assembling objects which 
sppralrri to their love of the beautiful and the curious. The 
pictoics, marbles, bronzes and bric^brac of the palace became 
the nndietts of the museum of to-day, and in some nouble cases 
the palace xtsdf was converted into a museum. In a few instances 
these museums, in which works of art had the first place, have 
been eofiched and supplemented by collections illustrative of 
the advancing sciences of a later date, but in a majority of cases 
these collections have remained what they were at the outset, 
mere exponents of human handicraft in one or the other, or all 
of its various departments. Some recent great foundations 
have copied the more or less defective models of the past, and 
nmscuras devoted exdusivefy to the illustration of one or the 
other narrow segment of knowledge will no doubt continue to 
be multiplied, and in spite of their limited range, will do much 
good. A notable illustration of the influence of lack of space 
in bringing about a separation of anthropological collections 
from ooOectioas illustrative of other sciences is afforded by the 
natiooal collection in London. For many years the collections 
of the British Museum, literary, artistic and scientific, were 
assembled in ideal relationship in Bkwmsbury, but at last the 
accomulation of treasure became so vast and the difiiculties of 
administiation were so pressing that a separation was decided 
upon, and the natural history collections were finally removed 
to the separate museum in Cromwell Raid, South Kensington. 
But the student of museums can never fail to regret that the 
liKTisitirt of space and financial considerations compelled this 
irparation, which in a measure destroyed the ideal relationship 
wliidi had for so many years obtained. 

The ancient world knew nothing of museums in the modem 
sense of the term. There were collections of paintings and 
statuary in the temples and palaces of Greece and Rome; the 
homes of the wealthy were everywhere adorned by works of art; 
curious objects of natural histoiy were often brought from afar, 
as the skins of the female gorillas, which Hanno after his voyage 
on the west coaU of Africa hung up in the temple of Aslarte at 
Carthage; Alexander the Great granted to his illustrious teacher, 
Aristotle, a large sum of money for use in his scientific researches, 
sent him natural history collections from conquered 'lands, and 
pot at Us service thousands of men to collect specimens, upon 
vfakh be based his work on natural history; the museum of 
Alexandria, which included within its keeping the Alexandrian 
Gbrary, was a great university composed of a number of associated 
cotte«es; but there was nowhere in all the andent world an 
nistitQtion which exactly corresponded in its scope and purpose 
to the modem museum. The term "museum," after the 
beming of the great institution of Alexandria, appears to have 
fallen into disuse from the 4th to the X7th centuiy, and the idea 
which the word represented sh'pped from the minds of men. 

The revival of learning in the isth century was accompanied 
by an awakening of interest in classical antiquity, and many 
penens laboured eagerly upon the collection of memorials of 
the past. Sutuary, inscriptions, gems, coins, medals and manu- 
aaipts were assembled by the wealthy and the learned. The 
leaden in this movement were presently followed by others who 
devoted themselves to the search for minerals, plants and curious 
aaimab. Among the more famous early collectors of objects 
of oatoral histoiy may be mentioned Georg Agricola ( 1490-1 sss), 
mho has been styled "the father of mineralogy." By his 
hbofms the elector Augustus of Saxony was induced to establish 
the Kmmsi umd Naivralien Kammer, which has since expanded 
hito the TarioQS museums at Dresden. One of his contempo- 



raries was Conrad Gesner of ZOrich (1516-1565), " the German 
Pliny," whose writings are still resorted to by the curious. 
Others whose names are familiar were Pierre B^ion (1517-1564), 
professor at the CoU^c de France; Andrea Cesalpini (1519-1603), 
whose herbarium is still preserved at Fbrence; Ulissi Aldrovandi 
(i52»-x6o5), remnanu of whose collections still exist at Bologna; 
Oie Worm (1588-1654), a Danish physician, after whom the so- 
called " Wormian bones " of the skull are named, and who was 
one of the first to cultivate what is now known as the science 
of prehistoric archaeology. At a later date the collection of 
Albert Seba (1665-1736) of Amsterdam became famous, and 
was purchased by Peter the Great in 17 16, and removed to 
St Petersburg. In Great Britain among early collectors were 
the two Tradescants; Sir John Woodward (1665-1728), a portion 
of whose collections, bequeathed by him to Cambridge University 
is still preserved there in the Woodwardian or Geological Museum ; 
Sir James Balfour (1600-1657), and Sir 'Andrew Balfour (1630- 
1694), whose work was continued in part by Sir Robert Sibbald 
(1641-1722). The first person to elaborate and present to modem 
minds the thought of an institution which should assemble 
within its walls the things which men wish to see and study was 
Bacon, who in his Neto Atlantis (1627) broadly sketched the 
outline of a great national museum of science and art. 

The first surviving scientific museum established upon a 
substantial basis was the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford, 
founded by Elias Ashmole. The original collection had been 
made by the Tradescants, father and son, gardeners who were 
in the employment of the duke of Buckingham and later of King 
Charles I. and his queen; it consisted of " twelve cartloads of 
curiosities," principally from Virginia and Algiers, which the 
younger Tradescant bequeathed to Ashmole. and which, after 
much litigation with Tradescant's widow, he gave to Oxford 
upon condition that a suitable building should be provided. 
Tliis was done in 1682 after plans by Sir Christopher Wren. 
Ashmole in his diary makes record, on the 17th of February 
1683, that " the last load of my rareties was sent to the barge, 
and this afternoon I relapsed into the gout." 

The establishment of the German academy of Naturae 
Curiosi in 1652, of the Royal Society of London in 1660, and of 
the Acad^mie des Sciences of Paris in 1666, i;«iparted a powerful 
impulse to scientific investigation, which was reflected not only 
in the labours of a multitude of persons who undertook the 
formation of private scientific collections, but in the initiation 
by crowned heads of movements looking toward the formation 
of national collections, many of which, having their beginnings 
in the Utter half of the 17th century and the early years of the 
x8th century, survive to the present day. 

The most famous of all English collectors in his time was 
Sir Hans Sloane (1660-1753), whose vast collection, acquired at 
a great outlay of money, and including the collections of Petiver, 
Courten, Merret, Plukenet, and Buddie — ^all of which he had 
purchased— was by his will bequeathed to the British nation on 
condition that parliament should pay to his heirs the sum of 
£20,000, a sum far less than that which he had expended upon it, 
and representing, it is said, only the value of the coins which it 
contained. Sloane was a man who might justly have said of 
himself " humani nihil a me alienum puto "; and his collection 
attested the catholicity of his tastes and the breadth of his 
scientific appetencies. The bequest of Sloane was accepted 
upon the terms of his will, and, together with the library of 
George II., which had likewise been bequeathed to the nation, 
was thrown open to the public at Bloomsbury in 1759 as the 
British Museum. As showing the great advances which have 
occurred in the administration of museums since that day, the 
following extract taken from A Guide- Book to the General 
Contents of the British Museum, published in 1 761, is interest- 
ing: ". . . fifteen persons are allowed to view it in one Company, 
the Time allotted is two Hours; and when any Number not 
exceeding fifteen are inclined to see it, they must send a List of 
their Christian and Siroames, Additions, and Phices of Abode, to 
the Porter's Lodge, in order to their being entered in the Book; 
in a few Days the respective Tickets will be nuRe out, specifying 



66 



MUSEUMS OF SCIENCE 



the Day and Hour in which they are to come, which, on being 
sent for, are delivered. If by any Accident some of the Parties 
■are prevented from coming, it is proper they send their 
Ticket back to the Lodge, as nobody can be admitted with it 
but themselves. It is to be remarked that the fewer Names there 
are in a LLt, the sooner they are likely to be admitted to see it." 

The establishment of the British Museum was coincident in 
time with the development of the systematic study of nature, 
of which Linnaeus was at that time the most distinguished 
exponent. The modem sciences, the wonderful triumphs of 
which have revolutionized the world, were just emerging from 
their infancy. Museums were speedily found to furnish the 
best agency for preserving the records of advancing knowledge, 
so far as these consisted of the materials upon which the investi- 
gator had laboured. In a short time it became customary for 
the student, either during his lifetime or at his death, to entrust 
to the permanent cuistody of museums the collections upon 
which he had based his studies and observations. Museums were 
thenceforth rapidly multiplied, and came to be universally 
regarded as proper repositories for scientific collections of all 
kinds. But the use of museums as repositories of the collec- 
tions of the learned came presently to be associated with their 
use as seats of original investigation and research. Collections 
of new and rare objects which had not yet received attentive 
study came into their possession. Voyages of exploration 
into unknown lands, undertaken at public or private expense, 
added continually to their treasures. The comparison of newer 
collections with older collections which had been already made 
the subject of study, was undertaken. New truths were thus 
ascertained. A body of students was attracted to the museums, 
who in a few years by their investigations began not only to add 
to the sum of human knowledge, but by their publications to 
shed lustre upon the institutions with which they were connected. 
The spirit of inquiry was wisely fostered by private and public 
munificence, and museums as centres for the diffusion of scientific 
truth came to hold a well-recognized position. Later still, 
about the middle of the 19th century, when the importance of 
popular education and the necessity of popularizing knowledge 
came to be more thoroughly recognized than it had heretofore 
been, museums were found to be peculiarly adapted in certain 
respects for the promotion of the culture of the masses. They 
became under the new impulse not merely repositories of scientific 
records and seats of original research, but powerful educational 
agencies, in which by object lessons the most important truths of 
science were capable of being pleasantly imparted to multitudes. 
The old narrow restrictions were thrown down. Their cfoors 
were freely opened to the people, and at the beginning of the 
20th century the movement for the establishment of museums 
assumed a magnitude scarcely, if at all, less than the movement 
on behalf of the diffusion of popular knowledge through public 
libraries. While great national museums have been founded and 
all the large municipalities of the world through private or civic 
gifts have established museums within their limits, a multitude 
of lesser towns, and even in some cases villages, have established 
museums, and museums as adjuncts of universities, colleges and 
high schools have come to be recognized as almost indispensable. 
The movement has assumed its greatest proportions in Great 
Britain and her colonies, Germany, and the United States of 
America, although in many other lands it has already advanced 
far. 

There are now in existence in the world, exclusive of museums 
of art, not less than 2000 scientific museums which possess in 
themselves elements of permanence, some of which are splendidly 
supported by public munificence, and a number of which have 
been richly endowed by private benefactions. 

Great Britain and Ireland. — The greatest museum in London 
is the British Museum. The natural history department at 
South Kensington, with its wealth of types deposited there, 
constitutes the most important collection of the kind in the 
world. The Museum of Practical Geology in Jermyn Street 
contains a beautiful and well-arranged collection of minerals 
and a very complete series of specimens illustrative of the 



petro^phy and 'the invertebrate paleontology of the British 
Islands. The botam'cal collections at Kew are classic, and are 
as rich in types as are the zoological collections of the British 
Museum. The Hunterian Museum of the Royal College of 
Surgeons contains a notable assemblage of specimens illustrating 
anatomy, both human and comparative, as well as pathology. 
In London also a number of private owners possess large collec- 
tions of natural history specimens, principidly ornithological, 
entomological and conchological, in some instances destined to 
find a final resting place in the national collection. One of the 
most important of these great collections is that formed by F.. 
Ducane Godman, whose work on the fauna of middle America, 
entitled BMogia cenirali^mericana, is an enduring monument 
to his leammg and generosity. The Hon. Walter Rothschild 
has accumulated at Tring one of the largest and most important 
natural history collections which has ever been assembled by a 
.single individual. It is particularly rich in rare species which 
are either already extinct or verging upon extinction, and the 
ornithological and entomological collections are vast in extent 
and rich in types. Lord Walsingham has at his country seat, 
Merton Hall, near Thetford, the largest and most perfect 
collection of the microlepidoptera of the world which is in 
existence. 

The Ashmolean Museum and the University Museum at Oxford, 
and the Woodwardian Museum and the University Museum at 
Cambridge, are remarkable collections. The Free Public Museum 
at Liverpool is in some respects one of the finest' and most 
successfully arranged museums in Great Britain. It contains 
a great wealth of important scientific materia], and is rich in 
types, particularly of birds. The Manchester Museum of Owens 
College and the museum in Sheffield have in recent years 
accomplished much for the cause of science and popular educa- 
tion. The Bristol Museum has latterly achiev«l considerable 
growth and has become a centre of much enh'ghtened activity. 
The Royal Scottish Museum, the herbarium of the Royal 
Botanical Garden, and the collections of the Challenger Expe- 
dition Ofiice in Edinburgh, are worthy of particular mention. 
The museum of the university of Glasgow and the Glasgow 
Museum contain valuable collections. The museum of St 
Andrews University is very rich in material illustrating marine 
zoology, and so also are the collections of University College at 
Dundee. The Science and Art Museum of Dublin and the 
Public Museum of Belfast, in addition to the works of art which 
they contain, possess scientific collections of importance. 

There are also in Great Britain and Ireland some two hundred 
smaller museums, in which there are collections which cannot be 
overlooked by specialists, more particulariy by those interested 
in geology, paleontology and archaeology. 

India. — ^The Indian Museum, the Geological Museum of the 
Geological Survey of India, and the herbarium of the Royal Botanic 
Garden in Calcutta, are richly endowed with collections illustrating 
the natural history of Hindostan and adjacent countries. The 
finest collection of the vertebrate fossils of the Siwalik Hills is that 
found in the Indian Museum. The Victoria and Albert Museum in 
Bombay and the Government Museum in Madras are institutions 
of importance. 

A^iftnilta.—Ths Queensland Museum, and the museum of the 
Gt. I ::;':-iJ SuT^xy of Queensland located in Brisbane, and the 
Ni Milium at Melbourne, Victoria, represent important 

be S>-dncy, ihe capital of New South VValcs, is the centre 

of r >]j|c scientific activity. The museums connected with 

tht ur!i^M^i!y of Sydney, the museum of the Geological Sur\'ey of 
New Sotiih Walci, and ihe Australian Museum, all possess valuable 
col k L'tion*. T he muK u m at Adelaide is noteworthy. 

jV«ff Ztiiland. — Good collections are found in the Otago Museum, 
Dyntf lift, thv Otnicrbury Museum at Christ Church, the Auckland 
MiK'^ifm ?.K AM4rkhflil and the Colonial Museum at Wellington. 

-i "ji.'X -V ..^.-T!._ South African Museum at Capetown is a 
flourishing and important institution, which has done excellent 
work in the field of South African zoology. A museum has been 
established at Durban, Natal, which gives evidence of vitality. 

£Fy;>/.— Archaeological studies overshadow all others in the land 
of the Nile, and the splendid collections of the great museum of 
antiquities at Cairo find nothing to parallel them m the domain of 
the purely natural sciences. A geological museum was, however, 
established in the autumn of 1903, and in view of recent remarkable 
paleontological discoveries in Egypt possesses brilliant opportunities 



MUSEUMS OF SCIENCE 



67 



Cwiiig— In coonexioo vMi the UnmrsUi Laval in- 
die McGill Univenity in Mootrenl, and the univenity of Tocxmto 
ia Ontario, beginninw oC ttgniScance have been nuule. The Peter 
Redpath Museum oTMcGiir College oootains important collections 
ia all bnacbea of natural history, more particularly botany. 
The provincial museum at Victoria, British OMumbia^ is growinf m 
iaportance. A movement has bec» begun to establish at Ottawa 
a muenm which {fbaH in a aense be for the Dominion a national 
tinliliiliinf nf 

Framee. — Paris aboonds in institutions for the promotion pf culture, 
la pustinion of many of the institutions of learmng, such as the BcoU 
Ifatitattle Smptrintn dts Mmes^ the InstihU Natwnal Agronomiaue, 
sod the -rarioiis learned societies, are collections of greater or less 
importaone wfaicfa must be consulted at times by specialists in the 
vaiioiBS s c i cncca . The Mmium d^Hist^ire Naturme in the Jardin 
do Jnamies is the most comprehensive and important collection of 
its load in the French metropolis, and while not as rich in types as 
the Bcitiafa Museum, nevertheless contains a vast assemblage of 
ng the labours of former aenecations of 

_ iortunately, much of the best material, 

_ of the types of species obtained by the naturalists of 
French vovagea of eaqdoration, have been too long exposed to the 
incense hm. which fills the great building and have oecome bleached 
and £aded to a great degree. The seal to popularise knowledge by 
the display ol i^irrimrns has conflicted with the purpose to preserve 
the recioflTk of science, a fact which French naturalists themselves 
BsvernOy admit. As in England, so also in France, there are a 
Bon^ier oif wrfaori, who have amassed fine private collections. 
One of the v«y largest and finest of all the entomological collections 
of the world ia that at Rennes, belonging to the brothers OberthOr, 
•poa which they have expended princely sums. The MusSum du 
Satmta NatmnOti of Lyons is in some respects an important 

-Brands has been called " a dty of museums." The 
dm Csiifs and the Mnsit Royal d^Histoin Nakmlkdu Bdtiqwe 
are the two most important institutions from the standpoint ol the 
aaturalist. The former is rich in ethnographic and aoological material 
fasoc^ht from the Congo Free State, aflid the latter contains very 
' ' ^ paleoatological collections. 

L — The aoological museum of the KomtMijk Zoelogisch 
tp, affiliated with the university at Amsterdam, is well 
The royal museums connected with the university of 
Leiden are centres of much scientific activity. 

Daamark.—The National Museum at Copenhagen is particuhrly 
rich ia Scandinavian and Danish antiquities. 

Swedtn. — In Stockholm, the capital, the Nordiska Musut is 
devoted to Scandinavian ethnology, and tt^ NaiurhisUyriska Riks- 
Umstmm is rich in palecmtological, bounical and archaeological 
ooOectiooa. Great scientific treasures are also contained in the 
■Hiwums co nn ected with the university of UpsiilA. 

Nmwaj. — Classir collections especially interesting to the strident 
of onrine aoolKy are contained in the tmiverE it y of Oristia EiLa- 

Cermemy. — Gormany is rich in museums, Bome gr which arf of 
very |Teat importance. The Museum JUr NiUurbuwU, ihc cihno- 
gn^^Kal musenin, the anthropological museum^ the mincrab^ical 
otGaraa and tltt agricultural museum in Berlin arenoUeinAtluicuvnB, 
the first mentioned being particularly rich in classical cc^INvh.qs. 
Haa^vs boasts an excellent lutural history mujicqm arjct < cl^no- 
^phjcalmiiaeuro. the Museum GodefFroy ami eKc Mu&eum Va;iviB, 
There are a number of iirportant jprivate a>t]^tJopj in H^tml.L^rg. 
The asaaicipal museum in Bremen is important froni the st^irnl^iint 
of the natoralist and ethnologist. The Roetncr Museum at nj<ies- 
heia is ooe of the best provincial museums in Germavsy. Lfi'. r..lcn 
even moce justly than Brussels may be called " n oly of mu> > i 
aad the nnneraMgical^ archaeological, 20ologij:::il and! 3rLtbru;xil 
asaseanw are exceedm^y important from ihe fiiandpcinL 1 
aacezaSst. Here also m private hands is the greatest cu-l' 
of palaearctk lepictoptera in Europe, belonging to the htiri^ 
Cmo Scaodinger. The ethnographical museum at Lc-ipz^u i 
m coQectioos brcmght togethtf trom South and Cenira]: Am 
The nataral history museum, the anatomical niii^-um ar.d th> r 



r*pliir»l 1 



ju-s, 
cLcal 
1 the 
^ I ion 

..I Dr 

^ rich 

iTica. 

I i; rio- 



I in Munich are important insiLuuLii^iib» ih's lirst 

bc-cng particularly rich in paleontological treasures. 

The attttial history museum of Stuttgut is likewise noted for 
its tamortant paleontological collections. The Senckenbertische 
^hsarfsrsckgada Cesellsckaft museum at Frankfort-on-the-Main 



I a very important collection of ethnographical, aoological 
and botanical matoiaL The museum of the university at Bonn, 
axai caore parriculariy the anatomical museum, are noteworthy. 
la monnrion with alinost all the German universities and in almost 
an the larg!er towns and cities are to be found museums, in many of 
vtech there are important assemblages illustrating not only the 
natural history of the immediate netghbourhood, but in a multitude 
of cues containing imporunt material collected in foreign kinds. 
Ose of the most interestinf; of the smaller museums lately established 
B xkmt at Lfibecfc, a model in its way for a provincial museum. 

Amxtr^Hnmgary. — ^The Imperial Natural HistoryMuseum in Vienna 
is one of the noblest institutions of its kind in Europe, and possesses 
one of the finest mineralogical collections in the world. It is rich 
also ca botanical and coocbotogical collections. There are important 



ethnographical and aathropok)gical collections at Budapest The 
natural hiatory coUectiona of the Bohemian national museum at 
Prague are well arFanged, though not remarkably extensive. 

icamo.— The Rumiantsof Museum in Moscow possesses splendid 
buildings, with a library of over 700,000 volumes in addition to 
splendid artistic treasures, and is nch in natural history specimens. 
It is one of the most magnificent foundations oHts kind in Europe. 



There are a number of magnificent museums in St Petersburg whic 
contain stores of important materiaL Foremost among these is 
the museum of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, rich in oallec- 
tions illustrating the aoology, paleontology iand ethnology, not only 
of the Russian Empirei but also of foreign lands. There are a numbcT 
of provincial museums in the larger cities of Russia which are growing 
in importance. 

Italy.— Itafy is rich in museums of art, but natural history 
collections are not as stroo^y represented as in other hinds. Con- 
nected with the various universities are collections which possess 
more or less importance from the standpoint of the specialist. 
The Mnseo Civico di Storia Naiurale at G«ioa, and the collections 
preserved at the marine biological station at Naples, have most 
interest fof the aoologist. 

S^in. — ^There are no natural history collections of first importance 
in Spain, though at all the universities there are minor collections, 
which are in some instances creditably cared for and arranged. 

P0ff«ca/.— The natural history museum at Lisbon contains 
important ornithological treasures. 

Eastern Asia. — ^Tbe awakening of the emjure of Japan has resulted 
among other things in the cultivation of the modem sciences, and 
there are a number of scientific studentau mosUy trained in European 
and American universities, who are doing excellent work in the 
bi<riogical and allied sdencea. Very creditaole beginnings have been 
made in connexion with the Imperial University at Tokio for the 
establishment of a museum of natural history. At Shanghai there 
is a collection, gathered by the Chinese branch of the Royal Asiatic 
Society, whidi is in a decadent state, but contains much good 
material. Otherwise as yet the movement to establish museums has 
not laid strong hold upon the inhabitants of eastern Asia. At 
Batavia in Java, and at Manila in the Philippine Islands, there are 
found the nuclei of important collections. 

United Stales. — The movement to establish museums in the 
United States is comparatively recent. One of the very earliest 
collections (1802), which, however, was soon dispersed, was 
made by Charles Willson Peale (q.v.). The Academy of Natural 
Sciences In Philadelphia, established in 18x3, is the oldest society 
for the promotion of the natural sciences in the United States. 
It possesses a very important library and some most excellent 
collections, and is rich id ornithological, conchological and 
botanical types. The dty of Philadelphia also points with pride 
to the free museum of archaeology connected with the university 
of Pennsylvania, and to the Philadelphia museums, the latter 
museums of commerce, but which incidentally do much to pro- 
mote scientific knowledge, especially in the domain of ethnology, 
botany and mineralogy. The Wistar Institute of Anatomy 
is well endowed and organized. The zoological museum at 
Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, is associated 
with the names of Louis and Alexander Agasslz, the former of 
whom by his learning and activity as a collector, and the latter 
by his munificent gifts, as well as by his important researches, 
not only created the institution, but made it a potent agency 
for the advancement of science. The Peabody Museum of 
American Archaeology and Ethnology, likewise connected with 
Harvard University, is one of the greatest institutions of its 
kind in the New World. The Essex Institute at Salem, Massa- 
chusetts, is noteworthy. The Butterfield Museum, Dartmouth 
College, Hanover, New Hampshire, and the Fairbanks Museum 
of Natural Science (1891) at St Johnsbury, Vermont, are im- 
portant modem institutions. In the museum of Amherst 
College are preserved the types of the birds described by J. J. 
Audubon, the shells described by C. B. Adams, the mineralogical 
collections of Charles Upham Shepard, and the paleontological 
collections of President Hitchcock. In Springfield (1898) 
and Worcester, Massachusetts, there are excellent museums. 
The Peabody Museum of Natural History at Yale University, 
New Haven, Connecticut, contains much of the paleontological 
material described by Professor O. C. Marsh. The New 
York State Museum at Albany is important from a geological 
and paleontological standpoint. The American Museum of 
Natural History in New York City, founded in i86q, provision 
for the growth and enlargement of which upon a scale of the 



68 



MUSEUMS OF SCIENCE 




THE CARNEGIE INSTITUTE 

Pittsburg, Penn,U.S.A. 

Plan of First Floor. 



Aicokbl 




Open Court 



jaiiciy VI Lr— ' *~^ — ' ' »* 



I I f 



Gallery of 
Fishes 



.: 1. 




• • • ft 



Gallery of Birds 



if 



Refereact. 

A. Main intranet to institute 

Entrance to Main Auditorium 

Main Entrance to Library 

Administration Roome of institute 

Public Comfort Rooms 
3, Adininistratiue Rooms o/UOrary 



■r\ 



4 Children's Library 



o 

1 

o 

I 
■J- 



U3 



I 



m 



Open 



Court 



Open Court 



J- 



^ ^ U Loan Department of 



Is 



Library t 



Gallery of Useful Arts, 
Ceramics, etc. 




rii^iHE?Eig 




Greenroom of | 
Audjtoriam 




IS^SS 



MUSGRAVE— MUSH 



69 



vtmoflt mignifimicc has been made, ii liberally fupportcd 
both by public and private mnnificrncr. The ethnographical, 
paleoatalogical and archaeological material gathered within 
its mils is immenvt in extent and superbly displayed. The 
mnaeum of the New York botanical garden In Bronx Park is 
a worthy rival to the museums at Kew. The Brooklyn Institute 
of Alts and Sciences combines with collections illustrative of 
the arts excellent collections of natural history, many of which 
are classic. 

Tbe United States National Museum at Washington, under 
the control of the Smithsonian Institution, of which it is a depart- 
ment, has been made the repository for many years past of the 
scientific and artistic collections coming into the possession of 
the government. The growth of the material entrusted to its 
keeping has, more particularly in recent years, been enormous, 
and tlie odlections have wholly outgrown the space provided 
in the wiginal building, built for it during the incumbency 
of Professor Spencer F. Baird as secretaiy of the Smithsonian 
Institatiott. The congress of the United States has in recent 
years made provision for the erection of a new building upon 
the Han in Washington, to which the natural history collections 
are ultimately to be transferred, the old buildings to be retained 
for the display of collections illustrating the progress of the arts, 
until replaced by a building of better constructk>n for the same 
purpose. The United Sutes National Museum has published 
a great deal, and has become one of the most important agencies 
for the diffusion of idcntific knowledge in the country. It is 
Hberally snpported by the government, and makes use of the 
scientific men connected with all the various departments of 
actnrity under government control as agents for research. The 
oollectiotts of the United States Geological Survey, as well as 
many of the more important scientific collections made by the 
Department of Agriculture, are deposited here. 

As the result of the great Columbian international exposition, 
which took place in 2893, a movement originated in the city of 
Chicaflo, where the exposition was held, to form a permanent 
ooOection of large proportions. The great building in which 
the Intemational exposition of the fine arts was displayed 
was preserved as the temporary home for the new museum. 
Marshall Field contributed Sx ,000,000 to the furtherance of 
the enterprise, and in his honour the institution was called 
"The Fidd Columbian Museum." The growth of this 
institntion was very rapid, and Mr. Field, at his death, in 
1906, bequeathed to the museum $8,000,000, half to be 
Mipplied to the erection of a new building, the other half to consu- 
late an endowment fund, in addition to the revenues derived 
from the endowment already existing. The city of Chicago 
provides liberally for the support of the museum, the name 
cf whichy in the spring of 1906, was changed to " The Field 
Moseum of Natural History." The dty of St Louis has taken 
stcps» as the result of the intemational exposition of 1904, to 
emulate the example of Chicago, and the St Louis Public Musetun 
was founded under hopeful auspices in X905. 

Probably the most magnificent foundation for the advance- 
ment of science and art in America which has as yet been created 
is the Carnegie Institute in the city of Pittsburg. The Carnegie 
Institnfe is a complex of institutions, consisting of a museum 
of art, a museum of sdence, and a school for the education of 
jfooth in the elements of technology. Affiliated with the 
Bisseams of art and sdence, and under the same roof, is the 
Central Free Library of Pittsburg. The buildings erected 
for the accommodation of the institute, at the entrance to 
Scbenley Park, cost $8,ooo/)oo, and Mr Andrew Carnegie 
provided Hberally for the endowment of the museums of art 
asd science and the. technical school, leaving to the city of 
Pittsburg the maintenance of the gen»al library. The natural 
history collections contained in the museum of sdence, although 
the ittstitation was only founded in 1896, are large and 
haportant, and are particularly rich in mineralogy, geology, 
paleontology, botany and soology. The entomok>gicaI collections 
sie among the most Important in the new world. The concho- 
logkal collections are vast, and the paleontological collections 



are among the most Important in America: The great Bayet 
collection is the largest and most complete collection represent- 
ing European paleontology in America. The Carnegie Museum 
contains natural history collections aggregating over 1,500,000 
specimens, which cost approximately £125,000, and these are 
growing rapidly. The ethnological collections, particularly 
those illust^ting the Indians of the plains, and the archaeologicid 
collections, representing the cultures more particulariy of Costa 
Rica and of Colombia, are large. 

In connexion with almost all the American colleges and 
universities there are museums of more or less importance. 
The Bernice Pauahi Bishop museum at Honolulu is an institution 
established by private munificence, which is doing excellent 
work in the field of Polynesian ethnology and zoology. 

Otktr Ammcan Countnts. — ^The national museum in the dty of 
Mexico has in recent years been recdving iiitdligent cncoucageoient 
and support both from the govemment and by (xivate indrviduals, 
and is coming to be an institution of much importance. National 
museums have been cstabUshed.at the capitals of most of the Central 
American and South American states. Some of them represent 
considerable progress, but most of them are in a somewhat languish- 
ing condition. Notable exceptions are the national museum in 
Rio de Janeiro, the Museu Paraenst (Museu Goekli). at Par&, the 
Miueu Patdisia at Sfto Paulo, and the national museum in Buenos 
Aires. The latter institution b jMUticulariy rich in paleontdoncal 
collections. There b an excdlent miueura at Valparaiso in Chile, 
which in lecent years has been doing good work. (W. J. H.) 

■U8QRAVB, SAMUEL (1732-1780), English dassical scholar 
and physician, was born st Washfield, in Devonshire, on the 
29th of September 1732. Educated at Oxford and dected 
to a Raddiffe travelling fellowship, he spent several years 
abroad. In 1766 he settled at Exeter, but not meeting with 
professional success removed to Plymouth. He ruined his 
prospects, however, by the publication of a pamphlet in the 
form of an address to the people of Devonshire, in which he 
accused certain members of the English ministry of having been 
bribed by the French government to conclude the peace of 1763, 
and declared that the Chevalier d'Eon de Beaumont, French 
minister plenipotentiary to England, had in his possession 
documents which wotild prove the truth of his assertion. De 
Beaumont repudiated all knowledge of any citch transaction 
and of Musgrave himself, and the House of Commons in 1770 
dedded that the charge was unsubstantiated. Thus discredited, 
Musgrave gained a precarious living in London by his pen until 
hts death, in reduced drcumstances, on the 5th of July 1780. 
He wrote several medical works, now forgotten; and his edition 
of Euripides (i 778) was a considerable advance on that of Joshua 
Barnes. 

See W. Munk, J?a0 <!f lb i20^ Ofi^ie <^ PAyndaM, iL (1878). 

MUSH* the chief town of a sanjak of the same name of the 
Bitlis vilayet of Asiatic Turkey, and an important military 
station. It is situated at the mouth of a gorge in the mountains 
on the south side of the plain, the surrounding hills being covered 
with vineyards and some oak scrul>. There are few good houses; 
the streets are Ul-paved and winding, while the place and its 
surroundings are extremdy dirty. The castle, of which there 
are some remains, is said to have been built by Mushig, an 
Armenian king of the province Daron, who founded the town. 
A khan, with two stone lions (Arab or Sdjuk) in bas-relief, 
deserves notice, but the bazaar is poor, although pretty 
embroidered caps are produced. Good roads lead to Erzerum 
and Bitlis. There are 1400 inhabitants, consisting of Kurds 
and Armenians, about equally divided. The climate is healthy 
but cold in winter, with a heavy snow fall. Mush is the seat 
of the Gregorian and Roman Catholic Armenian bishops and 
some American mission schools. Some mOes to the west at 
tBe edge of the plain is the celebrated monastery of Surp 
Garabed or St John the Baptist, an important place of Armenian 
pilgrimage. 

Mush plain, 35 m. long by 12 broad, is very fertile, growing 
wheat and tobacco, and is dotted with many thriving Armenian 
villages. The Murad or eastern Euphrates traverses the western 
end of the plain and disappears into a narrow mountain gorge 
there. Vineyards are numerous and a fair wine is produced. 



70 



MUSHROOM 



Wood is scarce and the usual fuel is teuk or dried co«r-dung. 
There are several sulphur springs, and earthquakes are frequent 
and sometimes severe. It was on the plain of Mush that 
Xenophon first made acquaintance with Armenian houses, 
which have little changed since his day. 

MUSHROOM.^ There are few more useful, more easily 
recognized, or more ddidous members of the vegetable kingdom 
than the common mushroom, known botanically as Agaricus 
campestris (or PsaUiola campestris). It grows in short grass 
in the temperate regions of all parts of the world. Many 
edible fungi depend upon minute and often obscure botanical 
characters for their determination, and may readily be con- 
founded with worthless or poisonous species; but that is not the 
case with the conunon mushroom, for, although several other 
species of Agaricus somewhat closely approach it in form and 
colour, yet the true mushroom, if sound and freshly gathered, may 
be distinguished from all other fungi with great ease. It almost 
invariably grows in rich, open, breezy pastures, in places where 
the grass is kept short by the grazing of horses, herds and flocks. 
Although this plant is popularly termed the " meadow mush- 
room," it never as a rule grows in meadows. It never grows in 
wet boggy places, never in woods, or on or about stumps of trees. 
An exceptional specimen or an uncommon variety may sometimes 
be seen in the above-mentioned abnormal places, but the best, 
the true, and common variety of the table is the produce of short, 
upland, wind-swept pastures. A true mushroom is never large in 
size; its cap very sddom exceeds 4, at most 5 in. in diameter. 
The large examples measuring from 6 to 9 or more in. across 
the cap belong to Agaricus arvensis, called from its large size and 
coarse texture the horse mushroom, which grows in meadows 
and damp shady places, and though generally wholesome is 
coarse and sometimes indigestible. The mushroom usually 
grown in gardens or hot-beds, in cellars, sheds, &c., is a distinct 
variety known as Agaricus hortcnsis. On being cut or broken the 
flesh of a true mushroom remains white or nearly so, the flesh 
of the coarser horse mushroom changes to bu£f or sometimes to 
dark brown. To sununarize the characters of a true mushroom 
— it grows only in pastures; it is of small size, dry, and with 
unchangeable flesh; the cap has a frill; the gills are free from the 
stem, the spores brown-black or deep purple-black in colour, 
and the stem solid or slightly pithy. When all these char- 
acters are taken together no other mushroom-like ftmgus — 
and neariy a thousand species grow in Britain— can be con- 
founded with it. 

The parts of a mushroom consist chiefly of stem and cap;ithe stem 
has a ciothy ring round its middle, and the cap is furnished under- 
neath mnth numerous radiating coloured gills. Fig. I (i) re p r es en ts 
a section through an infant mushroom, (2) a mature example, 
and (3) a lon^tudinal section through a fully developed mushroom. 
The cap d, b is fleshy, firm and white within, never thin and watery ; 
externally it ispale brown, dry, often slightly silky or floccose, 
never viscid. The cuticle of a mushroom readily peeb away from 
the flesh beneath, as shown at F. The cap has a narrow dependent 
margin or frill, as shown at c, and in section at h ; this dependent 
frill originates in the rupture of a delicate continuous wrapper, 
which in the infancy of the mushroom entirely wraps the young 
plant; it b shown in its continuous state at j, and at the moment 
of rupture at k. The gilb underneath the cap L, M, N are at first 
white, then rose-colourcdj at length brown-black. A point of great 
importance b to be noted m the attachment of the gills near the stem 
at o, p: the gilb in the true mushroom are (as shown) usually more 
or less free from the stem, they never grow boldly against it or run 
down it; they may sometimes just touch the spot where the stem 
joins the bottom 01 the cap, but never more; there is usually a slight 
channel, as at P, all round the top of the stem. When a mushroom 
b perfectly ripe and the gilb are orown-black in colour, they throw 
down a thick dusty deposit of fine brown-black or purple-black 
spores; it is esscntui to note the colour. The spores on germination 
make a white felted mat, more or less dense, of mycelium; thb, 
when compacted with dry, half-decomposed dung, is the mushroom 
spawn of gardeners. The stem is firm, lightly pithy up the middle, 
but never hollow; it bears a floccose ring near its middle, as 
illustrated at Q, Q; this ring originates by the rupture of the thin 
general wrapper k of the inuint pbnt. 

like all widely spread and much-cultivated plants, the edible 
'The earlier I5th<entury form of the word was musseroun, 

muuheron, &c., and was adapted from the French mouss€nm» which 

b generally connected with moufUt mom. 



mushroom has numerous varieties, and it differs In differoit 
places and under different modes of culture in much the same 
way as our kitchen-garden plants differ from the type they have 
been derived from, and from each other. In some instances 
these differences are so marked that they have led some 
botanbts to regard as distinct q)edes many fonns usually 
esteemed by others as varieties only. 




Fig. I. — Pasture Mushroom (Agaricus campestris). 



A small variety of the common mushroom found in pastures has 
been named A. pratensis; it differs from the tyjie in having a pale 
reddish-brown scaly top, and the flesh on being cut or broken 
changes to pale rose<oiour. A variety still more marked, with a 
darker brown cap and the flesh changing to a deeper rose, and 
sometimes bkxxi-red, has been described as A, ruftsceus. The 
well-known compact variety of mushroom-growers, with its white 
cap and dull purplish clay-coloured Rilb, b A, kortensis. Two 
sub-varieties 01 thb have been described under the names of A, 
Buckanani and A, doneatus, and other dbtinct forms are known to 
botanbts. A variety also grows in woods named A, silvicola; thb 
can only be dbtinguished from the pasture mushroom by its dkmgated 
bulbous stem and its »temally smooth cap. There b also a fungus 
well known to botanbts and cultivators which appears to be inter- 
medute between the pasture variety and the wood variety, named 
A. vaporarius. The large rank horse mushroom, now generally 
referred to as A. arvensis, b probably a variety of the pasture mush- 
room ; it grows in rings in woody places and under trees and hedges 
in meadows; it has a large scaly round cap, and the flesh ouickly 
changes to buff or brown when cut or broken ; the stem too b hoUow. 
An unusually scaly form of thb has been described as A. pitioHcus 
and another as A. augustus. 

A species, describra by Berkeley and Broome as distinct from 
both the pasture mushroom and horse mushroom, has been pub- 
lished under the name of A. ehensis. Thb grows under oaks, in 
clusters— a most unusual character for the mushroom, and b said 
to be excellent for the uble. An allied fungus peculiar to woods, 
with a less fleshy cap than the true mushroom, with holk>w stem, 
and strong odour, has been described as a close ally of the pasture 
mushroom under the name of A, siivaticus; its qualities for the ti^^ 
have not been recorded. 

Many instances are on record of symptoms of potsonliw, and 
even death, having followed the consumption of plants whkm have 
passed as true mushrooms; these cases have probably arisen from 
the examples consumed being in a state of decay, or fiom some mis- 
take as to the spedes eaten. It shouki always be specially noted 
whether the fungi to be consumed are in a fredi aiid wfaokaocne 
condition, otherwise they act as a poison in oredsely the same way 
as does any other semi-putrid vegetable. Many instances are oa 
record where mushroom-beds have been invaded by a growth of 
strange fungi and the tnie mushrooms have been ousted to the advan- 
tage of the new-comers. When mushrooms are gathered for sale 
by persons unacquainted with the different species mistakes are of 
frequent occurrence. A very common spurious mushroom ta 
markets b A. vdiUinus, a slender, ringless, hoUow-stemmed, black- 
gilled fungus, common in gardens and about dung and stumps; it 
IS about the size of a mushroom, but thinner in alTits parts and far 
more brittle; it has a black hairy fringe hanging round the edge of the 
cap when fresh. Another spurious mushroom, and equally oommoa 
in dealers* baskets, b A. lacrymalmndus; thb grows in the same posi- 
tions as the last, and b somewhat fleshier and more like a true mush- 
room ; it has a hollow stem and a slight ring, the gilb are black-brown 
mottled and generally studded with tear-like drops of moisture. 
In both these species the gills distinctly touch and grow on to the 
stem. Besides these there are numerous other black-gilled speciea 
which find a place in baskets— aome species far too small to bear 



MUSHROOM 



7' 



any resemblance to a mushroom, others large and deliquescent. 
feneraDy bdooging to the stump> and dung-borne genus Coprinus. 
The true mushroom itself is to a great extent a dung-borne vptda, 
tlKrriore mushroom-beds are alwavs liable to an invasion from other 
dang-bonw forms. The spores of all fungi are constantly floating 
ab«jt in the air, ami when the n)ores of dung-infesting 
slight oo a mushroom-bed they find a nidus already prepai 
czacdy suits them; and if the spawn of the new-comer becomes 
ranre profuse than that of the mushroom the stranger takes up his 
pontsoo at the expense of the mushroom. There is also a fungus 
umed Xykuria vaporaria^ which sometimes fixes itself on mushroom- 
beds and produces such an enormous quantity of string-like spawn 
that the entire destruction oC the bed results. This spawn is some- 
times so profuse that it is pulled out of the beds in enormous masses 
and carted away in barrows. 

Somedmes cases of poisoning fellow the consumption of what 
have really appeared to gardeners to be true bed-mushrooms, and 
to country f<HiEs as small horse mushrooms. The case is made more 
complicated by the fact that these highlv poisonous forms now and 
then appear npoa mudiroom-beds to the exclusion of the mush- 
nx>m». This' dangerous counterfeit is A, fastibilu, or sometimes A. 
cnuiwiimiformist a dose allv if not indeed a mere variety of the first. 
A descripdon of one will do for both, A. fasiihilis being a little the 
mote deader of the two. Both have fleshy caps, whitish, moist and 
dsmmy to the touch; instead of a pleasant odour, they have a dis- 
agreeable one; the stems are rin^ess, or nearly so; and the gills, 
nich are palish-day-brown, distmctly toudi and grow on to the 
sotkl or piuiy stem. These two fungi usually grow in woods, but 

•ooetinies in hedges and in shady pbioes in meadows, n- ^ has 

been said, as invaders on mushroom-beds. The pale ed 

gffls, offensive odour, and clammy or even viscid to 
characters. A reference to the accompanying illusti 
vhkh is about one-half natural size, will give a go : 
fAttAUis\ the difference in the nature of the attachmt r,t « i i 
Mar the stem » seen at ft, the absence of a true ring .h i t^. jj 
pendent frill at t. The colour, with the exception ^>l L^' 

■ot ttnU]« that of the mushroom. In determining iwn-^i r. „.. 

character must be relied upon as conclusive, but all the characters 
stase be taken together. Sometimes a beautiful, somewhat slender, 
f Bogus v*^*'^*r to stumps in woods is mistaken for the mushroom in 
A. ctmmui it has a tall, solid, white, ringless stem and somewhat 
this brown cap, furnished underneath with beautiful rose-coloured 
glib, wluch are free from the stem as in the mushroom, and which 



± 

ills 

fa 

is 

ile 




Fto. 24 — Poisonous Mushroom {Agaricus fastibUis). 



r turn black. It is probably a poisonous plant, bdonging, as it 

does, to a dazwerous cohmt. Many other species of Agaricus more 
or less resemble A. cam^esHst notably some of the plants found 
■B<kr the sub-genera Lepiala, Voharia, Pholiota and PsaUiota; 
bat when the characters are noted they may all with a little care 
be caaly distinguished from each other. The better plan is to 
<Lacard at once all funzi which have not been eathered from open 
pastures: by this act alone more than nine-tenths of worthless and 
pobooous species will be excluded 

la cases of poisoning bv mushrooms immediate medical advice 
dbookl be secured. The dangerous principle is a narcotic, and the 
sjaptocns are usually great nausea, drowsiness, stupor and pains 
ta tae joints. A good palliative is sweet oil; this will allay any 
cprrodve irritation of the throat and stomach, and at the same 
tiiae cause vomiting. 

Paris mnshrooms are cultivated in enormous quantities in dark 
onderground cellars at a depth of from 60 to 160 ft. from the surface. 
The naUe manure is taken into the tortuous passages of these cellars, 
a^ the spawn introduced from masses of dry dung where it occurs 
satucaBy. In France mushroom-^wers do not use the compact 
Bocks or bricks of spawn so familiar in England, but much smaller 
taken or " leaves " of dry dung in which the spawn or mycelium can 
be seen to exist. Less manure b used in these cellars than we 
ftasnSky see in the mushroom-houses of England, and the surface 
of each bed is covered with about an inch of fine white stony soil. 
The b»i8 are kept artificially moist by the application of water 
hrooght from the surface, and the different galleries bear crops in 
saccesskNE.^ As one is exhausted another is in full bearing, so that 



by a systematic arrangement a single proprietor will send to the 
surface from 300 lb to 3000 tt> of mushrooms per day. The passa^ 
sometimes extend over several miles, the bods sometimes occupying 
over 20 m., and^ as there are many proprietors of cellars, the produce 
of mushrooms is so large that not only is Paris fully supplied, but 
vast quantities are forwarded to the different large towns of Europe; 
the mushrooms are not allowed to reach the fully expanded condi- 
tion, but are gathered in a large button sute, the whole growth of 
the mushroom being removed and the hole left in the manure 
covered with fine earth. The beds remain in bearing for six or 
eight months, and then the spent manure is uken to the surface 
again for garden and fieki purposes. The equable temperature of 
these cellars and their freedom from draught is one cause of their 
neat success; to this must be added the natural virgin spawn, 
for by continually using spawn taken from iriushroom-producing 
beds the potencv for reproduction is weakened. The beds produce 
mushrooms in about six weeks after this spawning. 

The common mushroom {Agariau campestris) b propagated by 
spores, the fine bkck dust seen to be thrown off when a mature speci- 
men b hud on white paper or a white dish; these give rise to what 
b known as the " spawn " or mycelium, which consists of whitish 
threads permeating dried dung or similar substances, and which, 
when planted in a proper medium, runs through the mass, and even- 
tually develops the fructificatk>n known, as the mushroom. This 
spawn may be obtained from old pastures, or decayed mushroom 
beds, and b purchased from nurserymen in the form of bricks 
charged with the mycelium, and technically known as mushroom 
spawn. When once obtained, it may be indefinitely preserved. 
It may be ]3roduced by placing quantities of horse-dune saturated . 
with the urine of horoes, espedally of stud horses, witn alternate 
layers of rich earth, and covering the whole with straw, to exclude 
ram and air; the spawn commonly appears in the heap in about 
two months afterwards. The droppings of stall-fed horses, or of 
such as have been kept on dry food, should be made use of. 

The old method of growing mushrooms in ridges out of doors, or 
on prepared beds either level or sloping from a back wall in sheds or 
cellars, may generally be adopted with success. The beds are formed 
of horse-droppings which have been slightly fermented and frequently 
turned, and may be made 3 or 3 ft. broad and of any length. A byer 
of dung about 8 or 10 in. thick is first deposited, and covered witn a 
Ught dryish earth to the depth of 3 in.; and two similar layers with 
simibr coverings are added, the whole being made narrower as it 
advances in hnght. When the bed is finbhed, it is covered with 
straw to protect it from tain, and also from parching influences. 
In about ten days, when the mass is milkwarm. the bed will be 
ready for spawning, which consists of inserting small pieces of spawn 
bricks into the sk>ping sides of the bed, about 6 in. asunder. A layer 
of fine earth is then placed over the whole, and well beaten down, 
and the surface is covered with a thick coat of straw. When the 
weather b temperate, mushrooms will appear in about a month after 
the bed has been made, but at other times a much longer period may 
ebpse. The principal things to be attended to are to preserve a 
moderate state of moisture and a proper mild degree of warmth; 
and the treatment must vary according to the season. 

These ordinary ridge beds furnish a good supply towards the end 
of summer, and in autumn. To command a regular supply, how- 
ever, at all seasons, the use of a mushroom-house will be found very 
convenient. The material employed in all cases is the droppings of 
horses, which should be collected fresh, and spread out in thin layers 
in a dnr place, a portion of the short litter being retained m-ell mois- 
tened by horse-urine. It should then be thrown together in ridges 
and frequently turned, so as to be kept in an incipient state of ier- 
menution, a little dryish friable loam being mixed with it to retain 
the ammonia given off by the dung. With this or a mixture of 
horse-dung, loam, old mushroom-bed dung, and half -decayed leaves, 
the beds are built up in successive layers of about 3 in. thick, each 
layer being beaten firm, until the bed is 9 or 10 in. thick. If the heat 
exceeds 8o*, holes should be made to moderate the fermentation. 
The beds are to be spawned when the heat moderates, and the surface 
is then covered with a sprinkling of warmed loam, which after 
a few days is made up to a thickness of a in., and well beaten down. 
The be(M made partly of old mushroom-bed dung often contain 
sufficient spawn to jricld a crop, without the introduction of brick or 
cake spawn, but it is advisable to spawn them in the regular way. 
The spawn should be introduced an inch or two below the surface 
when the heat has declined to about 75*, indeed the bed ought never 
to exceed 8o*. The surface is to be afterwards covered with hay or 
litter. The atmospheric temperature should range from 6o* to 65* 
till the mushrooms appear, when it may drop a few degrees, but not 
lower than 55*. If the beds require watering, water of about 8o* 
should be usol, and it is preferable to moisten the covering of litter 
rather than the surface of the beds themsclvt». Jt is also beneficial, 
especially in the case of partially exhausted beds, to water with a 
dilute solution of nitre. For a winter supply the beds should be 
made towards the end of August, and the end of October. Slugs 
and woodlice are the worst enemies of mushroom crops. 

The Fair^ring Champigrum. — ^This fungus, Marasmius Oreades, 
is more universally used in France and Italy than in England, 
although it b well known and frequently used tx>th in a fresh and in 
a dry state in EngUtnd. It b totally different in appearance from the 



72 



MUSIC 



pasture mushroom, and, like it. its characters are to distinct that 
there b hardly a possibility of making a misuke when iu pecuhan- 
ties are once comprehended. It has more than one advantage 
over the meadow mushroom in iu extreme commonness, its profuse 
growth, the length of the season in which it may be gathered, the 
total absence of varietal forms, iu adaptability for being dnedand 
preserved for years, and its perustent delicious taste. It is bv many 
esteemed as the best of all the edible fungi found in Great Bntam. 
Like the mushroom, it grows in short open pastures and amongst 
the short grass dt open roadsides; sometimes it appears on lawns, 
but it never occurs m woods or in damp shady places. Its natural 
habit is to grow in rings, and the grassy fauy-rings so frequent 
amongst the short grass of downs and pastures in the spnng are 
generally caused by the nitrogenous manure applied to^ the soil 
in the previous autumn by the decay of a circle of these fun|^. Many 
other fungi in addition to the fairy*ring champignon grow m arclca, 
so that tms habit must merely be Uken with its other characters in 
cases of doubt. 

A glance at the illustration (fig. 3) will show how entirely the fairy- 
ring champignon differs from the mushroom. In the first place, it 




FtG. 3. — ^Thc Fairy-ring Champignon {Marastnius ortatUs). 

is about one-half the size of a mushroom, and whitish-buff in every 
part, the gills always retaining this cobur and never becoming 
salmon-coloured, brown or black. The stem is solid and corkv. 
much more solid than the flesh of the cap, and perfectly smooth. 
never being furnished with the slightest trace of a ring. The buff- 
gills are far apart (v). and in this they greatly differ from the some- 
what crowded gills of the mushroom : the junction of the gills with 
the stem (w) also differs in character from tlie similar junction in the 
mushroom. The mushroom b a semi-deliquescent fungus which 
rapidly falls into putridity in decay, whilst the champignon dries 
up into a leathery substance in the sun, but speedily revives and takes 
its original form again after the first shower. To thb character the 
fungus owes its generic name {Aiarasmius) as well as one of its most 
valuable qualities for the table, for examples may be gathered from 
June to November, and if carefully dried may be hung on strings 
for culinary purposes and preserved without deterioration for several 
years; indeed, many persons assert that the rich flavour of these 
fungi increases with years. Champignons are highly esteemed (and 
especially b thb the case abroad) for adding a most delicious flavour 
to stews, soups and gravies. 

A fungus which may carelessly be mistaken for the mushroom is 
M. peronatus, but this grows in woods amongst dead leaves, and has a 
hairy base to the stem and a somewhat arnd taste. Another is M. 
urens; this also generally grows in woods, but the gills arc not nearly 
so deep, they soon become brownish, the stem b downy, and the taste 
is acrid. An Agaricus named A. dryophUus has sometimes been 
gathered in mistake for the champignon, but this too grows in woods 
where the champignon never grows; it has a hollow instead of a solid 
stem, gills crowded together instead of far apart, and flesh very 
tender and brittle instead of tough. A small esculent ally of the 
champignon, named M. scovodonius, is sometimes found in pastures 
in Great Britain ; this is largely consumed on the Continent, where 
it is esteemed for its powerful flavour of garlic. In England, wlwre 
gariic is not used to a large extent, this fungus is not sought for. 
Another small and common species, M. porreus, is pervaded with a 
garlic flavour to an equal extent with the last. A third species, 
M. aUtacfus, is also strongly impregnated with the scent and taste 
of onions or garlic. Two species. M. impudicus and Af. foelidus, 
are in all stages of growth highly foetid. The curious little edible 
Agaricus esctuentus, although placed under the sub-eenus CoUybia, 
is allied by its structure to Marasmius. It is a small bitter species 
common in upbnd pastures and fir plantations early in the season. 
Although not gathered for the table in England, it is greatly prized 
in some parts of the Continent. 

MUSIC— The Greek /lowu^ (*c. rtxrri), from which thb 
word b derived, was used very widely to embrace all those 
arts over which the Nine Muses (MoDaat) were held to preside. 
Contrasted with YtyiMtfru^ (gymnastic) it included those 
branches of education concerned with the development of the 
mind as opposed to the body. Thus such widely different arts 
and sciences as mathematics, astronomy, poetry and literature 



generally, and even reading and writing would all fall under 
ftavcucli, besides the singing and setting of lyric poetry. On 
the educational value of music in the formation of character 
the philosophers laid chief stress, and thb biased their aesthetic 
analysis. *KpiuMa (harmony), or hfiiumdi (sc. tcxi^), rather 
than iwocudi, was the name given by the Greeks to the art of 
arranging sounds for the purpose of creating a definite aesthetic 
impression, with which thb article deab. 

I. — Genebal Sketch 

X. Inlroduclum, — As a mature and independent art music 
b unknown except in the modem forms realised by Western 
civilization; ancient music, and the non-European music of the 
present day, being (with insignificant exceptions of a character 
which con&ins the generalization) invariably an adjunct of poetry 
or dance, in so far as it b recognizable as an art at alL The 
modem art of music bin a unique position; for, while its language 
has been wholly created by art, thb language b yet so perfectly 
organized as to be in itself natural; so that though the music 
of one age or style may be at first tmintelligible to a Ibtener 
who b accustomed to another style, and though the listener 
may help himself by acquiring information as to the char- 
acterbtics and meaning of the new style, he will best leara to 
understand it by merely divesting hb mind of prejudices and 
allowing' the music to make itself intelligible by its own self- 
consistency. The understanding of music thus finally depends 
neither upon technical knowledge nor upon convention, but 
upon the Ibtener's immediate and familiar experience of it; 
an experience which technical knowledge and custom can of 
course aid him to acquire more rapidly, as they strengthen 
his memory and enable him to fix impressions by naming 
them. 

Beyond certain elementary facts of acoustics (see Sound), 
modem music shows no direct connexion with nature inde- 
pendently of art; indeed, it b already art that determines the 
selection of these elementary acoustic facts, just as in painting 
art determines the selection of those facts that come under the 
cognizance of optics.* In music, however, the purely acoustic 
principles arc incomparably fewer and simpler than the optical 
principles of painting, and their artbtic interaction transforms 
them into something no less remote from the laboratory 
experiments of acoustic science than from the unorganized 
sounds of nature. The result b that while the ordinary non- 
artbtic experiences of sight afford so much material for plastic 
art that the vulgar conception of good painting b that it is 
deceptively like nature, the ordinary non-artistic experience 
of sound has so little in common with music that musical 
realism b, with rare though pc^ular exceptions, generally 
regarded as an eccentricity. 

Thb contrast between music and plastic art may be partly 
explained by the mental work undergone, during the earliest 
infancy both of the race and of the individual, in interpreting 
sensations of space. When a baby learns the shape of objects 
by taking them in hb hands, and gradually advances to the 
discovery that hb toes belong to him, he goes through an 
amount of work that b quite forgotten by the adult, and its 
complexity and difficulty has perhaps only been fully realized 
through the experience of persons who have been bom blind 
but have acquired sight at a mature age by an operation. Such 
work gives the facts of normal adult vision an amount of organic 
principle that makes them admirable raw material for art. 
The power of dbtinguishing sensations of sound b associated 
with no such mental skill, and b no more complex than the 
power of distingubhing colours. On the other hand, sound 
is the principal medium by which most of the higher animals 
both express and excite emotion; and hence, though until 

* Thus Chinese and Japanese art has attained high organization 
without the aid of a veracious perspective; while, on the other hand, 
its carefully formulated decorative principles, though not realistic, 
certainly rest on an of>tical and physiological basb. Aeain, many 
modem impressionists justify their methods by an appeal to pheno- 
mena of complementary colour which earlier artists possibly aid not 
perceive and certainly did not select as artbtic materials. 



GENERAL SKETCH] 



MUSIC 



73 



codified into human speech it does not give Any nw material 
lor art, yet so powerful are its primitive effects that music 
(in the bird-song sense of sound indulged in for its own attractive* 
oess) is as long prior to language as the brilliant colours of 
animals and flowers are prior to painting (see SoNo). Again, 
sound as a warning or a menace is eminently important in the 
history of the instinct of self-preservation; and, above all, its 
production is instantaneous and instinctive. 

All these facts, while they tend to make musical expression 
an eariy phenomenon in the history of life, are extremely 
unfavourable to the early development of musical art. They 
invested the first musical attempts with a mysterious power 
over listener and musician, by re-awakening instincts more 
powerful, because more ancient and necessary, than any that 
could ever have been appealed to by so deliberate a process 
as that of drawing on a flat surface a series of lines calculated 
to remind the eye of the appearance of solid objects in space. 
It b hardly surprising that music long remained as imperfect 
as its legendary powers were portentous, even in the hands of 
so supzcmely artistic a race as that of classical Greece; and what- 
ever wonder this backwardness might still arouse in us vanishes 
when we realize the extreme difficulty of the process by which 
the principles of the modem- art were established. 

3. Nott-karmonk and Greek Musk, — Archaic music is of 
two kinds — ^the unwritten, or spontaneous, and the recorded, 
or scientific The earliest musical art-problems were far too 
difficult for conscious analysis, but by no means always beyond 
the reach of a lucky hit from an inspired singer; and thus folk- 
music often shows real beauty where the more systematic music 
of the time is merely arbitrary. Moreover, folk-music and the 
present^ music of barbarous and civilised non-European races 
fumish'the study of musical origins with material analogous to 
that given by the present manners and customs of different races 
in the study of social evolution and ancient history. We may 
mentsoQ as examples the accurate comparison of the musical 
scales of non-European races undertaken by A. J. ElUs {On 
tk€ MMsical Scales of Various Nations, 1885); the parallel 
nesearches and acute and cautious reasoning of his friend and 
coUaborator, A. J. Hipkins {Dorian and Phrygian reconsidered 
from a Non-hamumk Point of View, 1902); and, pvhaps most 
di an, the study of Japanese music, with its remarkable if 
uncertain sig;ns of the beginning of a harmonic tendency, its 
logical coherence, and its affinity to Western scales, points 
ia which it seems to show a great advance upon the Chinese 
music from which most of it is derived {Musk and Musical 
Instnaments cf Japan, by J. F. Piggott, 1893). The reader will 
find detailed accounts of ancient Greek music in the article 
on that subject in Grove's Dictionary of Musk and Musicians 
(new ed., iL 223) and in Monro's Modes of Ancient Greek Musk 
(Oarendoa Press, 1894), while both the Greek music itself, 
and the steps by which it passed through Graeco-Roman and 
early Christian phases to become the foundation of the modem 
art, are traced as dearly as is consbtent with accuracy in 
The Oxford History of Musk, vol. i., by Professor Wooldridge. 
Sir Hubert Parry's Evolution of the Art of Musk (" International 
Sdcotific Series," originally published under the title of Tke 
Art of Musk) presents the main lines of the evolution o( modem 
musical ideas in the clearest and^most readable form yet 
attained. 

Sir Hubert Parry illustrates in this work the artificiality of 
our modem musical conceptions by the word " cadence," 
which to a modem musician belies its etymology, since it 
DomiaJly means for him no " falling " close but a pair of final 
chords rising from dominant to tonic. Moreover, in consequence 
d cai harmonic notions we think of scales as constmcted from 
the bottom upwards; and even in the above-mentioned article 
in Grove's Dictionary all the Greek scales are, from sheer force 
c£ habit, written upwards. But the ancient and, almost 
Qonretsally, the primitive idea of music is like that of speech, 
m which most inflections are in fact cadences, while rising 
inflexions express less usual sentiments, such as surprise or 
interrogaticn. Again, our modem musical idea of "high" 



and " low " is probably derived from a sense of greater and less 
vocal effort; and it has been much stimulated by our harmonic 
sensej which has necessitated a range of sounds incomparably 
greater than those employed in any non-harmonic system. 
The Greeks derived their use of the terms from the position 
of notes on their instruments; and the Greek kypati was what 
we should call the lowest note of the mode, while netB was the 
highest. Sir George Macfarren has pointed out {Ency. Brit., 
9th ed., art. " Music ") that Boethius {c, aj>. 500} already fell 
into the trap and tumed the Greek modes upside down. * 

Another radical though less grotesque misconception was 
also already well exploded by Macfarren; but it still frequently 
survives at the present day, since the study of non-harmonic 
scales is, with the best of intentions, apt rather to encourage 
than to dispel it. The more we realize the importance of 
differences in position of intervals of various sizes, as producing 
differences of character in scales, the more irresistible is the 
temptation to regard the ancient Greek modes as differing from 
each other in this way. And the temptation becomes greater 
instead of less when we have succeeded in thinking away our 
modem harmonic notions. Modem harmonization enormously 
increases the differences of expression between modes of which 
the melodic intervals are different, but it does this in a fashion 
that draws the attention almost entirely away from these 
differences of interval; and without harmony we find it extremely 
difficult to distinguish one mode from another, unless it bie 
by this different arrangement of intervals. Nevertheless, all 
the evidence irresistibly tends to the conclusion that while the 
three Greek ^CTMro— diatonic, chromatic, and enharmonic — 
were scales differing in intervals, the Greek modes were a series 
of scales identical in arrangement of interval, and differing, 
like our modem keys, only in pitch. The three genera were 
applied to all these modes or. keys, and we have no difficulty 
in understanding their modifying effects. But the only clue 
we have to the mental process by which in a preharmonic age 
different characteristics can be ascribed to scales identiod in 
all but pitch, is to be found in the limited compass of Greek 
musical sounds, corresponding as it does to the evident sensitive- 
ness of the Greek ear to differences in vocal effort. We have 
only to observe the compass of the Greek scale to see that in 
the most esteemed modes it is much more the compass of speaking 
than o( singing voices. Modem singling is normally at a much 
higher pitch than that of the speaking voice, but there is no 
natural reason, outside the peculiar nature of modem music, 
why this should be so. It is highly probable that all modern 
singing wotild strike a dassical Greek ear as an outcry; and 
in any case such variations of pitch as are inconsiderable in 
modem singing are extremely emphatic in the speaking voice, 
so that they might well make all the difference to an ear un- 
accustomed to organized sound beyond the speaking compass. 
Again, much that Aristoxenus and other ancient authorities 
say of the character of the modes (or keys) tends to confirm 
the view that that character depends upon the position of the 
mese or keynote within the general compass. Thus Aristotle 
{Politics, v. (viii.) 7, 1342 b. 20) states thai certain low-pitched 
modes suit the voices of old men, and thus we may conjecture 
that even the position of tones and semitones might in the 
Dorian and Phrygian modes bring the bolder portion of the 
scale in all three genera into the best regions of the average 
young voice, while the Ionian and Lydian might lead the voice 
to dwell more upon semitones and enharmonic intervals, and 
so account for the heroic character of the former and the sensual 
character of the latter (Plato, Republk, 398 to 400). 

Of the Greek genera, the chromatic and enharmonic (especially 

^ It b worth adding that in the i6th century the great contrapun- 
Ul compoaer Costanzo Porta had been led by doubu on the subject 
to the wonderful condusion that andent Greek music was poly- 
phonic, and oo constructed as to be invertible ; in illustration of which 
theory he andA^ncentino composed four-part motets in each of the 
Greek genera (diatonic, chromatic and enharmonic), Porta's being 
constructed like the 12th and 13th fugues in Bach's Kunsl der Fugc 
so as to be equally euphonious when sung upside downl (See 
Hawkins's History of Musk, i. 1 12.) 



J 



7+ 



MUSIC 



(GENERAL SKETCH 



the latter) show very clearly the origin of so many primitive 
scales in the interval of the downward fourth. That interval 
{e.g. from C to G) is believed to be the earliest melodic relation- 
ship which the ear learnt to fix; and most of the primitive scales 
were formed by the accretion of auxiliary notes at the bottom 
of this interval, and the addition of a similar interval, with 
similar accretions, below the former. In this way a pentatonic 
scale, like that of so many Scotch melodies, can easily be formed 
(thus, C, A, G; F, D, C) ; and though some primitive scales seem 
to have been on the nucleus of the rising fifth,'while the Siamese 
now use two scales of which not a single note within the octave 
can be accounted for by any known principle, still we may 
•consider that for general historic purposes the above example 
is typical. The Greeks divided their downward fourth into 
four notes, called a Mrackord; and by an elaborate system of 
linking tetrachords together they gave their scale a compass 
of two octaves. The enharmonic tetrachord, being the most 
ancient, gathered the lower three notes very closely to the 
bottom, leaving the second note no less than a major third 
irom the top, thus— C,Ab, G', G; (where G' stands for a note 
2)etween Ab and G). The chromatic tetrachord was C, Bbb, 
Ab, G; and the diatonic tetrachord was C, Bb, Ab, G. It is this 
last that has become the foundation of modem music, and the 
Greeks themselves soon preferred it to the other genera and 
found a scientific basis for it. In the first place they noticed 
that its notes (and, less easily, the notes of the chromatic scale) 
could be connected by a series of those intervals which they 
recognized as concordant. These were, the fourth; its converse, 
or inversion, the fifth; and the ocUve. The notes of the enhar- 
monic tetrachord could not be connected by any such series. 
In the articles on Harmony and Sound account is given of 
the historic and scientific foundations of the modem conception 
of concord; and although this harmonic conception applies 
to simultaneous notes, while the Greeks concemed themselves 
only with successive notes, it is nevertheless permissible to 
regard the Greek sense of concord in successive notes as con- 
taining the germ of our harmonic sense. The stability of the 
diatonic scale was assured as early as the 6th century B.q. when 
Pythagoras discovered (if he did not leam from Egypt or India) 
the extremely simple mathematical proportions of its intervals. 
And tips discovery was of unique importance, as fixing the 
intervals by a criterion that could never be obscured by the 
changes of taste and custom otherwise inevitable in music that 
has no conscious harmonic principles to guide it. At the same 
time, the foundation of a music as yet immature and ancillary 
to drama, on an acoustic science ancillary to a priori mathe- 
matics, was not without disadvantage to the art; and it is 
arguable that the great difficiilty with which during the 
medieval beginnings of modem harmony the concords of the 
third and sixth were rationalized may have been increased by 
the fact that, the Pythagorean system left these intervals con- 
siderably out of tune. In preharmonic times mathematics 
could not direct even the most obsetvant ear to the study of 
those phenomena of upper partials of which Helmholtz, in 
1863, was the first to explain the significance; and thus though 
the Greeks knew the difference between a major and minor 
lone, on which half the question depended, they could not 
possibly arrive at the modem reasons for adding both kinds 
of tone in order to make the major third. (See Soxtnd.) 

Here we must digress in order to illustrate what is implied 
by our modem harmonic sense; for the difference that this 
makes to our whole musical consciousness is by no means uni- 
versaUy realized. Music, as we now understand it, expresses 
Itself ia the interaction of three elements— rhythm, melody and 
barmony. The first two are obviously as ancient as human 
consciousness itself. Without the third a musical art of per- 
manent value and intelligibility has not been known to attain 
independent existence. With harmony music assumes the 
existence of a kind of space in three dimensions, none of which 
can subsist without at least implying the others. When we 
bear an unaccompanied melody we cannot help interpreting 
it in the light of its most probable harmonies. Hence, when 



it does not imply consistebt harmonies it seems to us quaint 
or strange; because, unleu it is very remote from our harmonic 
conceptions, it at least implies at any given moment some 
simple harmony which in the next moment it contradicts. 
Thus our inferences as to the expression intended by music 
that has not come under European influence are tmsafe, and 
the pleasure we take in such music is capricious. The effort of 
thinking away our harmonic preconceptions is probably the 
most violent piece of mental gymnastics in all artistic exi>erience, 
and furnishes much excuse for a sceptical attitude as to the 
artistic value of preharmonic music, which has at all events 
never become even partially independent of poetry and dance. 
Thus the rhythm of c lassical Greek music seems to have been 
entirely identical with that of verse, and its beauty and ex- 
predion appreciated in virtue of that identity. From the modem 
musical point of view the rhythm of words is limited to a merely 
monotonous uniformity of flow, with minute undulations which 
are musically chaotic (see Rhytioi). The example of Greek 
tragedy, with the reports of its all-pervading music (in many 
cases, as in that of Aeschylus, composed by the dramatist 
himself) could not fail to fire the imaginations of modem pioneers 
and reformers of opera; and Monteverde, Gluck and Wagner 
convinced themselves and their contemporaries that their work 
was, amongst other things, a revival of Greek tragedy. But all 
that is known of Greek music shows that it represents no such 
modem ideas, as far as their really musical aspect is concerned. 
It represents, rather, an organization of the rise and fall of the 
voice, no doubt as elaborate and artistic as the organization 
of verse, no doubt powerful in heightening the emotional and 
dramatic effect of words and action, but in no way essential 
to the understanding or the organization of the works which it 
adorned. The classical Greek preference for the diatonic scale 
indicfl^tes a latent harmonic sense and also that temperance 
which is at the foundation of the general Greek sense of beauty; 
but, beyond this and similar generalities, all the research in the 
world will not enable us to understand the Greek musician's 
mind. Non-harmonic music is a world of two dimensions, and 
we must now inquire how men came to rise from this " flatland **- 
to the solid world of sound in which Palestrina, Bach, Beethoven 
and Wagner live. 

3. Harmonic Origins. — Although the simultaneoos blending 
of different sounds was never seriously contemplated by the 
Greeks, yet in classical times they were fond of singing with 
high and low voices in octaves. This was called magadittng, 
from the name of an instrument on which playing in octaves 
was rendered easy by means of a bridge that divided the strings 
at two-thirds of their length. While the practice was esteemed 
for the beauty of the blending of different voices, it was tolerated 
only because of the peculiar effect of identity furnished by 
the different notes of the octave, and no other interval was so 
used by the Greeks. In the article on Harmony the degrees of 
identity-in-diff^rence which characterize the simpler hiurmonic 
intervals are analysed, and the main steps are indicated by which 
the more complicated medieval magadizing uses of the fourth 
and fifth (the sympkonia, diaphonia or organum of Hucbald) 
gave way (partly by their own interchange and partly through 
experiments in the introduction of ornaments and variety) 
to the modem conception of harmony as consisting of voices 
or parts that move independently to the exclusion of such parallel 
motion. In The Oxford History of Music, vols, L and ii., will 
be found abundant examples of every stage of the process, 
which begins with the organum or diaphony that prevailed 
until the death of Guido of Arezzo (about Z050) and passes 
through the discant, or measured music, of the 13th century, 
in which rhythm is first organized on a sufficiently firm basis to 
enable voices to sing contrasted rhythms simultaneously, 
while the new harmonic criterion of the independence of parts 
more and more displaces and shows its opposition to the old 
criterion of parallelism. 

The most extraordinary example of these conflicting principles 
is the famous rota " Sumer is icumen in," a Z3th-century round 
in four parts on a canonic ground-bass in two. Recent researches 



CENEKAL SKETCH] 



MUSIC 



75 



bave brou^t to Eg^t a number of norics la tBe foRBi o? nulei, 
coKdrndus, rondd (neither the later rondo nor the round, but a 
kind ci triple connteipomt), which show that " Sumer is icumen 
in " contaiiw no unique technical feature; but no work within 
two centniies of its date attains a style so nearly intelUgible 
to XBodetn eaxs. Its richness and firmness of harmony are 
soch that the frequent use of consecutive fifths and octaves, 
in stxkt accordance with X3th-century principles, has to our 
cars an the effect of a series of grammatiol blunders, so sharply 
does it contrast with the smooth counterpoint of the rest. In 
what light this smooth countezpoint struck contemporaries, 
or how its author (who may or may not be the writer of the 
Reading MS., John of Fomsete) arrived at it, is not dear, 
tboo^ W. S. Rockstro's amTisIng article, *' Sumer is iciuicn 
In," in Grove's DicHonary, is very plausible. All that we know is 
that music in England in the 13th century must have been at 
a comparatively high state of development; and we may also 
conjecture that the tuneful character of this wonderful rota 
has something in common with the unwritten but famous 
soQS^ of the aristocratic troubadours, or (roffo^er, of the 12th 
and xjth centuries, who, while disdaining to practise the art of 
accompaniment or the art of scientific and written music, 
ondoabtedly set the fashion in melody, and, being themselves 
poets as wdl as ringers, formed the current notions as to the 
idations between musical and poetic rhythm. The music 
of Adam de la Bale, sumamed Le Bossu d'Arias (c xajo-iaSS), 
shows the transformation of the troubadour into the learned 
mosician; and, neariy a century later, the more ambitious 
efforts of a greater French poet (like his contemporary Petrarca, 
one of Chaucer's modeb in poetic technique), Guillaume dc 
Msfhault {fl. 1350), mark a further technical advance, though they 
are not ^ipredaUy more intelligible to the modem ear. 

In the viaX century we find an Englishman, John Dunstable, 
who had as early as 1437 acquired a European repuution; 
while his works were so soon lost sight of that until recently 
he was almost a legendary character, sometimes revered as the 
** inventor " of counterpoint, and once or twice even identified 
with St Dunstanl Recently a great deal of his work has come 
to fight, and it shows us (especially when taken in connexion 
with the fact that the early Netherlandish master, G. Dufay, 
did not die until i474t twenty-one years after Dunstable) that 
English oounterpoint was fully capable of showing the composers 
of the Netherlands the path by which they were to reach the 
art of the " (jolden age." In such examples of Dunstable's work 
as that appended to the article "Dunstable" in Grove's 
DkUanary (new ed., L 744) we see muric approaching a style 
more or les consistently intelligible to a m(xiem ear; and in 
En^ish Carols of the 15th Century (1891) several two-part 
compositions of the period, in a style resembling Dunstable's, 
have been made accessible to' modem readers and filled out into 
four-part music by the editor "in accordance with the rules 
of the time." And though it may be doubted whether Mr 
Eockstro's skill would not have been held in the 15th century to 
savour overmuch of the Black Art, still the success of his attempt 
shows that the musical conceptions he is dealing with are no 
kscger radically different from those of our modem murical 



4. The CMen i4^.— The struggle towards the realization 
of mature musical art seems incredibly- slow when we do not 
realize its difficulty, and wonderfully rapid as soon as we attempt 
to imagine the effort of first forming those harmonic conceptions 
vhich are second nature to us. Even at the time of Dunstable 
sad Dufay the development of the contrapuntal idea of inde- 
pendence of parts had not yet so transformed the harmonic 
cerasdnianess that the ancient parallelisms or consecutive 
{earths and fifths that were the backbone of discant could 
be seen in their tme light as contradictory to the contrapuntal 
method. By the beginmng of the x6th century, however, the 
Uws <rf counterpoint were substantially fixed; practice was 
for a iriule imperfect, and aims still uncertain, but skill was 
and soon became marvellous; and in i6th-cenlury 
: we leave the archaic world altogether. Henceforth music 



may show Virions phenomena of cnideness, decadence and 
tranrition, but its transition-periods will always derive light 
from the past, whatever the darkness of the future. 

In the best music of the i6th century we have no need of 
research or mental gymnastics, beyond what is necessary in 
all art to secure intelligent presentation and attention. Its 
materials show us the " three dimensions " of muric in thdr 
simplest state of perfect balance. Rhythm, emancipated from 
the tyranny of verse, is free to coK>rdinate and contrast a multi- 
tude of mekKlies which by the very independence of their flow 
produce a mass of harmony that passes from concord to concord 
through ordered varieties of tranritional discord. The criterion 
of discord is no longer that of mere harshness, but is modified 
by the conception of the simplicity or remoteness of the steps 
by which the flux of independent simultaneous melodies passes 
from one concord, or point of repose, to another. When the 
muric reaches a climax, or its final conclurion, the point of 
repose is, of course, greatly emphasized. It is accordingly the 
" cadences " or full closes of x6th-century muric that show 
the greatest resemblance to the harmonic ideas of the present 
day; and it is also at these points that certain notes were most 
frequently raised so as to modify the ecdesiasrical modes which 
are derived more or less directly from the melodic diatonic 
scale of the Greeks, and misnamed, according to inevitable 
medieval misconceptions, after the Greek modes.* 

In other passages our modem ears, when unaccustomed to 
the style, feel that the harmony is strange and lacking in definite 
direction; and we are apt to form the hasty conclurion that the 
mode is an archaic survivaL A more familiar acquaintance 
with the art soon shows that its shifting and vague modulations 
are no mere survival of a scale inadequate for any but melodic 
purposes, but the natural result of a state of things in which only 
two species of chord aro available as points of repose at all. If 
no succesrions of such chords wero given prominence, except those 
that define key according to modem notions based upon a much 
greater variety of harmony, the resulting monotony and triviality 
would be intolerable. Moreover, there is in this muric just 
as much and no more of formal antithesis and sequence as its 
harpnony will suffice to hold together. Lastly, we shall find, 
on comparing the masterpieces of the period with works of 
inferior rank, that in the masterpieces the most archaic modal 
features are expresrive, varied and beautiftil; while in the inferior 
works they are often avoided in favour of ordinary modem 
ideas, and, when they occur, are always accidental and monoto- 
nous, although in strict conformity with the rules of the time. 
The consistent limitations of harmony, form and rhythm have 
the further consequence that the only artistic muric possible 
within them is purely vocal The use of instmments is little 
more than a necessary evil for the support of voices in case of 
insufficient opportunity for practice; and although the origins 
of instrumental muric are abeady of some artistic interest in 
the x6th century, we must leave them out of our account if our 
object is to present mature artistic ideas in proper proportions. 

The principles of x6th-century art-forms are diKussed in 
more detail in the arride on Contsapuntal Forms. Here we 
will treat the formal criteria on a general basis; especially as 
with art on such rimple principles the distinction between one 
art-form and another is apt to be either too external or too 
subtle for stability. With muric there is a stronger probability 
than in any other art that merely mechanical devices will be 
self-evident, and thus they may become dther dangerous or 
effective. With the masters of the Netherlands they speedily 
became both. Two adjacent groups of illustrations in Burney's 

'The technical nature of the subject forbids us to discuss the 
origin and characteristics of the preat Ambrosian and Gregorian 
collections of mdodic church music on which nearly all mraieval 
and 16th-century polyphony was based, and from which the eccleri- 
astical modes were derived. Professor Wooldridge in The Oxford 
History of MusiCt i. 20-4^^ has shown the continuity of this early 
Christian music with the Graeco- Roman music, and the origin of its 
modes in the Ptolemaic modification (c. a.d. 150) of the Greek 
diatonic scale; while a recent defence of the ecclesiastical tradi- 
tion of a revision by St Gregory will be found in the artide on 
" Gregorian music " in Grove s Dictionary (new cd.)» ii> 335. 



76 



MUSIC 



CGENERAL S KE TC H 



Histdry of Musk will show on the one hand the astonishing 
way in which early polyphonic composers learnt to " dance 
in fetters," and, on the oUier hand, the expressive power that 
they attained by that discipline. Bumey quotes from the 
venerable X5th<century master Okeghem, or Okenheim, some 
canons so designed as to be singable in all modes. They are 
by no means extreme cases of the ingenuity which Okenheim 
and his pupils often employed; but though they are not very 
valuable artistically (and are not even correctly deciphered 
by Bumey)* they prove that mechanical principles may be a 
help rather than a hindrance to' the attainment of a smooth 
and plastic style. Bumey most appropriately follows them 
with Josquin Des Prds's wonderful Deploration de Jekan Okenkeimf 
in wUch the tenor sings the plain chant of the Requiem a degree 
below its proper pitch, while the other voices sing a pastoral 
dirge in French. The device of transposing the plain chant a 
note bwer, and making the tenor sing it in that position through- 
out the whole piece, is obviously as mechanical as any form of 
acrostic: but it is happily calculated to impress our ears, even 
though, unlike Josquin's contemporaries, most of us are not 
familiar with- the [Jain chant in its normal position; because 
it alters the position of all the semitones and gives the chant 
a phiintive minor character which is no less impressive in itself 
than as a contrast to the orthodox form. And the harmonic 
superstructure is as fine an instance of the expressive possibilities 
of the church modes at their apogee from modem tonality as 
could be found anywhere. A still nobler example, which we 
may perhaps acclaim as the earliest really sublime masterpiece 
in music, is Josquin's Miserere, which is accessible in a modem 
edition. In this monumental work one of the tenor parts is 
called Vagans, because it sings the burden Miserere mei Deus 
at regular intervals, in an almost monotonous wailing figure, 
wandering through each successive degree of the scale throughout 
the composition. The effect, aided as it is by consummate 
rhetorical power in every detail of the surrounding mass of 
harmony and counterpoint, is extremely expressive; and the 
device lends itself to every shade of feeling in the works of the 
greatest of all Netherland masters, Orlando di Lasso. Palestrina 
is less fond of it. Like all more obvious formal devices it is 
crowded out of his Roman art by the exquisite subtlety of his 
sense of proportion, and the exalted spirituality of his style 
which, while it allows him to set the letters of the Hebrew alphabet 
in the Lamentations of Jeremiah in much the same spirit as 
that in which they would be treated in an illuminated Bible, 
forbids him to stimulate a sense of form that might distraa 
the mind from the sense of mystery and awe proper to objects 
of devout contemplation. Yet in one of his greatest motets, 
Tribularer si nescirem, the burden of Josquin*s Miserere appears 
with the same treatment and purpose as in its prototype. 

But with the lesser Flemish masters, and sometimes with 
the greatest, such mechanical principles often became not only 
inexpressive but absolutely destmctive to musical effect. The 
ingenuity necessary to niake the stubbom material of music 
plastic was not so easily attainable as the ingenuity necessary 
to tum music into a mathematical game; and when Palestrina was 
in his prime the inferior composers so outnumbered the masters 
to whom music was a devout language, and so degraded the 
art, not only by ousting genuine musical expression but by 
foisting secular tunes and words into the church services, that 
one of the minor questions with which the Council of Trent 
was concerned was whether polyphonic church music should be 
totally abolished with other abuses, or whether it was capable 
of reform. Legendary history relates that Palestrina submitted 
for judgment three masses of which the Missa papae Marcelli 
proved to be so sublime that it wa& henceforth accepted as the 
ideal church music (see Palestsina). This tale is difficult to 
reconcile with the chronology of Palestrina's works, but there is 
no doubt that Palestrina was officially recognized by the Church 
as a bulwark against bad taste. But we must not allow 
this to mislead us as to the value of church music before 

> The correct version will be found in The Oxford History of Music, 
H. 2 is. 



Palestrina. Nor most we follow the example of Baini, who, 
in his detestation of what he is pleased to call fiammiiigo fqualore, 
views with uncritical suspicion any work in which Palestrina 
does not confine himself to strictly Italian methods of expression. 
A notion still prevails tliat Josquin represents counterpoint in 
an anatomical perfection into which Palestrina was the first 
to breathe life and soul. Thisisives an altogether inadequate 
idea of z6th-century music. Palestrina brought the century to a 
glorious close and is undoubtedly its greatest master, but he 
is primus inter pares; and in every part of Europe music was 
represented, even before the middle of the century, by masters 
who have every claim to immortality that sincerity of aim, 
completeness of range^ and depth and perfection of style can 
give. It has been rightly called the golden age of music, and 
our chronological table at the end Jot this article gives but an 
inadequate idea of the mmiber of its fnasters whom no lover 
of music ought to neglect. It is not exclusively aa age of church 
music. It is also the age of madrigals, both secular and spiritual ; 
and, small as was its range of expression, there has been no 
period in musical art when the distinctions between secular and 
ecclesiastical style were more accurately maintained by the great 
masters, as ^ abundantly shown by the test cases in which 
masses of the best period have been based on secular themes. 
(See Madugal.) 

5. The Monodie Rgooluiion and its ResuUs.—lSkt all golden 
ages, that of music vanished at the first appearance of a knowledge 
beyond its limitations. The first and simplest realisation of 
mature art is widespread and nourishes a veritable army of great 
men; its masterpieces are innumerable, and its organization 
is so complete that no na r ro wn ess or specialization can be felt 
in the nature of its limitations. Yet these are exceedingly 
close, and the most modest attempt to widen them may have 
disastrous results. Many experiments were tried before Pales- 
trina's death and throughout the century, notably by the 
elder and younger Gabrieli. Perhaps Palestrina himsielf is 
the only great composer of the time who never violates the 
principles of his art. Orlando di Lasso, unlike Palestrina, 
wrote almost as much secular as sacred music, and in his youth 
indulged in many eccentricities in a chromatic style which he 
afterwards leamt to detest. But if experiments are to revolu- 
tionize art it is necessary that their novelty shall already embody 
some artistic principle of coherence. No such principle wiU 
avail to connect the Phrygian mode with a chord containing A#; 
and, however proud the youthful Orlando di Lasso may be at 
being the first to write A#, neither his early chromatic experiments 
nor those of Cipriano di Rore, which he admired so much, left 
a mark on musical history. They appealed to nothing deeper 
than a desire for sensational variety of harmony; and, while 
they carried the successions of chords far beyond the limits 
of the modes, they brought no new elements into the chords 
themselves. 

By the beginning of the 17th century the true revolutionary 
principles were vigorously at work, and the powerful genius 
of Monteverde speedily made it impossible for men of impres- 
sionable artistic temper to continue to work in the old 
style when such vast new regions of thought lay open to 
them. In the year of Palestrina's death, 1594, Monteverde pub- 
lished, in his third book of madrigals, works in which without 
going irrevocably beyond the letter of z6th-€entury law he showed 
far more zeal for emotional expression than sense of euphony. 
In 1599 he published madrigals in which 'his means of expression 
involve harmonic principles altogether incompatible with x6th- 
century ideas. But he soon ceased to place confidence in the 
madrigal as an adequate art-form for his new ideals of expression, 
and he found an unlimited field in musical drama. Dramatic 
music received its first stimulus from a group of Florentine 
dilettanti, who aspired amongst other things to revive the ideals of 
Greek tragedy. Under their auspices the first true opera 
ever performed in pubUc, Jacopo Peri's Euridice, appeared in 
r6oo. Monteverde found the conditions of dramatic music 
more favourable to his experiments than those of choral music, 
in which both voices and ears are at their highest sensibility 



GENERAL SKETCH] 



MUSIC 



77 



to discoid. Instruments do not Ucnd like voices; and players, 
prodadng their notes by more mechanical means, have not 
the siager's difficulty in making combinations which the ear 
does ziot readily understand. 

The one difficulty of the new art was fatal: there were no 
Kmftafioiw When Montevetde introduced his unprepared 
discords, the effect upon musical style was like that of intro- 
ducing modem metaphors into classical Greek. There were 
no harmofiic principles to control the new material, except 
those which just sufiBced to hold together the pure z6th-century 
style; and that style depended on an exquisite continuity of 
dow which was incompatible with any rigidity either of har- 
mony or rhythm. Accordingly there were also no rhythmic 
prind{^es to hold Monteverde's work together, except such 
35 could be bonowed from types of secular and popular music 
that had hitherto been beneath serious attention. If the xyth 
centoxy seems almost devoid of great musical names it is not 
for want of incessant musical activity. The task of organizing 
new leaumc c a into a consistent language was too gigantic to 
be armmpiiihed within three generations. Its fascinating 
dnunatic saggestiveness and incalculable range disguised for 
those who first undertook it the fact that the new art was as 
difficult and clementaxy in its beginnings as the very beginning 
of harmony itself in the 13th and 14th centuries. And the 
most beautiful compositions at the beginning of the 17th century 
are rather those which show the decadence of x6th-centttry art 
than those in which the new principles were most consistently 
adc^ted. Thus the madrigals of Monteverde, though often 
dun and always rough, contain more music than his operas. 
On the other hand, almost until the middle of the zyth century 
great men were not wanting who still carried on the pure 
poiyphooic style. Their asceticism denotes a spirit less compre* 
howve than that of the great artists for whom the golden age 
WIS a natural environment; but in parts of the world where the 
new mAw.TM'P^ did not yet prevail even this is not the case, 
and a composer like Orlando Gibbons, who died in 1625, is 
well worthy to be ranked with the great Italian and Flemish 
Bcastexs of the preceding century. 

But the main task of composers of the xTth century lay 
dsewhere; and if the result of their steady attention to it was 
tzrvial in comparison with the glories of the past, it at least 
led to the glories of the greater world organized by Bach and 
HandeL The eariy monodists, Monteverde and his fellows, 
doected attention to the right quarter in attempting to express 
eaotioii by means of single voices supported by instruments; 
hot the formless declamation of their dramatic writings soon 
piovcd tootaonotonous for permanent interest, and such method 
as it showed became permanent only by being codified into 
the fiananlas atreeUaUte, which are, for the most part, very 
hapfyy idealizatioas of speech-cadence, and which accordingly 
snrnwe as dramatic elonents in music at the present day, 
though like an rhetorical figures, they have often k>st meaning 
£nntt careless use.^ It was all very weO to revolutionize current 
Goacefrtioas of harmony, so that chords were no longer considered, 
as in the days of pure polyphony, to be the result of so many 
iadepeadent melodies. But in art,, as elsewhere, new thought 
eventnaDy shows itself as an addition to, not a substitute for, 
the wisdom of ages. Moreover^ it is a mistake, though one 
] fay faj^ authorities, to suppose that the x6th-century 
I did not appreciate the beauty of successions of chords 
2?art from polyphonic design. On the contrary, Palestrina 
and Orlando di Lasso themselves are the greatest masters the 
vurid has ever seen of a style which depends wholly 6n the 
beauty of masses of harxnony, entirely devoid of polyphoiuc 
detail, and held together by a delicately balancfd rhythm in 
vticfa obvious symmetry is as Carefully avoided as it is in the 
mrmuo o a of chords themselves. Nevertheless, the monody 
fif the XTth century is radically different in principle, not only 
becsase chords are used which were an outrage on x6th- 

* The " iaveotion '* of recitative b frequently ascribed to this or 
dot nooodist, with as little room for dispute as when we aacribe 
the isTctttkn of clothes to Adam and Eve. All monody was recita- 
tive, if oc!y fitxn inability to organiae melodies. 



century ears, but because the fundamental Idea Is that of a 
sob voice declaiming phrases of paramount emotional interest,* 
and supported by instruments that play such chords as will 
heighten the poignancy of the voice. And the first advance 
made on this chaotic monody consisted, not in the reintroduction 
of vitality into the texture of the harmonies, but in giving formal 
S3rmmetry and balance to the vocal suriace. This involved the 
strengthening of the harmonic system, so that it could carry 
the new discords as parts of an intelligible scheme, and not 
merely as uncontrollable expressions of emotion. In other words, 
the chief energies of the successors of the monodists were devoted 
to the establishment of the modem key-system; a system in 
comparison with which the subtle variety of modal concord 
sounded vague and ill-balanced, until the new key-system 
itself was so safely established that Bach and Beethoven could 
once more appreciate and use essentially modal successions of 
chords in their true meaning. 

The second advance of the monodic movement was In the 
cultivation of the solo 'voice. This developed together with 
the cultivation of the violin, the most capable and expressive 
of the instruments used to support it. Monteverde already 
knew how to make interesting experimenU with violins, such 
as directing them to play ^tzcicato,and accompanying an excited 
description of a duel by rapidly repeated strokes on a major 
chord, followed by sustained dying harmonies in the minor. 
By the middle of the century violin music is fairly common, 
and the distinction between Sonata da tJtiesa and Sonata da 
camera app^rs (see Sonata). But the cultivation of instru- 
mental technique had also a great effect on that of the voice; 
and Italian vocal technique soon developed into a monstrosity 
that so corrupted musical taste as not only toblind the contem- 
poraries of Bach and Handel to the greatness of their choral 
art, but, in Handel's case, actually to swamp a great deal of 
his best work. The balance between a solo voice and a group 
of instruments was, however, successfully cultivated together 
with the modem key-system and melodic form; with the restilt 
that the classical oria, a highly effective art-form, took shape. 
This, while it totally destroyed the dramatic character of opera 
for the next hundred years, yet did good service in furnishing 
a reasonably effective means of musical expression which could} 
encourage composers and listeners to continue cultivating the 
art until the day of small things was past. The operatic aria, 
as matured by Alessandro Scarlatti, b at its worst a fine oppor- 
tunity for a- gorgeously dressed singer to display feats of vocal 
gymnastics, either on a concert platform, or in scenery worthy 
of the Drury Lane pantomime. At its. best it is a beautifiU 
means of expression for the devout fervour of Bach and Handel. 
At all times it paralyses dramatic action, and no more iroiuc 
revenge has ever overtaken iconoclastic reformers than the 
historic development by which the purely dramatic declama- 
tion of the monodists settled down into a series of about thirty 
successive displays of vocalisation, designed on rigidly musical 
conventions, and produced tmder spectacular conditions by 
artificial sopranos as the highest ideal of music-drama. 

The principal new art-forms of the x7th century are then, 
firstly, the aria (not the opera, which was merely a spectacular 
condition under which people consented to listen to some thirty 
arias in succession); and, secondly, the polyphonic instrumental 
forms, of which those of the suUe or sonata da camera were 
mainly derived from the necessity for ballet music in the opera 
(and hence greatly stimulated by the taste of the French court 
under Louis XIV.), while those of the sonaia da ckiesa were also 
inspired by a renaissance of Interest In polyphonic texture. 
The sonaki da ckiesa soon settled into a conventionality only 
less Inert than that of the aria because violin technique had 
wider possibilities than vocal; but when Lulli settled h^ France 
and raised to a higher level of effect the operatic style sdfBested 
by Cambert, he brought with him just enough of the new instra- 
mental polyphony to make his typical form of French overture 
(with its slow Introduction In dotted rhythm, and its quasi-fugal 
allegro) worthy of the important place it occupies in Bach's and 
Handel's art. 



J 



78 



MUSIC 



(GENERAL SKETCH 



Meanwhile great though subordinate activity was also shown 
in the evolution of a new choral music dependent upon an instru- 
mental accompaniment of more complex function than that of 
mere support. This, in the hands of the Neapolitan masters, 
was destined to lead straight to the early choral music of Mozart 
and Haydn, both of whom, especially Mozart, subsequently 
learnt its greater possibilities from the study of HandeL But the 
most striking choral art of the time came from the Germans, 
who never showed that thoughtless acquiescence in the easiest 
means of effect which was already the bane of Italian art. 
Consequently, while the German output of the zyth century fails 
to show that rapid attainment of modest maturity which gives 
much Italian music of the period a permanent if slight artistic 
value, there is, in spite of much harshness, a stream of noble 
polyphonic effort in both organ and choral music in Germany 
from the time of H. Schatz (who was bom in 1585 and who was a 
great friend and admirer of Monteverde) to that of Bach and 
Handel just a century later. Nor was Germany inactive in the 
dramatic line, and the Z7th-century Italian efforts in comic opera, 
which are so interesting and so unjustly neglected by historians, 
found a parallel, before Handel's maturity, in the work of 
R. Keiser, and may be traced throiigh him in Handel's first 
opera, Almira. 

The best proof of the insufficiency of i7th<entury resources 
is to be found in the almost tragic blending of genius and failure 
shown by our English church music of the Restoration. The 
works of Pelham Humfrey and Blow already show the qualities 
which with Purcell seem at almost any given moment to amount 
to those of the highest genius, while hardly a single work has 
any coherence as a whole. The patchiness of Purcell's music 
was, no doubt, increased by the influence of French taste then 
predominant at court. When Pelham Humfrey was sixteen. 
King Charles II., as Sir Hubert Party remarks, " achieved the 
characteristic and subtle stroke of humour of sending him over 
to France to study the methods of the most celebrated composer 
of theatrical music of the time in order to learn how to compose 
English church music." Yet it is impossible to see how such 
ideas as Purcell's could have been presented in more than French 
continuity of flow by means of any designs less pow^ul than 
those of Bach and HandeL Purcell's ideas are, like those of 
all great artists, at least sixty years in advance of the normal 
intdlect of the time. But they are unfortunately equally in 
advance of the only technical resources then conceivable; and 
PurceO, though one of the greatest contrapuntists that ever 
lived, is probably the only instance in music of a map of really 
high genius bom out of due time. Musical talent was certainly 
as common in the zyth century as at any other time; and if we 
ask why, unless we are justified in counting Purcell as a tragic 
exception, the whole century shows not one name in the first 
artistic rank, the answer must be that, after all, artistic talent 
is far more common than the interaction of environment and 
character necessary to direct it to perfect artistic restilts. 

6. Bach and Handd.— It was not until the z8th century had 
begun that two men of the highest genius could find in music a 
worthy expression of their grasp of life. Bach and Handel were 
bom within a month of each other, in 1685, and in the same part 
of Saxony. Both inherited the tradition of polyphonic effort 
that the German organists and choral writers had steadily 
maintained throughout the xyth century; and both profited by 
the Italian methods that were penetrating Germany. In Bach's 
case it was the Italian art-forms that appealed to his sense of 
design. Their style did not affect him, but he saw every possi- 
bility which the forms contained, and studied them the more 
assiduotisly because they were not, like polyphonic texture, his 
birthright. In recitative his own distinctively German style 
attained an intensity and freedom of expression which is one of 
the most moving things in art. Nevertheless, if he handled 
recitative in his own way it was not for want of acquaintance 
with the Italian formulas, nor even because he despised them; 
for in his only two extant Italian works the scraps of recitative 
are strictly in accordance with Italian convention, and the 
arias show (when we allow for their family likeness with Bach'a 



normal style) the most careftil modelling upon Italian forms. 
Again, as is well known. Bach arranged with copious additions 
and alterations many concertos by Vivaldi (together with some 
which though passing under Vivaldi's name are really by (German 
contemporaries); and, while thus taking every opportunity of 
assimilating Italian influences in instrumental as well as in vocal 
music, he. was no less alive to the importance of the French 
overture and suite forms. Moreover, he is very clear as to where 
his ideas come from, and extremely careful to maintain every 
art-form in its integrity. Yet his style remains his own through- 
out, and the first impression of its resemblance to that of his 
German contemporaries diminishes the more the period is studied. 
Bach's art thus forms one of the most perfectly systematic 
and complete records a life's work has ever achieved. His 
art-forms might be arranged in a sort of biological sdieme, and 
their interaction and genealogy has a clearness which might 
almost be an object of envy to men of science even if Bach had 
not demonstrated every detail of it by those wonderful re- 
writings of his own works which we have described elsewhere 
(see Bach). 

Handel's methods were as different from Bach's as his circum- 
stances. He soon left Germany and, while he never betrayed 
his birthright as a great choral writer, he quickly absorbed the 
Italian style so thoroughly as to become practically an Italian. 
He also adopted the Italian forms, but not, like Bach, from any 
profound sense of their possible place in artistic system. To 
him they were effective, and that was all. He did not trouble 
himself about the permanent idea that might underlie an art- 
form and typify its expression. He has no notion of a form as 
anything higher than a rough means of holding music together 
and maintaining its flow; but he and Bach, alone among their 
contemporaries, have an unfailing sense of all that is necessary 
to secure this end. They worked from opposite points of view: 
Bach devebps his art from within, until its detidl, like that of 
Beethoven's last works, becomes dazzling with the glory of the 
whole design; Handel at his best is inspired by a magnificent 
scheme, in the execution of which he need condescend to finish 
of detail only so long as his inspiration does not hasten to the 
next design. Nevertheless it is to the immense sweep and 
breadth of Handel's choral style, and its emotional force, that all 
subsequent composers owe their first access to the larger and 
less mechanical resources of music. (See Handel.) 

7. The Sympkotnc Classes.— Aitti the death of Bach and 
Handel another change of view, like that Copemican revdution 
for which Kant sighed in philosophy, was necessary for the 
further development of music. Once again it consisted in an 
inversion of the relation between form and texture. But, 
whereas at the beginning of the X7th century the revolution 
consisted mainly in directing attention to chords as, so to speak, 
harmonic lumps, instead of moments in a flux of simultaneous 
melodies; in the later half of the z8th century the revolution 
concerned the larger musical outlines, and was not complicated 
by the discovery of new harmonic resources. On the contrary, 
it led to an extreme simplicity of harmony. The art of Badi 
and Handel had given perfect vitality to the forms developed 
in the x8th century, but chiefly by means of the reinfusion of 
polyphonic life. The formal aspects (that is, those that decree 
the shapes of aria and suite-movement and the balance and 
contrasts of such choruses as are not fugues) are, after aU, of 
secondary importance; the real centre of Bach's and Handd's 
technical and intellectual activity is the polyphony; and the 
more the external shape occupies the foreground the more the 
work assumes the character of light music In the aitide 
Sonata Fosms we show how this state of things was altered, 
and attention is there drawn to the dramatic power of a music 
in which the form is technically prior to the texture. And it 
is not difficult to understand that Gluck's reform of opera would 
have been a sheer impossibility if he had not dealt with music 
in the sonata style, which b capable of changing iu diancter 
as it imfolds its designs. 

The new period of transition was neither so long nor so inter- 
eating aa thai oX thex7tli century. The contrast between the. 



GENERAL SKETCH] 



MUSIC 



79 



sqaalid hfghmtnga of the new ait ind the glories of Bach and 
Haadd is afanost as great as that between tl|e monodists and 
Pakstxina, but it appeals far less to our sympathies, b^ause it 
seems hke a contrast between noble sincerity and idle elegance. 
The new art seems so easy-going and empty that it conceals 
farm us the necessity of the Qrmpathetic historical insight for 
«4ucfa the painful experiments of the monodists almost seem to 
oy aloud. And its boldest rhetorical eiq>eriments, such as the 
fants<is5 of Philipp E m anuel Bach, show a security of harmony 
which, together with the very vividness of their realization of 
modem ideas, must appear to a modem listener more like the 
hollow rhetoric of a decadent than the prophetic inspiration 
of a pioneer. And, just as in the 17th century, so in the time 
beliare Haydn and Mozart, the work that is mdUl valuable artis- 
ticaZly tends to be that which is of less importance historically. 
The cohrration of the shape of music at the expense of its texture 
was drtrinrd to lead to greater things than polyphonic art had 
ever dreamt of; but no living art could be achieved until the 
teztnre waa brought once more into vital, if subordinate, relation 
to the shape. Thus, far more interesting artistically than the 
epodnmaking earlier pianoforte works of Philipp Emanuel Bach 
are his historically less fruitful oratorios, and his symphonies, 
and the rich polyphonic modifications of the new principles 
in the best works of his elder brother Friedcmann. Yet the tran- 
skjon-pcriod is hardly second in historic importance to that of 
the X 7th century; and we may gather from it even more direct 
bints as to the meaning of the tenden c ies of our own day. 

As in the 17th century, so in the i8th the composers and 
critics of Haydn's youth, not knowing what to make of the new 
tcadesoea, and conscious rather of the difference between new 
and old ideas than of the true nature of either, took refuge in 
specniatioas about the emotional and external expression of 
music; and when artistic power and balance fail it is very con- 
venient to go outside the limits of the art and explain failure 
away by external ideas. Fortunately the external ideas were 
capable of serious organic function through the medium of opera, 
aad in that art-form music was passing out of the hands of 
Itafians and stwiming artistic and dramatic life under Gluck. 
The meUphysical and hterary speculation which overwhelmed 
BBtisicil criticism at this time, and which produced paper warfares 
and musical party-feuds such as that between the Gluckists 
and the Picdnists, at all events had this advantage over the 
Wagnerian and anti-Wagnerian controversies of the last genera- 
tion and the disputes about the legitimate function of instru- 
mental nnisic at the present day— that it was speculation applied 
ezdusively to an art-form in which literary questions were 
dnectJy ooncemed, an art-form which moreover had up to that 
time been the grave of all the music composers chose to put 
iato it. But as soon as music once more attained to consistent 
prindplea all these discussions became but a memory. If duck's 
crask had not been more musical as well as more dramatic than 
Picdni's, all its foreshadowing of Wagnerian principles would 
have availed it no more than it availed Monteverde. 

When the new art found symphonifc expression in Haydn and 
Mozart, it became music pure and simple, and yet had no more 
difficulty than painting or poetry in dealing with external 
ideas, when these were naturally brought into it by the human 
wdct or the conditions of dramatic action. It had once more 
become an art which need reject or accept nothing on artificial or 
extraneous grounds. Beethoven soon showed how gigantic the 
scale and range of the sonata style could be, and how tremendous 
WIS its effect on the possibilities of vocal music, both dramatic 
aad chomL No revolution was needed to accomplish this. 
The style was perfectly formed, and for the first and so far the 
only time in musical history a mature art of sm'all range opened 
oat into an equally perfect one of gigantic range, without a 
Boment of decadence or destmction. The chief glory of the 
art that culminates in Beethoven is, of course, the instrumental 
BEasic, all of which comes under the head of the sonata-forms 

Ifeanwhile Mozart raised comic opera, both Italian and 
GcBBian, to a height which has never since been approached 



within the dassical limits, and from which the openu of Rossini 
and his successors show a decadence so deplorable that if 
" classical music " means " high art " we must say that classical 
opera buffo b^ins and ends in Mozart. But Gluck, finding his 
dramatic ideas encouraged by the eminent theatrical sensibilities 
of the French, had already given French opera a stimulus 
towards the expression of tragic emotion which made the classics 
of the French operatic school well worthy to inspire Beethoven 
to his one noble operatic effort and Web«T to the greatest works 
of his life. Cherubini, though no more a Frenchman than 
Gluck, was Gluck's successor in the French classical school of 
dramatic music. His operas, like his church music, account for 
Beethoven's touching estimation of him as the greatest composer 
of the time. In them his melodies, elsewhere curiously cold and 
prosaic, glow with the warmth of a true classic; and his tact in 
developing, accelerating Und suspending a dranuitic climax is 
second o^y to Mozart's. Scarcely inferior to Cherubini in 
mastery and dignity, far more lovable in temperament, and 
weakoied only by inequality of invention, M6hul deserves a far 
higher place in musical history than is generally accorded him. 
His most famous work, Joseph^ is of more historical importance 
than his others, but it is by no means his best from a purely 
musical point of view, though its Biblical subject impelled 
M£hul to make extremely successful experiments in "local 
colour" which had probably considerable influence upon 
Weber, whose admiration of the work was boundless. One 
thing is certain, that the romantic opera of Weber owes much 
of its inspiration to the opira comique of these masters.^ 

8. Prom BeeUumn to Wapur.—Aiiet Beethoven comes 
what is commonly though vaguely described as the "romantic" 
movement. In its essentials it amounts to little more than 
this, that musicians found new and prouder titles for a very 
ancient and universal division of parties. The one party set up 
a convenient scheme of form based upon the average procedure 
of all the writers of sonatas except Haydn and Beethoven, 
which scheme they chose to call classical; while the other party 
devoted itself to the search for new materials and new means of 
expression. The classicists, if so they may be called, did not 
quite approve of Beethoven; and while i jere is much justification 
for the charge that has been brought against them of reducing, 
the sonata-form to a kind of game, they have for that very 
reason no real daim to be considered inheritors of classical 
traditions. The true dassical method is that in which matter 
and form are so united that it is impossible to say which i& 
prior to the other. The pseudo-classics are the artisU who set 
up a form conveniently like the average classical form, and fill 
it with something conveniently like the average dassical matter^ 
with just such difference as will seem like an advance in brilliance 
and range. The romantidsts are the artists who realize such a 
difference between thdr matter and that of previous art as impels 
them to find new forms for it, or at all events to alter the old 
forms considerably. But if they are successful the difference 
between their work and that of the true dassics becomes merely 
external; they arc classics in a new art-form. As, however, 
this is as rare as true classical art is at the best of times, romanti- 
cism tends to mean little more than the difference between an 
unstable artist who cannot master his material and an artist 
who can, whether on the pseudo-classical or the true dassical 
plane. The term " romantic opera " has helped us to regard 
Weber as a romanticist in that sphere, but when we call his instm- 
mental works "romantic" the term ceases to have really 
valuable meaning. As applied to pieces like the Concertsttickt 
the InvUaiion d la danse^ and other pieces of which the external 
subject is known either from Weber's letters or from the titles 
of the pieces themselves, the term means simply " programme- 
music " such as we have seen to be characteristic of any stage 
in which the art is imperfectly mastered. Weber's programme- 
music shows no advance on Beethoven in the illustrative 
resources of the art; and the application of the term " lomantic " 

*We must remember in this connexion that the term ofha 
comique means simply opera with spoken dialogue, and has notning 
to do with the comic idea. 



8o 



MUSIC 



{GENERAL SKETCH 



to his intereftting anct in many places beautiful pianoforte 
sonatas has no definite ground except the brilliance of his piano- 
forte technique and the helplessness in mattexs of design (and 
occasionally even of harmony) that drives him to violent and 
operatic outbreaks. 

Schubert also lends some colour to the opposition between 
romantic and classical by his weakness in large instrumental 
designs, but his sense of form was too vital for his defective 
training to warp his mind from the true classiral spirit; and the 
new el^ents he iniroduced into instrumental music, though not 
ratified by concentration and unity of design, were almost always 
the fruits of true inspiration and never mere struggles to escape 
from a difficulty. His talent for purely itastrumental music was 
incomparably higher than Weber's, while that for stage-drama, 
as shown in the most ambitious- of his numerous operas, Piena- 
bras, was almost niL But he is the first and perhaps the greatest 
cissw'cal song writer. It was Beethoven's work on a larger 
scale that so increased the possibilities of handling remote 
harmonic sequences and rich instrumental and rhythmic effects 
as to prepare for Schubert a world in which music, no less than 
literature, was full of suggestions for that concentrated expres- 
sion of a single emotion which distinguishes true lyric art. And, 
whatever the defects of Schubert's treatment of larger forms, 
his construction of small forms which can be compassed by a 
single melody or group of melodies is unsurpassable and is truly 
classical in spirit and residt. 

Schimiann had neither Schubert's native talent for larger 
form nor the irresponsible spirit which allowed Schubert to 
handle it uncritically. Nor had he the astounding lightness 
of touch and perfect balance of style with which Chopin con- 
trolled the 'most wayward imagination that has ever found 
expression in the pianoforte lyric. But he had a deep sense of 
melodic beauty, a mastery of polyphonic expression which 
for all its unorthodox tendency was second only to that of the 
greatest classics, and an epigrammatic fancy which enabled 
him to devise highly artistic forms of music never since imitated 
with success though often unintelligently copied. In his songs 
and pianoforte lyrics his -romantic ideas found perfectly mature 
expression. Throughout his life he was inspired by a deep 
reverence which, while it prevented him from attempting to 
handle classical forms with a technique which he felt to be 
inadequate, at the same time impelled him as he grew older to 
devise forms on a large scale externally resembling them. The 
German lyric poetry, which he so perfectly set to music, strength- 
ened him in his tendency to present his materials in an cpi- 
granunatic and antithetic manner; and, when he took to writing 
orchestral and chamber music, the extension of the principles 
of this style to the designing of large spaces in rigid sequence 
furnished him with a means of attaining great dignity and weight 
of climax in a form which, though neither classical nor strictly 
natural, was at all events more true in its relationship to his 
matter than that of the pseudo-classics such as Hummel or even 
Spohr. Towards the end of his short life, before darkness 
settled upon his mind, he rose perhaps to his greatest height as 
regards solemnity of inspiration, though none of his later works 
can compare with his early lyrics for artistic perfection. Be this 
as it may, his last choral works, especially the latter parts of 
Faust (which, unlike the first pmrt, was written before his powers 
failed), show that the sense of beauty and polyphonic life with 
which he began his career was always increasing; and if he was 
led to substitute an artificial and ascetic for a natural and 
classical solution of the difficulties of the larger art-forms it was 
only because of his insight into artistic ideals which he felt to be 
beyond his attainment. He shared with Mendelssohn the inevit- 
able misunderstanding of those contemporaries who grouped 
all music under one or other of the two heads, Classical and 
Romantic. 

There is good reason to believe that Mendelssohn died before 
he had more than begun to show his power, though this may be 
denied by critics who have not thought of comparing Handel's 
career up to the age at which Mendelssohn's ceased. And his 
mastery, resting, like Handel's, on the experience of a boyhood 



comparable only to Moait'S} was far too easy to induce him 
as a critic to reconcile the idea of high talent with distressing 
intellectual and technical failure. This same mastery also 
tended to discredit his own woik, both aa performer and composer, 
in the estimation of those whose experience encouraged them 
to hope that imperfection and over'-exdtement were infallible 
signs of genius. And as his facility actually did co-operate with 
the tendencies of the times to deflect much of his work into 
pseudo-classical channels, while nevertheless his independence 
of form and style kept him at all times at a higher level of 
interest and vuiety than any mere pseudo-dassic, it is not to be 
wondered that his reputation became a formidable object of 
jealousy to those apostles of new ideas who felt that their own 
works were not likely to make way against academic opposition 
unless they called journalism to their aid. 

Not^iing has more confused, hindered and embittered the 
careers of Wagner and Liszt and their disdples than the paper 
warfare which they did everything in their power to encourage. 
No doubt it had a useftil purpose, and, as nothing affords a 
greater field for intrigue than the production of operas, it is at 
least possible that the gigantic and unprecedentedly expensive 
works of Wagner might not even at the present day have 
obtained a hearing if Wagner himself had been a tactful and 
reticent mail and his partisans had all been discreet lovers and 
practisers of art. As to Wagner's achievement there b now no 
important difference of opinion. It has survived all attacks 
as the most monumental result music has achieved with the aid 
of other arts. Its antecedents must be sought in many 'very 
remote regions. The rediscovery, by Mendelssohn, of the choral 
works of Bach, after a century of oblivion, revealed the possi- 
bilities of polyphonic expression in a grandeur which even 
Handel rarely suggested; and inspired Mendelssohn with impor- 
tant ideas in the designing of oratorios as wholes. The complete 
fusion of polyphonic method with external and harmonic design 
had, under the same stimulus, been carried a step further than 
Beethoven by means of Schumann's more concentrated harmonic 
and lyric expression. That wildest of all romanticists, Berlioz, 
thou^ he had less polyphonic sense than any composer who 
ever before or since attained distinction, nevertheless revealed 
important new possibilities in his unique imagination in orches- 
tral colour, llie breaking down of the barriers that check 
continuity in classical opera was already indicated by Weber, 
in whose Euryantke the movements frequently run one into the 
other, while at least twenty different themes are discoverable 
in the opera, recurring, like the Wagnerian leit-motif ^ in apt 
transformation and logical association with definite inddents 
and persons. 

But many things undreamed of by Weber were necessary to 
complete the breakdown of the rla^iral barriers; for the whole 
pace of musical motion had to be emancipated from the influence 
of instrumental ideas. This was the most colossal reformation 
ever attempted by a man of real artistic balance; and even the 
undoubted, though unpolished, dramatic genius shown in Wag- 
ner's libretti (the first in which a great composer and dramatist 
are one) is but a small thing in comparison with the musical 
problems which Wagner overcomes with a success immeasur- 
ably outweighing any defects his less perfect hterary mastery 
allowed to remain in his dramatic structure and poetic diction. 
Apart from the squabbles of Wagnerian and anti-Wagnerian 
journalism, the chief difficulty of his supporters and antagonists 
really lay in this question of the pace of the music and the 
consequent breadth of harmony and design. The opening of 
the WalkUre, in which, before the curtain rises, the sovind of 
driving rain is reproduced by very simple sequences that take 
sixteen long bars to move a single step, does not, as instrumental 
music, compare favourably for terseness and variety with tbe 
first twenty bars of the thunderstorm in Beethoven's Pattoral 
Symphony^ where at least four different incidents faithfully 
portray not only the first drops of rain and the distant thunder, 
but all the feelings of depression and apprehension which they 
inspire, besides carrying the listener rapidly through three 
different keys in chromatic sequence. But Beethoven's storm 



CEKERAL SKETCHl 



MUSIC 



8i 



k idealized, in its whole rise and fall, within a space of five 
mteutGL Wagner's task is to select five real minutes near the 
end of the storm and to treat them with no greater variety than 
the actkm of the drama demands. When we have learnt to 
diaaodate our minds from irrelevant ideas of an earlier instru- 
mental art, we find that Wagner's broad spaces contain all that 
is necessary. Art on a large scale will always seem to have 
empty spaces, so long as we expect to find in it the kind of detail 
appnipriate to art on a smaller scale. 

Wagner's new harmonic resources are of similar and more 
comptez but not less legitimate origin. In Derfliegende HoUdnder 
tbe>' are, like his wider rhythmic sweep, imperfectly digested; 
in fact, much of his work before the Meistersinger is, in patches, 
debased by the influence of Meyerbeer. But in his later works 
liie more doscly his harmom'c language is studied the more 
cocidosively does it show itself to be a logical and mastered 
thing. His treatment of key is, of course, adapted to i^ state 
of things in which the designs are far too long for the mind to 
attach any importance to the works ending in the key in which 
it began. To compare Wagner's key-system with that of a 
symphony is like comparing the peispective and compodtion 
of a panorama with the perspective and composition of an easel 
picture. Indeed the differences are precisely analogous in the 
t«o cases; and Wagner's sense of harmony and key turns out 
on investigation to be the classical sense truly adapted to its 
new conditions. For this very reason it is in detail quite irrele- 
vant to symphonic art; and there was nothing anti- Wagnerian 
in the reasons why Brahms had so little to do with it in his 
Rosic, although every circumstance of the personal controversies 
and thinly dl^uiscd persecutions of Brahms's youth were enough 
to give any upholder of classical symphonic art a rooted prejudice 
to everything bearing the name of " romantic." 

Side by side with Wagner many enthusiasts place Ltszt; and 
h is indisputable that Lbzt had in mind a larger and slower flow 
ol muskal sequence closely akin to Wagner's, and, no doubt, 
portly independent of it; and moreover, that one of Liszt's 
aims was to apply this to instrumental music. Also his mastery 
and poetic power as a pianoforte player were faithfully reflected 
in his later treatment of the orchestra, and ensured an extra- 
ordinary rhetorical plausibility for anything he chose to say. 
But neither the princely magnanimity of his personal character, 
which showed itself in his generosity alike to struggling artists 
and to his opponents, nor the great stimulus he gave (both by 
bis compositions and his unceasing personal efforts and encour- 
zssement) to new musical ideas on romantic lines, ought at this 
Li33e of day to blind us to the hoUowness and essential vulgarity 
of his style. These unfortunate qualities did not secure for his 
compositions immediate popular acceptance; for they were 
outweighed by the true novelty of his aims. But recently they 
have given hb symphonic poems an attractiveness which, while 
ft has galvanized a belated interest in those works, has made 
many critics blind to their historical importance as the founda- 
tioa of new forms which have undergone a development of 
bcasational brilliance under Richard Strauss. 

Measwhile the party poh'tics of modem music did much to 
datract public attention from the works of Brahms, who 
carried on the true classical method of the sonata-forms in his 
cTchestral and chamber music, while he was no less great and 
<^%inal as a writer <^ songs and choral music of all kinds. He 
also devdoped the pianoforte lyric and widened its range. 
Widiottt losing its characteristic unity it assumed a freedom and 
hrgEiseas of expression hitherto only attained in sonatas. Hence, 
bowewr, Brahms's work, like Bach's, seemed, from its continuity 
with the classical forms, to look backward rather than forward. 
Indeed Brahms's reputation b in many quarters that of an 
acfedemic reactionary; just as Bach's was, even at a time when 
tbe word " academic " was held to be rather a title of honour 
tk^n of reproach. When the contemporary standpoints of 
CTttidsin are established by the production of works of art in 
which the new elements shall no longer be at war with one another 
asd vith the whole, perhaps it will be recognized once more that 
the idea of progress has no value as a critical standard unless 

XIX 3* 



it is strictly applied to that prindple by which every work of 
art must differ in every part of its form from every other 
work, precisely as far as its material differs and no further. 
Then, perhaps, as the conservative Bach after a hundred years 
of neglect revealed himself as the most profoundly modem force 
in the music of the zgth century, while that of his gifted and 
progressive sons became a forgotten fashion as soon as their 
goal was attained by grater masters, so may the musical epoch 
that seems now to have closed be remembaed by posterity as 
the age, not of Wagner and the pioneer Liszt, but the age of 
Wagner and Brahms. 

It will also .a all probability be remembered as the age in 
which the performer ceased to be necessarily the intellectual 
inferior of the composer and musical scholar. With the excep- 
tion of Wagner and Berlioz every great composer, since Palestrina 
sang in the papal choir, has paid his way as a performer; but 
Joseph Joachim was the first who threw the whole mind of a 
great composer into the career of an interpreter; and the example 
set by him, Bulow, Clara Schumann and Jenny Lind, though 
followed by very few other artists, sufficed to dispel for ever 
the old association of the musical performer with the mounte- 
bank. 

Joachim's influence on Branms was incalculable. The two 
composers met at the time when new musical tendencies were 
beginning to arouse violent controversy. At the age of twenty- 
one Joachim had produced in his Hungarian Concerto a work of 
high cbssical mastery and great nobility, and his technique in 
form and texture was then considerably in advance of Brahms's. 
For some years Joachim and Brahms interchanged contrapuntal 
exercises, and many of the greatest and most perfect of Brahms's 
earlier works owe much to Joachim's criticism. Yet it is 
impossible to regret that Joachim did not himself carry on as 
a composer the work he so nobly began, when we realize the 
enormous influence of his playing in the history of modem music. 
By it we have become familiar with a standard of truthfulness 
in performance which all the generous efforts of Wagner and 
Liszt could hardly have rendered independent of their own 
special propaganda. And by it the record of classical music has 
been made a matter of genuine public knowledge, with a unique 
freedom from those popularizing tendencies which invest vulgar 
error with the authority of academic tmth. 

In this respect there is a real change in the nature of modem 
musical culture. No serious composer at the present day would 
dedicate a great work to an artist who, like F. C16ment, for whom 
Beethoven wrote his Violin Concerto, would perform the work 
in two portions and between them play a sonata for the violin 
on one string with the violin upside down. But it is hardly 
true that Wagner and Liszt produced a real alteration in the 
standard of general culture among musicians. Their work, 
especially Wagner's, appealed, like Gluck's, lo many specific 
literary and philosophical interests, and they themselves were 
brilliant talkers; but music will always remain the most self- 
centred of the arts, and men of true culttire will measure the 
depth and range of the musician's mind by the spontaneity 
and truthfulness of his musical expression rather than by his 
volubility on other subjects. The greatest musicians have not 
often been masters of more than one language; but they have 
always been men of true culture. Their humanity has been 
illuminated by the constant presence of ideab which their 
artistic mastery keeps in touch with reality. 

Chkonolocical Tablb 

Pythagoras, c. 582-500 B.C. Deteraiincs the ratios of the diatonic 

scale. 
Aristoxcnus, JL 320 B.C. Our chief authority On classical Greek 

music 
Ptolemy, fl. a.d. 130. Astronomer, geographer, matnematician 

and writer on music. Reforms the Greek modes so as to prepare 

the way for the ecclesiastical modes. 
St Ambrose. Anangcs the Ambrosian tones of church music, 

A.D. 384. 

Hucbatd, c. 840-030. Systematixer of Diaphmia or Organum 
(called by htm Sympkonia), and inventor of a simple and in- 
genious notation which did not survive him. 



82 

Guido of Arezio, c. 9QO-ioy>. Theorist and lyitenuitiaer of musical 
notatkm and solmisation. 

Franco of Colocne. nth century author of treatises on musical 
rhythm. Works under the name of Franco appear at dates 
and places which htfve led to the assumption of the existence of 
three di£Ferent authors, who, however, have been partly 
expkJned away again; and the i ith century is sometimes called 
the Franconian period of discant. 

Ducantus posiHo vulgaris. An anonymous treatise written before 
1 150; IS said to contain the earliest rules for " measured muuc," 
t.t. ior music in which different voices can sins diferent rhythms. 

The Reading MS., c. 13^ (British Museum, MS. HarL, 978, foL 1 1 b.), 
contains the rou ' Sumer b icumen in.'* 

Walter Odinston, JL 1280. English writer on music, and composer. 

Adam de la Hale, 1230-1388 ) Connecting-links between the trouba- 

Machault, JL 1350 jdours and the archaic contrapuntists. 

John Dunstable, died t4«. English contmpuntal composer. 

G. Dufay, died 1474. Netherland contrapuntal composer. 

(These two are the prindral founders of artistic counterpoint.) 

Josquin Des Pr^ 1445-1521. The fint great composer. 

Masters of the (}oldem Acs 
(In the following list when a name b not qualified as " church 
composer " or *' madrigalist," the composer b equally great in both 
fines; but the qualification must not be taken as exclusive.] 

NeUUrlamd MasUrs. 
J. Arcaddt, e. 1314-1560. Madrigalbt. 
Clemens non Papa, died before 1558. 
Orlando di Lasso, bom between 1520 and tsyf\ died 1594. 
Jan P. Sweelinck, 1563-1621. Organist, theorist and church com- 
poser. 

French Masters, 

E. Onet. sumamed Carpentrasso,/!. i«20. Church com p oser. 
C. Coudimel. Killed in the massacre 01 Lyons, 1572. 

Italims Masters. 
Palestrina, c. 1525-159^ 
L. Mamuio. c. 1560; died 1590. 

Anerio, Felice c. 1 560-1630, and G. Francesco, e. 1567-1620, brothers. 
Church composers. 

Spanish Masters. 

C. Morales, 1512-1553 1 i?«.i,,„'v.i„ rh..«.h r»«> 

F. Guerrero, c. 1528-1599 }-"S!2r ^ 
T. L. de Victoria or Vittoria, ft. 1580 J t>oten. 

English Masters. 
T. Tallb, c. 1515; died 1585. Church composer. 
W. Byrd, 1542 or 1 543-1 633. Greatest as church coinpoMr. 
J, Wilbye, iri6oo. Madrigalbt. 
T. Morlqr, C 1590. Theorist and madrigalist. 
Orlando Gibbons, 1583-1625. 

German Masters, 
J. Handl, or Gallus, e. t5y>-iS9i- 
Hans Leo Hasler or Hasslcr, 1564-1612. Church 

G. Aidunger, c. 1565-1628. Church composer. 

The Monodists 

Cavalieri's La Rappresentaaione di Anima e di Corpo^ posthumously 
produced in 1600. The first oratorio, one of the first works 
dependent on instrumenul accompaniment, and one of the 
first with a ^' figured bass " i n dicating by figures what chords 
are to be used. 

Peri's £Mf»i«M, 1600. The first opera. 

Monteverde, 1567-1643. Great pioneer of modem harmony. 
The Renaissance op Texture 

H. SchQtx, 1585-1672. Combines monodic and polyphonic prin- 
ciples in German church music and lulian madrigaL 

G. Frescobakii, J 583-1644. Organ composer. 

Alessandro Scarlatti, 1650-1735. Founder of the ana-form of 
Handelbn opera, anc o the Neapolitan school of composition. 

1. B. Lulli. 1633-1687. The first classic of French opera. 

H. PuroeU, c. 1658: died 1695. 

A. Corelli, 1653-1713. The fint dasdc of the violin in the forms 
of suite (or sonata da camera), sonata da chiesa and ooncerto. 

F. Couperin, 1668-1 733. French composer of suites (erdres) and much 
addicted to giving fanciful titles to hb pieces which are some- 
times " programme music " in fact as well as name. 

J. P. Rameau, 1683-1764. French opera writer, harpsichordist and 
theorist. 

D. Buxtehude, 1637-1707. 

tS. Bach, 1685-1750. 
. F. Handel, 1685-1759- 

The Sonata Epoch 
Domenioo Scarbtti. 1685-1757. son of Alessandro. Harpdchocd 

virtuoso and master of a specbl cariy tvpc of sonata. 
K. Philipp Emanuel Bach, 1714-1788. third son of Sebastbn Bach. 

The principal pioneer of the sonau style. 
C. W. Gluck. 1714-1787. Reformer of opera, and the fint classic of 

essentbUy dramatic music 
F. J. Haydn, 1733-1809. 



MUSIC IRECENT MUSIC 

W. A. Moart, 1 756-1 791. 
Beethoven, 1770-1827. 

Cherubini, 1760-1842. A daanc of French opera and of church 
music 

The Lyric and Dramatic or " Romantic *' Period 

[Tn th]> list the only quniUhriic'iont dv^n are those of which the 
coiHiEik'K conditiont of niixlcrii art nuikir definition easy as wdl as 
dt^ir-Lbk% and. ^ thmu^huut" this tdblt.% the definitions must not 
be uikin a* t'lcluisivL', The tboice of nnmbes is, however, guided 
bv \^ different dcvckipcntnt^ neyti-vrrtcd: thus accounting for 
gprinij omiwium and artmit didpfopcirtkfni.) 
\V\Ut, ipS^-iflift, Master of ruituotic cipcra. 
Sell!] lien, i797'iij8. The dawc of wfig. 
MctidcWhn, iflo(>-ifl47. 

Ch < »pi n , 1 809- 1 h^g* Com poser of pa naf orte tyrica. 
B« rjjof, iilo3-ift69. Ma^cr of iuipucsuiiiniiL occhestratioo. 
Schunvinn. iSio-iS^, 

\V J ^ i3i-r. J 8 1 3- 1 B0A> Achif vn ^bwl ut t u luon of music with drama. 
\l'.r., iSt i-iaS6. Tiaoofonc vijttioio and pioneer of the symphonic 

poem. 
Bruckner, 1 824-1 896. The symphonist of the Wa^;nerian party. 



Brahms, 1833-1897. Clasucal symphonic and lync composer. 
Joachim. 1811-1907. Violinist, composer and teacher.^ Brahma's 

chief fellow-worker in continuing the classical tradition. 
Tschalkovsky, 1840-1893. 
Dvof&k. 1841-1904. 

Richard Strauss, 1864^ Development of the symphonk: 

poem. (D. F. T.) 

I!.— Recent Music 

Under separate bkwraphKal headings, the work of the chief 
modem composers in different countries is dealt with ; and here it 
will be sufiiocnt to indUate the general current of the art. and to 
mention some of the more prominent among recent composers. 

Germany.— On the death of Brahms, the great German composers 
seemed, at the close of the 19th century, to have left no successor. 
Such merely epigonal finires as A. Bungert (b. 1846) and Cvrill 
Kistler (1848-1907) could not be regarded as important; and E. 
Humperdinck's (b. 1854^) striking succen with Hdnsel und GretH 
(1893) ^ff^^ A solitary triumph in a limited genre. The outstanding 
figure, at the opening of the 20th century, was Richard Strauss {q.v.) : 
but it was not so much now in composition, as in the high excel- 
lence of executive art, that Germany still kept up her hegemony in 
European muuc, by her schools, her great conductors and instru- 
mentalists, and her devotion as a nation to the production of musical 



France, — ^From the earliest days of their music, the French have 
had the enviable power of asumilatiut the great inrtovatums which 
were originated in other countries, without losing their habit of 
warmly appreciating that which their own countrymen produce. 
Thar which happened with the Netherlandish composers of the 
i6th century, and with LuUi in the 17th,'' was repeated, more or 
IcM exactly, with Rossini in the eariy part of the 19th century and 
with Wagner at its close. During the last quarter of the 19th 
century tA\ that b re pr e se n ted bv the once-adored name of Gounod 
was discarded in favour of a style as different as possible from his. 
The change was mainly due to the Belgian musician, C6sar Auguste 
Franck (1823-1890), who esUblished a kind of informal school of 
symphonic and orchestral composition, as opposed to the con- 
venuonal methods pursued at the Paris Conservatoire. Massenet 
was left as almost the only represenUtive of the okier school, and 
from Edouard Lalo (182^-1892) to G. Charpentier (b. i860), all 
the younger composers of France adopted the newer atyle. With 
these may be mentioned Alfred Bruneau (b. 1857), and Gabriel 
Faur6 (b. 1845). Camille Saint-Safais (b. 1835)1 however, remained 
the chidt representative of the sound school 01 composition, if only 
by reason of hb greater command of resources of every lund and 
his success in all forms of musk. Amona the newer school of 
composers the most original unquestionably was Debussy iq.v.), 
and among others ninv be mentionwi Ernest Reyer fb. 1823), the 
auLh..i- ,,i( i<jfTJc iinMiii/i:- r 1 ■ .. 'peras; F. L. V. dc Jood^rcft 
(b. i?j'/l. an ^rtthuii-LiiK' [..'I' ^^'.r -i Wagner, and a compoaer of 
mcfii; £non^(^I Cliabner UU^t 'iir'v4)i a man of extraordinary 
gift^ «hD vftitc one of the Upv^t uph-^js comiquestA modem times, 
Li R<fi mateti lui {iMj); Chit\ci Mint: Wkk)r (b. 1815), an eantest 
mti^iniin of gixat acroniplii»hinent; and Vincent d'lndy (b. 1851). a 
st^<:Kl^K' oriiina) writif « alike in drams tic, orchestral and chamber 
comix i^itioTii, Tft ih* tUsa ol lighter musk, which yet lies above 
the kvul of ffp*ra boitfft, mention muftt be made ol lAo Delibcs 
(1856-1*91 > and Andf* Mc«Mgcr (b. 1855). In describing the 
stntc of muHC in Fnrffi* it would be wrong to pass over the work 
done by i he ervat conductors of various popular orchestral concerts, 
such a» juUr^ E T'a<^dnup ( 1619-1 SB;), Chas. Lamoureux (1834- 
1899), And Judi*|£d-iuardl Colondc (b- 1838). 

/ii^.— In Ualy during the bit qiuirter-of the t9th oeutury 
many important chan^^et took pbcc. The later development in 
the ityk ot Verdi {\jv.\ wis only completed in Oldio (1887) and 
FelitQff (1S93^. while hU b« composition, the four beautiful sacred 
vocal work*, ihow how very Ur be had advanced in revTrence. 



RECENT MUSICJ MUSIC 

nGdity at atyle and impretriveness, from the t!nie when he wrote 
hi» euficr operu. An4 Arrigo BoHo't Me/UteftU had an immenie 
tnflnrnrr on modern Italian music. AmoM the irriten of " abeo* 
lute " moic the most iUustriotts are G. ^ambati (b. 1843) and 
G. Martocci (b. 18^6). the latter** symphonv in D minor being a 
iae worlc Meanwhile a younger operatic achocrf was growing up. 
of ^licb the fint production was the ^ora mirabilu of Spiro 
Samara (b. 1861). given in 1886. Its culmination was in the 
C«mlUria rusticama (1890) of Pietro Mascagni (b. 1863), the 
Fa^tacd (1892) of R. Leoncavallo (b. 1858), and the operas- of 
Gixooio Puccini (b. 1858). noubly Le Viiit (1884). Uamom LesauU 
(1893). La Bohhme (ite6). Tosca (1900), and Madama BuiUrfiy 
(1904). The oratorios of Don Lorenao Perosi (b. 1872) had an inter- 
esting influence on the church muuc of Italy (see Palistrina). 

nsno. — ^The new Russian school of music orieinated with M. A. 
Balaldnev (b. 1 836), who was instrumental in founding the Free 
School of Music at St Petersburg, and who introduced the music 
of Berfioa and Lisit into Russia; he instilled the principles of 



83 



'advanced** music into A. P. Borodin (1834-1887). C. A. Cui 
(b. i8a5). M. P. Moussorgsky (1839-1881). and N. A. 'Rimsky- 
Kocsakov (1844-1908). all of whom, as usual with Russian oom- 



poaer». were, strictly speaking, amateura in muuc, having some 
other profesnon in the absence of any possible opportunity for 
making moficy out of music in Russia. The most remarkable 
nan amoiw their cootempoiaries was undoubtedly Tschaikovsky 
(f.7.)« A. Liadov (b. 1855^ exccb as a writer for the pianoforte, 
andA.GIaiDuaov(b. 1865) has composed a number of fine ofchestial 



VnUei States. — Of the older American composera, only John 
Knowles Paine (d. IQ06) and Dudley Buck (d. 1909). both bom in 
iS^. and Benjamin Johnson Lang (1837-1909), niecd be mentioned. 
Fame, profeaaor of music at Harvard University, and composer 
of oratorios, orchestral music. Ac., ranks irith the advanced school 
d romantic c om p o s e r a. Dudley Buck was one of the firat American 
c omp ua enfc whose names were known in Europe; and if his numerous 
camatas and church music do not reach a very high standard accord- 
is^ to modem ideas, he did much to conquer Uie general apathy 
with refold to the existence of original music in the States. Lang, 
pramiaent as organist and conductor, also became distinguished as 
a com p oser. George Whitefield Chadwick (b. 1854) has produced 
casay ofcheatral and vocal works of original merit. Though the 
woriu of Clayton Johns (b. 1857) are less ambitbus. they have 
V09 more popularity in Europe, and his songs, like those of Arthur 
Foote (b. 1853). Reginaki De Kovenjb. 1850). and Ethelbert Nevin 
(1862-1901). are widely known. Edward Alexander McDowell 
Cfs.) may be regardcci as the most original modem American 
iposer. Walter Johannes Damrosch Tb. 1862), the eminent 
doctor of the New York Symphony Orchestra, and of various 
oiKfatJC npdertakings, has established his position as an original 
and poetic composer, not only by his opera. The Scarlet Letter^ but 
bv such soms a» the intensely dramatic " Danny Deever." Dr 
Honiio WilCam Parker's (b. 186^) oratorio settings of the hymn 
^ Hora novissinia " and of " The wanderer's Psalm are deservedly 
pofMlar. Their masterly workmanship and his power of expressbn 
n acred music mark nim as a distinct personality. Numerous 
orchesxial as well as vocal works have not been heard out of America. 
b«t a group of songs, newly set to the words of familiar old English 
(fitties. have obtamed great success. Mrs H. H. A. Beach, the 
yoiagcst of the p«pminent composers of the United States and an 
aoeompGsbed ptanbt. has attained a high reputation as a writer 
b aD the more ambitious forms of music. .Many of her songs and 
aaihems have obtained wkk popularity. The achievements of the 
Uaiicd States are, however, las marked in the production of new 
cwaposers than in the attention which has been paid to musical 
edflcatioo and appndation generally. Henry E. Krehbiel (b. 1854), 
the vcO-kaown critic, was especially prominent in drawing American 
atieatwn to Wagner and Brahms. The New York Opera has been 
■ade a centre for the finest artisu of the day, and the symphony 
concerts at Boston and Chicago have been unrivalled for excellence. 
It is worthy of note that no country has produced a greater number 
of the most eminent of recent singers. Mesdamea E. Eames, 
Nordka, Minnie Hauck, Susan Strong. Suaanne Adams, Sybil 
Sanderson. Ertber Palliser, Evangeline Tlorence. and very many 
aorr amonff leading sopranos, with Messrs E. E. Oudin, D. Bispham 
and Denis (rSuUIvan, to name but three out of the host of excellent 



( artsts, proved the natural ability of the Americans in vocal 
•laic; and it might also be said that the more notable English- 
^peaki^ popib of the various excellent French schook of voice- 
p CDd n c ti on are American with hardly an exceptbn. 

United Ktagdom, — English munc requires more detailed notice, 
if osiy because oc the striking change in the natbnal feeling with 
regard to it. The nation had been accustomed for so bng to 
cannder moaic aa an exotic, that* notwithstanding the glories of 
the older schoob of Erielish music, the amount of attentbn paid to 
everything that came from abroad, and the rich treasures 01 tradi- 
!iaBa] amfdistinctively English music scattered through the country, 
(he.majortty of educated people adhem! to the common belief that 
England was not a musical country.^ The beauty and the enormous 
' ' d traditional Irish music, the enthusiasm created in 
I by trampery soofs written in what was supposed to be 



an imitatkm of the Scottish style, the exbieooe of the Welsh 
Eisteddfodau, were admitted facts; but England was supposed to 
have had no share in these gifts of nature or art, and the vogue of 
foreign music, from Italian opera to classical symphonlea, was held 
as evidence of her poverty, instead of beinn partly the reason of 
the national sterility. In the sucoeasive periods during which the 
music of HaiKlel and Mendelssohn respectively had been heU aa 
all-sufficient for right-thinking muaidans. success oouki only be 
attained, if at all, by those Enelish musicians who deKbentely set 
themselves to copy the style 01 these neat masters;, the few men 
who had the deteminatbn to resist the popular movement were 
either confined, like the Wealeys, to one branch of music in which 
some originali^ of thought was still albwed, that of the Church, 
or, like Henry Hugo Pienon in the days of the Mendelssohn wonhip, 
were driven to seek abroad the recofrnitbn they could not obtam 
at home. For a time it seemed as u the great vogue of Gounod 
would exalt him into a third artistic despot; but no native com- 
poser had even the energy to imitate hb Famst; and, by thi date 
of The Redtmption (1882) and Mcft tt vita (1885), a renaisianoe of 



Eiwlish music had already begun. 

For a generation up to the eighties the affairs of foreign open 
in' England were rather depressing; the rival houses oresided over 
by the impresarios Frederick Gye (1810-1878) and Colonel J. H. 
Mapleson (i 828-1901) had been going from bad to worse; the 
traditions of what were called *' the palmy days ** had been for^ 
gotten, and with the retirement of Christine Nilaaoo in 1881, and 
the death of Therese J. A. Tietjens in 1877, the race of the great 
queens of song seemed to have come to an end. It is true that 
Mme Patti was in the plenitude of her fame and powers, but the 
number of her iroperumatbtts, perfect as they were, was so small 
that she abne could not support the weight of an opera season, 
and her terms «niade it impossible for any manager to make both 
ends meet unless the rest of the company were chosen on the 
principle enunciated by the husband of Mme Catalan!. ** Ma femme 
et quatre ou dnq poupies.*' Mme Albani (b. 1851) bad made her 
name famous, but the most important part of her artistic career 
was yet to Come. She had already brought Tamnhdusar and 
Lohengrin into notice, but in Italian versbns, as was then usual 
and the great vogue of Wagner's operas dkl not bonn until the seriei 



of Waaner oonceru given at the Royal Albert Hall in 1877 with 
the object of collecting funds for the preservation of the Bayreuth 
scheme, which after the productbn 01 the Nibdungen trilogy in 
1876 had become involved in serious financial dimculties. The 
two seasons of German (^lera at Drury Lane under Dr Hans Richter 

S). 1843) in 1882 and I884, and the productbn of the trilogy at 
er Majesty's in 1882^ under Angdo Neumann's managership, first 
taught stay-at-home Englishmen what Wagner really was. aiid an 
Italian opera as such iue, witb Italian as the ^exclusive langua^ 
employeo and the old * star " system in full swing) ceased to exist 
as a re^lar institutbn a few yean after that. The revival of 
publb interest in the opera only took place after Mr (afterwards 
Sir) Augustus Harris (1852-1896) had atarted hia aeries of operas 
at Drury Lane in 1887. In the foUowing season Harris took 
Covent Garden, and since that time the (^lera has been restored 
to greater publb favour than it ever enjoyed, at all events since the 
days of Jeimy Lind. The clever mana^ saw that the publb 
was tired of operas arranged to suit the views of the prima donna 
and no one elsCf and he cast the works he produced, among which 



were Un BaUo tn masckera and Les HngutkolSt with due aftentbn 
to every part. The brothers Jean and Edouard de Reask^, both 
of whom had appeared in London befor e t he former as a bairitone 
and the latter during the seasons 1880-1884 — were even stronger 
attractions to the musical publb of the tune than the varbua 
leading sopranos, among whom were Mme Albani, Miss M. Mac- 
intyre, Mme Melba, Frau Sucher and Mme Nordica, during the 
earlier seasoiu, and Mme Eames. Mlb Ravocli, MM. Lassalle and 
P. H. Plan^on. and many other Parisian favouritea later. As 
time went on, the excellent custom obuined of giving each work 
in the language in whbh it was written, and among tht oistinguished 
Carman artists who were added to the company *vere Frau M. 
Temina, Frau E. Schumann*Heink, Frau Lilli Lebmann and many 
more. Since Harris's death in 1806 the traditbns started by him 
were on the wbob well maintained, and as a sign of the difference 
between the present and the former positbn of English composers, 
it may be mentioned that two operas by F. H. Cowen. Signa and 
Harold, and two by Stanford, The Veiled Prophet and Mnch Ado 
about Nothing, were produced. To Signor Lago, a manager ^ of 
more enterprue than good fortune, belongs the credit of reviving 
Cluck's Orfea (with the mastcriy impersonatbn of the principal 
character by Mlb Giulia RavoglO. and of bringing out CaeoUeria 
ruslieana, Tschaikovricy's Bugen Onegin and other works. 

If it be just to name one institution and one man as the creator 
of such an atmosphere as albwed the genius of English composen 
to flourish, then that honour must be paid to the Crystal Palace 
and August Manns, the conductor of its Saturday concerts. At 
first engaged as sub-conductor, under a certain bchallehn, at the 
building whbh was the lasting result of the Great Exhib«tbn of 
1851, he became director of the musb in 1855; so for the better 

Krt of half a century his influence was exerted on behalf of the 
■t musb of all schools, and especially in favour of anything of 



84 



MUSIC 



IRECENT MUSIC 



English growth. Through evil report and good report he tapported 
his convictions, and for many years he introduced one English 
composer after another to a fame which they would have found it 
hard to gain without his help and that of Sir George Grove, his 
loyal supporter. In 1862, when Arthur Sullivan had just returned 
from his studies in LeipjEig, his Tempest music was produced at the 
Crystal Palace, and it is oeyond question that it was this success 
and that of the succeeding works from the same hand which first 
showed Englishmen that music worth listening to might be pro- 
duced by an English hand. Sullivan reached the hignest point of 
bu achievement in The Golden Legend (1886), his most imporUnt 
contribution to the music of the renaissance. An important part 
of the Crystal Palace music was that the concerts did not follow 
but led, popular taste; the works of Schubert, Schumann ana 
many other great masters were given constantly, and the whole 
repertory of classical music was cone through, so that a constant 
attendant at these concerts would have become acquainted with 
the whole range of the best class of music. From 1859 onwards 
the classical chamber-music could be heard at the Popular Concerts 
started by Arthur Chappcll, and for many yeare their repertory 
was not Ins catholic than that of the Crystal Palace undertaking; 
that in later times the habit increased to a lamentable extent of 
choosing only the " favourite " {i.e. hackneyed) works of the great 
masters does not lessen the educational value of the older concerts. 
The lovers of the newer developments of music were always more 
fully satisfied at the concerts of the Musical Union, a body founded 
by John Ella in 1844. which lasted until 1880. From 1879 onwards 
the visits o( Hans Richter, the conductor, were a feature of the 
musical season, and the importance of his work, not only in spread- 
ing a love of Wagner's music, but in regard to every other branch 
of^the best orchestral music, cannot be exaggerated. Like the 
popular concerts, the Richter concerts somewhat fell away in 
later years from their original purpose, and their managers were 
led by the popularity of certam pieces to give too little variety. 
The importance of Richter's work was in bringing forward the finest 
Englbh music In the years when the masters of the renaissance 
were young and untried. Here were to be heard the orchestral 
works of Sir Hubert Parrv, Sir Charles Villiers Stanford, Sir A. 
Campbell Mackenzie and Dr F. H. Cowen ; and the names of these 
composers were thus brought into notice much more effectually 
than could have been the case in other surroundings. Meanwhile 
outside London the work of the renaissance was beii^ carried on, 
notably at Cambridge, where by the amalgamation of various 
•m^ler societies with the University Musical Society, Stanford 
created in 1875 a splendid institution which did much to foster a 
love of the best music for many years; and at Oxford, where private 
meetings in the rooms of Hubert Parry brought about the institu- 
tion of the Musical Club, which has borne fruit in many wajrs, 
though only in the direction of chamber-music. The Bach Choir, 
founded by Mr Arthur Duke Coleridge in 1875, &nd conducted for 
the first ten years of its existence by Mr Otto Goldschmidt and 
subsequently oy Professor Stanford, worked on purely uncommercial 
lines ever since its foundation, and besides many important works 
of Bach, it brought forward most important compositions by 
Englishmen, and daA a prominent share in the work of the renais- 
sance. Parry's earlier compositions had a certain austerity in 
them which, while it commanded the homage of the cultivated few, 
prevented their obtaining wide popularity; and it was not until 
the date of his choral setting of Milton's Ode at a Solemn Mustek 
that he found his true vein. In this and its many successors, 
produced at the autumn festivals, though very rarely given in 
London, there was a nobility of utterance, a suolimity 01 concep- 
tion, a mastery of resource, that far surpass anything accomplished 
in Ensland since the days of Purcell ; while his " Symphonic Varia- 
tions for orchestra, and at least two of his symphonies, exhibit 
his command of the modem modifications of classical forms in 
great perfection. Like Parry, Stanford first caught the ear of the 

?ublic at la^e with a choral work, the stirring ballad-setting of 
'cnnyson's Revenge; and in all his earlier and uter works alike, 
which include compositions in every form, he shows himself a 
supreme master of effect ; in dramatic or lyrical handling of voices, 
in orchestral and chamber-music, his sense of beauty is unfailing, 
and while his ideas have real distinction, his treatment of them is 
nearly always the chief interest oi his works. The work of the 
musical renaissance has been more beneficially fostered by these 
two masters than by any other individuals, through the medium 
of the Royal College of Music. In 1876 the National Training 
School of Music was opened with Sullivan as principal; he was 
succeeded by Sir John Stainer in 188 1, and the circumstance that 
such artists as Mr Eugen d'Albert and Mr Frederic Cliffc received 
there the foundation oftheir musical education is the only important 
fact connected with the institution, which in 1882 was succeeded 
by the Royal College of Music, under the directorship of Sir George 
Grove, and with Parry and Stanford as professors of composition. 
In 1894 Parry succeeded to the directorship, and before and after, 
this date wonc of the best educational kind was done in all branches 
of the art, but most of all in the important branch of composition. 
Mackenzie's place among the masters of the renaissance is assured 
by his romantic compositions for orchestra — such as La Belie dame 
tans merci and the two " Scottish Rhapsodies "; some of his choral 



works, such as the oratorios, show some tendency to fall back into 
the conventionalities from which the renaissance movement was an 
effort to escape; but in The Cottar's Saturday Night; The Story of 
Sayid; Veni, Creator Spiritus, and many other things, not except- 
ing the opera Colomba or the witty " Britannia " overture, he shows 
no lack of spontaneity or power. As principal of the Royal Academy 
of Music (he succeeded Macfarrcn m 1888) he revived the former 
glories of the school, and the excellent plan by which it and the Royal 
College unite their forces in the examinations of the Associated 
Board is largely due to his initiative. The opera just mentioned 
was the first of the modem series of English operas brought out 
from 1883 onwards by the Cari Rosa company during iu tenure 
of Dniry Lane Theatre: at the time it seemed as though English 
opera had a chance of getting permanently established, but the 
enterprise, being a purely private and individual one, failed to have 
a lasting effect upon the art of the country, and after the production 
of two operas by Mackenzie, two by Arthur Goring Tliomas, one 
by F. Corder, two by Cowen and one by Stanford, the artistic 
work of the company grew gradually less and less important. In 
spite of the strong influence <a French ideals and methods, the music 
of Arthur Goring Thomas was remarkable for individuality and 
charm; in any other country his beautiful opera Esmeralda would 
have formed part of the regular repertory; and his orchestral 
suites, cantatas and a multitude (rf graceful and original songs, 
remain as evidence that if his career had been proloi^ed, the art 
of Eng^land might have been enriched by some masterpiece it would 
not willingly nave let die. After a youth of extraordinary pre- 
cocity, and a number of variously successful attempts in the more 
ambitious and more serious branches of the art, Cowen found his 
chief success in the treatment of fanciful or fairy subjects, whether 
in cantatas or orchestral works; here he is without a rival, and his 
ideas are uniformly graceful, excellently treated and wonderfully 
effective. His second tenure of the post of conductor of the Phil- 
harmonic Society showed him to be a fiighly accomplished conductor. 

In regard to English opera two more undertakings deserve to be 
recorded. In 1891 the Royal English Opera House was opened 
with Sullivan's Ivanhoe, a work written especially for the occasion) 
the absence of anything like a repertory, and the retention <rf this 
one work in the bills for a period far 'longer than its attractions 
could warrant, brought the inevitable result, and shortly after the 
production of a charming French comic opera the theatre was 
turned into the Palace Music Hall. The charming and thoroughly- 
characteristic Shamus O'Brien of Stanford was successfully pro- 
duced in 1896 at the Op^ra Comique theatre. This work brought 
into public prominence the conductor Mr Henry J. Wood (b. 1870). 
who exercised a powerful influence on the art of the country by 
means of his orchestra, which was constantly to be beard at the 
Queen's Hall, and which attained, by continual performance 
together, a degree of perfection before unknown in England. It 
achieved an important work in bringing music within the reach oC 
all classes at the Promenade Concerts siven through each summer* 
as well as by means of the Symphony Concerts at other seasons. 

The movement thus started by Mr Wood increased and spread 
remarkably in later years. His training of the Queen's Hall 
Orchestra was characterized by a thoroughness and severity pre- 
viously unknown in Englbh orchestras. This was -partly made 
possible by the admirable business organization which fostered 
the movement in its eariicr years; so many Concerts were guaranteed 
that it was posuble to give the players engagements which iiKluded 
a lar^ amount of rehearsing. The result Was soon apparent, not 
only m the raising of the standard of orchestral playing, but also 
in thp higher and more intelligent standard of criticism to which 
performances were subjected both by experts and by the generaLl 
public. The public taste in London for symphonic music grew so 
rapidly as to encourage the establishment of other bodice of players, 
until in 1910 there were five first-clan professional orchestras 
giving concerts regularly in London — the Philharmonic Society, 
the Queen's Hall Orchestra, the London Symphony Orchestra 
(descnbcd by Dr Hans Richter as " the finest orchestra in the 
worid "), the New Symphony Orchestra under Mr Landon Ronald 
(b. 1873), a composer and conductor of striking ability, and Mr 
Thomas Beecham s Orchestra. Mr Beecham, who had come rapidly 
to the front as a musical enthusiast and conductor, paid special 
attention to the work of British composers. Manchester, Birming- 
ham, Liverpool and Edinbuigh, had their own orchestras; and it 
might be said that the whow of the United Kingdom was now 
permeated with a taste for and a knowledge of orchestral music. 
The effect of this development has influenced the whole of the musical 
life of England. The symphony and the symphonic poem have 
taken the place so long held by the oratorio in popular taste; and 
English composers of any merit or ability find it possible to get 
a hearing for orchestral work which at the end of the 19th century 
would have had to remain unperformed and unheard. The result 
has been the rapid development of a school of English orchestral 
composers — a school of considerable achievement and still greater 
promise. 

The new school of English writers contains many names of 
skilled composers. Sir Edward Elgar established his reputation 
by his vigorous Caractaeus and the grandiose imaginings of his 
Dream of Gerontius, as by orchestral and chamber compositions of 



RECENT MUSiq 

decided merit and individuality, and by being the composer of a 

jiboay which attained greater and wider fame than any Mmilar 

I HAoe tlw symphonies of Ttchaikovsky. Mr Ed wand German 



tyxapboay which attained greater and wider fame than any Mmilar 
work HAoe tlw symphonies of Ttchaikovsky. Mr Ed wand German 
(b. 1862) won great success as a writer of incidental music for plays, 
and in various l»htrr forms of music, for which hb great skill in 
orchestration and his lcrK>wIed|^ of effect stand him in good stead. 
The quality of Mr Frederic Cliffe's orchestral works is extremely 
high. Dr Arthur Somervell (b. 1863). who succeeded Staincr as 
aaskal adviser to the Board of Educatk>n, first came into promi* 
nence as a composer of a number of charming songs, notably a 
fine soog-cycle from Tennyson's Maud, but his Mass and various 
orchestral works and cantatas and pianoforte pieces show his 
conspicuous ability in other forms. Various compositions written 
by Mr Hamish MacCunn (b. 1868). while still a student at the 
Royal College o( Music, were received with acclamation; but his 
bier work was not ot equal value, though his operas Jeanie 
Dt9HS and Diarmid were successful. Mr Granville Bantock 
(b. 186S). srr nrrJcnt sur^r-'^rtrr of t^c vr^rrA 3dvanjrf?d music, has 
written many fine thinp for orch«[ri, jnd Mr SVtHiim Wallace 
(b. lS6ih in varioui orcbesiiral pieces pt;i:y\'iJ d( the Crystal Palace 
and dacvhrrE, and in (uch ihinf^i ai hi^ ^' FrtTLNx^rk^r ' songs, has 
tbovn stzmiig indivklualhy Jnd JmagiTi'aLrDn. Mr Arthur Hinton 
(b. 1 869) &as produced thin?» of bncUul bcjuiy Jnd quaint origi- 
siaCty. Mt» Eihel W, hmyth, who« Uslh wa* pvL-n at the Royal 
.Albert Hall io mwE favourable tondlitiorvi, hnd hir "iiera FanUxsio 
orodacrd at Weimar and Ceirlsruhc, anrj O^f IVnli at Covent 
Garden. Miss Maud Vjkric While'* tf^ctful and L'^.|irtrssive songs 
broGgfat her coiopo$iTiciFii into wjUt por>u]a^ty; am] Mme Liza 
Lebxnajui aade a otw rvpitiaiioh by her cycle* n1 songs after 
her retifaniHil from the prDfc^sicd of a ilnger. The first part of 
Mr S. Coieridge-TiytxV Et>. i«75) ftia-jkiliui ercno was performed 
vhUe be was tiill a student at tne Royal ColVe^, dnd m> great was 
its fK^mJmiity that the third p^rt ar ihe rrili>gy was cr>mmissioned 
for pofoffiWDci^ by the RovAi Chorat Soctety. %f r Cyril Scott is 
a ce m pQB cr who aim« high, though with a «>in€What strained 
originality. Dr H. VVairord Davie* ^b. t&fig) and W. Y. Hurlstonc 
(15/6- Tjjt^.) e-.L'-:'T h ^"^ -kind of chamber-mii:^.iiT and use the 

dasnc iarm^ v,illj , .. L, and Mr U. VaugEiuu Williams, in 
ha soags and other works, has shown periiaps the moat conspicuous 
tafeat amoi^ all of the younger school. 

Ei^Iish executive musicians have never suffered from foreign 
competition in the same degree as Enelish composers, and the 
E&ccess of such singers as Miss Anna Williams, Miss Macintyre, 
Miss Marie Brema. Miss Clara Butt, Miss Agnes Nkrholls, Messrs 
Sastley, Edward Uoyd. Ben Davies, Plunket Greene and Ffrangcon 
Davies; or ot such piamsts as Miss Fanny Davies and Mr Leonard 
Borwick, is but a continuance of the tradition of British excellence. 

The adentifk study of the music of the past has more and more 
decidedly taken its place as a branch 01 musical education; the 
learned writines of W. S. Rockstro (1823-1895), many of them 
stade public first in the Encyclopaedia Briiannica and Grove's 
DicUfmary 0/ Music, made the subiect clear to manv who had been 
grofRSfi; ra the dark before; and the actual performance of old 
EftocK has been undertaken not only by the Bach Choir, but by the 
Magpk l^Iadrigal Society under Mr Lionel Benson's able direction, 
la vocal and instrumental music alike the musical side of the Inter- 
ntsonal Exhibition of 1885 did excellent work in its historical 
ooocerts: and in that branch of archaeology which is concerned 
with the structure and restoration of old musical instruments, 
important work has been done by Mr A. J. Hipkins (1826-1903; 
w k«g ooonectod with the firm of Broadwood), the Rev. F. W. 
Galpin. Arnohl Dolmetsch and others. The formation of the 
Fslk-Smig Society in 1899 drew attention to the importance and 
extent of English traditional music, and did much to popularize 
it with singers of the present day. 

BiBLJOGRAPHY. — Among encyclopaedic dictionaries of music 
Skr George Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians (1878- 
IS«9: new ed. by J. A. Fuller Maitland, 1904-1908), takes the first 
fhcx aiiKrag publications in English, while Robert Eitner's (d. 1905) 
aomtflaental QueUenUxikon (1900-1904), in German, is an authority 
of the 6aL rank. Anaong other modem works of value on various 
accoaats may be mentioned F. J. Fitb's Biographic universeUe dej 
mssidens (and ed.. 1860-186^; supplement by A. Pougin, 1878); 
G. SduHifl^s EncyktoMdie aer gesammUn musikatischen Wissen- 
sciefi (1835-1838); \Icndel and Reissmann's Musikalisches Con- 
^ertdums-tankon (2ml ed., 1883); H. Riemann's Musik-kxikon 
(5^ ed., 1900; also an Eng. trans., with additions, by J. S. Shed- 
lock); the American Cyclopaedia of Music and Musicians (1889- 
la9i} : and the Oxford History of Music (1901-1905). The literature 
^ Boae generally b enormous, but the following selected list of 
sKorlcs on various aspects may be useful : — 

Ae^kaks, Theory, Sfc—H. Ehrlich. Die Musik-Aesthetik in ihrer 
EjUxicidmnr von Kant bis auf die Uegenwart (Leipzig, 1882); E. 
Kaasllck. The Beautiful in Music (London, 1891): R. Wallaschck. 
Ae^iem dcr Tonkunst (Stuttgart. 1886): R. Pohl. Die HdkenzH^e 
der musikaliscken Entwickdunt (Leipzig. 1888): A- Schnez. Die 
Crheimmisse der Tonkunst (Stuttgart. 1891): I. A. Zahm, Sound and 
Mafic (Chicago. 1892): C. Bellaique. Psyckologie musicaie{ Paris, 
1 393): W. Pole, Pkiiosopky of Music (vol. xi. of the English and 
Fardga Philoaophical Library. 1895); M. Seybel, Sckopenkauers 



MUSIC 8 s 

Metapkysik der Musik (Leipzig. 1895); L. Lacombe. Pkihsopkie el 
muswue (Paris. 1896); Sir C. R. H. Parry. The Evolution of the Art 
of Music (London. 1897); H. RiDmann, PraludUn umd Sluditn 

ift*\.(lff^f {Lffipiic, 1^98); SyitcfHBtiahf MaidtiifiiUtnUhrf lil-vmhurg, 
l8fi'7)H ] tr. Lol>r, LthrbuiH der musikalisci^rt Kompv/niion (Lripjcig, 
|8>L^); A^ 1). M4ir:ii, Dit Lekrt Mm der tmtnka.iiii.kirn Kom^Hitf^ik 
(Lcipii^t i%^li it>go); M, L, C. Cherubini'i Thfrtrtt ^1 X^tiifH' 
pu^kus itnd dit fitgr V^tAa^nc, 189O): Sir J. F. BfniKe and F. J« 
Sawyer, A C^furu cf iio-rKiPn^ (Londan, I'l^l; E-_^f€^at^ CvHuUr- 



point (London, 1^190): DpuHc Cimnter point and C^ttmn ^Lritidon, 
i8j3h Musktj Farm (London, 1S9A); Apptiti ferm^ iLontlcrn, 



\%^i\i S. Judas whni Pi* Formcn in den Weaken der iQnkuHii 
(Leipzig, liiias); M. Sieinitfef, Piyekpt^fiiitrhe Wirkungen der mjiiift- 
aliiiken Ff>rmfn [Munich, IS85}; J, Combaricu, Throne da rkytkmt 
dam in eetmpuskiflH m^drrnt d'aprts la dmtrine antigne (Pari*, 
I807K P. Goerurhiii*, Hamcjyh^nt^ Formi of Mmkai Umpinittom 
(Ne* S'^rk, 19*^}; WitlUm VVallace^, The Tknih^Uof Musk (1907). 

£tfc/jjA Muiit. — W. Nagel, Gtickkkle d^f Muiilt in En^liind 
(Sin^^lnjrfi liitiO; II Pnvf-v, Ifnisiry of En^^Iisk Mitik (London, 
18 - S 1 « r 1 ; f British Muue (Loadcin, iSqfJh 

S. Vjut\'ii, L L.v<t.\iu:n *ir jii j'H ?+ 1 fjj MS f )i Angifttrpf {BeuiAcitt i9O0h 
Ernest Walker. English Music (1907)- 

America.^yN. S. B. Mathews. A Hundred Years of Music in 
America (Chicago, 1889): L. C. Elson, Tke National Music of 
America and its Sources (Boston. 1900): T. Baker. Ober die Musik 
der nord-amerikaniscken Wilden (Leipzig, 1882). 

Prance. — H. Laroix. La Musique fran^aise (Paris. 1891): N. M. 
Schlettercr, Studien tur Cesckickte der frantostschen Musik (Berlin, 
1884-1885); T. Galino, La Musique fran^aise au moyen Age (Leipzig, 
1890); A. Cc^nard, De la Musique en France depuis Rameau (niris. 
1891); G. Servieres, La Musique franfaise moderne (Paru, 1897). 

Germany. — W. Baeumker. Ueschickte der Tonkunst in Deulsckland 
his tur Reformation (Freiburg. 1881): O. Ebbcn, Der volkslkumliche 
deutscke Mdnnergesang (Tubingen. 1887) ; L. Mcinardus. Die deutuht 
Tonkunst; A. Soubies, aistoire de la musique allemande (Paris, 1896). 

Italy.— O. Chilesotti, / nostri maestri del passato (Milan, 1882); 
V. Lee, // Settecento in Italia (Milan, 1881): G. Masutto. / Maestri 
di musica italiani del secolo XIX. (Venice, 1882). 

Russia. — ^A. Soubies, Histoire de la musique en Russie (Paris, 
1898). 

Scandinana. — A. GrSnvoed, Norske Musikere (Christiania. 
i88t); C. Valentin, Studien Uber die sckwediscken Volksmelodien 
(Leipzig, 1885). 

Spain.—]. F. Riaik). NoUs on Early Spanish Music (London. 
1887); J. Tort y Daniel. Noticia musical del " Lied " 6 Can^o cata- 
lana (Barcelona, 1892); A. Soubies. Hist, de la mus. en Espagm 



(i85>9). 
Sunt* 



•pagne 



jwitserland. — A. Nigcli, La Musique dans la Suisse allemande 
(1900): F. Held, La Musique dans la Suisse romande (1900); A- 
Soubies. Hist, de la mus. dans la Suisse (1809). 

Church Music.—?. L. Humphreys, The Evolution of Church 
Music (New York, 1808); E. L. Taunton. History of Church Music 
(London. 1887); A. Morsch, Der italieniscke Ktrchengesang bis 
Palestrina (ESorlin^ 1887); G. Masutto. Delia Musica sacra in Italia, 
(Venice, 1889); C Felix, Palestrina et la musique sacrie (Bruges 
1895): R. V. Liliencron. Lilurgisck-musikalische Cesckickte der 
evangelischen Cottesdienste (Schleswig, 1893). 

Instruments (see also the separate articles on each). — L. Arrigoni, 
OreanografUs ossia descrisione dedi instrumenti musicali antichi 
(\lilan, 1881): F. Boudoin, La Musique historique (Paris, 1886); 
A. Jacquot. Etude de fart instrumental. Dictionnaire des instru- 
ments de musique (Paris. 1886); H. Boddington. Catalogue of Musical 
Instruments iuustrative of the History of the Pianoforte (Manchester 
1888); M. E. Brown, Musical Instruments and their Homes (New 
York, 1888); A. J. Hipkins. Musical Instruments: Historic. Rare 
and Unique (Edinburgh. 1888); W. Lynd. Account of Ancient 
Musical Instruments and their DeoelopmeiU (London. 1897); J. 
Weiss, Die musikaliscken Instrumente in den heiligen Schriften des 
Alien Testaments (Graz, 1895); E. Travers, Les Instruments de 
musique au xuf. Steele (Paris. 1882); E. A. v. Hasselt, V Anatomic 
des instruments de musique (Brussels, 1899); E. W. Vemey. Siamese 
Musical Instruments (London, 1888) ; C. R. Day. Music and Musical 
Instruments of Southern India (London, 1891); D. G. Brinton. 
Native American Stringed Musical Instruments (1897) j I. Ruchl- 
mann. Die Geschichte der Boteninstrumente (BrunswicK, 1882); 
F. di Caffarelli. Gli Strumenti aa arco e la musica da camera (Milan. 
1894); KathlMn Schlesineer. Instruments of tke Orchestra (1910). 

Conducting.— VJ. R. Wagner. On Conducting (London, 1887)-. 
M. KuflFerath. VArt de dinger Forchestre (Pans, 1891); F. Wein- 
gartner, Ober das Dirigiren (Beriin. 1896). 

Biography. — F. Hueffer, The Great Musicians (London, 1881- 
1884) ; F. Clement, Les Grands musiciens (Paris, 1882) ; C. E. Bourne, 
Tke Great Composers (London. 1887); G. T. Ferris, Great Musical 
Composers; Sir C. H. H. Parry. Studies of Great Composers (London, 
1887); A. A. Ernouf. Compositeurs ciUbres (Paris, 1888); F. I. 
Bennassi-Desplantes, Les Musiciens ciUbres (Limoges. 1889); 
A. Haunedniche. Les Musiciens et compositeurs francais (Paris, 
1890); N. H. Dole, A Score of Famous Composers (New York, 



86 



MUSICAL-BOX— MUSICAL NOTATION 



1891); L. T. Morris. Famous Musical Composers (London, 1891): 
H. de Br^mont, The World of Music (London. 1892); I. K. Paine. 
Famous Compostrs and their Works (Boston. 1891-1893); E. Polko, 
Meister der Tonkunst (Wiesbaden, 1897); R. F. Sharp. Makers of 
Music (London. 1898); L. Nohl. Mosatk Denksteiue aus dem Lehen 



(Paris. 189a). 

MUSICAL-BOX* an instrument for producing by mechanical 
means tunes or pieces of music. The modem musical-box is 
an elaboration of the elegant toy musical snuff-box in vogue 
during the 18th century. The notes or musical sounds are pro- 
duced by the vibration of steel teeth or springs cut in a comb or 
flat plate of steel, reinforced by the harmonics generated in the 
solid steel back of the comb. The teeth are graduated in length 
from end to end of the comb or plate, the longer teeth giving the 
deeper notes; and the individual teeth are accurately attuned, 
where necessary, by filing or loading with lead. Each tone and 
semitone in the scale is represented by three or four separate 
teeth in the comb, to permit of successive repetitions of the same 
note when required by the music. The teeth are acted upon and 
musical vibrations produced by the revolution of a brass cylinder 
studded with projecting pins, which, as they move round, raise 
and release the proper teeth at due intervals according to the 
nature of the music. A single revolution of the cylinder com- 
pletes the performance of each of the several pieces of music for 
which the apparatus is set, but upon the same cylinder there may 
be inserted pins for performing as many as thirty-six separate 
airs. This is accomplished by making both the points of the 
teeth and the projecting pins which raise them very fine, so that 
a very small change in the position of the cylinder is sufficient 
to bring an entirely distinct set of pins in contact with the teeth. 
In the more elaborate musical-boxes the cylinders are removable, 
and may be replaced by others containing distinct sets of music. 
In these also there are combinations of bell, drum, cymbal and 
triangle effects, &c. The revolving motion of the cylinder is 
effected by a spring and clock-work which on some modern instru- 
ments will work continuously for an hour and a half without 
winding, and the rate of revolution is regulated by a fly regulator. 
The headquarters of the musical-box trade is Geneva, where the 
manufacture gives employment to thousands of persons. 

The mu»<al-tv)K 14 A type of numcroiii inAtrumcriiE lor producing 
mu^ic^l t^tfctU by Trkwh-inkiil fnt-j.n«, in a.{\ qI which a. rwolving 
cylinder or lidfrt^r siuddfi with pins u iht gowrnin^ feaiure- The 
ponTton o( ihe pin« ort the barrtl ia deter mined fay two contidcra- 
tioru: l^ov ct pitnh md of tjme or rhythm. ^ The d^^frc* of 
|)ilch Of scTnitonta af the Acaka are in the ctir«:tic}it ci lti« kngth 
of the ry binder, while ihow of timci. or the beait in the tijir^. arc in 
the path of the revolution of the c>hiKtcr, The act Ian of the pins 
1% practtcalJy the same i<x aU barref instrurnvntT; each pin i«r\'ei to 
T3t»e some part ol the meehdnism (cpt otic note Kl the (txAct moment 
and for the ejuicl duraticm of lirpe r«^uiTi«J hy the fnuuc to be 
played, jficr which, p^iuiAg iilc>n^ wttb ihc revtiluciiUii of the 
fyhnder, il Cuan to ict. The pnncipk <A the baml otM-Tiung 
by friction, by percu^^^n or by wind an reedip pipe^ w » wrings 
govern! cAriHooi or muMcj;^ bcU*, bjtnH rRaiii, merh ■ = ' ' '.es, 
rcj«^liai voicest h^nnonii^hon^^, vi da n-pi^ not Jind ih- sns 

iirid (wlyphoiiA in which n ttymhim^UQti of all ore ht t is 

aurmptccL [n the caiic of wind instruments, t; tet, 

trumiKti^ dsort, tbriEieii, imitated in the more C' ie»- 

tric»nt^ the ptFii raiw? Icven which open the valve* lir, 

rumpreMi^l by mec;lianical ticUow*, to ^urioui kint!'- ■ , .>es, 

iind to others fitted with beitinff and free n'eds. Tht atM.ki used 
lor itrikini^ bclE*, dnimst cymbal* ind triiinKk"* Jitr set in motion 
in a aimiLar m.mner. A fine «rt of lull-paee drawings. pubti*hod at 
Frjnkfort in 1615; mLtkc* the whoVe woTklnc of the pmrn-d bjfrrel 
quite clear, and establUha the exact j-v^ii^n u/ the pin» to the 
music produced by the barrd to unmistakablv that tome bars of 
the piece of music set on the cylinder can be made out.^ The 

Rrotocype of the 19th-century musical-box is to be found in the 
letherlands where durinj^ the i«h century the dukes of Burgundy 
cncourajscd the invention ol ingenious mechanical musical 
curipsities such as " oreans which played of themselves," musical 
snuff-boxes, singing birds, curious cIocks, &c. A principle of more 
recent introduction than the studded cylinder consists of sheets 
of perforated paper or card, somewhat similar to the Jacquard 
apparatus for weaving. The perforations correspond in position 
and length to the pitch and duration of the note they represent, 

* 3ee S. de Caus, Les forces mowanus; and article Barrsl Organ. 



and ai the web or long sheet of paper passes over the instrument 
the pcrforatod holes are brought in proper position and sequence 
under the influence of the suction or pressure of air from a bellows, 
an(] i,hi.r'.-tiy The notes are either directly acted on. as in the case of 
reeJ iri:s[ruiT»Mtts, or the opening and closing of valves set in motion 
levtjr^ OT tjl^'r^te springs which govern specbl notes. The United 
Ststea> are [he original home of the instruments controlled by 
perrcirated p^per known as orfl[uinettes, orsaninas, melodeons. &c. 
All xhcK- (nMruments are being gradually replaced in popular 
favoijf }iy thk: piano-players and the gramophone. (K. S.) 

MUSICAL NOTATION, a pictorial method of representing 
sounds to the ear through the medium of the eye. It is probable 
that the earliest attempts at notation were made by the Hindus 
and Chinese, from whom the legacy was transferred to Greece. 
The exact nature of the Greek notation is a subject of dispute, 
different explanations assigning 1680, 1620, 990. or 138 signals 
to their alphabetical method of delineation. To Boethius we 
owe the certainty that the Greek notation was not adopted by 
the Latins, although it is not certain whether he was the first 
to apply the fifteen letters of the Roman alphabet to the scale 
of sounds included within the two octaves, or whether he was 
only the first to make record of that application. The reduction 
of the scale to the octave is ascribed to St Gregory, as also the 
naming of the seven notes, but it is not safe to assume that such 
an ascription is accurate or final. Indications of a scheme of 
notation based, not on the alphabet, but on the use of dashes, 
hooks, curves, dots and strokes are found to exist as early as 
the 6th century, while specimens in illustration of this different 
method do not appear until the 8th. The origin of these signs, 
known as neumes (i*c{>/iara, or nods), is the full stop ipunctus)^ 
the comma (virga), and the mound or undulating line (c/im^), 
the first indicating a short sound, the second a long sound, and 
the third a group of two notes. The musical intervals were 
suggested by the distance of these signals from the words of the 
text. The variety of neumes employed at different times, and 
the fluctuations due to handwriting, have made them extremely 
difficult to decipher. In the loth century a marked advance 
is shown by the use of a red line traced horizontally above the 
text to give the singer a fixed note (F>fa), thus helping him to 
approximate the intervals. To this was added a second line in 
yellow (for C-ut), and finally a staff arose from the further 
addition of two black lines over these. The difficulty of the 
subject is complicated for the student by the fact that an 
incredible variety of notations coexisted at one period, all more 
or less representing attempts in the direction of the modern 
system. A variety of experiments resulted in the assignment 
of the four-lined staff to sacred music and of the five-lined staff 
to secular music. The yellow and red colours were replaced 
by the use of the letters F and C (fa and ut) on the lines. This 
use of letters to indicate clef is forestalled in a manuscript of 
Guido of Arezzo's Micrologus, dating from the i3th century, in 
which is the famous hymn to St John, printed with neumes on 
a staff of three Hnes (see Guido of Arezzo). The use of letters 
for indicating clefs has survived to the present day, our clef 
signatures being modified forms of the letters C, F and G, which 
have passed through a multitude of shapes. Before the 1 3th 
century there is no trace of a measured notation (t.e. of a 
numerical time division separating the component parts of a 
piece of music). It is at the time of Franco of Cologne * that 
measured music takes its rise, together with the black notation 
in place of neumes, which disappeared altogether by the end of 
the 14th century. Writing four hundred years after St Gregor>', 
Cottonius complains bitterly of the defects in the system of 
neumes: "The same marks which Master Trudo sang a& 
thirds, were sung as fourths by Master Albinus; while Master 
Salomo asserts that fifths are the notes meant, so at last there 
were as many methods of singing as teachers of the art." Pos- 
sibly the reckless multiplication of lines in the staff may have 
contributed to the obscurity of which Cottonius complains. 
In the black notation, which led to the modem system, the 
square note with a tail (^ is the long sound; the square note 

' The principles of Franco are found in the treatises of Walter 
Odington. a monk of Evesham who became archbishop of Canteii>urv 
in laa^ ^ 



MUSIC HALLS 



87 



vitboiit s Ufl M is the brete; and tbe lofenge shape (I) is the 
semibreBt, In a later development there were added the double 
IffHg^Bad the minum (if), Tbe breve, according to Franco of 
Cologne, was the unit of measure. The development of a fixed 
time divisk>n was further continued by Philippe de Vitry. It 
has been noted with well-founded astonishment that at this time 
the double time {i^, two to the bar) was unknown, in spite of 
this being the time used in marching and also illustrated in the 
process of breathing Triple time {i^. three to the bar) was 
regarded as the most perfect because it was indivisible. It was 
as if there lay some mysterious enchantment in a number that 
could not be divided into equal portions without the fraction. 
** Triple time, *' says Jean de Muris, ** is called perfect, according 
to Franco, a man of much skill in his art, because it hath its name 
from the Blessed Trinity which is pure and true perfection." 
Vitry championed the rights of imperfect time and invented 
signs to distingutth the two. The perfect circle O represented 
the p>eifect or triple time; the half circle C the imperfect or 
doable-tizne. This C has survived in modem notation to 
indicate four-time, which is twice double-time; when crossed (( 
it means double-time. The method of dividing into perfect 
and imperfect was described as prolation. The addition of a 
point to the circle or semi-drcle (0 G ) indicated major pro- 
lation; its absence, minor prolation. The substitution of 
white for black notation began with the first year of the 14th 
century and was fully established in the 15th century. 

It has already been shown how the earlier form of alphabetical 
noLatioa was gradually superseded by one based on the attempt 
to rcfwcsent the relative height and depth of sounds pictorially. 
Tbe alphabetical nomenclature, however, became inextricably 
associated with the pictorial system. The two conceptions 
reinforced each other; and from the hexachordal scale, endowed 
with tbe sc^ization of m/, re, mi, fa, sol, la — which was a 
device for identifying notes by their names when talked of, 
niha than by their positions when seen on a page of music — 
arose the use of what are now known as accidentals. Of these 
it may here be said that the flat originated from the necessity 
of sinking the B of the scale in order to form a hexachord on 
the note F in such a way as to cause the semitone to fall in the 
right place — which in the case of all hexachords was between 
tbe third and fourth notes. This softened B was written in a 
rounded form thus: b {rolundttm), while the original B remained 
sqoare thus: b iquadrum). The original conception of the sharp 
was to cross or lattice the sqtiare B, by which it was shown that 
it was neither to be softened nor to remain unchanged. The 
£^ which originated in the loth century, appears to have been 
of far earlier date than the sharp, the invention of which has 
been ascribed to Josquin Des Pris (1450-1531). The B-sharp 
was caEed B canceUatum, the cross being formed thus ^. The 
Bie oC key signatures constructed out of these signs of sharp and 
flat was <A comparatively late introduction. The key signature 
states at the b<^nning of a piece of music the sharps and flats 
which it contains within the scale in which it is written. It is a 
device to avoid repeating the sign of sharp and flat with every 
fiesh occasion of their occurring. The exact distinction between 
what were accidental sharps or flats, and what were sharps or 
flats in tbe key, was still undetermined in the time of Handel, 
who wrote the Suite in E containing the " Harmonious Black- 
smith " with three sharps instead of four. The double bb (some- 
times written b or ^) and the double sharp X (sometimes 
written )jf , "Ijl 01* ^ ) are conventions of a much later date, 
caOed into existence by tbe demands of modem music, while 
tbe ago of natural (q) is the outcome of the original B quadra- 
cioa cr square B \y, 

Tbe systems known as Tonic Sol Fa knd the Galin-Paris- 
Cbr*€ Dsetbods do not belong to the subject of notation, as they 
are ingenious mechanical substitutes for the experimentally devel- 
oped S3rstenis analysed above. The basis of these substitutes 
is the reference oC all notes to key relationship and not to pitch. 
AuTBOKiTiES. — E. David and M. Luwy. Histoire de la notation 
muucale (Fans, 1882); H. Riemann. Nolensckrifl und NotendruKk 
(1696): C. F. Abdy Williams, The Story of Notation (1903); Robert 



Eitner, BibliagFapkii der mutih. Sammelwerke des 16. und 17. Jahr- 
kundrrts (Bcriiti. i«77); Friedrich Chrynnder. " Abriv einer 
G«^hichtc de» MuiikdnickB vom 1 5.-19. Jahrh.," AUitmeine musik- 
aliichi KeiiuHt (Leiptiff. iSto. Noh. 11-16); W. H.James Wealc. 
A Dficnptipt €at*i&fm of Ran Manuscrtpts and Printed Works, 
ehtff^y Utu*pcQl (H»urical Music Loan Exhibition, Albert Hall. 
Lonj .n. Uiiuary-OrtcAier^ 1885)^ (London. 1886); W. Barclay 
Sq jir.v ■ Notra ofi Eifly MtiHc Printing," in tbe Zeitsckrift biblio- 
trc/^i! J, fi. IX. S. iy/'i7i (Londtm, 1896); Grove's DicL (^ Musk. 

MUSIC HALLS. The ^* vaiiciy theatre" or " music-haU " 
of to-day developed out of the " saloon theatres " which existed 
in London about 1830-1840; they owed their form and existence 
to the restrictive action of the " patent " theatres at that time. 
These theatres had the exclusive right of representing what was 
broadly called the " legitimate drama," which ruiged from 
Shakespeare to Monk Lewis, and from Sheridan and Goldunith 
to Kotzebue and Alderman Birch of Comhill, citizen and poet, 
and the founder of the turtle-soup trade. The patent houses 
defended their rights when they were attacked by the " minor " 
and " saloon " theatres, but they often acted in the spirit of 
the dog in the manger. While they pursued up to fine and 
even imprisonment the poachers on their dramatic preserves, 
they too often neglected the "legitimate drama" for the 
supposed meretricious attractions offered by their illegitimate 
competitors. The British theatre gravitated naturally to the 
inn or tavern. The tavem was the source of life and heat, and 
warmed all social gatherings. The inn galleries offered rather 
rough stages, before the Shakespeare and Alleyn playhouses 
were built. The inn yards were often made as comfortable as 
possible for the " groundlings " by layers of straw, but the tavern 
character of the auditorium was never concealed. Excisable 
liquor was always obtainable, and the superior members of the 
audience, who chose to pay for seats at the side of the stage or 
platform (like the " avant-sc^ne " boxes at a Parisian theatre), 
were allowed to smoke Raleigh's Virginian weed, then a novel 
luxury. This was, of course, the first germ of a "smoking- 
theatre." 

WhUc the drama progressed as a recognized public entertam- 
ment in England, and was provided with its own buildings in the 
town, or ceruin booths at the fairs, the Crown exercised its 
patronage in favour of certain individuals, giving them power 
to set up playhouses at any time in any parts of London and 
Westminster. The first and most important grant was made by 
Charles II. to his " trusty and well-beloved " Thomas Killigrew 
" and Sir William Davenant." This was a personal grant, not 
connected with any particular sites or buildings, and is known 
in theatrical history as the " Killigrew and Davenant patent." 
Killigrew was the author of several unsuccessful plays, and Sir 
William Davenant, said to be an illegitimate child of William 
Shakespeare, was a stage manager of great daring and genius. 
Charles II. had strong theatrical leanings, and had helped to 
arrange the court ballets at Versailles for Louis XIV. The 
Killigrew and Davenant patent in course of time descended, 
after a fashion, to the Theatres Royal, Covent Garden and Drury 
Lane, and was and still is the chief legal authority governing 
these theatres. The " minor " and outlying playhouses were 
carried on under the Music and Dancing Act of George II., and 
the annual licences were granted by the local magistrates. 

The theatre proper having emancipated itself from the inn or 
tavem, it was now the tum of the inn or tavem to develop into 
an independent place of amusement, and to lay the foundation 
of that enormous middle-class and lower middle-class institution 
of interest which we agree to term the music hall. It rose from 
the most modest, humble and obscure beginning-^from the 
public-house bar-parlour, and its weekly "sing-songs," chiefly 
supported by voluntary talent from the "harmonic meetings" 
of the " long-room " upstairs, generally used as a Foresters' or 
Masonic club-room, where one or two professional singers were 
engaged and a regular chairman was appointed, to the " assem- 
bly-room " entertainments at certain hotels, where private balls 
and school festivals formed part of an irregular series. The 
district "tea-garden," which was then an agreeable feature of 
suburban life — the suburbs being next door to the city and the 
country next door to the suburbs— was the first to show dramatic 



88 



MUSIC HALLS 



ambition, and to erect in some portion of its limited but leafy 
grounds a lath-and-plaster stage large enough for about eight 
people to move upon without incurring the danger of falling 
off into the adjoining fish pond and fountain. A few classical 
statues in plaster, always sliightly mutilated, gave an educational 
tone to the place, and with a few coloured oil-lamps hung amongst 
the bushes the proprietor felt he had gone as near the ** Royal 
Vauzhall Gardens *' as possible for the small charge of a sixpenny 
refreshment ticket, lliere were degrees of quality, of course, 
amongst these places, which answered to the German beer- 
gardens, though with inferior music. The Beuhh Spa at 
Norwood, the White Conduit House at Pentonville, the York- 
;shire Stingo in the Marylebone Road, the Monster at Pimlico, 
the St Helena at Rotherhithe, the Globe at Mile End, the Red 
Cow at Dalston, the Highbury Bam at Highbury, the Manor 
House at Mare Street, Hackney, the Rosemary Branch at 
Hoxton, and other rus-in-urbe retreats, were up to the level of 
their time, if rarely beyond it. 

The suspended animation of the law — the one Georgian act, 
which was mainly passed to check the singing of Jacobite songs 
in the tap-rooms and tea-gardens of the Uttle London of 1730, 
when the whole population of the United Kingdom was only 
about six millions— encouraged the growth eventually of a 
number of "saloon theatres" in various London districts, 
which were allowed under the head of "Music and Dancing" 
to go as far on the light dramatic road as the patent theatres 
thought proper to permit. The 25 Geo. 11. c 36, which in later 
days was still the only act under which the music halls of forty 
millions and more of people were licensed, was always liberally 
interpreted, as long as it kept dear of politics. 

The " saloon theatres," always being taverns or attached to 
taverns, created a public who liked to mix its dramatic amuse- 
ments with smoking and light refreshments. The prindpal 
" saloons " were the Effingham in the Whitechapd Road, the 
Bower in the Lower Marsh, Lambeth, the Albert at Islington, 
the- Britannia at Hoxton, the Grecian in the City Road, the 
Union in Shoreditch, the Stingo at Paddington and several 
others of less importance. All these places had good com- 
panies, especiaUy m the winter, and many of them nourished 
leading actors of exceptional merit. The dramas were chiefly 
rough adaptations from the contemporary French stage, 
occasionally flying as high as Alexandre Dumas the elder and 
Victor Hugo. Actors of real tragic power lived, worked and 
died in this confined area. Some went to America, and acquired 
fame and fortune; and among others, Frederick Robson, who 
was trained at the Grecian, first when it was the leading 
saloon theatre and afterwards when it became the leading music 
hall (a distinction with little diffeFence), fought his way to the 
front after the abolition of the " patent rights " and was accepted 
as the greatest tragi-comic actor of his time. The Gredan 
saloon theatre, better known perhaps, with its pleasure garden 
or yard, as the Eagle Tavern, City Road, which formed the 
material of one of Charles Dickens's Sketches by Bm^ was a place 
managed with much taste, enterprise and discretion "by its pro- 
prietor, Mr Rouse. It was the " saloon " where the one and only 
attempt, with limited means, was ever made to import almost 
all the original repertory of the Op^ra Comique in Paris, with the 
result that many musical works were presented to a sixpenny 
audience that had never been heard before nor since in England. 
Auber, Harold, Adolphe Adam, Boieldieu, Gr^try, Donizetti, 
Bellini, Rossini and a host of others gave some sort of advanced 
musical education, through the Grecian, to a rather depressing 
part of London, long before board schools were established. 
The saloon theatres rarely offended the patent houses, and when 
they did the law was soon put in motion to show that Shake- 
speare could not be represented with impunity. The Union 
Saloon in Shoreditch, then under the direction of Mr Samuel 
Lane, who afterwards, with his wife, Mrs Sara Lane, at the 
Britannia Saloon, became the leading local theatrical manager 
of his day, was tempted in 1S34 to give a performance of O^A^tfo. 
It was " raided " by the then rather " new police," and all the 
actors, servants, audience, directors and musicians were taken 



into custody and marched off to Worship Street poh'ce station, 
confined for the remainder of the night, and fined and warned 
in the morning. The same and only law still exists for those 
who are hdping to keep a " disorderly house," but there are no 
holders of exdusive dramatic patent rights to set it in motion. 
The abolition of this privileged monopoly was effected about this 
time by a combination of distinguished literary men and drama- 
tists, who were convinced, from observation and experience, that 
the patent theatres had failed to nurse the higher drama, while 
interfering with the benefidal freedom of public amusements. 

The effect of Covent Garden and Drury Lane on the art of 
acting had resulted chiefly in limiting the market for theatrical 
employment, with a consequent all-round reduction of salaries. 
They kept the Lyceum Theatre (or English Opera House) for 
years in the position of a music hall, giving sometimes two 
performances a m'ght, like a " gaff " in the New Cut or Whitc- 
chapeL They had not destroyed the "star" system, and 
Edmund Kean and the boy Betty— the " Infant Roscius " — 
were able to command sensational rewards. In the end Charles 
Dickens, Sir Edward Bulwer-Lytton, Sir Thomas Noon Talfourd 
and others got the patents abolished, and the first step towards 
free trade in the drama was secured. 

The effect of this change was to draw attention to the " saloon 
theatres," where during the performances smoking, drinking, 
and even eating were allowed in the auditorium. An act was 
soon passed, known as the Theatres Act (1843), appointing a 
censor of stage-plays, and placing the London theatres under 
the control of a Crown officer, changing with ministries. This 
was the lord chamborlain for the time bdng. The lord chamber- 
lain of this period drew a hard-and-fast line between theatres 
under his control, where no smoking and drinking were allowed 
" in front," and theatres or halls where the old habits and distoins 
of the audience were not to be interfered with. These latter 
were to go under the jurisdiction of the local magistrates, 
or other licensing authorities, under the 95 Geo. 11. c. 36 — the 
Music and Dancing Act— and so far a divorce was decreed 
between the taverns and the playhouses. The lord chamberlain 
eventually made certain concessions. Refreshment bars were 
allowed at the lord chamberlain's theatres in unobstrusive 
positions, victualled under a special act of William IV., and 
private smoking-rooms were allowed at most theatres on appli- 
cation. AU this implied that stage plays were to be kept free 
from open smoking and drinking, and miscellaneous entertain- 
ments were to enjoy their old social freedom. The position was 
accepted by those " saloon theatres " which were not tempted 
to become lord chamberlain houses, and the others, with many 
additions, started the first music halls. 

Amongst the first of these halls, and certainly the very first 
as far as intelligent management was concerned, was the Can- 
terbury in the Lower Marsh, Lambeth, which was next door 
to the old Bower Saloon, then transformed into a " minor 
theatre." The Canterbury sprang from the usual tavern 
germ, its creator being Mr Charies Morton, who honourably 
earned the name of the " doyen of the music halls." It justified 
its title by cultivating the best class of music, and exposed the 
prejudice and unfairness of Planchd's sarcasm in a Haymarket 
burlesque — " most music hall— most melancholy." Mr Charles 
Morton added pictorial art to his other attractions, and obtained 
the support of Punchy which stamped the Canterbury as the 
" Royal Academy over the water." At this time by a mere 
accident Gounod's great opera of Faustf through defective inter- 
national registration, fell into the public domain in England and 
became common property. The Canterbury, not daring., 
to present it with scenery, costumes and action, for fear of Uie 
Stage-play Act, gave what was called " An Operatic Selection,*" 
the singers standing in plain dresses in a row, like pupils at a. 
school examination or a chorus in an oratorio at Exeter HalK 
The music was well rendered by a thoroughly competent cx>tn~ 
pany, night after night, for a long period, so that by the time 
the opera attracted the tardy attention of the two principal 
open managers at Her Majesty's Theatre in the Haymarket 
and Covent Garden Theatre, the tunes most popular were bein^ 



MUSIC HALLS 



89 



«lBstIed by tbe " mm lia the street," the " boy in the gutter *' 
Mod the tradesman waiting at the door for orders. 

With the Canterbnxy Hall, and its brother the Oxford 
in Oxford Street — a converted inn and coaching yard— built 
and managed on the same lines by Mr Charles Morton, the 
music hatts were well started. They had imitators in every 
direction — some large, some small, and some with architectural 
pretensions, but all anxious to attract the public by cheap 
prices and physical comforts not attainable at any of the 
rcfolar theatres. 

With the growth and improvement of these " Halls," the few 
<^ ceQar "singing-rooms" gradually disappeared. Evans's 
in Covent Garden was the last to go. Rhodes's, or the 
Cyder Cellaxs in Maiden Lane, at the back of the Adelphi 
Theatre; the Coal Hole, in the Strand, which now forms 
the site of Terry's Theatre; the Doctor Johnson, in Fleet 
Street (oddly enough, within the precincts of the City of London) 
disappeared one by one, and with them the compound material 
for Thackeray's picture of "The Cave of Harmony." This 
•* Cave," like Dickens's " Old Curiosity Shop," was drawn 
from the features of many places. To do the ** cellars " a little 
jastke, they represented the manners of a past time — heavy 
sappers and heavy drinks, and the freedom of their songs and 
redtations was partly due to the fact that the audience and 
the actors were always composed of men. Thackeray dtmg 
to Evans's to the last. It was his m'ghtly "chapel of 
ease " to the adjoining Garrick Club. In its old age it became 
decent, and ladies were admitted to a private gallery, behind 
screens and a convent grille. Before its death, and its revival 
in another form as a sporting club, it admitted ladies both on 
and off the stage, and became an ordinary music halL 

Tbe rise and progress of the London music halls naturally 
excited a good deal of attention and jealousy on the part of 
the regolar theatres, and 'this was increased when the first 
Great Variety Theatre was opened in Leicester Square. 
The building was the fihest example of Moorish architec- 
ture oa a large scale ever erected in England. It was burnt 
down in tbe ' duties, and the present theatre was built in 
its place. Originally it was "The Panopticon," a palace of 
"recreative science," started under the roost distinguished 
directaoQ on the old polytechnic institution lines, and with 
ample capital. It was a commercial failure, and after being 
tried as an " American Circus," it was turned into a great 
variety theatre, the greatest of its kind in Europe, under the 
naoe of tbe Alhambra Palace. Its founder was Mr E.T. Smith, 
the eoefsetic theatrical manager, and its developer was Mr 
Frederick Strange, who came full of spirit and money from 
the Crystal Palace. He produced in 2865 an ambitious ballet — 
the Dagger Ballet from Auber's Enfant prodigue, which had 
been seen at Drury Lane Theatre in 1851, translated as " AzaSl." 

The Alhambra was prosecuted in the superior courts for 
infringing the Stage-play Act— the 6 & 7 Vict. c. 68. Tbe 
case is in the law reports — Wigan v. Strange; the ostensible 
phintiflFs being the well-known actors and managers Horace 
Wigaa and Benjamin Webster, supported by J. B. Buckstone, 
aad many other theatrical managers. A long trial before 
emisent judges, with' eminent counsel on both sides, produced 
a deaskm which was not very satisfactory, and far from final. 
It hdd that, as far as the entertainment went, according to 
the evidence tendered, it was not a ballet representing any 
i&dnct story or coherent action, but it might have been a 
** divertissement " — a term suggested in the course of the 
trial. A short time after this a pantomime scene was pro- 
dared at the same theatre, called Where's the Police? 
which had a clown, a pantaloon, a columbine and a harlequin, 
with other familiar characters, a mob, a street and even the 
traditional red-hot poker. This inspired proceedings by the 
same plaintifis before a police magistrate at Mariborough Street, 
who ia^cied the full penalties— £30 a performance for 12 
perlomaaaccs, and costs. An appeal was made to the West- 
minster quarter sessions, supported by Serjeant Ballantine 
and opposed by Mr Hardinge Giffard (afterwards Lord Chan- 



Cellof Halsbury), and the conviction was confirmed. Being 
heard at quarter sessions, there is no record in the law reports. 

These and other prosecutions suggested the institution of 
a parliamentary inquiry, tod a House of Commons select 
committee was appointed \n t866, at the instigation of the 
music halls and variety theatres. The committee devoted 
much time to the inquiry, and examined many witnesses — 
amongst the rest Lord Sydney, the lord chamberlain, who 
had no personal objection to undertake the control of these 
comparatively young places of amusement and recreation. 
Much of the evidence was directed against the Stage-play Act, 
as the difficulty appeared to be to define what was not a stage 
play. Lord Denman, Mr Justice Byles, and other eminent 
judges seemed to think that any song, action or recitation 
that excited the emotions might be pinned as a stage-play, 
and that the old definition — " the representation of any action 
by a person (or persons) acting, and not in the form of narration " 
— could be supported in the then state of the law in any of 
the higher courts. The variety theatres on this occasion were 
encouraged by what had just occurred at the time in France. 
Napoleon III., acting under the advice of M. Michel Chevalier, 
passed a decree known as La Liberti des tkidtref, which 
fixed the status of the Parisian and other music halls. Openi tas, 
ballets of action, ballets, vaudevilles, pantomimes and all light 
pieces were allowed, and the managers were no longer legally 
confined to songs and acrobatic performances. "Hie report 
of the select committee of 1866, signed by the chairman, Mr 
(afterwards Viscount) Goschen, was in favour of granting the 
variety theatres and music halls the privileges they asked for, 
which were those enjoyed In France and other countries. 

Parliamentary interference and the introduction of several 
private bills in the House of Conunons, which came to nothing, 
checked, if they did not altogether stop, the prosecutions. The 
variety theatres advanced in every direction in number and im- 
portance. Ballets grew in splendour and coherency. Tbe lighting 
and ventilation, the comfort and decoration of the various 
"palaces" (as many of them were now called) improved, 
and the public, as usual, were the gainers. Population in- 
creased, and the six millions of 1730 became forty millions 
and more. The same and only act (35 Geo. II. c. 36), adequate 
or inadequate, still remained. London is defined as tbe 
"administrative county of London," and its area— the 
ao-miles radius— is mapped out. The Metropolitan Board 
of Works retired or was discharged, and the London County 
Council was created and has taken its place. The London 
County Council, with extended power over structures and 
structural alterations, acquired the licensing of variety theatres 
and music halls from the local magistrates (the Middlesex, 
Surrey, Tower Hamlets and other magistrates) within 
the administrative county of London. The L. C. C. examine 
and enlorce their powers. They have been advised that 
they can separate a music from a dancing licence if they like, 
and that when they grant the united licence the dancing 
means the dancing of paid perfonncrs on a stage, and not the 
dancing of the audience on a platform or floor, as at the short- 
lived but elegant Cremome Gardens, or an old-timfc " Casino." 
They are also advised that they can withhold licences, unless 
the applicants agree not to apply for a drink licence to the local 
magistrates sitting in brewster sessions, who still retain their 
control over the liquor trade. Theatre licences are often with- 
held unless a similar promise is made — the drink authority in 
this case being the Excise, empowered by the Act of William IV. 
(S & 6 Will. IV. c. 39. s. 7). 

The spread of so-called "sketches" — a kind of condensed 
drama or farce — in the variety theatres, and the action of the 
London County Council in trying to check the extension of 
refreshment licences to these establishments, with other grounds 
of discontent on the part of managers (individuals or " limited 
companies "), led to the appointment of a second select com- 
mittee of the House of Commons in 1892 and the production 
of another blue-book. The same ground was gone over, and 
the same objections were raised against a licensing authority 



90 



MUSK— MUSKEGON 



which is elected by. public votes, only exists for three yean 
before another election is due, and can give no guarantee for 
the continuity of its judgments. The consensus of opinion 
(as in 1866) was in favour of a state official, responsible to 
parliament — like the Home Office or the Board of Trade— the 
preference being given to the lord chamberlain and his staff, 
who know much about theatres and theatrical business. The 
chairman of the committee was the Hon. David Plunkett (after- 
wards Lord Rathmore), and the report in spirit was the same 
as Ihe one of 1866. Three forms of licence were suggested: 
one for theatres proper, one for music halls, and one for concert 
rooms. 

Though the rise and progress of the music hall and variety 
theatre interest is one of the most extraordinary facts of the 
last half of the 19th century, the business has little or no 
corporate organization, and there is nothing like a complete 
registration of the various properties throughout the United 
Kingdom. In London (he "London Entertainments Pro- 
tectbn Association," which has the conmiand of a weekly 
paper called the Music Hall and Theatre Review, looks after 
its interests. In London alone over five millions sterling of 
capital is said to be invested in these enterprises, employing 
8o,ooQ persons of all grades, and entertaining during the year 
about 25,000,000 people. The annual applications for music 
licences in London alone are over 300. (J. Hd.) 

MUSK (Med. Lat. muscuSf late Gr. ftdaxot, possibly Pers. 
muskk, from Sansk. muskka, the scrotum), the name originally 
^ven to a perfume obtained from the strong-smelling sul»tance 
secreted in a gland by the musk-deer (q.v.), and hence applied 
to other animals, and also to plants, possessing a similar odour. 
The variety which appears in commerce is a secretion of the 
musk-deer; but the odour is also emitted by the musk-ox and 
musk-rat of India and Europe, by the musk-duck {Bixiura 
lobaia) of West Australia, the musk-shrew, the musk-beetle 
iCalickroma moschala), the alligator of Central America, and by 
several other animals. In the vegetable kingdom it is present 
in the common musk (Mimulus fitoschatus), the musk-wood 
of the Guianas and West Indies {Guareat spp.), and in the seeds 
of Hibiscus AhelmoscktCs (musk-seeds). To obtain the perfume 
from the musk-deer the animal is killed and the gland com- 
pletely removed, and dried, either in the sun, on a hot stone, 
or by immersion in hot oil. It appears in commerce as " musk 
in pod," i.e. the glands are entire, or as " musk in grain," in 
which the perfume has been extracted from its receptacle. 
Three kinds are recognized: (i) Tong-king, Chinese or Tibetan, 
imported from China, the most valued; (a) Assam or Nepal, 
less valuable; and (3) Karbardin or Russian (Siberian), imported 
from Central Asia by way of Russia, the least valuable and 
hardly admitting of adulteration. The Tong-king musk is 
exported in small, gaudily decorated caddies with tin or lead 
linings, wherein the perfume is sealed down; it is now usuaUy 
transmitted direct by parcel post to the merchant. 

Good musk is of a dark purplish colour, dry, smooth and 
unctuous to the touch, and bitter in taste. It dissolves in iMiling 
water to the extent of about one-half; alcohol takes up one-third 
of the substance, and ether and chloroform dissolve still less. 
A grain of musk will distinctly scent millions of cubic feet of 
air without any appreciable loss of weight, and its scent is not 
only more penetrating but more persistent than that of any 
other known substance. In addition to its odoriferous principle, 
it contains ammonia, cholesterin, fatty matter, a bitter resinous 
substance, and other animal principles. As a material in 
perfumery it is of the first importance, its powerful and enduring 
odour giving strength and permanency to the vegetable essences, 
so that it is an ingredient in many compounded perfumes. 

Artificial musk is a synthetic product, having a dinilar odour to 
natural musk. It was obtained by Baur in i883 b^ condensing 
toluene with iiobutyl bromide in the presence of aluminium chloride, 
and nitrating the product. It is a symtrinitro-^-butyl toluene. 
Many similar preparations have been made, and it appears that the 
odour depends upon the symmetry of the three nitro groups. 

MUSK-DEER (Afosckus mosckiferus), an aberrant member 
of the deer family constituting the sub-family Cervidae Moschinaa 



(see Deer). Both sexes are devoid of antler appendage; 
but in this the musk-deer agrees with one genus of true deer 
(Hydrelapkus), and as in the latter, the upper caninfe teeth of 
the males are k>ng and sabre-like, projecting below the chin, 
with the ends turned somewhat backwards. In size the musk- 
deer is rather less than the European roe-deer, being about 
20 in. high at the shoulder. Its limbs, especially the hinder 
pair, are k>ng; and the feet remarkable for the great develop- 
ment of the lateral pair of hoofs and for the freedom of motion 




The Musk-deer {Uoxkus mosckiferus). 



they all present, which must be of assistance to the animal 
in steadying it in its agile bounds among the crags of its native 
haunts. The ears are large, and Xhe tail rudimentary. The 
hair covering the body is long, coarse, and of a peculiarly 
brittle and pith-like character, breaking easily; it is generally 
of a greyish-brown colour, sometimes inclined to yellowish-red, 
and often variegated with lighter patches. The musk-deer 
inhabits the forest districts in the Himalaya as far west as 
Gilgit, always, however, at great elevations— being rarely 
found in summer below 8000 ft. above the sea-level, and ranging 
as high as the limits of the thickets of birch, rhododendron 
and juniper, among which it mostly conceals itself in the day- 
time. The range extends into Tibet, Siberia and north- 
western China; but the musk-deer of Kansu hss been separated 
as a distinct species, under the name of li. sifanicui. Musk- 
deer are hardy, solitary and retiring animals, chiefly nocturnal 
in habits, and almost always found alone, rarely in pairs and 
never in herds. They are exceedingly acrive and surefooted, 
having perhaps no equal in traversing rocks and precipitous 
ground; and they feed on moss, grass, and leaves of the plants 
which grow on the mountains. 

Most mammals have certain portions of the skin specially 
modified and provided with gUnds secreting odorous and fatty 
substances characteristic of the particular q>edes. The special 
gland of the musk-deer, which has made the animal so well 
known, and has proved the cause of unremitting persecution 
to its possessor, is found in the male only, and is a sac about 
the size of a small orange, situated beneath the skin of the 
abdomen, the orifice being immediately in front of the preputial 
aperture. The secretion with which the sac is filled is dark 
brown or chocolate in colour, and when fresh of the consistence 
of " moist gingerbread," but becoming dry and granular after 
keeping (see Musk), The Kansu {M. sifanicus) differs from 
the typical q>edes in having longer ears, which are black on 
the outer surface. 

MUSKEGON, a dty and the county-seat of Muskegon 
county, Michigan, U.S.A., on Muskegon lake, an expansion 
of Muskegon river near its mouth, about 4 <&• from Lake 
Michigan and 38 m. N.W. of Grand Rapids. Pop. (1890), 
32,703; (1900), 20,8x8, of whom 6236 were fbreign-bom; 



MUSKET— MUSK-OX 



91 



(1910 ceosn) 24,063. It 11 aervcd by the Grand Tnink. 
the Fire MArquctte, the Grand Rapids & Indiana, and the 
Grand lUpida, Grand Haven & Muskegon (dearie) railways, 
and by steamboat lines to Oiicago, Milwaukee and other lake 
ports. There are several summer resorts in the vicinity. As 
the gifuoC Charles ILHackky (1837-1905). a rich lumberman, 
the dty has an endowment fund to the public schools of about 
S2/>oo/)oo; a manual training school, which has an endowment 
of t6oivooo, and is one of the few endowed public schoob in 
the United States; a public libr^, with an endowment of 
$375^000; a public hoqutal with a $600,000 endowment; and 
a poor fund endowment of $300,000. In Hackley Park there 
are statues of Lincoln and Farragut, and at the Hackley School 
there is a sUtue of McKinley; all three are by C. H. Niehaus. 
The mimidpality ofha and operates its water-works. Muskegon 
lake is 5 m. long and i| m. wide, with a depth of 30 to 40 ft., 
and is ice-free throughout the year. The channel from Muskegon 
lake to Lake Michigan has been improved to a depth of 20 ft. 
and a width of 300 ft. by the Federal government since 1867. 
From Muskegon are shipped large quantities of lumber and 
raarkct-sarden produce, besides the numerous manufactures 
of the dty. The total value of all factory products in 1904 
«as $6419,441 (39*6% more than in 1900), of which more 
than one-sixth was the value of lumber. A trading post was 
fftahlfshrd here in 18x2, but a permanent settlement was 
not csublished until 1834. Muskegon was laid out as a town 
ia 1849, incorporated as a village in x86i, and chartered as a 
city in 1869. The name is probably derived from a Chippewa 
word, mashtg or mmkeg, meaning "grassy bog/' still used in 
th at sense in north-western America. 

MUSKKT (Fr. mousqud, Ger. liwkekt &c), the term generally 
applied to the firearm of the infantry soldier from about 1550 
up to and even beyond the univenal adoption of rifled small 
arms about x85o-i86a The word originally signified a male 
iparrowbawk Italian nuucketio, derived perhaps ultimately 
faom Latin mmsea, a fly) and its application to the weapon may 
be eqrfaixied by the practice of naming firearms after birds 
and beasts (d. falcon, basilisk). Strictly speaking, the word 
B inapplicable both to the early hand-guns and to the arquebuses 
and calxvcrs that superseded the hand-guns. The " musket " 
proper, introduced into the Spanish army by the duke of Alva, 
was mocfa heavier and more powerful than the arquebus. Its 
buOet retained sufficient striking energy to stop a horse at 500 
and 600 3rards from the muzzle. A writer in 1598 (quoted 
<JL in the New Engfish Dictionary) goes so far as to say 
thai '* One good musket may be accounted for two callivers." 
Unlike the arquebus, it was fired from a rest, which the 
** sosketecr " stuck into the ground in front of him. But 
daring the xTth century the musket in use was so far improved 
that the rest oonkl be dispensed with (see Gun). The musket 
was a matchlock, weapons with other forms of lock being 
distinguished as wheel-locks, firelocks, snaphances, ftc., and 
soldiers were similarly distinguished as musketeers and fu^ers. 
Ob the disuse, about 1690-1695, of this form of firing mechanism, 
the term " musket " was, in France at least, for a time discon- 
tinued in favour of " fu^," or flint-lock, which thenceforward 
reigned supieme up to the introduction of a practicable per- 
ansioD kxk about x83o-i84a But the term "musket" 
l ui v iv ed the thing it originally represented, and was currently 
used for the firdock (and afterwards for the percussion weapon). 
To-day it is generically used for military firearms anterior to 
the modem rifle. The original meaning of the word musketry 
has rcnained almost unaltered since x6oo; it signifies the fire of 
infantry smaD-arms (though for this " rifle fire " is now a far 
more usual term) and in particular the art of using them 
(see IxraifTEr and Rifle). Of the derivatives, the only one 
that is not aelf-ezplanatory b musketoon. This was a short, 
liigt '-b u t e musket somewhat of the blunderbuss type. originaUy 
d fjgnrd for the use of cavalry, but afterwards, in the x8th 
ce ntmy , chiefly a domestic or coachman's weapon. 

MOSKBOGBAlf STOCK, a North American Indian stock. The 
'suae » fium that of the chief tribe of the Creek confederacy, 



the Muskogee. It indudes the Creeks, Chocuws, Chickasaws, 
Seminoles and other tribes. lu territory was almost the 
whole sute of Mississippi, western Tennessee, eastern Kentucky, 
AUbama, most of Georgia, and later nearly all Florida. Musk- 
faogean traditions aangn the west and north-west as the original 
home of the stock. Its history begins in 1537, on the first 
landing of the Spaniards on the Gulf Coast. The Muskhogean 
peoples were then settled agriculturisU with an eUborate sodal 
organization, and living in villages, many of which were fortified 
(see Indians: North American), 

MUSKOOEB, a dty and the county-aeat of Muskogtt county, 
Oklahoma, U.S.A., about 3 m. W. by S. of the confluence of the 
Verdigris, Neosho (or Grand) and Arkansas rivers, and about 
130 m. E.N.E. of Oklahoma City. Pop. (1900), 4x54; (1907), 
14,418, of whom 4398 were negroes and 332 Indians; (19x0), a5,a78. 
It is served by the St Louis & San Frandsoo, the Midland 
Valley, the Missouri, Kansas & Texas, and the Missouri, 
ddahoma & Gulf railways. Fort Gibson (pop. in 19x0. 1344), 
about 5 m. N.E. on the Neosho, near its confluence with the 
Arkansas, is the head of steam-boat navigation of the 
Arkansas; if is the site of a former government fort and of a 
national cemetery. Muskogee is the seat of Spaulding Institute 
(M.E. Church, South) and Nazareth InsUtute (Roman Catholic), 
and at Bacone, about 2 m. north-east, is Indian University 
(Baptist, opened X884). Muskogee is the commercial centre of 
an agricultural and stock-raising region, is surrounded by 
an oil and natural gas field of considerable extent producing 
a high grade of petroleum, and has a large oil refinery, railway 
shops (of the Midland Valley ^d the Missouri, Oklahoma & 
Gulf railways), cotton gins, cotton compresses, and cotton-seed 
oil and flour mills. Tbt munidpality owns and operates the 
water-works, the water supply being drawn from the Neosho 
river. Muskogee was founded about 1870, and became the 
chid town of the Creek Nation (Muskogee) and the metropolis 
and administrative centre of the former Indian Territory, 
being the headquarters of the Union Indian Agency to the 
Five Civilized Tribes, of the United States (Dawes) Commission 
to the Five Civilized Tribes, and of a Federal land office for 
the allotment of lands to the Creeks and Cherokecs, and the 
seat of a Federal Court. The dty was chartered in X898; its 
area was enlarged in 1908, increasing its population. 

MUSK-OX* also kxx>wn as musk-buffalo and mu»k-sheep, 
an Arctic American ruminant of the family Bovidae (q.v.), 
now rq>resenting a genus and sub-family by itself. Apparently 
the musk-ox (Chibos mosckatus) has little or no near relaflon- 
ship to dther the oxen or the sheep; and it is not improbable 
that its affinities are with the Asiatic takin {Budorcas) and the 
extinct European Criotkerium of the Pliocene of Samoa. The 
musky odour from which the animal takes its name does not 
appear to be due to the secretion of any gland. 

In height a bull musk-ox stands about 5 ft. at the shoulder. 
The head is large and broad. The horns in old males have 
extremdy broad bases, meeting in the middle line, and covering 
the brow and crown of the bead. They are directed at first 
downwards by the side of the face, and then turn upwards 
and forwards, ending in the same plane as the eye. The basal 
half is dull white, oval in section and coarsdy fibrous, the middle 
part smooth, shining atad round, and the tip black. In females 
and young niales the horns are smaller, and their bases separated 
by a tfMce in the middle of the forehead. The ears are small, 
erect, pointed, and nearly concealed in the hair.- The space 
between the nostrils and the vppw Kp is covered with diort 
dose hair, as in sheep and goats, without any trace of the bare 
muzzle of oxen. The greater part of the animal is covered with 
long brown hair, thick, matted and curly on the shoulders, 
so as to give the appearance of a hump, but elsewhere straight 
and hanging down — that of the sides, back and haunches 
reaching as far as the middle of the legs and entirely concealing 
the very short tail There is also a thick woolly under-fur, 
shed in summer, when the whole coat comes off in blanket-like 
masses. The hair on the lower jaw, throat and chest is long 
and straight, and hangs down like a beard or dewlap, though 



92 



MUSK-RAT 



there is no loose fold of skin in this situation. The limSs are 
stout and short, terminating in unsymmetrical hoofs, the external 
being rounded, the internal pointed, and the sole partially 
covered with hair. 

Musk-oxen at the present day are confined to the most 
northern parts of North America, where they range over the 
rocky Barren Grounds between lat. 64** and the shores of the 
Arctic Sea. Its southern range is gradually contracting, and 
it appears that it is no longer met with west of the Mackenzie 
river, though formerly abundant as far as Eschscholu Bay. 




The Musk-ox {Ovibos mosckatus). 
Northwards and eastwards it extends through the Parry 
Islands and Grinnell Land to north Greenland, reaching on 
the west coast as far south as Melville Bay; and it also occurs 
at Sabine Island on the east coast. The Greenland animal is 
a distinct race (0. m. wardi), distinguished by white hair on 
the forehand; and it is suggested that the one from Grinnell 
Land forms a third race. As proved by the discovery of fossil 
remains, musk-oxen ranged during the Pleistocene period over 
northern Siberia and the plains of Germany and France, their 
bones occurring in river-deposits along with those of the rein- 
deer, mammoth, and woolly rhinoceros. They have also been 
found in Pleistocene gravels in several parts of England, as 
Maidenhead, Bromley, Freshficld near Bath, Bamwood near 
Gloucester, and in the brick-earth of the Thames valley at Cray- 
ford, Kent; while their remains also occur in Arctic America. 

Musk-oxen are gregarious in habit, assembling in herds of 
twenty or thirty head, or sometimes eighty or a hundred, in 
which there are seldom more than two or three full-grown 
males. They run with considerable speed, notwithstanding 
the shortness of their legs. They feed chiefly on grass, but 
also on moss, lichens and tender shoots of the willow and pine. 
The female brings forth one young in the end of May or begin- 
ning of June, after a gestation of nine months. The Swedish 
expedition to Greenland in 1899 found musk-oxen in herds 
of varying size — some contained only a few individuals, and 
in one case there were sixty-seven. The peculiar musky odour 
was perceived from a distance of a hundred yards; but accord- 
ing to Professor Nathorst there was no musky taste or smell in 
the flesh if the carcase were cleaned immediately the animals 
were killed. 

Of late years musk-oxen have been exhibited alive in Europe; 
and two examples, one of which lived from 1899 till 1903, have 
been brought to England. The somewhat imperfect skull of an 
extinct n)ecies of musk-ox from the gravels of the Klondike has 
enabled Mr W. H. Osgood to make an important addition to our 
knowledge of this remarkable type of ruminant. The skull, which 
is probably that of a female, differs from the ordinary musk-ox by 
the much snialler and shorter horn-cores, which are widely separ- 
ated in the middle line of the skull, where there is ajnoove-like 
depression running the whole length of the forehead. The sockets 
of the eves are also much less prominent, and the whole fore-part of 
the skull is proportionately longer. On account of these ana other 
differences (for which the reader may refer to the original paper, 
published in vol. xlviiL of the SmitluoniaH Misctttaneaus CoUecttMs) 



its describer refers the Klondike skull to a new senus, with the 
title Symbos tyrrelli, the specific name being eiven in honour of its 
discoverer. This, however, is not all, for Mr Osgood points out 
that a skull discovered miny years af^o in the vfrinity of Fort 
Gibson, Oklahoma, and thi r» iijmed Qvihsi or BiiOthtTi\tM cavifrons, 
evidently belongs to the K^irjc gcnuc That tkult indicates a bull, 
and the author suggests thiu ii: may insjibly be the nok of Symbos 
lyrrelli, although the wide 5€;hinitiui:i of the Jixa/itics made him 
hesitate to accept this vie .v. r?dk;)|)» it idtould have l.een better 
had he done so, and taken 1 h-r n:im? hymbtn csvifrons for \ he species. 
A third type of musk-ox '^kull u, ho^xrvcr, known from North 
America, namely one from [hi; rrEcbmtcfJ Big-Bone Lick, Kentucky, 
on whkJi the genus and s| < rtt^s Buoih^mm b^m&tfrmi was estab- 
lished, which differs from .dl [dc oihrrt tjy iia im^]! iite, con\-ex 
forehead and rounded hom-rorrs, ihc Urtcr icing viry widely 
separated, and arising froiti cht: ^dcj tod the skull- Tht^ necimen 
has been regarded as the f^Enitlc^ of Symbof iavipmi ; but this 
view, as pointed out by M r OsgcMjfJ, is atmo^t cerLiiiay incorrect, 
and it represents an entirely liisunci; ^tirni. 

This, however, is not th< \vhv\v of the f^Bt hintory of the musk- 
ox ^up; and in thisconne^i.^n \\ ina}' h^ iritntiDncd that pabeonto- 
logical discoveries are gradM I l!y injiltjnc it evii]i nt ihjt the poverty 
01 America in species of horned ruminants is to a great extent a 
feature of the present day, and that in past times it possessed a 
considerable number of representatives of this group. One o^ the 
latest additions to the list is a large shecp-likc animal from a cave 
in California, apparently representing a new generic type, which 
has been described bjr E. L. Furlong in the publications of the 
University of California, under the name of Preptocnas sinclairi. 
It is represented by a nearly complete skeleton, and has doubly- 
curved horns and sheep-like teeth. In common with an allied 
ruminant from the same district, previously described as Eucera- 
Iherium, it seems probable that Preptoceras is related on the one 
hand to the musk-ox, and on the other to the Asiatic takin. while 
it is also supposed to have affinities with the sheep. It these 
extinct forms really serve to connect the takin with the musk-ox. 
their systematic imfXHtance will be very great. From a geographical 
point of view nothing is more likely, for the takin forms a type 
confined to Eastern Asia CTibet and Szechuen). and it would be 
reasonable to expect that, like so many other peculiar forms from 
the same region, they should have representatives on the American 
side of the Pacific (R. L.*) 

MUSK-RAT. or Musquash, the name of a large North Ameri- 
can rat-like rodent mammal, technically known as Fiber stbe- 
tkicus, and belonging to the mouse-tribe (Muridae). Aquatic 
in habits, this animal is rekted to the English water-rat and 
therefore included in the sub-family Microtinae (see Vole). It 
is, however, of larger size, the head and body being about 12 in. 




The Musk-rat {Fiber ttbetkkus). 

in length and the tail but little less. It is rather a heavily, 
built animal, with a broad head, no distinct neck, and short 
limbs, the eyes are small, and the ears project very little beyond 
the fur. The fore-limbs have four toes and a rudimentary 
thumb, all with claws; the hind limbs arc larger, with five distinct 
toes, united by short webs at their bases. The tail is laterally 
compressed, nearly naked, and scaly. The hair much rcsentblcs 
that of a beaver, but is shorter; it consists of a thick soft under* 
fur, interspersed with longer stiff, glistening hairs, which overlie 
and concnl the foimer, on the Mpper surface and sides of ibe 



MUSK-SHREW— MUSPRATT, J. 



body. Hk fenciml colour is 6nA umber-brown, almost black 
on the back and grey bdow. Tbe tail and naked parts of the 
feet are Uack. Tbe musky odour from which it derives its 
name is due to the secretion of a Urge gland situated in the 
inguinaJ region, and present in both lezes. 

The ord^iary musk-rat is one of several spedcs of a genus 
peculiar to America, where it is distributed in suitable localities 
in tbe northern part of the continent, extending from the 
Atlantic to the Pacific, and from the Rio Grande to the barren 
grounds bordering the Arctic seas. It lives on the shores of 
lakes and rivers, swimming and diving with fadlity, feeding on 
the roots, stems and leaves of water-plants, or on fruits and 
vegetables which grow near the margin of the streams it inhabits. 
Musk-rats are most active at night, q>ending the greater part 
of the day concealed in their burrows in the bank, which consist 
of a chamhff with numerous passages, all of which open under 
the surface of the water. For winter quarters they build more 
daborate houses of conical or dome-like form, composed of 
sedges, grasses and similar materials plastered together with 
mod. As their fur is an important article of commerce, lazge 
numbers are annually killed, being either trapped or speared 
at the mouths of their holes. (See also Rooekha.) 

MIISK«8HRBW, a name for any species of the genus Crocidwra 
of the family Soriddat (see Imsectivora). The term is generally 
used of the common grey musk-shrew (C. coemUa) of India. 
Dr Dobaon believed this to be a semi-domesticated variety of the 
brown musk-shrew (C. murina), which he considered the original 
wild type. The heaid and body of a full-grown specimen measure 
about 6 in.; the tail is rather more than half that length; and 
bluish-giiey is the usual cofeur of the fur, which is paler on the 
under surfisce. Dr Blanford sUtes that the story of wine or beer 
b<yoniing impregnated with a musky taint in consequence of 
this shrew passing over the bottles, is less credited in India 
than formeriy owing to the discovery that liquors bottled in 
Europe and exported to India are not liable to be thus tainted. 

mnLDI IBM AL-QAJJiJ, the Imam, the author of one of 
the two books of Mahommedan tradition called ^a^i^, " sound," 
was bom at Nishnpur at some uncertain date after aj>. 815 and 
died there in 875. Like al-Bukhflri {q.v.)^ of whom he was a 
dose and faithful friend, he gave himself to the collecting, sifting 
and arranging of traditions, travelling for the purpose as far as 
Egypt. It b plain that his sympathies were with the traditionalist 
school or opposed to that which sought to build up the system 
of canon law on a speculative basis (see Mahoioceoan Law). 
But though be was a student and friend of Ahmad ibn Qanbal 
(f.r.) he did not go in traditionalism to the lezigtb of some, and 
he d^ended al-Bukhlrl when the latter was driven from Nishapur 
for icfusittg to admit that the utterance {lafz) of the Koran by 
man was as uncreated as the Koran itself (see Mahoiocedan 
Reugion; and Patton's Ahmad ibn Hanbal, 3a sqq.). His great 
aaUectkm of traditions is second in popularity only to that of 
al-Bakhm, and is commonly r^arded as more accurate and 
reliable in details, especially names. His object was more to 
weed out illegitimate accretions than to furnish a traditional 
basis for a sjrstem of law. Therefore, though he arranged his 
material according to such a system, he did not add guiding 
mbrks, and he rqpilarly brought together in one place the 
diflerent parallel versions of the same tradition. His book is 
thus historically more useful, but legally less suggestive. His 
bsograpbers give almost no details as to his life, and its early 
part was probably very obscure. One gives a list of as many 
as twenty works, but only his ^a^ seems to have reached us. 

See farther, de ^ne's transl. of Ibn Khallik&n, iii. 348 sqq, and of 
Ibn KhaUan's ProUgomhus, ii. 470, 47«; Goldzihcr, Muhammedan- 
iteke Simdiem, n. 345 aqq., 355 sqq.; Brockelmann, GesckickU der 
aab, Un^ L 760 seq.; Macdonald. uadopment of Muslim Theology, 
80, 147 aeq.; DhahaU Tadkkira (edit, of Hyderabad), ii. 165 aqq. 

(D. B. MaT) 

HOStn (through Fr. moussdine from It. mussolino, diminu- 
tive oC Miusselc, i.e. the town Mosul in Kurdistan) a light cotton 
ckxfa said to have been first made at Mosul, a city of Mesopo- 
tamia. Muslins have been largely made in various parts of 
India, wlicnce they were imported to England towards the end 



93 

of the X7th century. Some of these Indian muslins were veiy 
fine and costly. Among the specialties are ilrm mmImi, made 
In the Madras presidency, and Daua miu/tif, made at Dacca 
in Bengal. Muslins of many kinds are now made in Eun^ 
and America, and the name is appL'ed to both plain and fancy 
cloths, and to printed calicoes of light texture. Swiss muslin 
is a light variety, woven in stripes or figxires, originally made 
in Switzerland. Book muslin is made in Scotland from very 
fine yarns. Mulls, jaconets, lenos, and other cloths exported 
to the East and elsewhere are sometimes described as muslins. 
Muslin is used for dresses, blinds, curtains, 8tc. 

IIU80NIUS RUFU8. a Roman phik>sopher of the ist century 
A.D., was born in Etruria about aj>. 20-30. He fell under 
the ban of Nero owing to his ethical teachings, and was exiled 
to the island of Gyarus on a trumped-up chaige of participation 
in Piao's conspiracy. He returned under Galba, and was the 
friend of Vitellius and Vespasian. It was he who dared to bring 
an accusation against P. Egnathis Celer (the Stoic philosopher 
whose evidence had condemned his patron and disdple Soranus) 
and who endeavoured to preach a doctrine of peace and good- 
will among the soldiers of Vespasian when they were advancing 
upon Rome. So highly was he esteemed in Rome that Vespasian 
inade an exception in his case when all other philosophers were 
expelled from the dty. As to his death, we know only that 
he was not living in the reign of Trajan. His philosophy, 
which is in most respects identical with that of his pupil, 
Epictetus, is marked by its strong practical tendency. Though 
he did not altogether neglect logic and physics, he maintained 
that virtue is the only real aim of men. This virtue is not a 
thing of precept and theory but a practical, living reality. It 
is identical with philosophy in the true sense of the word, and 
the truly good man is also the true philosopher. 

Suidas attributes numerous works to him, amongst others a 
number of letters to Apolionius of Tyana. The letters are certainly 
unauthentic: about the others there is no evidence. His views 
were collected by Cbudius (or Valerius) PoUio, who wrote 'Avo- 
unfttop^ara Mowiariov roO ^XooSi^oo, from which Stobacus 
obtained his informatioh. See Ritter ana Prcller (( 477, 488. 489; 
Tacitus, Annals, xv. 71 and Histories, iii. 81 ; and compare articles 
Stoics and Efictbtus. 

MUSPRATT, JAMES (i 793-1886), British chemical manu- 
facturer, was bom in Dublin on the X2th of August 1793. At 
the age of fourteen he was apprenticed to a wholesale druggist, 
but his apprenticeship was terminated in 1810 by a quarrel 
with his master, and in 18x2 he went to Spain to take part in 
the Peninsular War. Lack of influence prevented him from 
getting a commission in the cavalry, but he followed the British 
army on foot far into the interior, was laid up with fever at 
Madrid, and, narrowly escaping capture by tbe French, succeeded 
in making his way to Lisbon. There he joined the navy, but 
after taking part in the blockade of Brest he was led to desert, 
through the harshness of the discipline on the second of the two 
ships in which he served. Returning to Dublin about 1814, 
he began the manufacture of chemical products, such as hydro- 
chloric and acetic acids and turpentine, adding prussiate of 
potash a few years later. He also had in view the manufacture 
of alkali from common salt by the Leblanc process, but on the 
one hand he could not command the capital for the plant, and 
on the other saw that Dublin was not well situated for the experi- 
ment. In 1832 he went to Liverpool, which was at once a good 
port and within easy reach of salt and coal, and took a lease of 
an abandoned glass-works on the bank of the canal in Vauxhall 
Road. At first he confined himself to prussiate of potash, until 
in X833, when the tax on salt was reduced from 158. to 2s. a 
biishel, his profits enabled him to erect lead-chambers for making 
the sulphuric acid necessary for the Leblanc process. In 1828 
he built works at St Helen's and in 1830 at Newton; at the latter 
place he was long harassed by litigation on account of the 
damage done by the hydrochloric acid emitted from his factory, 
and finally in X850 he left it and started new works at Widnes 
and Flint. In 1834-183 5, in conjunction with Charles Tennant,' 
he purchased sulphur mines iii Sicily, to provide the raw material 
for his sulphuric add; but on the imposition of the NeapoUtau 



94 



MUSSCHENBROEK— MUSSEL 



govenunent of a prohibitive duty on sulphur Mus{»att found 
a substitute in iron pyrites, which was thus introduced as the 
raw material for the manufacture of sulphuric add. He was 
always anxious to employ the best scientific advice available 
and to try every novelty that promised advantage. He was 
a close friend of Liebig, whose mineral manures were compounded 
at his works. He dfed at Seaforth Hall, near Liverpod/on the 
4th of May x886. After his retirement in 1857 his business was 
continued in the hands of four of his ten children. 

His eldest son, Jakes Sheudan Muspkatt (1831-1871), 
studied chemistry under Thomas Graham at Glasgow and 
London and under Liebig at Gieaaen, and in 1848 founded the 
Liverpool College of Chemistry, an institution for training 
chemists, of which he also acted as director. From 1854 to 
i860 he was occupied in preparing a dictionary of Chemistry . . . 
as appKtd and rdoHng to the Arts and Manufactures^ which 
was translated into German and Russian, and he published a 
translation of Plattner's treatise on the blow-pipe in 1845, luid 
Outlines of Analysis in 1849. His original work included a 
research on the siUphitcs (1845), and the preparation of toluidine 
and nitro-aniline in 1845-1846 with A. W. Hofmann. 

MUSSCHENBROEK. PIETBR VAN (1692-1761), .Dutch 
natural philosopher, was bom on the 14th of March 1693 at 
Leiden, where his father Johann Joosten van Musschenbroek 
(Z66&-1707) was a maker of physical apparatus. He studied 
at the university of his native dty, where he was a pupil and 
friend of W. J. s'G. Gravesande. Graduating in 1715 with a 
dissertation, De aeris praesenlia in kumoribus animalium, Mus- 
schenbioek was appointed professor at Duisburg in 17x9. Jn 
1733 he was promoted to the chair of natural philosophy and 
mathematics at Utrecht In 1731 he declined an invitation 
to Copenhagen, and was promoted in consequence to the chair 
of astronomy at Utrecht in 1733. The attempt of George U. 
of England in 1737 to attract him to the newly-established 
university of Gdttingen was also unsuccessfuL At length, 
however, the claims of his native dty overcame his resolution 
to remain at Utrecht, and he accepted the mathematical chair 
at Ldden in X739, where, declining all offers from abroad, he 
remained till his death on the 9th of September 1761. 

Hu first important production was Epitome dementonm fkysiah 
matkematicomm (i3mo, Leiden, 1736) — a work which was after- 
wards gradually altered as it passed thmugb several editions, mnd 
which appeared at length (posthumously, cd. by Jahann LuL^jfa, 
one of hts colleagues as Leiden) in 176.^ under the tlile o\ InirMnctio 
ad pkilosopkiam naturalem. The Fhystca^ exprrim^mtale^ tl ^eo- 
metricae dissertationes (I73;9) threw new Lii|;ht on nmgncriisni, capillary 
attraction, and the cohesion of bodies, A Latin cdttion with notes 
(1731) of the Italian work Saggi di natvoii m^mti./ > stf- 

tAccademia del Cimento contained arnon^ ma oy ot ti cr r . . ins 

a deicriptton of a new instrument, tha pyrometer, *bli. . . m- 

broek had invented, and of several tatpcrimcnt^ whii;!* hi- n.n] nL^de 
on the expansion 01 bodies by heat ^lLl^^c:)1L^nh^lx::te was. al^ the 
author ofEUmenta pkysica (8vo, IJ^n}. nn4 hi» ru\rac ii AasoclaEed 
with the invention of the Leyden jar ' v- 

MUSSEL (O. Eng. musdet Lat. musculus, diminutive of mus, 
mouse, applied to small sea fish and mussels), a term applied 
in England to two families of LamcUibranch Molluscsr— the 
marine Mytilacea, of which the edible mussel, Mytilus edulis, 
is the representative; and the fresh-water Unionidae^ of which 
the river mussel, Unio pictorumt and the swan mussel, Anodonta 
cygneOf are the common British examples. It is not obvious 
why these fresh-water forms have b^n associated popularly 
with the Mytilacea under the name mussel, unless it be on 
account of the frequently very dark colour of their shells. They 
are somewhat remote from the sea mussels in structure, and have 
not even a common economic importance. 

The sea mussel (Mytilus edulis) belongs to the second order 
of the dass Lamdlibranckia (9.9.), namely the Filibranchia, 
distinguished by the comparatively free condition of the gill- 
fiUments, which, whilst adhering to one another to form gill- 
plates, are yet not fused to one another by concrescence. It is 
also remarkable for the small size of its foot and the large 
development of two glands in the foot— the byssus-forming and 
the byssu8<ementing glands. The byssus is a collection of 



homy threads'by which the sea mussel (like many other LamcUi- 
branch or bivalve molluscs) fixes itself to stones, rocks or 
submerged wood, but is not a permanent means of attachment, 
since it can be discarded by the animal, whicb» after a certain 
amount of locomotion, again fixes itself by new secretion of 
b3rssus fror the foot. Such movement is more frequeza in 
young mussrls than in the full-grown. Mytilus possesses no 
siphonal tube-like productions of the margin of the mantle-skirt, 
nor any notching of the same, representative of the siphons 
which are found in its fresh-water ally, the Dreissensia poly- 
morpha. 

Mytilus edulis is an exceedingly abundant and widely distri- 
buted form. It occurs on both sides of the northern Atlantic 
and in the Mediterranean basin. It presents varieties of form 
and colour according to the depth of water and other circum- 
stances of its habiut. Usually it is found on the British coast 
encrusting rocks exposed at low tides, or on the flat surfaces 
formed by sandbanks overlying clay, the latter kind of colonies 
being known locally as "scalps." Under these conditions it 
forms continuous masses of individuals closely packed together, 
sometimes extending over many acres of surface and numbering 
millions. The readiness with which the young Mytilus attaches 
itself to wicker-work is made the means of artifidaJly cultivating 
and securing these molluscs for the market both in the Bay of 
Kiel in North Germany and at the mouth of the Somme and other 
spots on the coast of France. 

Natural scalps are subject to extreme vicissitudes: an area 
of many acres may be destroyed by a local change of current 
producing a deposit of sand or shhigle over the scalp, or by 
exposure to frost at low tide in winter, or by accumulation of 
decomposing vegetable matter. The chief localities of natural 
scalps on the British coast are Morecambe Bay in Lancashire 
and the flat eastern shores, especially that of the Wash of Lincoln, 
and similar shallow bays. These scalps are in some cases in 
the hands of private owners, and the Fisheries Department has 
made arrangements by which some local authorities, e.g. the 
corporation of Boston, can lease layings to individuals for the 
purpose of artificial cultivation. 

The sea mussel is scarcely inferior in commercial value to the 
oyster. In X873 the value of mussels exported from Antwerp 
alone to Paris to be used as human food was £380,000. In Britain 
their chief consumption is in the deep-sea line fishery, where they 
are held to be the most effective of all baits. Twenty-eight boats 
engaged in haddock-fishing at Eyemouth used between October 
1883 and May 1883 930 tons of mussels (about 47^)00,000 in- 
dividuals), costing neany £1800 to the fishermen, about one-half of 
which sum was expenoea on the carriage of the mussels. The 
quantity of mussels landed on Scottish coasts has decreased in 
recent years owing to the decline in the line fisheries. In 1896 
the quantity was over 3^3,000 cwts.. valued at £14,950: in 1903 it 
was only 95.663 cwts., valued at £5976. In the statistics tor England 
and Wales mussels are not separately distinguished. Many thou- 
sand tons of mussels are wastcfuUy employed as manuie by the 
farmers on lands adjoinii^ scalp-producing coasts, as in Lancashire 
and Norfolk, three half-pence a bushel being the price quoted in 
such cases. It b a cunous fact, illustrative of the ignorant pro- 
cedure and arbitrary fashions of fisher-folk, thai on the Atlantic 
seaboard of the United States the sea mussel, Mytilus edulis, though 
common, is not used as bait nor as food. Instead, the soft clam. 
Mva arenaria, a Lamellibranch not used by English or Norwegian 
fishermen, though abundant on their shores, is employed as bait 
by the fishermen to the extent of i} million bushels per annum, 
valued at £130,000. At the mouth oif the river Conway in North 
Wales the sea mussd is crushed in large quantities in order to 
extract pearls of an- inferior quality which are occasionally found 
in these as in other Lamellibranch molluscs (Gwyn Jeffreys). 

Mytilus edulis is considered of fair sixe for eating when it is 
3 in. in length, which sixe is attained in three years ^ter the spat 
or young mused has fixed itself. Under favourable circumstances 
it will grow much larger than this, specimens being recorded of 
9 in. in length. It is very tderant of fresh water, fattening beat. 
as does the oyster, in water of density 1014 (the density of the water 
of the North Sea being 1036). Experiments made by removing 
mussels from salt water to braddsn, and finally to quite fresh 
water show that it is even more tolerant of fresh water than the 
oyster; of thirty mussels so transferred all were alive after fifteen 
days. Mytilus edulis is occa«onally poisonous, owing to conditiona 
not satisfactorily determined. 

The fresh-water Musseb, Anodonta cygnea^ Unio pictorwm^ 



MUSSELBURGH— MUSSET, ALFRED DE 



95 



and Umo marpurUifmts bdong to the order Etilamenibrandiia 
of LanelUbrajich MoDuscs, in which the anterior and posterior 
adductor musdes are equally developed. An account of the 
anatomy of Auodon is given in the article Lamelubsanchia. 
Umo differs in no important point from Anodmda in internal 
stractnre. The family Uniamdae, to which these genera helong, 
» of wocid-wide distribution, and its species occur only in ponds 
and rivers. A vast number of spedes arranged in several genera 
and snb-gcDera have been distinguished, but in the British 
Islands the three spedes above named are the only claimants to 
thetitJeof *' fresh- water musseL" 

A9«dmaa cypua, the Pond Mussel or Swan Mussel, appean to be 
estiieiy without economic inpoftance. Unto piclcrum, the common 
river amMcl (Thames), appears to owe its name to the fact that the 
ibdb were used at one tune for holding water-colour paints as now 
ibdb of this species and of the sea mussel are used for holding 
gold and aiKcr paint sold by artists* colounnen, but it has no other 
eoo B o mic value. Umie margqriHJenUt the peari mussd, was at 
ooe time of consideFable importance as a source of pearls, and the 
peari mnsael fishenr is to this day carried on under peculiar state 
Rgulatioas in S w ed en and Saxony, and other parts of the continent. 
In Scotia wd and Ireland the peari mussel fishery was also of im- 
portance, but has al to ge t her dwindled into insignificance since the 
opening up of commercial intercourse with the East and with the 
iriands oi^ the Pacific Ooean« whence finer and more abundant 
pBub than those of Unio marpiriiiferus are derived. 

In the last for^ /^^ ^ tbe l8th century pearis were exported 
from the Scotch nsneries to Paris to the value of £ioo/x»; round 
pearls, the size of a pea, perfect in every respect, were worth £3 
er£|. The peari mumd was fonnerly used as bait in the Aberdeen 

LrrKKATunx.-^or an account of the anatomy of MytUus ed$dis 
As reader is referred to the treatise by Sabatier on that subject 
(Paris, 187s): The essay by Charles Harding on Molluscs used 
lot Food or Bait, published by the committee of the London Inter- 
nadoaal Fisberies Exhibition (1883), may be consulted as to the 
eoooomic aoeations connected with the .sea mussd. The devdop- 
ncnt of this species is described by Wilson in Fiph Ann. Rep. 
Scot. Fisk. Board (1887). (E. R. L. ; J. T. C.) 

■TOSBLBUROH, a munidpal and police burgh of Midlothian, 
Scotland, 5I m. £. of Edinburgh by the North British railway. 
Pbp. (1901), 11,711. The burgh, which stretches for a mile 
akwig the south shore of the Firth of Forth, is inteisected by the 
Esk and embraces the village of Fisherrow on the left bank of 
the river. Its original name is said to have been Eskmouth, its 
present one being derived from a bed of mussels at the mouth of 
the river. While preserving most of the ancient features of its 
I^gh Street, the town has tended to become a suburb of the 
capital. Its fine beach and golf course hastening this development. 
Thepafalic buildings indude the town-hall (dating from 1762 and 
altered in 1876), the tolbooth (1590), and the grammar schooL 
Loretto School, one of the foremost public schools in Scotland, 
occapsfs the site of the chapel of Our Lady of Loretto, which 
was founded In 1534 by lix)mas Duthie, a hermit from Mt 
Sbiai This was the favourite shrine of Mary of Guise, who 
betook herself hither at momentous crises in her history. The 
ist eari of Hertford destroyed it in 1544, and after it was rebuilt 
the Reformers demolished it again, some of its stones being 
Bscd in erecting the tolbooth. In the west end of the town is 
Pinkie House, formerly a seat of the abbot of Dunfermline, 
bat transformed in 1613 by Lord Seton. It is a fine example 
of a Jacobean mansion, with a beautiful fountain in the 
saiddle of the court-yard. The painted gallery, with an elabor- 
ate cdUng, 100 ft. long, was utilized as a hospital after the 
battle Off Pinkie in 1547. Prince Charles Edward slept in it 
the night following the fight at Prestonpans (1745). Near 
the tolbooth stan<b the market cross, a stone column with 
a onkom on the top supporting the burgh arms. At the 
west end of High Street is a sUtue of David Macbeth 
Moir (*'I>dta," 1798-1851), Musselburgh's most famous son. 
Tbe antiquity of the town is placed beyond doubt by the 
Roman bridge across the Esk and the Roman remains found 
13 its vicinity. The chief bridge, which carries the high road 
from Edinburgh to Berwick, was built by John Rennie in 
1807. The prindpal industries indude paper-making, brewing, 
tbe making of nets and twine, bricks, tHes and pottery, 
and oil-refiniQg, besides taltwpr^ and seed-crushing 



works, tht fishery .is confined to Fisherrow, where there is 
a good harbour. . The Links are the scene every year of the 
Edinburgh race nieetings and of those of the Royal Caledonian 
Hunt which are hdd every third year. Archery contests also 
take place at intervals under the auquces of the Royal Company 
of Archers. Most of the charitable institutions— for instance, 
the convalescent home, fever hoQ>ital, home for girls and Red 
House home— are situated at Inveresk, about x| m. up the Esk. 
About I m. south-east is the site of the battle of Pinkie, 
and 2I m. south-east, on the verge of Haddingtonshire, is 
Carberiy Hill, where Maiy surrendered to the lords of the 
Congregation In 1567, the spot being still known as (^een 
Mary's Mount. Mussdhmgh joins with Ldth and Portobello 
(the Ldth Burghs) In returning one member to parliament. 

MUSSBT. LOUIS CHARLBS ALFRBD DB (1810-1857), French 
poet, play-writer and novelist, was bom on the x xth of Dtcember 
x8io in a house in the middle of old Paris, near the HAtd Quny. 
His father, Victor de Musset, who traced his descent back as far 
as 1 140, hdd several ministerial posts of importance. He brought 
•out an edition of J. J. Rousseau's works in 1821, and followed 
it soon after with a volimie on the Genevan's life and writing. 
In Alfred de Musset's childhood there were various things 
which fostered his imaginative power. He and his brother 
Paul (bom 1804, died x88o), who afterwards wrote a biography 
of Alfred, delighted In reading old romances together, and in 
assuming the characters of the heroes In those romances. But 
It was not until about 1826 that Musset gave any definite sign of 
the mental force which afterwards distinguished him. In the 
summer of 1827 he won the second prize (at the College Henri 
IV.) by an essay on "The Origin of our Feelings." In 1828, 
when Eugene Scribe, Joseph Duveyrier, who under the name of 
Mdesville, was a prolific pUywriter and sometimes collaborator 
with Scribe, and others of note were in the habit of coming 
to Mme de Musset's house at Auteuil, where drawing-room 
plays and charades were constantly given, Musset, ezdted 
by this companionship, wrote his first poem. This, to judge 
from the extracts preserved, was ndther better nor worse than 
much other work of dever boys who may or may not afterwards 
turn out to be possessed of genius. He took up the study of 
law, threw it over for that of medicine, which he could not 
endure, and ended by adopting no set profession. Shortly 
after his fiirst attempt in verse he was taken by Paul Foucher 
to Victor Hugo's house, where he met such men as Alfred de 
Vigny, Prosper Mdrimfe, Charles Nodier and Sainte-Beuve. It 
was under Hugo's influence, no doubt, that he composed a 
play. The scene was laid in Spain, and some lines, showing 
a marked advance upon his first effort, are preserved. In 
1828, when the war between the riasriral and the romantic 
school of literature was growing daily more serious and exdting, 
Musset had published some verses in a country newspaper, 
and boldly redted some of his work to Sainte-Beuve, who 
wrote of it to a friend, " There is amongst us a boy full of genius.*' 
At eighteen years old Musset produced a translation, with 
additions of his own, of De (^nccy's " Opium-Eatcr." This 
was published by Mame, attracted no attention, and has been 
long out of print. His first original volume was published in 
1829 under the name of Conies d*£spagHC et d'IkUie, had an 
immediate and striking success, provoked bitter opposition, 
and produced many unworthy imitations. This volume con- 
tained, along with far better and more important things, a 
fantastic parody in verse on certain productions of the romantic 
school, which made a deal of noise at the time. This was the 
famous " Ballade i la lune " with its recurring comparison of 
the moon shining above a steeple to the dot over an i. It 
was, to Musset's delight, taken quite seriously by many worthy 
folk. 

In December 1830 Musset was just twenty years old, and was 
already consdous of that curious double existence within him 
so frequently symbolized in his plays— in Octave and Cdio 
for instance (in Les Caprices de Marianne) ^ who also stand for 
the two camps, the men of matter and the men of feeling— 
which he has elsewhere described as characteristic of his 



^ 

J 



96 



MUSSET, ALFRED DE 



genention. At this date his piece the N«U vSnitienM was pro- 
duced by Hard, manager of the Odfon. The exact causes of its 
failure might now be far to seek; unlucky stage accidents had 
something to do with it, but there seems reason to believe that 
there was a strongly organized opposition. However this may 
be, the result was disastrous to the French stage; for it put a 
complete damper on the one poet who, as he afterwards showed 
both in theoretical and in practical writings, had the fine insight 
which took in at a glance the merits and defects both of the 
classical and of the romantic schools. Thus he was strong and 
keen to weld together the merits of both schools in a new method 
which, but for the fact that there has been no successor to grasp 
the wand which its originator wielded, might well be called the 
school of Musset. The serious effect produced upon Mtisset 
by the failure of his NuU vinitienne is curiously illustrative of 
hk character. A man of greater strength and with equal belief 
in his own genius might have gone on appealing to the public 
until he compelled them to hear him. Musset gave up the 
attempt in disgust, and waited until the public were eager to 
hear him without any invitation on his part. In the case of 
his finest plays this did not happen until after his death; but 
long before that he was fully recognized as a poet of the first 
rank and as an extraordinary master of character and language 
in prose writing. In his complete disgust with the stage after 
the failure above referred to there was no doubt something of 
a not ignoble pride, but there was something also of weakness— 
of a kind of weakness out of which it must be said sprang some 
of his most exquisite work, some of the poems which could only 
have been written by a man who imagined himself the crushed 
victim of difficulties which were old enough in the experience of 
mankind, though for the moment new and strange to him. 

Mu^et now belonged, in a not very whole-hearted fashion, 
to the " C6nacle," but the connexion came to an end in 1832. 
In 1833 he published the volume called Un Spectacle dans un 
fauteuU. One of the most striking pieces in this — " Namouna " 
— was written at the publisher's request to fill up some empty 
space; and this fact is noteworthy when taken in conjunction 
with the horror which Musset afterwards so often expressed 
of doing anything like writing " to order "—of writing, indeed, 
in any way or at any moment except when the inspiration 
or the fancy happened to seize him. The success of the 
volume seemed to be small in comparison with that of his ConUs 
d'Espagne^ but it led indirectly to Musset 's being engaged as a 
contributor to the Revue des deux mondcs. In this he published, 
in April 1833, Andri del Sarto, and he followed this six weeks 
later with Les Caprices de Marianne. Thb play afterwards took 
and holds rank as one of the classical pieces in the repertory 
of the ThSdtre Fran^ais. After the retirement in 1887 from 
the stage of the brilliant actor Dclaunay the piece dropped 
out of the Fran^ais repertory until it was replaced to the 
stage by M. Jules Claretie, administrator-general of the Comidie 
Franqaise^ on the 19th of January 1906. Les Caprices de 
Marianne affords a fine illustration of the method referred to 
above, a method of which Musset gave something like a definite 
explanation five years later. This explanation was also pub- 
lished in the Rcviu des deux mojides, and it set forth that the 
war between the classical and the romantic schools could never 
end in a definite victory for either school, nor was it desirable 
that it should so end. " It was time," Musset said, " for a third 
school which should unite the merits of each." And in Les 
Caprices de Marianne these merits are most curiously and happily 
combined. It has perhaps more of the Shakespearian quality — 
the quality of artfully mingling the terrible, the grotesque, and 
the high comedy tones— which exists more or less in all Musset 's 
long and more serious plays, than is found in any other of these. 
The piece is called a comedy, and it owes this title to its extra- 
ordinary brilliance of dialogue, truth of characterization, and 
swiftness in action, under which there is ever latent a sense of 
impending date. Many of the qualities indicated are found in 
others of Musset's dramatic works and notably in On ne hadine 
pas avec Vamour, where the skill in insensibly preparing his 
bearers or readers through a succession of dazzling comedy 



scenes for the swift destruction of the end is veiy marked. 
But Les Caprices de Marianne is perhaps for this particular 
purpose of illustration the most compaa and most typical <rf 
alL 

The appearance of Les Caprices de Marianne in the Rente 
(1833) WAS followed by that of " RoUa," a symptom of the 
maladie du siide. Rolla, for all the smack which is not to 
be denied of Wertherism, has yet a decided individuality. 
The poem was written at the beginning of Musset's liaison with 
George Sand, and in December 1833 Musset started on the un- 
fortunate journey to Italy. It was well known that the rupture 
of what was for a time a most passionate attachment had a 
disastrous effea upon Musset, and brought out the weakest 
side of his moral character. He was at first absolutely and 
completely struck down by the blow. But it was not so well 
known until Paul de Musset pointed it out that the passion 
expressed . in the NuU de dicembre, written about twelve 
months after the journey to Italy, referred not to George 
Sand but to another and quite a diifiterent woman. The story 
of the Italian journey and its results are told under the guise 
of fiction from two points of view in the two volumes called 
respectively EUe et lui by George Sand, and Lui d die hy 
Paul de Musset. As to the permanent effect on Alfred de 
Musset, whose irresponsible gaiety was kiUed by the breaking 
off of the connexion, there can be no doubt. 

During Musset's absence in Italy Pantasio was published in the 
Reoue, Lorenzaccio is said to have been written at Venice, and 
not long after his return On ne badine pas opu Vamour was written 
and published in the Reme. In 1835 he produced luoe, La NuU 
de mai, La Quenouille de Barberine, Le CkanddieTf La Lot sur la 
presse, La Nuit de dicembre^ and La Confession d*un enfant du 
siicle, wherein it contained what is probably a true account oi 
Musset's relations with George Sand. The Confession is excep- 
tionally interesting as exhibiting the poet's frame of mind at 
the time, and the approach to a revulsion from the Bonapartist 
ideas amid which he had been brought up in his childhood. To 
the supreme power of Napoleon he in this work attributed that 
moral sickness of the time which he described. *' One man," 
he wrote, " absorbed the whole life of Europe; the rest' of the 
human race struggled to fill their lungs with the air that he had 
breathed." When the emperor fell, "a ruined world was a 
resting-place for a generation weighted with care." The Con- 
fession is further important, apart from its high literary merit, 
as exhibiting in many passages the poet's tendency to shun or 
wildly protest against all that is disagreeable or difficult in human 
life — a tendency to which, however, much of his finest work was 
due. To 1836 belong the NuU d*aoiUt the LeUre d Lamartine, 
the Stances d la Malibran, the comedy II ne faut jurer de rien, 
and the beginning of the brilliant letters of Dupuis and Cotonet 
on romanticism. // ne faut jurer de rien is as typical of Musset's 
comedy work as is Les Caprices de-Marianne of the work in which 
a terrible fatality underlies the brilliant dialogue and >kcen 
polished characterization. In 1837 was published Un Caprice, 
which afterwards found its way to the Paris stage by a curious 
road. Mme Allan-Despr^ux, the actress, heard of it in 
St Petersburg as a Russian piece. On asking for a French 
translation of the play she received the volume Comidies et 
proverbes reprinted from the Revue des deux mondes. In 1837 
appeared also some of the Nouodles. In 1839 Musset began a 
romance called Le Poite dtchu^ of which the existing fragments 
are full of passion and insight. In 1840 he passed through a 
period of feeling that the public did not recognize his genius — 
as, indeed, they did not — ^and wrote a very short but very 
striking series of reflections headed with the words "A trente 
ans," which Paul de Musset published in his Life. In 1841 
there came out in the Rome de Paris Musset's " Le Rhin Alle- 
mand," an answer to Becker's poem which appeared in the 
Rnue des deux mondes. This fine war-song made a great deal 
of noise, and brought to the poet quantities of challenges from 
German officers. Between this date and 1845 he wrote compara- 
tively little. In the last named year the charming " proverbe " 
// faut qu*une parte soil ouverie ou fermte appeared. In 1847 



MUSSOORIE— MUSTARD 



97 



Un Caprice ms produced at the ThUtre Frangais, and the 
employineDt in it of such a word* as " rebonsoir " shocked some 
of the old schooL But the success of the piece was immediate 
and marked. It increased Musset's reputation with the public 
in a degree out of proportion to its intrinsic importance; 
and indeed freed him from the burden of depression caused by 
want of appreciation. In 1848 // ne faut juror ie rien was 
played .at the Th^itre Francais and the Chanddier at the Th^tre 
Uistorique. Between this date and 1851 BeUine was pro- 
duced on the stage and Carmosine written; and between this 
time and the date of his death, from an affection of the heart, 
on the 2nd of May 1857, the poet produced no large work of 
importance. 

Alfred de Musaet now holds the place which Sainte-Beuve 
first accorded, then denied, and then again accorded to him — 
as a poet of the first rank. He had genius, though not genius 
of that strongest kind which its possessor can always keep in 
check. His own character worked both for and against his 
success as a writer. He inspired a strong personal affection in 
his contemporaries. His very weakness and his own conscious- 
ness of it produced such beautiful work as, to take one instance, 
the NmU d'octobre. His Noupelles arc extraordinarily brilliant; 
his poems are charged with passion, fancy and fine satiric power; 
in his plays be hit upon a method of his own, in which no one 
has dared or availed to follow him with any closeness. He 
was one of the first, most original, and in the end most successful 
of the first-rate writers included in the phrase " the 1830 period." 
The wilder side of his life has probably been exaggerated; and 
his broClier Paul de Musset has given in his Biograpkie a striking 
testimony to the finer side of his character. In the later years 
of his life Musset was elected, not without opposition, a member 
of the French Academy. Besides the works above referred to, 
the NotnttUs a conies and the CEuvres postkumes, in which 
there is much of interest concerning the great tragic actress 
Sachd, should be specially mentioned. 

The biognphy of Alfred de Musset by his brother Paul, partial 
as it oatunJly is, is of |;reat value. Alfred de Musset has afforded 
■atter for many appreciations, and among these in English may be 
Motioned the sketch (1890) of C. F. Oliphant and the essay (1895) 
of F. T. Palgrave. See also the monograph by ArvMe Banne 
ntladame Vincens) in the ** Grands ^crivains frangais " scries. 
MttsMC's earrespoodenoe with George Sand was published intact for 
the fixvt time in 1904. 

A aomtment to Alfred de Musset by Antonan Merci6. presented 
by M. Osiris, and erected on the Place du Th6&tre Fran$ats, was 
duly ** inaugurated " on the a4th of February IQ06. The ceremony 
took place m the vestibule of the theatre, where speeches were 
delivered by Jules Claretie, Francis Coppde and others, and 
Mottoec-SuDy recited a poem, written for the occasion by Maurice 
Magre. CW. H. P.) 

MUSSOOKIB, or Masukx', a town and sanitarium of British 
India, in the Dehra Dun district of the United Provinces, about 
6600 ft. above the sea. Pop. (1901), 6461, rising to 15,000 in the 
hot season. It stands on a ridge of one of the lower Himalayan 
ranges, amid beautiful mountain scenery, and forms with 
Xaini Tal the chief summer resort for European residents in the 
plains of the United Provinces. The view from Mussoorie 
0%'ct the valley of the Dun and across the Siwalik hills to the 
plains is very beautiful, as also is the view towards the north, 
which b bounded by the peaks of the snowy range. Mussoorie 
practically forms one station with Landaur, the convalescent 
depot for European troops, 7363 ft. above the sea. Some 
distance off, on the road to Simla, is the cantonment of Chakrata, 
7300 ft. It was formerly approached by road from Saharanpur 
in the plains, 58 m. distant, but in 1900 the railway was opened 
to Dehra, ax m. by road. There are numerous schools for 
Europeans, including St George's college, the Philander-Smith 
iitstltute, the Oak Grove school of the East Indian railway, and 
srvervl Church of Engbnd and Roman Catholic institutions, 
together with a cathedral of the latter faith. The first brewery 
in India was established here in 1850. The town has botanical 
y»*A.t»«, and is the suouner headquarters of the Trigonometrical 
&irvey- 

MUSTAFA BBSHID PASHA (1800-1858). Turkish statesman 
and diptomatist, was bom at Constantinople in z8oo. He 



entered the public service at an early age and rose rapidly^ 
becoming ambassador at Paris in 1834 aind in London 1836, 
minister for foreign affairs 1837, again ambassador in London 
1838, and in Paris 1841. Appointed vali of Adrianople in 
1843, he returned as ambassador to Paris in the same year. 
Between 1845 and 2857 he was six times grand vizier. One of 
the greatest and most brilliant statesmen of his time, thoroughly 
acquainted with European politics, and well versed in affairs, 
he was a convinced if somewhat too ardent partisan of reform 
and the principal author of the legislative remodelling of Turkish 
administrative methods known as the Tanzimat. His ability 
was recognized alike by friend and by foe. In the settlement 
of the Egyptian question in 1840, and during the Crimean War 
and the ensuing peace negotiations, he rendered valuable services 
to the state. 

MUSTAMO. the wfld or semi-wild horse of the prairies of 
America, the descendant of the horses imported by the Spaniards 
after the conquest in the i6th century (see HoasE). The word 
appears to be due to two Spanish words, mestrencOf or mosirencOi 
defined by Minsheu (1599) as "a strayer. " Mestrenco (now 
mesteno) means " wild, having no master," and appears to be 
derived from mesta, a grazier-association, which among other 
functions appropriated any wild cattle found with the herds. 

MUSTARD. The varieties of mustard-seed of commerce are 
produced from several species of the genus Brassica (a member 
of the natural order Cruciferae). Of these the principal are the 
black or brown mustard, Brassica nigra (Sinapis nigra) ^ the 
white mustard, Brassica alba, and the Sarepta mustard, B. 
juncea. Both the white and bUck mustards are cultivated 
to some extent in various parts of England. The white is to 
be found in every garden as a salad plant; but it has come into 
increasing favour as a- forage crop for sheep, and as a. green 
manure, for which purpose it b ploughed down when about to 
come into flower. The black mustard is grown solely for its 
seeds, which yield the weU-known condiment. The name of the 
condiment was in French moustardt, mod. moutardc, as being made 
of the seeds of the plant pounded and mixed with must (Lat. 
mustumt i.e. imf ermented wine) .* The word was thtis transferred 
to the plant itself. When white mustard is cultivated for its 
herbage it is sown usually in July or August, after some earl^ 
crop has been removed. The land being brought into a fine 
tilth, the seed, at the rate of i a lb per acre, is sown broadcast, 
and covered in the way recommended for clover seeds. In 
about six weeks it is ready either for feeding off by sheep or for 
ploughing down as a preparative for wheat or barley. White 
mustard is not fastidious in regard to soil. When grown for 
a seed crop it is treated in the way about to be described for the 
other variety. For this purpose either kind requires a fertile 
soil, as it is an exhausting crop. The seed is sown in April, 
is once hoed in May, and requires no further culture. As soon as 
the pods have assumed a brown colour the crop is reaped and 
laid down in handfuls, which lie tmtil dry enough for thrashing 
or stacking. In removing it from the ground it must be handled 
with great care, and carried to the thrashing-floor or stack on 
cloths, to avoid the loss of seed. The price depends much on 
its being saved in dry weather, as the quality suffers much 
from wet. This great evil attends its growth, that the seeds 
which are unavoidably shed in harvesting the crop remain in the 
soil, and stock it permanently with what proves a pestilent weed 
amongst future crops. 

White mustard is used as a small salad — generally accompanied 
by garden cress— while still in the seed leaf. To keep up a 
supply the seed should be sown every week or ten days. The 
sowings in the open ground may be made from March till October, 
earlier or later according to the season. The ground should 
be light and rich, and the situation warm and sheltered. Sow 
thickly in rows 6 in. apart, and slightly cover the seed, pressing 
the suriace smooth with the back of the spade. When gathering 
the crop, cut the young plants off even with the ground, or pull 

* There were two kinds of mnstum, one the best for keeping, 
produced after the first treading of the grapes, and called mustum 
Uxivum; the other, mustum tortivum, obtained from the mass of 
trodden grapes by the wine-press, was used for inferior purpofes. 



98 



NfUSTARD OILS— MUSURUS 



them up and cut off the roots, beginning at ooe €hd of 4 row. 
From October to March the seeds should be sown thickly in 
shallow boxes and placed in a wann bouse or frame, with a 
temperature not below 6^. 

Brassica nigra occurs as a weed in wtote and cultivated ground 
throughout England and the south of ScoUand, but is a doubtful 
native. It is a huge branching annual a to 3 ft. high with stiff, 
rather rough, stem and branches, dark green leaves ranging from 
lyrate below to lanceolate above, short ncemes of small bright 
yellow flowers one-third of an inch in diameter and narrow 
smooth pods. . B. alba is more restricted to cultivated ground and 
has still less claim to be considered a native of Great Britain; 
it is distinguished from black mustard by its smaller size, larger 
flowers and seeds, and spreadipg rough haiiy pods with a long 
curved beak. 

The peculiar pungency and odour to which mustard owes much/>f 
iu value are due to an cMential oil devdoped by the action of water 
on two peculiar chemical substances contahied in the black seed. 
These bodies are a glucoside termed by its discoverers myionate of 
potassium, but since csUed sinigrin, CwHuKNSiOmi and an albumin 
noid body, myrostn. The latter substance in presence of water 
acts as a terment on stninin, splitting it up into the essential oil of 
mustard, a potassium salt, and su^. It is worthy of remark that 
this reaction does not take place m presence of botlins water, and 
therefore it is not proper to use very hot water (above iso* P.) in 
the preparation 01 mustard. The explanation u that myrosin b 
decomposed by water above this temperature. Essential oil of 
mustard is in chemical constitution an isothiocyanate of allyl 
CsHiNCS. It ts prepared artificially by a process, di s covered ^ 
Zittzin, which consists in treating bromide of allyl with thiocyabate 
of ammonium and distiUii^ the resultant thiocyanate of allyl. The 
seed of white mustard contains in place of sin^rin a peculiar gluco- 
side called sinalbin, CmH44N»S«Om in several aspects analogous to 
sinigrin. In presence of water it is acted upon by myrodn, 
present also in white mustard, mlitting it up into acrinyl isothio- 
cyanate, sulphate of sinapin and glucose. The first of these is a 
powerful rubefacient, whence white mustard, althoughyielding 
no volatile ml, forms a. valuable material for plasten. The seeds 
of Brassica jumua have the same constitution and propertiesas black 
mustard, as a substitute for which they are extensively cultivated 
in southern Ru8«a; the plant is also cultivated abundantly in India. 

Both as a table condiment and as a medicinal substance, mustard 
has been known from a very remote period. Under the name of 
riw it was used by Hippocrates in medicine. The form in which 
table mustard is now sold in the United Kingdom dates from i7ao, 
about which time Mrs Clements of Durham hit on the idea of grinding 
the seed in a mill and stftina the flour from the husk. The bright 
yeUow farina thereby produced under the name of " Durham 
mustard " pleased the taste of George I., and rapidly attained wide 
popularity. As it u now prepared muiAard consists essentially of 
a mixture of black and white farina in certain proportions. Several 
grades of pure mustard arp made containing nothing but the farina 
of mustard-seed, the lower qualities havinji larger amounu of the 
white cheaper mustard; and corresponding grades of a mixed 
preparation of .equal price, but oontainim certain proportions of 
wheaten or starcn flour, are also prepared and soldf as " mustard 
condiment.'* The mixture is free from the unmitigated bitterness 
and sharpness of flavour of pure mustard, and it keeps much better. 

The volatile ml distilled from black mustard seeds after maceration 
with water is official in the British Pharmacopeia under the title 
OUmm sinapis wolaliU. It is a ydlowish or odourless pungent 
liquid, soluDle only in about fifty parts of water, but readuy so in 
etner and in alcohol. Kipm it is prepared, with camphor, castor 
oil and alcohol, the UnimeiUiim sinapis. The oflkial nnapit consisu 
of black and white mustard seeds powdered and mixed. The advan- 
tage of mixture depends upon the fact that the white mustard seeds 
have an excess of the ferment myrosin, and the black, whilst some- 
what deficient in mvro^i yield a volatue body as compared with the 
fixed product of toe white mustard seeds. From this mixture is 
prepared the ekarta sinapis, which consists of cartridge paper covered 
with a mixture of the powder and the M^nor caouUkouCt the fixed 
oil having firtt been removed by benni, thus rendering the glucoside 
capable df being more easily decomposed by the ferment. 

Used internally as a condiment, mustard stimulates the salivary 
but not the gastric secretions. It increases the peristaltic move- 
ments of the stomach very markedly. One drachm to half an ounce 
of mustard in a tumblenul of warm water is an efficient emetic, 
acting directly upon the gastric sensory nerves, long before any of 
the drug could be absorbed so as to rrach the emetic centre in the 
medulla oblongata. The heart and respiration are reflexly stimu- 
lated, mustard being thus Ike only sUmmant emetic. Some few other 
emetics act without any appreciable depression, but in cases of 
poisoning with respiratory or cardiac failure mustard shoukl never 
be forgotten^ In contrast to thb may be mentioned, amongst the 
external therapeutic applications of mustard, its frequent power of 
relieving vomiting when locally applied to the epigastrium. 



The uses of mustard leaves In the treatment of local pains an 
well known. When a marked counter-irritant action is needed, 
mustard is often preferable to cantharides in being more manageable 
and in causing a less degree of vesication; but the cutaneous damage 



damage 

done by mustard usually takes longer to heaL A mustard siu 
bath wul often hasten and alleviate the initial suge of menstruation, 
and is sometimes used to opedite the appearance of the eruption 
in measles and scarlatina. The domestic remedy of hot water and 
mustard for children's feet in cases of cold or threatened cold may 
be of some use in drawing the blood to the surface and thus tendiiw 
to prevent an exoesmve vascular dilaution in the nose or broochu 
The proportion of an ounce of mustard to a gallon of water b a fair 
one and easily remembered.- But by far the most- important 
therapeutic application erf mustard b as a unique emeti& 

MUSTARD OILS, -organic chemical compounds of general 
formula R-NCS. They may be prepared by the action of 
carbon bbulphide on primary amines in alcoholic or ethereal 
solution, the alkyl dithio-carbamic compounds formed being 
then precipitated with mercuric chloride, and the mercuric 
salts heated in aqueous solution, 

aR.NH,^KS3f.J}Hai"?S'^^NCS,J,Hg-^HgS+H,S+aRNCS; 

or the isocyanic esters may be heated with phosphorus penta*> 
sulphide (A. Michael and G. Palmer, Amer. Ckem. Jour,, J884, 
6, 357). They are colourless liquids with a very pungent irritating 
odour. Tiity are readily, oxidized, with production of the corre- 
sponding amine. Nascent hydrogen onverts them into the 
amine, with simultaneous formation of thio-formaldehyde, 
RNCS+4H«RNHs-|-HCSH. When heated with adds to 
zoo* C, they decompose with forination of the amine and libera- 
tion of carbon bbulphide and sulphuretted hydrogen. They 
combine directly with alcohols, mercaptans, ammonia, amines 
and with aldehsrde ammonia. 

Metkyl mustard aU, CHiNCS, melts at 3S*Cand boib at 119* C. 
AU^ mustard oU, CsHftNCS, b the pnncipal constituent of the 
ordinary mustard oil obtained on distilling black mustard seeds. 
These seeds contain potasuum myiionate (CmHuNSiCWC) whkh in 
presenccof water b hydrolyscd by the myrosin present in the seed, 

CwHMNStOi»K-CHiA+KHSO«+crHiNCS. 
It may also be prepared by hcatinff allyl sulphide with potassium 
sulphocyanide. . It b a colourless liquid boiling at 150-7" C. It 
combines directly with potassium bbulphite. Pkmyl mustard oil, 
C»Hf N CS, b obtained by boiling sulphoau^nilidc with concentrated 
hydrochlmic add. some triphenylguanidine being formed at the same 
tune. It is a colouriess liquid boiling at 33a* C. When heated 
with copper powder it yields benzonitnle. 

MUSTER (Mid. Eng. mostret moustre, adapted from the similar 
O. Fr. forms; Lat. mfinstrare), originally an exhibition, show, 
review, an exhibition .-of strength, prowess or power. One of 
the meanings of thb common Romanic word, viz. pattern, 
sample, b only used in commercial usage in English {e.g. in 
the cutlery trade), but it has passed into Teutonic languages, 
Ger. Muster, Du. monster. The most general meaning b for the 
assembling of soldiers and sailors for inspection and review, and 
more particularly for the ascertainment and verification of the 
numbers on the roU; Thb use b seen in the Med. Lat. monslrum 
and monstralio, "recensio miliium" (Du Cange, Gloss. s.v.). la 
the "enlbtment" system of army organization during the 
x6th and X7th centuries, and later in certain special survivals, 
each regiment was "enlbted" by its colonel and reviewed 
by spedal officers, " muster-nmsters," who vouched for the 
members on the pay roll of the regiment representing its 
actual strength. Thb was a necessary precaution in the days 
when it was in the power of the comnoiander of a unit to fill 
the muster roll with the names of fictitious men, known in the 
military slang of France and Eni^d as passe-^olants and 
''faggots" respectively. The chief officer at headquarters 
was the muster-master-generd, later conunissary general of 
musters. In the United States the term b still commonly 
used, and a soldier b " mustered out " when he b officially 
discharged from military service. 

MUSURUS, MARCUS (c. i47o-X5X7)f Greek scholar, was 
bom at Rhithymna (Retimo) in Crete. At an early age he 
became a pupfl of John Lascaib at Venice. In 1505 he was 
nude professor of Greek at Padua, but when the univerBty 
was dosed iniso^ during the war of the league of Cambrai he 



MUTE— MUTILATION 



99 



retiiroed to Venice, where he filled a similar poet. Ih S516 he 
vas sammoned to Rome by Leo X., who appointed him arch- 
bishop of Monemvasia {Mahasia) in the Pelopon&ese, but he died 
before he left Italy. Since 1493 Musurus had been associated 
vith the famous printer Aldus Manutlus, and belonged to 
the "Neacademia," a society founded by Manutlus and other 
learned men for the promotion of Greek studies. Many of the 
Aldine classics were brought out under Musurus's supervision, 
and be is credited with the first editions of the scholia of Aristo- 
phanes (1498), Athenaeus (1514), Hesycbius (15x4), Pausanias 
(1516). 

See R. Menge's De M. Musuri vita studiis tugaUo, in vol. 5 of 
M. Scfanudt's edition of Hesycfaius (1868}. 

MUTB (Lat. muius, dumb), silent or incapable of speech. For 
the human physical incapacity see Deat and Dumb. In 
pbonetics iq.9.) a *'mute" letter is one which (like ^ or ^ repre- 
sents no individual sound. The name of "mutes" is given, for 
obvious reasons, to the undertaker's assistants at a funeraL In 
music a "mute" (Ital. 50r^»iM, from Lat. ««rtfM, deaf ) is a device 
for deadening the sound in an instrument by checking its vibra- 
tioos^ Its use is marked by the sign cj. (con sordino), and its 
cessation by s^. (senza sordino). In the case ci the violin and 
other stringed instr\mients this object is attained by the use of a 
piece of brass, wood or ivory, so shaped as to fit on the bridge' 
wiih<nit toad:dn^ the strings and hold it so tightly as to deaden 
or muffle the vibrations. In the case of brass wind instruments 
s leather, wooden or papier m&ch6 pad in the shape of a pear 
vith a bole through it is placed in the bell of the instrument, 
by which the passage of the sound is impeded. The interference 
vith the pitch of the instruments has led to the invention of 
elaborately constructed mutes. Players on the horn and 
trumpet frequently use the left hand as a mute. Drums are 
mot^ or "muffled"' either by the pressure of the hand on the 
head, or by covering with doth. In the side drum this is effected 
by the insertion of pieces of doth between the membrane and the 
"snares," or by loosening the "snares." The muting of a 
pianoforte is obtained by the use of the sof t-pedaL 

MimAN, KONRAO (X471-X526), Gennan humanist, was 
bom in Homberg on the xsth of October 147 1 of well-to-do 
parents jiamed Mut, and was subsequently known as Konrad 
Motianns Ruf us, from his. red hair. At Deventer under Alex- 
ander Hegiusbe had £rasmusasschooIfeUow;proceeding(x486)to 
the university of Erfurt, he took the master's degree in 1493. 
From 1495 be travelled in Italy, taking the doctor's degree 
ta canon law at Bologna. Returning in 1502, the landgraf of 
Hesae promoted bun to- high o^ce. The post was not congenial ; 
he resigned it (1503) for a small salary as canonicus in Gotha. 
Matian was a man of great influence in a sdect circle espedally 
coanected with the university of Erfurt, and known as the 
Mttianistker Bund, which induded Eoban Jiess, Crotus 
Rubeanus, Justus Jonas and other leaders of independent 
thought. He had no public ambition; except in correspondence} 
sad as an q)igrammatist, he was no writer, but he furnished 
ideas to those who wrote. He may deserve the title which has 
been given him as "precursor of the Reformation," in so far as he 
desired the reform of the Church, but not the establishment 
of a rivaL Like Erasmus, he was with Luther in his early 
stage, but deserted him in his later development. Though he 
had personally no hand in it, the Episiolae obscurorum virorum 
(due espedaPy to Crotus Rubeanus) was the outcome of the 
RcucUioists in his Btmd. He died at Gotha 00 the 30th of 
March (Good Friday) 2526. 

.See F. W. Kampschulte. Dio Unioersitdt Erfurt (1858-1860); C. 
Krauae. Eobanus Htssus (1879) ;L. Geigcr. in AUtemeine Deutsche 
Biet. (1886) : C. Krause. DerBriefwechsetdes MtUianus Rufus (1885) ; 
aoother coOcctipn by K. Gillert (1890). (A. Go.*) 

■OTILATIOlf (from Lat. mutUus, maimed). The wounding, 
maiming and disfigiiring of thq body is a practice common 
ataong savages and systematically pursued by many entire races. 
The varieties of. mutilation are as numerous as the instances of 
A are widespread. Nearly every part of the body is the object I 
cf mutilation, and nearly every motive common to human I 



beings-^vanity, religion, affection, prudence— has acted in 
giving rise to what has been proved to be a custom of great 
antiquity. Some forms, such as tattooing and depilation, 
have, stayed on as practices even after dvilisation has banished 
the more brutal types; a&d a curious fact is that analogous 
mutilations are fouxid observed by races separated by vast 
distances, and proved to have had no relations with one another, 
at any rate in historic times. Ethnical mutilations have in 
certain races a great sociological value. It is only after sub- 
mission to some such operation* that the youth is admitted to 
full tribal lighu (see lMinATiON>. Tattooing, too, has a semi- 
religious importance, as when a& ixidividual beais a represenU- 
tion of his totem on his body; and many mutilations are tribe 
marks, or brands used to know sUves. 

Mutilations may be divided into: (i) those of the skin; (a) of the 
face and head; (3) of the body and limbs; (4) of the teeth ; (5) of the 
sexual organs. 

1. The prindpal form of aUo-mutilation b tattooing (9.9.), the 
ethnkal importance of whkh is very great. A practice ahnost as 
common is defulation, or removal of hair. This is dther by means 
of the rajcor, «.(. in Japan, by depilatories, or by tearing out the hairs 
beparatdy, as among most savage peoples. The parts thus mutilated 
are utually the eyebrows, the face, the scalp ano the pubic regk>ns. 
Many African natives tear out'all the body hair, some among them 
(e.f . the Bongos) using spedal pincers. DejMlation is common, too, 
in the South Sea Islands. The Andaman islanders and the Boto- 
cudos of Brazil shave the body, using sheU-edges and other primitive 
instruments. 

2. Mutilations of the face and head are usually restricted to the 
lips, ears, nose and cheeks. The lira arc simply perforated or 
distended to an extraordinary degree. The Botocudos insert disks 
of wood into the lower lip. Lip-mutilations are common in North 
America, too, .on the Mackenae river and among the Aleutians. 
In Africa the/ are frequently practised. The Manganja women 
pierce the upper lips and introduce small metal shidds or rings. 
The Mittu women bore the lower lip and thrust a wooden peg through; 
In other tribes little sticks of rock crystal are pushed through, 
which jingle together as the wearer talks. The women of Senegal 
increase the natural thickness of the upper lip by pricking it repeat- 
edly until it is permanently inflamed and swollen. The ear, and 
I»rtiLubkrIy the lobe, is almost univemlly mutilated, from the ear- 
rings of the civilized West to the wooden disks of the Botocudos. 
The only peoples who are said not to wear any form of ear ornament 
are the Andaman islanders, the Neddahs, the Bushmen, the Fuegiani 
and, certain tribes of Sumatra. Ear mutilation in its most exag* 
gera'ted form is practised in Indo-China by the Mds of Annam and 
the Penangs of Cambodia, and in Borneo by the Dyaks. They 
extend the lobe by the insertion 01 wooden disksr and by metal 
rings and weights, until it sometimes reaches the shoulder. In 
Africa and Asia earrings sometimes wdgh nearly half a pound. 
Livingstone said that the natives of the Zambesi distend the pef-. 
foration inthe lobe to such- a degree that the hand dosed could be 
passed through. The Monbuttus thrust through a perforation in 
the body ci the ear rolls of leaves, or of leather, or cigarettes. The 
Papuans, the inliabitants of the New Hebrides, and most Melanfsian 
peoples carry all sorts of things in their ears, the New Caledonians 
using them as pipe-racks. Many races disfigure the nose with 
perforations. The young dandies of New Guinea bore holes through 
the septum and thrust through pieces of bone or flowers, a mutilation 
found, too, among New ZcaJanden, Australians, New Caledonians 
and other. Polynesian races. In Africa the Banis and Bongos hang 
metal rings and buckles on their noses; the Aleutians cordsj bits 
of metal or amber. In women it is the side ci the noefe whxh is 
usually perforated ; rings and jewdled pendants (as among Indian 
and Araoic women, the ancient Egyptians and Jews), or feathers, 
flowers, coral, &c (as in Polynesia), bdng hung there. Only one 
side of the nose is usually perforated, and this is not always merely 
decorative: It may denote social position j as aroon^ the Ababdes 
in Africa/whose unmarried giris wear no rings in their noses. The 
male Kutus of the Himalaya wear a large nng in- the left nostril. 
Malays and Polynesians sometimes deform the nose by enlarging 
its base, effecting this b> compression of the nasal bones of the 
newly bom. 

The cheeks are not so frequently mutilated. The people of the 
Aleutian and Kurile Islands bore holes through their cheeks and 
place in them the long hairs from the muules of seals. The Guaranis 
of South America wear feathers in the same manner. In some 
countries the top of the head or the sldn behind the ears of chiklren 
b burnt to preserve them from sickness, traces of which mutilation 
are said to be discoverable on some neolithic skulls; while some 
African tribes cut and prick the neck close to the ear. By many 
peoples the deformation of the skull was anciently practised. 
Herodotus, Hippocrates and Strabo mention such a custom among 
peoples of the Caspian and Crimea. Later similar practices were 
found existing among Chinese mendicant sects, some tribes of 
Turket tan, the Japanese priesthood, in Malaysia, Sumatra, Java and 



lOO 

the south wts. In Europe it was not unknown. But the d'lKovery 
of America brought to our knowledge those races whkJi made a fine 
art of skuU-deformities. At the present day the custom u still 
observed by the Haidas and Chinooks, and by certain tribes of Peru 
and on the Amazon, by the Kurds of Armenia, by certain Malay 
peoples, in the Solomon Islands and the New Hebrides. The 
reasons for this type of mutilation are uncertain. Probably the idea 
of distinguishing themselves from lower races was predominant in 
most cases, as tor example in that of the Chinook Indians, who 
deformed the skull to distinguish themsdves from their slaves. 
Or it may have been through a desire to give a ferocious api>earancc 
to their warriors. The deformation was always done at infancy, 
and often in the case of both sexes. It was. however, more usually 
reserved for boys, and sometimes for a single caste, as at Tahiti. 
Different ■ methods prevailed: by bands, bandages, boards, com- 
presses of clay and sandbags, a continued pressure was applied to 
the half-formed cranial bones to give them the desired shape. 
Hand-kneading mav also possibly have been employed. 

J;. Mutilations oi the body or limbs by maiming, loppii^ off or 
orming, are far from rare. Certain races (Bushmen, Kaffire 
and Hottentots) cut off the finger joints as a sign of mourning, 
especially for parents. The Tongans do the same, m the belief that 
the evil spirits which bring diseases into the body woukl escape by 
the wound. Diseased children are thus mutilated by them. Con- 
tempt for female timidity has caused a curious custom among the 
Gallas (Africa). They amputate the mammae of boys soon after 
birth, believing no warrior can possibly be brave who possesses 
them. The fashion of distorting tne feet of Chinese ladies of high 
rank has been of long continuance and only recently prohibited. 

4. Mutilations of the teeth are among the most common and the 
most varied. They are by breaking, extracting, filing, inlaving or 
cutting away the crown of the teeth. Nearly every variety 01 dental 
mutilation is met with in Africa. In a tribe north-east of the Albert 
Nyanaa it u usual to pry out with a piece of metal the four lower 
incisors in children of both sexes. The women of certain tribes on 
the Senenl force the growth of the upper inci-::T^ "I'^-rr.r^.- " as 
to make them project beyond the lower lips. Ma rty oi t he .1 1 '< < r i 1 rial 
tribes of Australia extract teeth, and at puberty xhv Au^ir^lian I. ys 
have a tooth knocked out. The Eskimos df tlie Ma< k^ n.^!. y. .'cr 
cut down the crown of the upper incisors so as U' m ^ < ;s. 
Some Malay races, too, are said to blacken their u- gs 
have white teeth. This desire to be unlike anim^U at 
the bottom of many dental mutilations. Another ^c^^uil i:: [!h v sh 
to distinguish tribe from tribe. Thus some Papains break 1 i.eir 
teeth in order to be unlike other Papuan tribes whtch thoy dl> pse. 
In this way such practices become traditional. Finally, liVr 1, :ny 
mutilations, those of the teeth are trials of endurance o\ pV.^ ::al 
pain, and take place at ceremonies of initiation :trir} nt p J ty. 
The Mois (Stiengs) of Cochin-China break the two upper it»udle 
incisors with a flint. .This is always ceremoniously done at puberty 
to the accompaniment of feasting and praven for.those mutilatca, 
who will thus, it b thought, be preseivea from sickness. Among 
Malay races the filiiw of teeth takes place with similar ceremony at 
puberty. In Java, Sunutra and Borneo the incison are thinned 
down and shortened. Deep transverse grooves are also made with a 
file, a stone, bamboo or sand, and the teeth filed to a point. The 
Dyaks of Borneo make a small hole in the transverse groove and 
insert a pin of brass, which is hammered to a nail-head shape in the 
hollow, or they inlay the teeth with gold and other metals. The 
ancient Mexicans also inlaid the teeth with precious stones. 

5. Mutilations of the sexual organs are more ethnically important 
than any. They have played a great part in human nistory, and 
still have much significance in many countries. Their antiquity 
is undoubtedly great, and nearly aU originate with the idea of 
initiation into full sexual life. The most important, circumcision 
(a.v.), has been transformed into a religious rite. Infibulation 
(Lat. fibula, a clasp), or the attaching a ring, clasp, or buckle to the 
sexual organs, in females through the labia majora, in males through 
the prepuce, was an operation to preserve chastity very commonly 
practised in antiquity. At Rome it was in use; Strabo says it was 
prevalent in Arabia and in E^pt, and it is still native to those regions 
(Lane, Modem Egyptians, i. 73; Arabic Lexicon, s.v. "kafada"). 
Niebuhr heard that it was practised on both shores of the Persian 
Gulf and at Bagdad {Description de I'Arabie, p. 70). It is common in 
Africa (see Sir H. H. Johnston, Kilimanjaro Expedition, 1886). but 
is there ofteh replaced by an operation which consists in stitching 
the labia majcra together when the girl is four or five years old. 
Castration is practised in the East to supply guards for harems, and 
was employed in Italy until the time of Pope Leo XIII. to provide 
*' soprani ' for the papal choir; it has also been voluntarily submitted 
to from religious motives (see Eunuch). The operation has. 
however, been resorted to for other purposes. Thus in Africa it is 
said to have been used as a means 01 annihilating conquered tribes. 
The Hottentots and Bushmen, too, have the curious custom of 
removing one testicle when a boy is eight or nine years old, in the 
belief that this partial emasculation renders the victim fleeter of 
foot for the chase. The most dreadful of these mutilations is that 
practised by certain Australian tribes on their boys. It consists 
of cutting open and leaving exposed the whole length of the urethral 
canal and thus rendering sexual intercourse impossible. According 



MUTINY— MUTSU HITO 



to some authorities it is hatred of the white man and dread of slaveiy 
which are the reasons of this racial suicide. Among the Dyaks and 
in many of the Melanesian islands curious modes 01 ornamentation 
of the organs, (such as the kalang) prevail, which are in the nature of 
mutilations. 

Penal Use. — Mutilation as a method of punishment was common 
in the criminal law of many ancient nations. In the earliest laws of 
England mutilation, maiming and dismemberment had a prominent 
place. " Men branded on the forehead, without hands, feet, or 
tongues, lived as examples of the danger which attended the a^> 
mission of petty crimes and as a warning to all churls " (Pike'a 
History of Crime in England, iBjx). The Danes were more severe 
than the Saxons. Under their rules eyes were plucked out ; noses, 
eare and upper lips cut off; scalps town away; and sometimes the 
whole body flayed alive. The eariiest forest-laws of whkJi there 
is record are those of Canute (1016). Under these, if a freedman 
offered violence to a keeper of the king's deer he was liable to lose 
freedom and property ; if a serf, he lost his right hand, and on a second 
offence was to die. ()ne who killed a deer was either to have hit 
eyes put out or lose his life. Under the first two Norman kings 
mutilation was the puni^ment for poaching. It was, however, not 
reserved for that, as during the reign of Henry I. some coiners were 
uken to Winchester, where their right hands were lopped off and 
they were castrated. Under the kings of the West Saxon dynasty 
the loss of hands had been a common penalty for coinins {The 
Obsolete Punishments of Shropshire, by S. Meeson Morris). Morris 
quotes a case in John's reign at the Salop Assixes in 1303, where one 
Alice Crithecrecne and others were accused of murdering an old 
woman at Lilleshall. Convicted of being accessory, Critnecreche 
was sentenced to death, but the penalty was altered to that of 
having her eyes plucked out. During the Tudor and Stuart perioda 
mutilatbns were a common form of • punishment extra-judicially 
inflicted by order of. the privy council and the Star Chamber. There 
are said to be preserved at Playford Hall, Ipswich, instruments of 
Henry VIII.'s time for cutting off ears. Tnis penalty appeara to 
have Deen inflicted for not attending church. By an act 01 Henry 
VIII. (33 Hen. VIII. c 13) the punishment for "striking in the 
king's court or house " was the loss of the right hand. For writing a 



tract on The Monstrous Regimen of Women a Nonconformist divine 
(Dr W. Stubbs) had his right hand lopped off. Among many cases 
of severe mutilations during Stuart times may be mentioned those 



of Prynne, Burton, Bastwick and Titus C^tes. 

MUTINT (from an old verb " mutine," O. Fr. muttHf meutin, 
a sedition; cf. mod. Fr. Hncuie; the original is the Late Lat. 
mota, commotion, from movere, to move), a resistance by force 
to recognized authority, an insurrection, especially applied to 
a sedition in any military or naval forces of the state. Such 
offences are dealt with by courts-martial. (See Militasy Law 
and Court Maktial.) 

MUTSU, MUNEMITSU, Coitnt (1843-1896), Japanese states- 
man, was bom in 1842 in Wakayama. A vehement opponent 
of " dan government " — that is, usurpation of administrative 
posts by men of two or three fiefs, an abuse which threatened 
to follow the overthrow of the Tokugawa skogunate — be con- 
spired to assist Saigo's rebellion and was imprisoned from 1878 
until 1883. While in prison he translated Bcntham's Utilitarian' 
ism. In 1886, after a visit to Europe, he received a diplomatic 
appointment, and held the portfolio of foreign affairs during 
the China-Japan War (1894-95), being associated with Prince 
(then Count) Ito as peace plenipotentiary. He negotiated 
the first of the revised treaties (that with Great Britain), and 
for these various services he received the title of count. He 
died in T6kyd in 1896. His statue in bronze stands before the 
foreign office in TfikyO. 

MUTSU HITO, Mikado, or Eupf.ror, of Japan (1853- ), 
was bom on the 3rd of November 1852, succeeded his father, 
Osahito, the former emperor, in January 2867, and was crowned 
at Osaka on the 31st of October 1868. The coimtry was then 
in a ferment owing to the concessions which had been granted 
to foreigners by the preceding sh6gim lyemochi, who in 1854 
concluded a treaty with Commodore Perry by which it was 
agreed that certain ports should be open to loreign trade. 
This convention gave great offence to the more conservative 
daimios, and on their initiative the mikado suddenly decided 
to abolish the shogunate. This resolution wc^ not carried out 
without strong opposition. The reigning shfigun, Keiki, yielded 
to the decree, but many of his followers were not so complaisant, 
and it was only by force of arms that the new order of things 
was imposed on the country. The main object of those who 
had advocated the change was to lead to a reversion to the 



MUTTRA 



lOI 



priinitjvt condition of affairs, when the wiH of the mikado was 
ifaedute and when the presence in Japan of the hated foreipwr 
ms unknown. But the reactionary party was not to be allowed 
to monopolize revolutions. To their surprise and discomfiture, 
the powerful daimios of Satsuma and ChOsha suddenly declared 
tfannselves to be in favour of opening the country to foreign 
interooune, and of adopting many far-reaching reforms. With 
this movement MuUu Hito was cordially in agreement, and of 
his own motion be invited the foreign representatives to an 
audience on the 33rd of March x868. As Sir Harry Parkes, 
the British minister, was on his way to this assembly, he was 
attacked by a number of two-sworded samurai, who, but for 
hb guard, would doubtless have succeeded in assassinating 
him. The outrage was regarded by the emperor and his minis- 
ters as a ie6ection on their honour, and they readily made all 
reparation within their power. While these agitations were 
afoot, the emperor, with his advisers, was matunng a political 
c(fflstitotk>n which was to pave the way to the assumption by 
the emperor of direct personal rule. As a step in this direction, 
Motsu Hito transferred his capital from Ki6t6 to Yedo, the 
former seat of the sfaOguns' government, and marked the event 
by renaming the dty TOkyO, or Eastern Capital. In 1869 the 
emperor paid a visit to hii old capital, and there took as his 
imperial consort a princess of the house of Ichijd. In the same 
year Motsu Hito bound himself by oath to institute certain 
reforms, the first of which was the establishment of a deliberative 
aasemUy. In this onward movement he was supported by the 
majority of the daimios, who in a supreme moment of patriotism 
surrendered their estates and privileges to their sovereign. This 
was the death-knell of the feudalism which had existed for so 
many centuries in Japan, and gave Mutsu Hito the free hand 
which be desired. A centralized bureaucracy took the place of 
the old system, and the nation moved rapidly along the road of 
progress. Everything European was eagerly adopted, even 
down to frock-coau and patent-leather boots for the officials. 
Torture was abolished (1873), and a judicial code, adapted from 
the Code Napolfon, was authorized. The first railway— that 
from Yokohama to T6ky6— was opened in 1872; the European 
calendar was adopted, and English was introduced into the 
currkoltim of the common schools. Tn all these reforms Mutsu 
Hito took a leading part. But it was not to be expected that 
VKh sweeping changes could be effected without opposition, 
and thrice during the period between 1876 and 1884 the emperor 
had to face serious rebellious movements in the provinces. 
These be succeeded in suppressing; and even amid these pre- 
occupations he managed to inflict a check on his huge neighbour, 
the empire of China. As the government of this state declared 
that it was incapable of punishing certain Formosan pirates for 
ootrafcs committed on Japanese ships (1874), Mutsu Hito 
landed a force on the island, and, having inflicted chastisement 
on the bandits, remained in possession of certain districts until 
the compensation demanded from Peking was paid. The un- 
paralkled advances which had been made by the government 
were now held by the emperor and his advisers to justify a 
demand for the revision of the foreign treaties, and negotiations 
were opened with this object. They failed, however, and the 
oonseqoent disappointment gave rise to a strong reaction against 
rmything foreign throughout the country. Foreigners were 
assaulted on the roads, and even the Russian cesarevich, after- 
wards the tsar Nicholas II., ^os attacked by would-be assassins 
in tbe streets of T&kyO. A renewed attempt to revise the 
treaties in 1894 was more successful, and in that year Great 
Britain led tbe way by concluding a revised treaty with Japan. 
Otber nations followed, and by xgox all those obnoxious clauses 
sogyesllve of political inferiority had finally disappeared from the 
treaties. In the same year (1894) war broke out with China, and 
Moisa Hito, in common with his subjects, showed the greatest 
zeal for the campaign. He reviewed the troops as they left 
the shores of Japan for Korea and Mai^churia, and personally 
distrftoted rewards to those who ^ won distinction. In 
the war with Russia, 1904-5, the sanie was the case, and it was 
to tbe virtues of their emoeror that his generals loyally .ascribed 



the Japanese victories. In his wise patriotism, as in all matters, 
MuUu Hito always placed himself in the van of his countrymen. 
He led them out of the trammels of feudalism; by his progressive 
rule he lived to see his country advanced to the first rank of 
nations', and he was the first Oriental sovereign to form an 
offensive and defen^ve alliance with a first-rate European 
power. In 1869 Mutsu Hito married Princess Haru, daughter 
of IchijO Tadaka, a noble of the first rank. He has one son 
. and several daughters, his heir-apparent being Yoshi Hito, who 
was born on the 31st of August 1879, and married in 190c 
Princess Sada, daughter of Prince KujO, by whom he had three 
sons before 1909. Mutsu Hito adopted the epithet of Meiji, or 
" EnlighUned Peace," as the nengo or title of his reign. Thus 
the year 1901, according to the Japanese calendar, was the 
34th year of Meiji. 

MUTTRA. or MATHtTSA, a city and district of British India 
in the Agra division of the United Provinces. The city is on the 
right bank of the Jumna, 30 m. above Agra; it is an important 
railway junction. Pop. (1901), 60,042. It is an ancient town, 
mentioned by Fa Hien as a centre of Buddhism about aj>. 400; 
his successor Hsaan Tsang, about 650, sutes that it then con- 
tained twenty Buddhist monasteries and five Brahroanical 
temples. Muttra has suffered more from Mahommedan plunder 
than most towns of northern India. It was sacked by Mah- 
mud of Ghazni in 1017-18; about 1500 Sultan Sikandar Lodi 
utterly destroyed all the Hindu shrines, temples and images; 
and in 1636 Shah Jahan appointed a governor expressly to 
" sump out idolatry." In 1669-70 Aurangzeb visited the city 
and continued the work of destruction. Muttra was again 
captured and plundered by Ahmad Shah with 35,000 Afghan 
cavalry in 1756. The town still fcrms a great centre of Hindu 
devotion, and large numbers of pilgrims flock annually to the 
festivals. The special cult of Krishna with which the neighbour- 
hood is associated seems to be of comparatively late date. 
Much of the prosperity of the town is due to the residenire of a 
great family of seths or native bankers, who were conspicuously 
loyal during the Mutiny. Temples and bathing-stairs line the 
river bank. The majority are modem, but the mosque of 
Aurangzeb, on a lofty site, dates from 1669. Most of the public 
buildings are of whit^ stone, handsomely carved. There are 
an American mission, a Roman Catholic church, a museum of 
antiquities, and a cantonment for a British cavalry regiment. 
Cotton, paper and pilgrims' charms arc the chief articles of 
manufacture. 

The District ot McrrntA has an area of 144 5 sq. m. It consists 
of an irregular strip of territory lying on both sides of the 
Jumna. The general level is only broken at the south-western 
angle by low ranges of limestone hills. The eastern half con- 
sists for the most part of a rich upland plain, abundantly irrigated 
by wells, rivers and canals, while the western portion, though 
rich in mythological association and antiquarian remains, is 
comparatively unfavoured by nature. For eight months of the 
year the Jumna shrinks to the dimensions of a mere rivulet, 
meandering through a waste of sand. During the rains, how- 
ever, it swells to a mighty stream, a mile or more in breadth. 
Formerly nearly the whole of Muttra consisted of pasture and 
woodland, but the roads constructed as relief works in 183 7- 1838 
have thrown open many large tracts of country, and the task 
of reclamation has since proceeded rapidly. The population 
in 1901 was 763,099, showing an increase of 7 % in the 
decade. The principal crops are millets, pulse, cotton, wheat, 
barley and sugar cane. The famine of 1878 was severely felt. 
The eastern half of the district is watered by the Agra canal, 
which is navigable, and the western half by branches of the 
Ganges canal. A branch of the Rajputana railway, from 
Achnera to Hathras, crosses the district; the chord line of the 
East India, from Agra to Delhi, traverses it from north to south; 
and a new line, connecting with the Great Indian Peninsula, 
was opened in 1905. 

The central portion of Muttra district forms one of the most 
sacred spots in Hindu mythology. A circuit of 84 kos around 
Gokul and Brindaban bears the name of the Braj-Mandal, and 



102 



MUTULE— MUZAFFARNAGAR 



carries with it many associations of earliest Aryan times. 
Here Krishna and his brother Balarama fed their cattle upon the 
plain, and numerous relics of antiquity in the towns of Muttra, 
Gobardhan, Gokul, Mahaban and Brindaban still attest the 
sanctity with which this holy tract was invested. During the 
Buddhist period Muttra became a centre of the new faith. 
After the invasion of Mahmud of Ghazni the city fell into 
insignificance till the reign of Akbar; and thenceforward its 
history merges in that of the Jats of Bharatpur, until it again 
acquired separate individuality under Suraj Mai in the middle 
of the i8th century. The Bharatpur chiefs took an active part 
in the disturbances consequent on the declining power of the 
Mogul emperors, sometimes on the imperial side, and at others 
with the Mahrattas. The whole of Muttra passed under British 
rule in 1804. 

See F. S. Crowse, iiatkura (Allahabad, 1883). 

MUTULB (Lat. mtUuluSt a stay or bracket), in architecture 
the rectangular block under the soffit of the cornice of the Greek 
Doric temple, which is studded with guUae. It is supposed to 
represent the piece of timber through which the wooden pegs 
were driven in order to hold the rafter in position, and it follows 
the rake of the roof. In the Roman Dioric order the mutule 
was horizontal, with sometimes a crowning fillet, so that it 
virtually fulfilled the purpose of the modillion in the Corinthian 
cornice. 

MUZAFFAR-ED-IAN, shah of Persia (1853-1907). the second 
son of Shah Nasr-ed-Din, was born on th^ 25th of March 1853. 
He was in due course declared volt akd, or heir-apparent, and 
invested with the governorship of Azerbaijan, but on the 
assassination of his father in 1896 it was feared that his elder 
brother, ZiU-es-Sultan, the governor of Isfahan, might prove 
a dangerous rival, especially when it was femembered that 
MuzafTar-ed-Dln had been recalled to Teheran by his father upon 
his failure to suppress a Kurd rising in his province. The 
British and Russian governments, in order to avoid wide- 
tpread disturbances, agreed however to give him their support. 
All opposition was thus obviated, and Muzaffar-ed-Din was 
duly enthroned on the 8th of June 1896, the Russian general 
Kosakowsky, commander of the Persian Cosstfcks, presiding over 
the ceremony with drawn sword. On this occasion the new 
shah announced the suppression of all purchase of civil and 
military posts, and then proceeded to remit in perpetuity all 
taxes on bread and meat, thus lightening the taxation on food, 
which had caused the only disturbances in the last reign. But 
whatever hopes may have been aroused by this auspicious 
beginning of the reign were soon dashed owing to the extrava- 
gance and profligacy of the court, which kept the treasury in 
a chronic state of depletion. Towards the end of 1896 the 
Amin-es-Sultan, who had been grand vizier during the last 
years of Nasr-ed-Dln's reign, was disgraced, and Muzaffar-ed- 
Dln announced his intention of being in future his own grand 
vizier. The Amin-ad-Dowla, a less masterful servant, took 
office with the lower title of prime minister. During his short 
administration an elaborate scheme of reforms was drawn up 
on paper, and remained on paper. The treasury continued 
empty, and in the spring of 1898 Amin-«s-Sultan was recalled 
with the special object of filling it. The delay of the British 
government in sanctioning a loan in London gave Russia her 
opportunity. A Russian loan was followed by the establishment 
of a Russian bank at Teheran, and the vast expansion of 
Russian influence generally. At the beginning of 1900 a 
fresh gold loan was negotiated with Russia, and a few 
months later Muzaffar-ed-Din started on a tour in Europe 
by way of St Petersburg, where he was received with great 
state. He subsequently went to Paris to visit the Exhibition 
of 1900, and while there an attempt on his life was made 
by a madman named Francois Salson. In spite of this 
experience the shah so enjoyed his European tour that he 
determined to repeat it as soon as possible. By the end of 
1 901 his treasury was again empty; but a. fresh Russian loan 
replenished it and in 1902 he again came to Europe, paying 
on this occasion a state visit to England. On his way back 



he stopped at St Petersburg, and at a banquet given in his 
honour by the tsar toasu were exchanged ot unmistakable 
significance. None the less, during his visit to King Edward VIL 
the shah had been profuse in his expressions of friendship for 
Great Britain, and in the spring of 1903 a special mission was 
sent to Teheran to invest him with the Order of the Garter. 

The shah's misguided policy had created widespread dis- 
affection in the country, and the brunt of popular disfavour 
fell on the atabeg (the title by which the Amin-es-Sultan was 
now known), who was once more disgraced in September 1903. 
The war with Japan now relaxed the Russian pressure 00 
Teheran, and at the same time dried up the source of supplies; 
and the clergy, giving voice to the general misery and discontent, 
grew more and more outspoken in their denunciations of the 
shah's mbrule. Nevertheless MuzafTar-ed-Din defied public 
opinion by making another Journey to Europe in 1905; but, 
though received with the customary distinction at St Petersburg, 
he failed to obtain further supplies. In the summer of 1906 
popular discontent culminated in extraordinary demonstrations 
at Teheran, which practically amounted to a general strike. 
The shah was forced to yield, and proclaimed a liberal con- 
stitution, the first parliament being opened by him on the xath 
of October 2906. Muzaffar-ed-Din died on the 8th of January 
1907, being succeeded by his son Mahommed All Mirza. 

MUZAFFAR6ARH. a town and district of British India, 
in the Mullan division of the Punjab. The town is near the 
right bank of the river Chenab, and has a railway sutibn. 
Pop. (1901), 40x8. Its fort and a mosque were built by Nawab 
Muzaffar Khan in 1794-1796. 

The District of MuzAFFAtCARR occupies the lower end of 
the Sind-Sagar Doab. Area, 3635 sq. m. In the northern 
half of the district is the wild thai or central desert, an arid 
elevated tract with a width of 40 m. in the extreme north, 
which gradually contracts until it disappears about xo m. 
south of MuzaflTargarh town. Although apparently a table-land, 
it is really composed of separate sandhills, with intermediate 
valleys lying at a lower level than that of the Indus, and at 
times flooded. The towns stand on high sites or are protected 
by embankments; but the villages scattered over the lowlands 
are exposed to annual inundations, during which the people 
abandon their grass-built huts, and take refuge on wooden 
platforms-attached to each house. Throughout the cold weather 
large herds of camels, belonging chiefly to the Povindah 
merchants of Afghanistan, graze upon the sandy waste. 

The district possesses hardly any distinct annals of its own, 
having always formed part of Multan (g.t.). The population 
in 1901 was 405,656, showing an increase of 6*4% in the decade, 
due to the extension of irrigation. The principal crops are 
wheat, pulse, rice and indigo. The most important domestic 
animal is the camel. The district is crossed by the Norths 
Western railway, and the boundary rivers are navigable, besides 
furnishing numerous irrigation channels; originally copstiucted 
under native rule. 

MUZAFFARNAOAR, a town 'and district of British India, 
in the Meerut dixision of the United Provinces. The town is 
790 ft. above the sea, and has a station on the North- Western 
railway. Pop. (1901), 33444. It is an important trading centre 
and has a manufacture of blankets. It was founded about 1633 
by the son of Muzaffar Khan, Khan-i-Jahan, one of the famous 
Sayid family who rose to power under the emperor Shah Jahan. 

The District op Muzaffarnacar has an area of 1666 sq. m. 
It lies near the northern extremity' of the Doab or great alluvial 
plain between the Ganges and the Jumna, and shares to a \Ktgt 
extent in the general monotony of that level region. A great 
portion is sandy and unfertile; but under irrigation the soil is 
rapidly improving, and in many places the villagers have 
succeeded in introducing a hig|i state of cultivation. Before 
the opening of the canals Muzaffamagar was liable to famines 
caused by drought; but the danger from this has been mini- 
mized by the spread of irrigation. It is traversed by four main 
canals, the Ganges, Anupshahr, Deoband and Eastern Jumna. 
Its trade is confined to the raw materials it produces. The 



MUZAFFARPUR— MYCENAE 



103 



diaute of the district i» comparatively cool, owing to the 
pranmity of the hUls; and the average annual rainfall ia 33 m. 
The popolatioa in 1901 was 877,188, showing an increase of 
ij*5 % in the decade, which was a period of unexampled 
prosperity. The principal crops are wheat, pulse, cotton and 
si«sr-cane. The district b crossed by the North-Wcstem 
raflway from Delhi to Saharanpur. 

Hindu tradition repccsents Muzaffamagar as having formed a 
portion of the Paodava kingdom of the Mahabhdraia; authentic 
faistocy, however, dates from the time of the Moslem conquests 
in the ijth octitory, from which time it remained a dependency 
of the various Mahommedan dynasties which ruled at Delhi 
until the practical downfall of the Mogul Empire in the middle 
of the i8th century. In 1788 the district fell into the. hands 
of the Mahrattas. After the fall of Aligarh, the whole Doab 
as fkr north as the Siwalik hiUs passed into the hands of the 
British without a blow, and Muzaffarnagar became part of 
Saharanpur. It was created a separate jurisdiction in 1824. 
During the Mu6ny there was some disorder, chiefly occaiSoned 
by offidal weakness, but no severe fighting. 

S»MmaaifaF»aear District Cautteer (Allahabad. 1903). 

■UZAFFARPUR, a town and district of British'india, in the 
Fktaa division of Bengal. The town is on the right bank of 
the little Gandak river, and has a railway station. Pop. (1901), 
45^17. The town is well laid out, and is an important centre 
of trade, being on the direct route from Patna to Nepal It is 
the headquarters of the Behar Light Horse volunteer corps and 
kas a ooUege esUblished in 1899. 

The DsnucT 01 Mvzattarpvb. has an area of 3035 sq. m. It 
was formed in January 2875 out of the great district of Tirhoot, 
whkh up to that time was the largest and most populous district 
of Lower Bengal. The district is an alluvial plain between the 
Ganges and the Great Gandak, the Baghmat and Little Gandak 
being the principal rivers within it. South of the Little Gandak 
the land is somewhat elevated, with depressions^ containing 
hkes toward the south-east. North of the Bighmat the land 
is krwrr and marshy, but b traversed by elevated dry ridges. 
The tract between the two rivers b lowest of all and liable to 
floods. Pop. (1901), 3,754.790, showing an increase of z*$ % 
in the decade. Average density, 9r4 per sq. m., being exceeded 
in aD India only by the neighbouring dbtrict of Saran. Indigo 
(superseded to some exUnt, owing to the fall in price, by sugar) 
and ophim are laigdy grown. Rice b the chief grain crop, 
and doth, carpets and pottery are manufactured. The dbtrict 
b traversed in several directions by the Tirhoot system of the 
Bengal and North-Westem railway. It sufifered from drought 
in 1873-1874, and again in X807-1898. 

See Uwaaffarpw District Caaetteer (CalcutU. 1907). 

MDZIASO, GIROLAMO (1528-1592), Italian painter, was 
hem at Acquafredda, near Brescia, in 1528. Under Romanino, 
an imitator of Titian, he studied hb art, designing and colouring 
according to the principles of the Venetian school. But it was 
■ot until he had left hb native place, still in eariy youth, and 
had repaired to Rome about 1550, that he came into notice. 
There kb pictures soon gained for him the surname of // Ciovane 
i^ paest (the young man of the landscapes); chestr.ut-trecs 
are*pccdoininant in these works. He next tried the more 
elevated style of hbtorical painting. He imitated Michelangelo 
(8 giving great prominence to the anatomy of his figures, and 
became food of painting persons emaciated by abstinence or 
even disease. Hb great picture of the " Resurrection of 
Lazaji»'* at once established his fame. Michelangelo praised 
it. and pronounced its author one of the first artists of that age. 
It was placed in the church of Santa Maria Maggiore, but was 
afterwards transferred to the C^uirinal Palace. Muziano, with 
dogged perseverance (at one time he shaved his head, so as not 
to be tempted to go out of doors), continued to proceed in the 
path on which he had entered. He grew excellent in depicting 
icreigD and military costumes, and in introducing landscapes 
into Ida historical pieces after the manner of Titian. Mosaic 
working also occupiied hb attention while he was employed as 



superintendent at the Vatican; and it became under hb hands 
a perfect imitation of painting. Hb ability and industry soon 
gained for him a handsome fortune. Part of thb he expended 
in assisting to found the Academy of St Luke in Rome. He 
died in 1594, and was buried in the church of SanU Maria 
Maggioie. 

Many of MurianoV works ate In the churches and palaces of 
Rome; he also worked in Orvieto and Loreto. In Santa Maria 
de^i Angeli. Rome, b one of hb chief works. " St Jerome preaching 
to Monlor In the Desert " : his " Circumdaon " is in the church of the 
GcsA, hb " Ascension " in the Araceli. and hb " St Francis receive 
ing the Stigmata " in the church of the Conception. A picture by 
htm. representing Christ washing the feet of Hts disdples. b in the 
cathedral of Reims. 

HUZZIOU,. OIOVAMMI (1854-1894), Italian painter, was 
bom in Modena, whither hb family had removed from Castel- 
vetro, on the loth of February 1854. From the time that he 
began to attend the local academy at the age of thirteen he was 
recQgnked as a prodigy, and four years later, by the unanimods 
vote of the Judges, he gained the Poletti scholarship entitling 
him to four years' residence in Rome and Florence. After hb 
retum to Modena, .Munioli visited the Paris Exhibition, and 
there came under the influence of Sir L. Alma Tadema. His 
first important picture was ** In the Temple of Bacchus " (i8Sx); 
and hb masterpiece, " The Funeral of Britannicus," was one of 
the chief successes of the Bologna Exhibition of x888. From 
1878 to hb death (August 5, 1894) Muzzioli lived in Florence, 
where he painted the altar-piece for the church of C^telvetro. 

See History «/ Mttiern Italian Art, by A, K. WiUard (London. 
'8 98)- 

MWERU* a huge lake of Eastern Central Africa, traversed 
by the Luapula or upper O>ngo. It lies 3000 ft. above the sea; 
measures about 76 m. in length by some 25 in breadth, and is 
roughly rectangular, the axb running from S.S.W. to N.N.E. 
It b cut a little sbuth of its centre by 0** S. and through its 
N.E. corner passes 29** E. At the south end a shallow bay 
extends to 9" 31' S. East of thb, and some miles further north, 
the Luapula enters from a vast marsh inundated at high water; 
it leaves the lake at the north-west comer, making a sharp bend 
to the west before assuming a northerly direction. Besides 
the Luapula, the principal influent is the Kalungwizi, from the 
east. Near the south end of the lake lies the island of Kilwa, 
about 8 m. fai length, rising into plateaus 600 ft. above the 
lake. Here the air b cool and balmy, the soil dry, with short 
ttirf and clumps of shady trees, affording every requirement for 
a sanatorium. Mwem was reached by David Livingstone in 
1867, but its western shore was first explored in 1890 by Sir 
Alfred Sharpe, who two years later effected its circumnavigation. 
The eastem shores from the Luapula entrance to its exit, 
together with Kilwa Island, belong to Britbh. Central Africa, 
the western to the Belgian (Tongo. 

HTAUNOMTA, a dbtrict in the Irrawaddy division of lower 
Burma, formed in 1893 out of a portion of Bassein district, and 
reconstituted in 1903. It has an area of 2663 sq. m., and a 
population (1902) of 278,119, showing an increase of 49% in 
the decade and a density of 104 inhabitants to the square mile. 
Among the population were about 12,800 Christians, mostly 
Karens. The dbtrict b a deltaic tract, bordering south on the 
sea and traversed by many tidal creeks. Rice cultivation and 
ibhing occupy practically all the inhabitants of the dbtrict. 
The town of Myaungmya had 47x1 inhabitants in 1901. 

HTCENAB, one of the most ancient cities of Greece, was 
situated on a hill above the northem extremity of the fertile 
Argive plain-^iii/xv "^PJ^ot Inrofidroio. Its situation is ex* 
ceedingly strong, and it commands all the roads leading from 
Corinth and Achaca into the Argive plain. The waHs of Mycenae 
are the greatest monument that remains of the Heroic age 
in Greece; part of them is similar in style and doubtless con- 
temporary in date with the walls of the neighbouring town 
Tiryns. There can therefore be little doubt that the two 
towns were the strongholds of a single race. Tiryns commanding 
the sea-coast and Mycenae the inner country. Legend tells 
of the rivalry between the dynasties of the Pelopidae at Mycenae 



104 



MYCENAE 



and of the Proetidae at Argos. In early historic times Argos 
had obtained the predominance. The Mycenaeans, who had 
temporarily regained their independence with the help of 
Sparta, fought on the Greek side at Piataea in 479 B.C. The 
long warfare between the two cities lasted till 46is B.C., when 
Mycenae was dismantled and its inhabitants dispersed. The 
city never revived; Strabo asserts that no trace of it remained 
in his time, but Pausanias describes the ruins. For the character 
of Mycenaean art and of the antiquities found at Mycenae 
see Aegean CiviLiZAnoN. 

The extant remains of the town of Mycenae are spread over 
the hill between the village of Charvati and the Acropolis. 
They consist of some traces of town walls and of houses, and 
of an early bridge over the stream to the east, on the road 
leading to the Heraeum. The walls of the Acropolis are in 



of thin slabs of stone set up on end, with others laid across the 
top of them; at the part of this enclosure nearest to the Lion 
Gate is an entrance. Some have supposed the circle of slabs 
to be the retaining wall of a tumulus; but its structure is not 
solid enough for such a purpose, and it can hardly be anything 
but a sacred enclosure. It was within this circle that Dr H. 
Schlicmann found the five graves that contained a marvellous 
wealth of gold ornaments and other objects; a sixth was sub^ 
sequently found. Above one of the graves was a small circular 
altar, and there were also several sculptured slabs set up above 
them. The graves themselves were mere shafts sunk in the 
rock. Dr Schliemann identified them with the graves of 
Agamemnon, Cassandra, and their companions, which were 
shown to Pausanias within the walls; and there can be little 
doubt that they are the graves that gave rise to the tradition. 




based 00 a, pUo ia bchucUurdt'» StUitmamm't Exianliams 

Fig. I.— Plan of the Citadel of Mycenae. 



the shape of an irregular triangle, and occupy a position of 
great natural strength between two valleys. They are preserved 
to a considerable height on all sides, except where the ravine 
is precipitous and they have been carried away by a landslip; 
they are for the most part built of irregular blocks of great 
size in the so-called " Cyclopian " style, but certain portions, 
notably that near the chief gate, are built in almost regular 
courses of squared stones; there are also some later repairs in 
polygonal masonry. The main entrance is called the Lion Gate, 
from the famous triangular relief which fills the space above 
its massive lintel. This represents two Uons confronted, resting 
their front legs on a low altar-like structure on which is a 
pillar which stands between them. The device is a translation 
into stone of a type not uncommon in gem-cutler's and 
goldsmith's work of the " Mycenaean " age. Tlie gate is 
approached by a road commanded on one side by the city wall, 
on the other by a projecting tower. There is also a postern 
gate on the north side of the wall, and at its eastern extremity 
are two apertures in the thickness of the wall. One of these 
leads out on to the rocks above the southern ravine, the other 
leads to a long staircase, completely concealed in the wall and 
the rocks, leading down to a subterranean well or spring. Just 
within the Lion Gale is a projection of the wall surrounding a 
curious circular enclosure, consisting of two concentric circles 



though the historical identity of the persons actually buried in 
them is a more difficult question. Outside the circle, especially 
to the south of it. numerous remains of houses of the Mycenaean 
age have been found, and others, terraced up at various levels. 
occupy almost the whole of the Acropolis. On the summit, 
approached by a well-preserved flight of steps, are the remains 
of a palace of the Mycenaean age, similar to that found at 
Tiryns. though not so complicated or extensive. Above them 
are the foundations of a Doric temple, probably dating from the 
last days of Mycenaean independence in the sth century. 

Numerous graves have hctn found in the slopes of the hills 
adjoining the town of Mycenae. Most of these conust merely of 
a chamber, usually square, excavated in the rock, and approached 
by a " dromos " or horizontal approach in the side of a hill. 
They are sometimes provided with doorways faced with stucco, 
and these have painted ornamentation. Many of these tombs 
have been opened, and their contents are in the Athens museum. 
Another and much more conspicuous kind of tomb is that 
known as the beehive tomb. There are eight of them at Mycenae 
itself, and others in the neighbourhood. Some of them w-ere 
visible in the time of Pausanias. who calls them the places 
where Atreus and his sons kept their treasures. There can, 
however, be no doubt that they were the tombs of princely 
famih'es. The largest and b^t preserved of them, now 



MYCETOZOA 



105 



comiBonky called the Treasury of Atretis, is jtist outside the Lion 
Gate. It consists of a circular domed chamber, nearly 50 ft 
in diameter and in height , a smaller square chamber opens out 
of it. It is approached by a horizontal avenue 20 ft wide and 
115 ft. long, with side walls of squared stone sloping up to a 
height of 4S ft. The doorway was flanked with columns of 
alabaster, with rich spiral ornament, now in ibc British Museum, 
and the rest of the facade was very richly decorated, as may 
be seen from Chipitfz's fine restoration The inside of the 
vault was ornamented with attached bronze ornaments, but 
not, as is sometimes stated, entirely lined with bronze. It is 
generally supposed that these tombs, as well as those excavated 
in the rock, belong to a later date than the shaft-tombs on the 
Acropolis. 

Sec H- Schliemann. Mycenae (1879) , C Schuchhardt. Schltemann's 
ExtOMotums (Eng. trans.. 1891) , Chr Tsountas. Miw^mu koI MiMnyvauit 
««\irt#|t6t (1803): Tsountas and Manatt. The Mycenaean Age (1897): 
Perrat and Chipiez. Htstoire de t'art dans VantiqutU, vol. vi., L'art 
Mycinttnne \^nous reports in IIpcwrurA r^ ipx iraipin and in 
'C^VMpif ifixnut)^^^. (E. Cr.) 

HTCETOZOA (Myxomycetes. Schleimpiize), in zoology, a 
group of organisms reproducing themselves by spores. These 
are produced in or on sporangia which are formed in the air 
and the spores are distributed by the currents of air They 
thus difier from other spore-bearing members of the animal 
kingdom (w^hich produce their spores while immersed in water 
or, in tbe case of parasites, within the fluids of their hosts), 
and resemble the Fungi and many of the lower green plants. 
In relation with this condition of their fructification the structures 
formed at the spore-bearing stage to contain or support the 
spores present a remarkable resemblance to the sporangia of 
certain groups of Fu.igi. from which, however, the Mycetozoa 
are essentially different. 

Ahhough the sporangial and some other phases have long been 
known, and Fries had enumerated iga species in 1829, the 
main features of their hfe-history were first worked out in 1859- 
1860 by de Bary (i and a). He showed that in the Mycetozoa 
tbe spore hatches out as a mass of naked protoplasm which 
almost immediately assumes a free-swimming flagellate form 
ffocspcre)^ that after multiplying by division this passes into an 
amoeboid phase, and that from such amoebae the plasmodia 
arise, though tbe mode of their origin was not ascertained by him. 

The Plasmodium of the Mycetozoa is a mass of simple proto- 
plasm, without a differentiated envelope and endowed with 
the power of active locomotion. It penetrates the interstices 
of decaying vegetable matter, or, in the case of the species 
Bcdkamic uirktUaris, spreads as a film on the surface of living 
fungi; it may grow almost indefinitely in size, attaining under 
favourable conditions several feet in extent It constitutes 
tbe donainant phase of the life-history. From the Plasmodium 
tbe sporangia take their origin. It was Cienkowski who (in 
1863) contributed the important fact that the Plasmodia arise 
by tbe fusion with one another of numbers of individuals in 
the amoeboid phase — a mode of origin which is now generally 
recognized as an essential feature in the conception of a 
plasraodiom. whether as occurring among the Mycetozoa or 
in other groups (7). De Bary clearly expressed the view that 
the life-history of the Mycetozoa shows them to belong not 
to the vegetable but to the animal kingdom. 

The individual sporangia of the Mycetozoa are, for the most 
part, minute structures, rarely attaining the size of a mustard- 
seed, thotigh. in the composite form of aethalia, they may 
form cake-like masses an inch or more across (fig. ai) They arc 
focnd, stalked or sessile, in small clusters or distributed by the 
thousand over a wide area many feet in diameter, on the bark 
of decaying trees, on dead leaves or sticks, In woods and shrub- 
beries, among the stems of plants on wet moors, and, generally, 
at the surface in localities where there is a substratum of decaying 
vegetable matter sufficiently moist to allow the Plasmodium 
U> live. Tan-heaps have long been known as a favourite habitat 
ol FuUgo septica, the plasmodia of which, emerging In bright 
yellow masses at the surface prior to the sporangial (in this 
case actbalial) phase, are known as " flowers of Un " Tbe 



film-like, expanded condition of the Plasmodium, varying in 
colour in different spedes and traversal by a network of vem- 
like channels (fig. 5), has long been known. The plasmodial 
stage was at one time regarded as representing a distinct group 
of fungi, to which the generic name Mesentcrtca was applied. 
The species of Mycetozoa are widely distributed over the woHd in 
temperate and tropical latitudes where there is sufficient 
moisture for them to grow, and they must be regarded as not 
inconsiderable agents in the disintegrating processes of nature, 
by which complex organic subsUnces are decomposed into 
simpler and more stable chemical groups. 

Classification — ^The Mycetozoa, as here understood, fall into 
three main divisions. Tbe Endosporeae, in which the spores are 
contained within sporangia, form together with the Exosporeae. 
which bear their spores on the surface of sporophorcs, a natural 
group characterized by forming true plaismodia. They con- 
stitute the Euplasmodida. Standing apart from them is the 
small group of the mould-like Sorophora, in which the amoeboid 
individuals only come together immediately prior to spore- 
formation and do not completely fuse with one another. 

A number of other organisms living on vegetable and animal 
bodies, alive or dead, and leading an entirely aquatic life, are 
included by Zopf (31) under the Mycetozoa, as the " Monadina," 
in distinaion from the " Eumycetozoa," consisting of the three 
groups above mentioned. The alliance of some of these {e.g. 
Protonumas) with the Mycetozoa is probable, and was accepted 
by de Bary, but the relations of other Monadina arc obscure, 
and appear to be at least as close with the Heliozoa (with which 
many have in fact been classed). The limiu here adopted, 
following de Bary, include a group of organisms which, as 
shown by their life-history, belong to the atiimal stock, and yet 
alone among animals* they have acquired the habit, widely 
found in the vegetable kingdom, of developing and distributing 
their spores in air. 

Class MYCETOZOA. 

Subclass I. — EUPLASIIOOIOA.' 

Division t. — Endosporeae. 
Cohort I. — Amaurosporales. 
Sub-cohort l. — Calcarineae. 
Order I. Physaraccae. Genera: Badhamxa, Physarum, Physarelta, 
Trickampkora, Erionema, Cienkowskia, Fuligo, Crateriumf 
Leocarpus, Ckondrioderwia, Diackaea. 
Order a. Didymiaceae. Genera: Didymtum, Spumaria, Lepido- 
derma, 

Sub<ohort a. — Amaurochaetineae. 
Order i. Stemonitaccae. Genera: Stemonitis, Comatricka, Ener- 

Ikenema, EckinosUUum, Lamproderma, Clastoderma, 
Orders Amaurochaetaceae. Ccnen: AmaurockaeU, Brefeldia, 
Cohort 2. — Lamprosporales. 
Sub<ohort i. — Ancmineae. 
Order I Heterodermaceae. Cienera: Lindbladia, Cribraria, 

Dictydium. 
Order a. Licaeceae. Genera : Licea, Oreadetla. 
Order 3, Tubulinaccae. Genera; Tubulina. SipkoUyekittm, Alvisia. 
Order 4. Reticulariaceae. Genera : Dtctydiaelkaiium, Enleridium, 

Reticularia. 
Order 5. Lycogalaceae. C^nus: Lycoiaia, 

Sub«cohort a."- ^Taloncmlneae. 
Order 1. Trichiaceac. Genera: Trickia, OUgontma, Hemitriekia, 

Cornuvia. 
Order a. Arcyriaceae. Genera: Arcyria, Lacknobolus, Perickaena. 
Order 3. Margaritaceae. Genera: Mariarita, Dianema, ProUh 
trickia, Listerella. 

Division a. — Exosporeae, 
Order 1. Ceratiomyxaceae. Genus: Ceraliomyxo, 

Subclass a. — Sorophora. 
Order i. Cuttulinaceae. Genera: Copromyxa, Cuttulina, Cuttw 

linopsis. 
Order a. Dictyostcltaceae. Genera: Dictyostelium, Acrasis, Poly- 
tphondylium. 



* Bursnila, a member of Zopf s Monadina, likewise forms its spores 
in air 

• The classification of the Euplasmodida here given Is that of A. 
and G. Lister (22), the outcome of a careful study of the eroup 
extending over more than twenty-five years. The writer of this 
article desires to express his indebtedness to the opportunities he 
has had of becoming familiar with the work of his father, Mr A. Lister. 
F.R.S.. whose views on the affinities and life-history of tbe Mycetoaoa 
he has endeavoured herein to summarize. 



io6 



MYCETOZOA 



LIFE-HISTORY OF THE MYCETOZOA 

EUPLASMODIDA 

Endosporeae. 
We may begin oar survey of the life-history at the point where 
the spores, borne on currents of air, have settled among wet decaying 
vegeuble matter Shrunken when dry. they rapidly absorb water 

and resume the spherical 
shape which is found in 
nearly all species. Each 
is surrounded by a s^e 
wait, sheltered by which 
the protoplasm, though 
losing moisture by drying, 
may remain alive for as 
many as four years. In 
several cases it has been 
found to give the chemical 
reaction of cellulose. It 
IS smooth or variously 
sculptured according to 
the species. Within the 
protoplasm may be seen 
the ntkUus, and one or 
more contractile vacuoles 




Fic. 



^ — ... ^. , . make their appearance. 

-Stages in the Hatching of the After the spore has lain 
Spon» ol Dtdymxum dtfforme. i„ water for « period 

a. The unruptured spore. varying from a few hours 

0, The protoplasmic contents of the spore to a day or two the wall 
emcmng. It contains a nucleus with bursts and the contained 
the (light) nucleolus, and a contractUe protopUsm slips out and 
vacuole (shaded) fies free in the water as a 

<^. The same, free from the spore wall. minute colourless mass, 
</. Zoospore, with nucleus at thebaseof presenting amoeboid 
the flagcllum. and contractile vacuole, movements 'fig. i. c). It 
t, A zoospore with pseudopodial processes ^oon assumes an elongated 
at the postenor end. to one of which piriform shape, and a 
a bacillus adheres. Two digestive fiagellum is developed at 
vacuoles in the interior conUin m- the narrow end. attaining 
gested bacilli. a length equal to the rest 

/. Amoeboid phase with retracted of the body. The minute 
flagcllum. toospore, thus equipped, 

swims away with a characteristic dancing motion. The proto- 
plasm is granular within but hyaline externally (fig. I. d). The 
nucleus, lying at the end of the body where it tapers into the 
flagcllum. is limited by a definite wall and contains a nuclear 
network and a nucleolus. It often 
presents the appearance of being 
drawn out into a point towards the 
flagcllum. and a bell-like structure 
(first described by Plenge (27)1. 
staining more darkly than the rest 
of the protoplasm, extends from the 
base (M the flagcllum and invests 
the nucleus (fig. 3. a and c). The 
other end of the zoospore may be 
evenly rounded (fig. \,d)or it may 
be produced into short pseudo- 
podia (fig. I , <). By means of these 
the zoospore captures bacteria 
- — - # . .. • which are drawn into the body and 

Fic. 2.— Zoospore! of BaJ*amia enclosed in digestive vacuoles. A 

pantua, suined. contractile vacuole is also present 

In a and c the bell like struc- „ear the hind end. Considerable 

ture mveaiing the nucleus is movement may be observed among 

clearly seen. the granules of the interior, and 

in the large zoospores of Amawockaeu atra this may amount to an 

actual streaming, though without the rhythm characteristic of the 

plasmodial stage. 

Other shapes may be temporarily assumed by the zoospore. 

Attaching itself to an object it 

may become amoeboid, either with 

(fig- I. /) or without (fig. 3, e) the 

temporary retraction oithe Bagel- 

lum ; or it may take an elonrated 

slug-like shape and creep witn the 

After A. Later. fiagellum extended in front, with 

Fig. 3.— Three stages in the tactile and apparently exploratory 

division of the Zoospore of movements. 

Rtlicularia Lycoperdon. That the zoospores of many 

species of the Endosporeae feed on 

bacteria has been shown by A. 

Lister (18). New Ueht has recently been thrown on the matter 

by Pinoy (26). who has worked chiefly with Sorophora. in which. 

as shown below, the active phase of the life-history is passed 





' Figures 1. 4. and 11-22 are from the British Museum Guide to 
the British Mycetozoa. The other figures are from Lankester's 
Treatise on Zoology , part I. Introduction and Protozoa. Fascicle 1. 
Article Mycetozoa. 




mainly m the sute of isolated amoebae Pinoy finds that the 
amoebae of this group live on particular species of bacteria, and that 
the presence of the Utter is a necessary condition for the devek>p- 
ment of the Sorophora. and even (as has been recognized by other 
workers) for the hatching of their spores. Pinoy 's results indicate, 
though not so conclusively, that bacteria are likewise the essential 
food of the Euplasmodida in the early phases o( their life-histwy. 
The zoospores do. however, ingest other splid bodies, e.g. cannine 
granules (Saville Kent, lO. 

The zoospores multiply by binary fission, the fiagellum being 
withdrawn and the nucleus undergoing mitotic division, with the 
formation of a well-marked achromatic spindle (fig. 3). 

It is probable that fission occurs more than once in the zoospore 
suge: but there is not satiJactory evidence to show bow often 
it may be repeated.' 

At this, as at other phases of the life-history, a resting suge 
may be assumed as the result of drying, but also from other and 
unknown causes. The fiagel- 
lum is withdrawn and the 
protoplasm, becoming spheri- 
cal, secretes a cyst wall. The 
organism thus passes into the 
condition of a microcyst, from 
which when dry it may be 
awakened to renewed activity 
by wetting. 

At the end of the zoospore 
stage the organism finally 
withdraws its flaecllum and 
assumes the amoeboid shape. 
It is now known as an amoe- 
bula. The amocbulae become 
endowed, as was first recog- 
nized by Cienkowski. witn 
mutual attraction, and on 
meeting fuse with one another. 
Fig. 4 represents a group of , ^ 

such amocbulae. Several dtfforme uniting to form a 
have already united to form modium. The common mass 
a common mass, to which contains digestive vacuoles (»). 
others, still free, are con- The clear spherical bodies are 
verging. The protoplasmic microcysts and an empty spore- 
mass thus arising is the plas- •h«" » «««« to t*»« ^^ 
modium. The fusion between 

the protoplasmic bodies of the amocbulae which unite to form it is 
complete. Their nuclei may be traced for some time in the young 
Plasmodium and no fusion between them has been observed at this 
suge (20). As the Plasmodium increases in size by the addition of 
amocbulae the task of following the fate of the individual nuclei by 
direct observation becomes impossible. 

The appearance of an active Plasmodium of Badkamia uinetdaris. 
which, as we have seen, lives and feeds on certain fungi, is shown in 
fig- S- It consists of a film of protoplasm, of a bright yellow colour, 
varying in size up to a foot or more in diameter. It is traversed 
by a network of branching and anastomosing channels, which divide 
up and are gradually lost as they approach the margin where the 
protoplasm forms a uniform and locate border. Elsewhere the 



^^'^ 



Fic. 4.— Amocbulae of Didymtum 
' Plas- 




FlC. 5. — Part of the Plasmodium of Badkamta utnculartM. 

main trunks of the network may lie free with little or no connecting 
film between them and their neighbours. The Plasmodia of other 
species, which live in the interstices of decaying vegetable matter, 
are less easily observed, but on emerging on tne surface prior to 



' Pinoy states (36) that the spores of Spumaria alba, cultivated 
with bacteria on solid media, hatch out into amoebae, which under 
these conditions do not assume the flagellate stage. The amoeba 
from a spore was observed to give rise by three successive divtsiotis 
to eight amocbulae. 



MYCETOZOA 



107 



ttcn f 
There i 



formatloii they present an ecaentiany similar appearance. 

1 ht however, great variety in the degree of concentration or 

fxpannon presented by plasmodia, in relatiod with food tupplvp 
moisture and other circumsunces. The plasroodia move alowly 
about over or in the substratum, concentrating in regions where foOd 
supply is abundant, and leaving those where it is exhausted. 

CKi examining under the microscope a film whidi has wread over 
a cover-slip, the channels are seen to be streams of rapidly moving 
granidar protoplasm. This movement is rhythmic m character, 
bdng directed altertiately towards the margin of an advancing 
region d the Plasmodium, and away from it. As a channel is 
watched the stream of granules u seen to become slower, and after 
a momentary pause to biegin in the opposite direction. In an active 
piasmodium the duration of the flow in either direction varies from 
a minute and a half to two minutes, though it u always longer when 
in the directioa of the general advance over the Substratum). When 
the flow of the protoplasm b in thb latter direction the border be- 
comes ttti^^id. and lobes of liyaline orotoplasm are seen (under a high 
magnification) to start forward, and soon to become filled with granu- 
br cootents. When the flow is reversed, the margin becomes thin 
from the drainage away of its contents. A delicate hyaline layer 
invests the piasmodium, and b apparently less fluid than the material 
flowing in tne channels. The phenomena of the rhythmic movement 
o( the protoplasm are not inconsistent with the view that they result 
from alternating contraction and relaxation of the outer layer in 
different regions of the pUsmodium. but any dogmatic statement as 
to their causation appears at present inadvisable. 




Fig. 6. 
a. Part of a stained Plasmodium of Badhamio uincularis, 
a. Nuclei. 

k, Mocleit some in process of simple (amitotic) division. 
€. Rart ci a Plasmodium in which the nuclei are in simultaneous 

mitotic division. 
d'f. Other stages in thb process. 

Minute eoniractiU vaeuoUs may be seen in great numbers in the 
ibin parts of the piasmodium between the channels. In stained 
preparations nuclei, varying (in Badhamia utrictdaris) from 3*5 to 
5 rakrofnilUmeters in diameter, are found abundantly in the granular 
protoplasm (fig. 6, 6). They contain a nuclear reticulum and one 
or more well-marked nucleoli. In any stained piasmodium some 
ttodei nay be found, as shown in the figure b, wnich appear to be 
in some stage of simple (amitotic) division, and thb b, presumably, 
the chief nmde in which the number of the nuclei keeps pace with 



titt rapidly erowing piasmodium. There b, however, another mode 
divisM 



i keeps pace with 

„ ^ ^er, another mode 

division in the plasnuxlium which has hitherto been 

erved in one recorded instance (19, p. 541)1 the mitotic (fig. 6, c-/), 
and tfaa appears to befall all the nuclei of a Plasmodium stmul- 
taneoosly. What the relation of these two modes of nuclear division 
Gsay be to the life-history b obscure. 

That the amitotic b the usual mode of nuclear division is indicated 
by the very frequent occurrence of these apparently dividing nuclei 
aad also by the following experiment. A piasmodium of Badhamia 
tJriadaris spceading over pieces of the fungus AuriaUaria was 
observed to increase in siae about fourfold in fourteen hours, and 
dorit^ thb time a small sample was removed and stained every 
<ntarter of an hoar.^ The later stainings showed no diminution in 
toe number of nuclei in proportion to the protoplasm, and yet none 
c€ the sample showed any sign of mitotic division (ao, p. 0). It 
wookl appear therefore that the mode of increase of the nuclei auring 



ihbpcnodi 



samitouc 



Prowaiek (28) has recently referred to nuclear stages^ similar to 
those here regarded as of amitotic division, but has mterpreted 
them as nucl^r fusions. He does not. however, discuss the mode 
of multiplication of nuclei in the piasmodium. 

In the s;roup of the Calcareae, granules of carbonate of lime are 
abundant in the plasmodia, and in all Mycetozoa other granules of 
undetermined nature are present. The colow of plasmodia varies 
in different species, and may be yellow, white, pink, purple or ^reen. 
The colouring matter b in the form of minute (hvpa, and m the 
Calcareae th^ invest the lime granules. 

i^H/ri/i^ff .^The piasmodium of Badhamia niriailaHs, advancing 
over the pild of suitable fungi, feeds on the superficial layo* dissolving 
the walb of the hyphae U7)' The protopUsm may be seen to 
contain abundant foreign bodies such as spores of fungi or sclerotium 
cysts (vide infra) which have been taken in and are undeiigcMne 
digestion. It has been found experimentally (11) that pieces ot 
coagulated proteids are likewise taken in ana digested in vacuoles. 
On the other hand it has been found that plasmodia will live, 
ultimately producing sporangia, in nutrient solutions (9).^ It would 
appear therefore that the nutrition of plasmodb b effected in part 
by the ingestion of solid foodstuffs, and in part by the absorption 
01 material in solution, and that there b great variety in the com- 
plexity of the substances which serve as their food. 

ScUrotium. — As the result of drought, the pUsmodium, having 
become much denser by loss of water, passes into the sclerolial 
condition. Drawing together into a ^^ dtrm^ j9a 

thickbh layer, the protoplasm divides if^^^^fy^'^ hGSP^ 
up into a number of di^inct masses, ^iJeZ^^^SS^^^i''*'^ 
each containinff some 10 to 20 nuclei, J&^oi^SS^'''^^^^^ 
and a cyst walib excreted round each ^^^^^^^l^l^^^v^'Ot^i^ 
mass (hg. 7). The whole has now a ^^^^^V \lSlJ^^W^ 
hard brittle consbtency. In thb state ^'^^J^J ^"^Sto^^ 
the protoplasm will remain alive for ^8F ^V v^ 

two or three years. On the addition _. eJy -x u 

of water the cyst walb are ruptured «,''»°- 7:""^**^i**°„ 9?. *".* 
and in part absorbed, their contenU Plasmodium of Badhamta 
join together, and tlhe active streaming tOruulans when passmg into 
condition of the pUsmodium b re- the condition of sclerptium. 
sumed. It b to be noted, however, ^w. The nuclei conuined in 
that the sclerotial condition may be the young sclerotul cysts, 
assunwd under other conditions than dryness, and sclerotia may 
eyen be formed in water. 

The exbtence of the sclerotbl stage affords a ready means of 
obtaining the piasmodium for experimental purposes. If a cultiva- 
tion of the Plasmodium of Badnamia tUricularis oh suitable fungi 
{Stereum, AuriaUaria) b allowed to become partially di^ the Plas- 
modium draws together and would, if drying were continued, pass 
into the sclerotial stage; on the fungus. If now strips of wet blotting- 
paper are placed so as to touch theplasmodium, the latter, attracted 
by the moisture, crawls on the blotting-paper. If this is now removed 
and allowed to dry rapidly, the piasmodium passes into sclerotium 
on it.' By thb means the piasmodium b removed from the partblly 
disintegrated and decayed fungus on which it has been feeding, and 
a dean sclerotium b obtained, which, as above stated, remains alive 
for y^rs (31, p. 7). An easy method for obtaining small plasmodia 
for microscopic examination b to scatter small fragments, scfaped 
from a piece of the hard sclerotium. over cover-slips wetted with 
fOiN- water and kept in a moist atmosphere. In twelve to twenty- 
four hours small plasmodia will be seen spreading on the cover-slips 
and these nuy be mounted for observation. 

The plasmodial stage ends by the formatbn of the sporaniia. 
The Plasmodium withdraws from the interstices of the material 
among which it has fed, and emerges on the surface in a diffuse or 
concentrated mass. In the case of Badhamia utrictdaris it may with- 
draw from the fungus on which it has been' feeding, or change into 
sporangia on it. The mode of formation of the sporangb will be 
described in the case of Badhamia, some of the chief differences in 
the process and in the structure of the sporangia in other forms 
beinff subsequently noticed. 

when the change to sporangia begins the protoplasm of the 
Plasmodium becomes graaually massed in discrete rounded lobes, 
about a half to one millimeter in diameter and scattered in clusters 
over the area occupied by the piasmodium. The reticulum of 
channels of the piasmodium becomes meanwhile less and less 
marked. When tne whole of the protopUsm b drawn in to thp 
lobes, the circuUtion ceases. The lobes are the young sporangb. 
Meanwhile foreign bodies, taken in with the food, are ejected, and 
the protoplasm secretes on its outer surface a pellicle of mucoid, 
transparent substance which dries as the sporangU ripen. This 
invests the young sporangU, and as they rise above the substratum 
falls together at their b^s forming the stalks; extended over the 
substratum it forms the hypothaUus, and in contact with the 
rounded surface of the sporangium it forms the sporangium-wall. 
While the sporangium-wall is formed exterruiUy a secretion of 

* A solution which has thus been found favourable contains 
the folbwing mineral salto: KH|PO«, K<HP0«,MgS04, KNO9. 
CA (NOi),, a free acid, and s % of dextrine. 
' ' If the Plasmodium b slowty dried it b very apt to pass into 
SporangU. 



io8 



MYCETOZOA 



similar material occurs along branching aftd anastomosing tracts 
through the protoplasm of the sporangium, giving rise to the 
capiUtUum. The greater part of the lime granules (mss out of the 
protoplasm and arc dejMsited in the capilhtium, which in the ripe 
sporangia of Badkamia is white and brittle with the contained Ume 
(cf. fig. 8). In this genus some granules are found also in the 
sporaneium-wall. Strasburger concludes that the sporangium- wall 
of Trichia is a modification of cellulose (29). 




Fig. 8. — Sporangia of Badkamia panicea, some intact, others (to 
left) ruptured, exposing the blaclc masses of spores and the 
capillitium. The latter is white with deposited lime granules. 
An empty sporangium is seen above. 

It has been stated (16), but the observation requires confirmation, 
that a fusion of the nuclei in pairs occurs early m the development 
of the sporangium. 




^ 



Pf' 




Fig. 10.— Part of a section 
through a Sporangium of Trickia 
varia after the spores are formed. 



Fig. 9. — Part of a section 
through a young Sporangium 
of Trickivaria, showing the 
mitotic division of the nuclei (n) 
prior to spore formation. 

c, Capillitium thread. 

At a later stage, after the capillitium is formed, the nuclei undergo a 
mitotic division which affects all the nuclei of a sporangium simul- 
taneously. This was first described by Strasburger (29). While it 





Fig. 12. — Physarum nutans. 
Fig. i\.—Badhamia utrkuJaris. „ Sporangia. 

a. Sporangia. b, Capillitium threads, with frag- 

b, Capillitium and cluster of mcnt of the sporangium-wall 
spores. attached, lime knots at the 

junctions and spores, 
is in progress the protoplasm of the sporangium divides, into succes- 
sively smaller masses, until each daughter nucleus is the centre of a 
single mass of protoplasm.^ These nucleated masses are the young 



* In some genera such as Arcyria and Trickia (illustrated in figs. 9 
and 10) the division of the protoplasm does not occur until the nuclei 
have undergone this division. The protoplasn} then divides up 
about the daughter nuclei to form the spores. 



spores. A spore-wall is soon secreted and th6 tporangiam has now 
resolved itself into a mass of spores, traversed by the strands of 
the capillitium and enclosed in a sporangium-wall, connected with 
the substratum by a stalk. As ripening proceeds, the wall becomes 
membranous and readily ruptures, and the dry spores may be carried 
abroad on the currents of air or washed out by raiit. 



Fig. 13,- 





■Ckondrioderma UstO' FiG. 
uum. 
a. Group of three Sporangia. 
6, Cajnlutium, fragment of spor- 
angium-wall and spores. 



j^.^Craterium peduneulO' 
turn. 

a. Two Sporangia, in one the lid 
has fallen away. 

b, Capillitium with lime knots 
and spores. 

We may now review some of the main differences in structure 
presented by the sporangia. They may be stalked or sessile (fig. 
13). If the former, the sulk is usually, as in Badkamia tUriadaris, 




FiG. 15. — Didymium effusum. 

a, Two Sporangia, one showing 
the columella and capillitium. 

b, Cai>illitium. fragment of spor- 
angium-wall with carbonate 
of lime in crystals, and spores. 




Fig. 16. — Lepidoderma Hgrinum, 
a. Sporangium; the crystal-line 
disks of lime are seen attached 
to the sporangium-wall. 

i, Capillitium and spores. 



the continuation of the sporangium-walls (figs. 11 and 12), but in 
Stanonitis and its allies (fig^ 17 and 18) it is an axial structure. 
A central columeUa may project into the interior of the sporangium, 
cither in sulked (fig. 15) or sessile (fig. 13) forms. 




Fig. 17. — Lamproderma irlaeum 

a, Sporangia. 

6, A Sporangium deprived of 
spores, showing the capillitium 
and remains of the sporangium- 
wall. 




Fig. li.—SUmonilis sptendeus. 

a. Group of Sporangia (nat. nze). 

b, Portion of columella and capil- 
litium, the latter branching to 
form a superficial network. 



The sporangium-wall may be most delicate and evanescent (fig. 1 7). 
or consist of a superficial network of threads (fig. 18), which in 
Di^ydium (fig. 19) present a beautifully regular arrangement. 





Fig. 20. — Arcyria punice^ 

a. Group of Sporangia. 

b. Capillitium. 

c. Spore. 

In Ckandrioderma (fig. 15) the wall is double, the inner layer being 
membranous, the outer thickly encrusted with lime granules. In 
CraUrium the upper part of the sporangium-wall is lid-like and faUs 
away, leaving the spores in an open cup (fig. 14). 



Fig. i9.^Diaydium umblicalum. 

a, Group of Sporangia, nat. sire. 

b, A Sporangium after dispersion 
of tne spores. 



MYCETOZOA 



109 



tiht 



„ J ef tlw CBpiHrim b irlfiry vuioitt. la tlM Cakmri- 

le amy be gencnlly discribuced tluoagh it (fig. 11). or 

^ItttlttiKKksoC the network in" Hne-knoCs" (flip. la and 

r «r it any be afaaent from the capUlitium altcwetner. The 
opWiB attaina ita biflwat devdopment in the Calonemineoe 
h «Udb the thraada, diaunct (in whidi case they are known as 
dhtto. Ifi. 9 and 10) or united into a netwwk (fig. 20), pre«nt 
Rnhr thidaungs in the form of qnial bands or transverse bars. 
Imk thnada, altering their shape with varying sutes of moisture, 
M dkient agenu in distribating the spores. In another groupp 
Ae Aacameae. the capiBitium is abaent altogether. 

The Didymboeae are characteriaed by the fact that the Uroc, 
Ihamjb present in a granular form in the Plasmodium, is deposited 
OB the spocaiwium-wall in the form of crystals, either in radiating 
I""pi3r iS) or in disks (fig. 16). 

la meat Endosporcae the sporangia are separate symmetrical 
kotek bat m many geocra a form oc fructification occuta in which 





Fic. 22.—Licea flexuesa. 
a, Croup of Plasmodiocarps. 
6, A continuous itasmodiocarp 



Fic 21.— fa/tfs uptica. 

•.Makum. 

A.CapiUiUum threads (with 
liaw kaotij and two spores. 

c. Spores. 
Ae i|mcs are prodiiced in masses of more or less irregular outline, 
Bxunsf u extieme cases much of the diffuse character of the plas- 
■odMOL With the a|porea thev contain capillitium, but there are 
■otnccsof sporangia f waUs to be found in their interior. They are 
hanu p la sm o d io iar Ps (fig. aa). They are characteristic of certain 
tftaa, bat m others they may be formed side by side with sepamte 
noagia (ram the same pJawnodium. There is indeed no sharp 
■M to be drawn bef itn sporangia and plasmodiocarpa. On the 
iihr hand, the aowded condition of the sporangia of some species 
anm a tramitioii to the laife compound fructifications known 
andt aha (fi^ at). These, either in their young stages or up to 
■Banty, ictaw sooae evidence of their formation by a coalescence 
d ysiwis, and in addition to the capillitium they are generally 
pactmed fay the remains of the waUs of the sporangia which have 
thaioaittd. 

Exos^reae, 
It viD be convenient to begm our survey of the life-hittoiy 
of Ceratiomyxa, the single 
representative of the Exo* 
sporcae, at the stage at 
which the Plasmodium 
emerges from the rotten 
wood in which it has fed. 
At this stage it has been 
observed to spread as a film 
over a slide, and to exhibit 
the network of channels and 
rhythmic flow of the proto- 
plasm in a manner precisely 
similar to that accn in the 
Endosporcae (20, p. 10). It 
soon, however, draws to- 

f;cther into compac*. masses, 
ram the surface of which 
fingcr-Iilce or antlcr-Iikc 
loMs grow uj^ards. Here 
too the Kcretion of a trans- 
parent mucoid substance 
occurs, which is at first 
penetrated by the anasto- 
mosing strands of the 
protoplasm, but gradually 
T\o. ly— Ceratiomyxa mncida, the latter tends more and 
0. Ripe ipGdrophore. more to form a reticular and 

A. Matunng sporopbore showing the ultimately a nearly continu- 
dntlopment of the spores. ous superficial investment, 

C Ripe ipore. Instead of the single covering the mucoid ma- 
Badeut here indicated there should terial. The latter even- 
be four nuclei, as in d. tually dries and forms the 
i, Hstchii^ spore. exceedingly delicate support 
•4, Stojes in the development of the of the spores or sporophore 
»Mpon%. (fig. 33. a). 

The investing proto- 
pfan, with its nuclei, having become arranged in an even 
Itrer. undergoes cleavage and thus forms a pavement-like 
layer of pcotoplasmic masses, each occupied by a single nucleus 




E«.* After Vu 



(fig. 95, b). Eadi of these maaaea now grows out perpendiculariy 
to the aurface of the sporophore. As It does so an envelope is 
accreted, which, dosing in about the base forms a slender stalk. 
The minute mass, borne on the stalk, becomes the ellipsoid sporei 
surrounded by the spore-wall. In this manner the whole of the 
protoplasmic subsuncc of the Plasmodium is converted into spores, 
borne on supponing structures (stalks and sporophores), which are 
formed by secretion of the protoplasm. 

In the course of the development of which the external features 
have now been traced nuclear chanjses occur of which accounts have 
been given by Jahn (14) and by Olive (24 and 25). Jahn has shown 
that prior to tne cleavage of the protoplasm a mitotic division of 
the nuclei takes place, the daughter nuclei of which are those 
occupying the protoplasmic masses seen in fig. 23 6.* After the 
spore has risen on its stalk two further mitotic divisMns occur in 
rapid succession, and the four- nucleated condition characteristic 
of the spore of Ceratiomyxa, is thus attained. The spores, on being 
brought into water, soon hatch ^fig. 23. 'd), and the four nuclei 
contained in them undergo a mitotic division. Mcanwhde tlw 
protoplasm divides, at first into four, then into eight masses, and 
the latter acquire flagclU. although for some time remaining con- 
nected with their fellows (fig. 23, e-k). On separating each is a free 



From observation of cultivations of xoosporrs the impression ia 
that here, as in the Endosporeae, they multiply by binary division, 
though no exact observations of the process nave been recorded. 
The soospores lose their flagella and become amoebulae, but the 
fusion of tfate latter to form plasmodia has not been directly observed 
in Ceratiomyxa, although from analogy with the Endosporeae it 
can hardly *be doubted that such fusions occur. 
Sofopkora. 

The Sor^phoni of Zopf (Acrasiae of Van Tieghem) are a group of 
microicofiic organisms inhabit- 
inn^ ib<? dunE of herbivorous 
animnit and other decaying 
vegetable maiter. As Pinoy 
tjbj ha> fthown, the presence of 
3 p4rticLiUr *ptcies of bacteria 
uiih the cporiri b necessary 
for th^ir hAiching and as the 
tiiAcntiil food ci the amoebulae 
w hich emerge If om them. There 
it CLG n^gLLlate stage, and ft 
Li in th« lonn of amoebulae, 
mjlti plying by fission, that the 
vejetatiye stage of the life- 
hiitorr i^ pp.!i^. At the end 
.1 ■ ' ■ ^' ■ ' nbers of amoe- 
bulae draw together to form 
a " pscudo-plasmodium." This 
riir?fH.-]y an og^re- 
■•ebulae prior t'> 
;"n, Ther oudinrt 
fi\ (h'.- in'ljMilLial amorbuUir arc 
miintained, aniJ there i» no fu^ 
sfOD between thfm, « in tSt 
fiDmuiliQn of %ht pkMnodlum 
of the Euplasmodidii. 

1 n *omt gt^tiera crrtain of the 
amocbube CDn^tituting the 
pM;udt>-pta£mDdiLJEn ^re modi- 
fiiA into a staEk (simple ui 

f, H U N .' # rt., ^ n ,1 Pd.- f;...-, . W\ M|«. ^ 

branched in . Polysphondylium, 

fig. 24, d), along which the 

other units creep to encyst, • »nd »»iic» Fayodjc » 

and become spores at the end - j v ^ ^ 

or ends of the rtalk. In other ^^^' ^f-«,.*"^ *• Copremyxa pro- 

cases {Copromyxa, fig. 24. a /«, slightly magmficd. 

and b) the pscudo-plasmodium c and d, Polysphondyltum wio- 

is transformed into a mass of laceum. 

encysted spores without the c, A young sorus, seen in optical 

differentiation of supporting section. A mass of elongated 

structures. amoebulae are grouped round 

It is not impossible that the the stalk, and others are ex- 
Myxobacteriaccae of Thaxter tended about the base, 
may, as that author suggests, be ^'i A sorus approaching maturity- 
allied to the Sorophora (30). 

Review of the Life-Histories of Ike Myeetozpa.—Tht data for a 
comparison of the life-history of the Mycctozoa with those of other 
Protozoa in respect of nuclear changes arc at present incomplete. 

' Tahn (14) described two mitotic divisions at this stage, but in 
•* Myxomycctenstudien 7 — Ceratiomyxa," Ber. deut. hot. CeselUck. 
xxvL a (1908) he shows that only one mitotic division occurs in the 
maturing sporophore prior to cleavage. Olive gives a preliminary 
account of a fusion of nuclei prior to cleavage, but as he has not 
seen the mitotic division which certainly occuts a\ \YC\» %\:aijfc \» 
results cannot be accepted as secure. 




ud d alter BicfcU 



no 



MYCONIUS, F.— MYDDELTON 



At s^ime ftisr or ol!ief wt af« led by aruilogV to (jijcpca tkif a 
divi&igd of nucii"! would occur irt whkh the ciLiirLbcr of throitiovsnitrs 
would ix tvduQiii b^ one half, thai this would be fcllowtMl by ihc 
forniiiti&ti of ^aiti^tc^, acid th^at the nuclei of the Litter would aubte^ 
quentl]^ fuAe in kjrydfamyu 

It i& clear that fK>ih in the Endosporeae and Exosporea? a mkoitk: 
diviaiDii of nuclei Jm mediately precedes spore-formation. Thi& is 
rcs^rded by Jahn ars a reduction division. Ji thli is tht; caht, the 
£(H>!bparr« or the iimotbuUc musT in sninf way fcpnrsrnt ihe gametes. 
The lu$Joo of the 1.1 tier to form pUsmodia appears lo ofTtt a pfO' 
ce» comparable nvith the irdfijugation oJ ga^nrieii, but thouj^h the 
fusion of iheprotopEabm of the amoebulae hl& been often fibserved no 
fkiaion of their nuclei (karyogamy} ha« been lound Co accotnpany ii. 
A fusion of nuclei ha a indeed been described at uccurring in the 
pUwnDdium, or at stagei in the development of the aporangia or 
tporoptiores, but in no ase can the evidence be rvg^rdcrj a sati-^ 
factory.' LTntil we have cldr evidence on this potnt the nudetr 
history of the mycetozoa must remiiin incontplctftt 

Jalifl's observation of the mitotic division of nuclei preceding; 
cpore-forfnaiion in Ctrrati^myta give^ a fixed point foi' comparison 
of the Exosparcae with iht £ndui.pdreae. StSirting from thia divi* 
sion it fifem^ clear that the ^pore of Ctratiamyxa h comparable 
with the spore of the Endo^porcae except thai the nucleus ol the' 
former has undergone two mitotic divisions. 

LiTfiR^TtJ RE,— {i J A. de Barv, " Die MyccioMeti," ZtiHihrJ. via, 
Zoot., 3L M tifl6o), (2) " Du M^mtiiaen;' land cd.. Lcipiig, 
iS64>. {3 J ComjfNjrdJiW Morpk^iy eind Buthty 0/ lh£ fungi, 
Myatoaoti i^nd Btictttia^ trar^siauon (Oxford, Clare Adon Pre^s, 
i&fi?), (4) O- Bijtschlip " ProtoE'ia^ Ahth. j, Sarcodina," Bronn'» 
Thierreiiky Bd. i. (j) L. Clenkov^^ski, ** Die Fceudo^onidien," Pring' 
^tieim's Jakrhuchfr, i. 571. (6) " Zur EntwickelungSigeK'hicKte der 
Myxomyceten/' Prinasheim's Jahrbui^ktr, iii. 3,25 (pub, iS^J). 
ijy Das Ptfl smcid ium, ib id, p. 400 ( 1 863 ), (S> " Beit rtge iut Kennt - 
niu dcT Monadcn," Arch, f wt*r, Armi, i. joj {1865). (9) 1 C. 
Constantineanu, '" Uettet die Entwicklunctbedinfungen det Myxo- 
myccten," AnnaUj: myinl^giti^ Viffbfr Jakri. (Dec^ 190&)- do) A. 
Famlntzin and M. Woronin, " U'l^ber iwei neue Formeg von Schleim- 
pil^n CfTotium hydm^idtit A- und Sch.. and C poriaitUi, A, und 
Sch./' Mint, dt Coiad. imfi. d. icvmes de Si P^ttribur^, series 7, T. 20, 
No. 3 (Ii7j)^ ( 1 1 ) M. Greenwood and E, R. Saunders, " On the R4k 
of Acid In Protozoan Digestion," Jour, oj Fh^Hata^y, xvi. +41 0^4)- 
(13) R. A. Harper, " Celf and Nuclear Division in Fniifi.^ i-arwitj," 
Batt^nkd CflsfiXf, voir 30, No. 4, p, 2 1 7 U9°p)- CJ3) E- J^hn. " M jxo- 
mycctcnstudienj- Kcrnmlung u- Gfissefbildunp bei den SctiwJLrmern 
von Si^ii^niiii fiaccida, Lister,'^ B^riikl 4. deitttdun botanuehen 
Gfsdlickafl, Bd- 2 J p fl4 ((104). ^14) " MjTcomycetenstudJen b. 
Kcrnver9chmelzungi;n und Reduktion^teiEungen/ ibid. Bd, J5, 
p. 2 3 E 1 907 ) . ( 1 S) W. Savi I le Ken t , ' T he M yxom > cetes or M ycc to- 
loa; Animab or Plants?" Fofntiar Scvncs Mefirif, nrS,, v, 97 
(1^81). (16) H. Kri^ndin. " Zur Entwicklungsjjcschifhte der Spor- 
angien bei den Trichlgn und ArcvriLTi.^' Ar^ft. /. pfetiHe-nkmnde!, 
BfiiiLHvh r.p-i7oU9*J7). (17) A Llstrr. " Notes on the Plaamo- 
dmm of Biidhamia ttimrnliirii and BfufMia mrunnta/' Ann. of 
jfitoBy. vol. ii- No. s (iSSJl). (i a) " On the fngeitionof Food Material 
by the Swarm- Cells of the Mycelojoa/^ Jcitrn. Linn. Sot,.. {Bot) 
XKV.43S{ieB0). (19}" Onthe Div't^ionDf Nuclei inthe M y cetoroa , " 
Jourit. L\j\n. Sue. (Boi.) vol. xxix. 0*93). (ao) "A Monograph of 
the Mycciozoa" Britiik Museum CaiiJaeut (London, ift*?^. (Ji) 
'■ Presidential Address lo the British Mycologiral Scxiirty. ' Trans. 
Bris Mytoiiifitcil S^r {1906). (32) A. and G. Lister. " Synomis of 
the Oidefsi Geittm and Spireici of M^'cetMoa/' JoumaJ cJBoiany, 
voL xlv, tMiy 1907 J' ^33) E- W. Olive, " Monograph of the 
Acraiaae/' Free. BosUm Sifc. of iS'al. Hisicry, voL xxx. No, 6 (looa). 
(24) " Evidences of Sexual Reproduction in the 51 imp Moulds/' 
ScKncf. n.s.. xxv. 366 (Feb. J 907). (25) " Cytological Studies in 
Ceratiomyxa, Trans. IVuiQnsin Acad, m Sdencts, Art% and Litters , 
vol Kv., pt. ii. p. 753 [Dec, 1907), (j6) E, Pinoy, '" R^lc de^bactdrici 
dans le di}%Tlopprmem do ccn;>in9 MywmyiTeics." Ann^ dt i'tmiiiut 
Pmleur, T, ssj. pp. 623 and 6a6 (1907). {27) H. Ptenge, " Uiber 
die Verbinduneco jwischen Ceisii^l ti, Kcfn bd den Schii'armer. 
tfllrnd- Mycftnzoen," Verk^ d. luHafhiiL-med. Vtrtins su Hfidtlbrri, 
N P. Bd. VI Heft J (1699). (JS) S. von Prowazek " Kemvcrinder. 
uneen in Myxomycetenplasmodjen," Otitttreuk. boian. Zeituhr. 
Btf liv. p. 278 (1904). (39) E. 5tra*burger, ** Zur Entwickelungs- 
gcKhiehte d. Sporangfen von Trichia JijUojc" BoianiscfK Znluni 
h^i). (30) R, Thssctrr, " On the Mvnobactcriaceae, a new order of 
SchiromvTctes, " Boinnifol Casj^iia, jcvil 3ftq (1S93), (31} W, 2opf, 
" Die Piltthierc odcr Schleimpiliic." Schenfc's IlandhuA atr Botsntk 
imjl . (JJLr,) 

MYCONIUS. FRIEDRICH (i 4^^1546), Lutheran divine, was 
born on the 26th of December 1490, at Lichtcnftls on the Main, 
of worthy and pious parents, whose family tiiime, Mecum, gave 

^ lu the work cited in the la at footnote Jahn deicribed a fusion 
of nilrlei as occurring in Crratif>myxa at the stage at which the 
pbiimodium is emerging to form aporophores. Jahn was at fir^t 
inclined to regard this fusion as the scjiuat karvogamy of the life- 
cyrle. tiut the writrr learn a by torrr^pondence (July 1910) that he 
is i^clinii^ to rt£ard this fiiaioa as patbolt^ical, Add to look for die 
euentkl karyogainy elKwhere. 



rise to proud uses of the word as it appears in various places 
in the Vulgate, whereas Myconius, from the island Myconus» 
was a proverb for meanness. His schooling was in Lichtenfels 
and at Annaberg, where he had a memorable encounter with 
the Dominican, Tetzel, his point being that indulgences should 
be given pauperibus iralis. His teacher, Staffelstein, persuaded 
him to enter (July 14, 1510) the Franciscan cloister. That same 
night a pictorial dream turned his thoughts towards the 
religious standpoint which he subsequently reached as a 
Lutheran. From Annaberg he passed to Franciscan commu- 
nities at Leipzig and Weimar, where he was ordained priest 
(1S16); he had endeavoured to satisfy his mind with scholastic 
divinity, but next year his " eyes and ears were opened " by 
the theses of Luther, whom he met when Luther touched at 
Weimar on his way to Augsburg. For six years he preached 
his new gospel, under difficulties, in various seats of his order, 
lastly at Zwickau, whence he was called to Gotha (Aug. 1524) 
by Duke John at the general desire. Here he married Margaret 
Jftcken, a lady of good family. He was intimately connected 
with the general progress of the reforming movement, and 
was especially in the confidence of Luther. Twice he was 
entrusted (1528 and 1553) with the ordering of the churches and 
schools in Thuringia. In all the religious disputations and 
conferences of the time he took a leading part. At the Con- 
vention of Smalkald (2537) he signed the articles on his own 
behalf and that of his friend Justus Menius. In 1538 he was in 
England, as theologian to the embassy which hoped to induce 
Henry VIIL on the basis of the Augsburg Confession, to make 
common cause with the Lutheran reformation; a project which 
Myconius caustically observed might have prospercKl on con- 
dition that Henry was allowed to be pope. Next year he was 
employed in the cause of the Reformation in Leipzig. Not 
the least important part of his permanent work in Gotha was 
the founding and endowment of its gymnasium. In 1541 his 
health was failing, but he lived till the 7th of April 1546. He 
had nine children, four of whom were living In 1542. 

Though he published a good many tracts andpamiphlets, Myconius 
was not distinguished as a writer. *His Hislona reformationis, 
referring especially to Gotha, was not printed till 1715. See Mel- 
chior Adam. Vitae Ikeolotorum (1706); J. G. Bosseck. P. Myconii 
Memoriam . . . (1739) : C. K. G. Lomnutzsch, Narraiio de P. Myconio 
(1825); K. F. Ledderhosc, F, Myconius (1854); also in AUgemeine 
deutsche Biog. (1886); O. Schmidt and G. Kawerau in Hauck's 
RtaUncyUopddie (1903). (A. Ga») 

MYCONIUS, OSWALD (i48ft-is53), Zwinglian divine, was 
bom at Lucerne in 1488. His family name was Geisshiisler; 
his father was a miller; hence he was also called MoLrroRis. 
The name Myconius seems to have been given him by Erasmus. 
From the school at Rot t well, on the Neckar, he went (1510) 
to the university of Basel, and became a good classic. From 
1 514 he obtained schoolmaster posts at Basel, where he married, 
and made the acquaintance of Erasmus and of Holbein, the 
painter. In 1516 he was called, as schoolmaster, to Zurich, 
where (1518) he attached himself to the reforming party of 
Zwingli. This led to his being transferred to Lucerne, and 
again (1523) reinstated at Zurich. On the death of Zwingli 
(1531) he migrated to Basel, and there held the office of town's 
preacher, and (till 1541) the chair of New Testament exegesis. 
His spirit was comprehensive; in confessional matters he was for 
a union of all Protestants; though a Zwinglian, his readiness 
to compromise with the advocates of consubstantiation gave 
him trouble with the Zwinglian stalwarts. He had, however, 
a distinguished follower in Theodore Bibliander. He died on 
the 14th of October 1552. 

Among his several tractates, the most Important is De H. Zwin^ii 
vita et oUtK (1536). translated into English by Henry Bennet 
(iS6i). See Melchior Adam. 1^ Aeolo^orum (1620); M. Kirch- 
"icrter. 0. " 



(A. Go.*) 

MYDDELTON (or Middleton), SIR HUGH,.Bart. (c. xs6o- 
163 1 ), contractor of the New River scheme for supplying London 
with water, was a younger son of Sir Richard Myddelton, 
governor of Denbigh Castle. Hu^ became a successful London 



MYELAT— MYERS 



III 



foldsmitb, occupying a shop In Bassihaw, or Basinghall Street; 
he made money by commercial ventures on the Spanish main, 
being aasociAted in these with Sir Walter Raleigh; and he was 
also interested in cloth-making. He was an alderman, and then 
recorder of Denbigh, and was member of parliament for this 
borough from 1603 to 1628. In 1609 Myddelton took over from 
the corporatum of London the projected scheme for supplying 
the dty with water obtained from springs near Ware, in Hert- 
fordshire. For this purpose he made a canal about 10 ft. wide 
and 4 ft. deep and over 38 m. in length, which discharged its 
waters into a. reservoir at Islington called the New River Head. 
The completion of this great undertaking put a severe strain 
upon Mydddton's financial resources, and in 161 3 he was 
soccesaful in tecuzing monetary assistance from James I. The 
work was completed in 1 613 and Myddelton was made the first 
governor of the company, which, however, was not a financial 
success until after his death. In recognition of his services he 
was made a baronet in 1622. Myddelton was also engaged in 
working some lead and silver mines in Cardiganshire and in 
reclaiming a piece of the Isle of Wight from the sea. He died 
on the xoth of December 1631, and was buried in the church of 
St Matthew, Friday Street, London. He had a family of ten 
SODS and six daughters. 

One of Sir Hugh's brothers was Sir Thomas Myddelton 
{c. xsso-ifijx), lord mayor of London, and another was William 
Myddelton (c. 1556-1621), poet and seaman, who died at Antwerp 
on the 37th of March 1621. 

Sir Thomas was a member of parliament under Queen Eliza- 
beth and was chosen lord mayor on the 2Qth of September 16 13, 
the day fixed for the opening of the New River. Under James I. 
and Charles L he represented the city of London in parliament, 
and he helped Rowland Heylyn to publish the first popular 
edition of the Bible in Welsh. He died on the 12th of August 
163X. Sir Thomas's son and heir, Sir Thomas Myddelton 
fts86-i666), was a meihber of the Long Parliament, being an 
adherent of the popular party. After the outbreak of the Civ^il 
War he served in Shropshire and in north Wales, gaining a 
signal success over the royalists at Oswestry in July 1644, and 
another at Montgomery in the following September. In 1659, 
however, he joined the rising of the royalists under Sir George 
Booth, and in August of this year he was forced to surrender 
bis reydence. Chirk Castle. His eldest son, Thomas (d. 1663), 
was made a baronet in 1660, a dignity which became extinct 
when William the 4th baronet died in 17 18. 

HTELAT. a division of the southern Shan States of Burma, 
iocloding sixteen states, none of any great size, with a total 
area of 3723 sq. m., and a population in 1901 of ii9>4i5- 
The name properly means " the unoccupied country," but it 
has beesi occupied for many centuries. All central Myelat and 
great parts of the northern and southern portions consist of 
roDiog iprassy downs quite denuded of jungle. It has a great 
variey of different races, Taungthus and Danus being perhaps 
the most numerous. They are all more or less hybrid races. The 
chiefs of the Myelat are known by the Burmese title of gwegunk- 
mu, tjt. chiefs paying the revenue in silver. The amount 
pa«i by the chiefs to the British government is Rs. 99,567. 
The larJBest state, Loi L6ng, has an area of 1600 sq. m., a great 
part of which is barren hills. The smallest, Nam Hkon, had no 
more than 4 sq. m., and has been recently absorbed in a neigh- 
booring state. The majority of the states cover less than 
100 sq. m. Under British administration the chiefs have powers 
of a magistrate of the second class. The chief cultivation 
besides rice is sugar-cane, and considerable quantities of crude 
sugar are exported. There is a considerable potato cultivation, 
vhicfa-can be indefinitely extended when cheaper means of 
export are provided. Wheat also grows very well. 

■TELITI8 (from Gr. /wcXir, marrow) a disease which by 
isfiasaaation induces destructive changes in the tissues com- 
poaiag tbc ^inal cord. In the acute variety the nerve elements 
ia the affected part become disintegrated and softened, but 
Rpatr may take place; in the chronic form the change is slower, 
and t|ie diseased area tends tp.becomc denser (sclerosed), the 



nerve-substance being replaced by connective tissue. Myelitis 
may affect any portion of the spinal cord, and its symptoms and 
progress will vary accordingly. Its most frequent site is in 
the lower part, and its existence there is marked by the sudden 
or gradual occurrence of weakness of motor power in the legs 
(which tends to pass into complete paralysis), impairment or 
loss of sensibility in the parts implicated, nutritive changes 
affecting the skin and giving rise to bed-sores, together with 
bladder and bowel derangements. In the acute form, in which 
there is at first pain in the region of the spine and much con- 
stitutional disturbance, death may take place rapidly from 
extension of the disease to those portions of the cord connected 
with the muscles of respiration and the heart, from an acute 
bed-sore, which is very apt to form, or from some intercurrent 
disease. Recovery to a certain extent may, however, take 
place; or, again, the disease may pass into the chronic form. 
In the latter the progress is usually slow, the general health 
remaining tolerably good for a time, but gradually the strength 
fails, the patient becomes more helpless, and ultimately sinks 
exhausted or is cut off by some complication. The chief 
causes of myelitis are injuries or diseases affecting the spinal 
column, extension of inflammation from the membranes of the 
cord to its substance (see MENiNcms), exposure to cold and 
damp, and occasionally some pre-existing constitutional morbid 
condition, such as syphilis or a fever. Any debilitating cause or 
excess in mode of life will act powerfully in predisposing to this 
malady. The disease is most common in adults. The treatment 
for myelitis in iu acute stage is similar to that for spinal 
meningitis. When the disease is chronic the most that can be 
hoped for is the relief of symptoms by careful nursing and 
attention to the condition of the body and its functions. Good 
is sometimes derived from massage and the use of baths and 
douches to the spine. 

MYERS. FREDERIC WILUAM HENRY (1843-1901). English 
poet and essayist, son of Frederic Myers of Keswick — author of 
Lectures on Great Men (2856) and Catholic Thoughts (first collected 
1873), ^ ^>oo\i marked by a most admirable prose style — was born 
at Keswick, Cumberland, on the 6th of February 1843, and edu- 
cated at Cheltenham and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he 
won a long list of honours and in 1865 was appointed classical 
lecturer. He had no love for teaching, which he soon discon- 
tinued, but he took up his permanent abode at Cambridge in 
1872,' when he became a school inspector under the Education 
Department. Meanwhile he published, in 1867, a^ unsuccessful 
essay for the Seatonian prize, a poem entitled St Paul, which met 
at the hands of the general public with a success that would be 
difficult to explain, for it lacks sincerity and represents views 
which the writer rapidly outgrew. It was followed by small 
volumes of collected verses in 1870 and 1882: both are marked 
by a flow of rhetorical ardour which culminates in a poem of 
real beauty, " The Renewal of Youth," in the 1882 collection. 
His best verse is in heroic couplets. Myers is more likely to 
be remembered by his two volumes of Essays, Classical and 
Modern (1883). The essay on Virgil, by far the best thing he 
ever wrote, represents the matured enthusiasm of a student and 
a disciple to whom the exquisite artificiality and refined culture 
of Virgil's method were profoundly congenial. Next to this in 
value is the carefully wrought essay on Ancient Greek Oracles 
(this had first appeared in Hcllenica). Scarcely less delicate 
in phrasing and perception, if less penetrating in insight, is the 
monograph on Wordsworth (1881) for the " English Men of 
Letters " series. In 1882, after several years of inquiry and 
discussion, Myers took the lead among a small band of explorers 
(including Henry Sidgwick and Richard Hodgson, Edmund 
Gumey and F. Podmore), who. founded the society for Psychical 
Research. He continued for many years to be the mouthpiece 
of the society, a position for which his perfervidum ingenium, 
still more his abnormal fluency and alertness, admirably fitted 
him. He contributed greatly to the coherence of the society 
by steering a mid-course between extremes (the extreme sceptics 
on the one hand, and the enthusiastic spiritualists on the 
other), and by helping to sift and revise the cumbrous mass of 



112 



MYINGYAN— MYLODON 



Proceedings, the chief concrete results being the two volumes of 
Phantasms of the Living (1886), to which he contributed the in- 
troduction. Like many theorists, he had a fsiculty for ignoring 
hard facts, and in his anxiety to generalize plausibly upon the 
alleged data, and to hammer out striking formulae, his insight 
into the real character of the evidence may have left something 
to be desired. His long series of papers on subliminal conscious- 
ness, the results of which were embodied in a posthumous work 
called Human Personality and its Survival of Bodily Death (2 vols. 
1903), constitute his own chief contribution to psychical theory. 
This, as he himself would have been the first to admit, was little 
more than provisional; but Professor William James has pointed 
out that the series of papers on subliminal consciousness is " the 
first attempt to consider the phenomena of hallucination, 
hypnotism, automatism, double personality and mediumship, as 
connected parts of one whole subject." The last work published 
in his lifetime was a small collection of essays, Science and a 
Future Life (1893). He died at Rome on the 17th of January 
1901, but was buried in his native soil at Keswick. 

MYINGYAN, a district in the Meiktila division of Upper 
Burma. It lies in the valley of the Irrawaddy, to the south of 
Mandalay, on the east bank of the river. Area, 3X37 SQ- m- 
Pop. (1901), 356,052, showing an increase of 1% in the decade 
and a density of 1 14 inhabitants to the square mile. The greater 
part of the district is flat, especially to the north and along the 
banks of the Irrawaddy. Inland the country rises in gently 
undulating slopes. The most noticeable feature is Popa hill, 
an extinct volcano, in the south-eastern corner of the district. 
The highest peak is 496a ft. above sea-level. The climate is dry 
and healthy, with high south winds from March till September. 
The annual rainfall averages about 35 in. The temperature 
varies between 106* and 70' F. The ordinary crops are millet, 
sesamum, cotton, maize, rice, gram, and a great variety of peas 
and beans. The district as a whole is not well watered, and most 
of the old irrigation tanks had fallen into disrepair before the 
annexation. There are no forests, but a great deal of low scrub. 
The lacquer ware of Nyaung-u and other villages near Pagan b 
noted throughout Burma. A considerable number of Chinese 
inhabit Myingyan and the larger villages. The headquarters 
town, Myingyan. stands on the Irrawaddy, and had a population 
in 190X of 16,139. It is the terminus of the branch railway 
through Meiktila to the main line from Mandalay to Rangoon. 
The steamers of the Irrawaddy Flotilla Company also call here. 
A cotton-pressing machine was erected here in the time of 
independent Burma, and still exists. 

MYITKYINA, the most northeriy of the districts of Upper 
Burma in the Mandalay division, separated from Bhamo district 
in 1895. It is cut up into strips by comparatively low parallel 
ranges of hills running in a general way north and south. The 
chief plain is that of Myitkyina, covering 600 sq. m. To the 
east of the Irrawaddy, which bisects the district, it is low-lying 
and marshy. To the west it rises to a higher level, and is mostly 
dry. Except in the hills inhabited by the Kachin tribes there 
are practically no villages off the line of the Irrawaddy. The 
Indawgyi lake, a fine stretch of water measuring 16 m. by 6, 
lies in the south-west of the district. A very small amount of 
cultivation is carried on, mostly without irrigation. Area, 
10,640 sq. m.; estimated population (1901) 67,399, showing a 
density of six persons to the square mile. More than half the total 
are Kachins, who inhabit the hills on both sides of the Irrawaddy. 
The headquarters town, Myitkyina, had in 1901 a population of 
3618. It is the limit of navigation on the Irrawaddy, and the 
terminus of the railway from Rangoon and Sagaing. 

MYLODON (Gr. for " mill-toolh " from ixvXuv anA68ots), a 
genus of extinct American edentate mammals, typified by a 
species {M. karlant) from the Pleistocene of Kentucky and other 
parts of the United States, but more abundantly represented in 
the corresponding formations of South America, especially 
Argentina and Brazil. The mylodons belong to the group of 
ground-sloths, and are generally included in the family Megalh- 
eriidae, although sometimes made the type of a separate family. 
From Megatherium these animals, which rivalled the Indian 



rhinoceros in bulk, differ in the shape of their cheek-teeth; these 
(five above and four below) being much smaller, with an ovate 
section, and a cupped instead of a ridged crown-surface, thus 
resembling those of the true sloths. In certain species of mylodon 
the front pair of teeth in each jaw is placed some distance in front 
of the rest and has the crown surface obliquely bevelled by 




From Owen. 

Skeleton of Myiodon robustus (Pleistocene, South America). 

wearing against the corresponding teeth in the opposite jaw. On 
this account such species have been referred to a second genua, 
under the name of Lestodon, but the distinction scarcely seems 
necessary. The skull is shorter and lower than in Megatherium, 
without any vertical expansion of the middle of the lower jaw, 
and the teeth also extend nearly to the front of the jaws; both 
these features being sloth-like. In the fore feet the three inner 
toes have large daH's, while the two outer ones are rudimentary 
and dawlcss; in the hind-limbs the first toe is wanting, as in 
Megatherium, but the second and third are chiwed. The skin 
was strengthened by a number of small deeply-embedded bony 
nodules. 

Although the typical M. harlani is North American, the 
mylodons are essentially a South American group, a few of the 
representatives of which effected an entrance into North America 
when that continent became finally connected with South 
America. Special interest attaches to the recent discovery in 
the cavern of Ultima Esperanza, South Patagonia, of remains of 
the genus Glossolherium, or Grypotherium, a near relative of 
Mylodon, but differing from it in having a bony arch connecting 
the nasal bones of the skull with the prcmaxillae; these include 
a considerable portion of the skin with the hair attached. 
Ossicles somewhat resembling large coffee-berries had been 
previously found in association with the bones of Mylodon, and in 
Glossolherium nearly similar ossicles occur embedded on the 
inner side of the thick hide. The coarse and shaggy hair is 
somewhat like that of the sloths. The remains, which include 
not only the skeleton and skin, but likewise the droppings, were 
found buried in grass which appears to have been chopped 
up by man, and it thus seems not only evident that these 
ground-sloths dwelt in the cave, but that there is a considerable 
probability of their having been kept there in a semi-domesti- 
cated state by the eariy human inhabitants of Patagonia. The 
extremely fresh condition of the remains has given rise to the 
idea that Glossolherium may still be living in the wilds of 
Patagonia. 

Scdidotherium is another genus of large South American Pleisto- 
cene ground-sloths, characterized, among other features, by the 
elongation and slendcmess of the skull, which thus makes a decided 
approximation to the antcatcr type, although retaining the full 
series of cheek-teeth, which ^-cre. of course, essential to an herbi- 
vorous animal. The feet resemble those of Megatherium. A much 
smaller South American species represents the genus Notkrotkerium. 

In North America Mylodon was accompanied by another gigantic 
species typifying the genus Megalonyx, in which the fore part of the 
skull was usually wide, and the third and fourth front toes carried 
claws. Another genus has been described fiom the Pleistocene 



MYLONITE— MYRA 



"3 



ol Ndmska, as Panmrilcdaui it lia> only four pain of teeth, and an 
dM^ace skull with an inflated mtmle. All the above genera differ 
from Mefolktrimm in liavtng a foramen on the inner side of the tower 
cad of the hunacnis. A presumed Urge ground-sloth from Mada- 
gascar has been described, on the evidence of a limb-bone, as Brady^ 
Ikmam, but it is suggested by Dr F. Ameghino that the specimen 
really bcfef^ to a lemuroid. Be thn as it may, the North American 
mammals described as Meropus and iiorotkeriumt in the bdief that 
they were ground-sloths, are really referable to the ungulate group 

Aobough a few of the Pleistocene ground-sloths, such as Notkro- 
pv and Notkrotktniim (^CotiodoH)^ were of comparatively small 
ne, in tlie Santa Cnu beds of Patagonia few of the representatives 
o( the family much caiceeded a ro«iem sloth in sise. The best- 



: types are Em t Mo e o^^ Hapalops atKi Pseudakapaiops^ 
of which coosiderable portions of the skeleton have been disinterred, 
la these diminutive ground-sloths the crowns of the check-tccth 
appraadied the prismatic form characteristic of M*M[lcUkerium, 
ai distiiict from the subcylindrical type occurring m Mylcdon, 

GtMMlfamBM. Ac 

B]^ many palaeontologists a noup of North American Lower 
Tenary nwmmals, known as Canodonta, has been resarded as 
representing the ancestral stock of the ground-sloths and those of 
odber Sooth American edentates; but according to Professor W. B. 
Scott this view is incorrect and there is no affinity between the two 
graaps. If this be so, we are still in complete darkness as to the 
ttock from which the South American edentates are derived. 

See W. B. Scott, Mammalia of the Santa Cna Beds, Edentata, 
Rep., PrxDoeton Exped. to Patagonia, vol. v. (1903-1904) : B. Brown 
it New Gemms of Gronnd-Slctk from Ike Pleistocene of Nebraska, 
BiilL Amcr. Mua. Nat. Hist., xix, 569 (1903). (R. L.*) 

ITLOHITB (Gr. /oKS/if, a mill), in petrology, a rock which has 
beea crushed and ground down by earth movement and at the 
same time rendered compact by pressure. Mylonites are fine- 
grained, sometimes even flinty, in appearance, and often banded 
ia paraJkl fashion with stripes of varying composition. The 
great majority are qiiartxose rocks, such as quartaite and quarts- 
sdust; bat in almost any type of rock mylonltic structure may 
be developed. Gneisses of various kinds, hornblende-schists, 
chkrite-sdiisu and limestones are not infrequently found in 
bdts of mykmitic rock. The process of crushing by which 
myiooites are formed is known also as " granulitization " and 
"catadasis," and mylonites are often described as granulitcs, 
tbsnt^ the two terms are not strictly equivalent in all their 
applications. Mylonites occur in regions where there has 
been oonsiderabie metamorphism. Thrust planes and great 
levetxd faults are often bounded by rocks which have all been 
cnahed to fine slabby mylonites, that split readily along planes 
panOel to the direction in which movement has taken place. 
These '* crash-belts " may be only a few feet or several hundred 
yards broad. The movements have probably taken place slowly 
vithoat great me of temperature, and hence the rocks have not 
teciystaUiKd to any extent. 

Cmahiag and movement on so extensive a scale are to be expected 
principally in regions consisting of rocks greatly foldeo and 
caopcesKd. Hence mylonites are commonest in Archean regions, 
bet may be found also in Carboniferous and later rocks where the 
aeoeanry conditions have prevailed. Within a short space it is 
often pnasiMr to trace rocks from a normal to a highly myloniaed 
csadkiDii, and to foUow by means of the microicope all the stages 
of the process. A sandstone, grit, or fine <iuartaose conglomerate, 
(or example, when it approaches a mylonttic zone begins to lose 
tts dastic or pebbly structure. The rounded grains of quartz 
beoomc cracked, especially near their edges, and are then surrounded 
by aarrow borders, consisting of detached granules: this b dueto the 
pdsUes being pressed together and forced to pun one another as the 
rock yiekfo to the prenures which overcome lU rigidity. Then each 
imanz grain breaJcs up into a mosaic of little angular fragments; 
tht rounded pebbles are flattened out and become lenticular or cake- 
ihaped- Finally only a small oval patch of fine intertocking quartz 
paaa » left to todiote the position of the pebble, and if the matrix 
B qaartAMe this gradually blends with it and a uniform fine-grained 
qartaeae rock results. If felspar b present it may bec»me crushed 
tke quartz, but often tends to recrystallize as quartz and muacovite, 
the miaute Kales of white mica being parallel to the foliation or 
handiag of the rock, and a finely granulitic or mylonitic quarts- 
sdast » the product. In homblendic rocks, such asepioiorite, 
ai^ihibolite and hornblende-schist, the mineral compomtion may 
Rmaia aachas^^. but ver/ often chk>rite, carbonates and biotite 
develop, epidote and aphene being also frequent. Biotite- and mus- 



gneissea contain pink garnet (often with kyanita or ailUmanite) 
they paas into normal gnnulites; limestones, if fossiliferous, become 
changed into findy crystalline mames, often fissile, sometimes with 
lenticular or aafm structure. An interesting variety of mylonite, 
devekipcd in granite-porphyry and gneias, b fine, dark and almost 



vitreous in appearance, consbting rniainly of very minute grains 'of 

?|uarts and lebpar and resembling flint in appearance. These 
orm threads and vein-like streaks ramifying through the normal 



XXX 3 



Jiuarts and 
orm threads , ,„^ , 

rocks. Examples are furnished by the flinty<rushes of west Scot- 
land and the '^ trap-shotten " gnebses of south India. (J. S. F.) 

HTIIBMSIlfOH. or Maxkansingh, a dbtrict of British Indui, 
in the Dacca divbion of Eastern Bengal and Assam. It occupies 
a portion of the alluvial valley of the Brahmaputra east of the 
main channel (called the Jamuna) and north of Dacca. The 
adminbtrativc headquarters are at Nasirabad, sometimes called 
Mymensingh town. Area, 6333 sq. m. Pop. (zpoi), 3,9x5,068, 
showing an increase of ia-8% in the decade. The dbtrict b 
for the most part level and open, covered with well-cultivated 
fields, and intersected by numerous riven. The Madhupur 
jungle b a slightly elevated tract, extending from the north of 
Dacca dbtrict into the heart of Mymensingh; iu average height 
is about 60 ft. above the level of the surrounding country, and it 
nowhere exceeds xoo ft. The jungle contains abundance of sOl, 
valuable both as timber and for charcoal. The only other elevated 
tract in the district b on the southern border, where the Susang 
hiUs rise. They are for the most part covered with tUck thorny 
jungle, but in parts are barren and rocky. The Jamuna forms 
the western boundary of Mymensingh for a course of 94 m. It b 
navigable for large boats thrqughout the year; and during the 
rainy season it expands in many places to 5 or 6 m. in breadth. 
The Brahmaputra enters Mymensingh at its north-western 
corner near Karaibari, and flows south-east and south till it 
joins the Meghna a little bdow Bhairab Bazar. The gradual 
formation of chars and bars of sand in the upper part of its course 
has diverted the main volume of water into the present channel 
of the Jamuna, which has in consequence become of much more 
importance than the Brahmaputra proper. The Meghna only 
flows for a short distance through the south-east portion of 
the dbtrict, the eastern and south-eastern parts of which 
abound in marshes. The staple crops of the country are rice, 
jute and oil-seeds. A branch line of the Eastern Bengal railway 
runs north from Dacca through Nasirabad, &c., to the Jamuna. 
The dbtrict was severely affected by the earthquake of the 
1 2th of June 1897. 

MYNOS, SIR CHRISTOPHER (1635-1666), Britbh admiral, 
came of a Norfolk family. Pepys' story of his humble birth is 
said to be erroneous. It is probable that he saw a good deal of 
sea-service before 1648. He first appears prominently as the 
captain of the " Elisabeth," which after a sharp action brought 
in a Dutch convoy with two men-of-war as prizes. From 1653 
to 1655 he continued to command the " Elisabeth," high in 
favour with the council of state and recommended for promotion 
by the flag oflicers under whom he served. In 1655 he was 
appointed to the " Marston Moor," the crew of which was on the 
verge of mutiny. Hb firm measures quelled the insubordinate 
spirit, and he took the vessel out to the West Indies, where he 
remained for some years. The Restoration government retained 
him in hb command, and in 1664 he was made vice-admiral in 
Prince Rupert's squadron. As vice-admiral of the White he flew 
hb flag at Lowestoft in 1665, and for his share in that action 
received the honour of knighthood. In the following year he 
served under the new lord high admiral, Sandwich, as vice- 
admiral of the Blue. He was on detachment with Prince Rupert 
when the great Four Days' Battle began, but returned to the 
main fleet in time to take part, and in thb action he recdved a 
wound of which he died. 

MYONEMES, in Infusoria and some Flagellates, the differ- 
entiated threads of ectosarc, which are contractile and doubly 
refractive, performing the function of muscular fibres in the 
Metazoa. 

MYRA (mod. Dembre), an andent town of Lyda situated a 
short dbtance inland between the rivers Myrus and Andracus. 
In common with that of most other Lycian towns its early hbtory 

xo. 



114 



MYRIAPODA— MYRRH 



ir not knowiip and it does not pUy any part of importance in 
either GsDek or Roman annals. Its fame begins with Chris- 
tianity. There St Paul touched on his last journey westward 
(a.d. 62), and changed into " a ship of Alexandria, sailing into 
Italy." In the 3rd century the great St Nicholas, bom at 
Patara, was its bbhop, and he died and was buried at Myra. His 
tomb u still shown, but his relics are supposed to have been trans- 
lated to Ban in Italy in the nth century. Theodosius II. made 
Myra the Byzantine capital of Lycia, and as such It was besieged 
and taken by Harun al-Rashid in 808. The town seems shortly 
afterwards to have decayed. A small Turkish village occupied 
the plain at the foot of the acropolis, and a little Greek monastery 
lay about a mile westward by the church of St Nicholas. The 
latter has formed the nucleus of modern Dembre, which has 
been increased by settlers from the Greek island of Castel6rizo. 
Myra has three notable sights, its carved cliff-cemetery, its 
theatre, and its church of St Nicholas. The first is the most 
remarkable of the Lydan rock-tomb groups. The western scarp 
of the acropolis has been sculptured into a number of sepulchres 
imitating wooden houses with pillared facades, some of which 
have pediment reliefs and inscriptions in Lycian. The theatre 
lies at the foot of this cliff and is partly excavated out of it, 
partly built. It is remarkable for the preservation of its corri- 
dors. The auditorium is perfect in the lower part, and the 
scena still retains some of its decoration— both columns and 
carved entablature. The church of St Nicholas lies out in 
the plain, at the western end of Dembre, near a small monastery 
and new church recently built with Russian money. Its floor 
is far below the present level of the plain, and until recently the 
church was half filled with earth. The excavation of it was 
underuken by Russians about 1894 and it cost Dembre dear; 
for the Ottoman government, suspicious of foreign designs on 
the neighbouring harbour of KikoVa, proceeded to inhibit all 
sale of property in the plain and to place Dembre under a minor 
state of siege. The ancient church is of the domed basilica 
form with throne and seats still existent in the tribunal. In 
the south aisle as a tomb with marble balustrade which is pointed 
out as that wherein St Nicholas was laid. The locality of the 
tomb is very probably genuine, but its present ornament, m 
well as the greater part of the church, seems of later date (end 
of 7th century ?). None the less this is among the most interest- 
ing early Christian churches in Asia Minor. There are also 
extensive ruins of Andriaca, the port of Myra, about 3 m. west, 
containing churches, baths, and a great grain store, inscribed 
with Hadrian's name. They lie along. the course of the Andraki 
river, whose navigable estuary is still fringed with ruinous 
quays. 
See E. Petersen and F. v. Luschan, JUisen in Lykien, 6fc. (1889). 

(D. G. H.) 

MTRIAPODA (Gr. for " many-legged ")i arthropod animals 
of which centipedes and millipedes are familiar examples. 
Linnaeus included them in his Insecta Aptera together with 
Crusucea and Arachnida; in 1796 P. A. LatreiUe designated 
them as Myriopoda,. making of them, along with the Crusucean 
OniscM, one of the seven orders into which he divided the 
Aptera of Linnaeus. Later on J. C. Savigny, by study of the 
mouth-parts, clearly distinguished them from Insects and Crus- 
tacea. In 18x4 W. £. Leach defined them and divided them into 
Centipedes and Millipedes. In 1825 LatreiUe carried further 
the observations of Leach, and suggested that the two groups 
were very distinct, the millipedes being nearer Cnistacea and 
the centipedes approaching Arachnida and Insecta. Although 
Latreille's suggestion has not been adopted, it is recognized that 
centipedes and millipedes are too far apart to be united as 
Myriapoda, and they are now treated as separate classes of 
the Arthropoda. See Centipeoe (ChUopoda) and Milupedb 
(Diplopoda). 

MTRMIDONES, in Greek legend, an Achaean race, in Homeric 
times inhabiting Phthiotis in Thessaly. According to the andent 
tradition, their original home was Aegina, whence they crossed 
over to Thessaly with Pelcus, but the converse view is now 
more generally accepted. Their name is derived from a supposed 



ancestor, son of Zeus and Eurymedusa, who was wooed by the 
god in the form of an ant (Gr. fibpiai^)i or from the repeopling 
of Aegina (when all its inhabitants had died of the plague) with 
ants changed into men by Zeus at the prayer of Aeacus, king of 
the island. The word " myrmidon " has passed into the 
En^ish language to denote a subordinate who carries out the 
orders of his superior without mercy or consideration for others. 
See Stnbo viii. 375. tx. 433 ; Homer, Iliad, ti. 681 ; ichoL on Pindar 
Nem. iii. 21 ; Clem. Alex., ProtrepHam, p. 34, ed. Potter. 

MYROBALANS, the name given to the astringent fruits of 
several spedes of Terminalia, largely used in India for dyeing 
and tanning and exported for the same purpose. They are 
large deciduous trees and belong to the family Combretaceae. 
The chief kinds are the chebulic or black myrobalan, from 
Terminalia Chebulaf which are smooth, and the beleric. from 
r. beUrica, which are five-angled and covered with a greyish 
down. 

MYRON, a Greek sculptor of the middle of the 5th century B.C. 
He was bom at Eleutherae on the borders of Boeotia and Attica. 
He worked almost exclusively in bronze: and though he made 
some statues of gods and heroes, his fame rested prindpally upon 
his representations of athletes, in which he made a revolution, by 
introdudng greater boldness of pose and a more perfect rhythm. 
His most famous works according to Pliny {Sai. Hist.^ 34, 57) 
were a cow, Ladas the runner, who fell dead at the moment of 
victory, and a discus-thrower. The cow seems to have earned 
its fame mainly by serving as a peg on which to hang epigrams, 
which tell us nothing about the pose of the animal. Of the 
Ladas there is no known copy. But we are fortunate in pos- 
sessing several copies of the discobolus, of which the best is in 
the Massimi palace at Rome (see Gkeek Ast, PI. iv. fig. 68). 
The example in the British Museum has the head put on wrongly. 
The athlete is represented at the moment when he has swung 
back the discus with the full stretch of his arm, and is about to 
huri it with the full weight of his body. The head should t>c 
turned back toward the discus. 

A marble figure in the Lateran Museum (see Greer Art, 
PI. iii. figJ 64), which is now restored as a dancing satyr, is 
almost certainly a copy of a work of Myron, a Marsyas desirous 
of picking up the flutes which Athena had thrown away (Pausa- 
nias, L 24, i). The full group is copied on coins of Athens, on 
a vase and in a relief which represent Marsyas as osdllatiiig 
between curiosity and the fear of the displeasure of Athena. 

The ancient critics say of Myron that, while he succeeded 
admirably in giving life and motion to his figures, he did not 
succeed in rendering the emotions of the mind. This agrees 
with the exunt evidence, in a certain degree, though not per- 
fectly. The bodies of his men are of far greater excellence than 
the heads. The face of the Marsyas is almost a nuuk; but from 
the attitude we gain a vivid impressbn of the passions which 
sway him. The face of the discus-thrower is calm and unruffled ; 
but all the musdes of his body are concentrated in an effort. 

A considerable number of other extant works are ascribed to 
the school or the influence of Myron by A. Furtwingler in his 
suggestive Ji aster ^eces of Grtek Sculpture (pp. 168-219). These 
attributions, however, are anything but certain, nor do the 
arguments by which Furtwingler supports his attributions bear 
abridgment. 

A recently discovered papyrus from Egypt informs us that 
Myron made statues of the athlete Hjnanthes, victorious at 
Olympia in 456 B.C., and of Lydnus, victorious in 448 and 444. 
This helps us to fix his date. He was a contemporary, but a 
somewhat older contemporary, of Phddias and Polyclitua. 

(P.G.) 

MYRRH (from the Latbized form mynha of Gr. itbk^\ the 
Arabic mun^ bitter, was applied to the substance from its 
bitterness), a gum-resin highly esteemed by the andenu as an 
unguent and perfume, used for incense in temples and also in 
embalming. It was one of the gifts offered by, the Magi, and a 
royal oblation of gold, frankincense and myrrh is still annu< 
ally presented by the soverdgn on the feast of Epiphany 
in the Chapel Royal in London, this custom having t»een in 



MYRTLE— MYSIA 



"5 



erittence certainly ai early ai the reign of Edward I.* Thie 
myrrh is the product of Balsamodtndrom {Commiphora) Myrrkat 
a imatt tree of the natural order Amsrridaceae that grows in 
astern Africa and Arabia, but the name is also applied to gum 
Rsns obtained' from other spedes of Bchamodcndton, 

I. Bttisa Bol, BJusa Bd or Bissa Bol, from Balsamodendron 
Kalef, resembles true myrrh in appearance, but has a diiasreeable 
taate and is scarody bitter. It is used in China, mixed with food, 
to give to milch cows to improve the <|uality and increase the 
quuttity of milk, and when muted with lime as a sise to impart a 
^tm to walls. (2) Opaque bdellium produced by B. Playfairii, 
wbm shaken with water forms a slight but permanent lather, and on 
this account » used by the Somali women for cleansing thdr hair, 
aid by the men to whiten their shields; It is known as meena hdrma 
in Bombay, and was formerly used there for the expulsion of the 
guinea-worm. (3) African bdellium is from B. afncannm. and like 
opsqae bdellium lacks the white streaks which are characteristk 
01 myrrh and trissa bol, both are acrid, but have scarcely any bitter- 
oea or aroma. (4) Indian bdellium, probably identical with the 
Indian draff googul obtained in Sind and Baluchistan from B. Mukml 
and B. ,pt£^cens. Hook, is of a dark reddish colour, has an acrid 
taate and an odour resembling cedar-wood, and softens in the hand. 

As met with in commerce true myrrh occurs in pieces of 
irregslar size and shape, from | in. to 2 or 3 in. in diameter, 
aad of a reddish-brown colour. The transveme fracture has a 
resnoQs appearance with white streaks; the flavour is bitter 
aad aromatic, and the odour characteristic. It consists of a 
ndzture of Teain, gum and essential oil, the resin being present to 
the extent of 25 to 40%, with 2} to 8% of the oil, myrrhol, to 
vkich the odour is due. 

Myrrh has the properties of other substances which, Uke it, 
contain a volatile oil. Its only imporUnt application in medi- 
cine is as a carminative to lessen the griping caused by some 
pnrgatives such as aloes. The volatile oils have for centuries 
been regarded as of value in disorders of the reproductive 
organs, and the reputation of myrrh in this connexion is simply 
a survival of this ancient but ill-founded belief. 

HTRTLB. The iiiffmn of the Greeks, the myrtus of the 
Romans, and the myrtle, Myrtus communis (see fig.), of botanists, 
as now found growing wild in many parts of the Mediterranean 
region, doubtl^ all belong to one and the same spedes. It is a 
kw-gxowing, evergreen shrub, with opposite leaves, varying in 




Myrtle (UyrUu 
t. Vettical aectioo of flower, 



2. Plan of flower in horiaontal 



is). 

3. Berry, enlarged. 

4. Seed with contained embryo, 

s, much enlarged. 



(fiacBsaons, but always small, sample, dark-green, thick in tex> 
toe, and studded with numerous receptacles for oil. When the 
lof is held tq> to the li^t it appears as if perforated with pin- 

^ LAer fmaUddamms emUra'roi$daioris gard€roba$ E4w. I. (London, 
«7«7).PP."BM.aada7. 



holes owing to the translucency of these oil-cysts. The fragrance 
of the plant depends upon the presence of this oil. Another 
peculiarity of the myrtle is the existence of a prominent vein 
running round the leaf- within the margin. The flowers are 
borne on short stalks in the axils of the leaves. The flower-stalk 
is dilated at its upper end into a gk>bose or ovoid recepucle 
enclosing the 2- to 4-partitioned ovary. From its margin pro- 
ceed the five sepals, and within them the five rounded, spoon- 
shaped, spreading, white petals. The stamens spring from the 
receptacle within the petals and are very numerous, each consist- 
ing of a slender white filament and a small yeUow two-lobed 
anther. The style surmounting thenvary a slender, terminating 
in a small button-like stigma. The fruit is a purplish berry, 
consisting of the receptade and the ovary blended into one 
succulent investment endosing very numerous minute seeds. 
The embryo-plant within the seed is usually curved. In cultiva- 
tion many varieties are known, dependent on variations in the 
size and shape of the leaves, the presence of so-caUed double 
flowers, &c. The typical spedes is quite hardy in the south of 
England. The Chilean spedes, M. Ugni, a shrub with ovate, 
dark green leaves and white flowers succeeded by globular red or 
black glossy fruit with a pleasant smell and taste, is a greenhouse 
shrub,- hardy in south-west Britain. The common myrtle is 
the sole representative in Europe of a large genus which has its 
headquarters in extra-tropical South America, whilst other 
members are found in Australia and New Zealand. The genus 
Myrtus also gives its name to a very large natural order, 
Myrtaceae, the general floral structure of which is like that of 
the myrtle above described, but there are great differences in 
the nature of the fruit or seed-vessd according as it is dry or 
capsular, dehiscent, indehiscent or pulpy; minor differences exist 
according to the way in which the stamens are arranged. The 
aromatic oil to which the myrtle owes its fragrance, and its use in 
medidne and the arts, is a very general attribute of the order, as 
may be inferred from the fact that the order includes, amongst 
other genera, Eucalyptus iq.v.), Pimenta and Eugenia (doves). 
Myrtol, a constituent of myrtle oil, has been given in doses of 
5-15 minims on sugar or in capsules for pulmonary tuberculosis, 
fetid bronchitis, bronchiectasis, and similar conditions. It 
appears to lessen expectoration in such cases. The leaves of 
Myrtus ckekan are aromatic and expectorant, and have been used 
in chronic bronchitis. 

MYSIA, the district of N.W. Asia Minor in andent times 
inhabited by the Mysi. It was bounded by Lydia and Phrygia 
on the S., by Bithynia on the N.E., and by the Propontis and 
Aegean Sea on the N. and W. But its precise limits are difficult 
to assign, the Phrygian frontier bdng vague and fluctuating, 
while in the north-west the Troad was sometimes included in 
My^a, sometimes not. Generally speaking, the northern portion 
was known as Mysia Minor or Hellespontica and the southern as 
Major or Pergamene. 

The chief physical features of Mysia (considered apart from 
that of the TToad) are the two mountain-chains, Olympus 
(7600 ft.) in the north and Temnus in the south, which for some 
distance separates M>-sia from Lydia, and is afterwards prolonged 
through Mysia to the neighbourhood of the Gulf of Adramyttium. 
The only considerable rivers are the Macestus and its tributary 
the Rhyndacus in the northern part of the province, both of 
which rise in Phrygia, and, after diverging widdy through 
Mysia, unite their waters below the lake of ApoUonia about 15 m. 
from the Propontis. The Calcus in the south rises in Temnus, 
and from thence flows westward to the Aegean Sea, passing 
within a few miles of Pergamum. In the northern portion of 
the province are two considerable lakes, Artynia or ApoUoniatis 
(Abulliont Geul), and Aphnitis (Maniyas Geul), which discharge 
their waters into the Macestus from the east and west 
respectively. 

The most important dties were Pergamum (9.V.) in the valley 
of the Calcus, and Cyzicus (^.v.) on the Propontis. But the whole 
sea-coast was studded with Greek towns, several of which were 
places of considerable importance; thus the northern portion 
induded Parium, Lampsacus and Abydos, and the southern 



iz6 



MYSLOWITZ— MYSORE 



Assus, Adr&myttium, and firther south, on the Elaitic Gulf, 
Elaea, Myrina and Cyme. 

Ancient writers agree in describing the Mysians as a distinct 
people, like the Lydians and Phrygians, though they never 
appear in history as an independent nation. It appears from 
Herodotus and Strabo that they were kindred with the Lydians 
and Carians, a fact attested by their common participation in 
the sacred rites at the great temple of Zeus at Labranda, as well 
as by the statement of the historian Xanthus of Lydia that their 
language was a miztuze of Lydian and Phry^an. Strabo was 
of opinion that they came originally from Thrace (cf. Bitkynia), 
and were a branch of the same people as the Mysians or Moesians 
(see MoESu) who dwelt on the Danube— a view not inconsistent 
with the preceding, as he considered the Phrygians and Lydians 
also as having migrated from Europe into Asia. According 
to a Carian tradition reported by Herodotus (i. 171) Lydus and 
Mysus were brothers of Car— an idea which also points to the 
belief in a common origin of the three nations. The Mysians 
appear in the list of the Trojan allies in Homer and are repre- 
sented as settled in the Calcus valley at the coming of Telephus 
to Pergamum; but nothing else is known of their early history. 
The story told by Herodotus (vii. so) of their having invaded 
Europe in conjunction with the Teucrians before the Trojan 
War is probably a fiction; and the first historical fact we learn 
is their subjugation, together with all the surrounding nations, 
by Lydian Croesus. After the fall of the Lydian monarchy they 
remained under the Persian Empire imtil its overthrow by 
Alexander. After his death they were anneied to the Syrian 
monarchy, of which they continued to form a part until the defeat 
of Antiochus the Great (190 B.C.), after which they were trans- 
ferred by the Romans to the dominion of Eumenesof Pergamum. 
After the extinction of the Pergamenian dynasty (130 B.C.) 
Mysia became a part of the Roman province of Asia, and from 
this time disappeare from history. The inhabitants probably 
became gradually Hellenized, but none of the towns of the 
interior, except Pergamum, ever attained to any importance. 



Researches (London, 1843) : J. A. R. Munro in Geogr. Journal (1897, 
Hellespontica): W. von Dicst, Petermanns Mitth, (Ere&nzunnhclt 
94; Gotha. 1889; Pergamene). (F. W. Ha.) 



MYSLOWITZ, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province 
of Silesia. Pop. (1905), 15,845. It lies oh the navigable Przemsa, 
across which an iron bridge leads to the Polish town of Modr- 
zejow, X30 m. S.E. from Breslau by rail, and an important 
junction of lines to Oswiedm-Lemberg and Vienna. It contains 
a Protestant and three Roman Catholic churches, a palace and 
a gymnasium, and other schools. Extensive coal-mines aro 
worked, and among its other industries are flax-spinning and 
brick-making. It became a town in 1857. 

See Lustig, GesckkhU von MysUnriiz (Mysbwitz, 1867). 

MTSORR, a native sute of southern India, almost surrounded 
by the Madras presidency, but in political relations with the 
governor-general. It is natiirally divided into two regions of 
distinct character— the hill country called the Malnad, on the 
west, and the more open country known as the Maidan, compris- 
ing the greater part of the state, where the wide-spreading 
valleys and plains are covered with villages and populous towns. 
The drainage of the country, with a slight exception, finds its 
way into the Bay of Bengal, and is divisible into three great 
river systemsr-that of the Ristna on the north, the Cauvery on 
the south, and the Northern and Southern Pennar and Palar 
on the east. Owing to either rocky or shallow beds none of 
the Mysore rivers is navigable, but some are utilized for floating 
down timber at certain seasons. The main streams, especially 
the Cauvery and its tributaries, support an extensive system 
of irrigation by means of channels drawn from immense dams 
{anicuts)^ which retain the water at a high level and permit only 
the overflow to pass down stream. The streams which gather 
from the hill-sides and fertilize the valleys are embanked at 
every favourable point in such a manner as to form a series of 
reservoirB or tanks, the outflow from one at a higher level supply- 
ing the next lower, and so on, all down tiie course of the stream 



at short intervals. These tanks, varying in size from small 
ponds to extensive lakes, are dispersed throughout the country 
to the number of ao,ooo; the laigest is the Sulekere lake, 40 m. 
in circumference. 

Mysore is perhaps the most prosperous native state in India. 
Situated on a healthy plateau, it receives the benefit of both 
the south-west and north-east monsoons, a natural advantage 
which, in conjunction with its irrigation system, has brought to 
Mysore a larger degree of immunity from famine than almost 
any other internal tract of India (always excepting the great 
calamity of 1876-1877, when one-fourth of the population are 
believed to have perked). Coffee, sandal-wood, silk, gold 
and ivory are among the chief products. The famous Kolar 
gold-fields are worked by electric power, which is conveyed 
for a distance of 92 m. from the Cauvery Falls. This was the 
first electric power scheme of magnitude in Asia. A long 
period of administration by British officers led to the introduction 
of a system based on British models, which has been maintained 
under a series of exceptionally able native ministers, and the 
state can boast of public works, hospitals, research laboratories, 
&c., unsurpassed in India. 

The total area of the state is 39,433 X)* on-i subdivided into 
8 districts, namely: Bangalore, Kolar, Tumkur, Mysore, Hassan, 
Kadur, Shimoga and Chitaldrug. Pop. (1901), 5,539^399, 
showing an increase of 18% between x88x and 189 1, and 
of 12% between 1891 and 190X. The proportion of Hindus 
(92-x%) is larger than in any province of India, showing 
how ineffectual was the persecution of Hyder and Tippoo. 
The Christians (apart from native converts, who are chiefly 
Roman Catholics) largely consist of the garrison at Bangalore, 
the families of military pensioners at the same town, xoffee- 
planters and gold-miners. The finances of the state have 
been very successfully managed under native rule, assisted by 
large profits from railways and gold-mines. The revenue 
amoimts to about £1,400,000, of which neariy half is derived 
from land. In accordance with the " instrument of transfer," 
Mysore pays to the British government a tribute of £234,000, 
as contribution to military defence; but the full amount was not 
exacted until X896. The state maintains a military force, 
consisting of two regiments of siUadar cavalvy and three bat- 
talions of infantry^total, about 2800 men; and also a regiment 
of imperial siervice lancers, with a transport corps. An interest- 
ing political experiment has been made, in the constitution of 
a representative assembly, composed of 350 representatives oi 
all classes (f the community, who meet annually to hear an 
account, of the state administration for the prevfous year. The 
assembly has no power to enact laws, to vote supplies, or to pass 
any resolution binding upon the executive. But it gives to the 
leading men of the districts a pleasant opportunity of visiting 
the capital, and to a limited extent brings the force of public 
opinion to bear npon the minister. Since 18^1 this representa- 
tive assembly has been elected by local boards and other public 
bodies. 

In the earliest historical times the northern part of Mysore was 
held by the Kadamba dynasty, whose capital, Banawasi, is 
mentioned by Ptolemy; they reigned with more or less splendour 
during fourteen centuries, though latteriy they became feuda- 
tories of the Chalukyas. The Cheras were contemporary with 
the Kadambas, and governed the southern part of Mysore till 
they were subverted by the Cholas in the 8th century. Another 
ancient race, the Pallavas, held a small portion of the eastern side 
of Mysore, but were overcome by the Chalukyas in the 7th cen- 
tury. These were overthrown in the 1 2th century by the BaUalas 
(Hoysalas), an enterprising and warlike race professing the Jain 
faith. They ruled over the greater part of Mysore, and portions 
of the modem districts of Coimbatore, Salem and Dharwar, with 
their capital at Dwarasamudra (the modern Halebid); but in 
13x0 the Ballala king was capiured by Malik Kafur, the general 
of Ala-ud-din; and seventeen years later the town was entirely 
destroyed by anotlier force sent by Mahommed Tughlak. After 
the subversion of the Ba'lala dynasty, a new and powerful 
Hindu sovereignty arose at Vijayanagar on the Tungabhadra.. 



MYSORE— MYSTERY 



117 



In 1565 a oonfedention of the Mabommedan kingdoms de- 
feated the Vijayanagar sovereign at the battle of TalikoU; and 
hb descendants ultimately became extinct as a ruling house. 
During the feeble rei^ of the last king, the petty local chiefs 
ipaUgars) asserted their independence. The most important of 
these was the wedeyar of Mysore, who in z6io seized the fort of 
Serinsapatam, and so laid the foundation of the present state. 
His fourth successor, Chikka Deva Raja, during a reign of 
34 years, made his kingdom one of the most powerful in 
sootbem India. In the middle of the i8th century the famous 
Mahommedan adventurer Hyder Ali usurped the throne, and 
by hb military prowess made himself one of the most powerful 
princes of India. Hb dynasty, however, was as brief as it 
was biiiliant, and ended with the defeat and death of hb son 
Tippoo at Seringapatam in 1799. A representative of the 
ancient Hindu line was then replaced on the throne. Thb 
prince, Krishnaraja Wodeyar, was only five years old, and until 
be came of age in iSti the state was under the adminbtration 
of Pomaiya, the Brahman minbter of Hyder and Tippoo. 
Allien Krbhnaraja took over the management of hb sute he 
received an orderly and contented principality with a surplus 
ci two crores of rupees. Within twenty years he had driven 
hb subjects into rebellion and involved himself and hb state 
m heavy debt. The Britbh government therefore assumed 
the administration in 183 1, and placed it in the hands of com- 
misBloDers. In 1863 no less than 88 lakhs of state debts and of 
the maharaja's own liabilities had been liquidated; the entire 
administration had been reformed, a revised system of land 
revenue introduced, and many public works executed. The 
maharaja therefore pressed hb claims to a restoration of hb 
powers, but the British government refused the application as 
incompatible with the true interests of the people of Mysore, 
aad as not justified by any treaty obligation. In the same year 
Chamarajendra Wodeyar, afterwards maharaja, was bom of 
the Bettada Kote branch of the ruling house; and in June 1865 
Maharaja Krishnaraja adopted him as hb son and successor, 
ahhoui^ be had been informed that no adoption could be 
reoogniaed except to hb own private property, already once 
more heavily wei^ted with private debts. In 1867 the policy 
ol government underwent a change; it was determined to secure 
the continuance of native rule in Mysore, by acknowledging 
the adoption upon certain conditions which would secure to the 
people the continued benefits of good adminbtration enjoyed 
by them under British control, llie old maharaja died on the 
27th of March 1868, and Chamarajendra Wodeyar was publicly 
iaslaOed as the future ruler of Mysore on the 23rd of September 
iS6Sw Hb education was Uken in hand, abuses which had grown 
up in the palace establishment were reformed, the late maharaja 's 
debts were again paid off, and the whole internal adminbtration 
perfected in every branch during the minority. On the 35th of 
March 1881 Maharaja Chamarajendra, having attained the age 
of 18 years, was publicly entrusted with the adminbtration of 
the state. He made over to the British government, with full 
^irbdictioa, a small tract of land at Bangalore, forming the 
" civil and military sution," and received in return the island of 
Seringapatam. But the most important incident of the change 
was the »gning of the " instrument of transfer," by which 
the ywing maharaja, for himself and his successors, undertook 
to perform the conditions imposed upon him. To that agree- 
ment the maharaja steadfastly adhered during his reign, and 
the instrument b a landmark in the hbtory of British relations 
with the protected states of India. Tht mabaraja's first 
minister was Ranga Chariu, who had been trained in the 
British adminbtration of Mysore. He signalized the restoration 
d native rule by creating the representative assembly. In 
1^3 Sheshadri Aiyar succeeded Ranga Chariu, and to him 
Mysore b indebted for the extension of railways and schemes of 
irriptioa, the development of the Kolar goldfields, and the 
maintenance of the high standard of its administration. The 
maharaja died at Calcutta on the 28th of December 1894. . Hb 
eidcst son, Krishnaraja Wodeyar, bom in 1884, succeeded him, 
and bis widow, Maharani Vanivilas^ was appointed regent^ 



until in 1903 the maharaja was formally invested with full 
powers by the viceroy in person. 

See B. L. Rice, Mysore (2nd ed.. Bangalore. 1897;; Myson omd 
Coorg CoMttUtr (Cakutu, 1908). 

MYSORE, capital of the state of Mysore, India, 10 m. S.W. of 
Seringapatam on the Mysore State railway. Pop. (1901), 68,1 1 1. 
The dty, which b spread over an area of about 7I sq. m., has its 
nucleus at the foot of the Chamundi hill, in a valley formed by 
two parallel ridges running north and south. The fort stands 
in the south of the town, forming a quarter by itself; the ground- 
plan b quadrangular,*each of the sides being about 450 yds. long. 
The old palace of the maharaja within the fort, bidlt in an 
extravagant style of Hindu architecture, was partly destroyed 
by fire in 1897, whereupon a new palace was built on the same 
site. The principal object of yiterest in the old palace was the 
throne, which b said to have been presented to Chikka Deva Raj 
by the emperor Aurangzeb. The houses of the European residents 
are for the most part to the east of the town. The residency or' 
government house was built in 1805. The building afterwards 
used for the dbtrict offices was originally built by Colonel 
Wellesley (duke of Wellington) for hb own occupation. The 
domed building for the public offices in Gordon Park, the 
Maharaja's College, the Victoria Jubilee Institute, and the law 
courts are conspicuous. Mysore, though the dynastic capital 
of the state, was superseded by Seringapatam as the seat of the 
court from 1610 to 1799, and in 1831, on the Britbh occupation, 
the seat of adminbtration was removed to Bangalore. 

MYSTERY (Gr. fuwr^pcor, from yhants, an initiate, fidciy, 
to shut the mouth), a general English term for what b secret 
and excites wonder, derived from the religious sense (see below). 
It is not to be confounded with the other old word " mystery," 
or more properly " mbtery," meaning a trade or handicraft 
(Lat. ministenum, Fr. mitia). For the medieval pUys, called 
mysteries, see Dsaka; they were so called (Skeat) because acted 
by craftsmen. 

Creek Mysteries. — It b important to obtain a dear conception 
of the exact significance of the Greek term lamriifium, which b 
often associated and at times appears synonymous with the words 
rcXeri^, flpYui- We may interpret " mystery " in its original 
Greek meaning as a " secret " worship, to \*'iich only certain 
specially prepared people — oL lanfikvTts—yrert admitted after a 
special period of purification or other preliminary probation, and 
of which the ritual was so important and perilous that the 
" catechumen " needed a hierophant or expounder to guide him 
aright. In the ordinary public worship of the state or the private 
worship of the household the sacrifice with the prayer was the 
chief act of the ceremony; in the " mysterion " something other 
than a sacrifice was of the essence of the rite; something was 
shown to the eyes of the initiated, the mystery was a 5pa/ia 
IJUCTU(b», and bp9» and bpnicitovivti are verbal terms expressive 
of the mystic act. We have an interesting account given us by 
Theo Sm3rmaeus* of the various dements and moments of the 
normal mystic ceremony: first is the xotfopp^s or preliminary 
purification; secondly, the T^kEriii irap6SoaLS, the mystic com- 
munication : which probably induded some kind of \6yos, a 
sacred exegesb or exhortation; thirdly, the kworrda or the 
revelation to sight of certain holy things, which b the central 
point of the whole; fourthly, the crowning with the garland, 
which is henceforth the badge of the privileged; and. finally, 
that which b the end and object of all thb, the happiness that 
arises from the friendship or communion with the deity. Thb 
exposition b probably applicable to the Greek mysteries in 
general, though it may well have been derived from hb know- 
ledge of the Eleusinian. We may supplement it by a statement 
of Ludan's that "no mystery was ever cdebrated without 
dandng " {De saUai. 15), which means that it was hi some sense 
a religious drama, andent Greek dandng being generally 
mimetic, and represented some Upis X^yof or sacred story as 
the theme of a mystery-play. 

Before we approach the problem as to the content of the 
mysteries, we may naturally raise the question why certain 
> Dejua. maik., HerKhcr. p. 15. 



ii8 



MYSTERY 



ancient cults in Greece were mystic, others open and public. 
An explanation often offered is that the mystic cults are the 
Pelasgic or pre-Hellenic and that the conquered populations 
desired to shroud their religious cnemonies from the profane 
eyes of the invaders. But we should then expect to find them 
administered chiefly by slaves and the lower population; on the 
contrary they are generally in the hands of the noblest families, 
and the evidence that slaves possessed in any of them the right 
of initiation is only slight. Nor does the explanation in other 
respects fit the facts at all. The deities who are worshipped 
with mystic rites have in most cases Hellenic names and do not 
all belong to the earliest stratum of HcUenic religion. Besides 
those of Demeter, by far the most numerous in the Hellenic 
world, we have record of the mysteries of Ge at Phlye in Attica, 
of Aglauros and the Charities at Athens, of Hecate at Aegina; 
a shrine of Artemis Mwrla on the road between Sparta and 
Arcadia points to a mystic cult of this goddess, and we can infer 
the existence of a similar worship of Themis. Now these are 
either various forms of the earth-goddess, or are related closely 
to her, being powers that we call " chthonian," associated with 
the world below, the realm of the dead. We may surmise then 
that the mystic setting of u cult arose in many cases from the 
dread of the religious miasma which emanated from the nether 
world and which suggested a prior ritual of purification as neces- 
sary to safeguard the person before approaching the holy presence 
or handling certain holy objects. Thb would explain the 
necessity of mysteries in the worship of Dionysus also, the Cretan 
Zagreus, Trophonius at Lebadeia, Palaemon-Melicertes on the 
Isthmus of Corinth. They might also be necessary for those 
who desired communion with the deified ancestor or hero, and 
thus we hear of the mysteries of Dryops at Asine, of AntinoUs 
the favourite of Hadrian at Mantineia. Again, where there was 
hope or promise that the mortal should by communion be able 
to attain temporarily to divinity, so hazardous an experiment 
would be safeguarded by special preparation, secrecy and 
mystic ritual; and this may have been the prime motive of the 
institution of the Attis-Cybele mystery. (See Great Mothzs 
or THE Goos.) 

For the student of Hellenism, the Eleusinian and Orphtc 
ceremonies are of paramount importance; the Samothradan, 
which vied with these in attractiveness for the later Hellenic 
world, were not Hellenic in origin, nor wholly hellenized in char- 
acter, and cannot be considered in an article of this compass. 

As regards the Eleusinia, we are in a better position for the 
investigation of them than our predecessors were; for the modem 
methods of comparative religion and anthropology have at least 
taught us to ask the right questions and to apply relevant 
hypotheses; arehaeology, the study of vases, excavations on the 
site, yielding an ever-increasing hoard of inscriptions, have 
taught us much concerning the external organization of the 
mysteries, and have shown us the beautiful figures of the deities 
as t