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on War, Revolution, and Peace 

FOUNDED ev HtR8EkT HOOVE ft. \9i9 





edition, publiikcd in thrcn nAuum, 



















1801— iSia 






iSi$— 1817. 












iSjo— 1841. 












1875— itt9*. 




•ditlon and dttra 






1910— 1911* 











Copyright, in the United Sutet of America, 1911, 


TheSncydopcdia Briunnica Cdmptny. 


L C Siw AiAKRT Craxlcs Sewakd, M.A., F.R.S. 

Proressor o( BoUny in the University oT CambridsB. Hon. Fdlov of Emmanuel i MMOboluy: Uemok. 

CoUe^e. Cambridge. President o( the Yorkahiie Naturaiista' Union, 1910- 
L P. F. Au»ERT Frederick Pollard, M.A., F.ILH1ST.S. 


Professor of English History in the University of London. Felbw of All Soub* I 

College, Oxford. Assistant Editor of the Dictionary^ National Biography, 1893- i FMrkar. VatOllW. 

1^1. Lothian Prixeman. Oxford, itoa; Arnold Prixeman, 1898. Author of 

Engfand under Uu Protector Somerset; Utnry VllLi L^4 oj Thomas Crammer \ Ac 
A. 6. OU Abthur George Doughty. M. A., tiTT.D., C.M.G. 

Dominion Archivist of Canada. Member of the Geographical Board of Canada. 
Author of The Cradte of New France; 8uu Joint-editor of DocnmenU reiatini to the 
Constitutional History of Canada. 

1. Q. H» Albert George Hadoock. f nirtiieniM Ruiw a^ Cnm 

Uta ItA. Manager. Gun Department. Eliwick Worki, Newcastte-on-Tyne. J T^TJ^*****^ ^^ 

Lieut.-Col. commanding ist Northumbrian Brigade. R.F.A. (TerritMial Faeces). I efruawn, 
Joint-author of Artillery: its Progress and Present PosiUom\ Ac t 

A. Bh. Adolf Harnack. 

See the biographical article : Harmacx* Adolf. 

A. X, L Amduw Jackson LAMotJRBUx. 

Librarian. College of Agriculture. Cornell University. Focmcfly Editor o£ the 
NewSt Rio de Janeiro. 

!.£«. ACHILLE LuCHAHB. Pmm^tm* w,Jh^r^0. 

See the biographical article : Lucbairb. Dbnis J. Acbills. ^ »»»fif • '087-1^^ 

A. lb. AxxxANDER Macauster, M.A.. M.D., LL.D.. D.Sc., F.R.S., F.S.A. 

Professor of Anatomy In the University of Cambridge, and Fellov of St John's ^ . 'alltiy. 
College. Author of Text-Book of Human Anatomy; &c. { 

4. K. CL Acnes Muriel Clay (Mrs Wilde). 

Formeriy Resident Tutor of La ' ' 
•/ Roman History, /jj-79 B.C. 

r Oriole; Ornitkotoiy (fo part); 

A m AURED Newton, F.R.S. 22!S^ft.2!!I??L-i. 

^ See the biographical article: Newton. Atrtsn. 1 gy L'?*" "/ .""• 

1 Ovn; Oystw-catoMr; 


ECES Muriel Clay (Mrs Wilde). f . 

Formeriy Resident Tutor of Lady Margaret Hall. OxfonL JciBt-mtfaor of Sourtes \ FSstTOB nd CBmI (m ptrtU 
of Roman History, /jj-79 B.C. I 

^ p. S. AtftEO Peter Hillier, M.D., M.P. r 

Author of South African Studies'; The Commomweal'. ftc Served in Kaffir War, OnnCB Tim Stelt: History 
1878-1879. Partner with Dr L. S. Jameson in mcdnal practin in South African /.• ^,^\ 
till 1896. Member of Reform Committee. Johannesburg, and Political Prieoaer at I ^'" r^'- 
Pretona, 1893-189^ M.P. ior Hitchia divisioa of Hctta, 1910W I 

AMhoroiHistoireMonusHentaUdelaPhaice. jflMlK History (m fart). 

■UR SioTB Woodward. LL.D. 
Keeper of Geology, Natural Hi 
the Geological Society, London. 

AtTWUR SioTB Woodward. LL.D.. F.R.S. f V!'"*" "? 

K^eger of Geojkygy, Natural History Mnseam. South KeMiagtoa. Seeictaiy of i < Wg^ y 

Akhor Wauch, M.A. f 

New College. Oxford. Newdinte Prize. t88S. Author of Gordon in Africa; Alfred, 1 Mtr, WaNw; 
Lord Tennyson. Editor of Johnson's Uees of the Po^; and of editiona of Didieut, 1 Pfelmon* Oofiilbiy. 
nnttysoUt Amoldt Lamb; Ac L 

AnauR WouAM Holland. f Otto ol IMilaf; 

Formeriy Scholar of St John's CoUefe. Oxford. Baooo Scholar of Griy*a Ina, 1900. \ FMtoB LiMhi. 

* A complete list, showii^ all Individual oontributor^ appcart ia the final voluaa. 













A. W. R. Alexander Wood Renton, M.A., LL.B. 

Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court of Ceyloa. Editor of Encyclopaedia of Iko Laws 
of England, 

A. W. W. AooLPRUS WnxiAM Wasd. Litt.D., LL.D. 

See the biographical article : Ward, A. W. 

B. B. Sir Boverton Redwood, D.Sc., F.R.S. (Edin.), F.I.C.. Assoc.Inst.C.E., 

Adviser on Petroleum to the Admiralty, Home Office. India Office, Corporation of 
London, and Port of London Authonty President of the Society ol Chemical 
Industry. Member of the Council of the Chemical Society. Member of Council of 
Institute of Chemistry. Author of "Cantor" Lectures on Petrtdeumi PetroUnm 
and its Products; Chemical Teckntdogy; &c. 

0. B.* Cbarles Bvbritt, M.A., F.C.S., F.G.6., F.R.A.S. 

Formerly Scholar of Magdalen College, Oxford. 

C. F. A. Charles Francis Atkinson. 

Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Captain, ist City of London (Royal 
FusiUers). Author <fiTha WUdcmest and Cold Barbour. 

C. H. Ha. Carlton Hitntley Hayes, A.M., Pn.D. 

Aasisunt Professor of History in Columbia Univeruty. New York City. Member of 
the American Historical Association. 

0. L. K. Charles Lethbridge Kingspord, M.A., F.R.Hist.S., F.S.A. 

Assistant Secretary to the Board of Education. Author of Life of Henry V. Editor 
of Chronicles iff London; and Stow's Snroey ef London, 

C. B. Clevent Red, F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S. 

District Geologist on H.M. Geological Survey of England and Wales. Author of 
Origin of the British Flora; &c. Joint-author of Fro-Glacial Flora of Britain; 
Fossil Flora of Tegelen. 

C. B. B. Charles Raymond Beazley, M.A., D.Litt., F.R.G.S., F.R.Hist.S. 

Professor of Modem History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow of 
Merton College. Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography. 
Lothian Prixeman, Oxford. 1889. Lowell Lecturer, Boston. 1908. Author m Henry 
Ike Navigator; The Dawn of Modem Geography; &c 


Formerly Scholar of Queen's College. Oxford. Barrister-at-taw. 

Henri db Blowitz. 

See the biographical article: Blowitz. H. G. S. A. db. 

DnoAio Clerk. M.Inst.CE^ F.R.S. 

Director of the National Gas Engine Co.. Ltd. Inventor of the Ckik Cyde Gas 

DoMALD Francis Tovey. 

Author of Essays in Musical Analysis: comprising The Classical ComertOt The 
Goldberg Variations, and analyses of aany othitt Haiaical works. 

David George Hogarth. M.A. 

Keeper of the Ashmolcan Museum, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College. Oxford. 
Fellow of the British Academy. Excavated at Faphos, 1888: Naucratis, 1 899 
and 1903: Ephesus. 1904-1905^; Assiut. 1906-1907; Director, British School at 
Athens, 1897-1900. Duector, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899. 

David Hannay. 

Formeriy British Vtcc-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of the Royal 
Naoy; Ufe of Emilio Castdar; &c 

D uKiNj r u i L D Henry Scott, M.A., Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S. 

President of the Linnean Society. Author of Structural Botany; Studies in Fossil 

Botany; &c 
David James Hamilton, M.D., F.R.S. (Edin.) (1849-1909). 

Professor of Pathology, Aberdeen University. 1 882-1907. Author of Texl-Booh of 

Pathology; Ac 

Edward Augustus Frecvan, LL.D., D.C.L. 
See the biographical article: Freeman. E. A. 

Edward Burnett Tylor, D.C.L., LL.D. 

See the biographical article : Tylor, Edward Burnbty. 

Riosr Rev. Edward Cuthbert Butler, M.A., O.S.B., D.Litt. 

Abbot o< Downside Abbey, Bath. Author of " The Lausiac History of Palladius," 
in Cambridge Texts and Studies. 

B. C Q. Edmund Crosby Quiggin, M.A. 

Fellow, Lecturer in Modem Laofuagea. and Monro LectuRr in Celtic, Goovflle and 
Caius College, Cambridge. 

B. 0« Edmund Oosse, LL.D. 

See the biographical article: GossB, Edmund. 

B. Or. Ernest Arthur Gardner, M.A. 

Sec the biographical article: GaRdner. PbrCY. 


Opiam: CkemUnf^AaOpmtm 


Orleans: Camfaips of 1870. 

Oiaiiam; FMdal IL; 
PMil U H. {popes). 

OldctsOs, Sir Jolm; 
Oxford, 18tli EBri of. 

P BlBSOfcotaaj; Tertiary* 

Odorto {in part); 
OdMUifw; OrtoUok 


HtHt History (In ^or^. 


Open; Oittorlo; Ovwtqrt; 

FMsstriin {in part). 

Oronies; Psunpliylla. 
Orford, Btfl ol(Btf«ai« 

FalMobotaoy: Palatm oic 

VMkolQKy (In parO. 

Mtnao {HtparO* 


ODvataos; Vwiibmam, 8t 

PBWdc St 

Ods; OUeosehUicir; 
pttevB Bimt; OfBitay; 
FtfndMi*nmisr; BMtonl, 
OlympiB (m part); 


JSuM Rovnx Mnnn, M.A. f •, ^ 

University Lectiucr in Plakeoeiapliy, OuilbrfdBb Lecturer and Aaaftaot Libcartan i OlMa (Ettxifu), 
at Pembroke CoUcga. Cambridge. Fonnefly FtUov of Pembroke CoUege- I 

EbcABD Meyer, Pb.D., D.Lnr. (Oxon.). LL.D. f 2^' 9P*!?' ^■'•^ 

Profcttor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. Author of GeukiekU iti < rMom; ntftala; 
AlUrikums'. Cuckicku dts atttm Atgyptens', Dm JsrvdiUn und Hut Naekbvstdmm*, I Puyntto; Pisargl^ 

Puyntto; PisarpdM. 

Curator of the Muieum of the PharnMeutieal Society, Loodoiu 


LM.B. Edwaid MoxELL Holmes. ^ _ . .^ . •fopfnm. 

L M. TL Sn EowAEO Maundb Tbompson, G.C.B., I.S.O., D.C.L , Litt.D., LL.D. 

Director and Principal Librarian, British Museum. 1808-1909. Sandara Reader in 
Bibliography, Cambridge, 1895-1896. Hon. Fellow 01 University College. Oxford. 

PAper: Hishryx 

OBvetni lliiltiKS 

Correspondent of the Institute of France and of the Royal Prussian Academy of' 
Sciences. Author of Handbook of Crteh a»d Latin PoUuovaphy. Editor of 
Ckromem An^iae. Joint-editor of publications of the Palaeogiaphical Society, 
the New Palaeographical Society, and of the Facsimile of the Laurentian Sophodea. 

I. ■. W« Rxv. Edward Mewbxten Walker, M.A. /oiriifliiii. 

Fellow, Senior Tutor and Librarian of Queen's College, Oxford. I 

1. 0»* Edmund Owen, M.B., F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.Sc. 

Consulting Surseon to St Mary's Hospital, London, and to the Children's Hospital, 
Great Orroond Street, London. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Late Examiner' 
in Surgery at the Universities of Cambridge. Londdn and Dutfiam. Author of 
A Manwal of Anatomy for Strior Students, 


Special Lecturer in Portuguese Lifeemture in the Unlvcnity of Manchester. 
uaminer in Portuguese in the Univeruties of London, Manchester, Ac. Com- 
mendador, Portuguese Order of S. Thiago. Corresponding Member of Lisbon 
Royal Academy of Sciences. Lisbon Geographical Society; Ac. Editor of Lttton 
of a Foftngnoso Nnn; Asurara's CkronkU of Cnuuoi Ac 


Fellow of the British Academy. Formeriv Fellow of University College, Oxford. 
Editor of Tho Ancient Armenian Tests of AristoUe. Author of Uylkt MagU ^'^ 
Morals; Ac. 
r. Q» F. FkZDERicx Gymer Parsons, F.R.C.S., FJLS., F.R.AnthropJn8t. 

Vice-President, Anatomkal Society of Great Briuin and Ireland. Lecturar on J OU^Mtoiy 
Anatomy at St Thomas's Hospital and the London School of Medicine for Women, 
London. Formeriy Hunterian Professor at the Royal College of Surgeons. 

f • K>^ FnNAND Khnopft. / Pnliiltan itsd^rm lUUiam 

See the biographical article: Kunopff, F. E. J. M. 1 """»* Mmem ifetgtaM 

'- B.CL FkANK R. CaNA. fiVnnra VMa Mnte (U a^) 

Author of 5dtil*it/rtca /rem OeCfcairrc* 10 Ike IfnsM. -J^WMgi Kit 5Wi Vn partj. 

r. Wi» rtuatoM Watt, M.A. f 

Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple. Author of Lam's Lttmber Roam. \ 

F. W. Hoi. Frederick Walker Mott, F.R.S. 



DERicK Walker Mott, F.R.S.. M.D. f 

Phyucian to Charing Cross Hospital. Pathologist to the London County Asyluma. <{ Fut|yi 
FuUeriao Professor of Physiology at the Royal Institution. L 

DERICK William Rudler, l.S.C, r.G.S, f ©■«• 

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London. 1879-1903. 'j Z~Zm^ 
President of the Geok)gist8' Association, 1887-1889. (. QP*^ 

F. X. K» FkANz Xaver Rravs (1840-1901). f 

Professor of Church History, University of Freibttif-in^Brdii^, iS78-l90l.-{ Flutty: ti9&-tooo» 
Author dGestkidaederehrisOiekenKnnstidtc* [ ^^ ' "^ 

a. A. Otm George Abraham Grierson, CLE., Ph.D., D.Litt. 

Member of the Indian Civil Service, 1873-190A. In charge of Unguistic Survey 
of India. 1898-1903. Gold MedalUst. Royal Aamtic Sodety. 1909. Vice-President ^ 
of the Royal Asiatic Society. Formerly Fdlow of CakutU Umvenity. Author of 
The Laninages of I-adia; Ac. 

Q. ^ CU* Kxv. George Albert Cooke, D.D. ( 

Oriel Professor of the Interpretation of Holy Scripture, and Fellow of Oriel College, X 
Oxford. Canon of Rochester. Hon. Canon of St Mary's Cathediml, Edinbuigh. L 

6. B. B^ GiRARD Baldwin Brown, M.A. 

Professor of Fine Art, University of Eifinbutgh. Formedy Fellow of Brasenooe 
CoUege, Oxford. Author of The Fine Arts; The Arts m Barty JSagfantf ; Ac. 


>RCE Brown Goods (i8^x-i896). f _ 

Asustant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institotioii, Washington. l8<7-tfl96b ifhthor < QfllV (l» port), 

of American Fishes, L 

>RCE Chrystal, M.A., LL.D. f . ^. . 

Professor of Mathematks and Dean of the Faculty of Arts. Ediabuigh Univef^. \ FHOBI (fm pmO. 
Hon. Fellow and formeriy Fellow and Lecturer of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge* I 

C €L W. George Cbarles Williamson, LrrT.D. r 

Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Portrait Uiniatnres; Life of Richard J ODflT* 1 
Cesway, R,A.; Ckorje Entlekeart; Portrait Dramngs; Ac Editor of the New] OHfV* ffilM!* 
Edition of Bo'an's Dictionary of Painters and Eitffaoere. L 


G. B. Rbv. Geoxce Eduukdson, M.A., F.R.Hxst.S. ' f niflinlMjmwMt 

PormeHy Felfcw and Tutor of BcueiKMe Collefie. Oxfocd. FoMl'a Lcctttier, 1909. J Jw^^^TViS^Zl^. 
Hon. Member. Dutch Historical Socitty. and Foreign Member. Netherlaodt AmoSi 1 Jf °? CHOW of); 
tkmofUteiature. I Oitend Cbmpuj. 


Sm the biographical etticle: Cen»CH. G. E. \ """WO, 

G. H. C GxoBOB Hebbcst Caipentek, B.Sc. f 

Professor of Zoology in the Royal College o< Sdeaoe. DubUa. Author of /»mcIi:-{ Orthopltll. 
Iknr Struaurt and Lif€. [ 

G. 8a. George Saimtsbusy, LL.D., D.C.L. /Orieaas, Charles, Doki of; 

See the biographical article: Saiktsbury, Georcb E. B. \ Pasod (m ^art). 

0. 8. W. German Sims Woodhead, M.A., M.D.. F.R.S. (Edin.). f 

Professor of Pathology. Cambridge University. Fellow of Trinity Hall. Cambridge. ^ FailSltle Diieasot. 
Member of Royal Commission on Tubcrculoeis, 1903. I 

H. A. B. Henry Arthur Betbell. r 

Lteut.-Col. Commanding 40th Brigade R.F.A. Associate Member of R.A. Com- 1 Ordnaoeee 

mittee. Awarded Lefroy Medal for Contributions to Artillery Science. Author of 1 FUld ArtHUrv Bouihm^ntt 

Modern Guns and Gunneryi The Emphymenl of ArtilUryi Ac. I Anii#ery M^qutfmtnss, 

ray Bbabley. M.A., Pa.D. f 

Joint-editor of the ^JVw English piclumar^iOxUxd). Fellow of the British "jOlTn. 

H. Br. Hbney Bbabley. M.A., Pa.D. 

Joint-editor of the New English Diclionary {L _ . . _ 

Academy. Author of The Story of the Goths: Tko Haking of EnfjlUh ; &c. 
H. Gh. Hugh Chisholm, M.A. r 

Formeriy Scholar of Corpus Christi College. Oxford. Editor of the iith edition of< ParilamMit (At Oorl). 

the Encyclopaedia Brilanniea. Co-editor of the loth edition. 

I Institute. Formeriy 
Mr inatat etc, joint-autnor 01 A utaumary of 

H. B. Karl Hermann Etr£, M.A., Pn.D. 

H. CL Sn Hugh Charles Cuttord, R.C.M.G. 

Colonial Secretary. Ceylon. Fellow of the Royal Colonial Institute. Formeriy 
Resident. Fahang. Colonial Secretary. Trinidad and Tobago, igoj^loOT. Author of 
Studies in Brown Humanity; Further India, &c. Joint-author of A Diaionary 0/ 
Ihe Malay Lauguant, 

X Hermann Etre, M.A., Pn.D. r 

Professor of Oriental Languages. University College. Aberystwyth (University of J a»»«» w..»s«k /• ^^^\ 
Wales). Author of Catalogue 0/ Persian MaMuscnpu in the India Office LibraryA "'"*' Kliaijam (m port) 
£<Ni4oi»(ClaicadonPresfe); Ac ..r- , ^ 


H. B. S. Sir Henry ENnELD Roscoe, LL.D. f 

See the biographical article: Roscob, Sir Henry Enhbld. \ 

H. F. BL HoRAno Robert Forbes Brown, LL.D. 

Editor of the Calendar of Venetian StaU Papers, for the Public Record Office, 1 b.j«. 
London. Author of Life on the Lagoons; Venetian Studies; John Addington] nana. 
Symandi^ a Biography; &c. t 

H. F. 0. Hans Frxedrxch Gadow, F.R.S., Pb.D. f 

Strickland Curator and Lecturer on Zoology in the University of Cambridge. -{ 
Author of " Amphibia and Reptllca,'* io the Cambridge Natural History, [ 

H. F. 0. Henry FAtRncu) Osborn, LL.D.. D.Sc., F.R.S. (Edin.). 

Da Cosu Professor of Zoology, Columbia University, New York. President, 
American Museum of Natural tlistoiy, New York. Curator of Department of 
Vertebrate Palaeontok>gy. Palaeontologist U.S. Geological Survey. Author of 
From theCreehs to Darwtn; &c. 

H. F. P. Henry Francis Pelham, LL.D., D.C.L. / ^,. _,^ _ 

See the biographical article: Pelham, Hbnry Francis. \ "™®» ■»wus 8. 

H. Ja. Henry Jackeon. Litt.D., LL.D., O.Bf. r 

Regius Professor of Greek in the University of Cambridge. Fellow of Trinity! «-— - tju^ § *l^ 
College. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of TexU to illustrate the History of\ nnaeOIMS 01 BM« 
Gruh Philosophy from ThaUs to Aristotle. I 

H. L. H. Harriet L. Hennessy. M.D. (Broz.), L.R.C.P.I., L.R.C.S.L /ouaelory System: ZHsmmx. 


H. M. G. Hector Munro Chadwice, M.A. 

Librarian and Fellow of Clare College. Cambridge. Reader in Scandinavian, 

Cainbrklge University. Author of Stmies on An^o^Saxon Institutions. 
H. M. D. Henry Newton Dickson, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S. (Edin.), F.R.G.S. / 

Professor of Geography at University College, Reeding. Formeriy VKe-Presklent, I «_ .. «. ,. % 

Royal^Meteor^(^lSociet;^.^I^tureriri^(^ Author of 1 P>«Ul0 Ooeail (m part}. 

Meteorology; BlemenU of Weather and Gimale; Ac. 

H. R. T. Henry Richard Tedder, F.S.A. 

Secretary and Ubnrian of the Athcoaeum Qub, Londoa. 

•[ Famphlefs. 

H. W. CD. Henry William Carless Davis, M.A. frwiA a? RaMn** 
Fellow and Tutor of BalHol College, Oxford. Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford, i AlL^ SSKfa 

1895-1903. Author of Eng^nd under the Normans and Anemnt; Charlemagne, { OMerie VltalB. 

H. T. Sir Henry Yule, K.C.S.I. f odorio (in tart) 

See the bwgraphical artkle, Yulb, Sir Henry. \ "^™ ^"* '^'' 

J. A. C. Sn Josepb Archer Crowe. K.C.M.G. IrM*am tim a/.w^ 

See the biographical article: Crowb, Sir Josefh ArCHBR. ywam u» pon). 












J. P.-B. 

ri*BMiMU, j>i.A.| A^.ov., r.n..o. 

Mor of Electrioa Engiiweripq in the UnIvtMhy of Loodoa. 
r Coilese. London. Formerly Fellow of St Joha^s CoUege, Cai 
Bt of the Institution of Electrical Engineers. Author tdTkeP 

. Fellow 



JOBN Amsbose Flsmimg, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S. 

Pender Profew - ' "• -• • "--^ '— • 

of University ( „. 

Vice-President of the Institution of Electrical Engineers. 

tf Electric Worn Tdegrapky; Magnets and Electric CutraUs; &c 

fOHN Allen Howe, B.Sc. 

Curator and Libiarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London. Author of 
Geology pf Building Stones. 


Author of Die LitMrgische (kmanduni fte. 1 


Lectueer on Gmstniction. Architecture. Sanitation. Quantities* Ac, at Kin|[*s J 
Collfge* London. Member of Society of Aichitects. Member of Institute of Junior | 
Eiq;ineers. L 

^OSEFH BEAVxircToir Ateinson. 

Formerly art<ritic of the Saturday Review. Author xA An AH Tow in tke Northern • 
Capitals of Europe \ Schools of Modem Art in Germany. 

OHN Charles van Dyke. 

Professor of the History of Art. Rutgers CoOege. New Brunswick, N.T. Formerly 
Editor of The Studio and the Art Reotew. Author ci Art for ArCs Som; History if 
Painting; Old Eugfish Masters i Sec. 

fOHN Edwin Sandys. M.A., Lrrr.D., LL.D. 

Public Orator in the University of Cambridge. Fellow of St John's College, Oam- 
bridge. Fellow of the British Academy. Author ci History of Classical Scholarship; 


See the biographical article: Fiseb, John. 


Gilmour Professor of Spanish Languaee and Literature. Lhreipoot University. 
Norman McColl Lecturer, Cambrid^ Univetsity. Fdlow of the British Academy. 
Member of the Royal Spanish Academy. Knight Commander of the Order of 
Alphonso XH. Author of A History of Spanish LUeraturei dec 

fOHN Heney Astrdr Habt, M.A. 

Fellow, Theological Lecturer and Librarian, St John's College, Cambridge. 

foBN Henby Feeese. M.A. 

Formeriy Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge. 

fOHN HENEY MlDDLETON, M.A., llTT.D., F.S.A., D.CL. (1846-X896). 

Slade Professor of Fine Arts in the Univeruty of Cambridge. 1886-189^ Director 
o( the Fitawilliam Museum. Cambridge, 1889-1893. Art Director ot the South 
Kensington Museum. 1892-1896. Author of The Engraotd Garni of Clasiical Times; 
JUmmiHoled Manuscripts in Classical and Medieval Times, 

OBN Holland Rose, M.A., Lxtt.D. ^ 

Christ's College. Cambridge. Lectum- on Modem History of the Cambridge 
University Local Lectures Syndvafee. Author of Life of Na p o l eon /.; "^ * 
Studies; The Development of the European Nations', The Life efPiltiiuu 

Oolttt; Ordofielui 

Wbattagt UnUtd Stales, 



nikeio Valdii. AfBaaiai 
Puto Buin. 

Bitlaiy {in pmi)» 

cm Jacobs. Lrrr.D. 

Profenor of EiuUah Utcratme in the Jewish Theological Seminary, New York 
Formeriy President of the Jewish Historical Society of England. Corresponding- 
Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid. Author of Jews of Angevin 
England; Studies in Biblical Archaeology; &c. 

ULius Lewsowxtsch, M.A., Ph.D. 

Examiner to the Dty and Guilds of London Institute. Vice-President of Chemical 
Society. Member of Council of Chemical Society: Institute c^ Chemistry; and' 
Sodety of Public Analysts. Author of Chemical Technology and Analysis of Oils, 
Fats, and Waxes; 3tc 

fovN Linton Mybes, M.A., F.S.A., F.R.G.S. f 

Wykeham Professor of Andcnt History in the University of Oxford and Fellow I 
of Magdalen College. Formerly Gladstone Professor of Gieek and Lecturer in J Bl^bBB. 
Ancient Geography, University of UvcrpooL Lecturer of Classical Archaeology I 
in the University of Oxford. [ 

[AMES MUIBHSAD, LL.D^ (183I-18S0). 

Scotch Advocate; Professor of Civil Law in the University of Edinbuigh, i86»- 
1889. Author of Historic^ Introduction to the Private Law of Rome, and of an edition • 
of the /iu<ifiiler of Gains and Rules of Ulpian. 

[OON ilACPHEBSON, M A., M.D.. M.R.C.S. (1817-1800). 

Formerly Inspector-General cl Hospitals. Beai^ Author of The Balhi and Weils , 
ef Europe, Ac 


Sometime Schobr of Oueen's Collegv, Oxford. Lecturer In Classics. East London . 
CoUege (University oiLondoa). Joint-editor of Groie's History ^ Greeu. 

Editor of the Guardian (London). 
JEAN Paul Hippolytb Emmanuel AoniMAE Esmein. 

PTofesaor of Law in the University of Paris. Officer of '' 
Member of the Institute of France. Author of Ce«r> Mm 

{in part). 




J. 8. Co. 














JouAN RoBEiT John Jocelyn. 

Cotoncl. R.A. Formeily Member of the Ordiumoe Committee, Commandant 
Ordnance Collefce. and Commandaot. School of Gunnery. Author of Noles 
Tattks and Recoututtssances: &c. 

James Rjcharo Thursfielo, M.A. J 

Honorary Fellow of Jesus College. Oxford. Formerly Dean. Fellow, Lcctunrr and ] 
Tutor of Jesus Collcse- Author of P«e(: Ac. I 

James StrraERLAio) Cotton, M.A. 

Editor of the Imperiat Gaaetteer of India. Hon. Secrctaiy of the Egyptian Ex- 
ploration Fund. Fonnerly FeUow axKl Lecturer of Queen's College. Oxfora. Author 
of India; &c. 

John Thomas Bealby. 

Joint-author of Stanford's Eurobe. Formerly Editor of the ScoUish Geographiral - 

MagftMin€. Translator of Sven Hedin's Tkrouih Asia, Central Asia and Tibet', &c. 
JosEFH Thomas Cunningham, M.A., F2..S. 

Lecturer on Zoology at the South-Westcm Polytechnic. London. Formerly. 

Fellow of Universi^ College, Oxford. Assistant Professor of Natural History in 

The University of Edinbuigh. Naturalist to the Marine Biological Association. 
Tee Rev. James Vebnon Bartlet, MA., D.D. 

Prafesaor of Church History, Mansfield College. Oxford. Author of Tfie Apostolic 


J. W. Wyatt, A.M.INST.C.E. 

Author of The AH of Making Paper; &c 

Seny Field eni 
Siege Equipments, Carrisem 


Oral; OreBbiUK. 

Oyster (m pari), 


Pftul tiM ApoHte. 

•[pUpeR UatmfaOtire. 

Kathleen Schlesinceil 

Editor of the Port/olio of Musical Arckaeolot^. 
Orchestra; &c 

Author of The Instruments of the . 

Ophldeide (m pari); 
Orehestn; OrclMstifon; 
Orsan: Ancient HiUoryi 
Organlstnim; Fuldnis; 

f Papa^ to toSj; 

ir - - 

LioNCC BfNfom. r 

Kccper of the Mus6e National du Luxembouiig. Professor at the £cole du Louvie. J ^^.^^ - - , « 
President of the Society des Peintres Orientalistes fiancais. Author of Histoire 1 nmOBS! Modem PremdL 
du Beaux Arts; &c. [ 

Iaub Duchesne. 

Sec the biographical article: Duchesne, L. M. O. \ Pasehal L 

LuDWio von Pastoi, Ph.D. j 

Director of the Austrian Institute of Historical Studies at Rome. Professor of 
Hbtory and Director of the^ Historical Seminaiy in the University of Innsbruck. -S Fspaqr: IJOf-1500. 

Author ciGeschuJUe der I 
Lewis Foreman Day, F.S.A. (1845-1909). 

Formeriy Vice-President of the Society of Arts. Pkst Master of the Art Workers* • 
GikL Author of Window^ a booh about Stained Glass ; &c ^ 


Public Librarian of the City of Ottawa. Author of The Search for the Western Sea; i Ottawa (Canada) 
&c Joint-author of Camadian Life in Tomn and Country; Ac I "*"^ K^anaaaj, 

Hofrat'of the Austrian Empire. Commander of the Order of Francis Joseph; &c. 
' rPdpste; due Editor cA ^tue Acta pontificum Romanortun. t 

Leonaso Jamzs Spencer, M.A. f ^ 

AsaisUnt in Department of Mineralogy. British Museum. Formerly Scholar J Ollfemte; OlivUM; 
of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Haricness Scholar. Editor of the | Orthoolase; 
Mineralogical Magazine, [ Pailslte. 

Lewis Richaso Farnell, M.A., Lirr.D. e 

Fellow and Senk>r Tutor of Exeter College, Ojdord ; Univernty Lecturer in Classical J t 
Archaeology; Wilde Lecturer in Comparative Religion. Author of CiJ^ of Creeh'\ 
States ; EMution of Religion, [ 

Rt. Hon. Sn Mountstuaxt Elpbinstone Grant Dutf, G.C.S.I., F.R.S. 


. for the Elgin Buigha, 1857*1881. Under-Secrrtary of State for India, 1868- 
1874. Under-Secretary of State for the Cdlooica, 1 880-1881. Governor of Madras, 
I88i-t886. President of the Royal Geographical Society, 1889-1893. President 
of the Royal Historical Society, 1892-1899. Author of Stiidies in European Politics; 
Notes from a Diary; ftc 

liARioN H. Spieimann. F.S.A. 

Fomeriy Editor of the Magasine ef Art, Member of Fine Art Committee of Inter- 
national Exhibitions of Brussels. Paris. Buenos Aires, Rome and the Franco- 
British Exhibition, London. Author of History of "Punch**; British Portrait 
" * " - Works of G, P, Watts, R.A.; 

Painting to the Opening t^ the Nineteenth Centt^; 
BriUsk Sadpture and Sculptors of To^y; HenrieUe Ronneri 

MoRRB Jastrow, Pk.D. 

Professor of Semitk Langua^. University of Pennsytvaob. Author of Religion 
ef tke Babylonians and Assyrians; &c 

Snt Makcheriee Merwanjee Bhownaggree. 

FeUov of Bombay University. M.P. for N.-E. Bethnal Green, 1895-1906W Author 

of History of tke Constitution ef tke East India Company; &c 
Marcus Niebuhr Too, M.A. 

FeUow and Tutor of Orid College. Oxford. University Lecttirer in Epigraphy. 

Joint-authpr of Catalopie ef tk^^parta Mt 

Oliphant. Lannnea. 

Baintiog: Rteeni BriHski 




0. J. B. B. 











Lioif Jacques Maxdce Punct. 

Formerly Archivist to the French National Archives. Auxiliary of the Institute of J 
France (Academy of Moral and Political Sciences). Author of VlmduslrU duuleH] 
Framcke-Comti ; Franfois J,eiU cemti de Bourgoffu ; &c. I 

OswAiD Bakbon. F.S.A. I 

Editor of The Ancestor, 1902-1905. Hon. Genealogist to Sunding Council of the H 
Honourable Society of the Baronetage. I 

Ortoans. fUrtiatad* Dukt ol: 
Orlaaiii* Gaston, Dote of; 
OriMun, PhOlp L and n, 


Christ Chttich. Oxford. Geographical Scholar. 1901. 
British Association. 

AMistant Secntaiy of the' 

Ptaki: Family, 

OioniiLo Tbouas, F.R-S., F.Z.S. 

Senior Assistant, Natural History Department of the British Museum. Author of 
Cdla/o{M of Marsupialia in Uu British Museum. 

Panics Prrsa ALEXEivncB KaoponiN. 

See the biographical article: Kropotxin, PantCB P. A. 

PsTCR Chaucees MrrcHKix. M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S., D.Sc., LL.D. 

Secretary to the Zoological Society of London. University Demonstrator in Com- 
parative Anatomy and Assistant to Linacre Professor at Oxiocd, 188S-1891. Author 
of Outlines of Biohgy; &c 

Pbtes Giles, M.A., LL.D., Lm.D. 

Fellow and Classical Lecturer of Emmattnel College, Cambridge, and Univcnity 
Reader in Comparative Philology. Fonneriy Secretary of the Cambridge Philo- 
iogkal Society. Author of Manual of Comparatm FkiMotyi Ac 


Art Critic of the Observer and the DaUy Mail, Formeriy Editor of The ArHsL 
Author of The Art of Walter Crane ; Velasquea, Ufe and Worh ; &c 

RoBEaT AuxANDER Stswaet Macaustee, M.A., F.S.A. 

St John's College, Cambridge. Director of Excavations for the Pdestlae Explon- 

Ronald Bbvnlbes McKekbow, M.A. 

Trinity College, Cambridge. Editor of the Warhs of Thomaa Nashe; Ac. 

Sn RicBAXD Clavebbousb Jebb, LL.D., D.CX. 

See the biographical article: Jbbb, Sir Ricbabo Clavbbboubb. 

RxcHABO Gabnett, LL.D., D.CL. 

See the biographical article: Gabmbtt, Ricbabo. 

RoBEBT HocroBO Macdowall Bosanquet. M.A., F.R.S., F.R.A.S., P.C.S. 
Fellow of St John's College, Oxford. Autaor of Musical Temperameni; &c. 

Robebt Halloweu. Richabos, LL.D. 

Prdfesaorof Mining and Metallunry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Boston. 
Pfcsident American Institute of Mining Enginoera, 1886. Author of Ore-dreuimg; &c. 

R. J. Gbewxno, Captain, Reserve of Oflficen. 

Ronald Joiai McNeill, M.A. 

Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. Fonneriy Editor of the 51 James's 
Caaelle, London. 

Sni Robebt Kennaway Douglas. 

Formerly Keeper of Oriental Printed Books and MSS. in the British Museum; and 
Professor of Cninese* King's College. London. Author of The Languate and Litera- 
ture of China; Ac 

RiCBABD Lydbkxxb, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S. 

Member of the Staff of the Geological Survey of India, 1874-1882. Author of 
Catalogues of FossU Mammals, ReptUes and Birds im Brihsh Museum: The Deer 0/ 
aU Lands; The Came AnimaUefAfneai&c 

.RjCBABD MOTBEB (1860-I909). 

Professor of the History of Art, Breslau University, 1895-1909. Author of Us 
History of Modem Fainting. 

i PBBgollB (m parth 

OdBssa; Onega; 
Oiel; Onabnig. 

Ornittiolocy (m part); 


(IB parii. 

{in fart). 



O'Donnell; PamSfyi 
O'MB: FaiBsly. 

Plutes» fir H. 8. 

of Pathologkal aad Becflolu gk al Tedmiqae, UalveniCy of I 



Assisunt Librarian. British Museum, 1885-1909. Author of Seaudiuaeia, the 
Political History of Denmarh, Norway and Smedeu, ifij-1900: The First Hammmme, , 
f^'J^Vi Slmfouic Europe, the Politieal History tff PoUud and Russia from 1469 
to xTpv > fte. i 

Sn RiCBABD Owen, K.C.B. 

See the biographical article: OWBM. Sib RiCBABD. \ 

R. Pbbm< Spiexs, F.S:A.. F.R J.B.A. 

Okavl: < . 
Otter (in part); 
01; PalaeotheriBm; 
PiBfOlbi (m part). 
PlMttdBi: Ktcent Dutch, Gp- 
MMN, Anstrian^ IlaUan, 

Narwegiom, Rutsins^ and 
Baikal^ States, 

HOioloa {m part). 

Ohf; OIgM; 



Fonnerfy Master of tke Arehlteetufa! School. Royal Academy. London. Pkst 
President ol Architectural Assodatbn. Associate and Fellow of King's College. 
Umdon. Corresponding Member of the Institute of France. Editor of Fergusson's 

History tf Architectmre. Author of Aeekiteciura: East aud Westi Ac 







T. H. H.* 





T. W. R. IK 






Robert Szymoue Conway, M.A., DXirr. (CanUb.). 

Professor of Latin and Indo-European Philology in the Univeraity of MancKester. 

Formeriy Professor of Latin in Univeruty Coliqre. Cardiff; and Fellow of ConviI]e 

and CaiusCoUege, Cambridge. Author ci The ItalieDiaUas. 
Roland Tkuslove, M.A. 

Formerly Scholar of Christ Church, Oxford. Fellow, Dean and Lecturer in Claasict 

at Worcester College, Oxford. 

Stanley Arthur Cook, M.A. 

Lecturrr in Hebrew and Syriac, and formerly Fellow, Gonville and Caiut College, 
Cambridge. Editor for the Palestine Expbration Fund. Escaminer in Hebrew 
and Aramaic, London Univcrsit)*. 1904-1908. Author of Glossary of Ammaic 
Inscriptions', The Law of Moses and the Cods of Hammurabi; Critical Notes on 
Old Testament History; Religion of Ancient Palestine : Sue. 

Sydney R. Fremantle. 

Captain, R.N. Naval Mobilization Department, Admiralty, London. 

Sidney George Owen, M.A. 

Student and Tutor of Christ Chuich, Oxford. 

SmoN Newcomb, D.Sc., LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Newcomb, Simon. 

Stephen Paget, F.R.C.S. 

Surgeon to Throat and Ear Department, Middlesex Hospital. Hon. ^, 

Research Defence Society. Author of Memoirs and Letters of Sir James Paget; &c. 

Parii: Ceoff^pky atd 


Ffttostiae: Old Talammi 

rOrdmiM: Natal Gmu a$ti 
\ Gunnery. 




Secretary, i PSngBt* Sir 

OIUa: Sardinia; 

Thomas Asbby, M.A., D.Lrrr. 

Director of British School of Archaeology at Rome. Formerly Scholar of Christ 
Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow. 1897. Conineton Prizeman. 1906. Member oh 
the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Author of The ClassKol Topograpky 
of the Koman Campagna, 

THOMAS Allan Ingram, M.A.» LL.D. 
Trinity College. Dublin. 

Sit THOMAS Barclay. 

Member of the Institute of International Law. Member of the Supreme Council of . 
the Congo Free State. Officer of the Legion of Honour. Author of ProUems of 
Intemaltanal Practice and Diplomacy; Ac MJP. for Blackburn, 191a 


Ortona a Han; 

Otnnlo; PiMfm; 

(w part); 

{m port). 

r Oruf*: Prana; 

Pftul ia» IV, V. iPapu). 





Hon. Lord Farnborougb. 

See the biographical article: Farnborough, Thomas Erssinb May, Baron j 

Tbeodore Freyunchuysen Collier, Ph.D. 

Assistant Professor of History, Williams Colkge, WUIiamstown, Mass. 

Tbomas Hodgkin. Litt. D., LL.D., D.C.L. 
See the biographical article: Hodcun, T. 

Sir Thomas Hungerford Holdicr, R.C.M.G., K.C.I.E., D.Sc. 

Superintendent, Frontier Surveys, India. 1893-1898. Gold Medallist, R.G.S.. 
London, 1887. Author of The Indian Borderland; The Countries of the King' 
Award; India; Tibet, 

Rev. Thomas Kelly Cheyne, M.A., D.D., LLJ>. 
See the biographical article: Cusynb, T. K. 


See the biographical article: NAldbkb, Thbodob. 

Sib Tbomas Little Heath, K.C.B., D Sc. / o__-^ 

Assisunt Secreury to the Treasury. Formeriy Fellow of Trinity College. Cambridge. \ '^rPn i 

Thomas Okey. f. 

Examiner in Basket Work for the City and GuiMs of London Institute. \ ^ 

Thomas Willum Rhys Davtos, LL.D., Ph.D 

Professor of Comparative Religion. Manchester University. President of the 
Pall Text Society. Fellow of the British Academy. Secretary and Librarian of- 
Royal Asiatic Society. 1 885-1902. Author of Buddhism; Sacred Bbohs of the 
Buddhists ; Early Buddhism ; Buddhist India ; DuOogfies of the Buddha; &c. 

Victor Charles Mahillon. 

Principal of the Conservatoire Royal de Musique at Brusseb. Chevalier of the . 
Legion of Honour. 

Sir Walter Armstrong. 

Director of National Gallery of Ireland. Author U AH in ike Brkish Isles; ftc. . 
Joint-editor of Bryan's Dictionary of Painters; &c. 

Rev. Wiluam AuGtJSTVs Brevoort Cooudce, M.A., F.R.G.S.. Ph.D. 

Fellow of Magdalen College. Oxford. Professor of English History. St Davld*s 
College. Lampeter, 1880-1881. Author of Guide du Haut Dauphini; The Ranee, 
of the Tbdi; Guide to CrindelwaJd; Guide to Switzerland; The Alps in /' ' *^ 

t» History; Stc. Editor to The Alpine Journal, 1880-1881 -, &c. 

WnuAM Alfred Hinds. i ^^-m. r^«»«.i«« 

Pre«dent of the Oneida Community, Ltd.; Author of AmeHtam CmsmmiUeii ftc |<»Wda ComnmU^. 

I Nature and 




onvtar, 1. D.; 
0ru» Uksef; 



^ Paris: Hiawy {in part), 
Ollletn: United States, 

Orter, Enig. 
Paper: India Paper. 


-[otter (m part). 

W. A. F. Waltei Alison Phillips, M.A. 

Formerly Exhibitioner ot Mcrton College and Senior Scholar of St John's College. 
Oxfocxl. Author oi Modem Europe i Ac 

W. A. S. WiLUAii Augustus Simpson. 

Colonel and Acting Adjutant-Cenenl, U.S. Army. 

W. B.* WiLLiAif Button, M.A., F.C.S. 

Chairman, Joint Committee of Pottery Manufacturers of Great Britain. Author of - 
Em^isk Stoneware and Earthenware; Ac. 

W. B. A.* Rev. William E. Addis, M.A. 

Professor of Old Tesument Criticism. Manchester College. Oxford. Author of 
Christianity and the Raman Empire; &c. 

W. B. G. F. William Edwaxd Gaxsett Fishek, M.A. 
Author of The Tranteaal and the Boers, 

W. H. F. Sn William Henky Flower, F.R.S. 

See the biographical article: Flower, Sir W.H. 

W. L. 0. Willum Lawson Grant, M.A. 

Professor at Queen's University, Kingston. Canada. Formeriy Beit Lecturrr in 
Colonial History at Oxford University. Editor of Acts of the Privy Council (Colonial 
Series); Canadian Constitutional Development (in collaboration). 

W. H. R. William Michael Rossetti. 

See the biographical article: Rossetti, Dante Gabriel. 

W. P. A. Lbut.-Colonel William Patrick Anderson^ M.Inst.C.E., F.R.G.S. 

Chief Engineer. Department of Marine and Fisheries of Canada. Member of the 
Geographic Board ol Canada. Past President of Canadian Society of Civil Engineers. 

W. P. C William Piodeaux CotRTNEY. 

See the biographical article: Courtney, L. H., Baron. 

W. S. R. William Smyth Rocxstro. f 

Author of A General flistery of Music from the Infancy of the Creek Drama to the < PftliStrilll (in part). 
Present Period; and other works on the history of music. 

V. W. B.* WnuAM Walebr Rockwell, Lic.Treol. 

Assutant Professor of Church History. Union Theological Seminary, New York. 


r Palma, Jaeopo; 
L Paul Veroneie. 

I Ontario, Lake. 

Orf ord, 1st Bad of (Sir Robert 
Walpole); Osford, 1st Bad oL 

fPapaey: t $90-1870', 


CM Afs 



Oriciaal Paokafo. 


Panama CanaL 


Orthodox Butem Church. 

Pan-Ameriean Conferences. 

Paris, Tnatiet ot 






Park. Mni«o. 

Paelfle Oeean: Islands. 







Pari iStau), 








Palmerston, Vlseoont 



Palm Sunday. 






Panama {RepuUU). 




ODB (Gr. (|!84i from Ac{9ety, to sing), a form of stately and 
daborate lyrical vcne. As its name shows, the original significa- 
tion of an ode was a chant, a poem arranged to be sung to an 
instrumental accompaniment. There were two great divisions 
of the Greek mdos or song; the one the personal utterance of 
the poet, the other, as Professor G. G. Murray says, ** ihe choric 
song of his band of trained dancers." Each of these culminated 
in what have been called odes, but the former, in the hands 
of Alcaeus, Anacreon and Sappho, came closer to what modern 
criticism knows as lyric, pure and simple. On the other hand, 
the choir-song, in which the poet spoke for himself, but always 
supported, or interpreted, by a chorus, led up to what is now 
known as ode proper. It was Alcman, as is supposed, who 
first gave to his poems a strophic arrangement, and the strophe 
has come to be essential to an ode. Stcsichorus, Ibycus and 
Simonides of Ceos led the way to the two great masters of ode 
among the ancients, Pindar and Bacchylides. The form and 
verse-arrangement of Pindar's great lyrics have regulated the 
t>'pe of the heroic ode. It is now perceived that they an: con- 
sciously composed in very elaborate measures, and that each is 
the result of a separate act of creative ingenuity, but each 
preserving an absolute consistency of form. So far from being, 
as critics down to Cowley and Boileau, and indeed to the time 
of August BQckh, supposed, utterly licentious in their irregu- 
larity, they are more like the canzos and jimfft/^j of the medieval 
Uoubadours than any modern verse. The Latins themselves 
seem to have lost the secret of these complicated harmonies, 
and they made no serious attempt to imitate the odes of Pindar 
and Bacchylides. It Is probable that the Greek odes gradually 
k>st their musical character; they were accompanied on the 
flute, and then declaimed without any music at all. The ode, 
as It was practised by the Romans, returned to the personally 
lyrical form of the Lesbian lyrists. This was exempUfied. in 
the most exquisite way, by Horace and Catullus; the former 
imitated, and even translated, Alcaeus and Anacreon, the latter 
was directly inspired by Sappho. 

The earliest modem writer to perceive the value of the antique 
ode was Ronsard, who attempted with as much energy as he 
could eiercise to recover the fire and volume of Pindar; his 
principal experiments date from 1550 to 1552. The poets of 
the Pleiad recognized in the ode one of the forms of verse with 
which French prosody should be enriched, but they went too 
far, and in their use of Greek words crudely introduced, and in 
their quantitative experiments, they offended the genius of 

the French language. The ode, ho-xcvcr, died in France almost 
as rapidly as it had come to life; it hardly survived the i6th 
century, and neither the examples of J. B. Rousseau nor of 
Saint-Amant nor of Malherbe possessed much poetic life. Early 
in the 19th century the form was resumed, and we have the 
Odts composed between 1817 and 1824 by Victor Hugo, the 
philosophical and religious odes of Lamartine, those of Victor 
de Laprade (collected in 1844), and the brilliant Oda funam- 
bulesques of Thiodore de BanviUe (1857). 

The earliest odes in the English language, using the word 
in its strict form, were the magnificent Epithaiamium and 
Prothalamium of Spenser. Ben Jonson introduced a kind of 
elaborate lyric, in stanzas of rhymed irregular verse, to which 
he gave the name of ode; and some of his disdples, in particular 
Randolph, Cartwright and Hcrrick, followed him. The great 
'• Hymn on the Morm'ng of Christ's Nativity," begun by Milton 
in 1629, may be considered an ode, and his lyrics " On Time " 
and " At a Solemn Music " may claim to belong to the same 
category. But it was Cowley who introduced into English 
poetry the ode consciously built up, on a solemn theme and as 
definitely as possible on the ancient Greek pattern. Being in 
exile in France about 1645, and at a place where the only book 
was the text of Pindar, Cowley set himself to study and to 
imitate the Epintkia. He conceived, he says, that this was 
" the noblest and the highest kind of writing in verse," but 
he was no more perspicacious than others in observing what 
the rules were which I^ndar had foUowed. He supposed the 
Greek poet to be carried away on a storm of heroic emotion, 
in which all the discipline of prosody was disregarded. In 1656 
Cowley published his Pindaric odes, in which be had not even 
regarded the elements of the Greek structure, with strophe, 
antistrophe and epode. His idea of an ode, which he Impressed 
with such success upon the British nation that it has never 
been entirely removed, was of a lofty and tempestuous piece 
of indefinite poetry, conducted ** without sail or oar " in whatever 
direction the enthusiasm of the poet chose to take it. These 
shapeless pieces became very popular after the Restoration, 
and enjoyed the sanation of Dryden in three or four irregular 
odes which are the best of their kind in the English language. 
Prior, in a humorous ode on the taking of Namur (1695). imitated 
the French type of this poem, as cultiv'ated by Boileau. In 
1705 Congreve published a Disccurse on the Pindariquf Ode, 
in which many of the critical errors of Cowley wcreco'-'- ^ 
and Congreve wrote odes, io strophe, antistrophe ' 


which were the earliest of their kind in English; unhappily 
they were not very poetical. He was imitated by Ambrose 
Philips, but then the tide of Cowley-Pindarism rose again and 
swept the reform away. The attempts of Gilbert West (1703- 
1756) to explain the prosody of Pindar (1749) inspired Gray 
to write his "Progress of Poesy" (1754) and "The Bard" 
(1756). Collins, meanwhile, had in 1747 published a collection 
of odes devised in the Aeolian or Lesbian manner. The odes 
of Mason and Akenside were more correctly Pindaric, but 
frigid and formal. The odes of Wordsworth, Coleridge and 
Tennyson are entirely irregular. Shelley desired to revive the 
pure manner of the Greeks, but he understood the principle of 
the form so little that he began his noble " Ode to Naples " 
with two epodes, passed on to two strophes, and then indulged 
in four successive anttstrophes. Coventry Patmorc, in 1868^ 
printed a volume of Odes, which he afterwards enlarged; these 
were irregularly built up on a muucal system, the exact con- 
sistency of which is not always apparent. Finally Swinburne, 
although some of his odes, like those of Keats, are really elaborate 
lyrics, written in a succession of stanzas identical in form, has 
cultivated the Greek form also, and some of his political odes 
follow very closely the type of Bacchylides and Pindar. 

See Philipp August Bdckh. De mttris Pindari (1811); Wilhelm 
Christ, iietfik der Criecken und Rdrntr (1874); Edmund Gosac, 
EHgfish Odu (1881}. (E. G.) 

ODENKIRCHENi a town of Germany, in the Prussian Rhine 
province, 21 m. by rail S.W. of Dilsscldorf, and at the junction 
of lines to Munich, Gladbach and Stolberg. Pop. (rgos) 16,808. 
It has a Roman Catholic church, an Evangelical one. a synagogue 
and several schools. Its principal industries are spinning, weav- 
ing, tanning and dyeing. Odenkirchcn became a town in 1856. 

See Wiedemann. Ceschichie der ehemalig^m Herrschafl und, des 
Hauses Odenkirchtn (Odenkirchcn, 1879). 

ODENSB, a city of Denmark, the chief town of the ami (county) 
of its name, which forms the northern part of the island of 
FUnen (Fyen). Pop. (1901) 40,138. The city lies 4 m. from 
Odense Fjord on the Odense Aa, the main portion on the north 
side of the stream, and the industrial Albani quarter on the 
south side. It has a station on the railway route between 
Copenhagen and Jutland and Schleswig-Holstein via Kors6r. 
A canal, 15} to ai ft. deep, gives access to the town from the 
fjord. St Canute^s cathedral, formerly connected with the 
great Benedictine monastery of the same name, is one of the 
largest and finest buildings of its kind in Denmark. It is con- 
structed of brick in a pure Gothic style. Originally dating 
from Z081-1093, it was rebuilt in the 13th century. Under 
the altar lies Canute (Knud), the patron saint of Denmark, 
who intended to dispute with William of Normandy the posses- 
sion of England, but was slain in an insurrection at Odense in 
1086; Kings John and Christian II. are also buried within the 
walls. Our Lady's church, built in the 13th century and re- 
stored in 1851-1852 and again in 1864, contains a carved altar- 
piece (i6th century) by Claus Berg of LQbeck. Odense Castle 
was erected by Frederick IV., who died there in 1730- In 
Albani are tanneries, iron-foundries and machine-shops. Ex- 
ports, mostly agricultural produce (butter, bacon, eggs); im- 
ports, iron, petroleum, coal, yam and timber. 

Odense, or Odinsey, originally Odinsoe, t.e. Odin's island, 
IS one of the oldest cities of Denmark. St Canute's shrine was 
a great resort of pilgrims throughout the middle ages. In the 
16th century the town was the meeting-place of several parlia- 
ments, and down to 1805 it was the seat of the provincial 
assembly of Fiinen. 

ODENWALD, a wooded mountainous region of Germany, 
almost entirely in the grand duchy of Hesse, «ith small portions 
In Bavaria and Baden. It stretches between the Neckar and the 
Main, and is some 50 m. long by ao to 30 broad. Its highest 
points are the Katzenbuckel (2057 ft.), the Neunkircher Hohe 
(198s ft.) and the Kr&hberg (1965 ft.). The wooded heights 
overlooking the Bergstrasse are studded with castles and medieval 
ruins, some of which are associated with some of the most 
memorable adventures of German tradition. Among them are 

Rodenstein, the reputed home of the wild huntsman, and near 
Grasellenbach, the spot where Siegfried of the NibeiuHgat^ied 
Is said to have been slain. 

See F. Montanus, Der Odemoald (Mainz. 1884) ; T. Lorentsen. Der 
OdenwaU in Wort und BUd (Stuttgart, 190k) ; G. Volk, Der Odenwaid 
und seiHe Nackbareebiet* (Stuttgart. 1900), and Windhaus, Ftikrtr 
durch de» Odtnwaid (Darmsudt, 1903). 

ODER (Lat. Viadua; Slavonic, Vjodr), a river of Germany, 
rises in Austria on the Odergebirge in the Moravian tableland 
at a height of 1950 ft. above the sea, and 14 m. to the east of 
OlmUta. From its source to its mouth in the Baltic it has 
a total length of 560 m., of which 480 m. are navigable for barges, 
and it drains an area of 43i3oo sq. m. The first 45 m. of its 
course lie within Moravia; for the next 15 m. it forms' the 
frontier between Prussian and Austrian Silesia^ while the re- 
maining 500 m. belong to Prussia, where it traverses the provinces 
of Silesia, Brandenburg and Pomerania. It flows at first, 
towards the south-east, but on quitting Austria turns towards 
the north-west, maintaining this direction as far as Frankfort -on- 
Oder, beyond which its general course is neariy due north. As far 
as the frontier the Oder flows through a well-defined valley, 
but, after passing through the gap between the Moravian 
mountains, and the Carpathians and entering the Sileaian plain, 
its valley is wide and shallow and its banks generally low. In 
its lower course it is divided into numerous branches, forming 
many islands. The main channel follows the left side of the 
valley and finally expands into the Pommersches, or Stettiner 
Haff, which is connected with the sea by three arms, the Peene, 
the Swine and the Dievenow, forming the islands of Usedom 
and Wotlin. The Swine, in the middle, is the main channel 
for navigation. The chief tributaries of the Oder on the left 
bank are the Oppa, Glatzer Ncisse, Katzbach, Bober and 
Lausitzer Neisse; on the right bank the Malapane, Bartsch 
and Warthe. Of these the only one of importance for 
navigation is the Warthe, which throu^ the Netze is brought 
into communication with the Vistula. The Oder is also connected 
by canals with the Havel and the Spree. The most important* 
towns on its banks are Ratibor, Oppein, Brieg, Brcslau, Glogau, 
Frankfort, CUstrin and Stettin, with the seaport of Swinemilnde 
at its mouth. Glogau, Ctistrin and Swincmdnde are strongly 

The earliest important undertaking with a view of improving 
the waterway was due to the initiative of Frederick the Great, 
who recommended the diversion of the river into a new and 
straight channel in the swampy tract of land known as the 
Oderbruch, near Ctistrin. The work was carried out in the years 
1746-1753, a large tract of marshland being brought under 
cultivation, a considerable detour cut off, and the main stream 
successfully confined to the canal, X2 m. in length, which is 
known as the New Oder. The river at present begins to be 
navigable for barges at Ratibor, where it is about 100 ft. wide, 
and for larger vessels at Breslau, and great exertions are made 
by the government to deepen and keep open the channel, which 
still shows a strong tendency to choke itself with sand in certain 
places. The alterations made of late years con»st of three 
systems of works: — (i) The canalization of the main stream 
(4 m.) at Brcslau, and from the confluence of the Glatzer Neisse to 
the mouth of the KJodnitz canal, a distance of over 50 m. These 
engineering works were completed in 1896. (2) In 1887-1891 
the Oder-Spree canal was made to connect the two rivers named. 
The canal leaves the Oder at FUrstenberg (132 m. above its 
mouth) at an altitude of 93 ft, and after 15 m. enters the 
Friedrich- Wilhelm canal (134 ft.). After coinciding with this 
for 7 m., it makes another cut of 5 m. to the Spree at Filrstenwalde 
(126 ft.). Then it follows the Spree for 12 m., and at Gross 
Tr^ke (121 ft.) passes out and goes to Lake Seddin (106 ft.), 15 
m. (3) The deepening and regulation of the mouth and lower 
course of the stream, consisting of the Kaiserfahrt, 3 m. long, 
affording a waterway between the Stettiner Haff and the river 
Swine for the largest ocean-going vessels; a new cut, 4I m. 
long, from Vietzig on the Stettiner Haff to Wollin Island; the 
Parnitz-Dunzig and Dunzig-Oder canals, together i m. long; 


amsUtutiiis the Immediate approach to Stettin. Vessels dnwing 
24 f t< are now able to go right up to Stettin. In 1005 a project 
was sanctioned for improving the communication between 
Berlin and Stettin by widening and deepening the lower course 
of the river and then connecting this by a canal with Berlin. 
Another project, bom at the same time, Is one for the canalization 
of the upper coune of the Oder. About 4,000,000 tons of 
merchandise pass through Breslau (up and down) on the Oder 
in the year. 
See Der Oderstrom, sein Slromgebiet und seine wichiigUen Nehen- 

ifartUihmi^tiUa, 1696). 

ODERBERG, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province 
el Brandenburg, on the Alte Oder, 2 m. from Bralita, a station 
44 m. N.W. from Frankfort-on-Oder, by the railnray to Anger- 
ffltinde. Pop. (1905)4,015. It has a fine Gothic church, dedicated 
to St Nicholas, and the ruins of an ancient castle, called B&ren- 
kasten. Oderberg is an important emporium for the Russian 
timber trade. 

ODESCAiCBI-ERBA, the name of a Roman princely family 
of great antiquity. They are supposed to be descended from 
Enrico Erba, imperial vicar in Milan in X165. Alessandro 
Ert>a married Lucrezia Odescalchl, sister of Pope Innocent 
IX., in 1709, who is believed to have been descended from 
Girjrgio Odescalchi {floruit Kt Comoin 1290)'. The title of prince 
of the Holy Roman Empire was conferred on Alessandro in 
1714, and that of duke of Syrmium in Hungary In 1714, with the 
qualification of "serene highness." The head of the family 
now bears the titles of Filrst Odescalchl, duke of Syrmium, 
prince of Bassano, &c., and he is an hereditary magnate of 
Hungary and a grandee of Spain; the family, which is one 
of ihe most important In Italy, owns the Palazzo Odescalchi 
in Rome, the magnificent castk of Dracdano, besides large 
estates in Italy and Hungary. 

See A. von Rtumont. CesthichU der Sladt Rom (Berlin. 1868). 
and the Almanack do Gotka, 

ODESSA, one of the most important seaports of Russia, 
ruiking by its population and foreign trade after St Petersburg, 
Moscow and Warsaw. It is situated in 46^ a8' N. and 30* 44' 
E., on the southern shore of a semi-circular bay, at the north-west 
angle of the Black Sea, and is by rail 1017 m. S.S. W. from Moscow 
and 610 S. from Kiev. Odessa is the seaport for the basins 
of two great rivers of Russia, the Dnieper, with its tributary 
the Bug, and the Dniester (20 m. to S). The entrances to the 
mouths of both these offering many di faculties for navigation, 
trade has from the remotest antiquity selected this spot, which 
Is situated half-way between the two estuaries, while the level 
surface of the neighbouring steppe allows easy communication 
with the lower parts of both rivers. The bay of Odessa, which 
has an area of 14 sq- m, and a depth of 30 ft. with a soft bottom, 
h a dangerous anchorage on account of its exposure to easterly 
winds. But inside it are six harbours—the quarantine harbour, 
new harbour, coal harbour and "practicol" harbour, the 
first and last, on the S. and N. respectively, protected by moles, 
and the two middle harbours by a breakwater. Besides these, 
there are the harbour of the principal shipping company— the 
Russian Company for Navigation and Commerce, and the 
petroleum harbour. The harbours freeze for a few days In winter, 
as abo does the bay occasionally, navigation being interrupted 
cvesy year for an average of sisieen days; though this b 
materially shortened by the use of an ice-breaker. Odessa 
ciperiences the inlhicnce of the continental climate of the 
orighbouring steppes; its winters arc cold (the average tempera^ 
tare for January being 23- *• P., and the isotherm for the enlh* 
season that of Konigsberg). its summers are hot (7'*8" in July), 
and the yearly average temperature » 48*^* The rainfall is 
scanty (14 in. per annum). The city is built on a terrace 100 to 
15$ ft. in height, which descends by steep crags to the sea. and 
on the other side is continuous with the level of the " black 
earth " steppe. Catacombs, whence sandstone for building 
ktt been f «ken, extend underneath the tonn and suburbs, not 
without aonic danger to the buildings. 

The general aspect of Odena fa that of a wealthy west* 
European city. Its chief embankment, the Nikolai boulevard, 
bordered with taU and handsome houses, forms a fine promenade. 
The centra] square is adorned with a statue of Armand, due de 
Richdieu (1826), who was governor of Odessa in 1803-1814. 
A little btok fr>m the sea stands a fine bronze statue of Catherine 
II. (1900). A magnificent flight of nearly aoo granite steps leads 
from the Richelieu monument down to the harbours. The 
central parts of the dty have broad streets and squares, bordered 
with fine buildings and mansions in the Italian style, and with 
good shops. The cathedral, founded in 1794 and finbhed in 
1809, and thoroughly restored fai 1903, can accommodate 5000 
persons; it contains the tomb of Count Michael Vorontsov, 
governor-general from 1823 to 1854, who contributed much 
towards the development and embellishment of the city. The 
" Palais Royal," with its parterre and founuins, and the spadous 
public park aie fine pleasure-grounds, whibt in the ravines that 
lead down to the sea duster the houses of the poorer classes. 
The shore b occupied by immense granaries, some of which look 
like pahoes, and large storehouses take up a broad space in the 
west of the city. Odessa oonsbts (i.) of the dty proper, contain- 
ing the old fort (now a quarantine establbhment) and surrounded 
by a boulevard, where was formerly a wall marking the limits of 
the free port; (iL) of the suburbs Novaya and Peresyp, extending 
northward along the lower shore of the bay; and (ill.) of Molda- 
vanka to the south-west. The dty, being in a treeless region, 
is proud of the avenues of trees that line several of its streets 
and of its parks, espedally of the Alexander Park, with a statue 
of Alexander II. (1891), and of the summer resorts of Fontaine,' 
Arcadia and Langeron along the bay. Odesn b rising in repute 
as a summer sea-bathing resort, and its mud-baths (from the 
mud of the limans or lagoons) are considered to be efficacious 
in cases of rheumalbm, gout, nervous affections and akin 
diseases. The German colonics liebenthal and Lostdorf are 

Odessa b the real capital, Intellectual and commercial, of 
so-called Novorossia, or New Russia, which includes the govern- 
ments of Bessarabia and Khenon. It b the see of an archbishop 
of the Orthodox Greek Church, and the headquarters of the 
VIII. army corps, and constitutes an independent " mnnldpal 
district " or captaincy, which covers 195 sq. m. and indudes a 
dozen villages, tome of which have aooo to 3000 inhabitants 
each. It is abo the chief town of the Novorossian (New Russian) 
educational dbtrict, and has a university, which replaced the 
Richelieu Lyceum in 1865, and now has over 1700 students. 

In 1795 the town had only 1250 inhabitants; in 1814. twenty 
years after Its foundation, it had as,ooa The population has 
steadily increased from 100^000 in 1850, 185.000 in 1873, 125,000 
in 1884, to 449>673 in 1900. The great majority of inhabitants 
are Great RussUns and Little Russians; but there are also 
large numbers of Jews (133.000, exclusive of Karaites), to weU 
a& of Italians, Greeks, Germans and French (to which nation- 
aliiies the chief merchants belong), as abo of Rumanians, 
Servians, Bulgarians. Tatars, Armenians, Laces, Georgians. A 
numerous floating population of labourers, attracted at certain 
periods by pressing work in the port, and afterwards left on- 
empk>yed owing to the enormous fluctuations in the com trade, 
b one of the features of Odessa. It b estimated that there are 
no less than 35,000 people living from hand to mouth in the utmost 
misery, partly in the extensive catacombs beneath the dty. 

The leading occupations are cormccted with exporting, 
shipping and manufactures. The industrial devdopnent has 
been rather slow: sugar-refineries, tea-packing, oil-mills, 
tanneries, steam flour-mllb, iron and mechanical works, factories 
of jute sacks, chemical works, tin-phte works, paper^ctories 
are the chief. Commerdally the city b the chief seaport of 
Russia for exports, which in favourable years are twice as high 
as those of St Petersburg, while as regards the value of the 
imports Odessa b second only to the northern capital The 
total returns amount to 16 to 20 millions steriing a year, lepre* 
srnring about one-ninth of the entire Russian foreign trade, 
and 14% if the coast trade be included as well. The total 


exports are valued at lo to ix milUont sterling annually, and 
the imporU at 6 to 9 millions sterling, about 8|% of all the 
imports into Russia. Grain, and especially wheat, is the chief 
article of export. The chief imports are raw cotton, iron, 
agricultural machinery, coal, chemicals, jute, copra and lead. 
A new and spacious harbour, especially for the petroleum trade, 
was constructed in x894-i9oa 

History.—The bay of Odessa was colonized by Greeks at a very 
early period, and their ports — Istrianorum Partus and Isiaeorum 
Porlus on the shores of the bay, and Odessus at the mouth of the 
Tiligul /ima»-~carried on a lively trade with the neighbouring 
steppes. These towns disappeared in the 3rd and 4th centuries, 
and for ten centuries no setUementa in these tracts arc mentioned. 
In the 14th century this region belonged to the Lithuanians, and 
in 1396 Olgerd, prince of Lithuania, defeated in battle three 
Tatar chiefs, one of whom, Khaji Beg or Bey, had recently 
founded, at the place now occupied by Odessa, a fort which 
received his name. The Lithuanians, and subsequently the 
Poles, kept the country under their dominion until the i6Lh 
century, when it was seized by the Tatars, who still permitted, 
however, the Lithuanians to gather salt in the neighbouring 
lakes. Later on the Turks left a garrison here, and founded in 
1764 the fortress Yani-dunya. In 1789 the Russians, under the 
French captain de Ribas, took the fortress by assault. In 1791 
Khaji-bey and the Ochakov region were ceded to Russia. Dc 
Ribas and the French engineer Voland were entrusted in 1794 
with the erection of a town and the constructioa of a port at 
Khaji-bey. In 1803 Odessa became the chief town of a separate 
municipal district or captaincy, the first captain being Armand, 
due de Richelieu, who (Ud very much for the development of the 
young city and its improvement as a seaport. In 1824 Odessa 
became the seat of die governors-general of Novorossia and 
Bessarabia. In 1866 it was brought into railway connexion with 
Kiev and Kharkov via Balu, and with Jassy in Rumania. In 
1854 it was unsuccessfully attacked by the Anglo-Russian fleet, 
and in 1876-1877 by the Turkish, alsounsuccessfuUy. In 1905- 
1906 ihe city was the scene of violent revolutionary disorders, 
marked by a naval insurrection. (P« A. K.; J. T. Be.) 

ODEUM (Or. Odtion), the name given to a concert hall in 
ancient Greece. In a general way its construction was similar to 
that of a theatre, but it was only a quarter of the siae and was 
provided with a roof for acoustic purposes, a characteristic 
diiTcrcnce. The oldest known Odeum in Greece was the Skias 
at Sparta, so called from its resemblance to the top of a parasol, 
said lo have been erected by Theodorus of Samos (600 B.C.); 
in Athens an Odeum near the spring Enncacrunus on the.Ilissas 
was referred to the age of Peisistratus, and appears to have been 
rebuilt or restored by Lycurgus {c. 330 B.C.). This is probably 
the building which, according to Aristophanes {Waspa, 1x09), 
was used for judicial purposes, for the distribution of corn, 
and even for the billeting of soldiers. The building which served 
as a model for later similar constructions was the Odeum of 
Pericles (completed c. 445) on the>>uth-easlern slope of the rock 
of the Acropolis, whose conical roof, a supposed imitation of the- 
tent of Xerxes, was made of the masts of captured Persian sliips. 
It was destroyed by Aristion, the so-called tyrant of Athens, 
at the time of the rising against SuUa (87), and rebuilt by Ario> 
barzanes II., king of Cappadocia (Appian, Uiibrid. 38). The 
most magnificent example of its kind, however, was the Odeum 
built on the south-west cliff of the Acropolis at Athens about 
A J). 160 by the wealthy sophist and rhetorician Hcrodes Atticus 
in memory of his wife, considerable remains of which are still 
to be seen. It had accommodation for 8000 persons, and the 
ceiling was constructed of beautifully carved beams of cedar 
wood, probably with an open space in the centre to admit 
the light. It vras also profusely decorated with pictures 
and other works of art. Similar buildings also existed in 
other parts of Greece; at Corinth, also the gift of Ucrodcs 
Atticus; at Palrae, where there was a famous statue of 
ApoUo; at Smjrma, Tralles, and other towns in Asia Minor. 
Tlie fint Odeum in Rome was built by Domitian, a second by 

ODIURHBBRO. or 0itiu£nb££A (called AUUona in the 8tb 
century), a peak of the Vosges Mountains in Germany, in the 
imperial province of Alsace-Lorraine, immediately W. of the towi> 
of Barr. Its crest (3500 ft.) is surmounted by tjie ruins of the 
ancient Roman wall, the Heidenmauer, and by the convent and 
church of St Odilia, or Ottilia, the paUon saint of Alsace, whose 
remains rest within. It is thus the objca of frequent pilgrimages. 
The convent is said to have been founded by Duke Eiicho I., 
in honour of his daughter St Odilia, about the end of the 7th 
century, and it is certain that it existed at the time of Charle- 
magne. Destroyed during the wars of the middle ages, it was 
rebuilt by the Premonstranls at the beginning of the 17th century, 
and was acquired btcr by the bishop of Strassbuig, who restored 
the building and the adjoining church, in X853. Since 1899 
the convent has contained a museum of antiquities. 

See Rcinhard. Le Ifont SU OdOt (Strassburg, x888); Pfistcr, Ic 
Duchi nUronneicn d' Alsace et !a legend* de Siinte OdQe (Nancy, 
1892) ; and R. Forrer, Der Odilienbcri (StraBsbuig, 1899). 

ODIN, or Othin (0. Norse OiSinn), the chief god of the Northern 
pantheon. He is represented as an old man with one eye. 
Frigg is his wife, and several of the gods, including Thor and 
Balder, are his sons. He is also said to have been the father of 
several legendary kings, and more than one princely family 
claimed descent from him. His exploits and adventures form 
the theme of a number of the Eddaic poems, and also of several 
stories in the prose Edda. In all these stories his character is 
distinguished rather by wisdom and cunning than by martial 
prowess, and reference is very frequently made to his skill in 
poetry and magic. In YngHnga Saga he is represented as reigning 
in Sweden, where he established laws for his people. In notices 
relating to religious observances Odin appears chiefly as the 
giver of victory or as the god of tlie dead. He is frequently 
introduced in legendary sagas, generally in disguise, imparting 
secret instructions to his favourites or presenting them with 
weapons by which victory is assured. In return he .receives 
the souls of the slain who in his palace, Valhalla (9.V.), live a 
life of fighting and feasting, similar to that which has been their 
desire on earth. Human sacrifices were very frequently offered 
to Odin, especially prisoners taken in battle. The commonest 
method of sacrifice was by hanging the victim on a tree; and 
In the poem Hdoomdl the god himself is represented as sacrificed 
in this way. The worship of Odin seems to have prevailed 
chiefly, if not solely, in miUtary circles, i.e. among princdy 
families and the retinues of warriors attached to them. It is 
probable, however, that the worship of Odin was once common to 
most of the Teutonic peoples. To the Anglo-Saxons he was 
known as Woden {q.v.) and to the Germans as Wodan (Wuotan), 
which arc the regular forms of the same name in those languages. 
It is largely owing to the peculiar character of this god and the 
prominent position which he occupies that the mythology of 
the north presents so striking a contrast to that of Greece. 

Sec Teutonic Peoples, ad fin. ; and VVodbk. (H. M. C) 

ODO, or EuDES (d. c. 736), king, or duke, of Aquitaine, obtained 
this dignity about 715, and his territory included the south- 
western part of Gaul frqm the Loire to the Pyrenees. In 7x8 
he appears as the ally of Chllperic II., king of NeusUia, who was 
fighting against the Austrasian mayor of the palace, Charles 
Martel; but after the defeat of Chilperic at Soissons in 7x9 he 
probably made peace with Charles by surrendering to him the 
Neustrian king and his treasures. Odo was also obliged to fight 
the ^racens who invaded the southern part of his kingdom, 
and inflicted a severe defeat upon them at Toukxise in 721. 
When, however, he was again attacked by Charles Martel, the 
Saracens renewed their ravages, and Odo was defeated near 
Bordeaux; he was compelled to crave protection from Charles, 
who took up this struggle and gained his momentous victory 
at Poitiers in 73t. In 735 the king abdicated, and was succeeded 
by his son Hunold. 

ODO, or Etn>ES (d. 898), king of the Franks, was a son of 
Robert the Strong, count of Anjou (d. 866), and is sometimes 
referred to as duke of France and also as count of Paris. Fox 
his skill and bravery in resisting the attacks of the Normans 


Odo was chosen king by th« western Franks when the emperor 
Charles the Fat was deposed in 887, and was crowned at Compi^gne 
in February 8S8. He continued to battle against the Normans, 
whom be defeated at Montfaucon and elsewhere, but was soon 
i&v<^ved In a struggle with some powerful nobles, who supported 
the claim of Charles, afterwards King Charles III., to the Frankish 
kingdom. To gain prestige and support Odo owned himself 
a vassal of the German king, Amulf , but in 894 Amulf declared 
for Charles. Eventually, after a struggle which Usted for three 
years, Odo was compelled to come to terms with bis rival, and to 
furrender to him a district north of the Seine. He died at La 
Fere on the xst of January 898. 

See E. Lavisse, Hisloin de Franet, tomeU. (Paris, igtn); and 
E. Favre, Fjtdts, tomU dt Paris titoiit Fraate (Paris, 1893}. 

ODO* OF BAYEUX (c. 1036-1097) , Norman bishop and 
Eikgtish earl, was a uterine brother of William the Conqueror, 
from whom he received, while still a youth, the see of Bayeuz 
(X049). But his active career was that of a warrior and states- 
man. He found ships for the invasion of England and fought 
in person at Senlac; in X067 he became earl of Kent, and for 
some years he was a trusted royal minister. At times he acted 
as viceroy in William's absence; at times he led the royal 
fcwces to chastise rebellions. But in X083 he was suddenly 
dis g raced and imprisoned for having planned a military expedi- 
tion to Italy. He was accused of desiring to make himself pope; 
more probably he thought of serving as a papal condotticre 
against the emperor Henry IV. The Conqueror, when on his 
dnth-bcd, reluctantly permitted Odo's release (X087). The 
bishop returned to his earldom and soon oiganized a rebellion 
with the object of handing over England to hia^ eldest nephew, 
Duke Robert. William Rufus, to the disgust of his supporters, 
permitted Odo to leave the kingdom after the collapse of this 
design (xo88), and thenceforward Odo was the right-hand man 
of Robert in Normandy^ He took part in the agiution for the 
First Crusade, and started in the duke's company for Palestine, 
hut died on the way, at Palermo (February 1097). Uttle 
good is recorded of Odo. His vast wealth was gained by 
extortion and robbery. His ambitions were boundless and his 
owrals lax. But he was a patron of learning and, like most 
inUtes of his age, a great architect. He rebuilt the cathedral 
of bis see, and may perhaps have commissioned the unkaovn 
artist of the celebrated Bayeux tapestry. 

See the authorities cited for WaLiAM I. and WaUAM H.. the 
bbgraphical sketch in QtUia Christiana, 3d, 353-360; H. Whartoo 
AKgliG Sacra, I 334-339 (1691); and F. RTFowke. TUe Baytux 
Upt'try (LondonrSSs). (H. W. C. D.) 

ODOACER, or Odovacas (e. 434-493), the first barSarian 
ruler of Italy on the downfall of the Western empire, was bom 
ia the district bordering on the middle Danube about the year 
434. In this district the once rich and fertile provinces of 
Noricum and Fannonia were being torn piecemeal from the 
Roman empire by a crowd of German trib<s, among whom we 
discern four, who seem to have hovered over the Danube from 
Pusau to Pest, lumely, the Rugii, Scyrri, Turcilingi and HenUi. 
With all of these Odoacer was connected by his subsequent 
career, and all seem, more or less, to have claimed him as be- 
bcging to them by birth; the evidence slightly preponderates 
in favour of his descent from the Scyrri. 

His father was Aedico or Idico, a name which suggests Edeco 
the Hun, who was suborned by the Bysantine court to pk>t 
Uk assassination of his master Attila. There are, however, 
'(Xk> most be distinguished from two English prelates of the 
uatt nan>e and also frooi an English eari. Odo or Oda (d. 959)> 
wrhbMiop of Canterbury, was bishop of Ramsbury from 927 to 
9|2. and went with Kina iEthclstan to the battle of Bninanburh in 
937. In 94a he succeecfcd WuUhelro as archbishop of Canterbury. 
i *ai be appears to have been an able and conscientious ruler of the 
vet. He nad great influence with King Edwy, whom he had crowned 
m 956. Odo (d. I >oo) , abbot of Battle, was a monk of Christ Church . 
Ca4te(bary, and was prior of this house at the time when Thomas 
Bffket was murdered. In 1175 he was chosen abbot of Banle. and 
00 two occasions the efforts of Henry II. alone prevented him from 
bong elected archbishop of Canterbury. Odo or Odda (d. 1056). a 
ftUtivc of Edward the Confessor, during whose nign he was an earl in 
the west of England, built the minster at Deer hursi in GhHicestershiie. 

some strong arguments against this identification. A certain 
Edica, chief of the Scyrri, of whom Jordanes speaks n defeated 
by the Ostrogoths, may more probably have been the father of 
ddoacer, though even in this theory there are some difficulties, 
chiefly connected with the low estate in which he appears before 
us in the next scene of his life, when as a tall young recruit for the 
Roman armies, dressed in a sordid vesture of skins, on his way 
to Italy, he enters the cell of Severinus, a noted hermit-saint of 
Norictun, to ask his blessing. The saint had an inward premoni- 
tion of his future greatness, and In blessing him said, " Fare 
onward into Italy. Thou who art now clothed in vile raiment 
wilt soon give precious gifts unto many." 

Odoacer was probably about thirty years of age when he thut 
left his country and entered the imperial service. By the year 
473 he had risen to some eminence, since it is expressly recorded 
that he sided with the patrician Ridmer in his quarrel with the 
emperor Anthemiua. In the year 47 5i by one of the endless re- 
volutions which ixiarked the dose of the Western empire, the 
emperor Nepos was driven into exile, and the succeasftil rebel 
Orestes was enabled to array in the purple his son, a handsome 
boy of fourteen or fifteen, who was named Romulus after his 
grandfather, and nickiuuned Augustulus, from his inability to 
play the part of the great Augustus. Before this puppet emperor 
had been a year on the throne the barbarian mercenaries, who 
were chiefly drawn from the Danubian tribes before mentioned, 
rose in mutiny, demanding to be made proprieton of one-third of 
the son of Italy. To this request Orestes returned a peremptory 
negative. Odoacer now offered his feUow-soldiers to obtain for 
them all that they desired if they would seat him on the throne. 
On the 33rd of August 476 he was prodaitned king; five days 
later Orestes was naade prisoner at Placentia and beheaded; and 
on the 4th of September his brother Paulus was defeated and slain 
near Ravenna. Rome at once accepted the new ruler. Augustulus 
was compelled to descend from the throne, but his life was spared. 

Odoacer was forty-two jrean of age when he thus became 
chief ruler of Italy, and he reigned thirteen years with undisputed 
sway. Our information as to this period is very slender, but 
we can perceive that the administration was conducted as much 
as possible on the lines of the old imperial government. The 
settlement o( the barbarian soldiers on the lands of Italy pn.>b* 
ably affected the great landowners rather than the labouring 
class. To the herd of cohni and «rv», by whom in their various 
degrees the land was actually cultivated, it probably made little 
difference, except as a matter of sentiment, whether the master 
whom they served called himself Roman or Rugian. We have 
one moat interesting example, though in a small way, of such a 
transfer of laiul with its appurtenant slaves and cattle, in the dona- 
tion made by Odoacer himself to his faithful follower Paerius.* 
Few things bring more vividly before the reader the continuity 
of legal and social life in the midst of the tremeiHlous ethnical 
dianges of the 5th century than the perusal of such a record. 

The same fact, from a slightly different point of view, is Ulus- 
traled by the curious history (recorded by Malchus) of the 
embassies to Constantinople. The dethroned emperor Nepos 
sent ambassadors (in 477 or 47B) to Zeno, emperor of the East, 
begging his aid in the reoonquest of Italy. These ambassadors 
met a deputation from the Roman senate, sent nominally by the 
command of Augustulus, really no doubt by that of Odoacer, 
the purport of whose oommiaaion was that they did not need 
a separate emperor. One was sufficient to defend the bordeis of 
either realm. The senate had chosen Odoacer, whose knowledge 
of miiitaiy affain and whcae sutesmanship admirably fitted 
him for preserving order in that part of the world, and they there- 
fore prayed Zeno to confer upon him the dignity of patridan, 
and entrust the ** diocese '* of Italy to hb care. Zeno returned a 
harsh answer to the senate, lequixing them to rettim to their 
allegiance to Nepoe. In fact, however, he did nothing for the 
fallen emperor, but accepted the new order of things, and even 
addreased Odoaea as patridaiL On the other band, the latter 

• PubHshed in Marini\ Papiri diplomaiUi CRotat, iPiS. Nos. 83 
and 83) and in Spancenberr's Juris Romani Tabmta* (Leipsi^ l8ax 
PP- 164-173)* And well worthy of careful study. 


sent the ornaments of empire, the diadem and purple robe, to 
Constantinople as an acknowledgment of the fact that he did 
not claim supreme power. Our information as to the actual 
title assumed by the new ruler is somewhat confused. He 
does not appear to have called himself king of Italy. His king- 
ship seems to have marked only his relation to his Teutonic 
followers, among whom he was " king of the Turcilingi," " king 
of the Heruli," and so forth, according to the nationality with 
which he was dealing. By the Roman inhabitants of Italy he 
was addressed as " domtous noster," but his right to exercise 
power would in their eyes rest, in theory, on his recognition as 
patricius by the Byzantine Augustus. At the same time he 
marked hb own high pretensions by assuming the prefix Flavius, 
a reminiscence of the early emperors, to which the barbarian 
rulers of realms formed out of the Roman state seem to have been 
peculiarly partial. His internal administration was probably, 
upon the whole, wise and moderate, though we hear some 
complaints of financial oppression, and he may be looked upon 
as a not altogether unworthy predecessor of Theodoric. 

In the history of the papacy Odoacer figures as the author of 
a decree promulgated at the election of Felix II. in 483, forbidding 
the pope to alienate any of the lands or ornaments of the Roman 
Church, and threatening any pope who should infringe this 
edict with anathema. This decree was loudly condemned in 
a synod held by Pope Symmachus (502) as an unwarrantable 
interference of the civil power with the concerns of the church. 

The chief events in the foreign policy of Odoacer were his 
Dalmatian and Rugian wars. In the year 480 the cz«emperor 
Nepoft, who ruled Dalmatia, was traitorously assassinated in 
Diocletian's palace at Spalato by the counu Viator and Ovida. 
In the following year Odoacer invaded Dalmaiia, slew the 
murderer Ovida, and reannexed Dalmatia to the Western state. 
In 487 he appeared as an invader in his own native Danubian 
lands. War broke out between him and Feletheus, king of the 
Rugians. Odoacer entered the Rugian territory, defeated 
Feletheus, and carried him and " his noxious wife " Gisa prisoners 
to Ravenna. In the following year Frederick, son of the captive 
king, endeavoured to raise again the fallen fortunes of his house, 
but was defeated by Onulf , brother of Odoacer, and, being forced 
to flee, took refuge at the court of Theodoric the Ostrogoth, at 
Sistova on the lower Danube. 

This Rugian war was probably an indirect cause of the fall 
of Odoacer. His increasing power rendered him too formidable 
to the Byxantine court, with whom his relations had for some 
time been growing less friendly. At the same time, Zeno was 
embarrassed by the formidable neighbourhood of Theodoric 
and his Ostrogothic warriors, who were almost equally burden- 
some as enemies or as allies. In these circumstances arose the 
plan of Tbeodoric's invasion of Italy, a plan by whom originated 
it would be difficult to say. Whether the land when conquered 
was to be held by the Ostrogoth in full sovereignty, or ad- 
ministered by him as lieutenant of Zeno, is a point upon which 
our information is ambiguous, and which was perhaps intention- 
ally left vague by the two contracting parties, whose chief 
anxiety was not to see one another's faces again. The details 
of the Ostrogothic invasion of Italy belong properly to the life 
of Theodoric. It is sufficient to state here that he entered Italy 
in August 489, defeated Odoacer at the Isontius (Isonzo) on the 
18th of August, and at Verona on the 30th of September. Odoacer 
then shut himself up in Ravenna, and there maintained himself 
for four years, with one brief gleam of success, during which he 
emerged from his hiding-place and fought the battle of the 
Addua (itth August 490), in which he was again defeated. A 
sally from Ravenna (loth July 491) was again the occauon of a 
murderous defeat. At length, the famine in Ravenna having 
become almost intolerable, and the Goths despairing of ever 
taking the city by assault, negotiations were opened for a 
compromise < a 5th February 493). John, archbishop of Ravenna , 
acted as mediator. It was stipulated that Ravenna should be 
surrendered, that Odoacer's life should be spared, and that he 
and Theodoric should be recognized as joint rulers of the Roman 
state. The arrangement was evidently a precarious one, and 

was soon terminated by the treachery of Theodoric. He invited 
his rival to a banquet in the palace of the Lauretum on the istb 
of March, and there slew him with his own hand. " Where is 
God? " cried Odoacer when he perceived the ambush into which 
he had fallen. " Thus didst thou deal with my kinsmen," 
shouted Theodoric, and clove his rival with the broadsword from 
shoulder to flank. Onulf, the brother of the murdered king, was 
shot down while attempting to escape through the palace garden, 
and TheUr. his son, was not long after put to death by order 
of the conqueror. Thus perished the whole race of Odoacer. 

LiTERATuaK.— The chief authorities for the life of Odoacer are the 
■o-cailcd *■ Anonymus Valesii," generally printed at the end of 
AmmianuB Marcellinus: the Lift of Severinm, by Eufippius: the 
chroniclers, Cassiodonis and " Cuspiniant Anonymus (both in 
RoncaUi's collection); and the Byzantine historiana, Malcaua and 
John of Antioch. A fragment of the latter historian, unknown 
when Gibbon wrote, is to be found In the fifth volume of M tiller's 
Frapntnta Historicorum Crascorum. There is a thorough invrsti- 
gatioa of the history of Odoaoer in R. Pallmann's GesekicMit der 
VdlkenvaHderuMg, vol. ii. (Weimar. 1864). See also T. Hodgkio, 
lUUy and her Invaders, vol. iii. (Oxford, 1885). (T. H.) 

ODOPREDUS. an Italian jurist of the i3lh century. He was 
bom at Bologna and studied law under Balduinus and Accursius. 
After having practised as an advocate both in ItaJy and France, 
he became professor at Bologna in 1228. The commentaries 
on Roman law attributed to him are valuable as showing the 
growth of the study of law in Italy, and for their biographical 
details of the jurists of the laih and ijlh centuries. Odolrcdus 
died at Bologna on the 3rd of December 1 265. 

Over his name appeared Lecturae in codicem (Lyons, 1480) 
Lecturae in digestum vetus (Paris, 1504). Summa de libeUit Jormandis 
^Strassburg, 1510}. Lecturae in tret ttbros (Venice, 1514), and Lulurae 
\n diitstmm tunum (Lyons, iSP)* 

O'DONNBLL, the name of an ancient and powerful Irisl\ 
family, lords of Tyrconnel In early times, and the chief rivals 
of the O'Neills in Ulster. Like the family of O'Neill {q.t.), that 
of O'Donnell was descended from NiaH of the Nine Hostages, 
king of Ireland at the beginning of the sih century; the O'Neills, 
or Cinel^ Owen, tracing their pedigree to Owen (Eoghan), and 
the O'Donnells, or Cinel Conneli, to Conall Gulban, both sons 
of Niall. Tyrconnel, the district named after the Cinel Connell. 
where the O'Donnells held sway, comprised the greater part of 
the modem county of Donegal except the peninsula of Inishowen ; 
and since it lay conterminous with the territory ruled by the 
O'Neills of Tyrone, who were continually attempting to assert 
their supremacy over it, the history of the O'DonnelU is for the 
most part a record of tribal warfare with their powerful 
neighbours, and of their own efforts to make good their <Uims 
to the overlordship of northern Connaught. 

The first chieftain of mark in the family was Coffraidh 
(Godfrey), son of Donnell Mor O'Donnell (d. 1 241). Goflraidh, 
who was " inaugurated " as " The O'Donnell," %.e. chief of the 
clan, in 1348, made a successful inroad into Tyrone against 
Brian O'Neill in 1252. In 1257 he drove the English out of 
nonhern Connaught, after a single combat with Maurice Fits- 
gerald in which both warriors were wounded. O'Donnell while 
still incapacitated by his wound was summoned by Brian 
O'Neill to give hostages in token of submission. Carried on a 
litter at the head of his clan he gave battle to O'Neill, whom 
he defeated with severe loss in prisoners and cattle; but he died 
of his wound immediately afterwards near Letterkenny, and was 
succeeded in the chieftainship by his brother Donnell Oge, who 
returned from Scotland in time to withstand successfully the 
demands of O'Neill. 

In the i6th century, when the English began to make deter- 
mined efforts to bring the whole of Ireland under subjection 10 
the crown, the O'Donnells of Tyrconnel played a leading part; 
co-operating at times with the English, especially when such 
co-operation appeared to promise triumph over their ancient 
enemies the O'Neills, at other times joining with the latter 
against the English authorities. 

^ The Cinel. or Kinel. was a group of related clans occupyinc an 
extensive district. See P. W. Joyce, A Social History of iroami 
(London, 1903), i. 166. 


MAirvs O'DONNBU. (d. 1364), ton of Htt|h Dubh O'Doondl, 
WM left by his father to rule Tyrcoanel, though ftill a mere 
youili, when Hugh Dubh went on a pUgrimage to Rome about 
151s. Hugh Dubh had been chief of the O'DonneUs during 
one of the biticresi and moat protracted of the feuds between 
his clan and the CNeiUs, which in 1491 led to a war lasting 
more than ten years. On his return from Rome in broken 
health after two years' absence, his son Manus, who had proved 
himself a capable leader in defending his country against the 
O'Neills, retained the chief authority. A family quarrel ensued, 
nnd when Hugh Dubh appesled for aid against hik son to the 
Maguircs, Manus made an alliance with the O'Neills, by whose 
assistance he established his hold over TyrconneL But in 1533 
the two great northern chms were again at war. Conn Bacach 
O'Neill, ist earl of Tyrone, determined to bring the O'Donnells 
under thorough subjection. Supported by several septs of 
Munsterand Connaughi, ind assisted slso by English contingents 
and by the MacDonnells of Antrim, O'Neill took the castle of 
Ballyshaonoo, and after devastating a large part of Tyrconnel 
he encamped at Knockavoe, near Strabane. Here he was 
surprised at night by Hugh Dubh and Manus O'Donnell, and 
routed with the loss of 900 men and an immense quantity of 
booty. Although this was one of the bloodiest fights that ever 
took place between the O'Neills and the O'DonneUs, it did not 
bring the war to an end; and in i$ji O'Donnell applied to the 
En^sh government forprotection.givingassuimcesof allegiance 
to Henry VHI. In 1537 Lord Thomas Fitsgerald and his five 
uncles were executed for rebellion in Munster, and the English 
government made every effort to lay hands also on Gerald, the 
youthful heir to the earldom of Kildare, a boy of twelve years 
of age who was in the secret custody of his aunt Lady Eleanor 
McCarthy. This Udy, in order to secure a powerful protector 
for the boy, accepted an offer of marriage by Manus O'Donnell, 
who on the death of Hugh Dubh in July 1537 was inaugurated 
The O'Donnell. Conn O'Neill was arelati ve of Gerakl FitsgeraU, 
and this event accordingly led to the formation of the Ceraldine 
League, a f ederat ion which combined the O'Neills, the O'Donnells, 
the 0*Bricns of Thomond, and other powerful clans; the primary 
object of which was to restore Gerald to the earldom of Kildare, 
but which afterwards aimed at the complete overthrow of English 
rule in Ireland. In August 1539 Manus O'Donnell and Conn 
O'Neill were defeated with heavy loss by the lord deputy at 
Lake BcUahoe, in Monaghan, which crippled their power for 
nany years. In the west Manus made unceasing efforts to 
•sscrt the supremacy of the O'Donnells in north Connaught, 
where he compelled O'Conor SKgo to scknowledge his ovcr- 
lordship In 1539. In 1542 he went to England and presented 
himself, together with Conn O'Neill and other Irish chiefs, 
before Hcniy VIII., who promised to make him earl of Tyrconnel, 
though he refused O'Donnell's request to be made earl of Sligo. 
In his later years Manus was troubled by quarrels between his 
sons Catva^ and Hugh MacManus; in 1555 be was made 
prisoner by Calvagh, who deposed him from all authority m 
Tyrconnel, and he died in 1 564. Manus O'Donnell, though a 
fierce warrior, was hospitable and generous to the poor and the 
Churrh. He is described by the Four Masters as ** a learned 
Dun. skilled In many arts, gifted with a profound intellect, and 
ike knowledge of every science." At hb castle of Portnatrynod 
near Strsbaoc be supervised if he did not actually dictate the 
writing of the LifeofSmint C^umbkitt* in Irish, which is preserved 
in the Bodleian Library at Oxford. Manus was several times 
married. Hisfirst wife, Joan O'ReUly, was thenotbcrof Calvagh, 
and two daughters, both of whom married 0*Neills; the younger, 
Margaret, was wife of the famous rebel Shane O'Ndll. His 
•econd wife, Hugh^ mother, by whom he was ancestor of the 
carfs of Tyrconnel (see below), was Judith, sister of Conn Bacach 
OTfelll, tst eari of Tyrone, and aunt of Shane 0*NelIL 

CiavAca O'Donnell (d. 1 566), eldest son of Manus O'Donnell. 
ia the course of his above-mentioned rniarrel with his father 
mad his half-brother Hugh, sought aid in Scotland from the 
MacDonnells, who assisted him In deposing Manus and securing 
the lordship of lyrconnd for himself. Hugh then appealed 

to Shane 077eill, who invaded Tyrconnel at the head of a large 
army in i5S7» desiring to make himself supreme throughout 
Ulster, and encamped on the shore of Lough S willy. Calvagh, 
acting apparently on the advice of his father, who was his 
prisoner and who remembered the successful night attack on 
Coon O'Neill at Knockavoe in 1532, surprised the O'Neills in 
their camp at night and routed them with the lose of all their 
spoils. Calvagh was then recognised by the English govern- 
ment as lord of Tyrconnel; but in X561 he and his wife were 
captured by Shane O'Neill in the monastery of Kildonnell. 
His wtfe, Catherine Maclean, who had previously been the wife 
of the eari of Argyll, was kept by Shane O'Neill as his mistress 
and bore him several children, though grossly ill-treated by her 
savage captor; Calvagh himself was subjected to atrocious 
torture during the three years that he remained O'Neill's prisoner. 
He wu released in 1564 on conditions which he had no intention 
of fulfilling; and crossing to England he threw himself on the 
mercy of Queen Elisabeth. In 1566 Sir Henry Sidney by the 
queen's orders marched to Tyrconnel and restored Calvagh 
to his rights. Calvagh, however, died in the same year, and 
as his soa Conn was a prisoner in the hands of Shane O'Neill, 
his half-brother Hugh MacManus was inaugurated The O'Donnell 
in his place. Hugh, who in the family feud with Calvagh had 
allied himself with O'Neill, now turned round and combined 
with the English to crash the hereditary enemy of his family; 
and in 1567 he utterly rooted Shane at Letterkenny with the 
loss of 1300 men, compelling him to seek refuge with the Mac- 
Donnells of Antrim, by whom he was treacherously put todeath. 
In 1 593 Hugh abdicated in favour of his son Hugh Roe O'Donndl 
(see below); but there was a member of the elder branch of 
the family who resented the passmg of the chieftainship to 
the descendants of Manus O'Donnell's second marriage. This 
was Niall Garve, second son of Calvagh's son Conn. His ekler 
brother was Hugh of Ramdton, whose son John, an officer in 
the Spanish army, was father of Hugh Baldcaig O'Donnell 
(d. t704), known in Spain as Count O'Donnell, who commanded 
an Irish regiment as brigadier in the Spanish service. This 
officer came to Ireland in 1690 and raised an amy in Ulster 
for the service of James II., afterwards deserting to the side 
of William III., from whom he accepted a pension. 

NiALL Gauvb O'DoNNtLL (1569-1636), who was incensed 
at the elevation of his cousin Hugh Roe to the chieftainship 
in 1593, was further alienated when the latter deprived him 
of his castle of liflord, and a bitter feud between the two O'Don- 
neUs was the result. Niall Garve made terms with the English 
government, to whom he rendered valuable service both against 
the O'Neills and against his cousin. But in i6ot he quarrelled 
with the lord deputy, who, though willing to establish Niall 
Garve in the lordship of Tyrconnel, would not perftiit Urn to 
enforce his supremacy over Cahir O'Dogherty in Inlshowen. 
After the departure of Hugh Roe from Ireland In 1603, Niall 
Garve and Hugh Roe's brother Rory went to London, where 
the privy council endeavoured to arrange the family cpiarrel. 
but failed to satisfy NiaU. Charged wiih complicity in Cahir 
O'Dogherty's rebellion in 1608, Niall Garve was sent to the 
Tower of London, where he remained till his death in t6t6. 
He married his cousin Nuala, sister of Hugh Roe and Rory 
O'DonneU. When Rory fied with the eari of Tyrone to Rome 
in 1607. Nuala, who had deserted her husband when he joined 
the English against her brother, accompanied him, taking 
with her her daughter Grania. She was the subject of an Irish 
poem, of which an English version was written by James Mangsn 
from a prose translation by Eugene OTtorry. 

HucB Roe O'Donnell (1573-1603), eldest son of Hugh 
MacManus 0*Donnell, snd grandson ct Manus O'DonneH by 
his second marriage with Judith O'NeiD, was the most celebrated 
member of his clan. His mother was Incen Dubh, daughter 
of James MacDonnell of Kini>Te; his sister was the second 
wife of Hugh O'Neill. 3nd eari of Tyrone. These famDy con- 
nexions with the Hebridean Scots and with the O'Neills made 
the lord deputy. Sir John Penot. afraid of a powerful com- 
bination against the English fovcmmettt, and induced Un to 



CBUfalish girrisoos in Tyrconnd aiid to demand hosta^ei from 
Hugh MftcManus O'Donnell, which the Uitter refused to hand 
over. In 1587 Perrot conceived a plan for kidnapping Hugh 
Roe (Hugh the Red), now a youth of fifteen, who had ah«ady 
given proof of exceptional manlinesa and sagadty. A merchant 
vessel laden with Spanish wines was sent tio Lough Swilly, and 
anchoring off RathmuUan, where the boy was residing in the 
castle of MacSweeny his foster parent, Hugh Roe with some 
youthful companions was enticed on board, when the ship 
immediately set sail and conveyed the party to Dublin. The 
boys were kept in prison for more than three years In 1591 
young O'Donnell made two attempts to escape, the second of 
which proved successful; and after enduring terrible privations 
from exposure in the mountains he made his way to Tyrconnd, 
where in the following year his father handed the chieftainship 
over to him. Red Hugh lost no time in leading an expedition 
against Turiough Luineach O'Neill, then at war with bis kinsman 
Hugh, earl of Tyrone, with whom O'Donnell was in alliance. 
At the same time he sent assurances of loyalty to the lord 
deputy, whom he met in person at Dundalk in the summer of 
1592. But being determined to vindicate the traditional 
daima of his family in north Connaught, he aided Hugh Maguire 
against the English, though on the advice of Tyrone he ab> 
stained for a time from committing himself too far. When, 
however, in 1594 Enniskillen castle was taken and the women 
and children flung into the river from its walls by order of Sir 
Richard Bingham, the English governor of Connaught, O'Donnell 
sent urgent messages to Tyrone for help, and while he himself 
hurried to Deny to withsund an invasion of Scots from the 
isles, Maguire defeated the English with heavy loss at Bellana- 
briska (The Ford of the Biscuits). In 1595 Red Hugh again 
invaded Connaught, putting to the swonl every soul above 
fifteen years of age unable to speak Irish; he captured Longford 
and soon afterwards gained possession of SUgo, which pkoed 
north Connaught at hb mercy. In 1596 he agreed in conjunction 
with Tyrone to a cessation of hostilities with the English, and 
consented to meet commissioners from the government near 
Dundalk. The terms he demanded were, however, refused; 
and his determination to continue the struggle was strengthened 
by the prospect of help from Philip II. of Spain, with whom 
he and Tyrone had been in correspondence. In the beginning 
of 1597 be made another inroad into Connaught, where O'Conor 
Sligo had been set up by the English as a counterpoise to O'Don- 
nell. He devastated the country and returned to Tyrconnel 
with rich spoils; in the following year he shared in Tyrone's 
victory over the English at the Yellow Ford on the Blackwater; 
and in 1599 he defeated an attempt by the English under Sir 
Conyers Clifford, governor of Connaught, to suocour O'Conor 
Sligo in CoUooney castle, which O'Donnell captured, fordng 
Sligo to submission. The government now sent Sir Henry 
Docwra to Deny, and O'Donnell entrusted to his cousin Niall 
Carve the task of opposing him. Niall Carve, however, went 
over to the English, making himself master of O'Donnell's 
fortresses of Lifford and Donegal While Hugh Roe was at- 
tempting to retake the latter place In 1601, he heard that a 
Spanish force had landed in Munster. He marched rapidly to 
the south, and was joined by Tyrone at Bandon; but a night- 
attack on the English besieging the Spaniards in Kinsale having 
utterly failed, O'Donnell, who attributed the disaster to the 
incapadty of the Spanish commander, todc ship to Spain 
on the 6th of January 1602 to lay his complaint before 
Philip III. He was favourably recdved by the Spanish king, 
but he died at Simsnras 00 the xoth of September in the 
same year. 

Roav O'Donnell, xat earl of Tyrconnel (i57S~i6o8)i second 
•on of Hugh MacManus O'Donnell, and younger brother of 
Hugh Roe, accompanied the hitter in the above-mentioned 
expedition to Kinsale; and when his brother sailed for Spain 
he transferred his authority as chief to R^, who led the 
O'Donnell contingent back to the north. In 1602 Rory gave 
in his allegiance to Lord Mounijoy, the k>rd deputy; and in 
the foUowiog summer he went to London with the earl of Tyrone. 

where he was tecdved with favour by James I., who cmted 
him earl of Tyrconnel. In 1605 he was invested with authority 
as lieutenant of the king in Donegal But the arrangemeiit 
between Rory and Niall Carve insisted upon by the govcmnoent 
was displeasing to both O'Donnells, and Rory, like Hugh Roc 
bdore him, entered into negotiations with Spain. His country 
had been reduced to a desert by famine and war, and his own 
reckless extravagance had pltmged him deeply in debt. Tlicse 
circumstances as much as the fear that his designs were known 
to the government may have persuaded him to leave Irdand. 
In Septemtib- 1607 " the fli^t of the earis " (see O'Neill) took 
place, Tyrconnd and Tyrone reaching Rome in April 1608, 
where T^nvonnd died on the 28th of July. His wife, the beautiful 
daughter of the eari of KJldare, was Idt behind in the haste 
of Tyroonnd's flight, and Kved to many NicboUs Bamewell, 
Lord Kingshuid. By Tyrconnd she had a son Hugh; and 
among other diildren a chiughter Mary Stuart O'DonneU, who, 
bom after her father's flight from Ireland, was so named by 
James I. after his mother. This lady, after nutny romantic 
adventures disguised in male attire, married a nan called 
O'Gallaghcr and died in poverty on the continent. 

Rory O'Donnell was attainted by the Irish padtamcnt in 
x6x4, but his son Hugh, who lived at the Spanish Court, assumed 
the title of earl; and the last titular eari of Tyrconnd was this 
Hugh's son Hugh Albert, who died without heirs in 164a, and 
who by his will appointed Hugh Balldearg O'Donnell (see above) 
his hdr, thus restoring the chieftainship to the dder branch of 
the family. To a still dder branch belonged Danid O'Donnell 
(1666-1735), a general of the famous Irish brigade in the Frendi 
service, whose father, Turiough, was • ton of Hugh Dubh 
O'Donnell, elder brother of Manus, son of an earlier Hugh 
Dubh mentioned above. Danid served in the French army 
in the wars of the period, fighting against Marlborough at 
Oudenarde and Malplaquet at the h&idof an O'DonneU regiment. 
He died in 173 s. 

The famous Cathach. or Battle-Book of the O'DonneRs. was ia 
the ponesuon of General Danid O'DonneU, from whom it pa»cd 
to more modem repreaenutives of the family, who presented it to 
the Royal Irish Academy, where it is preserved. This relic, of which 
a curious legend is told (see P. W. Joyce, A Social History of Ancient 
Irdand, vol i. p. 501), is a Psalter said to have belong to Saiirt 
Columba. a kinsman oif the O'Donnells, which was earned by them 
in battle as a charm or talisman to secure victory. Two other 
circumstances connecting the O'Donnells with ancient Irish literature 
may be mentioned. The family of O'Clcry, to which three of the 
celebrated " Four Mastere " belonged, were hereditary Ollavca 

{doctors of history, music, bw. Sec.) attached to the family of 
VDonnell; while the " Book of the Dun Cow " (Ubor-na-k Uidkn), 
one of the most ancient Irish MSS., was in the posseaston of the 
O'Donnells in the 14th centurv; and the estimation in which h 
was held at that time is proved oy the fact that it was given to the 
O'Conors of Connaught as renaom for an important priaoncr, and 
was forcibly recovered some years later. 
See O'Neill, and the authorities there cited. (Rt J. M.) 

ITDOiniBLL, HENRY JOSEPH (1769-1834). count of U 
Bi&bal, Spanish soldier, was descended from the O'Donneik 
who left Irdand after the battle of the Boyne.' Bora in Spain, 
he early entered the Spanish army, and in 1810 became general, 
recdving a command in Catalonia, where in that year he earned 
his title and the rank of field-marshal He afterwards held 
posts of great responsibility under Ferdinand VII.» whom he 
served on the whole with constancy; the evenuof 1823 compelled 
his flight Into France, where he was interned at Limoges, and 
where he died in 1834. His second son Leopolo O'DonneU 
(1809-1867), duke of Tetuan, Spanish general and statesman, 
was born at Santa Cms, Teneriffe, on the lath ol January 1809. 
He fought in the army of (^een Christina, where he attained 
the rank of general of division; and in 1840 he accompanied 
the queen into exile. He failed in an attempt to eflea a isiag 
in her favour at Pamplona in 1841, but tooJt a more successful 
part in the movement which led to the overthrow and eodle of 

» A branch of thf family settled in Austria, and Genera! KaH 
O'Donnell, count of Tyrconnd ( 1 71 5* » 7rt ). hdd important commairii 

r. The name of a descendant ligvres in 

Hungarian camoaignsof 1848 and 184^ 

during the Seven Years' War. 
the history of the Italian and I 


Espartero in 1843- From 1844 to 184S he served the new 
fovemncnt ia Cuba; after bis rctum he entered the senate. 
In 1854 he became war minister under Espartero, and ia 1856 he 
plotted successfully against his chief, becoming head of the 
cabinet from the July revolution until October. This rank 
he again reached in July 1858; and in December 1859 he took 
command of the expedition to Morocco, and received the title 
of dttke after the surrender of Tctuan. Quitting office in 1863, 
he again resumed it in June 1865, but was compelled to resign 
b favour of Narvaez in 1866^ He died at Bayoni^e on the sth 
of November 1867. 

There is a Life of Leopold O'Donaell in La Corona do taurd, by 
Manuel Ibo AUaio (Madnd, i860). 

(TOOIIOVAM, BDMUKD (1844-1883), British war-corre- 
spondent, was bom at Dublin on the 13th of September 1844. 
the son of John (^Donovan (1809-1861), a weU>known Irish 
archaeologist and topographer. In 1866 he began to contribute 
to the Irish Timoi and other Dublin papers. After the battle 
of Sedan he joined the Foreign Legion of the French army, 
and was wounded and taken prisoner by the Germans. In 1873 
the Cadist rising attracted him to Spain, and he wrote many 
newspaper letters on the campaign. In 1876 he represented 
the London DaUy News during the rising of Bosnia and 
Uenegovina against the Turksr and in t879i iot the same paper, 
made his adventurous and famous Journey to Merv. On his 
arrival at Merv, the Turcomans, suspecting him to be a Russian 
spy, detained him. It was only after several months' captivity 
that O'Doaovan managed to get a message to his principals 
through to Persia, whence it was telegraphed to England. These 
adventures he described In Tka lion Oasis (i88a). In 1883 
O'DoDOvaa accompanied the ill-fated expedition of Hicks 
Pasha to the Egyptian Sudan, and perished with iL 

COCHOVAN, WILUAM RUDOLP (1844- ), American 
sculptor, was bom in Preston county, ^^rginia, on the 38th 
of March 1844. He had no technical art tnining» but after 
the Civil War, ia which he served in the Confederate army, 
he opened a studio ia New York City and became a well-known 
sculptor, especially of memorial pieces. Among these are 
statues of George Washington (in Caracas), Lincoln and Grant 
(Prospect Fftrk, Brooklyn), the captors of Major Andr6 (Tany- 
town> N.Y.), and Archbishop Hughes (Fordham University, 
Fordfaam, N.Y.), and a memorial tablet to Basrard Taybr 
(Cornell University). In 1878 he become an associate of the 
Natio nal A cademy of Design. 

ODOilTORinTHEg, the term proposed by O. C. Marsh {Am. 
Joum. Soi, wet 3, v. (1873) pp« x6x*x6a) for birds possessed of 
teeth (Or. tfofo, tooth, Apvtt, flpntfot. bird), notably the 
genera Hesperomis and Icktkyomis from the Cretaceous deposits 
of Kansas. In 1875 {op. dL x. pp. 403-408) he divided the 
'^ sttlidass " into Odontolcao, with the teeth standing in grooves, 
and OdontoiormaOt with the teeth in separate alveoles or sockets. 
In his magnificent work, (Montornitkes: A monograph on the 
ojUind looUud birds oj North America, New Haven, Connecticut, 
1880, he logically added the Saurume, represented by 
ArchaoopteryXf as a third order. As it usually happens with 
the selection of a single anatomical character, the resulting 
dassiGcation was unnatnraL la the present case the Odont- 
ocnithes are a hetero g e n eous assembly, and the fact of their, 
possessing teeth proves nothing but that birds, possibly all of 
them, still had these organs during the Cretaceous epoch. This, 
by itscU, is a very interesting point, showing that birds, as a 
class, are the descendants of welt-toothed reptalo, to the complete 
csclusiftn of the Chelonla with which various authors penistently 
try to connect them. No fossil birds of later than Cretaceous 
age are known to have teeth, and concerning recent birds they 
possess not even embryonic vestiges. 

E. Geoflr^ St Hilaire sUtcd in x8st (Ann. Gin. Scu Phys, 
^^ PP« 373*380) that he had found a considerable number 
of tooth-feims in the upper and lower jaws of the parrot 
FaUeomis torquaius. £. Blanchard (" Observations sur le sys- 
time dentaire ches les oiseaux," CompUs remdus 50, x86o, pp. 
340-543) felt justified in recognaxiog Hakes of dentine. However, 

M. Braun {Arbeii Zooi. tnst., Wacebuig, v. 1879) ud especially 
P. Fraiase {Phys. Med. Ces., Wttrsburg, z88o) have showa that 
the structures ia question are of the same kind as the well-known 
serrated " teeth " of the bill of anserine birds. In fact the 
papillae observed in the embryonic birds are the soft cutaneous 
extensions into the surrounding homy sheath of the bill, compar- 
able to the well-known nutritive papillae in a horse's hool. 
They are easily exposed in the well-macerated under jaw of a 
parrot, after removal of the homy sheath. tfVra^tnwaiiy ^Vj<i^- 
tion occurs in or around these papillae, as it does regulariy in 
the " egg-tooth " of the embryos of all birds. 

The best known of the Odontomiihes are Hesperomis reiolis, 
standing about 3 fL high, and the somewhat taller if . erassipes* 
Both show the general configuration of a diver, but it is only by 
analogy that Hesperomis can be looked upon as ancestral to 
the Colymbiformcs. There are about fourteen teeth in a groove 
of the maxilla and about twenty-one in the mandible; the 
vertebrae axe typically heterocoelous; of the wing-bones only 
the very slender and long humerus is known; chivides slightly 
reduced; coraooids short and broad, movably connected with 
the scapula; sternum very long, broad and quite flat, without 
thetraceofakeeL Hind limbs very strong and of the Colymbine 
type, but the outer or fourth capitulum of the metatarsus b the 
strongest and longest, an unique arrangement ia an othvwise 
typically stegsnopodous foot. The pelvis shows much resem- 
blance to that of the divers, but there is still an indsunischiadica 
instead of a foramen. Tlie tail is composed of about twelve 
vertebrae, without a pygostyle. EnaUomis of the Cambridge 
Greensaad of England, and Bapiomis of the mid-Cretaceous of 
North America, are probably allied, but imperfectly known. 
The vertebrae are biconcave, with heterocoelous indicatk>ns m 
the cervicals; the metatarsal bones appear still somewhat 
imperfectly anchylosed. The absence of a keel misled Marsh who 
suspected relatioosMp of Hesperomis with the Ratitae, and 
L. DoUo went so far as to call it a camivoRMis, aquatic ostrich 
{BnU. Seu Dipart. du Nord, ser. s, iv. 1881, p. 300), and this 
mistaken notioa of the " swinmidBg ostrich *' was popularised by 
various authois. B. Vetter (Festsehr, Ces. Isis., Dresden, r88s) 
rightly poiated out that Hesperomis was a descendaat of 
Carinatae, but adapted to aquatic life, implying reduction of 
the keeL Lastly, M. Fdrbringer {Unlersnchungen, Amsterdam, 
1888, pp. XS43, XS05, X 580) relegated it, together with JSaa/wriMf 
and the Co^ymbo-Podidpedes, to his suborder Podicipitiformes. 
The present writer does o9t feel justified in going so far. On 
account of their various, deddodly primitive charaaers, ha 
prefers to look upon the Cidontokae as a separate group, one of 
the three divisions of the Neomithes, as birds which form aa 
early offshoot from the later Colymbo-Pelargomorphons stock; 
in adaptation to a marine, swimming life they have lost the 
power of flight, as is shown by the absence of the ked and 
by the great xcduction of the wing-skeleton, just as ia 
aaother direction, away from the later AUctoromorphous 
stock the Ratitae have specialized ss ruaaeis. It is oaly ia 
so far as the loss of flight is correlated with the absence of 
the ked that the Odontolcae and the Ratitae bear analogy to 
each other. 

There remain the Odonlotormaot notably Ichikyomis nctor^ 
I. dispart Apatomis and Craemlamu of the middle and upper 
Cretaceous of Kansas. The teeth stand in separate alveoles; 
the two halves of the mandible are, as in Hesperomis, without 
a symphysis. The vertebrae are amphicodous, but at least the 
third cervical has somewhat saddle-shaped articular facets. 
Tan composed of five free vertebrae, followed by a rather small 
pygostyl^ Shoulder girdle and sternum well devdoped and 
of the typical carinate type. Pdvis still with tndsura iacbiadtca. 
Marsh based the restoration of Ickthyomis, which was obviously a 
well-flying aquatic bird, upon the skeleton of a tern, a rdat ion- 
ship which cannot be supported. The teeth, vertebrae, pelvis 
and the small brain are all so many low characters that tbe 
Odontotormac may well form a separate, and very k>w, order 
of the typical Carinatae, of course near the Colymbomorphous 
Ugioa. (H. F. G.^ 



OOORIC (c. ia86-i33z), styled "of Pordenone," one of the 
chief traveUen of the later middle ages, and a Bcaius of the 
Roman Church, was born at Villa Nuova, a hamlet near the town 
of Pordenone in Friuli, in or about ia86. According to the 
ecclesiastical biographers, in early years he took the vows of 
the Franciscan order and joined their convent at Udine, the 
capital of Friuli. 

Friar Odoric was despatched to the East, where a remarkable 
extension of missionary action was then taking place, about 
1316-1318, and did not return till the end of 1329 or beginning 
of 1330; but, as regards intermediate dates, all that we can 
deduce from his narrative or other evidence is that he was in 
western India soon after 1331 (pretty certainly in 1333) and that 
he spent three years in China between the opening of 1333 and 
the close of 1338. His route to the East lay by Trebizond and 
Erzerum to Tabriz and Suluuiieh, in all of which places the order 
had houses. From Sultanich he proceeded by Kashan and 
Y&ad, and turning thence followed a somewhat devious route by 
Persepolis and the Shiraz and Bagdad regions, to the Persian 
Gulf. At Honnux he embarked for India, landing at Thana, 
near Bombay. At this city four brethren of his order, three of 
them Italians and the fourth a Georgian, had shortly before 
met death at the hands of the Mahommedan governor. The 
bones of the martyred friars had been collected by Friar Jordanus 
of S6verac, a Dominican, who carried them to Supera — the 
Suppara of the ancient geographers, near the modem Bassein, 
about a6 m. north of Bombay— and buried them there Odoric 
tells that he disinterred these relics and carried them with 
him on his further travels. In the course of these he visited 
Malabar, touching at P&ndarani (30 m. north of Calicut), at 
Cranganore, and at Kulam or Quilon, proceeding thence^ appar- 
ently, to Ceylon and to the shrine of St Thomas at Maylapur 
near Madras. From India he sailed in a Junk to Sumatra, 
visiting various ports on the northern coast of that island, and 
thence to Java, to the coast (it would seem) of Borneo, to 
Champa (South Cochin-China), and to Canton, at that time 
known to western Asiatics as Ckin-Kalan or Great China (Maha- 
chln). From Canton he travelled overland to the great ports 
of Fukien, at one of which, Zayton or Amoy harbour, he found 
two houses of hk order; in one of these he deposited the bones 
of the brethren who had suffered in India. From Fuchow he 
struck across the mountains into Cheh-kiang and Visited Hang- 
chow, then renowned, under the name of Cansay, Khamai, 
or Quinsai (i.e. Kingsu or royal residence), as the greatest dty 
in the worid, of whose splendours Odoric, like Marco Polo, 
MarignoUi, or Ibn Batuta, gives notable details. Passing 
northward by Nanking and crossing the Yangtsze-kiang, Odoric 
embarked on the Great Canal and travelled to CambaUe (other- 
wise Cambalelh, Cambaluc, &c.) or Peking, where he remained for 
three years, attached, no doubt, to one of the churches founded by 
Archbishop John of Monte Corvino, at this time in extreme old 
age. Returning overland across Asia, through the Land of Prester 
John and through Casan, the adventurous traveller seems to 
have entered Tibet, and even perhaps to have visited Lhasa. 
After this we trace the friar in northern Penia, in MiUestorte, 
once famous as the Land of the Assassins in the Elburz highlands* 
No further indications of his homeward route (to Venice) are given, 
though it is almost certain that he passed through Tabriz. 
The vague and fragmentary character of the tuirrative, in this 
section, forcibly contrasts with the clear and careful tracing of 
the outward %ray. During a part at least of these long Journeys 
the compam'on of Odoric was Friar James, an Irishman, as 
appears from a record in the public books of Udlne, showing that 
shortly after (Moric's death a present of two marks was made 
to this Irish friar, Socio heoH Frairis Od^fki, amore Dei el Odorid. 
Shortly after his return Odoric betook himself to the Minorite 
house attached to St Anthony's at Padua, and it was there that 
In May 1330 he related the story of his travels, which was taken 
down in homely Latin by Friar William of Solagna. Travelling 
towards the papal court at Avignon, Odoric fell ill at Pisa, and 
turning back to Udinc, the capital of his native province, died 
in the convent there on the t4th of January 1331. The fame of 

his vast Journeys appears to have made a much greater impressSoo 
on the laity of his native territory than on his Franciscan brethren. 
The latter were about to bury him without delay or ceremony, 
but the gaslald or chief magistrate of the city interfered and 
appointed a public funeral; rumours of his wondrous traveb and 
of posthumous miracles were diffused, and excitement spread 
like wildfire over Friuli and Camiola; the ceremony had to be 
deferred more than once, and at last took place in presence of the 
patriarch of Aquileia and all the local dignitaries. Popular 
acclamation made him an object of devotion, the municipality 
erected a noble shrine for his body, and his fame as samt and 
traveller had spread far and wide before the middle of the 
century, but it was not till four centuries later (1755) that the 
papal authority formally sanctioned his beatification. A bast 
of Odoric was set up at Pordenone in i88r. 

The numerous copies of Odoric's narrative (both of the original 
text and of the versions in French, Italian, &c.) that have come 
down to our time, chiefly from the X4th century, show how 
speedily and widely it acquired popularity. It docs not deserve 
the charge of mendacity brought against it by some, though 
the adulation of others is nearly as injudicious. Odoric's credit 
was not benefited by the liberties which Sir John MandeviUe 
took with it The substance of that knight's alleged traveb 
in India and Cathay is stolen from Odoric, though amplified 
with fables from other sources and from his own Invention, and 
garnished with his own unusually clear astrononucal notions. 
We may indicate a few passages which stamp Odoric as a genuine 
and original traveller. He is the first European, after Marco 
Polo, who distinctly mentions the name of Sumatra. The 
cannibalism and community of wives which he attributes to 
ceruin races of that island do certainly belong to it, or to islands 
closely adjoining. His description of sago in the archipelago 
is not free from errors, but they are the errors of an eye-witness. 
In China his mention of Canton by the name of Censeolam or 
CenscaXam (Chin-Kalan), and his descriptions of the custom 
of fishing with tame cormorants, of the habit of letting the 
finger-nails grow extravagantly, and of the compression of 
women's feet, are peculiar to him among the travellers of that 
age; Marco Polo omits them aO. 

Sex'cnty-three MSS. of Odoric*s narrative are known to exist in 
Latin, French and Italian: of these the chief is in i^ris. National 
Library. MSS. Lat. 3584, fola. 118 r.-i37 v., of about 1350. Tbe 
narrative was fint printed at Pcsaro in 1313. m what Apostolo Zcno 
calls lingua incuUa e rotxa. Ramusio's co^ection first contains it 
in the 3nd vol. of the 3nd edition (1374) (Italian version), in which 
are given two versions. diAering cunousfy from one another, but 
without any prefatory matter or explanation. (See abo edition of 
1583. vol. u. iols. 24s r.-3s6 r.) Another (Latin) vcnion is given in 
the Acta Sanctorum (Bollandist) under the I4tb of January. The 
curious discussion beloro the papal court respecting the beatificatkm 
of Odoric rorms a kind of blue-book issued ex Motr^kn no. 
cameno aposMiau (Rome. 1755). Profcasor Friedndi Kunstniaan 
of Munich devoted one of his valuable oapers to Odoric'e narrative 
{Histor.-polit. Bt&ller von Phillips und G^irres, vol. axxviii. pp. y>7- 

Si7). Tne best editions of Odoric are by C. Vcnni, £tofto storico 
aiU resia del Beato Odoriro (Venice, 1761); H. Yule in CuAay and 
Ike Way Thitker, vol. i. pp. i-i63, vol. ii. appendix, pp. 1^ (Loodoo, 
1866), Hakluyt Society: and H. Coidier. Les VoyaM$ , ,'.dm , , . 
frhre Odoric . . . (Pari.s, 1891) (edition of Old French version of 
c. 1350). The edition by T. IXimenichcUi (Prato, 1881) may also be 
mentioned: likewise those texts of Odoric embedded in the Slorim 

mmioersQle detto Missiom Francoscam, liL 739*781. and in HaUuyt'a 

, , ,-^,9lf ii- 39-67. See also John of Viktring 

(Joannes Victoriensis) in Pontes rerum Cermanicarum^ ed. J. F. 

Principal Nmigaliom (1599). ii- 39-67* 

Boehmcr; vol. 1. cd. by J . G. Cotta (Stuttgart, 1843). p. 391; 
Wadding, Annalei Jiinomm, A.D. I33ti vo). vii. pp. 113-126; 
Barthokmiew AlbisB, Opus couformmStm . . . B. frsnctici .... 
bk. I par. ii. ooof. 8 (fol. 134 of Milan, edituo of i^rj): John of 
Winterthur in Eccard. Corpus kistoricum medii aevt^ vol. i. cols. 
1 894- 1 897. especially 1894: C. R. Beaxley. Davn of Uodtm Geo- 
graphy, m. 350487. 548-549* 554. 585*566. 613-613. *c- ^ „ -, . 

(H. Y.s C« R* Ob) 

ODTUC PORCB, a term once in vogue to expbhii the pheao> 
menon of hypnotism (^.v.). In 1845 considerable attentson 
was drawn to the announcement by Baron von Rckheabacb 
of a so<alled new " imponderable " or " influence " developed 
by certain crystals, magnets, the human body, associated with 
heat, chemical action, or dectridty, and existing thiwicbMit 



the ttnivene, to which he g»vQ the name of 9dyl, 
•ensitive to odyl taw InininouB phenomena near the poles of 
macnett, or even around the hands or heads o( certain persons 
hi whose bodies the force wsa supposed to be concentrated. 
In Britain an impetus was given to this view of the subject by 
the transhition in 1850 of Reichenboch's Researches m UagneHsm, 
&€., im retoHom to Vital Farce, by Df Gregory, professor of 
chemistry in the university of Edinburgh. These JUtearckes 
show many of the phenomena to be of the same nature as those, 
described previously by F. A. Mesmer, and even long before 
Mcsmer's time by Swedenborg. 

0DYSSB08 (in Latin Ulixes, incorrecUy written Ulysses), 
in Greek legend, son of LaSrtes and Antideia, king of Ithaca, a 
famous hero and typical representative of the Greek race. In 
Homer he is one of the best and bmvcst of the heroes, and the 
favourite of Athena, whereas in later legend he is cowardly and 
deceitful. Soon after his marriage to Penelope he was summoned 
to the Trojan war. Unwilling to go, he feigned madness, 
pk>ughing a field sown with salt with an os and an ass yoked 
together; but Palamedes discovered his deceit by placing his 
infant child Telemachus in front of the plough; Odysseus 
afterwards revenged himself by compassing the death of Pala- 
medes. During the war, he distinguished himself as the wisest 
adviser of the Greeks, and finally^ the capture of Troy, which 
the bravery of Achilles could not accomplish, was attained by 
Odysseus' stratagem of the wooden horse. After the death of 
Achilles the Greeks adjudged his armour to Odysseus as the man 
who had done most to end the war successfully. When Troy 
was captured he set sail for Ithaca, but was carried by unfa\'our- 
able winds to the coast of Africa. After encountering many 
adventures in all parts of the unknown seas, among the lotus- 
caters and the Cyclopes, in the isles of Aeolus and Circe and the 
perils of Scylla and Charybdis, among the Lacurygones, and even 
in the world of the dead, having lost all his ships and companions, 
he barely escaped with his Kfe to the island of Calypso, where he 
was detained eight years, an unwilling lover of the beautiful 
nymph. Then at the command of Zeus he was sent homewards, 
but was again wrecked on the island of Phaeacia, whence he 
was conveyed to Ithaca in one of the wondrous Pfaaeacian ships. 
Here he found that a host of suitors, taking advantage of the 
youth of his son Telemachus, were wasting his property and 
trying to force Penelope to marry one of them. The stratagems 
and disguises by which with the help of a f'rw faithful friends 
be slew the suitors are described at length in the Odyssey. The 
only allusion to his death is contained in the prophecy of Teiresias, 
who promised him a happy old age and a peaceful death from 
the sea. According to a later legend, Telcgonus, the son of 
Odysseus by Grce, was sent by her in search of his father. Cast 
ashore on Ithaca by a storm, he plundered the island to get pro* 
visk>ns, and was attacked by Odysseus, whom he slew. The 
prophecy was thus fulfilled. Tclegonuy, accompanied by 
Penelope and Telemachus, returned to his home with the body 
of his father, whcse identity he had discovered. 

According to E. Meyer {Hermes, axx. p. 767). Odysseus is an 
old Arcadian nature god identical with Poseidon, who dies at 
the approach of winter (retires to the western sea or is carried 
away to the underworld) to revive in spring (but sec E. Rohde. 
Rkein. Mus. I. p. 631) A more suitable identification would 
be Hermes. Mannhardt and others regard Odysseus as a solar 
or summer divinity, who withdraws to the underworld during 
the winter, and returns in spring to free his wife from the suitors 
(the powers of winter) A. Gercke (Neue JakrbtUker jUr das 
klassiscke AUtrtum, sv. p. 351) takes htm to be an agricultural 
divinity akin to the sun god, whose wife is the moon-goddess 
Pendope, from whom he is separated and reunited to her on 
the day of the new moon. His cult early disappeared: in 
Arcadia his place was taken by Pbaeidon. But although the 
personality of Odysseus may have had its origin In some primitive 
reUgiotts myth, chief intercft attaches to him as (he typical 
r a pe cjcn utive of the old saik>r-race r/hose adventurous voyages 
educated and moulded the Hellenic race. The period when the 
character of Odysseas took shape among the Ionian bards 

was when the Ionian ships were beginning to penetrate to the 
farthest shores of the Black Sea and to the western side of Italy, 
but when Egypt had not yet been freely opened to foreign 
intercourse. The adventxires of Odysseus were a favourite subject 
in ancient art, in which he may usually be recognised by his 
oooical sailor'a cap. 

See article by J. Schmidt in Roschcr'e Lmhan der Mjtkdope 
(where the different forms of the name and its etymok)gy are fully 
diacuaBed); O. Gnippe, Cnechische UythclogUt it. pp. 624, 705-718: 
J. E. Harrison, Myths of the Odyssey in Art and Liierature (1881). 
with appendix on authorities. W. Mannhardt, Waid- und feldkutte 
(1905), iL p. 106: O. Seeck, Geseh. det Unkrtanrs der asUiken Weil, 
ii. p. JS76; G. FouKires, MantuUe el VArcadu arientale (1898). 
according to whom Odysaeus is an Arcadian chthonian divinity and 
Penelope a goddeas of flocks and herds, akin to the Arcadian Artemis; 
S. Eitrem, Die tflUlichen ZvriUinge bei den Grieehem (1902), who 
identifies Odysseus with one of the Dioscuri ('OXurm- I1o)^«I«<iisk) : 
V. B^rd. ^ef Phinieieus et POdyssit (1902-1903). who n^ards the 
Odyssey as " the integration in a Grccic wtcrot (home-commg) of a 
Semitic pcfiplus,** in the form of a poem written 900-850 B.c. by an 
lonk poet at the court of one of the Neleid kings of Miletus. For an 
estimate of this work, the interest of which is mainly geographical, 
see Classieai Review (April 1904) and Quarleriy Review (April 1905). 
It consists of two biige volumes, with 240 illustrations and maps. 

OBBSN, JEAN FRANCIS, French s8th-centuiy cabinet- 
maker, is belaeved to have been of German or Flemish origin; 
the date of his birth Is unknown, but he was dead before 1767. 
In 1 7521 twenty years after Boulle's death, we find him occupying 
an apartment in the Louvre sublet to him by Charles Joseph 
Boulle, whose pupil he may have been. He has sometimes been 
confused with Simon Oeben, presumably a relative, who signed 
a fine bureau in the Jones collection at the Victoria and Albert 
Museum. J. F. Oebcn is also represented In that collection by 
a pair of Ixdaid comer<upboards. These with a bureau and a 
chiffonier In the Garde Mcuble in which bouquets of Howcrs are 
delicately inhud in choice woods are his best-known and most 
admirable achievements. He appears to have worked extensively 
for the marquise de Pompadour by whose influence he was 
granted lodgings at the Gobdins and the title of " £biniste 
du Roi " in 1 754. There he remained until 1 760, when he obtained 
an apartment and workshops at the ArscnaL His work in 
marquetry is of very great distinction, but he would probably 
never have enjoyed so great a reputation had it not been for his 
connexion with the famous Bureau du Roi, made for Louis XV., 
which appears to have owed its inception to him, notwithstand- 
ing that it was not completed until some considerable time after 
his death and is sigfted by J. H. Rieseller (q.t,) only. Docu- 
mentary evidence imder the hand of the king shows that it was 
ordered from Oeben in 1760, the year in which he moved to the 
Arsenal. The known work of Oeben possesses genuine grace and 
beauty; as craftsmanship it is of the first rank, and it is remark- 
able that, despite his Teutonic or Flemish origin, it is typically 
French in character. 

OECOUMPADIUS. JOHN (1482-1531), German Reformer, 
whose real name was Hussgen or Heussgen,* was born at Weins- 
bcrg, a small town in the north of the modem kingdom of 
WUrttembcrg, but then belonging to the Palatinate. He went 
to school at Wefnsberg and Heilbnmn, and then, intending to 
study law, he went to Bologna, but soon returned to Heidelberg 
and betook himself to theology. He became a zealots student 
of the new learning and passed from the study of Greek to that 
of Hebrew, taking his bachelor's degree in 1503. He became 
cathedral preacher at Basel in 1515. serving under Christopher 
von Uttenheim, the evangelical bishop of Bssel. From the 
beginning the sermons of Oecolampadius centred in the Atone- 
ment, ami his first reformatory zeal showed itself in a protest 
(/V risM pasihati, 1518) against the introduction of htnnorous 
stories into Easter sermons. In 1520 he published his Crnk 
Grammar. The same year he was asked to become preacher 
in the high church in Augsburg. Germany was then abbze 
with the questions raised by Luther's theses, and his introduction 
into this new world, when at first he championed Luther's 
position especially in his anonymous Coiieictct imdaeti (1510), 
seems to have compelled Oecolampadtus to severe self-examina' 

I Changed to Hausschcin and then into the Creek eqsivalnit. 



Uon, wUch ended to his entering t convent end becoming a 
monk. A short experience convinced him that this was not for 
him the ideal Christian life (" amisi monachum, invcni Christia- 
num "), and in February 1532 he made his way to Ebembufg, 
near C^euxnach, where he acted as chaplain to the little group 
of men holding the new opinions who had settled there under 
the leadership of Franz von Sickingen. 

The second period of Oecolampadios's life opens with his 
return to Basel in November 1533, as vicar of St Martin's and 
(in X523) reader of the Holy Scripture at the univenity. Lectur- 
ing on Isaiah he condemned current ecclesiastical abuses, and 
in a public disputation (20th of August 1533) was so successful 
that Erasmus writing to Zurich said " Oecolampadius has 
the upper hand amongst us." . He became Zwingli's best helper, 
and after more than a year of earnest preaching and four public 
dispuutions in which the popular verdict had been given in 
favour of Oecolampadius and his friends, the authorities of 
Basel b^an to see the necessity of some reformation. They 
began with the convents, and Oecolampadius was able to refrain 
in public worship on certain festival days from some practices 
he believed to be superstitious. Basel was slow to accept 
the Reformation; the news of the Peasants' War and the 
inroads of Anabaptists prevented progress; but at last, in 
1535, it seemed as if the authorities were resolved to listen to 
schemes for restoring the purity of worship and teaching. In 
the midst of these hopes and difficulties Oecolampadius married, 
in the beginning of 2528, Wilibrandis RosenblaU, the widow 
of Ludwig Kello', who proved to be hoh rixosa vd garrtda vel 
fOffl, he says, and made him a good wife. After his death she 
married Capito, and, when Capito died, Buoer. She died in 1564. 
In January 1528 Oecolampadius and Zwingli took part in the 
disputation at Berne which led to the adoption of the new faith 
in that canton, and in the following year to the discontinuance 
of the mass at Basel. The Anabaptists claimed Oecolampadius 
for their views, but in a disputation with them he dissociated 
himself from most of their positions. He died on the 24th of 
November 1531. 

Oecolampadius was not a great theologian, like Luther, 
Zwingti or Calvin, and yet he was a trusted theological leader. 
With Zwingli he represented the Swiss views at the unfortunate 
inference at Marburg. His views on the Eucharist upheld 
the metaphorical against the literal interpretation of the word 
** body." but he asserted that believers partook of the sacrament 
more for the sake of Others than for their own, though later he 
emphasized it as a means of grace for the Christian life. To 
Luther's doctrine of the ubiquity of Christ's body he opposed 
that of the presence and activity of the Holy Spirit in the church. 
He did not minutely analyse the doctrine of predcslinalion as 
Luther, Calvin and Zwingli did, contenting himself with the 
summary " Our Salvation is of God, our perdition of ourselves." 

See J. J. HcrzoK, Leben Joh. Oecotampads u. die Reformation der 
Kircke tu Basel (1843): K. R. Hagcnlxich. Johann Oecotampad u. 
Osvald Myconius, dtt Reformaloren Basels (1859)- For other 
literature see W. Hadorn's art. in Hcriog-Hauck's RnlemyUoptdte 
fur prol. Rel. u. Kircke. 

OECOLOGY. or Ecolocy (from Gr. oTsof, house, and X&Yot. 
department of science), that part of the science of biology which 
treats of the adaptation of plants or animals to their environ- 
ment (see Plants: Ecology), 

OBCUHENICAL (through the Lat. from Gr. cUouttmiek, 
universal, belonging to the whole inhabited world, 4 UKovidyti 
sc. vi, o^miy, to dwell), a word chiefly used in the sense of 
bck>nging to the universal Christian Church. It is thus speciA- 
cally applied to the general councils of the early church (sec 
CouNaL). In the Roman Church a council is regarded as 
oecumenical when it has been summoned from the whole church 
under the presidency of the pope or his legates; the decrees 
confirmed by the pope are binding. The word has also been 
applied to assemblies of other religious bodies, such as the 
Oecumenical Methodist Conferences, which met for the first 
time in 1881. " Oecumenical " has also been the title of the 
patriarch of Constantinople since the 6th century (see Obthooox 
Eastekn Cuvftca)* 

0BCD8, the Lttfailsed fonn of Gr. atm, home, usd by 
Vitnivius for the principal hall or saloon in a, Roman house, 
which was used occasionally as a triclinium forbanqueU. When 
of great size it became necessary to support its ceiling with 
columns; thus, according to Vitnivius, the tetrastyle oecot 
had four columns; in the (Corinthian oecus there was a row 
of columns on each side, virtually therefore dividing the room 
into nave and aisles, the former being covered over with a aemi- 
circular ceiling. The Egyptian oecus had a similar plan, but 
the aisles were of less height, so that clerestory wiadiows were 
introduced to light the room, which, as Vitnivius states, presents 
more the appearance of a basilica than of a tridinium. 

0BDIPU8 (OiSiTOK, 0(5cff6aqt. (Mtm, from Gr. ettfir sweli. 
and nbt foot, U. " the swoUen-footed ") ^ in Greek legend, son 
of Lalus, king of Thebes, and Jocasta (locastC). Lalus, having 
been warned by an oracle that he would be killed by his son, 
ordered him to be exposed, with his feet piereed, immediately 
after his birth. Thus Oedipus grew up ignorant of his parentage, 
and, meeting Lalus in a narrow way, quarrelled with him and 
slew hiuL The country was ravaged by a monster, the Sphinx; 
Oedipus solved the riddle which it proposed to iu victims, 
freed the country, and married his own mother. In the Odyssey 
it is said that the gods disclosed the impiety. EpicastC (as 
Jocasta is called in Homer) hanged herself, and Oedipus lived 
as king in Thebes tormented by the Erinyes of his mother. In 
the tragic poets the tale takes a different form. Oedipus fulfils 
an ancient prophecy in killing his father; he is the bimd instru- 
ment in the hands of fate. The further treatment of the tale 
by Aeschylus is unknown. Sophocles describes in his Oedipm 
Tyranuus how Oedipus was resolved to pursue to the end the 
mystery of the death of Lalus, and thus unravelled the dark 
tale, and in horror put out his own eyes. The sequel of the laie is 
told in the Oedipus CvioHtus. Banished by his sons, he is tended 
by the loving care of his daughters. He oomes to Attica and 
dies in the grove of the Eumenides at Colonus, in bis death 
welcomed and pardoned by the fate which had pursued him 
throughout his life. In addition to the two tragedies of Sophocles, 
the legend formed the subject of a trilogy by Aeschylus, of which 
only the Settn againsl Thebes is extant; of the Picenissae of 
Euripides; and of the Oedipus and Pkoenissat of Seneca. 

See A. Hfifer '• exhaustive article in Roicher's Latikem der Mytko- 
fie: F. W. Schoeidewio, Die Sate mn Oedipus (1852); D. Com- 
parctit, Edij^ e la mitologia comparata (1867): M. Br£al, " Le 

Nlythe d'CEdlpc," in Jd&anfes de mylholoiie (1878). who oxpbins 
Oraiput as a pcraoniHcation of light, and hta bhnding as the di»- 
Appearance of the cun at the end of the day; J. Paulson in Eruuos. 
Acta pbilohtica Suecana, i. (Upaala, 1896) places theo«igin*l home 
of the legend in Egyptian Thcbca, and klentifies Oedipus with the 
Egyptian ^od Scth, represented as the hippopotamus " with swollen 
loot." which was said to kill its father in order to take its place 
with the mother. O. Cruaus {BeitrSge tur gneekiscken Mytkclagte, 
1886. p. 21) iccs in the marriage of Oedipus with his mother aa 
agrarian myth (with special reference to Oed. Tyr. 1407). while 
Horer (in Roschcr's Lexikon) suggests that the episodes of the murder 
of his father and of his marriage are reminiscences of the overthrow 
of Cronus by Zcvs and of the union of Zeus with hb own sister. 

Medieval Legends.— \n the Coldeu Letfud of Jacobus de Voragine 
(i3ih century) and the Mysore de la Passion ot Jean Michel (15th 
century) and Arnoul Gr6ban (iMh century), the story of Oedipus is 
associated with the name of Judas. The main idea is ch« same 
as in the classical account. The Judas legend, however, never really 

became popular, whereas that oif Oedipus was handed down bocii 
oralljf and in written national tales (Alt»anian. Finnish. Cvpriote). 
One incident (the incest unwillingly committed) frequently recurs 

in connexion with the life of Gregory the Great. The Theban lr{(cnd. 
which reached its fullest development in the TkebaU of Stattus and 
in Seneca, reappeared in the Reman de Tktbes (the work of an un- 
known imitator of Bcnott de Sainte-More). Oedipus is also the 
subject of an anonymous medieval romance (1 jsthcentunr), Le Roman 
d'(Edipus,Jlih de Layus, in which the sphinx is depicteti as a cunning 
and ferocious giant. The Oedinus legend was handed down to the 
period of the Renaissance by tnc Roman and its imitations, which 
then fell into oblivion. Even to the present day the legend has 

< If is probable that the story of the piercing of his feet is a subse> 

?|uent invention to explain the name, or is due to a false etymolccy 
from elMw). oIMvom in reality meaning the " wise " (from •Ual, 
chiefly in reference to his having ai»lvcd the riddle, the syllabM 
•sMt naving no significaaoe. 



tnnfind amansic the nodcni Greeka, vithout any tnoct of the 

t of Chriaciamty (B. Schmidt. Grieckiscfu Udrekem, 1877). 
The workt of the aocknt tiafedians (especially Seneca, in preference 
to the Greek) came into vogue, and were slavishly followed by 
French and Italian imitaton down to the 17th century. 

See L. Cooftaos, La Ligtmde d'CEdipe dans fantigutU, au wioytn du, 
at dansU* ttmft modenus (iMi): D. Comparetti** Eiipa and Jebb's 
iatroduction for the Oedi^ of Oryden. Comcille and Voltaire; 
A. Heintxe. Creiprius auj dem Steine, der mittdaUerlicke Otdtpus 
(pro^., Stolp, 1877) ; V. Diedericha. " Russische Verwandte der 
Lefende von Grcgor auf dem Stein nnd der Sage von Judas Itchariot.'* 
in Russiuka Rama (1880): S. Novakovitch, " Die Oedipuancein 
der sikdilaviachea VoUcididitung*" UkATchaJur siaviscka Fkilciogie 
Jd. (1888). 

OBBiBB. GUSTAV FBIEDRICH (i8x»-i873), German theo- 
logian, was bom on the xoth of June x8ia at Ebingen, Wilrtteni- 
berg, and was educated privately and at Tubingen where he 
was much influenced by J. C. F. Steudel, professor of Old TcsU- 
ment Theology. In 1837, after a term of Oriental study at 
Berlin, he went to Tiibingen as Rtfttent^ becoming in 1840 
professor at the seminary and pastor in SchdnthaL In 1845 
he published his Prolegomena sur The^hgie des Allen Testameytis, 
accepted an invitation to Brcslau and received the degree of 
doctor from Bonn. In 1852 he returned to Tubingen as director 
of the seminary and professor of Old Testament Theology at 
tbe oniversity. He declined a call to Erlangcn as successor to 
Frans Delitzach (1867), and died at Tiibingen on the 19th of 
February 1872. Oehler admitted the composite authorship of 
the Pentateuch and the Book of Isaiah, and did much to counter- 
act the antipathy against the Old Testament that had been 
fostered by Schleiermacher. In church polity he was Lutheran 
rather than Reformed. Besides his Old Testament Tkeciogy 
(Eng. trans., a vols., Edinburgh, 1874-1875), his works were 
CesammetU Seminarreden (1872) and Lekrhttch Symbolik 
(1876), both published posthumously, and about forty artidea 
for the first edition of Heraog's RealencykhpSdie which were 
lar gely re tained by Delitzsch and von Orelli in the second. 

OBRRINQEIf, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Wflrt* 
temberg, agreeably situated in a fertile country, on the Ohm^ 
12 m. E. from Heilbronn by the railways to Hall and Crailshcim. 
Pop. (1905) 3r450. It is a quaint medieval place, and, among 
its andent buildinp, boasts a fine Evangelical church, con- 
taining carvings in cedar-wood of the xsth century and numerous 
interesting tombs and monuments; a Renaissance town hall; 
the bufldhig, now used as a library, which formorly bdonged 
to a monastery, erected in X034; and a palace, the residence 
of the princes of Hohenlohe-Oehringen. 

Oehringen is the Viau AnreHi of the Romans. Eastwards 
of it ran the old Roman frontier wall, and numerous remains 
and inscriptions dating from the days of the Roman settle- 
ment have been recently discovered, induding traces of three 

See Keller, Vleus AtmOi, oder Okringen war Zeii der Rimer (Bonn, 

OSU. a town of Germany, in the Pnisrian province of Silesia, 
fonoeriy the capital of a mediatized prindpality of its own 
name. It lies in a sandy plain on the Oebbach, 90 m. N.E. 
of Breslaa by raO. Pop. (1905) 10,940. The princdy chAteau, 
now the property of the crown prince of Pnxssia, dating from 
1558 and beantifuUy restored in 1891-1894, contains a good 
library and a collection of pictures. Of its three Evangelical 
churches, the Schlosskixche dates from the 13th oeatury and 
the Propstkirche from the t4th. The inhabitants are chiefly 
engaged in making shoes and growtaig vegetables for the Breslau 

Dels was founded about 940, and became a town in 1955. 
It appears as the capital of an independent prindpality at the 
begiiining of the X4th century. The prindpality, with an area 
of 700 sq. m. tad about 130,000 inhabitants, passed through 
vailoQS hands and was inherited by the ducal family of Bruns- 
wkfc in 1799. Then on the extinction of this family in 1884 
it lapsed to the crown of Prussia. 

Sc* W. Hiualtr. GasOikkU des FUrOeaiums OU U$ mm Ams^ 
sterhen der pta^ischen Hermgdimie (Bredau. 1883); aad Schube, 
Pia Saecauton im Fttrstentum Ols (Brc^au, 1884). 

OBL8CIIIJ.QER [Oleauds], ADAM (1600-167X), German 
traveller and Orientalist, was born at Ascbcrsleben, near Magde- 
burg, in t599 or 1600. After studying at Leipzig he became 
librarian and court mathematician to Duke Frederick III. of 
Holstein-Gottorp, and in 1633 he was appointed secreUry to 
the ambassadors Philip Crusius, jurisconsult, and Otto firUgge- 
mann or Brugman, merchant, sent by the duke to Muscovy 
and Persia in the hope of making arrangements by which his 
newly-founded dty of Friedrichstadi should become the terminus 
of an overland silk-trade. This embassy surtcd from Gottorp 
on the 22nd of October 1633, and travelled by Hamburg, Lubeck, 
Riga, Dorpat (five months' stay), Revel, Narva, Ladoga and 
Novgorod to Moscow (August 14, 1634). Here they con- 
cluded an advantageous treaty with Michael Romanov, 
and returned forthwith bo Gottorp (December 14, 1634- 
April 7, 1635) to procure the ratification of this arrange- 
ment from the duke, before proceeding to Persia. This accom- 
plished, they started afresh from Hamburg on the ajnd of 
October X635, arrived at Moscow 00 the 29th of March 1636; 
and left Moscow on the 3olh of June for Nizhniy Novgorod, 
whither they had already sent agents (in X634-X635) to prepare 
a vcssd for their descent of the Volga. Their voyage down 
the great river and over the Caspian was slow and hindered 
by acddents, espedally by grounding, as near Derbent on the 
X4th of November 1636; buf at last, by way of Shemakha 
(three months' dday here), Ardebil, Sidtanieh and Kasvio, 
they reached the Persian court at Isfahan (August 3, 1637), 
and were received by the shah (August x6). Negotiations 
here were not as succoaful as at Moscow, and the embassy Idt 
Isfahan on the 21st of December X637, and returned home by 
Resht, Lenkoran, Astrakhan, Kazan* Moscow, &c. At Revel 
Oelscfaliger parted from his colleagues (April 15, 1639) *ai 
embarked direct for LObccfc. On his way he had made a chart 
of the Volga, and partly for this reason the tsar Micbad wished 
to persuade, or compd, him to enter his service. Once back 
at Gottorp, Oelachliger became librarian to the duke, who also 
made him keeper of his Cabinet of Curiosities, and induced the 
tsar to excuse his (promised) return to Moscow. Under his care 
the Gottorp library and cabinet were greatly enriched in MSS., 
books, and oriental and other works of art: in x6sx he pur- 
chased, for this purpose, the collection of the Dutch scholar and 
physician, Bernard ten Broecke C Paludanus" ). He died 
at Gottorp on the 32nd of February 1671. 

It is by his admirable narrative of the Russian and the Persian 
legation (BesckreUmng der muscawitischen vnd persiscken Reise, 
Sodeswig, i(j47» aad afterwards in several enlarged editions, i6s6, 
&c.) that. Oclachl^cr is best known, though he also published a 
history of Holstein {Kuriter Begriff einer kolsUinisckcn Chronit, 
Schleswig, 1663), a famous catalogue of the HoUtria-Gottorp 
cabinet T1666), and a translation of the GuUstan {Fertianiukes 
Rfsenikas. Schleswig. 1654), to which was appended a transbtion 
of the fables of Lokman. A French version of the BescMreibung 
was published by Abraham de Wicciuefort {Voyages en Moscerie, 
Torlarie tff Perse, par Adam OUarius. Paris, 1656). an English 

ade by John Dnries of Kidwelly iTravels of the Am- 

bassadars sent by Frederic, Duke oj Holstein, to the Great Duke of 
Ifnscovy and the King of Persia, London. 1662; 2nd cd., 1669), 
and a l5utch transbtion b^ Dieterius van Wagcninfrn iBesekriffriHif* 
•an de niemse Farciaenstke ofU Orientaelseke Reyse, Utrecht. 1631) ; 
an Italian translation of the Rus«an sections also appeared ( V:a(t> 
di Moseoeia, Viterbo and Rome, 1658). Paul Flcminb^ the poet 
and I. A. de Mandclslo. whose travels to thr> Fast lndi<fs arc usually 

Eubhshed with those of Oelschligcr. accompanied the embassy, 
fnder OelschMger's direction the oelebiated flc^ of Gottorp 
(it ft. in diameter) and armillafy sphere were eucuted in 1654- 
1664; the globe was given to Peter the Great of Russia in 1713 bv 
Duke Fn^crick's grandson. Christian Augti^tus. Oelxhiagers 
unpublished works Include a Lexiton Persieum and several other 
Persian studies. (C. K. B.) 

OELSNITZ, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Saxcny, 
on the Wcisse Elstcr, »6 m. by rail S.W. of Zwickau. Pop. 
(1905) 13.966. It has two EvaogcliLal churches, one of them 
being the old Gothic Jakobikirche, and several schools. Tbcrre 
are various manufactories. Oelsnitx belonged in the X4th and 
15th centuries to the roaxgravcs of Meissen, and later to the 
electors of Saxony. Near It is the village of VoijitsbcTg, with 



iht remaini of a castle, oace a residence oC the governor CVogt) 
oC the Vogtland. 

See Jahn. Ckronik der SUtdt OUnUz (1875). 

OELWEIN. a city of Fayette county, Iowa, U^.A.^ in the 
N.E. pan of the state, about 132 m. N.E. of Des Moines. Pop. 
(1890) 830; (1900) 5x4a, of whom 789 were foreign-bom; 
(1910 U.S. census) 6028. It is served by the Chicago, Rock 
Island & Pacific and the 'Chicago Great Western railways, the 
latter having large repair shops here, where four lines of its 
road converge. Odwein was named in honour of its founder, 
August Odwein, who* settled here m 1873; it was .incorporated 
in 1888, and chartered as a city in 1897. 

OBNOMAOS, in Greek legend, son of Arcs and Harpinna, 
king of Pisa in EUs and father of Hippodameia. It was pre- 
dicted that he shodd be slain by his daughter's husband. His 
father, the god Ares-Hippius, gave him winged horses swift 
as the wind, and Oenomaito promised his .daughter to the nuui 
who could outstrip him in the chariot race, hoping thus to 
prevent her marriage altogether. Pelops, by the treachery of 
Myrtilus, the charioteer of OenomaOs, won the race and married 
Hippodameia. The defeat of Oenomaito by Pek>ps, a stranger 
from Asia Minor, points to the conquest of native Ares- 
worshippeis by immigrants who introduced the new religion of 

See Died. Sic iv. 73: Pausanias vL ai, and elsewhere: Sophocles, 
Electro, 504; Hyginus. Fab. 84. 253. Fig. 33 in article Gieek Art 
represents the preparations for the chariot race. 

OBNONB, in Greek legend, daughter of the river-god Kebren 
and wife of Paris. Possessing the gift of divination, she warned 
her husband of the evils that would result from his journey 
to Greece. The sequel was the rape of Helen and the Trojan 
War. Just before the capture of the dty, Paris, wounded by 
Philoctetes with one of the arrows of Heracles, sought the aid of 
the deserted Oenone, who had told him that she alone could 
heal him if wounded. Indignant at his faithlessness, she refused 
to help him, and Paris returned to Troy ^d died of his wound. 
Oenone soon repented and hastened after him, but finding that 
she was too late to save him slew herself from grief at the sight 
of his dead body. Ovid (Herctdes, 5) gives a pathetic description 
of Oenone's grief when she found herself deserted. 

OERLAMS, the name (said to be a corruption of the; Dutch 
Oberlanders) for a Hottentot tribal group living in Great Nam- 
aqualand. They came originally from Little Namaqualand 
in Cape Colony. They are of very mixed Hottentot-Bantu 

OEBBL (in Esthonian Kure-saare or Saare'ma), a Russian 
island in the Baltic, forming with Worms, Mohn and RunO, 
a district of the government of Livonia, and lying across the 
mouth of the Gulf of Riga, 106 m. N.N.W. of the dty of Riga. 
It has a length of 45 m., and an area of xoxo sq. m. The coasts 
are bold and steep, and, espcdally towards the north and west, 
form precipitous limestone diffs. Like those of Shetland, the 
Ocsd ponies arc small, but prized for their q>irit and endurance. 
The popiilation, numbering 50,566 in 1870 and 60,000 in 1900, 
is mainly Protestant in creed, and, with the exception of the 
German nobility, dergy and some of the townsfolk, Esthonian 
by race. The chief town, Arensburg, on the south coast, is a 
place of 4600 inhabitants, with summer sea-bathing, mud baths 
and a trade in grain, potatoes, whisky and fish. In 1227 Ocsel 
was conquered by the Knights of the Sword, and was governed 
by its own bishops till 1561, when it passed into the hands of the 
Danes. By them it was surrendered to the Swedes by the peace 
of BriSmsebro (1645), u<^ along ^th Livonia, it was united 
to Russia in 1721. 

OESOPHAGUS (Gr. Oou^l will carry, and 4>ttyup, to eat), 
in anatomy, the gullet; see Auuentaxy Caval for comparative 
anatomy. The human oesophagus is peculiarly liable to certain 
accidents and diseases, due both to its function as a tube to 
carry food to the stomach and to its anatomical situation (see 
generally Digestive Organs). One of the commonest accidents 
i the lodgment of foreign bodies in some part of the tube. The 
iituatioDS in which they are arrested vary with the nature of the 

body» whether it be a coin, fishbone, tootbplaU or a portion of 
food. An impacted substance may be removed by the oesop^geal 
forceps, or by a coin-catcher; if it should be impossible to draw 
it up it may be pushed down into the stomach. When it is is 
the stomach a purgative should never be given, but soft food 
such as porridge. Should gastric symptoms develop it may 
have to be removed by the operation of gastrotomy. Chaxring 
and ulceration of the oesophagus may occur from the swallowing 
of corrosive liquids, strong adds or alkalis, or even of boiling 
water. Stricture of the oesophagus is a dosing of the tube so 
that neither solids nor liquids are able to pass down into the 
stomach. There are three varieties of striaura; spasmodic, 
fibrous and malignant. Spasmodic stricture usually occurs in 
young hysterical women; diffioilty in swallowing is complained 
of, and a bougie may not be able to be passed, but tmder an 
anaesthetic will slip down quite easily. Fibrous stricture is 
usually situated near the commencement of the oesophagus, 
generally just behind the cricoid cartilage, and usually results 
from swallowing corrosive fluids, but may also result from the 
healing of a syphilitic idcer. Occasioiially it is congenitaL 
The ordinary treatment is repeated dibtation by bougies. 
Occasionally division of a fibrous stricture has been practised, 
or a Symond's tube inserted. Mikulicz recommends dilatation 
of the stricture by the fingers from inside after an incision into 
the stomach or a permanent gastric fistula may have to be made. 
Malignanl strictures are usually epithdiomatous in structure, 
and fiiay be situated in any part of the oesophagus. Tliey 
nearly always occur in males between the ages of 40 and 70 years. 
An X-ray phbtograph taken after the patient has swaOowed 
a preparation of bismuth will show the situation of the growth, 
and Killian and Brdnig have introduced an instrument called 
the oesophagoscope, which makes direct examination possible. 
The remedy of constant dilatation by bougies must ix>t be 
attempted here, the walls of the oesophagus bdng so aoftei»ed 
by disease and ulceration that severe haemorrhage or perforation 
of the walls of the tube might take place. The patient should 
be fed with purdy liquid and concentrated nourishment in order 
to give the oesophagus as much rest as possible, or if the stricture 
be too tight rectal feeding may be necessary. Symond's method 
of tubagc is well borne by some patients, the tube having attached 
to it a long string which is secured to the cheek or ear. The 
most satisfactory treatment, however, is the operation of gastro- 
tomy, a permanent artificial opening being made mto the 
stomach tluough which the patient can be fed. 

OETA (mod. Kotavotkra), a mountain to the south of Thessaly, 
in Greece, forming a boundary between the valleys of the 
Spercheius and the Boeotian Cephissus. It is an offshoot of the 
Pindus range, 7080 fL high. In its eastern portion, called 
Callidromus, it comes dose to the sea, leaving only a narrow 
passage known as the famous pass of Thermopylae (^.t .). There 
was also a high pass to the west of Callidromus leading over into 
the upper Cephissus valley. In mythology OeUis chiefly 
celebrated as the scene of the funeral pyre on which Hexades 
burnt himself before his admission to (Mympus. 

divine and theosophist, was bom at Gi^ingen on the 6th of 
May X702. He studied theology at Tabmgcn (1722-1728), 
and was much impressed by the works of Jakob Bdhme. On 
the completion of his university course, Octinger spent some 
years in travd» In 1 730 he visited Count Zinzendoif at Hermhut, 
remaining there some months as teacher of Hebrew and Greek. 
During his travels, in his eager search for knowledge, he made 
the acquaintance of mystics and separatists* Christians aiMi 
learned Jews, theologians and physicians alike. At Halle he 
studied medicine. After some dday he was ordained to the 
ministry, and hdd several pastorates. While pastor (from 1 746) 
at Waldorf near Berlin, he studied alchemy and made many 
experiments, his idea bdng to use his knowledge for QrmboUc 
purposes. These practices exposed him to the attacks of pctsons 
who misunderstood him. "My reUgioD," he once said, *'is 
the paralldism of Nature and Grace." Oetinger translated 
Swedenborg's philosophy of heaven and earth, and added notes 


of bk oim. EvctitvaUy (itM) he bec«i&e pnelate at MuirhARU, 
iriieie he died on Uw zoth of February 1 78»« 

Oetiogir's autobiocFftpby was pubUahed bv J. Hanbenter in 1849. 
He pubushed about wYeoty m-orks, in wnkh he enmunded ms 
thco«ophic views. A collected edition, S&mUkht SckrHicn (ist 
■ection, Hamiletiscke Schriften, 5 vols., 1858-1866; 2nd section, 
Tkeosopkisckt W^rks, 6 vols.. 1858-1863). was prepared by K. F. C. 
Ehmana. who aho wroca Oetinser'a Ltben vnd Brief e (1899). See 
abo C. A. Auberlen, Die Tkttawphit Friedr. Clut. OtUnw's (1847; 
2nd ed.. 1859), and Herzog, Friearich Ckrislopk 0tingtr\\ijQ2), 

ObynHAUSEN, a town and watering-place of Germany, in 
the Pnttaisa province of Wfetphaiia, on the Wene, situated 
jnst above its influence with the Weser, 9 m. W. from Mioden 
by the maia line of raflway from Hanover to Cologne, with a 
station on the Lbhnc-Kameln line. Pop. (1905) 3894- The 
place, which was formerly called Rchme, owes its developmettt 
to the discovery in 1830 of its five famous sail springi, which 
are heavily changed with carbonic acid gas. The waters are used 
both lor bathing and drinking, and are particulariy efficacious 
for nervous disordeis, rheumatism, gout and feminine compjlaints. 

QWWK the most famous hero of the eariy AngU. He is said 
by the A«glo-Saxon poem WidtUk to have ruled over Angel, 
and the poem refen briefly to his victorious single combat, 
a story which is related at loigth by the Danish historians Saxo 
and Svend Aagesen. Offa (Uffo) is said to have been dumb or 
sHent during his early 3Peazs, and to have only recovered his 
speech when his aged father Wermund was threatened by the 
Saxons, who insolently demanded the cession of his kingdom. 
Offa undertook to fight against both the Saxon king 's son and 
a chosen champion at once. The combat took place at Rendsburg 
on an island in the Eider, and Offa succeeded in killing both his 
opponents. According to WHsUh Offa's opponents bebnged 
to a tribe or dynasty called Myrginsas, but both accounts state 
that he won a great kingdom as the result of his victory. A 
somewhat corrupt verrion of the same stoiy is preserved in the 
YUae iumntm Ojfarum, where, however, the scene is transferred 
to England. It is very probable that the Offa whose marriage 
with a lady of murderous disposition is mentioned in Beowulf 
is the same person; and this story also appeals in the ViUt€ 
dmantm OJarmm, though it is erroneously told of a bter Offa, 
the famous king of Merda. Offa of Mercia, however, was a 
descendant in the lath gcneiation of Offa, king of Angel. It is 
probable from this and other considerations that the early Offa 
lived in the latter part of the 4th century. 

Sc« H. M. Chadwick. Oripn of the Endish Nation (Cambridse, 
1907), where lefereiices to the original authorities will be found. 

OFFA (d. 796), king of Mercia, obtained that kingdom in a.d. 
757, after driving out Beomred, who had succeeded a few 
months earlier on the murder of iEthelbald. He traced his 
descent from Pybba, the father of Penda, through Eowa, brother 
of that king, his own father's name being Thingfcrth. In 779 
he was at war with Cynewulf of Wessea from whom he wrested 
Bensington. It is net unlikely that the Thames became the 
boundary of the two kingdoms about this time. In 787 the 
power of Offa was displayed in a synod held at a pkice called 
Ccakhyth. He deprived Jaenberht, archbishop of Canterbury, 
of severs] of his suffragan sees, and assigned them to Lichfield, 
which, with the leave of the pope, he constituted as a separate 
archbishopric under Hygeberht. He also took advantage 
oi this meeting to have his son Ecgferth consecrated as bis 
colleague, and that prince subsequently signed charters as 
JUx kterciorum. In 789 Offa secured the alliance of Berhtric 
of Wessex by giving him his daughter Eadburg in marriage. 
In 794 he appeals to have caused the death of ^helberbt of 
East AngMa, though some accounts ascribe the murder to 
Cynethryth, the wife of Offa. In 796 Offa died after a reign of 
thirty-nine years and was succeeded by his son Ecgferth. It 
is customary to ascribe to Offa a policy of limited scope, namely 
the establishment of Mercia in a position equal to that of Wessex 
and of Northumbria. This is supposed to be illustrated by his 
measures with regard to the see of Lichfield. It cannot be 
doubted, however, that al this time Mercia was a much more 
(ormtdable power t han Wessex. Offa, like most of hispredeccssors. 


probably held a kind of supremacy over all kingdoms south of 
the Humber. He seems, however, not to have been contented 
with this position, and to have entertained the design of putting 
an end to the dependent kingdoms. At all events we hear of 
no kings of the Hwicce after about 780, and the kings of Sussex 
seem to have given up the royal title about the same time. 
Further, there is no evidence for any kings in Kent from 784 
untU after Offa's death. To Offa is ascribed by Asser, in his 
life of Alfred, the great fortification against the Welsh which 
is still known aa " Offa's dike." It stretched from sea to sea 
and consisted of a wall and a rampart. An account of his Welsh 
campaigns is given in the KfttaeJiMrMMOjr<araiii, but it is difficult 
to determine how far the stories there given have an historical 

See Angfo-Saxon Chronicle^ cd. J. Earle and C. Plummer (Oxford, 
1899). *.«. 755. 777. 785. 787. 792. 794. 796, 836; W. de G. Birch. 
Cartularittm Saxontaim (London. 1885-1893), vol. i.; Asser, Life of 
Aifrod, cd. W. H. Stevenson (Oxford. 1904): Vitae duarum Offamm 
(in works of Matthew Paris, cd. W. Wats^ London, 1640). 

OFFAL, refuse or waste stuff, the " off fall," that which falls 
off (cf. Dutch a/M/, Gcr. AkfaU). The term is applied especially 
to the waste parts of an animal that has been slaughtered for 
food, to putrid flesh or carrion, and to waste fish, especially 
to the little ones that get caught in the nets with the Urger 
and better fish, and are thrown away or used as manure. As 
applied to grain "offal " is used of grsios too small or light for 
use for flour, and also in flour milling of the husk or bran of 
wheat with a certain amount of flour attaching, soU for feeding 
beasts (see Flour). 

OFFENBACH* JACQUBg (1819-X880), French composer of 
opira houjfe, was bom at Cologne, of German Jewish parents, 
on the 3isl of June 18 19. His talent for music was developed 
at a very early age; and In 1833 he was sent to Paris to study 
the violoncello at the conservatoire, where, under the care of 
Professor Vaslin, be became a fairly good performer. In 1834 
he became a member of the orchestra of the Op^ra Comique; 
and he turned his opportunities to good account, so that 
eventually he was made conductor at the Th£&tre Francais. 
There, in 1848, he made his first success as a composer in the 
Ckans^n dt Portunio in Alfred de Musset's play U Cka*ddier. 
From this time forward his life became a ceaseless struggle 
for the attainment of popularity. His power of production was 
apparently inexhaustible. His first complete work, Pcpilo^ 
was produced at the Op^ Comique in 1853. This was followed 
by a crowd of dramatic pieces of a light character, which daily 
gained in favour with Parisian audiences, and eventually effected 
a complete revolution in the popular taste of the period. En- 
couraged by these early successes, Offenbach boldly undertook 
the delicate task of entirely remodeUing both the form and the 
style of the light musical pieces which had so long been welcomed 
with acclamation by the frequenters of the smaller theatres in 
Paris. With this purpose in view he obtained a lease of the 
Thttlre Cbmte in the Passage Choiseul, reopened it in 1855 under 
the title of the Bouffes Parisiens, and night after night attracted 
crowded audiences by a succession of tMrilliant, humorous trifles. 
Ludovic Halevy, the librettist, was associated with him from 
the fiist, but still more after i860, when HaKvy obtained Henri 
Meilhac's collaboration (see HaiIvy). Beginning with Us Deux 
A^u^es and U Viohneux, the series of Offenbach's operettas 
was rapidly continued, until in 1867 its triumph culminated 
in la Crandt DiKktsse d€ CtrtitUim, perhaps the most popular 
opira bouffe that ever was written, not excepting even his Orpktt 
aux enfers, produced in 1858. From this lime forward the success 
of Offenbach's pieces became an absolute certainty, and the 
new form of opira boufe, which he had gradually endowed 
with as much consistency as it was capable of assuming, was 
accepted as the only one worth cultivating. It found imitators 
in Lecocq and other aspirants of a younger generation, and 
Offenbach's works found their way to every town in Europe 
in which a theatre existed. Tuneful, gay and exhilaratiag» 
their want of refinement formed no obstacle to their popularity, 
and perhaps even contributed to it. In 1866 his own conncsion 
with the Bouffes Parisiens ceased, and he wrote for various 



theatres. In twenty-five yean Offenbach produced no less 
than sixty-nine complete dramatic works, some of which were 
in three or even in four acts. Among the latest of these were 
Le Docteur Ox, founded on a story by Jules Verne, and La Boite 
au hit, both produced in 1877, and Madame Pavart (1879). 
Offenbach died at Paris on the 5th of October 1880. 

OFFENBACH, a town of Germany, in the grand-duchy of 
Hesse, on the left bank of the Main, 5 m. S.E. of Frankfort-on- 
Main, with which it b connected by the railway to Bebra and 
by a lo^ electric line. Pop. (190s) 58,806, of whom about 
30,000 were Roman Catholics and 1400 Jews. The most interest- 
ing building in the town is the Renaissance ch&teau of the counts 
of Isenburg. Offenbach is the principal industrial town of the 
duchy, ana its manufactures are of the most varied description. 
Its characteristic industry, however, is the manufacture of 
portfolios, pocket-books, albums and other fancy goods in 
leather. The earliest mention of Offenbach is in a document 
of 970. In i486 it came into the possession of the counts of 
Isenburg, who made it their residence in 1685, and in 1816, 
when their lands were mediatized, it was assigned to Hesse. 
It owes its prosperity in the first place to the industry of the 
French Protestant refugees who settled here at the end of the 
X7th, and the beginning of the tSth century, and in the 
second place to the accession of Hesse to the German ZoUverein 
in 1838. 

See J6st, Offenbach am Main in Verian^heU und Ceunwarl 
(Offenbach, 1901); Hager, Dte LBderwaremndustne in Offenbach 
(Karlsruhe, 1905). 

OPPBNBURQ, a town of Germany, in the grand-duchy of 
Baden, 37 m. by rail S.W. of Baden, on the river Kinzig. Pop. 
(1905) 1 5,434. It contains a statue of Sir Francis Drake, a mark 
of honour due to the fact that Drake is sometimes regarded as 
having introduced the potato into Europe. The chief industries 
of the town are the making of cotton^ linen, hats, malt, machinery, 
tobacco and cigars and glass. Offenburg is first mentioned about 
xxoo. In 13 33 it became a town^ in 1348 it passed to the bishop 
of Strassburg; and in 1389 it became an imperial free dty. 
Soon, however, this position was lost, but it was regained about 
the middle of the t6th century, and Offenburg remained a free 
city until 1802, when it became part of Baden. In 1633 il was 
taken by the Swedes, and in 1689 it was destroyed by the French. 

See Walter. Kurter Abriss der Ceschickte der Reichsstadt Offenburg 
(Offenburg. 1896). 

OFFERTORY (from the ecclesiastical Lat. offertorium, Fr. 
offertoire, a place to which offerings were brought), the alms of 
a congregation collected in church, or at any religious service. 
Offertory has also a special sense in the services of both the 
English and Roman churches. It forms in both that part of 
the Communion service appointed to be said or sung, during 
the collection of alms, before the elements are consecrated. In 
music, an offertory is the vocal or instrumental setting of the 
offertory sentences, or a short instrumental piece played by the 
organist while the collection is being made. 

OFFICE (from Lat. offkium, " duty," " service," a shortened 
form of iffijacium, from facere, " to do," and either the stem of 
opes, " wealth," ** aid," or opus, ** work "), a duty or service, 
particularly the special duty cast upon a person by his position; 
also a ceremonial duty, as in the rites paid to the dead, the ** last 
offices." The term is thus especially used of a religious service, 
the " daily office " of the English Church or the " divine office " 
of the Roman Church (sec Breviary). It is also used in this 
sense of a service for a particular occasion, as the Office for the 
Visitation of the Sick, &c. From the sense of duty or function, 
the word is transferred to the position or place which lays 
on the holder or occupier the performance of such duties. 
This leads naturally to the use of the word for the buildings 
or the separate rooms in which the duties are performed, 
and for the staff carrying on the work or business in such 
offices. In the Roman curia the department of the Inquisi- 
tion is known as the Holy Office, in full, the Congregation 
of the Holy Office of the Inquisition (see iNquismoN and 

OJicer^PftfjSl.— The phrase'* o£ke of profit uoderthecrown " 
is used with a particular application in British parliamenUiy 
practice. The holders of such offices 01 profit have been subject in 
regard to the occupation of seats in the House of Commons to 
certain disabilities which were in their origin due to the fear of 
the undue influence exercised by the crown during the constitu- 
tional struggles of the 17th century. Attempts to deal with the 
danger of the presence of ** place-men " in the House of Commons 
were made by the Pkce Bills introduced in 1673-1673, 1694 and 
1743. The Act of Settlement 1700 (( 3) laid it down that no 
perMn who has an office or pUce of profit under the king or 
receives a pension from the crown shall be capable of serving mm 
a member of the House of Commons. This drastic clause, which 
would have had the disastrous effect of entirely separating the 
executive from the legislature, was repealed and the basis of 
the present law was laid down in 1706 by 6 Anne (c. 41). This 
first disqualifies (§ 34) from membership all holdeis of " new 
offices,"* i.e, those created after October 1705; secondly (f 35) 
it renders void the dection of a member who shall accept any 
office of profit other than " new offices " but allows the nacmber 
to stand for re-election. The disqualification attaching to many 
" new offices " has been removed by various statutes, and by 
§ 53 of the Reform Act 1867 the necessity of rejection is avoided 
when a member, having been elected subsequent to the accept- 
anoe of any office named in a schedule of that act, is tzansfcrred 
to any other office in that schedule. The rules as to what offices 
disqualify from membership or render re-dection neccssaxy are 
exceedingly complicated, depending as they do on a laigc 
number of statutes (see Erskine May, ParliamaOary Practice, 
nth ed., pp. 633-645, and Rogers, On Eleeticns, vol. xi., 1906). 
The old established rule that a member, once duly elected, 
cannot resign his seat is evaded by the acceptance of cxrtain 
minor offices (sec CmLTERN Hukdreos). 

OFFICERS. Historically the employment of tbe word 
" officer " to denote a person holding a military or na^nsl com* 
mand as representative of the state, and not as deriving his 
authority from his own powers or privileges, marks an entire 
change in the character of the armed forces of civilized nations. 
Originally signifying an official, one who performs an assigned 
duty (Lat offictum), an agent, and in the 15th centuiy actuaUy 
meaning the subordinate of such an official(even to-day a constable 
is so called), the word seems to have acquired a military signific- 
ance late in the x6tb century.* It was at this time that ansies» 
though not yet '* standing," came to be constituted almost 
exclusively of professional soldiers in the king's pay. Mercen- 
aries, and great numbers of mercenaries, had always existed, and 
their captains were not feudal magnates. But the bond between 
mercenaries and their captains was entirely personal, and the 
bond between the captain and the sovereign was of the nature 
of a com fact. The non-mercenary portion of tlie older armies was 
feudal in character. It was the lord and not a king's officer who 
commanded it, and be commanded in virtue of his rights, not 
of a warrant or commission. 

European history in the Ute 15th centuiy is the story of the 
victory of the crown ovef the feudatories. The instrunxnt of 
the crown was its army, raised and commanded by iu deputies. 
But these deputies were still largely soldiers of fortune and, in the 
higher ranks, feudal personages, who created the armies thexn« 
selves by thdr personal influence with the would-be aoldier or 
the unemployed professional fighting man. Thus the £rst system 
to replace the obsolete combination of feudalism and *' free 
companies " was what may be called the proprietary system. 
Under this the colonel was the proprietor of his regiment, the 
captain the proprietor of hb company. The king accefited them 
as his officers, and armed them with authority to raise aoen, 
but they themsdves raised the men as a rule f rMB esperioaccd 
soldiers who were in search of emidoyment, although, like 

*This section also disqualifies colonial governan ax>d dqwty 
govemora and holders of certain other offices. 

'At sea the relatively clear partition of actual duties amongst 
the authorities of a ship brougnt about the adopri<»i of the term 
" officer " tomewbat earlier. 



FaliUff, Mme ctptaint and colondt " miMsed tbe Ring's press 
damnably." AU alike were most rigorously watched lest by 
showing Imaginary men on their pay-sheets they should make 
undue profits. A " muster " was the production o{ a number of 
living men on parade corresponding to the number shown on the 
pay-rolL An inspection was an inspection not so much of the 
efficiency as of the numbers and the aocounta of units. A fuU 
account of these practices, which were neither more nor less 
prevalent In England than elsewhere, will be found in J. W. 
Fortescue's History of Ike BrUish Army, voL L So faithfully 
%'ai the custom observed of requiring the showing of a man for 
a man's pay» that the grant oif a special allowance to officers 
administering companies was often inade in the form of allowing 
them to show imaginary John Does and Richard Roes on the 

The next step was taken when armies, instead of being raised 
for each campaign and from the qualified men who at each 
recmtUng time offered themselves, became " standing ** armies 
fed by untrained rccmits. During the late 17th and the x8th 
centuries the crown supplied the recruits, and also the money 
for maintaining the forces* but the colonels and captains re- 
tained in a more or less restricted degree their proprietorship. 

Thus, the profits of military office without its earlier burdens 
were in time of peace considerable, and an officer's commission 
had therefore a " surrender value." The practice of buying and 
selling commissions was a natural consequence, and this continued 
long after the system of proprietary regiments and companies 
had disappeared. In England " purchase " endured until 187^ 
nearly a hundred years after it had ceased on the continent of 
Europe and more than fifty after the clothing, feeding and pay- 
ment of the soldiers had been taken out of the colonels' hands. 
ITic purchase system, it should be mentioned, did not affect 
artillery and engineer officers, either hi England or in the rest 
of Europe. These officers, who were rather scmi-dvil than 
miliury officials until abotit 1715, executed an office rather than 
a command — superintended gun-making, built fortresses and 
so on. As late as 1780 the right of a general officer promoted 
from the Royal Artillery to command troops of other arms was 
challeogrd. In iu original form, therefore, the proprietary system 
was a most serious bar to efficiency. So long as war was chronic, 
and self-trained recruits were forthcoming, it had been a gpod. 
working method of devolving responsibiUty. But when drill 
am) 'the V^twtiiwp of arms becune more complicated, and, above 
all, when the supply of trained men died away, the state took 
recruiting out of the colonels' and captains' hands, and, m» the 
individual officer had now nothing to oifer the crown but his own 
potential military capacity (part of which resided in his social 
ttatus, but by no means all), the crown was able to make him, 
in the full sense of the word, an officer of itself. This was most 
fully seen in the reorganisation of the French army by Louis 
XIV. and Louvois. The colonelcies and captaincies of horse 
and foot remained proprietary offices in the bands ol the nobles 
bat these offices were sinecures or almost sinecures. The colonels, 
in peace at any rate, were not expected to do regimental duty. 
They were at liberty to make such profits as th^ could make 
under a stringent inspection system. But they wciv expected 
to be the influential figure-heads of their regiments and to pay 
large sums for the prjv^cge of being propricton. This classifica- 
tion of officers into two bodies, the poorer which did the whole 
of the work, and the richer upon which the holding of a com- 
mission conferred an honour that birth or wealth did not confer, 
marks two very notable advances in the history of army organiza- 
tion, the professionalisation of the officer and the oration of the 
prestige attaching to the holder of a commission beeamse be holds 
it and not for any extraneous reason. 

The distinction between working and quasi-honorary officers 
was much older, of course, than Louvois's reorganisation. 
Moreover it extended to the highest ranks. About x6oo the 
"general" of a European army* was always a king, prince 
or nobleman. The lieutenant-general, by custom the com- 
of the cavalry, was also, as a rule, a noble, in 

> Except ia the Italiaa npabfics; 
XX 1« 

virtue ef his command of the aristocratic arm. But the 
commander of the foot, the "sergeant-major-general" or 
** major-general," was invariably a professional soldier. It was 
his duty to draw up the army (not merely the foot) for battle, 
and in other respKts to act as chief of staff to the general. 
In the infantry regiment, the " sergeant-major " or " major " 
was second-in-command and adjutant combined. Often, if not 
always, he was promoted from amongst the lieutenants and 
not the (propfictaiy) captains. The lieutenants were the back- 
bone of the army. 

Seventy years later, on the organisation of the first great 
standing army by Louvois, the " proprictois," as mentioned 
above, were reduced to a minimum both in numbers and in 
military importance. The word "major" in its various 
meanings had come, in the French service, to imply staff 
functions. Thus the sergeant-major of infantry became the 
" adjudant>major." The sergeant-majorogeneral, as rommsndur 
of the foot, had disappeared and given place to numerous 
lieutenant-generals and " brigadiers," but as chief of the staff 
he survived for two hundred years. As late as 1870 the 
chief of staff of a French army bore the title of " the major- 

Moreover a new title had come into prominence, that of 
" marshal " or " field marshal." This marks one of the most 
Important points in the evolution of the military officer, his 
classification by rank and not by the actual command be holds. 
In the 1 6th century an officer was a lieutenant 0/, not'tii, 
B particular regiment, and the higher officers were general, 
Ueutcnaot-geneial and major-general of a, particular army. When 
their army was disbanded they had no command and possessed 
therefore no rank— except of course when, as was usually the 
case, they were colonels of permanent regiments or governors 
of fortresses. Thus in the British army it was not until 
late in the 18th century that general officers received any 
pay as such. The • introduction of a distinctively military 
rank* of " marshal " or " field marshal," which took place in 
France and the empire in the first years of the 17th century, 
meant the establishment of a list of general officers, and the 
list spread downwards through the various regimental ranks, in 
proportion as the close proprietary system broke up, until it 
became the general krmy list of an army of to-day. At first 
field marshals were merely officers of high rank and ocperience^ 
eligible for appointment to the offices of general, lieutenant- 
general, &c., in a partictilar army. On an amy being formed, 
the list of field marshals was drawn upon, and the necessary 
number appointed. Thus an army of Gustavus Adolphus's 
time often included 6 or 8 field marshals as subordinate general 
officers But soon armies grew larger, more mobile and mora 
flexible and more general officers were needed. Thus fresh grades 
of general arose. Tbe next rank below that of manhal, in France, 
was that of lieutenant-general, which had formerly implied the 
second-in-command of an army, and a little further back in 
history the king's lieutenant-general or miliury viceroy.* Bdow 
the lleutenant-genersl was the moHckal de camp, the heir of the 
sergeant-major-general. In the imperial service the ranks were 
field manhal and lieutenant field marshal (both of which survive 
to the present day) and major-general. A further grade of general 
officer was created by I>ouls XIV., that of brigadier, and this 
completes the process of evolution, for the regimental system 
had already provided the lower titles. 

The ranks of a modern army, witk sUght variatiotts in- title, 
are therefore as follows: 

(a) Fidd marshai: ia Germany, CtneralftldmariduB; in Spda 
" captain-Ecncral '*; in France (though the rank is in abevance) 
" marKhal.^' The manhals of France, however, were neither ao 
few in number nor so mtricted to the highest comnandt as an 
marshals elsewhere. In Germany a new rank, ** colonel-sciicfal ** 

* The title was. of ooone, far older. 

*ln Englaod. until after Mmriborough's death, tank followed 
command and not vice vcns. The fint field marahaU were the 
dnke of Afgyll and the eari of Cadogan. Marlborough's tide, or 
father office, was that of captain-general. 



(GMwraMcTfO* h«s ooroe totoei Mte ac c or imther bas been iwived ■ 
—of late years. Most of the holders of tnis rank have the honorary 
•tyle of general-field-marahal.* 

ib) Genrral: in Grrmany and Ruwia, "feneral of infantry,** 
*' fencral of cavaby." '* general of artittery.** In Aualria ceneiala of 
artillery and infantry were known by the hiatoric title oT FeUtemg' 
mgisier (ordnance-master) up to 1909, but the grade of genera! of 
infantry was created in tnat year, the old title being now restricted 
to generals of artillery. In France the highest grade of general 
ofRcer is the ** general of diviikMfc.'* In the United Sutes army the 
grade of full " leneral '* haa only been held by Washington, Grant, 
Sherman and Sneridan. 

U) LuuUncnt'^eHeral (except in France) : in Austria the M title 
of lieutenant iiela marshal is retained. In the Ifnited States army 
the title ** lietttcnant'genefal,'* except within recent years, has been 
almost as rare as "generaL** Winfieid Scott was a brevet lieutenant- 
general The subsEintive rank was revived for Grant when be was 
placed in command of the Union Army in 1864. It was abolished 
as an American rank tn 1907. 

id) Major-temral (in Francse, general of brigade); thia is the 
hifhMt grade normally found in Uie United States Army, gen 

and lieutenant-generals being promoted for qMcial service only.* 

(r) BriMdier-generai, in tne United Sutes and (as a temporary 
rank only) in the British services. 

The above are the fiv^ grades of higher officers. To all intents 
and purposes, no nation has more than four of these ^ve ranks, 
while France and the United Sutes, the great republics, have only 
two. The correspondence between rank and functions cannot 
be exactly laid down, but in general an officer of the rank of 
lieutenant-general commands an army corps and a major-general 
a division. Brigades are commanded by major-generals, 
brigadier-generals or colonels. Armies are as a rule commanded 
by field marshals or full generals. In France generals of division 
command divisions, corps, armies and groups of armies. 

The above are classed as general officers. The " field officers " 
(French oJUien supirkttrs, German Stabsojfizkre) areasfoUows: 

(a) Cdomd. — ^Thb rank exists in its primitive significance in every 
army. It denotes a regimental commander, or an officer of corre- 
sponding status on the staff. In Great Britain, with the " linked 
battalion " system, regiments of infantry do not work as units, 
and the executive command of battalions, regiments of cavalry 
and brigades of field artillery is in the hands of lieutenant-colonels. 
Colonels of British regiments who are quasi-honorary (though no 
longer proprieury) chiefs arc royal personages or general othcers. 
Colonels in active employment as such are cither on the staff, 
commanders of brigades or corresponding units, or otherwise cxira- 
regimenully employed. 

(6) LieuUnant cotond: In Great Briuin "the commanding 
officer'* of a unit. Elsewhere, where the regiment and not the 
battalion is the executive unit, the licutcnant-colood sometimes 
acts as second in cpmmand, sometimes commands one of the bat- 
Ultons. In Russia all the batuUon leaders are lieutenant-colonels. 

(c) Afofor.— This rank does not exist in Russia, and in France is 
replaced by chef de baiaiUcn or chef ^ncadron, colloquially com- 
wumdani. In the British infantry he preserves some of the character- 
istics of the ancient " sergeant-major," as a second in command 
with certain administrative duties. The junior majors command 
companies. In the cavalry the majors, other than the second-in- 
command, command squadrons; in the artillery they command 
batteries. In armies which have the regiment as the executive unit, 
majors command battalions (** wings" of cavalry, "groups" of 

Lastly the " company officers " (called in France and Germany 
mbaltem officers) are as follows: — 

(o) Capuin (Germany and Austria, HanpimMn, cavalry RiU- 
Mriifrr): in the infantry of all coontrics, the company commander. 
In Russia there b a lower grade of captain called " suff-captain, 
and in Belgium there is the rank of " second-capuio. In all 
countries except Great Britain captains command squadrons and 
battcriesb Under the captain, with such commands and powcn as 
are delegated to them, are the subalterns, usually graded a>^ 

» The 16th-century " colonel-general " was the commander of a 
whole section of the armed forces. In. France there were several 
colonels^eneral. each of whom controlled several regiment^ or 
indeed the whole of an " arm." Their functions were rather those 
of a war office than those of a troop-leader. If they held high 
commands in a field army, it was by lywcial appointment ad kce. 
Cobnels-gencral were also |»roprictors in France of one company 
in each regiment, whose services they accepted. 

* In Russia the rank of marshal has been long In abeyance. 

• In the Confederate service the grades were general for army 
commanders, lieutenant-general for corps commanders, nujor- 
general for divisional commaodere and brigadier-geaenJ for brigade 

Jb) UtalmmU (frit B H in VSJL, 
I Austria). 

ie) Sub-heulematU (second-lieutenant in Great Britain and U.SA^ 
LemtmOMt in Germany and Austria). 

id) Aapiranta, or pnbatkiaary young offiocn, not of full oom- 

The continm ul oflioer is oa an average considenbly older, 
rank for nak, tluta the BcUisk; bat he is ndther younger 
DOT oUcr in respect of wimind la the' huge " univenal 
service " anaice of to^iay, the irgiinra l sl officer of Fiance or 
Gcnnaay commands, t*« wait, oa an average twice the aumber of 
mea that are placed under the British officer of eqoal rank-. 
Thus a Cenaaa or French major oC iafaatry hts. about 900 
riika to direct, while a British mtjat may have cither half a 
battalkm, 450, or a double company, mo; a Gernaa capuin 
commands a company of 250 rifles as against an English capcaia'a 
no and so 00. At the same time it must be renenbered that 
at peace strength the coatinental battalaoa and compaay are 
maintained at little more thao half their war strength, and the 
uider-officeciag of Eoiopeaa annica oaly makes itself teriously 
f elt oa mobiliaatioD. 

It b different with tkc questions of pay and prgmoUon, wiiidh 
chiefly affect the life of an army in peace. As to the former 
(see also Pemsions) tkc Continental officer is paid at a lower rate 
than the British, as shown by the table of ordimary pay per 
annum (without spedal pay or allowances) below :^ — 

Ueutcnaat-oolonel ' . . . 



Oberleutnant (Lieutenant) * . 

Second Lieutenant (LmlMan/, 

Sous4iaUemeMt) * . . . 






139 to 200 
101 to 120 



150 to 19s 


I Infantryr. lowest scale, other arms and branches higher, often 
considerably higher. 

It must be noted that in France and Germany the major is a 
battalion commander, corresponding to the British lieutenant- 
colonel. But the significance of this table can only be realiaed 
when it is remembered that promotion is rapid in the British 
army and very slow in the others. The senior ObaimOmamis 
of the German army are men of 37 to 38 years of age; the aeaior 
captains 47 to 48. In 1908 the youngest captains were 36, the 
youngest majors 45 years of age. As another illostxatkm, the 
captain's maximum pay in the French army, £10 per annum 
less than a British captain's, is only given after 12 years* service 
ia that rank, s.e. to a man of at least twenty yeaa' service. 
The coneqwnding times for British regular officers in 1905 
(when the effects of rapid promotions during the South African 
War were still felt) were 6 to 7I years from first commission to 
promotkm to captain, and 14 to 19 years from first oommissioo 
to promotioB to major. In 1908, under more normal cenditioas, 
the times were 7 to 8^ ytun to captain, 15 to so to major. In 
the Royal Engineers and the Indian army a subaltern b auto- 
matically promoted captain on completing 9 yeajrs* commiMioiied 
service, and a captain similarly promoted major after x8. 

The process of development in the case oi naval ofBcen (aecN avt) 
presents many points of mmilarity, but also considerable differences. 
For from the first the naval officer could only offer to serve on the 
king's ship: he did not build a ship as a oobnel raised a vegincot, 
and thus there was no proprietary svstem. On the other hand the 
naval officer was even more of a simple office-holder than his comrade 
ashore. He had no rank apart from that which he held in the 
economy of the ship, and when the ship went out of mtrnnissinn 
the offioera as wdl as the crew were disbanded. One feature of the 
proprietary system, however, appears in the nav^ organixatioa: 
there was a marked distinction between the captain and the lieu- 
tenant who led the combatants and the master and the master's 
mate who sailed the shtow But here there were fewer "vested 
interests," and instead of^ remaining in the condition, so to ^icak, 
of distinguished passengers, until finally eliminated by the " levellmg 
up ** of the working class of officers, the lieutenants and capuins 
were (in England) required to educate themselves thorougnly in 
the suDJects of the sea officer's profession. When this process had 
gone on for two generations, that is. about 1670, the fonnaiioa of a 



pcrmaaent staff of navil ofioen wm besun by the institution of 
hdf-f»y for the captains, and very soon aftenrards the methods of 
sdaussKHi and early trainine of naval oflkcrs were sjrsteniatiaed. 

The ranks in the British Royal Navy ace shown with the relative 
ranks of the army in the folbwing uble (taken from King's RegM- 
htimms), which aJso gives some idea of the complexity of the non- 
combaunt bfaoches of naval ofikers. 

rratmag oj BrilUh Army Qfic4rs.-^'nM may be conveniently 

by the Gvil Service Commlssionen as to thdr educational qualifica- 
tions. This examination is competitive in so far that vacancies at 
the Royal Military College at Sandhurrt (for Cavalry, Infantry and 
Army Service Cotps). or the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich 
(<or Engineers and Artillery}, go to those who jmus highest, if physic- 
ally fit. Before presenting htmself for this examination, the candidate 
must produce a " leaving certificate " from the school at which he 
was educated, showing that he already possesses a fair knowledge 

Corresponding Ranks. 



I. Field Marshals . . 

3. Generals . 

3. Lieutenant-Generab 

4. Major-Generals . . 

K. ' Brigadier-Generals 
6w Coione 

Admirals of the Fleet 
Vice-Admirals . 
Rcar-Admirab . 


7. Lieutenant-Cotonela 

8. Majon 

9. Captains 


Captains of 3 years* seniority 

Captains under 3 years* seafawity . 

C^Mnmanders, but jumor of that rack 

LieutenanU of 8 years' seniority . 

Lieutenanu under 8 years' seniority 

10. Lieutenants .... 

11. Second Lieutenants . 

12. Higher ranks of Warrant Officers . 


Eng!neer-in-Chief. if Engineer Vice-AdmiraL 
InspcctorB-General of Hospitals and Fleets. 
Engineer-in-Chief. if Engineer Rear-AdmiraL 
Engineer Rear-Admiral. 

Deputy Inspectors-Generalof Hospitals and Fleets. 

Secreuries to Admirals of the Fleet. 


Ennneer Captains of 8 years'sentority in that rank. 

Sun Captains of a years' seniority. 

Staff Captains under 4 years' seniority (navigating 

Secretaries to Commanders-in-Chief, of 5 years' 

service as such. 
Engineer Captains under 8 years' oeniority in that 

Secretaries to Commanders-in-Chief under 5 years* 

Fleet Paymasters.* 
Engineer Commanders.* 
Naxal Instructors of 15 vears* seniority.* 
Engineer Lieutenanu of 8 years' seniority, qualified 

and selected. 
Secretaries to Junior Flag Officer*, Com]Dodores,ist 

Staff Paymasters and Paymaster. 
Naval Instructors of 8 years' seniority. 
Carpenter Lieutenant of 8 years' seniority. 

Secretaries to Commodores, and Oasa. 
Naval Instructors under 8 years' seniority. 
Engineer Lieutenant under 8 years' seniority, or 

oyer if not duly qualified and selected. 
A''.i--'.iflt Pdyni.'-'^ti. f- !if j|. years' seniority. 
Carpenter l.ivuncn^iriii jjider 8 year*' seniority. 
Aidi^UJit r^yma^tcn under 4 years' seniority. 
EnjfiflWf Sub-Ucuicnaots. 
Chl<^l Ganfltf ' 
Chief tkMtawain.* 
Cbirf Caryjcntcr,* 
Churl Armficff En^necT.' 
Chief 5«:hoo?miilcr.i 

CaqicnTtrs,* ^ 
AmficTr EnKinrerA 
Held Schoohnaiiw.* 

* But junior of the army rank. 

t the appointment 

vo par . . 
to a commission: (II.) that which succeeds it. 

I. Omitting those officers who obuin their coromissioas from 
Che rsnin, the training which precedes the appointment to a com- 
mission is subdivided into: (a) General Education; {b) Technical 

(a) Cemerai Edneaiion. — A fairiv high standard of education is 
considered essentiat. Candidates from universities approved by the 
Army Council must have resided for three academic years at their 
nniversity, and have taken a degree in any subject or group of 
subjects other than Theology. Medicine, Music and Commerce. A 
university candidate for a commission in the Royal Artillery must 
further be qualified in Mathematics. The obtaining of first-class 
honours is considered equivalent to one year's extra service in the 
army, and an officer can count that year for cakulating hb service 
towards his pension. University candidates are eligible for com- 
missions in the Cavalry, Royal Artillery, Infantry, Indian Army 
and Army Ser\^ Corps. For other branches of the service special 
tcfttlations are in force. 

Those candidates who have not been at a university ate txamiaed 

* But senior of the army rank. 

of the subjects of examination. Candidates who fail to secure 
admission to these institutions, but satisfy the examiners that they 
are sufficiently well educated, can obtain commissions in the Special 

Candidates for commissions in the Royal Army Medical Corps 
and the Army Veterinary Corps are not required to pass an 
educational examinatioo, the ordinary course of medical or veterinary 
education being deemed sufficient, but the Army Council may reject 
a candidate who shows any deficiency in his general educatkm. 

Officers of the Cokmial military force* wishing to obtain com> 
missions in the British Army must either produce a school or college 
" k«ving certificate '* or pass an examination held by the Army 
Qualifying Board, or must show that they have passed one of certain 
recognixea examinations. 

(b) Toiknieai /ajImcftM.— In addition to genersl educational 
attainmenta, a fair knowledge of technical matters b expected from 

For Cavalry. Infantry. Royal Engineers, Royal Artillery and Army 
Service Corps, an examination must be passed in administration 
and organiaatioo; military history, stcategy and tactics; miliury 


- . ,, engliwering and tow. In addition, the following 

iitiooa must be complied with; (i) VmntnUy caitdiialts are 

required to be membera of the Senior Divt«ion of the Officers' 
Training Coipc (see United Kingdom: Army) tbouM there be a 
unit of that oonw at the university to which they belong. They 
are further required to be attached for six weeks to a Regular unit 
during their residence at the university. If there is no Officets' 
Training Corps at hb university, the candidate is attached to a 
Regular unit for twelve weeks (consecutivel)r or in two stages). 
The final examination in miliury subjects is competitive, {i) 
Cadets cf the Royal Jlititary CoBege are instructed in the foUowing 
additbiial subjects: saniution, French or German (or both). 
riding and horse management, musketry, physical training, drill 
and signalling. Hindustani may be taken instead of French or 
German. (3) Cadeis qf lh« Royal JiiUtary Academy are instructed 
in the same subjects as the cadets at the Royal Military College, 
with the additbn of artillery, advanced matncmatics, chemistry, 
light, heat, electricity and workshop practice. Cadets who pass 
highest in the final exam!natk>n for commissions are as a rule 
appointed to the Royal EngineerB, the remainder to the Royal 
Artillery. (4) Officers 0/ the Special Reserve, Territorial Force and 
certain other forces must have completed a continuous period of 
attachment of twelve months to a Regular unitofCavalrjr, Artillery, 
Engineers or Infantry, and have served and been trained for at least 
one year in the force to which they belong, before presenting them- 
sdves at the competitive examtnatk>n in military subjects. The 
period of attachment to Regular units may be reduced if certain 
certificates are obtained. Candidates for commissions in the artillery 
must belong to the artillery branches of the above forces and have a 
certificate m riding and mathematics. They are not eligible for the 

B I c r /-\ Ti i;.i r . rta: ^/ *t- r'^-^j^t 

Royal Eneincers. 
MuUary Forces are 

(5) The conditions for Officers of the Colonial 
similar to those for the Special "" 

consists partly 01 more detailed instruction in tne subjects already 
learned, partly of the practical application of those subjects, and 
partly of more advanced instructwn with its practical applkration. 

On first joining his unit the young officer is put through a course 
of preliminary drills, tosting, as a rule, for from three monthi 
(inuntry) to six months (cavalry), though the time depends upon 
the individual officer's rate of progress. During this penod, and foi 

Reserve, &c., 

except that only two months' attachment to a Regular unit, or unit 
of tne Permanent Colonial Forces, is reouired. (6) Commissions 
are also given to Cadeis of the Royal Military (MUge, Kingston, 
Canada; the training of that establishment being similar to that 
at the Royal Military College and the Royal Military Academy. 

Candidates for oommisuons in the Royal Army Medical Corps and 
Army Veterinary Corps are not examined in military subjects, 
but must pcCss in the amNopriate technical subjects; those for the 
Royal Army Medical (Jorps fiassing two written and two oral 
examinations, one each in medicine and suigery ; those for the Army 
Veterinary Corps passing a written and an oral examination in 
veterinary medicine, surgery and hygiene. Candidates for the Royal 
Army Medical Corps have further to proceed to the Royal Army 
Medical College tor instruction in recruiting duties, hygiene, 
pathology, tropical medicine, miUtary surgery and military mcdkal 

Royal Engineers attend the School of Military Engineering at 
Chatham, where long and elaborate courses of instruction are given 
In all aubjecu appertaining to the work of the corps, including 
practical work in the field and in fortresses. 

II. The training which succeeds the appointment to a commission 
consists partly of more detailed instruction in the subjects already 
learned, partly of the practical application of those sub' ^ 
partly of more advanced instructwn with its practical appl 

On first joining his unit the young officer is put through a course 
•• • •«..... . , , .. nionths 

Bome considerable time afterwards, officers are'inatnicted in *' regi- 
mental duties," cottsbting of the interior economy of a rvgiment, 
euch as financial accounts, storps, correspondence, the minor points 
ci military law in their actuad working, customs of the service, 
the management of legimcntal institutes. &c., with, in the case of 
the mounted branches, equitation and the care and management of 
horses. They are required to attend a number of courts-martial, 
as supernumerary members, before being permitted to attend one 
in the cflFective and official capacities of member or prosecutor, 
although from a legal point of view their qualification depends simply 
upon their rank and length of service. A oourae a mustetry. 
theontical and fMacttcal. n then gone throu^i. Fiekl training 
begins with lectures on the various evolutions of the squadron, 
battery or company, foUowed by actual pcactioe in the fiekl, arranged 
by the commanders of squadrons, batteries or companies. 

Before promotkra from the rank of sccond-Kcutenant to lieutenant, 
an examinatbn must be passed in " Regunental Duties " (practical, 
oral and written) and " Drill and FicM Training " (practical only). 
The officer is then taken in hand by the commanding officer of his 
regiment, battalion or brigade. He is frequently examined in the 
subjects in which he has already been instructed, and is practically 
taught the more advanced stages of topography, engineering, 
tactics, law and organization. The next stage consists of regimental 
drills, which include every kind of practical work in the field which 
can be done by a unit under the command of a iieutenant-cok>nel. 
After this come brigade, division and army manoeuvres. ^ Officers 
have to paa examinatk>ns in military subjects for promotion until 
they attain the rank of migor. The chief of these rubjects are 
tactics, military topography, military engineering, military law, 
administration and military history. For majors, before promotion 

to lieutcnant-eotond, an examination in "Tactical Fltneaa fof 
Command ** has to be passed. This examination in a teat of ability 
in commanding the " tnree arms " in the fiekJ; a course of attach- 
ment to the two arms to which the officer does not belong being a 
necessary preliminary. 

Army Service Csr^.— The officers of this corps have usually served 
for at least one year in the cavalry, infantry or Royal Marines, 
though oommtsskms are also given to cadets of the Royal Military 
College. On joinim, the officer first spends nine months on proba- 
tion, during which he attends lectures and practical demonstratbns 
in the following subjects: military administratwn and orsanixatiaa 
generally; and as regards Army Service Corps work, in detai; 
organication of the FieM Army and Lines of Communication; war 
orgaoiaation and duties of the A.S.C.: registry and care of corre> 
spondenoe; contracts; special purchases; precautions In receiving 
supplies, and care and issue of same; accounts, forms, vouchers 
and office work in general and in detail : barrack duties (including 
all points relating to coal, wood, turf, candles, lamps, eaa, water, Ac ). 
A thorough and detaiksd descriptran of all kinds of forage, bread- 
stuffs, meat, groceries and other fiekl supplies is given. The kctures 
and demonstrations in transport include, beside mounted and di»- 
mounted drill, wagon drill; carriages; embarkation and disem> 
barkation of men and animals; entraining and detraining: hamcaa 
and saddfery; transport by rail and sea, with the office wock 
involved. Thb course of instruction u given at the Army Service 
Corps Training Establishment at Aldcrshot. 

A satisfactoiy examiaatmn having been passed, die officer fa 
permanently taken into the corps. Before promotmn to o^Kain he 
is eicaminea in acoounta, correspondence and contracts; judging 
cattle^ and supplies; duties of an A.S.C ofiicer in charge of a 
sub-district; interior economy of a company ; military vehicles 
and pack animals; embarkation, disembarication and duties 00 
board ship; convoys; duties ot brigade supply and tranMoct 
officer in war. Captain^ before promotk>n to major, are examined 
in lines of oommunkation of an army in war; method of obtaining 
supplies and transport in war, and formation and working of depots; 
organization of transport in war; schemes of supply and tjai 

for troops operating from a fixed base; duties of a staff-< ^ 
administering supply, transport and barrack duties at home. Theae 
are in addition to general military subjects. 

Royal Army Medical Corps.— On completion of the coarse of 
instruction at the Royal Army Medical College, lieutenants on pro* 
bation proceed to the R.A.M.C. School of Instruction at AMershot 
for a two months' course in the technical duties of the corps, and at 
the end of the course are examined in the subjects taught. TMa 
passed, their commissions are confirmed. After eighteen months* 
service, officers are examined in squad, company and corps drills 
and exercises; the Geneva (invention; the administration, 
organization and eqtiipment of the army in its relation to the medical 
aervices; duties of wardmasters and stewards in military hospitals 
and returns, accounts and requisitions connected therewith: duties 
of executive medical officers; military law. These successful candi- 
dates are then eligible for promotion to captain. Before promotioa 
to major the folk>wing examination must be passed, after a oourae of 
study under such arrangements as the director-general of the Army 
Medical Service may determine: (1) modicincj (3) surgery, (3) 
hygiene, (4) bacteriolog^(s) one out of seven special subjects named, 
and (6) military law. The examination for promotion from major 
to lieutenant-colonel embraces army medical oq^anisation in peace 
and war; sanitation of towns, camps, transports. &c.; epMeniiofagy 
and the management of epidemics; medical history <A important 
campaigns; the Army Medical Service of the more important 
powers; the laws and customs of war, so far as they relate to the 
sick and wounded ; and a tactical problem in field medical admini»' 
tratron. Officcra who pass these cxaminationa with distinction are 
eligible for accelerated promotion. 

Army Ordnance Department. — ^An officer of this department must 
have had at least four years' service in other branches of the army 
and must have passed for the rank of captain. They are then eligible 
to preaent themselves at an elementary examination in inatha. 
matics, -after passing which they attend a one year's course at the 
Ordnance College. Woolwich. The course comprises the following: 
(a) Gunnery Cincluding principles of gun constructu>n and practical 
optics): (6) Maliriel, guns, carriages, machine guns, small arms 
and ammunition of all descriptions; (c) Army Ordnenco Duties 
(functwns of the corps; supply, receipt and issue of stores, &c.); 
(<0 Machinery; («) Chemistry and Metattnrgy; (/) Electricity. 
An advanced course folk>ws in which officcn take up any two of the 
subjects of applied mathematics, chemistry and electricfy, combined 
with either small arms, optics or mechanical design. They are then 
appointed to the department and hold their appointments for four 
years, with a possible extension of an additional throe y«>«rs. 

A rmy Veterinary Corps. — ^A candidate on aDpointrocnt as veterinary 
officer, on joining at Aidershot, undergoes a course of special training 
at the Army Veterinary School. The courw lasts one year, and 
consists of (a) hygiene; conformation of the foot and shoeing, 
conformation, points, colours, markings; stable construction and 
management ; management of horses in the open and of lane bodies 
of sick; saddles and sore backs; coUars and sore shoutiwre; bits 
and bitting: transport by siea and rail; mules, donkeys, < 


W Diwiwi met with ipedftUy on active aerviee. 
ctaquclte and cthica; acooanta and fctnma; - ■ '- 

: dfltMts; tnuning of army borwa: marching. 
... . t .. , j„ ^^j Military 

latiation and 

J hoapitala, mofaiUaatioa, map-reading and 

law. At the end of the'coune he b enmined, and it found mti»- 
bctory« b retained in the tervice. Before promotion to captain 
he ia examined in the dittiet of executive veterinary offioeta and in 
law: before promotion to major, in medicine, MUfery, hygiene, 
bncteriebgy and tropical diaeaaes, and m one epedal eubject aelected 
by the candidate; and bcfora promotion to lieuttnant-oolonel, 
in law, duties of adminktrative veterinary officers at home and 
abroad, management of epizootics, sanitation of stables, horae-lincs 
and tranaporta. 


rwn Pay DepaHaumk—OiBatn are appointed to the department , 

' 'id not eaoeeding one year, after serving for 

other arms or branches of the service. At 

on probation for a . 

five yeaf% in one of the of_ __ 

the end of this period the candidates are examined m the fbtlowing 
subieeta: caaounation of company pay lisu and pay and mem 
book; method of keeping aocounto and preparing balance-sheets 
and monthly estimates; knowledge of nay-wamnt, allowance 
regulations and financial instructions, book-keeping, by double entry 
and the duties attendii« the payment of sokiien; aptitude for 
•oooaitta, and qaickneas and neatnem ia work. On completion of 
five years' servxe, officers return to their regiments, untem they 
elect to remain with the department or are required by the Army 
Council to be permanently attached to it. 

Schtob ami CoUeta.'-'U^ tnuninc of the officer in his rmment is 
■eoeasarily iaoomiMete, owing to a far wider knowled^ oi hn pro- 
fesrion ia fenertl, and of hb own branch of thescrvioe in particular, 
beins essential, than can be aoquired within the comparatively 
oonmied limits of hb own nnit. Aoconlingty, schools and cdleges 
have been established, in which spedal courses of instruction ore 
given, dealing moro fully with the genenOitiea and detaib of the 
various brMnes of the service. 

There b a cavalry school at Nethemvon. 

JfMMirtf Infantiy schools have been establbhed at Longmoor. 
Bulford and Kalworth, which train both officers and men in mounted 
infantry duties. The officers selected to be trained at these schoob 
must have at least two years' service, have completed a trained 
•oklier'a course of musketry and should have some knowledge of 
homemanship and be able to ride. The instnictioa oonsisu for the 
most pan of riding school and field training. 

The Skkool of Cumnery at Shoeburyness gives five courses of 
instnictioa per annum; one " Staff " course lor Ordnance officers, 
lasting one month: two courses for senior officers of the Royal 
Artillery, listing a fortnight each, and two courses for junior officers 
of the same regiment, lasting one month each. For Royal Garrison 
Artillery officers there is one " Staff " coune lasting Tor seven months 
(thb being • continuation of the previous "Staff " course), and two 
counea, lasting four months each, for junior officers. There b also 
a school of gunnery at Lydd. where two courses, lasting for three 
weeks each, in siege artillery, are given each year. 

The OrdaaacM CoUeg^ at WooIwKh provides various courses of 
instniction in addition to those intended for officers of the Ordnance 
Department. There is a ** Gunnery Suf! Course " for senior officers, 
fai gunnery, guns, carriages, ammunition, ebctridtv and machinery; 
two courses for junior officers of the Royal Artillery in the mme 
subjects ; a course for officers of the Army Service Corps in mechanical 
transport, which includes instruction In allied suDJects, such as 
ciectncity and chembtry. It also gives courses of instruction to 
officers or the Royal Navy. 

The Sckaet af MUilary £iifiiMcnfig at Chatham trains officers of 
the Royal Engineers, compiles official text-books on field defences, 
attack and defence of fortresses, military bridging, mining, encamp- 
ments, railways. 

The Sckoel of Uuskdry at Hythe (beskles assisting and directing 
the musketry training of the army at large by revbing regulatioas, 
experiments, Sec.) trains officcn of all branches of the service m 
theoretical and practical musketry, the councs lasting about a month 
each and embracing fire control, the training of the eye in qukk 
perceptioa, fire effect and so on. CbunKs in the Maxim gun usually 

The' 5b/ CetUff (see also Staff) at Camberiey b the hmM im- 
portant of the military colleges. Only specially selected officera 
are eUgiUe to attempt the entrance examination. The course fasts 
two yean, and b divided into: (a) military history, strategy, 
tactks, imperial strategy, strategic distribution, coast defence, 
fortification, war organiiation, reconnaissance; (6) suff duues, 
administration, peace lUstribution, mobiliration, movements of 
troops by hnd and sea, supply, transport, remounts, ocganixatmn, 
law and topographkal reconnaissance. Visits are pakl to workshops, 
fortresses, continenul battlefiekb, Ac, and staff toun are earned 
out. Ofiicers of the non-mounted branches attend ridine school, 
and students can be examined in any foreign bnguages they may 
have previously studied. They are also attached lor short periods 
CD arms of the service other than those to which they belong, and 
attend at staff offices to ensure their being co nver sa nt with the work 
done there. 

The Army StrvUt Corps Traininc EsUxhiishment at Aldershot 
gives coones of instruction to senior officera of the corps at which 


a limited mimber of officera of other corps may attend, provided 
they have passed through or been recommended for the Staff College. 
Other courses, in addition to the nine months' course for ofiioen 
on probation for the corps are, one of twelve days for senior officera 
of the corps in mechanical transport: two (one long and one 
short) In the same subject for other officera; one for officera 
in other branches of the service in judging orovidotis; and one 
for lieutenants of the Royal Army Medtcaf Corps in supply and 

Otfier colleges and schoob are: the BaHoaH School at Fani« 
borough, for officera of the Royal Engineere; Schools 0/ Ekctric 
Lithtmg at Plymouth and PorUmouth; the School of SigHoUini at 
Alderahot, for officera of all branches of the service; the School of 
CymaasHeSt also at Akierehot; and the Army Veterinary SchoJ, 
where a one month's course b given to officera of the mounted 
branches in the main principles of horsemastership, stable manage- 
ment and veterinary firat aid, in addition to the one year's course for 
officera on probation for the Army Veterinary Corps. 

To encourage the study of foreign bnsu^es, officera who pass a 
preliminary examination in any bnguage they may select are aUowed 
to reside in the foreign country for a period of at least two months. 
After such resklence they may present themsdves for examinatkm, 
and if successful, receive a grant in aid of the expenses incurred. 
The grant b £80 for Russbn, £50 for German, £94 for French and 
(^ lor other languages. The final or ** Interpretenhip " examina- 
tion for whkh the grant is given Is of a very high standard. In the 
case of Russian, £80 b paid to the offioier during hb residence 
in Russb, in addition to the grant. Special arrangements are 
made with r^ard to the Chinese and Japanese languages; three 
officera for the former and four officera for the fatter being selected 
annually for a two ycara' residence in those countries. During sudi 
residence officera receive £150 per annum, in addition to their pay, 
and a reward of £175 on passing the '* Inter p re t erahip " examinatkm. 

There has been a tendency of fate yean to give officera facilities 
for going through civilbn courses of instruction; for example, at 
the London School of Economics and in the w otksli o p s of the 
principal railway companies. These coones enable the officer not 
only to profit by civilian experience and ttuigw, but also to form 
an opinion as to his own knowledge, as compared with the knowledge 
of those outMde hb immediate surroundinn. 

Promotion from thi Ranhs.-^ln several anriics an&rant officera 
may join as privates and pass throuch all gtadea. Thb b hardly 
promotion from the ranks, however, because it b understood from 
the first that the young aoantatemr, as he b called in Germany, b a 
candidate for officer's rank, and he b treated aocordihgt)r, geiinally 
living in the officera' mess and spending only a brief period in eaca 
of the non-commisnoned ranks. Triie promotkm from the ranks, 
won by merit and without any preferential treatment, b practically 
unknown in Germany. In France, on the other hand, one-third of 
the officera are promoted non-commisskmed officers. In Italy abo 
a Urge proportion of the officera comes from the ranks. In Great 
Britain, largely owing to the chances of distinction afforded by 
frequent colonial expeditkms, a fair number of non-commissioned 
officera receive promotion to combatants' oommisMons. The 
number is, however, diminishing, as shown by thefoUowingextracts 
from a return of 1909 (combatants only):^ 

1885-1888 annual average 34 (Sudan Wars, Ac) 
1889-1892 " " as 
1893-1898 " " 19 
1899-1903 "' ** 35 (S. African War) 
1903-1908 " •* 14 
Quartermastera and riding mastera are invariably p ronie t ied from 
the lower ranks. 

Officera of reserve and second line forces are recruited in Great 
Briuin both by direct apiwintment and by transfer from the regular 
forces. In universal service armies reserve officera are drawn from 
retired regular officers, selected non-commissjoned officers, and 
t of all from young men of good sodal standing who are gaaettcd 
C their compulsory period as privates m the ranb. 

1^ fcavfc >raa«w^a «^ «» a^^w*^** «»■•»« ^ ^aaoa^a « w«»^ ^a^sB%a^ 

i British ofiicer. Each country necialiaes aoooraiag 
reqniremeats, Iwt in the main tim training b much 

after serving t 

FoKEicN Armies 

The training of the officer of a foreign army differa very slightly 
from that of the British ofiicer. " ' 
to its individual teqniremeats, I 
the mme. 

Gcniiany."The Germans attend more doocly to detail— being even 
mi cr oacopical— and it has been said that a little grit in the Gmnan 
military nmchine wouM cause a ccsmtion of its working. Unfor- 
tunatuy for thb argument, the German army has not yet given any 
signs ofcessatkm oT work, so few deviatkms from the smooth working 
of the military machine being permitted that the introduction of 
grit into this air-tight canng b practically impoasiblc. At the same 
time, the German officer fo trained to have initbtiye and to use 
that initbtive, but he is e xp ected to be discreet in the use of it and 
consequently undue insistence on literal obedience to instructions 
(as distinct from formal oiden). and undue retioeace on the part of 
senior, especially staff, officera b held to be dangerous, in that the 
rmmental officer, if ignorant of the military situation, may. by acn 
of initbtive out of harmony with the general plan, seriously prejodica 



the'mm. Tke CcnRsiw attadb ifwial 
tht uctkai haiKlliag d aniOcry. 

/lo/jr.— Tbe luliMt make a ^icdality of hantmamM^ thnr 
cavalry oficcra tuidyiac (or two yean at die cavalry aaiool at 
Modeaa; later at the fcbool at Piacrolo, aad ' 
at Tor di (i^iiiito. They alio attach i 

/'ranM.— The fomal tfaiaifig of the French officer doe* oot ap|Mar 
Co differ lerioualy from that cA the British ofiker. with thia caoepcJoo. 
that M^ one-third or io of Freoch oficert are piomot e d from the 
noiKommiHioncd lanh*, a i^eat feature of the edocatioaal wyfUm 
is the group of •chook compriuag the Saomur (cavalry). St Maixent 
fiafaatry) and Vertaillc* (artillery and enginccta). which are intended 
lor underHjfficcr Candida tea lor commisMona. The tencrafity of the 
officer* comes from the " special fchool " of St Cyr (infantry and 
cavalry) and the EuU PUj^Htvu (^rtilleiy and tag^aetn). 

(R. J, C.) 

UniUd StaUs.^lhe Drindpal soutce from which officers are 
wpplied to the army is tne Urooua Military Academy at West Point. 
N.Y. The President may appoint forty cadets and feneially chooses 
eons of army and navy ctictn. Each senator and each rvpresenu- 
tlve and delc^U in Coogrcsa may ap^nt one. These appointmenu 
are not made annoally, but as vacancies occur tbrou^ gntduatton of 
cadets, or their discharae before sraduatioo. The maximum number of 
cadeu under the Twelfth Census is 553. The commanding officer of 
the academy has the title of superintendent and commandant. He is 
detailed from the army, and haa the temporary lank of cpioneL The 
corps of cadeu is organized aa a batuUon, and is commanded by an 
officer deuilol from the amy. bavins the title of commandant of 
He has the temporary ranK of lieutenant-coloneL An 
of eneinoers and ol ordnance are detailed as instructors of 
practical miuury enc ioeering and of ordnance and gunnery respec- 
tively. The heads 01 the dcpartmenu of instruction have the title 
of professors. They are selected generally from officers of the army, 
and their positions are permanent. The ofBcers above mentioned 
and the profcasore constitute the academic board. The military sulT 
and atMstant instructors are officers of the army. Thecoune of 
instruction covers four years and is very thorough. Theoretical 
instruaion comprises mathematics, French, Spanish, English, 
drawing, physics, astronomy, chemistry, ordnance and gunnery, art 
of war, dvil and military engineering, law (international, con- 
ititutioaal and miliury), liistory and dnll regulations of all arms. 
Practical instruction comprises the service drills in infantry, cavalry 
and artillery, surveying, reconnaissances, field engineering, construc- 
tion of temporary bridges, simple astronomical obacrvatjons, fencing, 
gymnastics and swimroipg. Cadets are a part of the armv, and 
rank between second lieutenants and the highest grade of non- 
commissioned officers. They receive from the government a rate 
of pay sufficient to cover all necessary expenses at the academy. 
About 50% of those entering are able to complete the course. The 
graduating dass each year numbers, on an average, about 60. ,A 
class, on graduating, is arranged In order according to merit, and its 
members are assigned as second lieutenants to corps and arm. 
according to the recommendation of the academic board. A few at 
the head of the clais go into the corps of engineers; the next in order 
generally go into the artillery, and the rest of the class into the 
cavalry and infantry. The choice of graduates as to arm of service 
and regiments is consulted as far as practicable. Any enlisted man 
who has served honestly and faithfully not less than two vcarn, who 
is between twenty-one and thirty years of age, unmamed. a citizen 
of the United States and of good moral character, may aspire to a 
commission. To obuin it he must pass an educational and physical 
anamination before a board of five officers. This board must also 
Inquire as to the character, capacity and record of the candidate. 
Many welUducafed young men, unable to obuin appointments to 
West Point, enlbt in the amiy for the express purpose of obuioing 
• commisaion. Vacancies in the grade of second lieutenant remain- 
Ing. after the graduates of the MtliUry Academy and quahficd 
enlisted men have been appomted. are filled from avil hfe. To be 
eligible for appointment a candidate must be a citizen of the United 
Sutes, unmarried, between the ages of twenty-one and twenty- 
seven yeara, and must be approved by an examining board of five 
officwa aa to habits, moral character, physical ability, education 
and generml fitness for the aervice. In time of peace very few 
appotntmenta from eivU life are made, but in time o< war there u a 

1here"are,*in addition to the Engineer School at Washington. 
D.C. four service schools for officers. These are: the Coast Artillety 
School at Foft Monroe. Virginut the Genetal Service and Staff 
College at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas: the Mounted Service 
School at Fort Riley, Kansas; the Army Medical School at Wash- 
Ington. The commandanta. staHa »nd matractore at these achools 
are oflicere specially selected. The garrison at Fort Monroe is 
con*poaed of several companiea of coast artillery.. The lieutenants 
of these oompaniea. who constitute the dass. are rebeved and replaced 
by othcra on ist September of each year. The couiw of instruction 
comprises the following subjects: artillery, balhstics. engmeenng. 
BCeam and mechanics, electricity and minea. chemistry and explosives, 
miliury science, practical military exercises, photography, tclceraphy 
ud oonjage (the use of ropes, the making of various kmda of knots 

and bsUan ri^inK sheen. Ao, for the I 

July and Augnst oT each year are ondinaffly devoted to nrtillcsy 
The ooane at the Ocacinl Service and Scaa 

cavalry, and aaeh others as nsav be «ktailed. They are eiisifi il to 
the organiiationa c ompr is i ng die garriaon. worwafly a regiment of 
ron (ioor tioopa^ of cavalry and a battery of held 
■u of JnatnKtioi are: military art. 

Tke dep 

engiiieefiog.hw,infantiv,cavalry.nBiiitaryfay|;iene. Muchattsntioa 
b paid to practical work in the minor o ye sat iu ms cf war, the tsoopa 

" * '*■ " ' •- — with. *' "^ ' 


reported to titt adjutaat-foienl of the army. Two 1 ram eadt'clnaa 
of the Artillery Sdiool, and not aMive than five from each claaa at 
the Genccal Service and Staff College, are theteafter. ao loaie aa they 
remain in the service, noted in the annaal amy re giat e t aa~* h<Hsowr 
paduatca.** The work of the Mounted Service School at Fort Riley 
IS mainly practical, and ia canned 00 by the nnlar garnnoa, which 
usually, in time of peace, consista of two sqaaidrona of cavalry and 
three field batteries.. The goveinraent reaervatioa at Fort Riley 
oompnaea aboot 40 aq* as. cf wind tcnam. ao that opportmitiea 
^^^- tlddopesatie 

afforded, and tahen advantage of . for all loads of held opesatioaa. 
The Array Medical School iaeataUiahed at Washington. Tbefacaky 
consists of four or more instmctora s el e ct ed from the aenior o ffi cera 
of the medical department. The coarse of insCnactioncowen a period 
of five months, beginaivaannallv in November. Theatadentoffiaera 
are recently appointed medical officeia, and auch other mwdkal 
officers, available for detail, aa may desire to take the eomtwe. la- 
struction b by lecture and practical work, special atteatkm beb^ 
given to the lotlowine subjeicta: duties of meidical offioera ia peace 
and war; hospital adminiatratinn; militanr m ed icin e, onifcry aad 
hygiene; microacopy and ba cter iobgy; hoapital corpa driu aad 
first aid to the wounded. (W. A. &) 

OFFICIAL (Late Lat. officialise for dass. Lat. apparitor, from 
officium, office, duty), in general any holder of office under the 
state or a public body. In ecdcsiaatical law the word '* offidal " 
has a special technical lenae as applied to the official eaerdsiiic 
a diocesan bishop's jurisdiction as hb reprcMatatlye ud ia 
hb name (see Ecclesiastical JunsoicnoN), The title of 
" official principal," together with that of " vicar-general,'* b in 
England now mecsed in that of " chancellor " of a dioceK (see 

OFFICtWAU t term applied in medicine to drugs, plants and 
herbs, which are sold in cbemisU' and druggists' shops, and to 
medical preparations of such drugs, &c, as are made in accord- 
ance with the pcescriptions autboriaed by the pharmacopoeia. 
In the htter sense, modem usage tends to supersede *' officinal " 
by "offidal." The classical Lat. officina meant a workshop, 
manufactory, laboratory, and in medieval monastic Latin was 
applied to a general store-room (see Dn Cange, doss,, «.«.); 
it thus became applied to a shop where goods were sold rather 
than a place where things were made. 

OODEN, a dty and the county-seat of Weber county, Utah, 
U.S.A., at the confluence of the Ogden and Weber rivers, aad 
about 35 m. N. of Salt Lake City. Fop. (1890) 14,889; (xgoo) 
16,313, of whom 3302 were fordgn-born; (1910 census) 
35,580. It is served by the Union Pacific, the Southern Pacific, 
the Oregon Short Line, and the Denver k Rio Grande iailTa>'s. 
It b situated at an elevation of about 4300 ft. in the picturesque 
region of the Wasatch Range, Qgdcn Caflon and the Great 
Salt Lake. Ogden is in an agricultutal and fruit-growing 
region, and gold and silver are mined In the vicinity. It has 
various manufactures, and the value of the factory product 
increased from $1,242,214 in 1900 to $2,997,057 in 1905, or 
X4t'3^ Ogden, which is said to have been named in honour 
of John Ogden, a trapper, was laid out under the direction of 
Brigham Young in 1850, and was incorporated in the next year; 
in x86i it recdved a new charter, but since 1898 it has been 
governed under a general law of the state. 

OODBNSBURO, a dty and port of entry of St Lawrence 
county, New York, U.S.A., on the St Lawrence fiver, at the 
mouth of the Oswcgatchic, 140 m. N. by E. of Syracuse, New 
York. Pop. (1890) 11,662; (1900) 12,633, of whom 3222 were 
foreign-born; (1910 census) iSf933- It is served by the New 
York Central «r Hudson River and the Rutland railways, and 
by several lake and river steamboat lines connecting with ports 
on the Great Lakes, the dty bdng at the head of lake oavigaiion 




■n the St Lawreace. Steam ferrict connect Ogdcnibttrg with 
pRMott, Ontario. The dty is the scat of tbe St Lawrence Slate 
Boapital for the Insane (1890), and has a United Slates Cwtona 
Howo and a sute armoury. The dty became the see of a Roman 
Catholic bishop in 187s, and here Edgar Philip Wadhams (1817- 
1891) Uboured as bishop in 1879-1891. It is the port of entry 
of the Oswcgatchie customa district, and haa an extensive 
^Mtmnwnmw rm piTticulady in lumbcT and grain. The dty has 
Taiio«a manufactures, inchiding lumber, Hour, wooden-ware, 
bnsa>ware, sillu, woollens and dothing. The value of the 
factory products increased from 9»,9te.889 in 1900 to $3,057,271 
in 190S, or 35*3%. The site of Ogdensburg was occupied in 
1749 hy the Indian settlement of La Presentation, founded by 
the Abb6 Francois liquet (1708*1781) for the Christian converts 
of the Iroquoia. At the outbreak of the War of Independence 
the British buUt here Fort Presenution, which they hdd until 
1796, when, bi accordance with the terms of the Jay Treaty, 
the garrisoa was withdrawn. Abraham Ogden (x743~'798)> 
a prominent New Jersey lawyer, bought land here, and the 
settlement which grew up around the fort was named Ogdensburg. 
During the early part of the War of 1819 it was an important 
point on the American line of defence. On the 4th of October 
1811 Colood Lethbridge, with about 750 men, prepared to 
attack Ogdensburg but was driven off hy American troops 
under Gmral Jacob Brown. On the 32nd of February 1813 
both fort and village -were captured and partially destroyed 
by the British. During the Canadian riring of 1837-1838 
dfedensbwg became a lendesvous of the insurgents. Ogdensburg 
was incorporated as a village in 181 8, and was chartered as a 
dty in 1868. 

06BB (pfobably an English corruption of Fr. cghe, a diagonal 
groin rib, being a moulding commonly employed; equivalents 
in other languages are Lat. tyma-rtfersa, Ilal. gda, Fr. eymaUe, 
Ger. Kekttti^M), a term given in architecture to a moulding 
of a double curvature, convex and concave, in which the former 
is the uppermost (see Mouloing). The name ** ogee-arch " 
is often applied to an arch formed by the meeting of two con- 
trasted ogees (see Abcr). 

OOIER THE DAVB. a hero of romance, who is identified with 
tbe Frankish warrior Autchar (Autgarius, Auctarius, Otgarius, 
Oggerius) of the old chroniclers. In 771 or 772 Autchar accom- 
panied Gerberga, widow of Carloman, Charlemagne's brother, 
and her children to the court of Desiderius, king of the Lombards, 
with whom he marched against Rome. In 773 he submitted 
to Charles at Verona. He finally entered the cloister of St Faro 
at Meaox, and MabiUon (A€ia SS. crd. St BtnedUli, Paris, 1677) 
has left a description of his monument there, which had figures 
of Ogier and his friend Benedict or Benolt, with smaller images 
of Roland and hi belle Aude and other Carolingian personages. 
In the chronicle of the FSeudo Turpin it is stated that innumer- 
able ianHlemae were current on the subject of Ogier, and his 
deeds were probably sung in German as well as in French. The 
Ogier of romance may be definitely associated with the flight 
of Gerberga and her children to Lombardy, but it is not safe 
to assume tbaf the other scattered references all relate to the 
same individual. Colour is lent to the theory of hb Bavarian 
origin by the fact that he, with Duke Naimes of Bavaria, led 
the Bavarian contingent to battle at Roncesvaux. 

In the romances of the CaroKngian cycle he Is, on account 
of his revoh against Charlemagne, placed in the family of Doon 
de Mayence. being the son of Caufrey de " Dannemarche.** 
The Efifamca Oiier of Aden^ le Rois. and the CkaaUHt Ogier 
it Dammemanke of Raimbert de Paris, are doubtless based on 
eariler chansons. The Ckevalerie is divided into twelve songs or 
branches. Ogier, who was the hostage for his father at Charle- 
magne*s court, fell into disgrace, but regained the emperor's 
favour by bis exploits in Italy. One Easter at the court of Laon, 
however, Ms son Balduinet was slain by Charlemagne*s son. 
Chariot, with a chess-board (cf. the inddent of Renaud and 
Bertholais hi the Qntttrt POs Aymmi). Ogier in his rage shys 
the queen's nephew Loher. and would have slain Charlemagne 
ktBself b«t for tbe ifilerventmn of the knighu. who connived 

at his flight to Lombardy. In his stronghold of Cistelfoft he 
resktcd the imperial forces for seven years, but was at last taken 
prisoner by Turpin, who incarcerated him at Reims, whfle his 
horse Bnridort, the sharer of his exploiu, was made to draw 
stones at Meaux. He was eventually released to fight the 
Saracen chief Br^us or Braihier, whose armies had ravaged 
France, and who had defied Charlemagne to single combat. 
Ogier only consented to fight after the surrender of Chartot, 
but the prince was saved from his barbarous vengeance by the 
intervention of St Michael. The giant Br^hus, despite his 
17 ft. of stature, was overthrown, and Ogier, after marrying an 
English princess, the daughter of Angart (or Edgard), king of 
England, received from Charlemagne the fieb of Hainaut and 

A later romance in Alexandrines (Brit. Mus. MS. Royal 1 5 E vl) 
contains marveb added from Cdtic romance. Six fairies visit 
his cradle, the sixth, Morgan la Fay, promising that he shall 
be her lover. He has a conqueror's career in tbe East, and after 
two hundred years in the " castle " of Avalon returns to Franco 
in the days of Ring Philip, bearing a firebrand on which his life 
depends. TMs he destroys when Philip's widowed queen 
wbhcs to marry him, and he b again carried off by Morgan H 
Fay. The prose romance printed at Paris in 1498 b a versfon 
of thb later poem. The fairy element b prominent in the Italian 
legend of Uggieri U Dauese, the most famous redaction being 
the prose LiUo idt batagfie del Dattae (Milan, 1498), and in the 
English Famous and renemned kitlory of if #rTf ne, un to Ogier 
Ike Dame, translated by J. M. (London, 1613). Tbe Spanish 
Urgel was the hero of Lope de Vega's play, the Uarqua d$ 
Manima. Ogier occupies the third branch of the Scandinavian 
Karlamagnus saga; his fight with Brunamont {Enfamces Og^er^ 
was the subject of a Danish folk-song; and as Hoiger Donski 
he became a Danish national hero, who fought against the 
German Dietrich of Bern (Theodoric " of Verona "), and was 
invested with the common tradition of the king who sleeps in 
a mountain ready to awaken at need. Whether he had originally 
anything to do with Denmark seems doubtful. The surnama 
le Danob has been explained as a corruption of rArdennob and 
Dannemarche as the marches of the Ardennes. 

BtBLiocmAmY. — La Ckeoolerie Oper ie Danemarehe, ed. I. B. 
Barrob (a voln, Paris. 1843); Le$ Emfonees Ogier, cd. A. Scheler 
(Bnmeb, 1874); Hist. iitt. de ta framu, voU xx. and xieL ; C. Paris, 
Hist. poH. de Ckcriewiagae (Parii, l8%6) ; L. Cautier. La Epopies 
framfaises (2nd cd., 1878-1896): L. Pio. Saguet om Holgier Danske 
(Copenhagen, 1870): H. L. Ward, Colalogme of Romamees, voL L 
po. 6q4«6io: C. Vofetach, Vber die Sate oem Oper dem Dimem 
(Ijalle. 1891): P. Pari^ " Redierchcs lur Ogier le Danob." BM. de 
rtcaU des CharUs, vol. iU. ; P. Raina. Le Ongimi deW epopea frameese 
(1884): Riczler. ** Naimr* v. Bayem und (^icr der D&ne.** in 
Sitxungsberifkte der pkil. kist. Oasu der Id. Akad. d. Wise., vol. iv. 
(Municb. 1893). 

06IUT, JORll (i6o»-i676), Britbh writer, was bom hi or 
near Edinburgh in November 1600. His father was a prisoner 
withm the rules of King's Bench, but by speculation the son 
found money to apprentice himself to a dancing master and to 
obi ain hb father's release. He accompa nicd Thomas Went worth, 
earl of Strafford, when he went to Ireland as lord deputy, and 
became tutor to hb children. Strafford made him deputy-master 
of the rcveb, and he built a little theatre in St Werburgh Street, 
Dublin, which was very successful. The outbreak of the Cf\'il 
War ruined hb fortunes, and in 1646 he returned to England. 
Finding hb way to Cambridge, he learned Latin from itndly 
schobrs who had been impressed by hb industr>'. He then 
ventured to transbte Vir|^ into English verse (1649-1650), 
which brought him a considerable sum of money. The success 
of thb attempt encouraged Ogilby to learn Greek from David 
Whit ford, who was usher in the Khool kept by James Shlrlo' the 
dramatbt. Homer his Hinds tronstatfd . . . appeared in 1660, 
and in 1665 Homer his Odysses transtated . . . Anthony 1 
Wood asserts that in these undertaLtngs he had the assistance 
of Shirley. At the Rc&tora!ion Ogilby received a commission 
for the **poetic:il part " of the coronation. Hb property was 
destroyed in the Great Fire of 1666. hut he rebuilt hb house 
in Iftliitefriars, and set up a pri::ting press, from which be baued 



nwny nufoUieciii book*, tht mctt importaat of vUdi were a 
Htim of oUiMt, wlUi cncmvioft and nupt by Hdbr And 
ochon. Ho ttyfed himscU " HI* M«ie>iy'» Cotmograplicf mod 
CwgTApUc Friator." Uo diod ia Loodoa on tho 4tb of 
S^tombcr 1676. 

OgUby olto trandatcd tho fablM of A«top, and wrote three epic 
prjcmt. HU bulky output wa» ridiculed by John Orydeo in ii«^' 
PlicknM tod by Alexander Pope in the PukuuL 

OOltVIB (or Ogilsy). JOHN (e. 1580-1615), English Jeault, 
waa boro in Scotland and educated mainly bi Germany, where 
he entered the Society of Jesut, being ordained priest at Paria 
bi 1613. As an emissary o( the society be returned to Scotland 
in this year disguised as a soldier, and in October 16x4 he was 
arrested in Glasgow. He defended himself stoutly when he was 
tried in Edinburgh, but he was condemAed to death and was 
banged on the 38th of February 1615. 

A Trui Relation oj the Proce€ainf^t atflinsi John OgUvie, a Jesuit 
(Kdlnburgh, 1615^,1^ usually attributed to ArchbifthopSpottiswoodc. 
9r^ bIm Iiimct rorbcs, L Eglite catholiqut en Ecosst: martyre de 
Jean Otmio (I'arit, 1685); and W. Forbes«Leith, Nanataes of 
Stottitk Quhotict (1885). 

OOILVY, the name of a celebrated Scottish family of which 
the oarl of Alrlie is the head. The family was probably descended 
from a certain Gillebrlde, carl of Angus, who received lands from 
WlUiam the Uon. Sir Walter Ogllvy (d. 1440) of Lijitrathcn, 
lord high treasurer of Scotland from 1415 to Z431, was the son 
of Sir Walter Ogilvy of Wester Powrie and Auchterhouse, a 
man, layi Andrew of Wyntoun, "stout and manfull, bauld 
and wycht," who was killed in 139J. He buQt a castle at Alrlie 
in Forfarsliire, and left two sons. The elder of these, Sir John 
Ogilvy (d. e, 1484) » was the father of Sir James Ogilvy (c. X430-C. 
1504)1 wbo was made a lord of parliament in 1491; and the 
younger, Sir Walter Ogilvy, was the ancestor of the earls of 
Findtater. The earldom of Findlater. bestowed on James 
Ogilvy, Lord Ogilvy of Deskford, in 1638, was united in 1711 
with the earldom of Scafteld and became dormant after the 
death of James Ogilvy, the 7th earl, in October 18x1 (see Sea- 
tiKLO, Earxj or). 

Sir James Ogilvy's descendant, James Ogilvy, 5th Lord 
Ogilvy of Airlie {c. t54t-t6o6), a son of James Ogilvy, master 
of Ogilvyt who was killed at the battle of Pinkie In 1547, took a 
leading part In Scottisli politics during the reigns of Mary and 
of James VI. His grandson, James Ogilvy (c. 1 593-1666), was 
created earl of Alrlie by Charles I. at York in 1639. A loyal 
partisan of the king, he Joined Montrose in Scotland in 1644 and 
was one of the royalist leaders at the battle of Kilsyilu The 
destruction of the earl's castles of Airlie and of Forther in X640 
by the earl of Argyll, who " left him not in all his lands a cock 
to crow day," gave rise to the song " The bonny house o'Airlie." 
His eldest son, James, the and earl (c. 1615-c. 1704) also fought 
among the royalists in Scotland; in 1644 he was taken prisoner, 
but he was released in the following year as a consequence of 
Montrose's victory at Kilsyth. He was again a prisoner after 
the battle of Philiphaugh and was sentenced to death in 1646, 
but he escaped from his captivity at St Andrews and was aftcr- 
wanls pardoned. Serving with the Scots against Crom^KcU 
he became a prisoner for the third time in 1651, and was in the 
Tonxr of London during most of the years of the Commonwealth. 
He was a fairly prominent man under Charles II. and James 
H., and in 1689 he ranged himself on the side of William of 
OrAngc. This carKs grandson, James Ogilvy (d. I730i took part 
in the lacubiie rising of 1715 and was attainted; consequently 
on his lather's death in 1717 he was not allowed to succeed 
to the carUiom, although he was pardoned in 1735. Wlicn be 
dicil his brxHhcr John (d. 1761) became car! JeyuiY, and John'a 
son David (17^5-1)^3) jolncil (he standard of Prince Charles 
Fdward in 1745. He was attainted, and after the defeat of the 
prince at CulKxIen escaped to Norway and Swcticn, afterwards 
serving m the French arnty, where he commandcvl ** Ic rcj:im(Kt 
Oji^rv " and was known as **U M JEcmmm." In 177S he was 
nar\iv>nc(1 and was allowni to return to Scotland, and his family 
became extinct when hU son David dicti unmarncil in April 
181 1. After this event Daxida cousin, aixothcr David Ogilvy 

(i7S5-tS49)« dajned the earldom. He asMiied tbat he was 
unaiTf<led by tbe t wo atuinders, but the House of Lords decided 
tbat these barred his soccdHon; however, in 1826 the atiaiadcn 
were rrvened by act of parliament aiid David became 6(h 
carl of Airlie. He died on the aoth of August 1849 aad was 
succeeded by his son, David Graham Drummond Ogilvy (1826- 
x88i), who was a Scottish rqxesentaiive peer for over thirty 
years. The latter's son, David Stanley Wflliam Drummood 
Ogilvy, the 8ih carl (1856-1900), served in Egypt in x833 and 
1S85, and was killed on the nth of June 1900 during the Boer 
War while at the head of his RigiineBt, the lath Lancers. His 
titles then passed to his ton, David Lyulph Gore Wobdey 
Ogilvy, the 9th earl (b. 1893). 

A word may be said about other noteworthy members of the 
OgUvy family. John Ogilvy, called Powrie Ogilvy, was a 
political adventurer who professed to serve King James VI. 
as a spy and who certainly served William Cecil in this capacity. 
MarioU Ogilvy (d. 1575) was the mistress of Cardinal Beaton. 
Sir George Ogilvy <d. 1663), a supporter of Charles I. during 
the struggle with the Covenanters, was created a peer as lord 
oi Banff in 1642; this dignity became dormant, or extinct, 
on the death of his descendant, William Ogilvy, the 8th lord, 
in June 1803. Sir George Ogilvy of Barras (d. c 1679) defended 
Dunnottar Castle against Cromwell in 165 r and 1652, and was 
instrumental in preventing the regalia of Scotland from falling 
into his hands; in 1660 be was created a baronet, the title 
becoming extinct in 1837. 

See Sir R. Douglas. Pteraat 0/ Scolland» new od. by Sir J. B. Paul 
(1904 fol.). 

OOIVE (a French term, of which the origin is obscure; oirfe, 
trough, from Lat. ovgere, to increase, and an Ambic astrologiGal 
word for the " highest point." have been suggested as derivations), 
a term applied in architecture to the diagonal ribs of a vault. 
In France the name is generally given to the pointed arch, 
which has resulted in its acceptance as a title for Gothic arcfai* 
tecture, there often called " Ic style ogmd." 

OGLETHORPE, JAMES EDWARD (1696-1785). English 
general and philanthropist, the founder of the state of Georgia, 
was bom in London on the 21st of December 1696, the soa of 
Sir Theophilus Oglethorpe (1650-1702) of West brook Place, 
Godalming, Surrey. He entered Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 
in X714, but in the same year joined the army of Prince Eugdne. 
Through the recommendation of the duke of Marlborough he 
became aide-de-camp to the prince, and he served with disUoction 
in the campaign against the Turks, 27x6-17, more especially* at 
the siege and capture of Belgrade. After his return to Engbnd 
he was in x 722 chosen member of pailiament for Haslemcre. 
He devoted much attention to the improvement of the circum- 
stances of poor debtors in London prisons; and for tbe purpose 
of providing an asylum for persons who had become insolveni. 
and for oppressed ProtesUnts on the continent, he projeaed 
ilie settlement of a colony in America between Carolina and 
Florida (see Georgia). In 1745 Oglethorpe was promoted to 
the rank of major-general. His conduct in connexion with the 
Scottish rebellion of that year was the subject of inquiry by court- 
martial, but he was acquitted. In 1765 he was raised to the 
rank of generaL He died at Cranham HaU. Essex, on the 1st of 
July X785. 

Sir Theophilus Oglethoipe. the father, had four sons and four 
daughters, James bdward bcinj^ the youngest son. and another 

iames (b. 1688) ha\Hng died in infancy. Of the daughters. Anne 
lenrictta (b. 1680-1683). Flkanor (b. 1684) and Frances Chariotie 
(BolingbrDke's " Fanny Oglethorpe '*) may be specified as having 
played rather carious parts in tbe Jacobiiism of the lime; tbtv 
careers are described in the essay on " Queen Oglethorpe " bv Mik* 
A. Shield and A. Lang, in the tatter's Uislortcai Mysteries (1904). 

OOOWi; one of the largest of tbe African rivers of the second 
class, rising in 3* S. in the highlands known as the Crystal range, 
and flowing N.W, and W. to the Allaniic, a little south of the 
equator, and some 400 m. following the coast, north of the mouth 
of the Congo. Us course, estimated at 750 m., lies wholly within 
the ti lony of Gabun, French Congo. In spile of its considerable 
si^e, the river {:» of comparatively little use for x^vigatioa, as 



lapids coostantly occur as it descends tbe sttcceasive steps of the 
interior tablelands. The principal obstructions are the falls of 
Dome, in 13* £.; Bunji, in la* js'*, Chengwe, in xa* x6'; Bou£, 
in 1 1' 53' ; ud the rapids formed in the passes by which it breaks 
throu^ the outer chains of the mountainous zone, between xo}* 
and xz}* E. In its lower course the river passes through a 
lacustrixM region in which it sends off tecondazy channels. 
These rhannris, before reuniting with the main stream, traverse 
a series of lakes, one north, the other south, of the river. These 
lakes are natuxal regulatoza of the river when in flood. The 
Ogow^ has a large number of tributaries, especially in its upper 
eourse, but of these few are navigable. The most important are 
the Lolo, which joins on the south bank in z a* 20^ E., and the 
Ivindo, which enters the Ogow£ a few miles lower down. Below 
the Ivindo the krgest tributaries are the Ofowl, 400 yds. wide 
at its mouth (ix* 4/ E.), but unnavigable except in the rains, 
and the Ngunye, the largest southern tributaiy, navigable for 
4o m. to the siunba or Eugenie Falls. Apart from the narrow 
coast plain the whole region of the lower Ogow£ is densely 
forested. It is fairiy thickly populated by Bantu tribes who 
have migrated from the interior. The fauna includes the gorilla 
and chimpansee. 

The Ogow£ rises In March and April, and again in October and 
November; it is navigable for steamers in its low-water condition 
as far as the junction of the Ngunye. At flood time the river 
can be ascended by steamers for a distance of 235 m. to a place 
called N'Jole. The first person to explore the valley of the 
Ogow£ was Paul du Chaillu, who travelled in the country during 
1857-Z859. The extent of the delta and the immense volume 
of water carried by the river gave rise to the belief that it must 
cither be a bifurcation of the Congo or one of the leading rivers of 
Africa. However, in 1882 Savorgnan de Brazsa (the founder of 
French G>ngo) reached the sources of the river in a rugged, sandy 
and almost treeless plateau, which forms the watershed between 
lu basin and that of the Congo, whose main stream is only 140 m. 
distant. Since that time the basin of the Ogow6 has been fully 
explored by French travellers. 

OOfil^ the name in fairy tales and folk-lore of a malignant 
monstrous giant who lives on human flesh. The word is French, 
and occurs first in Charles Perrault's Histoins ou €onits du 
tempM passS (1697). The first English use is in the translation of 
a French version of the Arabian Nights in 1713, where it is spelled 
kogrt. Attempts have been made to connea the word with 
Ugrit the zadal name of the Magyars or Hungarians, but it is 
fenerally accepted that it was adapted into French from the 
O. Span, huereo, kuergo, uerge, cognate with Ital. orco, ue. OreuSf 
the Latin god of the dead and the infernal regions (see Pluto), 
who in Romance folk-lore became a man-eating demon of the 

OOYOBS, or OcYCus. in Greek mythology, the first king of 
Thebes. During his reign a great flood, called the Ogygian 
deluge, was said to have overwhelmed the bnd. Similar legends 
were current in Attica and Phrygla. Ogyges is variously 
deM»bed as a Boeotian autochthon, as the son of Cadmus, or 
of Poseidon* 

irUMM, THOMAS O'HAOAN, isr Bakon (x8^a-z885), lord 
chancellor of Ireland, was bom at Belfast, on the a^th of May 
z8x2. He was educated at Belfast Academical Institution, and 
wascalled to the Irish bar in 1836. In 1840 he removed to Dublin, 
where he appeared for the repeal party in many political trials. 
His advoocy of a continuance of the union with England, 
and his appointment as solicitor-general for Ireland in x86i and 
attorney-general in the following year, lost him the support of 
the Nationalist party, but he was returned to pariiament as 
member for Tralce In 1 863. In x86s he was appointed a judge of 
common pleas, and in x868 became lord chancellor of Ireland in 
Gladstone's first ministry. He was the first Roman (UthoUc to 
hold the chancellorahip since the reign of James II., an act 
throwing open the office to Roman Catholics having been passed 
Id 1867. In X 870 he was raised to the peerage, and held office until 
theresignation of the ministry in X874. Inx88o he again became 
locd chancellor 00 Gladstone's return to olfice, but resigned in 

z88x. He died in London on the xst of February Z885, and was 
succeeded by his eldest son, Thomas Towneley (t878-X9oo), 
and then by another son, Maurice Herbert Towneley (b. Z882}. 

CHIOGINS, BERNARDO (i77»-i842), one of the foremost 
leaders in the Chilean struggle for independence and head of 
the first permanent national government, was a natural son of 
the Irishman Ambrosio O'Higgins, governor of Chile ( 1 788-1 796), 
and was bom at Chilian on the 20th of August 1778. He was 
educated in England, and after a visit to Spain he lived quietly 
on his estate in Chile till the revolution broke out. Joining the 
nationalist party led by Martinez de Rozas, he distinguished 
himself in the early fighting against the royalist troops despatched 
from Pern, and was appointed in November 1813 to supersede 
J. M. Carrera in command of the patriot forces. The ri vab-y that 
ensued, in spite of O'Higgins's generous offer to serve under 
Carrera, eventually resulted in O'Higgins being isolated and 
overwhelmed with the bulk of the Chilean forces at Rancagua 
in 18x4. O'Higgins with most of the patriots fled across the 
Andes to Mendoza, where Jos£ de San Martin (q.v.) was prepar- 
ing a force for the liberation of Chile. San Martin espoused 
O'Higgins's part against Carrera, and O'Higgins, recognixing the 
superior ability and experience of San Martin, readily consented 
to serve as his subordinate. The loyalty and energy with which 
he acted under San Martin contributed not a little to the organixa- 
tion of the liberating army, to its transportation over the Andes, 
and to the defeat of the royalists at Chacabuco (181 7) and Maipo 
(1818}. After the battle of Chacabuco O'Higgins was entrusted 
with the administration of Chile, and he ruled the country firmly 
and well, maintaining the dose connexion with the Argentine, 
co-operating loyally with San Martin in the preparation of the 
force for the invasion of Peru, and seeking, as far as the confusion 
and embarrassments of the time allowed, to improve the welfare 
of the people. After the overthrow of the Spanish supremacy 
in Peru had freed the Chileans from fear of attack, an agitation 
set in for constitutional government. O'Higgins at first tried 
to maintain his position by calUng a congress and obtaining a 
constitution which Invested him with dictatorial powers. But 
popular discontent grew in force; risings took place In Concepdon 
and Coquimbo, and on the 28th of January Z823 O'Higgins 
was finally patriotic enough to resign his post of director-general, 
without attempting to retain it by force. He retired to Peru, 
where he was granted an estate and lived quietly till his death on 
the 24th of October X842. 

See B. Vicufia Machenna, Vida de (TBitffns (Santiago, 188a), 
and M. L. Armuniitcgm, La Diciadura de CyHtgiins (Santiago, i8S3} ; 
both containini^ good accounts of O'Hinins s career. Abo prB. 
Figucfoa, Diccwnario bio^dfico de Cktle, ISKO-18S7 (Santiago. 
1888), and J. B. Suarez, Rasgoi Hogjrdficos de Mombra notables de 
Chile (Valparaiso, 1886}. 

OHIO, a north central state of the United States of America, 
lying between latitudes 38* 27' and 41* 57' N. and between 
longitudes 80* 34' and 84* 49' W. It is bounded N. by Mlchi^n 
and Lake Erie, E. by Pennsylvania and by the Ohio river which 
separates it from West Virginia, S. by the Ohio river which 
separates it from West Vi^nia and Kentucky^ and W. by 
Indiana. The total area is 41,040 sq. m., 300 sq. m. being water 

Physiography. — ^The state lies on the borderiand between 
the Prairie Plains and the Alleghany Plateau. The disturbances 
among the underlying rocks of Ohio have been slight, and 
originally the surface was a plain only slightly undulating; 
stream dissecrion changed the region to one of numberless hills 
and valleys; glacial dzift then filled up the valleys over brge 
broken areas, forming the remarkably level till plains of north- 
western Ohio; but at the same time other areas were broken liy 
the uneven distribution of the drift, and south-eastern Ohio, 
which was ungladated, retains its ragged hilly character, gradu- 
ally merging with the typical plateau country farther SX. The 
average devation of the state above the sea is about 850 ft, 
but extremes vary from 425 ft. at the confluence of the Great 
Miami and Ohio rivers in the S.W. comer to 1540 ft. on the 
summit of Hogues Hill about i} m. E. of BeDefootidae in the 
west central part. 



The main water-parting is formed by a ranfe of hiHs which ans 
composed chiefly ot drift and extend W.S.VV. acnws the sute from 
Trumbull county in the N.E. to Darke county, or about ^e middle 
of the W. border. North of this water-parting the riven# flow into 
Lake Erie: S. of it into the Ohio river. Neariy all of the streams 
in the N.E. part of the state have a rapid current. Those that flow 
directly into the lake are short, but some of the rivers of this region, 
such as the Cuyahoga and the Grand, are turned by drift ridges into 
circuitous courses and flow through narrow valley with numerous 
falls and rapids. Passing the village of Cuyahoga rails the Cuyaho^ja 
river desoendb more than aoo ft. in 3 m.; a part of its coune is 
between walls of sandstone 100 ft. or more in height, and near its 
mouth, at Cleveland, its bed has been cut down through 60 ft. of 
drift. In the middle N. part of the state the Black, Vermilion and 
Huron rivers have their sources in swamps on the water-parting and 
flow directly to the lake through narrow valleys. The till plains of 
north-western Ohio are drained chiefly by the Mauroee and Saa- 
dusky rivers, with their tributaries, and the average fall of the 
Maumee is only i*x ft. per mile, while that of the Sandusky decreases 
from about 7 ft. per mile at Upper Sandusky to 3*5 ft. per mile bek>w 
Fremont. South of the water-partiiu the averajse length of the 
rivers is greater than that of those N. of it, and their average fall per 
mile is much less. In the S.W. the Great Miami and Little Miami 
rivers have uniform falls through barins that are deddedly rolling 
and that contain the extremes of elevatioa for the entire state. 
The central and S. middle part is drained by the Scioto river and its 
tributaries. The basin of this river is formed mostly in Devonian 
shale, and is bounded on the W. by a limestone rim and on the E. 
by pregladal valleys filled with gladal drift. In its middle portion 
the Daun is about 40 m. wide and only moderatdy rolling, but toward 
the mouth of the river the basin becomes narrow and is shut in by 
hiah hills. In the E. part of Ohio the Muskingum river and its 
tributaries drain an area of about 7750 sq. m. or nearly one-fifth 
of the entire state. Much of the ungladal or driftless portion of the 
state is embraced within its limits, and although the streams now 
have a gentle or even aliwgish flow, they have greatly broken the 
surface of the country. The upper portion of the basin is about 
100 m. in wklth, bat it becomes quite narrow bebw Zanesville. The 
Ohio river flows for 136 m. through a narrow valley on the S. border 
of the state, and Lake Erie forms the N. boundary for a distance of 
330 ra. At the W. end of the lake are Sandusl^ and Maumee bays, 
each with a good natural harbour. In this vionity also are various 
small islands of limestone formation which are attractive summer 
resorts. On Put-in- Bay Isbnd are some interesting " hydration ** 
caves, ije. caves formed by the uplifting and folding of the rocks 
while gypsum was forming beneath, folkiwed bv the partial coUapse 
of those rocks when the gypsum passed into solution, ^lio has no 
large lakes within its limits, but there arc several small ones on the 
water-parting, especially in the vidnity of Akron and Canton, 
and a icw large reservoirs In the W. central section. 
, Fauna. — Bears, wolves, bison, deer, wiki turkeys and wild pigeons 
were onnmon in the primeval forests of Ohio, but they long a^ 
disappeared. Foxes are still found in considerable numbers in 
suitable habiuts; opossums, skunks and raccoons arc plentiful in 
some parts of the state; and rabbits and rauirrcb are stilf numerous. 
All the song-birds and birds of prey of the temperate sone are 
plentiful. Whitefish, bass, trout and pickerel are an important food 
supply obtained from the waters of the Lake, and some perch, catfish 
and sunflsh are caught in the rivers and brooks. 

Flora,— Ohva is known as the " Buckeye State " on account of 
the prevalence of the buckeye iAuadus i^iabra)* The state was 
oriainally covered with a dense forest mostl]^ of hardwood timber, 
and altMugh the merchantable portion of this has been practically 
all cut away, there arc still andergrowths of young timber and a 
great variety of trees. The white oalc is the most common, but there 
are thirteen other varieties of oak, six of hickory, five of ash, five of 
poplar, five of pine, three of elm. throe of bircn, two of locust and 
two of cherry. Bocch, black walnut, butternut, chestnut, catalfia, 
hemlock and tamarack trees are also common. Among native fruits 
are the blackberry, raspberry, elderberry, cranberry, wikl plum and 

ewpaw {Asimina triloba). Buttercups, violets, anemones, spring 
autics. trilliuffls, arbutus, orchids, columbine, laurel, honeysuckle, 
goklen rod and asters arc common wild flowers, and of ferns there 
are many varieties. 

' C/tmaitf.— The mean annual temperature of Ohk> is about 51* F. ; 
in the N., 40*5*, and in the S., 53'$** But except where influenced by 
Lake Eria the temperature is simjoct to great extremes: at Coalton. 
Jackson county, in the S.E. part of the state, the honest recorded 
range of extremes is from 104* to —38* or 14a*; at Wauseon, 
Fulton county, near the N.W. corner, it is from 104* to —3a* or I36* : 
while at Toledo on the lake shore the range b only from 99* to — 16* 
or 1 1 s* F. July is the warmest month, and in roost paru of the sute 
January is the coldest; in a few valleys, however, Februarjr has a 
colder record than January. The normal annual precipitation for 
the entire state is 38*4 in. It is greater in the S,E. and least in the 
N.W. At Marietta, tor exatnplc, it is 43*1 in., but at Toledo it is 
only 30-8 in. Neariy 60% of it comes in the spring and summer. 
The average annual fall 01 snow is about 37 in. in the N. and 23 in. 
In the S. The prevailing winds in most parts are westeriy, but 
middea changes, as well as the cstremea cf temperature, are caused 

mamly by the fnqoent ahiftlnc of the wind from N.W 

and from S.W. to N.W. At Cleveland and Cincinnati f- r> 

blow mostly from the S.E. *> ,.-*k ^^-* 

SoU.— In the driftless area, the S.E. part of the state. tS^ -'"^- 
lari^ly a decomposition of the underiying rocks, and itt 
vanes according to their composition; there is conr'^ — 
stone in the E. central portion, and this renders the _ 
ductivT. In the valleys alto are strips covered with a U 
deposit. In the other parts of the sute the soil is oont 
of gladal drift, and ia generally deep and fertile^ It ts 
more fertile, however, m the basins of the Great Miaou , 
Miami rivers, where there u a liberal mixture of dooomposcd 
and where extensive areas with a clay subsoil are covt 
alluvial deporits. North of the lower course of the Maumeei 
bdt of sand, but Ohio drift generally oonuina a bige ifiixtu( 

Xericii/iKrr.— Ohio ranks high as an agricultural sut< 
tout land surface 34.501,820 acres or nearly 94% was, 
included in farms ami 785 *A of all the farm tana was i 
There were altogether 276,71^ farms; of these 93,038 
than w acres, 183.809 oontaiaed less than too acres, 
uinea less than 175 acres, 36,659 contained 175 acres 
164 conUined 1000 acres or more. The average size 
decreased from 135*3 acres in 1850 to 09*2 acres in i 
acres in 1900. Neariy seven-tenths of the farms we 
1900 by ownera or paitownera, 34,051 were worked by cashjl 
51,880 were worked by share tenants, and 1969 were 
negroes as owners, tenants or managers. There is a great 
produce, but the prindpal crops are Indian com, wheat, 
potatoes, apples and tobacco. In 1900 the acreage of 
stituted 68*4 % of the acreage of all crops, and the 
Indian com, wheat and oau constituted 99*3% of the 1 ._ 
of cereals. The Indian com crop was 67,501.144 bushels 
152.055,390 bushels in 1899 and l53,o63/K)0 in 1909. v ' 
grown on 3,875,000 acres and the sUte ranked seventh 
sutes of the Union in the productkm of thb cereal. The 
was 37383,159 bushels in 1870; 50^376.800 bushels ^ 
3.309,014 acres) in 1899; and 23,532,000 bushels (grown on 
acres) in 1909. The oat crop was 35,347,549 bushels 
43^50^10 bushds (grown on 1,115,149 acnss) in ' 
56,331- — • * " ' 

56,335,000 bush( 

crop decreased from 1,71^33 

in 1899 and 839,000 bushels in 1909. 

on 1.730,000 acres) in 1909. 1 m 
I3X bushels in 1870 to i/>53>340 

Is in 1909. The number of s^ ' 

1^064,770 in X850; 3,285,789 in 1900; and 3,047,000 
The number of cattle was 1,358,947 in 1850; 3,117^925 
and 1,935,000 in 191 o. In 1900 tliere were 868}8j^ and in- 

9|7,ooo milch cows in the state. The number of 1 

» deq 

slightly between 1870 and 1900, when there were 4,o3o,oai 
19 10 there were 3,303.000 sheep in the state. The number of I 
^f*» 463.397 in 1850; 1^)68,170 in 1000; and 9f7J9QO in 
The cuKivatiott of tobacco was of fittle importance mthe state 
about 1840; but the product increased from 10454,410 lb i^ 
to 34>735>3S5 n> in 1880, and to 65,957,100 lb in 1899, when the 
was grown on 71433 acres; in X9C9 the crop was 83,350,00 

Eown on 90,000 acres. The value of all farm products la 1891 
57,065^36. Imltaa com, wheat and oau are grown in all p 
but the W. half of the sute producesabout three^ourths of the U 
com and two-thirds of the wheat, and in the N. half, especial 
the N.W. comer, are the best oat-producing counties. The \ 
quarter ranks highest in the production of hay. DooMstk axk 
are evenly distributed throughout the sUte; in no county waa | 
total value, in June 1900, less than $500^)00, and in only t 

counties (Licking, Trambull and Wood) did their value «« 
their value exc« 
liiying and the i 

$2,000,000; in 73 counties their value exceeded $1,000,000,' 
was less than $3^000.000. Dallying and the production of eg0i 
also important industries in alf sectiona. Moat of the toboc* 
grown in the counties on or near the S.W. border. 

^uAmer.— Commercial fishing is imporunt only in Lake S 
In 1903 the total catch there amountecl to 10,748,^ lb, vakied 

$317,037. Propagation facilities are being greatly improved, t 
.£- J, 1^^ j^ ^1^ proiacrion of lounature mh. Ink 

' ■ tl 

there area .. ^_ 

streams and lakes are well supplied with game fish; 

prohibit the sale of game fish and thdr bong uken, except « 
hook and line. 

Mineral Proiueis.-~^Tht mhnenl wealth of Ohk» eonaista U«gtl$ 
bituminous ooal and petroleura, but the sUte also tanks high iM 
producdon of itttoral can, sandstone, Uroestone, grindstone, qi 
and gypsum. The ooal fields, comprising a total area of 10,000 sq. 
or more, are in the E. half of the sute. Coal was discovered hetii 
eariy as 1770, and the mining of it was begun not later than 18I 
but no accurate aceount of the outfiot was kept until 1873. in whit 
year it waa 5,315,394 short tons; thb was increased to 18,988,1; 
short tons ia X900, and to 36,370.639 short tons in i908-;-in i^ 
it was 32,142419 ^ort tons. There are 39 counties in whu 
coal is produced, but 81*4% of it in 1908 came from BeloMm 
Athena, Jefferson, Guernsey. Perry, Hocking, Tuscarawas at 
Jackson counties. Two of toe most productive petroleum fields % 
the United Sutes are in part in Ohio; the Appalachian field in tfe 
E. and S. parts of the sUte. and the Lima-Indiana field in the N.^ 

Krt. Some petroleum was obuined In the S.E. as eariy aa 185^ 
t the state'e outpvtwas oomperativtly small uatil after pctroleuc 

Environs of 


Scale, iijooiooo 
g *■ ^ I S 



was dBaeevvrad in fhe N.W. te itt4; ia 1883 the ontpot vu only 
47,^ teird^ four jreftra ' '^ '"^ *" *" ~~^ *" 

iM it was 93^1.169 Uf 
Uaited States. Fortheaexl 
and ia 1908 die output had 

I 4*109.935 barrels (valued at f 7.315.667) from the south- 
tncC. andiSd baneb (valued at l9So), mutable for lubricat- 

bter it'vas s.o»,632 barrels, and in 

banels, or 39% of the total output in the 

_e neat ten years, however, there was a decrease, 

, jput had fallen to 10.858,707 barrels, of which 

6.748,676 barreb (vaJoed at $6,861,885) was obtained in the Lima 

district, 4, l< -^ - • - . - - - .... 

cast diatnctu 

ins Pttrpoaes, from the Mecca-Bdden dutnct in Trumbull and 
Loraui counties. Natural (as abounds in the eastern, central and 
north-western parts of the state. That in the E. was first used 
in 1866, the NlW. field was opened in 1884. and the central field 
was opened in 1887. The value of the state's yearly flow increased 
steadDy from 1100,000 in 1885 to f5.215.669 in 1889, decreased 
from tKe btter year to $1,171,777 ia i807i end then increased to 
$8,344,835 fai 190B. Some of the best sandstone in the United States 
b oMained from Cuyahoga and Lorain counties; it is exceptionally 
pure ia texture (abmit 97 % beings pure silica), durable aiui evenly 
coloured Utht buff, grey or blue grey. From the Ohio sandstone 
knovn as Berca grit a very large portion of the country's grindstones 
and pulpstooes nas been obtained; in 1908 the value of Ohio's 
output of these stones was $483,128. Some of the Berea grit b also 
suitable for making oibtones and scythestoncs. Although the state 
has a great amount of limestone, espedally in Erie and Ottawa 
counties, Hs dull colour renders it unsuitable for most building 
purposes. It is, however, much used as a flux for melting iron 
and for makia^ quick lime. The quantity of Portbnd cement 
auule in Ohio mcrcased from S7.000 barrels in 1890 to 563.113 
barreb in 190a and to 1.521.764 barreb in 1908. Beds of rock 
gypsum extend over an area of 150 acres or more in Ottawa county. 
Itere b some iron ore in the eastern and south-eastern parts of the 
state, and the mining of it was begun eariy in the 19th century; 
' " ■ " ' ^ ' ' ' «ig tons in 1889 to only 

Ohio, in 1908, produced 

valued at $864,710. Other valuable 

but the output decroised from 254.294 bug tons in 1889 to only 
36.585 long tons (all carbonate) in 1908. "" ' ' 

3.437478 barreb of salt valued at $1 . . 
nuaerals are cby suitable for making pottery, brick and tile (in 
1908 the value of the cby arorking products was $26,622490) and 
sand suiuble for making gbss. The total value of the state's 
mineral products in 1908 amounted to $134,499,335. 

ifanaifaclaref .— The total value of the manufactures increased from 
$348,398,^0 in 1880 to $641,688,064 in 1890, and to $832,438,113 
in 1900. The value of the factory product was $748,670,855 in 1900 
and $960.81 1 .857 in 1905.^ The most important manuiactunnr 
industry b that of iron and steel. Thb industry was established 
arar Youngstown in 1804. The value of the product increased 
from $65,206,828 in 1800 to $138,935,256 in 1900 and to $152,859.12^ 
in 1905. Foundry and machine-shop products, consisting biroy of 
engines, boilers, metal'worldng machinery, wood-working machinery, 
pumping machinery, mining machinerv aiul stoves, rank second 
among the state's manufactures; their 


Fiour and 
of the 

nd grbt 

value increased from 

$43.61 7£72 in 1890 to $72499.633 in 1900, and to $94«S07>69i in 

* list mill producU rank third in the state; the 

_. . _ ^ Jucts decreased from $39468,409 in 1890 to 

837.390.367 in 1900. and then increased to $40,855.^ in 1905. 
Meat (slaughtering and packing) was next in the value ort the product, 
and increased from $20,660,780 in 1900 to $28,720,044 m 190$. 
Clay oroducts rank fifth in the state; they increaaea in value from 
$16480,612 in 1900 to $24,686,870 in 1905. Boots and shoes rank 
sixth; their value increased from $6480.728 in 1890 to $17,920,854 
in 1900 and to $25,140,220 in 1905. ()thcr leading manufactures are 
mak liquors ($21,620,794 in 1905), railway rolling-stock connsting 
brvely of cars ($21426,227), men's clothing ($18496.173), pbning 
mill products ($17,725,711), carriages and wagons ($16,096,125), 
dbtillcd liquors ($I5>976.5>3)' rubber and ebstic goods ($i5.963'6o3). 
furniturft ($13,322,608). cigars and cigarettes ($13,241,230), agri- 
cultural implements ($12,891,197), women's clothing ($12,803,582), 
lumber and timber products ($12,567,992), soap and candles 
($11,791,223). electrical machinery, apparatus and supplies 
($11,019,230, paper and wood pulp ($10,961,527) and renned 
petroleum ($10,948,864). 
Ihe great manufacturing centres are Cleveland, Cincinnati, 

Youngstown. Toledo, Columbus, Dayton and Akron, and in 1905 
the value of the products of these cities amounted to 56-7% 01 
that for the entire state. A large portion of the iron and steel b 
manufactured in Cleveland, Youngstown, Stcubcnville, Belbire, 
Lorain and fronton. Most of the automobiles are manufactured 
in Cleveland; most of the cash registers and calcubting machines 
in Dayton ; most of the rubber and elastic goods in Akron ; neariy 
<mc-half of the liquors and about three-fourths of the men's clothing 
in Cincinnati. East Liverpool leads in the manufacture of pottery; 
Toledo in flour and grist mill products; Springfield in agncultural 
implements; Cincinnati and Columbus in boots and shoes; Cleve- 
bnd in women's clothing. 

TrantfortoHtn and Cdmmerct,-^T\w most important natural 
neaos of traasportation are the Ohk> river on the S. border and Lake 

» The statistics of 1905 were taken under the direction of the 
United Sutes Census Bureau, but products other than thoae of the 
factory system, audi, for example, as those of the hand trades, were 

Erie on the N. bonkr. Om of the first great pubBe uBprovemeata 
made within the state was the connexion of these waterways by 
two canab— the Ohio ft Erie Canal from Ctevebnd to Portsmouth, 
and the Miami ft Erie Canal from Toledo to CincionatL The Ohio ft 
Erie was opened throughout its entire length (309 m.) in 1832. The 
Miamift £rie was completed from Middletown to Cincinnati in tf^* 
in 1845 it waa opened to the lake (250 m. from Cinrinaati). The 
national government began in 1825 to extend the National Road 
across Ohio from Bridgeport, opposite Wheeling, West Virginb. 
through Zanesville and Columbus, and completed it to Springfield 
in 1837. Before the oompletioo of the Mkmi a Erie Canal to Toledo^ 
the building of railways was begun in thb reigioo. and in 1836 a 
railway was completed from that city to Adnaa, Michigan. By 
the dose of 1850 the railway mileage had increased to 575 m., 
and for the next forty years, with the exception of the Civu War 
period, more than aooo m. of railwavs weie built duringeach decade. 
At the dose of 1908 there waa a total mUcage of o.90O*45su Among 
the railways are the Clevebnd, Cincinnati, (Hiicago ft St Louis, 
the Baltimore ft Ohio, the Lake Shore ft Michigan Southern, the 
New York, Chicago ft St Louis, the Pittsburgh. Cmdnnati. Chicago 
ft St Loub (Peansylvanb), the Pittsburgh, Ft Wayne ft Chkago 
(Peaaaylvaiua). the Njmaiio (Erie), the wheeling ft Lake Erie, the 
Cincinnati, Hamilton ft Dayton, the Detroit, Tobdo ft Irontoo* 
and the Norfolk ft Western. As the building of steam railways 
lessened, the building of suburban and interurban electric railways 
was besnn, and systems of these railways have been rapidly extended 
until afl the oioie populaws districts aae connected by thras. 

Ohio haa six fwrts of entry. They are Clevebnd, Toledo^ San- 
dusky, Cincinnati. CUdumbus and Dayton, and the value of the foreign 
commerce passing through these in 1909 amounted to $9483.974 
in imports (more than one>half to Cleveland) and $10,920,063 in 
exports (nearly eight>nittths from Clewebad). Of far mater volume 
than the f ore^ commeroe b t he domestic txade in coau iron, lumber* 
&c, largely by way of the Great Lakes. 

Potation,— Tht population of Ohio in the various census 
ycais was: (x8oo) 45.365; (18x0) 230.760; (1820) 58M34; 
(1830) 937,903; (1840) i,5X9»467; (1850) 1,980,339; (i860) 
2«339.S"; (1870) 2,665,260; (1880) 3.198^2; (1890) 
3,672,3x6; (1900) 4.157.545; (19x0) 4.767,121. In X900 and 
X910 it ranked fourth in population among the slates. Of the 
total population in 1900, 4,060,204 or 97-6% were white and 
97.34I were coloured (96,90x negroes, 37 x Chinese, 27 Japanese 
and 42 Indians). Of the same total 3,698,811 or 88-9% were 
native-bom and 458.734 '^f^tt foreign-born; 93-8% of the 
foreign-bom oonsbtcd of the following: 204,160 natives of 
Germany, 65,553 of Great Britain, 55,018 of Ireland, 22,767 
of Canada (19,864 English Canadian), 16,822 of Poland. 15,131 
of Bohemia, xi.575 of Austria and 11,331 of Italy. In 1906 
there were 1,742,873 communicants of different religious de- 
nomiiuLtions, over one-third being Roman Catholics and about 
one-fifth Methodists. From 189010 1900 the urban popubtion 
(t.c. population of incorporated places having 4000 inhabitants 
or more) increased from 1,387,884 to 1,864.519, and the semi- 
urban (i.e. population of incorporated places having less than 
4000 inhabitants) increased from 458,033 to 549J41, but the 
rural (t.e. population outside of incorporated places) decreased 
from 1,836412 to 1,743,285. The brgest cities arc ClcvcUnd, 
Cincinnati, Columbus (the capital), Toledo, Dayton, Youngstown^ 
Akron, Canton, Spring6cld, Hamilton, Lima and ZoncsvIUc. 

Admiuistration.—Otdo b governed under the constitution of 
1851 as amended in 1875. 1883, 1885, 1902, 1903, and 1905. An 
amendment may be proposed at any time by either branch of the 
General Assembly, and if after being approved by thrce-6fths of 
the membeis of both branches it a also approved at a general 
election by a majority of those voting on the question it b declared 
adopted; a constitutional convention may be called after a 
favourable two-thirds vote of the members of each branch of 
the Assembly and a favourable popular vote— a majority of ihose 
voting on the question; and the question of calling such a 
convention must be submitted to a popular vote at least once 
every twenty years. Under the constitution of 1802 and 1851 
the suffrage was limited to " white male " citixens of the 
United States, but since the adoption of the Fifteenth Amend- 
ment to the Federal Constitution (1870), negroes vote, though 
the constitution b unchanged. Since 1894 women who possess 
the usual qualifications required of men may vote for and be voted 
for as members of boards of education. The constitution requiret 
that all elections be by ballot, and the Australian ballot system 
was adopted in 1891; regbuation b required in dtki haviof 



a population of ix,8oo or moie. The executive dqwrtinent 
consisu of a governor, lieutenant-governor, secretary of state, 
auditor, treasurer and attorney-general. As a result of the 
dispute between Governor Arthur St Clair and the Territorial 
leg^ture, the constitution of i8oa conferred nearly all of the 
ordinary executive functions on the legislature. The governor's 
control over appointments was strengthened by the constitution 
of 1851 and by the subsequent creation of statutory offices, 
boards and oonunisaions, but the right of veto was not given to 
him until the adoption of the constitutional amendments of 
1903. • The power as conferred at that time, however, is broader 
than utual, for it extends not only to items in appropriation bilb, 
but to separate sections in other measures, and, in addition to the 
customary provision for passing a bill over the governor's veto 
by a two-thirds vote of each house it is required that the votes 
for repassage in each bouse must not be less than those given on 
the original passage. The governor is elected in November of 
even-numbered years for a term of two years, fit is commander- 
in-chief of the state's military and naval forces, except when 
they are called into the service of the United Sutes. He grants 
paidons and reprieves on the recommendation of the state 
board of pardons. If he die in office, resign or be impeached, the 
officers standing next in succession axe the lieutenant-governor, 
the president of the Senate, and the speaker of the House of 
Representatives in the order named. 

Members of the Senate and House of Representatives are 
elected for terms of two years; Uiey must be residents of their 
respective counties or districts for one year preceding election, 
unless absent on public business of the state or of the United 
States. The ratio of representation in the Senate is obtained 
by dividing the total population of the state by thirty-five, the 
ratio, in the House by dividing the population by one hundred. 
The membership in each house, however, is slightly above these 
figures, owing to a system of fractional representation and to the 
constitutionid amendment of 1903 which allows each county at 
least one representative in the House of Representatives. The 
constitution provides for a reapportionment every ten years 
beginning in 1861. Biennial sessions are held beginning on the 
first Monday in January of the even-numbered years. The 
powers of the two houses are equal in every respect except 
that the Senate passes upon the governor's appointments and 
tries impeachment cases brought before it by the House of 
Representatives. The constitution prohibits special, local and 
retroactive legislation, legislation impairing the obligation of 
contracts, and legislation levying a poll tax for county or state 
puxposes or a tax on state, munidpifd and public school bonds 
(amendment of 1905), and it limits the amount and specifies the 
character of public debts which the legislature may contract. 

The judicial department in 1910 was composed of a supreme 
court of six judges, eight circuit courts^ of three judges each, 
ten districu (some with sub-divisions) of the common pleas 
court, the superior court of Cincinnati, probate courts, courts 
of insolvency in Cuyahoga and Hamilton counties, juvenile 
courts (established in 1904)* justice of the peace courts and 
municipal courts. Under the constitution of i8oa judges were 
chosen by the legislature, but since 1851 they have been elected 
by direct popular vote — the judges of the supreme court being 
diosen at large. They are removable on complaint by a con- 
current resolution approved by a two-thirds majority in each 
house of the legislature. The constitution provides that the 
terms of supreme and circuit judges shall be such even number 
of years not less than six as may be prescribed by the legislature — 
the statutory provision is six years — that of the judges of the 
common pleas six years, that of the probate judges four years, 
that of other judga such even number of years not exceeding 
six as may be prescribed by the legislature— the sUtutory 
provision is six years-— and that of justices of the peace such 
even number of years not exceeding four as may be thus 
prescribed— the statutory provision is four years. 

Local CtnemmenL-^Tht countv and the township are the units 
of the mral. the city and the vfllafe the unitt of the urban local 

■ The provision for circuit courts was firat made in the constitution 
ty an amendment of 1883. 

peace, consubles^ board of education and board 

govenunent. The chief county authority Is the boaid ol oo»* 
misaioners of three memben elected for terms of two yean. The 
other officials are the sheriff, treasurer and coroner, elected for two 
yeara; the auditor, recorder, clerk of courts, protecutiog attorney, 
surveyor and mfirmary directors, elected for two yean; and the 
board of school examinen (three) and the board of county visiton 
(bu, of whom three are women), appointed usually by the probate 
judge for three years. The chidT township authority is the boaid of 
trustees of three memben, elected by popuhur vote for two yean. 
In thcparU of the sUte settled by people from New Eaglaad 
township mceungt were heU in the early days, but their functioaa 
were gradually transferred to the trustees, and by 1820 the meetinga 
had been given up ahnoat entirely. The other township oflidals are 
the ckrk, treasurer, asseseor, supervisor of roada, justioci of the 

* ■ »ard of health. Under 



municTpal corporations act," TCefirtt'of iu Idod in theU^ted^ato! 
The system of classification adopted in time became ao elaborate 
that many municipalities became isoUted, each an a aeparate claaa 
and the cvila of special legislation were revived. Of the two chief 
cities, Qevcland (under a special act providing for the govemment 
of Columbus and Toledo^ also) in 1893-1902 was governed under the 
federal ^lan. which cedtralixcd power in the hands of the mayor; 
in Qncmnati there was an alrooat hopdesa diffuakm of reaponaibiUty 
among the council and various executive boards. The supreme oouct 
in June 1903 decided that practically all the existing municipal 
legislation was special in character and was therefore unoonetitn- 
tionaL (Sute ex. re/. Kniseley vr. Jones. 66 Ohio State Repoita, 
45;(. See also 66 Ohio State Reports, 491O A special session of the 
legislature waa called, and a new municuxd code waa adopted on 
the 22nd of October which went into effect in April 1903; it waa 
a compromise between the Clevebnd and the Cincinnati pi«w« , 
with rome additional features necessary to meet the conditions 
existing in the smaller dties. In order to comply with the court's 
interpretation of the constitution, raunidpalitiea w«re divided into 
only two classes, dties and villages, the former having a population 
of five thousand or more; the chief officials in both dties and 
vUlagea were the mayor, coundl. treasurer and numerous boarda of 
commissions. This was an attempt to devise a system of govemment 
that would apply to Cleveland, a city of dpofioo inhabitants, and to 
Paincsvillc with its 5000 inhabitants. The code was replaced by 
the Paine Law of IQ09, which provided for a bcMrd of control (sooue- 
thinz like that under the " federal plan " in Cleveland. Columbua 
and Toledo) of three memben: the mayor and the directora (ap> 
pointed and removable by the mayor) of two munidpal departments 
—public service and public safety, the former ioduding pnbUc works 
and parks, and the latter police, fire, charities, correction and 
buildings. The mayor's apoointments are many, and are seldom 
dependent on the consent of the council. A mumdpal civil service 
commission of three memben (hddlng office for three years) is' chosen 
by the president of the board of education, the prudent <u the city 
council, and the president of the board of sinking fund commiasionen: 
the pay (if any) of these commissionen is set by each dty. Ihe 
city auditor, treasurer and soUdtor are electai, as under the 

In i^ a direct primary law was passed providing for party 
r>rimaries. those of all oarties in each district to be held at the sane 
time (annually) and place, before the same election board, and at 
public expense, to nominate candidates for township and municipal 
offices and memben of the school board; nominations to be ^ 
petition signed by at least 2 % of the party voten of the political 
division, cxi^t that for United States senaton | of I % is the 
minimum. The law does not make the nomination of candidates 
for the United Sutes Senate by this method mandatory nor such 
choice binding upon the General Assembly. 

Laws,— The property rights of husband and wife are nearly equal; 
a wife may hold her property the same as if single, and a widower 
or a widow is entitled to the use for life of one-thini of the real estate 
of which his or her deceased consort was adzed at the time of his or 
her death. Among the grounds on which a divorce may be obtained 
are adultery, extreme crucltyr. fraud, abandonment for three years, 
gross neglect of duty, habitual drunkenness, a former existing 
marriage, procurement of divoice without the state 1^ one party, 
which continues marriage binding on the other, and imprisonment in 
a penitentiary. For every family in which there is a wife, a miaor 
son, or an unmarried daughter, a homestead not exceeding Siooo 
in value, or personal property not exceeding 8500 in value, is exempt 
from sale for the satisfaction of debts. 

In 1908 an act was passed providing for local option in regard 
to the sale of intoxicating liquors, by an election to be called an 
initiative petition, signed by at least 35 % of the decton of a county. 

ChantabU and Pemd /lu/itefioiu.— The state chariuble and penal 
institutions are supervised by the board of charities of six memben 
(" not more thaji three . . . from tha same political party ") 
ap^inted by the governor, and local tnsdtutiotts by bosuds 01 county 
vwton of su memben appointed by the probate judge; Each state 
institution in addition has its own board of trustees appointed by 
the governor, and each county infirmary is under the cbaige of thraa 



infirmary directors chosen by popular vote. There are hoqiitals for 
«te ioaae at Athena, Columbin, Dayton, Cleveland, Carthage fio m. 
from CiadnoaU; Loo^vicw Hoapital), MaMilloii, Toledo mad Lima; 
a bciaaital for epileptics at Callipolis, opened in iSgas iaatitutiooa 
- -nrr- . 'nrrT^.. ... rr -^ ^^^j aBr for the deaf 

^ r epileptics 

for faeble-nUndcd, lor the 

(opened 1839) at Columbus; a state lanatonum for tuberculous 
patienu at Mt. Venon (opened 1909): an institution for crippled 
and ddormed children (authorittd in 1907); a soldien' and sailors* 
orphans' home at Xenia (ocsaaiaed in 1869 by the C«rand Army of 
the Republic); a home for soldiers, sailors, marines, their wives» 
mothers and widows, and amny nurses at Madison (established by 
the National Women's Relief Corps; taken over by the state, 1904); 
and aoldien' and sailon' homesat Sandusky (opened 1888), supported 
by the sute. and at I>ayton. suppoited by the United States. The 
state penal institutions are the boys* industrial school near Lancaster 
(established in 1854 as a Reform Farm), the girls' industrial home 
1 1 860) at lUthbone near Delaware, the reformatory at Mansfield 
lauthorind 1884, opened 1896) and the penitentiary at Columbus 

BduaHomj—Coagrtm in 1785 set apart 1 sq. m. in each township 
of 36 sq. m. for the support cii education. The public school system, 
however, was not established until 1835, and then it developed very 
slowly. The oflioe of state oommlssiopcr of common schocrfs was 
cieatcd in 1857, abolished in 1840 and revived in 1843. School 
districts fall into four classes— ctties. villages, townships and special 
districts— each of which has its own board of educattoo elected by 
popular vote. Laws passed in 1877. 1890, 189A and 1902 have made 
. education compulsory for children between tne ages of eight and 
fourteen. The school revenoes an derived from the sale and rental 
of publk bnds granted by Congress, and of the salt and swamp lands 
devoted by the state to such purposes, from a uniform levy of one 
mill on each doHar of taxable property In the state, from kxal levies 
(avenging 7*J mUls in township districts and 10^ mills in separate 
districts m 1908). from certain fines and lioences, and from tuition 

fees paid by non>resklent pupils. The total receipts from ail 

in 1908 amounted to 975.987,031; the balance from the preceding 
year was It 1.714.735, aira the total expenditures were 924,695,157. 
Thnse institutions for higher education are supported in hrge measure 
by the sUte: Ohio University at Athens, founded in IM4 on the 
pracceda derived from two townships granted by Congress to the 
Ohio Company ^ Miami Univeruty (chartered in 1809; at (Mord, 
which received the proceeds from a township granted by Congress in 
the Symmes purchase; and Ohio Sute University (1873) at Colum- 
bus. which reodvcd the proeeeds from the lands granted by Congress 
under the act of 186a for the establishment of agricultural and 
mechanical colleges, and reorganized as a university in 1878. Wilber- 
force University (1856), for negroes, near Xenia. is under the control 
of the African Methodist Episcopal Chorch; but the state established 
a norssal and industrial department in 1888, and has since contributed 
to its maintenance. Underanactof 190a normal coOem, supported 
by the state, have also been created in connexion with Onio and 
Miami univcrsltieB. Among the numerous other colleges and uni- 
versities in tlie state are Western Reserve University (1826) at 
ClevelaiKi, the university of (Cincinnati (opened 1873) at Cmcinnati, 
and Oberiin College (1833) at Oberiia. 

ftna»cr.~-The revenues of the state are classified into four funds: 
the seneral re^nue fund, the sinking fund, the state common school 
fundf and the university fund. The chief sources of the general 
tcvenue fund are taxes on real and personal property, 09 liquors and 
dgaiettesg on corporations and on inheritances; la 1909 the net 
receipts for this fund were 18,043,257, the disbursements 99.ioa23oi» 
and the cash balance at the end of the fiscal year 83,428,705. There 
is a tendency to reduce the rate on real property, leaving it as a 
basis for local taxation. The rate on collateral inheritances h $%, 
on direct inheritanoea a ^ on the excem above 830001 There aiv 
state, county and muniapal boards of equalizatkin. A special tax 
is levied for the benefit of the sinkine fund— one-tenth 01 a mill in 
1009. The qommissioners of the fund are the auditor, the secretary 
01 state and the attorney-general. The pubKc debt, which began to 
accumulate in 1825, was increassd by the canal expenditures to 
9i6.88o.aoo in 184^ The constitution of 1851 practically deprived 
the legislature of the power to create new oblisations. The funded 
debt ^Aas then gradually reduced until the last Installment was paid 
in 190^ There still remains, however, an irredeemable debt due 
to the oommnn schoohb Ohio Uaivcnity and Ohio Sute University, 
in return for their public lands. About nne-half of theannual common 
school fund Is derived from local taxes; the state levy for this fund 
in 1909 was one mill, and the total receipts were 92,382.353. The 
univenity fund is derived from special Uxes levied for the four 
institntiona which receivu aid from the sute; b 1909 the levy was 
o-2a^ milla and the total receipts were 9s8a.843« Several banka and 
trading houses Vith bonking privileses were incorporated by special 
sUtuica btf utu 1803 and 1817. Resentment was aroused by the 
establishment of branches of the Bank of the United States at (Hiilti. 
ootbe and Ciadnnnti in 1817. and an attempt was made to tax them 
out of cmstenoe. Sute oOcials broke into the vaults of the Chilli- 
cothe branch in 1819 and took out 8100,000 due for taxes. The 
Federal courts compelled a restoration of the money and pronounced 
the taxing law unconstitutional. In 1B45 the Icgulature chartered 
for twenty years the Sute Bank of Ohio, based on th« mndt^ of the 

Sute Bank of Indiana of 1834. It became a guarantee of conservntive 
banking, and was highly successful. There were at one time thirty- 
six branches. Most of the sute institutions secured Federal charters 
after the establishroenU of the national banking system (1863-1864). 
but the huh price of government bonds and the Urae amount 01 capital 
rcauired kd to a reaction, which was only partially checked by the 
reductbn of the minimum capital to 925.000 under the currency aa 
of the 14th of March 190a 

Hulory.— Ohio was the pfoneer state of the old North-West 
Territory, which embraced also what are now the sUtes of 
Indiana, IlHoots, Michigan and Wisconsin, and the N.E. comer 
of Minnesota. When discovered by Europeans, late in the first 
half of the 17th century, the territory faidudcd within what is 
now Ohio was mainly a battle-ground of numerous Indian tribes 
and the fixed abode of none except the Erics who occupied a 
strip along the border of Lake Erie. From the middle to the 
dose of the 17th century the French were esuUishbg a claim to 
the territory between the Great Lakes and the Ohio river by 
discovery and occupation, and althou^ they had provoked 
the hostility of the Iroquois Indians they had helped the 
Wyandots, Miamis and.Shawnecs to banish them from all 
territory W. of the Muskingum river. Up to this time the English 
had based their claim to the same territory on the discovery 
of the Atlantic Coast by the Cabots and updn the Virginia, 
Massachusetts and Connecticut charters under which these 
colonies extended westward to the Pacific Ocean. In 170X, 
New York, seeking another daim, obtained from the Iroquois 
a grant to the king of England of this territory which they claimed 
to have conquered but from which they had subsequently been 
expelled, and this grant was confirmed in 1726 and again in 1744. 
About 1730 English traden from Pennsylvania and Virj^nia 
began to visit the eastern and southern parts of the territory 
and the crisis approached as a French Canadian expedition under 
Celeron de Bienvflle took formal possession of the upper Ohio 
VaUey by planting leaden plates alt the mouths of the prindpal 
streams. This was in 1749 and in the same year George II. 
chartered the first Ohio Company, formed by Virginians and 
London merchants trading with Virginia for the purpose of 
colonizing the West. This company In 1750 sent Christopher 
Gist down the Ohio river to exptore the country as far as the 
month of the Sdoto river; and four years later the erection 
of a fort was begun hi its interest at the forks of the Ohio. The 
French drove the English away and completed the fort (Foit 
Dnquesne) for themsdves. The Seven Years' War was the 
immediate consequence and this ended in the cession of the entire 
North-West to Great Britain. The former Indian allies of the 
FicBch, however, immediately rose np in opposition to British 
rule in what is known as the Conspiracy of Pontiac (see^ONTXAc), 
and the supression of thk was not completed until Colond 
Henry Bouquet made an expedition (x 764) into the valley of the 
Muskingum and there brought the Shawnces, WyandoU and 
Ddawares to terms. With the North-West won from the French 
Great Britain no longer recognized those daims of her colonies 
to this territory whi<^ she had asserted against that nation, but 
in a royal proclamation of the 7th of October 1763 the granting 
of land W. of the Alleghanies was forbidden and on the 22nd of 
June 1774 parliament passed the (Quebec Act which annexed 
the region to the province of Quebec. This was one of the 
grievances which brought on the War of Independence and during 
that war the North-West was won for the Americans by George 
RogeiB Clark (q.v.). During that war also, those sUtes which 
had no claims in the West contended that title to these western 
lands should pass to the Union and when the Artidcs of Con- 
federation were submitted for ratification in 1777, Maryland 
refused to ratify them except on that condition. The result 
was that New York ceded its dahn to the United States in 1780, 
Virghiia in 1784, Massachusetts hi 1785 and Connecticut in 1786. 
Connecticut, however, excepted a strip bordering on Lake Erie 
for 120 m. and containing 3,250,000 acres. This district, known 
as the Western Reserve, was ceded in 1800 on condition that 
Congress would guarantee the titles to land already granted by 
the state. Vltginia reserved a tract between the Little Miami 
and Sdoto rivets, known as the Virginia MlliUry District, fox 
lM*r soMiers in the War of Independenre. 



When the war was over tnd these cessions had been made 
a great number of war veterans wished an opportunity to repair 
their broken fortunes in the West, and Congress, hopeful of 
lecetving a large revenue from the sale of lands here, passed an 
ordinance on the 20th of May 1785 by which the present national 
system of land-surveys into townships 6 m. sq. was inaugurated 
in what is now S.W. Ohio in the summer ol 1786. In March 
1786 the second Ohio Company iqjo.), composed chiefly of New 
England officers and soldiers, was organized in Boston, Massa- 
chusetu, with a view to foimding a new state between Lake 
Erie and the Ohio river. The famous North- West Ordinance 
was passed by Congress on the 13th of July 1787. This instru- 
ment provided a temporary government for the Territory with 
the undersUnding that, as soon as the population was sufficient, 
the representative system should be adopted, and Uter that 
states should be formed and admitted into the Union. There 
were to be not less than three nor more than five states^ Of 
these the easternmost (Ohio) was to be bounded on the N., E. 
and S. by the Lakes, Pennsylvania and the Ohio river, and on 
the W. by a line drawn due N. from the mouth of the Great Miami 
river to the Canadian boundary, if there were to be three states, 
or to its intersection with an £. and W. line drawn thsougb the 
extreme S. bend of Lake Michigan, if there were to be five. 
Slavery was forbidden by the sixth article ol the ordinance; 
and the third article read: " Religion, morality and knowledge 
being necessary to good government and the bapptness of man- 
kind, schoob and the means of education shall for ever be 
encouraged." After the adoption of the North- West Ordinance 
the work of settlement made rapid progress. There were four 
main centres. The Ohio Company founded Marietta at the 
mouth of the Muskingum in 1788, and this is regarded as the 
oldest permanent settlement in the state. An association of 
New Jerseymen, organized by John Qeves Symmes, secured 
a grant from Congress in 1788-1 79a to a strip of 348,540 acres 
on the Ohio between the Great Miami and the Little Miami, which 
came to be known as the Symmes Purchase^ Their chief settle- 
ments were Columbia ( j 788) and Cincinnati ( 1 789). The Virginia 
Military District, between the Sdoto and tiie Little Miami, 
reserved in X784 for bounties to Virginia continental troops, 
was colonized in large measure by people f rum that state. Their 
chief towns were Massieville or Manchester (1790) and Chillicotbe 
(X796). A small company of Connecticut people under Moses 
Geaveland founded Cleveland in 1796 and Youngstown was 
begun a few years later, but that portion of the state made very 
slow progress until after the opening of the Ohio k Erie Cansl 
in 183a. 

During the Territorial period (1787-1803) Ohio «'as first a 
part of the unorganized North-West Territory (x787~x799)i 
then a part of the organized North-West Territory (1799-1800), 
and then the organized North- West Territory (1800-1803), 
Indiana Territory having been detached from it on the W. 
in 1800. The first Territorial government was established at 
Marietta in July 1788, and General Arthur St Clair (1784- 
1818), the governor, had arrived in that month. His ad- 
ministration was characterized by the final struggle with the 
Indians and by a bitter conflict between the executive and the 
legislature, which greatly influenced the constitutional history 
of the state. The War of Independence was succeeded by a 
series of Indian uprisings. Two campaigns, the first under 
General Josiah Harmar (1753-18x5) in X790, and the second 
under General St Clair in x 791, failed on account of bad manage- 
ment and ignorance of Indian methods of warfare, and in 1793 
General Anthony Wayne {q.v.) was sent out in comnuuid oi a 
large force of regulars and volunteers. The decisive conflict, 
fought on the 20th of August 1794, near the capidsof the Maumee, 
is called the battle of Fallen Timbers, because the Indians 
concealed themselves behind the trunks of trees which had been 
felled by a storm. Wayne's dragoons broke through the brush- 
wood, attacked the left flank of the Indians axul soon put them 
to flight. In the treaty of Greenville (3rd August X795) the 
Indiaxv ceded their claims to the territory E. and S. of the 
Cuyahoga, the Tuscarawas, and an irregular line from Fort 

Laurens (Bolivar) in Tuscarawas county to Fort Recovery Ir 
Mercer county, practically the whole E. and S. Ohio. The 
Jay Treaty was ratified in the same year, and in 1796 the British 
finally evacuated Detroit and the Maumee and Sandusky forts. 
By cessions and purchases in X804, 1808 and x8x7-x8iS the 
sute secured allof the lands of the Indians except thdr immediate 
homes, and these were finally exchanged for territory W. of the 
Mississippi. The last remnant migrated in X84X. General 
Wayne's victory was followed by an extensive immigration of 
New Englanders, of Germans, Scotch-Irish and Quakeia from 
Pennsylvania, and of setllen from Vurgima and Kcntacky, 
many of whom came to escape the evils of slavery. This rapid 
increase of population led to the establishment of the organized 
Territorial government in X799t to the restriction of that govem- 
ment in Ohio in x8oo, and to the admission of the sUte into the 
Union in 1803. 

The Congressional Enabling Act of the 30th of April x8oa 
followed that alternative of the North- West Ordinance which 
provided for five sutes in determining the boundaries, and in 
consequence the Indiana and Michigan districts were detached. 
A rigid adherence to the boundary authorized- in 1787, however, 
would have resulted In the loss to Ohio of 470 territory 
in the N.W. part of the state, including the lake port of Toledo. 
After a long and bitter dispute—the Toledo War (see Tolsdo)— > 
the present line, which is severs^ mUes N. of the S. bend of Lake 
Michigan, was definitely fixed in X837, when Michigan came into 
the Union. (For the settlement of t^ eastern boundary,. see 


After having been temporarily at Marietta, Cincinnati, Chilli- 
cothe and Zanesville the capital was esUbllshed at Columbus 
in 18x6. 

Since Congress did not pass any formal act of admission tbeie 
has been some controversy as to when Ohio became a stnte. 
The Enabling Act was passed on the 30th of April 180a, the 
first state legislature met on the xst of March 1803, the Territorial 
judges gave up their ofltees on the xsth of April 1803, and the 
Federal senators and representatives took their seats in Congress 
on the X 7th of October 1803. Congress decided in 1806 in 
coxmexion with the payment of salaries to Territorial ofidab 
that the xst of March 1803 was the date when state government 
began. Daring the War of x8xa the Indians under the lead of 
Tecumseh were sgain on the side of the British. Battles woe 
fought at Fort Meigi (1813) and Fort Stephenson (Fremoot, 
1813) and Conmiodore Oliver Hazard Perry's naval victory on 
Lake Erie in 18x3 was on the Ohio side of the boundary line. 

Owhig to the prohibition of slavery the vast majority of tlae 
eariy inmugntnts to Ohio came from the North, but, until the 
Mexican War forced the slavery question into the foreground, 
the Democrats usually controlled the state, because the prindpUs 
of that party were more in harmony with frontier ideas ol 
equality. The Whigs were successful in the presidential elections 
of 1836 and 1840, partly because of the financial panic and 
partly because their candidate, William Henry Harrison, was a 
" favourite son," and in the election of X844, because of the 
unpopularity of the Texas iisue. Victory waa with the Democzau 
in X848 and 1852, but since the organization of the Republican 
party in 1854 the state has uniformly given to the Republican 
presidential candidates its electoral votes. In the Civil War 
Ohio loyally supported the Union, furnishing 3x9,659 men for 
the army. Dissatisfaction with the President's emancipation 
programme resulted in the dectlon of a Democratic Congrcasiona] 
delegation in 1862, but the tide turned again after Gettysburg 
and Vicksburg; Qement L. Vallandighan, the Democratic 
leader, waa deported from the state by military order, and the 
Republicans were successful in the elections of 1863 and 1864. 
A detachment of the Confederate cavalry under Cieneral John 
Morgan invaded the state in 1863, bnt was badly defeated in the 
battle of Buffington's Island Quly x8th). Democratic govcsnoa 
were elected in 1873, 1877, 1883, 1889, 1905, 1908 and i9ra 
Five presidents have come from Ohio, William Hepiy Harrison* 
Rutherford B. Hayes, James A. Garfield, William MfKinliy, Jr., 
and William Howard Taft. 




Ttnitorial Ftfiod (1787-1803). 
Arthur Sc Cbir .... 1787-1802 
Cbaries W. Byrd (Acting) . . 1802-1803 
Period •/ SlaUkood. 


Edwatd Tiffin 
Tbomu Kirlcer (Acting) 
1 Hantington 

Rttnni locMtluuii 
Othokl Looket (Actii^) 
Thomas Worthington . 
Ethan AUen Brown 
Alkn Trim ble (Ac ting) 
Icreauah Moftow. 
XUenTrimble . . . 
Duncan McArthur 

J«Kpk Vance . . . 
Wibon Shanaoa . 
Thoowa Corwin . 
Wibon Shannon . 
Thomas W. Bartlcy (Acting) 
Mordecai Bartlcy. 
WiUiamBcbb . . . 
" ■ iWood 

1803-1807 Dem.-Rq>ub. 
I809'i8it „ 

1811-1814 M 

1814-181$ „ 

1815-1819 „ 

' 181^1822 „ 

1823-1827 ] 
I 827-1 831 
1831-1833 ] 
1833-1837 1 
1837-1839 ' 
I 839-1841 1 
1841-1843 ^ 

1843-1844 : 
1844-1845 , 
1845-1847 ' 



I Whig 

i Whig 



William Medill (Acting, 1853) . 1853-1856 
Salmon P. Chase .... i8«^i86o 



• Jr.. 



D»vidTod 1862-1864 

lohn Brou^ 
Charles Anderson (Acting). 
Jacob D. Cox 
Ktttherfoni B. Hayes . 
EdwtttI r. Noyes. 
William Alien 
Rutherford B. Hayes . 
Thomas L. Young (Acting) . 
Richard M. Bishop . . 
Charica Foster 
Caorae Hoadlcy . 
loseph B. Forakcr 
James E. Campbell 
William McKinley, Jr.. . 
Asa S. Buahnell . . . 
CcoqieiCNaah . . . 
Myron T. Herrick. 
John M. Pftttiaon > 
Andrew Lintncr Harris 
Judson Harmon 































BiBtlOCKAPRY.— For a brief but admirable treatment of the 
physiography see Stella S. Wtlaon, Okie (New York, 1902), and a 
great mm of material on this subject is contained in the publications 
of the GcolbgiGal Surviy o( Ohio (1837 et seq.). For the administra- 
tion see the CouUiiutwu of Ike StaU of Ohto, adopted June tSsi 
(Norwalk, Ohio, 1897), and amendments of 1903 and 1905 published 
separately; the annual reports of the sute treasurer, auditor, 
board of state charities and commissioner of oomnum schools, the 
Ellis munidpal code (1902) and the Harrison school code (1904). 
The Civil Code, issued 18&2, the Criminal Code in 1869 and the 
Revised Sututes in 1879, nave several times been amended and 
published in new editions. There are two excellent secombry 
accounts; Samuel P. Orth, Tko CentralitalioH of AdminirtraHom 
4m OUo, in the Columbia University Studies in History, Economics 
nnd Public Uw. xvi. Now 3 (New Yoric. 1903): and WUbur H. 
Siebert, The Gotemmenl of OAio, its History and Administration 
(New York, 1904). B. A. Hinsdale's History and ChU Government 
of Ohio (Chicago, 1896) b more elemenury. For local government 
■ee I. A. Wilmia, ** Evolution of Township Government in Ohio," 
in tac 4miiMi Report of the American Historical Association for 
1894. PP- 403-4t» CWashinrton, 1805): D. F. Wikox. Uttniiibal 
Cooerument in Michigan and Ohio, in the Colombia University Studies 

in Ohio Municipal Government," in the American Political Science 
JUoifw for November 1909. On education see George B. Germann. 
HoiwntA Legislation coneemini EdmeaHon, Us InJUuneo and Effect 
im Iho PmbUt Lands oast of tko Miniuippi Riter, admitted prior to 
i8» (New York. 1899); J. J. Bums. EdmattMal History of Ohio 
(Columbus. 1905). 

Archaeology and History: P. G. Thomson's Bibliography of Ohio 
rpncsnnatt. 1880) is an excellent guide to the study of Ohio's history. 
For nrcbaeology see Cyrus Thomas's CBlal«fiir of PrAistorie Works 


Bast of Ike Rocky Momilams (Waahinctoa, 1891), nnd his lb*prl on 
Ike Mound Explorations of tke Bureau ofEtknolofy in the 12th Report 
(1804) of that Bureau, supplementing his eariier bulletins, Problem 
of the Okio Mounds and the Circular, Spiare and OetagontU EartkiBorks 
of Okio (1889); and W. K. Moorebead, Primitioe Man in OUo 
(New York, 1802). The best history is Rufus King, Okio; First 
Fruits of tke Ordinance of 1787 (Boston and New York. 1888). in the 
" Amencan Commonwealths " series. Alexander Black's Story of 
Okio (Boston, 1888) is a short popular account. B. A. Hinsdale, 
Tke CHd Northwest (2nd ed.. New Yoric. 1899). i« Rood for the period 
before 1803. Of the oUer histories Caleb Atwater, History of Ike Stale 
of Okio, Natural and Cunl (Cincinnati, 1838), and James W. Tayk>r, 
History «/ (he State of Okio: First Period 1650-1787 (Cincinnati* 
1854), ^'^ useful. For the Territorial period, and especially for the 
Indan wari of f 790-1 794* tfot W. H. Smith (od.), 7^ St Clair Papere: 
Life amd Seroius of ArUutr St Clair (2 vols.. Cincinnati. 1882) ; Jacob 
Burnet, Notes on tke Early Settlement of tke Nortk-Westem Territory 
(Cincinnati, 1847), written from the Federalist point of view, and 
hence rather favourable to St Clair; C. E. Slocum, Okio Country 
Je; ,.:. ij^j J.:! :r. , ::': York, 1910); and John Armstrong's 
Ltje cj Axthony tf'dTv m ^pir-ks' " Library of American Biopmphy " 
(titv^, jBv^-t*S3^)t *fTii-5 L vol, iv. See also F. P. Goodwin. 
77i^ (^'.-zrsk 'vf OAio (Ciruimi&ti, 1907) and R. E. Chaddock. Ohio 
be, Sirw YorV, iijHiH). lliere is considerable material of 

VI 11^ for local hittoiv, in the Okio Arekaeologkal and 

H I ^f>firUcmf>tr»j (Columbus, 1887), and in Henry Howe, 

H-iofi^il LdkaioHi ^j Okw (1st ed., Cincinnati, 1847; Centennial 
edit I. m [<?f]bri;edl. 1 vi>U,, C^lurabus, 1889-1891). T. B. Galloway, 
•* Tfi- r >hi&^KTk hli^n D. nc t ry Line Dispute,'' m the Okio Arckaeo- 
to^tfni nnd //>''. f PuUications, vol. iv. pp. 190-230, 

b a ^tjud tri^Luuiu ui Lu^i. uijmplicated question. W. F. Gepoart'a 
Tratuportation and Industrial Development in tke Middle West (New 
York. 1909), in the Columbia University Studies in History, 
Economics and Public Law, b a commerdal history of Ohio. 

OHIO OOIIPAIIT, a name of two iSth coitnry crnnpniiift 
oifinbed for the coloniatkn of the Ohio Valley. The fint 
OMo Cbmpany was organiacd in 1749, partly to aid in feauing 
for the Englbh control of the valley, then in dispnte beCweea 
Engbnd and France, and partly as a commerdal project for 
trade wkh the Indians, llie company was composed of Vir- 
ginbns, including Thomas Lee (d. 1750) and the two brothers of 
George Washington, Lawrence (who succeeded to the manage 
ment npon the death of Lee) and Augustine; and of Englishmen, 
Including John Hanboiy, a ncalthy London merchant. Oeorge 
II. sanctioned a grant to the company of 500,000 acres generally 
N.W. of the Ohio, and to the eastward, between the Monoogaheb 
and the Kanawha rivers, but the grant was never actually 
issued. In 1 750-1 751 Christopher Cist, a skilftU woodsman and 
surveyor, exploccd for the company the Ohio Valley as far as 
the mouth of the Sdoto river. In 1752 the company had a 
pathway biased between the small fortified posts at Wili*k Creek 
(Cumberhmd), Marybad, and at Redstone Creek (Brownsville), 
Penasylvanb, which it had established in 1750; but it was 
finally merged in the Walpole Company (an organisation in 
whitii Benjamin FrankKn was Interated), which in 177 a had 
received from the British government a grant of a laige tract 
lying ahmg the southern bank of the Ohio as far irest as the 
mouth of the Sdoto river. The War of Independence interrapted 
colonisation and nothing was accomplished. 

The second company, the Ohio Company of Aasodates, was 
formed at Boston on the 3rd of March 1786. The leaders io the 
movement were General Rufus Putnam, Benjamin Tripper 
(173S-1792), Samnd Holdea PUaons (1737-1789) and Manasxh 
CttUer. Dr Cutler was selected to negotiate with Coogreas. and 
seems to have helped to secure the incoiporatioa id the Ordinance 
for the government of the North- West Tcrritoiy of the paragraphs 
which prohibited sbvery and provided for public education and 
for the support of the ministry. Cutler's original intention was 
to buy for the Ohio Company only about 1,500,000 acres, but 
on the STth of July Congress authorised a giant of about 
5,000,000 acres of land for $3,500,000; a reduction of one-third 
was allowed for bad tracts, aiokd it was also provided that the 
lands could be paid for in United Sutes securiUes. On the 27th 
of October 1787 Cutler and Major Winthrop Saigent (1753- 
1820), who had joined him in the negotbtiona, signed two con- 
tracts; one was for the absolute purchase for the Okdo Company. 
at 66f cents an acre, of 1,500,000 acres of land lying along the 
nofth bank of the Ohio river, from a point nesr the site of the 



present Marietta, to a point nearly opposfle the site of the present 
Huntington, Kentucky; the other was for an option to buy ail 
the land between the Ohio and the Scioto riven and the western 
boundary line of the Ohio Company's tract, extending north of 
the tenth township from the Ohio, this tract being preempted by 
" Manasseh Cutler and Winthrop Sargent for themselves and 
otheis ''—actually for the Sdoto Company (see Galupolis). 
On the same day Cutler and Sargent " for themselves and 
associates '* transferred to William Duer, then Secretary of the 
Treasury Board, and his associates " one equal moiety of the 
Sdoto tract of land mentioned in the second contract," it being 
provided that both parties were to be equally interested in the 
sale of the land, and were to share equally any profit or loss. 
Colonists were sent out by the Ohio Company from New England, 
and Marietta, the first permanent settlement in the present state 
of Ohio, was founded in April 178& 

OHIO RIVBB. the prindiMl eastern tributary of the Mississippi 
river, VJS.A. It is formed by the confluence of the Allegheny 
and Monongaieia rivers at PitUburg, Pennsylvania, and flows 
N.W. nearly to the W. border of Pennsylvania, S.S.W. between 
Ohio and West Virginia, W. by N. between Ohio and Kentucky, 
and W.S.W. between Indiana and lUinoison the N. and Kentucky 
on the S. It is the largest of all the tributaries of the Mississippi 
in respect to the amount of water discharged (an average of about 
158,000 cub. h. per sec.), is first in importance as a highway of 
commerce, and in length (967 m.) as well as in the area of its 
drainage baain (approximately axo,ooo sq. m.) it is exceeded only 
by the Missouri. The slope of the river at low water ranges 
from I fL or more per mile in the upper section to about 0-75 ft. 
per mile in the middle section and o^ag ft. per mile in the lower 
section, and the total fall is appnudmatdy 500 ft. Neariy two> 
thirds of the bed is occupied by 187 pools, in which the fall is very 
gentle; and the greater part of the descent is made over inter- 
vening bars, which are usually composed of sand or gravel but 
occasionally of hard pan or rock. The greatest falls are at 
Louisville, where the river within a distance of 3*a5 m. descends 
23*9 ft. over an irregular mass of limestone. The rock floor of the 
vkOey is usually 30 to 50 ft. bdow k)w water levd, and when 
it comes to the surface, as it occasionally docs, it extends at this 
height only part way across the valley. In the upper port of the 
river the bed contains much coarse gravel and numerous boulders, 
but lower down a sand bed prevails. The ordinary width of the 
upper half of the river is quite uniform, from x 200 to x 500 ft., but 
it widens in the pool above Louisville, contracts immediately 
bdow the Falb, and then gradually widens again until it reaches 
a maximum width of more than a mUe about 30 m. from its 
mouth. Islands are numerona and vary in size from an acre or 
less to 5000 acres; above Louisville there are fifty or more, and 
belowit about thirty. Many of them are cultivated. 

Besides its parent streams, the Allegheny and the Monongahela, 
the Ohio has numerous4arge branches. On the N. it recdves the 
waters of the Muskingum, Sdoto, Miami and Wabash rivers, and 
on the S. those of the Kanawha, Big Sandy, Licking, Kentucky, 
Green, Cumberland and Tenneaacc rivers. 

The drainage basin of the Ohio, in which the annual rainfall 
iverages about 43 in., is, especially in the S. part of the river, 
of the " quick-spilling " Und| and as the swift mountain streams 
in that section are filled in February or March by the storms from 
the Gulf of Mexico, while the northern streams are swollen by 
mdting snow and rsin, the Ohio rises very suddenly and not 
infrequently attains a height of 30 to 50 ft. or more above low 
water level, spreads out ten to fifteen times its usual width, 
submerges the bottom lands, and often causes great damage to 
property in tha lower part of the dries along its banks. 

Robert Caveller, Sieur de La Salle, asserted that he discovered 
the Ohio and descended it until his course was obstructed by 
a fall (thought to be the Falls at Louisville); this was probably 
in 1670, bat until the middle of the next century, when its 
strategic importance in the struggle of the French and the 
Engli^ for the possession of the interior of the continent became 
fully reoogniaed, little was generally known of il. By the treaty 
of 1763 ending the Seven Years' Wax the English finally ftuned 

undisputed control of the territory along its banks. After 
Virginia had bought, in 1768, the daims of the Six Nations to the 
territory south of the Ohio, immigrants, mostly Virginians, began 
to descend the river in considerable numbers, but the Shawnee 
Indians, whose title to the land was more plausible than that of 
the Six Nations ever was, resisted thdr encroachments until the 
Shawnees were ddeated in October 1774 at the battle of Point 
Pleasant. By the treaty of 1783 the entire Ohio country became 
a part of the United Sutcs and by the famous Ordinance of 1787 
the north side was opened to settlement. Most of the settlers 
entered the region by the headwaters of the Ohio and carried 
much of their market produce, lumber, &c, down, the Ohio and 
Mississippi to New Orleans or beyond. Until the successful 
navigation of the river by steamboats a considerable poftion of 
the imports was carried overland from Philadelphia or Baltimore 
to Pittsburg. The first steamboat on the Ohio was the " New 
Orleans," which was built in 181 1 by Nicholas J. Rooaev^ 
and sailed from Pittsburg to New Orleans in Uie same year, 
but it remained for Captain Henry M. Shreve (1785-1854) to 
demonstrate with the " Washington," which he built in 1816^ 
the success of this kind of navigarion on the river. From 1820 
to the Civil War the steamboat on the system of inland water- 
ways of which the Ohio was a part was a dominant factor in the 
industrial life of the Middle West. Cndnnati, LouisviSe and 
Pittsburg on its banks were exteiksivdy engaged in buildinf 
these v^sds. The river was dotted with flrating shopa-~dry- 
goods boats fitted with counters, boats containing a tinner's 
establishment, a blacksmith's shop, a factory, or a lottery office* 
Until the Erie Canal was opened in 1825 the Ohio river was the 
chief commercial highway between the East and the West. 
It was connected with Lake Erie in 1832 by the Ohio & Erie 
Canal from Portsmouth to Qeveland, and in 1845 by the Miami 
& Erie Canal from Cindnnati to Toledo. 

In the natural state of the river navigation was usually almost 
wholly suspended during low water from July to November, 
and it was dangerous at all times on account of the numerous 
snags. The Federal government in 1827 undertook to remove 
the snags and to increase the depth of water on the bars by the 
construcUon of contraction works, such as dikes and wing dams, 
and appropriations for these purposes as well as for dredging 
were continued until 1844 and resumed in 1866; but as the 
chaimcl obtained was less than 3 ft. in 1870, locks with movable 
dams— that is, dams that can be thrown down on the approach 
of a flood— were then advocated, and five years later Congress 
made an appropriation for constructing such a dam, the Davis 
Island Dam immediately bdow Pittsburg, as an experimenL 
This was opened in 18S5 and was a recognized success; and in 
1895 the Ohio Valley Improvement Assodation was organized 
in an efifort to have the system extended. At first the assodatioB 
asked only for a chaimel 6 ft. in depth; and between 1896 and 
r905 Congress authorized the necessary surveys and made appro* 
priations for thirty-six locks and dams from the Davis Island 
Dam to the mouth of the Great Miami river. As the assodation 
then urged that the channel be made 9 ft. in depth Congress 
authorized the secretary of war to appoint a board of engineeis 
which should make a thorough examination and report on the 
comparative merits of a channel 9 ft. in depth, and one 6 f L in 
depth. The board reported in 1908 in favour of a 9<ft. channel 
and stated that fifty-four locks and dams would be ncoessaiy for 
such a channd throughout ih& course of the river, and Congress 
adopted this project. At the Falls is the Louisvflle & Portland 
Canal, orifpinally built by a private corporation, with the United 
States as one of the stockholders, and opened in 1830^ with a 
width of 50 ft., a length of 200 ft., and three lodes, each with 
a lift of about 8} ft. In 1860-187 2 the width was increased 
to 90 ft. and the three old k)cks were replaced by two new ones. 
The United States gradually increased its holdings of stodc 
until in 1855 it became owner of aU but five shares; it assumed 
the management of the canal in 1874, abolished tolls in x88o, 
and thereafter improved it in many respects. Sixty-eight locks 
and dams have been construaed on the prindpal tributaries, 
and the Allegheny, Monon^bela, Cumberland, Tennessee, 



Muikiiigam, KAiiawha, LUUe Kaaatrha, Big Saady, Wabuh, 
and Green now afford a total of about 960 m. of slack-water 

See the Board of Englncen* Report of BxamincUon (^ Ohio River 
with a view to obtainint Channel Depths of 6 and g It. respectively 
(Washington, 1908) ; A. B. Hulbert. Wateruays of Westward Ex- 
pansion CCIevelaod. 1903) and The Ohio Rwer, a Couru of Empire 
(New York. 1906); alao K. G. Thwaites, Afloat on the Oho (New 
York. 1900). 

0HL4U, a town of Germany, In the Prussian province of Silesia, 
16 m. by rail S.E. of Breslau, on the left bank of the Oder. Pop. 
(1905) 9253. It has two Roman Catholic and two Evangelical 
churches, and a castle. OUau is the centre of a tobacco-growing 
district and has manufactures of tobacco and cigars, machinery, 
beer, shoes and bricks. It became a town in 1291 and passed 
to Prussia in 1742. In the 17th and i8th centuries it was often 
the residence of the dukes of Brieg and of the Sobieski family. 

See Schuls, AnsOhlausVerianienheit (Ohlau. 1903). 

OHUDOCHL&eBR. ADAM OOTTLOB (1779-1850), Danish 
poet, was bom in Vesterbro, a suburb of Copenhagen, on the 
14th ol November 1779. His father, a Schleswiger by birth, 
was at that time organist, and later became keeper, of the royal 
palace of Frederiksberg; he was a very brisk aM cheerful man. 
The poet'a mother, on the other hand, who was partly German 
by extraction, suffered from depressed spirits, which afterwards 
deepened into melancholy madness. Adam and hb sister Sofia 
weic allowed thdr own way throughout their childhood, and were 
taught nothing, except to read and write, until their twelfth 
year. At the age of nine Adam began to make fluent verses. 
Three years later, while walking in Frederiksberg Gardens, he 
attracted the notice ol the poet Edvand Storm, and the result 
of the conversation was that he received a nomination to the 
college called ** Posterity's High School,'* an important institution 
of which Storm was the principal Storm himself taught the class 
ol Scandinavian mythology, and thus OhlenschUiger received 
hia earliest bias towards the poetical religion of his ancestors. 
He was confirmed in 1795, and was to have been apprenticed 
to a tradesman in Copenhagen. To his great delight there was 
a hitch in the preliminaries, and he returned to his father's 
bouse. He now, in his eighteenth year, suddenly took up study 
with great seal, but soon again abandoned his books for the stage, 
where a small position was offered him. In 1797 he actually 
made his appearance on the boards in several successive parts, 
but soon discovered that he possessed no real histrionic talent. 
The brothers Orsted, with whom he had formed an intimacy 
fruitful of profit to him, persuaded him to quit the stage, and in 
1800 he entered the university of Copenhagen as a student. 
He was doomed, however, to disturbance In his studies, first 
from the death of his mother, next from his inveterate tendency 
towards poetry, and finally from the attack of the English upon 
Copenhagen in April 1801, which, however, inspired a dramatic 
sketch (Aprii the Second 1801) which is the first thing of the 
kind by OhlenschUlger that we possess. In the summer of 
x8o2, when Ohlcnscblftgcr had an old Scandinavian romance, 
as well as a volume of lyrics, in the press, the young Norse 
philosopher, Henrik Stcflens, came back to Copenhagen after 
a long visit to ScheUing in Germany, full of new romantic Ideas. 
His lectures at the university. In which Goethe and Schiller 
were for the first lime revealed to the l)anish public, created 
a great sensation. Steflens and Ohlenschllger met one day at 
Dreier's Club, and after a conversation of sixteen hours the latter 
went home, suppressed his two coming volumes, and wrote 
at a sitting his splendid poem Ciddkarnene^ in a manner totally 
new to Danish literature. The result of his new enthusiasm 
speedily sho^'ed itself in a somewhat hasty volume of poems, 
published in 1803, now chiefly remembered as containing the 
lovely piece called Sanct-HansaJten-SpU. The next two years saw 
the production of several exquisite works, in particular the 
epic of Thors Reise til Jotunheim, the charming poem in hexa- 
meters called Langtlandsreisen, and the bcwitdiing piece of 
fantasy Aladdin's Lampe (1805). At the age of twenty^six 
Ohlenschllger was universally recognized, even by the opponents 
ol the ron\antic revival, as the leading poet of Denmark. Ue 

now collected hii Poetical Writings in (wo volomet. He found 
no difficulty in obtaining a grant lor foreign travel from the 
government, and he left his native country for the first time, 
joining Steffens at Halle in August 1805. Here he wrote the 
first of his great historical tragedies, Hakon Jarl, which he sent 
off to Copenhagen, and then proceeded for the winter months 
to Berlin, where he associated with Humboldt, Fichte, and 
the leading men of the day, and met Goethe for the first time. 
In the spring of 1806 he went on to Weimar, where he spent 
several months in daily intercouiae with Goethe. The 
autumn of the same year he spent with Tieck in Dresden, 
and proceeded in December to Paris. Here he resided eighteen 
months and wrote his three famous masterpieces, BaUnr km 
Code (1808), Palnaioke (1809), and Axd og Valborg (i8to). 
In July 1808 he left Paris and spent the autumn and whiter 
in Switserland as the guest of Madame de Stacl-Holstein at 
Coppet, in the midst of her drcle of wits. In the spring of 180^9 
OhienKhUger went to Rome to visit Thorwaldsen, and in hia 
house wrote his tragedy of Coneggio, He hurriedly returned 
to Denmark in the spring of 1810, partly to take the chair ol 
aesthetics at the university of Copenhagen, partly to marry 
the sister-in-law of Rahbek, to whom he had been long betrothed. 
His first course of lectures dealt with his Danish predecessec 
Ewald, the second with SchUler. From this time forward 
his literary activity became very great; in 181 1 be published 
the Ofientai tale of Ali og CMlkyndi, and in 1813 the last of his 
great tragedies, Staerhodder, From 1814 to 1819 he, or rather 
his admirecs, were engaged In a long and angry controversy with 
Baggesen, who represented the old didactic school. This contest 
seems to have disturbed the peace of Ohlenschliger's mind, and 
to have undermined his genius. His talent may be said to have 
ctilminated in the glorious cycle of verse-romances called Helgt^ 
published in 1814. The tragedy of Hag^lh og Signe, 1815, 
showed a distinct falling-off in style. In 1817 he went back 
to Paris, and published Uroars Saga and the tragedy of Fast' 
brddrone. In 1818 he was again in Copenhagen, and wrote 
the idyll of Den liile Hyrdedreng and the Eddaic cycle called 
Nordens Cvder. His next productions were the tragedies ol 
Erik og Abd (1820) and Vaerinicnt i Miklagaard (1826), and 
the epic of Hrol/ Krake (iSio)* It was in the last-mentioned 
year that, being in Sweden, Ohlenschllger was publicly crowned 
with laurel in front of the high altar in Lund cathedral by 
Bishop Eaaias Tegn^r, as the " Scandinavian King of Song." 
His last volumes were Tordenshjold (18I33), Drouning Margretkt 
(t833). Sokrata (1835). Oiaf den HeUige (1836), Knud den Stor§ 
(1838), Dina (184a), Erik Clipping (1843)* tad Kiartan og 
Cudrun (1847)* On his seventieth birthday, 14th November 
1849. SL public festival was arranged in his honour, and he was 
decorated by the king of Denmark under circumstances of great 
pomp. He died on the 20th of January 1850, and was buried 
in the cemetery of Frederiksberg. Immediately alter his death 
his Recollections were published in two volumes. 

With the exception of Holberg. there has been no Danish writer 
who has exercised so wide an influence as OhlenschUlger. His 
great work was to awaken in the breasts of his countrymen an 
enthusiasm for the poetry and religion of their ancestors, and this 
he performed to so complete an extent that his name remains to 
this day synonymous with Scandinavian romance. He supplied 
his countrymen with romantic tragedies at the very moment 
when all eyes were turned to the stage, and when the old-fashioned 
pieces were felt to be inadequate. His plays, partly, no doubt, 
in consequence ol his own early familiarity with acting, fulfilled 
the stage requirements of the day, and were popular beyond 
all expecUtion. The earliest are the best— OhlenschUiger's 
dramatic masterpiece being, without doubt his first tragedy, 
Hakon JarL In his poems and plays alike his style is limpid, 
elevated, profuse; his flight is sustained at a high pitch without 
visible excitement. His fluent tenderness and romantic aest have 
been the secrets of his extreme popuhirity. Although his 
inspiration came from Germany, he is not much like a German 
poet, except when he is consciously following Goethe; his 
analogy vt much rather to be found among the English poets. 



his ooatemporanes. His mission towards antiquity reminds 
us of Scott, but he is, as a poet, a better artist than Scott; 
he has sometimes touches o( exquisite diction and of over- 
wrought sensibility which recall Coleridge to us. In his wide 
ambition and profuseness he possessed some characteristics 
of Southey, although his style has far more vitality. ' With all 
his faults he was a very great writer, and one of the principal 
pioneers of the romantic movement in Europe. (E. G.) 

OHUfiS, a town of Germany, in the Prussian Rhine Province, 
27 m. by rail N. of Cologne, on the railway to Elberfeld. Pop. 
(1905) 24,264. lu chief manufactures are cutlery and hardware, 
and there are iron^fonndries and flour-mills. Other industries 
are brewing, dyeing, weaving and brick-making. Before 1891 
it was known as Merschetd. 

OHM, QBOBO SIMOH (1787-1854), German physicist, was 
born at Erlangen on the i6th of March 1787, and was educated 
at the university there. He became professor of mathemaUcs 
in the Jesuits* college at Cologne In 1817 and in the polytechnic 
school of Nuremberg in 1833, and in 1852 professor of experi* 
mental physics in the university of Munich, where he died on 
the 7th of July 1854. His writings were numerous, but, with 
one important exception, not of the first order. The excep- 
tion is his pamphlet published in Berlin in 1827, with the 
title Die gclvaniscke Kettt matktmatisck hearheiUt. This work, 
the germs of which had appeared during the two preceding 
years in the journals of Schweigger and Poggendorff , has exerted 
most important influence on the whole development Of the 
theory and applications of current electricity, and Ohm's name 
has l^en incorporated in the terminology of electrical science. 
Nowadays *' Ohm's Law," as it is called, in which all that is 
most valuable in the pamphlet b summariaed, is as universally 
known as anything in physics. The equation for the propaga- 
tion of electricity formed on Ohm's principles is identical with 
that of J. B. J. Fourier for the propagation of heat; and if, in 
Fourier's solution of any problem of heat-conduction, we change 
the word " temperature " to " potential " and write " electric 
current " instead of ** flux of heat," we have the solution of 
a corresponding problem of electric conduction. The basis 
of Fourier's work was^his clear conception and definition of 
conductivity. But this involves an assumption, undoubtedly 
true for small temperature-gradients, but still an assumption, 
via. that, all else being the same, the flux of heat is strictly 
pn^wrtional to the gradient of temperature. An exactly similar 
assumption is made in the statement of Ohm's law, i.e. that, 
other things being alike, the strength of the current is at each 
point proportional to the gradient of potential. It happens, how- 
ever, that with our modern methods it is much more easy to test 
the accuracy of the assumption in the cav* of electricity than 
in that of heat; and it has accordingly been shown by J. Clerk 
Maxwell and George Chrystal that Ohm's law Is true, within the 
limits of experimental error, even when the currents are so 
powerful as almost to fuse the conducting wire. 

OHllllETBR,an electrical instrument employed for measuring 
insulation-resistance or other high electrical resistances. For 
the purpose of measuring resistances up to a few thousand ohms, 
the most convenient appliance is a Wheatstone^ Bridge (9.9), 
but when the resistance of the conductor to be measured is 
several hundred thousand ohms, or if it b the resistance of a 
so-called insulator, such as the insulating covering of the copper 
wires employed for distributing electric current in houses and 
buildings for electric lighting, then the ohmmeter b more con- 
venient. An ohmmeter in one form consbts of two pairs of coils, 
one pair called the series coil and the other called the shunt coil. 
These coils are placed with their axes at right angles to one 
another, and at the point where the axes intersect a small pivoted 
needle of soft iron b placed, carrying a longer index needle 
moving over a scale. 

Suppose it is dedrcd to measufe the insubtion-resistanoe of a 
system of electric house wiring; the okrameter circuits are then joined 
uu as shown in fin. 1. where W represents a portion of the wiring 
01 the building and I a portion of the insulating materials Mirrounding 
it. The object of the lest is to discover the resistance of the insulator 
1, that is, to determine bow much current flows through thisinsubtor I 

by leakage under a certain eleccromotive forae or voltage wlikh must 
not be less than that which will be employed in prsctke when the 
electfK lights supplied through these wires are in operation. For 
this purpose the ohmmeter is provided with a small dynamo D. 
contained in a box. uhlch produces a continuous electfXMnotive 
force of from 200 to 500 _ _ 

volts when the handle 
of the instrument b 
steadily turned. In 
making the test, the 
whole of the copper 
wires belonging to any 
section of the wiring and 
the test must be con- 
nected together at some 
point and then con- 
nected through the series 
coil of the ohmmeter 
with one terminal of the 
dynamo. The shunt coil 
Sh and the series coil Se 
are connected together 
at one point, and the 
remaining termlnab of 

Fic. 2. 

the dynamo and shunt coil must be connected to a " good 
earth, which is generally the gas or water pipes w of the 
building. On setung the dynamo in operation, a current passes 
through the shunt coil of the ohmmeter proportional to the voltage 
of the dynamo, and, if there is any sensible teakage through the- 
insulator to earth, at the same lime another current passes through 
the series coil proportional to the conductivity of the insulation of 
the winng under the electromotive force used. The two coils, the 
shunt and the series coil, then produce two magnetic fiekls. with 
their lines of force at ri^ht angles to one another. The small pivoted 
iron needle ns placed in their common field therefore takes up a 
certain position, dependent on the relative value of these fields. 
The unjsent of the angle of deflection • of this needle measured from 
Its oosition. when the shunt coil b disconnected, b equal to the ratio 
of the voltage of the dynamo to the current through the insubtor. If 
we call this last resisunce R, the voltage of the working dynamo V 
and the current through the insubtor C, then tan •■C/V-R. 
Hence the deflection of the needle b proportional to the insubtion 
resistance., and the scale can be graduated to show directly thb 
resistance m megohms. 

^ The Evershed and Vignoles form of the Instrument is much used 
in testing the insubtion resistance ol electric wiring in houses. 
In this ^M the dynamo and ohmmeter are combined in one instru- 
ment. The field magnet of the dynamo has two gaps in it. In one 
the excitmg armature b routed, producing the working voluge of 
250, 500 or 1000 volts. In the other gap are pivoted two coib 
wx>und on an iron core and connected at nearly a right angle to 
each other. One of these coils b in aeries with the armature circuit 
and with the insubtion or high resbtance to be measured. The other 
IS a shunt across the terminals of the armature. When the armature 
IS rotated, these two coils endeavour to pbce themselves in certain 
directions in the field so as to be perforated by the greatest magnetic 
flux. The exact position of the core, and, therefore, of an index 
needle connected with it. is dependent on the ratio of the voltage 
appUed to the terminab of the high resistance or insulator and the 
current passing through it. This, however, b a measure of the 
insubtion-reststance. lience the instrument can be graduated to 
show thb directly. 

In the Nalder ohmmeter the electrostatic principle is employed. 
The instrument consists of a high-voltage continuous -current 
dynamo which creates a potential difference between the needle 
and the two quadrants of a quadrant electrometer (see ELECTna- 
MSTB a). These two quadrants are interconnected by the high resist- 
ance to be measured, and. therefore, themselves diner in potentiaL 
The exact position taken up by the noedte b therefore determined 
by the potentbl difference (P.D.) of the quadrants and the P.O. 
of the needle snd each quadrant, and. therefore, by the ratios of the 
P.D. of the ends of the insubtor and the current flowing through it, 
that is, by its insubtion resbunoe. 

The ohmmeter recommends itself by its portabflity, but in 
default of the possession of an ohmmeter the insulation-resbtasce 
can be measured by means of an ordinary mirror galvanometer 
(see Galvanometer) and insulated battery of suitable voltage. 
In thb case one terminal of the battery b connected to the earth, 
and the other terminal is connected through the galvanometer 
with the copper wire, the insubtion of which it b desired to test. 
If any sensible current flows through thb insubtor the galvano- 
meter will show a deflection. 

The meaning of this deflection can be interpreted as follows: 
If a galvanometer has a resistance R and b shunted by a shunt of 
resistance S, and the shunted galvanometer b pboed in aeries with 
a large resisunoe Rf of the order of a megohm, and if the same 



FtC. 2, 

battery is applied to the shunted galvsnoineter. then the current C 

puiiiig through the galvaoonicter w01 be given by the expression 


where V is the cfectrainotive force of the battesy. It U possible so 
to arrange the value of the shunt and of the high resisunoe R' 
that the same or neaHy the same deflection of the galvanometer is 
obtained aa when it is used in series with the battery and the insuU- 
tion<reatstance. In these circumstances the current passing through 
the galvanometer is known, provided that the voltage of the battery 
is (tetermined by means of a potentiometer (9-v.). Hence the 
res is tance of the insulator can be ascertained, since it is expressed 
in obna by the. ratio of the voltage of the battery in volu to the 

current through the 
C C galvanometer in 

amperes. In apply • 
ing this method to 
test the insulation of 
indiarubbcr • covered 
or of insulated 
copper wire, before 
employing it for 
electrical purposes, 
it is usual to place 
the coil of wire W 
(fig. 2) in an insulated 
tank of water T. 
which is connected 
to one terminal of 

_. jeing connected to the 

metallic conductor CC of the wire under test, thrpugh a gah-ano- 
mcter C. To prevent leakage over the surface of the insubting 
covering of the wire which projects above the surface of the water, 
it is necessary to employ a " guard wire " P. which consists of a 
piece of fine copper wire, twisted round the extremity of the insu> 
toted wire and connected to the battery. This guard wire pre* 
vents viy current which leaks over the surface of the insulator 
from passing through the galvanometer C. and the galvanometer 
indication la therefore only determined bjr the amount of current 
which passes through the tosolator, or by its iosulation-reaisunoe. 

For farther Information on the measurement of high resistance, 
see J. A. Fleming, A Handbettk for the EUctrtcal Laboratory and 
TesHng Room (a vols., London, 1904): H. R. Kempe, A Handbook 
of Eleetricai TesHni (London. 1900): H. L. Webb, A Practical Guide 
io Iko TMmg ofjnsulatad Wwts and Cables (New York. 1903). 

tf. A. F.) 

Oimr, OSORGB8 (1848- ), French novelist and man of 
letterB, was bom in Pam on the 3rd of April 184& After the war 
of 1870 ha became editor of the Pays tmd the Comtituthnnd in 
auccenion. In eoOaboration with the engineer and dramatist 
Louis Denajrrouze (b. 1848) he produced the play Regitia Sar^, 
and in 1877 Martke. He was an admirer of Gorges Sand and 
bitterly opposed to the realistic modern nOvcL Hebegaaa 
series of novels, Les BataiUes delavie,cisL simple and idealistic 
character, which, although attacked by the critics as unreal and 
commonpbce, were very popular. The scries induded Serge 
Pamna^ (1881) which was crowned by the Academy; Ls Mattre 
d€ forga (1882), La Grande Mamihe (1885), VdonU (1888), 
Dernier amcur (1891). Many of his novels have been dramatised 
with great success, LeUatlrede forges, produced at the Gymnase 
in 1883, holding the stage for a whole year. His later publications 
indude Le Cripuscnle (1902), Le Marchand de poisons (1903)* 
La Conquirantt (1905), La Dixiime Muse (1906). 

OHRORUr, a town of Germany in the duchy of Saze-Cbbars- 
GoCha, II BL by rail &E. of (jotha. Pop. (1905) 6x14. It 
has a castle, two Evangelical churches, a technical and other 
schools, and manufactores of porcelain, paper, copper 
goods, shoes and small wares. Qose by is the summer resort 
of Luisentbal. As eariy as 72$ there was a monastery at 
Ohrdni^ wMch recdved munidpal rights in i399> With six 
ncigbboaring villages it forms the county of Oberi^dchen. 

OIHIHART, AHNAUID DB (i59»-i668), Basque historian 
and poet, was bom at Maulfon, and studied law at Bordeaux, 
where he took hb degree in i6it. He practised first hi his native 
town, and after Us marriage with Jeanne d'Erdoy, the heiresa 
of a noble iiiinay of Saint-Palais, at the bar of the pariement 
of Navanc He spent his leisare and his fortune in the search 
for documents bearing on the old Basque and Beamese provinces; 
and the fruiUcf histtudieein the archives of Bayonne, Toulouse. 

Pau, Perigord and other dties were embodied in forty-five MS. 
volumes, which were sent by his son Gabriel to Colbert. Twenty- 
three of these are in the Biblioth^ue National; of Paris (Coll. 

Oihcnart published in 1635 a DidaroHon kistorique do Finjuslo 
usurbotion et retention de la Nomrrepw Us Esbapuds and a fragment 
of a Latin wurk on the same subject u included in Galland's Mimoires 
Pour Vhisloire de Navarre (1648). His most important work is 
rfotitia ntrius^ue Vasconiae, turn Ihericae, tnm Aqnitanicaef qua 
pruetn situm regionis et alia sciln digna^ Navarrae regum eotler* 
arunujue: in iis insignum vetustate et dignitate famiUarum . . . 
(Paris, 16^ and 1656), a description of Gasconv and Navarre. 
His collection of over five hundred Basque proverbs, Atsotisac edo 
ftefrovac, included in a volume of his poems O"* Castaroa NevrUriso^ 
tan, printed in Paris in 1657, was supplemented by a second coUectkMi, 
XUoftsni Vrrhenquina, The proverbs were edited by Franciaque 
Michel (Paris, 1847)* and the supplement by P. Hariston (Bayonne. 
1892} and by V. Stempf (Bordeaux, 1894). See Julicn Vinson, Rssai 
ffune biWographie de lalangue basque (Paris, 1891); J. B. E. d« 
Jaurgain. Arnaud d'Oihenart etsafatnilU {Pant, 1885). 

OIL CITY, a dty of Venango county, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., 
on the Allegheny river, at the mouth of Oil Creek, about 55 m. 
S.SJE. of Erie and about 135 m. N. of PilUburg. Pop. (1890) 
xo,93a; (1900) X3,364* of whom 2oot were foreign-bom and 
184 were negroes; (1910 census) 15,657. It is served by the 
Pennsylvania (two lines), the Erie, and the Lake Shore 8[ 
Michigan Southern railways. The dty lies about 1000 ft. above 
the sea, and is divided by the river and the creek into three 
sections connected by bridges. The business part of the dly 
is on the low ground north of the river; the residential districts 
are the South Side, a portion of the flats, the West Side, and 
Cottage Hin and Palace Hill 00 the North Skle. Oa City is 
the centre and the prindpal market of the Pennsylvania oil 
region. It has extensive oil refineries and foundries and machine 
shops, and manufactures oil-well supplies and a few other 
commodities. The dty's factory products were valued at 
$5,164,059 in 1900 and at $3,2x7,208 in 2905, and in the latter 
year foundry and machine-shop products were valued at 
$2,317,505, or 72% of the total Natural gas is used for power, 
heat and light. OH City was founded in x86o^ incorporated as 
a borough in 1863 and chartered as a dty in 2874. The dty 
was partially destroyed by flood In 2865, and by flood and fire 
in z866 and again in 2892; on this last occasion Oil Creek was 
swollen by a doud-burst on the 5th of June, and several tanks 
farther up the valley, which seem to have been struck by 
lightning, gave way and a mass of burning oil was earned by 
the creek to Oil City, where some sixty lives were lost and 
property valued at more than $1,000,000 was destroyed. 

OIL ENGINE. Oil engines, like gas engines (9.*.), are btemal 
oombustlon motors in which motive power is produced by the 
explosion or expansion of a mixture of inflammab^ material 
and air. The inflammable fluid used, however, consists of 
vapour produced from oil instead of permanent gas. The 
thermodynamic operations are the same as in gas engines, and 
the structural and mechanical differences are due to the devices 
required to vaporize the oil and supply the measured proportion 
of vapour which is to mix with the air in the cyfinderSb 

Light and heavy oils are used; light oils may be defined as 
those which are readily volatile at ordinary atmospheric tempera- 
tures, while heavy oils are those which require spedal heating 
or spraying processes in order to produce an inflammable vapour 
capable of forming explosive mixture to be supplied to the 
cjdioders. Of the light oils the most important is known as 
petrol It is not a definite chemical ooMpound. It is a mixture 
of various hydrocarbons of the paraffin and define scries p roduced 
from the distillation of petroleum and paraffin oils. It consists, 
in fact, of the lighter fractions which distil over first in tlie 
process of purifying petroleums or paraffins. 

The spedfic gravity of the standard petrob of commcfoe 
generally ranges between 0-700 to about 0-740; and the heat 
value on complete combustkm per iV gallon burned varies 
from 14.240 to 24350 British thermal units. Tile thermal 
value per gallon thus increases with the density, but the volatiEty 
diminishca, Thus, samples of petrol examined by Mr Blount 



of from -700 10 -739 specific gravity showed that 98% of the 
lighter sample distilled over below 120* C. while only 88% of 
the heavier came over within the same temperature range. 
The heavier petrol is not so easily converted into vapour. The 
great modem development of the motor car gives the light oil 
engine a most important place as one of the leading sources of 
motive power in the world. The total petrol power now applied 
to cars on land and to vesseb on sea amounts to at least two 
million H.P. The petrol engine has also enabled aeropbnes to 
be used in practice. 

The earliest proposal to use oil as a means to produce motive 
power was made by an English inventoi^-Street — in 1794, but 
the firat practical petroleum engine was that of Julius Hock 
of Vienna, produced in 1870. Hiis engine, like Lenoir's gas 
engine, operated without compression. The piston took in a 
charge of air and light petroleum spray which was ignited by 
a flame jet and produced a low-pressure explosion. Like all 
non-compression engines, Hock*s machine was very cumbrous 
and gave little power. In 1873, Brayton, an English engineer, 
who had settled in America, produced a light oil engine working 
on the constant pressure system without explosion. This 
appears to have been the earliest compression engine to use 
oil fuel instead of gas. 

Shortly after the introduction of the "Otto" gas engine 
in 1876, a motor of this type was operated by an inflammable 
vapour produced by passing air on its way to the cylinder 
through the light oil then known as gasolene. A further air 
supply was drawn into the cylinder to form the required explosive 
mixture, which was sul)sequenlly compressed and ignited in the 
usual way. The Spiel petroleum engine was the first Otto 
cycle motor introduced into practice which dispensed with an 
Independent vaporizing apparatus. Light hydrocarbon of a 
specific gravity of not greater than 0.725 was injected directly 
into the cylinder on the suction stroke by means of a pump. 
In entering it formed spray mixed with the air, was vaporized, 
and on compression an explosion was obtained jtist as in the 
gas engine. 

UniU the year 1883 the different gas and oil engines constructed 
were of a heavy type rotating at about 150 to 250 revolutions 
per minute. In that year Daimler conceived the idea of con- 
structing very small engines with light moving parts, in order 
to enable them to be rotated at such high speeds as 800 and 1000 
revolutions per minute. At that time engineers did not consider 
it practicable to run engines at such speeds; it was supposed 
that low speed was necessary to durability and smooth running. 
Daimler showed this idea to be wrong by producing his first 
small engine in 1883. In x886 he made his first experiment 
with a motor bicycle, and on the 4th of March 1887 he ran foi 
the first time a motor car propelled by a petrol engine. Daimler 
deserves great credit for realizing the possibility of producing 
durable and effective engines rotating at such unusually high 
speeds; and, further, for proving that his ideas were right in 
actual practice. His little engines contained nothing new in 
their cycles of operation, but they provided the first step in the 
startlingly rapid development of petrol motive power which 
we have seen in the last twenty years. The high speed of 
rotation enabled motors to be constructed giving a very large 
power for a very small weight. 

Fig. 1 is a diaerammatic section of an early Daimler motor. A 
is t\w cylinder, B the piston. C the connecting rod, and D the 
crank, which b entirely endoeed in a casing. A small fly-wheel is 
carried by the crankshaft, and it «erv« the double- piirpo* of a fly- 
wheel and a ciucch. d \h iht €0(n,h\i*,tton eisice, E the tangle i^jft, 
which serves boL?! Ilpt inlti. ul the cftnxr^c and k»r disc1uTi£t of f^nhjust. 
W is the exhaust vjilvc^ F the chn^nfc inlet vaK-c^ fi'hich Is autorn.^tic 
in Its action, arvfj h held doietj by a sprinR /. G the cnrburrtior. 
H the igniter tuW, 1 the ignkcr tube lamp, K the char|^ ifik-i passage, 
L the air fiher r.hambtr. and M fin adju<hULfle air inkt cap br Tifgu- 
lating the air inkt an-a. The Utht ulV—vr tctfoL a* it is commonly 
calico — is suppliciLl tn the Htnt chamber N of the v^mriB^f by means 
of the valve O. !k> Tott^ as the levct of ihcpttnol if% hii:h. t bf float 11 , 
acting; by levers about it, ha1id» iht \i\w O closed ti^iiinst &it lorccd 
by air pressure ilans the pipe P ^ When the Icul dilU, h^^fvcr, 
the valve opens. aLiid more petrol is admiucd. When tht pJf>ton B 
makes its suction «tdIcc^ air pa^isc^ fn&pi the «1niD&phcfC by the 


_ K through the valve F. which it opens automatically. 
le pressure falls within the passage K, and a spurt of petrol paoaea 
by the jet G\ separate air at the Mune time passing by the passage 
K* round the ict. The petrol breaks up into spray by impact 
against the walU of the passage K, and then it vaporizes and passes 
into the cylinder A as an inflammable mixture. When the piston B 
returns H oompresaes the charge into a, and upon com|xesflioR the 
incandescent igniter tube H fires the charge. H ia a short platinum 
tube, which u always open to the compression space It is rendefed 
incandescent by the burner I, fed with petrol from the pipe aupplyinjr 
the vaporiser. The ofien incandescent tube is found to act wiM 
for small engines, and it does not ignite the charge until the com- 
•iflat • * 

pression takes pliice, because the inflammable mixture cannot oome 
into oontaa with the hot part till it is forced up the tube by the 

Fig. I. 

compression. The engine is aurted by giving the crank-ahaft a 
smart turn round by means of a detachable handle. The exhaust is 
alone actuated from the valve shaft. The shaft Q is operated by 
pinion and a spur-wheel Q* at half the rate of the crank-Miaft. The 
governing is accomplished by cutting out explostons as with the n» 
engine, but the governor operates by preventing the exhaust valve 
that no charge is discharged from the cylinder. 

from opening, so \ ^ 

and therefore no charge is drawn in. 

rhe cam R operates the exhaust 

valve, the levers shown are so controlled by the governor (not shown) 
that the knife edge S is pressed out when speed is too high, and 
cannot engage the recess T until it falls. The engine has a water 
jacket V. through which water is circulated. Cooling devices are 
used to economize water. 

6en2 of Mannheim followed dose on the work of Daimkr, 
and in France Panhard and Lcvassor, Peugeot, De Dion, 
Delahaye and Renault all contributed to the development 
of the petrol engine, while Napier, Lancbestcr, Royce and 
Austin were the most prominent among the many English 

The modem petrol engine differs in many respects from 
the Daimler engine just described both as to general design, 
method of carburetting, ignitmg and controlling the power 
and speed. The carburettor now used is usually of the float 
and jet type shown in fig. x, but altecatioDs have been ouuk to 



allow of the production of uniform mixture In the cylinder 
under widely varying conditions of speed and load. The original 
form of carburettor was not well adapted to allow of great 
change of volume per suction stroke. Tube ignition has been 
abandoned, and the electric system is now supreme. The 
favourite type at present is that of the high-tension magneto. 
Valves are now all mechanically operated; the automatic inlet 
valve has practically disappeared. Engines are no longer 
controlled by cutting out impulses; the governing is effected 
by throttling the charge, that Is by diminishing the volume 
of charge admitted to the cylinder at one stroke. Broadly, 
throttling by reducing charge weight reduces pressure of com- 
pression and so allows the power of the explosion to be graduated 
within wide limits while maintaining continuity of impulses. 
The object of the throttle control b to keep up continuous 
impulses for each cycle of operation, while graduating the power 
produced by each impulse so as to meet the conditions of the 

Originany three types of carburettor were employed for 
dealing with Ught oil; first, the surface carburettor; second, the 
wick carburettor; and third, the jet carburettor. The surface 
carburettor has entirely disappeared. Jn it air was passed over 
a surface of Ught oil or bubbled through it; the air carried off 
a vapour to form explosive mixture. It was found, however, 
that the oil remaining in the carburettor graduaUy became 
Heavier and heavier, so that ultimately no proper vaporization 
took place. This was due to the fractional evaporation of the 
oil which tended to carry away the light vapours, leaving in the 
vessel the oil, which produced heavy vapours. To avoid this 
fractionation the wick carburettor was introduced and here 
a complete portion of oil was evaporated at each operation so 
that no concentration of heavy oil was possible. The wick 
carburettor is still used in some cars, but the jet carburettor 
is practically universal. It has the advantage of discharging 
separate portions of oQ Into the air entering the engine, each 
portion being carried away and evaporated with all its fractions 
to produce the charge in the cylinder. 

The modem jet carburettor appears to have originated with 
Butler, an English engineer, but it was first extensively used 
In the modification produced by Maybach as shown in fig. i. 

A diagrammatic tection of a cartMirettor of the Maybach type is 
shown in a laraer Kale in fig. 2. 

Petrol is admlttrd to the chamber A by the vaU'e B which is 
controlkd by the float C acting through the levers D, so that the valve 

Fic. 2. 

B b closed when the float reaches a determined level and opened when 
it falls below it. The petrol flows into a iet E and sunds at an 
approximately constant level within it. When the engine piston 
makes its taction stroke, the air enters from the atmosphere at r and 
passes to the cylinder ihixHigh G. The pressure around the jet.E 
thus (alls, and the pressure <A the atmoophere in the chamber A 
forces the petrol through E as a jet during the greater pan of the 
suction stroke. An inflammable mixture is thus formed, which 
enters the cylinder by way of G. The area for the passage of air 
•round the petrol jet E is constricted to a sufTicient extent to produce 
the pressure fall necessary to propel the petrol through the jet E, 
and the area of the discharge aperture of the petrol jet E is pfo- 

portkmed to give the deahcd volume of petrol to form the proper 
mixture with air. The devke in this form works quite well when the 
ran^ of speed required from the ensine is not ^reat; that b, within 
limits, the volume of petrol thrown by the jet u fairly proportional 
to the air passing the }et. When, however the speed range b great, 
such as in modern motors, which may vary from 500 to two revolu> 
tions per minute under Ught and heavy loads, then it becomes 
tmpMsible to secure proportbnality sufficiently accurate for rcguUr 
ignition. Thb imphes not only a diange of en^ne speed but 
a change of volume entering the cylinder at each stroke as deter- 
mined oy the position of the throttle. Thb introduces further 
complications. Throttle control implies a change of total charge 
volume per stroke, which change may occur either at a low or at a 
high speed. To meet thb change the petrol jet should respond in 
such manner as to give a constant proportionality of petrol weight 
to air weight throughout all the variations- -otherwise sometimes 
petrol will be present in excess with no oxygen to bum it, and at 
other times the mixture may be so dilute as to miss firing ^together. 
To meet these varying conditions many carburettors have beni pn>> 
duced which seek by various devices to maintain uniformity of 
quality of mixture by the automatic change of throttle around the jet. 

Fig. 3 shows in dugramroatic section one of the simplest of 
these contrivances, known as the Krebs carburettor. The petrol 
enters from the float u 
chamber to the jet "^ 
E; .and,^ while the 
engine is running 
slowlv, the whole 
supply of air enters 
by way of the 
passage F, mixes 
with the petrol and 
reaches the cylin- 
ders by way of the 
pipeG. The volume 
of charse entering 
the cyunder per 
stroke u controlled 
by the piston 
throttle valve H. 
operated by the rod 
I; and so long as 
the charge volume 
required remains 
small, air from the 
atmosphere enters only by F. When speed rises, however, and the 
throttle b sufficiently opened, the pressure within the apparatus falb 
and affects a spring-pressed dbphrsgm K, which actuates a piston 
valve controlling toe air passages L, so that thb valve opens to the 
atmosphere more and moie with increaring pressure reduction, and 
additional air thus flows into the carburettor and mixes with the 
air and petrol entering throu^ F. By thb device the required 
proportion of air to petrol b maintained through a comparatively 
Urge volume range. Thb change of air admission b rendered 
necessary because of the difference between the laws of air and 
petrol flow. In order to give a sufiicbnt weight of petrol at low 
speeds when the pressure drop b small, It is necessary to provide 
a somewhat large area of petrol jet. When suction increases 
owing to high speed, this Urge area discharges too much petrol, and 
so necessiutes a device, such as that described, which admiu 
more air. 

A still rimpler device is adopted in many carburettors— that of an 
additional air inlet valve, kept ckised until wanted by a spring. 
Fig. 4 shows a dbgrammatic section as used in the VauxhaU car- 
burettor. Here the petrol jet and primary and secondary air passages 
are lettered as before. 

The same effect b produced by devkes which alter the anea of the 
petrol jet or increase or diminish the number of petrol lets exposed 
as required. Although engine dengnershave succeeded in pn>- 
portbning mixture through a considerable range of speed and charge 
demand, so as to obtain effective power explorions under all these 
conditions, yet much remains to be done to secure constancy of 
mixture at all speeds. Notwithstanding much which has been said 
as to varying imxture, there b only one mixture of air and petrol 
which gives the best results— that in which there b some excess of 
oxygen, more than sufficient to bum all the hydrogen and carbon 
present. It Is necessary to secure this mixture under all conditions, 
not only to obtain econorajr in running but also to maintain purity 
of exhaust cases. Most engines at certain speeds discharge consider* 
able qiuntlties of carbonic oxide into the atmosphere with their 
exhaust gases, and some discharge so much as to give rise to danger 
in a closed earagc. Carbonic oxide b an extremely poisonous gas 
which shoulj be reduced to the minimum in the interests of the health 
of our large cities. The enormous increase of motor traffic makes it 
important to render the exhaust gases as pure and innocuous as 
possible. Tests were made by the Royal Automobile Club some 
years ago which clearly showed that carbonic oxids should be kept 
down to 3 % and under when carburettors were properiy adjusted. 
Subsequent experiments have been made by Hopkinson, Clerk and 



Wataoiu wMch cleaHy prove that in •anie caaes as much as 30% 
of the whole heat <ji the petrol is lost in the exhaust gases by im- 

Fic. 4. 

perfect conibuitkm. This opens a wide 6c1d for improvement, and 
makes it probable that with better carburettors motor cars would 

not only diacharne purer exhaust gases but would work on very 
much l«s petrol than they do at present. 

Pract ically all modem pet rol engines are controUod by throttUiig 
the whole charge. In the earlier days several methods of contrsl 
were attempted: (x) missing impulses as in fig. z of the Daimler 
engines; (2) altering the timing of spark; (3) throttling petrol 
supply, and (4) throttling the mixture of petrol and air. The 
last method has proved to be the best. By maintaining the 
proportion of explosive mixture, but diminishing the toial 
volume admitted to the cylinder per stroke, graduated impulses 
are obtained without any, or but few, missed ignitions. The 
effect of the throttling is to reduce oompressioo by dimioisb- 
ing total charge weight. To a cerUin extent the proportion of 
petrol to total charge also varies, because the resklual exhaust 
gases remain constant through a wide range. The thermal 
efficiency diminishes as the throttling increases; but, down to 
a third of the brake power, the diminution is not great, because 
although compression b reduced the expansion remains the same. 
At low compressions^ however, the engine works practically 
as a non-compression engine, and the point of maximum 
pressure becomes greatly ddayed. The efficiency, therefore, falls 
markedly, but this is not of much importance at light loads. 
Experiments by Callendar, Hopkinson, Watson and othen 
have proved that the thenaal efficiency obtained from these 
small engines with the throttle full open is very high indeed; 
28% of the whole heat in the petrol b often given as indicated 
work when the carburettor b properly adjusted. As a large gas 
engine for the same compression cannot do better than 5s%i 
it appears that the loss of heat due to small dimensions b com- 
pensated by the small time of exposure of the gases of eaqdosioa 
due to the high speed of rotation. Throttle control b very 
effective, and it has the great advantage of diminishing jo 


A. A. — Cyliflderi 

B3.— Wmtcr Jacket*. 

&*» — Oil Scoopa 511 Dig Endi- 

1.— Waltr Uptake 

L— Cfank Chamber, 

M* >- N 

J'.— Under Cov-ei Co C tank Chbr^ S.— Cftrb*ifettcr> 

M**— Oil Btictwn Pipe and RJIer. 
N.— Oil Channtrk 
O.— Cam Sh*h 

Q. — Throitilc and Automatic Air 
— Mairt Mixture Pipe. [Valve. 

k.~DUtributioD Geai Out 
U — Oil Sumpv 
M,— Oil Pump. 

V.-Jflkt Vslvt 
W,— Jnkt Trunt 

Fic. s* 



pressoitfl to which the pbton and cyHnders are exposed wbQe the 
engine is running at the lower loads. This b important both for 
smooth running and good wearing qualities. Theoretically, 
better rctolts could be obtained from the point of view of economy 
by retaining a constant compression pressure, constant charge 
of air, and producing ignition, somewhat in the manner of the 
Diesel engine. Such a method, however, would have the dis- 
advantage of producing practically the same maximum pressure 
for an loads, and this would tend to give an engine which would 
not run smoothly at slow speeds. 

As has been said, tube ignition was apeedOy abandoned for 
electric ignition by accumulator, induction coil distributor and 
sparking plug. This in its turn was largely displaced by the 
low-tension magneto system, in which the spark was formed 
between contacU which were mechanically separated within the 
cylinders. The separable contacts gave rise to complications, 
and at present the most popular system of ignition is undoubtedly 
that of the high-tension magneto. In this system the ordinary 
high-tension sparking plugs are used, and the high-ten:iion 
current is generated in a secondary winding on the armature 
of the magneto, and reaches the sparking plugs by way of a 
rotary distributor. In many cases the high-tension magneto 
system b used for the ordinary running of the engine, combined 
with an accumulator or battery and induction coil for starting 
the engine from rest. Such systems are called dual ignition 
systems. Sometimes the same ignition plugs are adapted to 
spark from either source, and in other cases separate plugs 
are used. The magneto systems have the great advantage of 
generating current without battery, and by their use noise is 
reduced to a minimum. AU electrical systems are now arranged 
to allow of advancing and retarding the spark from the steering 
wheel. In modem magneto methods, however, the spark b 
automatically retarded when the engine slows and advanced 
when the speed rises, so that less change b required from the 
wheel than b necessary with battery and coil. 

Sir Oliver Lodge has invented a most interesting system of 
electric ignition, depending upon the production of an extra 
oscillatory current of enormous tension produced by the combined 
use of spark gap and condenser. Thb extra spark passes freely 
even under water, and it b impossible to stop it by any ordinary 
sooting or fouling of the ignition plug. 

The most popular engines are now of the four and six cylinder 

* Fig. 5 shows a modern four-cylinder engine in longitudinal and 
transverac sections as made by the Wolsclcy Company. A, A are 
the cylinders: B. B, water iackets; G*. oil scoops on the large ends 
of the coonecting-rods. These scoops take up oil from the craak 
chamber. Forced lubrication is used. The oil pump M is of the 
toothed wheel type, and it is driven by skew gearing. An oil sump 
is arranged at L. and the oil is pumped from this sump by the pump 
describM. The overflow from the main bearings suf^lies the channels 
in the crank caw from which the oil scoops uke their charge. It will 
be seen that the two inside pistons are atuchcd to cranks of co- 
incident centres, and this is true of the two outside pistons alsa 
This is the usual arrangement in four-cylinder engines. By this 
device the primary forces are babnccd: but a small secondary 
unbalanced force remains, due to the difference ia motion of the 
pistons at the up and down portions of their stroke. A six<yltnder 
engine has the advantage of getting rid of this secondary unbalanced 
force: but it require* a longer and more rigid crank chamber. 
In thb cnglD* tlw inlet and exhaust valves of each cylinder are placed 
in the same pocket and are driven from one cam-shaft. This is a 
very favourite arrangement; but many engines are constructed 
in which the inlet and exhaust valves operate on opposite sides of 
the cylinder in separate ports and are driven from separate cam- 
slMft*. Dual ignitioa b applied to this engine; that is. an tgnitton 
composed of hich-iensioa magneto and abo battery and coil for 
uaning. U is the high-tension magneto. Under the figiire there is 
shown a list of parts which sufficiently indicate the nature of the 

An inteiestinff and novel form of ennne b shown at fig. 6. This 
b a welUkoown engine deaifned by Mr KnighC. an American inventor, 
and now made k>Y the Daimkr and other companies. It will be 
observed in the figure that the ordinary lift valves are entirely 
dispensed with, and slide valves are used of the cylindrical shell 
type. The engine operates on the ordinary Otto c>Tle. and all the 
valve actions necessary to admit charge and discharge exhaust gases 
are accomplished by meanf of two sleeves sliding on* within the other. 

The outer sleeve aKdes In the mab cyfimfer and the inner sleeve 
slides within the outer sleeve. The pbton fits within the inner sleeve. 
The sleeves receive separate motions from short connecting links 
C and E, driven by eccentrics carried on a shaft W. This shaft b 
driven from the main crank-shaft by a strong chain so as to make 
half the revolutions of the crank-shaft in the usual manner of the 
Otto cycfe. The inlet port b formed on one side of the cyHnder 
and b marked 1. The exhaust poit b arcanoed on the other side 
and marked J. These ports are segmental. A water- jacketed 
cylinder head carries stationary rings L, K, which press outwards. 
These are dearly shown in the drawing. The inner ueeve ports run 
past the lower broad ring L when compression is to be accomplished, 
and the contents of the cylinder are retained within the cylinder and 
compression space by the piston rings and the fijeed rings referred to. 

Fig. 6. 
The outer sleeve does not require rings at alf. Its functbn is simply 
to distribute the gases so that the exhaust port is closed by the outer 
sleeve when the miet port is open. The outer sleeve acts really asa 
distributor; the inner sleeve supplies the pressure tightness reoutred 
to resst compression and explosion. The idea of working exhaoat 
and inlet by two sleeves within which the main piston operates b 
very daring and ingenious; and for these small engines the sleeve 
valve system works admirably. There are many advantages: the 
shape of the compression space b a most favourable one for reducing 
loss by cooling. All the valve pons required in ordinary Kft valvf 
engines are entirely dispensed with; that is. the suriace exposed to 
the expk>sion causing loss of heat b reduced to a minimum. The 
engines are found in use to be very flexible and cconomicat 

The petrol engines hitherto described, although light compared 
to the old stationary gas engines, are heavy when compared 
with recent motors developed for the purpose of aeroplanes. 
Many of these motors have been produced, but two oiily will 
be noticed here— the Anzani. because Blcriot*s great flight 



acroM die Cbantiel was acoMnpIialied by means of an Anzanl 
engine, and the Gnome engine, because it was used in the aero- 
plane with which Psaulhan flew from London to Manchester. 

Fig. 7 ibows tiansvene and longitudinal lectiont through the 
Aniam motor. Looking at the longitudinal Mctioa it win be obterved 
that the cytindets are of the air-cooled type; the exhaust valves 
alone aie positively operated, and the inlet valves are of the auto- 
matic lift kind. The transverse section shows that three radially 
arranged cylinders are used and three pistons act upon one crank-pin. 
The Otto cycle is followed so that three impulses are obuined for 

Fic. 7. 

every two revolutions. The cylinders are spaced anart 60* and 
project from the upper side of the crank chamber. Although not 
shown in the drawmg, the pistons overrun a row o( holes at the 
out end of the stroke and the exhaust first discharges through these 
holes. This n a very common device in aeroplane engines, and it 
greatly increases the rapidity of the exhaust difcharged and reduces 
the work falling upon the exhaust valve. The pistons and cylinders 
are of cast iron; the rings are of cast iron; the iniition is elearic. 
and the petrol is fed by gravity. The engine used by BKriot in his 
Cross-Channel flight was 35 H.r.. cylinders 105 mm. boreX 130 mm. 
stroke; revolutions. 1600 per minute; total weight. 145 lb. The 
engine* it will be seen. Is exceedingly simple,, although air<boKpg 
secm» aomewhat primitive for anythmg except short flights. The 
larger Ansani motors are water-cooled. 

A diagrammatic transverse section of the Gnome motor Is shown 
at fig. 8. iu this interrsting engine there arc aevcn cybiuiers disponed 

radially round a fixed crank-shaft. The seven pis^ms are all con- 
nected to the same crank-shaft, one piston being rigidly connected 
to a big end of peculiar construction by a connecting-rod. whUe 
the other connecting-rods are linked on to the same big end by pistt; 
that is. a hollow fixed crankrshaft has a single throw to which oolv 
one connecting-rod is attached; all the other connecting-roiu 
work on pins let into the big end of that connecting-rod. The 
cylindera revolve round the fixed crank in the manner of the well- 
known engines first introdued to practice by Mr John Rigg. The 
expkMive mixture is led from the carburettor through the hoUow 
crank-shaft into the crank-case, and it is admitted Into the cylinders 
by means of automatic inlet valves placed in the heads of the pistons. 
The exhaust valves are arranged on the cylinder heads. Dual 
ignhiott is provided by high tension magneto and storage battery and 
coil. The cyliiidera are ribbed outside like the AmEsni. and are 
very effectiinely air-cooled by their rotation through the air as 
well as by the passage of the aeroplane through the atmosphere. 
The cylinden in the 35 H.P. motor are 110 mm. bore X 120 mm. 
stroke. The speed of rotation is usually t aoo revotutiors per minute. 
The total weight of the engine complete is 180 &>, or just over 5 B> 
per brake horse-power. The subject of aeroplane petrol engines is a 
most interesting one, and rapid progress is being made. 

So far, only 4-cydc engines have been described, aiul they are 
almoat universal for use in motor-cars and aeroplanes. Some 
motor cars, however, use 2-cyde engines. Several types follow 
the "Clerk" cycle (see Gas Engine) and others the "Day" 
cycle. In America the Day cycle is very popular for motor 


launches, as the engine is of 'a very simple, easily managed kind. 
At present, however, the two-cyde engine has made but little 
way in motor car or aeroplane work. It is capable of great 
devdopment and the attention given to it is increasing. 

So far, petrol' has been alluded to as the main Uquid fud for 
these motors. Other hydrocarbons have also been tised; benzol, 
for example, obtained from gas tar is used to some extent, and 
alcohol has been applied to a considerable extent both for 
stationary and locomotive engines. Alcohol, however, has not 
been entirely successful. The amount of heat obtained for a 
given naonetary expenditure is only about hail that obtained 
by means of petrol. On the continent of Europe, however, 
alcohol motors have been considerably used for puUlc vehicles. 

The majority of petrol motors are provided with water jackets 
around their cylinders and combustion spaces. As only a small 
quantity of water can be carried, it is necessary to cool the water 
as fast as it becomes hot. For this purpose radiators of various 
constructions are applied. Generally a pump is used to produce 
a forced drculation, discharging the hot water from the engine 
jackets through the radiator and returning the cooled water to 
the jackets at another place. The radiators consist in some 
cases of fine tubes covered with projecting fins or gills; the motion 
of the car forces air over the exterior of those surfaces and is 
assisted by the operation of a powerful fan driven from the 
engine. A favourite form of radiator consists of numerous 
small tubes set into a casing and arranged somewhat h'ke a steam- 
engine condenser. Water is forced by the pump round these 
tubes, and air passes from the atmosphere through them. Thb 
type of radiator is sometimes known ss the "honeycomb** 


ndiator. A very Urge cooling surface is provided, so that the 
same water is used over and over agaia. In a day's run with a 
modem petrol engine vtxy little water is lost from the system. 
Some engines dispense with a pump and depend on what is 
called the thermo-syphon. This is the old gas-engine system 
ol circulation, depending on the diflferent density of water when 
hot and cooL The engine shown at fig. 5 is provided with a 
water-drculation system of this kind. For the smaller engines 
the thcrmo^yphon works extremely well. 

Heavy oil engines are those which consume oil having a 
flaahing^point above 73° F.— the minimum at present allowed 
by act oif parliament in Great Britain for oils to be consumed 
in ordinary illuminating lamps. Such oils are American and 
Russian petroleums and Scottish paraffins. They vary in specific 
gravity from '78 to -82$, and in flashing-point from 75* to 15a* 
F. Engines burning such oils may be divided into three distinct 
classes: (i) Engines in which the oil is subjected to a spraying 
operation before vaporization; (2) Engines in which the oil 
is injected into the cylinder and vaporiud within the cylinder; 
(3) Engines in which the oil is vaporized in a device external to 
the cylinder and introduced into the cylinder in the state of 

The method of ignition might a1s6 be used to divide the engine* 
into those igniting by the electric spark, by an incandescent tube, 
by compression, or by the heat of the internal surfaces of the 
combustion space. Spiel's engine was ignited by a flame igniting 
device similar to that used in Clerk's gas engine, and it was the 
only one introduced into Great Britain in which this method 
was adopted, though on the continent flame igniters were not 
uncommon. Electrically-operated igniters have come into ex> 
tensive use throughout the world. 

The engines first used in Great Britain which fell under the 
first head were the Priestman and Samuelson, the oil being 
^., sprayed before being 
jf ...:'■.'••!;>.'•*. vaporized in both. The 
o»9VS>.'X/> i>\"' principle of the spray pro- 
^^^'•'•'•^••■-:il ducer used is that so well 
and so widely known in 
connexion with the atom> 
izers or spray producers 
used by perfumers. Fig. 9 
shows such a spray pro> 
ducer in section. An air 
blast passing from the 
small jet A crosses the top 
of the tube B and creates 
within it a partial vacuum. 
The liquid contained in C 
flows up the tube B and issuing at the top of the tube through 
a small orifice is at once blown into very fine spray by the action 
of the air jet. If such a scent distributor be filled with petroleum 
oil, such as Royal Daylight or Russoline, the oil will be blown 
into fine spray, which can be ignited by a flame and will bum, 
if the jets be properly proportioned, with an intense blue non- 
luminous flame. The earlier Inventors often expressed the idea 
that an explosive mixture could be prepared without any 
vaporization whatever, by simply producing an atmosphere 
containing inflammable liquid in extremely small particles dis- 
tributed throughout the air in such proportion as to allow of 
complete combustion. The familiar explosive combustion of 
Iyc<^XKiium, and the disastrous explosions caused in the exhaus- 
tion rooms of flour-mills by the presence of finely divided flour 
in the air, have also suggested to inventors the idea of producing 
explosions for power purposes from combustible solids. Al- 
though, doubtless, explosions could be pioduced in that way, yet 
in oil engines the production of spray is only a preliminary to 
the vaporization of the oil If a sample of oU is sprayed in the 
ananner juat described, and injected in a hot chamber also filled 
with hot air, it at once passes into a sute of vapour within 
that chamber, even though the air be at a temperature far 
below the boiling-point of the oil; the spray producer, in fact, 
furnishes a ready means of saturating any volume of air with 

Fig. 9. — Perfume Spray Producer. 

heavy petroleum oO to the full extent possible from the vapour 

tension of the oil at that particular temperature. The oil 
engines described below are in reality explosion gas engines of 
the ordinary Otto type, with special arrangcmenU to enable 
them to vaporize the oil to be used. Only such parts of them 
as are necessary for the treatment and ignition will therefore 
be described. 

Fig. 10 is a vertical section through the cylinder and vaporizer 
of a Priestman cns^ine. and fig. 11 19 a section on a larecr scale, 
showing the vaporizmg jet and the air admission and regulation valve 

Fic. 10.— Priestman Oil Engine (vertical section through cylinder 
and vaporizer). 

leading to the vaporizer. Oil Is forced by means of air pressure from 
a reservoir through a pipe to the epraymg nozzle a, and air passes 
from an air-pump by way of the annular clunncl h into the sprayer c, 
and there meets the oil jet tssuing| from a. The oil is thus broken 
up Into spmy. and the air charged with spray flows into the vaporiier 
E, which b heated up in the first place on surting the engine by 
means of a lamp. In the vaporizer the oil spray becomes oil vapour, 
saturating the air within the hot walls. On the out<h«rging stroke 
of the piston the mixture passes by way of the inlet valveJrl mto the 
cylinder, air flowing into the vaporizer to replace it through the 
valve / (fig. 1 1)« The cylinder K is thus charged with a mixture of 
air and hydrocarbon vapour, some of which may exist in the form of 
very fine spray. The piston L then returns and co m p iies ses the 
mixture, and when the compresnon is quite complete an electric 
spark is passed between the points M, and a romprcssion explosson 
is obtained pncisely similar to that obtained in the gas engine. 
The piston moves out. and on its return stroke the exhaust valve N 
u opened and the exhaust gases discharged by way of the pipe 0« 
round the jacket P, enclosing 

the vappri»ng chamber. The ^t' 

latter is thus kept hot by 
the exhaust gases when the 
engine is at work, and it 
remains sufficiently hot with- 
out the use of the lamp pro- 
vided for surting. To obtain 
the electric spark a bi- 
chromate battery with an 
induction coll is used. The 
spark is timed by contact 
pieces operated by an 
eccentric rod. used to actuate 
the exhaust valve and the 
air-pump for supplying the 
oil chamber and ttie spraying 
let. To sUrt the eiwine a 
hand pump is worked until 
the pressure b sufficient to 
force the oil through the 
spraying nozzle, and ou spray 
is formed in the starting lamp: the qxay and air mixeo produce 
a blue flame which heats the vaporizer. The fly-wheel u then routed 
by hand and the eimne moves away. The eccentric shaft is driven 
from the crank-shaft by means of toothed wheels, which reduce the 
•peed to one-half the revolutions of the crank-shaft. The charging 
inlet valve is automatic Governing U effected by throttling the 
oil and air supply. The governor operates on the butterfly valve T 
(fi{(. ii), and on the pluc-cock I connected to it, by means of the 
sptndle f. The air and on are thus simultaneously reduced, 

Fic. II.— Priestman Oil Engine 
(section on a larger scak). 

attempt IS 

. .and the 

to maintain the charge entering the cylinder at a 

consUnt pronitioa by weight of oil and air. while reducme the toul 
weight, and thetefore volume, of the charge entering. The Priestman 
engine thus gives an explosion on every second revolution in all 
circumstances, iriiether the engine be running light or loaded. 



Th« compfBirioft praiiire of die mutnifc before adi 

■teadUjr reduced u the load it reduced, and at very U^ht loads the 

engine is running practically as a non-comprcssioa engine. 

A test by Profesaor Unwin of a 4} nominal hone-power Prlestnian 
enginev cylinder 8*5 in. diameter, la in. strolcc, normal ^wed 180 
revolutioas per minute, showed the consumption of oil per indicated 
hone-power hour to be 1*066 lb and per Drake horse-power hour 
1-243 w. The oil used was that known as Broxburn Lighthouse, a 
Scottish paraffin oil produced by the destructive distillation of 
shale, having a density of '81 and a flashing-point about 152* F. 
With a 5 H.P. engine of the same dimensions} the volume swept by 
the piston per stroke being '395 cub. ft. and the clearance space in 
the cylinder at the end of the stroke -210 cub. ft., the principal results 

Indicated horse-power .... 
Brake horse-power ...',. 
Mean speed (revolutions per minute) 
Mean available pressure (revolutions per 

minute) . 

Oil consumed per indicated horse-power ' 

per hour 

Oil consumed per brake horse-power per 








.6^4 lb 

•864 lb 

.842 lb 


With daylight oil the explosion pressure was 151*4 lb per square 
inch above atmosphere, and with KussoUne 134*3 lb. The terminal 
pressure at the moment of openine the exhaust valve with daylieht 
oil was 35*4 lb and with Russoune 33*7 per square inch. The 
compresston pressure with daylight oil was 35 lb, and with Russolioe 
27*6 lb pressure above atmosphere. Prol^ssor Unwin calculated 
the amount of heat accounted for by the indicator as i8*8% in the 
case of daylight oil and 15*2 in the case of RussoHne oil. 

The Hornsby-Ackroyd engine is an example of the class in which 
the oil is injected into the cylinder and there vaporixcd. Fig. I3 

Fio. ia.~Hom8by»Ackroyd Fio. 13.— Homsby - Ackroyd 
Engine (section through Engine (section throuch valves, 
vapofinr and cylinder). vaporiser and cylinder). 

is a section through the vaporizer and cylinder of this engine, and 
fig. 13 shows the inlet and exhaust valves alio in section placed in 
front of the vaporizer and cylinder section. Vaporizing is conducted 
in the interior of the combustion chamber, which is so arranged that 
the heat of each explosion maintains it at a temperature suindently 
high to enable the oil to be vaporized by mere injection upon the hot 
surfaces. The vaporizer A is heated up by a separate lamp, the oil 
is injected at the oil inlet B. and the 
engine Is rotated by hand. The piston 
then takes in a charge of air by the air- 
inlet valve into the cylinder, the air 
passing by the port directly into the 
cylinder without passios throujth the 
vaporizer chamber. While the piston is 
moving forward, taking in the cnaigc of 
air, the oil thrown into the vaporizer is 
vaporizing and diffusing itself through 
the vaporiaer chamber, mixing, how- 
ever, omv with the hot products of com- 
bustion left by the preceding expkMion. 
During the chamng stroke the air enters 
through the cyunacr. and the vapour 
formed from the oil is almost entirely 
confined to the oocnbustion chamber. 
On the return stroke of the piston air is 
forced through the somewhat narrow 
nocka into thc^combustion chamber, and 
b there mixed with the vapour contained 
in it At first, however, the mixture is 
too rich In ittftammable vapour to be 
capable of ignition. As the compression 

proceeds, however, nnore and more air b forced Into the TSporber 
chamber, and just as compression b completed the mixture attains 
proper eiq>kmve proportions. The sides of the chamber are suffi- 
ciently hot to cause explosion, under the pressure of which the piston 
moves forward. As the vaporizer A is not water-jacketed, and is 
connected to the metal of the back cover only by the small section 
or area of oast-iron forming the netal neck a, the heat given to the 

surface by each explodon b sufficient 10 keep its tmperature at 

about 700-800* C. Oil vapour mixed with air will expkMie by 
contact with a metal surface at a comparatively k>w temperature; 
this accounts for the explosion of the compreoed mixture in the 
combustion chamber A, whkh b never rcalfy nJaed to a red heat. 
It has long been known that under certain conditions of internal 
surface a gas engine may be made to run with very ereat regularity, 
without incandescent tube or any other form of igniter, if some 
portion of the interior surfaces of the cylinder or combustion space 
be so arranged that the temperature can rise moderately; tnen. 
although the temperature may be too tow to ignite the mixture at 
atmospheric temperature, yet when compression b completed the 
mixture will often ignite in a perfectly reguur manner. It b a curious 
fact that with heavy oils ignition is more easily acoompltshed at a 
k>w temperature than with light oils. The explanation teems to 
be that, while in the case of light oils the hydrocarbon vapours 
formed are tolerably stable from a chemical point of view, the hea\-y 
olb very easily decompose by heat, and separate out thdr carbons, 
liberating the combined hydrogen, and at the moment of liberation 
the hydroaen, bein^ in wbat chemists know as the naseenl Mat«, 
very readily cnten into combination with the oxygen beside it. To 
start the engine the vaporizer is heated by a separate heating lamp, 
which is supplied with an air bbst by meansot a hand-operated fan. 
Thb operation shouhl take about nine minutes. The engine U then 
moved round by hand, and starts in the usual manner. The oil tank 
is placed in the bed plate of the eMJne. The air and exhaust valves 
are driven by cams on a valve shaft. The governing is effected by a 
centrifugal governor which operates a by-pass valve, opening it 
when the speed b too high, and causes the oil pump to return the 
oil to the oil tank. At a test of one of these engines, which weighed 
^o cwt. and was given as of 8 brake horse-power, with cylinder 10 in. 
in dbroetcr and 15 in. stroke, according to Professor Capper's report, 
the revolutions were very constant, and the power developed dia not 
vary one quarter of a brake horse-power from day to day. The oil 
consumed, reckoned on the average of the three days over which the 
trial extended, was •919.1b per brake horse-power per hour, the meaa 
power exerted being 8*35 brake horse. At another full-power trbl 
of the same engine a brake horse-power of 8*57 was obtained, the 
mean speed beinr 239-66 revolutions per minute and the test laating 
for two houre; nie indicated power was 10*3 horse, the esqilotions 
per minute 119*83. the mean effective pressure 28*0 per sq. io.« 
the oil used per indkated horse-power per hour was 'Si lb. and per 
brake horse-power per hour — *977 lb. In a test at half power, the 
brake horse-power developed was 4*57 at 235*9 revolutiona per 
minute, and the oil used per brake horse-power was 1*48 IL On a 
four houre' test, without a load, at 240 revolurions per mimite, the 
consumption of oil was a- 23 lb per hour. Engines of thb class are 
those manufactured by Messn Crossley BitM., lAd., and the National 
Gas Engine Co., Ltd. 

Figs. 14 and 15 show a longitudinal section and deuil views of the 
operative parts of the Crossley oil engine. On the sucti<m stroke, 
air b drawn into the cylinder by the piston A through the automatic 
inlet valve D. and oil is then pumped into the heated vaporizer C 
through the oil sprayer G, as seen in section at fig. K. The vaporizer 
C b bolted to the water-jacketed part B; and. like the Homsby. 
thb vaporizer is first heated by bmp and then the heat of the ex- 
plosions keeps up its temperature to a sufficiently high point to 
vaporize the oil when sprayed against It. On the compression stroke 

Fio. 14.— Crossley Oil Engine. 

of the piston A the charge (^ air b forced Into the combustioa 
chamber B and the vaporizer chamber C. where it mixes with the oil 
vapour, and the mixture b ignited at the terminatkNi of the stroke 
by the ignition tube H. Thb tube b isobted to some extent from the 
vaporiser chamber C and so it becomes hotter than the chamber C 
and is relied upon to ignite the mixture when formed at times when C 
would be too cold for the purpose. E b the ediaust valve, whic^ 



«pentM In tlM utiwl way The wster dfodttfon paatet through 
tJiejacketby wayofUiepipetJaiidK. Wbea ch« cogiiie i» ninnuig 
«t hcAvy loads with full charKcs of oil delivered by the oil pump 
through the tpnyer G, a accond pump b caused to come into action, 
which discharges a very small quantity of water through the water 
■prayer valve F. Thb water passes into the vaporiser and com- 
Iwstioii chamber, together with a little av, which enters by the 
automatic inlet valve, which serves as sprayer. This contrivance 
IS found useful to prevent the vaporizer from overheating at heavy 

Fig. 15.— Crossley Oil Engine. 

toada. The principal difference between this engine and the Honnliy 
engine already described lies in the use of the seisarate ignition tufaie 
H and in the water sprayer F, which acts as a soif ting valve, takii^ 
in a little air and water when the engine becomes hot. Messrs 
Crossley infonn the writer that the consumption of either crude or 
refined oil is about '613 of a pint per horse-power on full load. They 
ah» give a test of a small engine developing 7 B. H. P., which consumed 
•601 pint per B.H.P. per hour of Rock Liebt refined lamp oil and only 
•603 pint per B.H.P. per hour of crude fiomeo petroleum oil. 

Engines in which the oil ik vaporised in a devkc external to the 
cylinder have almost disappea^ed, because of the great success of the 
Hornsby-Ackroyd type, where oil is injected into, and vaporised 
within, the cylinder. It has been found, however, that many petrol 
engines having jet carburettors will operate with the heavier oils 
if the jet carburettor is suitably heated by means of the exhaust gases. 
In some engines it is customary to start with petrol, and then when 
the parts have become sufficiently heated to substitute paraffin or 
heavy petroleitm o9, putting the heavy oil throu^ the same ftprsying 
process as the petrol and evaporating the wpny by hot walls bdfore 
entering the cylinder. 

Mr Diesel has produced a very interesting engine which departs 
considerably from other types. In it air alone is drawn Into the 
cylinder on the charging stroke; the air b compressed on the return 
stroke to a very hi^h pressure generally to over 400 lb per sq. in. 
This coffipresflion raises the air to incandescence, and then heavy oil 
b injected into the incandescent air by a small portion of air com- 
pressed to a still higher point. The oil ignites at once as it entere 
the combustion vaoe. and so a power impulse b obtained, but with- 
out exphwon. The pressure docs not rise above the preasure of 
air and oil injection. The Diesel engine thus emixxlies two very 
original features; it operates at compression pressures veiy much 
higher than those used in any other internal combustion engines, 
and it dispenses with the usual ^nitingdevices by rendering the air 
charge incandescent by compression. The engine operates generally 
on the Otto cycle, but it is also built giving an impulse at every 
revolution. Mr Diesel has shown great determination and persever- 
ance, and the engine has now attained a position of considerable 
commerrial importance. It b made on the continent, in England 
and in America in sixes up to looo H.P., and it has been applied to 
many purpows on land and also to the propulsion of aman veasela 
The engine gives a very high thermal efficiency. The present writer 
has calcubtcd the folk>wtng values from a test of a <oo B.H.P. Diesel 
oil engine made by Mr Michael Longridge. M.Inst.C.E. The 
engine had three cylinders, each of m-m in. dbmeter and stroke 
39S2 in., each cylinder <q>eratiqg on the ^' Otto " cyde. The main 
results were as follows ^— 

Indicated power 995 horse 

Brake power 459 ,. 

Mechanical efficienc y 77% 

Indicated thermal efficiency 41% 

Brake thermal efficiency 31*7% 


OlUnt (from an O. Fr. dirainutive of mO, eye, in Mod. Fr. 
milkt; other English varianu are oylets.cydets, or eyelet-boles), 
the Afchitcciunl term given to the arrow slits in the walb of 
aedievBl fortificatioiis, but more strictly applied to the roood 

hole or drde with which the openings terminate. The same 
term is applied to the small circles inserted in the tmcery-head 
of the windows of the Decorated and Perpendicular periods, 
sometimes varied with trefoils and qnatrefoib. 

OILS (adopted from the F^. oiU, mod. kuih, Lat. oUuMt oUve 
oif), the generic ezpresaion for subsUnces belonging to extensive 
series of bodies of diverse chemical character, all of which have 
the common physical prbperty of bdng fluid either at the ordinary 
temperature or at temperatures below the boiling-point of water. 
Formerly, when substances were prindpally da»ified by obvious 
characteristics, the word included such a body as " oil of vitri<^ " 
(sulphuric add), which has of course nothing in common with 
what is now understood imder the term oils. In its most com* 
prehensive ordinary acceptation the word embraces at present 
the flcnd fixed oib or fatty oib (e.g. oUve oil), the soft fau which 
may be fluid in thdr country of origin {e.g. coco-nut oil, palm 
oil), the hard fats {e.g. tallow), the still harder vegetable and 
animal waxes {e.g. camaOba wax, beeswax), the odoriferous 
ethereal (essential) oils, and the fluid and solid volatile hydro- 
carbons—mineral hydrocarbons— found In nature or obtained 
from natuni products by destructive dbtiUation. 

The common characteristic of all these substances is that 
they consbt prindpally, in some cases exdusvdy, of carbon 
and hydrogen. They are all readily inflammable and are practi- 
cally insoluble in water. The mineral hydrocarbons foimd In 
nature or obtained by destructive dbtUlation do not come 
within the range of thu article (see Napbtba, PAKArmr, 
PEnoLEUv), which b restricted to the following two large groups 
of bodies^ formed naturally within the vegeUble and aninaal 
organisms, viz. (x) Fixed oib, fats and waxes, and (a) Essential, 
ethereal or voUtile oib. 

I. Fixed O&t, Pats emi Wotn. 

The subsUnces to be considered under thb head divide 
■themsdves naturally into two large dasacs, via. fatty (fixed) 
oib and lata on the one hand, and waxes on the other, the dis- 
tinction between the two dasses bdng tiased on a most important 
chemical difference. The fixed oib and fats consbt essential^ 
of glycerides, %.e. esteis formed by the umon of thf«e molecules 
of fatty odds with one mdecule of the trihydric alcohol glycerin 
iq.9.), whereas the waxes consbt of esters formed by the union of 
one molecvle of fatty add with one molecnie of a monohydrk 
alcohol, such as cetyl alcohol, cholesterol. Use Only in the case 
of the wax couerin two molecules of fatty odds arc combined 
with one molecule of a dihydric (bivalent) alcohd. It must 
be pointed out that in common parlance thb dbtinction does not 
find its ready expression. Thus Japan wax b a glyceride and 
should be more correctly termed Japan tallow, whereas iperm cil 
is, chemically speaking, a wax. Although these two dasses of 
substances have a number of physical properties in common, 
they must be considered under separate heads. The true 
chemical constitution of oils and fats was first expounded by 
the daasical researches of (Thevreul, embodied in hb work, 
Reckerckes sw tu e^ps gros d'cngine animate (iSaj, reprinted 

(a) Fatty {fixed) Oils and Fair.— The fctty (fixed) oib and fais 
form a well-defined and homogeneous group ci substances, 
passing through all gradations of consistency, from oib which are 
fluid even bdow the freezing-point of water, up to the hardest 
fats which melt at about 50* C. Therefore, no sharp dbtinction 
can be made between fatty oib and fats. Meveithelcss, it b 
convenient to apply the term " ml '• to those glycerides which are 
fluid below about 20* C, and the term " fat " to those which are 
solid above thb temperature. 

Chemical Compcrition.—Vo oO or fat b found in nattire oon- 
sbting of a single chemical individual, t.e. a fat consisting of the 
glyceride of one fatty add only, such as stearin or trblearin, 
CiH»(0-CtaitiO)9, the glycerin ester of stearic add, CitH« COOi. 
The natural oib and fats are mixtures of at least two or three 
different triglycerides, the most important of which are tristearin, 
tripalmitin, C»H»(0-CmH«.0)» and trioidn, C>H« (OCaHiX»». 
These three glycerides have been usually considered the chief 



constituents of most ofls and fats, but lattetly there have been 
lecognized aa widely distributed trilinolin, the glyceride of 
linolic add, and trilinolenin, the glyceride of linolenic acid. 
The two last-named glycerides aie chaiacteristic of the semi* 
drying and drying oils respectively. In addition to the fatty 
adds mentioned almdy there occur also, although in much 
smaller quantities, other fatty acids combined with glycerin, as 
natural ^ycerides, such as the glyceride of butyric acid in butter- 
fat, of caproic, caprylic and capric adds in butter-fat and in 
coco-nut oil, lauric add in coco-nut and palm-oiut oils, and 
myristic add in mace butter. These glycerides are, therefore, 
characteristic of the oOs and fats named. 

In the classified list below the most important fatty acids 
occurring in oils and fats are enumerated (d. Waxes, below). 

Qils and fats must, therefore, not be looked upon as defioita 
chemical individuals, but as representative of natural specks 
which vary, although within certain narrow limits, according 
to the climate and soil in which the plants which produce them 
are grown, or, in the case of animal fats, according to the climate, 
the race, the age of the animal, and especially the food, and also 
the idiosyncrasy of the individual animal. The oils and fats 
are distributed throughout the animal and vegetable kingdom 
from the lowest organism up to the most highly organized 
forms of animal and vegetable life, and are found in almost 
all tissues and organs. The vegetable oils and fats occur chiefly 
in the seeds, where they are stored to nourish the embryo, 
whereas in animals the oils and fats are endosed mainly in the 
cellular tissues of the intestines and of the back. 




Characteristic of 

I. Acids of the Acetic series C»Hs»Os~ 

Acetic add 

Butyric add 

Isovaleric add .... 
Caproic add 

Caprylic add . 
Capnc add 
Lauric add 
Myristic acid . 
Isocetic add (?) 
Palmitic add . 

Stearic add 

Arachidic add 

Behenic acid 


II. Adds of the Acrylie or Oleic series CJfi».40r— 



Physetoleic acid 




III. Adds of the Lioolic series CJii^A— 

Linolic add 

Tariric add 


Elaeoroargaric add .... 

IV. Adds of the cyclic Chaulmoogric series 

Hydnocarpic acid 

Chaulmoogric add 

V. Acids of the Ljnoleaic series C*Hto-4Qr- 

Linolenic acid 

Isolinolenic add 

VI. Adds of the series C.Hji,_/>i— 

Clupaaodonk acid 
VII. Acids of the Ricinoleic series CJlt»40r— 

RicinoLeic acid 

(^inoe oil add 

VIII. Dihydroxylated adds of the series C»Hto04 

Dihydroxystearic add .... 

IX. Adds of the series QJAuJ^r- 






































27 1 '5 



















Spindle-tree oil, Macassar oil 
Butter fat, Macassar oil 
Porpoise and dolphin oils 

/Butter fat, coco-nut oil. 
f palm nut cnl 

Laurel oil, coco-nut oil 
Mace butter, nutmeg butter 
Purging nut 
Patm oil, Japan wax, myrtle 

wax, lard. taUow, Sec 
Tallow, cacao butter, Ac 
Arachis oil 
Ben oil 
Arachis oil 

Croton oil 
Arachis oil 
Caspian seal oil 
Most oils and fats 
Rape oils 
Rape oils, fish oOs 

Maiae oil, cotton seed oQ 
Oil of Fkrammia Csmb^Ua 
Kodme oil 
Tung oil 

{ Hydnocarpus. Lukrsbo and 
5 Chaulmoogra oils 


Fish, liver and blubber oils 

Castor oil 
Quince oil 

Castor oil 

Japan wax 

Up to recently the oils and fats were looked upon as consisting 
in the main of a mixture of triglycerides, in which the three 
combined fatty adds are identical, as is the case in the above- 
named glycerides. Such glycerides are termed "simple 
glycerides." Recently, however, glycerides have been found 
in which the glycerin is combined with two and even three 
different add radicals; examples of such glycerides are dis- 
icaroKdein, CiH»(OC»H»iO)«, (OC,sH»0), and stearo-pal- 
miU>olein, Cai,(OCwH.»0) (OCsHaO) (OC«HuO). Such 
glycerides are termed "mixed glycerides." The glycerides 
occurring in natural oUs and fats differ, therefore, in the first 
instance by the different fatty acids contained in them, and 
secondly, even if they do contain the same fatly acids, by 
different proportions of the several simple and mixed glycerides. 

Since the methods of preparing the vegetable and animal 
fats are comparatively crude ones, they usually conuin certain 
impurities o( one kind or another, such as colouring and muctlagi> 
nous matter, remnants of vegetable and animal tissues, &c. For 
the most part these foreign substances can be removed by pro- 
cesses of refining, but even after this purification they still retain 
smdl quantities of foreign substances, such as traces of cokyuring 
matters, albuminoid and (or) resinous substances, and 01 h^ 
foreign subsUnces, which remain dissolved in the oils and fats 
and can only be isolated after saponification of the fat. These 
foreign substances are comprised in the term " unsaponifiable 
matter." The most important constituents of the " unsaponifiable 
matter " are phytosterol C»H440 or CstH^^OC?), and the isomeric 
cholesterol. The former occurs in all oils and fats of vc|peuble 



A. ViietabUfaU. 

Ofigia; the Utter is characteristic of all oils aad fats of anioul 
origiiL This imporUnt difference luniishes a method oC dis- 
tinfuisfaing by chemical means vcgeuble oils and fats from 
animal oils and fats. This distinction will be made use of in 
the classification of the oils and fats. A second guiding principle 
is afforded by the different amounts of iodine (see Oil Testing 
below) the various oils and fats are capable of absorbing. Since 
this capacity runs parallel with one of the best-known properties 
of oils and fats, viz. the power of absorbing larger or smaller 
quantities of oxygen on exposure to the air, we arrive at the 
foUowing classification: — 

I. Fattt Oils oa Liquid Fats 

A. VtielabU oils. B. Animal oils. 

I. Drying oils. i. Marine animal oils. 

«. Senu-dryins oihi ^> Fish oili» 

3. Non-drytng oils. lb) Liver oils 

(c) Blubber oils. 
>. Tencttrial animal oils. 

II. Solid Fats 

B. Autmalfatt, 
I. Drying fats. 
3. Semt-drying fats. 
3. Non-drying fats. 

PkysiuU Pr9pfrttes.~-'*tht specific gravities of oils and fats vary 
between the limits of 0-910 and 0975. The lowest specific gravity 
is owned by the oils belon|{ing to the rape oil group- -from o 913 to 
0-916. The specific gravities of most non-drying oils lie between 
0-916 and Oi)30. and of most semi-drying oils between 0*930 and 
0-925. whereas the drying oils have specific gravities of about 0*9^. 
The animal and vegetable fats possess somewhat higher specific 
gravities* up to 0-930. The high specific gravity, 0*970, is owned by 
castor oil and cacao butter, and the highest specific gravity observed 
hitherto, 0*975, by Japan wax and myrtle wax. 

In thei*' liquid state oils and fats easily penetrate into the pores of 
dry subsunces; on paper they leave a translucent spot -'grease 
spot " — ^which cannot be removed by washing with water and subse- 
qoeat drying. A curious fact, which may be used for the detection 
of the minutest quantity of oils and fats, is that camphor crushed 
between layers <H paper without having been touched with the 
fingers rotates when thrown on clean water, the rotation ceasing 
immediately when a trace of oil or fat is added such as introduced 
by tauching the water with a needle which has been passed previously 
through the hair. 

The oils and fats are practically insoluble in water. With the 
exception of castor oil they are insoluble in cold alcohol; in boiling 
alcohol somewhat brgcr quantities dissolve. They arc completely 
soluble in ether, carbon bisulphide, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, 
petroleum ether, and bcnxciv. Oils and fats have no distinct melting 
or solidifying point. This is not only due to the fact that they arc 
mixtures of several gl]^ceridcs, but also that even pure glycendes, 
such as tristearin. exhibit two melting-points, a so-called double 
melting-point." the triglycerides meltmg at a certain temperature, 
then solidifving at a higher temperature to melt again on further 
heating. This curious behaviour was looked upon by Duffy as tieing 
due to the existence of two isomeric modifications, the actual 
occurrence of which has bean proved (1907) in the case el sevecsl 
mixed glyccrides. 

The freezing-points of those oils which are fluid at the ordinary 
temperature range from a few degrees above zero down to -a8* C 
(Unseed oil). At low temDeraturcs solid portions — ^usually termed 
** stearine " — separate out irom many oils; in the case of cotton-seed 
oil the separation ukcs plac« at la* C. These solid oortions can be 
filtered on, and thus are obtained the commercial " oemargarinatcd 
oils " or " winter oils." 

OiU and fats can be heated to a temperature of 300* to 3«>* C. 
without undergoing any material change, provided prolonged 
contact with air is avoided. On being h'sated above 350* up to 300* 
some oils, like linseed oil, safflower oil. tung oil (Chinese or Japanese 
iMDod oil) and even castor oil. undergo a change which is most likely 
due to polymerization. In the case of castor oil solid products are 
formed. Above 300* C all oils and fats are decomposed; this is 
evidenced by the evolution of acrolein, which possesses the well- 
known pungent odour of boming fat. At the same time hydro- 
carbons are formed Csee Pctxolevm). 

On exposure to the atmosphere, oib and fats gradually uadergo 
certain changes. The diryfn; oils absorb oxygen somewhat 
rapidly and dry to a film or skin, especially if exposed in a thm 
layer. Extensive use of this property is made in the paint and 
vftmish trades. Hie semi-drying oils absorb oxygen more 
slowly than the drying oils, and are, therefore, useless as paint 
oils. Still, in course of time, they absorb oxygen distinctly 
enoui^ to become thickened. The property of the semi-drying 

oils to absorb oxygen is accelerated by spreading such oils over 
a large surface, notably over woollen or cotton fibres, when 
absorption proceeds so rapidly that frequently spontaneous 
combustion will ensue. Many fires in cotton ^nd woollen mills 
have been caused thereby. The non-drying oils, the type of 
which is olive oil, do not become oxidized readily oa exposure 
to the air, although gradually a change takes place, the oils 
thickening slightly and acquiring that peculiar disagreeable 
smell and acrid taste, which are defined by the term " rancid." 
The changes conditioning rancidity, although not yet fully 
understood in all details, must be ascribed in the first instance 
to slow hydrolysis (" saponification ") of the oils and fats by the 
moisture of the air, especially if favoured by insolation, when 
water Is taken up by the oils and fats, and free fatty acids are 
formed. The fatty acids so set free are then more readily 
attacked by the oxygen of the air, and oxygenated products 
are formed, which impart to the oib and fats the rancid smell 
and taste. The products of oxidation are not yet fully kno%m*, 
most likely they consist of lower fatty acids, such as formic 
and acetic adds, and perhaps also of aldehydes and ketones. 
If the fats and oils are well protected from air and light, they 
can be kept indefinitely. In fact C. Friedel has found unchanged 
triglycerides in the fat which had been buried several thotisand 
years ago in the tombs of Abydos. If the action of air and 
moisture is allowed free play, the hydrolysis of the oils and 
fats may become so complete that only the insoluble fatty 
acids remain behind, the glycerin being washed away. This 
Is exemplified by adipocere, and also by Irish bog butter, which 
consist chiefly of free fatty acids. 

The proper t y of oils and fats of being readily hydrolvaed is a most 
important cme, and veryeateosiveuscof it is made in tne arts (soap- 
making. caodle>making and recovery of their b)r-products). If oils 
and fats are treated with water alone under hiip pi a s s p m (corre- 
apondiog to a temperature of about 33o* C), or m the presence of 
water with caustic alkaUs or alkaline earths or basic meullic oxides 
(which bodies act as " caulysers ") at lower pressures, they are 
converted in the first instance into free fatty acids and glycerin. 
If an amoont of the bases aufiicient to combine subseqocntly with 
the fatty acids be present, then the corresponding salts of these fatty 
acids are formed, audi as sodium salts 01 fatty aods (hard soap) or 
potassium salts of the fatty acids (soft soap), soaps of the alkaline 
earth (lime soap), or soaps of the meullic oxides (sine soap. Ac). 
The coovenion of %he glyeeridea (triglycerides) into fatty adds 
and glycerin most be looked upon as a reaction which takes place in 
stages, one molecttle of a triglyceride being converted first into 
diglyceride and one moieenle of fatty acid, the dwlyeefide then bdng 
chanced into moooglyccride. and a second molecule of fatty acio, 
and niuUy the moooglyceride bdng converted into one molecule of 
fatty add and glycenn. All these reactions take place concurrently, 
•o that one molecule of a diclyoeride may still retain its ephemeral 
existence, whilst another molecule is already broken op completely 
into free fatty adds and glycerin. 

The oils and fats used in the industries are not drawn from 
any very great number of sources. The tables on the following 
pages contain chiefly the most important oils and fats together 
with thdr sources, yields and ptindpal uses, arranged according 
to the above classification, and according to the magnitude of 
the iodine value. It should be added that many other oib and 
fats are only waiting improved conditions of transport to enter 
into successful competition with tome of those that ace already 
on the market. 

£x(rac/»M.->Sinoe the oils and fats have always served the 
human race as one of the most important articles of food, the 
oil and fat Industry may well be considered to be as old as the 
human race itself. The methods of preparing oils and fats 
range themselves under three heads: (i) Extraction of oil by 
" rendering," t.e. boOing out with water; (a) Extraction of oil 
by expression; (3) Extraction of <Ai by means of solvents. 

Rendering. — ^The crudest method of rendering oils from seeds, itill 
practiced in Central Africa, in Indo-Chtna and on some of the South 
Sea Islands, consists in heaping up oleaginous fruits and allowing 
them to melt bv the heat ol the sun, when the exuding oil runs olf 
and is collected. In a somewhat improved form this pixxresa of 
rendering is practised in the preparation of palm oil. and the rendering 
the best (Cochin) coco-nut oil by boiling the fresh kernels with water. 
Since hardly any machinery, or only the simplest machinery, is 
required for these processes, this method h^s some (asunation (or 



Inventon, and even at the (weaent day proc eaaea are being patented, 
havinc for their object the boiling out of fruits with ivater or laU 
■olutions, lo as to faciUute the separation of the oil from the pulp by 
graviution. Naturally these processes can only be applied to those 
seeds which contain large auantities of fatty matter, such as coco- 
nuts and oliv». The renoering process is, however, applied on a 
very lar^e acale to the production of animal oils and fata. Formerly 
the animal oils and fau were obuined by heating the tissues con- 
tainmg the oils or fats over a free fire, when the cell membranes 
burst and the liquid fat flowed out. The cave-dwcUcr who first 
collected the fat dripping off the deer on the roasting spit may well 
be looked upon as the first manufacturer of tallow. This crude 
process is now classed amongst the noxious trades, owing to the 
offensive stench given off, and must be considered as almost extinct 
in this country. Even on whaling vessels, where up to recently 

whale oil, seal oil and sperm oil (see Waxes, below) were obtained 
exdustvely by '* trying," •.«. by melting the blubber over a free fire, 
the Droceas of rendering is fast becoming obsolete, the modem prac- 
tice being to deliver the blubber in as fresh a state as possible lo the 
** whaling establishments," where the oil is rendered by methods 
doatrly resembling those worked in the enormous rendering establish- 
ments (for ullow, lard, bone fat) in the United Sutes and in South 
America. The method consisu essentially in cutting up the fatty 
matter into small fragments, which are transferrd into vessels 
Containing water, wherein the comminuted mass is heated by 
steam, either under ordinary pres»ure in open veaseb or under 
higher pressure tn digestors. The fat gradually exudes and collects 
on the top of the water, whilst the membranous matter, " grmvcs,** 
falls to the bottom. The fat is then drawn off the aqueous (gluey) 
layer, and strained through sieves or filters. Tlie greaves are placed 




per cent. 


Principal Use. 

Tunc (Chinese or Japanese wood) 
indle nut 


Hemp seed 
Walnut: Nut 
SafBower . 
Poppy seed 
Sunflower . 

Umum usitatissimum 
AUurita cordata 
AUurUes wtduuana 
Cannabis sativa 
Jugiams regia . 
Cartkamus tinctarius 
Pabaoer somniferum 
Hetianthus aniiKia . 
Madia saH»a . 

Drying Oils. 

Semi-drying Oils, 

Cameline (German Sesami) 
Soja bean .... 
Maiae; Com 
Be e c h not . , . 
Kapok .... 


Curcas, pufgiag nut 
Braail nut 
Rape(C4»Ua) . . 

Apricot kernel • 
iVKhkcrad . 

Aradtts (ground mit) 
Haael nut 

OUve . . . 
Olive kerad . . 

Grape si 

Soja kispida 
Zea Mays 

B«mbax penlandnam {Eriodendron 

Gassy pimm herbaeeum 
Sesimum orientate, S. ind i eu m 
Jatropka eurcas 
BertkoUeiia exedsa . 
Cretan Ti^imm 
Wiki Brassiea campestris 
Brauica campestris 
Brassiea campestris var.? 

Nan-drying Oils. 

PrmmiM armeniaea 
Prmnms persiem 
Prumms amygialms 
Aradus k yp o gaea 
Carylms aeeUasiM 
OUaemrapaem , 
OUa tnrepam . 
Morimg^ eie^era 
Vuisnmifera . 



























Paint, varnish, linoleum, soap 
Paint and varnish 
Burning oil, soap, paint 
Paints and varnishes, soft soap 
Oil painting 

Burning, vaqpish (" nwfaan ") 
Salad ou. painting, loit soap 
Edible oil. soap 
Soap, burning 

Bunung. aoap 
Edible, burmng 
Edible, soap 
Food, burmng 

Food, soap 
Food, soap 
Food, soap 
Medicine, soap 
Edible, soap 

Lubricant, burning 
Lubricant, burning 
Burning, lubricant 

Pcrfum^rVj Hiedtdoe 
Perfumer^', medicine 
Ptflumtry, medicine 
EtJi^Ef, s*:up 

E*Jir-l^, pcfiumery, hibrieatlhg 
EdiHkn lubricating, burning, soap 
Edilhk\ I u brio ling, burning, aoap 
Ediblr, perfumery, lubricating 
F&id, burning 

Mcrfk-in^, lioap. lubricating, Twlcey 
tr4 oil 





Priactpal Use. 



Sardineofl . . 

Salmoo . 

Heniiv . . 
Liweroils — 

Cod Ii\Tr 

Shark liver (Arctic) 



Dolphin, black fish, body ofl ) 

jawoi ) 

PBrpoMeBodyoa . . . j 

^ ipo ise Jam ofl . • • 1 

Sheep's foot . 

Hones' foot . 
Neat's toot 

Egg . . . 

Atosa munkaden 
Onpea sardinms 
Saime solar 

Marine Animal OUs, 

Cadns marrkma^ 
Scymnms borealis 

Delpkimsu ifoUe ep* 

Currying leather 
Carryiag leather 
Currymg leather 
Currying leather 

M^fidne, currying leather 
Conying leather 

Buraiag. currying leadier 
Burning, soap-making, fibre 
ing. currying leather 

f Lubricating oQ for ddiorta 

Terrestrial Animal OSs. 

Eqmms cohoOns 
Bss lomrms 






74 I Lubricatii« 

74-90 I Lubricaring 

67-73 I Lubricating, leather drnsing 

68-8a ' " "^ '- - 



Vbobtabu fats 

Name of Fat. 




Priadpal Use. 


Mabua butter. lUip« butter . 
Mowrah batter .... 
Shea batter (GaUm butter) . . 


Maca batter 

Ghee butter (Phulwara butter) . 
Cacao butter 

Kokun butter (Gaa butter) . 

Borneo tallow 


Maripafat .... 
Palinl»meloU( .... 
Pahnnutoil > • . • • 

Coco-nut oil 

Japan wax ... 
Dila oiKoba oil. wild mango oil) . 
Myrtle wax 

Lamrus noMis . . . . : 
Bassialatifplui .... 


Elaeis im»€ensis, B. mekuiococca 
Myris&a 0fficinalis 
Bassia hutyncea 

Cecos icUrocafpa .... 
Palnm Q) Mwipa .... 
EUieis guinetHsu 

Cocos Huctfera, C. hutyracea . 
Rhus suecedanea, R. vemicijrra 
Ininpa giiboneiuis .... 
Myrtca ceriftra^ M, carotineBsis . 
















Food, soap, candica 
Food, soap, candles 
Food, soap, candica 
Candles, soap 
Medidne, perfuiaery 



Food, candles 
Food, soap 
Food, soap 

Food, soap 


Soap, candles 0) 

Amu AL Fats 

Name of Fat. 


per cent. 


Principal Use. 

Ice bear . 

Horace* fat. 

Gooaefat . . 
Lard . . 
Beef manow 
Bone . 

Tatlotir, beef . 
Tallow, mutton 

Ursus mcrUimuM 
Cmaiua durissus 

Drying Fais. 



Semi-drying Fats. 
I Eqttns cahailnt . . . . | | 75-85 | Food, soap 

Non-drying Fats, 

Anser eimrens . 

Bm,Owu . 
Bcs fojinfi 
Bos lamrus 





Food, soap. cawHea 


Soap, candles 

Food, soap, candles, lubricaata 

Food, soap, candles, lubricants 


in hair or woollen ba((S and submitted to hydraulic pressure, bv 
which a further portion of oil or fat is obtained (cf . Presstnt, below). 
In the case of tnose animal fats which are intended for edible pur- 
poses, such as lard, suet for mantarine. the greatest cleanliness roust, 
of course, be observed, and the temperature must be kept as low as 
possible in order to obtain a perfectly sweet and pure material. 

Prtssint.—Tht boilina out process rannot be applied to small 
seeds, sucn as linseed and rape seed. Whilst the original method of 
obtaining seed oils may perhaps have been the same which is still 
used in India, via. trituration of (rape) seeds in a mortar so that the 
oil can exude, it may be safety assumed that the process.of expressing 
has been applied in the first instance to the preparation of olive oil. 
The first woman who expressed olives packed in a sack by heaping 
stones on them may be considered as the forerunner of the inventors 
of all the presses that subsequently came into use. Pliny describes 
in detail the apparatus and processes for obtaining olive oil in vogue 
among his Roman contemporaries, who used already a simple screw 
press, a knowledge of which they had derived from the Greeks. 
In the East, where vegetable oib form an important article of food 
and serve also for other domestic purposes, various ingenious 
applications of lever presses and wedee presses, and even of com- 
bined lever and wedge presses, have oren used from the remotest 
time. At an early sta|e of history the Chinese employed the same 
series of operatbns which are followed in the most advanced oil mills 
of modem time, viz. bruising and reducing the seed& to meal under an 
edge-stone, heating the meal in an open pan, and pressing out the 
oil in a wedge press In which the wedges were driven home by 
hammers. Tnis primitive process is still being carried out in Man- 
churia, in the production of soja bean cake and 80)a bean oil, one of 
the sta^e industries of that country. The olive press, whkrh was 
also used m the vineyards for expressing the crape juke, found its 
way from the south of France to the north, and was employed there 
for expressing poppy seed and rape seed. The apparatus was then 
graduallv unproved, and thus were evcrfvcd the modem forms of 
the screw press, next the Dutch or stamper pnas. and finally the 
hydraulic press. With the screw press, even in its most improved 
form, the amount of pressure practkallY obtainable is Hmited from 
the failure of its parts under the severe inelastic strain. Hence thia 
kind of press finds only limited application, as in the industry of 
olive oil for expressing the best and finest virgin oil, and in the 
production of animal fats for edible purposes, such as lard and 
otooma i garlne. The Dutch or stamper press, invented in Holland 
in Che iTth ccBtnry, was up to tha eaily yean of tha t9th ceatuy 

almost exclusively employed in Eui 
consists of two principal parts, an obi 


for pressing oil-seeds. It 
rectangular box with an 

ngement d pbtes, blocks and wedges, and over it a framework 
» heavy sUmpers which produce the pressure by their fall. 

The press oox first conskted of strongly bound oaken planks, but 
later on cast-iron boxes were introduced. At each ex trem i t y of the 
box a bag of oil-meal was placed between two perforated iron plates, 
next to which were inserted filling-up pieces oil wood, two of whkh 
were oblique, so that the wed^ which cxereised the pressure cooM 
be readily driven home. This press has had to yield place to the 
hydraulic press, although in some ohl-fashioned estabTishments in 
Holland the stamper press couM still be seen at work in the 'eighties 
of the 19th century. The invention of the hydraulic press in 1795 
by Joseph Bnmah (£ar. pal., «>th April 1795) effected the createst 
revolution in the oil industry, oriiwing a new, easily controUed and 
almost unlimited source of power into play; the limit of the power 
bemc solely reached by the limit of tne strength of the material 
which the engineer is able to produce. Since then the hydmnUc 
press has practically completely superseded all other amrfiances 
used for exprcsaon, aiuS in consequence of thb epoch-making in- 
vention, assisted as it was later on by the accumulator— invented by 
William George (later Lord) Armstrong in 1813 — the seed-crushii^ 
indnstiy rcacMa a perfection of mechankaT detail whkfa aoon 
seeurad its supremacy for England. 

The sequence of operations In treating oil seeds, oil nuts, Ac., 
for the separetkm ol their contained oils is at the present time as 
follows: As a pr e limina ry operation the oil seeds and nuu are freed 
from dost, sand and other impurities by sifting in an inclined re- 
volving cylinder or sieving machine, covered with woven wire, 
having medws varying aocoiding to the siae and nature of the seed 

is of the greatest 
dible oib and fata. 

operated upon. This prslii , , 
importance, especially lor the preparation of edible 
In the case of those seeds amongst which are found pieces of i 
(hammer heads amongst pahn kernels, Ac.), the seeds are passed 
over magnetic separators, which retain the pieces of iron. The seeds 
and nats are then decorticated (where reqmrsd), the sheUs re m ove d . 
and the kemelo (" mcatt ") converted into a pulpy masa or meal 
(in okler establishments by crushing and grinding between stones ia 
edge-runners) on passtna through a hopper over rolleTS oonsistiitg 
of five chilled iron or steel cylinden mounted vertically like the bowb 
of a calendar. These rollcss are finely grooved so tnat the seed b 
cut op whilst passiiig in successmn Be t ween the first and second 
ift ihc seriss, then bctwten the second and tha third, •»* 



on to the last, when the grains are sufficiently bruised, crushed and 
ground. The disunoe between the rollers tan be easily rnulated 
■o that the seed leavins the bottom roller has the desired fineness. 
The comminuted mass, lorming a more or less ooane meal, is either 
expressed in this state or subjected to a preliminary heatinK. accord* 
inf to the quality of the produa to be manufactured. For the 
preparation of edibU oils and fats the meal is expressed in the cold, 
after having been pecked into ban and placed in hydraulic presses 
under a pressure oi three hundred atmospheres or even more. The 
cakes arc allowed to remain under pressure for about seven minutes. 
The oil exuding in the cold dissolves the smallest amount of colouring 
matter, &c.» and hence has suffered least in its quality. Oils so 
obtained are known in commerre as *' coU drawn oils," ** cold pressed 
oik." " salad oils," " virgin oils." 

By pressing in the cold, obviously only part of the oil or Cat is 
recovered. A further quantity is obtained by expresnng the seed 
meal at a somewhat elevated temperature, reached by warming the 
comminuted seeds or fruits either immediately after they leai« the 
fi\T-roller mill, or after the " goM diawn oil has been taken off. 
Of course the cold pressed cakes must be first disintegrated, which 
may be done under an edge^runner. The same operation may be 
repeated once man. Thus oils of the ** second expression " and of 
the " third expression " arc obtained. 

In the case of oleaginous seeds of low value (cotton-seed, linseed) 
it is of importance to express in one operation the largest possible 
quantity <h oil. Hence the bruised seed is, after leaving the five- 
roller mill, generally warmed at once in a steam-jacketed kettle 
fitted with a mixing gear, by parsing steam into the jacket, and send- 
ing at the same time some steam through a rose, fixed inside the 
kettle, into the mass while it is being aiptated. This practice is a 
survival of the older method of moistening the seed with a little 
water, while the seeds were bruised under edge-runners, so as to 
lower the temperature and faciliute the bursting of the cells. The 
warm meal is then delivered through measuring boxes into closed 
pressbajps (" scourtins " of the " Marseilles " press), or through 
measunng boxes, combined with an automatic moulding machine, 
into cloths open at two sides (Anglo-American press), so that the 
preliminarily pressed cakes can be put at once into the hydraulic 
press. In the latest constructions oi cage presses, the use of bags is 
cntirel^f dispensed with, a measured-out quantity of seed falling 
direct into the circular press cage and being separated froro^ the 
material forming the next cake by a dreuk^ plate of sheet iron. 
The essentials of proper oil pressing are a sfowly accumulating 
pressure« m that tne liberated oil may have time to flow out and 
escape, a pressure that increases in proportion as the resistance of 
the material increases, and that maintains itself as the volume of 
material decreases through the escape of oiL 

Numerous forms of hydraulic presses have been devised. Hon- 
lontal presses have practically ceased to be used in this branch of 
industry. At present vertical presses are almost exclusively in 
vogue; the three chief types of these have been already mentioned. 
Continuously workini^ presses (compression by a oonical screw^ have 
been patented, but hitherto they have not been found practicable. 
Of the vertical presses the Ai^lo- American type of press b most in 
use. It represents an open press fitted with a number (usually 
sixteen) of iron press plates, between which the cakes are insetted 
by hand. A hydraulic ram then forces the table carrying the cakes 
against a prcsa-head, and the exuding oil flows down the sides into 
a Unk below. The " ManeiUes press" is largely used in the sooth 
of France. There the meal b packed by hand in " scourtins/' bags 
made of plaited cooo-nut leave*— replacing the woollen cloths used 
in Enj{land. The packing of the press requires more manual labour 
than in the case oi the Anglo-American press; moreover, the Mar- 
seilles press offers inconvenience in keeping the bags straight, and 
the pressure cannot be raised to the same height as in the more 
modern hydraulic presses. Oil obtained from heated meal is usually 
more highly coloured and harsher to the taste than cold drawn oil, 
more oT thie extractive substances being dissolved and intermixed 
with the oil. Such oib are hardly suitable for edible purposes, and 
they are chiefly used for manufacturing proc es s es . According to 
the care exercised by the manufacturer in the range of temperature 
to which the seed is heated, various grades of oiU are obtained. 

In the case of those seeds which contain more than 40% of oQ, 
such as arachb nuts and sesame seed, the first expression in prenbags 
leads to difficulty, as the meal causes " spueing, t.«. the meal exudes 
and escapes from the press. Hence, in^ modem iostaUations, the 
first expression of those seeds is carried out in so-called ca^ (chidding) 
presses, consisting of hydraulic pressesmvided with arcular boxes 
orcages. into which the meal bfilfed. These cages or Ixnesare either 
ooostnictcd of metal staves hefal together by a number of steel rings, 
or coasbt of one cylinder having a brge number of perforations. 
The presses . having perforated cylimlers, although presenting 
mcchaaically a more perfect arrangement, are not preferable to the 
press cages formed by suves, as the holes become easily cbgged up 
by the meal, when the cylinder must be carefully cleaned out. 
Modem improvements, with a view to cheapening of cost, effect the 
transport of the cages from one presa battery to another on rails. 
In order to dispense even with the charging of the presses by hand, 
in some afstens the cifea are first chariBsa io a 

from which they are transferred mechanically by a swinging arraafe- 
ment into the final press. 

Whibt the meal b under pressure the oil works its way to the edge 
of the cake, whence it exudes. For thb reason an oblong form b the 
most favourable one for the easy separation of the oil. The cdpes 
of the cakes invariably reuin a considerable portion of oil; henoe 
the soft edges are pared off, in the case of the oblong cake in a cake- 
paring machine, and the parings are returned to edge-runneri, to 
be ground up and again pressed with fresh meal. Through the 
tntroductk>n of the cage (clodding) presses circular cakes have become 
fashionaMe, and as the materiafol these presses can be made modi 
stronger and therefore higher pressure can be employed, more oil b 
expressed from the meal than in open presses. The oil flowing from 
the p ress e s b caught in reservoirs placed under the level of the floor, 
f roni>hich it b pumped into storage tanks for settling and clarifying. 

Extraetion by Sehfenls.—Tht cakes obuined in the foregoing 
process still retain considerable proportions of oil, not less than 
4 to s%-~usually. however^ about 10%. If it be desired to obuin 
larger quantities than are yielded by the above-described methods, 
processes having for their objea the extraction of the seeds fay 
volatile solvents must be resorted to. Extraction by means o*" carbon 
bbulphide was first introduced in 1843 by Jesse Fisher of Birming- 
ham. Thirteen years later E. Deiss of Brunswick again ratent«i 
the extraction by means of carbon bbulphide (Eng. Pai. No, 300, 
1 856), and added '* chloroform, ether, essences, or beniine or benzole' 
to the list of sfdvents. For several years afterwards the process 
made little advance, for the colour of the oib produoed was higher 
and the taste mudi sharper. The oil retained traces of sulphur, 
which showed themsdves disagreeably in the smell of soaps made 
from it, and in the Mackening of substances with which it was used. 
Of course, the meal left by the process was so tainted with carboo 
bisulphide that it was absolutely out of the question to use the 
extracted meal as cattle food. With the improvement in the manu- 
facture of carbon bisulphide, these drawbacks have been surmounted 
to a large extent^ and the process of extracting with carbon bisulphide 
has specially gained much exteliMon in the extraction of ewpressrd 
olive marc in the south of France, in Italy and in Spain. Yet even 
now traces of carbon bisulphide are retained by the extracted meal, 
so that it b impossible to feed cattle with it. Carbon bisulphade b 
comparativdy cheap, and it b heavier than water, hence there are 
certain advantages in storing so volatib and inflammabb a liquid. 
But owing to the physiologtcal effect carbon bisulphide has on the 
workmen, coupled with the chemical action of Impure caibon 

bisulphide on iron which has frequently led to oonflagratioos. the 
employment of carbon bbulphide must remain restricted. In 1863 
Richardson. Lundy and Irvine secured a patent (£»g. Pol. No. 
3315) for obuining oil from crushed seeds, or from refuae cake« 
by the solvent action of volatile hydrocarbons from " petroleum, 
canh oib, asphalturo oil, coal oil or shale oil, such hydrocarbons 
being required to be voUtib under 212* F." Since that time the 
development of the petroleum industry in all parts of the wodd 
and the large quantities of low boiiing-point hydrocarbons — naphtha 
—obtained from the petroleum fields, and also the improvements 
in the apparatus employed, have raised thb system of extraction 
to the rank of a competing practical method of oil production. 
Of the other proposed vobtile solvents ordinary ether has found 00 
practical application, as it b far too volatile and hence hr too 
dangerous. Carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, acetone and bcnaene 
are far too expensive. Carbon utrachloride would be an ideal 
solvent, as it is noo-inflammable and shares with carbon bbulphide 
the advantage of bdng heavier than water. Efforts have been made 
during the last few years to introduce this solvent on a Luge scale, 
but its high price and its physiological effect on the workmen have 
hitherto militated against it. At the present time the choice lien 
practically only between the two solvents, carbon bbulphide and 
naphtha (petroleum ether). ■ Naphtha b preferable for oil seeds, as 
it extracts neither resins nor gummy matters from the oil seeds, 
and takes up less colouring matter than carbon bisulphide. Yet even 
with naphtha traces of the solvents remaii^ so that the meal obtained 
cannot oe used for cattle feeding, notwithstanding the many state- 
ments by interested parties to tne contrary. It b true that on the 
continent extracted meal, espedally rape meal from good Indian 
seed and palm kernel meal, are somewhat largely used as food for 
cattle in admitture with press cakes, but in England 00 extracted 
meal is used for feeding cattle, but finds its proper use In manuring 
the Und. 

The apparatus employed on a luifit scale depends 00 the tempcia- 
ture at which the extractioo b earned out. In the maio two types 
of extracting apparatus are differentiated, via. for extraction in the 
cold and for extractioa in the hot. The seed is prepared in a similar 
manner as for pressing, except thnt it is not rrauoed to a hoe meal, 
so as not to impede the pcreobtion of the solvent throu^i the mass. 
In the case of ooM extraction the seed is pUccd in a aeiKS of dosed 
vessels, through which the solvent percolates by displacement, on 
the " coanter<iirrent " system. A battery of vessels is so arranged 

that one vessd can always be made the last of the series to diadiarge 
finished meal and to be recharged with fresh ancal. so that the 
pnicessis practically a continuous one. Thesohition of the extracted 
oUoriat kthea tiaasfemd (oasteam-bcatod stUi, where the solvent 



tbc wpoun n a odMIbc 
volatile lolwent in tbe ou 

it drives «II and rawvetcd l»y 

coil, to be used again. The last remnant , ^ 

b driven off by a current of open ttcara blown through the oil in the 
warm state. The extracting process in the hot is carried out in 
appacMus, die prittdple oC which b mempUfied by the weB'kixM 
Soxhlet extractor. The oomminuted seed is plifisd inside a vesa 
connected with an upright lefrigenUor oa trays or baskets, and 
surrounded there by the volatile solvent. On hqatlng the solvent 
with steam through a coH or jacket, the vapours rise through and 
around the neal. Tbev pass into the refrigefator, where they are 
condensed and fall back as a condeMed liqaM thrmigh the meal, 
percolating it as they pass downwards, and rBachtng to the bottom 
of the vessel as a more or less saturated solution of ou in the solvent. 
The solvent is again evaporated. leavtn{^ the oil at the bottom of the 
vcMct until the extraction b deemed finished. Tbe solution of fat b 
then run off into a still, as described already, and the last traces of 
solvent are driven out. The solvent b recovered and used again. 

With regard to the merits and demerits of the last two mentioned 
processes— expression and extractk>n — the adoption of either will 
largely depend on local conditions and the objects for which the pro- 
ducts ane intended. Wherever the cake b the main product, «> 
prcssion will commend itself as the most advantageous process. 
Where, however, the fatty material forms the main product, as in the 
case of palm kernel oil, or sesame and coco-nut oils from damaged 
seeds (which would no k>nger yield proper cattle food), the process of 
extraction will be preferred, especially when the price of oils b high. 
In some cases the combination of the two prooesses commends 
itself, as in the case of the production of olive oil. The fruits are 
expressed, and after the edible, qualities and best class of oils for 
iBchoical purposes have been taken off by espressien. the rsmaining 
pulp b extracted l^ means of solvents. Thb pAxess b known under 
tbe name of mixed process {kuiUrie mixU), 

R^mni and BUachim.—Thit oils and fats prepared by any 
of t£e methods detailed above are in their fresh state, and, if 
got from perfectly fresh (" sweet **) material, praclically neutral. 
If care be exerdsed in the process of rendering animal olb 
and Cats or expressing oils in the cold, the products are, as a 
rule, su£QdentIy pure to be delivered to tbe consumer, after a 
preliminary settling has allowed any mudUginous matter, such 
as animal or vegetable fibres or other impurities, and also traces 
of moisture, to separate out. Thb spontaneous darincalion 
was at one time tlw on\y method in vogue. Thb process b 
now shortened by filtering oib tbrough filler presses, or otherwbe 
brightening them, «.;. by blowing with air. In many cases 
these methods still suffice lor the production o£ commercial 
oib and fats. 

In special cases; such aa tlie preparation of edible oils and fats, » 
further improvement in colour and ^eater purity b obtaiDcd by 
filtering the oils over charcoal, or over natural absorbent earths, 
fuch as fuller's ea rth. Where this process does not suffice, as in the 
case of coco-nut oil or palm kernel oil, a preliminary purification 
in a current of steam must be resorted to before the final purifica- 
tion, described above, is carried out. Oib intended for use on th« 
Uble which deposit " stcarine " in winter must be freed from such 
solid fats. Thb b done by allowing the oil to cool down to a low 
temperature and pressing it through cloths in a press, when a 
nmpid on exudes, which remains proof against cold—" winter oil." 
Most o\v/e oib are naturally non-congealing oib, whereas the 
Tunbian and Algerian olive oib deposit so much " stearine " 
that they must be " demargarinaled.'* Similar methods are em- 
ojoy^ in the production of lard oil, edible cotton-seed oil, &c 
For refining oib and fats intended for edible purposes only the 
foregoing methods, which may be s.ummari2ed by the name of 
physical methods, can be used; the only chemicab permissible 
are alkalb or alkaline earths to remove free fatty adds present. 
Treatment with other chemicab renders the oils and fats unfit 
for oonsiunption. Therefore all bleaching and refining pro- 
cesses involving other means than those enumerated can only 
be used for technical oHs and fats, such as lubricating oib, 
burning ofls, paint oib, soap-making oils, &c 

Bleaching by the aid of chemicab requires great circumspec- 
tion. There b no universal method of oil-refining applicable 
to any and every oil or fat. Not only must each kind of oil or 
hi be considered as a spedal problem, but frequently even 
varieties of one and the same o9 or fat are apt to cause the 
lame dffSculties as would a new individual. In many cases the 
purification by means of sulphuric acid, invented and patented 

by Charles Cower tn X79> (fr6qucnt]y ascribed to Tli&unD, ii 
still usefully applied. It consists in treating the oil with 
a small pefoeotage of a more or less concentrated sulphoric 
add, according to the nature of the oil or fat. The add not 
only takes up water, but it acts on the suspended Impurities^ 
carbonizing them to some extent, and thus causing them to 
ooagulate and fall down in the form of a floccubnt mass, which 
canfct with it mechanically other Impurities which have not 
been acted npon. Thb method b chiefly used in the refining 
of linseed an4 rape oils. Purification by means ol strong 
caustic soda was first recommended as a general process by 
Loub C. Arthur Barreswll, Ms suggestion being to heat the xA 
and add 2% to 3% of caustic soda. In most cases the purifica- 
tion consisted in removing the free fatty adds from randd oib 
and fats, the caustic soda fonning a soap with the fatty addB» 
which would either rise as a scum and lift up with it impurities 
or fall to the bottom and carry down impurities. Thb process 
b a useful one in the case of cotton-seed oil. As a ruie^ 
however, it b a very precarious one, since emulsions are formed 
which prevent in many cases the separation of oil altogether. 
After the treatment with sulphuric, add or caustic soda, the oib 
must be washed to remove tbe last traces of chemicals. The 
water b then allowed to settle out, and the oib are finally 
filtered. The number of chemicab which have been proposed 
from time to time for the purification of oib and fats b shnost 
legion, and so long as the nature of oib and faU was littlt 
understood, a secret trade in oil-purifying chemicab flourished. 
With our present knowledge most of these chemicab may 
be removed into the limbo of useless things. Tlie gencraJ 
methods of bleaching besides those mentioned already aa 
physical methods, viz. filtration over charcoal or bleaching 
earth, are chiefly methods based on bleaching by means of 
oxygen or by chlorine. Tlie methods of bleaching by oxygen 
include all those which aim at the bleaching by exposure to 
the air and to sunlight (as in the case of artists' Unsced-oU)» 
or where oxygen or ozone b introduced in the form of gas or 
b evolved by chemicab, as manganese dioxide, potassium 
bichromate or potassium permanganate and sulphuric add. 
In the process of bleaching by means of chlorine either bleach- 
ing powder or bichromates and hydrochloric add are used. It 
must again be emphasized that no general rule can be laid 
down as to which process should be employed in each given 
case. There b still a wide field open for the application of 
proper processes for the removal of Impurities and colouring 
matters without running the risk of attacking the oil orfafc 

Oi7 rejfmg.— Reliable sdentific methods for testing «:ib and 
fats date back only to tbe end of tbe 'seventies of the 19th 
century. Before that tione it was beUeved that not only could 
individual oib and ftits be dbtinguisbed from each other by 
colour reactions, but it was also maintained that falsification 
could be detected thereby. With one or two exceptions (detec- 
tion of sesame oil and perhaps abo of oottoo-seed ofl) all colour 
reactions are enttrdy useless. The modem methods of oil 
testing rest chiefly on so-called "quantitative" reactions, a 
number of characteristic "values" being determined whkh* 
being based on the spedal nature of the falty adds contained ia 
each individual oD or fkt, assbt in identifying them and abo 
in revealing adulteration. These " values," together with other 
usdul methods, are enumerated in the order of their utility for 
the purposes of 

The sapniiTkalJea m/w (^•pomftdtiam SMsler) denotes the 
number of milligrams which one gramme of an oil or fat lequsies for 
saponification, or, in other words, for the neutralization of the total 
fatty acids oontalncd in an oil or faU We thai measaie the alkali 
absorption value of all fatty acids contained in an oil or fat. Tbe 
saponification values of roost oils and f^its lie in the nei{hbourbood 
of 195. But the oils belonging to the rape oil grou^i arc characterized 
by oonsidcrebly lower saponification values, vis. about 17^ on 
account of their contaiaiBir eotabb quantities of enacic acid. CfliH^)i. 
la the rate of those oib which do not belong to the rape oils and vet 
show alinormally low saponification value*, the wspicion is rai«o at 
once that a certain amount of mineral oils (which do not absorb 




atkali and are therefore termed " uiittponifiable **) hatbsen admucd 
Iraodulcntiy. Their amouat can be determmed in a dUcct manner 
(by exJuutting tke nponified ma«, after dilution with water, with 

pomtfaiK the latter and wvlghtng the ainoant of mineral 
hind. A few o( the blubber oila. hke 

oil left behind. A few o( the bhjbber <mT«. hke dolphin >aw and 
porpotie iaw oils (uaed for lubricating typewriting roachioee), have 
exceedingly high iaponi6cation values owing to their containing 
volatile tatty acids with a small number of carbon atoms. Notable 
Also are ooooHBut and polm-nst oils, the saponification numfaeia of 
which^ vary from 240 to 260b and otpoeiall)f batter-bt, which baa a 
saponification value of about 227. These lugb saoonificatjon values 
are due to the presence of (glyccridcs of} volatile iatty acids, and are 
of extreme usefulness to the analyst, especially in testing butter-fat 
lor added manarine and other fats. Theie voUiile acids are specialty 
ineasurod bv the Rjuchert valut {Retckeri- WoUny sa/ar). To ascertain 
this value toe volatile acids contained in s grammes of an oil or fat 
are distilled in a minutely prescribed manner, and the distilkd-ofT 
acids are measured bv titration with decinormal alkali. Whereas 
•KMt of the oils and fats, via. all thosR the saponihcaiion value of 
which lies at or below I95> conuin practically no volatile acids,i.e. 
have extremely low Reicnert-WoUny values, all those oils and fats 
having saponification values above 195 contain notable amounts of 
volatile fatty acids. Thus, the Reukett-Meusl valui of butter-fat 
fs S3-J5>i that of coco«nuc oil 6-7, and <rf palm kemd oil about 
$•6. Thia value is indispensable for judging (he purity of a butter. 
One of the most important values in oil testing u the todiiu vaiu§. 
This indicates the perccnuge of iodine absorbed by an oil or fat when 
the latter is dissolved in chloroform or carbon tetrachbride, and 
Ifcatcd with an aocuraiely measured amount of free iodine sup(>lied 
in the form of iodine chloride. By this means a measure is obtained 
of the unsaturated fatty acids contained in an oil or fat. On this 
value a scientific classification of nil oils and fats can be based, as is 
shown by the above-given list of oils and fats. The unsaturated 
fatty acids which occur chiefly in oils and fats are oleic acid, iodine 
value 90-07; crucie acid, iodine valoe 7S'i5: iimaitc actd^ iodine 
value 181-42: linolenic acid, iodine value 27J'i; and dupanodonic 
«cid, iodine value 5677. Oleic acid occurs in all non-drying oils 
fend fats, and to some extent in the semi-drying^ oils and fats. Linolic 
•eld u a characteristic constituent of all semi-diying. and to aomo 
extent of ail drying oils. Uooleoi^ acid charactcriies all vegetable 

drying oils: similarly dupanodonic add characterizes all marine 
ftnimai "- 


If one indlvidttal oil or fat is given, the iodine value alone 
furnishes the readiest means of findmg its place in the abov« system, 
and in many cases of identifying it. Even if a mixture of several 
oils and fats be present, the iodine value assists greatly in the 
identification of the components of the mixture, and furnishes the 
most imporunt key for the attacking and resolving of this not very 
airoole problem. Thus it points the way to the applkation of a 
further method to resolve the isolated Catty acids ol an oil or fat 
Into saturated (atty acids, which do not absorb iodine, and into un- 
saturated fatty acids, which absorb iodine in various proportions a3 
•hown above. This separation is effected by converting the dkati 
•oapsof the (atty acids into lead soaps and tnating the latter with 
ether, in which the lead salts of the satumtod acids are insoluble, 
whereas the salts of the above-named unsaturated acids are soluble. 
The saturated fatty acids can then be further examined, and valuabVe 
information is gained by the determination of the melting-points 
and by treatment with solvents. Thus some individual Catty acids, 
such as stearic add and arachidlc add (which ts characteristic of 
■roand nut oil) can be identified. In the miielure of unsaturated 
fatty odds, by means of some more refined methods, dupanodonic 
ackf, linolenic acid, linolic acid and oleic acid can be recognised. 
By combining the various methods which have been outlined here, 
•nd by the help of some further additional special methods, and 
hf reasoning in a strictly logical manner^ it is possible to resolve a 
mixture of two oib and iats» and even of three and four, into their 
components and determine approximatdy their quanuties. The 
methods sketched here do not yet exhaust the armoury of the 
analytical chemist, but it can only be pointed out in passing that the 
detection of hydroxylatcd acids enables the analyst to ascertain the 
presence of cantor oil, juaC aa the isolation and determination of 
axidiud fatty adds enables him to diffensotiate blown oils from 
other oils. 

Tests such as the Maumen£ test, the elaldin test and others, 
«rhich formeriy were the only resource of the chemist, have been 
practically superseded by the foregoing anetbods. The viscosity 
test, although of considerable imporunce in the examination of 
lobricattiag oik, baa been ahovn to have very little discriminative 
valae aa a gtnecal tesc 

Cammtna.'^lK my be safely said of the United Kingdom 
that it ukes the foremost position in the world as regards the 
extent of the oil and fat Industries. An estimate made by the 
writer (Cantor Lectures, " Oils and Fats, their Uses and Applica* 
tiono,'* Sacmly 1/ Arts^ 1904, p. 795), and based on the most 
rdiable Information obtainable, led to the conclusion that the 
•urns Invotvtd In the oil and fat trade exceeded £x ,000,000 per 

week; in ^907 tiny ippmdattial igi.tso/MO per ««ek. The 

great centres of the seed-oil trade (linseed, cotton-seed, rape- 
seed, castor-seed) are Hull, London, Liverpool, Bristol, Ldih and 
CUaiBOW. Linseed is imported prindpally from the East Indies^ 
Argentina, Canada, Russia and the United States; coctoa-seed 
Is diiefly suppHed by Egypt and East India; mpo^ced and 
castor-seed chiefly by East India. The imporution of copra 
and pabn kernels for the production of ooco-nut oil and palm- 
nut oil is also considerable, but in these two cases Great Britain 
does not take the first place. Fish and blubber oils ore principally 
produced in Dundee, London and Greenock. The manufacture 
of cod-liver oil for pbarmoceulical purposes is natnrally some- 
what limited, as Norway, Newfoundland, and latterly also 
Japan, are more favotirably situated as regards the supply of 
fresh cod, but tbc technical liver oils (cod oil, shark-liver oil) 
ore produced in very large quantities in Grimsby, Hull, Aberdeen, 
and latterly also op the west coasts of the United Kingdom. 
The produaion of edible fats (margarine, lard compouiKls, 
and vegetable butlers) has taken root in this country, and bids 
fair to extend largdy. With regard to edibJe oils, edible cotton* 
seed oil is the only table oil produced in Gnat Britain. The 
United Kingdom b oho one of the largest importers of fatty 

Psactically the whole trade in palm oil, which comes 
exclusively from West Africa, is confined to Liverpool, and 
the bulk of the tallow imported into Europe from Australasia, 
South America and the United Slates, is sold in the maru of 
London and Liverpool. Lard reaches Gnut Britain chiefly from 
the United Stales. Amongst the edible oils and fats which are 
largely imported, butter takes the first rank (to an amount of 
almost £25,000,000 per annum). This food-stuff reaches Great 
Britain not only from aO butter-exporting countries of the 
continent of Europe, but in increasing quantities also from 
Australia, Canada, Argentine, Siberia and the United Sutes of 
America. Next in importance is margarine, the Briu'sh produc* 
tion of which docs not suffice for the consumption, so that large 
quantities must be imported from Holland, edible olive oil 
from Italy, the south of France, Spain and the Mediterranean 
ports generally. Coco-nut oil and copra, both for edible and 
technical purposes, are htrgely shipped to Great Britain from 
the East Indies and Ceylon, Java and the West Indies. Of 
lesser importance are greases, which form the by-product of 
the large slaughter-houses in the United States and Argentina, 
and American (Canadian) and Japanese fish oils. 

On the continent of Europe the largest oil-trading centres are 
on the Mediterranean (Marseilles and Triesl), which art geo- 
graphically more favourably placed than England for the ptoduc- 
tion of such edible oils (in addition to the home-grown olive oil) 
as arachis oil, sesame oil and coco-nut oil. Moreover, the native 
population itself constitutes a large consumer of these oils. In 
the north of Europe, Hamburg, Rotterdam, Antwerp and 
Copenhagen are the largest centres of the oil and fat trade. 
Hamburg and its neighbourhood produces, curious^ enough, at 
present the largest amount of palm-nut oil. The United States 
takes the foremost place in the world for the production of cotton- 
seed and maize oils, lard, bone fat and fish ofls. Canada is 
likely to outstrip the United Sutes in the trade of fish and 
blubber oils, and in the near future Japan bids fair to become 
a very serious competitor In the supply of these oOs. Vast 
stores of hard vegetable fats are sUIl pmcUcally wasted in 
tropical countries, such as India, Indo-China and the Sundn 
Islands, tropical South America, Africa and China. With the 
improvement in transport these will no doubt reach European 
manufacturing centres in larger quantities than has been the 
cose hitherto. 


The waxes consist chiefly of the fatty add esters of the higher 
n&ooohydric alcohols, with which are frequently osaodated free 
okohoU as also free fatty acids. In the following two tables 
the " odds " and " alcohob " hitherto identified in waxes are 
enumerated in a classified order >^ 




Boiling Poiat. 

Mdtlng Point 




I. Acids of the Acetic wries C.H,.Oi— 

Fkocerylic add 


Palmitic add 


Pisangcerylic add 

Orotic add 


Psyllottearylic acid 

II. Acids of the Acrylic or Oleic series 



IH. HydroxyUted adds of the scrfes C.H».Or- 

IV. Dihvdroxylated adds of the series C.H,.0^ 




h ■ 







Gondang wax 

Wool wax 

Beeswax, spermaceti 

CamaQba wax* wool wax 

Pisang wax . 

Beeswax, wool wax. yisect wax 


Psylla wax 

(sperm ofl 

Wool wax 


Boiling Point. 

Melting Point 

Chancteristic of 



I. Alcohols of the Ethane series C.H,.4iO— 

oSiiSi^SJJia'^' : . : : : 

viciooecyi aiconoi ..... 

CarnaQbyl alcohol 

Ceryl alcohol 

Myricyl (Mefissyl) alcohol .... 

Psylloetearyl alcohol 

II. Alcoholsof the Allvlic series C.Hi»0- 

III. Alcc^a of the series C,H».<C>-* 

IV. Alcoholsof theClycolic'serie8C.H,.HiOr- 

Cocoeryl alcohol ..... 
















Pisang wax 


Wool wax 

Chinese wax. opium wax, wool fat 

Beeswax. CamaQba wax 


Wool wax 
Gondang wax 
Cochineal wvi 
1 Wool wax 

Spermaceti consists practically of cetyl palmltate. Chinese wax of 
eetyl jialmitate. The other waxes are ol more complex composilioii. 

The waxes can be cbasified similariy to the' oils and fats as 

*^'"*"" I. Liquid waxes. 

II. Solid waxes. 

A. Vegetable waxes. 

B. Ammal r 

The table enumerates the most important waxes: — 


Name of Wax. 

Sperm oil 

Arctic sperm oU (Bottlsnose oil) 

Vewrtable Waxes— 
Chmallbawax . 

Animal Waxes- 
Wool wax . . . . 

Spermaceti (Celin) 
Insect wax, Chinese wax 


Liqmid Waxes. 
Phyxeterwuuroeephdlus . 

Sdia Warns. 
Cotyftw ctnfirM . 

Ofisarks . . . . 

BkyseUr macroupk^n* . 
Coccus cenferus 



to solvents; and in their liquid condition leave a grease spot 
on paper. An importaat property of waxes is that of easily 
forming emulsioas with water, so that Urga quantities of water 
can be incorporated with tbcm (lanolin). 

The liquid waxes occur in the blubber of the sperm whale, 
and 10 the head cavities of those whalci which yield spermaceti; 
this latter is obtained by cooling the crude c^ obtained from 
the head cavities. Vegetable waxes appear to be very widely 
distributed throughout the vegetable kingdom, and occur mostly 
as a very thin film covering 
Inves and also fruits. A few 
only are found in sufficiently 



0-1 -4 

Prfndpal Use. 

There are only two liquid waxes known, sperm oil and arctic 
sperm oil (bottlenose-whalc oil), formerly always dassed together 
with the animal oils. In their physical prapertlca the natural 
waxes siBttlate tht fatty oils and fats. Thqr bahavc similarly 

large quantities to be of com- 
mercial importance. So fix 
carnattba wax is practically 
the only vegetable wax which 
is of importance in the worlds 
markets. The animal waxes 
are widely distributed 
amoni^ the insects, the most 
important bdnf beeswax, 
which is collected in almost 
ail parts of the world. An ex- 
ceptional position ik occupied 
by wool wax. the main constituent of the natural wool fat which 
covers the hair of sheep, and is obtained as a by-product In scour- 
ing the raw wooL Wool fat is now being purified on a large scale 
and brought iafta coonerae, under tlie name «l lanolin, as aa 



Polishes. Phoaograpb ma« 

Candks, polishes 
Csndles, surnry 
Candles^ polUies* siws 



obtmcnt the beneficent properties of which were known to 
Dioicorides in the beginning of the present era. Its chenucal 
composition is exceedingly complex, «nd specially remarkable 
on account of the considerable proportions of cholesterol and 
isocholesterol it contains. 

Commerce.— Tht sperm oils are generally sold in the same 
markets as the fish and blubber oils (see above). For beeswax 
London is one of the chief marts of the world. In Yorkshire, 
the centre of the wooUen industry, the largest amounts of wool- 
fat are produced, all attempts to recover the hitherto wasted 
material in Argentine and Australia having so far not been 
attended with any marked success. Spermaceti is a compara- 
tively unimportant article of commerce; and of Chinese wax 
small quantities only are imported, as the home consumption 
takes up the bulk of the wax for the manufacture of candles, 
polishes and sizes. 

2. Essential or Eikereal Oils, 

The essential, ethereal, or " volatile " oils constitute a very 
extensive class of bodies, which possess, in a concentrated form, 
the odour characteristic of the plants or vegetable substances 
from which they are obtained. The oils are usually contained 
in special cells, glands, cavities, or canals within the plants 
either as such or intermixed with resinous substances; in the 
latter case the mixtures form oteo-resins, balsams or resins 
according as the product is viscid, or solid and hard. A few 
do not exist ready formed in the plants, but result from chemical 
change of inodorous substances; as for instance, bitter almonds 
and essential oil of mustard. 

The essential oils are for the most part insoluble or only very 
6(Aringly soluble in water, but in alcohol, ciher, fatty oils and mineral 
oils they dissolve freely. They ignite with ereat ease, emitting; a 
smoke freely, owing to the brge proportion oT carbon they contam. 
Their chief phvsic^ distioctbn from the Catty oils is that they are 
as a rule not oleaginous to the touch and leave no permanent grease 
spot. They have an aromatic smell and a hot burning taste, and 
can be distilled unchanged. The crude oils arc at the ordinary 
temperature mostly liquid, some are solid substanoes, others, again, 
deposit on sUnding a ciystalline portion (" stearoptene in 
contradistinction to the liquid portioft (''^claeoptene "). The essential 
oils possess a high refractive power, and most of them rotate the 
plane of the polarized light. £vcn so nearly related oils as the oils 
of turpentine, if obtained from different sources, route the plane of 
the polarized light in opposite directions. In specific gravity the 
essential oils range from 0*850 to I'las; the majority are, however, 
specifically lighter than water. In tneir chemical constitution the 
essential oils present no relationship to the fats and oils. They 
represent a kiige number of classes of substances of which the most 
important are: (1) Hydrocarbons, such as pinene in oil of turpentine, 
camphcnc in citronclia oil, limonenc in lemon and orangc-pieet oils, 
caryophyllene in clove oil and cumene in oil of thyme; (2) Juioties, 
MkH as camphor from the camphor tree, and ht>ne which occurs in 
orrb root ; (3) phenols, such as eugenol in clove oil, thymol in thyme 
oil. saff rot in sassafras tnl. ancthol in anise oil ; (4)^ aldehydes^ such 
as citral and citronellal, the most important constituents of lemon 
oil and lemon-grass oil, bcnzaldehydc in the oil of bitter almonds, 
emnamk aldehyde in cassia oil, vanillin in gum benzoin and heliO' 
tropin in the spiraea oil, &c; (5) ateokols and their esters, such as 
eeianiol (rhodinol) in rose oil and geranium oil. linakx>l. occurring 
in bcrgamot and lavender oils, and as the acetic ester in rose oil, 
terpincol in cardamom oil, menthol in peppermint oil. eucalyptol in 
eucalyptus oil and bomeol in rosemary oil and Borneo camphor; 
(fr) aetds and their anhydrides, such as cmnamic acid in Peru balsam 
and coumarin in woodruff; and (7) nitrogenous compounds, such as 
mustard oil. indol in jasmine oil and anthranilic methyl-ester in 
ncroli and jasmine oils. 

Preparation from Plants. — ^Before^'essential 08s coukl be 
prepared synthetically they were obtained from plants by one 
of the following methods: (x) distillation, (2) expression, 
(3) extraction, (4) enfleurage, (5) 

The most important of these processes u the first, as it is applicable 
to a large number of substances of the widest range, such as ml of 
pcm^ermint and camphor. The process U based on the principle that 
whilst the odoriferous substances are insoluble in water, their 
vapour tension is reduced on being tinted with steam so that they 
•re carried over by a current of steart. The distillation is generally 
performed in a still with an inlet for steam and an outlet to carry 
the vapours laden with essential oils into a condenser, where the 
water and oil vapours are condensed. On standing, the distillate 
separates into two layera, an aoneous and an oily layer, the oil 
floating on or sinking thmugh tiia water acoordiag- to iu spedfic 

gravitjr. The process of MpfSSttM is applicable to the obtaining of 
essential oils which arc contained in the rind or skin of the fruits 
belonging to the citron family, such as orange and lemon oils. The 
oranges, lemons, Ac, are peeled, and the peel is pressed against a 
large number of fine needles, the exuding oil being absonxd by 
sponges. It is intended to introduoe machinery to replace manuu 
labour. The process of extraction with volatile solvents is similar 
to that used in the extraction of oils and fats, but as only the moat 
highly purified solvents can be used, this process has not yet gained 
commcretal importance. The process of enfleurage vs used in thoae 
cases where the odoriferous substance is present to a very small 
extent, and is so tender and liable to deterioration that it cannot be 
separated by way of distillation. Thus in the case of neroli oil the 
petals of orange blossom are loosely spread on trays covered with 
purified lard or with fine olive oil. The fatty materials then take ap 
and fix the essential oiL This process is principally employed for 
preparing pomades and perfumed oils. Less tender plants can be 
tftated by the analogous method of maceration, which consists in 
extracting the odoriferous substances by macerating the flowers 
in hot oil or molten fat. The essential on b then dinolvcd fay the 
fat^ substances. The essential oil itself can ba rooovered from the 
perfumed oib, prepared either by enfleurage or macseration, by 
agitating the perfumed fat in a shaking machine with pure concen- 
trated alcohol. The essential oil passes into the alcoholic solution, 
which u used as such in perfumery. 

Synthetic Preparation.Since the chemistry of the essentia] 
oils has been investigated in a systematic fashion a large number 
of the chemical individuals mentioned above have been isolated 
from the oils and identified. 

Thu first step has led to the sjrnthetical production of the most 
characteristic substances of essential oils in the laboratory, amd the 
synthetical manufacture of essential oils bade fair to rival to im- 
portance the production of tar colours from the hydrocarbons 
obtained on distilling coaL One of the eariiest triampbsot synthetical 
chemistry tu this direction was the production of terpincol. the 
artificial libc scent, from oil of turpentine. At present it U almost 
a by-product in the manufacture of artificial camphor. This was 
followea by the production of heliotroptn, coumarin and vanillin, 
and later on by the artificial preparation of lonone, the most char- 
acteristic constituent of the ynmet soent. At present the manufacture 
of artificial camphor may be considered a solved problem, although 
it is doubtful whether such camphor will be able to compete, in jpnce 
with the natural product in the future. The aim of the chemist to 

pBoduce essential oib on a manufacturing scale b naturally confined 
at present to the more expensive oils. For so long as the great bulk 
of oib b so cheaply produced in nature's laboratory, the natural 

at present to the more expensive oils. For so long as the t 
of oib b so cheaply produced in nature's laborator; 
products will hold tlieir field for a long time to come. 

i4^/teof>«ns.— Essential oils have an extensive range of uses, 
of which the prindpal are their vaiious a|^lications in perfumery 
(g.v.). Next to that they play an important part in connexion 
with food. The value of flavouring herbs, condiments and 
spices b due in a large measure to the essential oils conuiocd 
in them. The commercial value of tea, coffee, wine and other 
beverages may be said to depend largely on the delicate aroma 
which they owe to the presence of minute quantities of ethereal 
oils. Hence, essential oib are extensively used for the flavoar* 
ing of liqueurs, aerated beverages and other drinks. Nor is their 
employment less considerable in the manufacture of confectionery 
and in the preparation of many dietetic articles. Most fruit 
essences now employed in confectionery arc artificially prepared 
oils, especially is this the case with cheap confectionery (j^ms, 
marmalades, &&) in which the artificial fruit esters to a Urge 
extent replace the natural fruity flavour. Thus amyl acetate 
is used as an imitation of the jargonelle-pear flavour; amyl 
valerate replaces apple flavour, and a mixture of ethyl and propyl 
butyrates yields the so-called pine-apple flavour. Formic ether 
gives a peach-like odour, and is used for flavouring fictitious 
rum. Many of the essential oils find extensive use in medicine. 
In the aru, oil of turpentine is used on the largest sciJe in the 
manufacture of varnishes, and in smaller quantities for the 
production of terpincol and of artificial camphor. Oil of doves 
is used in the silvering of mirror glasses. Oib of lavender and 
of spike are used as vehicles for painting, more espedally for 
the painting of pottery and glass. 

The examination of essential oib b by no means an easy task. 

Each oil ccouires almost a special raethoo, but with the progress of 
chemistry tne extensive adulteration that used to be practised with 
fatty oils has almost disapjjcared, as the presence of fatty oils is 
readily deti^led. Adulteration of expensive oil wiili efaeaper oib is 
aov moR! extensively practised, and such teau as the determinauoa 



of tlie tapootficatian value (fee above) and of the optical rotation, 
aad BB fl|Meal caw the iiolatioa and quantitative determinatioa of 
chaacteristk anfaataacea. leada in vay maay caaea to reliable 
veauka. The coknir* the boilins-poiat, the tpttdic giavity and 
■olubHity in alcohol aerve aa most valuable adjuncta in the examina- 
tion with a view to form an esdmate of the genuineness and value 
ofaaample. Quite apart from the genuinencsa of a aampte. its special 
atnMBft c— titiitea the value of aa oil, and in thia aeapect the judsing 
of the valoe of a given oil s»y, apart from the puritv, be more 
readily solved by an experienced perfumer than by the chemist. 
Thus ?t»e» hf different origin or even of different yean will yield rose 
oils of widely dlffei«nt value. The cultivadon of plants for eaaential 
aula haa baeone a lane iadoatiy, and m capedaily practised aa an 
indualzy in the south a Fcaaon (Giasse, Nwe, Cainnea). The roae 
oil industnr, which had been for centuries located in the valleys of 
Bulgaria, haa now been taken up in Germany (near Leipzig), where 
roses are specially cultivated for the producti(Mi of roae od. India 
and China aaaalao very laive produoen of eaaential oila. Owing to 
the dimate other oquatriea are leaa favoured, although lavender and 
peppermint are largely cultivated at Mitcham in Surrey, in Hertford- 
shire and Bedfocdahire. Lavender and p epper m int oila of English 
origin tank aa the best qualities. Aa an uluatiatioa of the extent 
to which thia part of the mdustry auffera from the climate, it may be 
■tated that oil from lavender planta grown in En^nd never produces 
more than 7 to io% linaloof acetate, which givca the characteristic 
scent to lavender od, whilst oD from lavender grown in the south of 
France fraquently yidda aa much as 35% of the cater. The proof 
that this ia due aaaialy to climatic influencea is furnished by the fact 
that Mitcham lavender transplanted to France produces an oil 
which year by year approzimatea more closely in respect of its 
contents of linalool acetate to the product of the French plant. 

BfBLioCRarirT.^For the fixed oila. fats and waxes, see C. R. A. 
Wright, Fixtd Oils, FaU, BtUkn amd Waxes (London, and ed. by 

C A. Mitchell, • -- 

OOs (London. 

C A. Mitchell, 1963); W. Biannt. Animal and VetftabU Fats and 
OOs (London, 1896); J. Lcwkowitsch, Chemical Technology and 
Analysii of Oib, fais and Waxes (London, 4th ed., 3 vols., 1909; 

also German oL, Brunswick, 1905: French cd.. Paris, vol. L 1906. 
vol. tL tSloB. voL iiL 1909); Laboratarj Companion to Fats and Oil 
Imdnstries (London. 1903) ; Cantor Lectures of the Society of Arts, 
Oils and Fats, their Vus and Appticalions; Groves and Thorp, 
Ckemkai TeehnOogy* voL iL; A. H. Gilt. 03 Analyses (1909): 
G. Hefter. Teeknoloeia der FeUe and OU (Berlin. voL I 1906: vol. iL 
Ubbelobde. ~ -_.... 

(Xe nnd FeUe (Leipzig, 

Analyu der FetU und Wachsdrten (Berlin. 1908): 

Uandbnck der Chemia nnd Teckaolotie der 
, vol. L, 1906); R. Bencdikt and F. Ulzer, 
, Wachsarten (Berlin, 1008); J. Fritsch, Les 

HmHes ei yaisses d'ortWaa aniwuUe (Paris. 1907). 

For the laatntiil c^ aee F. B. Power. Descriptise Catalogne of 
Estemlisi Oils; J. C. Sawcr. Odorographia (London. 1892 and 1S94): 
E. Gildemeister and F. Hoffmann. Die aeikcriscken OU (Beriin, 
1899). tians. (1900) by E. Kremcra under the title VUnXiU Oils (Mil- 
waukee, Wisconsin); F. W. Semmler, Die aetherischen OU naeh 
skren eiemischem Beslandteileu nnter BeriicksidUigttng der geschicht- 
lichen EtUmidttimMi (Leipsig): M. Otto, L'Industru des parfums 
(Paris. 1909): O. Aachan. Chemie der aUcykluchen Verbindnnten 
(Brunswfck. 190S); F. It Heusslcr (transUted by Pond), The 
Ckemiitry efthe Terptna (London, 1904). 0- ^B.) 

OIROV. a viDafe of western Fhmce, tn the dqwtment of 
0eux-S£vrat» tI ib. £^ by S. of Thooan by toad. Oiron ia 
ceiebcatcd for iu fhitran, Handing in a park and originally 
built in the fint half of the 16U1 ceniazy by the Gouffier family, 
icbiiili m the fetter half of the 17th ccatuiy by Franda of 
AaboaMB, duke of La FeoiUade, and pMrrhavd by Madam e 
de SIOBtespaB, who tbete passed the latUr part of her life. 
Manhal Vilicroy afterwards lived there. The chltean consists 
of a main **'^«^'**c with two long projecting wings, one of which 
is a graceful structure of the Renaissance period buHt over a 
cloister. The adjoining church, begun in 151 8, combines the 
Gothic and Renaissance styles and contains the tombs of four 
memben of the Gooffier family. These together with other pans 
of the chiteau and church were mutilated by the ProtcstanU 
in 1568. The pazk contains 1 group of four do!mcDS. 

For the (Xroa pottefy see CEXAiQCs. ^ 

om a fhcr of aortkem Fnaoe, txflnitaiy to the Sdae, 
fowacMBl^vo^fnBtheBclgiaafiMtacraiid frwrrffsing the 
depailiiii Bta of Ai— , Om and Seine rt-OJaa. \ fugyh, 187 ■»; 
area of bMls 6457 iq. ■. Ring in BdghnD, s "^ SX of 
ChiMor (pnmaoe of Na»i^ at a ktji^t of 980 fL, the mer 
cnitstFnaoraftcrftOoqaoof iiUkmonthaii9iB* Flowing 
thiovi^ the diitact of TUteche, i& divides below Goiae into 
aevcnl aaB» aad piDoeedsto the oonflocsce of the Sene. near 
L* Fire (Ahw). Thcaoe aa far as the amfluencc of the Ailctu 
Hcs thmi^ wctt-WMded countiy to Compicgne, 

a ahoft distance above which it receives the Aisae. Skirting 
the forests of Compiegne, Halatte and ChantiUy, all on iu left 
bank, and receiving near Creil the Th£rain and the Brkhe, 
the river flows past Pontoise and debouches into the Seine 
39 m. below Paris. Its channel is canalized (depth 6 ft. 6 in.) 
from Jaoville above Compicgne. to its mouth over a section 
60 m. in length. Above JanviUe a lateral canal continued by 
the Sambre-Oise canal accompanies the river to l.attdredes. It 
communicates with the canal system of Flanders and with the 
Somme canal by way of the St Quentin canal (Crozat branch) 
which unites with it at Chatwy. The same town is its point of 
junction with the Alsne-OIse canal, by which it is linked with 
the Eastern canal system. 

OISB, a department of northern Fiance, three-fourths of 
which belonged to De-de-France and the rest to Picardy, bounded 
K. by Somme, E. by Aisne, S. by Sexne-et-Mame and Scinc-et* 
Oise, and W. by Eure and Seine-Infirieure. Pop. (igo6) 
410,049; area 327a sq. m. The department is a moderately 
elevated plateau with pleasant valleys and fine forests, such 
as those of Compicgne, ErmenonvIHe, ChantOly and Halatte, 
all in the south-east. It belongs almost entirely to the basin of 
the Seine— the Somme and the Bresle, whidi flow into the 
English Channel, draining but a small area. The most imporunt 
river is the CKse, which flows through a broad and fertile valley 
from north-east to south-west, past the towns of Koyon, Com' 
pidgne, Pont St Maxence and CreiL On its right it receives 
the Br^che and the Th£rain, and on its left the Alane, which 
brings down a larger volume of water than the Oise itsdf, the 
Authonne, and the Xonette, which irrigates the valley of ScnJis 
and Chantilly. The Ourcq, a tributary of the Mame, in the 
south-east, and the Epte, a tributary of the Seine, in the west, 
also in part bekng to the department. These streams are 
separated by ranges of slight elevation or by isolated hlDs, the 
highest point (770 ft.) being in the ridge of Bray, which stretches 
from Dieppe to Pr6cy-sur-Oise. The lowest point is at the 
mouth of the Oise, only 66 ft. above sea-leveL The climate 
is very variable, but the range of temperature is moderate. 

Clay for bricks and earthenware, sand and buHding-sione are 
among the nioeial products of O^, and peat is ahM> worked. 
Pienefoods, Gouvieuz, Chantilly and Fontaine Bonaelean 
have mineral springs. Wheat, oats and other cereals, potatoes 
and sugar beet are the chief agricultural cropsu Cattle are 
reared more eq>edally in the western districts, whcic dairying is 
actively carried on. Bee-kecpiag is gencsaL Radog stables 
are numctous in the Dcighbouibobd of ChaatiUy and romptfgne. 
Among the industries of the depactmcnt of manufactare of 
sugar and akobol from beetroot occupies a foremost place. 
The manufacture of fumiture, brushes (Beaurais) and other 
wooden goods and of toys, faacj-wwe, buttons, fans and other 
articles ia wood, ivoiy, bone or mother-of-pead are widttprcad 
indiistries. There are also wooUea and cotton mills, and the 
making of wooUen fabrics^ blankets, carpcU (Beaovais), hosiery 
and lace (Chantilly and its vicinity) is actively carried oo. 
Creil and the neijghbottriQg Hontataiie fonn an important 
DietaUiugical centre. Oise is serred by the Korihem railway, 
00 which Crcfl Is an importaat junction, and iu commerce is 
fadlitated by the Oise and iu latenl canal and the Aisne, whkh 
afford about 70 m. of navjgabfe waterway. 

There are fov anoBdiaaements^BeauvaiSfe Oennoot, Com- 
picgne and Senlis-^with 35 caatoos and 701 oommoMa. The 
department fonns the diocese of Beawais (province of Reims) 
and part of the region of the Q. vtay ooq)s and of the acadteie 
(edocatioBal divisioa) of Paris. Its court of appeal is at Amiena. 
The principal places arc Beamrais, the capital, ChaatiDy. Cler- 
BMat-ca-Beanvoisis, Compii^ a , Ncgroo, Picncloads, Cteil and 
Sealis, which are treated sepantdy. Among the moie popobas 
places not ■Mntioood is M£ra (S3i7)i * ocatre for intqf-^zn 
manufacture. The department abounds in old churchcSh amoz^ 
which, besides those of BeaavaJs^ Koyon aad Sealis, may be 
mentioned those at Moricaval (nth aad lath ceatarics)^ 
Mai^elay ( i sth and 1 6th centuries), Cr^-ea-Vafeia (Si Thonaa^ 
lath. 13th aad 15th ccatuiiea), ^ Leu dTisi ill (maial/ iaih 


century), Tracy-le-Val Cmainly latb century), Vfllers St Paul 
<i2th and X3th centuries), St Germer-de-Fly (a fine example 
of the transition from Romanesque to Gothic architecture), 
and St Martin-aux-Bois (i3th, 14th and 15th centuries). Pont- 
point preserves the buildings of an abbey founded towards 
the end of the 14th century and St Jean-aux-Bois the remains 
of a priory including a church of the xjth century. There 
are Gallo- Roman remains of Champlieu close to the forest of 
Compile. At Ermenonviilc there is a chateau of the 17th 
century where Rousseau died in 1778. 

OJIBWAY (Ojibwa), or Chippewav (Chippewa), the name 
given by the English to a large tribe of North American Indians 
of Algonquian stock. They must not be confused with the 
Chipewyan tribe of Athabascan stock settled around Lake 
Athabasca, Canada. They formerly occupied a vast tract of 
country around Lakes Huron and Superior, and now are settled 
on reservations in the neighbourhood. The name !s from a 
word meaning ** to roast till puckered " or " drawn up," in refer- 
ence, it is suggested, to a peculiar seam in their mocassins, though 
other explanations have been proposed. They call themselves 
Anishinaheg (" spontaneous men "), and the French called 
them Saulieurs ("People of the Falls"), from the fi^t group 
of them being met at S.iult Ste Marie. Tribal traditions declare 
they migrated from the St Lawrence region together with 
the Ottawa and Potawatomi, with which tribes they formed 
a confederacy known as "The Three Fires." When first en- 
countered about 1640 the Ojibway were inhabiting the coast 
of Lake Superior, surrounded by the Sioux and Foxes on the 
west and south. During the 18th century they conquered these 
latter and occupied much of their territory. Throughout the 
Colonial w&rs they wcro loyal to the French, but fought for the 
English in the War of Incicpendencc and the War of 1812, 
and thereafter permanently maintained peace with the Whites. 
The tribe was divided into ten divisions. They lived chiefly 
by hunting and fishing. They had many tribal myths, which 
were collected by Henry R. Schoolcraft in his Algic Researches 
(1839), upon which Longfellow founded his *' Hiawatha." 

See Indians, North AinKRiCANralsoW, J. Hoffmann, "Midewiwin 
of the Ojil>wa/' in 7th Report of Bureau of American Ethnology (1891) ; 
W. W. Warren. '' History of the Ojibways." vol. v.. Minnesota 
Historical Society's CoUecttons; G. Copway. History of the Oiibway 
Indians (Boston, 1850); P. Jones, Htstory of the Ojetnvqy Indiana 
(1861 ) : A E. Jcnics. '^ Wild Rice Gatherers," i^h Report of Bureau of 
American Ethnology (1900). 

OKAPI, the native name of an African ruminant mammal 
(Oca^ ioAiUfmOf belonging to the Oiraffidae, or giraffo-family, 
but distinguished from ^vaffes by its shorter limbs and neck, 
the absence of horns in the females, and its veiy remailcable type 
of colouring. Its affinity with the giraffes is, however, deariy 
revealed by the structure of the skuU and teeth, more especially 
the btlobed crown to the indsor-Iike lower catiine t^th. At 
the shoulder the okapi stands about 5 ft. In colour the sides of 
the face are puce, and the neck and most of the body purplish, 
but the buttocks and upper part of both fore and hind limbs are 
transversely barred with black aad white, while their lower 
portion is mainly white with black fetlock-rings, and fai the front 
pair « vertical black stripe on the anterior surface. Males have 
a pair of dagger-shaped horns on the forehead, the tSps of which, 
in some cases at any rate, perforate the hairy skin with which 
the rest of the horns are covered. As in all fonest-dwellmg 
cnimab, the ears are large and capadoua. The tail is shorter 
than in giraffes, and not tufted at the tip. The okapi, of which 
the first entire skin sent to Europe was received In England 
from Sir H. H. Johnston in the spring of tgbx, is a native of the 
Semliki forest, in the district between Lakes Albert and Albert 
Edward. From certain differences fai the Striping of the legs, as 
we& as from variatkm in skuB-dioracters, the existence of more 
than a single specfes has been suggested; but further evidence 
b required before such a view can be definitely accepted. 

Specimens in the museum at Tervueren near Brussels show thrat 
in fully adult males the horns are subtriangular and Inclined 
somewhat badcwcnli; each being capped with a small polished 
epiphysis. Which projects through the skin investing the rest 
of the born. As regards its general characteis, the skull of the 


okapi appears to be intermediate between that of the giraflio 
on the one hand and that of the extina PalaeoUagus (or Samso* 
therium) of the Lower Plk)cene deposits of southern Europe 00 the 
other. It has, for instance, a greater devebpment of air-cdis in 
the di^de than in the latter, but much less than in the former. 
Again, in Paiaeolragus the horns (present only in the mak) 
are situated immediately over the eye-sockets, in Oeapia they are 
placed just behind the latter, while fn Cirafa they are partly on 
the parietals. In general form, so far as can be judged from 
the duartlcttlated skeleton, the okapi was more like an aatdope 
than a giraffe, the foro and hind cannon-bones, and consequently 
the entire limbs, being of approximately equal length. From 
this it seems probable that Palatotraius and Oeapia indicate the 
ancestral type of the giraffe-line; while it has bocn further 
suggested that the apparently hornless Helladolkerimm of the 

*'-"—■— v/^^*>-t; sj/;^\^-ys>. 




i f 


Female Okapi. 

Grecian Pliocene may occupy a somewhat similar posltloii in 
regard to the horned Sivatherium of the Indian Siwtliks. 

For these and other allied extinct genera see Pbcoka ; for a full 
description of the okapi itself the reader should refer to an Sluscratcd 
memoir by Sir E. Ray Lankester to the Transactions eg the Zookifkal 
Society of London (xvi. 6, 1902). entitled " On OiapsOt a New 
Genu's of Ciraffidae from Ontral Africa." 

Little is known with regard to the habits of the okapi. It 
appears, however, from the observations of Dr J. David, who spent 
some time in the Albert Edward district, that the creature dwells 
In the most dense parts of the primeval forest, where there is an 
undergrowth of solid-leaved, swamp-loving plants, such as 
arum, Donax and Phrynium, which, with orchids and cHmbing 
plants, form a thick and confused mass of vegetation. The 
leaves of these plants are blackish-green, and in t£e gloom of the 
forest, grow more or less horizontally, and are glistening with 
moisture. The effect of the light faiUng upon them Is to pMtice 
along the midrib of each a number of thort wliite streaks of 
ligbt, which «nkx9at (nost strongly with the shadows Cast by the 
leaves themselves, and with the general twffii^t gtoom ^ tlie 
forest On the other hand, the thick layer of f*Ilea leaivcs 00 
the gro^d. and the bulk of the stem* of the forest ticcSAte bloisb- 
brown and russet, thus closely resembling the decaying lemvcs in 
an European forest after heavy rain; while the whole effect ii 
precisely similar Co that produced by the russet bead «nd body 
and the striped thighs and limbs of the okapL The kMg and 
mobile muxzle of the okapi appears to be adapted for feeding 



«i Ibe low foicti nodcrvood and th« swamp-vcgeUtiioa. The 
saatt aUtoi the hornft oi ilie buUm is pcobably also an adaptation 
to Jifc in thick oadarwood. In Dr David's opinion an okapi in 
its nativ* forest could not be seen at a distance of more than 
twenty or twenty-five paces. At distances greater than this it 
is impoMible to see anything dcar^ in these equatorial forests, 
and it is very difficult to do so even at this short distance. This 
•Qggesia that the colouring of the okapi is of purely pcotective 

By the Arabianised emancipated slaves of the Albert Edward 
district the okapt b known as the kenge,6-i-pt being the Pigmies' 
name for the creature. Dr David adds that Junker may un- 
doubtedly claim to be the dncsoverer of the okapi, for, as stated 
on p. 399 of the third volume of the original German edition of 
bis TfMeis, he law in 1878 or 1879 in the Nepo district a portion 
of the ikin with the characteristic black and white stripes. 
Junker, by whom it was nMstaken for a large water-chevrotain 
or aebra««ntelope, states that to the natives of the Nepo district 
the okapi is known as the makap6. (R. Lb*) 

OKEHAMPTON » a market town and municipal borough in the 
Tavistock parliamentary divisbn of Devonshire, England, 
on the east and west Okcment rivers, 22 m. W. by N. of Exeter 
by the London & South-Westem railway. Pop. (1901) 9569. 
The church of All SaioU has a fine Perpendicuhur tower, lef^ 
imtojured when the nave and chancel were burned down In 184 a. 
Glass is made from granulite found in the Meldon Valley, 3 m. 
distant. Both branches of the river abound in small trout. 
Okehampton Castle, one of the most picturesque ruins in Devon, 
probably dates from the 15th century, thou^ lu keep may be 
kte Norman. It was dismantled under Henry VIII., but 
ConBidcfmbk portions remain of the chapel, banqueting hall and 
herald's tower. Immediately opposite are the traces of a sup- 
posed British camp, and of the Roman road from Exeter to 
Cornwall The custom of tolling the curiew still prevails in 
Okehampton. The town is governed by a mayor, 4 aldermen 
and ts ooundllors. Area, 503 acres. 

Okehampton (Oakmanton) was be s towed by WiHiam the 
Conqueror on Baldwin de Brioniis, and became the caput of 
the barooy of Okehampton. At the time of the Domesday 
Survey of 1086 it already ranked as a borough, with a castle, 
a market paying 4 shiUings, and Cour burgesses. In the tSth 
century the manor passed by marriage to the Courtenays, 
afterwards earb of Devon, and Robert de Courtenay in laao 
Bve the king a palfrey to hold an annual fair at his manor of 
Okehampton, on the vigil and feast day of St Thomas the 
Apostle. la the reign of Henry IIL the inhabitants received a 
charter (undated) from the earl of Devon, confirming their 
rights *'ln woods and in uplands, in ways and in paths, in 
common of pastures, in waters and in milb. They were to be 
free from all toll and to elect yearly a portreeve and a beadle." 
A ^irther grant of privileges was bestowed in 1293 by the earl 
of Devon, bot no charter of incorpiiration was granted until 
that from James I. in 1623, and the confirmation of thb by 
Charics U. in 1684 continued to be the governing i'harter, the 
oorpomtion consisting of a mayor, seven principal burgesses 
and eight assbtant burgesses* until the Munidpal Corporations 
Act of 1882, On a petition from the inhabitants the town was 
reincorporated by a acw charter in 1885. Oicehampton returned 
two members to parliament in 1300, and again in 131a and 
1313, after which there was an' intermission till 1640, from 
which date two members were tetumed regularly until by the 
Reform Act of 1832 the borough was disfranchised. 

See Viatriu Commty History, Deaomskirti W B. Bridges. Hislaryef 
OkehMmplm <l889). 

OKBI, lOHBIIZ (r779-i8st). German naturalist, was bom at 
Bohbbach, Swabia, oa the ist of August i779> Hb real name 
Was Lorenx Ockeafuas. and under that name he was entered at 
the natuiml histoiy and medical classes In the university of 
WOrxburg, whence he proceeded to that of Gdttingen, where he 
became a pri vat lucent, and abridged bb name to Oken. As 
Lorena Oken he published in 180a his small work entitled Crnnd- 
fin 4» NtH^pkiUmpkk. 4m Tkmrit itr Smne, mnd dar doroV 

iftrUndtkn Claui/icalwii der Tkitre, the first of the scries of 
works which placed hiu at the head of the " natur-phibsophic " 
or physio-philosophical school of Germany. In it he extended 
to physical science the philosophical principles which Kant 
had applied to mental and moral science. Oken had, however, 
in thb application been preceded by J. G. Fichte, who, acknow- 
ledging that the materials for a univezaal science had been 
discovered by Kant, declared that nothing more was needed 
than a systematic co-ordination of these materiaU; and thb 
task Fichte undertook in hb famous Doctrine of Sdenct (Wtssen- 
schaftslehre), the aim of which was to construct a priori all 
knowledge. In thb attempt, however, Fichte did littk more 
than indicate the path; it was reserved for F. W. J. von Schelling 
fairiy to enter upon it, and for Oken, following him, to explore 
iu maaes yet further, and to produce a systematic plan of the 
country so surveyed. 

In the Cnuutriss der N^turpkilosopkit of x8oa Oken sketched 
the outlines of the scheme he afterwards devoted himself to 
perfecL The position which he advanced in that renoarkable 
work, and to which he ever after professed adherence, b that 
" the animal classes are virtually nothing else than a representa- 
tion of the senseK>rgans, and that they must be arranged in 
accordance with them." Agreeably with thb idea, Oken con- 
tended that there are only five animal classes: (i) the Der- 
mataua, or invertebrates; (2) the Gououtat or Fishes, as being 
those animab in which a true tongue makes, for ^ first time, 
iu appearance; (3) the RkinoaoQ, or Reptiles, wherein the nose 
opens for the first time into the mouth and inhales air; (4) the 
Ofosea, or Birds, in which the ear for the first time opens extern- 
ally; and (5) Ophtkalmoua, or Mammals, u which all tha 
organs of sense are present and complete, the eyes being movable 
and covered with two lids* 

In 1805 Oken made another characteibtic advance hi the 
application of the a priori principle, by a book on generatioo 
(Di4 Zeugtmi), wherein he maintained the proposition that 
" all organic beings originate from and consist of vesida or ceUs, 
These vesicles^ when singly detached and regarded in their 
ocigiaal process of production, are the infusorial mass or proto- 
pbsma imsMeim) whence all larger organisms fashion themselvet 
or are evolved. Their production b therefore nothing else 
than a tegular agglomeniUon of Infusoria'— wAt of course, 
of spedcs already elaborated or perfect, but of mucous vesicles 
or points in general, whkh first form themaelvts by their unioa 
or combination into particular spedes." 

One year after the production of thb remarkable treatise, 
Oken advanced another step in the development of hb system, 
and in a volume published in 1806, in which D. G. Kicser (1779- 
1862) assisted him, entitled Beitrdit sar uriUichenden Zoologit^ 
Anatomiet und Pkytiologiet he demonstrated that the intestines 
originate don the umbilical vesicle, and that thb rorTe^>onds 
to the vitellus or yolk-bag. Caspar Friedrich Wolff had previ- 
ously proved thb fact in the chick {Tkeoria Ccneratiouis^ I774)t 
but he did not see its application as evidence of a genersl law. 
Oken showed the importance of the discovery as an illustration 
of hb system. In the same work Oken described and recalled 
attention to the corpora Wolfiana, or " primordial kidn^s.*' 

The reputation of the young privat-dooent of GAttingeo had 
meanwhile reached the ear of Goethe, aqd in 1807 Oken was 
invited to fill the office of professor eztiaordinaxius of the 
BMdical sciences in the university of Jeoa. He accepted the 
call, and selected for the sabjea of hb inaugural discourse his 
ideas ob the ** Signification of the Bones of the Skull," based 
upon a discovery he had made in the previous year. This 
famous lect ure was delivered in the pfesenoe of Goethe, as privy- 
councillor and rector of the uaivcrsiiy, and was publbhed in 
the same year, with the titles UeUr dia Badaultmg dor SckUd* 

With regard to the orighi of the idea, <%en narrates in hb 
I tit that, walking one autumn day in 1806 in the Hars forest* 
he stumbled upon the blanched skull of a deer, pkkcd up the 
partially dblocatcd bones, and contemplated them for a while, 
when the tntth flashed aaoas bb niad, and ho eadaimed, "It 



b s Tcrtebtil eolimmr' At a meeting of the G«rauui naturalists 
held at Jena some years afterwards Professor Kiesergavean 
account of Oken's discovery in the presence of the grand*duke, 
which account b printed in the tagMatt, or " proceedings," of 
that meeting. The professor stated that Oken commimicated 
to him his discovery when journeying in x8o6 to the island of 
Wangeroog. On their return to Gdttingen Oken e9q>lained his 
Ideas by reference to the skull of a turtle in Kieser's collection, 
which he disarticulated for that purpose with his own hands. 
'^ It is with the greatest pleasure," wrote Kieser, " that I am 
able to show here the same skuU, after having it thirty yean 
in my collection. The single bones of the skull are marked by 
Oken's own handwriting, which may \)t so easfly known." 

The range of Oken*s lectures at Jena was a wide one, and they 
were highly esteemed. They embraced the subjects of natural 
philosophy, general natural history, aoobgy, comparative 
anatomy, the physiology of man, of animals and of plants. 
The spirit with which he gnpfitd with the vast scope of science is 
characteristically iDustrated in his essay Ueber das Universum aU 
FortseUung dts SimtensystemSf x8o8. In ths work he lays it 
down that " organism b none other than a combination of aU the 
nniverse's activities within a single faidividual body." Thb 
doctrine led him to the conviction that " world and organism are 
one in kind, and do not stand merely in harmony with each 
other." In tbe same year he publbhed hb Erste Idem tur 
Tkeorie des Lickis, ftc, in which he advanced the proposition 
that " light could be nothing but a polar tension of the ether, 
evoked by a central body in antagonism with the planets, and 
heat was none other than a motion of thb ether "-hi sort of 
vague anticipation of the doctrine of the *' oorrelatian of physical 
forces." In 1809 Oken eitended hb system to the mineral world, 
arranging the ores, not according to the metals, but agreeably 
to their combinations with oxygen, acids and sulphur. In x8io 
he summed up hb views on organic and inorganic nature into 
one compendious system. In the first edition of the Likrbueh 
der Naiurpkilcsopkie, which appeared in that and the following 
years, he sought to bring his different doctrines into mutual con* 
nexion, and to " show that the mineral, vegetable and animal 
kingdoms are not to be arranged arbitrarily in accordance with 
single aiM! isolated characten, but to be based upon the cardinal 
organs or anatomical systems, from which a firmly established 
number of dasaes would necessarily be evolved; that each dass, 
moreover, takes its starting-point from below, and consequently 
that all of them pass parallel to each other "; and that, " as in 
chemistry, where tbe combinations follow a definite numerical 
bw, so also in anatomy the organs, in physiology the functions, 
and in natural history the classes, families, and even genera of 
minerab, plants, and animab present a similar arithmetical 
ratio." The Ltkrhuch procured for Oken the title of Hofratk, or 
court-coundllor, and in 181 a he was appointed ordinary professor 
of the natural sdences. 

In 1816 he commenced the publication of hb well-known 
periodical, entitled Iris, Hne encydopUdUcht ZsUsckHfl^ vonUgUck. 
fUr Naturgesckiekte, ver^nckende Analcmie und Pkysiohgie. 
In thb journal appeared essays and notices not only on the 
natural sciences but on other subjects of interest; poetry, and 
even comments on the politics of other German states, were 
occasionally admitted. Thb led to representations and remom- 
sf ranees from tbe governments criticized or Impugned, and the 
court of Weimar called upon Oken either to suppress the Isis or 
resign hb professorship. He chose the latter alteiiiative. Tbe 
publtcaiioii of the Iris at Weimar was prohibited. Oken made 
arrangements for its issue at Rudobtadr, and thb continued 
uninterruptedly until tbe year 1848. 

In i8»i Oken promulgated in hb Isis the first Idea of the 
annual general meetings of the German naturalbis and medical 
practitioners, which happy idea was realized in the following 
year, when the fint meeting was held at Ldpaig. The Britbh 
Assodation for the Advancement of Sdence was at the outset 
avowedly organized after the German or Okeman model. 

In 1828 Oken resumed his original bumble duties as privat' 
dooeot la the newly-^ttablbhed uaivcmty of Mu&kh, and soon 

afterwards he was appomted ordinary pfoTesnr in the tanw 
ttttiversity. In X832, on the proposal by the Bavarian gowns* 
ment to transfer him to a professorship in a provincial univenity 
of the state, he resigned hb appointments and left the kingdom. 
He was appointed in 1833 to the profesoonhip of natuFai hbtory 
in the then recently-established university of Zurich. Thene he 
continued to reside, fulfilling hb professional duties and pro- 
moting the progress of fab favourite sciences, uotfl hb death on 
the nth of August 1851. 

Au Oken i writix^iv are emnefitly deductive ill ust rations of a 
foregone and aanimed priac^ile. wliteh, with ocher philosophn of 
the tnuncoidental school, be deemed equal to the cxplaaation o£ 
ail the mysteries of nature. According to him, the bead was a 
repetition of the trunk— a kind of second truiUc, with its Itmbs 
and other appendages ; thb sum of h» obscrvatiotts and conpariaons 
'■■few of which be ever gav« in detail— ought always to be bomo 
in mind in coonparing the share taken by Oken an homological 
anatomy with the pronets made by other cultivators of that 
philosophical branch of the Kienoe. 

The idea of the analogy between the denll, or parts of the ahull, 
and the vertebral column had been pceviouily propounded and 
venttbted in their lectures by J. H. F. Autoueith and K. F. Kid- 
meyer, and in the writings of J. P. Frank. By Oken it was applied 
chiefly in illustration of the mystical system of Schelling — ^the ^ all- 
in-all " and " all-in-cvery-part.'* Fn>m the eariiest to the latest of 
(Moen's wTirinnon tbe subject, " the head ba repetitioaof die whole 
trunk with all its systesu: the brain b the HMnal cord; the ccaniiua 
b the vertebral cmumn; the mouth b intestine and abdomen; 
tbe nose b the lungs and thorax; the ia%ra are the limbs; and the 
teeth the daws or nails." J. B. von Sptx, in hb folio CepHiohtemesii 
(t8i8), richly illustnited comparative cramolosy, but presented the 
tacts under the same transcendental guise; and Cuvier ably availed 
himself of the exttav^anoes of these disciples of ScheUiiw to cast 
ridicule on- the whole inquiry into those higher rclatwns olparts to 
the archetype which Sir Richard Owen called ** general homologies.** 

The veitebral theory of the skull had practically *f«— rt^ff nj 
from anatomical science when the bbours of Cuvier drew to their 
dose. In Owen's A rcketyfe and Homologjiu of the Vertehaie Shelekm 
the idea was not only revived but worked out for the first time 
inductively, and the theory rightly stated, as follows: " The head 
b not a virtual equivalent of the trunk, but b o^ a poction, s^c. 
certain modified axments, of tbe whde body. Tne jaws are tbe 
' haemal arches ' of the first two segments; they are not limbs of 
the head " (p. 176). 

VaG^dy and strangely, however, as Oken had blended the idea 
with hb a oriori ooncepuon of the nature of the head, the chance 
of aoproprbting it seems to have ovensome the moral oease of 
Goetne — unless indeed the poet decdved himself. Comparative 
osteology had early attracted Goethe's attention^ In 1786 he 
publidi^ at Tena hb essay Veber den Zwuehenkieferknocken der 
Mienschen und der Tkiere, showing that the intermaxiUBiy bone 
existed in man as well as in brutes. But not a word in this essay 
gives the remotest hint of hb having then possessed the idea of the 
vertebral analogies of the skulL In 1820, in hb Iforpkehpe, he 
first publicly stated that thirty years bdore the date 01 that puW- 
cation be had discovered the secret rebtionsbip b u we tft the vcne> 
brae and the bones of the head* and that he had always contiaucd 
to meditate on this sutncct. The dncamstances undo" which the 

poet, in i8ao. narrates having become inspired with the original 
idea are suspiciously analogous to those described by Oken in 1807, 
as produdng' the same effect on hb mind. A bMedicd dkoU la 
acadentally (tiscovered in both instances: in Oken's it was XhttX. of 
a deer in toe Harz forcst'j in Goethe's it was that of a sheep pidoed 
up on the shores of the Lido, at Venice. 

It may be assumed that Oken when a privat'dooent at GOtdagea 
fai 1806 knew nothing of thb unpublished idea or d i suw e iy of 
Goethe, and that Goethe fim became aware that Oken had the idea 
of the vertebral reUtions of the skull when he listened to the intn>> 
ductory discourse in which the young professor, invited by the 
poet to Jena, sctcaed thb very idtt for its sobiect. It b incredible 
that Oken, had he adopted the idea from Goetncf or been aware of 
an antidpation by him. should have omitted to acknowledge tbe 
source— should not rather have cagcriy embraced so appropriate 
an opportunity of doing graccfill homage to the originality and 
genius of his patron. 

The anaumiist having lectwed for an hour fbioly uaoooscioua 
of any such antidpation, it seems hardly less incrediUe that the 
poet should not have ntcntioned to tbe young lecturer his pievious 
conception of the vcncbro-cranial theoiy, and the singulaf coind- 
dence of the acddcntal drrarnstance which he subsec^uendy aHeged 
to have pn>dttced that discovery. On the contsary, Goethe penaita 
Oken to publbh hb Camous lecture, with the same uacoosdouAnea 
of any anty:ipation as when he delivered it; and Oken, in the same 
state of belief, transmits a copy to Goethe {J sit. No. 7) who thereupon 
honours the professor with spedal marks of attention and an invita- 
tion to Ms hou». No hint of any claim of the host b given to the 
guest} no word of roclaawtion in any abape appeaoi iocj 



irearB. In G««tke*« Taies- und JairtS'ffefle, he ttten to two friends, 
Rciiner aod YoiKt. as Dcing cognizant ia 1S07 of hik theory. Why 
did XM>t one or other of theae make known to Oken that he bad 
been to antkipnted? " I told my friend* to keep quiet/' writes 
Coetlic in 1825! Spix, in the meanwhile, in 181s, contributes 
tus share to the devekipment of Oken's idea in hi^ Ctpkdlog/nusis, 
UlxicJi follows in 1816 with his Schildkr^nschddeli next appears 
the contribution, in 18181 by L. H. Bojanus, to the vertebral theory 
of the skuIU amplified in the Paragon to that anatomist's admicable 
AnaUm€ Teshuhnis Europaeae (1821). And now for the first time^ 
ia 1818, Bojanus, viaiting^iome friends at Weimar, these bears the 
rumour that his friend Oken had been anticipated by the great 
poec He oommunicates it to Oken. who, like an honest man, at 
once published the statement made by Goethe's friends in the Isis 
of that year, offerin|; no reflection on the poet, but restricting himself 
to a detailed and uteresting aa»unt of the dxcumstances under 
wfaadi he himself had been M independently to make his discovery 
when wandering in 1806 through the Han. It was enoi^ for him 
thus to vindicate his own dUums; he abstains from any comment 
reOecting on Goethe, and maintained the same blameless silence 
when Goethe ventured for the first time to chum for himself, in 1830, 
the merit of having entertained the same idea, or made the discovery, 
thirty years previously. 

The German naturalists hdd their annual meeting at Jena in 
1836. and there Kieser publicly bore testimony, from jpersonal 
knowledge, to the circumstances and dates of Oken's discovery. 
However, in the edition of Hegel's works by Michelet (Beriin, 1843), 
there appeared the following paragraph: " The type-bone is the 
dorsal vertebra, provided inwards with a hde and outwards with 
proccHes, every Done bang only a modification of it. This idea 
ded with Goethe, who worked it out in a treatise written in 

1785* «nd published it in his Morbkologie (1830). pL i6a. OAca, to 
tnkom As InaUu was amununiaUed, has preUndid that the idm was 
his swa fnptrty, and has reaped the komour of it" This accusation 
again called out Oken, who thoroughly refuted it in an able, circum- 
•taatial aad temperate statement in part vu. of the Imu {1847). 
Goethe's osteoloracal essay of 1785, the only one he printed m that 
century, b on a diiferent subject. In the Morphotope of 1820-1824 
Goethe distinctly declares that he had never published his kkas on 
the vertebral theorv of the skull. He could not. therefore, have sent 
any nich essay to Oken before the year 1807. Oken, in reference to 
his jHevioos eaduranoe of Goethe's pretensions, states that, *' being 
well aware that his feUow-labourcrs in natural science thoroughly 
apprtBciated the true state of the case, he confided in quiet silence 
in their judgment. Meckel, Spix, Ulrich, Bojanus. Canis^ Cuvier, 
Ccoffray St Hilaire, Albcrs, Sitraus-Durckhcim, Owen, Kieser and 
UcbtensteiA had recorded their judgment in his favour and against 
Goethe. Bat upon the appearance of the new assault in Micfielet's 
editioa of He«l he could no longer remain silent." 

Okea's bold axiom that heat is but a mode of motion of light, 
aad the idea broached in his essay on generation (1805) that '^all 
the parts of higher animals are made up of an aggregate of Injusoria 
or animated nobttlar monads," are both of the same order as his 
propQsstioo 01 the head being a repetition of the trunk, with ito 
vertebme and limbs. Science would have ^fited no more from 
the one kiea without the subsequent experimental discoveries of 
H. C Oented and M. Faiadav, or from the other without the micro* 
soopical obscrvatmns of Robert Brown, J. M. Schleiden and T. 
Scbwaao, thaa from the third notion without the inductive demon- 
suatioa of the segmenul constitution of the skull by Owen. It is 
questiooable, indeed, whether ia either case the disooyerers of the 
true theories were excited to their labours, or in any way iafiucaced, 
lb y the a priori guesses of Oken: more probable is it that the requisite 
lismch ss and genuine deductions therefrom were the rcsulu of the 
correlated fitness of the stage of the science and the gifu of its true 
cultivators at such particular stage. 

The foUowinc is a list of Oken's principal works: Gmndriss der 
2:aiMrpkilo»opkUt der Theork der Same, nnd der daranf ifsgrarnddtn 
dasstJUoHon der Thiere (1802): Die Zeugmt (1805); Abriss der 
Biolepe (1805); Beitrdte wnr ver^eichenden-Zoolorie, Analomie nmd 
PkyeuUpe (along with Kkser, 1806-1607): Ueher die Bedeutnmt 
der Scktdelknecken (1807); Ueber das Unieersnm als Fortsettuntdes 
Simmmsyslems (180S) : Brfte Ideen air Theorie des LUhts, der Finsler- 
missm der Parkon mnd der Wdrmo (1808): {rnrndsfidbnaaf des 
hchem Systems der Erte (1809); Veber den Werth der Natnrtrs 

(1809); X • ^ 

%rd cd.. 

ftainrgese _ _ 

gfsekidUeMr Seknteu (1831); Btquisiod'nn Syslkme d* Analomie, de 
FhysioUtfhetd^Histairt HatmtUe (i8ifl): AUMtine IfatnneaekieUe 
<i8l3-l8a3, 14 vols.). He also contributed a itrgt number of papere 
to the /sM and other jouraals. (R. O.) 

OKROnX* WBA OF, a part of the westem Pacific Ocean, lying 
ktweca the peiuiiiula of Kamfharka, the Kurile Islands, the 
Jap*Ttftf itli"*^ of Yfxo, the *»i<i««< of RaHialiw^ mid the Amur 

?roviiica of East Siberia. Tbe Sakhalin Gulf and Gulf of 
'artazy omnect U with tlia Japaacia Sea on the weit of 

(1809): Ukrknek der Nctwpkiioaopkio (1800-1811: and 

13. 1815. x8 , 

Yorietungen (i8l6-i8ao) 

and cd.. 1843; Eog. . 

Lekrkmch dsr Natnrtfiockkhte (181, 
^stkiekle wnm Gebronck M 

od ed., 1 

161S* x82«): HaJLU 2c^ 


tbt island of Sakhalin, and on theiouthof »M*tA«Mi k the La 
P^use Strait. 

OKI. a group of islands belonging to Japan, lying due north 
of the proving of Izumo, at the interaction of 36** N. and 133° £. 
The group consists of one huge island called Dogo, and three 
smaller isles — Chibori-shlma, N!shi-no-^ma, and Naka-nO- 
shlma — ^which are collectively known as Dozen. These four 
Islands have a coast-line of 182 m., an area of 130 sq. m., and a 
population of 63,000. The island of Dogo has two high peaks, 
Daimanjt-mlne (2 1 85 ft.) and OnUne-yama (21 28 ft.). The chief 
town is Saigo in Dogo, distant about 40 m. from the port of Sakai 
in Izumo. The name Oki-no-shima signifies "islands in the 
offing," and the place is celebrated in Japanese history not only 
because the possession of the islands was much disputed hi 
feudal days, but also because an ex-emperor and an emperor were 
banished thither by the Ho jo regents in the 13th century. 

OKIiAHOMA (a Choctaw Indian word meaning " red people ")» 
a south central sute of the United States of America lying 
between 33** 35' and 37* N. ht. and 94* 29' and 103* W. long. 
It is bounded N. by Colorado and Kazisas; E. by Missouri uad 
Arkansas; S. by Texas, from which it is separated in part by the 
Red river; and W. by Texas and New Mexico. It has a total 
area of 70,057 aq. m., of which 643 sq. m. are water-surface. 
Although the extreme western limit of the state is the xo3rd 
meridian, the only portkm W. of the looth meridian is a strip ol 
land about 35 m. wide in the present Beaver, Texas and Cimarron 
counties, and formerly designated as "No Man's Land." 

Physiography.— Tht topographical features of the state exhibit 
considerable diversity, ranging from wide treeless plains ia the 
W. to rugged and heavily wooded mountains fn the E. In general 
terms, however, the surface may be described as a vast rolling 
plain having a gentle southern and eastern slope. The elevations 
above the sea range from 4700 ft. in the extreme N.W. to about 
350 ft. in the S.E. The southern and eastern slopes are remark- 
ably uniform; between the northern and southern boundaries 
£. of the looth meridian there is a general di^crcnce in elevation 
of from 200 to 300 ft., while from W. to £. there is an average 
decline of about 3 ft* to the mile. The state has a mean elevation 
of X300 ft. with 34i930 sq. m. below xooo ft; 25,400 sq. m. 
between xooo and 2000 ft.; 6500 sq. m. between 2000 and 
3000 ft.; and 3600 sq. m. between 3000 and 5000 ft. 

The western portion of the Ozark Mountains enters Oklahoma 
near the centre of the eastern boundary, and extends W.S.W. half 
way across the state in a chain of hills gradually decreasing in height. 
In the south central part of the state u an elected tableland known 
as the Arbuckle Mountains. In its western portion this tabk^Und 
attains an elevation of about 1350 ft. above the sea and lies about 
400 ft. above the bordering ^ains. At iu eastern termination, 
where it merees with the plama. it has an elevation of about 750 ft. 
Sixty miles N.W. of this plateau lie the Wichita Mountains, a 
straggling range of rugged peaks riring abruptly from a level ^lain. 
This range extends from Fort Sill north-westward beyond Gramte, a 
distance of 65 m., with some breaks in the second half of this area. 
The highest peaks are not more than 1500 ft. above the plain, but on 
account of their stoco and rugged slopes they are difficult to ascend. 
A third group of hills, the Chautauqua Mountains, lie in the W. in 
Blaine and Canadian counties, their main axis being almost parallel 
with the North Fork of the Canadian river. With the exception of 
these isolated dusters of hills the western portion of the state con- 
nsts almost entireljf of rolling prairie. The nrtreme north-western 
^rt of Oklahoma is a lofty tableland farming part of the Great 
Plains region E. of the Rocky Mountains. 

The prairies N. of the Arkansas and W. of the Neosho rivets are 
deeply carved by small streams^ and in the western portion of this 
area, where the formation consists of alternating shales and sand- 
stones, the easily eroded rocks have been carved into canyons, buttes 
and mesas. South of the Arkansas river these ledges of sandstone 
continue as far as Okmukee, but the evidences 01 erosion are less 
noticeable. East of the Neosho river the prairies merge into a hilly 
woodland. In the N.W. four laige salt plains form a striking 
phyaicd feature. Of these the most noted is the Big Salt Plain at 
the Cimarron river, in Woodward county^ which varies in width 
from I m. to 2 m. aind extends along the nvcr for 8 m. The plain 
is almost i^ectly level, covered with snowy-white saline crystals* 
and contains many salt springs. The other -saline areas are the 
Little Salt Plain, which lies on the Cimarron river, near the Kansas 
boundary; the Salt Creek Plaia, 3 m. kmg and too yds. wide, ia 
Blaine county; and the Sah Fork Plain, 6 m. wide and 8 m. Iniag, 
so called from its position on the Salt Fork of the Arkansas river. 



FoOqwiiiff the slope of the bnd. the impoctant •tnaras flow from 
N.W. to S.E. The Arkansas river enten the state from the N. acar 
the 97th meridiao, and after fonowing a Kcneral aouth-easterly 
cx>urse, leaves it near -the centre of the eastern boundary. Its tribu- 
taries from the N. and E. — the Verdigris, Grand or Noosho and 
lilinoift"-«re small and ummportant; bat from the S. and W. it 
recctves the waters of much kuvcr streamsr-the Salt Fork, the 
Cmarron and the Canadian, with its numerous tribuuries. The 
extreme southern portion of the state is drained by the Red River, 
which forms the greater part of the southern boawUry, and by its 
tributaries, the North Fork, the Washita and the KiamachL 

Fauna and Fltraj-Ot wild animab the most charscteristk are 
the black bear. puma, prairie wolf, timber wolf, fox, deer, 
antelope, squirrel, rabbit and prairie dog. Hawks and turkey 
buzaards are common types of the lat^ger birds, and the wild turkey, 
prairie chicktti and quad al« the pniicapal game birds. The total 
woodland area of the state was estunatad in 1900 at a4#400 aq. m., 
or M-8 % of the land area. The most deudy wooded sectbn u the 
extreme E.; among the prairies of the W. Umber is seldom found 
beyond the banks of streams. The most common trees are the 
various species of the oak and cedar. The irfne is conAned to the 
matt raountainoQs sectkMs of the £.. and the bbck walnut isfoiind 
among the river bottom fauids. These four varieties are of commercial 
value. Other varieties, most of which are widely distributed, are 
the ash, pecan, cottonwood, inrcamore. dm, maple, hickory, dder, 
man, kxiist and river bitch. The piaines are covered with valuable 
bunch, gTMoa and dropaoed grasaesi in tha eoitreme N.W. the 

cactus, saRbniah and yucca, types cfaancteristic of more arid regions, 
are found. 

CUmate.-^Tht dlmate of the state is of a continentaLtype. with 
great annual variations of temperature and a nlinfall which, though 
fenemUy sufSdcat for the needs of vcgcUtion. u considecably less 
than that of the Atlantic Gnat or the Mississippi Valley. The 
western and central portwns of the state are in general cooler and 
dryer than the E., on account of their greater elevation and greater 
distance fiom the Gulf Coast. Thus at Beav«sr, in the extreme N.W^ 
the meao annual temperature is 57* F. and the mean annual rainfall 

.these figures are respectively 

and 35- 1 in. AtOklahoma Citv, in the centre of the state, the 
in annual temperature is 59*; toe mean for the summer (June, 
r and August) is 78*, with an extreme reooided of 104' the 
'nter (December, January and February) is 58*, 
recorded of -I7*. At Mansum. in the S.W., the 
ipeiature is 61*; the mean for the summer is 81* 

18^ in.; while at Ijel^h, in the 

^* Aful 4C.f tti Ar nVlaftntTi:* I 


aeaa lor the wmter 

with aa extreme 

mean annual temperature 

and for the winter 41*, while the highest and towest temperatures 

*v«r recorded are respectively 114* and -17*. The mean annual 

jnedpitatioa for the stata is 317 in.; the variation between the E. 

aad the W. being about 12 in. 

5iMb.^Tbe prevailing type of soil b a deep dark-red bam. some- 
times (especially in the cast central part of the state) made up of a 
decomposed sandstone, and again (in the north central part) made 
up of shales and decomposed limestone. Not infrequently there are 
a belt of red sandy loam on uplan(b N. of a river, a rich deposit of 
Mack alluvium on valley bottom lands, a belt of red clay loam on 
uplands S. of a river, and a deposit of wind-blown loess on the water 
parting. Loess, often thin and always containing little humus, 
also covers large areas on the high, semi-arid plains in the western 
part of the state. 

Afriadtwre and Slock'roinng.~-Far some time before the firat 
opening to settlement by white men in 1890. the territoiv now em- 
braced in Oklahoma was brrely occupied by great herds of cattle 
driven in from Texas, and since then, although the opening was 
piecemeal, the agrkulturat development has been remarkably rapid. 
By 1900. 23.988,339 acres, or 52*1 %, of the total land surface was 
imrluded in farmsjand 8,574,187 acres, or 377 %, of the farm kind 
was ifflprowd.^ The farm land was cfivided among 108,000 farms 
.containing an averase of 3I2>85 acres; 26,121 of tnem contained 
less than 50 acres, but the most usual a» was 160 acres; and 
48,983. or4S'3S %, contained from 100 to I74 acres. A considerable 
portion of the brgcr farms (there were 2390 containing 500 acres or 
more) «Tre owned bv Indians but leased to white men. Much land 
as late as 1900 was oetd in common by Indian tribes, but has since 
been altotted to the members of those tribes and most of it b leased to 
whites. In fooo. 59.367 (or a little more than one-half of aH) farms 
were worked by owners or part owners, 33,M7 *p« worked by share 
tenants, and 13.903 were worked by cash tenants. Indian com, 
wheat, cotton, oats and hay are the principal crops, but the variety 
of farm and garden produce b great, and mdudes Kafir com, broom 
corn, barley, rye, buckwheat, flax, tobacco, beans, castor beans, 
peanuta, pecans, sorghum cane, sugar cane, and neariy all the fruita 
and vegetables common to the temperare 90ne; stocVraising. too. 
b a very hnportant industry. Of the total acreage of all crops in 
1900, 4,43T.8i9 acres, or 68-04 %• ^'^'^ ^ cereals; and of the cereal 
acreage 56-45 % was of Indian com. t4*45 % was of wheat and 
7-15 % was of oats. The acreage of indUi 

an com increased from 

^ The statiatios in thb artkle were obtained by addini^ to those 
lor Oklahoma those for Indian Tairitory, which was oombined with 
St aa t9Q7. 

2,SOt.945 iie«« in 1900 to <fA50,ooo acres in 1909; •between i«99 
and IQ09 the yield increased from 68,949.300 bushels to 1 01 .150.000 
bushels. The acreage of wheat decreased during this period f roa 
», 704.909 «cres to 1.325.000 teres, and the yield from 20,328.300 
bushels to 15,680,000 bushels. The acreage of oata increased from 
317.076 acres to 550,000 acres, and the yfeld increased from 
9.511.340 bushels to 15.950.000 busheb. The hay crop of 18^ waa 
grown on 1.005.706 acres and amounted to 1,617,905 tons, but 
neariy one-half of this was made from wild grasses; since then the 
amounta of fodder obtained from air:dfa, Kanr com, sorghum cane 
and timothy have mUch increased, and that obtained from »fld 
grasses has decreased; in 1909 the acreage was 900,000 and the 
crop 8to,oo0 itons. Except in the W. section, where there b good 
grazing but generally an insufficient rainfall for gro\»'ing crops, 
cattle-raising' on the range has in considerable measure given way to 
stock-raising on the farm, and neariy everywhere the quality of the 
cattb has been greatly improved. The total number oil cattle 
decreased from 3,236.008 in 1900 ro 1 ,992,000 in 1910, but at the same 
time the number of daiiy cows increased from 276.539 to 355,000. 
The number of horses increased from 557,153 in 1900 to 804,000 ia 
1910; of mules from 117,562 to 191,000 ; of swine from 1,265.189 
to 1 ,302,000: and of sheep from 88,741 to 108,00a Winter wheat i» 
used extensively for pasturage during the winter months with little 
or no damage to the crop. No other branch of agriculture in OkU* 
home has advanced so nfndly as the production of cotron; the 
culture of thb fibre was introduoedln 1890, and the acreage increased 
from 682,743 Acres in 1890 to 2,037,000 acres in 1909. and the yield 
increased from 227,741 bates to 617.000 bales (in 1907 it was 862.383 
babs). There waa only a very small crop of broom com in 1889, but 

castor beans yielded 77409 busheb. Two crops of potatoes may be 
frown on the same ground in one year, and the acreage of potatoee 
mcreascd from 15,360 acres in 1899 to 27,000 acres in toon, and the 
yield from 1,191.997 busheb to 1. 890.000 bushels. Oklahoma ia 
already produong laige craps of apples, peaches, grapes, water-tttdona 
and musk-mdons, and many larite appb and peach orchards and 
vineyards have been planted. Peai^ plums, apricott, cherries, 
strawberries, blackberries, nspberries. currants, gooseberries, 
cabbages, onions, sweet potatoes, tomatoes and encumbers are 
erown in considenble quantities. The ccreab and most of tl« 
fraita and vegetables are grown throughout the giceter portbn off 
the middle and E. partt of the state, although die soil of the K. 
middle sectbn yiekls the best crops of wheat. Kafir com and soighua 
cane are the most common in the W. sections, where the dlmate b 
too dry for other crops. Some cotton b grown N. of the odddle of 
the state, but the S.E. quarter takes in most of the cotton bdt. 
Broom com ^ws best in Woods county on the N. border, and 
castor beans u the central and N. central sections. About 3000 
acres (neariy one>half in the narrow extension in the NAVJ were 
already irrigated in 1909, and surveys had been made by the Federal 
Reclamatkm Service with a view to irrigating about 100,000 actea 
more— 10,000 to 14,000 acres in Beaver and Woodward counties, 
under the Cimarron project, and 80.000 to 100,000 acres in Kiowm 
and Comanche counties, under the Red River project. 

Lambtf and Timber Producis.— The merehanttble timber b mostly 
tn that part of the sate which formeriy constituted Indan Territory, 
and consista laigely of bbck walnut and other valuable hard woods 
in the bottom lands, of bbck jack and post oak on the uptanda 
and of pine on the higher elevations S. of the Arkansas river. The 
manufactured forest products of Indian Territory increased la value 
from $189,373 in 1900 to $588,078 ia 1905. or 205-78 %. 

if^Mrab.— The ooaUfiekb extend from Kansas on the N. to 
Arkansas on the £.. and have an area of aboat 20,000 sq. m. The 
prindpal mining centres are McAlester. Wilburton. Hartshora. 
Coalgate and Phillips. In quality the Coal varies from a low grade 
to a high grade bituminous, and some of the kner b good for coleine. 
The output increased from 446429 short tons iniB85 to 1^922,298 

are composed chbfly of great deppsita of reck gypsum. A similar 
but minor range extends paraUd with it 40 to 50 ro. S. W. There are 
also deposits in Greer county ia the S.W. comer, and some gypsiie 
ui Kay county oe the N. middb border. For wefkiag these extensive 
deposita there are, how<vef\ few mills; these are in Kay, Gkfiadiaa 
and Blaine coontiea. Some petrolettm was discovered in the N. pan 
of Indbn Territory near the OkUhoma border as eariy as 1890^ 
but there was little development until 1993, when several welb 
were drilled ia the vicinity of Bartlesville. Tlien weUs were drilled 
to the W. on the Osage Reservation, and to the S., until in loo( 
about 1 10 welb were drilled into the famous Ckn Pool near Sapulpa. 
One of these wells has a flow of aoout looq barrels a day. and the 
total product from the Oklahoma oil-fiekl (which iddode^ welb ia 

■ The agrienltural statbtks for 1909 are taken from the Tkar^Batk 
«( tfM Uimed Staut Diyaiowat ef Agikultuie. 



what was Indiaa Te^tocy) increased from 10.000 barrels in 1901 
Co 138^11 in 1903, 1.3^,748 in 1904 and 45.798.7^$ in 1908. when 
k was valued at |i7.694,843' Natural gas abounds in the aame 
region, and several strong weus were developed in 1906. and immedi- 
ately afterwards gas began to be used largely for industrial purposes 
forwhichin i9o8th6pfiQewasfromi|toi$ceatspcr loooit. Pipe 
linea have been construaed. The vaXut of the output increased 
from $360 in 1903 to $130,137 in 190;: and to $860,159 in 1908. 
la the central part of the state S. of the Canadian river are extensive 
deposits of a^haltum, but their development has been undertaken 
only on a smalt scale: in 1908, 2402 snort tons were put on the 
snarkec, the value being $2A,82a Lead and zinc are found b the 
Miami distikt, the Peoria district and the Quapaw district ; and in 
1908 the lead (1409 tons) was valued at $1 18,350 and the zinc (3235 
tons) at $310,090. The total value of the mineral producu in 1908 
was $36^,751. 

Ifaaai^iKrsf.— The manufactures in 1905 were still laigdy such 
as are dosely rdated to agriculture. Measured by the value of the 
products, 61 '8% were represented by 6our and grist mill products 
and cottonseed oil and cake. Among the manufacturing centres are 
Oklahoma Qty and Guthrie, and the oorobincd value of their factory 
products incrttsed from $1.4913.998 in 1900 to $4,871,3^ in 1905. 

Tran^ri^tum and Camnuree.—Tht navimble waters m Oklahoma 
•re of littfe importance, and the sute is almost wholly dcjiendcnt 
on railways as a means of transportation. The first railway was that 
id the Missouri, Kansas & Texas, which completed a line across the 
territory to Oeiuson, Texas, in 1 873. The railway mileage was slowly 
increased to 1260 m. in 1890. and on the xst 01 January 1909 was 
982Q m. The Missouri, Kansas & Texas railway crosses the E. part 
of the state, and somewhat parallel with this to the westward are 
the St Louis ft San Francisco, the Atchison. Topeka ft Santa ¥6, 
twQ lines of the Chicago. Rock Island ft Pacific, and the Kansas 
City, Mexico ft Orient railways. The Chicago. Rock Island ft Pacific 


crosses the middle of the sute from E. to W< The Atchison, 

eloa ft Sanu F6 and the Chicago. Rock Island ft Gulf croas the 

W. part. The St Louis & San Fiandsco crosses the S.E. quarter. 

Uae of the Frisco system extends along the S. border from the 

kaosas line to the mkldle of the sute. and with these main lines 

Topeha tt aanu i^e ana the iJTiicago, 
N.W. part. The St Louis ft San Fiai 
A Uae of ~ 

Arkansas , 

Aumecous branches form an extensive network. 

Pofulaticikr^'Ihe popolation of the territory now embraced 
within the state increased from 258,657 in 1890, when the first 
census was taken, to 79o»39i in 1900, or 205-6%, to 1,414,177 
in 1907. and to 1,657,155 in 191a Of the total population 
in 1900 7«9,853,or97>4%, were native-born. The white popula- 
tion Jficreased from 172,554 in 1890 to 1,054,376 in 1907, or 
6ix%, the negro population during the same period from 21,609 
to II 8. 160, or 4x9%, and the Indian population from 64,456 
to 75.0x9, or x6*3 %. In 1890 the Indians and negroes constituted 
33-3% of the total population, but in X907 they (with the 
Mongolians, who numbered 75) constituted only Z3*2% of the 
totoL Tlie only Indians who are natives of this region are a 
few memben of the Kiowa, Comanche and Apache tribes. 
The othexs are the remnants of a number of tribes collected here 
from various parts of the country: Choctaws, Chickosaws, 
Cherokees, Creeks, Semlnoies, Osages, Raws, Poncas, Otoes, 
Cheyennes, lowas, Kickapoos, Sauk and Foxes, Sioux, Miamis, 
Shawnees, Pawnees, Ottawas and several others. Until 1906 
the Osages lived on a reservation touching Kansas on the N. and 
the Arkansas river on the W. (since then almost all allotted); 
but to the greater portion of the Indians the government has 
made individual allotments. Only about one-fourth of the so- 
called Indians are full bk)ods. A large portion are one-half or 
more white bk)od and the Creeks and some others have more or 
less negro blood. In 1906 there were 257,100 communicants 
of various churches in Oklahoma and Indian Territory, the 
Methodist Episcopalians being the most numerous, and next 
to them the Baptists. The population in places having 4000 
inhabitants or more increased from 29,978 in 1900 to 140,579 
in 1907, or 368-9%, while the population outside of such places 
increased from 760^13 lo 1,273,598, or only 67-5%. The 
principal dlies in 1907 were Oklahoma G(y, Muskogee, Guthrie 
(the capital), Shawnee, Enid, Ardmorc, McAlcslcr and Chickasha. 

Administration.— The constitution now in operation was 
adopted in September 1907, and is that i^ith which the stale 
was admitted into the Union in November of the same year. 
Amendments may be submitted through a majority of the 
members elected to both houses of the legislature or through a 
petiUon signed by 15% of the electorate, and a proposed 
afficodment becomes a part of the constitution if the majority 

of tJhevotctcBStatapopttlareleclionaraiiilavoitrQf it The 
legislature may also at any time propose a convention lor 
amending or revising the constitution, but no such convention 
can be called without first obtaining the approval of the elector- 
ate. An elector must be able to read or write (unless he or an 
ancestor was a voter in x866 or then lived in aone foicign 
nation) and must be 21 years old, and a resident of the state 
for one year, in the county six months, and in the election 
prednct 30 days; and women have the privilege of voting at 
Kbod maetinga. CeneiBl elections are held on the fint Tuesday 
after the iixit Mondqr In November in odd-ammbered years and 
party candidates for state, district, county and munidpal 
offices and for the United States Senate are chosen at primary 
elections held on the first Tuesday in August. Tlie Massa- 
chusetts ballot which had been in use in X897-X899 was again 
adopted in 1909. OUahoma has put into its constitution many 
things which in the older sUtes were left to legislative enaament. 

The governor is dected for a term of four years but Is ii^ 
eligible for the next saccecdmg term. The number of officers 
whom he appoints Is rather limited and for most of his appoint«> 
ments the confirmation of the Senate is required. He n not 
permitted to pardon a criminal until he has obtained the advice 
of the board of pardons which is composed of the sUte sopeiw 
intendent of public instruction, the president of the board of 
agriculture and the state auditor. He la a member of somo 
Important administrative boards, his veto power extends to 
items in appn^'ation bills, and to pass a bill over his veto a 
vote of two-thhxls of the members dected to each house is re^ 
quired. A lieutenant-governor, secretary of sutcv treasurer, 
auditor, examiner, and inspector, commissioner of labour, com- 
missioner of insorance, chief mine mspector, commissionrr of 
charities and corrections, and president of the board of agri- 
culture are elected each for a term of four years, and the 
secretary of state, auditor and treasurer are, tike the governor^ 
ineligible for the next sucoeeding term. 

The law-making bodies are a Senate and a House of Repre- 
sentatives. One-half the senators and all the representatives 
are elected every two years, senators by districts and repro* 
sentativcs by counties. Sessions are held biennially In even- 
numbered years and begin the first Tuesday after the first Monday 
in January. The constitution reserves to the people the privilege 
of rejecting any act or any item of any act whenever 5% of the 
legal voters ask that the matter be voted upon at a general 
dcction; and the people may initiate legislation by a petition 
signed by 8% of the electorate. 

For the administration of justice these have been established 
a supreme court composed of six justices elected for a term of 
six years; a criminal court of appeals composed of three justices 
appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the 
Senate; twenty-one district courts each with one or more 
justices elected for a term of four years; a county court in each 
county with one justice elected for a term of two years; a court 
of a justice of the peace, elected for a term of two years, in each 
of six districts of each county, and police courts in the cities* 
The supreme court has appellate juiisdiction in all civil casta, 
but its original jurisdiction is restricted to a general control of 
the lower courts. The criminal court of appeals has jurisdiction 
in all criminal cases appealed from the district and county courts. 
The district courts have exclndve jurisdiction in dvO actions 
for sums exceeding Siooo, conairrent jurisdiction with the 
county courts in ci^ actions for sums greater than $500 and not 
exceeding $1000, and original or appellate in cxhninal cascL 
The county courts have, besides the ooncurrent jurisdictioik 
above stated, original jurisdiction in all probate matters, original 
jurisdiction in civil actions for sums greater than $200 and 
not exceeding $500^ concurrent jurisdiction with the justices 
of the peace in misdemeanour cases, and appelbitc jurisdiction 
in an cases brought from a justice of the peace or a pohcc coort.^ 

Local Cowrninffir.— The general managrment of county affairs 
is intruded to three commiwoncrs dected by districts, but these 
commissioners ai* not permitted to innir extraordinary capmsea 
or levy a tax exceediuR nve mills on a dollar without first ^obtaintfur 
the consent of the people at a general or special ckctkm. '^ 



niHtroflno . . ^ 

•urvcyor, ahenff, •memnr and su^rintendent at public imtniction. 
The counties have been divided into municipal township*, each of 
which elects a trustee, a clerk and a treasurer, who together con- 
stitute a board of directors for the management of township affairs. 
The trustee is also the assessor. Cities-or towns having a population 
of 2000 or more may become^ cities of the first class when- 
ever a favourable majority vote is obtained at a ^neral or special 
election held in that dty or town, and this question must be sub- 
mitted at sudk an election whenever 35% of the legal voters 
petitioR for it. 

MisctUantons Loan.— the property rights of husband and wife are 
rncticaily equal, and either may buy,, sell or mortgage real estate, 
other than the homestead, without the consent of the other. Among 
the grounds for a divorce are adultery, extreme cruelty, habitual 
drunkenness, eross nq^lect of duty and imprisonment for felony. 
Article XII. of the constitution exempts from forced sale the home- 
stead of any family in the state to the extent of 160 acres of land in 
tJtM country, or X acre in a city, town or village, provided the value 
of the same does not exceed $5000 and that the claims against it are 
not for purchase money, improvements or taxes. A corporation 
commission of three memben, elected for a term «f dx years, is 
tntrustcd with the necessary powers for a rigid control of public 
service corporations. A state boaid of arbitration, composed of 
two farmers, two employers and two employes is authorized to 
investigate the causes of any strike affectmg the public interests, 
and publish what it finds to oe the facts in the case, together with 
reoommendatioas for settlement. Labour laws, passed By the first 

iegUaturc (1908), were amended and made more rar^^' 
I^slaturc of 1909: a child labour law forbids the en 
c^drcn under 14 in factories, workshops, theatres, be 
pool-halls, stcam-laundnN or other dangerous places ( 
■ ) child unde 



by the conumssioner of labour), and nib child under be 

employed in stich places unless able to read and write sii ish 

sentences or without having attended school during .' p^ ' > ms 
year; no child under 16 is to be employed in any 'i ^wral 
(enumerated) dangerous occupations; no diiki under xc is to be 
employed nuMne than 8 hours in any one day, or more than 4S hours 
in any one week in any gainful occupation other than agriculture 
or domestic service; age and schooling certificates are required of 
children between 14 and 16 in certain ocqjipations. A state dis- 
pensary system for the sale of intoodcatitts: liquors was authorised 
oy the constitution, but the popular vote in 1JK>8 was unfavourable 
to the continuaace of the system, the sentiment secmii^ to be 
for rieid orohibition of the sale of intoxicating liquors. A law 
passea in May IQ08 against nepotism (closely following the Texas 
bw of 1907) forbids public omcers to appoint (or vote for) any 
person relaited to them by affinity or consanguinity within the 
third degree to any position in the government of which the/ are a 
part; makes persons thus related to pubUc officers ineligible to 
positions in tne branch in which their rehitive is an official; and 
renders any official making such an appointment liable to fine and 
lemoval from office. 

EdncatufH. — ^The common school 'system is administered by a 
state superintendent of public instruction, a state board 01 educauon, 
county superintendents and district boards. The state board is 
co mposed of the state superintendent, who is president of the board ; 
the secretary of state, who is secretary of the board; the attorney 
general and the governor. Each district board is composed of three 
members elef:tcd for a term of three years, one eadi vear. Each 
district school must be open at least tnroe months each year, and 
children between the ages of eight and sixteen are required to 
attend either a pubKc or a private school, unless excused because 
pS physical or menUl infirmity. There are separate schools for whites 
and negroes. In addition to instruction in the ordinary branches, 
the teaiching in the district schools of the elementary principles of 
agriculture, horticulture, animal husbandry, stock-feraing, forestry, 
building country roads and domestic science is required. A law of 
1908 requires that an ivricoltural school of secondaipr grade be 
established in each of the five supreme court judicial distncts. and 
that an experimental farm be operated in connexion with each; 
and in 1909 the number of these districts was increased to six. 
There is a state industrial school for girls, teaching domestic science 
and the fine arts. The higher institutions of learning established 
by the state are the Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College, 
a land grant colhse with an agricultural experiment station at 
Stillwater; the Oklahoma School of Mines at Wilburton; the 
Cbbred Agricnltnral and Normal .University at Langstoa; the 
Central Normal School at Edmond; the North-western Normal 
School at Alva; the South-western Normal School at Weathcrford, 
Custer county; the South-eastern Normal School at Durant, Br^-an 
county; the East Central Normal School at Ada; the North- 
eastern Normal School at TahlequahjCherokee county; and the 
University of Oklahoma at Norman. The Sute Universitv (estab- 
lished in 1892, opened in 1 893) embraces a college of arts ana sciences, 
and schools of nne arts, applied science, medicine, mines and phar- 
macy, la 1907-1908 it haa 40 instructors and 790 students. There 
is a University Preparatory School (i^oi) at Tonka wa in Kay 
caoanty, and thcceare sUte schoob of agriculture at.Tishomingo and 

at Warner. The common schoob are in large part maintained out 
of the proceeds of the school lands (about 1,200,000 acres), which 
are sections 16 and 36 in each township of that portion of the state 
which formerly constituted Oklahoma Territory, and a Congres- 
sional appropriation of 8^000,000 in lieu of these sections in 
what was forraeriy Indian Territory. The university, agricultural 
and mechanical college and normal schools also arc inaintaioed 
to a considerable extent out of the proce^ of section 13 in 
several townships. The university owns land valued at 13,670,00a 
Among the institutions of learning, neither maintained nor controlled 
by the state, are Epworth University (Methodist Episcopal, X9or) 
at Oklahoma City, and Kingfisher College at Kingfisher. 

Ckarities and Corredionaf InstUutions.— The state has a hospital 
for the insane at Fort Supply, the Whitaker Orphans* Home at 
Pryor Creek, the Oklahoma School for the Blind at Fort Gibson 
and the Oklahoma School for the Deaf at Sulphur; and the legisla' 
ttire of 1908 appropriated money for the East Oldahoma Hospital 
for the Insane at Vinita, a School for the Feeble-Mfnded at Enid, a 
State Training School for Boys at Wynnewood and a State Reforma- 
tory (at Granite, Greer county) for first-time convicts between the 
a^es of sixteen and twenty-five. Under the constitution the supers- 
vision and inspection of charities and institutions of correction m 
m the hands 01 a State Commissioner of Charities and Corrections, 
elected by the people. The commissioner must inspect once each 
year all penal, correctional and eleemosynary institndons. including' 
public hospitals, jails, poorhouses and corporations and organimions 
doing charitable work; and the commissioner appears as next friend 
in cases affecting the property of orphan minors, and has power to 
investigate complaints against public and private institutions whose 
charters may be revoked for cause by the commissioner. By act at 
legislature a State Board of Public Affairs was created ; it is made of 
five members appointed by the governor, with charge of the fiacal 
affairs of all state institutions. Convicts were sent to the state 
penitentiary of Kansas until January 1909. when it was cha rged 
that they were treated cruelly there; in 1909 work was begun on a 
penitentiary at McAlcster. 

Bcmking and Finance. — ^The unique feature of the banking system 
(with amendments adopted by the second legislature becoming 
effective on the nth d June r909) is a fund for the guaranty of 
deposits. The state banking board, which is composed of the 
guvciuor, ucutsnant-govemor, president of the board of anicuKure. 
state treasurer and state auditor, levies against the capital stock ol 
each state bank and trust company, organized or existing, under 
the laws of the sute to create a fund equal to ^% of average daily 
deposits other than the depodts of state funds property secured. 
Ono'fifth of this fund is payable the first year and one-twentieth 
each year thereafter; 1 % of the increase in average deposits is 
collected each year. Emergency assessments, not to exceed 3*^ 
may be made wnenevcr necessary to pay in full the depositora in an 
insolvent bank; if the guxiranty fund is impiUred to such a degree 
that it is not naade upDy the a% emergency assessment* the stat* 
banking board issues certificates of indebtedness which draw 6% 
interest and which arc paid out of the assessment. Any national bauc 
may secure its depositors in this manner if it so desires. The bank 
guarantee law was held to be valid by the United States Supreme 
Court in I908 after the attorney-genoal of the United Stftcn had 
decided that it was illegal. 

The revenue for state and local purposes is derived chiefly from 
taxes. The constitutional limit on the state tax levy is 3} mills on 
a dollar, and fegislation has fixed the limit of the couiity levy at 5 
mills, of the levy in cities at 7, in incorporated towns ^t 5, in town- 
ships at 3, and in school districts at 5. There is a tax on the grom 
receipts of corporations, a graduated land tax on all holdings exceed- 
ing 6u(0 acres, a tax on income exceeding 83500,^ and a tax on sifts 
SM iiiheritances. The aggregate amount of indebtedness whkh 
the state may have at any time b limited by the constitution to 
8400,000, save when borrowing b necessary to repel an invasion, 
suppress an insurrection or defend the state in war. 

History r-VTxXh the exception of the narrow strip N. of the 
most N. section of Texas the territory comprising the preseol 
state of Oklahoma was set apart by Congress in 1834, under the 
name of Indian Territory, for the possession of the five southern 
tribes (CTherokccs, Creeks, Scminoles, Choctaws and Chickasaws) 
and the Quapaw Agency. Early in 1809 some Cherokecs in 
the south-eastern slates made known to President Jefferson 
their desire to remove to hunting grounds W. of the Mississippi, 
and at first they were allowed to occupy lands in what is now 
Arkansas, but by a new arrangement first entered into in 1828 
they received instead, in 1838, a patent for a wide strip extending 
along the entire N. border of Indian Territory with the exception 
of the small section in the N.E. corner which was reserved to 
the (Quapaw Agency. By treaties negotiated in 1820, 1825, 
1830 and 1842 the Choctaws received for themselves and the 
Chickasaws a patent (or all that portion of the territory which 



Kes S. 0f the Canadian tttd Atkanns riven, and by tneaties 
negotiated in 1824, 1833 and 1851 the Creeks received for them* 
selves and the Seminoles a patent for the remaining or middle 
portion. Many of the Indians of these tribes brought slaves with 
them from the Southern states and during the Civil War they 
supported the Confederacy, but when that war was tvex the 
Federal government demanded not only the Ifberation of the 
slaves but new treaties, partly on the ground that the tribal lands 
must be divided irith the freedmcn. By these treaties, negotiated 
in 1866, Ihe Cherokces gave the United States permissioii to 
settle other Indians on what was approximately the western 
half of their domain; the Seminoles, to whom the Creeks in 
1855 had granted as their portion the strip between the Canadian 
river and its North Fork, ceded all of theirs, and the Creeks, 
Choctaws and Chickasaws ceded the western half of theirs back 
to the United States for occupancy by f reedmen or other Indians. 
In the E. portion of the lands thus placed at its disposal by the 
Cherokees and the Creeks the Federal government within the 
neat seventeen* years made a number of small grants as follows: 
to the Seminoles in 1866, to the Sank and Foxes In 1867, to the 
Osagcs, Kansas, Pottawatomies, Absentee Shawnees and 
MTichttas in 1871-1872, to the Pawnees in 1876, to the Poncas 
and Nes Perdls in 1878, to the Otoes and Missouris in 1881, 
and to the lowas and Kickapoos in 1883; In the S.W. quarter 
of the Territory, also, the Kiowas, Comancbes and Apaches 
were located in 1867 and the Cheyennes and Arapahoes in 1869^ 
There still remained unassigned the greater part of the Cherokee 
Strip besides a tract embracing 1,887,800 acres of choice husd 
in the centre of the Territory, and the agitation for the opening 
of this to settlement by white people increased until in 1889 a 
complete title to the central tract was purchased from the 
Creeks and Seminoles. Soon after the purchase President 
Benjamin Harrison issued a proclamation announcing that this 
land would be opened to homestead settlement at twelve o'clock 
noon, on the a 2nd of April 1 889. At that hour no less than 20,000 
people were on the border, and when the signal was given there 
ensued a remarkably spectacular race for homes. In the next 
year that portion of Indian Territory which Isy S. of the Cherokee 
Strip and W. of the lands occupied by the five tribes, together 
with the narrow strip N. of Texas which had been denied to that 
state in 1850, was organized as the Territory of Oklahoma. In 
the meantime negotiations were begun for acquiring a dear 
title to the unoccupied portion of the Cherokee Strip, for in- 
dividual allotments to the memben of the several small tribes 
who had received tribal allotments since 1866, and for the 
purchase of what remained after such individual allotments 
had been made. As these negotiations were successful most of 
the land between the tract first opened and that of the Creeks 
was opened to settlement in 1891, a large tract to the W. of tht 
centre was opened in 1892, a tract S< of the Canadian river and 
W. of the Chickasaws was opened in 1902, and by 1904 the entire 
TecriCory had been opened to settlement with the exception of 
a tract in the N.E. which was occupied by the Osages, Kaws, 
Poncas and Otoes. By the treaties with the five southern tribes 
they were to be permitted to make their own laws so long as 
they preserved their tribal relations, but since the Civil War 
many whites had mingled with these Indians, gained control 
for their own selfish ends of sach government as there was, 
and made the country a refuge for fugitives from justice. Con- 
sequently, in 1893, Congress appointed the Dawes Commiuion 
to induce the tribes to consent to individual allotments as well 
as to a government administered from Washington, and in 1898 
the Curtis Act was passed for making such allotments and for the 
establishment of a territorial government. When the allot- 
ments werenearly all made Congress in 1 906 authorised Oklahoma 
and Indian Territories to qualify for admission to the Union as 
one state. As both Territories approved, a constitutional 
convention (composed of too Democrats and is Republicans) 
met at Gnthrie on the aoth of November 1906. The constitution 
framed by this body was approved by the electorate on the 
17th of September 1907, and the state was admitted to the 
Ukkioa on the 16th of November. 

GeverMfs of Okhkma^TtrriUfHaL 

Geofge W. Steete ,1890-1891 

RobeR Martm (actmg) 1891-48^ 

AbrahamJ* Seay , « 1893-1893 

William Cary Renfrew , . . . , . 1893-1897 

Cassiuf MclJonald Barnes 1 897-1901 

William M.Jenkins 1901 

Thompson B. Feignooa - 1901-1906 

Frank Ftant^ ...... . . 1906-1907 

Charles Nathaniel Haskell, Democrat. . . 1907-191 1 
Lee Cruce, Democrat . . . . .1911- 

' BinuocaAPRT.— See the Biennial Reports (Guthrie. 1904 sqq.] 
of the Oklahoma Department of Geology and Natural History; 
the Oklahoma Geological Survey, BnOtHn No, t: PrtUminary 
Report on tko Mineral Resources rf Oklahoma (Norman. 1908); 

«< •«».,» wfu>»«^ v«wH#B».o* wUrvey, t^ J. AICIM^T, WVSmUMAV^^ WJ MW 

VnUed States, pp. 443-453 (Washington, 1906). being Bulletin Q of 
the Weather Bureau of the United States Department of Agriculuiret 
Mimenl Resources, qf the United States, annual reports published by 
the United States Geological Survey (Washington, 1883 aqq.); 
Charles Evans and C. O. Bunn, Oklahoma Civil Goeemment (Ardmore, 
1908); C. A. Beard, " Constitution of Oklahoma.*' in the PolUieel 
Science Quarterly, voL S4 (Boston, 1909); R. L. Owen, "Cotto 
menu on the Constitution of Oklahoma,'^ in the Proceedings oj th$ 
American Political Science Association, vol 5 (Baltimore. 1909}: 
S. J. Buck, The SeUUmenl of Oklahoma (Madison. 1907), reprinted 
from the Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sctences, ArU and 
leUeraiand D. C Gkleoo. Indian Territory, Deuriptiee, Bioff^phical 
and Genealogical , . . with a General History of the Territory (New 
York, 1901). 

OKliAHOllA €1TT« a dty and the connty-seat of Oklahoma 
County, Oklahoma, U.S.A., on the North Fork of the Cansdian 
fiver, near, the geographical centre of the state. Pop. (1890} 
41S1; (1900) 10,0575 (1907) 3M52; (xoio) 64,205. U 
b served by the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, the Chicago, 
Rock Island ft Pacific, the Misaonri, Kansas h. Texas, and the 
St Louis & San Francisco railways, and by inter-urban dectric 
lines. It lies partly in a valley, partly on an upland, la a rich 
sgricultural region. The dty ia the seat of Epworth University 
(founded in 190X by the joint action of the Methodist Episcopal 
Chureh and the Methodist Episcopal Cbureh, South). Oklahom* 
City'a prosperity is due chiefly to its jobbing trade, with an 
extensive faxming and stpck*n^g region, but it haa also cotton 
compresses and cotton gins, and varioua nuinufacturea. Tbe 
total value of the factory products in 1905 was $5,67o,73a 
Natural gas is largely used as a f neL A large settlement was 
cstabtished here on the ssnd of April 1889, the day on which 
the country was by prodaination dedaied open for aettlemenl. 
The dty was chart ered i n 1890. 

OKUBO T08HI1I1TBU (1830-1878), Japanese statesman, a 
samurai of Satsuma, was one of the five great nobles who led 
the revolution in 1668 against the shogunate. He became one 
of tbe mikado's prindpal ministen, and in the Satsuma troubles 
wUcb followed lie was the chief opponent of Saigo Takamori. 
But the snpprcsiion of the Satsnma rebellion broi^t upon him 
the penoaal revenge of Saigo'a aympathiaeo, and in the spring 
of 1878 he waa assassinated by six risnsmen. Okobo was one 
of the leading men of his day, and in 1873 was one of the Japanese 
mission which wassent round the world to get ideas for otganlting 
tbe new r^ime. 

OKOMA (SHIOBMOBU). Count (1838- ' ), Japanese states- 
man, was bom in the province d Risen in 1838. Bis father was 
an ofiicer in the artilleiy, and during his eariy years bis education 
consbted mainly of the study of Chinese literature. Happily 
for him. however, he was-able to acquire in his youth a knowledge 
of English and Dutch, And by the help of some missionaries he 
succeeded in obtaining books in those languages on both scientific 
and political subjects. These works effected a complete revolu- 
tion in his mind. He had been designed by his parents for the 
military profession, but the new light which now broke in uposi 
him determined him to devote his entire energies to the abolition 
of the existing feudal system and to the establishment of a 
constitttrional government. With impetuous zeal he urged his 
views on his coontiyaien, and though be took no active pan 



in th(f revolution of 1868, the effect of his opinions exercised no 
slight weight in the struggle. Already he was a mariced man, 
and no sooner was the government reorganued, with the mikado 
as the sole wielder of power, than he was appointed chief assistant 
in the department of foreign affairs. In tS6g he succeeded to the 
post of secretary of the joint departments of the interior and of 
finance, and for the next fourteen years he devoted himself 
wholly to politics. In 1870 he was made a councillor of state, 
and a few months later he accepted the office of president of 
the commission which represented the Japanese government 
at the Vienna Exhibition. In 1872 he was again appointed 
minister of finance, and when the expedition under General 
Saigd was sent to Formosa (1874) to chastise the natives of that 
island for the murder of some shipwrecked fishermen, he was 
nominated president of the commission appointed to supervise 
the campaign. By one of those waves of popular f ecUng to which 
the Japanese people are peculiarly liable, the nation which had 
supported him up to a certain point suddenly veered round 
and opposed him with heated violence. So strong was the feeling 
against him that on one occasion a would-be. assassin threw at 
him a dynamite shell, which blew off one of his legs. During 
the whole of bis pubUc life he recognized the necessity of promot- 
ing education. When he resigned office in the early 'eighties 
he established the Scmmon Gako, or school for special studies, 
a,t the cost of the 30*000 yen which had been voted him when he 
received the title of count, and subsequently he was instrumental 
in founding other schools and colleges. In 1896 he joined the 
Matsukau cabinet, and resigned in the following year in conse- 
quence of Intrigues which produced an estrangement betw<een 
him and the prime minister. On the retirement of Marquis 
Ito in 1898 he again took office, combining the duties of premier 
with those of minister of foreign affairs. But dissensions having 
arisen in the cabinet, he resigned a few months later, and retired 
into private lifcy cultivating his beautiful garden at Wased)a 
near T6ky6. 

OLAF* the name of five kings of Norway. 

Olaf I.' TavccvBssdN (969-1000) was bom in 969, and began 
his meteoric career in exile. It is even said that he was bought as 
B slave in Esthonia. After a boyhood spent in Novgorod under 
the protection of King Valdemar, Ohif fought for the «mperor 
Otto III. under the Wendish king Burislav, whose daughter he 
had married. On her death he followed the example of his 
countrymen, and harried in France and the British Isles, till, 
in a good day for the peace of those countries, lie was converted 
to Christianity by a hermit in the Scilly Islandi, and his maraud- 
ing expeditions ceased stoce he would not harry those of his new 
faith. In England he married Cyda, sister of Olaf Kvaran, 
king of Dublin, and it was only after some years spedt In admini- 
stering her property in Engbind and Ireland that he set sail 
for Norway, firied by reports of the unpopularity of its ruler 
Earl Haakon. Arriving In Norway in Uie autumn of 99$! he 
was unanimously accepted as king, and at once set about the 
conversion of the country to Christianity, undeterred by the 
obstinate resistance of the people. It has been suggested that 
Olaf's ambition was to rule a united, as well as a Christian, 
Scandinavia, and we know that he made overtures of marriage 
to Sigrid, queen of Sweden, and set about adding new ships to 
his fleet, when negotiations fell through owing to her obstinate 
heathenism. He made an enemy of her, and did not hesitate 
to involve himself in a quarrd with King Svcyn of Denmarit 
by marrying hb sister Thyre, who had fled from her heathen 
husband Burislav in defiance of her brother's authority. 
Both his Wendish and his Irish wife had brought Oiaf wealth and 
good fortune, but Thyre was his nndoing, for it was on an 
cxpeditkm undertaken in the year zooo to wiest her lands from 
Burislav that he was waylaid off the island Svfltd, near RCtgen, 
b>* the combined Swedish and Danish fleets, together with the 
ships of Earl Haakon's sons. The battle ended in the annthila* 
tion of the Norwegians. Olaf fought to the last on his great 
vessel, the " Long Saakei," the mightiest ship in the North, and 
finally leapt overboard and was no more seen. Full of energy 
and daring, skilled in the u|e of every kind of weapon, genial and 

open-handed to his (rfcnds, implacable to his enemies, OlaT* 
personality was the ideal of the heathendom he had trodden 
down wuh such reckless disregard of bis people's prejudices, 
and It was no doubt as much owing to the popularity his char- 
acter won for him as to the strength of bis position that be was 
able to force bis wiU on the country with impunity. After his 
death he remamcd the hero of his people, who whispered that 
he was yet alive and looked for his return. ** But however 
that may be," says the story, " Olaf TryggvessOn never came 
back to his kingdom in Norway.'* 

Olaf (II.) HAHALOssdN (995-1030), king from 1016-1049, 
called during his lifetime " the Fat," and afterwards known as 
St our, was born in 995i the year in which Olaf Tryggvcas6n 
came to Norway. After some years' absence in England, 
fighting the Danes, he returned to Norway in 1015 and declared 
himself king, obtaining the support of the five petty kings of the 
Uplands. In loiO he defeated Earl Sveyn. hitherto the virtual 
rulvr of Norway, at the battle of Nesje, and within a few years 
had won more power than liad been enjoyed by any of his pre- 
dcoesaors on the throne. He had annihilated the petty kings 
of the South, had crushed the aristocracy, enforced the acceptance 
of Christianity throughout the kingdom., asfierted his auaerainty 
in the Orkney Islands, had humbled the i.u% of Sweden and 
married his daughter m his despite, and had conducted a success- 
ful raid on Denmark. But his success was short-Uved, lor in 
1,029 the Norwegian nobles, seething with discontent, rallied 
round the invading Knut the Great, and Olaf had to flee to 
Russia. On his return a year later he fell at the battle of Slikle- 
stsd, where his own subjects were arrayed against him. The 
succeeding yeara of disunion and misrule under the Danes 
explain the belated affeaion with which his countrymen came 
to regard him. The cunning and cruelty which marred his 
character were forgotten, and his services to his church and 
country remembered. Miracles were worked at his tomb, and 
in 1164 he was canonized and was declared the patron saint 
of Norway, whence his fame spread throughout Scandinavia 
and even to jBngland, where churches are dedicated to him. 
The Norwegian order of knighthood of St Olaf was founded in 
1847 by Os^ I., king of Sweden and Norway,'in memory of this 

The three remaining Norwegian kings of this name are perions 
of minor importance (see Norway: Histary). 

OLAF, or Anuup (d. 981), king of the Danish kin^doins of 
Northumbria and of Dublin, was a son of Sitric, king of Deira. and 
was related to the English king ;£t hclsl an. As his name Indicates 
he was of Norse descent, and he married a daughter of Constan- 
tine 1 1., king of the Scots. When Sitric died about 937 i£tho|stao 
annexed Deira, and Olaf took refuge in Scotland and in Irdaod 
until 937, when he was one of the leaders of the formidable 
league of prukccs which was destroyed by iEthelstan at the 
famous battle of Brunanburh. Again he soui^t a home among 
his kinsfolk in Ireland, but just after iEthelslan's death in 940 
he or Olaf Godfreyson was recalled to England by the North- 
umbrians. Both crossed over, and in 941 the new English king, 
Edmund, gave up Deira to the former. The peace between the 
English and the Danes did not, however» last long. Wulfstan, 
arcMrishop of York, sided with Olaf; but in 944 this king was 
driven from Northumbria by Edmund, and crossing to Ireland 
he ruled over the Danish kingdom of Dublin. From 949 to 
952 he was again king of Northumbria, until he was expelled 
once more, and he passed the remainder of his active life in 
warfare in Ireland. But in 980 his dominion was shattered by 
the defeat of the Danes at the battle of Tara, He went to lona, 
where he died probably in 981, although one account says he 
was in Dublin in 994. This, however, is unUke^y. In the 
sagas he is known as Olaf the Red. 

This Olaf must not be confused with his kinsman and ally, 
Olaf (d. 941), also king of Northumbria and of Dublin, who was 
a son of Godfrc;^, king of Dublin. The latter Olaf became king 
of Dublin in 934; but he was in England in 937, as he took part 
in the fight at Brunanburh, After this event he returned 
to Ireland, but he appears to have acted Cor a very short 

Gland— OLBIA 



time M loint king of NortliombKa with Olaf Sitricson. It !b 
possible th&t he was the ** Olaf of Ireland " who was calted by 
the Nonhufflbrians after ^thelstan's death, but both the Olafs 
appear to have accepted the invitation. He was kiUed in 941 
at Tyningham near Dunbar. 

See W. F. Skene. CeUie Scotland, vdl. i (1876). and J. R. Gieen, 
The CMqnm ^ Eti^nd, yd I (1899). 

OLAIID, an island in the Baltic Sea, next to Gotland the 
largest belonging to Sweden, stietdhing for 8$ m. along the east 
coast of the southern extremity of that Country, from which 
it is separated by Kalmar Sound which is from s to 1 s m. bfroad. 
The greatest breadth of the island is 10 m., and its area 519 s<). m. 
Pop. (1900) 30,408. Consisting for the most pan of Silurian 
Kmestone, and thus forming a striking contrast to the maihtand 
with its granite and gneiss, (Mand is further remarkable <m 
account of the peculiarities of its structure. Down the west ride 
for a conaiderabfo distance runs a limestone ridge, rising usually 
in terrafoes, but at times in steep clifTs, to an extreine height of 
soo ft.; and along the east side there is a parallel ridge of-sand, 
resting on limestone, never exceeding 90 ft. These ridges, known 
as the Western and Eastern Landborgar, are connected towards 
the north and the south by b^Its of sand and heath ; and the 
hollow between them is occupied by a desolate and almost barren 
tract: the southern portion, or Alfvar (forming fully half of the 
southern part of the island), presents a surface of bare red hme^ 
stone scored by superficial cracks and unfathomed fissures, and 
caldned by the heat refracted from the surrounding heights 
The northern portion is covered at best with a copse of haxet 
bushes. Outside the ridges, however, Oland has quite a different 
aspect, the hillsides being not infrequently clothed with dumps 
of trees, while the narrow strip of alluvial coast^land, with Its 
Cornfields, windmills, villages and church towers, appears 
fruitful and prosperous. There are a few small streams in the 
island; and one lake, HomsjO, about 3 m. long, deserves mention 
Of the fir woods which once clothed a considerable area In the 
north the B^kla crown-park Is the only remnant. Groin, especi- 
ally barley, and sandstone, are exported from the island, and 
there are cement works. A number of monuments of unknown 
age exist, includihg stones {skmauuinnar) arranged in groups 
to represent ships. The only town is Borgholm, a watering-place 
on the west coast, with one of the finest castle ruins in Sweden 
The town was founded in 1817, but the c^fetle, dating at least 
from the C3th century, was one of the strongest forttesacs, and 
afterwards, as erected by the architect Nicodcmus Tcssin the 
elder (161^1681), one of the most stately palaces in the country 
The island was joined in 1824 to the administrative district (fAn) 
of Ralmar. Its inhabitanU were formerly styled Cningar, and 
show considerable diveiBity of origin m the matter of Speech, 
local customs and physical appearance. 

From the raid of Ragnar Lodbrok's sons In 775 Oland is 
frequently mentioned in Scandinavian history, and especially as a 
battleground in the wars between Denmark and the northern 
kingdomsb In the middle ages it formed a separate legislative 
and administrative unity. 

OLAOS MAQVUS, or Magki (Magnus, it. Stofa, great, being 
the family name, and not a pergonal epithet). Swedish ccclcsi* 
astic and author, was born at Linkdping in C400 and died at 
Rome In issft like his elder brother, Johannes Magnus, he 
obtained several ecclesiastical preferments (a canonry at Uf»ala 
and at LinkOping. and the archdeaconry of Stivngncs). and was 
employed on various diplomatic services (such as a mission to 
Rome, ffom Gusuvus I , to procure the appointment of Johannes 
Magnus as archbishop of Upsala), but on the success 01 the 
lefonnatini in Sweden his attachment to the old church led 
him to accompany his brother into exile. Settling at Rome, 
from 1537, he acted as his brother's secretary, and ultimately 
became his successor in the (now titular) archbishopnc of 
Upsala. Fspe Paul HI., in xs4d, sent him to the ccfuncil of 
TRttt; later, he became canon of St Lambert in Li£ge; King 
Sigismund L of Poland also offered him a canonry at Pesen; 
but meat of his Ule, after his brother^ death, seems to have 
been spent in the mOBasCary of St BeigitU b Rmne, when he 

subsisted on a pension assigned him by the pope. He b best 
remembered as the author of the famous Hittoria it Geutibtu 
SepletUrionalibm (Rome, 1555). a ^"^^ ^hach long remained lor 
the rest of Europe the -chief authority on Swedish matters and 
is still a valuable repertory of much curious information in 
regard to Scandinavian customs and folk-lore. 

The Bistoria was translated into halian (Venkse, 1565), Geiman 
(Stra«dbBii|, 1567), English (London. 16^) and Dutch (Amttecdanit 
1665); abridinneots of the work appeared also at Antwerp (1558 
and 1562), Paris (a French abridged version, 1561). Amsterdam 
(1586). Frankfort (1618) and Leiden (1652). O&us also wrote a 
TaJndd Umrum septintrumalium . . . (Venice, 1539). 

German astronomer, was bom on the lith of October 1738 
at Arbergcn, a village near Bremen, where his father was minister. 
He studied medtdne at Gdttingen, 1777-1780, attending st the 
same time KoestnerV mathematical course; and in 1779, while 
watching by the sick-bed of afcllow-studcnt, he devised a method 
of calculating cometary orbits which made an epoch fn the 
treatment of the subject, and is still extensively used. The 
treatise containing this imporiant invention was made public 
by Baron vcn Zach under the title Ueber die UkhtesU ttnd 
hequemste Hethode die Baku tines Cometen tu herecknen (Weimar, 
1797) A table of eighty-seven calculated orbits was appended, 
enlarged by Encke in the second edition (1847) to 178, and by 
Galle in the third (1864) to 343. Olbers settled as a physician 
in Bremen towards the end of 1781, and practised actively for 
atKive forty ycarst finally retiring on the ist of January 1823. 
The greater part of each night (he never slept more than four 
hours) was meantime devoted to astronomy, the upper portion 
of his house being fitted up as an observatory. He paid special 
attention to comets, and that of 18 15 (period seventy-four 
years) bears bis name in commemoration of its duMection by 
him. He also took a leading part in the discovery of the minor 
planets, rs-identified Ceres on the ist of January 1802, and 
delected Pallas on the 38th of March following. His bold 
hypothesis of their origin by the disruption of a primitive 
large planet {MonatKche Correspondent, vi. 88), although now 
discarded, received countenance from the finding of Juno by 
Harding, and of VeSta by himself. In the precise regions of 
Cetus and Virgo where the nodes of such supposed phuietary 
fragments should be situated. Olbers was deputed by his 
fellow-citizens to assist at the baptism of the king of Rome 
on the 9th of June 181 1, and he was a member of the corps 
iSgislaiif in Paris 1812-1813. He died on the 2nd of March 
t84o, at the age of eighty-^me. He was twice married, and one 
son survived him. 

See Birgraphiseke Skitaen verHorhener Bremischer Aetde, by Dr 
G Barkhauaen (Bremen. 1844); AUtemeint geograpkucke Bpkemeru 
den. iv. 283 (1799); AhstrAds FkU^ Trans, iv. a68 (1843)1 
Ailrommtuke NofknckUn, xxiL 265 (Bcssel). also appended 
to A Erman's Brtefwechsd twischen (Mbers und Bessd {2 voU 
Leipag. 1851): Atfgemeine Deutsche Biotraphie (S. GQnther) 
R Grant. HiU of Pkjs. Astr. p. 930; R. WoK. Ctsckukte der 
Aslromomie. p 517. The first two volumes of Dr C. Schilling's 
exhaustive work. Wilkdm Others, sein Leben und seiue Werkt, appealed 
at Berlin in 1894 and 1900. a third and later volume including his 
personal correspondence and biography. A list of Olbera's contri- 
buciods to Rientific periodicals is ^[iven at p. xxxv of the 3fd ed. of 
his LcichteMe Melkpde, and his unique collection of works relating 
to comets now forms part of the Pulkowa library. 

OLAIA, the chief Greek settlement in the oorth-west of the 
Euxine. It was generally known to the Greeks of Hellas as 
Borysthenes. though its actual site was on the right bank of 
the Hypanis (Bug) 4 m. abovo its junction with the estuary of 
the Borysthenes river (Dnieper). Euscbius says that it was 
founded from Miletus t, 650 B.C., a statement which ia borne 
out by the discovery of Milesian pottery of the 7lh century. 
It first appears as enjoying friendly relations with its neighbours 
the Scythians and standing at the head of trade routes leading 
far to the north-caat (Herodotus iv ). Its wares also penetrated 
northward. It exchanged the manufactures of Ionia and, 
from the sth century, of Attica for the slaves, hides and com of 
Scythla. Changes of the native population (see ScyTbia) 
interrupted this commerce, and tha city was bard put to it 10 



defend Uielf againft the suzrouading barbarians. We knt>w 
oC these difficulties and of the democratic constitution of the 
dty from a decree in honour of Protogcncs in the 3rd century 
B.C. (CJ.G. ii. 2058, Ittscr, Or. Seplent, Pont. Euxtu. i. x6). 
In the following century it fell under the suzerainty of Scilunis, 
whose name appears on its coins, and when his power was 
broken by Mithradates VI. the Great, of Pontus, it submitted 
to the latter. About 50 B.C. it was entirely destroyed by the 
Getae and lay waste for many years. Ultimately at the wfsh 
of, and, to judge by the coins, under the protection of the natives 
themselves, it was restored, but Dio Chrysostom (Or. xxxvi.), 
who visited it about ajx. S^t gives a curious picture of its poor 
state. During the 2nd century a.o. it prospered better with 
Roman support and was quite flourishing from the time of 
Scplimius Severus, when it was incorporated in Lower Moesia, 
to 248, when its coins came to an end, probably owing to its 
sack by the Goths. It was once more restored in some sort 
and lingered on to an unknown date. Excavations have shown 
the position of the old Greek walls and of those which enclosed 
the narrower site of the Roman city, an interesting Hellenistic 
house, and cemeteries ol various dates. The principal cult 
was that of Achilles Pontarches, to whom the archons made 
dedications. It has another centre at Leuce (Phidonisi) and 
at various points in the north Euxine. Secondary was that 
of ApoUo Prostates, the patron of the stratcgi; but the worship 
of most of the Hellenic deities is testified to in the inscriptions. 
The coinage begins with large round copper pieces comparable 
only to the Roman aes grave and smaller pieces in the shape of 
dolphins; these both go back into the 6th century B.C. Later 
the city adopted silver and gold coins of the Aeginetic standard. 

See E. H. Minns. Scythians and Creeks (Cambridge. 1009) ; V. V. 
Latyshev, CVMa (St Pctcnburg. 1887, in Russian). For inscriptions, 
Boeckh, C.I.G. vol. ii.; V. V. Latyshcv, Inscr. Orae Seplent. Ponti 
Buxini, vols. i. and iv. For excavations, Reports of B. V. Pharmak- 
Ovsky in CompU rendu de la C&mm. imp. archidog. (St Pctcnburff, 
1901 sqq.). and BuUilin of the saroc, Noc 8, 13, &c., summarijed in 
Archaofogiscker Anaeiger (1903 sqq.). (H. H. M.) 

OLBIA (Gr. itKfiia, i.«. happy; rood. Teiranova Pausanla, 
9.ff.),an ancient seaport city of Sardinia, on thc.east coast. The 
name indicates. that it was of Greek origin, and Inadition attri- 
butes its foundation to the Boeotians and Thespians under 
lolaus (see Sahoinu). Pais considers that it -was founded by 
the Phocaeans of MassDia before the 4th century b.c. (in Taro- 
poni, op. cU. p. 83). It is situated on low ground, at the extremity 
of a deep recess, now called the Golfo di Tcrranova. It was 
besieged unsuccessfully by L. Cornelius Scipio in 259 b.c. Its 
territory was ravaged in 210 b.c. by a Carthaginian fleet. In 
Roman times it was the regular landing-place for travellers 
from Italy. Cicero notes the receipt of a letter from his brother 
from Olbia in 56 B.C., and obviously shared the prevailing 
belief as to the unhealthioess of Sardinia. Traces of the prc- 
Roman city have not been found. The line of the Roman city 
walls has been determined on the N. and E., the N.E. angle 
being at the ancient harbour, which lay to the N. of the modern 
{N otitic dcgU Scavi^ 1890, p, 224). Among the inscriptions are 
two tombstones, one of an imperial frccdwoman,' the other 
of a freedman of Acte, the concubine of Nero; a similar tomb- 
stone was also found at Carales, and tiles bearing her name 
have been found in several parts of the island, but especially 
at Olbia, where in building a modem house in 1881 about one 
thousand were discovered. Pais {op. cU. 89 sq<).) attributes 
to Olbia an inscription now in the Campo Santo at Pisa, an 
epistyle bearing the words " Cereri sacrum Claudia Aug. lib. 
Acte," and made of Sardinian (?) granite. In any case it is 
clear that Acte must have had considerable property in the 
island {Corp. Inscr. Lai. x. 7980). Discoveries of buildings 
and tombs have frequently occurred within the area of the 
town and in its neighbourhood. Some scanty remains of an 
aqueduct exist outside the town, but hardly anything else of 

* The frcedwoman had been a slave of Acte before na$stnR into 
the property of the emperor, and took the cojjnomcn Acteniana—A 
practke which otherwise only occurs in the case of slaves of citizens 
of the highest nak or of foreign kings. 

antiquity is to be seen m sUu, A large number of milestooes, 
fifty-one in all, with inscriptions, and several more with illegible 
ones, belonging to the first twelve miles of the Roman road 
between Olbia and Carales, have been diKovcrcd, and arc now 
kept in the church of S. Simphdo (Noltzit degli Scan, 1888, 
p. SS5'* ^^f P> >S8: xS9'» PP- ^i7r 3^» Classical Retiev, 1889, 
p. 228; 1890, p. 65, P. Tampooi, SiUost Epigrnfica, OtbienUt 
Sassari, 1895). This large number may be accounted for by the 
fact that a new stone was often erected for a new emperor. They 
range in date from A.D. 245 to 375 (one is possibly of Domitian). 
The itineraries state that the main road from Carales to Olbia 
ran through the centre of the island to the east of Gennaxgcnlu 
(see Sardinia); but a branch certainly diverged from the main 
road from Carales to Turris Libisonis (which kept farther west, 
more or less along the line followed by the modern railway) and 
came to Olbia. The distance by both lines is much the same; 
and all these milestones belong to the last portion which was 
common to both roads. (J. As.) 

OLD-AQB PENSIONS. The provision of annuities for aged 
poor by the state was proposed in England in (he x8th century-- 
e-g. by Francis Maseres, cursitor baron of the Exchequer, in 
1772, and by Mr Mark Rolle, M.P., in 1787. Suggestions for 
subsidixing friendly societies have also been frequent— e.g. by T. 
Paine in 1795, tentatively in Sturges Bourne's Report on the 
Poor Laws, 181 7, and by Lord Lansdowne in 1837. The subject 
again became prominent in the latter part of the 19th century. 
Canon Blackley, who started this movement, proposed to com- 
pel every one to insure with a state department against sickness 
and old age, and esBentially his scheme was one for the relief 
of the ratepayers and a more equitable readjustment of the poor- 
rate. The terms provisionally put forward by him required 
that every one in youth should pay £10, in return for which the 
state was to grant 8s. a week sick allowance and 4s. pension 
after seventy. These proposals were submitted to the Select 
Committee 00 National Provident Insurance, 1885-1887. This 
body reported unfavourably, more especially on the sick in- 
surance part of the scheme, but the idea of old-age pension 
survived, and was taken up by the National Provident League, 
of which Mr (afterwards Sir) J. Rankin, M.P., was chairman. 
The subject was discussed in the constituencies and expectation 
was aroused. An unofficial pariiamentaiy oommittce was 
formed, with Mr J. Chamberlain as chairman. This comniittee 
published proposals in March 1892, which show a very interesting 
change of attitude on the part of the promoters. Compulsion, 
which at the earlier period had found favour with Canon Blackley, 
Sir J. Rankin and even Mr Chamberlain, was no longer urged. 
The annuitant wasno longer required to pay a premium adequate 
to the benefits promised, as in Canon Blackley's proposal. The 
benefit was no longer a pure annuity, but premiums were, is 
certain cases, returnable, and allowances were provided for 
widows, children (if any) and for the next of kin. Canon 
Blackley's professed object was to supersede the friendly societies, 
which, he alleged, were more or less insolvent; a proposal was 
now introduced to double every half-ciown of pension derived 
by members from their friendly societies. This suggestion 
was criticized, even by supporters of the principk of state aid* 
on the ground that unless a pension was gratuitous, the class 
from which pauperism is really drawn could not profit by it. 
Mr Charles Booth in particular took this line. He accordingly 
proposed that there should be a general endowment of old 
Age, 5S. a week to every one at the age of nxty-five. 
This proposal was calculated to involve an expendititre of 
£18,000,000 for England and Wales and £24,000,000 for the 
United Kingdom, exclusive of the cost of adminblration. While 
Mr Booth severely critidxed the weak points of the contributory 
and voluntary schemes, their most influential advocate, Mr 
Chamberlain, did not spare Mr Booth's proposals. Speaking 
at Highbury, for instance, on the 24th ol May 1899, he described 
Mr Booth's universal scheme as " a gigantic system of out-door 
relief for every one^ good and bad, thrifty and unthrifty, the 
waster, drunkard and idler, as well as the industiioQS," and 
very fob'cibly sUted his inability to support it. 



h 1893 Mr Gbifatoiie nfemd the wiiole qOflitioii to' a 
loyal comnussion (Lord Abcidaie, chainnan)'. A majority 
leport, adverse to the principle of sUte pensioat, was iatued 
in X895. A minoTity report, signed by Mr Chambeilain and 
•thers, dissented, mainly on the grrand that public expectation 
would be disappointed if nothing was done. In 1896 Lord 
Salisbury appointed a oonunittce " of experts- " (Lord Rothschild, 
chairaan) to report on schemes submitted, and, if neccsuiy, 
to deviie a scheme. Th^ committee were unable to recommend 
any of the schemes submitted, and added that, " we omseives 
are unable, after repeated attempts, to devise any proposal free 
from grave inherent disadvantages." This second condemnation 
was not consideied conclusive, and a select committee of the 
House of Commons (Mr Chaplin, chairman) was appointed to 
consider the condition of " the aged deserving poor." After 
an ineffectual attempt by Mr Chaplin to induce the committee 
to drop the pension idea, and to consider the provision made 
for the aged by the poor law, the committee somewhat hastily 
promulgated a scheme of gratuitous pensions for persons poasess- 
ang certain qualifications. Of these the following were the most 
important: age of sixty-five; no conviction for crime; n^ 
poor-law relief, ".Unless under exceptional dicumstaaces," 
within twenty jreais; non-poasession of income of xos. a week; 
proved industry^ or proved exercise of reasonable providence 
by some definite mode of thrift. The committee refrained 
from explaining the maqjiinery and from estimating the cost, 
and suggested that this hist problem should be submitted to 
yet another committee. 

Accordingly a departmental c6mmittee (chairman^ Sir £. 
Hamilton) was appointed, which reported in fannary xgoo. 
The estimated cost of the above plan was, by ^is committee, 
calculated at £xo,3oo/xx> in X90X, rising to £15,650,000 hi xp^i. 
Mr Chaplin had publicly suggested that £9,000,000, the proceeds 
of a IS. duty on com, would go a long way to meet the aeecb of 
the case — a conjecture which was obviously far too sanguine. 
These unfavourable reports discouraged the nx>re responsible 
advocates of state pensions. Mr Chamberlain appealed to the 
friendly societies to formulate a plan, an invitation which they 
showed no disposition to accept. Efforts conthraed to be made 
to press forward Mr Booth's universal endowment scheme or 
some modification of it. To this Mr Chamberhin declared his 
hostility. And here the matter rested, till in his Budget speech 
in 1907 Mr Asquith pledged the Liberal govenmient to start 
a scheme in 1908. 

In X908 accordingly there was passed the OU-Age Pensions 
Act, which carried into effect a scheme for state peasbns, 
payable as from the xst of January 1909 to persons of the age 
of 70 years and over. The act grants a pension according to 
a graduated scale of not exceeding ss. i week to every person, 
taitc and female, who fulfils certain statutory conditions, and at 
the sai^ time is not subject to certain disqualificatiokis. The 
statutory conditions, as set out in § 2 of the act, are: (x) The 
person must have attained the age of seventy; U) must satisfy 
the pension authorities that for at least twenty years up to the 
date of receipt of pension he has been a British subject and has 
hKd hb residence in the United Kingdom; and (5) the penon 
must satisfy the pension authorities that his yearly means do 
not exceed £31, xos. In f 4 of the act there are elaborate pro- 
visions for the calculation of yearly means, but the iottowing 
may be particukrly noticed: it) in calculathig the mens of 
a person being one of a married couple living together in the 
same home, the means shall not in any case be taken to be a 
less amount than half the total means of the couple, and (a) if 
any person directly or indirectly deprives himself of any income 
or property in order to qualify for an oM-age pension, it shaD 
nevertheteas be taken to be part of his means. The dlsqualifica- 
ttons are <i) receipt of poor-law reiitrf (this qualification was 
specially removed » from the ist of January 191 1); (2) habitual 
failure to work (except in the case of those who have continuously 
for ten years up to the age of sixty made provision for their 
future by payments to friendly, provident or other societies or 
trade unions; (3) detention in a pauper or criminal lunatic 
asylum; (4) imprisonment without the option of a fine, which 

^lisqualifies for ten years; and (5) liability to disqualification 
for a period not exceeding ten years in the case of an babitual 
drunkard. The gzaduated scale of pensions is given in a schedule 
to theact, and providethat when the yearly means of a pensioner 
do not exceed £si he shall have the full pension of 5s. a week, 
which diminishes by is. a week for every addition of £3, las. 6d. 
to his income, until the latter reaches £31, xos., when no pension 
is payable. The pension is paid weekly, on Fridays (§ 5), and b 
inalienable (§ 6). 

All claims for, And questions relating to, pensions are deter- 
mined by the pension authorities. They are (i) pension officcn 
appointed by the Treasury from among inland revenue officers; 
(a) a central pension authority, which is the Local Government 
Board or a committee appointed by it, and (3) local pension com- 
mittees appointed for evecy borough and urban district with a 
population of over 20,000, and for every county. 

During the first three months of the year 1909, in which the 
act came into operation, there were 837,831 claims made for 
pensions: 490,755 in England and Wales, 85,408 in Scotland* 
and 361,668 in Irdand. Of these daims a total of 647,494 were 
granted: 393,700 in England dnd Wales, 70,294 in Scotland, and 
183,500 in Iieland. The pensions in force on the 31st of March 
1909 were as follows: 582,565 of 5s., 23,616 of 4s., 23,275 of 
3s., 11,439 of 2S., and 6609 of xs. By the 30th of Sq>tember 
the total amount of money paid to 682,768 pensioners was 
£6,063,658, and in the estimates of 1909-19x0 a sum of £8,750,000 
was provided for the payment of pensions. 

G^^Miiy.^The movement in favour of state aid to provision 
for old age has been largely due to the example of Germany. 
The German i^tcm (which for old age dates from 1891) is 
a form of compulsory and contributory insurance. One half 
of the premium payable is paid by the labourer, the' other 
half by the employer. The state adds a subvention to the 
allowances paid to the annuitant (See Gebjcany.) 

France,— ^y a law of April 19x6 a system of « old-age 
pensbns, designed to come into operation -in 191 x» was adopted. 
It is a contrflbutory system, embracing all wage-earners, wKh 
the exception of railway servants, miners and sailors on the 
special reserve list of the navy. It applies also to small 
landowners, tenant, farmen and farm labourers. All axe 
eligible for a pension at the age of 65, if In receipt of less 
than £i3o a year. The actual' rente or pension is calculated 
on the basis of the total obligatory contribution, together 
with a &(cd viag^re or stale annuity. Male wage-eameis are 
required to contribute 9 francs a year, and females 6 francs, 
the empfeyers contributing a like amount. The largest penaSon 
obtainable is for life contributions and amounts to 4x4 francs. 
A clause in the act permits wage-earners to claim the rente 
at the age of 55 on a proportionately reduced scale without 
the viag^. The total cost of providing penstons in 1911 is 
estimated at over £5.500,000. 

Denmark.— Tht Danish system of old-age pensions was in- 
stituted fay a law of 1891, and has been extended by fmcher 
acts of 190a and 290S. By the law of X89X the burden of 
maintaining the aged was in part transferred from the kKal to 
the national taxes, and relief from this latter source was called 
a pension. Recipients of public assistance must be over 
60 years of age, they must be of food chancter and for s 
years previous to receipt must have had their domicile in 
Denmark without receiving public charity* Such public assist- 
ance may be granted either in money, or kind, or by reaidcnoe 
in an institution, such w an btMfJtal. The ntf»anr» jgfiven. 
whatever it may be^ must be suffieieia for maintenaace, and 
for attendance in case of iUaess. The actual aaowt h 
determined by the poor-law authorities, bat all privat« aaiisl- 
anoe anoounting to more than 100 kroner (£5, 13s.) a year h 
taken into account in measuring the poverty of (he ftppUcaat. 
The coat of assistance is met in the fitst case by the-cwHVHine 
in which the recipient is domiciled, but half the amount is 
afterwards refunded by the sUte. In xQ07^i9oa» yi^iiSspencnB 
were assisted— S3,oo8 by money and 18,177 otherwise. .The 
total expenditure was f/^,99a, i^^tMo beb« rcfundod by 



New Zetxi^nd.—ln 189S a bilV intfoduced by the Rt. Hon. R. J. 
Seddon, premier, became law which provided for thQ payment of 
an old-age pension out of the consolidated fund (revenue of the 

general ooverament) to penotaduly qualified, without contrilMition 
y the oenafidarica. The dairoanu inuft be 65 yean of age, 
resident tn the colonx^ aad have so resided for 25 years. They must 
be free from conviction for lesser legal oflfencea for la year*, and 
for more serioos breaches of the bw for 2^ years, previous to the 
application. They must be of good moral character and have a 
record of sobriety and respectaoiUty for five years. Their yearly 
income must not exceed £53. and they must not be owoera 01 
property exceeding in value tijo, /Uiens. aborigines. Chinese 
and Asiatics are excluded. Tne pensions are for nS per annum, 
but for each £1 of yearly income over and above £^4, and also for 
each £is of capital ovtr aod above j[sP, £1 is deducted from the 
amount of the pensioo. Applications ^have to be made to the 
deputy registrars of one of 73 districts Into which the colony is 
for this purpose divided. The cbim is then recorded and submitted 
to a stipendiary maglstmte, bcfoi^ whom the datmant has to fjrove 
his cjualifications and submit to cross-examination. It the claim is 
admitted, a certificate is issued to the d^uty registrar and in due 
course handed to the claimant. Paynncnt is made through the local 
po&t-office as desired by the pensioner. The act came into force 
on the rst of November 1898. An amending act of 1005 increased 
the amount of the roaxiamm pension to £>6 a year* See further, Nbw 
Zbalamo. The authors of the measure maintain that it is a great 
success, while others point to the invidious character of the cross- 
examination reoulrcd in proving the necessary degree of poverty, 
and allege that tne arrangement penalises the thrifty member^ of the 
poorer daaa, and b a direct incentive to tiaasfer of property, of a 
aaore or less fraudulent character, between members 01 a family. 

VKiona.—Uy the Old- Age Pensions Act 1900, £75.000 was 
approprbted for the purpose of paying a pension of not more than 
10s. per week to any person who fulfilled the necessary conditions. 
of woich the following were the principal: The pensioner must 
be 65 years of age or permanently disabfed, must fill up a dccbra- 
tloo that he has lived twenty years in the state: has not been 

Snvictcd of drunkenness, wife-dcsertion, &c.; that his weekly 
Dome and hb propertv do not exceed a given sum (the rcgubtion 
of thb and other dcuQs b intrusted to the governor in council). 
Ferther suma were subaequcatly approprbted to the purposes of 
the act. 

AjJTBoarrtss.- . 
Nanonal Provident 
on Aced Poor (ift,_ . . 
(C896T; Report of the Select Committee on ^ed Deserving Poor 
^899) : ReMrt of Departmental Committee. jEc.,. about the Aged 

nng Poor (lopo); J. A. Spender, The State and Pensions 
sa Old Ate (1^92): George King. cXd Ane Pensions 
-' " — ^'^ Conterenoes; Annual Reports of the 

of Poor Law Conferenoes; Annual Reports of the Chief Registrar 
of Friendly Societies; E. W. Brabrook. Prendent Secieiies and the 

PuUic Welfare (1698), ch. viiL Por: Charlea Booth. The Aged Poor 
in Kngtand and Wales (1894) ; Otd Age Pensions (1899) ; Right Hon. 
Toseph Chamberbin. '* The Labour (Question," Ninettenth Century 
(November 1891); Speeches (list April 1891 and 94th May 1899); 
Kcv. J. Frame Wllkmaoa. Pensions and Pauperism (189a): Publi- 

lepfint from OddfeUom' Magarnm (1895); the Foresters' MiseeOalky 
fFebruary 1900); Vnity, a MoniUy Jenmal ef Poreslen, &c 
(February 190a); C S. Loch. Old-Ais Pensions and Pauperism 
(1892): Reply of Bradfield Board d[ CuanJbns to drcubr of 
National Provident League (1891); PabGcatioas of the Clianty 
Organixation Society. 

OLDBIIRY, an urban dbtrict In the OMbnry parHamentary 
diviikm of Worcesterthire, EngUod, 5 m. W. of Birmingham, 
on the Great Weitefn and London & North-Westam railways 
and the BicniBghani canal. Fop. (1901) 95,191. CoiA, iron and 
limestone abound in the neighbourhood, and the- town possesses 
alkali and chemical works, raflway-carrbge works, iron, edge- 
tool, nan and sted works, malttegs, com-mifls, and brick and 
tllekihtt. The ufbaa dbiria indudM the townships of Langley 
and Warby. 

OLDCAinX ilB iOHir (d. 1417). Eb^iah LoDardfaaden was 
wa of Sir Richard Oldcaitle «f Almeby in Herefordshire. He 
k fint mentioned as wrving fn the expedition to Scotland in 1400, 
irhea he was probably qidf e a young man. Kcxt year he was 
hi charge of Builth castle In Brecon, and servhig all through 
the Welsh campaigns won the friendship and esteem of Henry, 
the prince of Wales. DMcastle represented Herefordshiro fn the 
parliament ol 1404. Four years bter he married Joan, the heiress 
of Cobhaoi, and ims thereon summoned to parilament as Lord 
Cobhaoi hi her tight. As a tnatSd tupportar of the prince, 
OMcaMle hdd ahigh command in the eapcdItloB which the young 

Henry' aent to France in I4tt. LdlanAy had many sopporCer* 
in Herefordshire, and Oldcaatle himself had adopted LoNaid 
opinions before 1410, when the churches on hb wife's estates 
in Kant were laid under interdict lor aniicenaed preaching. 
In tbe convocation which met in March urj, shortly before iht 
death of Henry I V^ Oldcastle waa at once accused of heresy. 
But hb Mendahip with the new king prevented any decisive 
action till oonvinclog evidence waa found in a book befcmging to 
Oldcaatle, which was discovered in a ahop in PatenMSter Row. 
The maUec waa brought before the kmg, who desired that not hing 
should be done till he hod tried hb personal infhifnfr. Old- 
caatle dedared hb readiness toauiimit to the king ** all hb fortune 
in thb world,'' but waa firm in his religioas beliefs. When he 
fled from Windsor to hb own castle at Cowling, Heniy at last 
ooascnted to aprosecutmn. Oldcastle refused to obey the 
archbishop's rcpoled citations, and it was only under a royal 
writ that ha at last appeared before the ecclesiastical court on 
the 13rd «f September. In a eonfcasion of fab faith he declared 
hb belief in the sacraments- aod the neccasiiy of penance and 
true confession; but to put hofie, faith or trust in imagca was 
the great sin of idolatry. But he would not assent to the ortho- 
dox doctrine of the saciament as stated by the bishops, noa 
admit the necessity of confession to a priest. So on the asth of 
September he was convicted as a heretic Henry was still anxioas 
to find a way of escape for his old comrade, and granted a respite 
of forty daySk Befsure that time had oxpbed Oldcastle escaped 
from the Tower by the hdp of one William Fisher, a parchment* 
maker of Smithfield (Riley, Memorials of London, 641). Old* 
castle now put himself at the head of a wide-spread Lollard 
conspiracy^ which assumed a definitely political character. 
The design was to seise the king and hb brothers during a 
TWelf th-nlght mumming at Eltham, and perhaps, as was alleged, 
to establish some sort of commonwealth. Henry, fomwarncd 
of theb intention, removed to London, and when the Lollards 
assrmMed in force in St Giles's Fields on the loth of Jamiaiy 
they were easily dispersed. Oldcastle himself escaped into 
Herefordshire, and for nearly four years avoided capture. 
Apparently he was privy to the Scrope and Cambridge plot in 
July 141 St when he stirred some movement in the Wdsh Matches. 
On the failure of the scheme he went again into hiding. Oldcastk 
was no doubt the instigator of the abortive LoUard plots of 1416, 
and appears to hlave intrigued with the Scots. But at bst hb 
hidhig-pboe was discovered and in November 1417 be was 
captured by the Lord Charlton of Powis. Oldcastle who Was 
" sore wounded ere he would be taken," was brought to London 
hi a horse-litter. On- the 14th of December he was formally 
condemned, on the record of hb previous conviction, and that 
same day was hung in St Giles's Fields^ and burnt " gaUows and 
all.'^ It b not dear that he was burnt alive. 
. Okkastb died a martyr. He was no doubt a man of fine 
quality, but drcurastancea made him a traitor, and it b impossible 
altogether to condemn hb execution. His unpopular opinions 
and eariy friendship with Henry V. created a traditional scandal 
which kng continued. In the old pby The Pawums Virtarits 
of Henty V., written before 1588, Oldcastle figures as the prince's 
boon oompanioo. When Shakespeare adapted that play in 
ITcstry IV., Oldcastle still appeared; but when the play was 
printed in 1598 Fabtaff's name was substituted, in deference, 
as it b said, to the then Lord Cobham. Though the lat knight 
stlH remains '* my old kd of the Castle," the stage character 
has nothing to do with the Lollard leader. 

BiS[.ioaaAraY.^The record of Oldcastle'a trial' is nrSnted ia 
Fasciculi Ztsaniorum (Rolls series) and in WUkioVs cWifsa. iii. 
351-357. The chief contemporary notices of hb bter career are 
gtven in Cesta Henrici Quinii (Eng. Hist. Soc.) and in Walslneham's 
aistoria AnMoctuA, There nave .been many lives of Oldcastle. 
mahily baaed oa The Aetes and Mowmmonts of John Foxe. who in hb 
turn followed the Briefe Chronyde of John Bab, first published 
in 1544. For notes on Oldcastle^ early career, consult J. rf. W> lie. 
History of England under Henry tV. For literary bhtory see the 
Introductions 10 Richard James's Iter Lantastrense (Chctham Soc. 
184s) and to Grosazt's editson of the Poems of Mehard James (1680). 
See abo W. Barske. Oldeastle-falslaff in der englischen Lileratur bis 
tu Shakespeare (Palaestra. I. BeHin. 1905). For a reccitf Life, see 
W. TTXVaush hi the English Historical fUmew. vol. xx. (C L. K.) 



0U> CktUMUm (Ger. AUkaMikm), iliedesigiMitiod aMimed 
liy Umm membert of the Roman Catholic Church who refused 
to accept the decstes of the Vatkaa Council of 1870 defining 
the dogma of pa]>al iafaUibillty (see Vauican CoUNcn and 
Imtaixibiutv) and ultimately wt- Uf^ a separate ecclesiastical 
diganlaaiion on the episcopal model. The Old Catholic move* 
Bent, at the outset at least, differed fundamentally from tlie 
Pioteatant Iteformatloa of the x6th century in that it aimed 
not at any drastic changes in doctrine but at the restoration 
of the andcnt Catholic system, founded on the diocesan episco- 
pate, which nader the influence of tile uhramcmtane movement 
of the 19th century had been finally displaced by the r^idiy 
centnUaed system of the papal monarchy. In this respect it 
represented a tendency of old standing within the Church and 
one which, in the x8th ctntuiy, had all but gained the upper 
luuid (se* Febkonianisii and GAbUCANiBif). Protestantism 
takes for its standard the Bible and the supposed doctrines 
and institutions of the apostolic age. OU Catholicism sets up 
4hc authority of the undivided Church, and aocepts the decrees 
of the fiist seven general councila-Hdown to the- second coundl 
of Nkaea (787), a principle which haa necessarily involved a 
certain amount of doctrinal divergence both from the standards 
of Rome and thoae of the Piotestant Churches. 

The proceedings of the Vatican council and their outcome 
had at first threatened to lead to a serious schism In the Church. 
The minority against the decrees included many of the most 
distinguished prelates and theofogians of the Roman com- 
munion, and the methods by which their opposition had been 
overcome seemed to make it difficult for them to kubmit. The 
pressmv put upon them was, however, immense, and the reaaons 
for submission may well have seemed overwhckning; in the 
end, after more or less delay, aH the recalcitrant bishops gave 
in their adhe^n to the decrees. 

The " sacrificio dell' intelletto," as it was termeJ—the snb- 
ordination Of individual opmion to the general authority of 
the ChttfclH-was the maxim adopted by one and dll. Seventeen 
of the German biceps almost immediately receded from the 
posilioo they had taken up at Rome and assented to the dogma, 
publishing at the same time a pastoral letter in which they sought 
to justify their change of sentiment on the ground of expediency 
in relation to the interests of the Church (MicheKs, Der neu€ 
FiMatf Hirtenbrief, 1870). Their example was followed by at! 
the other bishops of Germany. Darboy, archbishop of Paris, 
and DupankMip, frishop of Orleans, in France adopted a Hke 
course, and took with them the entire body of the French dergy. 
Eadi bishop demanded in turn the came submission from the 
deigy of his diocese, the aHemative being suspension from 
pastoral functions, to be followed by deprivation of oflice. It 
may be urged as some extenuation of this general abandonment 
of a great principle, that those who had refused to subscribe 
to the dogma received but languid support, and in some cases 
direct discouragement, from their respective ' governments. 
The submission of the illustrious Karl Joseph von Hefele was 
general^ attiibuicd to the influence exerted by the court of 

The universities, being less directly undef the control of 
the Church, were prepared to show a bolder front.' Dr J. F.' 
von Schulte, professor at Prague, was one of the first to publish 
a formAl protest. A meeting of QithoHc professors and dis- 
tinguished scholars convened at Nuremberg (August 1870) 
tecorded a like dissent, and resolved on the adoption of measures 
for bringing about the assembling of a realty free council north 
of the Alps. The A fpd •wx Bt9qu« Cotkdifues of M. Hyadnthe 
Loyson (better known as " P2re Hyadnthe" >, after referring 
to the overthrow of ** the two despotisms,'' ** the empire of the 
Napoleons and the temporal power of the popes." appealed 
to the Catholic bishops throughout the world to put an end' 
to (h« schism by dedaring w^her the recent decrees weft or 
were not binding on the faith of the Church. This appeali on 
its appearance in Ia Libert^ early in 1871, was suppressed by, 
the order of the kiiw of Italy. On the aSth of March DdUinger, 
in a letter of some length, set forth ifce leasona whidi ooa^' 

petted him'alto to wHhhold his submission alike as'* a Christian, 
a theoiogfan, an historical student and a citiaen." Ihe pubKca^ 
tion of this letter was shortly followed by a sentence of ex^ 
conwrahication pronounced against DOUinger and Professor 
Johannes Friedrich (9. v.), and read to the different congrega- 
tlona from the pulpita of M snich. The professors of the univer- 
shy, on the other hand, had shortly before evinced their resolu- 
tion of alEarding DdlUnger all the moral support In their power 
by an address (April 3, 1871) in which they denounced the 
Vatican decrees with unsparing severity, dedaring that, at the 
very time when the! German people had '* wotf for themselves 
the post of honour on the battlefield among the nations of 
the earth," the German bishops luul-stooped to the dishonouring 
task of "fordng consciences hi the service of an unchristian 
tyranny, of redudng many pious and upright men to distress 
and want, and of persecuting those who had but stood steadfast 
in thdr allegiance to the ancient faith" (Friedbcrg. AhtensHich 
s. trtttm VctkaitUeken CmcS, p. 187). An address to the king, 
drawn up a few days later, recdved the signatures of i3,oeo 
CathoUca. The refusal of the rites of the Church to one of the 
signatories, Dr Zenger, when on his deathbed, elicited strong 
expressions of disapproval; 'and when, shortly after, it became 
necessary to fill up by dectfon six vacandes hi the council of 
the university, the feeUng Of the dectors was indicated by the 
return of candidates distinguished by their dissent from the 
new decreet. In the following September the demand for 
another and a free coundl was responded to by the assembling 
of a congress- at Munich. It was composed of nearly 500 dele* 
gates, convened from afanost all parts of the world; but the 
Teutonic dement was now as manifestly predomfaiant as the 
Latin dement hftd been ht Rome. The proceedings were pre- 
dded over by Professor von Sdnilte, and lasted three days. 
Among those who took a prominent part In the deliberations 
were Landammann Kdler, Windschdd, DOllingcr, Rdnkens, 
Maassen (professor of canon law at Vienna), Friedrich and 
Huber. 'Ihe arrangenrents finally agreed upon were mainly 
provisbnal; but one of the resolutions plainly declared that 
H was desirsble if possible to effect a reunion with the Oriental 
Grtek and Russian Churches, and also to arrive at an " under- 
standing " wHh the Protestant and Episcopal communions. 

In the foUoiHng year lectures Were delivered at Munich by 
various supporters oT the new movement, and the learning and 
doqoence el Rdnkens were displayed with marked effect. In 
Fhmce the adhesldn of the abb6 Mfchaud to the cause attracted 
considerable interest, not only from his reputation as a preacher, 
but abo from the notable step in advance made by his dedara- 
tion that, inasmuch as the adoption of the standpoint of the 
Tridentine canons woidd render reunion with the Lutheran 
and the Rdonned Churohes hnpossible, the wisest course would 
bo to insist on nothing more with respect to doctrinal hdid 
than was embodied in the candns of the first seven oecumenical 
coondb. In the same year the Old Catholics, as they now 
began to be termed, entered into rdatrons with the historical 
little Jansenist Church of Utrecht. D6llinger, in delivering hb 
inau^ral address as rector of the university of Munich, e iuiose d 
hb conviction that theology had received a fresh impinse and 
that the religious history of Europe was entering upon a new 

' Other circumstances contributed to Invesl Old CsthdUdsm 
with additional imporunce. It was evident that the relation^ 
between the Roman Oxrin and the Prussian government were 
becoming extremdy strained. In February 1873 appeared 
the fint measures of the FVdk ministry, having for thdr object 
the control of the ihffuence of the clergy hi the schoob, and hi 
May the pope refused to accept Cardinal Hohenlohe, who during 
the council had opposed the definitioD of the dogma, aa Pnmiatf 
minister at the Vatican. In the same year two humble parfste 
priests, Renftle of Mering-|n Bavsrii and Tisngetmann of Unkcl. 
in the RhineUnd* set an example of independence by xefusiog 

■ The rites were edtriinitteTvd and the burial service conducted 
by Fricdribh, who had rdu^ed to acknonledge lus exoom- 



to aocfpt the decarees. Hie fonner, driven fraon his pwrfih 
church, wu followed by the majority of his cnngrcsatioa, who, 
in spite of «veiy <Uscouxa^ment, continued laithful to him; 
and for yean after, as successive members were removed by 
death, the crosses over their graves recorded that they had died 
" true to their andent belkl/' Taagermann, the poet, eipelled 
in like manner from his parish by the archbishop of Cologne, 
before long found himself the minister of a much larger congre- 
gation in the episcopal dty itself. These examples ezenjsed 
no little influence, and congregations of Old Catholics were 
shortly after formed at numerous towns and villages in Bavaria, 
Baden, Prussia, German Switzerland, . and even in Austria. 
At Wamsdorf in Bohemia a congregation was collected which 
still represents one of the most important centres of the move- 
ment. In September the second congress was hdd at Cologne. 
It was attended by some 500 delegates or visitors from all parts 
of Europe, and the English Church was represented by the 
bishops of Ely and Lincoln and other distinguished members. 
At this congress Friedrich boldly declared that the movement 
was directed "against the whole papal system, a system of 
errors during a thousand years, which bad only reached its 
dimas in the doctrine of inf^biUty." . 

The movement thus entered a new phase, the congress 
occupying itself mainly with the formation of a more definite 
organization and with the questionof reunion with other Churches. 
The immediate effect was a fateful divergence oi opinion; for 
many who sympetbised with the opposition to the extreme 
papal claims shrank from the acstion of a fresh schism. Prince 
Chlodwig Hohenlohe, who as prime minister of Bavaria had 
attempted to unite the governments against the definition of 
the dogma, refused to have anything to do with proceedings 
which could only end in the creaUon of a fresh sect, and would 
make the prospect of the reform of the Church from within 
hopeless; moie important still, DolUnger refused to take part 
in setting up a separate organization, and though he afterwards 
so far modified his opinion as to hdp the Old Catholic community 
with sympathy and advice, he never formally joined it. 

Meanwhile, the progress of the quarrel between the Prussian 
government and the Curia had b^ highly favourable to the 
movement In May 1873 the celebrated Falk laws were enacted, 
whereby the articles 15 and 18 of the Prussian consdtution were 
modified, so as to legalize a systematic state supervision over 
the education of the clergy of all denominations, and also over 
^e appointment and dismissal of all ministers of religion. The 
measure,, which was a direct response to the Vatican decrees, 
inspired the Old Catholics with a not tinrcasonable expectation 
that the moral support of the government would henceforth 
be enlisted on their side. On the xxth of August J^fessor J. H. 
Reinkens of Breslau, having been duly elected bishop of the 
new community,' was consecrated at Rotterdam by Bishop 
Hcykamp of Deventer, the archbishop oi Utrecht, who was 
to have performed the ceremony, having died a few dajrs before. 
In the meantime the extension dif the movement in Switzerland 
had been proceeding rapidly, and it was resolved to hold the 
third congress at Constance. The proceedings occupied three 
days (z2th to X4th September), the subjects discussed being 
chiefly the institution of a synod* as the legislative and executive 
organ of the Church, and schemes of reunion with the Greek, 
the African and the Protestant communions. On the aoth 
of September the election of Bishop Reinkens was formally 
recognized by the Prussian government, and on the 7 th of 
October he took the oath of allegiance to the king. 

The foIk>wing year (1874) was marked by the assembling 
of the first synod and a conference at Bonn, and of a congress 

^Rdfikens was eleaed at Colosfne in primitive Christian rashlon 
bydcfgy and people, the btter being representatives of Old Catholic 

* The. diocesan svnod. under the presidency <f the bi9hop„coBaist8 
01 the Clergy of the diocese and one lay delcgaCc for every 300 
church members. It nov meets twice a year and transacts the 
business prepared for it by an exocative committee of 4 clergyAnd 
5 lavmen. in Swit£crU|id the orgajuaation is stiU more democratic; 
the bishop docs not preside over the synod and may be depoted by it.. 

ai Ffdburg-im-Bidagaii. At the congress Btdiop Rsbkiu spoke 
in hopeful terms of the rcsulu of his observations duriog a 
recent miisionaiy tour throughout Germany. The conference, 
held on the X4th,isth and 16th of September, had for its special 
object the discanion of the early confessions as a basis of agree* 
meat, though not necessarily of fusion, between Abe different 
communions above-named. The meetings, which were presiided 
over by DAllinger, successively took into oonsideration the 
FUioque clause in the Nioene creed, the sacraments, the canon oi 
Scripture, the epispopal succession in the English Chuich, the 
confessional, indulgences, pmyeis for the dead, sad the endiaiist 
(see D5UINGES). The synod (May 27-99) was the first of a 
series, held yearly till 1879 and afterwards twice a year, in which 
the doctrine and discipline of the new Church were gradually 
IbrmuUted. The tendency was, naturally, to move further 
and further away from the Roman model; and though the synod 
expressly renounced any daim to formulate do^na, or any 
intention of destroying the unity of the faith, the " (^thoUc 
Catechism*' adopted by ft in 1874 contained several articles 
fundamentally at variance with the leadung of Rome.* At the 
.first synod, too^ it was decided tb make confession and fasting 
optional, while later synods pronounced in favour of using the 
vernacular in public worship, allowing the marriage of priests, and 
permitting them to administer the communion in both kinds 
to members of the Anglican Chureh attending their services. 
Of these developments that abolishing the compulsory celibacy 
of the clergy led to the most opposition; some opposed it as 
inexpedient, others— notably the Jansenist clergy of Holland— 
as wrong in itself, and when it was ultimately passed in 1878 
some of. the clergy, notably Tangermann and Reusch, withdrew 
from the Old Catholic movement. 

Meanwjiile the movement had made some progress in other 
countries— in Austria, in Italy and in. Mexico; but everywhere 
it was haxilpered by the inevitable controversies, which either 
broke up its organization or hindered its development. In 
Switzerland, where important conferences were successively 
convened (at Sobthum in 1871, at Olten in 1872, 1873 and 
.Z874), ^^ tmanimity of the " Christian Catholics," as they 
preferred to call themselves, seemed at one lime in danger <tf 
being shipwrecked on the question of episcopacy. It was not 
until Septcnaber i8th, 1876, that the conflict of opinions was 
so far composed as to allow of the consecration of Bishop Uerzog 
by Bishop Reinkens. The reforms introduced by M. Hyadnthe 
Loyson in his church at Geneva received only a partial assent 
from, the general body. Among the more practical results of 
his example is to be reckoned, however, the fact that in French 
Switzerland ncariy all the clergy, in («eEman Switzerland about 
one half, are married men. 

The end of the Kulturkampf in 1878, and the new alliance 
between Bismarck and Pope Leo XIIL against revolutionary 
Socialism, deprived the Old Catholics of the si>ecial favour 
which had been shown them by the Prussian government; they 
continued, however, to enjoy the legal status of Catholics, and 
their communities retained the rights and the property secured 
to them by the law of the 4th of July 1875. In Bavaria, on the 
other hand, they were in Match 1890, after the death of DolUnger, 
definitely reduced to the status of a private religious sect, 
with very narrow rights. When Bishop Reinkens died in 
January 1896 his successor Tbeodor Weber, professor of theology 
at Breslau, elected bishop on the 4th of March, was recaisni'ed 
only by the governments of Prussia, Baden and Hesse. The 
present position of the Old Catholic Church has disappointed 
the o^jcctation of its friends and of its enemies. It has aeitber 
advanced rapidly, as the former had hoped, nor retrograded, 
as the latter have frequently predicted it would do. In Germany 
there are. 90 congregations, served by 60 priests, and the numb9 
of adherents is estimated at about te,ooo. In Switwrland these 
ajre 40 parishes (of which pnly one, that at Luteme, is in the 

»E./. especially Question 164: " this (the Christian) community 
is mvisibh;," and Question 167, " one may belong to the invisible 
Chureh (i.r. of those sharing in Christ's redemption) withoat beh»r 
ii« 10 l*»e visible Church/' . *^ ' "'^ 



Ronmn Catholic cutoni), 60 dnfy and about SQfioo adheiait*. 
In Autiria, though aoose accession* have been received voce 
\ht Lm vm Rom movemeot bctftn in 1899, the Old Catholic 
Church haa not made much headway; it has aome 15 churches 
and about 15^000 adherentib In Holland the Old Catholic or 
Janaenist Church haaj bishops, about 30 congregations and over 
Sooo adhoenta. In France the moveinent headed by Loyson 
did ^ot so lar. These ia but one congreffUion, in Paris, 
where it has built (or itself a beautilul new church on 
the Boulevard Blanqin. Ita prieit is Geoige Volet, who was 
ordained by Ueraog, and it has just over 500 members. It 
ia under the supervision of the Old Catholic archbishops of 
Utrecht la Italy a branch of the Old Catholic communion 
waa established in i88x by Count Enrico di Campello, a former 
canon of St Peter's at Romo. A church was opened in Ilome 
by Moosignor Savareso and Count Campello, under the super- 
vision of the bishop of Long Island in the United Statea, who 
undertook the superintendence of the congiegstion in accordance 
with the regulataoos laid down by the Lambeth conference. 
But dissensions arose between the two men. The church in 
Rome was ckised; Savarese returned to the Roman Church; 
and Campello commenced a reform work ia the rural districts 
of Umbria, under the episcopal guidance of the bishop of Salisbury. 
Thia waa ia x88$. In 1900 Campello Rome, and once 
more opened a churdi there. In 190a he retired from active 
portidpation in the work, on account of age and bodily infirmity; 
and his place at the heed of it was taken by Professor Cicchitti 
of Ifilaa. Campello ultimately returned to the Roman oom- 
munioo* There are half-«-docen priesta, who are either in 
Roman or Old Catholic orders, and about twice v auuor oon* 
■legations. Old Catholicism haa spread to Aaeika. The 
Polish Romanists there, in 1899, ccnpUined of the rule of Irish 
bishops; elected a bishop of their own, Heir Anton Koelowski; 
indented him to the Old Ostholic bishops in Europe for consecra- 
tion; and he psesides over seven coogiegations ia Chicago and 
the neighbourhood. The Austrian and Italian churches possess 
•o bishops, and thtf Austrian government refuses to allow the 
Old Catholic bishops of otiier countries to perform their functions 
ia Austria. Every Old Catholic coogregaUon has iu choral 
union, iU poot relief, and its mutual imprownent aodety* 
Theological faculties exist at Bonn and Bern, and at the former 
a residential college for theological students was csUblished 
by Bishop Reinkcna. OU Catholicism haa eight newqiaperi— 
two ia Italy, two in Swiueerland, and one each ia Holland, 
Germany, Austria and France. It h»s held reunion conferences 
at Luoene in 1893, at Rotterdam in 1894, and at Vienna in 1897. 
At these, members of the various episcopal bodies have been 
weloooed. It has also established a quarteriy publication, the 
SLnm itUtnuUcaaU 4* t/iioUpe, which has admitted articles 
ia French, German and Eni^ish, contributed not merely by 
OU Catholics, but by members of the Anglican, Russian, Greek 
•ad Slavonic churches. Old Catholic theologiaxis have been 
very active, and the work of D&Uinger and Reusch on the Jesuits, 
and the history of the Roman Church by Professor Langen, 
have attained a Eunmeaa reputation, 
he whole 

! movement up to the year 1875 will be 

.\ 'Theod0nis"(J. BaMMuHineer); 

and an excellent r(&uni6 of the main facts m the history of the 

An outUoe of the 1 
found in TTie Neve Rtformation, by ** 

movemeBt in each European coaatry, as ooonectod with other 
devdopncnte of liberal thought, and with political bist<^. It ghm 
in the teoood volume of Dr F. Nippold't H^mdbuck der nemeslen 
KvckeniexkichU^ vol. it. (1S8A). See atw A. M. E. Scoith. Tkt 
Simj •J^ Oid Caikdic ond Kindrtd Mtmnumit (London, 1883); 
BQhlcr, I>*r AUkalkdieiamus (Leiden, iSSo); J. F voa Schuhe, 
Dtr AUkatMmswms (Gicncn. 18S7) : and aitide in Hauck-Hermg's 
XtoloKyk. fir proL TktU. und Kircke, L 415. For details the follow- 
insulted: (a) For the proceedinn of the 
the SUiutmP^isekeB^nekti, puUithed at 
"^ '"^ ' -'^ - - -' Constance 


, ,__ _, ^ , in the 

tion of Bishop Rcinkcns: RechUiutoilUen Hber die Fragf d*r 

big sources may be consulted: 

Pnuum (Bonn, 187a). (c) Rcinkens's own s_. , , 

some of which have been translated into English, give his personal 

sand pastorals. 

views and experiences: the Life of Huber has been written and 
published by Eberhard Stinigfebl: and the persecutions to which 
the Old Catholic def^y were cxpoaea have been set forth iaa pame^let 
by J. Mayor, FucU amd DocumetUe (Loodoo, 1875). (4) For Switaer- 
land, C. Hcrzog. Beitrdae aur yorgtitkickU dtr CluMlkaUul. Kirdu der 
Schaeis (Bern. 1896). 

OLD DEER, a parish and village in the district of Buchan, 
Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Pop. (1901), 4313. The village lies 
on the Deer or South Ugie Water, xo| m. W. of Peterhead, 
and 3 m. from Mintlaw station on the Great North of Scotland 
Railway Company's branch fine from Aberdeen to Peterhead. 
The industries include distilling, brewing, and the manufacture 
of woollens, and there arc quarries of granite and limestone 
Columba and his nephew Drostan founded a monastery here in 
the 6th'century, of which no trace remains. A most interesting 
relic of the monks was discovered in'1857 in the Cambridge 
University library by Henry Bradshaw. It consisted of a small 
MS. of the Gospels in the Vulgate, fragments of the liturgy 
of the Celtic church, and notes, in the Gaelic script of the 12th 
century, referring to the charters of the ancient monastery, 
including a summary of that granted by David L These are 
>among the oldest examples of Scottish Gaelic. The MS. was also 
adorned with Gaelic designs. It had belonged to the monks of 
Deer and been in the possession of the University Library since 
X7(5> It was edited by John Stuart (1S13-1877) for the Spalding 
Cub, by whom it was published in 1869 under the title of 
The Book of Deer. In 12 18 William Comyn, earl of Buchan, 
foimded the Abbey of St Mary of Deer, now in ruins, } m. farther 
up the river than the monastery and on the opposite bank. 
Although it was erected for Cistercians from the priory of Kinloss, 
near Forres, the property of the Columban monastery was re- 
moved to it. The founder (d. x 233) and his countess were buried 
in the church. The parish is rich in antiquities, but the most 
noted of them — the Stone of Deer, a sculptured block of syenite, 
which stood near the Abbey— was destroyed in 1854. The 
thriving village of New Deek (formerly called Audmddie) 
lies about 7 m. W. of the older village; it includes the ruined 
castle of Feddcrat. 

OLDENBARNEVELm; JOHAN VAN (1547-16x9), Dutch 
statesman, was bom at Amersfoort on the X4th of September 
XS47. The family from which he claimed descent was of ancient 
Uncage. After studying law at Louvain, Bourges and Heidelberg, 
and travelling In France and Italy, Oldenbameveldt settled down 
to practise in the law courts at the Ha^e. In religion a moderate 
Caivinist, he threw himself with ardour into the revolt against 
Spanish tyranny and became a zealous adherent of William the 
Silent. He served as a volunteer for the relief of Haarlem (i $73) 
and agam at Leiden (1574). In 1576 he obtained the important 
post of pensionary of Rotterdam, an office which carried with It 
official membership of the Sutes of Holland. In this capacity 
his industry, singular grasp of affairs, and persuasive powers of 
speech speedily gained for him a position of influence. He was 
active in promoting the Union of Utrecht (1579) and the accept^ 
aoce of the countship of Holland and Zeeland by William (1584) 
On the assassination of Orange it was at the proposal of Olden- 
bameveldt that the youthful Maurice of Nassau was at once 
elected stadholdcr, captain-general and admiral of Holland. 
During the governorship of L«dcester he was the leader of the 
strenuous opposition offered by the States of Holland to the 
centralizing policy of the governor. In xs86 he was appointed, 
in .succession to Paul Buys, to the post of Land's Advocate of 
Holland. This great office, which he held for 33 years, gave 
to a man of commanding ability and industry unbounded 
influence m a many-headed republic without any central executive 
authority. Though nominally the servant of the States of 
Holland he made himself politically the personification of the 
province which bore more than half the entire charge of the union, 
and as its mouthpiece in the states-general be practically 
dominated that assembly. In a brief period he became entrusted 
with such large and far-reaching authority in all the details of 
administration, u to be virtually " minister of all affairs." 



During ihe two critical years which followed the withdrawal 
of Leicester, it was the statesmanship of the advocate which kept 
Ihe United Provinces from falling asunder through their own 
inherent separatist tendencies, and prevented them from becom> 
ing an ^y conquest to the formidable army of Alexander of 
Parma. Fortunately for the Netherlands the attention of PhiUp 
waa at their time of greatest weakness riveted upon his con- 
templated invasion of England, and a respite was atfordcd 
which enabled Oidenbarncvcldt to supply the lack of any central 
organized government by gathering into his own hands the con- 
trol of administrative affairs. His task was made the easier 
by the whole-hearted support he received from Maurice of 
Nassau, who, after 1589, held the Stadholderate of five provinces, 
and was likewise captain-general and admiral of the union. 
The interests and ambilions of the two men did not clash, for 
Maurice's thoughts were centred on the training and leadership 
of armits and he hac| no special capacity as a statesman or in- 
clination for politics. The first rift between them came in ii5oo, 
when Maurice was forced again&t his will by the states-general, 
under the advocate's influence, to undertake an expedition 
into Flanden, which was only saved from disaster by desperate 
efforts which ended in victory at Nieuwport. In 1598 Olden- 
bameveldt took part in special embassies to Henry tV. and 
Elizabeth, and again in 1605 in a special mission sent to con> 
gratutate James I. on his accession. 

The opening of negotiations by Albert and Isabel in 1606 for 
a peace or long truce led to a great division of opinion in t&e 
Netherlands. The archdukes having consented to treat with the 
United Provinces " as free provinces and stales over which they 
had no pretensions," Oldcnbameveldt, who had with him the 
States of Holland and the majority of burgher regents throiighout 
the coUnty, was for peace, provided that liberty of trading was 
conceded. Maurice and his cousfn William Louis, stadholder of 
Frisia, with the military and naval leaders and the Calvinist 
clergy, were opposed to it, on the ground that the Spanish king 
was merely seeking an interval of repose in which to recui^rale 
his strength for a renewed attack on the independence of the 
Netherlands. For some three years the negotiations went on, 
but at last after endless parleying, on the 9th of April 1609^ a 
truce for twelve years was concluded. All that the Dutch asked 
was directly or indirectly granted, and Maurice felt obliged to 
give a reluctant and somewhat sullen assent to the favourable 
conditions obtained by the firm and skilful diplomacy of the 

The immediate effect of the truce was a strengthening of 
Oldenbarneveldt's Influence in the government of the republic, 
now recognized as a "free and independent state"; external peace, 
however, was to bring with it internal strife. For some years 
there had been a war of words between the religious parties, 
known as the Comarists (strict Calvinlsts) and the Arminians 
(moderate Calvlnists). In 1610 the Arminians drew up a petition, 
known as the Remonstrance, !n which they asked that their 
tenets (defined in five articles) should be submitted to a national 
synod, summoned by the civil government. It was no secret that 
this action of the Arminians was taken with t)ie approval and 
connivance of the advocate, who was what was styled a libertinet 
Le. an upholder of the principle of toleration in rvUgious opinions. 
The Comarists in reply drew up a Contra-Remonstrance in seven 
articles^ and appealed to a purdy church synod. The whole hind 
was henceforth divided into Remonstrants and G>ntra-Re- 
monstrants; the States of Holland under the influence of 
Oldcnbameveldt supported the former, and refused to sanction 
the summoning of a purely church synod (1613). They likewise 
(1614) forbade the preachers in the Province nf Holland to treat 
of disputed subjects from their pulpits. Obedience was difficult 
to enforce without military help, riots broke out in certain towns, 
and when Maurice was appealed to, as captaln*geheral, he 
declined to act. He did more, though in no sen^e a theologian; he 
declared Himself on the side of the. Contra-l^em^nstrants, and 
established a preacher of that persuasion in a church at the 
Hague (161 7). 

The advocate now took a bold step. He proposed that the 

States of Holland should, on their own authority, as a soveretga 
province, raise a local force of 4000 men (uoanf^e/ier;) to keep 
the peace. The states-general meanwhile by a bare majority 
(4 provinces to 3) agreed to the summoning of a national church 
synod. The States of Holland, also by a narrow majority, refused 
their assent to this, and pa^soed (August 4, 1617) a strong 
resolution (Sckerpe Resotutic) by which all magistrates, officialt 
and soldiera in the pay of the province were required lo take ao 
oath of obedience to the stales on pain of dismissal, and were to be 
held accountable not to the oidinary tribunals, but to the States 
of Holland. It wad a declaration of sovereign independence on 
the part of Holland, and the slates-general took up the ch^tllenge 
and determined on decisive action. A commisftioa was appointed 
with Maurice at its head lo compel the disbanding of the teoard- 
geUers. On the jist of July 1618 the stadholder appeared al 
Utrecht, which had thrown in its lot with Holland, at the head 
of a body of troops, and at his command the local levies at once 
laid down their arms. His (>rogress through the towns of 
Holland met with no opposition. The states party was crushed 
without a bh>w being struck. On the ajrd of August , by order of 
the states-general, the advocate and his chief supporters, 4« 
Groot and Hoogerbecis, were arrested. 

Oldcnbameveldt was with his friends kept in the strictest 
confinement until November, and then brought for examinatioa 
before a commission appointed by the statoa-general. He 
appeared more than sixty limes before the commisaioners and 
was examined most severely upon the whole course of his 
official life, and was, most unjustly, allowed neither to consult 
papers nor to put his defence in writing. On the 20th of Febraary 
1 619 he was arraigned before a special court of twenty-four 
members, only half of whom were Hoilandeis, and nearly all of 
them hb personal enemies. It was in no sense a legal court, not 
had it any jurisdiction over the prisoner, but the protest of tfao 
advocate, who claimed his right to be tried by the sovereign 
province of Holbind, whose servant he was, wafe disregarded. 
He was allowed no advocates, nor the use of documents, pen cv 
paper. It was in fact not a trial at all, and the packed beach of 
judges on Sunday, tlie isthof May, pronounced scntenceof deatk 
On the following day the old statesman, at the ageof seventy-one, 
was beheaded in the Binnenhof at the Hague. Such, to use his 
own words, was his reward for serving his coontry forty-thfct 

The acetisdtions brought a|;airtst - Oldenbameveldt of baviag 
been a traitor lo his country, whose interests he had betrayed for 
foreign gold, have no basis in fact. The whole life of the 
advocate disproves them, and not a shred of evidence has ever 
been produced to throw suspicion upon the patriot statesman'^ 
conduct. AH his private papers fell Into the bands of Mb focst 
bnt not even the bitterest and abkst of his pereonal cnemict, 
Francis Aarasens (see Aassseks), couM eximct from then 
anything to show that Oldenbamevekjt at ahy time betrayed 
his country's interests. That he was an ambilbus man, fond 
of power, and haughty in his attitude to those Wbodifferedfrovo 
him in opinion, may t>e granted, but It must also be conceded 
that he sought for power in order to confer invaluable s er v i c ei 
upon his country, and that impatience of oppo»tion was not 
unnatural in a man who had exercised an almost supreme 
control of administrative affairs for upwards of three dcScadcs. 
His high>handcd course of action in defence of what heeonceived to 
be the sovereign rights of his own province of Holland to dedde 
upon religious questions within its bocdeis may be challenged on 
the ground of inexpediency, but not of illegality. The batsbness 
of the treatment meted out by Maurice to his father's old friend, 
the faithful counsellor ttxtd protector of his own early years, 
leaves a stain upoii the stadholdcr's memory which can never be 
washed away. That the prince should have felt compelled in the 
last resort fo take up arms for (he Union against the attempt o| 
the province of Holland to defy the authority of the Generality 
may be justified by \ht pUa. nipuUicae saUs suprema lex. To 
eject the advocate from power was one tbinito. to execute bun as 
a traitor quite another. The condemnation of OldenbatneweMl 
was* carried out with Mauricc*s Consent ^and. approval, -and I* 



atniiot be acquitted ol a prominent jbaie in what posterity ha» 

pronounced lo be a judicial muider. 

01dcal>aroeveldt was married in 1575 to Maria van Utrecht. 
He kit two sons, the lords of Groenevcld and Stoulenborg, and 
two daughters. A conspiracy against t^e life of Maurice, in 
which the sons of Oldenbarpeveldt took part, was discovered in 
1623. Stoutenburgy who was the chief accomplice, made his 
escape and entered the service- of Spain; Groeneveki was 

BiBLioGRArHv.^L. V. Oevcntcri CedenkshUtken mm Jahan 9« 
(Mdenbarneveldt en ttin Ujd (1577-1609: 3 vols., 1B60-1865); I. van 
Otdcnbarnevcidt, HislpHe Wiracktite van ie ghevanckenntu . . . 
ktla womUr ende droarite do&t Mfi J. 9. O. . . . vji d« terklaringe 
fa» Z. B. ditnaar Jokam Fhaekm (1630); Historic «w kel Umu en 
ttermm v9m dtn Hur J^kan warn OUin BamtvMl (1646) ; Groei) van 
Prinste^cr. Maurice et Barntveldt (1875); J» L. Motley* Ufeand 
Death of John of Bameveidl (2 vote., 1874). (C. E.) 

OLDENBURG, a grand-duchy of Cermaoy, with aa area of 
S479 >4« "^ It GonsisU of three widely separated portions of 
tcrritory^i) the du<^y of Oidenbarg, (a) th^ prindpalily of 
Lttbech, and (3) the pdndpality of Birkenfeld. It lanka tenth 
among the states of the German empire and kis one vote in 
the Bundesrat (federal council) and three members in the 

I. The duchy of Oldenburg, oomprisiag.fuBy four-liftha of 
the entire area and population, lies between 51** 99' and 53* 
44' N. and between 7* 37' and S** 37' £•> «m1 ia bounded on the N. 
by the North Sea and on the other three sides by Hanover, with 
the exception of a small strip on the east, where it. is contet* 
minous with the territory of the free city ol Bremen. It ionni 
part of the uorth- western German plain lying between the Wescr 
and the Eras, and, except on the south, where the Dammerge- 
birge attain a height of 47S ft, it is- almost entirely 6at, with a 
slight indinatlon towards the sea. In respect of jts soil it is 
divided broadly into two parts— the higher and inUnd-lying 
Ceat, consisting of sandy plains intermixed with, extensive 
heaths and moors, and the marsh lands along the ooast, con- 
sisting of rich but somewhat swampy alluvial soiL The latter, 
which oempoee about one-fifth of the duchy, are protected 
igaiiist the inroads of the sea by dikes as in HoUand; and 
beyond these are the so-called Wulkn, generally covered at higb 
tide, but. at many poinu being padually mdaimed. The 
diroaie is temperate and humid; the mean temperature of the 
coldest month at the town of OMcnburg is 26* F. el the wamest 
66**. Storms axa numerous, and Ihetr violence is the more felt 
owing to the almost entire absence of tiecs; and fogs and ague 
are prevalent in the manh lands. The chief riven arc the 
Hunu, Sowing into the Weser. and the Hase and Leda flowing 
into the Ema. The Weser itself forms the eastern boundary 
for 4S m.| and internal mtvigathm is greatly fadiilated hf a 
canal, paming through the heart of the .duchy and connecting 
the Hunte and the Leda. On the north there are several small 
coast streams conducted through the dikes by sluices, the only 
one of importance being the Jade, which empties Itself into the 
Jade Busen, a deep guU aflfording good accommoduiion lor 
shipping. The duchy also contains numeious small lakes, the 
chief of which b the DOmmer See in the south-e^Bt corner, 
measufing 4 m. in length by i\ in width. About 30% of the 
area of the duchy is under cultivation and 17% under pasture 
and meadows, while the rest consists mainly of msfsh, moor and 
heath. Forests occupy a very small ploportbn of the whole, but 
there are some fine old oaks. In the Gecst the principal crops are 
rye. oatSv potatoes and buckwheat, for which the heoth is some- 
times prepared by burning. Laigc tracts of moorland, however, 
%xt useful only as producing peat for fud, ot as affording pasture 
to the flocks of small coarsc-woollcd Oldenburg sheep. The rich 
soil of the marT»h lands produces good crops of wheal, oats, rye, 
hemp and rape, but is especially adapted for grazing. The 
cat tfe and horses raised on it are highly esteemed throughout 
Germany, and the former are exported' in large numbers to 
England. Bee-keeping is much in vogue on the moors. The live 
stock of Oldenburg forms a great part of its wealth, and the ratio 
of cattle, sheep and horses to the poputaiion is one of the highest I 

among the Gemuui italMi.' There an lew la^eflsutca^^ail/Khs 
ground is mostly in the hands of small farmisis, who e^joy the 
right of 6shing and shooting on their holdings. Game is scaro^ 
but fishing is fairly prodiicttve* The mioervi wealth of Oldenburg 
is veiy small. Woollen and<otton fabrics, atockiogs, jute and 
dgais are made at Varel, Delmeohomt and Lohoe; Gork-cuttif« 
is extensively practised in some districts* and there are a f e« 
iroo-foundcies. Trade is reUtively of nsore impo(tanoe» chiefly 
owing to the proximity of Bremen. The agiicukuEal produce of 
the duchy is exported to Scandiuftvift, Sussia, EngUnd and the 
United States, in return for colonial goods and manuketureSb 
Vaid, Brake and Elsfletb are fhe.chief commerdal harbours. 

II. The principality of Uibeck h«s an ana of a^ aq. m. aM 
shams in the general physical eharactedstka of eist Holsteii^ 
witlun which it lies. On the east itextcnds to lAbedbBay of the 
Baltic Sea, and on the soutlheast it h bounded hy the Trave. 
The chief rivers ate the Schwartau, a trihutaiy of the Trave, and 
the Schwentine. flowing nwthwaida to the Gulf of Kiel. The 
Bceneiy of Uibeck is often picturcsqtte» espedaliy in tht vidnity 
of the Plon See and the Eulk See, the moat impottant of the smnH 
lakes with which it is dotted. Agriculture b practised hete 
even mora extensively than in the duchy of Oldenburg, about 
75 % of the area being cuUivmted. The population in-1905 won 

III. The priftdpallty of Birkenfdd, 312 sq. ni. in extent, lies in 
the midst of the Pkuasian province of the Rhine^ about 30 m. W. 
of the Rhine at Worms and i$o m. S. of the duchy ol Oldenburg. 
The popuktion in loos was ^^1^ (See BiaxEMPEin.) 

The 'total population of thegnnd-dttcby of Oldenburg In 1680 
was 337.47^ u>d ita 1005, 43M$6. The bulk of the inhabitantt 
are of the Saion stock, but to the north and west of the duchy 
these ate numerous descendants of the andent Frisians. Tiiie 
diffeienecs between the two races are still to some extent peroept. 
ible, bkit Low German (Pblf-daa/icA) is ottiversaUy spoken, except 
in one limited district, where a Frisian dialect ius mahitained 
itself. In general cbamctenstlcs the Oldenburg peasamsicsemble 
the Dutch, and the abaence of laivs landownen has contributed 
to make them sturdy and independent. The population of 
Oldenburg is somewhat unequally distributed, some parts of the 
marsh lands coMaining over 300 persona to the square mile, 
while in the Gecst the number occasionally sinks as low. as 40k 
About 70% of the inhabitanU belong to the ** niml " population. 
The town of Oldenburg is the capital of the grand-duchy. The 
war>harboor of WUhdmshaven, 00 the shore of the Jade Busen, 
was boat by Prussia on land bought from Oldenburg. The 
chid towns of Bizhenfdd and Uibeck lespectivefy are Birfcenfeld 

Ohknbuig is a Pioteatant country, and the grand>dttke la 
required to be a member of the Lutheran Church. Roman 
Catholidsm, however, pifponderate^ in the BOuth«wcstero pro- 
vhioes, which formeriy belonged to the bishopric of Munster. 
Oldenburg Romnn Oatholics ate under the away of the bishops of 
Manster, who is represented by an official at Vcchta. The 
educational system of Oldenburg is on a similar footing to 
that of north Germany in general, though the scattered pod- 
tion of the Cannfaoascs interferes to some extent with school 

The constitution of Oldenburg, based upon a decree of &849» 
revised in 1852, is one of the roost liberal in Gerwmny. It prv- 
vides for a single represen t ative chamber (tand/di;), elected 
indlnenly by unlvenal tuffrage and exerasing concurrent righta 
of legislation and taxation with the grand-duke. The chamber 
which consJBis of forty members, one for every 10,000 inhabitants, 
is elected every three years. The executive consists of thite 
ministers, who are aided by a committee of the Landtag, when 
that body is not in session. The focal affairs of Birkenfcld and 
Lflbcck «re entrusted to provincial oouncib of fifteen members 
each. All dtitens paying taxes and not having been convicted 
of felony are enfranchhed. The municipal connnunilies enjoy 
an unusual amount of independence. The finonocs.of each 
constituent state ol the grand-duchy are managed separatdy, 
and there is also a fourth budget cgnc em ed with the joim 



adminiBtration. The total revenue and exfJenditure are eacli 
about £650,000 annually. The grand-duchy had a debt in 1907 

of £2,958,409. ' , - 

Hisl&ry.'-'The earliest recorded inh&bitanU of the district 
now called Oldenburg were a Teutoni<; people, the Chaud, who 
were af terwaxds merged in the Frisians. The chroniclers delight 
in tradng the genealogy of the counts of Oldenburg to the Saxon 
hero, Widukind, the stubborn opponent of Charlemagne, but 
their first historical representative is one Ellmar (d. txo8) who 
is described as comes in confimio Sasomae et Fritiae. Elimar's 
desceadanU appear as vassals, althou^ sometimes rebellious 
ones, of the dukes of Saxony; but they atumed the dignity 
of princes of the empire when the emperor Frederick I. dis- 
membered the Saxon duchy in 1 180. At this time the county of 
Delmenhorst formed part of the dominions of the counts of 
Oldenburg, but afterwards it was on several occasions separated 
from them to form aa apanage f6r younger branches of the 
family. This was the case between 1262 and 1447, between 
1463 and 1547, and between 1577 and 1617. The northern ahd 
western parts of the present giand-duchy of Oldcnbuig were in 
the hands of independent, or semi-independent, Frisian princes, 
who were usually heathens, and during the early part of the 
13th century the counts carried on a series of wars with these 
small potentates which resulted in a gradual expansion of their 
territory. The free dty of Bremen' and the bishop of Mihister 
were also f re(|iiently at war with the counts of Oldenburg. 
i The successor of Count Dietrich (d. 1440), called Partunatus^ 
was his nn Christian, who in 144ft was chosen king of Denmark 
as Christian L In 1450 he became king of Norway and in 1457 
king of Sweden; in 1460 he inherited the duchy of Schieswig 
and the county of Holstein, an event of high importance for 
the future histoxy of Oldenburg. In 1454 he handed over Oklen- 
bufg to his brother Gerhard {c 1430-1499) a turbulent prince, 
who was constantly at war with the bishop of Bremen and other 
Beighboucs. In 14B3 Gerhard was compelled to abdicate in 
favour of his sons, and he died whilst da a pilgrimage in Spain. 
£arly in the x6th century Oldenburg was again enlarged at the 
expense of the Frisians. Protestantism was introduced into the 
county by Count Anton I. (i5os>x573), who also suppressed 
the monasteries; however, he remained k>yal to Charles V. 
during the war of the league of Schmalkalden, and was able 
thus to increase his territories, obtaining Ddmenhorst in 1547. 
One of Anton's brothers, Count Christopher {c ZS06-X560), 
won some reputation as a soldier. Anton's grandson, Anton 
GUnther (1583-1667}, who succeeded in 1603, proved himself 
the wisest prince who had yet niled Oldenburg. Jever had been 
acquired before he became count, but in 1624 he added Knyp- 
hausen and Yarel to his lands, with which in 1647 Delmenhorst 
was finally united. By his prudent neutrality during the 
Thirty Years' War Anton Giinlher secured for his dominions an 
immunity from the terrible devastations to which nearly all 
the other states of Germany were exposed. He also obtained 
from the emperor the right to levy toUs on vcssds passing atong 
the Weser, a lucrative giant which soon formed a material 
additk>n to his resources. 

When Count Anton GUnther died in June 1667 Oldenburg 
was inherited by virtue of a compact made in 1649 by Frederick 
III., king of Denmark, and Christian Albert, duke of Hobtein- 
Cottorp. Some difficulties, however, arose from this joint 
ownership, but eventually these were satisfactorily settled, and 
from 1702 to 1773 the county was ruled by the kings of Denmark 
only, this period being on the whole one of peaceful development. 
Then in 1773 another change took place. Christian VII. of 
Denmark surrendered Oldenburg to Paul, duke of HoUtdn- 
Goitorp, afterwards the emperor Paul of Russia.^ and in return 
Paul gave up to Christian his duchy of Holstein-Gottoip and his 
claims on (be duchies of Schieswig and Holstein. 'At once Paul 
handed over Oldenburg to his kinsnuin, Frederick Augustus^ 
bishop of Lttbeckr che representative of a younger branch of 

» His father. Chartcs Frederick of Holstdn-Gortorp (1700-1739), 
a descendant of Christian I. of Demnark, married Anne, daughter oT 
Fettr the Great, and baoame tnr as Peter 111. to 1762» 

the family,' and In 1777 the county was rati^ to the rank of a 
duchy. The bishop's son William, who succeeded his father 
as duke in 1785, was a man of weak intellect, and his cousin 
Peter Frederick, bishop of Lilbeck, acted as administrator and 
eventually, in 1823, inherited the duchy. This prince is the 
direct ancestor of the present grand duke. 

To Peter fell the onerotas tuk of governing the duchy during 
the time of the Napoleonic wars. In x8o6 Oldenbuig was occupied 
by the French and the Dutch, the duke and the regent hnng 
put to flight; but in X607 William was restored, and in x8o8 he 
joined the Confederation of the Rhine. However, in 1810 hta 
lands were forcibly seised by Napoleon because he refused to 
exchange them for Erfurt. This drove him to join the Alliea, 
and at the congress of Vienna his services were rewarded .by the 
grant of the principality of Birkenfdd, an addition to his lands 
due to the good offices of the tsar Alexander I. At this time 
Oldenburg was made a grand duchy, but the title of grand-duke 
was not formally assumed until XS29, when Augustus succeeded 
his father Peter as rulec Under Peter's rule the area of Olden- 
burg had been incteased, not only by Birkenfeld, but by the 
bishopric of Ltlbeck (secularised in 1803) and some smaller 
pieces of territory. 

Oldenburg did not entirely escape from the revolutionary 
movement which swept across Europe in X848, but no serious 
disturbances took place therein. In 1849 the grand-duke granted 
a constitution of a very liberal diaracter to his subjects. Hitherto 
his country had been ruled in the spirit of enlightened despotism, 
which was strengthened by the ajMence of a privileged class of 
nobles, by the comparative independence of the peasantry, 
and by the unimportance of the towns; and thus a certain 
amount of frictran was inevitable In the working of the new order. 
In X852 some modifications were introduced into theconstitutfon, 
which, nevertheless, remained one of the most liberal in Germany. 
Important alterations were made in the administrative system 
in X855, and ags^n in 1868, and church affaire were ordered by 
a law of X853. In 1863 the grand-duke Peter II. (i837-f90(^, 
who had ruled Oldenburg sfaice the death of his father Augustus 
in 1853, seemed Inclined to press a daim to the vacant duchies 
of Schieswig and Holstein, but ultimately in 1867 he abandoned 
this in favour of Pnissfa, and received some slight compensation. 
In 1866 he bad sided with this power aptinst A^istria and had 
joined the North German Confederation; in 1871 Oklenbuig 
became a <tate of the new German empire. In June 1900 
Frederick Augustus (b. X853) succeeded his father Peter aa grand- 
duke. By a law passed in 1904 the succession to Oldenburg 
was vested in Frederick FerdfaMAd, duke of Schleswig-Holstdn- 
Sonderburg-GlQcksbutig, and his family, after the exthiction of 
the present ruling house. This arrangement was rendered 
advfeable because the grand^duke Frederick Augustus had only 
one son Nicholas (b. X897), and his only brother Geoi^e Louis 
(1855) was unmarried. 

For the history of Oldvaburg tee Ruade, OUriitaff iaolt Cknmk 
(Oldenburg, 1863); E. Pleiuier, Oldenburg im mq Jahrkmndtri 
(OtdcnburK, 1899-1900); and Oldenburnsches QuelUnbtuh (Oltlcn- 
burg, 1903). Sec also the JakrbuchfAr die Ceschtehit des Ilenogiums 
OUeuburg (1893 aeq.). 

OLDENBURG* a town of Germany, and capital of the grand- 
duchy of Oldenburg. It is a qui^t and pleasant-looking town, 
situated 37 m. by rail W. of Bremen, on the navigable Hunte 
and the Hunte*Ems caiml. Pop. (1905), including (he suburbs* 
38,565. The inner or old town, with its somewhat narrow 
streets, is surrounded by avenues bud out on the site of the 
former ramparts, beyond which are the villas, promenades 
and gardens of the modem quarters. Oldenburg has almost 
nothing to show in the shape of interesting old buildings. The 

* To this branch belonged Adolphus Frederick, son of Christian 
Augustas bishop of LObeck (d. 1726), who in 1751 became king of 

Another branch of the Oldenburg family, descended from John* 
son ci Christian III. of Denmark* » that of Holsteia-Sondcrourg. 
fills was subdivided into the lines of Sonderburg-Augustenburg and 
Sonderburg-CIUck^urv. Prince Christian, who married Pnnccsa 
Helena Of Great Britain, belongs to the former of them. To the 
latter bdoDg the ktf^ of Denmark, Greece and Norway. 



EvuseScil tuBbcctadiclM^ thou^datSog firaai the ijUi centurjr» 
has been so transfonncd in Uie last cenluzy (1874-1886) as to 
show no tnce of its antiquity. The palaces of the pand-dnke. 
and the old town-hall are Renaiisance buildings of the 17th and 
18th centuries. « Among the other prominent bttilding»--aU 
modei»— are the palace of the heir apparent, the new townr 
hall, the theatre, the law-courts, the gymnasium, the com- 
aaerdal school, the three hospitals and the new Roman Catholic 
church. The grand-ducal picture gallery in the Augusteum 
includes worlts by Veronese, Velasques, Murillo and Rubens, 
and there are coUections ol modem paintings and sculptures 
in the two palaces. The public libcaxy contains 1x0,000 volumes 
and the duhe's private library $$,oool There is also a ktige 
natural history museum and a museum with a collection of 
antiquitica. The industries o( Oldenburg, which are of no 
great importance, include tron-founding, spinning and the 
making of i^bsa, tobacco, ^ovcs, soap and leather. A consider- 
able trade is carried on in grain, and the horse fairs are largely 
frequented. Aooording to popular tradition Oldenbuig was 
founded by Walbert, grandson of the Saxon hero, Widukind, 
and wiss named after his wife Altburip, but the first historical 
mention of it occurs in a document of ito8. It was fortified 
in 1155, and received a municipal charter in 1345. The sub* 
sequent history of the town is mexged in that of the giand- 

See SellOk Histarische Wawdtmni dunk 4U Stadt OUenbitri (Olden- 
burg, 1896); and AUrOUeHiwi (Oldenbuig, 1903): and Kohl, 
Die AUmtnde dtr Sladl OUenburi (Oldcnbufg. 1903). 

OLDFIKLD, AMKB (1683-1730), English actress, was bom 
in London, the daughter of a soldier. She worked for a time 
as apprentice to a semptress, until she attracted George 
Farquhar's attention by reciting some lines from a play in his 
hearing. She thereupon obtained an engagement at Dniry 
Lane, where her beauty rather than her ability slowly brought 
her into ^vour, and it was not until ten years bter that she 
was generally acknowledged as the best actress of her time. 
In polite comedy, especially, she was unrivalled, and even the 
usually grudging Cibber acknowledged that she had as much as 
be to do with the success of the Careless Husband (1704), in 
which she created the part of Lady Modish, reluctantly ^ven 
her because Mrs Verbruggen was UL In tragedy, too, she won 
laurels, and the list of her parts, many of them original, is a 
long and varied one. She was the theatrical Idol of her day. 
Her exquisite acting and lady-like carriage were the delight 
of her contemporaries, and her beauty and generosity found 
innumerable eulogists, as well as sneering dctraaors. Alexander 
Pope, in his Sober Advice from Horau, wrote of her — 
" Engaging Oldfield, who. with Rrace and ease. 
Could joui the arts to ruin and to please." 

It was to her that the satirist alluded as the lady who detested 
being buried in woollen, who said to her diaid^ 

" No. let a charming chintx and Brussels lace 
Wrap my cold limbs and shade my lifeless face; 
One would not, sure, be frightful when one's dead, 
And—B etty gi t e this check a little red." 
She wit bnt foity-seven when she died on the ssrd of October 
1730, leaving all the court and half the town in tears. 

She divided her property, for that time a large oi»e, between 
her natural sons, the first by Arthur Mainwaring (i668-r7ri) — 
who had left her and his son half his fortune on his death-* 
and the secofid by Iieat.-Genefal Charles ChurchOI (d. 1745). 
Mrs Oldfidd wis buried in Westminster Abbey, beneath the 
monttment to Congreve, but when Churchill applied lor per> 
mfanoB to erect a monament Chete to her memory the dean of 
Westminster lefmed it. 

OLD IOft6B; a bono^ of LadatwauiB eoimf y, Pennsylvania, 
U.S.A., 00 tlm LackawanBt river, about 6 m. S.W. of Scranton. 
Fop. (1900) 5690 (1494 foreign-bora, principally Italians); (t9ro) 
ii,3S4. It is served by the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western 
and the leMgh Valley lailwaysw The prindpal public buildings 
are the tewn^haO and the hi^ school'. The borough is situated 
in the anthracite coal region, and the mining of coal Is the 
principal industry, thaa^ there are abo various manufactures. 

Old Fdcer was settled in 18I30 and incoipoated as a bosoi^h 


OLDHAM, JOHN (1653-1683), English satirist, son of a 
Preibyterian minister, was bom at Shipton Moyne, near Detbury, 
doucestershire, on the 9th of August r653. He graduated 
from St Edmund Hall, Oxford, in 1674, and was for three years 
an usher in a school at Croydon. Some of his verses attracted 
the attention of the town, and the earl of Rochester, with Sir 
Charles Sedley and other wits, came down to see him. The 
visit did not affect his career apparently, for he stayed at Crqyw 
don unUl i68r, when he became tutor to the grandsons of Sir 
Edward Tburland, near Reigate. Meanwhile he had tried, he 
says, to conquer his inclination for the unprofitable trade of 
poetry, but in the panic caused by the revektions of Titus 
Oatcs, he found an opportunity for the exercise of his gift for 
rough satire. Comet's Oust was published as a broadside in 
1679, but the other Satires om tke. Jesuits, although written at 
the same time, were rK>t printed until 1681. The success of these 
dramatic and unbaring invectives apparently gave Oldham 
hope that he might become independent of teaching. But his 
undoubted services to the Country Party brought no reward 
from its leaders. He became tutor to the son of Sir William 
Hickcs, and was eventually glad to accei>t the patronage <tf 
William Pierrepont, earl of Kingston, whose kindly offer of a 
chaplahicy he had refused carliec He died at Holme-Pietre- 
point, near Nottingham, on the 9th of December i683t 
of smallpox. 

Oldham took Juveiial fqr his model, and in breadth of tjeat- 
ment and power of invective surpassed his English p r edece sa oia. 
He was original in the dramatic setting provided for his satires. 
Thomas Garnet, who suffered lor supposed implication in the 
Gunpowder Plot, rose from the dead to encourage the Jesuiu 
m the first satire, and in the third Ignatius LoyoU is repieaenied 
asdictating hi? wishes to his disciples from his death4sed. Old* 
ham wrote other satires, notably one " addressed to 4 friend 
about to leave the university," which contains a well-knewn 
description of the state of slavery of the private chaplain, and 
another " diiwiMiding from poetry," describing the IngraUtude 
shown to Edmund Spenser, whose ghost is the spoker, to 
Samuel Butler aixl to Abraham Cowky. Oldham's vctse is 
rugged, and his rhymes often defective, but he met with a 
generous appreciation from Diyden,. whose own satiric bent 
was perhaps influenced by his efforts. He says (" To the Memory 
Of Mr QUham," Works, ed. Scott, vol xL p. 99) :-- 

** For sure our souls were near allied, and thine 
Cast in the same poetic mouU with mine.** 

The real wit and rigour of Oldham's satirical poetry are nn* 
deniable, while its faults— its frenzied extravagance and Uck 
of metrical polish— might, as Dryden suggests, have been cured 
with time, for Oldham wasronly thirty when he died. 

The best edition of his works Is Tke Composiiums in Prose ami 
Verse of ifr John Oldham . . . (r770). with menotr and explanatory 
notes by Edward Thompson. 

OLDHAM. THOMAS (x8r6-i878) British geologist, was bom 
in Dublin on the 4th of May x8x6. He was educated there at 
Trinity College, graduating E.A. in 1836, and afterwards studied 
engineering in Edinburgh, where he gained a good knowledge 
of geology and minera l ogy under Jameson. On his return to 
Ireland in 1839 he became chief assistant to Captain (afterwards 
Major General) Portlock, who conducted the geologic a l depart- 
ment of the Ordnance Survey, and he ren d ered much help in 
the field and office in the preparatiott of the Report m tko Geologf 
of J^ondonderry, 6re, (1843). Subsequently be served under 
Captain (afterwards Sir Henry) James, the first local director 
of the Geological Survey of Ireland, whom he succeeded in 1846. 
Meanwhile in 184$ he was appointed professor of Geology in 
the univenity of DubKn. In XS48 be was elected F.R.S. In 
1849 he discovered in the Cambrian rocks of Bray Head the 
problematical fossff named Oldkamia. In r8so he was selected 
to take diarge of the (Geological Survey of India, which he 
organised, and in due course he established the Uemoirs, (he 
Pdaeantehiia Indie* and the Ktcords, W which he comrilmted 



niuijr impoftant aitlclkt. tn 1884 lie pobl&lied tat d&borate 
report On Ike Coal Resources of India. He retired in 1876, and 
died at Ri^by on tlic 17th of Jiriy 1878. • 

OLDRAS, a fnunicipal county and parliamentary bMough of 
LancasMlte, England, 7 m. N.E. of Manchester, on the London & 
Notth^Wtttem, Great Ontxml and Lancashire ft Yorkshire 
railways and the Oldham canal. Pop. (1891) 131,463; (tgoi) 
'3 7*^46. The principal railway station b called Mumps, but 
there arc Several others. The town Ues h%h, near the source of 
the small river Medlock. Its growth as a manufacturmg centre 
gives it a wholly modern appearance. Anrang several handsome 
churches the oldest dates only from the later iSth century. 
The principal buildings ind institutions inchide the town-hall, 
with fietrsslyle portico copied from the Ionic temple of Cdres 
near Athens, the leference library, art gallery and museum, 
the Union Street baths, oommeniorating Sir Robert Peel the 
statesman, and the county court. Of educat ional establishments 
the chief are the Lyceum, a building fai Italian style, contaming 
■dioots of art and science, and including an observatory; the 
largely-endowed blue^soat school founded in 1808 by Thomas 
Henshaw, a wealthy manufaetuter-of hats; the Hulme grammar 
school (1895), and municipal technical schools. The Alesiandni 
^ark, opened in 1865, was laid out by operatives who were 
thtown out of employment owing to the cotton famine in the 
ysars previous to that date. The site is picturesquely undulatihg 
and terraced. Oldham is one of the nnost important centres 
of the cotton manufactures, the consumption of cotton being 
about one-fifth of the tMalimporution Into the United Kingdo/m, 
the factories numbering some 330, and the spindles over 13 
nillions, while some 35,000 operatives aro employed. The 
princbal manufactures are fustians, velvets, cords, shirtfogs, 
•heetm^i and nankeens. There are also large foundries and 
iniN and cotton machinery works; and works for the construction 
of gas-meters and sewing-machines; while all these industries 
■re assisted by the immedbte presence of oolUeriea. There are 
titensive markets and numerous fairs are heM. Oldham was 
biooTpotated in 1849, and became a county borough in i888i 
The eoipocatibn consists of a mayor, is aldermen and 36 
cbuncilkns. The parliamentary borough has returned two 
members sinoe 1833. Area of nfunidpal borough, 4736 aci^. 

A Roman road, of which some traces are still left, posses 
through the site of the township, but it does not app«ir to have 
been a Roman station. It is not mentioned in Domesday; but 
in the reign of Henry III. Alwardos de Aldholrae is referred t6 as 
holding land m Vemet (Wcmcth). A daughter and co-heiress 
of this Alwaidus conveyed Wcineth Hall and its manor to the 
CudwortJbs, a branch of the Yorkshire family, with whom it 
remained till the early part of the 18th century. From the 
Oldhams was descended Hugh Oldham, who died bishop of Exeter 
in 1519. From entries in the church registers it would appear 
that liMns were manufactured in Oldham^ as early as 1630. 
Watermuls were introduced in 1770, and wUh the adoption of 
Ark Wright's inventions the cotton Industry grew with great 

QLD MAID, a game of cards. Any number may play, and the 
full pack is used, the Queen of Hearts being removed. The 
cards are dealt otit one by one until exhausted, and each player 
then sorts his hand and diicards the pairs. The dealer then 
offers his hand, spread out face downwards to the next player, 
who draws a card, which, if it completes a pair, is discarded, 
but otherwise remains in the hand. The process continues from 
player to player, until all the cards have been paired and dis- 
carded excepting the odd quoco, the holder of which ii the " Old 
Maid." t 

0LDinX01l» JOHIf (1673--' 74a\ English historian, was a son 
of John Qldmixon of Oidmixon, near Bridgwater. His first 
writings were poems and dramas^ among them being Amorts 
BritannUi; EpislUs historical and gallant (1703); and a tragedy. 
The Governor of Cyprus. His earliest historical work was 
Th^ British Em^e in America (1708 and again 1742), which 
was followed by The Secret History of Europe (1712-171$); by 
Anama Callifa, or the Secret History oj France (or the last Century 

{xfU); and by other smaller writ{h)ss. More Important, how- 
ever, although 6f a very partisan character, are Oldmixon'a 
works Oh English history. His Critical history of England ( 1 7»4- 
T7t6) cdntains attacks on Clarendon and a defence of Bishop 
Burnet, and its publication led to a controversy between Dr 
Zachary Grey (i688-r7M) and the author, who replied to Grey 
in his Clarendon and WhitlocM tompartd (t 727)* Ota the sanM 
lines he wrote Ms Hittary of BngUtnd durint the Heigns of the kayat 
H&useefStu^n (r730). Herein he charged Bish<»p Atterbury and 
other of Claremlon's editors with tampering with the text of the 
History. From his exite Atterbury replied to this charge in m 
Vindieationt and although Oidmixon continued the contreversjy 
it is practically ceruin that he was in the wrong. Hooomplctcd 
a continuous hifetory of fingbnd by writing the History of Bngfamd 
during the Reignt of WUHam and Mary, A nms and Oeorgt /r<i735) ; 
and the Hiaory if Bnghitd during the Reignt of Hemy Vltl^ 
Edward VI., Mary and Bfkabeth (1739)- Among Ins othet 
writings are. Memoirs of North Brilalm <t 715)1 Bany-an Crtflidns 
(1738) and Memoirs of the Pros tfi<^i740 (1742), which waa only 
published after his death. Oidmixon had mudi to do with 
editing two periodicals, Tha Muses Mercury and The MtHe^ 
and l»» often complained that his asrvices were -overiooked by 
the government. He died on the 9ih of July X74a. 

OIA POIIT OOMffOBT* a summer and -wialet ;Rsoit» m 
Elizabeth City county, Virginia, U.S.A., at the southern end 
of a narrow, sandy peninsula projecting into Hampton Roads 
(at the mouth- of the James river), about t2 m. N. by W. of 
Norfolk. It is served directly by the Chesapeake & Ohio railway, 
and iiuliroctly by the New York, Philadelphia & Korfolk (Penn- 
sylvania System), passengers and freight being carried by 
steamer from the terminus at Cape Charles; by steamboat lines 
connecting vitb the principal cities along the Atlantic coast, 
and with cities along the James river; by ferry, connecting with 
Norfolk and Portsmouth; and by electric railway (3 m.) to 
Hampton and (i 2 m.) to Newport News. There is a U.S. garrison 
at Fort Monroe, one of the most important fortifications on the 
Atlantic coast of the United SUtes. Qld Point Comfort is 
included in llic reservation of Fort Monroe. The fort lies within 
the tract of 252 acres ceded, for coast defence purposes^ to the 
Federal government by the state of Virginia m i8ax, the survey 
for the original fortifications having been made in 1818, and the 
building begun in 18x9. It was named in honour of President 
Monroe and was first regularly garrisoned in 1823; in 1824 the 
Artillery School of Practice (now calted the United States 
Coast Artillery School) was established to provide commissioned 
officers of the Coast Artillery with instruction in professional 
work and to gix'c technical instruction to the non-commissioned 
staff. During the Civil War the fort was the rendezvous for 
several military expeditions, notably those of General Benjamin 
F. Butler to Hattetas Inlet, in 1861; of General A. E. Bumside, 
to North Carolina, in 1862; and of Genetal A. H. Terry, against 
Fort Fisher, in 1865; within sight of iu parapets was fought the 
famous duet between the "Monitor" and the "Merrimac" 
(March 9, 1862). Jefferson Davis waa a prisoner here for two 
years, from the 2 and of M^y 1865, and Ckment Qaibome Clay 
(i8r9-i882), a proiuincnt Confederate, from the same date until 
April 1866. Between Fort Monroe and Scwell's Point is Fort 
\Vool, almost covering a small island called Rip Raps. The 
expedition which settled Jamestown rounded this pcninsida 
(April 26, 1607), opened Its sealed instnictiona here, and named 
the peninsula Poynt Comfort,, in recognition of the sheltered 
harbour. (The *' Old " was added subsequently to distinguish 
it from a Point Comfort settlement at the mouth of the York 
river on Chesapeake Bay). On the site of the present fortifica* 
tioa a fort wss erected by the whites as early as 163a 

.0U> TOWN, a city pf Penobscot county, Maine^ U.S.A., oq 
the Penobsoet river, alwut la m. N.£.of Banger. Pop. (1890) 
S3it; (1900) 5763 <i;M7 foreigrvbom); (1910) 6317- It is 
served by the Maine Central and the Bangpr h Aroostook 
railways, and by an electric line connecting with iSangor. The 
city proper is on an island ; (Marsh, or Old Town Island), but 
oonsideiable -territory on the W. bank of the river is included 



miibin the municipal limks. Tke manufaciurc of lumber 1$ 
the principal industry of the dly On Indian Island (opposite 
the dly) is the principal settlement of the Penobscot Indians, 
an Abnaki tribe, now wards of the state. The abb6 Loui^ 
Pierre Thury was sent here from Quebec dbout 1687 and built 
A church in 1688-1689; in 1705 the mission passed under the 
control of the Jesuits. The first while settler in the vicinity 
icems to have been John Marsh, who came about 17741 end who 
bought the island now known as Mareh Island. From 1806 to 
1840, when it was incorporated as a separate township, Old 
Town was a part of Orono. In 1891 k was chartered as a dty. 
One of the oldest railways in the United Slates, and the first in 
Maine, was completed to Old Town from Bangor in 1836. 

0LDV8, WILLIAM (1696-1761), English antiquary and biblio- 
grapher, natural son of Dr William Oldys, chancellor of Lincoln, 
was bom 00 the 14th of July 1696, probably fn London. His 
father bad alio held the office of advocate of the admiralty, but 
lost it fai 1693 because bt ttfoold not prosecute as traiton and 
pirates the sailors who had served against England under 
Jaroca 11. William Oldys, the younger, lost part of bis small 
patrimony In the Sooth Sea Bubble, and in 1724 went to York- 
shire, spending the greater part of the neact six years as the 
guest of the earl of Malion, On his return to London he found 
that hb kmdlord had disposed of the books and papers left 
hk his diafge. Among these was an annouted copy of GeraFd 
Langbaine's DyamalUk Potts. The book came into the hands of 
Thomas Coxcter (1689-1747)* and sobaequcatly into TheophBus 
Gibber's possession, and furnished the bosb of the Lhes of 
the Pods (i7S3) fMiblishcd wHh Gibber's name on the title page, 
though most of it was written by Robert Shicls. In 1731 Oldys 
•old his coOecUons to Edward Harley, second earl of Oxford, 
wbo appohited him his literary secretary in 1738. Three years 
later his patron died, and from that time he worked for the 
book^cQers* His habits were Irregular, and in 1751 his debts 
drove him to- the Fleet prison. After two years' imprisonment 
he was released through the kindness of friends who paid his 
debts, and in April 1755 he was appointed Korroy king-at-arms 
by the duke of Norfolk. He died on the 15th of April 1761. 

Okly»*s chief works are: Tk$ British Uh^aritm, m review of scarce 
and valuable books ia print and to manuscript (t 737*1738); th4^ 

UarUiam MisetiUMy (I744-I746),acol1caionof tractsand pamphlets 
of Ouora's libfary, undertaken in coojuoctioo with 
1; twenty-two articles contributed to the Bio{ 
1747-1760) ; an edition of Ralewh's History of iMo 
of the author (1736): Life of CkarUs Collam prefixed to 

in the carl of 
Br Johi 

twenty-two articles contributed to the Biographic 
Briianmicc (1747-1700) ; an edition of Ralewh's History of iMo Woridt 
with a Lif€ 01 the author (1736): Life of CkarUs Collam prefixed to 
Sir John Hawkins's edition (1760) of the CampUat Antfif. Ini727 
OUys began to annotate another LAngbaine to replace the one he 
bad kMt. This valtable book, whh a MS. ooUcctioo ef notes by 
OMyson vavious btbtiographacal snbjcctSi is prascrvcd in the British 

OLBAH, a city of Cattaraugus county, !n south-western New 
York, U.S.A., on Olcan Creek and the N. side of the Allegheny 
river» 70 m. S.£. of Buffalo. Pop. (1880), 3036; (1890), 7358; 
(1900), 946», of whom 15 14 were foreign-bom and 12a were 
negroes; (1910 census), 14,743- The dty b served by the 
Erie, the Pittsburg. Shawmut & Northern, and the Pennsylvania 
raHways (the last has large car shops heoe); and is connected 
with Bradford, Pa., Alk^y, Pa., Salamanca, N Y., Little 
Vafley, N.Y., and BoUvar, N.Y., by electric Uocs. Olean b 
situated in a levd valley 1440 fL above son-fcveL The sur- 
loondingawntiy b rich in oE and natural gas. Six miles fsom 
Olean and 3000 fL above the sea-lcvd b Rock City, a group of 
immense, strangely regnlac, oonglomeTate rocks (some of them 
pure white) covering about 40 acres. They are remnants of 
a bed of Upper Devonian Conglomerate, which broke along 
the jomt planes, leaving a group of huipB blocks. In the dty 
are n public library, a general bo^iiial and a state armoury; 
and at AUcgany (pop. 1910, 1286). abont 3 m W of Olcan, b 
St Bomsventnre's CoOese (1859; Roman Catholic). Oicnn's 
factory prodnct was valncd at $4^7,477 in 1905; the dty b 
the Icnsinns of an Ohio pipe line, and of a sen-board pipe line 
for petiolenm; and among its indnstries are ak-reSabm and 
the refiniaK of wood akohol, tanning, currying, and finishing 
jrnhtr aad ike mawifaftiire of flow; glass (moailf boitks). 

&C. Tha vicinity wan settled In i804» and thb ivas 
the first township organized (1808), being then coextensive with 
the county. Olean Creek was called Ischue (or iKhua); then 
Olean was suggested, possibly in reference to the oil-springs hi 
the vidniiy. The village was officially called Hamilton for a 
time, but Olean was the name given to the post-office in 18171 
and Olean Point was the popular local name. In 1909 severid 
suburbs, induding the viUnge of North Olean (pop. in 1905^ 
1761), were annexed to Otean, considerably bcreasing its area 
and population. 
See History «if Catlaraugiu CousUy, Now York (I*biladdphia. 1879). 

OLEANDER, the common name for the shrub known to 
botanists as Nermm Oleander, H b a oathre of the Mediterranean 
and Levant, and b characterized by its tall shrubby habit and 
iu thick lance>shaped opposite leaves, which exude a milky 
juice when punctured. The flowers are borne in termhial 
dusters, and are like those of the common periwinkle ( Kinca), but 
are of a rose colour, rarely white, and the throat or upper edgo 
of the tube of the coroUa b occupied by outgrowths hi th« 
form of bbcd and fringed petal-like scales. Hie hairy anthers 
adhere to the thickened stigma. The fruit or seed-vessel consbts 
of two long pods, which, burstmg atong one edge, liberate a 
number of seeds, each of winch has a tuft of silky bails like thbtla 
down at the upper end. 
The genus belongs to 
the natural order 
ApocyiuKeae, a family 
that, as b usnal where 
the juice haa a milky 
appearance, b marked 
by its poisonous pro- 
perties. Cases are re- 
oarded by Lindley of ; 
children poisoned by 
the flowcEk The sAme 
author also narrates how 
inthecouiseof thePenin- 
subr War took French 
Sol£eis died hi oonso* 
quence of employing 
skewers msde from 
fieshly-cBt tw^ of oleander for roasting thdr meat. Th^ 
oleander was known to the Greeks under three names, viz. 
thododenirosif nerum and rhododapkne, and b well described 
by Pliny (xvL ao), who mentions iu fose-like flowers and 
poisonous qvalitfes, at the same time sUtiqg that it was 
co ns id er ed serviceable as a remedy against snake-bite. The 
name b supposed to be a corruption of lorandrmm, lauridaidrum 
(Dn Cange), influenced by otea, the olive-tree, lorandrmm being 
itself a corrupik)n of rho d od e n dr on* The modem Creeks still 
know the plant as^oMA^np, although in a figure in the Rinncdni 
MSS. of Dioscorides a plant b represented under thb name, 
which, however, had rather the appearance of a willow herb 
{EpUobiusm). The oleander has long been cultivated in green- 
houses in England, being, as Ceard says, *' a small shrub of a 
gaDant sbewe "; aumersus varieties, diflcnng in the colour of their 
flowers, which are often double, have been introduced. 

OLEASTER, known botanically as Elaeagmu kartesuit, a 
handsome dcdduous tree, 15 to so ft. high, growing fai the 
Mediterranean region and temperate Asia, whac it b commonly 
cultivated lor its edttrfe fiust. The brown snMioth bcandMS 
sre more or less spiny; the narrow leaves have a hoary look 
from the presence of a dense covering of star-shaped hairs; 
the small fra^ant yellow ikmcis, which ^it home in the axib 
of the leaves, are scaly cm the outside. The ^enim contains other 
species of ornamental dcddoons or eve i giec n shrvbs or small 
trees. E. artenUa, a native of North America, has leaves and 
fruit covered with shining silvery scales. In £. x/dira, from 
Japan, the evergreen leaves are ciochcd beneath with msl* 
cokmicd scah»; variesetod fOTms of thb are cnkivUsd, as 
also of £. pmntau, anoihcf Japanese apeoes, a 1 
with leaves silvcQr bcncaib. 

Herimn Oleasder, 



OLBPIHB, in ofganlc cheinlstiy, tlie generic name gfven to 
open chain hydrocarbons having only singly and doubly linked 
pain of carbon atoms. The word is derived from the French 
tk/iant (from oUJUr^ to make oil), which was the name given to 
ethylene, the first member of the series, by the Dutch chemists, 
J. R. Deiman, Paets van Tioostwyk, N. Bondt and A. Lauweren- 
burgfa in 1795. The simple olefines containing one doubly* 
linked pair oif carbon atoms have the general formula (CH*.; 
the di-olefines, containing two doubly-Iinied pairs, have the 
general formula C»Htn^ and are consequently isomeric with the 
simple acetylenes. Tri-, tetra- and more complicated members 
are also known. The name tA any particular member of the 
series is derived from that of the corresponding member of the 
paraffin series by removing the final syllable " -ane," and replac- 
ing it by the syllable " ylene." Isomerism in the <define series 
does not appear until the third member of the series is reached. 

The higher olefines are found in the tar which is obtained by 
distilling bituminous shales, in illuminating gas, and among the 
products formed by distilling paraffin under pressure (T. £. 
Thorpe and J. Young, Ann,, 1873, 165, p. x). The defines 
may be synthetically prepared by eliminating water from the 
alcohols of the general formula C«Hfei4.i -OH, osing sulphuric 
acid or sine chloride generally as the dehydrating agent, although 
phosphorus pentoxide, syrupy phosphoric add and anhydrous 
oxalic acid may frequently be substituted. In this method of 
preparation it is found that the secondary alcohols decompose 
more readily that the primary alcohols of the series, and when 
sulphuric add is used, two phases are present in the reaction, 
the first bdng the buUding up of an intermediate sulphuric acid 
ester, which then decomposes into sidphuric add and hydro- 
carbon: C.H«OH->C,H«HSO«->CtH44-H,304. As an alter. 
native to the above method, V. Ipatiew {Bar., 1901, 34, p. 596 
et seq.) has shown that the ^cohols break up into ethylenes and 
water when their vapour is passed through a heated tube 
containing some " contact " substance, such as graphite, kiesel- 
guhr, &c. (see also J. B. Senderens, Comptes rmdntt 1907, X44« 
pp. 38a, 1 109). 

They may also be prepared by eliminating the halogen hydride 
from the alkyl halidcs by heating with alcoholic pota^, or with 
litharge at 220* C. (A. Eltekow, Ber., 1878. 11, p. 414): by the 
action of nMtala on the halogen compounds dHi.Brt: by boiling 
the aqueous solution of nitrites of the primary amines (V. Meyer, 
Btr., i876.9.P^ 543).CiHTNH«+HNOi-Ni+2H,(r+cii.; bytlic 
electrolysis of the alkali salts of saturated dicarboxylic acids*; by 
the decomposition of /3-haloid fatty acids with sodium carbonate, 
CH,CHBrCH(CHi)COiH «CO,+HBr+CH,CH:CH.CH,;by dis- 
tilling the barium salts of adds C«Hs«.^ with sodium mcthyiate 
in vacuo (I. Mai, Bcr„ 1869, 3a, p. 2135): from the higher alcohols 
by converting them into esters which are then distiUcd (C, Krafft, 
Ber., 1883. 16, p. 3018}: 

from tertiary alcohols by the action of acetk anhydride in the 
presence of a small quantity of sulphuric add (L. Henry, Comples 
remdM, 1907. I44» P- 552): 


^ (CH,),; 
from unsaturated alcohols by the action of metal-ammonium com- 
pounds (B. Chablay. Comptes rendus, 1906. 143. p. 123): 

from the lower members of the series by heating them with alkyl 
halides in the presence of lead oxide or lime: C Jli»-f-2CHsI b2HI + 
CtHu: and by the action of the zinc aflcyls upon the halogen 
substituted olefines. 

A. Maiihe {Ckem, Znl,, 1906. 30. p. 37) has diown that 00 passing 
the monohalosen derivatives of the paraffins through a glass tube 
containing reduced m'ckel, copper or cobalt at 250* C, olefines are 
produced, twcther with the halogen adds, and recombination 
IS prevented by paSaing the gases through a solution of potash. 
The reaction prabably proceeds thus: MCla-HCJiti^iCI-^HGH- 
ClM-C.H«iCI--^MCk+CJlsM since the haloid derivatives of the 
monovalent metals do not act similarly. Tlie anhydrous chlorides 
Of nickel, cobalt, cadmium, barium, iron aftd lead act in the same way 
as catalysts at about 300* C, and the bromides of lead, cadmium, 
i^ckel and barium at about 320* C. 

In their physical properties, the olefines resemble the normsl 
pnrafltns, the lower members of the series being inflammable 
gases, the nembeis from Qto Cm liquids insoluble inhaler. 

and from Ci« upwards of. solids. The diief nontia! nembert 
of the series are shown in the table. 



point. C. 

Boiling-point. C. 

Ethylene . 

CH,:CH. , 


-I02.7' (757 mm.) 
-50-2* (749 mm.) 

t::^: : 





39— 40' 




Heptvlcne . . 
Octyfcne . 





84** (18 mm.) 

E)ecylcae . . 






In chemical properties, however, they differ very markedly 
from the paraffins^ As unsaturated oompotmds they can combing 
with two monovalent atoms. Hydrogen is absorbed readily at 
ordinary temperature in the presence of platinum Mack, and 
paraffins are formid; the halogens (chlorine and bromine) 
combine directly with them, giving dihalogen substituted com* 
pounds; the halogen halides to form monohalogcn derivatives 
(bydriodic acid reacts most xcadiiy, hydrochloric add, least); 
and it is to be noted that the haloid adds attach cbettselves 
in such a manner that the halogen atom unites Jtself to th« 
carbon atom which is in combination i»ith the fewest hydrogca 
atoms (W. Markownikow, Ann,, 1870, 153, p. 256). 

They combine with hypochlorotis add to form chbrhydrina; 
and are easily soluble in concentrated sulphuric acid, giving rise to 
sulphuric acid esters; consequently if the solution be boiled with 
water, the alcohol from which the olcfine was in the first place derived 
is regenerated. The oxides of nitrogen convert them into nitrositea 
and nitroaates (O. Walloch. Ann^ 1887, 241. p. 288. Ac; I. Sahniidt, 
Bef., 1902. ^5. pp. 2323 ct seq.). They also combine with nitrosyl 
-bromide ana chloride, and with many metallic haloid salts (platinum 
bichloride, iridium chloride), with mercury salts (see K. A. Hofmann 
and J. Sand. jScr., 1900, 33. pp. 1350 et eeq.). and those with a 
tertiary carbon atom yiekl double salm with dac chloride. Dilute 
potassium pcrmanBanatc oxidiies the olc6nes to glycols (C. Wagner, 
Bff., 1888, 21, p. 3359). With ozone they form ozonidcs (C. Harries, 
Ber,, 1904. 37^ p. 839). The higher members of the series readily 
polymcrizcin the presence of dilute sulphuric add, tine chloride, &c 

For the first member of the scries see Etuvlenb. 

Propylene, CaH«. may be obtained by pasnng the vapour of 
trimcthylene through a heated tube (S. M. Tanatar, Ber., 1899, 33, 
pp. 702. 1965). It is a colourless gas which may be liquefied by a 
pressure of 7 to 8. atmospheres. Bntj^ene, CMt, exists in thrva 
isomeric forms: normal bulylcne. CtHrCHKTHi; pseudo-bulylene, 
CHr CH :CHCH,; and tsobutylcne. (CHi)iC : CH.. Normal bntylene 
is a readily condcnsible gas. Two spatial modifications of i>seinla- 
butytene, CHrCHrCH-CHi.iire known, the cis and the traUM: they 
are prepared by heating the sodium aalts of hydro-iodo-tiglic and 
hydro-iodo-angclic acids respectively (J. Wislicenus, ilfM., 1900^ 
%i^ p. 228). . JsokuiyUnt, (CH»)iC:(:Hi. is formed in the diy distil- 
lation of fats, and also occurs among the products obtained when the 
vapour of fusel oil is led through a heated tube. It is a gas at 
ordinary temperature, and may be liquefied, the liquid boiling at 
-5" C. It combines with acetyl chloride in the pmence p( aac 
;hloride to form a ketone, which on warming breaks down into 

and X78-181* C Amylene^ CtHi*. casta in five isomeric forms. vi& 
in) pracyylethvlene. CH,-CHsCHrCH:CHs; iaopropyletbyleaQ. 
(CH»)iCH'CH: CHi; symmetrical methyl-ethyl-ethylene. 
CHa • CH : CH • CiHi; unsymmetrical methyl-ethyl-ethylene, 
(CH,)(CiH,)C:CHj: and trimethyl ethylene. (CH>)iC:af<CH,). 
The h^hest members of the aeries u vet known are €troteut, CmH» 
which IS obtained by the distillation of Chinese wax and is a paraffin*' 
like solid which melts at 57* C, and meUne, CmHmi?), whirh is 
obtained by the distillation of bees*-wax. It melts at 69* C. (B. J. 
Brodie. Ann., 1848. 67, p. 210; 1849. 71. p. 156). 

OLEG (^is), prince of Kiev, succeeded Rurik,as being the 
eldest member tif the ducal family, in the prindpality of Great 
Novgorod, the first Rosnan metropolis. Three years later he 
moved southwards and, after -taking Smolensk and other places, 
fixed his residence al Kiev, which .he made hb capital. He then 
proceeded to btiild a fortress there and gradually compdled the 
Burrcnnufog tribes to pay him tribute, extending Ms conquests 
in an directions (883*^3) at the expense of the Khaaars, who 
hitherto had held «11 aouthera Russia to tribute. In 907^ 



with a host made up of all the subject tribes, Slavonic and Finnic, 
he sailed against the Greeks la a fleet consisting, according to 
the iyetopis, ol sooo vessels, each of which held 40 men; but this 
estimate is plainly an exaggeration. On reaching Consuntinople, 
deg disembark(»d his forces, mercilessly ravaged the suburbs 
of the imperial aty, and compelled the emperor to pay tribute, 
provide the Russians with provisions for the return }oumey, 
and Uke fifty of them over the city. A formal treaty was then 
concluded, which the Slavonians swore to observe in the names 
of their gods Pcrun and Voles. Oleg returned to Kiev laden with 
golden ornaments, costly cloths, wines, and all manner of precious 
things. In 911 he sent an embassy of fourteen persons to 
Constantinople to get the former treaty confirmed and enlarged. 
The Dames of these ambassadors are preserved and they point 
to the Scandinavian origin of Oleg's host; there is not a Slavonic 
name among them. A new and elaborate treaty, the terms of 
which have come down to us, was now concluded between the 
Russians and Creeks, a treaty which evidently sought to bind 
the two nat ions closely toget her and obviate all possible differences 
which might arise between them in the future. There was also 
to be free trade between the two nations, and the Russians 
might enter the service of the Greek emperor if they desired it. 
The envoys returned to Kiev in 913 after being shown the 
splendours of the Greek capital and being instructed in the 
rudiments of the Greek faith. In the autumn of the same year 
Oleg died and was buried at Kiev. 

Sec S. M. Solovev. History of Russia (Rus.), vol. i. (St Petersburg. 
i8m. &c.): M. F. Vbdimirsky-Budanov, Ckreskmaihy of the History 
of Russian Low (Rut.), pt. i. (Kiev. 1889). (R. N. B.) 

OLEIC ACID, CHmO, or CJI.tCH-.CH- (CHJt • CO, H, an 
organic add occurring as a glyceride, triolein, in nearly all fats, 
and in many oils — olive, almond, cod-liver, &c (see Oils). It 
appears as a by-product in the manufacture of candles. To 
prepare it olive oil is saponified with potash, and lead acetate 
added; the lead salts are separated, dried, and extracted with 
ether, which dissolves the lead oleale; the solution is then 
treated with hydrochloric acid, the lead chloride filtered off, 
the liquid concentrated, and finally distilled under diminished 
pressure. Oleic acid is a colourless, odourless solid, melting at 
14** and boiling at 223** (10 mm.). On exposure it turns yellow, 
becoming rancid. Nitric acid oxidixes it to all the fatty acids 
from acetic to capric. Nitrous acid gives the isomeric elaidic 
acid, C,H,rCH:CH(CH,jTCO,H, which is crystalline and 
melts at 51*" Hydriodic acid reduces both oleic and elaidfc 
acids to stearic acid. 

Enieic ackl. C,H,rCH:CH lCH,J,fCO,H. and the womeric 
brauidic acid. btXon^ to the oleK actd aeries. They occur as aly- 
cerides in Tape-seed oil. m the fatty oil of mustard, and in the o'J of 
grape seeds. LinoMc add. CuHt^. found as glyceride in drying 
oiis. and rictnoleic add. Ci(Hti(OH)Oi, found as glyceride in castor 
oil, ck»sely resemble oleic acid. 

OLEN. a semi-legendary Greek bard and seer, and writer of 
hymns. He is said to have been the first priest of Apollo, his 
connexion with whom is indicated by his traditional birthplace — 
Lycia or the land of the Hyperboreans, favourite haunts of the 
god The Delphian poetess Boeo attributed to him the introduc- 
ion of the cult of Apolk) and the invention of the epic metre 
Many hymns, nomes (simple songs to accompany the circular 
dance of the chorus), and oracles, attributed to Olcn, were pre- 
served in Delos. In his hymns he celebrated Opis and ArgS, 
two Hyperborean maidens who founded the cult of ApoUo in 
Delos, and in the hymn to Eilythyia the birth of ApoDo and 
Artemis and the foundation of the Delian sanctuary His reputed 
Lydan origin corroborates the view that the cult of Apollo was 
an importation from Asia to Greece. His poetry generally was 
of the kind called hieratic. 

See CalKniachus. Hymn to Dehs, 3054 Pansanias !. 18, ii 13; 
v. 7; ix. 27; X. 5; Herodotus iv. 35. 

OltROM, an island lying off the west coast of France, opposite 
the months of the Charetite and Seudre» and induded in the 
department of Charente-Inf^ricure. In 1906 the population 
numbered 16,747. In area (66 sq. m.) ft ranks next to Corsica 
; French islands. It is about 18 ol in length from N.W. 

to S.E., and 7 in extreme breadth; the width of the strait 
{Pertuis do Maumusson) separating it from the mainland is at 
one point less than a mile. The island is flat and low-lying and 
fringed by dunes on the coast. The greater part is very fertile, 
but there are also some extensive salt marshes, and oyster 
culture and fishing are carried on. The chief products are 
com, wine, fruit and vegetables. The inhabitants are mostly 
Protestants and make excellent sailors. The chief places are 
St Pierre (pop. 1582 in 1906), Le ChAtcau d'01£ron (1546), 
and the watering-place of St Trojan-Ies-Bains. 

OI6ron, the Uliarus Insula of Pliny, formed part of the duchy 
of Aquitaine, and finally came into the possession of the French 
crown in 1370. It gave its name to a medieval code of maritime 
laws promulgated by Eleanor of Gnienne. 

OLFACTORY SYSTEM, in anatomy. The olfactory system 
consists of the outer nose, which projects from the face, and the 
nasal cavities, contained in the skull, which support the olfactory 
mucous membrane for the perception of smell in their upper 
parts, and act as respiratory passages below. 

The bony framework of the nose » part of the skull (q.v.), but the 
outer nose is only supported by bone above; lower down its 
shape is kept by an " upper " and " lower lateral cartilage " and 
two or three smaller plates known as " cartilagincs minores." 

Fran R. nowdcn.h Cunninfhim'a fcrf-Awl ef Amatomy. 
FiC. X.— Profile View of the Bony and Cartilaginous Skeleton of 
the Noee^ 

The expanded lower part of the side of the outer nose is known 
as the " ala " and is only formed of skin, both externally aixl 
internally, with fibro-fatty tissue between the layers. The inner 
nose or nasal cavities are separated by a septum, which is seldom 
quite median and is covered in its lower two-thirds by thick, 
highly vascular mucous membrane composed of columnar 
ciliated epithelium with masses of acinous glands (see Epithhual 
Tissues) embedded in it, while in its upper part it is covered 
by the less vascular but nnore specialized olfactory membrane. 
Near the front of the lower part of the septum a slight opening 
into a short blind tube, which runs upward and backward, may 
sometimes be found; this is the vestigial remnant of " Jacobson's 
organ," which will be noticed later. The supporting framework 
of the septum is made up of ethmoid above, vomer below, and 
the " septal cartilage " in front. Tie outer wall of each nasal 
cavity is divided into three meat(is by the overhanging turbinated 



bones (see fig. 2) Above the superior turbinated is a space 
between it and the roof known as the " recessus spheDo-ethmoi- 
dalis," into the back of which the " sphenoidal air sinus " opens. 
Between the superior and middle turbinated bones is the 
" supcnor meatus," containing the openings of the " posterior 
ethmoidal air cells," while between the middle and inferior 
turbinatcds is the "middle meatus," which is the largest of the 
three and contains a rounded elevation known as the " bulla 
ethmoidalis." Above and behind this is often an opening for 
the " middle ethmoidal cdls," while below and in ^ront a deep 
skkk-shaped gutter runs, the "hiatus semilunaris," wMch 
communicates above with the ** frontal air sinus " aiMi below 
with the opening into the " antrum of Highmore " or " maxillary 
antrum." So deep is this hiatus semilunaris that if, in the dead 
subject, water ispoured into the frontal sinus it all passes into the 

O^eninc of Biid<flc ethmoidal cdlx 

Fig. a.— View of the Outer Wall of the Nose— the Turbinated Dones having been removed. 


2. Opening of antrum of Highmore. 

3. Hutus semilunaris. 

4. Bulla ethmoidalis. 

5. Agger nasi. 

6. Opening of anterior ethmoidal cells 

7. Cut edge of superior turbinated bone 

8. Cut edge of middle turbinated bone 

9. Pharyngeal orifiq: of Eustachian tube. 

antrum and none escapes through the nostrils until that cavity 
b fuU. The passage from the frontal sinus to the hiatus semi- 
lunaris b known as the " infundibulum," and into thb open the 
" anterior ethmoidal ceUs," so that the antrum acts as a sink 
for the secretion of these ccUs and of the frontal sinus. Rimning 
downward and forward from the front of the middle turbinated 
bone b a curved ridge known as the " agger nasi," which forms 
the anterior boundary of a slightly depressed area called the 
" atrium." 

The " inferior meatus " b bdow the inferior turbinated bone, 
and, when that b lilted up, the valvular opening of the nasal 
duct (see Eye) b seen. In front of the inferior meatus there b a 
depression just above the nostril whldi b lined with skin instead 
of mucous membrane and from which short hairs grow; this if 
called the " vestibule." The roof of the nose b very narrow, 
and here the olfactory nerves pass in through the cribriform 
plate. The floor b a good deal wider so that a coronal section 
through each nasal cavity has roughly the appearance of a right- 
angled triangle. The anterior wall b formed by the nasal bones 
and the upper and lower latecal cartilages, while postcrioriy 

the Mtenoidal turbinated bone separates the nasal cavity from 
the sphenoidal sinus above, and below there b an opemng into 
the naso-pharynx known as the ** posterior nasal aperture " 
or "ch«ana." The mucous membrane of the outer wall b 
characteristic of the respiratory tract as high ta the superior 
turbinated bone; it b ciliated all over and very vascular where 
it covers the inferior turbinated ; superficial to and above the 
superior turbinated the olfactory tract b reached and the 
specialised oUactoiy cpiLhclium begins. 


In the third week of intra-utcrinc life two pits make their appear- 
ance on the under side of the front of the head, and are known as the 
olfactory or nasal pits, tbcy uxe the first appearance of the true 
olfactory rcgkm of the no«, and some of their epithelial limng crib 
send od axon« (iicc Nsavous Svstem) which arborise with the 
dendrites of the cells of the olfactory lobe 
of the brain and so form the olfactory 
nerves (see J. Dlwe, AnaL Hefte, 1897: 
also />. Anat. Sec^ J. Anal, and Phyn^ 
1897. p. li). Between the olfactory piu 
the broad median fronto-nasal process 
ffrows down from the forehead region to 
form the dorsum of the nose (see fig. 3), 
and the anterior part of the nasal septum, 
while outside them the lateral nanl pro- 
cesses grow down, and htcr on meet the 
maxillary processes from the first visceral 
arch. In this way the nasal cavities are 
formed, but for some time they aie 
separated from the raouth by a thin bwxo- 
nasal membrane which eventually b broken 
through, after thu the mouth and nnse 
arc one cavity unUl tlie formation of the 
palate m the third month (se<5 Mouth and 
Salivary Glands). In the third month 
J.icobson 9 orjpjn may be seen as a well- 
marked tube lined with respiratory muosua 
membrane and running up%nird and bnckr 
ward, close to the septum, from its orifice. 
which IS just above the foramen of Stensen 
in the anterior palarine csnal. In man it 
never has any conncidon with the olfactory 
•membrane or olfactory nervea. Internally 
and below it is surrounded by a delicate 
sheet of cartilage, which b distinct from 
that oF the nasal septum. No explana> 
tbn of the function 01 lacobaon's organ i« 
roan b known, and it is probably entitvly 
auvistic. At birth the nasal cavitKs are 
very shallow from above downward, but 
they rapidly deepen till the age of puberty. 
The external nose at birth projects very 
little from the plane of the laoe escept at 
the tip. the button-like shape of which m 
babies is wdl known. In the second ^v4 
third vcar the bridge becomes more preoii- 
nent. but after puberty the nasal bones te^ 
to tilt upward at their bwer ends 10 fom 
the eminence which is teen at its beat in 
the Roman nose. (For further deuils see 
Quain's Anatomy, voL L, London, 1908.) 
Comparative Anatomy. 
In Amphioxus among the Acrania there is a ciliated pit above the 
anterior end of the central ncri'ous system, which is prx>babiy a nidi- 
moit of an unpaired olfactory organ. In the Cydoetomata (lampirya 
and bags) the pit is at first ventral, but later becomes dorsal and 
shares a common opening with the pituitary invaginatmn. It 
furthermore becomes divided internally into two lateral haKTS. 
In fishes there are abo two lateral pits, the nostrils of whkA open 
sometimes, as in the elasmobranchs (sharks and rays), on to the 
ventral surface of the snout, and somedmes, as in the h^her fishes, 
on to the dorsal surface. Up to this siage the olfactory organs ate 
mere piU, but in the Dipnoi (mud-fish) an opening b established 
from tnem into the front of the roof of the mouth, and so they serve 
as respiratory pasmges as well as organs for the sense of smell. 
In the higher Amphibia the nasal organ becomes included in the skull 
and respiratory and olfactory parts are dbtinguished In thb cbss. 
too, turbinal ingrowths are found, and the luiao-lachrymal duct 
appears. In the lizards, among the Reptilta. the olfactory and 
respiratory parts are very distinct, the Utter being lined only by 
stmtified epithelium unconnected with the olfactory nerves. Theie 
b one true turbinal bone growing from the cuter waU, and dose to 
thb is a large nasAl gland In crocodiles the hard palate b formed. 
and there is henceforward a considerable distance between the open- 
ings of the external and internal nares. I n thb order, too (Croeoduia) 



fint fbtfnd extendirtji from the olf*ctory cavhict 
The bird** arrangement is very like that ol the 

. '(i89i>t and Hi the kangaroo, /. Anal, and Pkp., v«l. 
also G. Eliot Smith on JacotMon** organ. Anoi^m, 

air ail 

into the fkuU-tiones. 

reptilea; oKactoiy and respiratory chambers are preset, and into 

the latter projects the true tmiMnal, thouch there is a pseodo-turbinal 

m the upper or olfactory chamber. In mammals the olfactory 

diamber of the nose is variously developed; most of them are 

" macroamatic," and have a large area of olfactory mucous mem- 
brane : some, like the seals, whalebone whales, monkeys and man are 

" microsmatic," while the toothed whales have the olfactory re^on 

practically su pp res s e d in the adult, and are said to be ** anosmatic " 

There are fenerally five turbinal bones in macrosmatic mammals, 

so that man has a reduced number The lowest of the series or 

•• maxillo-turbinar' is the equivalmt of the single true turbinal bone ^, .... .^....- , . , — . - ^ . 

of birds and reptiles, and in most mammals ts a double scroll, one I glands become overgrown, fornMngJaree procuberant nodular n 

*^ <* • ovur which the dilated capillaries are 

Msdlbrr ^ ^ ^ pbinly visible. This condition is termed 

Eys proem r,^^tp*^« (jj;,^ ^^^ frhioophynia or hammer 

>^^i^ \ ^ I Haajibaiif irti fiose), though tiMfe is iio tocfease in fatty 

tissue. NMal acne occurs mainly In 
dyspeptics and tea drinkers, and the 
more advanced condition, Kponoa nan« 
chiefly in eMerly men addicted to al* 
coholism. The treatment of acne is the 
removal of the dvapepsia with the local 
application of nilphur ointment or of a 
lotion of perchloride of mercury. Ua* 


26 (1891). also , _ - . 

Ameiger, xj. Band No 6 (l^S). Tor general literature on th« 
comparative anatomy of the olfactory system up to 1906, see 
R. Wiedersheim's Compcraiife Analomy <^ VtrUbraUs^ translated 
and adapted by W. N Parker (London. 1907). (F. G. P.) 

DUKASE9 br Olfactory Svsteh 
External Affedhns and Injurw of Ike JVaie.—Acne rosacea Is one 
of the most frequent nasal skin affections. In an early stage it 
consists of dilatation or congestion of the eapilUries. and Uter of a 
hypertrophy of the sebaceous follicles. This may be aocompanicd 
by the formation of pustule*. In an exaggerated stage the sebaceous 



I. Side view of the head of human embryo 
about 27 days old. showins the olfactory 
pit and the visceral arches and clefts 
(from His). 
n. Tninswne acction through the head of 
an embryo, showing the relation of the 
dfactoiy oits to trie forcbrain and to 
the root of the stomatodacal space. 
II L Head of hunun embryo about 29 <Says 
old. ahowif^ the division of tho lower 
part of the mesial froutal proccsa into 

the two globular proc es s es , the inter- 
vention (3 the olfactory pita beCwwa 
the mesial and lateral nasal ptooesaes, 
and the approximation of the maxillary 
. and lateral nasal proceasos. whicb» how- 
ever, are separated by the ocukMoaal 
sulcus (from His). 
IV Transverse sectkm of bead of embryo. 
lAiowing the deepening of the olfactory 
jttM and thfiff relatmn to the hemt- 
sphcre vcakles of the fore-brai«. 

aightly capiHarias may be destroyed by an 
aoplicitbn of the galvano<autery or by 
efectrolysia. Free dissection of the re* 
dundant tissue from around the nasal 
cartilaf^ is necessary in lipoma nai4. 
skin bemg grafted on to the raw surf ace. 
The nasal bones are frequently frac- 
tured as the result of direct violence, at 
by a blow from a cricket ball or stick. 
Tne fracture b usually transverse, and 
may be oommunicated, leading to much 
deformity if left untreated. The tre9t'> 
ment b the immediate reposition of the 
bony fragments. The old-standing cases 
where there b CDn&iderable depression 

C^fcbfri wiring the fragmenu may be resorted ta 
In nvroerous cases the subcutancona 
injection of paraffin may improve tht 
shape of the organ. Deflection of tht 
septum may also resuK from similar 
injuries, and lateral displacement may 

^ cause sobacquent nasal obstniction and 

m^.^ require the straightening of the septum. 

yr^f Usiona involvinf; conssderable toss of 
substance due to tn jnry or to syphilitic or 
tuberculous disease have led to many 
methods being devised to sopplv Hie 
missinK pact. In the Indian tuctbod of 
rhinoplasty a flap b em from the lore- 
head, to which it b left attached by a 
pedide: the flap b then turned dotm- 
waros to cover the mbsing portion of tlie 
nose; when the parts have united, the 
pedicle b cut through. In the HaUan 
operation devised by TheliacotiM (Taglia- 
cosai). a ftaiF> was taken from the pMtient'a 
arm. the arm being kept fixed to the 
head until the fbp has united. 

Dfsemiei of the Jnlenor of the Nose.^ 
E^slaxis or bleeding of the nose may 
anse from many conditions. It is par^ 
ticularly common in young girls at the 
time of puberty, being a form of vicariouB 
menstniation. It also occurs in cerebral 

leaf turning upwaH and the other down. Jacob«on*s organ first 
appears in amphlDians, where it b found as an amcropostcrior 
gntter in the floor of the nasal carity, sometimes being dose to the 
septum, at other times far away, thouah the former position b the 
Rkore primitive. In reptiles the roof 01 the gutter doses in on each 
side, and a tube is fonned lying below and internal to the nasal 
cavity, opening ameriorly into the mouth and ending by a Mind 
cxtmnity. poatcrsorly to wMch branches of the olfactoiy and tri- 
geminal nerves are distributed. In the higher reptile* (crocodiles 
and chdonians) the organ b suppressed in the adult, and the same 
appt'ies to birds: but in the lower mammals, espcciafly the mono- 
tremes. it b very wdl dev\tloped. and is enclosea in a cartilaginous 
sheath, from which a turbinal process projects into its interior 
in other fflnnwaab, with the exception of the Primates and perhaps 
the Chiroptera. the organ b quite distinct, though even in roan. 
a» has been shown, its presence can be dcmoostrated in the embryo. 
The special opcnioe through which it cnmmunii-atcs with the mouth 
b f hr foramen of Stensrn m the anterior palatine canaL 
See i- Symington on thtorfan of Jacobaon in the Omithorynchus, 

mecsiion, heart disease, scurvy, haetno- 
1 diaeaae. The treatment will depend 

phy4b. o' aa a sign of local < 

upon Che caose. In patients with high arterial tension epistaxb 
may be of dinsct benefit In other cases rest on the back may be 
trira, with the local application of tanno-gallic acid or haaelio or 
adrenalin, either in a spray or on absorbent cotton. If these should 
not atop the haem o rr hii ge the nose must be plugged. In cases which 
arise from specific forms of ulceration, such as tuberrulosb and 
syphilis, the area should be rendered anaesthetic by cocaine, the 
bleeding points found, and the vcssrb obliterated by the e1cctrt>- 
cnutery. Pblypi in the nam! paasa^e* are also a frequent cause of 

Rk»niHs, or intbrnnrntfon of the mucous membrane of the noae, 
occurs both in acute and chronic forms. ' Of the acute the simple 
catarrhal form termed ** oorya " forms the widely known " cold in 
the bond." The tendency of acute coryza to aflcct entire families, 
and to be communicable from one person to another, points to ita 
infectious nature, though probably some predisposing conditioa of 
health b necessary for Its development. It Is considerrd proved 
that the ayraptoms are due to the prwnce and development dl 



mvtnl^MaetniathonB^amu, OfthmfbenoiCimportamtftlw 
micrococcus caiarrfaali* docnbcd by Martin Kirchner ui 1890^ bat 
FricdUnder't paeumo-bacillut ha* abo been found, la ordinary 
ca«es o( coryn, mmczuik, congestion of the naaal mucous membrane 
and a profuw watery diacharKc usher in the attack, and the inibm- 
mation may extend to the pharynx, larynx and trachea, blocking 
of the Eustachian tube producing a temporary deafness. Later the 
discharge may become muco-purulent. One attack of coryza 
conveya no immunity frMn subicqucnt attacks and sonae persons 
seem particularly susceptible. The treatment is directed towards 
incrcaaiflg the action of the kidneys, skin and bowels. A brisk 
meicuriar purgative is indicated, and salicin and aspirin are useful 
in many cases. Considerable relief may be obtained by washing 
out the najol cavities several times a day with a warm totion con- 
taining boric acid. Those who are unusually prone to catch cold 
should habituate themselves to an open air life bv day and an open 
window by night, adenoids or enlarged tonsils sbouM be removed, 
and the diet should be modified so as not to contain an excess of 
surchy foods. An acute croupous inflammatkm occasbnallv attacks 
the nasal mucous membrane when the Klebs-Ldffler bacinos is not 
present, but the nasal membrane often shares in true diphtheria, 
oritaiay be the onty^oraaa to be infected thereby. The diagnosis is 
of course bscteriologicaC 

As a result of frequent catarrhal attacks the naaal mucous mem- 
brane may become the scat of a chronic rhinitis in which the turbinals 
become swollen with oedema, and congested aad finally thkkened 
by increase in the fibrous tissue. There is an excessive muco-purulent 
discharge, and the patient is unable to breathe through the nose; 
deafness and adcnosd vegetaibns may be the result. In the early 
Btaffcs the nasal, cavity sbouM be washed out night and morning 
with an alkaline lotion, such as bicarbonate of soda, or a caustic, 
such as chromic acid, should be used in swabbing over the alTccted 
part The application of tlie galvano<autery here is useful, but 
when the areas are much hypcrtrophied the hypenrophied portion 
of the inferior turbinals may have to be removed under cocaine. 
A special form of recurrent hypertrophic rhinitis is hay fever (^.v.). 

Rhinitis Sicca is a form of chronic rhinitis in which there is but 
little discharge, crusts or scabs which may be difficult to remove 
forming in tlie nasal cavities: the pharynx may be also affected. 

Atrophic rhinitis or ozaena usually attacks children and veung 
adults, foltowirw on measles or acarlet fever. Crusts form, and favour 
the rttcntk>n of the purulent dischar|ie. The disease may extend to 
the nasal sinuses and septic absorption take place. The treatment 
is to keep the nasal cavity clean by irrigation with solution of per- 
manganate of potash or carbolic acid lotion, the nose then being 
wiped and smeared with lanolin or partially plugged with a tampon 
of cotton-wool, the process being repeated at frequent intervals, the 
general treatment being that for anaemia. Disease of the middle 
turbinated bone is also a cause of an offensive nasal discharge, and 
rhinitis occurring in infants gives rise to the obstructed rcspimtioa 
known as " the snuflles." 

Three forms of nasal polypi are described, the mucous, the fibrous 
and the malignant. The general symptoms of nasal polypus are a 
feeling of stumness in one or both nostrils, inability to breathe down 
the nose and a thin watery discharge. A nasal tone of voice, together 
with cough and asthma, nuiy be present, or there may be partial 
or complete loss of the sense of smell (anosmia). The treatment of 
mucous polypi is their removal by the forceps or the snare, the base 
of the growtn being afterwards carefully examined and cauterized 
with the galvano-cautery. 

Fibrous polypi are usually very vascular, and may be a cause of 
severe epistaxis as well as oiobslruction of breathing. '* dead voice." 
siccpiocts and deafness. Tlif increasing growth may lead to ex- 
pansion of the bridge of the nose and deiormity of the facial boaes, 
known as '* frog- face." The tendency of fibrous pt^ypi to take on 
malignant sarcomatous characters is specially noticeable. Extir- 
pation of the growth as soon as its nature is recognised is thoefore 
urvently demanded. 

The chief diieases of the nasal septum are absceasos. due to the 
breaking down of haeniatonuta, syphilitic gummota (leading to deep 
excavation and bony destruction), tuberculous disease m whicn 
a small vclk>wish grey ukcr forms and what Is known as porforating 
ulcer 01 the aeptam, which is ract with just within the oostriu 
The latter tends to run a chronic course, and the detachment of one 
of its crusts may cause coistaxis. Rbtnosckronia was first described 
by F. Hcbra in 1870^ ana is endemic in Russian Polaad» Calicia aod 
Hungary, but is unknown in England, except amongst alien immi- 
grants. The infecting organism is a specific t>acillus« and the disease 
Itarts as a chronic smooth painless obstruction with the formation 
of dense plate-like masses of tissue of stony haidncao. Treatment 
other than that of excision of the masses has pcoved useless, 
though the recent plan of introduction of the tnjectioo of a 
vaccine of the bacillus nay in future modify the progress of the 

The accctsoiy sinuses of the nose are also praoe to diseaM, The 
mauTlary antrum may become filled with muco-pu% forming an 
empyema, pus escaping intermittently by way of the nose. The 
condition causes pam and swelling, and may require the irrigation 
and drainage of the sntnim. The frontal sinuses may become filled 
with mucous, owing to the swclliag of tbe oasal mucoua pieabraoa 

over the middle tutbioaiedl booe, or an acute inflammaikw may 
spread to the frontal siouscs. giving rise to an eoipyema in that 
lity. There is severe froatol |^ia. and io some cases a fuln 

00 the forehead over the afiected SKle. the pus often pointing in this 
site, or there may be fk dischai]ge^ of pus through the noie. *" 


treatment u that of incision and irrigation of the sinus (in some cases 
scraping out of the sinus) and the re-establtshment of communication 
with the nose, with free drainage. The ethmoidal and sphenoidal 
sinuses are also frequently the site of empyemata, giving rise to pain 
in the orbit and the back of the rraac, and a discharge into the naso- 
pharynx. In the case of the ethmoidal sinus it nay give rice (o 
exopnthalmus and to strabismus (squint), with the formation of a 
tumour at the inner wall of the orbit and fever and delirium at night. 
In the young the condition may become nqudly fatal. Suppuration 
in the sphenoidal sinus may lead to blindness from involvement of 
the sheath of the ojHic nerve, and dangerous complications such as 
septic basal meningitis and thrombosis of the cavernous sinus may 
occur. Acute ethmoiditia and sphenotditis ore serious conditions 
demanding immediate surgical intervention. (H. L. H.) 

OLOA, wife of Igor, prince of Kiev, and afterwards (from 945) 
regent for Sviatotlav her son, was baptized at Constantinople 
about 9SS and died about 969. She was afterwards canonized in 
the Russian church, and is now commemorated on the iiLh of 

OlOIBRD (d. 1377), grand-duke of Lithuania, was one of tlie 
seven sons of C»edymin, grand<<ltike of Lithuania, among whom 
on his death in 1341 be divided his domains, leaving the youngest, 
Yavnuty, in possession of the capital, Wilna, with a nominal 
priority. With the aid of his brother Kiejstut, Olgierd in 1345 
drove out the incapable Yavnuty and declared himself grand- 
duke. The two and thirty years of his reign (1345-1377) were 
devoted to the development and extension of Lithuania, and he . 
lived to make it one of the greatest states in Europe. Two 
factors contributed to pioduce this result, the extraordinary 
political sagacity of Olgierd and the Iife4ong devotion of his 
brother Kicjstut. The Teutonic knights in the north and the 
Tatar hordes in the south were equally bent on the subjection 
of Lithuania, while Olgierd's eastern and western neighbours, 
Muscovy and Poland, were far more frequently hostile competitois 
than serviceable allies. Nevertheless, Olgierd not only succeeded 
in holding his own, but acquired influence and territory at the 
expense of both Muscovy and the Tatars, and extended the 
borders of Lithuanit to the shores of the Black Sea. The principal 
effort3 of this eminent empire-maiur were directed to securing 
those of the Russian lands which had formed part of the ancient 
grand-duchy of Kiev. He procured the election of his son 
Andrew as prince of Pskov, and a powerful minority of the citizens 
of the republic of Novgorod held the balance in his favour against 
the Muscovite influence, but his ascendancy in both these 
commercial centres was at the be^t precarious. On the other 
hand be acquired permanently the important principalities of 
Smolensk and Bryansk in central Russia. H!s relations with 
the grand-dukes of Muscovy were friendly on the whole, and 
twice he ourried orthodox -Russian princesses; but this did not 
prevent him from besieging Moscow in 1368 and again in 1371, 
both times unsuccessfully. OlgienTs most memorable feat was 
his great victory over the Tatars at Siniya Vodui on the Bug in 
13/S2, which practically broke up the great Kipchak horde and 
compelled the khan to migrate still farther south and establish his 
headqtiarters for the future in the Crimea. Indeed, but for the 
unceasing simultaneous struggle with the Teutonic knights, 
the burden of which was heroically b<mie by Kiejstut, Russian 
historians frankly admit that Lithuania, not Muscovy, must have 
become the dominant power of eastern Europe. Gflglerd died 
in 1377, accepting both Christianity and the tonsure shortly 
before his death. His son JagicUo ultimately ascended the 
Polish throne, and was the founder of the dynasty which ruled 
Poland for nearly 300 year$. 

See Kozimierx Stadnickl, The Sen's cf Cedymtn (Pol) (Lemberg. 
1849-1853). Vladimir Bonifatevich Antonovich. Monogtapk om tSs 
HisUfry of Western Russia (Rus.), vol. I. (Kiev, 1885). (R. N. B.) 

OLRXO. a seaport of southern Portugal, in the district of 
Fan*; 5 ra. E. of Faro, on the Atlantic coast. I^op. (1900) 10,009. 
Olhfio has a good harbour at the head of the Barra Nova, a deep 
channel among the sandy islands which fringe the coast. Wine, 
fruit, cork, boakels -md sumach are exported in small roasting 



thne Me fmpwtMt amdkm Md toBiiy fiiiiaia; uaA 
bMti, nib and cordage are manufactuied 

OUeARCBT (Gr. ^Xfyoc, few, d^x^. nik), in poUticaJ phflo- 
tophy, the ton applied to a govonmeiit exerdied by a rdativdy 
aoall nitmlMr of the meaibaa of a oommniuty. It is thus the 
appiopiiau term for what is noir geaerally koown as " aristo- 
cracy" (qjt). The meaning of the terms lias substantial^ 
alUred since FUto's day, for in tho ReptMk " oligarchy " 
meant the rule of the wealthy, and " aristocracy" that of the 
really best people. 

OUOOGBII fYRBM (fiom the Gr Hhkrm, few, and cao^ 
recent), in fsobgy, the name given to the aeeood division of the 
older Tertiary locks^ vis. those which occur above the Eocene 
and below the Mioeeneatrata. These rocks were originally classed 
by Sir C. LycU as *' older Mioceno," the term OUgocene being 
proposed by H. £. Beytkh in 1854 and again fai 1858. Following 
A. de Lappaicnt, the OMgootne is here rcfpnled as divisible 
into two stages, an upper one, the Etampian (from £tampes), 
equivalent to the Rup^Uan of A. Dumont (1849), and a lower 
one, the SannoWan (IroB Sannob near Fans), equivalent to 
the Tongiian (from Tongris m Limburg) of Dumont (18S9). 
This kiwcr division is the Ligurian of some authors, and corre- 
^Mnda with the Lattoifian (Latdorf) of IL Mayer in north 
Germany; it is in part the equivalent of the older term Ludian 
of de Lappareot. It shookl be pointed out that several authors 
retain the Aquitanian stage (see Midcbmb) at the top of the 
OiigBcene, but there are sufiidently good rtasoBS lor removing 
it to the younger system. 

The OUgoeene dqmsits are of fresh^water, bcscklsh, marine 
and terrestrial oiigini they include soft sands, sandstones, grits, 
marls, shales, limestones, conglomerates and lignites. The 
geographical aspect of Europe during this period is indicated 
on the accompanying map. Here and there, as in N. Gvmany, 










f m -9^"^ 

iitt««Mtrpwi«r«fet f 
OOgoceac Period *• 



the sea gained ground that had been unoccupied by Eoeene 
waters, but important changes, associated with the continuation 
nC elevatoty processes in the Pyrenees and Alps whkh had 
begun in the preceding period, were in progreu, and a general 
relative uplifting took place which caused much of the Eocene 
sea floor to be occupied at this time by lake basins and lagoons. 
The mo v em e nts, however, were not aU of a negative character 
as regards the water areas, for oscillations were evidently 
frequent, and subsidence must have been considerable in some 
regions to admit of the accumulation of the great thickness of 
material fooad deposited there. Perhaps the most striking 
change from Eocene topography in Europe b to be seen in the 
exteuion of the OUgocene sea over North (jermany, whence 
it extended eaatward through Poland and Russia to the Aral- 
Caspian region, communicating thence with Arctic waters by 
way ol a Ural de p res si on. The Asian extension of the central 
mediterranean sea appears to have begun to be limited. It was 
later in the period wbien the wide-spread emersion set in. 
AA 2* 

In Dcitmo OUsooene fomatkms are found only in the Hampshire 
Basin and the Isle of Wight; from the admixture of frarii-water, 
marine and estuarioe deposits, £. Forbes named these the " FluviO' 
marine series." The following are the more imporunt subdivisionsi 
in deaoendine order: The Hamstead (Hampstcad) beds, marine at 
the top, with Ostrta caUifera, N<Uica^ &c., cstuarine and freth- 
water bdow, with l/nto, Vinpants and the remains of crocodiks, 
turtles and mammab. The Bonbridge marb, fresh-water, estuarine 
and aiarine, resting upon the Bembridge limestone, with many 
fresh-water foasib such as Limnaea, Planar^, Ckarat brge land 
snails, Ampkidrcmus^ HHix^ Ctandina^ and many insects and plane 
leaves. The Osborne beds, marb, cbys and limestones, with c/aM, 
Umnaeat Ac The Hendon beds (upper), fresh-water cbys. maris 
and limestones (middb), brackish and marine, more sandy (lower), 
bnckish and fresh-water cbys, marls, tufaoeous limestones and 
sandstonca. The cbys and sands of the Bovey Basin in Devonshire 
were formeriy classed as Miocene, but they are now regarded by 
C. Reid as Eocene on the evidence of the pbnt remahis, though there 
b still a possibility that they may be found to be of OUgocene age. 

In France the best-known tract of Oligoccne rocks rests m the 
Paris basin in close rebtion&hip with the underlying Eocene. These 
rocks include the firet and second gypsum beds, the source of " plaster 
of Parb"; at Montmartre the first or upper bed b 90 metres in 
thickness, and some of the beds contain siliceous nodules (fusils) 
and numerous roammalbn remains. Above the gypsum beds is the 
travertine of Champigny-sur-Manie, a series <A blue and white marb 
(supra-^pseous marb), followed by tho " gbiscs veru " or greenish 
marls. At the tfip of the lower Olisoccne of thb dbtrict b the 
lacustrine " calcaire de Brie " or middb travertine, which at Fert6* 
sous'Jouane b exploited for milbtones; thb b assocbted with the 
Fontaindileau llinestone, which at Chateau-Landon and Souppes b 
efficiently compact to form an important buildinff stone, used m the 
Are de Tnompbe and other stnictures in Parb. Tnc upper OUgocene 
of Paris begins with the manut d kuiires, followed by the brackish 
and fresh-water molasse of Etrecfay, and a series of sandy beds, of 
which the best known are chose of Fontainebleau, Etampea and 
Ormoy; in these occur the groups of calcite crystals, charged with 
sand, familiar in all mineral collections. Elsewhere in France similar 
mined marine, fresh-water and brackish beds are found: in Aqui- 
taine tbere are marine and lacustrine marb, Umestones and molasse : 
marine beds occur at Bbrritx; lacustrine and fresh-water maris and 
limestones with lignite appear in the sub-Pyrenees; in Provence 
there are breckisb red days, congkMneiatcs and Ugnites, with 
limestones In the upper parts; and in Limagne there are mottled 
sands, arkoses, cbys and fresh-water limestones. In the Jure region 
and on the borders of the central massif a peculiar group of deposits, 
the ferrotfi ndtraiitkique, b found in beds and In pockets in Jurassic 
linMStones. Sometimes this depont consists of red cby (bolus) with 
of ^aolitic iron, as in Jura and FrancheKX>mt)fc. Alsace, &c.] 
r, as in Bouigogne. Berry, the valley of the Aubois, 

___. .„, it b made up of a bfeocb or conglomerate of Jurassic 

pebbles cemented with linionite and caibooate of lime or silica 
Can intimate mixture of mari and iron ore in these dbtricu b called 
^castilbrd "). At Quercy the cementing material b phosphate ol 
lime derived from the bones of mammals {Adapts, Necrelnmur, 
Palatotkermm, Xiphodan, &c.), which are so mimerous that it has 
been suggested that these aniroab must have been suffocated by 
nseous enunations. SixniUr ferruginous deposits occur in South 

. In the Alpine region the Ofigocene rocks assiraie the character 
of the Flysch, a complex asaembnge of marly and sandy shales and 
soft sandstones with cakareous cement (** madgno '*)• The Flysch 
phase of deposition had began before the cbse of the p reced in g 
period, but the bulk of tt belongs to the Otigtxrene, and b especblty 
characteristic of the lower part. The Flysch may attain a very great 
thickness: in Dauphin^ it is said to be aooo metres. ObscuJre pbnt* 
nice impressions are common on certain horixons of thb formation, 
and have received such names as Chondrites, Fticviis, HHmin'^ 
thoidea. The " grts de Taveyannax " and " WUdflysch " of Lake 
Thun contain fragments of eruptive rocks. Marine beds occur at 
Barr^e, Desert, Chamb^; ftc., and parallel with the normal FKscfa 
in the higher Alps of Vaudois b a nummuUtic limestone: both 
here and near Interiaken, in the matbte of Ralli^stOckc, calcareous 
iJgae arc abundant. Part of the " schistes des Gnsons '* {** Bflndner 
Sdiiefer ") have been regarded as of Olieocene age. In the L6niaa 
region the " Flysch rouge " at the foot of the Dent du Mkli betonp 
to the upper part of the Flysch formation. 

In North Germany the lower OUgocene consists brgely of sandy 
mari^, often ^uconttic; typical bcaUties are Egeln near Magdebuff 
and Latdoff near Bemburv; at Sembnd the giaucenitic sand coo- 
tains nodules of amber, with insects, derived from Eocene strata. 
The upper (Migocene beds, which covtr a wide area, comprise the 
Stettin sands and Septarian Cby or Ropetfon. marine beds tending 
to merge laterally one hito another. In the Mainx basin a petroleum- 
bearing sandy marl b found at INschelbronn and Lobsann in Alsaet 
undertying a f r^-water limestone which b followed by the marine 
" Meeressand " of Abey. Lignites {Bramnkohl) are widely spread in 
this ftgion and appear at Latdorf, Leiptig, in Westphalia and 
Mccklenburgi at fialte b a variety calledjpyrop^te, whfch iS 

Mecklenburg: at Halle ts a variety caiiea pyropi*siti 
exploited at weineafcb for the manufacture of paraffin. 



fn Bckiam a niidy MTfet nATemmenan, AMchfain. Henlsbn). 
mainly oibrackMh-water origin, » tuoceedod by the marine aands of 
Berch (with the clay of Boom), which paaa up through the inferior 
aanda oi Bolderberg into the Miooene. In Switserland. beyond the 
limits of the Flytch, nearer the Alpine nuusif, b a belt of grita, 
limeitonct and ciayt In an unoompacted condition, to which the name 
** moUiae " ia utually given; mbcixi with the molaMe b an inoonetant 
conglomeratic littocmf formation, called Nat^uk. The mobiae 
occurt abo in Bavaria, wheie it b several thousand feet tMck and 
oontaina lignltcA. Oligocene depoaits occur in the Carpathian regioa 
and Tirol; aa Flyich and bracush and bcuetnne beda with lignite 
in Kbutenbarg, lignite* at Hftring in Tirol. In the Spanish Pyrenees 
they are well developed; in the Apennines the scaly clays C^aiigilte 
pcagliose ") are of thb age; whib in Calabria they are remented 
by thicic conglomeratea and Flyech. Flyich appears also in Dalmatia 
and Istria (where it b called " tassello ") and in North Bosnia, 
where it oonuins marine limestones. Lignites are found at Soctica 
and Styrla. marine beds in the Balkan peninmib. gbuconitic sands 
prevail in South RussU, Flysch with sands and gnu in the Caucasus, 
Wnile marine deposits also occupy the Aral-Caspbn legion and Ar- 
menb, and are to be traced Into Persia. Oligoeene rocks are known 
in North Africa, Algeria, Tunis and Egypt, with the silicified trees 
and basalt sheets north of the Fayam. In North America the rocks 
of thb period have not been very cleariy differentiated, but they 
may possibly be represented by the White river beds of S. Dakota, 
the white and blue marls of lackson on the Mississippi, the " lack- 
•onlan " white limestone of Alabama, the Ihnestone of Ocala in 
Florida, certain lacustrine days in the Uinta basin, and by the rib- 
band shalM with asphalt and petroleum in the coastal range of 
California. In South America and the Antilles upper Oligocene b 
found, and the lignite beds of Coronel and Lota in Chile and in the 
Straits of Magellan may be of thb age; in Patasonb are the lower 
OUgooene marine beds (*' Patasonian ") and beds with mammalian 
remains. In New Zcabnd the (Jaroaru series of J. Hutton it regarded 
as Oligocene: at its base are interstratified basic volcanic rocks. 

A correlation of Oligocene strau b summarised in the following 
table i^ 

In the Eocene seaa,(CMe#«r»«t. Etklmel ampn , Chpeatltt, SttaOmJ. 
Corab were abundant, and oummulites sttU coottalied tiU acv tM 
clo«e of the period, but they were diminished in sice, 

Rbfekences.—" Geology of the Isle of WWhr,'* Uam. CeU, 
Suney (2nd ed. 1889); A. von Koenen, Ahkait£ mtf. SpecUgkart 
Pnuu. X (i«»9-i894); M. Vdkst, Dtr BrAunkohUnk^gbMim 
(Halb, 1880): E. van den Brooek. " Mat^riavx pour I'^uide de 
rOUgocinc beige "Batf. Soc, Bdi. M, (1804) ; abo the worka U 
O Hcer, H. Rlhol, G. Vasseur, H. F. Osbom, A. Gaudry, H. DouvilM, 
R B. Newton, H Dall, M. Cossmann, C. Lambert, Ac., and the 
artkle Fltscb (j. a. H.) 

OUOOCLASB; % rock-forming mineral bclo^big to tha 
plagiodiae {qt) divbbn of Che lebpan. In chemieal omb- 
position and in its czystaUofiapbical and phyiiaa chaiaetcn 
it b intermediate betweea albite (NaAlSiiOk) and anoithiu 
(CaAliSiA), being aa iiomoipboua alxtme of three to iU 
moleculcsof the former with one of the latter. Itbthuaaaod*- 
lime leb|>ar crysuUising in the anortfaic ayttem. VtfielJtt 
intermediate between oKgorlawt and albite are Jcdowb •■ oligo* 
claae-aUnte. The name oUgodase was given by A. Breithaapc 
in xa26 f mm the Gr. itUymt tittk, and sXcr, to break, becsuae tbe 
mineral was thought to have a less perfect deavage thaa albite. 
It had previously been rriwgnized as a dbtlnct ipedet by J. J. 
Bendius in (824, and was named by him sodarspodumcAt 
{Nelro»^spo4tmen\ because of its resemblance in appesraaos 
to spodumeae^ The hardness b 6^ and the wp, gr. 2't^%^i^ 
la oolour it b usually whitish, with ahades of grey, gre«a or red. 
Perfectly colourless and tnnsparent glas^ material found at 
Bakcrsvillein North Carolina has ooeasionally been faceted as 
a gem-stone. Another variety more fie(|oently used as a gem- 
stone b the avcntttriae^fdapar or *' sua-stoae *' (f .v.) found aa 
reddish cleavage masses in gneiss at TVrdwtfand in soothern 

Olicocsitc Svstbii 8. 

North GcroMB Rcgioii 

Otkr LoteTitlet. 


Sttdi and anaitQiwi of 
OfBlg^ Font ilnrtiWiii aad 

Sudt 4 Uorisor. Faltw of 
Jcunw, Ojrittr n*/!*. 








"CUiKt vcctn." aad 









Saads of WcaatL 

The land flora of thb period was a rich one coniisttng lar^ly of 
evergreens with chanaers akin to those of tropical India and 
AustraUa and subtropical America. Seouotaa. sabal palms, ferns, 
dnnamon-treca, gum>trces, oaks, figs, laureb and willows ware 
Ckartk u a common fossil m the fresh-water beds. The 

the lorerunncrs of living genera. ¥ 
the vpper Oligocene bv the homlea 
and ArsinciueriuM, from Egypt 

most interesting feature df the land fauna waa undoubtedly the 
astonishing variety of mammalians, especially the k)ng aeries from 
the White river l)cds and others in the interior of North America. 
Pachyderms were very numerous. Many of the mammab were of 
mixed types, Hyatncdon (between marsupiab and placentals), 
Adabit (between pachyderms and lemurs), and many were dearty 
I of living genera. Rhinomids were represented in 
I hornless Ac«raih£rium; Palaeamasiod&n 

^ Egypt are early proAwscidbn forms 

which may have lived in thb pcnod; Anckiikiriumt Anckippus, &c, 
were forerunners of tbe horse. Palatolkerium^ AntkrccoUurtumt 
Pala*oiaUt Stemofibir, Cynodidis, Dinklis, Ictops, Palaeclcpu^ 
SciuruSt Cckdamt fiyoptlcmMS, Orioion, Poebrotherium, Protocrrait 
JfypertrapUus and the gigantic Tiunotherids {TUanolkeriMm^ 
BrontoikiritaHt Ac) are some d the important genera, representatives 
of moat of the modem groupa» including carnivores (Canidat and 
Feiid44)t insectivores, rodents* niminanta, cameb. Tortoises were 
abundant, and the eenus Kama made its appearance. Rays and dos- 
lish were tbe dominant marine fish: logoonal brackbh-water fiu 
are represented by ProUhias, Swurdu, Ac Insects abounded and 
arschnids were rapidly developing. Casteropods were lncrea«nff in 
Importance, most of the genera still existing {CtrHkimm, Pdomtdts, 
JfiioNM, larae Noticast PJenrohwmria, Yolmla, TurriieUa, R^ttettaria, 
PynJa), Cephalopoda, on the other hand, show a falling off. 
Pelccypods include the genera Cardtta, PteiunciduSt LacfM, Ostrea, 
Cyrcao. Cylhcna, Bryosoa were very abundant {UembrMipora, 
Upnlia^ HenNMa /dawnas). Fghimads were Icsa numerous than 

Norway; thb presenU a brilliant red metallic glitter, doe to tbe 
presence of numerous small scales of haematite or gOthite cndoeed 
in the felspar 

OUgodase occurs, often accompanying ortfaodaae, -as a co»> 
fltituent of igneous rocks of various kinds; for instance, amongiit 
phrtonfe rocks in granite, syenite, diorite; amongst dike-rocks 
in porphyry and diabase; and anoiiggt YOkuic. rocks in uideslte 
and trachyte. It also occurs in gneiss. The best devdoped and 
larpat crystab are those found with orthodas^ quaru. epadole 
and caldte in veins in granite at Arendal in Norw^« (L.J.S.) 

OUPHAJIT. LAURBNCB (1839-XS8S). Britbh aut^. son 
of Anthony Oliphant (x 793*1859)/ was bom at Cape Towa. 

* The family to which Oliphant belonged b old and famous la 
Scottish history. Sir Laurence Oliphant of Aberdalgb. Perthshire, 

wted a feed of the Scottish parUament befoic I45tk was 

., from Sir William QUphaat of AbcsdaWiB and on the 

female side from King Robert the Bruoc Sir Williaax.(d. li^t^) b 
renowned for his brave defence of Stirling castle against Edward t. 
in 1304. Sir Lanrence was sent to oondude a treaty whh England 
in 1484; he hdped to eatablish the young Uqg Jatnaes IV. 00 hb 
throne, and he died about 1500. His son John, the sad lord (d. IS16K 
having lost hb son and heir, Cdin. at Fkxlden, waa succeeded 
by his grandson Laurence (d. 1566). who was taken prisoner by the 
English at the nout of Solway Moss in 1541. Laurence's son. Laur- 
ence, the 4th lord (tS^^-iMa)* «aa a partisan of Mary queen of 
Scots, and waa euooeeded by bis grandson Laurence (t5%t-i' 
who loft no sons when he died. The 6th lord was Patrick Olip; 

bis grandson Laurence (t583--|63i), 

. _ The 6th lord was Patrick Oliphant, 

a descendant of the 4th lord, and the title was held by lus descendants 



^Hb father was tlien tttorney-general in Cape Colony, but was 
■oon Iraiiiferred as chief justice to Ceylon. The boy's educatioo 
was of the nmfl desultory Jaod. Far the least useless portion 
of it bekmgffd to the yeaia 1843 and 1849, when he accompanied 
his parents on a tour on the cootinent of £urope. In 1851 
be accompanied Jung Bahadur from Colombo to Nepaul. |le 
pasaed an agreeable time there, and saw enough that was new 
to enable him to write his first book, A Jounay U Katmandu 
(k8$i). From Nepaul he returned to Ceylon and thence to 
En^andi dallied a little with the English bar, so far at least 
as to eat dinners at Uncoln's Inn, and then with the Scottish 
bar, so far at least as to pass an examination in Roman law 
He was more happily inspired when he threw over his legal 
atiidies and went to travel in Russia. The outcome of that tour 
was his book on Tht Rusnaii Shorts oj Iht Black Sea (1855). 
Between 185J and 1861 he was successively secretary to Lord 
Elgin during the negotiation of the Canada Reciprocity treaty 
at Washington, the companion of the duke of Newca^e on a 
visit to the Grcassian coast during the Crimean War, and Lord 
Elgin's private secretary on his expedition to China. Each 
of these experiences produced a pleasant book of IraveL In 
x86i he was appointed first secretary in Japan, and might have 
BMide a sttccessfuldiplomatic cancer if ithad not been interrupted, 
abnostat the outset, by a night attack on the le0ition,in which 
be nearly lost his life. It seems probable that he never properly 
tecovercd from this affair. He ret urned to EngUnd and resigned 
the service, and was elected to parliament in 1865 for the Stirling 

OUpbant did not show any conspicuous parliamentary ability. 
but made a great succes* by his vivecious and witty novel, 
Pkc4xdiUy (1870). He fell, however, under the influence of the 
spiritualist prophet Thomas Lake Harris {q.t.)^ who about i86t 
bad organized a small commoBity, the Brotherhood of the New 
Life/ which at this time was settled at BroctoQ on Lake Erie 
and sttbceqnentliy moved to Santa Rosa in California. Harris 
obtained so strange an aacendaney over Oliphant that the latter 
left parliament in x868, followed him to Brocton, and lived there 
the life of a farm bbourer, in obedietice to the imperious will of 
his H^vitual guide. The cause of this painful and grotesque 
aberration has never been made quite dear. . It was part of the 
Brocton r^me that membo* of the community should be 
allowed to return into the worid from Ume to lime, to make 
money for its advantage^ After three years this was permitted 
to Oliphaat. who, when once more in Europe, acted as corres- 
pondent of The Times during theFranco^German War, and spent 
afterwards several years at Paris in the service of that joumaL 
There be met Miss Alice le Strange, whom he married. In 1873 
he went back to Brocton, taking with him his wife and mother. 
During the years which followed be continued to be emploj^ 
in the service of the community and its head, but on work very 
different from that with which he had been occupied on his first 
sojourn. His new work was chiefly financial, and took him much 
to New York and a good deal to England. As late as December 
1878 he continued to believe that Harris was an incarnation of 
the Deity. By that time, however, bis mind was occupied with 
a birge project of colonization in Palestine, and he made in 1879 
an extensive ionmey in that country, going also to Constantinople, 

until the death of Francis, the toth lord, in April 1748. It has 
since been claimed by several pervons, but without success. 

Another member of the family was Lannmoe Oliphant {i^x- 
1767) the Jacobite, who belonged to a branch settled at Cask in 
Perthshire. He took part in the rising of I7i5.and both he and his 
con Laurence (d. 1792) wrcre actively concerned in that of 1745. 
being present at the battles of Falkirk and Culloden. After the ruin 
of the Stuart cause they escaped to Frsnce, but were afterwards 
allowed to return to Scotland. One of this Oliphant 'a defendants 
was Carolina, Baroness Natrne (9.9.). 

* It should be mentioned that the unfavourable view of Harris 
taken by OTiphant's own biogTapher, and certainly not shaken by 
subaeqaeot evidence, has been strongty repudiated by some who 
knewliim. Mr J. Cuming Walters, for ins(ance| in the WestminUtr 
CatetU (London. July 28, 1006) defends the puriiy of his character. 
It is difficult to arrive at the exact truth as to Oliphant *s relations 
with hire, or the financial scandal which ended them: and it must 
be admitted that Oliphant himself was at least decidedly cranky. 

in the vain hope of obtaining a lease of the nortbtfn half of tha 
Holy Land with a view to settling large numbers of Jews there. 
This he conceived would be an ea^ task from a financial point 
of view, as there were so many persons in England and America 
" anxious to ftilfil the prophecies, and bring about the end of the 
world." He landed once more in England without having 
accomplished anything definite; but h^ wife, who had been 
banished from him for years and had been living in California, 
was allowed to r^oin him, and they went to Egypt together. 
In 1881 he crossed again to America. It was on this visit that 
he became utterly disgusted with Harris, and finally split from 
him. He was at first a little afraid that his wife would not 
follow him in his renunciation of " the prophet," but this 
was not the case, and they settled themselves very agree- 
ably, with one house in the midst of the German community 
at Haifa, and another about twelve miles off at Dalieb on Mount 

It was at Haifa in 1884 that they wrote together the strange 
book called SympneumaUs: Evolutianary Forces now atthe m 
Man, and in the next year Oliphant produced there his novel 
iiasoUam, which may be taken to contain its author's latest 
views with regard to the personage whom he long considered 
an " a new Avatar." One of his cleverest works, AUiora Ptto, 
bad been published in 1883. In x886 an attack of fever, caught 
on the shores of the Lake of Tiberias, resulted in the death of his 
wife, whose constitution had been undermined by the hardships 
of her Amcrfcan life. He was persuaded that after death he wa» 
in much closer relation with her than when she was still alive, 
and conceived that it was under her influence that he wrote 
the book to which he gave the name of Scientific Rdigien^ Ia 
November 1887 he went to England to publish that book. 
hy the Whitsuntide of x888 he bad completed it and sUrted 
lor America, There he determined to many again, his second 
wife being a granddaughter of Robert Owen the Socialist. They 
were married at Malvern, and meant to have gone to Haifa, but 
Oliphant was taken very ill at Twickenham, and died on the 
aird of December 1888. Although a very clever man and a 
delightful companion, full of high aspiration and noble feeling, 
Oliphant was only partially sane. In aiiy case, his education 
was ludicrously inappropriate for a man who aspired to be an 
authority on religioa and philosophy. He had gone through 
no philosophical disdpUne in his early life, and knew next to 
nothhig of the subjects with regard to which he imagined it 
was in his power to pour a flood of new light upon the worid. 
His shortcomings and eccentricities, however, did nof prevent 
his being a brilliant writer and talker, and a notable figure ia 
any society. 

Sec Mrs (Marearet) Oliphant, Memoir ol tke Life eJLamrtnte 
Olipkanland ^MtceOiipkanl his Wife (1893). (M. G. D.) 

OUPHANT. MAROARET OLIPHANT (1828-1897). British 
novelist and historical writer, daughter of Frands Wilson, was 
bom at Wallyford, near Musselburgh, Midlothian, in x8a8. Het 
childhood was spent at Lasswade (near Dalkeith), Glasgow 
and LiverpooL As a girl she constantly occupied hetself with 
literary experiments, and in 2849 published her first novel. 
Passages in the Life of Mrs Margaret Maitlaud It dealt i^ith the 
Scottkh Free Church movement, with which Mr and Mrs Wilson 
both sympathised, and had some success. This she followed 
up in 1851 with Cateb Pteld, and in the same year met Majot 
Blackwood in Edinburgh, and was inxnted by him to contribute 
to the famotis Blackwood's Magasine. The connexion thus 
early commenced lasted during her whole lifeliafte, and she 
contributed considerably more than 100 articles to Its pages 
In May i8ss she married her cousin, Frank Wilson Oliphutt. 
at Birkenhead, and settled at Harrington Square, in London. 
Her husband was an artist ^ principally in stained glass. He 
had very delicate health, and twoof their children died in infancy, 
while the father himself developed alarming s)'mptoms of 
consumption. For the sake of his health they moved in January 
1859 to Florence, and lhen<;e to Rome, where Frank Oliphant 
died His wife, left almost entirely without resources, returned 
to England and took up the burden of supporting her three 



children by her own litertiy activity. She had now become a 
popular writer, and worked with amazing industry to sustain 
her portion. Unfortimatcly, her home life was full of sorrow 
and disappointment. In January 1864 her only daughter died 
in Rome, and was buried in her father's grave. Her brother, 
«hd had emigrated to Canada, was shortly afterwards involved 
in financial ruin, and Mrs Oliphant offerMi a home to him and 
his children, and added their support to her already heavy 
responsibilities. In x866 she settled at Windsor to be near her 
sons who were being educated at Eton. This was her home for 
the rest of her life, and for more than thirty years she pursued 
a varied literary career with courage scarcely broken by a series 
of* the gravest troubles. The ambitions she cherished for her 
sons were unfulfilled. Cyril Francis, the elder, died in 1890, 
leaving a Life of Alfred de MusMet, mcorporated in his motherli 
Pareign Classics' for English Readers, The younger, Frank, 
collaborated with her in the Victorian Age of English LUeralure 
and won a position at the British Museum, but was rejected by 
the doctors. He died in 1894. With the last of her children 
lost to her, she had but little further interest in life. Her health 
steadily declined, and she died at Wimbledon, on the 25th of 
June 1897. 

In the course of her long struggle with drcurostances. Mis 
Oliphant produced more than 120 separate works, including, 
novels, books of travel and description, histories and volumes 
of literary criticism. Among the best known of her works of 
fiction are Adam Graeme (1852), Magdalen Hepburn (1854), 
LUliesleaf (1855), The Laird of Norlaw (1858) and a series of 
stories with the collective title of The Chronietes of Carlingford, 
which, originally appearing in Blackwood*s Magaune (i 862-1 865), 
did much to widen her reputation. This series included Salem 
Chapd (1863), The Rectory and the Doctor's Family (1863), 
The Perpetual Curate (1864) and Miss Marjorihanks (1866). 
Other successful novels were Madonna Mary (1867), Squire 'Arden 
{iS7t),Hethatlvmnotwhenhemay{iB8o), Hester USSs),Kirsteen 
<i89o), The Marriageof Elinor (1992) Md The Ways of Life {1^7). 
Her tendency to mysticism fbiiBd expression in The Beleaguered 
City (1880) and A Utile Pilgrim in the Unseen (i88a). Her 
biographies of Eimard Irving (1862) and Laurence Oliphant (1892), 
together with her life of Sheridan in the '^ EngBsh Men of Letters " 
(1883), have vivacity and a ssrmpathctic touch. She also wrote 
historical and critical works of considerable variety, including 
Historical Sketches of the Reign of George II. (X869), The Makers 
of Florence (1876), A Literary History of England from lygo to 
1825 (1882), The Makers of Venice (1887), Royal Edinburgh 
(1890), Jerusalem (1891) and TheMakers of Modern Rome{iSgs), 
while at the time of her death she was still occupied upon AnncUs 
of a Publishing House, a record of the progress and achievement 
of the firm of Blackwood, with which she had been so long and 
honourably connected. 

Her Autobiography and Letters, which present a touching picture of 
her domestic anxieties, appeared in 1899. 

OUPHANT, OtiFANT (Ger. Hdfant), the large signal horn of 
the middle ages, made, as its name indicates, from the tusk of 
an elephant. The ob'phant was the instrument of knights and 
men of high degree, and was usually ornamented with scenes of 
hunting or war carved either lengthways or round the horn in 
sections divided by bands of gold and studded with gems. The 
knights used their oliphants in the hunting field and in battle, 
and the loss of this predoos horn was considered as shameful as 
the loss of sword or banner. 

OLIVA, FERVAN PEREZ DE (1492MS30), Spanish man of 
letten, was born at Cordoya about 1492. After studying at 
Salamanca, Alcal&, Paris and Rome, he was appointed rector 
at Salamanca, where he died in x 530. His Didlogo de la dignidad 
del hombre (x543)> an unfinished work completed by Francisco 
Cervantes de Salaaar, was written chiefly to prove the suitability 
of Spanish as a vehicle for philosophic discussion. He also 
published translations of the Amphitruo (1525), the Eleetra 
(1528) and the Hecuba (1528). 

OUVARES, 0A8PAR DE OUZAaN, count td OUvares and 
duke of San Lucar (x 587-1645), Spanish loyal favourite and 

mhiister, was bom in Rome, where his father was Spanish' 
ambassador, on the 6th of January 1 587. His compound title is 
explained by the fact that he inherited the title of count of 
OUvares, but was created duke of San Lucar by the favour 4A 
Philip IV. He begged ibt king to allow him to preserve has 
inherited title in combination widi the new honour accordiiig 
to a practice of which there are a few other examples in Spanish 
history. Therefore he was conunonly spoken of as al c o nde 
duque. Buringthelifeof Philip III. he was appointed to a post 
in the household of the heir apparent, Philip, by the interest of 
his maternal unde Don Baltasar de ZiUliga, who was the head of 
the prince's establishment. Olivares made it his boaiiieaa to 
acquire the most complete influence over the yooqg prince. 
When Philip IV. ascended the throne hi 1621, at the age of aia- 
teen^ he showed his confidence in OUvares by ordering that aH 
papers requiring the royal signature should first be sent to the 
count-duke. Olivares could now boast to his mde Don 
Baltasar de Zfifiiga that he was '* aH." m became what is 
known in Spain as a valido — something more than a prime 
minister, the favourite and alter e; 9 of the king. For tweaty*two 
years he directed the policy of Spain. It was a period of ooBStant 
war, and finally of disaster abroad and of rebellion at home. 
The Spaniards, who were too thoroughly nonarehlcal tobianc 
the king, held his favourite responsible for the misfortunes of the 
country. T^e count-duke became, and for bng remained, la 
the opinion of his oountrjrmen, the accepted modd of a graspfog 
and incapable favourite. Of late, largely under the inspiratioB 
of Don Antonio Canovas, there has been a certain reaction in hxs 
favour. It would certainly be most unjust to blame Olivares 
alone for the decadence of Spain, which was due to iatcrxMl 
causes of long standing. The gross errors of his poliqr— the 
renewal of the war with Holland in 1621, the persistence of Spain 
in taking part in theThirty Years' War, the ksaer wan undertaken ■ 
in northern Italy, and the entire neglect of all efi^ort to promote 
the unification of the different sutes fotmlng the peninsular 
kingdom — were shared by him with the king, the Church and 
the commercial classes. When he bad fallea from power he 
wrote an apology, in which he maintained that he had always 
wished to see more attention paid to internal goveramest, and 
above all to the complete unification of Portugal with Spain. 
But if this was not an af terthooghtr he must, on Ms own showing, 
stand accused of having carried out during long years a policy 
which he knew to be disastrous to his country, rather than risk 
the loss of the king's favour and of his pbbce. Olivares did not 
share the king's taste for art and literature, but he formed a vast 
collection of state papers, ancient and contemporary, which he 
endeavoured to protect from destruction by entailing them •a an 
heirloom. He also formed a splendid aviary which, under the 
name of the '* hencoop," was a favourite subject of ridicule with 
his enemies. Towards the end of his period of favour he caused 
great offence by legitimixing a supposed bastard son of very 
doubtful paternity and worthless personal character, and 1^ 
arranging a rich marriage for him. The fall of Olivares was 
immediately due to the revolts of Portugal and Catalonia in 1640. 
The king parted with him reluctantly, and only under the pressure 
of a strong court intrigue headed by Queen Isabella. It was 
noted with anxiety by his enemies that he was succeeded in the 
king's confidence by his nephew the count of Haro. There 
remains, however, a letter from the king, in which Philip teUs his 
old favourite, with frivolous ferocity, that it might be necessary 
to sacrifice his life in order to avert unpopularity from the royal 
house. Olivares was driven from office in 1643. He retired by 
the king's order to Toro. Here be endeavoured to satisfy his 
passion for activity, partly by sharing in the municipal govern* 
ment of the town and the regulation of its commons, wooids and 
pastures, and partly by the composition of the apology he 
published under the title of El Nicandro, which was perhaps 
written by an agent, but was undeniably inspired by the fallen 
minister. The Nicandro was denounced to the Inquisition, and 
it is not impossible that Olivares might have ended in the prisons 
of the Holy Oifice, or on the scaffold, ii he had not died on the 
1 22ttdof July 1645. 



See the AsMiM dtf fWMd^ ^ AN#ir / K oT Dob AatiMio Gmwvm 
(MaUrid, iSte); and Don F. SQvela'a introducUoOt much Icm 
favourable to uGvares, to his edition of the Cartas de Sor Maria dt 
Agttda yddrty Fdipt IV. (Madrid, 1855-1886). 

OLIVB iOUa gwofata), tbe plant that yields the, olive ofl of 
commerce, belonging to a section of the natural ofder Oleaoeae, 
of whicb It has been taken as the type. The genta Oha includes 
about thirty spedes, very widely icattered, chiefly over the 
Old World, from the baaifi of the Mediterranean to Sottth 
Africa and New 2SeaIand. The wild olive is a small tree or 
bush of rather straggling gjowth, with thorny branches and 
opposite oblong pointed leaves, daik greyish-green above and, 
in the young state, hoaxy beneath with whitish scales, the smaH 
white ftowers, with four-cleft calyx and corolla, two stamens 
and bifid stigma, are borne on the last year's wood, in racemes 
ipringing from the axils of the leaves; the drupaceous fruit 
is small in the wild plant, and the fleshy pericarp, ^ich gives 
the cultivated olive its economic value, is hud and comparatively 
thin. In the cultivated forms the tree acquh^ a more compact 
hftbtt, the branches lose their spinous character, while the young 
shoots become mote or less angular; the leaves are always 

hoaxy on the under-side, 
and are generally lanceo- 
late hi shape, though 
varying much in breadth 
and siae hi theiUfferent 
kinds. The fruit Is sub- 
ject to still greater 
changes of form and 
coknir; usually oval or 
nearly globular, in some 
sorts it is egg-shaped, in 
others much etongated; 
while the dark hue that 
k commonly assumes 
when ripe is exchanged 
in many varieties for 
violet, green or almost 
white. At pcesent the 
wiki olive is found in 
most of the countries 
around the Meditcr- 
xancaa, extending its 

range on the west to 

nattane), reduced: B, opened' flowcfV C, Portugal, and eastward 
vertical aectioa of pistd. B and C en- to the vidnity of the 
••t"**- Caspian, while, locally. 

It eocm* even in Afghanistan. An undoubted native of 
Syria and the maritime parta of Asia Minor, ita abund- 
ance in Gxteoe and the islands of the Archipelago, and the 
frequent aUuskms to it by the earliest poets, seem to 
Ihdicate that it was there also indigenous; but in localities 
nmote fiom the Levant it may have escaped inm adtivatkm, 
leverting more or less to iu primitive type. It shows a marked 
ptefei ta cc fbr cakaveous aoila and a partiality for the sea-breeie, 
floiuishfaig with esfNBcial luzurianoe on the limestone sfepes 
and aags that often fonn the ahoccs of the Greek, peninsula 
and adjaootiL isUnds. 

The varieties of oUvo known to the modem cultivator are 
cxttcmdy nmncio u a a c c o r ding to some authoritiea equalling 
or eascecding in number those of the vine. In France and Italy 
at least thhty kinds have been cnumented, hot oompantivdy 
few are grtmn to any large cxtoit. None of these can be safely 
klentified with aadent deici l i ni im s , though it Is not unHkdy 
that some of the nanvw4eaved sorts that an most estewwri 
may be deseendaats of the famed << lidniaa" (see betow). 
Italy vetaina ita old pre^nmenoe in olive cuitlvatian; and, 
though its andent GalUc province now excels it in the production 
of the &icr ofib, its {ast-impiefving culture may restore the old 
pfcstift. The brosd4eavcd olive trees of Spain bear a larger 
Irvxt, bet the pericarp is of more bitter flavour and the oil of 
ranker qnality. The eiive tiee^ even when free incitase is 

A. Shoot of olive {OUa ewrepaea) (from 
" B, opened flower; C, 
--^ B and C en- 

unchecked by prunlhg, is of very slow growth; but, where 
allowed for ages its natural development, the trunk sometimes 
attains a considerable diameter. De CandoUe records one 
nrffding 23 ft. in girth, the age being supposed to amount 
to seven centuries. Some old Italian olives have been credited 
with an antiquity reaching back to the first years of the empire, 
or even to the days of republican Rome; but the age of such 
ancient trees is always doubtful during growth, and their identity 
with old descriptions still more difficult to establish. The tree 
in cultivation rarely exceeds 30 ft. in height, and in France 
and Italy is generally conlined to much more limited dimensions 
by frequent pruning. The wood, of a yellow or light greenish- 
brown hue, is often findy veined with a darker tint, and, bdng 
very hard and close grained, is valued by the cabinetmaker 
and ornamental turner. 

The oUve u propagated in various ways, but cuttinn or layers are 
generally preferred; the tree root* io favourable aoil almcat as easily 
as the willow, and throws up suckers from the stump when cut down* 
Bradthea of various thidueis are cut into lengths of several feet 
each, and, planted rather deeply in manured ground, toon vegetate; 
shorter pieces are sometimes laid horisontally in ahallow trenches, 
when, covered with a few inches of aoil. they rapidly throw up sucker- 
lilce shoota. In Greece and the islands grafting the cultivated tree 
on the wild form Is a common practice. In Italy embcyonic budk 
which form small ewdlings on the stemsb are carefully excised and 
planted beneath the aurface. where they grow readily, these " uovdi '* 
soon forming a vigorous shoot. Occasionally the laiger boughs are 
inarched, ami yoang trees thus soon obtained. The olive is also 
somedmes raised from seed, tbe oily pericarp being first softened by 
sli8;ht rotting, or aoakingin hot water or in an alkaline solutk>ii, to 
facilitate germination. The olives in the East often recdve Uttle 
attention irom the hosbandman, the branches bdng allowed to grow 
frcdy and without curtailment by the pruning-knife; water, how- 
ever, must be supplied in long droughts to ensure a crop; with this 
neglectful culture the treea bear abundantly only at mtervals of 
three or four yeara; thus, although wild growth is favoorable to 
the picturesque aspect of the plantation, it is not to be recommended 
on economic groandsi Where the dive is carefully cultivated, as in 
Langucdoc and Provence, it is planted in rows at regular intervals, 
the distance bet ween the trees vaxying in different " olivettes," 
according to the variety grown. Careful pruning is ptactiaed, the 
object being to pceserve the flower-bearing shoots of the preceding 
year, while keeping the head of the tnee low, so as to allow the easy 
gathering of the fruit; a dome or raanded form la generally the ann 
of the Miner. Tbe spaces betw ee n the trees are occasionally 
manured with rotten dung or other nitrogenous matter; in France 
woollen rags are In high eateem for this purpose Various annual 
crops are sometimes raiaed between tbe rowst and in Calabria wheat 
even is grown in this way; but tbe trees are better without any 
intermeoiale aopping. Latteriv a dwari variety, very psolific and 
with green fruit, has come into favour in certain iocalities, especially 
in America, wfa&re it is said to have produced a crop two or three 
seasons after planting. The on!inar>' kinds do not become profitable 
to the grower until from five to seven years after the cuttinga are 
placed m the oliv e giuu nd. Apart from oecasional damage by 
weather or organic Iocs, the olive crop is somewhat precarious even 
with the most careful cultivation, and the laxge untendcd trees so 
often seen in Spain and Italy do not yield that certain income to the 
peasant proprietor that some authors have attributed to them; the 
crop from these old trees is of teo enormoua, but they addom bear 
wdl two yean in su cce s si on, and io many instances a luzuiiaot 
harvest can only be reckoned upon every strth or seventh season. 
The fruit when ripe is, by the careful grower, pkked by hand and 
deposited in cloths or boafcem for conveyance to the mill: but in 
many parts of Spain and Greece, and generally ia Asia, the obvee 
are beaten down by poles or by shaking the boughs, or evea allowed 
to drop naturally, often lying cm the ground until the conveoieoce 
of die owrier admits of their removal: much of tbe inferior oil 
owes its bad quality to the carelesaness of the pro|>rietor of the trees. 
In southern Europe the olive harvest is in the winter months, ooo* 
tinning for several weeks: but the time varies io each ooantry, and 
also with the season and the kinds cultivated. The amount of oil 
contained in the fruit differe much in the various sorts; the pericarp 
usually yidds from 60 to 70%. The ancient agricoltorisCs believed 
that toe olive would not succeed if planted more than a lew 
from the sea (Theophsastus gives 300 stadia as the limit)^but 
experience does not confirm the raea, and, though showing a prefer- 
ence for the coast, it has long been grown fau- inland. A calcareous 
soil, however dry or poor, seems beat adapted ro ita healthy develop* 
ment, though the tree will now in any light soil, and even on day if 
well drainea ; but, as remarked by Plmv, tbe plant is more liable to 
disease on rich soils, and the oil is inlcrior to the produce of the 
poorer and more rocky ground the species naturally affects. The 
olive suffers greatly in some years from the attack* of varfoos 
enemies. A fui«oid growth has at limes infested the trees for a ■ 



ceMQW. to the great damage of the pbntations. A 

ftpedes of coccus, CeUae, attaches itself to the shoots, and certain 

, tefouB catefpQlafs feed on the leaves, while the *' ohve-fty 

attacks the fruit. In France the olivettes suffer oocasiooatty 
from frost; ta the early part of the i8th centcry many trees 
were cut to the ground oy a winter of exceptional severity. Gales 
and bng-continued rains during the gathering season also cause 

The unripe fruit of the olive is largely used in modem as in ancient 
times as an article of dessert* to enfianoe the flavour of wine, and to 
renew the sensitiveness of the palate for other vianda. For this 
purpose the fruit is picked while green, soaked for a few hours in an 
alkaline ley. washed wril in dean water and then placed in bottles 
or jars fiUed with brine; the Romans added omares to the salt to 
increase the bitter flavour of the ^ves, and at the present day apices 
are sometimes used. 

The leaves and bark o* the tree are employed in the south, as a 
tonic medidne, in intermittent fever. A resinous matter called 
*' olive gum," or Lucca gum, formed by the exuding iuice in hot 
seasons, was anciently in medical esteem, and in modem Italy is used 
•a a perfume. 

In England the olive is not hardv, though in the southern counties 
it will sund ordinary winters witn only the protection of a ;waU, 
and will bear fmit in such situations; but the leaves are generally 
■bed in the autumn, and the olives rarely ripen. 

The genus Ofea indudes several other spedes of some economic 
tmporttmce. O. paniemUUa is a kuger tree, attaining a height of 50 
or 60 ft. in the forests of Queensland, and yielding almrd and tough 
timber. The yet harder wood of O. lawifolia, an inhabitant of Naul, 
is the black ironwood of the South African cokMiist. 

At what remote period of human progress the w3d oUve 
passed under the care of the husbandman and became the 
fruitful garden olive it is impossible to conjecture. The frequent 
leference in the Bible to the plant and its produce, its implied 
abundance in the land of Canaan, the important place it has 
always hdd in the economy of the inhabitants of Syria, lead 
vs to consider that country the birthplace of the cultivated 
olive. An improved variety, possessed at first by some small 
Semitic sept, it was probably slowly distributed to adjacent 
tribes; and, yielding profusely, with Utile labour, that oily 
matter so essential to faeahhy life in the dry hot climates of the 
East, the gift of the fruitful tree became in that primitive age 
A symbol of peace and goodwill among the w&rlike barbarians. 
At a hiter period, with the development of maritime enterprise, 
the oil was conveyed, as an artide of trade, to the neighbouring 
Pdasgic and Ionian nations, and the plant, doubtless, soon 

In the Homeiic world, as depicted in the Iliad, olive oil is 
known only as a luxury of the wealthy— an exotic product, 
prized chiefly for its value in the heroic toilet; the warriors 
anoint themsdves with it after the bath, and the body of Palrodus 
is simiLuly sprinkled; but no mention of the culture of the plant 
is made, nor does it find any place on the Achillean shield, 
on which a vineyard is represented. But, although no reference 
to the cultivation of the olive occurs in the JUcd, the presence 
of the tree in the garden of Aldnous and other familiar allusions 
show it to have been known when the Odyssey was written. 
Whenever the introduction may have taken place, all tradition 
points to the limestone hills of Attica as the scat of its first 
cultivation on the Hellenic peninsula. When Poseidon and 
Athena contended for the future dty, an olive sprang from the 
barren rock at the bidding of the goddess, the patron of those 
arts that were to bring undying influence to the rising state. 
That this myth has some relation to the first planting of the 
olive in Greece seems certain from the remarkable story told 
by Herodotus of the Epidaurians, who, on thdr crops failing, 
applied for counsd to the Delphic orade. and were enjoined 
to erect statues to Damia and Auxesia (symbols of fertility) 
carved from the wood of the true garden olive, then possessed 
only by the Athenians, who giuited their request for a tree on 
condition of their making an annual sacrifice to Athena, its 
patron; they thus obeyed the command of the Pythian« and their 
lands became again fertile. The sacred tree of the goddess long 
stood on the Acropolis, and, though destroyed in the Penian 
invasion, sprouted again from the root— some suckers of .which 
were said to have produced those olive trees of the Academy in 
•a after age no kss revered. By the time of Solon the oUw had 

so spfCid that he fdund'il aecessiry to enact lawt to vcgidate 
the ctiltivation of the tree in Attica, from which cotmtiy It was 
probably distributed gradually to all the Athenian allies and 
tributary states. To the Ionian coast, where it abounded in 
the time of Thales, it may have been In an casUer age bcotight 
by Phoenidao vessels, some of the Spondes may have leceived 
it from the same source; the olives ol Rhodes and Crete had 
perhaps a similar origin. SaiooBi if we may judge (torn the 
epithet of Aeschylus UXoi^^ss), must have had the fruitful 
plant long before the Penian waiy. 

It is not unlikdy that the valiml tree was taken to Magna 
Graeda by the first Achaean colonists, and the assertion of 
Pliny (quoted from Feoestella), that do olives existed in Italy 
in the reign of Tarquinius Priscus, must be recdved with the 
caution due to many statements of that industrious compikc. 
In Latin Italy the cultivation Kems to have spread slowly, 
for it was not until the consulship of Pompey that the produ^ioo 
of oil became suffident to permit of iu exportation. In Pliny's 
time it was already grown abundantly in the two Gallic provinces 
and in Spain; indeed, in the earlier days of Stxabo the 
Ligurians supplied the Alinne barbarians with oil, in exchange 
for the wild produce of their mountains; the plant may have 
been introduced into those districts by Greek settlers in a 
previous age. Africa was indebted for the olive mainly to 
Semitic agendes. In Egypt the culture never seems to have 
made much progress; the oil found In Thcban tombs was 
probably imported from Syria. Along the southern shore of 
the great inland sea the tree was carried by the Phoenicians, 
at a remote period, to their numerous colonies in Africa — 
though the abundant olives of Cyrcne, to which allusioo 
is made by Theophrastus, and the glaucous foliage of whose 
descendants still clothes the rocks of the deserted Cyrenaica, 
may have been the offspring of Creek plants brought by the 
first settlers. The tree was most likdy inuoduced into southern 
Spain, and perhaps into Sardinia and the Balearic Islands, by 
Phoenician merchants; and, if it be true that old olive trees 
were found in the Canaries on their rediscovery by medieval 
navigators, the venerable trees probably owed thdr origin 
to the same ^terprising pioneers of the andent world. De 
Candolle says that the means by which the olive was distributed 
to the two opposite shores of the Mediterranean are indicated 
by the names given to the plant by their respective mhabitanis — 
the Greek Qnua passing into the Latin <^ea and t^iva, that in 
its turn becoming the utivo of the modem Italian, the oUm 
ot the Spaniard, and the ^Ztre, olmar, of the French, whHe in 
Africa and southern Spain the olive retains appellativea derived 
from the Semitic zait or sett; but the complete subjugation of 
Barbajy by the Saracens sufRdently accounts for the prevalence 
of SemiUc forms in that region; and aceytuno (Arab, teiutn), 
the Andalusian name of the fruit, locally given to the tree 
itself, is but a vestige of the Moorish conquest. 

Yielding a giateful substitute for the butter and animal fat# 
consumed by the races of the north, the olive, among the sonthetn 
nations of antiqtiity, became an emblem not ordy of peace but of 
national wealth and domestic plenty, the braadKS borne in tbt 
Panathenaea, the wild olive spray of the Olywpic victor, the olive 
crown of the Roman conqueror at ovation, and those of the 
equltes at their imperial review alike typified gifts of peace that, 
in a batbanms age, could be secured by victory alone. Among 
the Greeks the oil was valued as an important artide of diet, 
as well $s for its external use. The Roman people employed 
It largely in food and cookery^*Hhe wealthy as an indispensable 
adjuna to the toilet; and in the luxurious days of the later 
empire it became a favourite axiom that long and pleasant life 
depended on two fluids, ** wine within and oil without.'* Pliny 
vagudy describes fifteen varieties of olive cultivated In fals day. 
Chat called the " Lidnian " bdng held in most esteem, and the 
oa obtained from it at Venafrum in Campania the finest known 
to Roman connoisseurs; the produce of Istria and Ba^tica was 
regarded as second only to that of the ItaUan peninsnla. The fraf • 
met of the empire valued the unripe fruit, steeped in brine, as a 
provocative to the palate, no lass than his modem representative; 



and \A(k\tA olivci, itfdniBg thdr ckuracteritHc flavour, have 
been found among the buriad atons of Pompeii. The bitter 
jaice or refuse deported dniing ejtpression of the oQ (called 
OMavca), and the aatrlagent leavix of the tree have many virtues 
attributed to them ly ancient anthon. Hie oil of the bitter wiM 
oUve was employed by the Koman physicians in medicine, 
but docft not appear ever to have been used as food or in the 

In modem times the olive has been spread widdy over the 
morM; and, though the Meditemnean lands that were its andent 
home st3l sridd the chief supply of the oQ, the tree is now culti- 
vated suooBssfaUy hi many regions unknown to its early dis- 
tributofs*' Soon after the discovery ef the American continent 
it was oonveyed thither by the Spanish settlers. In Chfle it 
flonrisfaea aa Inxniiantly as in its native land, the trunk some- 
times becoming of laige girtb, while oil of fsir quaKty b yidded 
by the fruit. To Peru It was carried at a later date, but has not 
thcte been equally successful, tntr^uced into Mexico by the 
Jesuit missioaaHes of the 17th century, it was {Wanted by similar 
agency in Upper CBlifoxnia, where it has proepered latterly under 
the more careful management of the Anglo^Saron conqueror. Ite 
cultivation has also been attempted in the South-eastern states, 
especiafly fn S. Carolina, Florida and Mississippi. In the eastern 
hemisphcfe the olive has been established in many inland c&tricts 
which would have been andently considered Hi-adapted for its 
culture. To Armenia and Persia it was known at a comparatively 
early period of history, and many olive-yatds now exist in Upper 
Egypt. The tree haa been Introduced into Chinese agriculture, 
and has become an important addition to the resources of the 
Australian planter. In Queensland the olive has found a climate 
specially suited to iu wattta; ih South Australia, near Adelaide, 
it also grows vigorously; and there are probably few coast 
districts of the vast island-cootinent where the tree would not 
flourish. It hs» likewise been successfully intxoduced into ^me 
parts of Gape Colony. 

Portngnese writer, was bom in Lisbon and recdved his early 
education at the Lyefo Nadonal and the Academia das Bellas 
Artes. At the age of fourteen his father's death compelled him 
to seek a living as clerk In a commercial house, but he gradually 
improved his position until in 1870 he was appointed manager 
ef the mine of St Eufenria near Cordova. In Spain he wrote 
O. Soehiitma, and devdoped that sympathy for the industrial 
classes of which he gave proof throughout his fife. Returning to 
Portugal hi 1874, he became administrator of the railway from 
Oporto to Povoa, residing in Oporto. He had married when only 
nineteen, and for many ycais devoted his leisure hours to the 
study of economics, geography ami history. In 1878 his memoir 
A Cireuto^ fiduciarh brought him the gold medal and member- 
ship of th^ Royal Academy of Sciences of Usbon. Two years 
later he was elected president of the SodcVy of Commerdal 
Geography of Oporto, and in 1884 he became director of the 
Industrial and Commefda! Mnseum In that dty. In tSB; he 
entered public life, and in the following year represented Vianna 
do Caatdlo in parHancnt, and in 1887 Oporto. Removing to 
Lisbon in 1888, he continued the journalistic woric which he had 
commenced when living in the north, by editing the Re porter ^ 
and in 1889 he was named administrator of the Tobacco R^e. 
He represented Portugal at international conferencef in Berlin 
and Madrid in t 8qo, and was chosen to speak at the cdebration of 
the fourth centenary of Columbus held in Madrid in 180 r, which 
gained him membership of the Spanish Royal. Academy of 
Hntoty. He became minister of finance on the 1 7th of January 
i8o7, and later vice-president of the Junta do Credito Publico. 
His health, however, began to break down as a result of a Ufe 
spent in unremitting toU, and he died on the 24th of August 

His yotttMut struggles and privations had taught him a serious 
view of life, which, with his acute sensibility, gave him a reserved 
manner, but Olivcira Martins was one of the most generous and 
noble of men. Like Anthem de Qoental, he was Impregnated 
witb Bodem Gcnnaa philoeophy, and his peireption of the bw 

moral standard prevailing In public life made him a pessbnist 
who despaired of his country's future, but his sense of proportion, 
and the necessity which impelled him to work, saved him fronv 
the fate which t>efell his friend, and he died a believing Catholic. 
At once a gifted psychologist, a profound sociologist, a stem 
neiorafist, and an ardent patriot, Oliveira Martins deserved his 
European reputation. His Biliio&eca das tdencias socUus, 
a veriuble encydopaedia, comprises literary criticism, socialism, 
economics, anthropology, histories of Iberian dviliaation, of the 
Reman Republic, Portugal and BrazS. Towards the end of his 
life he spedalized in the 15th century and produced two nouble 
volumes, Os fithos de D. JtOo /. and A tida de Nw'Alvares, 
leaving unfinished O Principe per/eiio, a study on King 
John II., which was edited by his friend Henrique de Banna 
Gomes. ' 

Aa the literary leader of a national revival, Olivdra Martina 
occupied an almost unique position in Portugal during the last 
third Of the 19th century. If he judged and condemned the 
parliamentary regime and destroyed many Illusions in his sensa- 
tional Contemporary Portugal ^ and if in his philosophic History of 
Portugal he showed, in a series of impressionist pictures, the slow 
decHne of his country commendng in the golden age of the 
discoveries and conquests, be at the same time directed the gaze 
of his countrymen to the days of their real greatness under the 
House of Aviz, and indted them to work for a better future by 
describing the faith and patriotism which had animated the 
foremost men of the race in the middle ages. He had neither 
time nor opportunity for original research, but hk poweriul 
imagination and picturesque style enabled him t6 evoke the 
past and make it present to his readers. 

The chid characteristics of the man— psydiological Imagination 
combined with realism and a gentle Irony— make his strength 
as a historian and his charm as a writer. When some critica 
objected that his HisUrria de Portugal ought rather to be named 
" Ideas on Portuguese History," he replied that a synthetic 
and dramatic picture of one of those collective bdngs called 
tuitions gives the mind a clearer, truer and more lasting impression 
than a summary narrative of successive events. But just 
because he possosed the talents and temperament of a poet, 
Olivehra Martins was fated to make frequent mistakes aa well aa 
to discover Important truths. He must be read with care because 
he is emotional, and cannot let facts speak for themsdves, but 
interrupts the narrative with expressions of praise or blame. 
Some of his books resemble a series of visions, while, despite his 
immense erudltiooi he does not always supply notes or refer to 
authorities. He can draw admirable portraits, rich with colour 
and life; In his Historia de Portugal and Contemporanee Portugal 
those of Ring Pedro I. and Herculano are among the best known. 
He describes to perfection such striking events as the Lisbon 
earthqiiake, and excels In the appreciation of an epoch. In 
these respects Castdar considered him superior to Macaulay, 
and declared that few men in Europe possessed the universal 
aptitude and the fulfaicsa of knowledge displayed by Olivdra 

The woHn of Olivdra Martins include EUwumlos de antkropohgtOt 
As Jtafoi Itumanas e d eiptlisacao primithn. SyUtma das wtytkos 
rdigiosos^' Qttadro das nutiM^ots primitnas, O Regiwte das 
rigaetos, PolUicm a econowna nadamal. Taboos de ekronologia i 
gfogyapkia historical O HeOenismo e a tmlisafdo ckristi, HisSorim 
da Repuhlica Romaua, Historia da cinlisafdo iberica. Historia do 
Portugual, BrasU e as eotonias portuguetas, PottuiU was Mares, 
Poftt^ em Africa, Portugal conlem p oran r o, Camis os Lusiadas 
e a ronascewga em Portugal— a briiliaot commenury on the phy«og« 
nomy of the poet and hn poeai, Os Pilkas da O. Ja9o /., the picftoce 
to which gpves his views on the writing of history— if Vtfa da 
Nun* Alwarts; and A. ingfaierra de l/<Hif— -the muh of a visit to 

See Mooia Baneto. OHoeisa Uastim, eslmdo de tewl«Ufia (Parisi 
1887)^ a lemarkabk acwdy: F. Dims D'Ayalla. Os fdoaes da Otioeirm 
Miartns (Liiboo. 1897). which contains an admirable staterarnt of 
his ideas, philoaophical and otherwitt: Anthero de Qurntal. Oisveira. 
Martins (Liaboa, 1894) and Diedoaario bibNograpltieo pprtvguet, 
niL 11$. (E. Pa.) 

OUVUIITIS,' a mineral consisting of bade copper arsenate 
with the fonnuta Cut(OH)AsO«. It ci>'sLai]itts in the ortho- 



rhombic sytltem^ and U sometimes found in small brilUant crystals 
of simple prismatic habit terminated by dbmal faces. More 
usually, however, it occurs as globular aggregates of adcular 
crystaJs, these fibrous forms often having a velvety lustre: 
sometimes it is lamellar in structure, or soft and etfthy. A 
characteristic feature, and one to which the name alludes (German, 
OlivenerMf of A. G. Werner, 1789), is the olive-green colour, 
trhich varies in shade from bladdsh-green in the crystals to 
almost white in lihe finely fibrous variety known as " wood- 
copper.** The hardness is 3, and the sp. gr. 4*3. The 
mineral was formerly found in some abundance, associated with 
limonite and quartz, in the upper workings in Uie copper mines 
of the St Day district in Cornwall; also near Redruth,and in the 
Tintic distria in Utah. It is & mineral of secondary origin, 
having been formed by the alteration of copper ores and 

The arsenic of olivenite is sometimes partly replaced byasmall 
amount of phosphorus, and in the species libethenite we have 
the corresponding basic copper phosphate Ctt9(OH)P04. This 
is found as small dark green crystals resembling olivenite at 
Libethen in Hungary, and in small amount also in Cornwall. 
Other members of this isomorphous group of minerals are adamite, 
Zni(0H)As04, and dcscloizite (q.v,). (UJ.S.) 

OLIVER, ISiULC (c. x 566-161 7), English miniature painter, was 
probably bom in London, as in 1571 a certain Peter Olivier of 
Rouen was residing in London with his wife and had been there 
for three years with one " chylde " ztamed " Isake." It would 
seem likely, therefore, that he was not at th£t time more than six 
years old. It has been suggested by Mr Lionel Cust, from the 
Huguenot records, that he is identiod with one Isaac Oliver of 
Rouen, married at the Dutch church in Austin Friars in i6oa. 
His death occurred in 16x7, and he was. buried in the church 
of St Aime, Blackfriars. He was probably a pupil of Nicholas 
Hilliard, and connected through his wife, whose name is un- 
known, with the artists Gheeraerts and De Critz. He was an 
exceedingly expert miniature painter, and splendid examples of 
his work can be seen at Montagu House, Windsor Castle, Sher- 
borne Castle and in the collections of Mr J. Pierpont Morgan 
and the late Baroness Burdett-Coutts. Some of bis pen draw- 
ings are in t he B ritish Museum. (G. C. W.) 

OLIVER, PETER (x 594-1648), English miniature painter, was 
the eldest son of Isaac Oliver, probably by his first wife; 
and to him Isaac Oliver left his finished and unfinished 
drawings, with the hope that he would live to exercise the 
art of his father. The younger sons of the artist appear to 
have been under age at the time of his death, and were probably 
therefore sons by a btcr wife than the mother of Peter Oliver, 
He resided at Islcworth, and was buried beside his father at 
St Anne's, Blackfriars. He was even more eminent in ounia- 
ture painting than his father, and is specially remarkable for a 
series of copies in water-colour he made after celebrated pictures 
by old masters. Most of these were done by the desire of the 
king, and seven of them still remain at Windsor Castle. A great 
many of 01iver*s works were purchased by Charles U. from his 
widow; several of his drawings are in existence, and a leaf from 
his pocket-book in the collection of the earl of Derby. His most 
important work is the group of the three grandsons of the ist 
Viscount Montftcute with their servant, imw belonging to the 
marquess of Exeter; and there are fine miniatures by bim at 
Welbeck Abbey, Montagu House, Sherborne Castle, Minley 
Manor, Belvoir Castle and in the private collection of the queen 
of HolUnd. (G. C W.) 

0UVB8, MOUNT OF, or Movnt Olivet ('0^ 'EXeotorot or 
tiSi' 'EXoi^jm; mod. Jebel-et-Tur), the ridge facing the Temple 
Mount at Jerusalem on the east, and separated from it by the 
Kidron. A basis of bard aetaceous limestone is topped with 
softer deposits of the same, quaternary deposits forming the 
summit. There are four distinct elevations in the ridge: tradi- 
tionally the southernmost, which is separated by a cleft from the 
others, is called the ** Hill of Offence," and said to be the scene of 
Solomon's idolatry. The summit to the north of this is often 
(wrongly) spoken of as Olivet proper. Still worse is the error of 

calUag the next hill btttone to the iioitli^Sco|Ns&*' TTietopol 
the ridge affords a comprehensive view. Tbere are four Old 
Testament refcreaces: a Sam. xv. 30 sqq., Neh. viii 15, Eaek. xL 
23, Zech. xiv. 4^ In the New Testament the place is mentioned 
in connexion with the last days of the life of Jesus. He craased 
it on his kingly entry into Jerusalemi and upon it he deliveied 
hisgreat eschatologiod address (Mark xiii.3) . That the AaccDsion 
took phicefrom the summii of the Mount of Olives is not necessarily 
implied in Acta t la; the words "over acsinst Bethany" 
(Luke xxiv. 50} perhaps mean one of the aeduded xa.¥ines oa 
the eastern slope, besicie one of which that village sUmda. But 
since Constantine erected the " Basilica of the Asceioion " on the 
spot marked by a certain sacred cave (Euaeb. Vila Const, iii. 41), 
the site of this event has been placed here and marked by a 
succession of churches. The present building is quite modem, 
and is in the hands of the Moslems. Qose to the Chapd of the 
Ascension is the vault of St Felagia, and a little way down the 
hill is the labyrinth of early Christian rock-hewn sepulchral 
chambers now called the " Tombs of the Prophets." During 
the middle ages Olivet was also shown aa the mount of the 
Transfiguration. A chapel, bearii^ the name of the Caliph Omar, 
and said to occupy the place where he eiKamped when Jerusalem 
surrendered to the Moslems, formerly stood beside the Church 
of the Asccnsbn. There are a considerable miitiber of monasteries 
and churches of various religious orders and sects on the hill* 
from whose beauty their uniform and unredeemed uglioea 
detracts sadly. On Easter day 1907 was laid the foundation 
of a hospice for pilgrims, ondor the patronage of the Germaa 

OUVETANS, one of the lesser monastic ordea foQowlng the 
Benedictine Rule, founded by St Bernard Tolomei, a Siencse 
nobleman. At the age of forty, when the leading man in Siena, 
he retired along with two oompanions to live a hennit's life at 
Accona, a desert place fiiteen miles to the south of Siena, 1315. 
Soon others joinni them, and in 1334 John XXII. approved of 
the lormatioo of en ocder. The Benedictine Rule was taken aa 
the basis of the life; but austerities were introduced beyond 
what St Benedict prescribed, and the government was framed 
on the mendicant, not the monastic, model, the superiors being 
appointed only for a short term of years. The habit is white. 
Partly from the olive trees that abound there, and partly out of 
devotion to the Passion, Accona was christened Monte Oliveto, 
whence the order received its name. By the end of the X4th 
century there were upwards of a hundred monasteries, chiefly 
in Italy; and in the x8th there still were eighty, one of tiie most 
famous being San Miniato at Florence, llie monastery of 
Monte Oliveto Maggiore is an extensive building of considerable 
artistic interest, enhanced by frescoes of Signorelli and Sodoma; 
it is now a natioiul monument occupied by two or three moidcs 
as custodians, though it could accommodate three himdred. The 
Olivctans have a house in Rome and a few others, including one 
founded in Austria in 1899. There are about 135 monks in all, 
54 being priests. In America are some convents of OUvetan 

See Helyot, HiaL des mires r&ipeux (iTiS), vL c. 84; Max 
Hcimbucher, Orden u. Kongngaiionem (1907), L § 30; Wetaer a. 
Welte. Kirchenlexicon (cd. 2): J. A. Symonds, SketcMes and Studies 
in Ttaty (1898). " Monte OUveto ": B. M. Marfehaux. Vie de Hen- 
ketireux Bernard Tehmei <I888). (E. C. B.) 

OLIVIER, JUSTE DANIEL (X807-1876), Swiss poet, was bom 
near Nyon in the canton of Vaud; he was brought up as a 
peasant, but studied at the college of Nyon, and later at the 
academy of Lausanne. Though originally intended for the 
ministry, his poetic genius (foreshadowed by the priaes be 
obtained in 1825 and 1828 for poems on Marcos Boturis and 
Julia Alpinvla respectively) inclined him towards literary 
studies. He was named professor of literature at NeuchAtel 
(1830), but before taking up the duties of his post made a visit 
to Paris, where he completed his education and became associated 
with Sle Beuve, especially from 2837 onwards. He professed 
history at LaXisanne from 1833 to 1846, when he lost his chair 
in consequence of the religious troubles. He then went \u Paris, 



wfaere he mnarncd till 1870, etrafng bis bread by various means, 
but being nearly forgptten in his native land, to which be 
remained tenderly attached. From 1845 till i860 (when the 
magazine was merged io the BMiotktqm umnrseUe) Olivier 
and his wife wrote in the Remt Suisse the Paris letter, which 
had been sUrted by Ste Beuve in 1843, when Olivier became 
the owner of the periodical After the war of 1870 he settled 
down in Switzerland, spending his summers at his beloved Gryon, 
and died at Geneva on the 7th of January 1876. Besides some 
novels, a semi-poetical wock on the Canton of Vaud (2 vols., 
1837-1841), and a volume of historical essays entitled £tud€A 
d'kisioire nalionaU (1842), be published several volumes of 
poems, Deux Voix (1835), ChoHstms hitUaines (1847) and its 
continuation Chansous du soir (1867), and SerUiers de monUxgna^ 
(Giyon, 1875). His younger brother, Urbain (1810-1888), was 
well known from 1856 onwards as the author of numerous 
popular tales of itinU Ufe in the Canton of Vaud, especially of the 
region near Nyon. 

Ufe by Rambert (1877). republished in his tervnins de la Suisse 
•femamde (1889). and also pccmpcd to his edition of Oiivicr's (Emres 
ekoUies (Lausanne, 1879). (W. A. B. C) 

OUVIKE, a rock-forming mineial composed of magnesium 
and ferrous orthosilicate, the formula being (Mg, Fe)2SiO«. 
The name olivine, proposed by A. G. Werner in 1790, alludes to 
the olive-green colour commmdy shown by the mineral. The 
transparent variAies, or "precious olivine" used in jewelry, 
are known as chrysolite (7.V.) and peridot {q.v.). The term 
olivine is often applied incorrectly by jewellers to various green 

Olivine crystallites In the ortho^bombic system, hut distinctly 
developed ciystab aze comparatively rare, the mineral more 
Often occurring as compact or granubr masses or as grains and 
blebs embedded in the igneous rocks of which it forms a con* 
stituent part. There are indistinct cleavages parallel to the 
macropinaooid (M in the fig.) and the brachypinacoid. The 
hardness is 61; arid the sp. gr. 3-27-3'37, 
but reaching 3*57 in the highly ferru- 
ginous variety known as hyah»iderite. 
The amount of ferrous oxide varies from 
S (about 9 % in the gem varieties to 30 % 
in hyalosiderite. The depth of the green, 
or yellowish-brown c<^our, also varies with 
the amount of iron. The lustre is vitreous. 
The indices of refraction ( x-66 and 1-70) 
and the double refmction are higher than 
In many other rock-forming minerals; and 
these duracters, together with the indistinct cleavage, enable 
the mineral to be readily distinguished in thin h>ck-3ections 
under the microscope. The mineral is decomposed by hot 
hydrochloric add with separation of gelatinous silica. Olivm^ 
often contains small amounts of nickel and titanium dioxide; 
the latter replaces siKca, and in the variety known as titan- 
olivine teaches 5%. 

Olivine is a common constituent of many basic and uTtnbasic 
rocks, sach as basalt, diabase, gabbro and peridotite: the 
dunite, of Dun Mountain near Nelson !n New Zealand, is an 
almost pore olivfaie-rock. In basalts it is often present as small 
porphyritlc crystals or as large granular aggregates. It also 
occurs as an accessory constituent of some granular dolomitic 
fimestones and crystalline schists. With enstatite it forms the 
bulk of the material of meteoric stones; and in another type of 
meteorites huge blebs of glassy oBvine fill spaces in a cellular 
mass of metallic iron. 

Olivine is especially likble to alteration intoserpentine (hydnted 
magneainm silicate); the alteration proceeds from the outside of 
the crystals and grains or ak>ng xrreguhir cracks in their interior, 
and gives rise to the separation of iron oxides and an irregular 
net-work of fibrous serpentine, which ifi rock-sections presents 
a very characteristic appearance. Large greenish-yellow crystals 
from Snarum in Buskerud, Norway, at one time thought to be 
crystals of serpentine, really consist of serpentine paeudo- 
morphoos after oBvine. Many of the large lock-masBes of 

serpenthie have been derfred by the aerpentinization of olivine* 
rocks. Olivine also sometimes alters, especially in crystalline 
schists, to a fibrous, colourless amphibole, to which the name 
pilite has been given. By ordinary weathering processes it 
altera to limonite and silica. 

Cosely rcbted to olivine are several other specks, which are 
indoded toecther in the oH\nne group : they have the orthosilicate 
formula R'^O*, where R' represents calrium, magnesium, irois 
manganese and rarely zinc; they ail cryatalliae in the orthorhombic 
system, and are iaomorphoua with olivine. The following may he 
mentioned i — 

Monticelfite, CaMgSiOj, a nov mioeral occnrriw as yetkmidi- 
ercy crystals and grains in granular Umestooe at Moate Somma, 

Forstcrite, M^O«. as colonrlcss or yellowish grains embedded 
in many crystalline limestones. 

Fayalite» FeiStO*. or iron olivine is dark brown or black in colour. 
It occurs as nodules in a volcanic rock at Fayal in the Azores, and in 
granite at the Mourne Mountains in Ireland; and as small crystals in 
cavities in rhyolite at the Yellowstone Park, IJ.S.A. It is a common 
constituent of crystalline iron ^ga. 

Tcphroite, MosSiOi, a grey (rvMt, aah-cokNued). cleavable 
mineral occurrii^ with other manganiferous minerals in Sweden and 
New Jersey. (L.J. S.) 

OLLIVIBR, OLIVIBR telU (1825-- ), French sUtesman, 
was born at Maneilles on the 2nd of July 1825. His father, 
Demosthenes CMlivier (1799-1884), was a vehement opponent 
of the July monarchy, and was returned by Marseilles to the 
Constituent Assembly in r 848. Ua opposition to Louis Napoleon 
led to his banishment after the eoup d^Hat of December i8sr, and 
he only returned to France in x86oi. On the establishment of 
the short-lived Second Repubh'c his father's influence with 
Lcdru-Rolliq secured for £inile Ollivier the position of com- 
missary-general of the department of Bouches-da-Rh6ne. 
Ollivier was then twenty-three and had just been called to the 
Parisian bar. Less radical In his political opinions than his 
father, his repression of a sodalist outbreak at Marscflles com- 
mended him to General Cavaignac, who continued him in his 
functions by making him prefect of the department. He was 
shortly afterwards removed to the comparaUvely unimportant 
prefecture of Chanmoot (Haute-Mame), a aemi-dbgrace which 
he ascribed to his father's enemies. He therefore resigned from 
the dvil service to take up practice at the bar, where his brilliant 
abilities assured his soccess. 

He reentered politk:al life in 1857 as deputy for the srA 
cfncumscription of the Sdne. His candidature had been sup- 
ported by the 5iicle, and he joined the constitutional opposition. 
With Alfred Darimon, Jules Favre, J. L. H&ion and Ernest 
Ficard he formed the group known as Let dnq^ which wrung 
from Napoleon III. some oooccssions in the direction of con- 
stitutional fovemment. The imperial decree of the s^th of 
November, permitting the insertion of parliamentary reports 
in the Afomiieur, and an address from the Cbrps Lfgislatif in 
reply to the speech from the throne, were welcomed by him as 4 
fiist instalment of reform. This, acquiescence marited a considcfw 
able change of attitude, for only a year presriously a violcBt attack 
on the imperial government, in the course of a defence of fitienne 
Vacheiot, brought to trial for t|ie publication of La DtuuKraH^ 
had resulted in his suspension from the bar for three months. 
He gradually separated from his old associates, who grooped 
themselves around Jules Favre, and during the icasiba of 1866- 
1867 Ollivier formed a third party, which definitely sopported the 
prindple of a Liberal Empire. On the last day of December 1 866, 
Count A. P. J. Walewski, acting in contlnuanoe of negotiations 
already begun by the due de Moray, offered Olfivicr the ministry 
of education with the function of representing the general policy 
of the goveniment in the Chamber. Hie imperial decree of the 
19th of January 1867, together with the promise inserted in 
the Uenitew of a relaxation of the stringency of the press lawfe 
and of concessions in respect of the right of public meeting, failed 
to satisfy OHivier'S demands, and he refused office. On the eve 
of the general election of 1869 he published a manifesto, L$ ip 
jatnier, in justification of his policy. The sinmus^&ntuUe of the 
8th of September 1869 gave the two chambcn the ordinary 



parliciQentaiy rights, and was followed by the 4i«ni«aJ of 
Rouher and ihe formation in the last week of 1869 of a responsible 
ministry of which M. Ollivier was reaJly premier, although that 
office was not oomiiiaUy recognized by the constitution. The 
new cabinet, known as the ministry of the and of January, had 
a hard task before it, complicatod a week after its formation by 
the shooting of Victor Noir by Prince Pierre Bonaparte. Ollivier 
immediately summoned the high court of justice for the judgment 
of Prince Bonaparte and Prince Joachim Murat. The riots 
following on the murder were suppressed without bloodshed; 
circulars were sent round to the prefects forbidding them in 
future to put pressure 00 the electon in favour of official candi- 
dates; Baron Haussmann was dismissed ftom the prefecture 
of the Seine; the violence of the press campaign against the 
emperor, to whom he had promised a happy old age, was broken 
by the prosecution of Hoiri Rochefort; and on the aotfa of 
April a sinaius-cmsutte was Issued which accomplished the 
transformation of the Empire, into a constitutional monarchy 
Neither concessions nor firmness sufficed to appease the '* Irre- 
cottcilables " of the opposition, who since the rekxation of the 
press laws were able to influence the electorate. On the 8th 
of May, however, the amended constitution was submitted, 
on Rouher's advice, to a plebiscite, which resulted Jn n vote of 
nearly seven to one in favour of the government. The most 
distinguished members of the Left in his cabinet — ^L. J. Buffet, 
Napol&>n Daru and TalhouSt Roy— resigned in April on the 
question of the plebiscite. OUivier himself held the ministry of 
foreign affairs for a few weeks, until Daru was replaced by the 
due de Gramont, destined to be OlUvier's evil genius. The 
other -vacancies were filled by J. P. M<ige and C. I- Piicbon, both 
of them of Conservative tendencies. 

The revival of the candidature oC Prince Leopold of Hohen- 
soIlem-Sigmaringen for the throne of Spain early in 1870 dis- 
concerted Ollivier's plana^ The French government, following 
Gramont's advice, instructed Bencdetti to demand from the king 
of Prussia a formal disavowal of the Hohenzoilem candidature. 
Ollivier allowed himself to be gained by the war party. The 
story of Benedetti's reception at Ems and of Bismarck's nuuii- 
pulation of the Ems telegram is told elsewhere (see Biskasck). 
It it unlikely that OlUvier could have pievented the eventual 
outbreak of war, but he might perhaps have postponed it at that 
time, if he had taken time to hear Benedetti's account of the 
incident. He was outmanoruvred by Bismarck, and on the 
J 5th of July he made a hasty declaration in the Chamber that the 
Prussian government had issued to the powers a note announcing 
the rebuff received by BenedettL He obuined a war vote of 
500,000,000 francs, and used the fatal words that he accepted 
the responsibility of the war '* with a light heart," saying that the 
war had been forced on Fnuioe. On the gtb of August, with the 
news of the first disaster, the OUivier cabinet was driven from 
office, and its chief sought refuge from the general rage in Italy. 
He returned to France in 1873, but although he carried on an 
active campaign in the Booapartist EslcftUe his political power 
was gone, and even in his own party he came into collision in 
1880 with M. Paul de Cassagnac During his retirement he 
employed himself in writing a. history of L'jSmpire libdral, the first 
volume of which appeared in 1895. The work really dealt with 
the remote and immediate causes of the war, and was the author's 
apology for his blunder. The x^th volume showed that the 
loinediate blame could not justly be' placed entirely on b's 
shv'jldeis. His other works include Dimocrotk tt iiberU (1867), 
JUe Mkuslire du 2 janpUr, Mer disccun (1875), Primcipes d 
tonduUc (187s), VEJ^iM cf l'£4al ou coneSe du VatUam (a vols., 
1879), SoltUifins pUUiqms el sociaUs (1893), Nauveau M^nud 
du droit ecdisiasliquc framait (1885). He had many coimexions 
with the literary and artistic woi^, being one of the cariy 
Parisian champioos of Wagner. Elected to the Acadepay 
in 7870, he did not Uke bis teat, his reception being 
indefinitely postponed. His first wife, Bbndine Lisst, was 
tbe daughter of the Abb6 Liszt by . Mme d'Agoult (Daniel 
Stem). She died in 1862, and Ollivier married in 1869 Mile 

OUivicr's own view of hispoSticaX Gf* is'dvca in Us VEmpmu 
libfral, which must always be an important document " far (be 
hiMory of his time; but the book must be treated widi no kss 
eaution than respect. 

OLMSTED, OENISON (1791-1859), American man of KieBce, 
HfBi borh at East Hartford, Connecticut, U.S.A., on tlie i8th of 
June 1791, and in 1815 graduated at Yale, where he acted um 
college tutor from 18x5 to 18x7. In the latter year be was 
appointed to the chair of chemistry, mineralogy and geology in 
the university of North Carolina. Tins chair he exdiangcd for 
that of mathematics and physics at Yale in 1815; in t8j6, when 
this professorship was divided, he retained that <rf aationomy 
and natural phik)6ophy. He died at New Haven, Goimecticat, 
on the 13th of May 1859. 

His first publication (1824-1^25) was the Report d his geolof^cal 
survey of the state of North Carolina. It was followed by vmnous 
text-books on natural phib^ophy and astnoooray, but he is cfaiefly 
known %o the acientifie world for his obaervarioM on hail <l8jo>, 
on meteors and on the aurora borcalis (see Smitkspmau CantrtbuHons, 
vol. viiiO* 

OUISTED, FREDERICK LAW (x83a--?9o.O, American land- 
scape Architect, was bom in Hartford, Connecticut, 00 the S7lb 
of April iSaa. From his earliest years he was 4 wanderer. 
While still a lad be shipped before the mast as a sailor; then he 
took a course in the Yale Sdcntific School; worked for severs! 
fanners; and, finally, began farming for himself on Staten 
island, where he met Calvert Vaux, with whom later he formed 
a business partnership. All this time .he wrote for the agricul; 
tural papers. In 1850 hd made a walking tour through England^ 
his observations being published in Walks and Talks pj an 
A mericmt Parmer in England (1852). A hooebnck trip ihix>i«gh 
the Southern Slat<& was recorded in A Jaurney m the Seaboard 
Stave States (1856), A Journey through Texas (1857) and A 
Journey in the Back Country (1860}. These three voluraeSa 
reprinted in England in two as Journeys and Explorations ms tho 
Cotton Kingdom (i86i), gavea picture of the conditions sunound* 
ing American slavery that hod great influence on British opinion, 
and they were much quoted in the controversies at the time of the 
Civil War. During the wax he was the untiring secretary of the 
U.S. Sanitary Commission. He happened to be in New York 
City when Central Park was projected, and, in conjunction with 
Vaux, proposed the plan which, in competition with more than 
thirty others, won first prize. Olmsted was made superintendent 
to carry out the plaiL This was practically the first attempt in 
the United States to apply art to the improvement or embellish* 
mentof nature In a public park; it attracted great attention, 
and the work was so satisfactorily done that he -was engaged 
thereafter in most of the important works of a similar nature in 
America— Prospect, Park, Brooklyn; Fairmount Park, Phila- 
delphia; South Park^ Chicago; Riverside and MonuAgside 
Parks, New York; Mount Royal ^ark, Montreal; the gvpands 
surrounding the Capitol at Washington, and at Lcland Stanford 
University at Palo Alto (Cah'fornia) ; and many others. He took 
the bare stretch of lake front at Chicago and devek^)ed it into 
the beantiful World's Fair gtounds, pladr^ all the biddings and 
contributing much to the*architectuxal beauty and the success 
of the exposition. He was greatly intenstcd in the Niagara 
reservation, made the plans for the park there, and also did much 
to influence the state of New York to provide the Niagant Park. 
He was the first commissioner of the National Park of the 
Yosemite and the Mariposa Grove, directing the surv^ and 
taking charge of the property for the state of California. He 
had aOso hdd directing appointments under the cities of Nev 
York, Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Wilmington and Saa 
Frandsoo, the Joints Committee on BuQdiivs and Grounds of 
Congress, the Niagara Falls Resorvation Commissioa, the 
trustees of Harvard. Yale, Amherst and other colleges and public 
institutions. Subsequently to x886 he was largely occupied in 
laying out an extensive system of parks and parkways for the 
city of Boston and tbe town of BrookUne, and on a sdiene of 
landscape improvement of Boston harbour. Olmsted received 
honorary degrees from Harvard, Amherst and .Yale Id 1864, 
J867 and,i89ii He died on the adtb of AofgasX 1901. 



OLIIOTX (Czech, Otomouc or ^dontavc), a town of Anstnti, 
fa) Moravia, 67 m. N.E. of BrQan by rail. Pop. (1900) 21,933, 
of which two- thirds arc Germans. It is situated on the March, 
tnd is the ecclesiastical metropolis of Moravia. Until 1886 
Olmatz was one of the strongest fortresses of Austria, but the 
fortifications have been removed, and their place is occupied by 
■ town park, gardens and promenades. Like most Slavonic 
towns. If contains several large squares, the chief of which is 
adorned with a trinity column, 115 ft. high, erected in 1740. 
The most prominent church is the cathedral, a Gothic buQ^ng 
of the 14th century, restored in 1883-1886, with a tower 328 ft. 
high and the biggest church-beO in Moravia. It contains the 
tomb of King Wenceslaus III., who was murtlercd here in X306. 
The Mauritius church, a fine Gothic building of the tsth century, 
and the St Michael church are also worth mcntiofting. The 
prindpal secular bunding is the town-hall, completed in the 
i5tb ccntuxy,. flanked on one side by a Gothic chapel, trans- 
formed now into a museum. It possesses a tower 250 ft. high, 
idomed with an astronomical dock, an artistic and famous 
work, executed by Anton Pohl in 1422, The old university, 
founded in 1570 and suppressed in 185S, is now represented by 
a theological seminary, which contains a very valuable library 
and an important coUectioiT of manuscripts and early prints. 
Olmfitz is an important railway Junction, and is the emporium 
of a busy mining and industrial district. Its industries include 
brewing and distilling and the manufacture of malt, sugar and 

OlroQtz is said to occupy the site of a Roman fort founded 
in the imperial period, the original name of which, lions Jviii, 
has been gradually corrupted to the present form. At a later 
period OlmUtz was Jong the capital of the Slavonic kingdom of 
Moravia, but it ceded that position to' Brtlnn in 1640. The 
^fongols were defeated here in 1241 by Yaroslav von Sternberg. 
During the Thirty Years' War it was occupied by the Swedes 
for ei^t years. The town was originally fortified by Maria 
Theresa during the wars with Frederick the Great, who besieged 
the town unsuccessfully for seven weeks in 1758.' In 1848 
Olmiltz was the scene of the emperor Ferdinand's abdication, 
end in 1850 an important conference took place here between 
Austrian and German statesmen. The bishopric of Olmatz 
was founded in 1073. ^^ raised to the rank of an archbishopric 
in 1 7 77. The bishops were created princes of the empire in 1 588. 
The archbishop is the only one in the Austrian empire who is 
elected by the cathedral chapter. 

Sec W Mailer. Ce^hUhU der khii^kken UwpUtadl OlmUt 
(and ed.. OhnQtz, 1895). 

OLNE^, RICHARD (1835- )i American statesman, was 
born ai Chford, Massachusetts, on the isth of September 1835. 
He graduated from Brown University in 1856, and from the Law 
School of Harvard University in 1858.' In 1859 be began the 
practice of law at Boston, Massachusetts, and attained a high 
position at the bar. He served in the state house of repre- 
senuilves in 1874, and in March 1803 became attorney-general 
of the United States in the cabinet of President Oeveland, 
In this podtion, during the strike of the railway employes in 
Chicago in 1894, he instructed the district attorneys to secure 
from the Federal Cpurts writs of injunction restraining the 
strikers fxx>m acts of violence, and thus set a precedent for 
"government by injuncticHi." He also advised tho use of 
F^cral troops to <iuell the disturbances in the city, on the 
ground that the ^vemment must prevent interference with its 
mails and with the general railway transportation between the 
suica. Upon the death of Secretary W Q Grcsham (1832-1895), 
OIney succeeded him as secretary of state on the loth of June 
1895. He beeamc specially prominent in the controversy with 
Great Britain coDceming the boundary dispute between the 
Britiah and Venezuelan govemmenu (see Vknezucla), and in 
his correspondence with Lord Salisbury gave an extended 
ioXerprttation 10 the Monroe Doctrine which went .considerably 
beyond previous statements 00 the subject In' 1897, at the 
expiration of President Cleveland's lerni, he retumod to the 
pfikctice of the law. 

OGNETr a market f<»wn in the Buckfiigfaam parliamentary 
division of Buckinghamshire, England, S9 ni. N.W. by N. iH 
London, on a branch of the Midland railway. Fop. of urban 
district CiQoi) 1634. 1* ^ i<^ ^^ open valley of the Ouse on 
the north (left) bank of the river. The church of St Peter and 
St Psul is Decorated. It' has a fine tower and spire; and tha 
chancel haa a northerly fndination from the alignment of the 
nave. The town is chleflfy noted for Its conneiien with William 
Cowper, who came to live h«re hi 1767 and remained unto 1786^ 
when he removed to the neighbouring village of Weston Under- 
wood. His house and garden at Olney retaitt relics of the poet, 
and the house at Weston also remmns. In the garden at Ohiey 
arc his favourite seat and the house in which he kept his taoM 
hares. John Newton, curate of Ohv^, had the assfetance of 
Cowper in the prodaction of the coBection of Ofaiey Hymns. 
The trade of Obiey is principally agricultual; the town also 
shares in the manufacture of boots and shoes oommdn to many 
places m the neighbouring county of Northampton. 

0LNE7, a dty and the county-seat of Richland count/, 
Illinois, U.S.A., about 30 m. W. of Vincennes, Indiana. Popj 
(1890) 3831; (1900) 4260 (235 foreign-bom), (1910) 5011. 
Olney Is served by the Baltimore ft Ohio Sonth-weatern, the 
Illinois Central, and the Cincinnati, Hamilton ft Dayton railways, 
^nd is a terminus of the Ohio River Division of \hA last. It 
has a Carnegie library and a dty park of 55 acres. Obey ia 
an important shipping point for the agricultural pioducts of 
this district; oQ is found in the vicinity; and the dty has varioui 
manufactures. The municipality owns its water-works. Olney 
was settled about 1842 and was first chartered aa a dty in 1867. 

OLONETS, a government of north-western Russia, extending 
from Lake Ladoga almost to the White Sea, bounded W. by 
Finhind, N. and £. by Archangel and Vologda, and S. by 
Novgorod and St Petersburg. The area is 57,422 sq. m., of whIcJi 
6794 sq. m. are lak^. Its north-western portion belongs oro« 
graphically and gcofogrcally to the Finland region; ft is thickly 
dotted with hills reaching xooo ft. in altitude, and diversified 
by numberiess smaller ridges and hollows miming from north* 
west to south-cast. The rest of the government is a flat plateau 
sloping towards the mai^ykmlands of thfrsouth. The geological 
stmcture is very varied. Granites, syenites and diorites, 
covered with Laurentian metamorphic slates, occur extensively 
in the north-west. Near Lake Onega they aro overlain with 
Devonian sandstones and limestones, yielding marble and 
sandstone for building; to the south of that hike Carboniferout 
limestones and clays make their appearance. The whole li 
sheeted with boulder-day, the bottom moraine of the great 
ice-sheet of the GUdal period. The entire region bears tracea 
of glaciation. dther hi the shape of scratchings and elongated 
grooves on the rocks, or of eskers (Sior , sdias) mnning paralld to 
the glacial striatibns. Numberiess lakes occupy the depressions, 
while a great many more have left evidences of their existence 
in the extensive matshes. Lake Onega covers 3764 sq. m., and 
reaches a depth of 400 ft. Lakes Zeg, Vyg, Lacha, Loksha, 
Ttilos and Vodl cover from 140 to 480 sq. m. each, and their 
cmstacean fauna indicates a former connexion with the Arctit 
Ocean. The south-eastern part of Lake Ladoga falls also within 
the government of Oloneta. The rivers drain to the Baltic and 
White Sea basins. To the former system belong Lakes Ladoga 
and Onega, which are connected by theSvir and r«cdve numerous 
streams; of these the Vytegra, which communicates with the 
Mariinsk canal-system, and the Oyat, an affluent of Lake Ladoga, 
are important for navigation. Large quantities of timber^ 
fire-wood» stone, metal and flour are annually shipped on waters 
belonging to this government. The Onega river, which has its 
source in the south-east of the government and flows into the 
White Sea, is of minor importance. Sixty-three per cent of the 
area of Olonets is occupied by forests; those of the crown, 
maintained for shipbuilding purposes, extend to more than 
$oo.oop acres. The dimate is harsh and moist, the average 
yeariy temperature at Petroxavodsk (6t* 8' N.) being 33-5" *" 
(wo* in January, 57 ^^ m July); but the Ihermomeler r 
falls hdow- 30* F. 



The population, which numbeitd 391,250 in j88x, reftched 
367,902 in t8^7, and 40t,ioo (estimate) in 1906. They are 
principally Great Russians and Finns. The people belong 
mostly to the Orthodox Greek Church, or are Nonconformists. 
Rye and oats are the principal crops, and some flax, barley 
and turnips are grown, but the total cultivated area does not 
exceed a^% of the whole government. The chief source of 
wealth is timber, next to which come fishing and hunting. 
Mushrooms and berries are exported to St Petersburg. There 
are quarries and iron-mines, saw-mills, tanneries, iron-works, 
distillerica and flour-mills. More than one-iifth of the entire 
male popuhition leave their homes every year in search of tem- 
porary employment. Olonets is divided into seven districts, 
of whkh the chief towns axe Petrozavodsk, Kargopol, Lodeinoye 
Pole, Olonets, Povyenets, Pudozh and Vytcgra. It includes 
the Olonets mim'ng district, a territory belonging to the crown, 
which covers 43' sq. m. and extends into the Serdobol district 
of Finland; the ironworks were begun by Peter the Great in 
1 701-1 714. Olonets was colonized by Novgorod in the nth 
century, and though it suffered much from Swedish invasion its 
towns soon became wealthy trading centres. Ivan III. annexed 
it to the principality of Moscow in the second half of the z6th 

OLOPAN, Olopuzn or Olopek (probably a Chinese form 
of the Syriac Rabban, i.e. monk: fl. a.d. 635), the first Christian 
nussionary^in China (setting aside vague stories of St Thomas, 
St Bartholomew, &c), and founder of the Xestorian Church 
in the Far' East. According to the Si-ngau-fu inscription, our 
sole authority, Olopan came to China from Ta T'sin (the Roman 
empire) in the ninth year of the emperor T'ai-Tsung (aj>. 635), 
bringing sacred books and images. lie was received with favour; 
his teaching was examined and approved; his Scriptures were 
translated for the imperial libraxy; and in 638 an imperial edict 
declared Christianity a tolerated religion. T'ai-Tsung's successor, 
Kao-Tsung (650-683), was still more friendly, and Olopan now 
became a " guardian of the empire *' and " lord of the great 
law." After this followed (c. 61^-744) a time of disfavour and 
oppression for Chinese Christians, followed by a revival dating 
from the arrival of a fresh missionary, Kiho, from the Roman 

The Si-agan-fu inscription, which alone records these facts, 
was erected in 781, and rediscovered in 1625 by workmen digging 
in the Chaag-ngan suburb of Si<ngan-fu city. It consists of 
1789 Chinese chaxacteis, giving a history of the Christian mission 
down to 781, together with a sketch of Ncstorian doctrine, the 
decree of T'ai-Tsung in favour of Christianity, the date of erection, 
and names of various persons connected with the church in China 
when the monument was put up. Additional notes in Syriac 
(Eslrangelo characters) repeat the date and record the names 
of the reignix^ Nestorian patriarch, the Nestorian bishop in 
China, and a number of the Nestorian clergy. 

See Kircher. CAina JUustrata; G. Pauthier. De TauthenltdU ie 
Finscription nestorientu de Si'ntan-fou (Paris, 1857) and Vinscription 
nro^kinoise de Si-n^thfou (Parisi 1858): Henry YuIc, Cathay, 
Prdiminary Essay, xau-xdv. clxxxi.-cUxnii. (London, Hakluyt Soc^ 
■866); F. Hirth, China and the Roman Orient, 323, &c.: Father 
Henri Havret, La stUe cMrilienne de Si-ngan-fou, two parts (text 
and history) published out of three (Shanghai, 1895 and 1897); 
Dr James Levsc's edition and transbtion of the text. The Nestorian 
Monwnunt efllsi'an'fu (London, 1888); Yule and Cordier, Marca 
Pole, it. 27-29 (London, 2903); C R. Bcazley, Dawn of Modem 
Ceoiraphy, i. 2x5-218. 

OLOROK-SAIMTE-MARIB, a town of south-western France, 
capital of an arrondissement in the department of Basses- 
Tyrialei, ax m. S. W. of Pau on a branch of the Southern railway. 
It h'cs at the confluence of the mountain torrents (locally known 
as gaves) Aspe and Ossau, which, after dividing it into three 
parts, unite to form the Oloron, a tributary of the Pan. The 
united population of the old feudal town of Sainte-Croix or 
Oloron proper, which is situated on an eminence between the 
two rivers, of Sainte-Marie on the left bank of the Aspe, and of 
the new quarters on the right bank of the Ossau, is 77 1 5. Oloron 
has remains of old ramparts and pleasant promenades with 
beautiful views, and there are several old houses of the isth. 

i6th and 27th centuries, onA of which ts oecupled by the hAtd 
de ville. The church of Sainte-Croix, the building of most 
interest, belongs mainly to the zilh century; the chief feature 
of the exterior is the central Byzantine cupola; in the interior 
there is a large altar of gilded wood, constructed in the Spanish 
style of the t7th century. The church of Sainte-Maric, which 
formerly served as the cathedral of Oloron, is in the old ecclesi- 
astical qnartcx of Sainte-Marie. It is a medley of various styles 
from the xith to the 14th century A square tower at the west 
end shelters a fine Romanesque portaL In the new quarter 
there is the modern church of Notre-Dame^ Remains of a castle 
of the Z4th century are also still to be seen. Oloron is tho 
seat of a sub-prefect, and its public institutions include tribunals 
of first instance and of commerce, and a chamber of arts and 
manufactures. It is the most important commercial centre of its 
department after Bayoone, and carries on a thriving trade with 
Spain by way of the passes of Somport and Anso. 

A Celtiberian and then a Gallo-Roman town, known as liaira, 
occupied the hill on which Sainte-Croix now stands. Devastated 
by the Vascones in the 6th and by the Saracens in the 8th century, 
it was abandoned, and it was not until the nth century that 
the quarter of Sainte-Marie was re-established by the bishops^ 
In 1080 the viscount of B£am took possession of the old town. 
The two quarters remained distinct till the union of B£am with 
the crown at the accession of Henry IV. At the ReformatioD 
the place became a centre of Catholic reaction. In the 17th 
century it carried on a considerable trade with Aragon, until 
the Spaniards, jealous of its prosperity, pillagied the establish* 
ments of the Oloron merchants at Saragossa in 1694 — a disaster 
from which it only slow^ recovered. The bishopric was sup> 
pressed in 1790. 

OLSHAUSEN, HERMANN (179^x839), German theologian, 
was bom at Oldcslohe in Holstein on the 21st of August 1796, 
and was educated at the universities of Kiel (18x4) and Berlin 
(1816), where he was influenced by Schlrfcrmacher and Neander. 
In 1820 he became Privatdosenl and in 1821 professor extra- 
ordinarius at Berlin; in 1827 professor at KSnigsbcrg, in 1834 
atErlangen. He died on the 4th of September 1839. Olshauscn^ 
department was New Testament exegesis; his Commentary 
(completed and revised by Ebrard and Wiesinger) beipin to 
appear at K6nigsbcrg in 1830, and was translated into En^^ish 
in 4 vols. (Edinburgh, i847-x849)- He had prepared for Jt by 
his other works, Die Achtheit d, tier Kanon. Bwingdien (1823), 
Ein Wort Uber tUferen Sckriftsinn (1824) and Die HUisdm 
SckrifiauHegUHg (1825). 

OLTBNITZA {(XteHila), a town of Rumania, on the left hank 
of the river Argesh, 33 m. from its outflow into the Daxmbe, 
and at a terminus of a branch railway from Bucharest. Pbp. 
(1900) s8ox. xThe priAcipal trade is in grain, timber (floated 
down the Argesh) and fish. Lake Greca, famous for its carp, 
lies xo m. E. and has an area of about 45 sq. m. lu waters 
reach the Danube through a network of streams, marshes and 
meres. Oltenitza is the ancient Constantlola, which was the 
scat of the first bishopric established in Dacla. In the Crimean 
War the Turks forced the river at this point and inflicted heavy 
losses on the Russians. 

OLUSTE^ a village of Baker county, Florida, U.SJl., in 
the precinct of Olusiee, about 46 m. W. by S. of Jacksonville. 
Pop. of the prednct (19x0) 466. The village is served by the 
Seaboard Air Line. The battle of Olustce, or Ocean Pond (the 
name of a small body of water in the vichiity), one of the most 
sanguinary engagements of the Civil War in proportion to the 
numbers engaged, was fought on the 20th of February 1864, about 
2 m. east of Olustee, between about 5500 Federal troops, tinder 
General Truman Seymour (1824-1891), and about 5400 Con- 
federates, under General Joseph Fincgan, the Federal forvcs 
being decisively defeated, with a loss, in killed and wounded, 
of about one-third of their number, including several officers. 
The Confederate looses, in killed and wounded, wew about 940. 

OLTBRIUS, Roman emperor of the West from the ttth of 
July to the 23rd of October 47a, was a member of a noble family 
and a native of Rome. After the sack 6f the city by Genscric 



(Gebene) Is 455* helled to ConiUstiiieple, where in 464 he waft 
made censu), and abotit the same time married Placidia, daughter 
of Valentiniao III. aiul Eudoxia. This afforded Genseric, 
whose ton Hiumerio had married Eudocia, the elder sister 
of Pladdta, the opportunity of daimang the empire of the 
West for Olybrius. In 473 Olybrius was sent to Italy by the 
emperor Leo to a&sist the emperor Anthemius against his 
son-in-law Ridmer, but, having enterdd into negotiations with 
the latter, was himself prodaimed emperor against his will, and 
on the murder of his rival ascended the throne unopposed. His 
reign was as uneventful as it was brief. 

Sec Gibbon, Deditie ohAFoU, da. xxxvl ; J. B. Bury, X^attr Roman 

. OLTMPIA, the scene of the famous Olympic games, is on the 
right or north bauk of the Alpheus (mod. Ruphia), about it m. 
E. of the modem Pyiso^ I'he course of the river is here from 
£. to W., and the average breadth of the valley is about f m. 
At thi» point s small stream, the ancient Cladeus, flows from 
the north into the Alpheus. The are£i known as Olympia b 
bounded on the west by the Cladeus, on the south by the Alpheus, 
on the Qortfa by the low heights whiidi shut in the Alpheus valley, 
and on the east by the andeot laceoounes. One group of the 
northetn heights terminates in a corneal hill» about 400 ft. high, 
which is cut off from the rest by a deep deft, and descends 
abruptly on Olympia. This hill is the famous CronioUt sacred to 
Cronus, the father of Zeus. 

The natural situation of Olymjna is, fn one sense, of great 
beauty. When Lysias, in hi$ Ofym^MfUj (spoken here), calls it 
" the fairest spot of Greece," he was doubtless thinking also — 
or perhaps dutOy-^t the masterpieces which art, in all its forms, 
had contributed to the embellishment of this national sanctuary. 
But even now the praise seems hardly excessive to a visitor who, 
looking eastward up the fertile and wcdl-wooded valley of Olympia, 
sees the snow^crowned chains of Eiymanthus and Cyliene rising 
in the distance. The valley, at onoe spadous and definite, is a 
natural prednct, and it is probable that no artificial boundaries 
of the Altis, or sacred grove, existed until comparatively late 

History.— The importance of Olympia in the history of 
Greece is religious and political The religious associations of the 
place date from the prehistoric age, when, before the sutes of 
£Iis and Pisa had been founded, there was a centre of worship 
in this valley which is attested by tBtly votive offerings found 
beneath the Heraeum and an altar near it. The earliest exunt 
building on the site is the temple of Hera, which probably dates 
in its original form from about 1000 b^C. There were various 
traditions as to the origin of the games. According to one of 
them, the first race was that between Pelops and Oenomaus, 
who used to challenge the suitors of his daughter Hippodameia 
and then aby them. According to another, the festival was 
founded by Herades, dther the well-known hero or the Idaean 
Dactyl of that name. The control of the festival bdonged in 
early times to Piia, but Elis seems to claimed assodation 
with it. Sixteen women, representing eight towns of £Iis and 
eight of Pisatis, wove the festal robe for the Olympian Hera. 
Olympia thus became the centre of an amphictyony (9.V.), or 
federii league under religious sanction, for the west coast of 
the Peloponnesus, as Delphi was for its ncighboucs in northern 
Greece. It suited the interests of Sparta to jom thisampfaJctyony ; 
and, before the regular catalogue of Olympic victors be^ns in 
776 B.C., Sparta had formed an alliance with Elis. Aristotle 
saw in the temple of Hera at Olympia a bronxe disk, recording 
the traditional laws of the festival, on which the name of Lycurgus 
itood next to that of Iphitus, king of Elis. Whatever may have 
been the «ge of the disk itself, the relation which it indicates is 
well attested* £iis and SparU, making common cause, had no 
difficulty in excluding the Pisatans from their proper shue in the 
management of the Olympian sanctuary. IHsa had, indeed, a 
brief moment of better fortune, when Pheidon of Argos 
celebrated the aflth Olympiad under the presidency of the 
Pisatans. This festival, from which the Eleans and Spartans 
were exdudcd, was afterwards struck out of the official register, 

as having no proper existence. The destruction of Pisa (before 
572 B.C.) by the combined forces of Sparta and Elis put an end 
to the long rivalry. No^t only Pisatis, but also the district of 
Tripbylia to the south of it, became dependent on Elb. So far 
as the religious side of the festival was concerned, the Eleans had 
an unquestioned supremacy. It was at Elis, in the gymnasium, 
that candidates from all parts of Greece were tested, bdore they 
were admitted to the athletic competitions at Olympia. To have 
passed through the training (usually of ten monthis) at Elis was 
regarded as the most valuable preparation. Elean officials, who 
not only adjudged the prizes at Olympia, but dedded who should 
be admitted to compete, marked the national aspect of their 
functions by assuming the title of HeUanodicae. 

Long before the overthrow of Pisa the list of contests had been 
so enlarged as to invest the celebration with a Panbellenic 
character. Exercises of a Spartan type — testing endurance and 
strength with an especial view to war — ^had almost exdusively 
formed the earlier progranune. But as eariy as the <sth 
Olympiad — ix. several years before the interference of Pheidon 
on behalf of Pisa— the four-horse chariot-race was added. This 
was an invitation to wealthy competitors from every part of 
the Hellenic world, and was also the recognition of a popular 
or spectacular element, as distinct from the skill which had 
a merely athletic or military interest Horse-races were added 
later. For such contests the hippodrome was set apart. Mean- 
while the list of contests on the old racecourse, the stadium^ had 
been enlarged. Besides the foot-race in which the course was 
traversed once only, there were now the diaulos or double 
course, and the "long" foot-race (jdolichos). Wrestling and 
boxing were combined In the panamtion. Leaping, qu<^(!- 
throwing, javelin-throwing, running and wrestling were com- 
bined in the pentathlon. The festival was to acquire a new 
importance under the protectien of the Spartans, who, having 
failed in thdr plans of actual conquest in the Peloponnese, sought 
to gain at least the hegemony (acknowledged predominance) 
of the peninsula. As the Eleans, therefore, were the religious 
supervisors of Olympisi, so the Spartans aimed at constituting 
themsdves its political protectors. Their military strength-^ 
greatly superior at the time to that of any other sUte-— enabled 
them to do this. Spartan arms could enforce the sanction which 
the CHympjan Zeus gave to the oaths of the amphictyones^ 
whose federal bond was symbolized by common worship at his 
shrine. Spartan arms could punish any violation of that " sacred 
truce " which was indispensable if HeUenes from all dties were 
to have peaceable access to the Olympian festival. And in the 
eyes of all Dorians the assured dignity thus added to Olympic 
would be enhanced by the fact that the protectors were the 
Spartan Heradidae. 

Olympia entered on a new phase of brilliant and secure exist- 
ence as a recognized PanheUenic institution. This phase may 
be considered as beginning after the establishment of Elean 
supremacy in 57a bx. And so to tbelast (Hympia always remained 
a central expncssfon of the Greek ideas that the body of man has 
a glory as weQ as his intellect and ^irit, that body and mind 
should alike be disdpUned, and that it is by the harmonious 
discipline of both that men best honour Zeus. The significanoe 
of Oiympia was larger and higher than the political fortunes 
of the Greeks who met there, and it survived the overthrow of 
Greek independence. In the Macedonian and Roman ages the 
temples and contests of dympia still interpreted the ideal at 
which free Greece had aimed. Philip of Macedon and Nero are, 
as we shall see, among those whose naxnes have a record in the 
Aliis. Such names are typical of long series of visitors who paid 
homage to Olympia. According to Cedrenus, a Greek writer 
of the nth century (Ziiiio^ TirropiMr, i. 326), the Olympian 
festival ceased to be held after a.d. 303, the first year of the 293R! 
Olympiad. The list of Olympian victors, which begins in 776 b.C 
with Coroebus of Elis, closes with the name of an ArsMniaa, 
Varastad, who is said to have belonged to the race of the Arsaddae. 
In the 5th century the desolation of Olympia had set in. The 
chryselephantine statue of the Olympian Zeus, by Pfacidias, wis 
carried to Coostaatioople, and pfrihhf<1 in a great fire^ AJ>. 47^ 



The Olympian temple of Zeus is said to have been didmamled, 
either by the Goths or by Christian seal, in the reign of Theodosius 
II. (a.d. 403-450). After this the inhabitants converted the 
temple of Zetis and the region to the south of it into a fortress, by 
constructing a wall from materials found among the ancient 
buildings. The temple was probably thrown down by earth- 
quakes in the 6th century a.d. 

Excavations,— The German eicavations were begun Sn 1875. 
After six campaigns, of which the first five lasted from September 
to Jime, they were completed on the soth of March 1881. The 
result of these six years' labours was. first, to strip off a thick 
covering of earth from the AUis^ the consecrated precinct of 
the Olympian Zeus. This covering had been formed , during some 
twelve centuries, partly by clay swept down from the Cronion, 
partly by deposit from the overflowings of the Cladeus. The 
coating of earth over the Altia had an average depth of no less 
than 16 ft. 

The work could not, however, be restricted to the Altis. It 
was necessary to dig beyond it, especially on the west, the south 
and the east, where several ancient buildings existed, not in- 
cluded within the sacred precinct itself. The complexity Of the 
task was further increased by the fact that in many places early 
Greek work had later Greek on top of it, or late .Greek work 
had been overlaid with Roman. In a concise survey of the results 
obtained, it will be best to begin with the remains external to 
the prcdnct of Zeus. 

I. Remains ootsidb the 'Altis 

A. West Side. — ^The wall bounding the Altts on the west befongs 
probably to the time of Nera In the west waU were two gates, 
one at lU northern and the other at its southern extremity. The 
latter must have served as the processional entrance. Each gate 
was vpAn-uXoc. having before it on tJie west a colonnade consisting 
of a row of four columns. There ih a third and smaller gate at about 
the middle point of the west wall, and neariy opposite the Pdopion 
in the Altia 

West of the west Altis wall, on the strip of ground between the 

Altis and the river Cladeus (of which the eonm is roughly psnUel 
to the west Altis wall), the folk>wing buiMtnga were traced. The 
order in which they are placed here is that in which they w w«-«tx l 
each other from north to south. • 

1. Just outside the Altis at its north-west earner was a OyMnanfiiit. 
A large open space, not segulariy rectangubr. was enclosed on two 
sidc»->possibly on three— by Doric colonnades. Do the south it 
was bordered by a portico with a single row of columns in fronx ; 
on the east by a double portico, more than a stadium in length 
f220 yds.), and serving as a racecourse for prsctice in bad weath.r. 
At the south-east corner of the gymnasium, in the ai^e bctw«ea 
the south and the east portico, was a Coriathian doorway, which a 
double row of columns divided into three passages. Immediately 
to the east of this doorwaywas the gate giving access to the Altis 
at its north-west comer. The gymnasium wa« used as an exercise 
ground for competitors dunng the last nwnth of their trsim'ng. 

2. Immediately adjoining the gymaaaittro on the sMtb wa« a 
Palaestra, the place of exercise for wrestlers and boxen. It waa 
in the form of a square, of which each side was about 70 yds. long, 
enclosing an inner building surrounded by a Doric colonnade. 
Facing this inner baiiding on north, east and west werr rooms of 
different sixes^ to which doors or colonnades gave accesai Tha 
chief entrances to the palaestra were at south-west and south-east, 
separated by a double colonnade which extended along the acuth 

3. Near the palacsira on the south a Byxantine church forms 
the central point in a complex grou|i of remains, (a) The chiocfa 
itself occupies the site of an older brick building, which is perhapo 
a remnant of the "workshop of Pheidias*' seen by Pausanias. 
(6) North of the church is a square court with a well in the middle, 
of the Hellenic age. <c) West of this is a small dicular stniaure, 
enclosed by square walls. An altar found (m situ) on the south side 
of the circular enclosure shows by an inscription that this was the 
Heroum, where worship of the heroes was practised down to a late 
period. <</) East of the court stood a large building, of Roman 
age at latest, arranged round an inner hall with coionnadea. These 
buildings probably formed the Theoodeon, house of the priests. 
U) There is also a long and narrow building on the south of the 
Byzanitne church. This may have been occupied by the ^^attpi^m*, 
those alleged " descendants of Pheidias " (l^usanias v. 14) whose 
hereditary privilege it was to keep the statue of Zeos dean. The 
soKalled " workshop of Phddias " (see a) evUently owed its preser- 
vation to the fact that it continued to be used for actual wnrk. 



and the tdjact ot buiUiag WQald havt btfo a ooovtakot lodciag 
for the arttM*. 

4. South oi the group de s cribed above occur the remains of a 
brge building showa by it* intcrifition ^to be the Leoaidaeum. 
dcdkaxcd by an Elean named Leoaidas in the 4tb century^ b.c^ 
and probably intended for the re^ptioQ of distinguished visitors 
during the games, such as the heads of the special missions from 
the various Creek cities. It is an oblong, of which the north and 
fo'jth sides measure about 2W It-, the east and west about ^30^ 
Its oricnution differ? from that ol all the other buiktings above 
mentioned, being not from N. to S, but from W3.W. to E.N^ 
Externally it is an Ionic peripterpSi encloung suites of roomii large 
and snuU, grouped round a small interior Done peristyle* In Roman 
times it was altered in such a way as to distribute the rooms into 
Uppareoily) four quarters, each having aa atrium with six or fov 
columns. Traces existing within the eNterior poctkos on north, 
west and east indicate much carriage tmf&Ci 

B. SsMljk ^p^.— Although the limits of the Altit on the south 
(i.e. on the side towards uie Alpheus) can be traced with approxi- 
mate accuracy, the precise line of the south wall becomes doubtful 
after we have advanced a little more thaa one-third of the distance 
from the west to the east end of the iouih side. The middle and 
eastern ponions of the south side wet* plaon at whkh architectural 
changes, huve or small, were numerous down to Che latest limes, 
and where the older buildings met with scant mercy. 

I. The Council Halt {BouUuUrium, Paus. v. 33) was just outnde 
the Altis, nearly at the middle of its south walU It comprised 
two separate Dori^ buildings of different date but klenlical form, via. 
oblong, having a single row of columns dividing the length into two 
aavcs and terminating to- the west in a semicimilar apse. The 
orientation of each was from west-south-west toeast*north-easC, one 
being south-south-east of the other* In the specs between stood a 
small square building. In (root, on the east, was a portico extending 
akiog tii4 front of all thnie bui)dinn; and cast of this again a 
large trapeve-shaped vestibule or fore-hall, enclosed by a cobnnade. 
This bouleuterium would have been available on all occasions when 
Olytnpia became tho scene of conftrenoe or debate between the 
icpcesenutivcs of differem aiatea— whether the subject was property 
poUticaU •» concerning the amphictyonic treaties, or related more 
directly to the administration of the sanctuary and festival. Two 
smaller HcUenk buildings stood immediately west of the bouleu- 
terium. The more northerly of the two opened 00 the Alti& Their 
purpose is unoeruun. 

a. Close to the bouleuterium on the south, and nianma paratlel 
with it from south-west by west to north-eaM by east, was the Sinak 
Colonnade, a late but handsome structure, closed on the north sidiL 
Open on the south and at the east and west ends* The external 
colonnade (on south, east and west) was Doric; the intenor row of 
columns Conothiao. It was uted as a prooienade. and as a place 
from which to view the fcatal proc cm iona aa they passed towards 
the AIti*. 

3. East of the bouleuterium was a triumphal gateway of Roman 
Me. with triple eatiance, the central being the widest, opening 00 
the Altia from the aouth. Nortb of this gateway, but at a somewhat 
greater depth, traces of a pavement were found in the Aitis. 

C. Easi Side. — ^The line of the east wall, nioniiM due north and 
south, can be traced from the north-east corner of the Altis down 
about three-fifths of the east kide. when it breaks off at the remains 
known is " Nero's hoosew" These are the first whkh obtm attention 
on the east side» 

I. To the south-east of the Altis is a building of 4th-centur3( date 
and of uncertain purpose. This was afterwasds absorbed mto a 
Roman house whkh protect e d beyoad the Altis on the east, the 
aouth part of the east AHis wall being destroyed to admit of thi^ 
A piece of leaden water-pipe found in the house bears NER. AVG. 
Only a Roman master could have dealt thus with the Altis, and with 
a building which stood within its saored precinct. It canpot be 
doubted that the Roman house— from which ihf«e doors gave access 
to the Altia—vas that occupied by Nero when he visitaa Oiympia. 
Later Roman h^ods .a^ia enlaiged and altered the bwUduig, 
whkh may perhaps have been used for the leceptioa of Roman 

a. Following northwards the line of the east wall, we reach at 
the iKMih-cast corner of the Altis the cntnnoe Co the Stadsiim, whkh 
extends east of the Altis in a dinction from wtat-eoutb-wtat to 
east-north-cast. The apparently strange and inconvenknt position 
of the Stadium relatively to the Akis was due simply to the neccssily 
of obeying the condiciofts of the ground, here oetcrmined by the 
ottffve of the k>wcr akipes which bound the valkv on the aortb. The 
German explerets excavated the Stadium so far aa was oeceoaiy 
for the ascertainment of all tuiwitial points. Low embankments 
had originally been built oa west, east and south, the north boundary 
being formed by the natural dope of the hill. These were aftcr^ 
wards thkbeaed aad raised. Tlie cpnoe thus defined was a brge 
ablons.aboiit a347da.tnlencthby astabraadtb. There wetr no 
arti6aal aeata. It is computso that from 40^060 to 45,000 spectators 
oould have fonnd sitting-room, diough it is hardly probabk that 
such a ailmber was ever reached. The exact length 01 the Stadium 
ItseM whkh was primarily the course for ihe foot-race ■ was about 
aio yda. or 19x^7 n mtr e» » a n important r aea lt , aa it dttarminaf 

I the Altis 

the Ofovpian foot to be 0-3204 metre or a little moie than an 
English foot ( 1 'Of). In the Heraeum at Oiympia, it may be remarked, 
the unit adopted was not this Olympian foot, but an older one of 
0*997 metre, and ia the temple of Zeus an Attk foot of i*o6 Eogliah 
foot was used. The starting-point and the ^oal in the Stattum 
were marked by limestone thresholds. Provision for drainage waa 
made by a channel ronning round the enclosure. The Stadium waa 
used not only for foot-races, but for boaiog, vreatliag, leaping, 
quoit-throwing and iavelin-throwiog* 

The entrance to the Stadium from the north-east corner of the 
Altis was a privileged one, reserved for the judgca of the games, 
the competitors and the herakia. lu form was that of a vaulted 
tunnel, too Olympian feet ia length. It was probably corn 
in Roman times. To the west was a ^'Cstibuk, Irani which t 
was entered by a handsome gateway. 

3. The Hippodrome, in whkh the chaHot^races and horse-races 
were held, can no kmger be accurately traced. The overflowings of 
the Alpheus have waahed away ail certain indicatkMs of its limits. 
But it is clear that it extended south and south-east of the Stadium, 
and roughly paralkl with it, though stretchfaig far beyond it to 
the east. From the atate of the ground the German expkwers 
inferred that the kngth of the hippodrome waa 770 metres or 4 
Olympk stTidfai 

D. North Side^U the northern limit of the Altia, like the weit, 
south and east, had been tmced by a boundary wall, this would 
have had the effect of excludtng from the precinct a spot so sacred 
aa the Cronlon, " Hill of Cronus." inseparably associated with the 
oUest worship of Zeus at Oiympia. It seems therefore unlikely 
that any such northero boundary wall ever existed. But the line 
whkh such a boundary woukl have folkwed b partly represented hy 
the remains of a wall running from east to west immediately nortn 
of tlie treasure-houses (see below), which it was designed to protect 
against the descent of earth from the Cronkn juac above. This 
waa tbe wall along which, about a.o. 1^7. the asalassaterchanaal 
constructed by Herodcs Attkus was earned. 

Having now surveyed the chief remains external to the sacred 
precinct on west, south, east and north, 1 
wfaich have been traced within it. 

11.— Remains witrin tbx Altis 

The form of the Altis, as indicated by the existing tnocs. Is not 
nsgulariy rectangular. The length of the west aide, when the line 
of direction is from south-south-east to notth-nonh-weai, is about 
ai5 yda The south side, running neariy due east -and west, ia 
about equally long, if measured from the cad of the west wall to 
the point which the east wall would touch when produced doe aouth 
in a straight line from the place at whkh it waa demolished to 
make way for " Nero's house. The east skle, measured to a poikit 
iust behind the treasure-houses, k the sborteat, about aoo yds. 
The north side is the kmceat. A line drawa eastward behind Iha 
treasure-houses, from die nytaneum at the north-west an^. would 
give about 275 yds. 

The lesaains or sites within the Altis may conveniently be dossed 
in three main groupa, via.— (A) the chief centraa d religieua woiahip; 
(B) votive buUdings; (C) buiUii^B, Ac., connected with tha ad- 
ministration of Oiympia or the recep ti on of visitora. 

A. CkUf Cemtref ofRdipous Worahip,^i, There are traces of an 
altar near the Heraeum whkh waa probably older than the great 
altar of Zeua; chk waa probably the original centia of wvnha^ 
Thegiuat altar of Zeus was of cUiptk form, the kagth of the baanfa 
being directed from south-south-west to aorth.north-east«in such* 
manner that the axis wooM oass through the Cronion. The upper 
structure imposed on thk basis was in two tiers, and also, probably, 
loaenge-shaped. This waa the famous " ash-altar ** at whkh the 
lamHUe, the hereditary cmsof seen, practised thoae lightaof divioa- 
tkn by fire in virtue of whkh mors especially Oiympia ia saluted 
by Pindar as ** mistrem of truth.** The steps by whkh the priett 
mounted the alur oeem to have been at aorth and south. 

a. The Pehpium^ to the west of the Altar of Zeus, was a email 
piecinct ia whkh sacriScas were offered to the hero Pekna. The 

inclined 10 

traces agree with the account of Pausaniaa. Walla, ii 


other at obtuse angks, enclosed a plot of ground faaviag in the 
middle a low tuaHius of elliptic form, about 33 metres uom east 
to weat by sq from north to soutli. A Doric p iopyh m with thrse 
doom 9ve accem on the aouth-west side. 

The three Cemplcaof the Altk were chose of Zens, Heia and the 
Mother of the goda All were Doric AU, too, were oonpletely 
surrounded by a cokMinade. «>. were ** peri|»tefal.'* 

a. The TempU of ZetUt south of the Ptelopium. stood on a high 
suoatractuie with three scepa It was probably built about 470 •.€. 
The cokmaades at the east and west side were alsixcdunnaaaob: 
those at the north and aouth skies (counting the corner columaa 
again) d thirteen each. The cella had a prodomos on the east and 
aa opisthodomos on the wcau The ceUa itaelf waa divided losmi- 
tudinally <t.«. from cast to vest) into three oartitiona by a doubb 
row of columns. The central partition, which was tha 
of three sectiooa The 

and image of the Olympian Zeus. The middle sectka, next to the 
— ' which waa shut off by low scieens. ooataiaed n table and 

stdaa Here, probably, the wieatha 1 

t poasented ta tha victon* 



The thifd or eaitbrnmost aectton wag open to the miblit. This 
temple was most richly adorned with statues and reliefs. On the 
east front were represented in twenty-one colossal figures the moment 
before the contest between Oenomaus and Pelops. The west front 
exhibited the fight of the Lapithae and Centaurs. The statement of 
Pausaniaa that the two pedimenu were made by Paeonius.and 
Alcamcnes is now generally supposed to be an error. The Twelve 


of the compodtioA. 1 1 was near this Umpfe. at a point about 38 yds. 

E.S.E. from the south-east angle, that the explorers found the statue 
of a dying goddess of victory—- the Nike of Paconius. 

4. The TempU of Hem (Hctaeum), north of the Pelophim, was 
raised on two steps. It is probably the oldest of extant Greek 
temples, and may date from about 1000 ac. It has colonnades of 
•ix columns each at east and west, and of sixteen each (counting 
the comer columns again) at north and south. It was smaller than 
the temple of Zetis, and, while resembling it in general plan, dilTcred 
from it by iu singular length relativdy to its breadth. When 
I^iusanias saw it, one of the two columns of the opisthodomos (at 
the west end of the cella) was of wood; and for a long period all 
the columns of this temple had probably been of the same material. 
A good deal of patch-work in the restoration of particular parts 
seems to have been done at various periods. Only the lower part 
of the cella wall was <^ stone, the rest bemg of unbaked brick; the 
entaUature above the columns was of wood covered widi terra- 
cotta. 'The cella— divkled, like that of Zeus, into three partitions 
by a double row of columns—had four " tongue-walls," or small 
screens, projecting at right angles from its nonh wall, and as many 
from the south walL Five niches were thus formed on the north skle 
and five on the south. In the third niche from the east, on the north 
side of the cella, was found one of the greatest of all the treasures 
which rewarded the German explorer»--'<he Hennes of Praxiteles 

5. The Tem^ of lAe Gttal Mother ef the Gcds (Metnoum) was again 
considerably smaller than the Hciaeum. It stood to the east oTthc 
latter, and had a different orientation, viz. not west to east but 
west-north-west to cast-south-east. It was raised on three steps, 
and bad a peripteroe of nx columns (east and west) by eleven (north 
and south), having thus a slightly smaller length relatlvefv to its 
breadth than cither of the other two temples. Here also the cella 
had pnodomos and opisthodomos. The adornment and painting of 
this temple had once been very rich and varied. It was probably 
built in the 4tfa century, and there are indications that in Roman 
times it underwent a restoration. 

B. Votm EdiJUes.^VmAtT this head are placed buildfngs erected, 
either by sutcs or by individuals, as offerings to the Olympian Rod. 

X. The twelve Treasure-houses on the north «de df the Mtu, 
immediately under the Cronion, belong to this class. 

Tho same general character--^at of a Doric temple in Ofilir, 
facing south— is traceable in all the treasure-houses. In the 
of several of these the fragments are sufficient to aid a 1 
Two~-viz. the and and 3rd countinf; from the west — had been dis- 
mantled at an eariy date, and their site wa<i traversed by a roadway 
winding upward towards the Cronion. This roadway seems to have 
been oner at least than a.d. 157, since it caused a deflexwn in the 
watercourse alon^ the base of the Cronion constructed by Herodes 
Atticus. Pausanias, therefore, would not have seen treasure-houses 
Nos. 1 and 3. This explains the fact that, though we can trace 
twelve, he names only ten. 

As the temples of ancient Greece partly served the purposes of 
banks in which prcciovs objects cookl be securely deposited, so the 
form of a small Doric chapel was a natural one for the *' treasure- 
house " to assume. Each of these treasure-houses was erected by a 
Greek sute, either aa a thank-offering for Olympian victories gained 
byitsdtixen8,orasagenc " ' ' - . ^. . - 

The treasure-houses were 

or dedicated gifu (such _ . . 

wealth of the sanctuary partly consisted. The temple inventories 
receotlf discovered at Delos illustrate the great quantity of such 
posscieions which were apt to accumulate at a shrine of Panhellentc 
celebrity. Taken in order from the west, the treasure-houses 
were founded by the following states: i, Sicyon; 3, 3. unknown: 
4, Syracuse (referred by Pausanlas to Carthage); 5, Epidamnus; 
6. Byantium; 7,Sybaris; 8, Gyrene: O. Sdinus; icMettpontnm; 
II, Megara; I3, Gela. It is interesting to remark how this list 
represents the Greek colonies, fftxn Libya to Sidly, from the Euxine 
to the Adriatic. Greece proper, on the other hand, is represented 
only by Mttara and Sicycm. The dates of the foundations cannot 
be fixed. The archieectural members of some of the treasure-booses 
have been found built into the Byzantine wall, or elsewhere on 
the site, as well as the eerra-cotta plates that overlaki- the stone- 
work in some cases, and the pedimental figures, repres enting the 
battle of the gods and giants, from the treaanre-hottse of the 

a. The PkUippntm stood near the north'^est comer of the Altis, 
a short space wesc^soutb-west of the Heraeum. It was dedicated 
by Philip of Macedon. after his victory at Chaeronea (338 B.C.). 
As a thank-offering for the overthrow of Greek freedom, it aaigbt 

teem stmngely placed in the Olymptan AftJc But it !a, in fact, 
only another illustration of the manner in whkrh PhiKp's poaitioo 
and power enabled him to place a decent disguise on the ml natoiv 
of the change. Without risking any revolt of HellenK fedjn^ 
the new ** captain-general " of Greece could erect a naoaoment S 
his triumph m the very heart of ^e Panhellenk sanctoary. The 
building consisted of a circular Ionic colonnade (of eighteen columns), 
about 15 metres in diameter, raised on three steps and enclosing 
a small circolar cdla, probably adorned with fourteen Corinthian 
half-columns. It contained portraits by Leochares of Philip, 
Alexander, and other membera of their family, in gold and ivory. 

3. The Bxedra cf Herodes Atticus stood at the north limit of the 
Altis, close to the north-east angle of the Herseum, and immediately 
west of the westernmost treasure-house (that of Sxyon). It con- 
sisted of a half-dome of brick, 34 ft. in diameter, with south-south- 
west aspects Under the half-dome were placed twenty-one marble 
statues, , representing the family of Antoninus Plus^ of Mairos 
Anreliui^ and of the founder, Herodes Atticus. In front of the half- 

dome on the south, and extending elvhtly beyond it, was a basin ol 
water for drinking, 7i| ft. k>ng. The ends of the basin at iwrth- 
north-west and soutb-oouth-east were adorned by very small open 

temples, each with a cincvlar cofonnado of eight pillars. A marble 
bull, in front of the basin, bore an inscriptbn saying that Hefodcs 
dedicates the whole to Zeus, in the name of his wife^ Annia Resilla. 
The exedra must have bccin seen by Pausaniaa* but he does not 
mentron it. 

C. It remains to notice those features of the Altis which were 
«>nnected with the management of the nnctuaiy or with the 
accommodation of its guests. 

I. Olympta, besides its relighwt character, originally pooseased 
also a political character, aa the centre of an amphictyoiny. It 
was, in fact, a sacred wtXis. We have seen that it had a bouleu- 
terium for purposes of public debate or conference. So aAso it waa 
needful that, like a Greek dty, it should have a public hearth or 

Erytaneum, where fire should always bum on tne altar ct the 
Olympian Hestia, and where the controllen of Olympia should 
exercise public hoispitality. The Frytameum was at tlie north-west 
comer ct the Altis, in such a positioA (hat ita.sonth-cast angle was 
close to the north-west angle of the Heraeum. It was apparently m 
souare building, of which each skie measured 100 Olymptan feet, 
with a south-west aspect. It conulned a chapel of Hestia at the 
front or south-west skle, before whkh a poitk» was afterwards 
built. The dintng-hall was at the back (north-east), the kitdiea 
on the north-west side. On the same siae with the kitchen, and 
also on the opposite sfale (south-east)* there were 1 

2. The Porck of Echo, also called the " Painted Fordi,** exteiKicd 
to a length of 100 yds. along the east Altis walL Raised on three 
ste^ and formed by a single Doric colonnade^ open towards the 
Altis, it afforded a place from which specuton cookl conveniently 
view the passage of processions and the sacrifices at the great altar 
of Zeus. It was built in the Macedonian period to rcplaoe an carKcr 
portico whkh stood farther back. In front of 4t was a aeries of 
pedestals for votive offerings, irKluding two colossal lonfe columns. 
These columns, as the inacriptiona show, once supported statues of 
Ptolemy and Berenice. 

3. The Agora was the name given to that part of the Altia which 
had the Porch of Echo on the east, the Ahar of Zeus on the west« the 
Metnmm on the north, and the precinct of the Temple of Zeus oa 
the south-west. In this part stood the altarp of 2^us Agonuos and 
Artemis AgoraSa. 

4. The Zanis were bronze images of Zeus, the cost of makinc 
which was dd rayed by the fines exacted from oompetitore who had 
mf ringed the rules of the contests at Olympia. These images stood 
at the northern skle of the Agona, in a row, whkh extended from the 
north-east arigle of the Metroum to the gate of the private entrance 
from the Altis into the Stadium. Sixteen pedestals were htn dis- 
covered til situ. A lesson of loyal^ was thus impressed on aspirants 
to renown by the lasr objects which met their eyes as they passed 
from the sacred encksure to the scene of their trial. 

5. Arrantemeuts for Water-supply.'^A copious supply of water 
was required for the service of the altan and temples, for the private 
dwellings of priests and officials, for the use of the gymnasium, 
palaestra, &c., and for the thermae whkh aroae in Roman times. 
In the Hdlenk age the water was derived wholly from theCladeus 
and from the small lateral tributaries of its valley. A baaiii, to serve 
as a chief reservoir, was built at the north-west comer of the Altis; 
and a supplementary reservoir was afterwards constracted a little 
to the north-east of this, on (he slope of the Cronion. A new source 
of supply was for the first time made avaibble by Herodes Atticos. 
c. A.o. 157. At a short distance east of Olympia, near the village ol 
Miraka, small streams flow from comparatively high ground tfatpugh 
the aide-valleys which descend towards the right or northern bank 
of the Alphens. Front these skle^vallcys water was now conducted 
to Olyminar enteriag the Altis at its north-east comer fay an arched 
canal which paased behind the treasure-houses to the reservoir at the 
back of the exedra. The lanje basin of drinking-water in front of the 
exedra .was fed thence, and served to sssoctate the name of Herodes 
with a benefit of the highest practical value. C^mpia further 
laii s iB si d several fountains, enctosed by roood * 



ciuefly {n coonexira intli tbe bufldian ootrfde the Altiiw The 
drainage of tbe Altb followed two main Knee. One. for the wc«t 
part, paoed from tlM abutb-weat angle of tbe Hcraeum to tbe KMitb 
portico outiide tbe south Altis wall. The other, which leived for the 
treaMire^bouiea. patted In front of the Pofiqh of Echo paiaUel with 
the line of the east Alcis wall. 

See tbe official Die Auspabtmien tu Otympia (svols., 187S-1S81): 
Laloux and Monceaux. /bifauro/ira de rOtympie (1889); Curtiut 
and Adier. Olympia die Ergebmtsu ier AusBnbmuM (1600-1897). 
I. " TopogimphM und Ccachicbte." II. ^' Baudeokm&lcr." III. 
" Badwerke in Stein und Thon '* (Tre«). iV. " Broncen " (Furt- 
w&ngler). V. '* Inachriften " (Dtttenberger and Purgold). 


OLTIIPIA* the capital of the itate of Washington, U.S.A., 
And tbe county-seat of Thurston county, on the Dcs Cbutey 
river and Budd's Inlet, at tbe head of Puget Sound, about 50 ro. 
S.S.W: of Seattle. Pop. (1890) 4698, (1900) 3863, of whom 
S9< wei« foreign-bors: (1910; U S. census) 6996. It is 
served by the Northern Pacific snd tbe Port Townseod Southern 
railways, and by* steamboat lines to other ports on the Sound 
and along tbe Pacific coast. Budd's Inlet is spanned here by a 
wagon bridge and a railway bridge. Among tbe prominent 
buildings are the Capitol, which Is constructed of native sand- 
stone and stands in a park of ODOsideFsble beauty, tbe county 
court -bouses St Peter's hospital, the governor's mansion and 
the dty haU. The state library is boused in the Capiiol. At 
Tumwater, the oldest settlement (1845) on Paget Sound, about 
a m. S. of Olympia, are the Tumwater FaUs of the Dcs Chutes, 
which provide good water power. The city's chief industry iS 
the cutting, sawing and dressing of lumber obtained from the 
neighbouring forests. Oiympia oysters are widely known in 
tbe Pacific coast region; Cbey are obtained chiefly from 
Oyster Bay, Skookum' Bay, North Bay and South Bay. all 
near Oiympia. Otympia was Uid out in 1851, became the 
capital of Washington m iSs3, ind was cbartered as a dty 
in 1859- 

OLYMnAD, in Greek chronology, a period of four years, used 
as a method of dating for literary purposes, but never adiopted 
in eveiy-day life. The four years were reckoned from one 
celebration of tbe Olympian games to another, the first Olsrmpiad 
beginning with 776 B.C., the year of Cproebus, the first victor in 
tbe games after their suspensioii for 86 years, tbe kst with 
A.D. 394, when (bey were finally abolished during tbe reign of 
Tbeodosins the Great. Tbe system was first icgidarly used by 
tbe Sidlian historian Timaeus (35S-1S6 b*<^-)* 

OtTMFIAS, dangfater of Neoptolemus, king of Eptrus. wife 
of PMlip II. of Macedon, and mother of Atezander tbe Great. 
Her father claimed descent from ^^bus, son of Achilles. It 
b said that Philip fell in love with her in Samothrace, where 
they trere both bebig Initiated into the mysteries (Plutarch, 
AUxattder. 2). The marriage took place hi 359 B.C., shortly 
after Phibp's accession, and Alexander was bom in 356. The 
fickleness of Philip add the jealous temper of Olymptas led to 
a growing estraogement^ which became complete when Philip 
married a new wife, Cleopatra, in 337. Alexander, who sided 
with his mother, withdrew, along with her, into Epinis, whence 
they both returned in the folloiring year, after the assassination 
of Philip, which Olympias is said to have countenanced. During 
tbe absence of Aleicander, with whom she regulariy corresponded 
on public as vrdi as domestic affairs, she had great influence, and 
by her arrogance and ambition caused such trouble to the regent 
Antipater that on Alexander's death (323) she found it prudent 
to withdraw mto Epirus. Here she remained until 3171 when, 
allying herself with Polypercbon, by whom her old enemy had 
been succeeded in 319, ^e took the field with an Epirote army; 
tbe opposing troops at once declared in her favour, and for a 
short period Olympias was mistress of Macedonia. Cassander, 
Antlpater's ton, hastened from Peloponnesus, and, after an 
obstinate siege, compelled the surrender of Pydna, where she 
bad taken refuge. One of the terms of tbe capitnUtioa had been 
that her life should be spared; but in spite of thb she was brought 
to trial for the numerous and cruel executions of which she had 
beeo guilty during her short lease of power. Condemned 
without a bearing, she was put to death (316) by tbe friends 

of those whom she had ilafai, and ^^iindfr it nid to ham 
denied her remains the rites ol buriaL 

See Plutorch, Akxandtr, 9. 39. 68; Justin, vii. 6, iit. 7. aiv. 5, 6( 
Arrian. Andb. vii. 12; Diod. Sic. xviii. 49-65. xlx. ii-$i: also the 
articles AjLaxANDEa III. thb Gbbat and Macedonian Eupirb. 

0LTMPI0D0BU8, the name of several Creek authors, of 
whom the following are tbe most important, (i) An historical 
writer (stb century aj>.), bom at Thebes in Egypt, who was 
sent on a mission to Attila by the emperor Honorius in 41a, 
and Uter lived at tbe court of Theodosius. He %vas the author 
of a history ('l^ropMol Afi^et) in 22 books of the Western Empire 
from 407 to 4a 5. Tbe original is lost, but an abstract is given 
by Photius, according to whom he was an alchemist («ot«r^. 
A MS. treatise on alchemy, reputed to be by him, is preserved 
in the National Library in Paris, and was printed with a transla* 
Uon by P. R. M. Berthclot in his CoUection des akkimisUs greet 
(1887-1888). (2) A Peripatetic philosopher (sih century aj>.), 
an elder contemporary of Produs. He lived at Alexandria and 
lectured on Aristotle with considerable success His best-known 
pupil was Produs, to whom he wished to betroth his daughter. 
(3) A Neoplatonist philosopher, also of Alexandria, who flourished 
in the 6th century of our era, during tbe reign of Justinian. He 
was, therefore, a younger contemporary of IHmasdus, and 
seems to have carried on the Platonic tradition after the dosing 
of tbe Athenian School in 529, at a lime when the old pagan 
philosophy was at its last ebb. His pbiloaophy is in dose 
conformity with that of Damasdus, and, apart from great 
luddity of expression, shows no striking features. He is, 
however, important as a critic and a commentator, and (»eserved 
mnch that was valuable in the writings of lamblichus, Damasdus 
and Ssrriaous. He made a dose and intelligent study of tbe 
dialogues of Plato, and bis notes, formulated and collected by 
his pupils (iar6 ^tf»qt 'OhfianoBitpouTcO futyiiKoo ^cXo«6^v), are 
extremdy vahubk. In one of bis commentaries he makes tbe 
interesting statement that the Platonic succession had not been 
interraptcd by the numerous oonfiscationa It had suffeied^ 
Zeller points out that this rrfeia to the Alexandrian, not to the 
Atbcnkn, s u ccessiwi; but mtemal evidence makes it dear 
that he docs not draw a bard Una of demarcation between 
the two schools. Tbe works which have been preserved are a 
life of Plato, an attack on Strata and Scholia on the Pkaed§, 
Ateibiades /., FkUebm and Gwytef. (4) An AristoCeUaa who 
irrotc a commentary on the iiOttroUgka of Aristotle. He abo 
lived at Alexandria in the 6tb centnry, and from a relerence 
in his work to a comet must have Kved alter a.i>. $64. Bat 
Zeller tiii. a, p. S^** n. 1) maintafais tbu he is identical with tbe 
commentator on Plato (a, above) in spite of the late date of his 
death. His work, Kke that of Simplichis, endeavoun to r ec un d l e 
Pbto and Aristotle, and refers to Produa with eeverenoe. The 
commentary was pimted by tbe Aldfaie Press at Venice about 

OLTVPOS, tbe name of nomy monntalns in Greece and Asia 
Min«r, and of the fabled home of the gods, and alio a city nana 
and a prwonsl name. 

I. Of the mountains bearing the name the moat fanmns 
is tbe k>lty ridge on tbe borders of Thessaly and MacedoniL 
Tbe river Peneua, which drains Thessaly, finds iu way to the 
sea through the great goite of Tempe, which isdoae below tbe 
south-eastern end of Olympus and separates it from Mount Qtsa. 
Tbe highest peak of Olympus is nearly 10,000 -ft. hi|^; It it 
covered with snow for great part of the year. Olympus Is a 
fflouniain of masshre appearance, in many places risiny in 
tremendous pcedpicea broken by vast ravines, above which 
is the broad tommlL The lower parts are densely wooded; 
the summit is naked rock. Homer caUs the monntahi 
AyAm^, luucpba, wolhaiti^: the epithets n^odr, ga M fcaMe t, 
JMmdotm sjid ^pacut are used by other poets. The modem 
name is EXv^tfo, a dialectic form of the ancient word. 

The peak of Mount Lyoaeus in tbe soath*w«st vif Arcadia 
was called Olympus. East of Oiympia, on the north bank of 
the Alpheus, was a hill bearing this name; beside Sdlaaia in 
Laconia another. The name waa even cooHDOMr aa Asia 



BUaor! a lofty chain ita Mysia (Keshlsh Dagh), a tidge east 
of Smyrna (Nif Dagh). other m«antains in Lyda, in- Galatia, 
k Cilida, in Cyprus, &c., were all called Olympua. 

II. A lofty peak, rising high above the clouds of the lower 
atmosphere into the clear ether, seemed to be the chosen seat 
of the deity. In the Hiad the gods arc described as dwelling 'on 
the top of the mountain, in the Odyssey Olympus b regarded 
as a more remote and less definite locality; arid in later poets 
we find similar divergence of ideas, from a definite mountain to 
a vague conception of heaven. In the elaborate mythology of 
Greek literature Olympus was the common bone of the multitude 
of gods. Each deity had his special haftnts, but all had a 
residence at the court of Zeus on Olympus; here were held the 
assemblies and the common feasts of the gods. 

ILL There was a dty in Lyda named Olympus; it was a 
bishopric in the Bysantine time. 

OLYNTHUS, an andent dty of Chalcidice, situated in a 
fertile plain at the head of the Gulf of Torone, near the neck 
of the peninsuU of Pallene, at some little distance from the 
sea, and about 60 stadia (7 or 8 m.) from Potidaea. The district 
had beloni^ to a Thradan tribe, the Bottiaeans, in whose 
possession the town of Olynthus remained till 479 b.c' In that 
year the Persian general Artabosus, on his return from escorting 
Xerxes to the Hellespont, suspecting that a revolt from the 
Great King was meditated, slew the inhabitants and banded the 
town over to a fresh population, consisting of Greeks from the 
neighbouring region of Chalddioe (Herod, vili. 127). Olynthus 
thus became a Greek ^is, but it remained insignificant (in the 
quota-lists of the Detian League it appears as paying on the 
average 7 talents, as compared with 9 paid by Scione, 8 by Mende, 
6 by Torone) until the synoedsm (aviwicur/i6t), effected in 
432 through die influence of King Perdiccas of Macedon, as the 
result of which the inhabitants of a number of petty Chalcidian 
towns in the neighbourhood were added to its po(Kilation(Thucyd. 
i. 58). Henceforward it ranks as the chief Hellenic city west of 
the Strymon. It had been enrolled as a nlember of the Delian 
League (f.v.) in the early days of the league, but it revolted from 
Athens at the time of its synoedsm, and was never again reduced. 
It formed a base for Bcasidas during his expedition (424). In 
the 4th oenttiry it attained to great Importance in the politics of 
the age as the head of the Chalddic League (r& mit^ tQv 
XoXkMup). The league may probably be traced back to the 
period of the peace of Nidas (431)* when we find the Chakidians 
ioi M OfH^Km XoXxidqt) taking diplomatic action In common, 
and enrolled as members of the Argive alliance. There are coins 
of the league which can be dated with certainty as early as 
405; one specimen may perhaps go back to 415*420. Un« 
questionably, then, the leagoe originated before the end of the 
Sth centnry, and the motive for its formation is almost ceruinly 
to be found in the fear of Athenian atuck. Alter the end of 
the Pdopormesian War the development of the league was rapid. 
Ab6ut 390 we find it oonduding an important -tttaiy. with 
Amyntas, king of Mmetdaa (the father ol Philip)»* and by sU 
it had absorbed most of the Greek cities west of the Strymon, 
aikd had even got posacasion of Pella, the chief dty in Macedonia 
(Xcoophon, HtU. v. », 12). In this year Sparta was induced 
by an embassy from AouithttS and ApoUonia, which antidpated 
conquest by the league, to send an eqiedition against Oljmthus. 
After three years of indecisive warfare Olynthus oonsoiled 
to dissolve the confederacy (379). It is dear, however, that the 
dissolution was little more than formal, as the Chaicidians 
Qiokaiin dvd Opinn) appear, only a year or two later, among 
Che menbeis of the Athenian naval confederacy of 378-*577»' 
Twenty years later, in the reign of Philip, tbe powef of Olynthus 
is asserted by Demosthenes to have been much gresAer than 
before the Spartan expedition.* The town itadf at this peiiod 

■ If Olynthus was one of the early cokmies of Chalcis (and there 
is numiimatic evidence for this view; see Head, Hist, Numtrmmt 
a 18s) it raurt have subsequently passed into the hands 01 the 

» For the inscription see Hicks. Uanwl of Creek Inscnptwmf, 
No. 74. » Hfcks. No 81 ; C.I.A . iL 17- 

« Oeoostfaaoes* Dm /sIm Ut^tmic || 263-266. 

is spoken of as a dty of the first rank (T6X(f /iup{a>6pof), and 
the league indudcd thirty-two dties. When war broke out 
between Philip and Athens (337), Olynthus was at first io 
alliance with Philip. Subsequently, in alarm at the growth of his 
power, it concluded an alliance with Athens, but in spite of all 
the efforts of the latter state, and of its great orator Demosthenes 
it fdl before Philip, who raxed it to the ground (348). 

The history of the confederacy of Olynthus illustrates at once 
the strength and the weakness of that movement towards federa> 
tion. which is one of the most marked features of the later stages 
of Greek history. The strength of the movement is shoun 
both by the duration and by the extent of the Chakidic League. 
It lasted for something like seventy years; it survived defeat 
and temporary dissolution, and ft embraced upwards of thhty 
dtie& Yet, in the end, the centrifugal forces proved stronger 
than' the centripetal; the sentiment Of autonomy stronger 
than the sentiment of nnfon. It is clear that Philip's victory 
was mainly doe to the spirit of dissidence %rithin the league itself, 
just as the victory of Sparu had been (cf. Diod. xvi. 53. 9 with 
Xen. Hdi. v. 2, 24). The mere fact that Philip captured aB 
the thirty-two towns without serious resistance b saffident 
evidence of this. It is probable that ihe strength of the league 
was more seriously undermined by the policy of Athens than 
by the action of Sp«rt&. The successes of Athens at the 
expense of Olynthus, shortly before Philip's accession, must 
have fatally divkied the Greek interest north of the Aegean 
in the struggle with Macedon. 

' -The chief passages in andent literature are tlie 
Oi)jv ns of Demosthenes, and Xenophon, HeU. v. a. 

Scv I D. History of Fedoral CovtntmaU, di. iv.; A. H. I. 

Cr^^^M :^ . ■ ' ^ook of Creek ConstUutional Hislcrv (1896). p. 22b; 
B, V. hkjil ih hjrpi Numorum, pp. 184-186: C. Gilbert. Crieikiscka 
Skinii,jhtii.\ufy.e*^, vol. ti. pp. 197*198. The view uken by alt these 
autliarhka ^^ evf the date of the formation of the Confedcrac>' of 
Olynihuft cli^iiTr. widdy from that put forward above. Freeman 
and CK«n[d]^r - u ppose the league to navi 

de* I 

and CK«n;d]^r ^x, ppose the league to nave originated in jta. Head io 
J. Hicti O-f^r.iial of Creek jHscripthns, No. 74) before 390. The 

-rklvc t'-nf j^ Oie numismatic one. There are coins of the league 
in ilic Bitii5li M useam wUdi are earlier than 400^ and ooe in the 
possession of Professor Oman, of Oxford, whidi he and Mr Head 
arc disposed to think may be as early as 415-420. (E. M. WJ 

OMAGH* a market town and the county town of county 
Tyrone, Ireland, on the river Strule, 129I m. N.W. by N. froa 
Dublin by the Londonderry line of ihe Great Northern railway, 
here joined by a branch from Enniskillen. Pop. (1901) 4789^ 
The gceater part of the town is picturesquely situated on a at«ep 
slope above the river. The milling and linen indusuies are 
carried on, and monthly fairs are held. The Protestant daurch 
has a lofty and handsome spire, and the Roman Catholic church 
stands wcU on the summit of a hill. A castle, of which there are 
scanty remains, was of sufficient importance to stand sieges 
in 1509 and 1641. being rebuilt after its toul dcstcuctioq 
in the first case. The town is governed by an urban district 

OMAOUAS. UUAMAS or Cambevas (flat-heads), a tribe 
of South American Indians of the Amazon valley. Fabulous 
stories about the wealth of the Omaguas led to several early 
expeditions into their country, the most famous of which were 
those of (korge of Spires in 1536, of Philip von Hutten in 1341 
and of Pedro de Ursua in 1560. In 1645 Jesuits began work. 
In 1687 Father Fritz, " apostle of the (>maguas," established 
some forty mis&Ion villages. Tlie Omaguas are still numerous 
and powerful around the head waters of the Japura and Uaup^s. 

OMAHA, the county-seat of Douglas county and the largest 
dty in Nebraska, U.S.A.. situated on the W, Jbank of the Missouri 
river, about 20 m. above the mouth of the Platte. Pop. (1880) 
30,$i8, (1890) 66,536,* (1900) ,i02.5S5. of whom 23.552 
(comprising 5522 (jennans, 3968 Swedes. 2430 Danes, 2170 
Bohemians, 2164 Irish, 1526 English, 1141 English Canadians, 

* These are the figures given in Census Bulletin 71. Estimala o§ 
Population, jgo4, tpQS, too6 (1907)1 and are the arithmetical mean 
bctwven the hguret for 1880 and those for 1000. those of the census 
of 1,890 beinv 140.452: these are substituted by the Bureau of the 
Census, as the 1890 census was in error. In 1910, aecordiev to 
tb« U.S. aansuS. the popelatkm was 134.09^ 



997 Rmslim, &c) wck ioi«i(n>bom and 344a were negroes 
(1906 cfiiiaaie) i34«i67. Originally, wfib Council Bluffs, Iowa, 
the easfccn terminus of the first Pacific railway, Omaha now has 
outlets over m'ne great railway syaten»: ibe Chicago, Burlington & 
Qu2ncy» the Union Pacific, the Cbiogo. Rock Island & Pacific, 
tlie Chtcagp Great-We»tern, the Chic^o & NortbAVcstcm, the 
Chicago, Milwaukee 9t St Paul, the Illinois CentnO, the Missouri 
Padiic and the Wahaab. Bridges over the MJssoud river 
eoaaect Omaha with Council Bluffs. The original town site 
occupied an eloogated and elevated river terrace, noiw given over 
wholly to busiocss; behind thib are hills and bluffs, over which 
the icudential districis have eateoded. 

Among the more important buildiags are- the Fedeial 
Bttildiflg, Court House* a dty<baU, two high schools, one of 
which is one of the finest in the country, a Convention ball, the 
Auditorium and tbe Public Library. Omaha is the see of Roman 
Catholic and ProtesUnt Episcopal bishoprioB. Among the 
oducaiioaa] inttitutiada are a sute school fbr the deaf (1667); 
the modlcal department and onhopaedic branch of the Uaivcrsity 
of Nebraska (whose other depanmenU am at Lincob); a 
Presbyterian Theological Seminary <i8oi); and Crtightoo 
Universifty (Roman Catholic, under Jesuit control). This 
nniveraity» which was founded in honour of Edward Creighton 
(d. 1S74) (whose brother. Count John A. Creighton, d. 1907^ 
gave htfge his lifetime and about $» ,9 jo<oqo by his will), 
by his wife Mary LucretiaCreighton (d. 1876), waa.incorporatcd 
hi X879; it includes the Creighton Academy, Creighton College 
(1875), to which a Scientific Department was added in 1883, the 
John A. Creighton Medical College (1893). the Creighton Univer^ 
rity College of Law (1904), the Creighton Univeisuy Dental 
O^tege (1905) and the Creighton College of nnrmacy (1905). 
In 190^1910 it had 120 instniciois and 800 students. St 
Joseph's Hospital (Roman Catholic) was built as a memorial 
to John A. Cseightoa. The principal newspapers are the Omaha 
B€c, the WpHd'Htrald and tbe Nan. The OmaAa Bee was 
established in 1871 by Edward Rocewntor (»84 1-1906), who 
made it one of the most influential Ropublican journals in tbe 
West. The Worid^HerM (Democmtic), founded in 1865 by 
Gcotge L. MfOer, was edited by William Jennings Bryan from 
1S94 to 1896. 

Omaha b the beadquarteis of the United Sutcs miliury 
department of the Missouri, and there an military posts at Pbn 
Omaha CsignoiS corps and sutlon for ezperimenU with war bal- 
loons), immediately norths and Fort Crook (infantry), 10 m. S. 
of the dty. A caniival, the *' Festival of Ak*6ar-Ben/'ishcld 
m Omaha every autumn. Among the manufacturing establisiH 
Bents o( Omaha are breweries (product vahie in 1905, $1, •41^434) 
and distfUeries, silver and lead smelting and refining works, 
railway shops, ffour and grIst-iSills and dairies. The product- 
talue of its manufactures la 1900 (S43.»68,876) constltued 50% 
of I he total output of the state, not including the greater product 
(49-7% of the total) of South Omaha (^.v ). where the industrial 
inlerests of Omaha are largely concentrated. The ** factory '* 
product of Omaha in 1905 was valued at Ss4.oo3,704« an increase 
of 4t>8 % over that ($38,074,>44) for 1900. The net debt of 
the city on the ist of May 1909 vras $5,770,000; its asseocd 
value in 1909 (about \ of cash value) was $26,749,148. and its 
total tax-mte was $s 73 P«r $1000. 

In 1804 Merrwelher Lewis and William Clark camped on the 
Omaha platcso. In 1825 a licensed Indian post was established 
here. In 1846 Che Mormons settled at '* Winter (garters "— 
after 1854 called Fk>rence (pop. in 1900, 668). and in the immedi- 
ate en\irom (6 m. N.) of the present Omaha— and by 1847 had 
built op camps of some it,ooo inhabitants on the Nebraska and 
lows sidesof the Missoori. Compelled to remove from the Indian 
reservatton within which Winter Quarters lay, they founded 
*'Kancsville" on the Iowa side (which abo was called Winter 
(^rters by the Mormons, and after 1853 was known as Council 
Bluffs), gradually emigrating to Utah in the years following. 
Winter (garters (Florence) was deserted in 1&48, but many 
Mormons were still in Nebraska and Iowa, and their local in* 
flueoce was strong for nearly a decade afterwards. Not aU had 

left HebfBska in x8s3. SpecuJatWo land " squatters " Intruded 
upon tbe Indian lands in that year, and a rush of settlers foDowed 
the opening of Nebraska Territory under tbe Kansas-Nebraska 
Bill of 1854. Omaha (named from the Omaha Indians) w» 
platted in 1854, and was first chartered as a city in 1857. It was 
tlae provisional territorial capital in 1854-1855, and the regular 
capital in 1855-1867. Its charter status has often been modified. 
Since 1887 it has been ^be only city of the state governed under 
the general charter for meuopolitan cities. Prairie freighting 
and Missouri river navigation were of imporunce before the 
construction of the Union Pacific railway, and the activity of 
the city in securing the freighting interest gave ber an initial 
start over the other cities of the state. Council Bluffs was tbe 
li«al, but Omaha the practical, eastern tcjmiaus of that grvat 
ttoderuking. work on which began at Omaha in December 1865. 
The tily wiss already ooonccted as early as 1863 by telegraph 
with Chicago, St Louis, snd since 1861 with Son Francisco- 
Lines of tbe pcessnt great Rock Island, Burlington and Northr 
Western nUway qrstems sU enured the city in the years 1867- 
1868. Meat-packing began as early as 1871, but its first great 
advance foUowed tbe removal of the Union stock yards south 
of the city in 18844 South Omaha {q.v^ was rapidly built up 
around them. A Trans-Mississippi Exposition allustiating tbe 
piogRss and resources of the sutes west of tbe Mississippi was 
bdd at Omaha in 1898. It represented an invtsunent of 
$a,ooQ,ooo, and in spite of financial depression snd wartime^ 
00% of their subscriptions were returned hi dividends to the 

OMAHAS* a tribe of North American Indians of Siooao stock. 
They were found on St Peter's river, Minnesota, where they 
lived on agricultural life. Owing to a severe epidemic of small- 
pox they abandoned their villaipe, and waadered wwward to 
the Niobren river ia Nebraska. After a succession of treaties 
and renovab they are now located on a reservation in eastern 
Nebraska, and number some isoo. 

1875)* Belgian geobgist, was born 00 the 16th of Februsiy 1783 
at iJ£ge, and edncaicd firstly in that city and afterwards ia 
Paris. While a youth he became interested ia gcobgy, and 
being of independent means he wss able to devote his energies 
to geobgical roearchts. As early as 1808 he oommuaicsied to 
the Journal des mines a paper eoUtkd £»at wr ia tjUUiiJk 
dm Nord de la f ranee. He became moire of Skeavre ia 1807, 
governdr of the province of Namur ui 1815, and from 1848 
occupied a place in the Belgian senate. He was sn active 
member of the Belgian Academy of Sciences from 1816, sad 
served three tames as president. H« was likewise president of 
the Ceotogical Society of France in 1853. In Belgium and the 
Rhine provinces he was one of the geological pioneers in deters 
mining the stratigraphy of the Carboniferous and other rocka 
Ha studied also in detail the Tertiary deposits of the Paris Bssiti, 
snd ascertained the extent of the Creuoeoos and some of tht 
oldtr stiau, which he for the fint tune cleariy depicted on a 
map (1817). He was distinguished as an ethnologist, and when 
nearty nmety years of age he was chosen president of the Congress 
of Pre-hbtoric Archaeology (Brussels, i87>). He died on the 
iSth of January 1875. H^ chief works were: MAmaires paw 
senir d la dtstripUam gfalatiqy* du Payt'Bat, de la France ei de 
puUfiUt canPries toiiines (1828); £limenU de fielape <i8tji, 
3rd ed. 1839): AMfi de gielegie (1853, 7tb ed. 1862); Acs 
races kumaimSf an tUmantt d'etknag^apkk (sth ed., 1869). 

Obituary by J. C o me l e t , BtdL act, fM. dr Fmnce^ ser. 3, vol vi 

OWAN, s kingdom oocupybig the south-eastern coast districts 
of Arabia, its southern limiu being a little to the west of the 
meridian of 55* E. long., and the boundary on the north the 
southern borders of El Hssa. Oman and Hasa between them 
occupy the eastern coast districts of Arabia to the hesd of the 
Persian Gulf. The Oman-Hasa boimdary has been asoally drawn 
north of the promontory of £1 Katr. Thb b, however, incorrect. 
In 1870 Katr was under Wshhabi rule, but in the ycsr i$7t 
Turkish assbtance was requested to aid the wtt kia eat of a 


family quarrd between certain Wahhabi chiefs, -and tbe Turks 
thus obtained a footing in Katr, which they have reUined ever 
since. Turkish occupation (now firmly established throughout 
El Hasa) indudes Katif (the ancient Gerrha), and El Bidia on the 
coast of Katr. But the pearl fisheries of Katr are still under the 
protection of the chiefs of Bahrein, who are themselves under 
British suzerainty. In 1895 the chief of Katr (Sheikh Jasim ben 
ThaniX. instigated by the Turks, attacked Sheikh Isa of Bahrein, 
but his fleet of dhows was destroyed by a British gunboat, and 
Bahx«ln (like Zanaibar) has since been deuched from Oman 
and placed directly under British protection. 

Oman is a mountainous district dominated by a range called 
Jebd Akhdar (or the Green Mountain), which is 10,000 ft. in 
altitude, and is flanked by minor ranges running approximately 
parallel to the coast, and shutting off the harbours from the 
interior. They enclose long lateral valleys, some of which are 
fertile and highly cultivated, and traversed by narrow precipitous 
gorges at intervals, which form the only means of access to tbe 
interior from the sea. Beyond the mountains which flank the 
cultivated valleys of Semail and Tyin, to the west, there stretches 
tbe great Ruba el Khali, or Dahna, the central desert of southern 
Arabia, which reaches across the continent to the borders of 
Yemen, isolating the province on the landward side just as the 
rugged mountain barriers shut it of! from the sea. The wadis 
<or valleys) of Oman (like the wadis of Arabia generally) are 
merely torrential channels, dry for the greater part of the year. 
Water is obtained from wells and springs in sufficient quantity 
to supply an extensive system of irrigation. 
• The only good harbour on the coast is that of Muscat, tbe capital 
of the kingdom, which, however, is not directly conneaed with 
the interior by any mountain route. The little port of Matrah, 
immediately contiguous to Muscat, offers the only opportunity 
for penetrating into the hnterior by the wadi Kahxa, a rough pass 
which is held for the sultaa or imam of Muscat by the Refabayin 
chief. In 1883, owing to the txeacheiy of this chief, Muscat 
was besieged by a rebd army, and disaster was only averted by 
the gunt of H.M.S. '* PhilomeL" About 50 n. south of Muscat 
the port of Kucyat is again connected with the failand vaUes^s 
by the wadi Hail, leading to the gorges of the wadi Thaika or 
" Devil's Gap." Both routes give access to the wadi Tyin, which, 
enclosed between tlie mounuin of El Beideh and Hallowi (from 
sooo to jOoc( ft. high), is the garden of Oman. Fifty miles to tlie 
north-west of Muscat this interior region may again be reached 
by the transverse valley of Semail, leading into the wadi Munsab, 
and from thence to Tyin. This is generally reckoned the easiest 
line for travellers. But all routes are diflkult, winding between 
granite and Umestone rocks, and abounding in narrow defiles 
and rugged torrent beds. Vegeution is, however, tderably 
abundant-^tamarisks, oleanders, kafas, euphorbias, the milk 
bush, rhamnus and acadas being the most common and most 
characteristic forms of vegeuble life, and pools of water are 
freqnent. The rick oasis of Tyin contains many villages em- 
bosomed in palm groves and sunounded with orchards and 

In addition to cereals and vegeubles, the cultivation of 
fniit is abtmdant throughout tbe valley. After the date, vines, 
peaches, apricots, oranges, mangoes, melons and mulberries had 
special favour with the Rehbayin, who exhibit all the skill and 
perKverance of the Arab agricidlurist of Yemen, and cultivate 
everything that the soU is capable of producing. 

The sultan, a descendant of those Yemenite imams who con- 
solidated Arab power in Zanzibar and on the East African coast, 
and raised Oman to its position as the most powerful state 
in Arabia during the first half of the iQth century, resides at 
Muscat, where his palace direaly faces the harbour, not far 
from the British residency. The little port of Gwadar. on the 
Makran coast of the Arabian Sea, a station of the Persian Gull 
telegraph system, is still a dependency of Oman. 

See Cokmel Miles Ceogmphi^ Journal, vol. vii. (1896); Com> 
mander Stifle. Geograpktctd Journal (1899). (T. H. H.*> 

OMAR ((. 581-^44), in full 'Oxai ibn AL-KflATTAB. the second 
of the Mabonuncdan caliphs (see Cautiute, A, \% 1 and a). 


Originally opposed to Mahomet, he became later one of the ablest 
advisers both of him and of the first caliph, Abu Bekr. His own 
reign (634-^44) saw Islam's transformation from a reli^ous 
sect to en imperial power. The chief events were the defeat 
of the Pernans at Kadisiya (637) and the conquest of Syria and 
Palestine. The conquest of Egypt followed (see Egypt and 
Amx ibn bl-Ass) and the final rout of the Persians at Nehiwend 
(641) brought Iran under Arab rule. Omar was assassinated by 
a Persian slave in ^44, and though he lingered several days after 
the attack, he appointed no successor, but only a body of sis 
Muhajirun who should select a new caliph. Omar was a wise 
and far-sighted niler and rendered great service to lalam. 
He is said to have built the so-called " Mosque of Omar ** 
(** the Dome of the Rock ") in Jerusalem, which contains the 
rock regarded by Mabommedons as the scene of Mahomet's 
ascent to heaven, and by the Jews as that of the proposed 
sacrifice of Isaac. 

*OMAR KHATTAH (in fuU, CkiyAtbudoIii ABULTAra 
*Ohax bin IbrAbXm al-KhayyAmI], the great Persian nathe* 
matidan, astronomer, freethinker and epigrammatist, who 
derived the epithet Khayyftm (the tentmaker) moat likely Iran 
his father's trade, was born in or near NishipOr, where he is said 
to have died in aji. 517 (a.d. 1133). At an early age he entered 
into a close friendship both with Ni£ftm*ul>mulk and his school* 
fellow lilassan ibn §abhibt who founded afterwards the terrible 
sect of the Assassins. When Nisim-ui-raulk waa raised to tbe 
rank of vizier by the SeljOk sultan Alp-Arslan <a.d. iot(3"io73) 
he bestowed upon Qassan ibn $abbAb the dignity of a chamber- 
lain, whilst offering a similar court office to 'Omar Kbayyiro. 
But the latter contented himself with an annual stipend which 
would enable him to devote all his time to his favourite studies 
of mathematics and astronomy. His standard work on algebra, 
written in Arabic, and other treatises of a similar character 
raised him at once to the focemost rank among the matbemati- 
cians of that age, and induced Sultin Mallk-Shih to summon htm 
in A.B. 467 (a.d. 1074) to institute astronomical obscrvatjoos 
on a larger scale, and to aid him in his great enterprise of a 
thoroogh reform of the calendar. The rcsulu of 'Omar^ research 
were-'* revised edition of the Zff or astronomical tallies, and the 
introduction of the Ta*rIkh-i-MalikshAhI or Jalill, that is, the 
so-called JaliKan or SeljOk era, which comaencea in hM. 471 
(a.d. 1079, 15th March). 

'Omar's great scientific fame, howevct» is nearly ectipaed by 
his still greater poetical renown, which he owes to his rwbtCU or 
quatrains, a collection of about 500 epigrams. The peculiar 
form of the rwfttf'*— vis. four lines, the first, second and fourth 
of which have the same rhyme, while the third usually (but not 
always) remains rhymeless— was first successfully introduced 
into Persian literature as the exdusive vehicle for subtle thoughts 
on the various topics of SOfic mysticism by tbe sheikh Aba Sa'kl 
bin Abulkhair.* but 'Omar differs in its treatment considerably 
from Aba Sa'Id. Although some of his quatrains are purdy 
mystic and pantheistic, most of them bear quite another stamp; 
they are the breviary of a radical freethinker, who protests i» 
the most fordble manner both against the narrowness, bigotry 
and uncompromising austerity of tbe orthodox ulein& and the 
eccentricity, hypocrisy and wild ravings of advanced SOfls. 
whom he succe^ully combats with ihcir own weapons, using 
the whole mystic terminology simply to ridicule msrsticism 
itsdf. There is in this respect a great resemblance between 
him and Hifis, but *Omar is deddedly superior. He has oflro 
been called the Voltaire of the East, and cried down as materialist 
and atheist. As far as purity of diction, fine wit, crushing 
satire against a debased and ignorant clergy, and a general 
sympathy with suffering humanity are concerned, 'Omar certainly 
reminds us of the great Frenchman; but there the comparison 
ceases. Voltaire never wrote anything equal to Omar's fasdnat- 
ing rhapsodies m praise of wine, love and all earthly joys, 
and his passionate denunciations of a malevolent and inexorable 

■ I>ied Jan. 1049. Comp. Cth6's edition of his ruMIs in S^nn^h 
bencktederhayf. Akademie{i»ji^),pp. 1 45 >«^. and (1878) pp. 38 acq.; 
and E. G. Browne's JUlerory Hisi. «/ Perstu, ii 3Cu 


Cite wUdi dooins to ddw decftf or wdden detth mnd to etemfll 
oblrvion all that is great, good and beauttful in* diis trorkl. 
Tbcre is a toudi of Byron, Sinnbnnw and even of Schopenhauer 
in many of faia mMTli, irfaSch dearly proves that the modem 
pessimist fi t»y no means a novel creature in the reafan of philo- 
sophic thought and poetical faniudttatton. 

The Leiden eopy of H^iaar KhayySn's work on algebm vaa 
■odoed as far back as 174a by Gerald Meernan in the prefacse to 
his SPttimm catctdi tuxiwalts; further notices of the same work 
by SediUoc appeared la the Ifouo. Jour. As. (1834) and in vol. xiii, 
01 the JVMte#x a ntraiti its MSS. dt la Bibl. toy. The complete 
text, to ge tl ief with a French translation (on the bosb of the Leklen 
and Puts oopie% the latter finit disoovensd by M. Libri, see his 
Eiaow€ dss soMww mojlkimalifuex m Jtalie, u 300), was edited 
by F. Wocpcloe. VAiikbre d^Omar Alkhavydmi (Paris, 1851). Articles 
on *Ofnar's life and works are found in Keinaud's Ciorraphie d'About' 
fUa, vni.» p. iot; NoHcn et extraiUf Ix. 143^ seq.; Gardn de Taasy, 
JVoft jv leg RMTiyOi 4e *Om&r UhtAyOm <Pans. 1857); Rieu, Cat. 
ftn, MSS. im Ikt Br. Mms.M ii- 5jpi A. CSiristenseo, RoOurckn 
tBT ks Rubriydl d* 'Omar Barfim (Heidelberg, 1905); V. Zhukov 
ski's 'Uwtar Klayyam and Ike ^ Wandering *' Quatrains, translated 
from the Russian by E. D. Ross hi the Journal of the Royal Asiatic 

(f89«); E. 0. Browns, 

e quatrains haire been edited 

I, Liitrury Jiislary rf Persia, U. 
lited at CakaJtu (i8i36) and 

Soiiety, _ 

" ' ' ^~^ ' "' '} tacTaad French tcansiation fiy'j. B. 

/ tnconnect and misleading); a portion of 
LngUsh verK, by E. FttzGerakl (London. 
i<S9> *^ **id 1879). FitsGerakl's translatnn has been edited 
with cooaentarv liy H. M. Batson (i9oo)» and tbe snd cd. of the 
same (i868) by £. Heron Allen (1908). A new English venion was 
pubU Jicd in TrQbner's " Oriental 'Series (i88a) byE. H. Whinfield, 
and the fint critical edition of the text, with translation, by the 
ssme (1883). ImfMNiant later works are N. H. Dole's vfriorum 
edition (1896). I. Payne's translation (1898). E. Heron Alien's 
cditiQa (1898) and the Ufe by J. K. M. Shtrui (190$) ; but the 
literatttre in new translations and uniutiens has recently multiplied 
exceedingly. (H. E.; X.) 

OMBRl* a card gante, very fashionaUe at the end of the x8th 
century, but now practJcaUy obsolete.' The foUowing recom- 
mendation of the game is taken from the C&url Gamester, a 
book published m 1790 for the use of the daughters of the t>rince 
of Wales, afterwards George 11: — 

**Tbe Knme of Ombre owes its mventkm to theSpanhmIs,andit 
kss in it a great deal of the mvity peculiar to that nation. It is 
Gslkd Om^, or The Man. It was so named as requiring thought 
and reflection, which are qualities peculiar to many or rather alludmg 
to kim who undertakes to play the game against the rest of the 
nrocsters. and Is catted the man. To play it well reouires a great 
deal of appiicatiott, and let a man be ever so expert, he will be ape 
to fall into mistakes if he think of anything else or is dbtuibed by 
the oonvcnatkm of them that look on. . . * It will be found the 
most driightful and entertaining of aU games to those who have 
anything m them of what we cali the spirit of play.*' 

'Ombre b played by three players with a pack of 40 cards, 
the 8, 9 and xo being dispensed with. The order of value 
of the hands is irregukr, being different for trumps and suits not 
trumps. In a suit not trumps the order is, for red suits: K, Q, 
Kn, ace. 2, j, 4, 5, 6, 7; for black suiU: R, Q, Kn,'7, 6, s. 4r 
5, a. In tnuip suits the ace of spades, called spadille, is always 
a trump, and the highest one, whichever of the four suits may 
be tmmpa. The order for red suit trumps is; ace of spades 7 
(called sRdinZXc), ace of dubs (called 6asto), ace (called ponto), 
K, (2. Kn, a, 3, 4, 5, 6. For black suit trumps: ace of spades 
{spadiUe), a {jmanUU\ wet (baslo), K, Q, Rn, 7; 6, 5, 4. 3- There 
is no panto in bUck trumps. The three highest trumps are 
called mal9dores (or taais). The holder of them has the privilege 
of not loUowing suit, except when a higher mat is played, which 
forces a lower one if the band contains no other trump. 

(2«ds axe d^t round, and the receiver of the fint black ace 
is the dealer. He deals (towards his right) nine cards, by threes, 
to each player. The remaining 13 cards form the stock or taton, 
as at piquet. Each deal constitutes a game. One hand plays 
against the other two, the solo player being called the Ombre. 
The player at the dealer's right has the first option of being 
Ombre, which entails two privileges: that of naming the trump 
suit, aiul that of throwing away as many of his cards as he chooses, 
lecctving new ones in their place, as at poker. If, with these 
advantafles in miodi he thinks be can win against the other 
two hands* be aaya, " I ask leave," or " I play." But in this 
case Ida ligbt-faand ndghboor has the privilege of rUiming 


Ombre for himself, pro vkUng he is wOlug to play his hand without 
drawing new cards, or, as the phrsse goes, sans prendre. If, how- 
ever, the other player reconsiders and decides that he will himself 
play without drawing cards, he can still remain* Ombre. If 
, the second player passes, the dealer in his turn may ask to play 
Mans prendre, as above. If all three pass a new deal ensues. 
After the Ombre discards (if he does not play sans prendre) the 
two others in turn do likewise, and, if any cards are left in the 
stodt, the last discarder may look at them (as at piquet) and the 
others after him. But if he does not look at them the others 
kiae the piirilege of doing so. 

The manner of pUy is like wMst, except that it is towards 
the rif^. Thit second and third players combine to defeat 
Ombre. If in the sequel Ombre makes more tricks than either 
of hb opponents he wins. If one of hb opponents makes more 
than Ombre the latter loses (called codiUe). If Ombre and one 
or both of hb opponents make the same number of tricks the 
game b drawn. When Ombre makes aU nine tricks he wins 
a vole. The game b played with counters having certain 
values, the pool being emptied by thtf winner. If A pass, a 
counter of low value b paid into the pool by each player. If 
Ombre wins he takes the entire pooL If he draws he forfeits 
to the pool a sum equal to that already In it, ix. the pool is 
doubled. If either of hb opponents makes the majority of the 
tricks {codiUe), Ombre pays him a sum equal to that in the pool, 
which Itself remains untouched tmtil the next game. When the 
pool b emptied each player pays in three counters. 

OMBURM AN, a town, of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, 00 the 
west bank of the Nile, immedbtely north of the junction of the 
White and Blue Nfles in 13' 38' N., 3a* a9' E., a m. N. by W. 
of Khartum. Pop. (1909 census) 42,779, of whom 541 were 
Europeans. The town covers a large area, being over 5 m. long 
and a broad. It consbts for the most part of mud huts, but 
there are some houses built of sun-dried bricks. Save for two or 
three wide streets which traverse it from end to end the town b 
a network of narrow bnes. In the centre facing an open space are 
the ruins of the tomb of the Mahdi and behind b the house in 
which he lived. The Khalifa's house (a two-storeyed buildtng), 
the mosque, the Beit d Amana (arsenal) and other houses famed 
in the hbtory of the town also face the central squaze. A high 
wall runs behind these buildings parallel with the Nile. 
Omdurman b the headquarters of the native traders in the 
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, the chief articles of commerce being 
ivory, ostrich feathers and gum arabic from Darf ur and Kordof an. 
There b also an important camel and cattle market. Nearly 
every tribe in the Sudan b represented in the population of the 
dty. Among the native artificers the metal workers and leather 
dressers are noted. The government maintains elementary 
and technical schools. Mission work b undertaken by various 
Protestant and Roman (^thoh'c societies. 

Omdurman, then an insignificant village, was chosen in 1884 
by the Mahdi Mahomroed Ahmed as hb capital and so continued 
after the fall of Khartum in January 1S85. Its growth was 
rapid, the Khalifa (who succeeded the Mahdi) compelling 
large numbers of disaffected tribesmen to live in the town under 
the eye of hb soldiery. Here also were imprisoned the European 
captives of the Ms^dbts — notably Slatin Pasha and Father 
Ohrwalder. On the and of September 1898 the Anglo-Egyptian 
army under Lord Kitchener totally defeated the forces of the 
Kludifa at Kcneri, 7 m. N. of the town. A marble obelisk marks 
the spot where the aist Lancers made a charge. Within the 
encbsure of the Khalifa's house b the tomb of Hubert Howard, 
son of the 9th carl of Carlisle, who was killed in the house at the 
capture of the dty by a splinter of a shell fired at the Mahdi*s 
tomb. (See S odan: Anglo-Egyptian.) 

OMBUBTTB, sometimes Anglirixrd as "omelet," a French 
wbrd of which the history b an example of the curious changes 
a word may undergo. The ultimate origin b Lat. lamella, 
diminutive of lamina, plate; thb became in French lameile, and 
a wrong divbion of la lamdie gave alamelle, alemdle, or alumeOe; 
thence alemette, meuihcsiced to awutette and ammeleU, the form 
in which the word appears in the x^th and 16th centuries. Th« 



orisliia] meahihg s«eins to bo a pancake pf a ibin flat shape. 
Omelettes are made wiih eggs, beaten up lightly, with thi; 
addition of milk, flour, herbs, cheese, mushrooms^ &c., according 
to the requirement, aad cooked quickly in a buttered paiu 

OMEN (a Latin word, either connected with «s, Boouth, or 
more probably with auris {Cx. ovt, ear; apparently, meaning 
" a thing heard " or " spoken "), a sign in divination, favourable 
or unfavourable as the case may be (see Divination, Aucum 
and Okaclb). The taking of omens may be said to be a part of 
aU aysteras of divination, in which the future is predicted by 
means of indications of one sort or another; and tradition has 
thus gathered round many subjectSf-events, aaions, colours, 
numbers, &c.— which are considered " ominous," an adjective 
which generally connotes iU-fortune. 

One of the oldest and most widespread methods of divining 
the future, both among primitive people and among several of 
the dviiizations of antiquity, was the reading of omens in the 
signs noted on the liver of the animal oQered as a sacrifice to 
some deity. The custom is vouched for by travellers as still 
observed in Borneo, Burma, Uganda and elsewhere, the animal 
chosen being a pig or a fowl It constituted the most commoa 
form of divination in ancient Babylonia, where it can be traced 
back to the 3rd millennium B.a Among the Etruscans the 
prominence of the rite led to the liver being looked upon as 
the trade>mark of the priest. From the Etruscans it made its 
way to the Romans, though as we shall see it was also modified 
by them. The evidence for the rite among the Greeks is sufficient 
to warrant the concluswn of its introduction at a very early 
period and its persistence to a late day. 

The theory upon which the rite everywhere rests a clearly 
the belief, for which there is an abundance of concurrent testi- 
mony, that the liver was at one time regarded as the seat of 
vitality. This belief appears to be of a more primitive character 
than the view which places the scat of life in the heart, though 
we arc accustomed to think that the latter was the prevailing 
view in antiquity. The fact, however, appears to be that the 
prominence given to the heart in popular beliefs dates from the 
time when in the course of the development of anatomical 
knowledge the Important function of the heart in animal life 
came to be recognized, whereas the supposition that the liver 
IS the seal of vitality rests upon other factors than anatomical 
Juiowledge, and, being independent of such knowledge, also 
antedates it. Among the reasons which led people to identify 
the liver with the very source of life, and hence as the seat of aU 
affections and emotions, including what to us are intellectual 
functions, we may name the bloody appearance of that organ. 
Filled with blood, it was natural to regard it as the seat of the 
blood, and as a matter of fact one-sixth of the entire blood of 
man is in the liver, while in the case of some animals the propor- 
tion is even larger. Now blood was everywhere in antiquity 
associated with life, and the biblical passage, Genesis Ix. 3, 
which identifies the blood with the soul of the animal and there- 
fore prohibits its use fairly represents the current conception 
both among primitive peoples as well as among those who had 
advanced along the road of culture and civilisation. The liver 
being regarded as the seat of the blood, It was a natural and 
short step to identify the liver with the soul as well as with the 
seat of life, and therefore as the centre of all manifcsiations of 
vitality and activity. In this stage of belief, therefore, the liver 
is the seat of all emotions and affections, as well as of intellectuol 
functions, and It is only when with advancing anatomical know- 
ledge the functions of the heart and then of the brain come to be 
recognized that a differentiation of functions takes place which 
bad its outcome in the assignment of intellectual activity to the 
brain or head, of the higher emotions and affections (as love and 
courage) to the heart, while the liver was degraded to the rank 
of being regarded as the seat of the lower emotions and affections, 
such as jealousy, moroscncss and the like. 

Ilepatoscopy, or divination through the liver, belongs therefore 
to the primitive period when that organ summed up all vitality 
and was regarded as the seat of qU theemotions and affections— 
the higher as well as the lower— and abo as thcscat of intellectual 

fuocilooa. The question, howtvtr, atin icmaina to be answered 
bow people came to the belief or to the assumpUoa that through 
the soul, or the seat of lifp of the sacrificial animal, the intcnticHi 
of the gods ooidd be divined. There are two theories that may 
be put forward. The one is that the animal sacrificed was looked 
upon as a ddty, and that, therefore, the liver rcpreKntod the 
soul of the god; the other theory is that the ddty in acceptirg 
the sacrifice Identified himself with the animal, and that, there- 
fore, the liver as the soul of the animal was the coantef|iart of 
the soul of the god. It Is true that the killing of the god plays 
a prominent part in primitive culta, as has been shown more 
particukirly through the valuable leaeardMS of J. G. Fraecr 
iTke GoUtn B^u^), On the other hand, seHotis diflkoltics 
arise if we assume that every animal sacrificed repicscnu a 
deity; and even assuming that iuch a belief underlies the rite 
of animal sacrifice, a modification of the belief mutt have been 
introduced when such sacrifices became a common rite resofted 
to on every occasion when a ddty was to be approached. It is 
manifestly impossible to assume, €,g, that the daily sacrifices 
which form a feature of advanced culu involved the belief ol the 
daily slaughter of some ddty, and even before this stage vis 
reached the primitive bclid of the actual identificatfon of the 
god with the animal must have yidded to some such bdief as 
that the dei^r Jn accepting the aaciifioe sssimilates the animal 
to his own being, precisely as man assimilates the food that 
enters into his body. The animal is in a certain sense, imloed, 
the food of the god. 

The theory underlying hepatoscopy therefore consists of these 
two factors: the belief (i) that the liver is the seat of life, or, 
to put it more sucdnctly, what was currently regarded as the 
soul of the animal; and (2) that the liver of the saaifidal 
animal, by virtue of its acceptance on the part of the god, took 
on the same character as the soul of the god to whom it was 
offered. The two souls acted in accord, the soul of the animal 
becoming a reffection, as it were, of the soul of the god. If, 
therdore, one understood the signs noted on a particular liver, 
one entered, aa it were, into the mind— as one of the manifesta- 
tions of aoul-lifc~ol the ddty who had aisimihited the being oC 
the animal to his own being. To know the mind of the god was 
equivalent to knowing what the god in question proposed to do. 
Hence, when one approached a ddty with an Inquiry as to the 
outcome of some undertaking, the reading of the signs on the 
Uver afforded a direct means of determining the coune of future 
events, which was, according to current bdids, in the control 
of the gods. That there are defects In the logical process as here 
outlined to account for the curious rile constitutes no valid 
objection to the theory advanced, for, in the first place, prinutive 
logic in matters of belief Is Inherently ddectlve and even contra^ 
dictory, and, secondly, the strong desire to pierce the mysterious 
future, forming an impelling factor In all religions— even in the 
most advanced of our own day-^would tend to obscure the 
weakness of any theory developed to explahi a rite which 
represents merely one endeavour among many to divine the 
intention and plans of the gods, upon the knowledge of wiiich 
so much of man's happiness and welfare depended. 

Passing now to typical examples, the beginning must be made 
with Babylonia, which Is also the richest source of our knowledge 
of the details of the rite. Hepatoscopy in the Euphrates valley 
can be traced back to the srd millennium before oxir era, wMch 
may be taken as suffident evidence for its survival from the 
period of primitive culture, wlale the supreme importance 
attached to ^gns read on' the livers of sacrificial animals— mraally 
a sheep— follows from the care with which omens derived from 
such inspection on occa^ns of historical significance were pre- 
served as guides to later generations of priests. Thus we have 
a collection of the signs noted during the career of Sargoo L of 
Agade {e. 3800 B.C.), which in some way were handed down till 
the days of the Assyrian kmg Assur-banl-pal (fi68-6}6 B.C.). One 
of the chief names for the priest was Mrfl — ^literally the " in- 
spector "— ^hich was given to him because of the prominence 
of bis function as an Inspector of livers for the purpose of dMnIng 
the intention of the gods. It is to the coUectionsfonncd by these 



ISHt-priesIs as a guH a nee for tliemadves and as a basis of 
B»tnict{<m for those in training for the priesthood that we owe 
oor linowledge of the parts of the liver to which particular 
attention was directed, of the signs noted, and of the principles 
guiding tlie interpretation of the signs. 

The inspection of the liver for purposes of divination led to 
the study of the anatomy of the liver, and there are indeed good 
tcasons for believing that hepatoscopy represents the startirg- 
point for the study of animal anatomy in general. We find in 
the Babylonian-Assyrian omen^tcxts spedal designations for 
the three main lobes of the sheep's Ilvei^tbe Mms dexier, the 
Mus sinister and the Mus caudtUus; the fiist-named being 
called " the right wing of the liver," the second "the left wing 
of the liver," and the third ** the middle of the h'ver." Whether 
the division ol the lobus dexter into two divisions— <x) lobus 
dexter proper and (2) lobus quadratus, as in modem anatomical 
nomenclature — was also assumed in Babylom'an hepatoscopy, 
ii not certain, but the groove separating the right lobe into two 
sections— the fossa venae umbiHealit—msA recognized and dis- 
tinguished by the designation of " river of the liver." The two 
appendixes attached to the upper Ibbe or lobus pyramidalis, 
and known in modem nomenclature as proeessus fyramidalis and 
frocessus papillaris, were described respectively as the *' finger " 
of the liver and as the "offdioot." The former of these two 
appendixes plays an especially Important part in hepatoscopy, 
and, according to its shape and peculiarities, furnishes a good 
or bad omen. The gall-bladder, appropriately designated as 
* the bitter,*' was regarded as a part of the liver, and the cystic 
duct (compared, apparently, to a ** penis") to which it is joined, 
as wdl as the hepatic duct (piclm«d as an " outlet '*) and the 
ductus ekaleduelus (described as a " yoke "). sll had their special 
designations. The depression separating the two lower lobes 
from the Mus eaudatus, and known as the p&rta kepatis, was 
appropriately desijgnated as the " crucible *' of the liver Lastly, 
to pass over unnecessary details, the maricings of various kinds 
to be observed on the lobes of the livers of freshly-slaughtered 
animals, which are due mainly to the traces left by the sub- 
sidiary hepatic ducts and hepatic veins On the liver surface, 
w^Tt described as ''holes,*' "paths," "dubs'* and the Uke. 
The constantly varying character of these markings, no two 
Kvera being alike in this respect, furnished & particulariy large 
field for the fancy of the ftdr^priest. 

In the interpretation of these signs the two chief factors were 
aasodation of ideas and assodation of words. If, for example, 
the processus pyramidatis was abnormally small and the pro- 
cessus papSiaris abnormaDy large, it pointed to a reversion of 
the natural order, to wit, that the servant should control the 
master or that the son would be above the father. A long cystic 
duct would point to a long reign of the king. If the gall-Uadder 
was swollen, it pointed to an extension or enlargement of seme 
kind. If the porta kepatis was torn it prognosticated a plundering 
of the enemy's land. As among most people, a sign on the right 
side was favourable, but the same sign on the left side otifavour- 
able. If, for example, the porta kepatis was long on the right 
side and Short on the left side, il was a good sign for the king's 
army, but if short on the right side and km^on the left, it was 
anfavourable; and similariy for a whole series of phenomena 
connected with any one of the various subdivisioiis of the liver. 
Past experience constituted another important facter h) establish- 
ing the Interpretation of signs noted. If, for example, on a oenain 
occasion whim the liver of a sacrificial- anhnal was examined, 
certain events of a favourable character followed, the conclusion 
was drawn that the signs observed were favourable, and hence 
the reourence of these signs on another occasion suggested a 
ftivottrable answer to the question put to the priests. With 
this in view, omens given hi the reigns of pramfaient rulers were 
preserved with special care as guides to the priests. 

In the course of tfane the odlectkms of signs and thcrr inter- 
pretation made by the Mrft-ptlestf grew hi nuntber ontB elaborate 
series were produced in which the endeavour was made toexhaust 
so lar at poasftle all the varieties and modJAcaiions of the aumy 
signs, so asto fdSnish « cosiplsto baodbook both for purposes 

of instnicUon and as a basis for the practical work of divihation. 
Divination through the liver remained in force among the 
Assyrians and Babylomans down to the end of the Babylonian 

Among the Greeks and Romans likewiae it was the Ever that 
continued throughout aU periods to play the chief r61e in divina- 
tion through the sacrifidaS animal. Blechcr {De Extispicio 
Capita Tria, Glessen, 1905, pp. yss) has recently collected most 
of the references in Greek and Latin authors to animal divination, 
and an examination of these shows condusivdy that, although 
the general term used for the inspectmn of the sacrifidal animal 
was iera or ieroia ($>. " victims *' or " sacred parts ") in Greek, 
and exta in Latin, when specific illustrations are introduced, 
the reference is almost invariably to some sign or signs on the 
liver; and we have an interesting statement in Pliny (Hist. Nat, 
xi. f 286), furnishing the date (274 B.C.) when the examination 
of the heart was for the first time introduced by the side of the 
liver as a means of divining the future, while the lungs are not 
mentioned till we reach the days of Cicero {de Divinatione, L $$)* 
We are Justified in concluding, therefore, that among the Greeks 
and Romans likewise the examination of the liver was the basis 
of divination in the case of the sacrificial animaL It is welt 
known that the Romans borrowed thdr methods of hepatoscopy 
from the Etruscans, and, apart from the direct evidence for this 
in t^tin writings, we have, in the case of the bronze modd of 
a liver found near Piaccnxa in 1877, and of Etruscan ori^n, the 
unmistakable proof that among the Etruscans the examination, 
of the liver was the basis of animal divination. Besides thb 
object dating from about the 3rd century B.C., according to the 
latest Investigator, G. Kflrte (" Die Bronzdcbcr von Piaccnza,** 
in Mitt. d. K. D. Arckaeot. Instituts, 1905, xx. pp. 348-379), 
there are other Etruscan moniuncnts, e^. the figure of an 
Etruscan augur holding a liver in his hand as his trade-mark 
(KOrte, ib. pi. xiv.), which point In the same direction, and 
indicate that the modd of the liver was used as an object lesson 
to illustrate the method of divination through the liver. For 
further details the reader ts referred to ThuUn's monograph. 
Die Etruskiscke XHsciptin, II Die Harus^iH (Gothenbur]{, 

As for the Greeks, it is still an open question whether they 
perfected their method of hepatoscopy under Etruscan influence 
or through the Babylonians. In any case, since the Eastern 
origin of the Etruscans is now generally admitted, we may 
temporarily, at least, accept the condusion that hepatoscopy 
as a method of divination owes its survival in advanced forms 
of culture to the elaborate system devised in the course of 
centuries by the Babylonian priests, and to the infiuence, direct 
and indirect, exerted by this system m the ancient worid. But 
for this system hepatoscopy, the theoretic basis of which as 
above set forth falls within the sphere of ideas that belong to 
primitive culture, would have passed away as higher stages of 
dvilization were reached; and as a matter of (act it pUys no 
part in the Egyptian culture or in the civilization of India, while 
among the Hebrews only faint traces of the prrmjtive idea of 
the liver as the seat of the sou] are to be met with in the Old 
Testament, among which an allusion in the indiren form of a 
protest against the use of the sacrificial animal for purposes of 
divination in the ordinance (Exodus xxix. 13, 32; Leviticus 
iii. 4, to, ts. &c.) to bum the processus pyramidatis of the Kver, 
which pbyed a particularly significant r6le in hepatoscopy, 
calls for spedal mention. 

In modem thnes hepatoscopy still survives among primitive 
peoples in Borneo, Burma, Uganda, &c. 

It but remains to call attention to the fact that the caiUer 
view of the hvcr as the teat of the soul gave way among many 
ancient natfons to the theory which, reflecting the growth of 
anatomical knowledge, assigned that function to the heart, 
while, with the further change which led to placing the seat 
of soul-life in the brain, an attempt was made to partition the 
various functions of manifestations of personality among the 
three organs, brain, heart and liver, the intellectual activity 
being aSdgned to the fitst-j^aoked Che higher emotions, as tow 



and couxage, to tlie second; while the liver, once the master 
of the entire domain of sotd-Ufe as understood in antiquity, was 
degraded to serve as the seat of the Jower emotions, such as 
jealousy, anger and the like. This is substantially the view set 
{orth in the Timaeus of Plato {% 71 c). The addition of the heart 
to the liver as an organ of the revelation of the divine will, 
reflects the stage which assigned to the heart the position once 
occupied by the liver. By the time the third sUge, which placed 
the seat of soul-life in the brain, was reached through the further 
advance of anatomical knowledge, the religious rites of Greece 
and Rome were too deeply incrusted to admit of further radical 
changes, and faith in the gods had aheady declined too far to 
bring new elements into the religion. In phrenology, however, 
as popularly carried on as an unofficial cult, we may recognize 
a modified form of divination, co-ordinate with the third sUge 
in the development of beliefs regarding the seat of soul and based 
on the assumption that this organ is — as were its predecessors — 
ft medium of revelation of otherwise hidden knowlcdga 


OHICBUND (d. 1767), an Indian whose name is indelibly 
associated with the treaty negotiated by Clive before the battle 
of Piassey in 1757. His real name was Amir Chand; and he 
was not a Bengali, as stated by Macaulay, but a Sikh from the 
Punjab. It is impossible now to unravel the intrigues in which 
he may have engaged, but some facts about his career can be 
stated. He had long been resident at Calcutta, where he had 
acquired a large fortune by providing the " investment " for 
the Company, and also by acting as intermediary between the 
English and the native court at Murshidabad. In a letter of 
Mr Watts of later date he is represented as saying to the nawab 
(Suraj-ud-daula): " He had lived under the English protection 
these forty years; that he never knew them once to break their 
agreement, to the truth of which he took his oath by touching a 
Brahman's foot; and that if a lie could be proved in England 
upon any one, they were spit upon and never trusted." Several 
houses owned by him in Calcutta are mentioned i<i connexion 
with the fighting that preceded the tragedy ol the Black Hole 
in 1756, and it is on record that he suffered heavy losses at that 
time. He had been arrested by the English on suspicion of 
treachery, but afterwards he was forward in giving help to the 
fugitives and also valuable advice. On the recapture of Calcutta 
he was sent by Clive to accompany Mr Watts as agent at Mur* 
shidabad. It seems to have been through his influence that the 
nawab gave reluctant consent to Clive's attack on Chandemagore. 
Idter, when the treaty with Mir Jafar was being negotiated, he 
put in a claim for 5% on all the treasure to be recovered, under 
threat of disclosing the pk>t. To defeat him, two copies of the 
treaty were drawn up: the one, the true treaty, omitting his 
claim; the other containing it, to be shown to him, which 
Admiral Watson refused to sign, but Clive directed the admiral's 
signature to be appended. When the truth was revealed to 
Omicbund after Piassey, Macaulay states (following Ormc) that 
he sank gradually into idiocy, languished a few months, and 
- then died. As a matter of fact, he survived for ten years, till 
1767; and by his will he bequeathed £2000 to the FoundUug 
Hospital (where his name may be seen in the list of benefactors 
as " a black merchant of Calcutta "} and also to the Magdalen 
Hospital in London. 0- S. Co.) 

OMNIBUS (Lat. " for aU *'), a large dosed public conveyance 
with seats for passengers inside and out (see Carriage). The 
name, colloquially shortened to " bus," was, in the form voUwre 
cmnibuSt first used for such conveyances in Paris in 1828, and 
was taken by Shillibeer for the vehicle he ran on the Paddinglon 
load in jSzfQ. The word is also applied to a box at the opera 
which is shared by several subscribers, to a bill or act of parlia* 
meat dealing with a variety of subjects, and in electrical engineer- 
ing to the bar to which the terminals of the generators are 
attached and from which the current is taken oQ by the wires 
supplying the various consumers. 

OMRI, in the Bible, the first great king of Israel after the 
separation of the two kingdoms of Israel and Judah, who 
^urished in the early part of the 9th centuiy B.C. The 

dynasty of Jeroboam had been cztaniBatwl by Basdut (set 

Asa) at a revolt when the army was besieging the Philistines at 
Gibbethon, an unidentified Danite site. A quarter of a oeatiuy 
later, Baasha's son Elah, after s jeign of two yeazs, was sJuin by 
Zimri, captain of the chariots, i|i a drinking bout, and again the 
royal faini^ were put to the sword. Meanwhile, the general 
Omri, who was at Gibbethon, was promptly eleaed king by the 
army, and Zimri himself in a short while^ met his death in the 
royal dty of Tirzah. However, fresh disturbance was caused by 
Tibni ben Ginath (perhaps of Naphtali),aad Israel was divided 
into rival factions. Ultimately Tibni and his brother Jonm 
(i Kings xvL 22, LXX.) were overcome, and Omri remained ta 
sole possession of the throne. The compiler of the biblical 
narratives takes little interest in Omri's work (r Kings xvL 
1 5-28), and records briefly his purchase of Samaria, which became 
the capital of his dynasty (see Samaria). The inscription o( 
Mesha throws welcome light upon his conquest of Moab iq.v.)i 
the position of Israel during the reign of Omri's son Abab (qjf.) 
bears testimony to the success of the father; and the faa that 
the knd continued to be known to the Assyriaosdown to the time 
of Sargon as *' house of Omri " indicates the reputation which 
this little-known king enjoyed. (S. A. C.) , 

OMSK, a town of Russia, capital of the province of Akmolinsk, 
capital of western Siberia from 1839 to 1882, and now capital 
of the general-governorship of the Steppes. Pop. (1881)^31,000^ 
(1900) 53,050. It is the scat of administration of the Siberiaja 
Cossacks, and the see of the bishop of Omsk. Situated on the 
right bank of the Irtysh, at its confluence with the Om, at an 
altitude of 285 ft., and on the Siberian railway, 1S62 m. via 
Chelyabinsk from Moscow, and 586 m. W.S.W. of Tomsk, it i% 
the meeting-place of the highways to middle Russia, Orenburg 
and Turkestan. Steamers ply down the Irtysh and the Ob^ 
and up the former to the Altai towns and Lake Zaisan. The 
climate is dry and relatively temperate, but marked by violent 
snow-storms and sand-storms* The average temperatures are, 
for the year, 31** F.; for January, 5'; for July, bS"; the annual 
rainfall is 12*4 in. The town is poorly built. Apart from the 
railway workshops, its industries are unimportant (steam saw- 
mill, tanneries); but the trade, especially since the construction 
of the railway, is growing. There are two yearly fairs. Omsk 
has a society for education, which organises schools, kinder- 
gartens, libraries and lectures for tbe people. There areacoips 
of cadets, medical, dramatic and musical societies, and the 
west Siberian section of the Russian Geographical Sodety, with 
a museum. 

The " fort " of Omsk was erected in 1716 to protect the block- 
houses on the Russian frontier, along the Ishim and the Irtysh. 
In consequence of the frequent incursions of the Kirghis about 
the end of the i8th century, stronger earthworks were erected 
on the right bank of the Om; but these have now almost entirely 

ONAGRACEAE, in botany, an order of dicotyledons belonging 
to tbe series Myrtiflorae, to which belongs also the myrtle 
order, Myrtaceae. It contains about 36 genera and joo spedes^ 
and occurs chiefly in the temperate sone of the New World, 
especially on the Pacific side. It is represented in Britain by 
several ^>ecies of EpiMnum (willow-hert>), Circaea (enchanter's 
nightshade), and Uidwigia, a small perennial herb very rare in 
boggy pools in Sussex and Hampshire. The plants are generally 
herbaceous, sometimes annual, as species of Epilobiitm, Clarkia, 
Goddia, or biennial, as (knolkeira ^Mftnir— evening primrose— 
or sometimes become shrubby or arboiesoent, as Fuchsia (g.v.). 
The pimple leaves ate generally entire or inconspicuously toothed, 
and are alternate, opposite or wborled in arrangement; they are 
generally exs^pulate, but small caducous stipules occur ia 
Fuchsia, Cinaea and other genera. The flowers are oftea 
solitary in the leal-axils, as in many fuchsias, Clarkia^ &c., or 
associated, as in Epilolnum and Oenmkffa, in large showy 
terminal spikes or racemes; in, Ct><:a«a the small white or red 

' He !i said to have refgncd seven days, but the LXX. (Bl In 
I Kings xvi. 15 read tevm ye^trt. Further confmion is causM by 
the fact that the LXX, fCads Zimii.threushaut (gr.Omri,^ 



ISowcrs are borne !a terminaf and lateral racemes. The regular 
flowers have the parts In fours, the typical arrangement as 
flluatrated by EpUohiuMt Oenothera and Fuchsia being as 

follows: 4 sepals, 4 
petals, two ahemating 
whorb of 4 stamens, and 
4 inferior carpels. The 
floral receptacle is pro* 
duced above the ovary 
into the so-called calyx- 
tube, which is often 
petaloid, as in Fuchsia, 
and is sharply distin- 
guished from the ovary, 
from which it separates 
after flowering. 

In CIdrkia the inner 
whorl of stamens is often 
barren, and in an allied 
^ genus, Eucharidium, it 
is absent. In Cireaea 
the flower has its parts 

Fkc. t.-^Fmehsia eoecinm FiG. a.— Floral diagram 

I, Flower cut open after removal of of Cireaea. 

■rpals; a, fruity 3, floral diagram. 

in twos. Both sepals and petals are free; the former have 
a broad insertion, are valvate in bud, and reflexed in the 
flower; in Fuchsia they are petaloid. The petals have a narrow 
attachment, and are generally convolute in bud; they are entire 
(Fuchsia) or bilobed {EpUobium); in some spcdes of Fuchsia 
they are smaU and scale-like, or #bsent (F. apetala). The 
stamens are free, and those of the inner whorl aregcnersUy shorter 
than those of the outer whori. The flowers of Lopesia (Central 
America) have only one fertile stamen. The large spherical 
pollen grains are connected by 
viscid threads. The typically 
quadrilocular .ovary contains 
numerous ovules on ' axile 
placentas; the x-to-i-celled 
ovary of Cireaea has a single 
ovule in each loculus. The 
longslenderstylehas a capitate 
(Fuchsia), 4-rayed (Oenothera, 
Epitobium) or 4-notchcd (Ctf* 
eaea) stigma. The flowers, 
which have generally an at- 
tractive corolla and honey 
secreted by a swollen disk at 
the base of the style or on tbe 
lower part of the " calyx-tobc," 
are adapted for pollination by 
insects, chiefly bees and lepi- 
^^1^^ doptera; sometimes by night- 
a ft Co. flying insects when tbe flowers 
Fig. 3. are pale and open towards 

i^-^lJ^"* flower jrf fP f^^ evening, as hi evening primrose. 

B. truiiTfEpiiobium after splitting Into 4 "^hfti tnd 
dchtacence. v, outer wall; ffi, leaving a central column on 
coliiroella /ormed bv the scpu; which the seeds are borne as 
as, seed wKh tuftt dl hain. j„ EptMnum and Oenothera-- 

in the former the seeds arc scattered by aH of a long tuft of 
silky hairs on the broader end. In Fuchsia the fruit is a beity, 
which is sometimes edible, and in Cireaea a nut bearing 
recurved bristles. Tbe seeds are eialbuminons. Several of 

the genera are well IcHown as garden plants, €.g. FucMla, 
Oenothera^ Clarkia and Godetia. Evening primrose {QeneUtera 
biennis), a natWe of North America, occurs apparently wild as 
a garden escape in Britain. Jussieua is a tropin! genus 
of water' and marsh-herbs with well-developed aerating 

0NATA8. a Greek sculptor of the tkne of the Fenian wan, a 
member of the flourishing school of Aegina. Many of hia works 
are mentioned by Pausanias; they included a Hermes carrying 
the ram, and a strange image of the Black Demeter made for the 
people of Phigalia; also some elaborate groups in bronze set up 
at Olympia and Delphi. For Hiero I., king of Syracuse, Onatas 
executed a votive chariot in bronae dedicated at Olympia. If we 
compare the descriptions of the works of Onatas given us by 
Pausanias with the well-known pediments of Aegina at Munich 
we shall find so close an agreement that we may safely take 
the pedimental figures as an index of the style of Onatas. They 
are manly, vigorous, athletic, showing great knowledge of the 
human form, but somewhat stiff and automaton-like. 

ONBQA. the largest lake in Europe neat to Ladoga, having an 
area of 3764 sq. m. It is situated in the government of Olonets 
in European Russia, and, discharging its waten by the Svir into 
Lake Ladoga, belongs to the system of the Neva. The kke basin 
extends north-west and south-east, the direction characteristic 
of the lakes of Finland and the line of glacier-scoring observed in 
that region. Between the northern and southern divisions of 
the lake there is a considerable difference: while the latter has a 
comparatively regular outline, and contains hardly any islands, 
the former splits up into a number of inlets, the largest being 
Povyeoets Bay, and is crowded with islands (e.g. KUmelsk) and 
submerged rocks. It is thus the northern division which brings 
the coast-line up to £70 m. and causes the navigation of the 
lake to be so dangerous. The north- western shore between Petro- 
zavodsk and the mouth of the river Lumbosha consists of dark 
clay slates, generally arranged in horizonul strata and broken 
by protruding, parallel ridges of diorite, which extend f^ into the 
lake. The eastern shore, as far as the mouth of the Andoma, is 
for the most part alluvial, with outcroppings of red granite aind 
in one place (the mouth of the Pyalma) diorite and dolomite. 
To the south-east are sedimentary Devonian rocks,and the general 
level of the coast is broken by Mount Andoma and (}ape Petro- 
Pavlovskiy (160 ft. above the lake); to the south-west a quarts 
sandstone (used as a building and monumental stone in St 
Petersburg) forms a fairly bold rim. Lake Onega lies 1S5 ft. 
above the sea. The greatest depths, 31$ to 408 ft., occur at the 
entrance to the double bay .of Lizhemsk and Unitsk. On the 
continuation of this line the depth exceeds 940 ft. in several 
places. In the middleof the lakethe depth b iso to aSs ft., and 
less than 120 ft. in the south. The lake is 145 m. long, with an 
average breadth of 50 m. The most, important affluents, the 
Vodka, the Andoma and the Vytegra, come from the east. Tbe 
Kumsa, a northern tributary, is sometimes represented as if it 
connected the lake with Lake Seg, but at the present time the 
latter drains to the White Sea. The Onega canal (4$ m. long) 
was constructed in 1818-1851 along the southern shore in order 
to connect the Svir (and hence Lake Ladoga and the Bahic) 
with the Vytegra, which connects with the Volga. Lake 
Onega remains free from ice for 909 days in the year 
(middle of May to second week of December). The water is 
at its lowest level in the beginning of March; by June it has 
risen 9 ft. A considerable population is scattered along the 
shores of the lake, mainly occupied in thi timber trade, fisheries 
and mining industries. Salmon, polya (a kind of trout), burbot, 
pike, perchpike and perch are among the fish caught in the lake. 
Steamboats were introduced in 1 83 a 

The river Onega, which, after a course of 250 m., reaches the 
Gulf of Onega, an inlet of the White Sea, has no connexion 
with Lake Onega. At the month of this river (on the right bank) 
stands the town and port of Onega (pop. 3694 in 1897), whidl 
dates from settlements made by the people of Novgorad in the 
15th century, and known in history as Ustenskaya or Ustyana- 
kaya. It has a cathedral, erected in 1796. (P.A.K.; J.T.Bb.) 



CMinPA* ft cHy of MAdison county. New York, U^S.A^ 
on OneuU Creek, about 6 m. S.£. of Oneida Lake, about 26 m. 
W. of Utka, and about s6 m. E.N.E. of Syracuse. Pop. (1890) 
6o8j; (iQOo) 6364, of whom 734 were foreign-bora; (1910, 
U.Sb census) 8317. It is served by the New York Centcal & 
Hudson River, the New York, Ontario & Western, the West 
Shore and liie Oneida (eljecick) railwi^rs (the last oonnectiog 
with Utica and Syracuse), and by the Eric Canai The city 
lies about 440 ft* above the sea on a level site. Across Oneida 
Creek, to the south-east, in Oneida coomy, is the village of 
Oneida Castle (pop. in 1910, 393). situated in the township of 
Vernon (pop. in 1910, 3197), and the former gathering place of 
the Oneida Indians, some of whom still live in the township of 
Vernon and in the city of Oneida. In the south-eastern part of 
the city is the headquarters of the Oneida Community (9.9.), 
which controls important industries here, at Niagara Falls, and 
elsewhere. Immediately west of Oneida is the village of Wamps- 
vlUe (incorporated in 1908), the county-seat of Madison county. 
Among the manufactures of Oneida are wagons, cigars, furniture, 
caskets, ^ver-platod ware, engines and machinery, steel and 
wooden pulleys and chucks, steel grave vaults, hosiery, and milk 
bottle aps. In the vicinity the Oneida Community manu- 
factures chains and animal traps. The site of Oneida ii^as 
purchased in 1829-1830 by Sands Higinbotham, in honour of 
whom one of the municipal parks (the other is Alien Park) 
b named. Oneida was incorporated as a village in 1848 and 
chartered as a city in 1901. 

ONEIDA (a corruption of their proper name Otuyfitka-ouo, 
" people of the stone," in allusion to the Oneida stone^ a granite 
boulder near their former village, which was held sacred by 
them), a tribe of North American Indians of Iroquoian stock, 
forming one of the Six Nations. They lived around Oneida 
Lake in New York state, in the region southward to the 
Susquehanna. Tlicy were not loyal lo the League's policy of 
friendliness to the English, but inclined towards the French, 
and were praaically the only Iroquois who fought for the 
Americans in the War of lodepemlence. As a consequence 
they were attacked by others of the Iroquois under Joseph 
Brant and took refuge within the American settlements till the 
war ended, when the majority returhed to their former home, 
while some migrated to the Thames river district, Ontario. 
Eariy in the 19th century they sold their lands, and most of 
them settled on a reservation at Cneen Bay, Wisconsin, some 
few remaining in New York suie. The tribe now numbers 
more than 3000, of whom about two-thirds are in Wisconsin, a 
few hundreds in New York state, and about 800 in Ontario. 
They are civilised aful prosperous. 

ONEIDA OOMJIUNmr (or Bibk Communists), an American 
communistic society at Oneida, Madison county. New York, which 
has attracted wide interest on account of its pecuniary success 
and its peculiar religious and social principles (seeCoMHUNisn). 

Its founder, John Humphrey Noyes (i8ii'i886), was bom 
in Brattleboro, Vermont, on the 3rd of September 181 1. He 
was of good parentage; his father, John Noyes (1763-1841), 
was a graduate of and for a time a invot in Dartmouth College, 
and was a representative in Congress in i8f5-(8i7; and his 
mother, PoDy Hayes, was an aunt of Rutherford B. Hayes, 
pRsident of the United States^ The son graduated at Dartmouth 
in 1830, and studied law for a year, but having been converted 
in a protracted revival in 1831 he turned to the ministry, studied 
theology for one year at Andover (where he was a member of 
"The Brethren,'* a secret society of students preparing for 
ibreign missionary work), and then a year and a half at Yale, 
and in 1833 was licensed lo preach by the New Ha^ven Association; 
but his open preaching of his new religious doctrines, and 
especially that of present salvation from sin, resulted in the 
revocation of his license in 18341 and his thereafter being called 
a PerfoctMnbt. He continued to promulgate hi0 ideas of a 
higher Christian life, and soon had disciples in many places, one of 
whom, Harriet A. Holton, a woman of means, he married in 
1838. In 1836 he returned to his father's home in Putney, 
Vt., and founded a Bi^k Scboolt in 1843 he entered into 

a " contract of Partnership " with ^is Putmey followers; and in 
March 1845 the Putney Corporation or Association of Perfec- 
tionists was formed. 

Although the Putney Corporation or Association was never 
a community in the sense of common-property ownership, yet 
it was practically a communal organization, and embodied the 
radical religious and social prindples that subsequently gave 
such fame to the Oneida Community, of which it mav justly 
be regarded as the beginning and precursor. - These pni^ciples 
naturally excited the opposition of the churches in «he small 
Vermont village where the Perfectionists resided, and indignatktn 
meetings against them were held; and although they resalled 
in no personal violence Mr Noyes and his followers considered 
it prudent to remove to a place where they were sure of more 
liberal treatment. They accordingly withdrew from Putney 
in 1847, and accepting the invitation of Jonatlian Burt and 
others, settled near Oneida, Madison county. New York. 

Here the community at first devoted itself to agricuHurc and 
fruit raising, but had little financial success until it began the 
manufacture of a steel trap, invented by one of its members, 
Sewall Newhouse; the manufacture of steel chains for use with 
the traps followed; the canning of vegetables and fruits was 
begun about 1854, and the manufacture of sewing and embroidety 
silk in 1866. Having started with a very small capital (the 
inventoried valuation of its property in 1857 was only $67,000), 
the community gradually grew in numbers and prospered as a 
business concern. Its relations with the surrounding population, 
after the first few years, became very friendly. The mciBbera 
won the reputation of being good, industrious citizens, whose word 
was always " as good as their bond "; against whom no charge 
of intemperance, profanity or crime was ever brought. But the 
communists claimed that among true Christians "mine and 
thine " in property matters should cease to exist, as among the 
early pentecostal believers; and, moreover, that the same 
unselfiiji spirit should pervade and control all human relations. 
And notwithstanding these very radical principles, which were 
freely propounded and discussed in their weekly paper, the 
communists were not ser^usly disturbed for a quarter of a 
century. But from 1873 to 1879 active measures favouring 
legislative action against the community, specially instigated 
by Prof. John W. Mears (1825-1881), were taken by several 
ecclesiastical bodies of Central New York. These measures 
culminated in a conference held at Syracuse University on the 
14th of Februaiy 1879, when denunciatory resolutions against 
the community were passed and legal measures advised. 

Mr Noyes, the founder and leader of the community, had 
repeatedly said to his followers that the time might come when 
it would be necessary, in deference to public opini<m, to recede 
from the practical assertion of their social principles, and on 
the 30th of August of this year (1879) be said definitely to them 
that in his judgment that time had come, and he thereupon 
proposed that the community " give up the practice of Complex 
Marriage, not as renouncing belief in the principles and pro- 
spective finality of that institution, but in deference to public 
sentiment." This proposition was considered and accepted in 
full assembly of the community on the a6th of the same month. 

This great change was followed by other changes of vital 
importance, finally resulting in the transformation of the Oneida 
C^mn^um'ty into the incorporated Oneida Community, Limited, 
a co^>pecative joint-stock company, in which each person's 
interest was represented by the shares of stock standing in his 
name on the books of the company. 

In the reorganisation the adult membem Cand alike in the 
matter of remuneration for past servkes-«-thOse who by reason 
of ill-health had been unable to contribute to the common fund 
receiving the same as those who by reason of strength and ability 
bad contributed most thereto; besides, the oM and infirm had 
the option of accepting a life-guaranty in lieu of work; and 
hence there were do case^ of suffering and want at the time 
the transformation from a common-property' Interest to an 
individual stock interest was made; and in tiie new company 
all were guaranteed remunerative labour. 


Tliis occurred on (tie ist of January iS8x, at which time the 
business and property of (he conrniuoity were transferred to 
the iocorporated stock company, and stock issued therefor to 
the amount of $600,000. tn the subsequent twenty-eight years 
this capitAl stock was doubled, and dividends averaging more 
than 6% per annum were paid. Aside from the home buildings 
and the lai^ge acreage devoted to agriculture and fruit raising, 
the present capital of the company is Invested, first, in its hard- 
ware department at Kenwood, N.Y., manufacturing steel game- 
traps, and weldless chafns of every description; second, the silk 
department at Kenwood, N.V., manufacturing sewing silk, 
machine twist and embroidery silks; third, the fruit department 
at Kenwood, N.Y., whose reputation for putting up pure, whole- 
some fruits and vegetables is probably the highest in the country; 
fourth, the tableware department, at Niagara Falls, N.Y., which 
manufactures the now celebrated Cotnmunily Silver; fifth, the 
Canadian department, with factory at Niagara Falls, Ontario, 
Canada, where the hardware lines are manufactured for Canadian 
trade. The annual sales of all departments aggregate over 
$2,ooo,ooa The officers of the company consist of a president, 
secretary, treasurer and assistant treasurer, and there were in 
1909 eleven directors. Each of the five leading departments is 
managed by a superintendent, and all are under the supervision 
of the general manager. Nearly all the superintendents and the 
general manager were in IQ09 young men who were bom in the 
community, and have devoted their life-work to the interests of 
the company. Selling offices are maintained in New York City. 
Chicago, St Louis, Clevel^d, 0., Richmond, Va., AUaota, Ca., 
and San Frandsco. 

In addition to the members of the society the company employs 
between 1 500 and 2000 workmen. The policy has been to avoid 
trade-unions, but to pay higher wages and give better conditions 
than other employers in similar lines, and by so doing to obtain 
a better selection of workmen. The conditions of work as well 
as of living have been studied and developed with the idea of 
making both Healthful and attractive. With this in view the 
company has laid out small villages, in many ways making them 
attractive and sanitary,, and has epcouragod the building of 
bouses by its employes. Much has been accomplished in this 
direct ion by providing desirable building-sites at moderate 
espense, and paving a bonus of from Sxoo to S200 in cash to 
every emp1oy6 who builds his owii homew The company has also 
taken an interest in the schools in the vicinity of its factories, 
with the idea of offering to the children of its employes facilities 
for a good educat ion. 

The communism of John H. Noyes was based on hta inter- 
pretation of the New Testament. In his. pamphlet, BibU 
Communism (184S), he affirmed that the secona coming of Christ 
occurred at the dose of the apostolic age, immediatdy after 
the destruction of Jerusalem, and he argued from mai\y New 
Testament passages, especially t John 1,7, that after the second 
coming and the beginning of Christ's reign upon the earth, the 
true standard of Christian character was sinlessness, which was 
pouible through ^dtal union with Christ, that all selfishness 
was to be done away with, both in property in things and in 
persons, or, in other words, that communism was to be finally 
established in all the relations of life. But, while affirming that 
the same spirit which on the day of Pentecost abolish«l ex- 
clusiveness in regard to money tends to obliterate all other 
property distinctions, he had no adUialion with those commonly 
lerroed Free Lovers, because their prindplcs and practices seemed 
to him to tend toward anarchy. " Our Communities," he said, 
" zTc/amilUs as distinctly bounded and separated from promiscu- 
ous society as ordinary households. The tie that binds us 
together is as penpancnt and sacred, to say the least, as that of 
common marriage, for it is our religion. We receive no new 
members (except by deception and mistake) who do not give 
heart and hand to the family interest for life and for ever. Com- 
municy of pvoperiy extends |tist as far as freedom of love. 
Every man'k care and every dollar of the common property are 
plcdf^ for the maintenance and protection of the women and 
the education of the children of the Community." 


The community was much Interested in the question of race im^ 
provemcnt by scientific means, and maintained with much force 
of argument that at least as much sdentific attention should be 
given to the physical improvement of human beings as is given 
to the Improvement of domestic animals; and they referred 
to the results of thdr own incomplete stlrpicultural experiments 
as indkratfve of what may be expected in the far future, when 
the conditions of human reproduction are no longer controlled 
by chance,' soda! position, wealth, impulse or lust. 

The community daimed to have solved among themsdves 
the Uibour question, all kinds of service being regarded as equally 
honourable, and every person bdng respected according to his 
real character. 

The members had some peculiarities of dress, mostly confined, 
however, to the women, whose costumes induded a short dress 
and pantalets, which were appreciated for their convenience, if 
not for their beauty. The women also adopted the practice of 
wearing short hair, which It was daimed saved time and vanity. 
Tobacco, intoncants, profanity, obscenity found no place in 
the community. The community diet consisted largely of 
vegetables and fruits; meat, tea and coffee bdng servoi only 

For securing good order and the improvement of the members, 
the community placed much reliance upon a very peculiar system 
of plain speaking they termed mutual criticism, which originated 
in a secret sodety of missionary brethren with which Mr Noyes 
was connected while pursuing his theological steadies at Andover 
Seminary, and whose members submitted themselves Di turn to 
the sincerest comment ot one another as a means of personal 
improvement. Under Mr Noyes's supervision it became in the 
Oneida Community a principal means of disdpline and govern* 
ment. There was a standing committee of criticism, sdected by 
the community, and changed from time to time, thus giving all 
an opportunity to serve both as critics and subjects, and Justi- 
fying the term " mutual " which they gave to th^ system. 
The subject was free to have others besides the committee prosmt', 
or to have critics only of his own choice, or to invite an expression 
from the whole community. 

Noyes edited The Perfeaionist (New Haven. Connectkut, 11134, 
and Putney. Vermont. 1843-181^): The Witness (Ithaca. New 
York. And Putney, Ij3j-*j43)'« JP*/iN»'t(««' ^J/P**?* i?!y*1^y» 

irays n 

N.Y., and 'WalUngfofd,' CoiMu, i8m-i8^^^ and TTi'Americam 
Soeiaiist ^ndda, 1876-1880). He was the author 6i The Way et 
Hdmtss (Putney. 1838): The Bere&u (Putney, 1847), oontaininr 
an expootion 01 his aoctriaos of SaNatioa from Sin; the Second 
Coooog of Christ} the Ongio of Evil; the Atonement; the Second 
Birth: the MUlcnnium; Our Relntions to the Primitive Church, 
Ac. &c.: History of AwUnean Socialism (Philadelphia, 1870); 
Heme Talks (Ondda, 1876); and numefoua pamphlets. * 

See a nries of aitide&in the iioHt^aeiwrr and BuiUer (New York, 
1891-1^94)' by " C R. Edioo *' {ie, C. E. Robinson): The Oaeii^ 
Community, by Allan Estlake (a member of the community) (tgoO): 
Morris Hinquft's History of Socialism in the United States (New York, 
1003). and especially Wilham A. Hinds' Americasi ConemuitiHes and 
C a aj mlim Cinnks (3id ed., Chfeago, s»»»* (W.A.H.) 

OlfnUi, the name of an Irish family tracing descent from 
Niall, king of Ireland ear^ in the 5th century, and known in 
Irish history and legend as NiaJl of the Nine Hostages. He is said 
to have made war not only against lesser rulers in Ireland, but 
also in Britain and Gaul, stories of bis expk>iu being rdated tn 
the Book of Leinsler and the Book of BaUymptt, both of which, 
however, are many centuries later than the time of MialL This 
king had fourteen sons, one of whom was Eoghan (Owen), from 
whom the O'Ncilb of the later history were descended. The 
desccndanU of Nlall spread over Irdaod and became divided 
into two main branches, the northern and the southern Hy 
Ndll. to one or other of which nearly all the high-kings (ard-d) 
of Ireland from the s^h to tb« laih century belonged; thn 
descendants of EOghan being the chief of the northern Hy N^l.* 
Eoghan was grandfather of Murkertagh (Muircheartach) (d. ^), 

> A list of these kings will be found in P. W. Joyce's A 
History ^Ancient Ireland (London, 1903), voL L pp. 70, 71. ' 

Putney, 1838-1843); The Spirituai ifqmiuine (P 
1846-1847: Onekto, 1848-1850): The Free Ckmrtk Ctrtntar {0 
ifiSO'iftSi); and virtually, though not always ooininally. rht 
Cirenlar and The Oneida Cireutar (Brooklyn. 1851-1854: Oneida, 



said to have been the 6rst Christian king of Ireland, whose mother, 
Eire or Erca, became by a subsequent marriage the grandmother of 
St Columba. Of this monarch, known as Murkertagh MacNeiU 
(Niall), and sometimes by reference to his mother as Murkertagh 
Mac Erca, the story is told, illustrating an ancient Celtic custom* 
that in making a league with a. tribe in Meath he emphasized 
the inviolability of the treaty by having it written with the blood 
of both clans mixed in one vessel. Murkertagh was chief of the 
great north Irish clan, the Cinel Eoghain,* and after becoming 
king of Ireland about the year 517, he wrested from a neighbour- 
ing clan a tract qf country in the modem County Deny, which 
remained till the 17th century in the possession of the Cinel 
Eoghain. 'The inauguration stone of the Irish kings, the Lia 
Fail, or Stone of Destiny, fabled to have been the pillow 
of the patriarch, Jacob on the occasion of his dream of thp 
heavenly ladder, was said to have been presented by Murkertagh 
to the king of Dalriada,by whom it was conveyed toDunstaffnage 
Castle in ScotJand (see Scone). A lineal descendeni of Murker- 
tagh was Nlall Frassach (i.e. of the showers'), who became king 
of Ireland in 763; his surname, of which several fanciful ex- 
planations have been suggested, probably commemorating 
merely weather of exceptional severity at his birth. His grand- 
son, Niall (791-845), drove back the Vikings who in his time 
began to infest the coast of Donegal. Niall's son, Aedh (Hugh) 
Finnlaith, was father of Niall Glundubh (i.e. Niall of the black 
knee), one of the most famous of the early Irish kings, from 
whom the family surname of the O'Neills was derived. His 
brother Domhnall (Donnell) was king of Ailech, a district in 
Donegal and Deny; the royal palace, the ruined masonry of 
which is still to be seen, being on the sununit of a hill 800 ft. 
high overlooking loughs Fqyle and Swilly. On the death of 
Domhnall in 911 Niall Glundubh became king of Ailech, and he 
then attacked and defeated the king of Dalriada at Glarryford, 
In County Antrim, and the king of Ulidia near Ballymena. 
Having thus extended his dominion he became king of Ireland 
in 9.15. To him is attributed the revival of the ancient meeting 
of Irish clans known as the Fair of Telltown (see Ikeland: Early 
Bistory). He fought many battles against the Norsemen, in 
one of which he was killed in 919 at Kilmashoge, where his place 
of burial is still to be seen. 

His son Murkertagh, who gained a great victoty over the Norse 
in 926, is celebrated for his triumphant march round Irehuad, the 
MoirlkimcMl EnettPt, in which, starting from Portgleoone on 
the Bann, he completed a circuit of the island at the bend of 
his armed clan, returning with many oiptive kings and chieftains. 
From the dress of his followers in this expedition he was called 
** Murkertagh of the Leather Qoaks." The exploit waa cele- 
brated by Cormacan, the king's bard, in a poem that has been 
printed by the Irish Archaeological Society; and a number of 
Muikertagh's other deeds are related in the Bopk of leinster. 
He was kUled in battle against the None in 943, and was mc- 
eeeded as king of Ailech by his son, Donnell Ua Niall (t .«. O'NeiB, 
grandson of Neill, or Niall,, the name O'Neill becoming about 
this time an hereditary family surname'), whose grandson, 
Flaherty, became renowned for piety by going on a pilgrimage 
to Rome in 1030. 

Aedh (Hugh) O'NeiD, chief of the Cbd Eogbam, or lord of 
Tir-Eoghain (Tir-Owen, Tyrone) at the end of the 12th century, 
^as the first of the family to fae brought prominently into 
conflict wfih the Anglo-Norman monarchy, whose pretensions 
h( took the lead in disputing in Ulster. It was probably his son 
or nephew (for the relationship is uncertain, the geneiUogies of 
the O'Neills being rendered obscure by the contemporaneous 
occurrence of the same name in different branches of toe family) 
Hugh O'Neill, lord of Tyrone, who was styled " Head of the 
liberality and valour of the Irish." Hugh's son, Brian, by gaining 

* The Cmd, or Ki^d^ was a group of related dan eceupyiiig an 
extensive district. See Joyce, op. tU. i. 166. 

*The adoptioa of hereditary names became nneraJ* in Ireland, 
in obedience, it is said, loan orainaoce of Briao Soru. about the end 
of the lotfa century. For the method of their fonnatk>a see Joyce, 

the support of the earl of Ulster, was inwigurated* prince, or 
•lord, of Tyrone in 1291; and his son Henry became lord of the 
Clann Aodka Buidhe (Claoaboy or Clandeboyc) eariy in the 
14th century. Henry's son Murkerta^ the Strongmindcd, zxA 
hb great-grandson Hugh, described as " the most renowned, 
hospitable and valorous of the princes of IreUnd in his time/', 
greatly consolidated the power of the O'Neills. Niall Qg O'Neill, 
one of the four kings of Ireland, accepted knighthood from 
Richard U. of England; and his son Eoghan formally acknow- 
ledged the supremacy of the English crown, though he after- 
wards ravaged the Pale, and waa inaugurated " the O'Neill " 
{%.e. chief of the clan) on the death of his kinsman Domhnall Boy 
O'Neill; a dignity from which he was deposed tn 1455 by his son 
Hedry, who in 1463 was acknowledged as chid of the Irish kings 
by Henry VII. of England. Contemporary with him waa Neill 
Mor O'Neill (see below), lord of Clanab^y, from whose son Brian 
was descended the branch of the O'Neills who, settling in Portugal 
in the x8th century, became prominent among the Portuguese 
nobility, and who at the present day are the representatives in 
the male line of the ancient Irish kings of the house of O'NcilL 

Conn O'Neill {c. 1480-1559), ist eari of Tyrone, surnamed 
Bacach (the Lame), grandson of Henry O'Neill mentioned above, 
was the first of the O'Neills whom the attempts of the EngliJi 
in the i6th century to subjugate Ireland brought to the front 
as leaders of the native Irish. Conn, who was related through 
his mother with the earl of Rildare (Fitzgerald), became chid 
of the Tyrone branch of the O'Neills (Cinel Eoghain) about 1 520. 
When Kildare became viceroy in 1524, O'Neill consented to act 
as his swordbearer in ceremonies of state; but his aOegianoe 
.was not to be reckoned upon, and while R»dy enou|^ to give 
verbal assurances o'f loyalty, he could not be persuaded to give 
hostages as security for his conduct; but Tyrone having been 
invaded in 1541 by Sir Anthony St Leger, the lord deputy, Conn 
delivered up his son as a hostage, attended a parliament held at 
Trim, and, crossing to England, made his submission at Green- 
wich to Henry VIII., who created him earl of Tyrone for life, 
and made him a present of money and a valuable gold chain. 
He was also made a privy councillor in Ireland, and recdved a 
grant of lands within the Pale. This event created a deep im- 
pression in Ireknd, where O'Neill's submission to the English 
king, and his acceptance of an English title, were resented ty 
his chmsmen and dependents. The rest of the eax1*s life was 
munly occupied by endeavours to maintain his influence, and 
by an undying feud with his son Shane (John), arinng out of his 
transaction with Henry VHL For not only did the nomination 
of O'Ndll's reputed son Matthew as his heir with the title of 
baron of Dungannon bv the Engfish king conflict with the Irish 
custom of tanistnr {q.t) which regulated the chieftainship of the 
Irish dans, but Matthew, if indeed he was O'Neill's son at all, 
was illegitimate; while Shane, Conn's ddest legitimate son, 
was not the man to submit tamely to any invasion of his rights. 
The fierce family fend only terminated when Matthew was 
murdered by agents of Shane in 1558; Conn dying about a year 
later. Conn was twice married, Shane bdng the son of his first 
wife, a daughter of Hugh Boy O'Ndll of Clanaboy. An ille- 
gitimate daughter of Conn marri^ the cdebrated Sorley Boy 
MacDonndl (^.».).' 

Sbane O'Neill (c. 1530-1567) was a chief tafai whose support 
was worth gaining by the Enj^sh even during his father's life- 
time; but rejecting overtures from the cad of Sussex, the lord 
deputy, Shane refused to help the English against the Scottidi 
settlers on the coast of Antrim, allying himself instead with the 
MacDonnelb, the most powerful of these immigrants. Ncvtrtbe- 
iess Queen Elizabeth, on succeeding to the English throne, was 
disposed to come to terms with Shane, who after hn father's 
death was 4e fado drid of the formidable O'Neill dan. She 
aceonfingly agreed to recognize his daims to the diieftainship, 
thus flirowing over Brian O'NdU, ton of the murdered Matthew, 

* The ccmnooy of " loaugaratiMi '* among the ancient Irish daas 
^^ fR^'Vi^'^^ *^ imporunt pae. A.Btonie inauguration chair d 
•f P - '*^ •* P'^served in the Belfast Muaeuqi. See Joyce, op. 
tU* L 4A< 


baron of Dungaaiioii» if Shane would submit to her authority 
and that of her deputy. O'Neill, however, refused to put himself 
in the power of Sussex without a guarantee for his safety; 
and his claims in other respects were so exacting that Elizabeth 
consented to measures being taken to subdue him and to restore 
Brian. An attempt to foment the enmity of the O'DonneUs 
against him was frustrated by Shane's capture of Calvagh 
O'DonncJl, whom he kept a dose prisoner for nearly three years. 
£li£abcth, whose prudence and parsimony were averse to so 
formidable an undertaking as the complete subjugation of the 
powerful Irish chieftain, desired peace, with biro at almost any 
price; capedaUy when the da/asutioo of his territory by 
Sussex brought him no nearer to submission. Siissex, indignant 
at Shane's request for his sister's hand in marriage, and his 
demand for the withdrawal of the English garrison from Armagh, 
was not supported by the queen, who sent the earl of Kildare to 
arrange terms with O'Neill, The latter, making some trifling 
concessions, consented to present himself before Elizabeth* 
Accompanied by Ormonde and Kildare he reached London on 
the 4th of January 1562. Camden describes the wonder with 
which O'Neill's wild gallowglasses were seeq in the English 
capital, with their heads bare, their loQg hair falling over their 
shoulders and clipped short in front above the eyes, and clothed 
in rough yellow shiru. Elisabeth was lesa concerned with the 
tespcctive claims of Brian and Shane, the one resting on an 
English patent and the other on the Celtic custom, than with 
the question of policy involved in supporting or rejecting the 
demands of her proud suppliant. Characteristically, she tem- 
porized; but finding that O'Neill waA in danger of becoming a 
tool in the hands of Spanish intriguers, she permitted him to 
return to Ireland, recognizing him as " the O'Neill," and chieftain 
of Tyrone; though a reservation was made of the rights ol Hugh 
O'Neill, who had meantime succeeded his brother Brian as baron 
of Dunganaon, Brian having been murdered in April 156s by 
his kinsman Tuilough Luineach O'NeiU. 

There were at this time three powerful contempoeary members 
of the O'Neill family in Ireland-^Shane, Turlough and Hugh, 
and earl of Tyrone. Turlough had been elcctfcd tanist (see 
Tanistky) when his cousin Shane was inaugurated the O'Neill, 
and he schemed, to supplant him io the higher dignity during 
Shane's afaelence in London. The feud did not long survive 
Shane's return to Ireland, where he quickly re-established his 
authority, and in spite of Sussex renewed his tuibolent tribal 
warfare against the O'DonneUs and others. Elizabeth at last 
authorized Sussex to take the field against Shane, but two 
several expeditions failed to accomplish anything except some 
depredation in O'Neill's country. Sussex had tried in 1561 
to procure Shane's assassination, and Shane now laid the whole 
blame for his lawless conduct on the lord deputy's repeated 
alleged attempts on bis life. Force having ignominiou