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Full text of "Encyclopaedia Britannica Dict.A.S.L.G.I.11thEd.Chisholm.1910-1911-1922.33vols."

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=5\ 



THE 



ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA 



ELEVENTH EDITION 



nnsT 


cdhioo, 


puUithcd In thraa ndomei. 


1768-X771. 


SECOND 


»f 


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ten „ 


1777-1784. 


THIRD 


t» 


ft 


eishtnen 


1788— 1797. 


FOURTH 


f» 


n 


twenty „ 


1801— 1810. 


nPTH 


t* 


n 


twenty „ 


18x5—1817. 


SIXTH 


t> 


n 


twenty 


1823^1834. 


SEVENTH 


>t 


$9 


twenty-one „ 


1830—1842. 


EIGHTH 


»» 




twenty-two ,« 


i853-i86a 


NINTH 


f> 


*•» 


twenty •five fi 


i87S-rt89. 


TENTH 


ft 


ninth edition and devcn 










1902—1903. 


ELEVENTH 


»» 


pob1iifa«l 


in twenty-nine Tolumet, 


19x0—1911. 



THE 

ENCYCLOPiEDIA BRITANNICA 

A 

DICTIONARY 

OF 

ARTS. SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL 

INFORMATION 

ELEVENTH EDITION 



VOLUME XXVI 
SUBMARINE MINES to TOM-TOM 



NEW YORK 
THE ENCYCLOPiEDIA BRITANNICA COMPANY 

1911 



» ' >. 









I ^ 



1 T ' J ' 



'I 



Copyriglit. in the United Sutes of Americn. 1911, 

by 

TlkeEiitytlc»p«|ia QAaanin C^ptny. .' 



••4 Z. .A 



INITIALS USED IN VOLUME XXVI. TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL 

CONTRIBUTORS,! WITH THE HEADINGS OP THE 

ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME SO SIGNED. 



A.a 



.A.A<.A«!U«,, {n«««,d;F»«K*. 



Joint-author of Lift and Letters oj /. D, Fdrheu 



AucnsTE BooDiKBON, D.D., D.C.L. f 

Profes^r ttfCftnon lAw_at the CatlioKc Univeraity of Vkm, Honorary Ctnon of \ Wtlbm. 



ftB> BtAoUnr GouGB, M.A., Pb.D. f^ ^. 

Sometime Casberd Scholar of St John's CoUege, Otford. English Lector in the { Swabilll lMg|M. 
Uwiwwhy of Kiel, 1896-1905. I 



Paris. Editor of the CanonisU conlemporam, 

A. B. Gflu ALntB> BtAoUv G01 

Casbeni 
r of Kiel, 1896-1905. 

A. Cm, Axtm/k CAvtEY, LL.D., P:R.S. /sntteM Gn Part). 

See the biographical article :CAYLST,AKTllUt. I v^ «— 

{ 



? A 



See the biographical article: Caylst, AKTHUt. 

Ch. Altkep Chafvam, M.IVST.C.E. J Sugars Sugar Uam^aciurt (t» 

Cteaigaer «nd Condfiietor of Sugar-Machinery. 
GL CL Albest Cusns Class, M.A. 



Fdlow and Tutor o'f Queen's College. Oxford, and University Reader hi latin. 



part). 



Editor of Qcero'a Spucket (Clare^Jon Press). 
A. CL CL ' AtBEST CSAKLXS LEWIS GOTTBOr CUVNTHEE, M.A., M.D., Pb.D^ F.R.S. 

Keeper of th^ StologksADepMtment, BrftMi Museom, It75-i895. Gold MecWtiiK, 1 -.^^-.w 
Royal Sociefy . 1 878. Author of Catalomts of Colubrine Snakes, Bairaekia, Saiientia, | SwOnuUk 
and Fishes M <Ac BriHsk Msueumi Ac. 



i Lewis GorrBar Cuvnthee, m.A., M.D., Pb.D^ F.R.S. f 

StologksADepMtment, BrftMi Museom, It75-i895. Gold Medailbt, J , 

r. 1 878. Author of Catalopus of Colubrine Snakes, Bairaekia, Saiientia, | ' 
Ike British Mnseum; Ac. I 

Rsv. Arthub Cumdian M^irreET/M.A., Ps.D., D.D. ( 

Professor of Church History. Union Theological Seminary, New York. Authqf «f J i*««- ^:-«-— «. gaj. ^ ^ ^j\ 
.. .. Hi^fM Christianity i^ Aa ApaU^UAv, i&c. ^tor o^the Hutarta JUSesia\ ""OaoWf (M ^iffj. 
ofEusebiuB. I 

A. Dl O. AiTBXD Dun Codlet, M.A. f , 

Fellow an9 Tutor of Magdalen College. Oxford, and Public OntocnithBUmvenity, \ Tkdtua Um. tart) 
AtttkartrSacrates and Athenian Society; ac. Editor of editions of Tacitus. •*' | wanB |^i» fan;. 

A. r. P. Albeet Fbedeeick Pollasd, M.A., F.R.Hxst.S. ^ r 

ProfasaoiMftf Cni^t^ History In m University of London, Fellow of AH Souls I fgaUa BowhUld* 



JI .^ .A 



v.-) 



College. Oxford. Assistant-editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, i893--{ l^^i^* ' 
IQOI. Lothian Prinman, OxfMd. ttelj Amolci Priatman, 1898. Author of I ^*HN* 
Aiffaiid under Ika ProteOor Somersati uenry VIUa Lijeof Thomas Oonmer; Ac. I 



Maioe AE-nTtTE Ceo&qs Pr£o£sick G&miTBS (d* igq^. f , 

H.M. Inspector of Prisons. 1878-1896. Author of The Chronicles of /fnsgiK^: { TtelntFOl^Mn. 

Secrets 0$ the Prison House; Ac l 

Aooty Hai^nack, D.Ph. J 

See the biographical article: Haemack, AOOLP. | 

RR BBETEV* f 

Formeriy Musical Critic to the Uomtng Post and to Vanity Pair. Author of Masters < t immw. ChArlat. 

€!f French Music; French Music in the Nineteenth Century, [ *««^ vuwn». 

Sa A. Homv-Sommm, C.LR •,.._._. (!!■*** 



A. Bk Amm Bbetev. 



Geaesml ia the Persbn Army. Autnor of Eufrm Pcrstra /r«Jk. i1\ifeMML 

; A]ipiff4U> Heney Saycs, D.D., LL.D., LmJ) 
'See the biographical article: Saycb, AftCHiBAtD U. 



A.H.JL lUv^Aiipi^MU) HsN^Y Saycs, D.D., U.Dm Lnr^ /susi. 



•1 i; 



A. J. €L Rx¥. Alexanpbs James Gsieve, M.A., B.D. X *ju 

iMMdrOf New Testament and Church History. Vorfcshire UnUod Independent J Swedcnborr. BnailMl; 
College, Bradford. Sometime Registrar of Madras University, and Member of | Tithes {Religiotsi. 
Mysore Educational Service. I ti 

A.L Andrew Lang, LL.1>. /lUtu 

^ the biographical article: Lang. Anohbi^. ' \ ' 1 

* Acomi^e list, showing ah individ uaI cootributon, appcan in the final votume. 



VI 
A.1LF.* 



A.X. 

I 
A.P.H. 

A.R.8.K. 

A.8L 

A.8p. 
A.8.a 

A. 8. P^P. 
A.Wa. 

A.W.B.* 
A.W.& 

ca 

P.B. 

ar.A. 

CF.B. 

as.w. 

C.I.B. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 

August MOllek, Pb.D. (X84S-1809). 

Fbnneriy Profcaaor of Semitic Lajaguases in the Umverritv of Halle. Author of 

Dtr Islam im Morgan- mmd Abendland. Editor of Orieulaliseke BibUographit. 
AxiHUR MosTYN FxELo, F.R.S.. F.R.A.S., F.R.G.S., F.R.Mzt.S. 

Vice-Admiral R.N. Admiralty Representative on Port of London Authority. 

Acting Conaervator of River Meney. Hydrographer of the Royal Navy, 1904- 

1909. Aathoi til Hydroffrapkkal Swnyimg; Sac, 



AmzD Nb^ton, F.R.S. 

See the biographical article: Nbwton. ALFlslk. 



Author ol S4iUh AfiUu SnUia: Tte Qmrn^Hwdd; at. Served in K^ir >lhr, 
187&-1870. Partner with Dr L. S. lameaon in medical practice in South Africa tOl 
1896. Member of Reform Committee, Johavnesburf . and Plolitical Ptvaper wf 
Pretoria. 1999-1896. M.P. for the Hhcfain dfvfaion of Helta, t^O, 
Rbv. Abcbibald R. S. Kennedy, M.A., D.D. 

Professor of Hebrew and Semitic Languages in the University of Edinburgh. 
Flrofessor of Hebrew in the University of Aberdeen. 1887-1894. Editor of " Exodus *' 

AsTHUK Shaowsxx, M.A.. M.D.. LL.D. 

Member of the Council of Epidemiolocipal Society. Autlrar of 7%« London WaUr 
Supply, Indnslrid E^licitncy; Drwk, Ttmperamu and UgJUatim, 

AXCHIBALD SRAKP. 

Consulting Engineer and Chartered Patent Agent. 

Alan Summerly Cole, C.B. 

Formerly Aaaisunt Secretary. Board of Education. South Kensington. Author of 
Omameni in European Silks; Catalogue of Tapestry, Embroidery, Im «mI EgypHnn 
TexMn in He Victoria and Albert Museum ; &c ' 

Andrew Seth PRXNCLE-PAmsoN. M.A., LL.D., D.C.L. 

Profianor of Logic and MeUpnysics in the University of EdinburEh. Cifbrd 
Lecturer in the University of Aberdeen. 191 1. Fellow uf the Britisk Aoadcmy^ 
Author of Man's Plau in the Cosmos; The Pkilosopkical Radicals; Ac. 



(M#«rO. 



Nantkd. 



;8wtlt;1 _ 
TkpMOlo; Tnl; Tub; 



(m parii. 
Xm^ {*n part). 



AsTMUt Waugb, M.A. 

Managing Director of Chapman & Hall. Ltd., Publishers. Formerly literary adviser 
to Kegan Paul & C6. Author of Alftod Sofd Tennyson; Leamds of tko Whe4i; 
Robert Broumint in " Westminster BiographJea." Editor of JohnaM'a Imu of tkt 



AsTHUx WxLUAic Holland. 

Formerly Soholar of St John's College, Ostfofd. Bacon SchOl«r of Grty'tf Ina, xgM. 
AjkEXANDBA Wood RCNtON. M.A., LL.B. 

Puisne Jud^e of the Supreme Courr of Ceyfoa. Editor of Bncydopaodid of 9u Laws 

of Eng^nd. 

Charles B£momt, D.Litt. 

Seethe biographical article: BftMONT, C 

Charles Creichton, M.A., M.D. 

King's College, Cambridge. Author of A Hisfory of Epidemics in Britain; Jonner 
md Vaeomaium; Plague w India; &c. 

Sqi Charles Norton Edgcuiibb Euot, K.CM.G.. LL^D., D.C.L. 

Vice-Chancellor of Sheffield University. Fonnerly Fellow of Trinity Cbllc|e. 
Oxford. H.M.'s Commissioner and Commander-in*Chief for the British East Afnca 
Protectoratt: Agent and Consul-Genel&l at Zanslbar; Consiul-Oeneral for Cerman 
East Africa, 1900-1904. 

Charles Francis Atkinson. 

Formerly Scholar of Queen's College. Oxford. Captain, ist Qty of London (Roy$] 
FianlierB). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Uarbor, 

Cbableb Framcis Bastable, M.A., LL.D. 

Regius Professor of Laws and Professor of Political- Economy in the University of 
Dublin. Author of Public Finance; Commerce ^ Nations; Theory qf IniemaUonal 
Trodo\ Ac 

Carlton Huntley Hayes, A.M., Ph.D. 

Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University. New York Qty. Member of 
-the AflBcdcan Historical Associatimk 
Clarence Hill Keuey, A.M., LL.B. 

Vice-I¥feaident and General Manager of the Bond and Morttage Guarantee Company. 

New York City. Director of the Corn Exchange Bank; ftc. 

Cbables THKO0ORE Hacbebo Wrigrt, LL.D. 
Librarian and Secretary of the London Library. 

Charles Jasfex Blunt. 

Major, Royal Artillery. Ordnance Officer. Served through Chitral Campaign. 

Chables Leth9ridge Kincsford, M.A., F.R.Hist.S., F.S.A. | 

Assistant Secretary to the Board of Education. Author of Life of Henry V, Editor ] 
of Chronides of London, and StoVs Snroey of London, \ 



Tsxtile-Pdn^. Art 

Afckaedoiy. 

ThMlo^ {in part). 



fl|]nQMids» JqIhi 



[thepi. 
Thntlov, Loii. 



TUetfy: 
tHoo, JMQoai. 

Soiftqr: Biaory, 



lUtnd'fi^^). 
8iipi4f ABd Thunport 

{MUitary); 
^Thirty YtMt^ War. 

TofeMHMwy* 



Tnk OvamM OoBytidit. 
Tolstoy* Uo, 
{llfah Campaign, 



Suffolk, 
DokiaC. 



ii la Pok 



C.WL 

aft; 

aatk 

ar.T. 

aa 

BIQ.H. 

ftMi 

LJLP. 
I.ft« 

&a 

K.OL 



DnriALS AND HEADINGS C^ ARTICLES 

Onam Kaymomd BBAkuty, M.A., D.LrrT., F.R.G.S., F.R.H18T.S. 
Vtam$9r ol Modam Hatory in the Uniiwnaty of BirtiiiB|>i«m. Far 

Mertoa CoUece, Oxford, and Univenity Lecturer in tbe History oC 

Lothiao fVuemui, Oxford. 1889. Lowell Lecturer, Boitoo, 1908. Author* 
He Ifmttt^ri The Daw 0J M»dcm GeopQphyi ^ 

Ckailes Scon Shsrsington, D.Sc., M.D., M.A., F.R.S., LL.D. 

Pnilewor of Phynology, Univernty of UverpooL For«ni Meoibcf of Acadenuc* 
of Rom e, Vienna, Bnneela, QAttingen, Ac Author of 7m fnteg^atm Attimt «/!*< 
tfttwciu jvyfltouk 

C WORELIC. 

Author of Essays on BaOa amd SpadaeU. 

Sn tnKnitB Brandxs. K.C.I.E., F.R.S. (i894*X907)« 

lMpeetor<;eo(«al of Forvtiy to tha lodlaa Govetnaient, 1864^1883. 

Riv. DuMCAit Ctoons Tovey, M.A. 

Rector of WorpkMlon. Surrey. Editor of Ttt UUtn ai Tkowm Gray; Ac. 

Dcmtan Fbamcb Tovct, 

Author of £irsayr in Mnskti ^ao/ysti: comprirfng 71b Qassieal Concerto, T%e 
Goldberg Vartaiious, and analyses of many other rlaiwr^l works. 

8to D«yto Gxix, K.C.B., LL.D., F.R.S., T.K^.S., D.Sc. 
ti.M. Astronomer «t the Cape of Good Hope. 1879-1907. 
Survey of Eg!fpt, and on the ocpedition to Ascension Island : 



vu 



Thoxfian XariNlU. 



^irmyftlMto 



• ^TbMtra: Sgfdado, 



(Ai^vf). 



»by 



Served on Geodetic 

^ J to determine the Solar 

.. lofMan^ Diraetfld the Geodetic Survey of Naul. Cape 

Coleiiy Md Rhodesia. Author of Coodttic Survey of South Afrka\ Catalomo of 
Stars Jor tk* Equinoxes, 1850, i860, tS8s» 2890, tffoo; ttc. 

David Geoigb Hooarth, M.A. 

Keqper ef the^hmoltan Museum, Oxford, und FeBowof Magdalen College. FeOcnr 
of the Britiih Academy. Eascavated at ftphoa, fS88t NaucratSs, 18^ and 1903: 
Ephesus, 19(^-1905; Assiut, 1906-1907. Director, Britidi School at Alliena, 
i897-i90« Director. Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899. 

David Hannat. 

Formeriy BritiA Viee-Consul at Barcelona. Author ai Skori Bisttrj of . At Ruyui 
Naoy;UferfEmilw€aglehnaau 

DvKnmEiD Htifty Storr, M.A^ Pb.D.. LL.D., F.R.S. 

rro f cs sor of Botany. Royal College of Sdeaee. London, 1889^1899. Pormeity 
President of the Ri^l Microscopical Society and of the Linnean Society. Author' 
oiStrmtnnl Botany; Stadias m FossU Botany; Ac 

DANm. JsmmM. Tbomas. ^ 

t-Law, Uocoln't Inn. Stipendiary Magistrate at Pontypridd and< 



Davd RAMDAiL-MAOvn, MX. D.Sc 

Cufutor of Egyptian Dmrtmeat. Univeraity of Penotytvank. Formeity W orcester « 
Reader in Egyptology* Vnivunity of Oxford. Asthor of JIMmuI Eioitsia; Ac 

David Sbabv, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S. 

Editor tn the Zoologkal fttcord, Formeriv Curator of the Museum of Zoology,, 
Univernty of Cambndge, and President of the Entomotogica] Society of London, 
r uir" Insecta " in the Guntrtfgff JVofiifa/ History : Ac 



David Fizonics Scblois. M.A. 

Formefiy Senior Investigator and StatlsticiMi hi the Labov DuptftnwBt of the 
Boatd of Trade. Author of Methods of Indmstrial JtahmMiutio^Ac 

Rxv. Ekkahah AmitAOS, M.A. 

Trinity Colk«e. CamMdie. Ptafcsaor in YorkshirB United Indepemlent College, 

B fW iBrt. 
Edwabd Auciistos FtXEMAn, LL.D., D.CX. 

See the biographical aztidet FymcAM, E. A. 
EmNBST Baxkks, M.A. 

FdlowaadUcturer la ModflraHisCory, St J<An*s College. Oxford. Formeity Fclov- 

and Tutor of Merton CoUcfBi. Craven Stholar. 1895. 

Ht. RkV. EdWAID CtTlHBBKT BiTtuft. M.A., O.S.B., LlTT.D. 

Abbot of Downside Abbey. Bath. Author ' ' 

in Camhridgt TexU and Sindies. 



ixyoo-l74gi. 



Sulfe: Musk; 

3y]BipllOlll« 



Takiooi* (in pari^. 



"MtML 



Swohl^BatUtot 



Arehaathgy (In /orl). 



r of " The Lausiac History of Pslladiiis * 



EDmuD GMsb, LL.D., D.CX. 

See the biqi^phical article: GosSB, Edmomo^ 



Tumndi 
TratoatoOrter. 



twtdUK Uieraiure and 
PUiasofitf\ 



Ekxle Gaxckc, M.I]f8T.E.E. 
• -^- of the I 

tngf;Ac 



E. jn.iifVT.&.j:*. 
Managing Director of the British Electric Traction Ca Ltd. Author of Uamtal of- 
EteartufVndorlahinr '^' 



EtKzsT AATHin Gabonci. M.A. 

See the biographical artwle: Gauwsb, PBtcv. 



TamqfiQB, AHM; 
TnaBtma. 
Teligimpli: CommtrM 

AffeOs; 
TUiiiioat: Commrndd 

AsptOf, 



..... iCroeca); 
TkfM {in part). 



Archmii^m 



YUl 
B.B.* 

B.K. 

Ed. a. 
B.1LW. 

B.0.8. 

KWh. 
F.&& 

P. G. ■. B. 
F. 0. P. 

P. 0. P.* 
P.H.H. 
F.J.O. 
P.J.H. 

P.U.O. 

P.P. 

P.PO. 

P.PIL 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF; jatriGLEa 



AntlMrof StaiMtM 



(mporO. 



Tknrl; 

ThiodBihT AmamU; 

1tallbi|fMi«: if AMK 
JoOmnt. 



Suifny: Modem prqa$€ti 



«, niMphnstQs. 



Eknest HAKtnoM, M.A. . 

Fellow and Lecturer ih Oauics, Trinity CoUegr, Camliridgff. 

EoWAto Heawood. M.A. 

Gonville and Ouub College, Cambridge. Ubfulan of the Royal Geographies 
Society. London. 

"Eius Hovnx Mtkks. M. A. 

University Lecturer in Palaeography, Cambridge. Lecturer and Assistant Libranaa 
of Pembroke College, Cambridge. Formeriy Fellow of Pembroke CoUcfe. 

EbMUNO Knscrt. Ph'.D.. F.I.C. 

Professor of Technological Chemistry, Manchester University. Hf^d of Chemical 
DeplMrtVunt. Municipal School of Techndo^, Maftdie«ter. ExAiAiner in Dyeing. 
City and Guilds of Londdii Institute.- Author oT A MuMual cf DyHrngx Ac» Editor 
of the Jownal of the Society ef Dyers and Colourists. . • 

EouASD Mey£r, Ph.D., D.Lxtt.. LL.D. fTlgmMI; 

Professor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. Aittbor of GeHkkkIt du I IMdalM; < I 
AUtrihums; Geukichu des cUen Aeiypten*; DU Itndilm mtd ikn Natkbarsitmim. [ 

Rev. BbwABO Mewburn Walker, M.A, 

Fellow, Senior Tutor and Librarian of Queen's CoUegi, Oxfdrd. 
Edmund Qwen. F.R.CS., LL.D., D.Sc. 

Consulting Surgeon to St Mary's Hospiul, London, and Id the Children's Heapital. 

Great Ormond Street. London. Chevalier of the Legioa of Hoaonr. Author of '^ 

A Manuai of Anatomy for Senior Students. 

Edwin Otho Sachs, F.R.S. (Edin.), A.M.Inst.M.E. i , 

' Chairman of the British Fire Prevention Committee; Vke-Pvasidcot. Katiooal Fire . TbettMt Modem slagi 

Brigades' Union. Vice-President, Interaattooal Fire Seivke CouAciL Anthor of meckonism, 
ires and P^bUe ^ntertawments; &B. 

EiocANUEL Wheeler, M.A. 

Francts Craw? ord Burkitt, M.A., D.D. 

Norrlsian Professor of Divinity in the University of Cambridge. P«lk>w of the 
British Academy. Part -editor of The Fom Gospels in Svnag tmntcrHei Jpom ike ^ 
Sinaitic Palimpsut. Author of The Gospel Buiory and Us Transmissim; Marly 
. 'Eastern Christtaniiyi &c. 

Frederick George Meeson Beck, M.A. 

Fellow and l^ecturer of Clare College, Cambridge. 

Frederick Gyiier Parsons, F.R.C.S., F.Z.S., F.R.Antbrop. Ins^. 

Vice-President. Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Irelartd. Le<;turer on 
. Anatomy at St Thonuis's Hosphal. London, and the London School of Medidne lor ^ 
Women. Formeriy Huntcrian Profeswr at the Royal College of Surgeons. 

Frank George Pope. 

Lecturar on Chemistry, East London College CUnivertlty of London). 

Franklin Henry Hooper. 

Assistant Editor of the Century Dictionary. 

Mi^OH-OCKBRAL SiR FSBDERICK JOI« GotDSnOw 
See the biographical article: Gcm.dsmid: Family. 

FRANas ToHW Haverfield, M.A., LL.D., F.S.A. 

Camden Professor of Ancient History in the Univenity of Oxford. Fellow of 
Braaenose iCollege. Fellow of the Bntish Academy. Formerly Censor, Student, 
Tutor and Librarian of Christ Church, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, I90^I907« 
Aatfaornf Monographs on Roman History, especially Roman Britain, &c . 

FRANas Llewellyn Gripfitb, M.A., Ph.D., F.S.A. I 

Reader in Effyptolonr. Oxford University. Editor of the ArehMdloglcal Sorvey 
and Archaeological Reports of the Egypt Exploration Fund. • FeUbm of Inpoial i 
German Archaeological Institute. Author o| Stories of the High Priests qjf 
Uemphit\ Bk. ' | 

PtAmt PODMORE, M.A. (1856-1010). 

Sometime Scholar of Pembroke College* Oxford. Author of Modem Spiritnalism; 
Mesnteritnt and Christian Science; &c. 

Sn Fkiosricx Pollock, Bart., LL.D., D.C.L. r - r 

Sen the biographical article: Pollock: Family. 
, FkiDERlCK Pqrser, M.A. (1840-1Q10). 

Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin. Professor of Natural Philosophy in 
th« Univecuty of Dublin. Member of the Royal Irish Academy. 



M (til pan). 



TMrtooL 



TMflk 



Baeiy Histeaji 



•f; 



Tumtttty HtB. 



TiMbflt {Egypdi 
Tlioth. 



Table-tiinillig. 



SuifMa (m part). 



Feamc R. Cana. 

Author of Swik Africa from the Great Trek to the Unton, 

• K^Vbubcitp Brooks. 

MMRging Director of Meters Vincent Braoki, Dey ft Son. Ltd.. Lithographic 
.Pri|il«i*.London. 



Ctofjrapky and 
Stalisiics,Arckaeology (fn 
fart) and History; 

Swaxilaod (in_pan)i 

Tlmbokta; 



Sun Copying. 



F.W.T. 



■.Jk 



VtviumOi of Zoology in the Uni versitv of Birmingliam. Formeriy AMbttnt Dtoctor 



I^aTIALS AND HEADINGS OP ARTICLES 

tW.Qk. ' -VkiteBac ^ixuAM Gamble. D.Sc.. F.R.S. 

PUdfuwOi of Zookfy in the UnivemtYof Pfe 

of UkB ZodogicaT LafaOMtories and Ucturar In Zoology in the Uoivenity of 
Manchcrter. Author of Amwul lAfe. Editor of Manhall and Hunt's Fraelkal 
2ael0gy;&c 

P. W. B.* PfttDnior Whiiaic RtTDLEft, I.S.O.. F.G.S. 

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1879-1909.' 
Presideat of the Geologisu' Aiaociation, 1887-1889. 



lUt. 

FftAMS WanAM TAOsaio. -f TvilL 

See the biographical article : Taussig, Fiahk William. i 

6. A. B. Geobcb a. BouiEirpEX» D.Sc F.R.$. ' f 

. Ketper Of the Collections of ReplUea and Fiahes, Department of Zoology. Britidi i 

Muaeum. Vioe-Preaident of the Zoological Society of London. L 

G.6.F.* Gkorcs Geenville Pbxlumore, M.A., B.C.L. f 

Chdai Chorch, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. Middle Temple. L 

A. H. law Rev. Geosqb Hesbebt Box. M.A. f 

Rector of Sutton Sandy. Beds, formerly Leetuter <n the Faculty of Theology, < TWB^Um {m part). • 
University of Odord, I90fr«i909. Author of TraiuUuum pf $kg Book of Isaiahi &c. I 

6. B. C. Gbobcb Hebbebt Cabtemteb. ' 

IVuf eBS ui of Zook)gy fa the Royal College of Scieooe, Dobltn.' Author of Insects: * 
ikev Stnuiitro mud Ufo. 

6. B.DL Sn Geobce Howabd Dabwxh. K.C.B., M.A., F.R.S., LL.D., D.S& 

' Fdknr of Trinity College, Cambridge, and Plumian Professor of Astronomy and , fUg, 
Experimental Philosophy in the University. President of the British Association, 
1905. A>Mthor of Tlu Tides and Kindred Phenomena in Ike Solar System ; Ac 

C J. A. Gmobce Jobmston Aumak, M.A., Lt.D.. TJLS., D.Sc. (1824-1900. f ^ 

PrafcsMor of Mathematica in Queen's College, Galway. and in Queen^ University of < Taikf ol 
Iretand, 1853-1893. Author of Creek Geometry from TkaUs to£nclid; &c L 

CL GeOBG LVNGE, Fn.D., D.lNa /e«i«v«-<-»-ta 

6ee the biognphical article: Lunge, G. \8nJpl1uri0Aeid. 

C Sk Geobce Saintsbxtby, LL.D.. D.C.L. / 

See the biajgrapkical article: Saintsbubt, CeObgb Edwabo BXtbmak. I 

haeologici 
1. Autho 

'[■ 

OBCE WAi^TEB Fbotbebo, M.A., Lttt.D,, LL.D. r 

Editor of the Quarterly Review. Honorary Fellow, formerly FelloW of King's i _ ... 
College. Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy, IVofessw- oC Histfliy in the I Temple, Sir 
Uaiwusi^ of Edinburgh, 1894-1899. Author of Life and Tinus qf Simon ie Mont- 
/&rf;&c Joint-editor of the CsMArtdfe Jfadrm Hutory. I 

CW.T. Rev. GivmaES Wheeleb Thatcheb, M.A., B.D. fS?^^!!?!?* -. 

Warden ^ Camden College. Sydney. N.S.W. Formeriy Tutor in Rebf«w and Old i TubIA; TW Alibl^ 
Testament History at Maosiield Cotlc^e, Oxford. I TinnldllL ^ , 

H. B. Wa. Hemby Beauchamp Waitebil M.A., F.5:A. f 

Asibtaat to the Keeper of Greek and Roman Antiquities, Bihiih MnsMun. Author i TuTMOttt (in Part). 
<4 Tke Art ef tke Greeks; History of Ancient Pottery; &c I '^ 

B>Ck HUCB CsiSHOtM, M.A. "ninniint. ^ir R • 

FocMlrScholar of Corpus ChristI Coflege. Oxford. Editor of the f ith edition of . iSSi- \rJ7JL ts^ a^\. 
the Sncyclopaedia Britannica, Co-e<Btor of the loih edition. 2/ izf^ ^ ^^'* 

\ Tnompsoiiv Fnuiels. 

S.Bi. Rsv. HmoiYTE Delehave, S. J. fOymaon Mati^linstM; 

Boduidist. jotot'«ditor of the Aeta Samiorum and tlie Anakcta BeOandiana. \ Syouariora; Thrftii, St 

. loventor of the CwAr Photographic Lent. ha»oc tA A SytUm a! Applied Op^ri^^^"'^ ^^ ^*^' 

B. r. T. Rev. Hekbt Fansrawe Tozeb, M.A., F.R.G.S. f 

Hon. Fellow, formerly Fellow and Tutor of Exeter College, Oslotd. Fellow of the I TlHBBlf; 
British Academy. Corresponding Member of the Historical Society of Gieece. ] nmee 
Author of Bislarj of Amitm Goo^apky; hectares am ikt Ceagrapky of Groeea; 8bc. I "***** 



t ^ Obawt Sbowebmam. A.M., Pv.D. f __ ^, 

Professor of Latin at the University of Wiaconsin. Member of the Archaeological J Syntntlim; 
Institute of America. Member of the American Philological Association. Author 1 TBOroMIUlB. 
of Witklka Professor; Tke Great Mother of the Gods; &c. I 

CH Gojl VnTA. 

Formeriy Chancellor of the Japanese Legation, London. Author of Woaltk afi Tohyow 
Canada Cm Japanese). ' 

6. W. P. Geobce Wa<.teb Pbotbebo, M.A., Lrrr.D,, LL.D. 



Author of Bistarj of AneietH Gea^apky; hectares am Ou Ceagrapky of Graeu; Ba^ I 

B. ft Hembi Simon Htmans, Pb.D. f 

Keeper of the Bibliothdque Royale de Belgique, Bnisseta. Author of Raihens: saX TeBtel8 (ttl Pari), 
ait et son-en»re. [ 

B. R, L HxMBT Habvev LrrrLEjORir, M.A., F.R.C.S. (Edin.)., F.R.S. (Edin^). • f 

Professor of Forensic Medicine and Dean of the Faculty of Medicine in the University { SulddB. 
of Edialbiugh. M 

Hemby Jacxbon. Litt.D;. LL.D., O.M. f 

Repus Professor of Greek in the University of Cambridge. FeUow of Trinity J tm^ of MibtiB; PkSksMim. 
^isge. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of r««<i ta JOmstrale the History i *"" •* ■"•«• j-jwp-f^, 
^ Greek Ptilasapky from Tholes la AtistaOe. L 



ILLOL 

H.B.K. 
B.&J. 

H.TL 

ILW.B. 

H.W.&D. 

H.W.H. 
LA. 

LI.a 
J.A.F. 

JLA.& 
l.A.8. 

J. It 

JLP.ML 
JLQi. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES: 



HvcH LoHcaouviB Cauxhdax, F.R.S., LLD. 
" ' - ol Phxwa» Royml CoB^e «r S ' 



Phyacii 



liOBOt^ Fonnfefiy iVolBW si 



HiCTOR Mumto Chadwick^ M.A. 
Fdkm and Libnriaa of 



mriaa of Clare CoOne, Cambridfe. and Uaiwenity Ixctmcr 
Author of Stadies m An^fm Sajnrn Jnhhiiioms. 



fUBMT ROBEKT KeKPI:, M.I1IST.C.E. 

Ekctxidaa to the General Ptat Ofioe. Loodoo. 



Avthor of rk Emftwrn^i Kar 




Hsmr Stuakt Johis, M^ r 

Formerly Fdiow and Tutor of Triaity College, Oxford, aad Director of tbe British J 
School at Rook. Member of the Gcman laperial Archaeobpcal Imiitate. 1 
Author of n« iZMWi £a^: ftc^ ^^ I 

HnST TtDDUNM. / 

Loadoo Editor of the Siaam jmnrfiiMJiit Cmmal I 

Sn Biuio WuuAM WitusLET BAaLow, Bart. / 

Laciit.-CoL Royal ArtiDery. Sttpcriatcadail of the Royal Lafaontory. Woohn^ I 

HxNftT WnxUM Cauxs Davis, M^ 

FcBov and Tutor of BaOM Collar. Okf«d. Fdbv of Al Seuli 

1895-1902. Author of £affaad mdcr Ifcr ^anuauf ted Xafcvnu 

HopB W. Hogg, M.A. 

Praieaor of Seautic Laagoafet aad l itetaim eain the Puiwiaity of Maacheacer. 

IssAZL AbbabaicM^ 

Reader in Tabnndic and Rabbinic Lkoature in the Uaiwrsty of CandirMlce. 
Fonncfly Preadenr of the Jewish Historical Society of Eaglaad. Author ' 
Short msiofy tf Jtmidk - - . - . . - 



t^. 



Amat^ (<• ^. 



iTodcm MiSlan (m 



( Islcrolarr; Jtwisk Life is At Jjfiddk Ago: Judaism 



Isaac Josum Cox, Ph.D. 

Asristant Pirofenor of History in the Univenity of rinrinnati 

Ohio VaBey Historial Aawration Author of Tht Jmmmjt tf U Salk 



CoaMe.Orf«d.i 

sis 

tof the! 

ondAuj 



TaybftXiehsiy. 



JOHH AasKOSB Fleming, MJi., D.Sc., F.R.S., 

I^ender IVofesaor of Electrical Eugiueerioc ia the Uaivenity of 
of University CoOefe, London. Fonneriy Fellow of St John's Co 



L'niversit^ CoOege, London. Fonneriy 
and Unrveraty Lecturer on Applied Morhanittb 



Johns Celkfe. 
Anthor of if^Mls 



L ondon. FcSow t 
kfe.Chndiridge.<^ 
|Mls and £licarv | 






JoBN Allen Howe. 

Cnator aad libnrian of the Ma 
ne Ciafcfj ^ Bmlimg Smtt. 



I of PlEKtical Geobgy. London. Author of 



John Adoincton Stmomds, LL.D. 

See the biogiaphical article: Stiooicds. J. AdoVGTOH. 

Rigst Hon. Jakes Bitce, D.CX., D.Litt. 
See the b^qgraphical artade: Bktcs. Jamis. 



JQBFH BlAtm, S.J. 

of XMr kcaritKhs 



Gnnndanc*db& 



James BAKTLrrr. 

Lecturer on Coostmctaon. Architecture. Sanitation. Q>i A U li li ei > f|t., at 
College* London Mcnibes' of Sutirty of ARjulectSk. McadMr of laatiiute of 



ES COSSAK EWAET, M.D.. FJLS f 

Rcgins Plrafessor of Zoology in the Uaivenity of Edinbui^. Swuiey Lecturer on J 
Geology at the British Mttaeom. 1907. Author ol TU MuttipU Ongim ^ H«nn \ 
mad Pmmcs; &c t 



James Cossae Ewaxt, M.D., F.R.Sl 



H DyXELKT PKDfCE, PbJ>. f 

Ptofcssor of Semitic Languages in Colnmbia Uai>i«nitgr« New Yorh. Took ptit < Shmt amk 
m the Kipedifinn to Southern Babylonia, 188S-1889. I 



RST. Jamb Evesett Fkams, A.M. 

E^waid r 



I Theonigical ^nnnary. 



I RoboBon Pnhmor of BStiOai Theology in Uai 
New York. Author of PmrpoM tf Hew TtsMmtM TkmUfy. 

James F^nMAcmz-KsLLT, harJ}., FJLHttT.S. r 

Gthnoor Professor of Spanish Laagnage aad L it er ature^ Uvarpool Uoivenit}-. ) ftanro f 1 
Nomaa McCba Lecturer. Cavfaridge UmvcrsitT. FeOcyw of the BriM Aca<femv. •{ «ZZ^ m^ 
Member of the Ro>-a] Spanish Academy. Knight Commander of the Order <i | 
AlphottsoXlL Author oT it fiiilir7^.^ani^nsltra|vr:ac «- 

JOBB FkEDESICK StENXXXC, M-A. j, 

, FeUow and Lecturer in Divinity and Hebrew. Wadham CbOege. Oxford. 1 



tofht. 



Jamis Gaiidnex, C3., tX.D. 

See the biographical article: Gaixdhuu JAMB 

Sks JoooA GisiiNC FncB, IL>Dl 

See the btogrephkal article: Frcm. Su J. G. 



(FMtfy) (in farO. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OP ARTICLES 

I, & Ik Jmmmm Gboiob Fbasbs, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D.. Litt.D. ( 

frnlfMor 9i %ocMl Anthrapolpsy, Uvtrpool Univmity. Fdlow of Trimty'Colkge. ] nasmdj^rla {in farO. 

JL & K Joair Gbay McKxhduck, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S.;F.R.S. (Edfn.). 

Emeritus Prolotor of Phyidogy im the Unhcnity' of Gbmr. Pknlcnor of i Tttlt. 
Ph|rfoloor,l87^l906. Authoro'" • '"^ "•' -"^^^- - ' 

ICfk Sb Iamxs Geohos Scott^ K.C.T.E. 



1.1.6. 



[.D., LL.D., F.R.S,, F.R.S. (Edla.). f 

yMogrimthe Unhmityof Gbvw. Pknlcinr of -^ 1 
iitborofX^«mJIMMi£ili»/HilMikote;&c. I 

Tames Geohos Scott, ILC.T.E. (nt»u»mu 

SuperiotoMfeat and Political Officer, Southern Shaa States. Author of Burma; i IP!™' 
uSTatptr Burma GoMtUm. [Tlilbftw. 



JoHH Henrt Midoletok, M.A., Lrrt.D., F.S.A., D.C.L. (1846-1896). f -.. ^^ ^ . . /, _.v 

Siade Profcsor of Fine Art in the Univernty of Cambridge. i886-i89<. Director Thntl Aneteni {in farO^ 
of the FkcwiUiam BAuaeum, CambridBB, iSto-aJaa. Ait Dinctor of the South i Modan {in part); 
Kensington Muiettm, i893-i8«6. Authoc ot The Sntr^ted Gtrnt «f Clasikal \ nitni (im tart) 
TSUailUmmiMted MaSscripUin Oasskal and MediaM Times. ^ I "^^ ^^ '^' 

JL BL & Jonr H ftWAffir Round, M.A., LL.D. f 

BaUiol CoBcse, Moni. ^ithorof ftn^Eetfani; StadmrnPsiraftawl Faenly'^ 1Ubo((FMidy) (m 
History, Pteragt and Ptdiffta. L 

2. HL & Jom HoLLAMU Ron, M^A.^ LiTr.D. f 

duafa GoOege. Cambridge. Lecturer on Modem History to the Cambridge J Tt n_ , ..j 
Uoii^enity Local Lectures Syndicate. Author of LiUof NapeUon /.; /iTaMwuu 1 "'■*'■■■• 
Simiiu', tU Dmlopmenl of Uu European Nations; TU UJ* oj PiU; Ac l 



IJk Jofizra Taoobs, 'Lax.D. 

Proleasor 01 English Literature in the Jewish Theofemcal Seminary. New Voi_ 

Formerly President of the Jewish Hbtorical Society of England. Corresponding -{ IkberOMtel. Itell Ot 

Member of the Royal Academy of History. Madrid. Author of J<»r of AnHr^ 

EmMffudiStudrnmBMiaaArtkaadbtytia, 

XK.L TOBM KBXXS INCXAM, LL.I>. Im 4^ w 

See the biosnphical article: biCBAM. John Kblls. -[ Sumptuaiy Uwi. 

JL L L Sb John Knox Lavchton, MA, LntJD. 

lYpffunr of Modem History. King's CoUege^ London. Secretary of the Navy 
Records Society. Served in the Baltic. i854-i8«5: in China, 1856-1859. Mathe- 
matical and Naval Instructor. Royal Naval College, Portsmouth, 1866-1873: 
Greenwich, 1873-188$. President, Royal Meteorological Society. 1883-1884.'^ 
HMonry FdlMr of GonviUe and Cabs College. Cambridge. FeUow of lOngVi 
CMlrae. Xoodon. Author of Pkysical Googmph •» its Rekttian to tko PraaOmi 
Wkids and CnrrenCr; SIndiri tn iiaml OiUmyi Son Fi^amdAdftntum; &c 

IL&ll JoBN Louis Eim, DsEYEs. f 



JLI. Sb John Macoonsu, M.A«, C.B., LL»D, 

Master of the Supreme Court. Formcffy Counsel to the Board of Trade and 
the London Chamber of Commerce: Quain Professor of Comparative Law, Uni- , 
venity College, London. Editor of ^taU Trials; Cioa Judicial StatisUa; Ac. 
Author of Surwy ofPoKHcal Economy; Tho Land Question; &c 

'. jAitES MoFPAtT. M.A., D.D. f TlmoChy, First Qilitia to; 

Minister of the Umted Free Church of Scotland. Jowett Lecturer. London, 1907. { Ttmothy, Saeond J^plftte to; 
Author of Bistofieal Norn Testament; Ac. Itlttts, Bplstto to. 



R«v. jAitES MoFPAtT, M.A., D J). f TtaiothF, First Qilitto to; 

Timothy, Sm 
Tlttts» Bplstto 

JoBN McEwAN, FJLG.S., FJLMr.Soc^ /^^ 

John Mxllex Gkay (X850-X894). r 

Aft Clitfc. Curator of the Scottish National Portrait Galfery, 1884-1894. Author i Tndeu JUMt. 
id I>amdSeolt,R.SJi.; James and wmamTasfk. i ^^ ^rrt- ^ — -, 

IE.!. JOBi Hamduc MncBsu. rTRnmin; 

FmoMfimn Schdhr of Ooeen^ Collen. Oxford. Lecturer in Classics, East London \ Themlstoelei; 
OXkf/t CUnivenlty oTLondoo). Jomt-odltor of Grote's flwtory of Creeu. [. Hmoydidts {in part), 

1 h. John Puksex, M.A., LL.D. f 

Fonmriy PMfcasor of Mathematics in Queen's College, Belfast. Member of the j SutMO (tn p<lrt). 

I. F. K JcAM Paui Hdvolyte Emmanuel AnHiMAX Esvexn. r 

Professor of Law In tho Uniwenity of Pari*. Ofioer of the Lerion of Honour, j ^m^m^. 
Membs^ the InsdtMe of France. kaOiai dt Cours UheenUure ^Urtaiea du droit\^^^'^ 
franfais; Ac (. 

J. f . f. Jonr Peioval Postoatx, M.A., Litt.D. r 

Philsmor of Latin in the Univeraity of Liverpool. Fellow of Trinity College, J Tntoal (MtktaB; 
Candxidge. FcUow of the British Academy. Editor of the Classital Quarterly. 1 TlbuBus, AJbloL 
^ Editor-in-Cfaicf of the C#rp«i poitarum Latinamm; Ac {, 

tf.H, John Punnett Petees, Pr.D., DJ). f 

Canpn Residentiary of the Protestant Episcopal Cathedral of St John the Divine, 1 
New York City. Formerty Professor of Hebrew in the Unrversity of Pennsylvania. 4 Tlgltk 
In charge of the University Expedition to Babylonia, 1888-1895. Author of I 
W p pm, Of SxptoraUons and Adeenturet on the Bnpkrotes, [ 

XB.F. John Smith Flbtt, D.Sc., F.G.S. fayeiilte; 

Edinb«rib.BigsbyMedaUist of the Gtaiogicnoociety of London. ^IUHHlto. 



ztl INITIAIJ3 AND HEADINaS OF ARTICLES] 

J.8.Ga. James Sykes Gahble, M.A., C.I.E..F.ILS./F.L.S. f' ' 

ImHan Forest Service (retired). Formerly DnvcCor of tbe Imperial Foreit School i TMk (in'haki 
at Dehra Don. Author o« A if ofiaoi c/ /stfjan Timbtn; Ac l^^* ^** '■^' 

cs Smith Reid, M.A.. LL.D., Litt.D. r 

Profeopr of Ancient Htcfeonr aod Fellow and Tutor of GoavHle aAd Galas College, 
Cambridge. Honorary Fellow, lormerty Fellow and Lecttuer of Christ's CoUe|e.< 
Browne's aod Chancellor's Medals. Editor of editiooa of Qoero's Acadmiia: Vc 



J. 8. B. James Smith Reid, M.A.. LL.D., Litt.D. 

Profes^of/ '"^'^ "^" 

Cambridge. 
Browne's and 



L.A.W. 



J. T. Ba. JOBM THOMAS Beautt. 

Joint-author of StanfonTs Europe. Formexly Editor of tbe SeoIHA Ce^pnpkkal 
Mofftam* Translator of Sven Hedin's Tkrougfi Asia, Central Asia aai Ti^; ftc. 



J. T. C. Joseph Thomas Cunmingham, M.A., F.Z.S. 

Lecturer on Zoology at the South-Westem Pd[ytechnic, Loodoa. Fomeriy Fellow J » ^ 

of Uniyenity College, Oxford. Assbtant Professor of Natural Histoiy in the! imao. 
University of Edinburgh. Naturalist to the Marine Biological Attodation. \ 



4yr-Du|ft {Ri^m) (m part); 
fiyr-Daija(Plr4rifK») impardi 

TunhSf (in part); 
Tmm; Tttii-Sluui; 

Tlflii (Town) {in parti; 
TDMik {Gatensmemi) {in part); 
Tomsk (GmrMMMl) (in part). 



J. W. James Wiluams, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D. 

All Souls Reader in Roman Law in the University of Oxford, and Fellow of Lincoln 



TliMtce: Law rtkiimg lo 
College. Author oif 17)^ and SiKcessian, &™' ' I Tfflwff Umb) 

J. WaL James Walker. D.Sc.^ Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S. r 

Professor of Chemistry in the University of Edinbni^h. P ro fes sor of Chemistry, TfcjjiLLLiuiliiiiiiiriiB 
University College, Dundee, 1894-1908. Author cl hUrodnttion to Physical' *"«nnowmn»wy. 
Chemistry. ' i i .. 

J. W. 0. John Walter Gregory, D.Sc., F.R.S. r 

Professor of ecology in the University of Glasgow, Profe^r of Geology and J _ ' • • 

Mineraloffy In the University of Melbourne, 1900-1904. Author of The Dead Start \ Taauuilst Ceelaiy. 
of Ausiraltai Sue. \ 

J. W. Hs. James Wycufpe Heaolam, M.A. r 

Staff Inspector of Scomdaiy Schools under the Board of Education. Londea. | >i^*fiu rjomt* 
Formerly Fdlow of JCing's CoUege. Cambridge. ^ Professor of Greek and Ancient 4 IX^mS^^ 



History at Queen's Cx>ll^, London. Author of BiomoKk and the FomndaHen eflkel XBOII-ltflANimHk 
German Empire', &c 



J. W. L. Qk Jambs Writbreao Lee Giaishes, M.A^ D.Sc., P.R:S. f 

Fellow of Trinit]^ College, Cambridge. Formerly President of the Cambridge J f^il^lf 
Philosophical Society and the Royal Astronomical Society* Editor oO Messeug/er 1 
of Mathematics and the Quarterly Journal qf Pure and Applied UatiUmatics. I 

K. A.M* Kais a. Msakxn (Mss Bcpgstt Meaxim). | Tstoaa^Sqs. 

K. L. Rev.- Kirsopp Lake, M. A. r ' 

Lincoln College, Oxford. Professor of Eariy Christian Literature and New TeeCn- J ^.^ ^. t • 
meot Exegesis in the University of Leiden. Author lOl The Text of ike New Testa- 1 TlQlII, 
menti The Historical Eoidencefor the Resurrection of Jesus Christ'. &c . .1 

K.8. Kathleen Schusinger. . . _ . _.. .__... . -. . .fffyinplitBla; 



BLEEN SCHLESINGER. f nw mrftow 

Author of The Instruments of the Orchestra. Editor of The Pertfetie ef UnsieaiX S;z?!lt 
Archaeology. j^TlmbreL 

Laurence Austine Waddell, CB., CLE., LL.D. . f x%heA dm. a^tA 

Lieut.-CoIonel l.M.S. (retired). Author of Lhasa and its Mysteries; &c. \ *^' ^*" ^*"^- 



L. 1. 8. Leohasi> James Spencer, M.A. f MfMittf; Mrttt; 

Assistant in the Department of Mineralogy, British Moseunt. Fonnerly Scholar J ^ 

of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkoess Scholar. Editor of the 1 Pv?™** _ 
Mineralogical MagaaineT I Tstrihedrtto: llMrito. 

■.B. MoiiTACu Browne. ^ f Ti^irutii,,.-. 

Author of Practical Taxidermy; ColUatng Butterflus and Moths. \ JKOmfrm^* 

U. Btu Tbz Hon. Maurice Barino. r 1 . 

Sometime Scholar of Trinity College, Cambridge. War Correspondent for the 
MomintPost in Mancboria, 1904 ; and Special Correspondettt in Ruf^, >905-i<M^ •{ TUBS. 
and in Constantinople, 1909. Author of Landmarhs in Russian Literature; Wuh | 
the Russians in Manchuria; A Year in Russia; &c I 

■• B. 8. Uasjon H. Spielmann. F.S.A. f 

Formerly Editor of tne Mataaite of Art. Member of the Fine Art Committee of the I 
International Exhibitions oi Brussels, Paris, Buenos Aires, Rome and the Franco- J ThoriiTeMh. Wmii 
British Exhibition, London. Author of History of "Punch"; BriHsh Partnit-] *»"*»VM^»^ w.»«" 
Painting to the Opening of the mneteentk Century; Worhs 0/ G. P, Watts, R.A.;\ 
British Sculpture and Sculptors of To-4ay; BenrieUe Ronner; Oc I 

ILLdsO. BClCBAEL Jan DE GCEJE. . . ^ .. . f Tiu^nmmwJt^w^ ft ^l w«in«^ 

See the biographical article : Gobje, Michael Jan db. \ *«»«*»^« "■ ■!■■» 

H.ILBI1. Sa Mancherjee Merwahiee Bmownacoreb, K.C.LE.^ ' . f^..^. ^ 

^'M^-' '/b^nibay University. M.P. for N.E. &cthna1 Green, 189^1906. Ai^thor < Tiklrtrintf 
Constitntien(!f the East India Company; 9tc I 



IMITIAtS/AND HEAD&raS OF AUTICLES 



xUt 



!.■.» 

■.W.T. 

O.H.D. 

ai.s.B. 

P,QL 

p.ax. 

P.lcOL 
P.fL 
I. A. I. 

I. A. ft. 

8.A.&B. 
K.CI. 

i.acL 
■.if. 



'llUnnmif Otto Bisvasck Caspaxi, M.A. 

BC9*rfalAncinitHi«lorylALeiitfooUiii«mkiN UetafcriaGnskin BinDiiigham 
Uaiveniiy. 1905-1908. 



KOUIAH M'Lean, M.A. 

Lecturer in AniBuc, Caml 
Collese, Cambridfe. Joiat< 



Umvsfsity. FflBovsnd Hebrew Ltetufcr.Cliriak's 
of the laffer Cunbridge StptmagiML 

Kcnx Malcolm. D.S.O.. F.R.G.S. 

Major. Arsyll and Sutherland Highlanders. Served 'N.W. Frontier, ladia, itej-^ 
1898; South Africa. 1 899-1900; SomaliUnd, l90a~>9Q4: British' Mimofl t9 Fes, 
190s. Editor of Tlu Sctenct of War. 

NoKsvcoTB WmruocE Tbomas, M.A. 

GowaiMfit Anthropologist to Southern Nigeria. Corresponding Member of the 
Soci^ d*Anthropologie de Plana. Author of Though Transjerenu; Kitukip and 
Uarriai9.i^Anslral%a\9x. 

Okas HcNstv Dijiksatb, PecD. 

fotmoAf Editor of foreign news in the Ifya Dotfigf ABekanda* 

T)«B«T Jomt Radclipit Howarth, M. A. 

ChrM Church. Oxford. Geographical Scholar, Oxford. 1901. 
of tbi British AsBodatioB. 



PiXMCI PETEK AjXfCCIVnCB KSOPOTOM. 

See the biograpbacal article: ICeopotun. Prxncb PJL 



TiCiii;n80iBiliisL-IH.r 

TbenffleiiM; 
L ThnsybiQiis. 

Syrt>e UtaiBtnra; 
Tboniis 9I Haiii. 



Tibeo; 

TitopAOiy. 



.fi y s. 



Assistant Seoetary. 



Giuf. K.A., tX.D., Inr^D. 

Fellow and Classical Lecturer of Emmanuel College. Canibridge. and tJnhreraity 
Reader in Comparative Philology. Formerly Secretary of the Cambridge Philo- 
logkal SodRty. Author of ifa»M/ 0/ CoMporalne PikOofogy. 

Paul Geokge Konody. 

Alt Code of the Observer and the Diuiy MaU. PormeHy Editor of the Artist. 
Author of Tht Art of Walter Crane: Ytiasquet, I4fe and Worh\ &c. 

Pnup Lam. M.A., F.CS. •. . . 

Lecturer in Regional Geography in the University of Cambridge. Formerly of the 
Gaelociea] Survey of India. AJiithor of Monograph of British Cambrian Tritobitcs. 
•TfelunsbKtqr and bditor of Kcyser's Comparati9e Ceohcf 

$a Tmup Magnus. 

M.P. for the Un l ve re l ty of London, Superintendent and S e cr etary of the City and 
Guilds of London Institute. President of Council of College of Preceptors; Chatr- . 
man of Secondary Schools Association. Member oi the Royal Con\miMiOn oa 
Technical InaKnicttoo, 1881-1884. Aothor of Jkdsuffitt Mdimlimi *«. 



History (in pert). 

Geography and 
Statistics; 
Tibet {in part) 

Qyr-Daiya: River (in Part); 

Syr-Oaiyft: Birovince (t> pfr^\ 

Tunbov {in part); 

Ditata <i» ^0; 

TMHs: TVwn {in part); 

f obohk: Gcnemment {in parth 

T<»ad[: GatiemmaU (w foA. 



(in paH). 



Smdui: Gui^gy. 



TMlurtcal BdneaUoD. 



PiiMBOSE McConnell, F.G.S. 

Mcabw 0f tha Royal Affocoltwal SoQMy. 



Aothor of XMsry <f a ir«rMic f oraisr. 



Paul Vxmocxazx)77, D.C.L., LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Vimogeadofp. Paul. 

Reynold Alleyne Nicholson, M.A., Lrrr.D. 

I^orer in Persian in the University of Cambridge. Sometime Fellow of Trinity 
College, Cambridge, and Professor of Persian at University College, London. 
Anthor of Selected Poems from the Dioani Shams* Tabrit; A Luerarj ftnt^y of Ike 
Ara&sidbc. 

'1Ui»« AttEN SaHKOn, M.A., D.Sc.. F.R.S. 

Astrononto' Royal for Scotland. Formerty ftofessor of Mathetnatics and 
Astfoaoiay in the University of Durham, and Fellow of St John's College. Cambridge. 
Author of TahUs of the Four Great SaleUiUs of Jupiter; Ac 

ROMST AuxANOBK Stewaet Macalistee, M.A., F.S.A. 

St John's College. Cambridge. Director of Excavations for the I^estine Ex* 
pkvatioaFund. 

Sn RiCBASD CiAV EEH O USi Jebb, LL.D^ D.CLk 

See the biographical article: Jsaa. Sia Ricbaro CLAVERBOUti. 

RXOTAED Gaenett. LL.D. 

See tha biograiAical article: GaaaBTt* RicsAta 

Sn Robert OiErEN, F.R.S. 

See the biographical article: QrfSM, Sir Robert. 



J XbcUblgg. 






i; Smmltas {in part). 



{ 

/tllDa|flld«8 {4n part). 
jsmit, Jonathaii {in paH), 



J > .T 



Rev. Robert Henry Charles, M.A.. D.D., Litt.D. (Oxon). 

Grinfield Lecturer and Lecturer in Biblical Studies, Oxford, and Fellow of Merton 
C«ih«B. Pfllow of the British Academy. Forroeriy Senipr Modenattor of Trinity 
College. Dublin. Author and Editor of Booh of Enoch-. Book of Jubilees ; Apoca- 
lypu of Baruch; Assumption of Moses; Ascenswn pf Isaiah; Ac. 

Recinalp Ivnes Pococx, FJ^.S. 

Sapennteqdent of the Zoological Gardens. London. 



/Taxatioiu 

Testamanfi of fba Thiaa 
PkMtftiBt <! ^ 

TWlaiMttti ot flM Tvtlva 
Patilirckk Mi .^- 1 

Tuantnla: 
tTuditiada; Tkkik 



{: 



xiv 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



lOMttO JQBV MCNULL, M.A. 
CkffMt Okwclu (Mord. ~ 

Gnrik (Uadon). 



Buiteer«i<Law. F gfuli Bditv of the Jk Jama's J TUMT. 



m.iLa 



Kksabp Ltokckes. F.ltS., F.G.S, F.Z.S. 
Member of tlw Sull «f the 
€Vle/«C«* </ F0ssU iitmwmit, 
^«ll £eii^: 71t Gmm Amenfr 

Rbv. RoaciT Maccditosk. M.A.. D.D. 
Ttftar ia Laaeeabve tadepewkflt CoHagt^ I 



Rqwkt NlssKT Raw (d. looo). 
AwMt m at Ubnriaa, British Mi 



. F.C.&. F.Z.S f 

the Gcolofieal Suniey of India, l87A-itt>. Anther of J 
ee(s. RtpHbs mmi Bwii m tki Briluk Mumwrn; Tie Dmr 1 
mimait ^ AJnca; Ac ^ 



(In Atff): 
Tteitoff; Tifir (m A«^); 



iMs-1909.. Aathor of Sumiimmm: tfv 
j^iiMieil IKilen' #/ Araaerft. JirenM^jr oatf .S^eidra. 15^1-1900. Tit ^»tf XMeea«vf. 
t^U «» ff^: 51 i iw i c £kre|ik.- !*• F^iHini BiaMtry $§ F^Umi ami Jbune ffm 






ft^KS. 



B.B. 



•.A.C 



S.M. Till I S&ONBuo. 

LifecwiiA 4t th» I^MYtceky ot Copeahecift. 

9I«.UR^ Sr Gv<««» Uxs F^^Ftrr. MJtAS; 

.VAMv^ce «• Kifl«'» Cw>2lc(r. U>»JkNk. ThMMne ead Vfee^TtaiieMt «t 1^ Hunt 
g he -f»f tei^vt Aal tht UttcmuMO*! Motral Kitrofmio CMepne. 

SI ft.^ Sr Gv>?*«» Sivxv. >tA. 

-^ ^ » C.»Jkc«k v>i»«i4. Uctenr M Cieeh «e the V^mesftsr ef 



1L Fntf ^tSK. rS.A.. F.ia.BJL 

F «w w t >y Master of the Archttectwel School, Itorel Andecer. Ijoadea. 

INt ei ih i^ of Aichitectiaral Aswciktiock Assodete And FcBov c# Kinf *s Cole«e>. 

U>«de»> CofTv«po«du^ Member ol tbe Institute of Fnoce. Eduorof Ftr^ftsstrn's 

Htol«r7 V ArOUKte*. Author of Xn.AtJ»vtef».> fiej< mmi Waii Ac 
KnxwMA ]tc«T. CI.E..LL.D> (t$i>-t$o6V 

S<v-Tv«arY <Si the R^jyaI .\siitk Socktv. l$^«>lW^ Ubtviui ai the Iwfie Oflke. 

U^oik>A. i;k>^t^^ EJttv^r of H. H. WV.^oo » £tss40FS «« bW JCcftfiMs <f :W J7ui&s; 

StaxtrT AsTan Cook, ht A. 

Faitce for the l^»]tt«tiae E.\].^^tK>« Fuad Lecturer m Hebrrv aad S%t«k. oml 
K>rmerH FetWv. Ooa^ille A»i CattM Cott<c^ Cambn4(ew ^jxxmmtx ia Hcbce« Aad 
A iam ii r . Lo»loa Vm\YrMt>\ I^W^-tOolL Author oi J>'.>4;sksr7 jtf .4"ttM«K /s- 
A«tM«ir«»: r'W Urn* j*' 3i^j*s mJ OJir tf HA^nawMk; O^a.^ .V,Mss m OU 



I 







Kvviow. F«TV 
^vre-^Y ^ : -Knoa FhAAfv ^ the rntwnkv ^ "Iriir^^ Vtkkt ^F' 
Faai^aMOk. Ati ^hj cot .:^Mai*»*a«aft .IrniMjit^ ,;hc« 



D St.. 11. IV 
Sea the bw^rvharj; ettvit. Xlarow, Smbh. 



X^9eft«$ %5«ix. M A trrt IK 













5cV.%ar 








ULIL 
r.LH. 

T.B.B.il 

V.W.Ck 
W.Af. 

1LA.P. 

W.F.C. 
W.H.P. 

v.ap. 

W.I.B. 
W.L* 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OP ARTICLES 

{ 



t!f 



Fiuimm of Greek in the Univeraity C60<g> of North WMw, B«agor. 
Sn TBoMAft Laudes Brunton, 



of Ibgan. 



TBoMAft Laudes Brunton, Bart., M.D., ScD., LL.D.. F.R.S., F.R.C.P. f 

Consultiiic Physidan to St Bartholomew's Hospital, Lonaon. Author of Uodimi Tllitaptntkl. 

Tktrapeuncs; TheraptuHa cf the CircuUUiani Ac I 



Sn THOMAS LuTUE Heath, K.C.B., Sc.I>. 
^ to the Treasufy. London. 



FoRDerly Fellow of Trinity CoUm, . 



Ckmbifdn. Autoor of ApMomma qf Pcffo; Tftmtiu an Conic SedioM*; Tk$ 
Tkirttm Books rf Batdid^s BmuiOsi Ac 

Rbv. Tbomab Mastim Lindsay, M.A., D.D. 

Principal and P iro f essor of Cbuich Hittory^ United Fine Chnich College, dascow. < 
AuthatotLi^tfldateriac. 

Riv. Thomas Koscok Rede Stebbinc, M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S.. P.Z.S. 

Fellow of King's College. London, Hon. Fellow, formerly Fellow and Tutor, of , 
Worcester CoUese, Oxford.' Zoological Secretary of the Cinnaean Society, igosr 
1907. Author of il Mistory of Cnutaua; Tko NotttfoliU of Cmairac; &c 

Tmns SiocoMBB, M JL 

BalUol CoUefe, Oxford. Ledtumr in History, East London and Birkbeck Colleges. . 
University 01 London. Stanhooe Priaeman. Oxford, 1887. Assistant Editor of the 
DicHoKory of NoHoual Biogropky, 1891-1901. Author of Tko ilft of Johnson; ftc. 

Valxntims Walbsam Chapman. 

WllJMD AlRt, M.INST.C.B. 

Sometime Scholar of Trinity College, Cambrtdge. Technical adviser to the Standards ' 
Department of the Boa^d of Trade. Author of Lsvetfmg and Geoiuy; Ac 

RXV. WnXXAM AUGirSTTO BXEVOORT COOUDCE, M.A., P.R.G.S., PB.D. 

Fellow of Magdalen CoUm. OxfonL PtalesKn- of EagKBh History. St Dttvid's 
Colleee. Lampeter. i88o~i8iSi. Author of Guide du Haui DaupMui', The Range of' 
tko nm: Guide to GrindelwUd; Guide to SwUoertand: The Alps in Nature and in 
History: &c Editor of the Alpine Journal, 1800-1881 ; dec 



Thsodostafoimpolii. 



, ThjTOftrMt* 



{in part); 
TfeUMiM daiauuit 

' 9i9tfsn Sugar Manufactnre {it 



JOE, M.A.. F.S.A., F.R.G.S. r 

! of Printed Mush;, British Museum. Hon. Secretary of the! 
ormerly Mo^cal Critic of the Westminster GaseUe, the Saturday 1 
k. [ 



Walto Aubom Philups, M.A. 

Ibrmeriy Exhibitioner of Nferton College and Senior Scholar of St John's College, 
Oxford. Author of J/odrmfiifo^; &€.- 

WxiziAM Burton, HA., F;C.S. 

Chairman of the Joint Committee of Pottery Manufacturen of Great Britain. 
Author of BngUsk Stoneware and Sortkenwarei Ac 

W. Bazsi Brown. 

LieuLrColooel, Commanding Royal Engineers at Malta. 
WtuiAM Barciay Squire, M.A.. F.S.A., F.R.G.S. 

Assistant in charn of Prii *' * •*••••' 

Purcell Society. Formerly 

iCmenr and the (Sfete. 

Rt. Rev. WnxxAM Edward Coexins, 1>.D. 

Bishop of Gibraltar. Formerly Professor of Ecclenastical Hktory, lane's CoBege, 
London. Lecturer at Selwyn and St John's CoHeget, Cambridge. Aathor of The 
Stadj of EuletiatHral History; Beginnsng/i of Estghsn Ckristiamityi &c 

WniiAM FtaDEN Craies, M.A. 

Banriater-at-Law. Inner Temple. Lecturer on Criminal Law, King'a Cotege, 
London. Editor of Archbold's Criminal Pleading (33rd edition). 

WnuAM George Freeman. 

Joint-author of Nature Teaehine: The World: s Commercial Pradnds: Ac Joint- 
editor of Science Propess in the Twentieth Century. 

WnUAM HElfRY. 

Founder and Chief Secretary to the Royal Life Saving Society. Associate of the 
Order of St John of Jerusalem. Joint-author of Artaiiinsg (Badminton Library) 



SwItittliBd: Ceogropky, 
dmem men i, ftc. Briery 
and iJleratme; 

TMU Wllllm; Ibm iTovm); 

Thuk Uka of; Tkufu; 

TIeiiio {Canton); 

Urol; Ttoggnibiiig; TlM. 

Sorplfoe: Cknrch of Engfand; 

Templan {in pari); 

nttoi of Honoiir. 

tanwotta (fo pari)-, 
lOt, 



TUt^AttlihUMf; 



Spmiiiafy Jorisdletlon; 
Summoiis; Snodsj {Law), 



i 



Sol Wiuiam Henry Flower, F.R.S. 

See the biographical article : Flower. Sir W. H. 

Walter Herries Pollock, M.A. I 

Trinity College. Cambridge. Editor of the Saturday Reoiew, 1883-1894. Author -i 
of Lednres on French Poets; Impressions cf Henry Irving; &c. | 

Rsv. William Jackson Brodribb, M.A. 

Formeriy FaUow of St John's CoUege* Cambridge, and Rector of Wootton-Rivtrs. 

wnts. 



fTMrtf {in pari); 
ITlftr {in part). 



TMlUtt {in pari). 



Walter LermanKp M.D. 

Directorial Assistant of the Royal Ethnographical Muaenm. Munich. Conducted , 
Exbkmng Expedition in Mexico and Ccnfal America. 1907-1909. Author of 
publications on Me»can and Central American Archaeology. 

Wiluam McDougall, M.A. ^ . ^ f 

Wilde Reader in Mental Philosophy in the UmvcfMy of Oxford. Formetly Fellow < 
of SC John's College. Cambridge I 



TUlMi. 



xn 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



L&S. 



VLKJL 



WkixztM Mxm%Ki Rv«smi. 

Ski Vniror IIitcseu. Rjocsat, LmJX, DlCX. 

Sec ttt tii^i|Aa. a agtack : IUmsat. Sn W. Mncam, 

Vtiiioi Xtftsx ai*». M..V, LLD^ D.Sc^ F.ILSL 
LVscrjT 4C tie M«tvT-S..v»-A: v>&<r. Rcaier a 



{ 



«r V9«ecKtt.x»:x. Chm: ii$gc-««:^ Moo. F«*»« 



CoCkv^ Com- 



St. lLIxsr.CE^ FJLGuS. f 

I Saoctr 90 Ct%A • ^ 



m^s. 



m&K. 



mXLS. 



V'^x- i .-aitcjyi Smcu c* Tiafcti f^vt _ . , _ 

I 



Sar ^r Wy iQM-fc «=.irj( Sft.r& V. RaKSXSQBL 




PRIXCIPAL l^NSIONET^ ARTICLES 



S5U*>J^ 











ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA 

ELEVENTH EDITION 

VOLUME XXVI 



SUBMABIHB MIKES. A submarine mine is a weapon o{ war 
ascd in the attack and defence of harbours and anchacage^ 
It may be defined as " A charge of explosives, moored at or 
beneath the surface of the water, intended by its explosion to 
pat out of action without delay a hostile vessel of the class it is 
intended to act against.'* It differs from the torpedo {q.v.) in 
beng incapable of movement (except in the special form of 
drifting mines, which are not moored, but move with the tide or 
auxent). But this subdivision into two distinct classes was 
not naade till 1870. Pxior to that date the term " torpedo " 
▼as used for an eiqdosive charges fired in the water. 

Submarine mines may be divided into two main dasses, con- 
tsoBable and uncontrollable, or, as they are often classified, 
** electrical " or " mechanicaL" In the first class the method of 
fixing is by dectricity, the source of the electric power whcthef 
by battery or dynamo being contained in a firing station on 
ihore and connected to the mines by insulated cables. By 
simply ffritching oS the electricity in the firing station, such 
■dziia are rendered inert and entirely harmlessL In the 
secaod daJS, the means of firing are contained in the mine 
ibeif, the source of powct being a small dectiic battery, 
or being obtained from a ptstol, spring or suspended weig^. 
In all mines of this class the impube which actuates the firing 
gar is gtvcB by a ship or other floating object bumping against 
the ttiae. When M e chani c al mines have onte been set for firing 
tfa^ are thus dangerous to friend and foe alike. Safety anange- 
Bcau axe employed to prevent the firing apparatus working 
wfcfle the mine is beiag laid^ and dockwoik is sometimes added 
to reader thymine inactive after a certain defim'te time or in 
oae the miae breaks away from its mooring. Their prindpal 
advaatageSk as compared mth the electrically controlled mines, 
tre cbeapncM and rapidity of laying. " Controllable" mines are 
tbaataXdy under the control of the operator on shore, their 
CDoditioo is always aaanately known, and if any break adrift 
•M only ia the fact at once known hut the mines theanselves are 
kumlesa. Another advaatage is that when fired by "observa* 
tioB ** as described bdow, they are placed, at depths which will 
be wdl bdow the bottom of any vessels passing through the 
BBac ficU. They can thns be used in channels which b«ve to 
he kept open for trafik during hostilities^ 

Electrical mines take rathor bnger to prepare and lay out 
than the other daas, as the ekctricai cables have to be laid and 
JoBted, aad they leqinre rather more skill and training in 
the operators employed to lay and fire the mines. Such miaes 
K-piLSLBt the highest development of this form of warfare, and 
the detaOa given bdow rder mainly to this daas of mine. 

Bectrical mines are arranged on<two ^ratcms according to the 
method if asccrtaiiitng the proper moment to apply the firing 



cunent to the mine cables.' These methods are by " observa* 
tioa " or by " circuit doser." 

The " observation " system depends on two careful observa- 
tions made by an operator on shore, one of the exact position 
in which, the mines are laid, the other of the track of hostile 
ships passing over the mine field. The position of the mines 
when laid is marked on a special chart, on which the track of 
ships crossing the mine field can also be plotted. When the track 
is seen to be crossing the position of a mine, a switch is dosed on 
shore and the mine is fired. To allow for errors in d!)servation 
such mines are fitted with large charges of explosive and are 
usually arranged in lines of two, three or four mines placed across 
the channel, all the mines in a'line beipg fired together. Observa- 
tion mines are placed either resting on the bottom or moored 
at depths which are wdl bdow the bottom of any friendly 
vessels and (except that anchpring in the mine fidd must be 
forbidden forfear of injury to cables) such mines offer no obstruc- 
tion to friendly traffic. 

In the ** circuit closer " or " C.C." system, each mine contaixM 
a small piece of apparatus which is set in action by the blow of a 
vessd or other object against the mine. When set in action, 
this apparatus con^pletes an dectrical drcuit in the mine, 
through which the mine can be fired, if the main switch on 
shore is dosed. If it is not wished to fire, the C.C. is restored 
to. its ordinary condition either automatically by a spring in 
the mine, or by an dectrical device Operated from the shore. 

Such mines are necessarily placed near the surface, and are 
to this extent an interference with friend^ traffic A vessd 
passing by mistake through a mine fidd of this dass would 
nm no risk of an explosion while the mines are inactive, but 
might do some damage to the manes. 

This daas of mine is used in tide channds which it is intended 
to dose entirely, or to reduce the width oi navigable channels 
where too wide to be defended by observation mines. Their 
prindpal advantage is that if the firing switch is dosed they are 
effective in fog or mist, when observation mines coyld not be 
worked, and when the guns of the ddence would be equally out 
of action. As they are fired only when dose against the tidt 
of a ship, the charge can be comparatively small and the mines 
themadves are handy and easy to lay. 

Compared with obserration mines they use much less cable, 
as the action of the €.€< is such that only the mine which is struck 
can be fired. Several mines of this clsas can therdore share 
one cable from the shore, though in practice details of mooring 
and anrangement limit the number connected to one cable to 
f ovn A set of mines on one cable is refetred t o as a " group.^' 

The srrangements for firing the mines are contained in a firing 
station 00 shore, in which is the bsttery or other source of 

2a 



SUBSIDY— SUCX^ESSION 



A ctriol pom for firai^ ad tke ■umiy apptnt« far [ MflitMynf circliiriMj fctJMMa^n—deia the American 
t»>tin< the ^iratti gf ■uncs^ wfcfch » ■imBy dpt daily. Tb ' QwaWwIilti^wfcMiienl nili biii mak-or damaged 
fee t^ epcnMT in the ftnag sutioa kaov vIkb the CC of a by bIks or tarpedoe&. Fwam iks date oavaids moct Europeao 
muie hu b««ft stnack afei the viae is itody tA iR» a sboI ' watiam miiiiMiliil with bbcs. aad they woe actually used 
ckctncil appoimtts is proviied «a the ixiag stataaa for each . dariac the Faaca-Gcxaaa War of iS7o» the RaaBo-Toriush War 
fcwtp ^ BUMS. IVs attufcneat strikes a bdl whca theCC ' off 1S7S aad the Sp aaiah A MCPcaa War of 1S98. Bnt the most 
B «vcked aad aho duoes a break ia the iriac drcait. The iatcRstiac caaple «< aaae waffare was ia the attack and 
gfvnCM <aa thea <k»» the naa sakch aad fre the adae* deieaa of Ttet Aitkar doiac the KMHKjapaaese War (f .*.) ol 
4c i 4ict i^ oa :^ ccder to ""ire aS aaiaes that sisaal** he has i9or-o5 Both aate ased aechaakal aiBts oaly, and both 
a:r«s«i>r v{ccil^* i^ sua saificb. the ^ jg Myn t appaiatas«. ia the l ai tKd heavy haars boa the aaae vaifaic Ifiaes aad tor- 
act >k $trvuiC :be biciL coofifetes the aciocciicait A saaafar pedocs vac iat acradacBd ia&o the Easfish acrrice aboot 1863, 
picw sH av'kv^^^s 8» cMacctcd t* each itianbn faWiofai^ drfesoeaoaa be«( pfacvd ia the chas^ of the Royal Eagincers, 
t^* vVci|«<ciA.'a 4f the Gtrcttft olaagr iaeat the ohaernac statisa » abOe t a r p e diM aare i inl i n d by *e Bayal Niavy. Up to 
LK11 f.«v& 4 a^Boi a the ictac ifiriaa aad the iciac cacait is 1904 these a«R Bsae deieaas at mam. off the British ports, 
vva*»:.rv.'Ni bas ia that year the icspaasSaSty off aiaes was pboed on 

ri< XT i« SMtxtt caa be oa a mml aaaRd Bav the viae ' the aavy, aad aiaae tha the aiae drfeaces ha»« been much 
ac .:. ^c £ sNce xsully oa than, i^tte It caa be vade ahsa> fo daced. C^'. B. B.) 

X...-^> aev-une s^Siitsc soy inca ot attack. Baft the o tm rt lii^ MIUM .tknach Fr. Imb Laft. aal■afin^ icaenre troops, 
^A.v<» »«st Ve <ia;ihk»« to (r«T stahbl^to the oh otr^iac a»L aasiSEaaQe. boa safayvc ftesaly *" ta sit or icaialB behind 
to»cr£ai»cav i^ ciaax he cbax^ pcvc««t«d as ihcy aast or m saMive ~', aa aad. adbvcadoa. asHtaace fiaated especially 
biit< A sttoJ >?v«ojzc ^aaa$ the auK feewl bat caa he made « w^aeT. The aaed has a paRxafar aae ia eca aa aiic history 
XYr« jivva>i.nv*4.v«t& .a»ipcactkc. la Eaifisb b aaaij k is the yen! tews for a tax 

Cv «V'^>^^« *^:» heaved ^ s«^aBa::^ anis.. pea»r» kd gcaacedsothekaatVr^ifciasiii M^aaastiafaished from those 
aie*^vLS^ xKi.2» a&ir ukea «» «s^>k the chuye. Va: the cspA»> ^^aes. sack s ^he 1 1 \t \m^ daesi. aback aeie raised by the ro>-al 
»«« a^v^ a cKwat ao haadh aai is ia aoMt fcma! aw ti act ' isimw'n «f these sahafies thoe «ae HiHy varieties; sacfa 
r-'s^^'iv^^a «- .> a sauI ^ Tctoair aad detvcuor t<^ jtait aas the sakei^ sa caecsa of the obbobb oa aaot leather, wine 
^'vok TVe ^Mf.itaMcs !«r <iev*t7kal atiaes aR oa the ''^ kv or <k^ch eaye ruid or aiyaeoed by ahfow , fcner ritea d e d to other 
X -^svnx * ^•^cvor. Aks: )Sw tra( is eftKted ^r tW h e ata^ ^ « ' oetachs aai to aactvr e^aroos aai i siyatas (see Toukags 
sitnt.: *«n^-Y M «*r« caJed a "^ bca^* leaad aduch v rhK«d a ' ta» K<C3«ii£s' . thew aaa afae the t a lTi i f r ahkh M the 14th 
?>' tt.^ ^ h!^ ynixa J^ Aafsftat a awal baifs ot saJB^aae oeaeaey ^eoji the pkaoe of the oM t ai l a ' hwaea. Apart from 
« iKTvxrr . tkBsap^&acaaa the tesasLmaaadaB timesL is pankaMy applied 

rw .^kur:$e s coac a> a t< hi a »mS wi^i rswi. ak^ has a» )o the pecaaiBrr aia'mri W maHS af bs a ai i ii *c^ graea by 
** t.*va.n.'fi ** tx^sviw M> «taciJk the «fecteica£ aati nimioffi the ifeaae «» tedasaraC amfirakaigs 'aae Baaanr). Snb sid ies 
a:^.' i« C O '•'>«a «m^ v^wi iir jba t e^ a oim saiMs at* f ca a s t d >y the soaoe «» atojue i . Aaamdc or other artistic 
«&.- '» c^^f^c^vx. tx akd^a »)c mjai» >» M«e 4a tW WcMat «i:$c±xt3ia&. sacastaes^ Ac« aae paaaaly aqdei ' Hhocatioaa ** 
a>: i^K«^^. vr >aw«'uc wms^ TW a«^(^ 4ff chtt^ ii y Lat miaaoa*e. s»<oamaeAearfar> 

aN-vt w^ ^ «n\t :Ve sae <K a >««r«:ue case wo tl^ <cha;3fe SWCBBM Lac mtrrrmt fsom aaasid^i^ to falov aflcr) 
« ^ : >r v^tr xk^ it Aaaeatr C^w» ^ <iiacact «ii>«» aeo the wt off aaaoHidnc or it^am-wf, m off coaaew okjeoa, places 
V "v'^'a.. »)v>tf .^; it ft Ajji««*9e uc cift Wac t<»9> 1^ 4< fia^ :ia a ser^Rw lkt« Vtt parta.'ate^ or kas. the tBasmasmaa or 
^- •.•«. rv?" sp? w^*.'-* Jow7>^»^ i^w«a»c* * 7«w»'»,'teii s*c 9ia«da(«;«%e»voaa4aaa»aBac:aK. 

'^^ rr ik^^rak-? fts«c« r)o ■»» ikio*>>-K cwe» a^t mMMd V a l» «<o»< <»-<go» « hw i i o i 1 aa kassabomadefara nadjuit - 
>.. ' *r ^•. "c • < '<;-.■*' • -Hf ^,«c xvvM Nwi^ >« a *t\xt at« SNoe * <an^* or fa«M» .la :te aa'b off the hmaaa beings 
••--« ir a j«^— ^-^ -BiiMS; .1*^ ,% ^.# {^** rw ^"^St? k ^aw^ »*»? 4««m ami oa *.-«•* :te^ ."TiBiiama aa r^glft may be 
•. ' jTHi a»»»* a*. "^,xvK*vc «ri V a k,«« « «qocC mlna. Aa cvtt«v.t;ta«t taar ^o* 7»njic» ot «jaa. at saam omys Aay depead 
«.^'* 'v**^.^ » c«v. * r 'W ^^N" ^^ .>tvn,& 49 tV TovstiaoiHv 4r :.Mia «te ma oaasmaad with them: if 

•^ >r;'-..*Ts»«. « Ttur**. ct t» • .-v^Mce mme i^9«o»l «v «JS «v«i ^m a «er«:uc ^wi ac^vare a «^imi apmatt a certaia pessoa 
aa «v er'tuna ,^0.-^-.^ « .-hr A«v>see ati.'cv'tc^ %hv^ «Si »>»« ^v«r c&ja wH auu oi j oa c ^m h* ^ai^ Bk p eia a n al 
l««>l jtr^M J9 -IK- 4ijt VM iBv«vv*.4:xco <M ..K*- VK:A«i«tf- >» >» xs. vHfe^. aae c«aKn«imv miMKaamE aa dhe jmaasamcat off pn>> 
n t— fr «M w x.-^ tt>*.su&^ ■«* x\"^<?r ra*wr» . TVf >jia jir*-* t a >tewa Xic-^oa^ mam^t ;te oaftar < nw*H ta be 
4t ^.7H^ sr « A."^-^.^ s^ .V ac*. a9> a» 40wc».*« v 4e\ Ai» sOt^M. .>fcu 4«v« jiAtf«4*u Af -laoaar jia. aao: t±r arssal p^miur aiQ 
f*. T^ wr a."^ -■v?vw» aew 1* -^^^T?^ -** af* ^^ v*> a '** Jt-^viK.'t ifvooc v a |r««c «vi«c ja Ae 'i 
*^j- ?».=«' a»w ix»f ;r^^-J* *i«r»'!t.n«». a .*fr jv«»K?t /i *jf^ «v.m^ a ,W «»o«e * 3*e laceroa 
>.-ir!>- w*? .-« :afc_>'«^'^ jc a^^rafcA. X' w mk.'S^ c*t Jo ,|^ ?««"•.'■ « 4 vftnw ^wawr ^ ft watf 
< '• »*»; »• * .rr^-v^jt ' «r •*>« .".i"*«jir ^>e ••vr^c .2i.Nirtw >% a aa.T^i ^<a*^ :^(C!» ""mfcs ma^ 9e aa 

* ^ac---..:;^ ' VT :x. r.- <«». :nvK<t9^ ia^ «.:n ou^r imw» jv cX*. j» ^• < o l.»m mt^mi^ TV* ^>bI la liana m 1 
a- '•^ ♦ *9 aB<T*T»,-ca|: sae awMs^ %.*i:> * ,Nua^v<«'naiM». * *> •*v'n.>^ %i5«3^s^ JAas.'TrTma: lea 

«« ^^-t av ar. ;& Ji lu;^. fv «cv^m. uptvst. as ^a m a S - ttiat. Xr«ir»«er |» «eiiv^ a «A .aoaiK ^ 4 

>« w^s s av* lOae^^^ at .rsasAoik aai>«» aimM aK >» awt s^ «-tic«»MM a 3io : 

a «^ aBT^-* -rauk-'^oa^ /i*^ t a. :>» ^ 

*.:>.v«» r* -^r^-s.jc at«q^.VTsiaai 41 ^wmrut^Smt Wtib£>« oioai «'«ocii.v>M. i 

* -* m - *t ^ m aa<. r:*'* vMcsv *'».-rv-»a- v am •m* .a^ ca*x«K a» » «a*k 

a(RLt&c «*»> aikt TOkii^a^ mk -^»,^.tKx*i » j«r»> » me ^x> ^^^^.Sb*. avtK j« •ofiwr:- ^'v^ :no maul «a« 

jr.--:r> t.'-j^ w»« ama t^ mt *w*"v>aa». »> ^*"* aao a *'*T.'i ,-tw.-'^ 40 x ,'« 
r-* *:-->« *v.*na ibw^'at^ «a -■•I'^.-j^^o ai*-^j« «mfct »ie «»>aa ><m<c ^'lawr 

i."^ V a -'*?^ i» '^^. ne ^xMft«aA> 4S49II ao>>ai»fc.-m •^ W*a v«su* 

»<<« XiaMiaalm a afrj-rv^n^ v ra. we la wi^a at oaJK te»^ > ^nac^ i^ aiv<vv^ w«^ ^ mwi^ a jaRr i 
^Bc^a^ ^aa^ maim ^ :)r ^"" aiaii ^aor * mt. 4i^«^pc" ."««sv ^^ is. -^ «« «^ v ^«k^ •». j» t— a t m a» mtaaa 

mt * <{.::>« tw'n^j^ >«.u. »r> m*«* v : 







SUCCESSION 



ft if HtifftfTJrtk tlist even in the strict law of paternal power 
teamlatcd by tlie Romans an onemaadpatcd son was protected 
k his righta in repaid to things aoqnirefi in the camp {pictdkm 
eastemse) and later on this protection spread t9 other chattels 
(/»■*■■■ qmsycttttnmse). The personal character of this kind 
of pwni c ity has a dedstve Influence on the modes of succession 
to it. This pan of the inheritance is widely considered in 
csr^ law as stiU in the power of the dead even after demise. 
We find that many savage tribes simply destroy the penonal 
fccbogbiss of the dead: this is done by several Australian and 
Negro tribes (Post, Gnmdriu d«r tikntioiuchm JwUprudun, 
pp. 1 74-5) Sometimes this rule is modified in the sense that the 
gDods remaining after deceased penons have to be taken away 
by strangers, which leads to curious customs of looting the house 
of the deceased ■ Such customs were prevalent, for example, 
sw»g tbc North American Indians of the Delaware and Iro- 
qoob tribes. Evidently the nearer relations -xlare not take 
over such things on account of a ta^ rule, whik strangexs may 
sppropriatc them, as it were, by right of conquest 

The continuance of the relation of the deceased to his own 
thii^ gives rise in most cases to provisions made for the dead 
•at of fais penonal succession. The habit of putting arms, 
victuals, clothes and omamenU in the grave seems almost 
taircxsal, and there can be no doubt that the idea underlyfaig 
such usages consists in the wish to provide the deceased with aU 
asattcfs necessary to his existence after death. A very chai;- 
scteristic illustration of this conception may be given from the 
catems of the ancient Russians, as described about 921 by the 
Arabian traveller Ibn FadUan. The whole of the personal 
piupeuy was divided into three parts: one^third went to the 
family, the second third was used for making clothes and other 
woamenCs for the dead, while the third was spent in carousing 
oa the day when the corpse was cremated. The ceremony itself 
eoDsatcd in the following: the corpse was put into a boat 
•ad was dressed up in the most gorgeous attire. Intoxicating 
drinks, fruit, bread and meat were put by its side; a dog was cut 
iato two parts, which were thrown into the boat. Then, all the 
weapons of the dead man were brought in, as well as the flesh of 
two hones, a cock and a chicken. The concubine of the de- 
ce^ed was also sacrificed, and ultimately all these objecU were 
boned in a huge pile, and a mound thrown up over the ashea^ 
T^ descrfptioD is the more interesting because it starts from 
a <fiviaiott of the goods of the deceased, one part of them being 
affected, as it were, to his peisonal usage. This rule continues 
to be observed in Germanic law in later times and becaiae 
the starting point of the doctrine of succession to personal 
property In English law. According to GlanviDe (viL 5, .4) 
the chattds of the deceased have to be divided into three 
equal paru, of wUcfa one goes to his heir, one to his wife 
an! one is imi ^ td to the deceased himself. The same reser* 
vation of the third to the deceased himself is observed in 
Uagna Cbarta (c. a6) and in Bracton's statement of Common 
Law (foL 60), but in Christian surroundings the reservation 
of * the dead man's part " was Uken to apply to the property 
«Vch had to be spent for his soul and of which, accordingly, 
the Chuicb had to take care. This lies at the root of the com- 
mon law doctrine observed ontil the passing of the Court of 
?kbbate Act 1857. On the strength of this doctrine the 
b^bop WH the natursl administrator of this part of the 
penonalty of the deceased. 

Tbe saiceaiio n to real property, if we may use the English 
legal expression, is not governed by such considerations or the 
needs of the dead. Roughly speaking, three different views 
Bay be taken as to the proper readjustment in such cases. 
Taking tbe principal types in a logical sequence, which differs 
from the hjstorical one, we may say that the aggregate of things 
•ad daims relinquished by a deceased person may: (x) pass 
to lelatives or otbier persons, who stood near him in a way deter- 
aned by law. Should several persons of the kind stand 
ei^oally near id the eye of the law the consequence would be a 
divmm of the inheritance. The personal aspect of succession 
r^es in socb fystens of inheritance. (>) The deceased may be 



considered ps'ti' taboidlnate member of a higjher orgaidsai--* 
a kindred, a village, a state, ftc. In such a case there can be no 
succession proper as there has been no individual property to 
begin with. The cases of succession will be a rehipse of certain 
goods used by the member of a community to that community 
and a consequf nt rearrangement of righu of usage. The law 
of suocession^rill again be constructed on a personal basis, 
but this basis will be supplied not by the sngle individual whose 
death has had to be recorded but by some community or union 
to which this individual belonged. (3) The aggregate of goods 
and claims constituting what is commonly called an inheritance 
may be considered as a unit having an existence and an objea 
of its own. The drcumstanoe of the death of an individual 
owner wHl, as in case a, be treated as an accidental fact. The 
unity of the Inheritance and the social part played by it will con- 
stitute the ruling considerations in the arrangement of succession. 
The personal factor will be subordinated to the real one. 

In practice pure fonns corresponding to these main ooncep* 
tlons occur seldom, and the actual systems of succession mostly 
appear as combinations of these various views. We shall try 
to give briefly an account of the following arrangemenu: (1) 
the ypMl family in so far as it bears on succession; (a) 
tolmntary assoeiaU&HS among co-hdrs; (3) dmtian of inheri- 
tance; (4) united succession in the shape of prim^iemtmri and 
of junior rigid. 

The large mass of Hindu juridical texts representing customs 
and doctrines ranging over nearly 5000 years contains many 
Indications as to the existenoe of a jMitf /aintfy which was 
considered as the oorporate owner of prc^rty and therefore 
did not admit in principle of the opening of succession through 
the death of any of its members. The father or head of such 
a Jomt family was in truth only tbe manager of its property 
during lifetime, and though on his demise this power and right 
of management had to be regulated anew, the property itself 
could not be said to pass by succession: it remained as formerly 
in the joint family itself. In stating this abstract doctrine 
we have to add that our evidence shows us in practice only 
characteristic e6kisequences and fragments of it, but that- we 
have not the means of observmg it directly in a consistent 
and complete shape during the comparatively recent epochs 
which are reflected in the evidence. It is even a question 
whether sudi a doctrine was ever absolutely enforced in regard 
to chattels: even in the earliest period of Hindu bw articles 
df personal apparel and objects acquired by personal will and 
strength fell to a great extent under the conception of separate 
property. Gains A science, art and ttaft are mentioned in early 
itaatances as subject to special ownership and corresponding 
rales of personal succession are framed in regard to them 
OoOy, Tagore lectmts on PartUion, InkerHanu and Adoption^ 
94). But on the other hand there are certain categories of 
movable goods which even in later law are considered as belong- 
ing to the family community and incapable of partition, «.f. 
water, prepared food, roads, vehicles, female slaves, property 
destined for pious uses and sacrifices, books. When law became 
rationalized these things had to be sold in order that the pro- 
ceeds of the sale sbouM be divided, but originally they seem 
to have been regarded as owned by the joint family though 
used by its single members. And as to immovables^Iand and 
houses'^they were demonstrably excluded in ancient customary 
law from partition among co-hein. 

In Greek law the most drastic expression of the joint family 
system is to be found in the arrangements of Spartan households, 
where brothers clustered round the eldest or ** keeper of the 
hearth'*^ (^tfnavAfiier), and not only the management of 
fihiity property but even marriages were dependent on the unity 
of the shares and on the necessity of keeping down the offspring 
of the younger brothers. With the Romans there arc hardly 
any traces of a primitive family community exchiding succession, 
but the Celtic tribal system was to a great extent based on this 
fundamental conception (Seebohm, Tribal System in Walts), 

* The trrm Ulustratei tbe Intimate connexion between inheritance 
and hMnriiold religion in ancient Aryan cwttom. 



snJccBssiati 



•Ji4 STCftt-fmndUtktr bdd to(ct)wr in icgud to Und. The 
cvoseqiMMce vas iIai. tUlMutk aepanie plots utd bowc* wctt 
cvvamKaty luu t ij for tbe osn o( tl« siMlkr Umiliet included 
vxiba tht hiter ink* ibc death of the priacipel bfooght ahoot 
«o tS^aoIiatmi of sheics first p«t sHrpn and ukimatdy pu 
^■iijHM oMil the 6m1 hctakmp of thecoamwBity mn it reacbod 
the stac^ of the vreat-fiandMoa of the origiaal founder. Beit 
the MOit ckhocote ejrstea of fanaly ovacnhip ii to be ohscrvcd 
ia the Mcstory of the Utcat coMcn among the Aryan races—the 
StAW In ibc backward Mountain Rciona wbkh they occmpied 
w the EallLan PcnMasula aynd in the entdemess of the Coretts and 
»c«9r» of Eastern Europe they devekped many chanctcastk 
tr^&l instt^itaoos and. aaaonc theae« the joint famiiy, the 
««.*-•(«. wACwsi^aaa. The hoft krnUy oomnvnities of the 
tc^ihctm Suit's have been dcscnbed at kngth by nocnt obscrven, 
«.-c xSen can be »» doubt that their loou c» bach to a distant 
po^t sare Vitiji«K CoMHVKtrusK There b no toon in them 
K< satcvcssNn proper: nhat hna to be provided for b the con^ 
t-r. ^ of bies^aciR aiiaitnnmi by ddcrs nnd the rcpaititioa of 
r^^^ «f Vance and aaainietiaaDe, n r«patti;ioa lait^* depcn- 
<k'rt on ^n^r^vs^ c«$■^a«ts and on the poi.cy cf the «b»v«-incn> 
CKttcd <r»kf!k In Rttss^ the a»<aUcd Urgt jsmuy appeon as a 
cro>:)t k» extenax^ appuoaxion of the aaaae idea. It extends 
n^-\> '^xvr rvce ihta iLire ptneratiois^ b«t even as a d^festcr 
« vKB^cfS pi:hcr^4 aixvutd n (randuthcr or a crcat^uacVc 
K p.TsettO aa arr&a^aaeot mh>ch fe'jLinpcrft CK^tb pnvate cnict^ 
fcx aivi »f ax>e» \x1 ».Mxxs$^oa unu* the caocsc&i «bca th« ireat 
hk>««hjMd bcc&is ip between the deaoendama of a c:eai><iand- 

U t>rrvt*>: ^aw o» catch n |:J'»pe* «f n state of th';:;$s bi 
%^c^ «Mf Tif*;:vTaB! virre nc4 ax^suued tc» sactetsNoi at all 
TVr FrtyVt<* Vo.vt « OT.vtv v\ tw 5*t^ tt£» us that if soooe^ 
K^.^ ^■>i m «>v«j; >e«\\.%s s^r^ or o\cj\:tr!v > * beochcr m;»» to 
««octed Sju a]»d aM< V-* ?»<»vti'iv>».?* \%^ r».-i;\ Pk5 Su to 
(le ^fotfc-oed ai» a i»<vi.ivi»vN* <t :be <wv>rt ni)e nccorc rjt lo 
%*-v^ ;W TT i:>Sn-t> saucvwNiM »>si nc; ibe WvvWf. Vriee 
* Tv-;y)-Sv>*;r* »* c*»-x.>« «'Nrx'iN:*>,i n>c%>v p«v*^>c <vcwct«d 
%•' V » T«'•>v^* k^ fevNv-r- X *•< w<; ^-r^rrA. ^«t wiK** ► -^ ki->w<-? 
tf ;K-».r «s:i*' o^TMK-ix x** 7»f^c^^v^•^k TV t*rt tlut i»*.N3><x 
•.N-n-np » *pc.orv-K >v*xT ,v«v>NVvr nM i^.vV ttcar «,*,n^^3 as 

f4KV^r<sv,v ,*v ^^n* t*c Ai.^*.y..-r«. *v «.-,•>.-: .wv. .a a «<\ «V >->> 

*"V-^ «:?r Tfc\'*:rins- A' a x«f> a.vS»'C ATiLr,<jr?r»rT>k i\i*.v. ^s? a 
^Cnse .-ihfc c^^TiiT..*. i* K>;*\x*a iV rv.vNrrs^ x-^i a k>cr«\* 
S«v*> » ,''ATi»i-K'M,/» c^ "w jt.xv'TK la »A,« K>f v>">;x»T«i ^*v .!<«• 

u- •• '»>v li* <» ?v- .* a yw-N' VT »v *** K ? >^o,v^r 
*s. v^ Q» 1 rN'>4ir *»N .*»■*. *N*^ Tvr a J ; .%» . ,Nt ).»> ■s.vsi csvvr 
^ Kt itc - vn K-»< Tv.r; <»• ;K"' fv-ws^Tv^ «i*sxv >•*» a*v- >; 
«t %v> -swiv ♦I ■•v.",\ ,K«: ;Kt^ a.-v >V<- »• vv* *-^nanx %* 

jl*\"Of "*^ »t •«^** Ni»""« '-♦ x> 'A '-^ Nv^ Wv*^ *Kr "\tA> - •>s » ,v 

,s,v^ C*w :K"-T o. ». K' -v' % - ». V • vv * n v»v, ^n^-»* 
V. -^ •^^ V '--■-• - '• ^ .vv. jN.v ,»' -v K v),x 
•TNf ••*. v^ .^ ;*v. V ■»%'^" ■ ^x V\ . • *^s .> ^> s s^. . >v 
^ .^s >. WV•'.^V■ •» KV~ "•*" i.'*r».\V|^ K 4> A ,*^' ,\ »»,■>■ W 

•^j^ jV-,. s.^S U V A-^v^V^^V^K xN '^vVr^s.vM tv N-,-««.-? ,N 

„ , 1^ 1 - 4« ^"VMV s" »» »• o^ «»*f <* *^-> 'VN ^'^ •• ■'^ 

v« ■. ^fc-w^H.-* » .»•« ^»*v a* V *«»'»»■ *. ». . •» 
a«*i^-(*iK. ^v***»a K \ w^riii V. > y* s> i-^-.. .. tv ^^ > ,v^ 

^ ^^\ H^l9r iht **«^«*««»i»* h»**>f ^<*^ ^ ,K Hk*^♦s»^^•x 

. Mil r:inr>r^ira^^ ^4 t oaMK\v>M> W«. u ^«m»w««. .k^ 



iCMlte TUsdidnotptcdndethe 
possibility of any one aaioac the sfaarehoUeffs daiming bin ova 
portion, in ivhkh case put of the property had to be meted 
out to hiaa noooiding to fair oonputation (nasioano). THere 
waft no legal ronsifiini over the shareholders to remnin in 
eoaamon: division could be bcou^ ahoat either by comoion 
oaoKut or by daians of individuals, and yet the constant occur- 
BDoe of these settlcaaents of co-hein shows that as n matter of 
fact it was moiCLpmfitnfaie to keep toeether and not to break 
up the unit of property by division. The customary union of 
oo>heirs appears in tUs way as a oorrective of the strict legal 
pcindple of equal righu bei««cn hein of the same degree. In 
English practice the jomt management of oo*hcirs b not so fuUy 
described but there can be no doubt that under the-older Saxon 
rale ndmitting heim of the same degree to equal righu in 8uc> 
ccssiott the interests of wnnnmir ettdency wcf« commonly pre- 
served by the carrying on of fwmmon husbandry without any 
reafaatian of the umunient dahns which would have broken 
op the object of tm < >^v <m Thb nocounts for the fact that 
notyjihuandtt^ the prcvalcnrp among the cady English of 
the rule admitting aH the sons or heirs in the same position to 
equal shares in the inheritance^ the organic units of hides, 
yardlandSk &r. am kept up in the course of centuries. In 
the manapement of scxaDrd psasEHad sncoession in Kent 
partition was legally passible and came sometimes to be effected, 
but there was the cnstoeaary reaction against it in the shape of 
keeping up the " yokes ** and ** wiinngs " A trace of the same 
kmd of a7.>Mi between oo^^esrs appears in the so<alled >«raft 
rnaaaini liessooetcnmeaocax-l :n Deaotsday Book. 

In all these cases the pnac4)ae of onioB and joint asanage- 
tsent B kept np hy pcra y croaomic aaeans and considerations. 
The kml prasib^ry ot part.: oa b adaxittcd by the side of iU 
It b atercsusg to vatck i«o <i.Teigcni fines of farther develop- 
lacnl St^rrr^r^e from tHs cce. j ea sonrve; on the one side we 
are the tell rv-xjatic^ d iac«v ideal q^ resulting ia frequent 
di%isKe»: OQ the «hcT &ie «e watch the rise of legal restraints 
«n s%Si.\^r^ resw J=|: in the cstahfisheaent, jn respect of 
otnam ca:(^>nes of ?cv-pesty, of rales e wind in g the piurality 
«>« Sf3s fee the sake of TTsservmg the vniiy of the boosciiold. 
TVr ant $Ttcn> i^ «' crczse. aost easly carried owt in oountdes 
^ Vte issi ^-c.^us^v trres «f ^a binAj psevaiL la Europe 
:t » rs5«ecM S rvr^-iirr: rr the soc.-^ wkh its tctcnse cultivation 
«< ;S^ an^Jc xr^ -^ ^a.^k3 cc vine aad oKve growing. We 
*>c- not w.'ccifr. tSspeaoct. that the cmcsirictcd sobdivisioa 
*'%•«»? Sr-r* » ^rr^-Ttsrr^.-i most rmmU'.eiy by Roaaan law. 
Ncc t«» S.-VJV cc :W urs Lhat aireaiy h: the XDL Tables the 
^ "- '^ r->ir « c^.Sec»tanoe aas cccadered to be inheritance 
^^ * . ^^ V n.ss x..e «>r-oessos csaae i£ as a snfaaidiary ex- 
.>:v:,ti «c >«»v u" -vcc^ :^xs r^eee b an check on the dis- 
rx-Tsvs* rf« r'wv- *• aaxv"^ Vcs oc the same depee. The only 
<.>•»* y» » ncTK o .-^.. * oir^wtrjiy may be iMmd in the 
'•>- '»«^' ^"* ^v" »WT ii—. , ,»if V.-? at the T ofvw) and ktreda 
,.t .-•.■» „vN.w K' -s^ A >J« accsasee* The fcrsi entered by 
;N-»* <^»- res. x'N.- r,vit ^.>»essi:tt «i prvpesty which had 
^.v^^J^^t v -K-w w- > •, csrt dD^-r^ iWir ancestor's We- 

.V u .t «-• :v-c ou n* •-.Tie tSew -rJLtaowship to the 
.x\v*^* XTC ^ > cv ivx p i-t >»£» a d-^T hoid on the property 
>* vvvN vwi ».x A-v .^^; he r^'l aw «f ancirnt Rome 
«^V4 Nv CV1- .-M. . V. ^v>T :.T>.- hf siaw pr.ic- pie b represented 

* ' : . •• X • VN ^.. V* r* - ,-- -rm K^oaaa law or strongly 
»r •^v v.v *» < >*»-v- Tv-v *^ w .^« frtiK^ Cidt Cia£/, oen 
.K- « >> v^ ,Kc A*iv- .-x ti'^^ ■ <^ .*» c.-Mjcsf <•' such succession 
*> -w v-wxt .^T »tti,' t % u. Ai^- ,'j^ i25 A h» ciJ^iren of their 

U .1,- o^• -«. %-!.> -Vs^ .y,,,^ ^- «coeasian fxscvailjig in 
x%-.. ..>^/ o,M»*-v>^ «.« r.^c .he M-o«& r^o^ee^sg from 
""*'** .V wvx *,x- >. '^>cH ^it'^vxr?'^ j« ^'•wdU;5c: ikvdopiog 
.*s- ,.v^xi v.»».s J* t^-^Tc* AT *»i^*-iaaa. la Scandi- 
^ ' »*« «* .>^ xf . X A *x» «. cvr'-rawi >? the Xorvegiaa 
V ,x- -vnv. cs. ^ ft^ «. ^ht owsnl;>-. mhich, 
K» K .,;:-! - -^ )a«ie de9or»<!«d thro;:gh 
^ ^iK »^m^>. ^'*^- be ^i^csMd aad 



K ••♦ v\ 



*.*1 ^««V*««.MU« 



SU(CCBSSION DUTY 



Miniated at pletsure. Th«y sre coM&kred as' fa'ghtly bcbag- 
ing to the kindred with which a historical connexion has been 
establisbcd. In order to keep these estates withinl the kindred 
they &re to descend chiefly to men: women are edtnitled to 
property in them only in exceptional cases. Originally it is 
ofJy the daughter of a man who has left no sons and the sistei^ 
of one who has left no children and no brothers that are admitted 
to take Odal at if they were men. Nieces aad hf8tH»nisins are 
sdmftted in the sense that they have to pass tht property to 
their nearest male heir. They may, in certain eventuaUties, 
be bought oat by the nearest male relative. A second peculiarity 
of Odal consists in the right of relations descending frbm one of 
the common ancestors to prevent strangers from acquiriDg Odal 
est ale. Any holder of sudi an estate wfaft wtnts td sell it in its 
mtircty or in pcfftion has first to apply to his relatives and they 
may acquire the estate at the price proposed by a stranger leu 
one-fiftlu Even if no relative has taken advantage of this 
privilege an Odal estate sold to a stranger may be bought back 
into the family by compulsory redemption if the rekuives 
SQbseqnestly find the means and have the wish to resort to 
SQch redemption. Odal right does not curtail the claims of the 
younger sons or of any heirs in a similar position. As a matter 
of fact, however, customary succession in Norwegian peissant 
(arailies sets great price on holding the property of the household 
v«{l together. It is keenly felt that a gaard (farm) ought not 
to be parcelled up into smaller holdings, and in the coaomon 
case of several heirs succeeding to the form, they generally make 
op among themselves who is to remain- in charge of the ancestral 
hcTisehoid: the rest are compensated in money or helped to 
start on some other estate or pcfhapsr in a cottage by tbeside 
of the priDcipai house. In medieval: Englaad, France and Ger- 
many the same coftsidsrations of economic ieffidtnoy are felt 
15 regards the Iteeping up of united holdings^ aad it may be said 
that the lower we get in the scale of property the stronger these 
consideratioas become. If it is possible, though not pcfhaps 
profitable, to divide the property of a large farm, it heooaaes 
sitnost impossible to breakrup the smaller ttait&*-^«HtaUKl 
▼srdlands and oigangs. Through being parcelled up'^ initio 
small plots, lamf loses in value, and, as to cattte, it is impossible 
to dfn^de one ok or one horse in spetU wtthout- selling them. 
Ko w ow ler that we find practices and ccstoms of united suc^ 
cnsioa arising in direct oontfadiaion with the ancient nde thiit 
afl heirs ol the same degree should be admitted to equal shares. 
GliDviUe mentions expressly that the socagers of his time held 
partly by undivided succession and partly by divided inherit* 
ance. The relations of feudalism and serfdom contributed 
sirongly towards creating such individual tenancies. It waS 
cmainly in the interest of the lord that his men, whether holding 
a militajy fief or an agricultural farm, should not weaken the 
TaJ«e of their tenancies by dispersing the one or the other 
an^ng heirs. But apart from these interests of over-lords 
there was the evident self-interest ol the tenants themselves 
a&d thereJbre the point of view of unification of holdings is by 
BO means confined to servile tenements or to miliMuy fi(f& 
The qioestton whether the successor should be the eldest 
joa or the youngest son « a secondary one. The latter 
pcftctice was very prevalent all through Europe and pro- 
duced in England what b termed the Borough English 
r^. The quaint name has been derived from the contrast 
m point ot succession between the two parts of the borough 
of Nottingham. The French burgesses transmitted their 
tcDements by primogeniture, while in the case of the English 
trrxnts the youngest sons succeeded. A usual explanation 
of this passage of the holdings to the yotingest is found in the 
fact that the youngest son remains longest in his father's house, 
vhde the elder brothers have opportunities of going out into 
the world at a time when the father is still alive and able to take 
care of his land. This is ^clf in keeping with the view that 
cast Aj p ft Of tmlted succession arise in conncxbn with compcnsa- 
tr« provided for co-heirs waiving their claims in regard to 
KtiJenent in the original household. The succession of (he 
Tuuisest appears also very characteristic in so far as it iUastrttes 



the bfcak up Into tnall teoaBcics, is the youngest b the family 
is certaialy not a fit represenutive of hierarchy and authority 
and could not have been meant to rule anything but his own 
restricted household. 

One more feature of the ancient Jaw of suocessioii has to be 
noticed in conclusion, via. the exclusion of women from 
inheritance in land. There can be no doubt that as regards 
movable goods women held property and transmitted it on a par 
with males right from the earliest time. According to Germanic 
conception perM)nal ornaments and articles of household f umi> 
ture are specially effected to their use and follow a distinct line 
of succession from woman to woman (Gerade). Norse law puts 
women and men on. the same footing as to all forms of property 
eqluoted to ^* movable money " (Ldsdre); but as to land there is 
a prevalent idea that men should be privileged. Women are 
admitted to a certain extent, but alwa}^ placed behind men of 
equal degree. Prankish and Lombard law originally excluded 
women from inheritance in land, and this exclusion seems as 
ancient as the patriarchial system itself, whatever we may think 
about the position of affairs in prehistoric times when rules 
of matriarchy were prevalent. A common-sense explanation 
of one side of this doctrine is tendered by the law of the Thurin- 
gians (Lex Anglorum ei Werinorum.ct), It is stated there thai^ 
inheritance in land goes with the duty of taking revenge for the 
homidde of rehitiycs and with the power of bearing arms. One 
of the most potent adversaries of this system of exclusion proved 
to he the Church. It favoured all through the view that land 
should 1>e transmitted in the same way as money or chattels. 
A Frankhh fonnula (Marcutf) shows us a father who takes care 
to endow his daughter with a piece of land according to natural 
affcctKHi ia Spite of the stria law of his tribe. Such instnmients 
Were strpn^yibocked by the Church, and the view that women 
ihould be admitted to hold land on certain occasions had made 
Ms way in England as early as Anglo-Saxon times. 

AWTHOUffTiBs.— Mayne, Hindu Imp and Usage C1878): Julius 

ifyi OtUimes ola HUUt^ QJ ike Hindu Law ef PaiiUion, Inheritance 

fsd AdoUioH (Tagore law lectures) (Calcutta, 1884); B. W. Lcist, 



(2nd ed., 1904); the same, Tribal Cui' ' ' ' " 

(1902); Artx>isde Jubainville, La FamtUe 

Institutionen dis d^utxhen PrkniruhtSt 

Deutsche ReektsgeschichU (vol. i., 2nd.''ed. 

SuchuHgen zur Erbenfolge (Innsbruck, il 

Branch der SUd-Shveni bollock and M« 

taw. M. (i895)-, Kenny, Law of Primegenii 

The Cfnath of Ike Manor (I905): Brand 

Mitshistorie KrisUania (1880); Boden. ' 

ZeitxhriU der Savignystiftung fur Rec 

xxiii.): ri. Brunner, "Der Totenthctl ' ... ....« »...,. <<>,.N^n^. ... 

(Gcr. Abth. xix); L. Mtttcis, R&nrisehes Prieatreehi (I908), 
vol. i.; Fnstel de Coal^ges, La CiU antique (4th ed., 1872). 

(P. Vi.) 
. fiUCCBSSIOII: D9TY, in the English fiscal system, "a tax 
pkiood on the gratuitous acquisition of property which passes 
on the death of any person, by means of a trvisfer from one 
person (called the predecessor) to another person (called the 
successor)." In order properly to understand the present 
state of the English law it is necessary to describe diortly the 
state of affairs prior to the Finance Act 1894— an act which 
eff^ted a considerable change in the duties payable and in the 
mode of assessment of those duties. 

The principal act which first Imposed a succession duty in 
England wias the Succession Duty Act 1853. By that act a 
duty varying fromi to 10 % according to the degree of con- 
sanguinity between the predecessor and successor was imposed 
upon every succession which was defined as "every past or 
future disposition of property by reason whereof any person 
has or shall become beneficially entitled to any property, or 
the income thereof, upon the death of any person dying after 
the time appointed for the commencement of this act, either 
immediately or after any interval, either certainly or contin- 
gently, and either originally or by way of substitutive limitation 
and every devolution by law of any beneficial mterest in pro- 
pertyi or the income thereof, upon the death of any person dying 
after the lime appointed for the commencement of this act to 



SUCCINIC ACID 



•ny oihtr ptrton In poiMMioA or txpectancy.** The property 
which U liable lo piiy the duty \t in realty or leaeehold estate 
In the UnilfHl Kii^rdom and personalty— not subjea to legacy 
duty which the beneficiary claims by virtue of En^iah, 
^\^ttUh or Irish law. IVrtonahy In England bequeathed by a 
pemvi domiciled abroad la i>ot subject to succession duty. 
$u\i:e»iuv)ns ol a husband or a wife, successions where the princi- 
(Vil \>alue is under £ioo» and individual successions under £3o» 
are evemivt from duty. Leasehold property and personalty 
directed to be convertc^l into real estate aie liable to sttcccssion» 
not to legacy duty. Special provision Is made (or the collection 
of vUitv in the cases of joint tenants and where the successor 
» aKk> the |uevltce«»or. The duty is a first charge on property, 
but it the pr(,H^rty be parted with before the duty is paid the 
UaNIuv of the successor b transfened to the alienee It is, 
th<rcK><x>^ usual in requisitions on title before conveyance, to 
iWmMKi tvv the Y>n'4ection of the purchaser the production of 
iVN^^^tii Kw sucvr«Mon duty, as such leceipts are an effectual 
l^^<\tiv>A notvitth^tandtng any suppression or nusstateesent 
iu the acvount on the footing of which the duty was assessed 
04 anv \tviiui*wir«Ky of such asssenment. TKe duty is by thb 
act a>iT\tc\l to be asw«9«vl as follow<»: on personal property, if 
t V »\»v\^?sM>r tale« a limited estate, the duty is assessed on the 
(v;*;^vi\naI vaKit of the annuity or \>Mri>' income estimated 
♦v\v«i\»» »^ t\^ the i^rnvxl during which he is entitled to receive 
tK^ v%.^t;uit\ or xvvktt> incwnr^ and the duty is payable in four 
wt-N \'v<jiUiwtti* tire ttom intemtt. If the sucvtssor takes 
a\>svc;c^ he vvn.x'* in a lu'^tp fum duty on tWe principal vahsn. 
\N> rvMl iv\^v«t\ the vt\K:v k» |MkVAt>hr in e<|^ht kalT-Yearly insial* 
«^v >• X % '^^v^*, \-*;<^vvi <« the cjk|Ht aI vAloe ol an annuity equal lo 
l^^' A^ » .vkl X A>is< v^ I V jvv^vrt V, V*nott» minor cbangm ^ie» 
» . ' . V 1^ t he v'\irfv<»\* aisl I nU«>d RexYnue Act t$$;i , permnal 
rv I v^ v-^Srt , ^^^ % vre r\r-'*n'* <^*^ »>" t he tTustoms and Inland 
K, «v«>«v^ \v« \:>c<^ atr AvV \ vVkjil \ \ w\a» <Wi^ on swcceaswna 
*SvM,\ |Mc^v»^ »\ as** an asKviM«al i|% on s»KC«aMtts 
jMx- ^^ •vce *>a* \ V »x the i.^a>iv>«» and Inland Revemse 
V,, N^^* 4J) *<v \».swi i-o <e »*.^ viSicd eatai* duty w«s 

V>4^ ^ <M^> ^x^ i:^va a»i i^fi«» edkvted W|» ckan^tn m 
•sV ^^-x* i\^>*^J«' va *VA.V vK.>e «^*i see Us.r%r« IVn: 

jrw.« wv'ii 4* ,K* <>^*.h' c*.v> ;Sxv^\ cwaXAi sX^J-ii ^rv^Aie , 
.•vk- itv*«* vt *S' >.-v vtto^ ,'^^».v* T*<ir«;>.Ni>i.>i aS.*\>rv V^a;<» | 
4.'v ct , ..Vie , wc t .W otev 4< %%».»« y« v J^' *t Jk«v>MiS«t>i' 

*^ \tt: A W .Hwvrv* •.*. .^t* «.>u«< X4jt«tw a** xWoi^ *,J:i. 
^« sv >■ ii;>v . nvi -x n.otr< *i Ji** »^ ^'It-^pevkSiK W 
^ . v»^i. ->^vv\>!>.cu ,»*iv V* x-v 51. U :^»'«JB>ie j» cwm» wWc*- 
• X --v. 1.*^ j\. « * i>K , ij.-5«>j. S<i. sufc^ case* aw ^ skmm^ 

I *^ .♦• •» ,t..- ••I**, {'^t *>. A"!.-* ,-»! ,W ^W^ >.► J'^x v»» VK^ 

^'» 'Kwt .* » o •*-* V V . .V 3S t^ ' . v'.VW » ••*».>. J%» 

j>^. -^ ^. . >: N NV ** -w. V-»«, 1^•'^ S'-V. .NV "♦,' ><X\,NV» 

■.^-.^ .»..-►»• V * ' •'*• '^»*- "* *"*^v V«> Xx»» '*i,'%^N*v>r *» 
.»■.!-».»»*. '» «.B *> *v '>.,«»«.*•* <» V*. X»*.»,« V* V- ■* -'C^ J->v' 

«■ N-^ -.*..'-'>«<%■- .. '^^ > •-..>«. V '.Xr^ H^'^V -.. ^ W^VV .>» 
.. • : - - -^^ *.>■>>.. -w* -v- 're* -x' V'*'**** «».V»^'«V 

> "Nuv^ «*.■.♦—•««.■««■ *» wf^ -> 'V-iw V %.«:^-Mw ■^•■'nv**.' 1 * 

•* -«^.« f %,*wH 'K W» *. -v- -*•• *'*- « V •• * J*>""»*i »».'^ 
» ^-..^ ^ V^ r<. .» *■:• ••'> >••• • ■• ■■*.« -^^vv-Nss*,-* ..>afK, 

,K* ' ^tt < X' *''^'* *« ^ IW JWII P »^ * •^^^'K >v *>, . X -k. •» 
U%. -WM ■ ^ lb' «««••■> I W I II^" . JNfr W ^taa^V i^ t« IX«*K*. •)«. 

3a» w*^ * *ar aMHtt- «• ^i^ nvMn»^ 4* «K K>.<«i> .x v 



fUOCnnC kCOK CACCOiHV two adds GorrespondiBg 
to this empizkal formula are known— namdy ethylene suc- 
cinic add, H(XC-CHi-CUa*COiH and ethyltdeoe succinic acid 
CH»CH(COsH)». 

Eikyltm sMuink add occurs in amber, in various resins and 
lignites, in fhwiliird wood, in many members oC tbe n&tunl 
orders of Papnveraceae and Compositae, in unripe grapes, 
urine and blood. It b also found in the thymus gland of calves 
and in the spleen of cattle. It may be prepared by the oxidation 
of fats and of fatty acids by nitric add, and b abo a product of 
the fermentation of malic and tartaric adds. It b usually 
obtained by tbe dist illation of amber, or by tbe fermentation of 
caldum malate or ammonium tartrate. Synthetically it may 
be obtained by reducing malic or tartaric adds with hydriodic 
add (R. Sdunitt, Amm^ iS6o^ 114, p> 106; V. Dessaigncs, ibid., 
iMo^ Its, p. ISO; by reducing fumaiic and makic adds with 
sodium amalgam; by heating faromacetic add with silver to 
ijo* C; in small quantity by tbe oiidation of acetic add wiLh 
potaastumpersulphate (C Moriuand IL Wolifenslrin, Btr,, iSgg. 
31. pw s$34); by tbe hydiolysb of socdnonitrile (Croen ethylene 
dibromkie) CJIr^»IUBir-»OiI«(CN)s-»CsU«(CQai)s; by the 
hydrolysb of ^<yanprapianic ester; and by the condensatioa 
of sodiomalonic ester witk anonockloncetic ester and hydrolysb 
0ftlKresaltingetbanetricaibnxyficcsfter(R0kC)aCHCH3C0>R; 
thb SMthod b applirahk to the picpnntian of substituted 
sttccamc acids^ It b nbo peodwced by the dcctrolysb of a 
rinrinttHi il imhuifm nf pnlsiiinmilbjlmalnnitr 

II ctyataUmes inpnssmnr pbtcs whkh mck at 1S5* C. and boil 
at ^5* C witk partial i,imwiiiim imn the anhydride. It b 
vsn^ aelubk in water. Aqueous wdntint of the add are 
decomposed in lunMghl by ueaninm sahSk witb evolution of 
cnibon dioiade and the fenmataon of pnpianac ncid. Potassium 
liumsngpniii m acid T^Tirmu orirHar^ It to caiboo dioxide 
asid watce. Tbe sodMoa sak on distiSainm with pbosi^nis 
ttisal^>hicle gives thMphcwe. Ibe cstess «i the acid condense 
readily wkh mocsatic aiiehydea and Ihmm.! to form 7-di- 
lubttitwtid dtaconac ac»^ and i aftyirn pyimartaric adds 
tH. Stn^be^ ^wn^ i&ww jiA p^ i:^- f-Osqacids are fonned 
wiwn aldrhvdks aie bosfced wkh sedocm wnrrinnle aad sodium 
acetate. Xtmsfraui sabs «d the acid aie known, the basic 
^efnc sak btun^ wccnsasmaily used in gnmlimisi nnalysb f « 
tbe aiMntion of iiun fitvm i^wmrMs 



.5^vi^« ,LJrni^. 4^£iMd Vr 



CO*- 



vXV 



NvV 



Nxa^an 




v.^> « vV ;^\ K .^frr^niM y« taK-jiif cW aoA «r «» sndlwm SAh with 
«k>rt.v *»\«v:t>iir S> tW^KTutt jtasko*. cte«nit«w the baiima salt; 
>% vi^ •uit)(. « ■n.'Carv 4« su-vunc a.^ «»£ suodoTi chiande. or by 

Vm f^ »^co t".- , » t,%'cis ^'t \ uxif •:rryx& jxaSc arxL k ciyAal&zcs 

"^ > xV«^ ^>i:«AS«^r >■ wac*!r wict 9he immmHi wl the acid. It 

^v«n»^uttf«( vts^rt^N %>!. ) ^>«- iwces>giiiiwiiiO«mihi us f 

i j:*'***. >j*. "»*.».•.«> %v%.> » ASM- -Vxi.-w^f <a,l _ 

V, It -aivx-u %^ "i ,'^'<i 'JB* It .^n^'urtrs iKsAe^m ■kiih inch 

»: ^ >- » A^'' v' «ve ^ «t^N ^v«u>rwf a wipr ^hee manned viih 

».*>j «n.> 4>v^^K^^. ^.nitnjuia «.' .^Af*' C- c -p^'Ts saKcaBSEiVSr. The 
.ni io^ \..,,KviM v'.-m 5. ,-^->s.*Ni •T;'.w.va'i ix -necxSk. XXss="jtioo 
% . > tn«v~ ,»•>£ {r^vk ?*•-»?» c • ?•• ::>* ur^vai ef Wceune ta 
iB.'-v»i «c '^'v\> N>« t V o<fM<«"Tt»t lacv ^«Mai^e«^HaBic ndd. 
C^- *'^'^Mt> V ..^.w. X VA. "-j.K )«p< j«n:«mM >« -^T ■— ^iM rt iwmrinii 

^^^L' x\ ,^,- *. H.^,vNc it Kv w-' 5*,^ jf w .i; A. C-H,.CNS. 
>. v>^^ - XX >« '^K* *.' v-N* j% •v-rG«sc<iTtt <«aRide «ei e thyl ene 
■^>«o>w»jir j« >« ?V- «<>.—< >vacK .-« X -v^uaam. 4C pmnaBHSi c>mB- 
^xv*^ V IK 4i* *a>^<f<x>>iis^ »,>.v ^-^ATfc ««it» «e $#-5^* O On 

4A.^v^ sM % v% "Wt.. •« .1 Mv >>. V sAUUMft^ ai ^''■eiCk aetxaech\fene 



SUCHER—SUCKLING 



the byvlralyas ol ^-^vABlnityrki ftcid. It cfyit Bm iw 
which nKK at 112* C. and are aolubte in water. It 
aiifary<kide when heated. The toduim tak on heating with 
pbonphoinis traulphide yidda methylthiophen. 

EJ*jiHnu smuimc acid or uMMCoatc add^ CHa'CH(COiH)t. 
M produted by the hydrolyais of •<yaitpTopionic add and by toe 
actJoa of mcshyl iodide on KxUo-malonac ester. It cvyetallixes in 
prisms whkli melt at lao* C. (T. Saber, Jown. pnk. Clum., 1898 bl. 

^P^ 497)* *nd c&iolve in water. It does not yield an anhydride. 
^beo heated loses caffcoo dioxide and leaves a residue 01 
pro pi o n ic acid. It may be distin^ished from the isomeric 
ethylene succinic acid by the fact that its sodium salt does not give 
a precipitate with ferric chloride. 

SUCHXR, ROSA (184^ ,), German opera singer, nie 
Hassdbcck. was the wife of Josef Sucher tiS^-x^oS), a well- 
kaowa condttctor and compoaer. They were manied in 1876, 
wben slie had already bad various enga^meots as a singer and be 
was canductor at the Leipzig ehy theatre. Frau Sucher soon 
becane famovs for her performances in Wagner's operas, her 
scasosM In London in 188a and 1892 proving her great capacity 
both as singer and actress; in 1886 and 1888 she jang at 
Bayreath. and in later years she was principally associated with 
the opcia stage in Berlin, retiring in 1903. Her magnificent 
Rsderjas^ the part of Isolde in Wagner's opera is espedaUy 



fOCHET. LOUIS OABBIBU Due D'Albuteba da Vauncia 
(i77»-i8a6), marshal of France, one of the most brilliant of 
Nap^eoa's (eneials, was the son of a silk manufacturer at Lyons, 
where be was bom on the and of March 1770. He originally 
mceadcd tofi^w his father's business; but having in 179a 
served as volunteer in the cavalry of the national guard at 
hyoBA, be manifested roilitaiy abilities which secured his rapid 
praakotioa. As tkef iU balaiUon he was present at the siege of 
Toohxi ia 1795, vbere he took Geneial O'Hara prisoner. During 
the Italian campaign of 1796 he was severdy wounded at Cerea 
•a the I ith ci October. In October 1 797 he was appointed to the 
eommaad of ademi-brigade, and his sendees, under Joubert in the 
Tirai in that year, and in Switserland under Brune in 1 797-^f were 
ieoa«niaed by his promotion to the rank ol general of brigade. 
He took no part in the Egyptian campaign, but in August was 
made chief of the staff to Brune, and restored the efficiency 
azKl discifdine of the army in Italy. In July 1799 he was made 
^aeral of division and chief of sUff to Joubert in It^y,^ and 
was ia i8no named by Maas^na his second ia command. "His 
deztaoos resistance to the superior fortes of the Austrians with 
the left wing of Maas^na's army, when the right and centre were 
Ant up in Genoa, not only prevented the invaaion of France 
bma Una <yTection but contributed to the success of Napoleon's 
q« al^ the Alps, which cttlminaled in the battle of Mareago 
«B the i4tb of June. He took a prominent part in the Italian 
campaign tHI the aimistioe of Treviao. In the campaigns of 
180$ and 1806 he greatly increased his reputation at Austerlits, 
SaaUeld, Jena, Pultusk and Ostrolenka. He obtained the title 
«f count on the 19th of March x8o8, married Mile de Saint 
Joseph, a niece of Joseph Bonaparte's wife, and soon afterwards 
was ordered to Spain. Here, after taking part in the siege of 
e»>«j.T»— . be was named commander of the army of Aragon and 
gD^raof of the province, which, by wise and (unlUie that of most 
•f the French generals) disinterested administratwn no less 
than by bis briUiaat valour, he in two years brought into com* 
pfete submission. He annihilated the army of Blake at Maria 
•a the 141b d June 1809, and on the aand of April 1810 defeated 
O'DooneB at Lerida. After l^tng made marshal of France 
(July 8, 181 r) he in 161 a achieved the conquest of Valencia, 
ier which he was rewarded with the title of due d'AIbufera da 
Valenda (i8xa). Wben the tide let against the French Suchet 
defended his conquesU step by step till compelled to retire into 
France, after which he took part in Soult's defensive campaign. 
By Louis XVIII. be was on the 4tb of June made a peer of 
France, but. having during the Hundred Days commanded 
*mt of Napoleon's armies on the Alpine frontier, he was deprived 
if his peerage on the a4th of July 181 5. He died near Marseilles 
•a the jrd of January x8a6. Suchet wrote Mimoirts doling 
with the Peninsular War, which were left by the nunhal in an 



unfinlsbed conditton, and tbe two volumeB and atlas appeared 
in 1839-1834 under the editor&hip of his former chief staff 
officer, Baron St Cyr-Nogu^ 

See C H. Barault-RouUon, U Uartchal SuekU (Paris, 1854): 
Cbouman, ConsideraUcns mUUaires star Us mimaires du Uofichal 
Suchet (Paris, 1840), a controversial work on the last events of the 
Peninsular War, inspired, it is supposed, by Soult ; and Lieutenant- 
General Lamarque's obituary nonoe in the SpeckOmr milUain 
(i8a6). See abo bibUography ia article PsNiNSULAa Was. 

8n-€H0W. There are in China three dtieft of this name 
which deserve mention. 

I. Su-chow-Fu, in the province of Kiang-su, formerly one 
of the totgest cities in the wodd, and in 1907 credited still with 
a population of 500,000, on the Grand Canal, 5$ m, W.N.W. of 
Shanghai, with which it is connected by railway. The site is 
practically a cluster of islands to the east of Lake Tai-hu. The 
walls are about 10 m. in circumference and there are four large 
suburbs. Its silk manufactures are represented by a greater 
variety of goods than are produced anywhere else in the empire; 
and the publication of cheap editions ol the Chinese classics is 
carried to great perfection. There is a Chinese proverb to the 
effect that to be perfectly happy a man ought to be bom in 
Su-chow, live in (Janton and die in Lien-chow. The nine* 
storeyed pagoda of the northern temple is one of the finest in 
the country. In i860 Su-chow was captured by the Taip'ingSi 
and when in 1863 it was recovered by Oncral Gordon the city 
was almost a heap of ruins. It has since largely recovered its 
prosperity, and besides 7000 silk looms has cotton mills and 
an important trade in rice. Of the original splendour of the 
place some idea may be gathered from the beautiful plan on a 
slab of marble preserved since 1 247 in the temple of Confucius and 
reproduced in Yule'a Marco Polot vol. i. Su-chow was founded 
In 484 by Ho-lu-Wang, whose grave is covered by the artificial 
" HUl of the Tiger " in the vidaity of the town. The literary 
and poetic designation of Su-chow is Kn-su, from the great tower 
of Ku-BU-tai, built by Ho-lu-Wang. Su-chow was opened to 
foreign trade by the Japanese treaty of 1895. A Chinese and 
European school was opened in 1900. 

a. Su-chow, focmeriy Tsiu-tsuan-tsiua, a free city in the 
province of Kan>suh, in 39" 48' N., just within the extreme 
north-west angle of the Great Wall, near the gate of jade. It is 
the great centre of the rhubarb trade. Completely destroyed 
in the great Mahommedan or Dungan insurrection (1865-72), 
it was recovered by the Chinese in 1873 and has been rebuUt. 

3. Stt<how, a commercial town situated in the province of 
Ssfr<h*uen at the junction of the Min River with the Yang-tse- 
Kiang, in aS" 46' 50' N. Population (1907) about 50,000. 

8UCKLI1I0. SIB JOHN (1609-1642), English poet, was bom 
at Whitton, in the parish of Twickenham, Middlesex, and bap- 
tized there on the xoth of February 1609. His father. Sir John 
Suckling (1569-1627), had been knighted by James L and waa 
auccessively master of requests, comptroller of the household 
and secretary of sUta. He sat in the first and second parlia- 
ments of Charles I.'s reign, and was made a privy coandUor. 
During his career he amassfd a considerable fortune, of which 
the poet became master at the age of eighteen. He was sent 
to Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1623, and was entered at Gray's 
Inn in 1627. He waa intimate with Thomas Carew, Kichard 
Lovdace, Thoaas Nabbcs and especially with John Hales 
and Sir William Davcaaint, who furnished John Aubrey with 
inforaution about his friend. In 1628 be left London to travd 
in France and Italy, returning, however, before the autumn of 
X630, when he was knii^ted. In 1631 he vobinteered for the 
force raised by the marquess of Hamilton to serve under 
GusUvus Adolphus in Germany. He was back at Whitehall in 
May 163a; but during his shoit service be had been present at 
the battle of Brdtenfeld and in many sieges. He was hand- 
some, rich and generous; his happy gift in verse was only one 
of many accomplishments, but it commended him especially 
to Charles L and his queen. He says of bimsdf (" A Sessions 
of the PoeU ") that he " ptired black eyes or a lucky bit at 
bowls above all the trophies of wit." He was the best card- 
player and the best bowler at court. Aubrey says that he 



8 



SUCRE--SUC2AWA 



invented the game of cribbige, and relates that his tistert came 
weeping to the bowling green at Piccadilly to dissuade him from 
pUy, fearing that he would lose thdr portions. In i6$4 great 
scandal was caused in his old drcle by a beating which he 
received at the hands of Sir John Digby, a rival suitor for the 
hand of the daughter of Sir John Willoughby; and it has 
been suggested that this incidoit, which is narrated at length 
in a letter (Nov. xo, 1634) from George Garrard ' to Strafford, 
had something to do with his beginning to seek more serious 
society. In 1635 he retired to his country estates in obedience 
to the proclamation of the soth of June 1632 enforced hy 
the Star Chamber* against absentee landlordism, and employed 
his leisure in literary pursuits. In 1637 ** A Sessions of the 
Poets " was circulated in MS., and about the same time he 
wrote a tract on Socinianism entitled An AuomU of Reiigion 
by Reason (pr. 1646). 

As a dramatist Suckling is noteworthy as having applied to 
regular drama the accessories already used in the production 
of masques. His Aglaura (pr. 1638) was produced at his own 
expense with ehiborate scenery. Even the lace on the actors' 
coats was of real gold and silver. The play, in s(ute of its 
felicity of diction, lades dramatic interest, and the criticism 
of Richard Flecknoe {Short Discourse of the English Stage),* 
that it seemed " full of flowers, but rather stuck in than growing 
there," is not altogether unjustified. The Goblins (1658, 
pr. 1646) has some reminiscences of The Tempest; Brennorait, 
or the Discontented Colonel (1639, pr. 1646) is a satire on the 
Scots, who are the Lithuanian rebels of the play; a fourth fday, 
The Sad One, was left unfinbhed owing to the outbreak of the 
Civil War. Suckling raised a troop of a hundred horse, at a 
cost of £x2,ooo, and accompanied Charles on the Scottish expedi' 
tion of 1639. He shared in the earl of Holland's retreat before 
Duns, and was ridiculed in an amusing ballad (pr. 1656), 
In Musarum deliciaOt "on Sir John Sucklinn's most war^ 
like preparations for the Scottish war."* He was elected as 
member for Bramber for the opening session (1640) of the Long 
Parliament; and in that winter he drew up a letter addressed 
to Henry Jermyn, afterwards earl of St Albans, advising the 
king to disconcert the oppodtion leaders by making more con- 
cesAons than they asked for. In May of the following year be 
was implicated in an attempt to rescue Strafford from the Tower 
and to bring In French troops to the king's aid. The plot was 
exposed by the evidence of Colonel George Goring> and Suckling 
fled beyond the seas. The circumstances of his short exHe arc 
obscure. He was certainly in Paris in the summer of 1641. 
One pamphlet related a story of his elopement with a lady to 
Spain, where he fell into the hands of the Inquisition. The 
manner of his death is uncertain, but Aubrey's statement that 
he put an end to bis life by poison in May or June 1642 in fear 
of poverty is generally accepted. 

Suckling's repnUtion as a poet depends on his minor pieces. 
They have wit and fanqy, and at times exquisite felicity of 
expression. " Easy, natural Suckling," Millamant's comment 
in Congreve*B Way of the World (Act iv., sc. i.) is a just tribute 
to their spontaneous quality. Among the best known of them 
are the '* Ballade upon a Wedding," on the occasion of the 
marriage of Roger Boyle, afterwards earl of Orrery, and Lady 
Margaret Howard, "I prithee, send me back my heart,'' 
'-'Out upon it, I have loved three whole days together," and 
" Why BO pale and wan, fond lover?" from Aglaura. " A 
Sessions of the Fsets," describing a meeting of the con^ 
temporary verrtfters under the presidency of Apollo to decide 
who should wear the laurel wreath, is the prototype of many 
later satires. 

A collection of SuckUng's poems was first published In T646 as 
Fragmenta aurea. the so^alkd Selections (1836} published by the 



» Strafford's Letters and Despatches (i739). '• 336- 

» For an account ol the proceedings see Historical CoUecSicns, ed. 
by Rushworth (i68o>r2nd pt., pp. 288*^93. 

* Reprinted in £iif. Drama and Stae*. ed. W. C llazUtt. Rox- 
burghe Library (1869). p- 277- . . , ^. , , . x *, 

•Attributed by Aubrey to Sir John Menms (iS99"i670. See 
also a song printed in the tract. ^' -V Misc. iU. 335). ,, 



Rev^. AHffsd Inijn SoddiK, author of the JTulsry m< AnUfmtios e^ 

SuffoUt (i84&-i&«8) with Mewmrs based on origiiol authorities and 
a portxait alter Van Dyck. is really a complete cditaoa of hu works, 
of whkh W. C. HazUtt'a edition (1874; iwised ed., 1899) is little more 
than a reprint with some additioas. The Poems and Songs of Sir 
John SucUingt edited by John Gny and decoraced with woodcut 
border and initials by Ctuules Rieketts, was aitistically printed at 
the Ballantyne Press in 1896. In 1910 Suckling's works in prose 
and vene were edited by A. Hamilton Thompson. For aoecdotei 
of Suckling's life see John Anbcey's Bokf Lms (darendon Presfl 
ed., li. 342). 

SUCRE, or CaDQmSACA, a dty of Bolivia, capital of the 
department of Chuqulsaca and nominal capital of the republic, 
46 m. N.E. of Potosf in 19* a' 45* S., 65* 1/ W. Pop. (1900), 
20,967; (1906, estimate), 33,416, «f whom many are Indians and 
cholos. The dty is in an elevated valley opening southward 
on the narrow ravine through which flows the Cacfaimayo, the 
principal northern tributary of the PUcomayo. Its elevationj 
8839 ft., gives it an exceptionally agreeabfe dimate. There are 
fertUe vafleys in the vidnity which provide the dty's markets 
with fruit and vegetables, while the ^rineyards of Camargo 
(formerly known as Cinti), in the southern part of the depart^ 
ment, supply wine and spirits of excellent quality. The dty is 
laid out regularly, with broad streets, a large central plaza and 
a public garden, or promenade, called the prado. Among its 
buildings are the cathedral, dating from 1553 and once noted 
for its wealth; the president's palace and halls of congress, 
which are no longer oectipied as such by the natiooal govern* 
ment; the cabildo, or town-hall; a mint dating from 1573; the 
courts of justice, and the university of San Xavier, founded 
in 1624, with faculties of law, medicine and theology. Tberfl 
is a pretty chapel called the " Rotunda," erected in x8s9 at 
the lower end of the prado by President Belzii, on the spot where 
an attempt had been'rtiade to assassinate him. Sucre is the 
seat of the archbishop of La Plata and Charcas, the primate 
of Bolivia. It is not a commerdal town, and its only note* 
worthy manufacture is the *' day dumplings " which are eaten 
with potatoes by the inhabitants of the Bolivian uplands. 
Although' the capital of Bolivia, Sucre is one of its most isolated 
towns because of the difficult character of the roads leading to 
it. It is re&ched from the Padfic by way of Oiallapata, a 
statbn on the AntofagAsta & Oruro railway. 

The Spanish town, according to Velasco, was founded in XS38 
by Captain Pedro Angules on the site of an Indian village called 
Chuquisaca, or Chuquichaca (golden bridge), and was called 
Charcas and Ciudad de la Ptata by the Spaniards, though the 
natives clung to the original Indian name. It became the capital 
of the province of Charcas, of the comacca of Chuquisaca, and oi 
the bishopric of La Plata and Charcas, and in time it became 
the favourite residence and health resort of the rich min&owners 
of Potosf. The bishopric dates from 1552 and the archbishopric 
from 1609. In the latter yeir was aeated the Real Audienda 
de la Plata y Charcas, a royal court of justice having jurisdiction 
over Upper Peru and the La Plata provinces of that time. Sucre 
was the first city of Spanish South America to revolt against 
Spanish rule— on the 25lh of May 1809. In 1840 the name 
Sucre was adopted in honour of the patriot oommantder who won 
the last decisive battle of the war, and then became the first 
president of Bolivia. The city has sufifered much, from partisan 
strife, and the removal of the government to La Paz greatly 
diminished its Importance. 

ftUCZAWA (Rumanian, Sueeav^, a town in Bukovina, 
Austria, '$0 m. S. of Czemowits by rail. Pop. (1900), 10,955. 
It is situated on the river Suczawa, which forms there the 
boundary between Bukovina and Rumania. One of its two 
churches, dating from the X4th century, contains the grave of 
the patron saint of Bukovina. The prindpal industry is the 
tanning and leather trade. Not far from Sucsawa lies the 
monastery of. Dragomima, in Byaantine style, bailt at the 
beginning of the x Hh century. Sncsawa Is a very old town and 
was until X565 the capital of the prindpality of Moldavia. It 
was many times besieged by Poles, Hungaiiaas, Tatars and 
Turks. In 1675 it was besieged by Sobieski» and in 1679 it 
was plundered by the Turks. 



8Ud:an 



tniMUl CATiS>fo BiM-a-SiUbH, cottBtry of tli^ blacks); 
thii regioii of Africa which stretches, south of the Sahara and 
Eopt, from Cape Verde on the Atlantic to Massawa on the 
Red Sea. it is bounded S. (i) by the inaritime countries of the 
vest cosst of Africa, (^) by the basin of the Congo, and (3) by 
the equatorial lakes, and E. by the Abyssinian and Galla high- 
Lads. The name is oCteb used in Great Britain in a restricted 
sense to designate only the eastern part of this vast territory, 
bst it is properiy applied to the whole area indicated, which 
COTTcspond^ roughly to that portion orneg;ro Africa north of the 
equator under Mahommcdan influence. The terms Nigritia 
4ad Negroland, at one time current, referred to the same region. 



The Sodan has an etfanok)gical rather than a physical unity, 
xod politicaUj it b divided Into a large number of states, all 
oov under the control of European powers. These countries 
faeiag scpAraftdy described, brief notice only is required of the 
Sudan as a whdk. 

Within the limits ^asigntd it has a length of about 4000 m., 
exteadinc soothwards at some points 1000 m., with a total 
vta of over 2,000,000 sq. m., and a population, approximately, 
of 40,000,000. Between the arid and sandy northern wastes 
aad the wcU-watered and arable Sudanese lands there is a 
traittitionai zone of level grassy steppes (partly covered with 
w^:my^^.fi^ and acacias) with a mean breadth of about 60 m. 
The xonc Bcs between 17** and i8* N"., but towards the centre 
T^^r j tr ^ as far south as 15" N. Excluding this transitional 
zooe, the Sudan may be described as a moderately elevated 
i^aon, with extensive open or rolling plains, level plateaus, and 
abuulBg at its eastern and western ends on mountainous coimtry. 
Cryvtafl&ic xocks, gn^tes, gneisses and schists, of the Central 



African type, occupy the greater part of the eonntty. Ttmardi 
the south-east, slates, quartziies And iron-bear}ng sdiists occur, 
but their age is not known.. The Congo sandstones do not appear 
to extend as far north. The Nubian sandstone borders the 
Libyan desert oi) the- south and south-west^ but it ia doubtful 
if this sandstone is of Cretaceous or earlier date. 

The Sudan contains the basin of the Senegal and parts cl 
three other hydrographic systems, namely: the Niger, draining 
southwards to the Atlantic; the central depression of Lake Chad; 
and the Nile, flowing northwards to the Mediterranean.: Lyh)g 
within the tropics and with an aversge devalion of not mow 
than xsoo to 2000 ft. above the sea, the. climate oi the Sudan' 
is. hot and in the river valleys very uti- 
healthy. Few parts arc suitable for the 
resadimoe of Europcaas. Cut oS frotn 
North Africa by the Sabiran desert, the 
inhabitants, who belong in the nsin to 
the negro famfly proper,, are thought to 
have received their Mrlicst dviUaatien 
I from the Easti Arab influence and the 
' Moslem religiQo began to be felt inthe 
western Sudan as early as the 9th c^tury 
and had taken deep root by the end of 
the nth. The existence of native Chri^ 
tian states in Nubia hindered for some 
centuries the spread of Islani in the 
eastern Sudan, and throughout i\m 
country some tribes have remained 
pagan. Jt was not until the last quattter 
of the igith centuiy thai the European 
nations became the ruling force, 
g The terms western, central and eastern 
Sudan are indicative of geographic^ 
position merely. The various states aft 
politically divisible into four groups: 
(i) those west of the Niger; (a) those 
between the Niger and Lake Chad; (3) 
those between Lake Chad and the basih 
of the Nile; (4) thosq in the upper Nile 
valley. 

The first group includes the natiye 
states of Bondu, Futa Jallon, Mosirai, 
Mossi and all the tribes within the great 
bend of the Niger. In the last quarter 
of the 19th century they fell under the 
control of France, the region being 
styled ofiicially the French Sudan. In 
x^oo this title was abandoned. The 
greater part of what was the French 
Sudan is now known as the Uppcbr 
Senegal and Niger Colony (see SsmcGAi, 
French West AniCA, &c.). 

The second group! of Sudanese states 
is almost entirely within the British 
protectorate of Northern Nigeria. It includes the sultanate 
of Sokoto and iu dependent emirates of Kano, Bida, Zaxia, 
&c., and the ancient sultanate of Bomu, which, with Adamawa, 
is partly within the German colony of Cameroon (see NigzuA 
and Camekoon). 

The thml or central group of Sudanese states is formed of 
the sulUnatcs of Bagirmi {g.v.) with Kanem and Wadai (j.».). 
Wadai was the last state of the Sudan to come under European 
influence, its conquest ^••ing effected in 1909. This tlurd group 
is indnded in French Coiigo.(9.v.). 

The fourth group consists of the sUtes conquered during 
the X9th century by the Egyptians and now under the jofait 
control of Great Britain and Egypt. These countries arc knowp 
collectively as the Anglo-Egyptiao Sudan <»ee below). 

For the rvgions west^ Lake Chad the atandard hictorical wode 
is the TroMls dt Dr Heinrich Baith (5 vols.. London. i8i»-f858). 
Consult also P. C. Meyer, BrforschungsgeschuhU und StaaUnhfUdunM 
tUs WesUudan (Gotha. 1807). an admirable aununary with bibfio- 
graphy and maps; Karl Kumm, Tht Smdan (London, 1907): Lady 



xo SUDAN 

Lugwd. A Tropkai Dtpmitii^ (London, 1905): and the bibiio- 
gruihiea given under the various, countries named. For sources 
ana history see Timbuktu. For the central Sudan the most im- 
portant work is that of Gustav Nachtisal, Sahara und Sudan (3 vols.. 
Berlin 1879-1889). See also Boyd Alexander, from the Nigfir to A* 
NUe (2 vols., London. IQ07) ; Kan Kumin, From Hausaaiani to Egypt 
(London, 1910). For the.eastem Sudan see the bibliographies under 
the following section. A good general work is P. Paulitschke's 
Du ^uddnldnder (Freibui^. 1885). 

The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 

The KgioQ which before the tevolt of the Arabized tribes 

under the Mahdi Mahommed Ahmed in 1881^ was known 

as the Egyptian Sudan has, since its recooquest by 
'the Angh>-Egyptian expeditions of 1896-98, been 

under the joint sovere^ty of Great Britain and 
Egypr. The limits of this condominium differ slightly from 
those of the Egyptian Sudan of the pre-Mahdi period. It is 
bounded N. by Egypt (the sand paiaUel of N. lat. being the 
dividing line), E. by the Red Sea, Eritiea and Abyssinia, S. by 
the Uganda Protectorate and Belgian O>ngo, W. by French 
Congo. North of Darfur is the Libyan Desert, in which the 
.western and northern ftontieis meet. Here the boundary is 
undefined.' 

As thus constituted thet Anglo^-Egyptian SuHan forms a com- 
pact territory which, being joined southwards by the Uganda 
Protectorate, brings the whole of the Nile valley from the 
equatorial lakes to the Mediterranean under the control of Great 
Britain. The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan extends )[iorth to south 
about X20O m. in a direct line, and west to east about zooo m. 
also in a direct line. It covers 950,000 sq. m., being about one- 
fourth the area of Europe. In what follows the term Sudan 
is used to indicate the Anglo-Egyptian condominium only. 

Physical FeatMres.^-TUfi Sudan presents many diversified features. 
It may be' divided broadly into two zones. The northern portion, 
from about 16* N., is practically the south-eastern continuation 
of the Saharan desert; the southern region is fertile, abundantly 
watered, and in places* densely forested. West ot the Nile there 
is a distinctly marked intermediate zone of steppes. In the southern 
district, between s* and lo* N., huge swamps extend on either side 
of the Nile and along the Bahr-d-Ghaxal. 

From south to north the Sudan is traversed by the Nile (^.t».), 
and all the great tributaries of that river are either partly or entirely 
withia its borders. . The most elevated district is a rangeof mountains 
runmog parallel tq the Red Sea. These mountains, which to the 
south jom.the Abysdnlan highlands, present their steepest face 
eastwaid, attaining heights within the Sudan of 4000 to over 7000 ft. 
Jebel Erba, 7480 it., and Jebel Soturfaa, 6889 ft. (both between ai* 
an4 »* N.), the higdhest peaks^ face the Red Sea about 20 m. 
inUnd. Westward the mountoins slope gradually to the Nile 
valley, which occupies the greater part of the country and has a 
geoeiaf level of from 600 to 1600 ft. In ^aces, as between Suakin 
and Beiber and above Roseires on the Blue Nile, the mountains 
approach dose to the river. Beyond the Nile westward extend 
vastplaios, which in Kotdofan and Dar Nnba (between 10* and 
15* N.) are broken by hills reaching 2000 ft. Farther west, in 
iMrfur, the country is more devated, the Jdiel Marra range being 
from 5000 to 6000 ft. high. In the south-west, beyond the valley 
of the Bahr-d-Ghaial, the country gradually rises to a ridge of hills, 
perhaps aooo ft. high, which running south-eastandnorth-westform 
the water-parting between the Nile and the Congo. 

Apart from the Nile system, fully descrified dsewhere,the Sudan 
has two other rivers, (he Gash and the Barska. These are inter- 
mtttenfc streams rising in the eastern chain of mountains in Eritrea 
And flowing in a general northerly direction. The Gash enters 
the Sudan near Kassala and north of that town turns west towards 
the Atbara, but its waters are dissipated before that river is reached. 



The Gash nevertheless fertilizes a considoable tract of country. 
The Khor Baiaka lies east of the Gash. It flows towards the Red 
Sea in the adghbourhood of Trinkitat (some «> m. south of Suakin), 
but about 30 as. from the coast forms an inland delta. Except in 
seasons of great rain its waters do not reach the sea. 

The Coast Region.'^The coast extends along the Red Sea north 
to south from aa" N. to 18* N.jjs distance folk>wiog the indentations 
of the Aon of over mo m. These todentatlons axe numerous but 
not deep, the generail trend of the coast bring S.S.E. The most 
prominent headland is Ras Rawaya (21* NO which forms the 
northern shore of Dokhana Bay. There are few good harbours. Port 

* It was supposed to be indioated by the line whkh, acoordina to 
the Turkish nirman of 1841, describes a semtcirde from the Siwa 
Oasis to Wadai, appioacfaing the Nile between the Second and Third 
Cataracts. This line isdisRgarded by the Sudan government. 



Sudan and Suakin beii« the chief pacts. South ^ SusWa is the 
shallow bay of Trinkitat. A large number of small islands lie off the 
coast. A belt of sandy land covered with low scrub stretches inland 
ten to twenty miles, and is travened bv khors (generally dry) with 
ill-defined shifting channels. Beyond this plain rise the mouotaia 
ranges already mentioned. Their seaward slqpes oftea bar a 
considerable amount of vegetation. 

The Desert Zone.— The greater part of the region between the coast 
and the Nile is known as the Nubian Desert. It is a rugged, rocky, 
barren waste, scored with khors or wadis, ahmg whosebeds then 
is scanty ve^etatwn. The desert character of the country increases 
as the river is neared, but along either bank of the Nile is a narrow 
strip of cultivable land. West of the Nile there are a few oases^ 
those of Sdima, Zaghawa and El Kab~-but this district, rart of 
the Lib/aa Desert, is even more desolate than the Nubian Dcsen. 

Tke InUnudiaU Zona and the fettiU i7u<rtc/4.— East o( the Nile 
the region of absolute desert ocases about the point of the Atbara 
confluence. The country endoeed by the Nile, the Atbara and the 
Blue Nile, the so-called Island of Meioe, consists of voy fertile 
soil, and alone the eastern frontier, by the upper courses of the 
rivers named, is a district of rich land alternating with prairies and 
open forests. The fork between the White ami Blue Niks, the 
Gecira. is also fertile land. South of the Geiira is Sennar, a well- 
watered country of arable and grazing land. 

West of the Nile the desert zone extends fanher south than ort 
the east, and Kordofan, which comes between the desert and the 
plains of the Bahr-d-Ghanl, is laigdy barren and steppe land. 
South of 10* N. there is everywhere abundance ot water. Darfur 
is mainly open, steppe-like countiy with extensive tracts of cultiv- 
able land and .a central mountain massif, the J^d Marra (see 
Sennar Kordofan, Darfur). 

Gimate.—The country lies whdly within the tropics, and as the 
greater part of it is far removed from the ocean and less than tyn ft. 
above the sea it is extremely hot. The heat is greatest m the 
central regions, least in the desert aone, where the difference between 
summer and winter is marked. Even in winter, however, the day 
temperatures are hkh. Of this region the Arabs say " the soil is 
like fire and the wind like a flame.** Nevertheless, the dryness of the 
air rendera the climate healthy. The steppe countries, Kordofan 
and Darfur, are also healthy excqpt after the autumn rains. At 
Khartum, centrally situated, the minimum temperature is about 
40* F., the maximum 113*. the mean annual temperature bring 80*. 
January is the coldest and Tune the hottest month. Violent sand- 
storms are frequent from June to August. Four rain zones may 
be distinguished. The northern (desert) region is one of little or 
no rain. . There are perhaps a few rainy days in winter and an 
occasional storm in the summer. In the central belt, where " the 
rainy season" is from mid-June to September, there are some 
10 in. of raia during the year. The number of days on which 
rain falls rardy exceeds, however, fifteen. The rainfall increases 
to about 70 in. per annum in the eastern and south*ca$tcra 
regions.. In the swanip district and throughout the Bahr-el'Ghaza] 
heavy rains (40 in. or more a year) are expeiienoed. The 
season of heaviest rain is from April to Septcsnber. In the 
maritime district there are occasional heavy rains between August 
and January. In the sudd region thunoentorms are frequent. 
Here the temperature averages about 85* F., the air is always 
damp and fever is endemic 

Flora.-^ln the deserts north of Khartum ve^retation is almost 
confined to stunted mimosa and, in the less and districts* scanty 
herbage. Between the desert 'and the cultivated Nile lands is an 
open growth of samr, hashab (Aatcia verek) and other acacia treea. 
Between Khartum and 12* N. forest brits line the banks of the 
rivers and khors, in which the most noteworthy tree is the saiit or 
sunt (Acacia arabica). Farther from the riven are open woods of 
heglig (Balanile* aegyptiaea), hashab, Ae., and dense thicket* of 
laot (Acacia nubica) and kittr (Acacia meilifera). These open woods 
cover a considerable part of Kordofan, the hashab and tath trees 
being the chid produccre of g^m arabic South of la* N. the forest 
lands of the White Nile as far south as the sudd region are of rimilar 
.character to that described. On the Blue Nile the forest trccj 
alter, the most abundant being the babanus (Sudan ebony) and the 
silag {Anogeissus leiocarpus), while ^gantic baobabs, called tebeldi 
in the Sudan, and tarfa (SUrctUta cinerea) are numerous. In 
southern Koraofan and in the higher parts of the Bahr-el-Ghaaal 
the silag and ebony are also common, as writ as African mahogany 

gioraraya, Khaya sentgfdensis) and other timber trees. In th« 
hazal province also are many rubber-producing lianas, among 
them the Landolphia owariensis. There are also forest regions in 
the Bahr-el-Jebd, in the Mongalla mudlria and along the Abyssinian* 
Eritrean frontier. East of the Bahr-eMebel and north ol the 
Bahr-d-Ghaaal are vast prairies coverBd with tall coarse grass. 
Cotton is indigenous in the valley of the Blue Nile, and in some 
districts bamboos are plentiful. The castor-oil plant growi 
.in almost every province. (See also { AgriadtMrtt and, for the 
vegetation of the swamp region, Nile.) 

Fdima.— Wild animals and birds are nomerous. Blephanta are 
abundant in the Bahr-el-Ghasal and Bahr-d-Jebd fbresta, arwi 
are found in. fewer numbers ia the upper valley of the Blue Nile 



SUDAN 



XI 



Tflft ■BpCpOiMMlB ttld CXOBOCUt maOUOta in Utt SWUHp ttffoOMt 

wkkh alao ■hdtcr oiany tdnd* ol watar-fowL The lion, leopard. 
lisaAr luid various lands of antelope are found in the prairies and 
m the open woods. In the forests are numerous brigiit-pluniaged 
birds nad nany ■pecies o( monkeys, mostly ground monkeys— 
the trees bdac too prickly for cUmbing. SoaJces are also plentiful, 
naaypoisoaaus kinds being found. In the steppe re|j:ions ci Kordo* 
Can. Uarfor, Ac, and in the Nubian Desert ostriches are fairly 
pientifoL loaect Kie is very abundant, especially south of 13" N., 
the wwtlMni limit of the tsetse fly. The chief pests are roosqui- 
teeiw tena i t aa and the senit. a brown flv about the size of a wasp, 
with a sharp stab, which chiefly attacks cattle. Locusts are less 
coauBoa. but, especially in the eastern districts, occasionally cause 
great destnxtion. For domestic animals see | AgrkuUwt, 



InkabUantf.—Tht popdation, "always spane in the desert 
and fteppe regSons, was never dense even in the more fertile 
s wiib c in districts. During the Mahdia the country soffered 
severely- fcom war and disease. Excluding Darfur the p6pula- 
tioa before the Mahdist rule was estimated at 8,500,000. In 
1905 an estimate made by the Sudan government put the 
population at 1,853,000 only, including x 1,000 foreigners, of 
whom sSbo were Europeans. Since that year there has been 
a considerable natural increase and in 19x0 the population was 
oftdaBy estimated at 3400,000. There has also been a slight 
immigration of Abyssinians, Egyptians, Syrians and Europeans 
-Hbe last saxned chiefly Greeks. 

The term ** BOad-es-Sudan " {'* country of the blacks '*) is 
tot altogether applicable to the Anglo-Egyptian condominium, 
the northern portion being occupi^ by Hamilic and Semitic 
tribes, diiefly nomads, and classed as Arabs. In the Nile valley 
Berth of Khartnm the inhabitants are of very mixed origin. 
TUs appEes particularly to the so-called Nubians who inhabit 
the Docgola mucfiria (see Nubia). Elsewhere the inhabitants 
north of x a* N. are of mixed Arab destent. In the Nubian 
Desert the chief tribes are the Ababda and Bisharin, the last 
Bsmed grazing their camels in the mountainous districts towards 
the Red Sea. In tb« region south of Berber and Suakin are 
the HadexM^NL The JaaUn, Hassania and Shukria inhabit the 
country between the Atbara and Blue Nile; the Hassania and 
Hwsanaf are found chiefly in the Gezira. The Kabbabbh 
occupy the desert country north of Kordofan, which is the home 
of the Baggarm tribes. In Darfur the inhabitants are of mixed 
Arab and negro blood. 

Of negro KOotic tribes there are three or four main divisions. 
The Shiliiks occupy the country along the west side of the Nile 
northward from about Lake No. The country cast of the Nile 
is ifivided between the Bari, Nuer and Dinka tribes. The 
Diokas are also widely spread over the Bahr-el-Gharal province. 
South of Kotdofan and west of the ShiUuk territory are the 
Kubas, apparently the original stock of the Nubians. In the 
touth-west of the Bahr-el-Ghazal are the Bongos and other 
trfiMs, and along the Nile-Congo water-parting are the A-Zande 
or Ntam-Niam, a comparatively light-coloured race. (All the 
tribes mentioned are separately noticed.) 

Sana/ Conditions.^ln contrast with the Egyptians, a most 
bd^stxioas race, the Sudanese tribes, both Arab and negro, 
are as a general rule indolent. Where wants are few and simple, 
where houses need not be built nor clothes worn to keep out 
the cold, there is little stimulus to exertion. Many Arabs " clothed 
ia rags, with only a mat for a house, prefer to lead the life of the 
free-bom sons <rf the desert, no matter how large their herds or 
how n um ero m their foUowings" {Egypt, No. x (1904], p. 147). 
Following the establishment of British control slave-raiding and 
the slave trade were stopped, but domestic slavery continues. 
A genuine desire for education is manifest among the Arabic- 
speaking peoples and slow but distinct moral improvement is 
▼oibie axnoDg them. Among the riverain " Arabs " some were 
found to sapiply labour for public works, and with the money 
thus obtained cattle were bought and farms started. The 
Doogolese are the keenest traders in the country. The Arab 
trdies are all Mahonmedans, credulous and singularly liable 
to fits of rdigioos exdtement. Most of the negro tribes are 
pagan, but some of them who live in the northern regions 
have embraced Idam. 



5 



ndlways are owned and wovfced by the state. 

In connexion with the Khartum-Haifa railway steamers ply on 
the Nile between Haifa and Shellal (Assoan) where the rMhray 
from Alexandria ends. The distance by rail and steamer b et w e e n 
Khartum and Alexandria is about 1400 m. Steamers run 00 the 
Nile between Kerroa and Kareima, and above Khartum the govern- 
ment maintains a regukir service <^ steamers as far south as Gondo- 
koro in the U^nda Protectorate. During flood teason there is 
also a steamship service on the Bhie Nile. Powerful di e dge r s a^ 
sodd-cottins nwchines are used to loeq> .open communications m 
the upper Nile and Bahr-el-Ghaial. 

The ancient caravan routes Korosko-Abu Hamed and Berber- 
Suakin have been superseded by the railways, but elsewhere wells 
and rest-houses are maintained along thr ' ' ''^- 

towns and the Nile. On tome of tncae 
is maimained. 

From Port Sudan and Suakin there b a regular steamship seryke 
to Europe via the Sues Canal. There are also services to Alexandria, 
the Red Sea ports of Arabia, Aden and India. 

There is an extensive telegraphic system. Khartum ia oonnected 
by land lines with Egypt and Uganda, thus affording direct tele* 
graphic connexion between Alexandria and Mombasa U500 m-). 
From Khartum other lines go to Kassala and the Red Sea ports. 
In some places the telegraph wires are placed 16 ft. 6 in. above 
the ground to protect them from damaiR by giraffes. 

Atriailtut§ and other Industries.—fiarth of Khartum agrkul- 
tunJ land is confined to a narrow strip on either side of the N^e 
and to the few oases in the Libyan Desert. In the G^ra and m 
the plains of Gedaref between the Blue Nile and the Atbara there 
are wide areas of arable hind, as also in the neighbourhood of Kasnia 
along the banks of the Gash. In Kordofan and Darfur cujtivatioa 
b confined to the khors or valleys. The chief grain crop is durra, 
the staple food of the Sudanese. Two crops are obtained yearly 
in scN'eral districts. On hnds near the rivers the durra is sown after 
the flood has gone down and alio at the beginning of the rainy 
Considerable quantities of wheat and barley are also 



the main routes be t we e n the 
a motor car service 



IS 

srowiu ' Other foodrtuffs m$tA are leiAil4* beaut, cnuona And 
melons'^ The date-palm ia jcultivated along tbe Nile vaUey below 
Khartum, especially on the west bank in tbe Dongola mudiria and 
ia the neighbourins oaaes, Date» are also a ftaple product in 
Parfur and. Kordoian. Gn>uod>nuta and eesame are grova in Uxge 
quantitiea for the oil they yield, aad cotton <rf quaUty equal to 
triat grotrn in tbe Delta w produced. The Sudan was indeed the 
original home of Egyptian cotton, 

For wateKing tbe land by the river banks aakias (water*whecls) 
are used, oxen being employed to turn than. There a<e also a few 
irrigation oanaU. In 1910, apart from the date pbmtatiofiB, about 
i,<|oo,ooo acres were under cultivation. In 1910 a system of basin 
inigation was begun in Dongola mudiria. 

Gnm and rubber are the chief forest productSL ' The gum is 
obtained from eastern Kordofaa and in the forests in the upper 
valley of tbe Blue Kile, the best gam coming from Kordofan. It 
is of two kinds, hashab (white) and taih (red), the white being the 
most valuable. Rubber is obtained from the Bahr*el-Chazal — 
where there are Para and Ceara rubber plantations — and in the 
Sobat district. The wood of the sunt tree is used largely for boat- 
building and for fuel, and the mahiogaay tree yields excellent timber4 
Fibre is made from several trees and plants. Elephants are hunted 
for the sake of their ivory. . The wealth of the Arab tribes consists 
largely in thdr herds of camels, horses and cattle. They also keep 
ostrich farms, the feathers being of good quality. The Dongola 
bnsed of horses is noted for its strength and hardness. The cameb 
arc bred in the dcsett north of Berber, between the Nile and Red 
Sea. in southena Dongola,. in the Hadendoa country and in northern 
Kordofuu Tbe Sudanese camel is .lighter, -faster and better bred 
than the camel of Egypt. The camel, horse and ostrich are not 
found south of Kordotan and Sennar. The negro tribes living 
south of those countries possess large herds of cattle, dieep and 
goats. The cattle are generally small and the sheep yield little 
wook The Arabs use the cattle as draught-animals as well as for 
their milk and flesh ; the neg^o tribes as a rule do not eat their oxen. 
Fowls are plentiful, but of poor quality. Donkeys are much used 
in thC'Ccntnil regions; they make eacellent transput animals. 

Mineral Wealth, — In ancient times Nubia» i.«. the reeion bet>K'Oen 
the Red Sea and the Nile south of Egypt aad north of the Suakin- 
BerixT' line, was worked for gold. Ruins of an extensive gold- 
mine exist near Jebel Erba at a short distance from the sea. In 
IQ09 gold mininc[ recommenced in Nubia, ttt the district of Um 
Wabanli, Which; is in the desert, about midway between Wadi 
Haifa and Abu Haraed. A light railway, 30 m. long, opened in 
June 1905, connects Um Nabardi with the government railway 
system. The producing stage was reached m looS, and between 
Septcndxr 1^ and August 1909 the mines yielded 4500 oz. of gold. 
Snail quantities of gold-dust arc obtained from Kordofan, and 
fdd is found in the Beni-Shangul country south-west of SenAar, 
but this region is within the • Abyssinian frontier (agreement of 
the isth of May 1902). There is lignite in the Dongola mudiria 
and .iroa>ot«i is wund in Darfur, southern Kordofa^ and in the 
Bahr««l<<}tezaL In the last-named ratidiria iron is worked by the 
nalavee. The district of Hofrat'el^Nahas (the copper mine) is 
rich in copper, the mines having beoi worked intermittently from 
remote times. 

rr«fe.-^The chief products of the Sudan for export are gum, 
ivory, ostrich • feathers, dates and rubber. Cotton, cotton-seed 
and grain (durra, wheat, barley) sesame, livestock, hides and skins, 
beeswax, mother-of-pearl, senna and gold are also exported. Before 
the opening (1906) ot the ratlwav to the Red Sea the trade was chiefly 
with Egypt via the Nile, and the ^reat cost of carriage hindered its 
development. Sinee the completion of the railway named goods 
can be put on the worid's markets at a much cheaper rate. Besides 
the Egyptian and Red Sea routes there Is considerable trade between 
the eastern madirias and Abyssinia' and Eritrea, and also aorae trade 
south and west with Uganda and the Congo coimtries. The Red 
Sea ports trade largely with Arabia and engage in peari -fishery. 
The prindjxd imports are cotton goods, food-stuiTB (flour, rice, 
sugar, provisions), timber, tobacco, spirits (in large quantities), 
iron and machinery, candles, cement and perfumery. The value 
of the trade, which during the Mahdist rule (1864-1898) was a few 
thousands only, had increased in 190$ to over £1 ,500,000. < In 
1908 the exports of Sudan produce were valued at ££515,000 ^ the 
total imports at ££1,892^)00. 

Cotemnunt.^-Thc administtation is based on the provisions 
of a coaventioQ signed on the iQtb of January 1899 between 
the British and Egyptian governments. The authority of the 
sovereign powers is represented by a governor-genera) appointed 
by Egypt on the recommendation of Great' Britain. In 19 10 a 
council consisting of four ex officio members and .from two to 
four non-oi&dal nominated memliers was created to advise the 
governor-general in the exercise of hi» executive and legislative 
functions. Subject to the power of veto ret ai ncd by the governor- 
general all questions are decided by a majority of the counciL 

• • '^' -wjnd Egyptian) is equal to £1, o». 6d. British currency. 



SUDAN 



EMh of the nradkiaalnto nrhifah the cnmtiy k divided it pra^ded 
over by a mudir (governor) responsible to the central govern 
ment at Khartum. The govemoi-genefal, the chiefs of the 
various depaitments of state and the muiiirs are all BoiopeanSi 
the maprity being British miliUiry officers. Tbe minor c^ciali 
are nearly all Egyptians or Sudanese. Revenue is derived as 
to about 60% from the customs and revenue-earning d^>art< 
meats (».e. steameis, railways, posU and telegraphs), aad as 
to the rest from taxes on land, date^trees and animals, frote 
royalties on gum, ivory and ostrich feathers, from licences to 
sell spirits, cany arms, &c., and from fees paid for the shooting 
of game. Expenditure is largely on public works education, 
justice and the army. Finandal afiairs aie managed from 
Khartum, ,but control over expenditure is excised by the 
Egyptian financial department. The revenue, which in xS^S 
was ££35,000, for the first time exceeded a million in 1909^ when 
the amount realized was ££i,o4o,2oa The expenditure in 
1909 was ££1,153,000. Financially the government had been, 
up to 191 o, largely dependent upon Egypt. In the years 1901- 
1909 £E4,378i<xo was advanced from Cairo for public works 
in the Sudan; in the same period a further sum of about 
££2,750,000 had been found by Egypt to meet annual deficits 
in the Sudan budgets (see Egypt, No. x [1910], pp. 5-6). 

Justice. — The Sudan judicial codes, based ia part 00 those 
of India and in part on the principles of English law and of 
Egyptian commercial law, provide for the recognition of " cus- 
tomary law " so far as applicable and " not repugnant to good 
conscience.^' In each mudiria criminal justice is adminislened 
by a court, consisting of the mudir(pr a. judge) and two xnagis-^ 
trates, which has general competence. The magistrates are 
members of the administrative staff, who try minor cases without 
the help of the mudir (or judge). Tbe governor-general possesses 
revising powers in all cases, (^ivil cases of importance are hcarc^ 
by a judge (or where no judge is available by the mudir or, his 
representative); minor civil cases are tried by magistrates. 
From the decision of tbe judges an appeal lies to the kgal 
secretary of the government, in his capacity of judicial com- 
missioner. Jurisdiction in all legal matters as rc^arxis personalj 
status of Mahommedans is administered by ,a,g£and cadi and a 
staff of subordinate cadis. The police force of each mudiria is 
independently organized under the control of the mudixs. 

EducaHoih — Education is in charge of the department of 
public instruction. Elementary education, the mcdiupi of 
instruction being Arabic, is given in kuUabf or village schools. 
There are primary schools in the chief towns where English,- 
Arabic, mathematics, and in some cases land-measuring is 
taught. There are also goverrunent industrial workshops, and 
a few schools for girls. The Gordon College at Khartum trains 
teachers and judges in the Mahommcdan courts and has annexed 
to it a secondary school. The college also contains tbe Wellcome 
laboratories for scientific research. Among the pagan negro 
tribes Protestant and Roman Catholic missions are established. 
These missions carry on educatio^al work, special attention 
being given to industrial training. 

Defence.— The defence of the country is entrusted to the 
Egyptian army, of which several regiments are stationed in the 
Sudan. The governor-general is sirdar (commander-in-chief) 
of the army. A small force of British troops is also stationed 
in the Sudan— chiefly at Khartum. They are under the com- 
mand of the governor-general in virtue of an arrangement made 
in 1905, having previously been part of the Egyptian command. 

For topography. &c.. sec TkeAngh-Egyplian Sudan, a compendium 
prepared by ofnccrs of the Sudan government and edited by Counx 
Gleichen (2 vols., London. 1905); for administration, finance and 
trade the annual Reports [by the British agent at Cairol on Egypt 
and the Sudan, since 1898; and the special report (Blue Book Egypt, 
No. ii., i88j) by Cobnel D. H. Stewart. Consult also j. Pethenck. 
Traxtels tn Central Africa (2 vols., London, 1862); VV. Junker, Travel* 
."5-7Wtf (3vols.,London. I" - -*• ^ - •- • 
The Heart of Africa (2 vols., London, 



in Afrtca, 1875-1886 (3 vols., London. 1890-1892) ; G. Schweinfurth 
The Heart of Africa (2 vols., London, 18—* '^ *• ^" '^ * 

afrika, iter SvAan und das Seengebiet (Gotha, 
ErythfSa nnd der dgypfische Suddn (Berlin. 1904) 



1890-1892); G 

i. 1873): J-&' 
»tha, 1890); E. 

-„,,. , Berlin, 1904): — — , 

Report on the Forests of the Sudan (Cairo. 1901); H. F. VVitherby, 
Btrd Hunting on the WhiU Nile (London. i.9oaX For ethnology. 



mmgarlcn, Ost- 
D. Schocftft-H. 
C. F^ Muriel, 



SUDAN 



■5 



Atfohgy of lie Et»plia» Sudan (pmdook 
Jleiden-Neger des Sgypttschen Sudan (Berlin, 
I medical tubjects are dealt with in the Reports 



Ie.. M A.H.'KeaH 

i<?4):H. Frobcnju^^ 

ii91) Sdcotific ant 

«f ttc Wdkmte Rtsunh Lab^ntorits, GovdonXolleKc, Khartum. 

Tie Sudtm Almimr i» • viwable offidal pnbiicmiop. <F. R.C.) 



ilrdka««£ffy.— ArduMlogical study in the Sudan was retarded 
for many yean by political ooodUtions. The wodc which bad 
beta bcgu by Cailliaud, ChampoUioo, Lepuus and othea was 
istcmipud by the tise ol the Mahdist power; and with the 
kofiiien of Egypt itsetf menaced by dervishes, the country 
south of Aswma (Assuan) was necessarily dosed to the student 
of utiqttity. Even alter the dervishes had been overthrown 
ti the battle ol Omdurman (1898) it was some time before 
uchaeologists awoke to a sense of the historical importance of 
Uk resiooa thus made accessible to them. Dx Wallis Budge 
fisited several of the far southern sites knd made some tentative 
ocavatiotts, bat no extensive explorations were undertaken 
ufiiH aa unexpected event produced a saddm out bust ol activity. 
This was the resolution adopted by the Egyptian govcnunent 
tA extend the greal reservoir at the First Cataract by raising 
ihe height of the Aswan dam. As a result of this measure alt 
sit£s- bordering the river banks from Aswan to Abn Simbel 
vCTc threatened with inundation and the scientific world took 
ilarm. A lupt sum of money was assigned by ihegoverament, 
paitJy for the pceservalion of the visible temples in the area 
to be gabm<iyd» partly for an offidai expedition under the 
ch*ige of Dr G. A. Reisner which was to search for all nmains 
b( antiquity hidden beneath the ground. ' At the same time 
U^e university of Pennsylvania despatched theEckley B. Coxe, 
>in., espcditiott. which devoted its attention to the southern 
hili ol I^ower Nubia from Haifa to Korosko^ while the govcm- 
Bkeat excavators explored from Koroako to Aswan. Thus 
•a the 6ve years 1907-1911 inclusive an immense mass of new 
auieiiaJ was acquired whidi throws a flood of light on the 
sfdueology at once of Egypt «nd the Sudan. For it must be 
Cody appreciated that though all except the southern twenty 
Bihes of Lower Nuhia has been attached for purposes of admini- 
STiJoo ot Egypt ppdper, yet this political boundary b puiely 
a.'UitdaL The natural 0Bogra(^cat and ethnical southern 
livaticf of Egypt is the First Cataract; Egyptian, scribes of the 
0.1 Empire recognized this truth no less dearly than Diodetian, 
4£d Juvenal anticipates the verdict of every modem observer 
•bfa be describes the " porta SyencB " as the gate of Africa, 
li 15 the more necessary to emphasise this fact as the present 
&rw.de must unavoidably be concerned principally with the 
B*L$t northern regions of the country of the Bbcks— €or since 
the days of Lepsius there has been little new investigation south 
W UxUa. The hasty reconnaissances of Dr WalUs Budge, 
Pnicssoc A. H. Sayce, Mr Somen Clarke and Professor J. 
(crstang most be followed by more thorough and intensive 
i .Oy L«fore it can be possible to write in more than very general 
temi of anything but the well-known monuments left by 
U-'i^tian kings whose history is already tolerably familiar from 
9iiu.: goorus. The inscriptions of these kings and their o£Bcials 
kv« been coUected by Professor J. H. Breasted and some 
iz'-'mt of the temples and fortresses from Jialfa to Khartum 
n. te found in the following section. Ancient Monuments 
t^mifi ef Haifa, while the history of the early and medieval 
Cfir..^uan kingdoms is outlined in the articles ExhiOpxa and 
Dc.oCotA. The central and southern Sudan is therefore almost 
a '^k'pn field for the archaeologist, but the exploration of Lower 
Kibu has made it possible to write a tentative preface to the 
sew chapters still unrevealed. 

The Sudan was well named by the medieval Arab historians, 
Ur^it primarily and above all the country of the black races, 
cf those Nilotic negroes whose birthplace may be supposed to 
Wtv been near the Great Lakes. But upon this aboriginal 
cxk were paftcd in very early times fresh shoots of more 
▼ifonus and intellecUial races ooming probably from the East 
id Anso^: Elknohgy), Lower Nubia was one of the crucibles 
in «hich several times was formed a nixed nation which defied 
or acuidly donuoated Egypt. There is Bone ade&tific groond 
XJtVl I* 



for dsfing the earliest exampis of Midi a fuston to the exact 
period of' the Egyptian Old Empii«. It is eertafn in ai^ case 
that the process was drastatitly repeated at drfferent dat^ 
and in different parts of the country from Aswan to Axara, apd 
to the stimuiation whidi resulted from it must be ascribed tbf 
principal political and intellectual movements of the Sudanese 
nations. Thus the ErMopJnns who asurped the cxoWn of the 
Pharaohs frdm 740*^60 B.a wero of a n^ed stock akin to the 
modem Bambca; the northern Ntibians who successfully defied 
the Roman empeiots were under the lordship of thd BlemyeS 
(Blemmyes), an East African tribe, and the empire of the 
Candace dynasty, no less than the Christian kingdoms wMch 
succeeded it, indnded many heterogeneous racial dements 
(see also Ncbu). The veal history of the Sudan will therefore 
be oonoerned with the evolution of what may be criled EmA 
African or East Central Africafi dvilizations. 

Up to the pvesent, however, this aspect has been obscured, 
for until 1907 scholars had little opportunity of stndying-andeal 
Ethiopia except as a colonial extensioti of Egypt. From the 
purely Egyptotogical standpoint there is nmch of value to be 
learned from the Sndan. The Egyptian penetracion of the 
country began, according to the evidence of inscriptions, as early 
as the Old Empire. Under the Xllth Dynasty colonies were 
pUnted and fortresses established down to the Batn^-Hagairj 
During the XVIIith Dynasty the political subjugation was com- 
pleted and the new^ woa territories wens studded with dties and 
temples as far south as the Fourth Cauract. Smne two hundred 
years later the priests of Amen (Ammon), flying from Thebes, 
founded a quasi-Egyptkn capital at Napata. But after this date 
ESgypt played no part in the evolution of Ethiopia. PoUtically 
moiribnndyitsuocuinbed tothe attacks of its virile southern neigh- 
bours, who» having emeiged from foreign tutekge, developed 
according to the natural laws of their own genius and environ" 
ment. The history of Ethiopia therefore as en independent 
civilisation may be said to date from the 8th century b.c, though 
future researches may be able to cany its infant origins to a 
remoter past. 

Of the thousand years- or more of eflectiv« Egyptian oceopa* 
don mslny monuments exist, but on a broad general view it must 
be pronounced that they owe thdr fame more to the acddent' 
of survival than to any spedal tntxinsic value. For excepting 
Philae, which belongs as much to Egypt as to Ethiopia, Aba 
Simbel is the only temple which can be ranked among first, 
rate products of Egyptian genius. The other temples, attractive^ 
as they are, possess rather a local than a universal interestf 
Similariy while the exploration of the Egyptian colonies south 
of the First Cataract has added many details to our knowledge 
of poBtical history, of local culls and provincial organisation, 
yet with one exception it has not affected the known outlines 
of the history of civilization. This exception is the discpvery 
made by Dr G. A. Reisner that the archaic culture first detected, 
at Nagada and Abydos and then at many points as fax* l^ortl) 
as Gixa extended southwards into Nnbia at least as far as 
Gerf Husein. Thift was wholly imexpected, and if, as seems 
probable, the evidence stands the test of criticism, it is a neYv* 
historical fact of ^eat importance. The government expedition 
found traces between Aswan and Korosko of all the prindpal 
periods from this eariy date down to the Christian era. The 
specimetts*obtained are kept in a separate room of the Qaho 
Museum, where they form a colIectioB of great value. 

The work of the Pennsylvanian expedition, however^" wMtf 
adding only a few details to the archaeology of the Egyptiftn 
periocb, has opened a new chapter in the history of the African* 
races. No records indeed were discovered of the founders of 
the first great Ethiopian kingdom from Piankhi to Tirhakah, 
nor has any fresh !ight been thrown upon the relations which 
that remarkable king Ergamenes maintained with the Egyptiikn 
Ptolemies. But the exploration of sites in the southern half 
of Lower Nubia has revealed the eristence of a wholly unsu9>' 
pected independent civilization which grew up during the fine 
six -centuries after Christ. The history of the succeeding 
periods, moitover, has been partially recovered and the study 



J 



SUDAN 



ol architeaure enridied by the eicavation of numerout dmfches 
dating from the lime of Justiniaiii when Nubia was fint Christian- 
ized« down to the late medieval period when Christianity was 
extirpated by Majwmmedanism. 

The dvilixation -of the first six centuries aj>. may be called 
** Romano-Nubian," a term which indicates its date and suggests 
something of its character. It is the product of a people living 
on the borders of the Roman Empire who inherited much of the 
llellenistic tradition in minor arts but combined it with a 
remarkable power of independent. origination. The sites on 
which it has been, observed ^^S^ f'^^'^ Dakka to Haifa, that 
b to say within the precise limits which late Latin and Greek 
writers assign to the Bleroyes, and there is good reason to identify 
the people that evolved it with this hitherto almost unknown 
barbarian nation. Apart from this, however, the greatest 
value of the new discoveries will consist in the fact that they 
may lay the fpundatioos fo? a new documentary record of past 
ages. For the graves yielded not only new types of sutues, 
bronzes, ivory carvings and painted pottery— all of the highest 
artistic ^^ue — but also a large number ol stone stelae inscribed 
with funerary formulae in the Meroitic script. 

In the course of sixty years the small collection of Meroitic 
inscriptions made by Lepsius had not been enlarged aiul no 
progress had been made towards dedpherment. But the 
cemeteries of Shablul and Karanog alone yielded 170 inscriptions 
on stone, besides some inscribed ostraka. This mass of material 
brought the task of deciphermefit within the range of possibility, 
and even without any bilingual record to assist him, Mr F. LI. 
Griffith rapidly succeeded in the first stages of translation. As 
further explorations bring more inscriptions to light the records 
of Ethiopia will gradually be placed on a firm documentary 
basis and the names and achievements of its greatest monarchs 
will take their place on the roll of history. 

BlBUOCRAPHY.- 

tun (1849). Abh. 

Nuhische Grammalx ; 

Spmche (1887); F r 

(1826); E. A. Wa 

Reisner and C. M f 

IftMai G. Elliott » 

Human Remains" t 

(1906-1007), A H I 

(1906), AioHumenti r 

and C. L. Woolley 

via. voU i. AnVki , , , _.. „. 

**The Romano-Nubian Cemetery," text, vol. iv. ibid., plates, 1910), 
vol. vii. Behen; G. S. Milehara, Reports of the Eckley B. Coxc, jun., 
expedition, vol. ti. Churches in Lower Nnlna (roio); F. LI. Griffith, 
Reports on the Eckley B. Coxe, jun., expedition, vol. vi. MeroUic 
Inscriptions from Shabttd and Karanot, Meroitic Inscriptions, and 
4 vols, on Tombs of EI Amamai and the " Archaeok>gical Survey " 
of the Egypt Exploration Fund. (D. R.-M.) 

AnciitU Monuments south of Hoi^a.— Ruins of pyramids, 
temples, churches and other monuments are found along both 
banks of the Nile ahnost as far south as the Fourth Cataract, 
and again in the " Island of Mero&" In the following list the 
ruins are named as met with on the journey south Jrom Wadi 
Haifa. Opposite that town on the east bank are the remains 
of Bohonj where was found the stele, now at Florence, com- 
memorating the conquest of the region by Senwosri (Usertesen) I. 
of Egypt (e. 3750 B.c). Forty-three miles farther south are 
the ruins of the twin fortresses of Kiunma and Semna. Here 
the Nile narrows and passes the Semna cataract, and graven 
on the rocks are ancient records of " higjti Nile." At Amara, 
some 80 m. above Semna, are the ruins of a temple with Meroitic 
hieroglyphics. At Sal Island, 130 m. abovje Haifa, are remains 
of a town and of a Christian church. Thirteen miles south of 
Sai at Soleb are the ruins of a fine temple commemorating 
Amenophis (Amenhotep) HI. (c. 14x4 b.c.) to whose queen Taia 
was dedicated a temple at Scdeinga, a few miles to the north. 
At Sesebi, 40 m. higher up the Nile, is a temple of the heretic king 
Akhenaton re-worked by Seti I. (c. 1327 b.c). Opposite 
Hannek at the Third Cataract on Tombos Island are extensive 
ancient gtanite quarries, in one of which lies an unfinished 
colossus. On the east side of the river near Kerma are the 



remains of an Egyptian dty. Argo Island, a short distance 
higher up, abounds in ruins, and those at Old Dongola, 320 m. 
from Haifa, afford evidence of the town having t>een of consider- 
able size during the time of the Christian kingdom of Dongola. 
From Old Dongola to Merawi (a distance of too m. by the river) 
are numerous ruins of monasteries, churches and fortresses of 
the Christian era in Nubia-— notably at Jebel Deka and MagaL 
In the immediate nei^bourbood of Jebel Barkal (the ** holy 
mountain " of the ancient Egyptians), a flat-topped hill which 
rises abruptly from the desert on the right bank of the Nile s 
mile or two above the existmg village of Merawi (Merowe), 
are many pyramids and six temples, the pyramids having a 
height of from 35 to 60 ft. I^ramids are also found at Zuma 
and Kurru on the right bank, and at Tangassi on the left bank 
of the river, these places being about so m. below Merawi 
That village is identified by some archaeologiBts with the ancient 
Napata, which is known to have been situated near the " holy 
mountain." On the left bank of the Nfle opposite Merawi are 
the pyramids of Nuri, and a few miles diirtant in the Wadi 
Ghazal are the ruins of a great Christian monastery, where were 
found gravestones with inscriptions in Gretk and Coptic. Ruins 
of various ages extend from Merawi to the Fourth Cataract. 

Leaving the Nile at this point and striking direct across the 
Bayixla Desert, the river is regained at a point above the Atbara 
confluence. Thirty miles noith of the town of Shendi are the 
pyramids of MeroS (or Assur) in three distinct groups. From one 
of these pyramids was taken " the treasure of Qaetn Candace," 
now in the Berlin Museum. Many of the pyramids have a 
small shrine on the eastern side inscribed with debased Egyptian 
or Meroite hieroglyphics. These pyramids are on the right 
bank of the NUp, that is in the " Island of MeroC." Portions (in- 
cluding a harbour) of the site of the dty of MeroC, at Begerawia, 
not far from the pyramids named, were excavated in 1909-T910 
(see^EKOK). In this region, and distant from the river, are 
the remains of several dries, notably Naga, where are ruins 
of four temples, one in the Classic style. On the east bank 
of the Blue Nile, about 13 m. above Rlnrtum at Soba, are ruins 
of a Christian basilica. Farther south still, at Ctteina on the 
White Nile (in 1904), and at Wad d-Hadad, some miks north 
of Sennar, on the Blue Nile (in 1908), Christian remains have 
been observed. 

Between the Nik at Wadi Haifa and the Red Sea are the 
remams of towns inhabited by the andent miners who worked 
the district. The most striking of these towns is Derabcib 
(Castk Beautiful), to named from the picturesque situation 
of the castle, a large square building with pointed arches. The 
walls of some 500 houses still stand. 

For a popular account (with many illustrations) of these ruins 
see J. Wpjrd, Our Sudan: Its Pyramids and Progfess (London, 1905). 

CF. R. C.) 
HiSTO&y 

A. Prom the Earliest Time to the BgyptUn Conquest.— Thi 
southern regions of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan are without 
recorded history until the era of the Egyptian conquest in tb< 
Z9th century. In the northern regions, known as Ethiopia 
or Nubia, Egyptian Influence made itself felt as early as th< 
Old Empire. In process of time powerful states grew up wit t 
capitals at Napata and MeroC (see a$ite § Archaeology anc 
Eiinopu and Egypt). The Nubiana-^that is the dweller 
in the Nile valley between Egypt and Abyssinia-^id not cmbrao 
Christianity until the 6th century, considerably later than theii 
Abyssmian ndghbours. The Arab invasion of North Africa 
in the 7th century, which turned Egypt into a Mahommedai 
country, had not the same effect in Nubia, the Moslems, thougl 
they frequently raided the country, bdng unable to bold It 
On the ruins of the andent Ethiopian .states arose 4 
the Christian kingdoms of Dongola and Aloa, with j 
capitals at DongoU and Soba (corresponding roughly * 
to Napata and MeroC). These kingdoms continued to exis 
until the middle of the X4th century or later (see Dokcolx 
Mudiria). Meanwhile Arabs of the Beni Omayya tribe, uxkIc 
pressure from the Beni Abbas^ had begun to crosa the Red Se 



SUDAN 



ts 



TheFmmi 



H «Htr as the aih cnCttiT liid to «M9 ia Um dwtiiet ABOtuid 
Soaar o» the Blua Nile» a region whkfa probably macked the 
•Mthcnt liiiiita of the kia^dom of Aloa. Tbo Omai>ya, wbq 
teas Ute fottoirinf ooituiifls wen cemfaroed by iuither 
iBngnats Inxa Axabia, Intennanied with the. flcpoid races* 
aaA padneHy Anb iBflneeoe became predominant and Islam 
the aoBUMl faith of all the inhabitants o£ Sennar. Inthiaway 
a faanierins cncted between the Christiana of Nubia and- those 
af Ahya siui a- By the zsth centniy the Asabised negio ncea 
«f the Blue Nile had frown into a powerful nation known aa 
the Foal (f3.)# and daring that century they extended their 
cppqnrtfe north to the borders of Egnit. The kingdom of 
Doei^ had akcaify been redooed to a condition id anarchy 
by Mfii tn ioYaBOos from the north. Cbristiaaity was stiU 
p tufca a ed by sosne of the Nubians a^ late as the i6th centmy, 
bai the whole Sudan north^of the lands of the pagan negroea 
(fmif^ xz* N.) waa thea under Mosliem sway. At that time 
the saltans of Darfur {q.v.) in the west and the eultaaaor kings 
of Senaar (the Fnaj rulcn) in the east were the most powerful 
ef the Mahnramrdan potmtatfs. 
The first of the Fun) wonawhs acknowledged king of the 
~ : of the allied tribtty of which the Hamcg were next in 
importance to the Funl^ was Amara Dunkas, who 
feigned c. i4S4*zs'r6.^ During the reign of Adlan, 
c. I5g6-f605, the fame of Sennar attracted learned 
iBen to his ooort from soeh distant places as Cairo and Bagdad. 
Adian's grcat-giandson Badi Abv Daku attacked the Shflluk 
K^mes and raided Koidofaa, This monarch built the great 
Boiqne at Sennar, almost the only building in the town to survive 
the ravages of the derrishes in the rpth century. In the early 
part ef the s8th ocntory there was war between the Sennari 
lad the Abynaintans, in which the last named wore defeated 
•ith great slaughter. It is said that the cause of c|uarrel was 
the adsnre by the Ung of Sennar of presents sent hy the king 
«i Fimoee to the Negus. The victory over the ''infidel" 
Abywdniane became oelebnited throughout the Bifahommedan 
eoHd, and Sennar waa visited by many learned and olebrated 
aa fiom Egyp<> Arabia and India. Towards the end of the 
iStb century the Hameg wrested power from the FtanJ and the 
bagdom fcO hito decay, many of the ^butmry princes refusing 
to atki KWi te dige the king of Sennar. These disorders con* 
tiaaed «p to the time of the conquest of the country by the 
Eiyptmaa. 

B. pFwmtksBiyfdanCotiqttaHotkeEiseoftktMakdu—ThB 
feeqeeet of Nabia was imdertaken in iSio by order of Mehemet 
^_ AK, the pasha of Egypt, and was accomplished In 

^"H^^the two years following. Jn its consequences this 
"•^ proved one of the most important events in the 

katavy of Abka. Mehemet All never stated the reasons wbidi 
hd kim to ofider the occupation of the country, but his leading 
Borive was^ peobably, the desire to obtain possession of the 
eiiiMs of gold and precious stones which he believed the Sudan 
ooetsiaed. He also saw that the revenue of Egypt was falling 
thraoib the diwrvon, smce about 1800, of the caravan routes 
from the Nile to the Red Sea ports, snd may have wished to 
icraptnre the trade, as well as to secure a country whence 
fhocsaads of staves could be brought annually. Mehemet All 
afao widied to crush the remnant of the Mamelukes who in 1812 
ha.1 cstabOahed themselves at Dbngola, and at the same time 
^^ fibd emptoymcnt for the numerous Albanians and Turks 
■ h'^ army, of whose fidelity he was doubtfuL 

Hcheaiet Ali gave the command of the army sent Co Nubia 
te '^ son IvbomSI, who at the head of soom 4000 men left Wadi 
fbJix in October 1S30. Following the NOe route he occupied 
Dcngola without oppontion, the Mamelukes fleeing before blm. 
I'S^me of them went to-Darfur and Wadai, others made their 
v^y to (he Red Sea. This was the final dispersal of the Mame- 
kka.) WHh. the nomad Shagia, who dominated the district, 

* Variooi Eats aad dates of reign of the rulers of Sennar are 
CT»9; rdfrenoe may be made in Stole vis*8 ManueJ d'histoire vol. i. 
a^a. 18W). afld to rAe Auifo-Egyplittn Stdon, vat t. (London, 
•9051 



lamaD had two ahn^ encoaattn, one near Xorti, the other 
higher up the river» and in both fights Ismail was succcssfuL 
Thereafter the Shai^ furnished useful auxiliary cavalxy .to the 
Egyptians. Ismail remained in the Doogola province till Feb-. 
luaiy iSax, when he croascd the Bayuda Desert and received 
theaubmimionof the meks (kings) of Berber* Shendi and Halfaya, 
nominal vassals of the king of Sennar. Continuing his march 
south Ismail reached the confluence of the White and Blue Nilea 
aad esublished a camp at Raa KhartuuL (This camp devek>ped 
into the city of Khartum.) At this time Badi, the king U 
Sennar, from whom all real power had "been wrested by h^ 
leading oonndUors, determined to submit to the Egyptians, 
and aa Ismail advanced up the Blue Nile he waa met at Wad 
Medani by Badi who declared that he recogniaed Mehemet AU 
as master of his kingdom. Ismail and Badi entered the town of 
Sennar together on the xsth of June xSai, and In this peaceaUe 
manner the Egyptians became rulers of the ancient empire o( 
the Funj. In search of the gold-mines reported to exist farther 
south Ismail penetrated into the mountainoia region of Fazokl* 
where the negroes offered a stout resistance. In February x8sa 
he set out on bis return to Sennar and Pongola, having received 
rqporta of risings against Egyptian authority. The Egyptian 
soldiery bad bdbaved throughout with the utmost barbarity, 
and their passage op the Nile was marked by rapine, murder, 
fflotibtion and fire. Of the rulers who had submitted to Ismaiiv 
Nair Mimr, the mek of Shendi, had been conpeUed to follow in 
the aaite of the Egyptians as a sost of hostaiBe, and this maa 
entertained deep ha&ed of the pasha. On Ismail's return to 
Shendi, October iSas, he demanded of the nitk xooo daves to 
be supplied in two days. The mek, promising compliance. 
Invited IsmaO and his chief officers to a feast in his houses around 
which he had pikd heaps of straw. Whilst the Egjrptians were 
feasting the mek set fire to the straw and Ismail and all hit 
eompanions were burnt to death. 

IsmaiTs death was speedily avenged. A second Egyptlaa 
army, also about 4000 strong, had followed that of Ismail's 
op the Nile, and striking south-wcst from Dchba had wrested, 
after a sharp rsmpatgn, the province of Kordofaa (t8ax) ffoa 
the saltan of Darfur. This army was commanded by Mahommed 
Bey, the Defterdar, son-in-law of Mehemet Ali. Hearing of 
Ismail's murder the Defterdar marched to Shendi, defeated the 
forces of the mek, and took terrible revenge upon the inhabitants 
of Metcmma aad Shendi, most of the inhabitants, induding 
women and children, bciag burnt aUve. Nair Mimr escaped to 
the Abyssinian frontier, where hie maintained his independence. 
Having conquered Nubia, Sennar and Kordofan the Egyptians 
set up a civil government, placing at the head of the administra- 
tion a govemor-general with practically unlimited power.* 
About this perkxl Mehemet Ali leased from the sultan of Turkey 
the Red Sea ports of Suakin and Massawa, and by this meant 
got into his handa all the trade routes of the eastern Sudani 
The pasha of Egypt practically monopolised the trade of the 
country except that in slaves, which became a vast ** industry," 
the lands inhabited by negro tribes on the borders of the con* 
quered territories being raided annually for the purpose. From 
the negro population the army waa so largely recruited that In 
a few 3rear8 the only non-Sudanese in it were oiBcers. The 
£g3rptian rule proved harmful to the oountry. The goveinor»> 
general and the leading officials were neariy all Turks, Albanians 
or Circassians, and, with rare exceptions, the welfare of the 
people formed no part of their conception of government.* 
Numerous efforts'wei^ made to extend the authority of Egypt. 
In x840-;-i>revfcnis attempU having been unsuccessful— the 
fertile district of Take, watered by the Atbara and Gash and 
near the Abyaanian frontier, waa conquered and the town of 

*For a list of the govemors^eaera] see The Antfo-Etyplia* 
Sudan, L p. 280 (London* 1905). 

• Khurahid Pa»ha. ijov'enior-gcnera! f6r 13 >-€«»» (1826-1830), 
«'as one of these exceptions. He gained a great repuration both for 
rectitude and visour. He led expeditions up the White Nile against 
the Dinkas as far as Fashoda; defeated the Abj'ssinians on the 
Sennar frontier, and taught the natives of Khaxttim to build booses 
of brick. 



J 



Id 



SUDAN 



Kassak founded. Tn tSsj tbft pttha himfielf visited tlie Sudan, 
going as far as Fazokl, where he inspected the goldfielda. 

In 1849 Abd-el-Latif Pasha became governor-general and 
attempted to remedy some of the evils which disfigured the 
administration; He remained in office, however, little more 
than a year, too short a period to effect reforms. The Sudan 
was costing Egypt more money than its revenue yielded, though 
it must not be forgotten that large stuns found their way illidtly 
into th< hands of the pashas. The successors of Mehemet AK, 
in an endeavour to make the country more profitable, eitended 
their conquests to the south, and in 185^ and subsequent years 
trading posts wero established on the Upper Nile, the pioneer 
European merchant being John Petherick, British consular 
agent at Khartum.' Petherick sought for ivory only,'but those 
who followed him soon found that slave-raiding was more 
profitable than elephant hunting. The viceroy Said, who made 
a rapid tour through the Sudan in 1857, found it in a depbrable 
Condition. The viceroy ordered many reforms, to be executed 
and proclaimed the abolition of slavery. The refonns were 
mainly inoperative and slavery continued. The project which 
^id also conceived of linking the Sudan to Egypt by .railway 
remained unfulfilled. The Sudan at this time {c, 1S62) is described 
by Sir Samuel Baker as utterly ruined by Egyptian methods 
of government and the retention of the country only to be 
accounted for by the traffic in slaves. The European merchants 
above Khartum had sold their posts to Arab agents, who 
oppressed the natives in every conceivable fashion. Ismail 
Pasha, who became viceroy of Egypt in 1863, gave orders for 
the suppression of the slave trade^ and to check the operations 
of the Arab traders a military force was stationed at Fashoda 
(1865), this l)eing the most southerly point then held by the 
Egyptians. Ismail's efforts to put an end to the slave trade, 
if sincere, were ineffective, and, moreover, ioutli ol Kordofan 
the authority of the government did not extend beyond the posts 
oixttpled by their troops- Ismail, however, was ambitious to 
extend his dominions and to develop the Sudan on the lines be 
had conceived lor the development of EgypL He obtained 
(1865) from the sultan of Turkey a firman assigning to him the 
administration of Suakin and Massawa; the lease which Mehemet 
Ali bad of these ports having lapsed after the death cf that 
pasha. Ismail subsequently (1870-1875) extended bis sway 
oVer the whole coast from Suez to Cape Guardafui and garrisoned 
the towns of Berbera, Zaila, &c, while in 1874 the important 
town of Harrar, the entrepot for southern Abyssinia, was seized 
by Egyptian troops. The khedive had also seized Bogos, in 
the hinterland of Massawa, a province claimed by Abysst;iia. 
This action led to wars with Abyssinia, in which the Egyptians 
were generally beaten. Egyptian authority was withdrawn 
from the coast regions south of Suakin in 1884 (see below and 
also Abyssinia; Eutrea and Souauland). 
' At the samQ time that Ismail annexed the seaboaifd he was 
extending his sway along the Nile valley to the equatorial lakes, 
and conceived the idea of annexing all the country between 
the Nik} and the Indian Qcean. An expedition was sent (1875) 
to the Juba River with that object, but it was withdrawn at 
the request of the British government, as it infringed the rights 
of the sultan of Zanzibar.* The control of all territories south 
of Gondokoro had been given (April i, 1869) to Sir Samuel 
Baker, who, however, only left Khartum to take up his governor- 
7>l^ ship in February 1870. Reaching Gondokoro on 

Bvutorial the 96th of May following, he formally annexed 
ntgiottti that station, which he named Ismailia, to the khedival 
^"^"^nd. ^^'^^^^ Baker remained as governor of the Equa* 
*****"* tonal Provinces until August 1873, and in March 1874 
Colonel C. G. Gordon took up the same post. Both Baker and 
. * The government monopoly in trade ceased after the death of 
Mehemet Ali in 1849. 

> The Juba was quite unsuitable as a means of commmiication 
between the Indian Ocean ind the NMle. The proposal made to 
Ismail by .Gordon was to send an expedition to Mombasa and thence 
up the Tana River, but for some unexplained reason, or perhaps 
by mistake, the expeditbn was ordered to the Juba (see Col. Gordon 
in Central Africa, 4th cd., 1885, pp. 65, 66. 150 and 151, and Ceog. 
'9um., Feb. 1. 1909, p. 150). 



Gordon made stremious effbrta towtids oushhii^ the sbve tndfc, 
but their endeavours were largely thwarted- by the inactk>& d 
the authorities at Khartum. Under Gordon the Upper Nile 
region as far as the borders of Uganda came eiectively under 
Egyptian control, though the power of the go^enunent extended 
on the cast little beyond the banks of the rivers. On the west 
the Bahr^-Ghaaal had been overrun by Arab or semi-Arab 
slave^deaJen. Nominally subjects of the khedj!«e, they acted 
as free agents, reducing the oountxy>over iHiich they terrorized 
to a state of abject misery. The most powerful of the slave 
traders was Zobetr Pasha, who, .having defeated a force sent 
from Khaittun to reduce him to obedience, invaded Daifur 
(1874). The khedive, fearing the power of SSobeir, also sent 
an expedition to Daxfur, and that country, after a stout resist- 
ance, was conquered. Zobeir claimed to be made governor- 
general of the new provhuoe; his request being refused, he went 
to Cairo to urge his cJaim. At Cairo he ivas drained by the 
Egyptian authorities. 

Though spasmodic efforts wtte made to promote agriculture 
and open up communications the Sudan continued to be a con- 
stant drain on the £g3rptian exchequer. The kbedive Ismail 
revived Said^ project of a railway, and a 8urvey,for a line from 
Wadi Haifa to Khartum was made (187 r), vhUe a branch line 
to Massawa was also contemplated. As with Said's project 
these schemes came to naught.* In (Xtober 1876 Gordon 
left the Equatorial Provinces and gave up his appointment 
In February 1877, under pressure from the Britisli oenrral 
and Egyptian governments, be went to Cairo» where flcmtat 
he was given the governorship <rf the whole of the Ooirmn^t^ 
Eg3rptian territories outside Egypt; nattiely, the ****'^ 
Sudan provinces proper, the Equatorial Provinbcs, Darfar, and 
the Red Sea and Soniali coasts. He replaced at Khartum Ismail 
Pasha Eyoub, a Turk made governor-general in 1873, who had 
thwarted as much as he dared all Gordon's efforts to reformj 
Gordon remained in the Sudan until August 1879, During his 
tenure of office he did much to give the Sudanese the benefit 
of a just and considerate government. In 1877 Gordon 
suppre^ed a revolt in Darfur and received the submission ol 
Suliman Zobeir (a son of Zobetr Pasha)., who was at the bead 
of a gang of slave-traders on the Bahr-el-Ghaaal frontier. In 
1878 there was f tinker trouble in Darfur and also in Kordofan, 
and Gordon visited both these provinces^ breaking up many 
companies of slave-hunters. Meantime Suliman (acting on 
the instructions of his father, who was still at Cftiro) had broken 
out into open revolt against the Egyptians in the Bahr-el 
Chazal. The crushing of Suliman was elutriated by Gordor 
to Romolo Gessi (i83r->x88x), an Italian who had previotrsl) 
served under Gordon on the Upper Nile. Gessi, after a mosi 
arduous campaign (x878r-79), in which he displayed great militar} 
skill, defeated and caipturod Suliman, whom, with other ring 
leaders, he executed. The slave-raiders were completely brokei 
up and over 10,000 captives released. A remnant of Zobeir*i 
troops under a chief named Rabah succeeded in escaping vresx. 
ward, (sec Rabah). Having conquered the province Gessi wa 
made governor of the Bahr-ei-Ghanl and given the rank of pasha 

When Gordon left the Sudan he was succeeded at Khartun 
by Raouf Pasha, under whom all the old abuses of the Egyptiai 
administration were revived. At this time the high Europeai 
officials in the Sudan, besides Gessi, included Eroin Pasha {q.t. 
— then a bey only — governor of the Equatorial Province sine 
1878, and Slatin Pasha— then also a bey— governor of Darfui 
Gessi, who had most successfully governed his province, foun 
his position under Raouf intolerable, resigned his post in Sc^ 
tember 1880 and was succeeded by Prank Lupton, an English 
man, and formerly captain of a Red Sea merchant stcamei 
who was given the rank of bey. At this period (x 880-1 88: 
schemes for the reorganization and better administration < 
the Sudan were elaborated on paper, but the revolt in Egyp 
under Arabi (see Egypt: History) and the appearance in th 
Sudan of a Mahdi prevented these schemes from being put int 

•* Up to 1877, when the work w» abanduned, some 50 m> i 
rails had been Lud from Wadi Haifa at a cost of some £450,009. 



SUDAN 



«7 



caeatiott (wwiiiHiig thtet tlie Egyp^"* intfaoiitfes nwe i&icetfc 
b prapoiiBK fcfonns). 

C Tk£ MUse cmd Power of M^kdiswL^Tht Mahdist mave* 
■eat, wkidi was utUrly to ovcfthcow E^ptom nilci deiived iu 
Rncagth rmB tfio dificrent cansn: the oppicssion uader which 
the people sutfcved,^ and the measures taken to prevent the 
Btaasm (cattlc^ownmg Arabs) from slave trading. VcnaUty. 
ud the cxtoctkm of the tax^atherer flourished, anew after the 
departoK of Gordon, while the feebleness of bis successon 
Bjpared in the fianara a akntempt fot the authority which 
prohibited them pumiing their most incrative trafficw When 
M&iKxnmed Ahmed. (9.1.), a Doo^olese, pffoelaimed himself the 
knx-kioked-Cor Mahdi (guide) of Islam, he found most of 
ba urigiiial ioUowers among the grossly superstitious vflJagcn 
•I KoffdoCan, to wlum he preadied univenal equality and a 
GommiAity of goods^ while denouncing the Turks* as unworthy 
Uoskmsoa whom God would execute judgment. The Baggara 
perceived in this Mahdi one who could be osed to shake off 
E^ypiian rale, and their adhesion to him ficst gave importinoe 
to his ^'noissioa." Mahommed Ahmed became at once the 
racier avl the agent oC the Baggara. He married the dau^ten 
U thdr sheikhs sad found in Abdullah, a member of the Taaisha 
Bdxm of the tribe, his chief supporter. The first armed conflict 
^^ bfctweea the Egyptian troops and the JAahdi's 

■■■in rf foUowecs occuncd in August 1B81. In June 1S&2 

the Mahdi gained his first consklerajnle success. 

The capture of £1 Obeid on the 17th of January 
*'^'' 1883 and the aanihtlation in the November following 

of an army of over lo^ooo snen commanded by Hicks Pasha 
(CtiioacI William Hicks {9.9.] formerly of the Bombay army) 
aide the Mafadi undisputed master of Kocdofan and Sennar. 
The next month, December 1883, saw the surrender of Slatin 
is Oaifar, whib^ in February 1884 Osmaa Digna, his amir in 
tLe Red Sea regions, inflicted a crushing defeat on some 4000 
£0pttans at £1 Teh near Suakin. In April following Lupton 
Bey, govcsnor of Bahr-«l<Ghaaal, whose troops and officiab had 
eabcaoed the Mahdtst cause, surrendered and was sent captive 
to Omdurman, where he died on the 8lh of May x888. 

Ob i**nM» g of the disaster to Hkks Pasha's army, the British 
r^>cniffleiit (Great BriUin having been since 1882 in military 
occupiiiioa of Egypt) insisted that the Egyptian government 
ihonfcl evaciaaie such pacts of the Sudan as they still held, and 
<0emaai Cordon was despatched, with Lietit.^olonel Donald 
H. Stewart,* to Khartum to arrange the withdrawal of the 
EfrptisD dvii and military population. Gordon's instructions, 
teed tacgeiy on ids own suggestions, were not wholly consistent; 
Uiey cmtonplBted vaguely the estaUisbmeat of some form of 

■table govecnment oti the surrcndec of Egyptian 
^T*** ** aothocily, and among the documents with which 

be was furnished was a firman creating fairo governor- 
ywti^ of tbe Sudan.* Gordon reached Khartum on the i8th 
•f February 1884 and at first his mission, which had aroused 
ireat enthusiasm in England, promised success. To sthooth 
the «ay for the retreat of the ^yptian garrisons and civilians 
kc anaed pfodamations announcing that the suppression of 
the ilaTe trade was abandoned, that the Mahdi was sultan of 
F-acdcfaa, and that the Sudan was independent of Egypt. He 
oiiitd some thousands of refugees to make their escape to 

* VMdax fnrni Daifur in AT>rfl i879 Gordon «aid : " The eo^em- 
r^'a of the Efrypctans m these far-off countries is nothing dM but 

*' oi brigaodatt of the very wont description, It .is so bad that 
. V«e ofamcUorating it is hppdcss." ..-.,„ -.. 

* t5 Sodanoc spoke of all foreigners as ** Turks. This arose 
'-.B the fact that most of the higher E^ypttan officials were of 
T TtMh oaikMiality and that the army was oAcercd mainly by 
T'^o. Alhanians, Cifcaaoans, Ac., and included in the ranks many 
££s^-Bazak» (irregulars) of non-Sudanese origin. ^ ^ 

' Colonel Stewart had been sent to Khartum in 1882 on a mission 
«( («3iTy. and he drew op a valuable report, Etypt. No. 11 (1883). 

* it is unneecssafy here to enter upon a discusmon of the precue 
wiue of Govdoo's inrtmctions or of the measure in which he earned 
^'"ra cot. The material for forming a judgment will be found in 
Cc-*m-« Jmnub fiWs). Moricy's Life •/ C/adjtoiie (iy>3). Fit*. 
SicrKe's Uie M GretmOe (i905>. »td Cromer's Modem Egypt 
1 19M). (See atao Gordon, Cbaslbs Gbobob.) 



Asnttn xhd adktifed at Khartum tioops from some of the out- 
lying sutions. By this thue the situation had altered for the 
worse and Mdicfism was gaining strength among tribes in the 
Nile vaUey at first hostile to its propaganda. As the only means 
of pNserving authority at Khartum (and thus securing the 
peaceftd withdrawal of the garrisoto) Gordon repeatedly tele* 
graphed to Cairo asking that Zobeir Pasha might be sent (0 
hito, hjs intention being to hand oyer to Zobeir the government 
of tbe oauntry. Zobeir {q.t.)^ a Sudanese Arab, was pMbably the 
•Dt man who coukl have withstood successfully the MahdF. 
Owing to Zobeir's notoriety as a slave-raider Gordon's request 
was refused. AH hope of a peaceful retreat of the Egjrptians 
wss thus rendered impossible. The Mahdist movement now 
swept northward and on the soth of May Berber wai 
captured by the dervishes and Khartum isolated. From this 
time the energies of Gordon were devoted to the -defence of 
that town. After months of delay due to the vacillation of Ih^ 
British goverameat a refief expedition was sent up the Nile 
niKtor the command of Lord Wolseley. It .started too late to 
achieve its object, and on the asth of January 188$ Khartum 
was captured by the Mahdi and Clordon killed. Cotonel Stewart^ 
Frank Power (British consul at Khartum) and M. Herhin (Frendi 
consul), who (aeoompanied by nineteen Greeks) had been sent 
doi^ the Nile by Gordon in the previous September to give 
news to tiie relief force, had been clecoyed ashore and murdered 
(Sept. 18, 1884). The fall of Khartum was followed by the 
withdrawal of the British espedition, Dongola being evacuated 
in June 1885. In the same month Kassala capitulated, but 
just as the Mahdi had pfactitially completed the destruction 
of the Egyptian power* he died, hi this same month of June 
1885. He was at once succeeded by the khalifa Abdullah, 
whose rule continued until the 2nd of September 1898,* when 
his army was completely overthrown by an Angto-Egyptian 
foKe under Sir H. (afterwards Lord) Kitchener. The military 
operations are described elsewhere (sec Egypt: Military Opera;' 
tioHi), and here it is only necessary to consider the internal 
situation and the character of the khalifa's govern^ rbo 
ment. The Mahdi had been regarded by his adhe- KbeB^e 
rents as the only true commander of the faithful-, *^ 
endued with divine power to conquer the whole world. He 
had at first styled his followers dervialies (1.0. religious mendi* 
cants) and given them ihtjUtba as their characteristic garment 
or uniform. Later on he commanded the faithful to call iJiem* 
selves ansar (helpersy, a reference to the part they were to play 
in his career of conquest, and at the time of his death he was 
planning an invasion of Egypt. He had liberated the Sudanese 
from the extortions of the E^tians, but the people soon found 
that the Mahdi's rule was even more oppressive than had been 
that of their former masters, and after the Mahdi's death the 
situation of the peasantry in particuhir grew rapidly worse, 
neither life nor property being safe. Abdullah set himself 
steadily to crush all opposition to his own power. Mahommed 
Ahmed had, in accordance with the traditions which required 
the Mahdi to have four khalifas (Ueutenants), nominated, besides 
Abdullah, All wad Hclu, a sheikh of the Degheim and KenanA 
Arabs, and Mahommed esh Sherif, his son-in-law, as khalifas. 
(The other khalifaship was vacant having been declined by the 
sheikh es Senussi [9.9.1). Wad Helu and Sherif were stripped 
of their power and gradually all chiefs and amirs not of the 
Baggara tribe were got rid of except Osman Digna, whose sphere 
Of operations was on the Red Sea coast. Abdullah's rule was 
a pure military despotism which brought the country to a state 
of almost complete agricultural and commercial ruin. He was 
also almost constantly in conflict cither with the Shilluks, Nucis 
and other negro tribes of the south; with the peoples of Darfur, 
where at one time an anti-Mahdi gained a great following; with 
the Abyssinians; with the Kabbabish and other Arab tribes who 

* Sennar town heM out nntii the 19th of August, while the Red 
Sea pons of Suakin and Masaawa never fell into the hands of the 
Mahdista. The garriaoos of some other towns were rescued by the 
Aby&siniana. , «- . .. 

* This perivd in the history of the Sudan is known aa the hfahdia. 



i8 



SUDAN 



had never embraced Mahdtsm, or with the ItaHuis» EgypCiaiis 

And Eritish. NQtwithstanding all this oppositioa the khalifa 
lound in bis own tribesmen and in his bladi troops devoted 
adherents and successfully maintained his position. The 
attempt to conquer Egypt ended in the total defeat of the 
dervish army at Toski (Aug.- 3, xSSg). The attempts to subdue 
the Equatorial Provinces were but partly succ^ul. £min 
Pasha, to whose relief H. M. Stanley had gone, evacxiated 
Wa(feku ia April 1889. The greater part oi the region and also 
most of the Bahr-el-Ghazal relapsed into a state of complete 
savagery. 

In the country under his dominion the khalifa's government 
was carried on after the manner of other Mahommedan states, 
but pilgrimages to the Mahdi's tomb at Omdurman were substi- 
tuted for pilgrimages to Mecca. The arsenal and dockyard and 
the printing-press at Khartum were kept busy (the workmen 
being Egyptians who had escaped massacre). Otherwise Khartum 
was deserted, the khalifa making Omdurman his capital and 
compelling disaffected tribes to dwell in it so as to be under 
better control. While Omdurman grew to a huge size the 
populatioa of the country geoemlly dwindled enormously from 
constant warfare and the ravages of disease, small-pox being 
endemic. The Europeans in the country were kept prisoners at 
Omdurman. Besides ex-officials like ^tln and Lupton, they 
included several Roman Catholic priests and sisters, and numbers 
oi Greek merchants established at Khartum. Although several 
were closely imprisoned, loaded with chains and repeatedly 
flogged, it is a noteworthy fact that none was put to death. 
From time to time a prisoner made his escape, and from the 
accounts of these ex-prisoners knowledge of the character of 
Dervish rule is derived in large measure. The fanaticism with 
which the Alahdi had inspired, his followers remained almost 
unbroken to the end. The khalifa after the fatal day of Omdur- 
man fled to Kordofan where he was killed in battle in November 
1899. In January 1900 Osman Digna, a wandering fugitive 
for months, was captured. In 190a the last surviving dervish 
amir of importance surrendered to the sultan of Darfur. 
Ilahdism as a vital force in the old Egyptian Sudan ceased, 
however, with the Anglo-£g3^tian victory at Omdurman.* 

D. The Angh-Egyptian Condominium, — Of the causes which 
led to the reconquest oi the Sudan— the natural desire of the 
pgyptia^i government to recover k>8t territory^ the equally 
natural desire in Great Britain to "avenge " the death of Cordon 
were among them — the most weighty was the necessity of 
securing for Egypt the control of the Upper Nile, Egypt being 
wholly dependent on the waters of the river for its prosperity. 
That control would have been lost had a European power other 
than Great Britain obtained possession of any part of the Nile 
valley; and at the time the Sudan was reconquered (1896-98) 
France was endeavouring to establish her authority on the river 
between Khartum and Gondokoro, as the Marcband expedition 
from the Congo to Fashoda demonstrated. The Nile constitutes, 
in the words of Lord Cromer, the true justification of the 
policy of re-occupation, and makes the Sudan h priceles» 
possession for Egypt.' 

The Sudan having been reconquered by " the joint mih'tary 
and financial efforts" of Great Britain and S^^Pt, the British 
government claimed "by right of conquest" to share in the 
settlement of the administration and legation of the country. 
To meet these claims an agreement (which l^s been aptly 
called the constitutional charter of the Sudan) between Great 
-BriUtn and Egypt, was si^pied on the X9th of January 1899, 
establishing the joint sovereignty of the two sUtes throuj^ut 

* In the autumn of 1903 Mahommed-el-Amin, a native of Tunis, 
proclaimed himself the Mahdi and got together a following in Kor- 
dofan. He was captuted by the governor of Kordofan and publicly 
executed at El Obeid. In Apni 1908 Abd-d-Kader. a Halowin 
Arab and cy-dervish, rebelled in the Blue Nile province, claiming to 
be the prophet Isoa Gesus). On the 29th of that month he murdered 
Mr C. C. Soott-Moncrieff. deputy inspector of the province, and the 
EjSyptian mamur. The rising was promptly suppresaed, Abd-el- 
Kadcr was captured and was hanged on the 17th of May. 

• "^ypi. No. I (1905). p. 119. 



the Sndaa.' Ike teorgudsatSoii M the country had already 
begun, supreme power being centred in one official termed the 
*' goveroor^genenil of the Sudan/* To this post wu appointed 
Lord Kitchener, the sirdar (commander-in-chief > of the Egyptian 
army, under whom the Sudan had been reoonquend. On Lord 
Kitchener going to South Africa at the dose of 1899 he was 
succeeded aa airdar and governor-general by Majov-Gcneral Sir 
F. R. Wingate, who had served with the Egyptian army since 
rSaj. Under a Just and firm admmistrstion, which from the 
first was eaaentiaUy dvil, though the pcncipal officials were 
oflkers of the British anny, the Sudan reooveied m a surprising 
mainncr from the woes it auOeied during the Mahdia. At the 
head of every ntmiina (pnovince) was placed a British official, 
though many of the subordinate poeu were filled by Egyptians. 
An excqitioB-wu made in the case of Darfur, which before the 
battle of Omdurman had thrown off the khalifa'a rule and was 
again under a native sovereign. This potentate, the sultan* Ali 
Dinar> was reeogniaed by the Sudan government,, on conditioD 
of the payment of an anninal tribute. 

The first duty of the new adminiatration, the restoration oC 
public order, met with comparatively feeble opposition, xhough 
tribes such as the Nuba mountaineers, accustomed Arnm time 
immemorial to raid their weaket neighbours, gave some trouble] 
In r9o6, in 1908, and again in i9ro expeditions h^ to be sent 
against the Nubas. In the Bahr^el-Gfaaaal the Niam-Niams at first 
deputed the authority of the government, but Sultan Yambio, the 
recaldtrant chief, was mortally wounded in a fighl in February 
1905 and no further disturbance occurred. The delimitation 
. (1905-1904) of the frontier between the Sudan and Abyssinia 
enabled order 'to be restored in a particularly lawless region, 
sihd slave-raiding on a large scale ended in that quarter with 
the capture and execution of a notorious offender in 1904. In 
Kordofan, .Darfur and the Bahr-el-Ghazal ^ the slave trade 
continued however for some years later. 

With good axfaninistration and public security the population 
increased steadily. The history of the country became one ol 
peaceful progress marked by the growing content- j^j^ 
mentof the people. The Sudan government devoted gnetmtm 
much attention to the revival of agriculture and wt±oi 
commerce, to the creation of an educated dass of J^j 
natives, and to the estahlishment of an adequate '* 

judicial system. Thdr tadc, though one of imnmise difficulty, 
was however (in virtue of the agreement of the xgth of January 
1899) free from all the international fetters that bound ih< 
administration of Egypt.. It was moreover rendered easier bj 
the decision to govern, as far as possible, in accordance witi 
native law and custom, no attend bdng made to Egyptiani» 
or Anglicize the Sudanese. The results were eminently satis 
factory. The Arab-«peaking and Mahommedan populaLioi 
found their religion and language respected, and from the firs 
showed a marked desire to profit by the new order. To ihi 
negroes of the southern Sudan, who were exceedhigly suspidou! 
of all strangerar~wfaom hitherto they had known almos 
exclusivdy as slave-raiders— the very elements of dvilizatioi 
had, in most cases, to be taught. In these pagan regions tb 
Sudan government encouraged the work of missionary societies 
both Protestant and Roman Catholic, while discouraginj 
propaganda work among the Moslems. 

In their general policy the Sudan government adopted ; 
system of very light taxation; low taxation bdng in count ric 
such as Egypt and the Sudan the keystone of the political arcli 
This policy was amply justified by results. In 1899 the revcnu 
derived from the country was ££ia6,ooo, in 1909 it had risen t> 
££1,040,000, despite slight reductions in taxation, a proof o 
the growing prosperity of the land. This prosperity was brougti 
about largdy by improving the water-supply, and thus bringin 
more land under cultivation, by the creation of new industries 
and by the improvement of means of communication. A 5hort€ 
route to the sea than that through Egypt bdng essential for t fa 

'At Sxwt Suakin was excepted from some of the provisior 
of this agreement, but these exceptions were done away with b 
a supplementary agreement of the loth of July 1899. 



SUDATORIUM—SDDBURY 



'9 



t of tht eonf rjr, • rtlhviijr froyii Uk Nflt 
Mr BcrtMT to the Red Sw i«et built (t9O4-t906). Tliit line 
itorTfUfrt dbe <liMattee fibiii Khertum to the Merest aeeport by 
mrijr looo m., and by reducing the cost of curiege of mer- 
ckeedfae *■*"■** Sudui produce tb find e profitsble outkt fai 
eke TiairVT** ol the wnrM. At the Bame time liver oommuni- 
e fanptoved end the Bumbera of wells <m carsven RMUit 
Steps were furthennose taken by meens of irrigation 
ewks to rapilate th« Nile floodi, and thoee of the river Gash. 

To the pt wn o ei o n of educatien and nnitation, .and in the 
■faiBBtratioii of Justice, the government devoted much energy 
eith satiifactory rendts. Indeed the regenerative yMk of 
Gicst Britain in the Sudan has been fuUy as successful and even 
ane fensrfcable than that of Great Britain in Egypt. A hirge 
put of this wotk has been kccomplished by officers of the British 
wny. Some of the most valuable suggestions about such matters 
m had settlement, agricultural loans, &c., emanated from bfiicets 
vbe a siKifft time before were performing purely military .duties. 

Nevtrtbelcsa dvil servants gradually replaced military officers 

■ the work of administration, army officers being liable to be 
floddenly removed for war or other service, often at times when 
the pteaeiiTf of officiab possessed of local experience was most 
JBpartaat. la effidency and devotion to duty the Egyptian 
efideb vnder the new r^me also earned high praise. , 

Tbt relations of the Sudan government with its Italian, 
AbjannaA and French neighbouiB was marked by cordiality, 
ifcfc^af but with the Congo Free State difficulties arose over 
oitejtf «■# ciaims made by that state to the Bahr-d-Ghazal 
A'^ (see AmcA, f 5). Congo State troops were in 1904 

ttatMoed in Sndanese territory. The difficulty was adjusted 
a 1906 ^IfceB the Congo State abandoned all daims to the Ghatol 
nroviBce (whence lU troops were withdrawn during 1907), and 
a «a agreed to transfer the Lado endave iq.v.) to the Sudan' 
n mootho after the death of the king of the Belgians. Under 
the terms of thh agreement the Lado enclave was incorporated 
la the Sudan m 1910. As to the genersl state of the country Sir 
EUoo Gofit after a tour of inspection declared in his report for 
igo9. " I do not suppose that there is any part of the worid in 
vtKh the mass of the population have fewer unsatisfied wants." 

AcraoafTiBS.— Sommariet of andent and medieval histovy 
«£ be foood m E A. Wallb Budn. Tkt Egyptian Sudan (a vols., 
i^i mad »e Antfa-EtypHan Sudan (1095). edited by Count 
CWben. The stocy of the Egyptian conquest and eveat^ up to 
t*y> are scimfliariaed in H. Delwrain's Lg Saudan igyptien sotu 
Mekrma AH (Paris, 1008). For .the middle jperiod of Egyjptian nile 
«« Sv SoBod Baker's Jtmaaia (1874); Cd. Gordon in Control Afriea, 
fiAtri by C. Birkbeck Hill (4th cd., 1885). being extracts from 
G..rioa'» diary. 1874-1880; Seoen Yean in tho Soudan, by Romolo 
G^»4 Pasha (1891): and Per Sudan unter agyptiuhtr Herrschafl, by R. 
B.(dbu (Ldpng. 1888). Tbe rise of Mabdism and events down to 
low asr set fordi in (Sir) F. R. Winyste's MakdOsm and the Egyptian 
Smitm (1891). This book contains transbtaons of letters and 
pmciaaMtioaa of the Mahdi and Khalifa. For this period the 
J^vmaU ef Major General Cordon at Khartoum (1885); F. Power's 
LtOtn from Kiartamm during the Siege (1885). and the following 
(oLT boolawntten by prisooera of the dervishes are spedally valuable : 
S.U1 Pasha, Fire and Sword in the Sudan. (1896): Father J. 
Ciln^alder (from the MSS. of. by F. R. Wingate), Ten Years* Captieily 
M rW MaUCs Camp {1882-1892) (1893): Father Paolo Rosignoli. / 
■MS doitci ammi di prigjumia in mono at dervice del Sudan (Mondovi, 
tttfuy, C. Ncnflddt. A Priooner of the Khaleefa (1899). See also 
C. Dttfarrv. L'tiat makditU dm Soadojs^Pans, tool). For the 

Gocdoti Rdicf " campaign, Ac., see the British omcial History of 
tMf 5Wa« Campaign (1890): for the campatKns of 1896-98. H. S. L. 
K^ni6 ami W. D. Sword, The Egyptian Soudan, iU Loss and Recovery 

la^l; G. W. Scccvcns, WUh Kikhener to Khartum (Edinburdi, 
I ft|lr;Witt«ooS.ChnxtBhiIl.rkiencrIi^ar (revised ed., 1903). The 

■ jry d the Fashoda incident is told maiply in British and French 
^ i»i despatches: consult also for this period G. Hanotaux, Fachoda 

Tirv. i9to): A. Ld>on, La PolUifue de la Frona 1896-1898 (Paris, 
»qt>tU and R. de Calx, Faehoia, la Franco et rAngleterre (Paris. 
1 ^A Loni Cromer's Modem Eupt (1908) covers Sudanese history 
i^ t^ yearv 188 1 -1907. Coosuft also the authorities dtcd under' 
L'Z.in) : Madam History, and H. Pensa. L'EgypU et le Soudan igyptien 
'Paris. 189s). Unless otherwise suted the place of publication is 
Lo«»oii.^ *(F.R.C) 

tODAlUHlUH. tbe term in architecture for the vaulted 
evnting-foom {sndor, sweat) of the Roman thermae, referred 
to ia Vitravhis (v. 2), and there called the coneameraia tudatio. 



la mder to elrtahi the gieatlieat reqtdred, the whole #all was 
lined with vertical terra-cotta flue pipes of rectanguhr sectkm, 
placed side by side, through which the hot air and the smoke 
from thosuspensura passed to an exit in the roof. 

SUDBUHYr SfHON OF (d.' 1381), archbishop of Canterbury, 
waa bom at Sudbury In Suffolk, stucfied at the university of 
Paris, and became one of the chaplains of Pope Innocent VI.« 
who sent Urn, In 1356, on a mission to Edward HI. of En^nd. 
In October 1361 the pope appointed fahn bishop pf London, and 
he was soon serdng the king as an ambassador and hi other ways. 
In 1375 he'succeeded William Wittksey as aidibishop of Canter* 
bury, and during the rest of his Kfe was a partisan of John of 
Gaunt. In July 1^377 he crowned Richard II., and hi 1378 John 
Wydiffe appeued before him at Lambeth, but he only took 
proceedings against the reformer under great pressure. In 
January 1380 Sudbury became chancellor of Enghmd, and the 
revolting peasants regarded hfan as one of the prindpal authors 
of thdr woea. Having released John B&U from, his prison at 
hfaidsbooe, the Kentish bsurgents attacked and' damaged the 
archbishop's property at Canterbury and Lambeth; then, 
rushhig into the Tower of London, they seised the archbishop 
himself. Sudbury was dragged to Tower Itill and. on the r4th 
of June 1381, was beheaded. His body was afterwards buried 
hi Canterbury Cathedral. Sudbury rebuilt part of the church of 
St Gregory at Sudbury, and with his brother, John of Chertsey, 
he founded a college in this town; he also did some building at 
Canterbury. His father was Nigel Thcpbald, and he is somo- 
times called Simon Theobald or TybahL 

See W.'F. Hook, Lioa of Oo AfMishopt of Cmaerhwj. 

BUDBVRT, a post town and outport- of Nipissing district, 
Ontario, Canada, on the Canadian Padfic railway, 443 m. W. of 
'Montreal. Pop. (1901), '3027. It has mantifactures of explosives, 
lumber and pfatning mills, and is the largest nickel mhiing centre 
in the worid. Gold, copper and other minerals are also raised. 
PsactKally all the ore is shipped to the United States. 

SUDBURT, a market town and munidpal boroi:!^ of England, 
chiefly in the Sudbury parliamentary divisiMi (^ Suffolk, but 
partly in the Saffron WaMen division of Essex. Pop. (1901), 
7109. It lies on the river Stour (which is luivigablc up to the 
town), 59 m^ N.E. from London by the Great Eastern railway. 
All Saints' parish churdi, consisting of chancel, nave, aisles and 
tower, is chiefly Perpendicular— the chancel being Decorated. 
It possesses a fine oaken pulpit of 1490. The diurch was restored 
in 1882. St Peter's is Perpendicular, with a finely carved nave 
roof. St Gregory's, once collegiate, is Perpendicular. It has a rich 
spire-shaped font-cover of wood, gflt and painted. The grammar 
school was founded by William Wood in 1491. There are some 
old half-timbered houses, indudiiigone very fine example. The 
principal modem buildings are the town-hall, Victoria had 
and St Leonard's hospital. Coco-iiut matting is an important 
manufacture; sUk rnanufactures were transferred from London 
during the X9th century, and horsehair weaving was establi^ed 
at the tame time. There are also fknir-milb, malt-kilns, lime- 
works, and brick and tile yards. The town is governed by a 
mayor, 4 aldermen and Z3 coundllors. The borough lies wholly 
in the administrative county of West Suffolk. Area, 1925 acres. 

The ancient Saxon borough of Sudbury (Sudbyrig, Sudberii 
Suthberia) was tbe centre of tbe sontbem portion of the East 
Anglian kingdom. Before the Conquest it was a borough owned 
by the mother of Earl Morcar, from whom it was tiiken by 
VViUiam I., who held it in xo86. It was alienated from the 
Crown to an ancestor o( Gilbert de Clare, 9th earl of Gloucester. 
In X 27 1 the earl gave tbe burgesses their first charter confirming 
to them all thdr andent liboties and customs. The eail A 
March granted a charter to tbe mayor and bailiffs of Sudbury in 
1397. In 1440 and again in 1445 the men and terumtsof Sudbury 
obtained a royal confirmation of their privileges. They were 
incorporated in 1553 xmder the name of the mayor, aldermen and 
burgesses of Sudbury, and charters were granted to the town by 
Eliaabeth, Charles II. and James 11. Its constitution was re- 
formed by the act of 1835. It was represented in parliament 
by two burgesses from 1558 till its disfranchisement in 



20 



8UDD~^UEBI 



1844. The lord of the borougli had s mariut and lair in the 15th 
century, ahd three fairs in March, July and December were held 
in 1792. Markets still exist on Thursdays and SatuKdayi* 
Weavers were introduced by Edward III., and the town became 
the chief ceptre of the Suffolk doth industry after the Restomtion. 

8UD0» or Sadd (an Arabic word meaning "to dam"), the 
name given to the vegetable obstruction which has at various 
dates dosed the waters of the Upper. Nile to navigation. It is 
composed of masses of papyrus and umsiifi Vossia prceera) and 
the earth adhering to the roots of those reeds. Mingled with the 
papyrus and um suj (Arabic for " mother-of -wool " ) are small 
swimming plants and the light brittle ambach. The papyrus 
and um suj grow abundantly along the Nile banks and the con- 
nected lagoons between 7** N. and 13° N. Loosened by storms 
these reeds drift until they lodce on somo obstrxiction and form a 
dam across the channel, converted by fresh arrivals into blocks 
that are sometimes 25 m. in length, and extend 15 to 20 ft. 
^low the surface. These masses of decayed vegcUtion and 
earth, resembling peat in consistency, are so much compressed 
by the force of the current that men can walk over them every- 
where. In parts dephants could cross them without danger. 
The pressure of the water at length causes the formation of a side 
channel or the bursting of the sudd. (For sudd cutting see Nile.) 

In the Bahr-el-Ghazal the sudd, being chiefly composed of 
small swimming plants, is of less Xormidable nat\ue than that 
of the main stream. 

Consult, O. Deuerling, DU PJJanzenborren der afrikaniscken 
FlUsu (Munich, 1900), a valuable monograph ; and the bibliography 
under Nile, especially Captain H. G. Lyons, The Physiography of 
IheNUeandiis Basin (Cairo. 1906). ^ t r ^ j 

8UDERHAIIN. HERMANN (1857" ), German dramatist 
and. novelist, was born on the 30th of September 1857 at Matri- 
ken in East Prussia, dose to the Russian frontier, of a Mennonite 
family long settled near Elbing. His father owned a small 
brewery in the village of Heydeknig, and Sudermann received 
his early education at the Realschule in Elbing, but, his parents 
having been reduced in drcumstances, he was apprenticed to a 
jchemist at the age of fourteen. He was, however, enabled to 
enter the Realgymnasium in Tilsit, and to study philosophy and 
history at Kdnigsberg University. In order to comi^cte his 
studies Sudermann went to Berlin, where he was tutor in several 
families. He next became a journalist, was from 1881-1882 
editor of the Deuischts ReichshlaU, and then devoted himself to 
novel- writing. The novels and romances Im Zvidichl (1886), 
iPrau Sorie{i^7), Gesckwiskf (r888) and Der KaHensteg (1890) 
failed to bring the young author as much recognition as his first 
drama Die Ekre (1889), which inaugurated a new period in the 
history of the German stage. Of his other dramas the most 
successful were Sodoms Ende (1891), ^«iiwi (1893). DieSckmetUr- 
Hngsschlacht (1894), DasCliUk im Winhd (1895), MorituH (1896), 
Johannes (1898), Die drei Rcikerjcdern (1899), Johannesfcuer 
(1900), Es lebe das Lebent (1902), Der SturmgeseUe Sokrates 
(1903) and Sicin unler SUinen (1905). Sudermann is also the 
author of a powerful social novel, Es war (1904), which, like Frau 
Sorge and Der Katzensteg^ hss been translated into English. 

See W. Kawcrau, Hermann Sudermann (1897); H. Landsberg, 
Hermann Sudermann (1902): 11. Jung, Hermann Sudermann (1902): 
H. Schoen, Hermann Sudermann, potte dramatique et romancier 
(1905): and I. Axelrod. Hermann Sudermann (1907). 

WOE, EUG^B [Joseph Marte) (1804-1857), French novelist, 
was bom in Paris on the lolh of January 1804. He was the son 
of a distinguished surgeon tn Napoleon's army, and is said to have 
had the empress Josephine for godmother. Sue himself acted 
as surgeon both in the Spanish campaign undertaken by France 
fct 1823 and at the battleof Navarino (1828). In 1829 his father's 
death put him in possession of a considerable fortune, and he 
settled in Paris. His naval experiences supplied much of the 
materials of his first novels, Kernock le pirate (1830), Atar-GuU 
(1831), La Salamandre (2 vols., 1832), La Couearatcha (4 vols., 
1832-1834), and others, which were composed al the height of the 
komantic movement of 1830. In the quasi-historical style he 
wrote Jean Cavalier, ou Les Fanatiques des Cevennes (4 vols., 1840) 
*9umont (2 vols., 1837). He was strongly affected by the 



Sodaliit Mens io( tho day, mmI tbeie pnonpted Us mcot i 
works: les Mystirt»4s Paris (so .vols., 1843-1843) and Le Jt^ 
erf ami (le vols., 1844-1845), which were among the atost popular 
spedmens of tbo rvmam^ftuUktan^ HefoUowcd thew up with some 
singuloi and not ve^r edifying books: lei Scpl pMiU €cpilous 
(16 volsn i84r7*i849)> which contained slorico to illustrate tuh 
sin, Les MysUras dn peupU (1849-1856), which was suppressed 
by the censor in 1857, nnd several othen, all on a very laijge scale, 
though the number of volumes gives an exaggerated idea of their 
length. Some of his books, among them the Juif erranl and the 
Mystiret de PariSt were dramatised by himself, usually in collab- 
oration with others. His period of greatest success and popu- 
larity cxnndded with that of Alexandre Dumas, with wfacm some 
writers have put him on an eqnahty. Sue has neither Dumas's 
wide range of subject* nor, above all, bis faculty of conducting 
the story by means of livdy dialogue; he has, however, a com- 
mand of terror which Dumas addom or never attained. From 
the literary point of view his sty^ is bad, and his construction 
prolix. After the revolution of 1848 he sat for Paris (the Seine) 
in the Assembly from April 1&50, and was exUed in consequence 
of his protest against the coup d'iiai of the and of Deccmba 
185K. This exile stimuUted his literary production, but the 
works of his last days are on the whole touch inferior- to those 
of his middle period. Sue died at Annocy. (Savoy) on the 
3rd of Augittt 1857. 

SUBBI, or SuEvi, a coUectiveterm applied to a number of 
peoples in central Germany, the chief of whom appear to have 
been the Marcomanni, Quadii Hernpunduii, Semnones and 
Langobardi. From the earliest times these tribes inhabited the 
basin of the Elbe. The Lcngobardic territories seem to have 
lain about the lower reaches of the river, while the Semnones lay 
south. The Marcomanni occupied the basin of the Saale, but 
under their king, Maroboduus, they moved into Bohemia during 
the early part of Augustus's reign, while the Qiudi, who are first 
mentioned in the time of Tiberius, ky farther cast towards the 
sources of the ^be. The former home of the Marcomanni wa^ 
occupied by the Hermunduri a few years before the Christian 
era. Some kind of political union seems to have existed among 
all thcse^ tribes. The Semnones and Langobardi were &t on< 
time subject to the dominion of the Marcomaanic king Marobo- 
duus, and at a much later period we hear of Langobardic troopi 
taking part against the Romans in the Maieomamiic War. Tb< 
Semnones daimed to be the chief of the Suebic peoples, an^ 
Tacitus describes a great reUgious festival held an their triba] 
sanctuary, at which legations were present from all the othei 
tribes. 

Tadtus uses the name Suebi in a far wider sense than thai 
defined above. With him it indudes not only the tribes of thi 
basin of the Elbe, but also all the tribes north and east of tha 
river, induding even the Swedes (Suiones). This usage, which » 
not found in other ancient writers, is probably due to a conf u^oi 
of the Suebi with the agglomeration of peoples under thci 
supremacy, which as we know from Strabo extended to som< 
at least of the eastern tribes. 

In early Latin writers the term Suebi is occasionally applied V 
any of the above tribes. From the 2nd to the 4th century 
however, it is seldom used except with reference to events in th 
neighbourhood of the Pannonian frontier, and here probabl; 
means the Quadi. From ihe middle of the 4th centnry omrari 
it appears most frequently in the regions south of the Main, an 
soon the names Alamanni and Suabi are used synonymously 
The Alamanni (^.t.) seem to have been, in part at least, th 
descendants of the andent Hermunduri, but it is hlccly thn 
they had been joined by one or more other Suebic peoples, froi 
the Danubian region, or more probably from the middle Eltw 
the land of the andent Semnones. It is probably ftom th 
Alamannic region that those Suebi cam* who joined tY 
Vandals in thdr invasion of Caul, and eventually founded 
kingdom in north-west Spain. After the ist century the ten 
Suebi seems never to be kppUed Co the Langobardi and seldoi 
to the Baiouarii (Bavarians), the descendants of the ancici 
Marcomanni. But besides the Alamannic Suebi we bcj 



SUECA-^UETONIUS TRANQUILLUS 



« 



d» of » peopfo caOiii Suebi. who Aoufy alter tbe ikiiddk of 
the 6th couuiy seltkd north oC the Unstnit. There is 
cndeace also for a people caJled Suebi ia the district above 
t^ nwoUft ol the ScbeklL It is likdy that both these stfUle- 
■eats were ooloaies from the Suebi oi wfaoia we bear m the 
A^gb^aaoB poem Widsitk as oeighboun of the AagU, and 
■boaenaiBe may poanbly be preserved in Schwabatndt on the 
Trecne. The question has recently been raised whether these 
Saehi ihotdd be identified with the people whom the Romans 
afied Ucrufi. After the 7lh ccntucy the name Suebi is practically 
ooiy applied to the Alamannk Suebi (SchwaJbenK with whom it 
•* a tcniUKiai dcsignatian in Wttrttemberg and Bavaria 



ati the pccaent day. 
Ser C^csr. Dm bdlo^ 



fjaUieo, i. 37, 51 eqq. 
Tacit 



p ^ .,. - • ■ «»•. vi. 9 8oq-: 

acitus, Ctrmania, 38 sqq.; K. Z^u^ Die 



Stxjbo, p. 290 9e^.; 
tundd' 

riss (2nd «d.). ni. 91 5-950; H. M. OiAdwick, Onp» 
£M EMi^uk AoAM. 216 sqq. (Cambridge. 1907). (F. C. M. B.) 



I die Nackbarslamme, pp. 55 joq.. 315 sqq. ; C. Bremer 
ta {^"sGrviirffTU (2nded.). Hi. 9I5;950: H.M.C^dwick,0^{[lfro/ 



SOKA* a town of eastern Spain, fai the province of Valencia; 
ttar the left bank of the river J Acer, and on the Silla-CuOeni 
mi'vay. Pop. (igoo), 14,435. Sneca is separated from the 
lledxtcsratscan Sea (7 m. east) by the Sierra de Cullera. It is a 
modem town, allhoagb many of the houses have the flat roofs, 
rKw>turreta (msradwes) and honeshoe arches characteristic ef 
Moorisfa architeanre. There are a few handsome pubDc 
beidinss* snch as the hospital, town-hall and thteue. Sueca 
bs a thriving trade in grain and fniit from the J6car valley, 
v^liich b trr^ted by waterways created by the Moon. 

Sm, B0OARD (1831- ' ), Atistrian geologist, 4ras bom 
in Loodoo on the 9o(b of August 1831. his father, a native of 
Sainoy, having settled there as a German merchant. Three 
ytan later the family removed to Prague, and in 1845 to Vienna. 
Edoard Suesa was educated for commerdal fife, but early dis- 
ftytd a bent for geology. Ai the age of nineteen he published 
s tboft sketch of the geology of Carlsbad and iis mineral waters; 
ar^d m i8s> he was appointed an assistant in the Imperial 
omeoffl of Vienna. There he studied the fossil Brachiopoda , and 
■omfatcd sach ability that in 1857 he was appointed professor 
«l geology at the university. In 1862 he relinquished his museum 
tctks, aad gave his whole time to special research and teaching, 
maming hia profcssoiship untfl igot. Questions of ancient 
phyikaJ feography, such as the former connexion between 
vnhcra Africa and Eorope, occupied his atteniion; and in 1862 
he pttbiiahed an essay 00 the soils and water-supply of Vienna. 
He was elected a member of the town council, and in 1869 to a 
lot ia the Diet of Lower Austria, which he retained until r8o6. 
Mfawhde he oontinncd bis geological and palaeontological 
•erk dealing with the Tertiary strau of the Vienna Basin, also 
ttsna^ hja attention to the problems connected with the evolu- 
teJD of the earth's surface-features, on which he wrote a monu- 
Bcstal treatise. This, the great task of his life, embodied the 
Toelts ef ponoaal reseanth aad of a comprehensive study of the 
•ork of the leading geologists of all countries; it is entitled 
A^ib der Brde, of which the first volume was published in 1883, 
tic second in 1888. aad pi. i. of the third volume m 1^1. The 
work h» becsi tramlated into French, and (in pari) into En||lish. 
SuesB was elected a corresponding member of the Institute of 
France in 1880, and a foreign member of the Royal Society in 
i8g4. In 1896 the Geological Sodety of London awarded to him 
the WoUaston medal. 

lioBMir (with poniaitK by Sir A. Gcilde. Natmn (May 4, 1905). 

SVBBOLA. an andent town of Campania, Italy, in the plain 
i\ UL W. of the modem Ctncelio, o m. S.E. of the ancient Capua. 
Its earficr Uttofy is obscure. In 338 B.C. it obtained Latin 
f^K^ from Rome. In the Samniie and Hannibolk wan it was 
tfrxiegicaly important as commanding the entranSce to the 
Caadinepasa Sulla secsns to have founded a colony here. It is 
frequently Darned as an episcopal see up till the loib century a.d., 
■ad waa for a time the chief town of a small Lombard principality. 
It oaa sewtal times plundered by the Saracens, and at laA 
I by the inhabitants in consequence of the malaria. The 
\ of the town lie within the Bocco d'Aoerra, a ptcturesque 
Tbey iMse more tooipteiMua ia Jbe i8ih oentury than 



•thqr now are, but traces of the theatre' may still be amb, and 
dfbris of other buildings. Oscan tombs were excavated there 
between 1878 and iS86, and important finds of vases, bxonaea, 
&c., have been made. The dead were generally buried within 
slaha of tufa onaoged to form a kind of sarcopbagua (see F. von 
Duhn in Rimiukg iiiOtilimgem, 1887, p. 23 s ^Vi-)' Sueasula lay 
on the line of the Via Popiilia, which waa here intersected by a 
mad which ran from Neapolis through Acerrae, and on to the Via 
Appia, which it reached just west of the Caodtne pass. On 
the hills above Cancello to the east of SuessiUa was' aitnated 
the fortihcd camp of M^ Caudiua Marcdlus,. which covered 
Nola and served as a post of observation against HaiAihal in 
Capua. (T.Ai.) 

SUET (M. Eng. jeiMf, a dimmutive of O. Fr. rca, smis, mod. 
suif, lard, from Lat. uAum^ or seaitm, taUow, grease, probably 
allied to sapp, soap), the hard flaked a^te fat lying round the 
kidn^s of the sheep or ox; that of the pig forma lanL Beei> 
suet is especially used in cookery. 

8UBTONIU8 TRANQUILLUS^ OAIOS, Roman hiatariaa, 
lived during the end of the xst and the first half ef the and 
oenSnry aj». Ue was the contemporary of Tadtiis and the 
youager Pliny, and his literary work seems to have beea 
chiefl^ done in the reigns of Trajan and Hadriaa (a^. ^138). 
Hia father was military tribune in the Xlllth legion, and he 
himself began life as a teacher of rhetoric and an advocate. 
To us he is known aa the biognpher of the twelve Caesars 
(induding Julius) down to Domitian. The b'ves are valuable 
as covering a good deal of groitod where we are without the 
guklanGe of Tadtiss^ As Suetoidus was the emperor Ha<hian't 
private secretary (wugislir e^loianmU he must have had 
access to many important documents in the Imperial archiveik 
r.f. the dteees and transactions of the senate. In addition 
to ^written aad official documenu, he picked up in sodety a 
mass of information and anecdotes, which, though of doubtful 
aothentidty, need not be regarded as mere inventions of 
his own. They give a very good idea of the kind of court 
gottip prevalent in Rome at the time. He was a friend and cor> 
respo n dent of the younger Pliny, who when appointed governor 
of Bilhynia took Suetoaias with him. Pliny aho recommended 
him to the favourable notice of the emperor Trajan, " as a most 
upright, l&>notn-ahle, and learned man, whom persons often 
remember in thdr wills, because of his merits,"* and he begs that 
he may be made legally capable of inheriting these bequests, for 
which under a special enactment Suetonius was, aa a childless 
married man, disqualified. Hadrian's biographer, Aelius 
Spartianua, tells us that Suetonius was deprived of his 
private secretaryship because he had not been sufiidently 
observant of court eiiqueiu towards the emperor's wife 
during Hadrian's absence in Britain. 

The Lnes of the Caesars has alwayt been a popular work. It 
is rather a chronicle than a history. U Rives no picture of the 
society of the time, no hints as to the general character and tenden- 
cies of the period. It is the emperor who is always before us. and 
yet the portrait » drawn without any rval historical ^udgmem or 
insight. It is the personal anecdotes, several ol which are very 
amusing, that give the lives their chief interest; but the author 
panders rather too much to a taste for scandal and gossip. None the 
less he throws considera(>le light on an important periud. and next to 
Tacitus and Dio Cassius is the chief (sometimes the only) authority. 
The language is clear and simple. The work was continued by 
Marius Maximufi (3rd century), who wrote a history of the emperors 
from Nerva to Elagabalus (now lost). Suetonius was a voluminous 
writer. Of his De mris iUustnhus, the livps of Terence and Horace, 
fngmcncs of those of Lucan and the elder Pliny and the greater 

Srf of the chapter on grammarians ami rhetoricians, are extant. 
her works by him (now lost) were: Praia (- X»M*«wf ■ patch- 
work), in ten books, a kind of enc>Tlopaedia ; the Roman Year, ttomon 
InstUuttoHS and Cnstoms, Children's Games among the Creeks, Reman 
FuUk Spuiachs, On ike Aing i. On Cuero's Republic. 

Editio princepc 1470; editions by great scholars: Erasmus. 
Isaac Casaubon. J. G. Craevius. P. Burmann; the best complete 
annotated edition is still that of C. G. Baumf^arten-Crusius (1816); 
rercni editions by H. T. Perk (New York, 18*9): Leo Preud'homme 
(1906): M. Ihm (1907). £ditk>ns of separate lives: AuijttUmi, by 
E. S. Shuckburgh (with useful introduction, 1&16); CJaMdiui, by HV 
Smilda (iBq6), with notcsand paralUI pass.tgesfrom other authorities. 
The b<st editions of the text are by C. L. Roth (i8W»). and A. Reiflfc^ 
achekf (not inciodtng the Lnrs. 1B60). On the DemntiUu»iHlm§, see 



22 

Q. KOrtn in Disterl.fkilol^g. kattfuts (1900), vol. itiv. ; and, aboveall. 
A. Mace. EMai sur SuiUme (1900), with an exhaustive bibltOjKraf^y. 
There are English translations by Philemon Holland (reprinted in 
the Ttidor TranUations, 1900). and by Thomson and Forester (in 
Bohn's Qassicai Library). 

SUEZ, a port of Egypt on the Red Sea and souihern terminus 
of the Sues Canal (9.V.). situated at the head of the Gulf of Sues 
in a9*sS'37* N.,3a'3i' rS'E. It is 80 m. E. by S. of Cairo in a 
direct line but 148 m. by rail, and is built on the north-west 
point of the gulf. Pop. (1907). 18^;. From the heights to the 
north, where there is a khedival chalet, there is a superb view to 
the south with the Jebel Auka on the right, Mt Sinai on the 
kft and the waters of the gulf between. Suez is supplied with 
water by the fresh-water canal, which starts from the Nile at 
Caifo and is terminated at Sues by a lock which, north of the 
town, joins it to the gulf. Before the opening of this canal in 
1863 water had to be brought from " the Wells of Moses," a 
small oasis 3 m. distant on the east side of the gulf. About 
3 ra. south of the town are the harbours and quays constructed 
OB the western side of the Sues Canal at the point where the 
canal enters the gulf. The harbours are connected with the 
town by an embankment and railway built across a shallow, 
dry at low water save for a narrow channel. On one of the 
quays is a statue to Thomas Waghom, the organizer of the 
" overland route " to India. The grotuid on which the port is 
bttUt has all been reclaimed from the sea. Tlie accommodation 
provided includes a dry dock 4x0 ft. k>ng, 100 ft. broad and 
nearly 36 ft. deep. There are separate basins for warships 
and merchant ships, and in the roadstead at the mouth of the 
canal is ample room for shipping. Suez is a quarantine 
station for pilgrims from Mecca; otherwise its importance is 
due almost entirely to the ships using the canaL 

In the 7th century a town called Kolzum stood, on a. site 
adjacent to that of Suez, at the southern end of the canal which 
then joined the Red Sea to the Nile. Kolzum retained some of 
the trade of Egypt with Arabia and countries farther east long 
after the canal was dosed, but by the 13th century it was in 
ruins and Suez itself, which had supplanted it, was also, according 
to an Arab historian, in decay. On the Ottoman conquest of 
Egypt in the x6th century Suez became a naval as well as a trad- 
ing station, and here fleets were equipped which for a time di»> 
puted the mastery of the Indian Ocean with the Portuguese. 
According to Niebuhr, in the x8th century a fleet of nearly 
twenty vessels sailed yearly from Suez to Jidda, the port of Mecca 
and the place of correspondence with India. When the French 
occupied Suez in 1798 it was a place of little importance, and the 
conflicts which followed its occupation in 1800 by an English 
fleet laid the greater part in ruins. The overland mail route from 
England to India by way of Suez was opened ini 83 7 . The regular 
Peninsular & Oriental steamer service began a few years later, 
and in 1857 a railway was opened from Cairo through the desert. 
This line is now abandoned in favour of the railway which follows 
the canal from Suez to Ismailia, and then ascends the Wadi 
Tumilat to Zagazig, whence branches diverge to Cairo and 
Alexandria. 

SUEZ CANAL. Before the construction of the Suez Canal 
there was no direct water communication between the Mediter- 
ranean and the Red Sea, but at various eras such communication 
existed by way of the Nile. Trade between Egypt and countries 
to the east was originally overiand to ports south of the Gulf of 
Suez; the proximity of the roadstead at the head of that gulf to 
Memphis and the Delta nevertheless marked it as the natural 
outlet for the Red Sea commerce of Lower Egypt. The fertile 
Wadi Tumilat extending east of the Nile valley almost to the 
head of the gulf (which in ancient time; reached north to the 
Bitter Lakes) afforded an easy road between the Nile and the 
Red Sea, while the digging of a navigable canal connecting the 
river and the gulf gave the northern route advantages not 
possess e d by the desert routes farther south, e,g. that between 
Coptos and Kosseir. Aristotle, Strabo and Pliny attribute to 
the legendary Sesostris {q.v.) the distinction of being the first 
of the pharaohs to build a canal joining the Nile and the Red Sea. 
** ' »n inKription on the temple at Eamak it would appear 



SUEZ— SUEZ CANAL 



that socfa A canal odMed m the time of Seti I. dsto 9JC). This 
canal diverged from the Nile near Bubastis and was carried along 
the Wadi Tumilat to Heroapolis, near Pithom, a port at the head 
of the Hcroopolite Gulf (the Bitter lakes of to-day). The channel 
of this canal is still traoeabfe in paiu of the Wadi Tumilat, and 
its direction was fr^uently followed by the engineers of the fresh- 
water canal. Seti's canal appears to have fallen into decay or 
to have been too small for later requirements, for Pharaoh Necho 
(609 BX:.) began to build another canal; possibly his chief object 
was to deepen the channel between the Heroopollte Gulf and 
the Red Sea, then probably silting up. Neeho's canal was not 
completed-'according to Herodotus iso,ooo men perished in the 
underuking. Darius (520 b.c.) continued the work of Necho, 
rendering navigable the channel of the Heroopolite Gulf, whidi 
had become blocked. Up to this time there appears to have been 
no connexion between the waters of the Red Sea and those of (he 
Bubastis-Heroopolis canal ; vessels coming from theMediterranean 
ascended the Pelusiac arm of the Nile to Bubastis and then sailed 
along the canal to Ueroopolis, where their merchandise had tc be 
transferred to the Red Sea ships. Ptolemy Phlladelpbvs (285 bo) 
connected the canal with the waters of the sea, and at the 
spot where the junction was effected he built the town of Arsinoe. 
The dwindling of the Pelusiac branch of the Nile rendered this 
means of communication impossible by the time of Cleopatra 
(31 B.C.). Trajan (a.o. 98) is said to have repaired the canal, and, 
as the Pelusiac branch was no longer available for navigation, 
to have built a new canal between Bubastis and Babylon (Old 
Cairo), this new canal being known traditionally as Amnia 
Trajanus or Amnis Augustus. According to H. R. Hall, however, 
" It is veiy doubtful if any work of thb kind, beyond repairs, wa^ 
undertaken in the times of the Romans^and it is more probabk 
that the new canal was the work of * Amr " (the Arab conqueror 
of Egypt in the 7th century). The canal was certainly in use in 
the early years of the Moslem rule in Egypt; it is said to have been 
closed c. AJ». 770 by order ol AbO Ja*far (Mansur), the secomj 
Abbasid caliph and founder of Bagdad, who wished to prevent 
supplies from reaching his enemies in Arabia by this means, 
'Amr's canal (of which the Khalig which passed through Cairc 
and was dosed in 1897 is said to have formed part) had its ter- 
minus on the Red Sea south of the Heroopolite Gulf near the 
present town of Suez. In this neighbourhood was the ancient 
city of Clysma, to which in *Amr's time succeeded Kolzum 
perhaps an Arabic corruption of Clysma. The exact situatior 
of Clysma is unknown, but Kolzum occupied the site of Suez 
the hills north of which are still called Kolzum. Alter the doaini 
of the canal in the 8th century it does not appear for certain tha 
it was ever restored, although it is asserted that in the year xooi 
Sultan Hakim rendered it navigable. If so it must speedily hav* 
become choked up again. Parts of the canal continued to l> 
filled during the Nile inundations until Meheroet Ali (a.d. 181 1 
ordered it to be closed; the closing, however, was not completely 
effected, for in x86i the old canal from Bubastis still flowed a 
far as Kassassin. This part of the canal, after over 9500 year 
of service, was utilized by the French engineers in building th 
fresh-water canal from Cairo to Suez in i86x-i8<!(3. This cans 
follows the lines of that of *Amr (or Trajan). 

Maritime Canal PrcjecU, — Apart from water communicatio 
between the Mediterranean and the Red Sea by way of the NiU 
the project of direct communication by a canal piercing th 
isthmus of Suez was entertained as early as the 8th century a.d. b 
HlrOn al-RashId, who is said to have abandoned the scbemf 
being persuaded that it wouM be dangerous to lay open the coau 
of Arabia to the Byzantine navy. After the discovery of the Cap 
route to India at the cUmc of the isth century, the Venetian 
who had for centuries held the greater part of the trade of \\ 
East with Europe via Egypt and the Red Sea, began negotiatior 
with the Egyptians for a canal across the isthmus, but the coi 
quest of Egypt by the Turks put an end to these designs. I 
1671 I^bnitz in his proposals to LouisXIV.of France rcgardir 
an expedition to Egypt recommended the making of a maritin 
canal, and the Sheikh al-Balad Ali Bey (c. 1770) wished to can 
out the projeol, Bonaptrte when in Egypt in 179& oidered U 



SU£Z CANAL 



as 



MmiB to be futcyed as a pRliiDlnaiy to the digg^ of A caaal 
aoMi ii. tad the engiiwer be employed, J. M. Lepdre, came to the 
oBdoioa thtt there wu a difference in level of 19 ft. between 
fc Kcd Sa and the Mediterranean. This view was combated 
a tk time bjr Laplace and Fourier on general grounds, and was 
ialifiisptwtA in 1846-1847 as the result of surveys made at 
ikiastaoct of the SoqH€ d'&udes pour le Canal de Suez. This 
Kxtf was ofganised in 1846 by Prosper Enfantin, the Saint 
ineuA, who thirteen years before had visited Egypt in con- 
KxioQ with a scheme for making a canal across the isthmus 
i Soex, which, like the canal across the isthmus of Panama, was 
psi of the Saint Simontst programme for the regeneration of 
de world The expert commission appointed by this society 
R?orted by a majority in favour of Paulin Taiabot's plan, 
Ktordiag to which the canal would have run from Suez to 
AkoBdria by way of Cairo. 



injure Britiab ttaritime ttipremac/, and that the propoial wai 
merely a device for French interference in the East. 

Althou^ tile sultan's confirmation of the concession was not 
actually granted till 1866, de Lesaeps in X858 opened the sub-, 
scriptlon Hsts for his company, the capital of which was 206 
million francs in 400,000 shares of 500 francs each. In less than 
a month 3x4494 shares were applfed for; of these over 200,000 
were subscribed in France and over 96,000 were taken by the 
Ottoman EmiMre. From other countries the subscriptions were 
trifling, and England, Austria and Russia, as weO as the United 
States of America, hdd entirdy aloof. The residue of 85,506 
shares* was taken over by the viceroy. On the a 5th of April 
1850 the work of construction was formally begun, the first 
spadeful of sand being turned near the site of Port Said, but 
progress was not very rapid. By the beginning of x 863 the fresh- 
water canal had reached Lake Timsa, and towards the end.of the 



"«^P>r Mir ln> I//i*w II A C^Ml * fw. IV G. Ckul»KottS, tv prnwMioQ ol McKB HmA^ 

f^some years after this report no progress was made; indeed, 
^ society was in a state of suspended animation when in 1854 



FaiBiod de Lesscps came to the front as the chief exponent of 

'^ i^ He had been associated with the Saint Simonists and 

•■X 2aj>y years had been keenly interested in the question. His 

^^^jnunity came in x8S4 when, on the death of Abbas Pasha, 

f"^ friend Said Pasha became viceroy of Egypt. From Said on 

^ <«i of November 1854 he obtained a concession authorizing 

JJ3 to constitute the Compagnie Univeiscllc du Canal Maritime 

« .:«t, wiiich should construct a ship canal through the isthmus, 

^i soon afterwards in concert with two French engineers, 

1^1 Bey and Mougel Bey, he decided that the canal should 

'^ !s a direct line from Suez to the Gulf of Pelusium, passing 

^'v-gt the depressions that are now Lake Timsa and the Bitter 

^^i. and skirting the eastern edge of Lake Menzala. In the 

: V »:cg ye^y ^jj international commission appointed by the 

^ "try approved this plan with slight modifications, the chief 

^"« that the channel was taken through Lake Mcnzala instead 

« :;%j 4is edge, and the northern termination of the canal 

^i' isomc 17I m. westward where deep water was f6und closer 

'^" -^ shore. This pbn, according to which there were to be 

- ^ii, was the one ultimately carried out, and it was embodied 

,.!*^**"^ and amplified concession, dated the 5th of January 

") »hich laid on the company the obligation of constructing, 

*-ii!ion to the maritime canal, a fresh-water canal from the 

■'^/•^if Cairo to Lake Timsa, with branches running parallel 

^'^ maritime tanal. one to Suez and the other to Pelusium. 

« 'occc5sion was to last for 99 years from the dale of the opcn- 

■^ c( the canal between the Red Sea and the Mediterranean, 

^^•'^ »hich, in default of other arrangements, the canal passes 

ihe hands of the Egyptian government. The confirmation 

'■* wltan of Turkey being required, de Lesscps went to Con- 

''^"•^vjpic 10 secure it, but found himself baffled by British 

;• aocvi and later in London he was informed by Lord 

^*l2w«0Q that io the opinion of the British government the 

<^<^ was a physical impossibility, that if it were made it would 



same year a narrow channel had been formed between that lake 
and the Mediterranean. In 1863 the fresh-water canal was 
continued to Suez. 

So far the work had been performed by native hibour; the 
concession of 1856 contained a provision that at least four-fifths 
of the labourers should be Egyptians, and later in the same year 
Said Pasha undertook to supply labourers as required by the 
engineers of thfe canal company, which was to house and feed 
them and pay them at stipulated rates. Although the wages 
and the terms of service were better than the men obtained 
normally, this system of forced labour was strongly disapproved 
of in England, and the khedive Ismail who succeeded Said on the 
latter's death in 1863 also considered it as being contrary to the 
interests of his country. Hence in July the Egyptian foreign 
minister, Nubar Pasha, was sent to Constantinople with the pro- 
posal that the mmiber of labourers furnished to the company 
should be reduced, and that it should be made to hand back to 
the Egyptian government the lands that had been granted it by 
Said in 1856. These propositions were approved by the sultan, 
and the company was informed that if they were not accepted 
the works would be stopped by force. Naturally the company 
objected, and in the end the various matters in dispute were 
referred to the arbitration of the emperor Napoleon III. By hb 
award, made in July 1864, the company was allowed 38 million 
francs as an indemnity for the abolition of the conie^ x6 million 
francs in respect of its retrocessions of that portion of the fresh- 
water canal that lay between Wadi, Lake Timsa and Suez (the 
remainder had already been handed back by agreement), and 30 
million francs in respect of the lands which had been granted it by 
Said. The company was allowed to retain a certain amount of 
land along the canals, which was necessary for purposes of con* 
St met ion, erection of workshops, &c., and it was put under the 
obligation of finishing the fresh-water canal between Wadi and 

'These formed part of the 176.602 shares which were boughi.lf^ 
the sum of (j.976^82 from the khedive by England in 1875 atf 
instance ci Lord Beaconsfield (q.9.). "'^ 



I 



24 



SUEZ CANAL 



Sues to sitch dimensioiis that the depth of watec in, it would be 
^1 metres at high Nile and at least i metre at low Nile. The 
supply of Port Said with water it was allowed to manage by 
any means it chose; in the first instance it laid a double line of 
iron piping from Timsa, and it was not till XS85 that the original 
plan of supplying the town by a branch of the fresh-water 
canal was carried out. The indenmity, amounting to a total of 

84 million francs, was to be paid in instalments spread over 
15 years. 

The abolition of forced labour was probably the salvation of 
the enterprise, for it meant the introduction of mechanical Appk- 
ances and of modem engineering methods. The work was divided 
into four contracts. The first was for the supply of 250,000 cubic 
metres of concrete blocks for the jetties of Port Said; the second, 
for the first 60 kilometres of the channel from Port Said, involved 
the removalof 23 million cubic metres of sand or mud; the third 
was for the next length of 13 kilometres, which included the 
cutting through the high ground at £1 Gisr; and the fourth and 
largest was for the portion between Lake Timsa and the Red Sea. 
The contractors for this last section were Paul Borel and Alex- 
andre Levalley, who ultimately became responsible also for the 
second or 60 kilometres contract. For the most part the material- 
was soft and therefore readily removed. At some points, how- 
ever, as at Shaluf and Serapeum, rock was encountered. Much 
of the channel was formed by means of dredgers. Througih 
Lake Menzala, for instance, native workmen made & shallow 
Channel by scooping out the soil with their hands and throwing it 
out on each side to form the banks; dredgers were then floated 
in and completed the excavation to the required depth, the 
soil being delivered on the other side of the banks through long 
spouts. At Serapeum, a preliminary shallow channel having been 
dug out, water was admitted from the fresh-water canal, the level 
of which is higher than that oi the ship canal, and the work was 
completed by dredgers from a level of about 20 ft. above the sea. 
At £1 Gisr, where the soil, composed largely of loose sand, rises 
60 ft. above the sea, the contractor, Alphonse Couvreux, employed 
an excavator of his own design, which was practically a bucket- 
dredger working in the dry. A long arm projecting downwards 
at an angle from an engine on the bank carried a number of 
buckets, mounted on a continuous chain, which scooped up 
the stuff at the bottom and discharged it. into wagons at the 
top. 

In 1865 de LesBeps, to show the progress that had been made, 
entertained over xoo delegates from chambers of commerce in 
different parts of the world, and conducted them over the works. 
In the following year the company, being in need of money, 
realized 10 million francs by selling to the Egyptian government 
the estate of £1 Wadi, which it had purchased from Said, and it 
also succeeded in arranging that the money due to it under the 
av/ard of 1864 should be paid off by 1869 instead of 1879. Us 
financial resources still being insufficient, it obtained in 1867 
permission to invite a loan of 100 million francs; but though the 
issue was offered at a heavy discount it was only fully taken up 
after the attractions of a lottery scheme had been added to it. 
Two years later the company got 30 million francs from the 
Egyptian government in consideration of abandoning certain 
special rights and privileges that still belonged to it and of hand- 
ing over various hospitals, workshops, buildings, &c., which it 
had established on the isthmus. The government liquidated this 
debt, not by a money payment, but by agreeing to forego for 

85 years the interest on the 1 76,602 shares it held in the company, 
which was thus enabled to raise a loan to* the amount of the debt. 
Altogether, up to the end of the year (1869) in which the canal 
was sufficiently advanced to be opened for traffic, the accounts 
of the company showed a total expenditure of 432,807,882 francs, 
though the International Technical Commission in 1856 had 
estimated the cost at only 200 millions for a canal of larger 
dimensions. 

The formal opening of the canal was celebrated in November 

1869. On the j6lh there was an inaugural ceremony at Port 

Said, and next day 68 vessels of various nationalities, headed 

" "^ '"ffle " with the empress Eugenia oq houLtd, began the 



pftisage, sesdiiiig IwuflU (LaJto Timia) tb« vwm day. Oa the 
igUh they continued their journey to the Bitter Lakes, and on the 
30th they arrived at Sues. Immediately af tepxrardsregular traffic 
began. In 1870 the canal was. used by nearly 500 vessels, but 
the receipts for the first two years of working were nrwttiderKbly 
less than the.expense& The company attempted to issue a loan of 
20 million francs in 1871, but the response was small, and it was 
only saved from bankruptcy by a rapid increase in iu revenues. 

The total length of (Le navigation from Port Said to Sues 
is 100 m. The canal was originally constructed to have a 
depth of 8 metres with a bottom width of 22 metres, but it soon 
became evident that its dimensions must be enlarged. Certain 
improvements in the channel w^e started in 1876, but a more 
extensive plan was adopted in x 88$ as the result of the inquiries 
of an international commission which recommended that the depth 
should be increased first to 8) metres and finally to 9 metres, 
and that the width should be made on the straight parts a 
minimum of 65 metres between Port Said and the Bitter Lakes, 
and of 75 metres between the Bitter Lakes and Sues, increasing 
on curves to 80 metres. To pay for these works a Joan of xoo 
million francs was issued. These widenings greatly improved 
the facilities for ships travelling in opposite directions to pass 
each other. In the early days of the canal, except in the Bitter 
Lakes, vessels could pass each other only at a few crossing 
places or gares, which had a collective length of less than a mile; 
but owing to the widenings that have been carried out, passing 
is now possible at any point over the greater part of the canal, 
one vessel stopping while the other proceeds on her way. From 
March 1887 navigation by night was permitted to ships which 
were provided with electric search-lights, and now the great 
majority avail themselves of this facility. By these measureaj 
the average time of transit, which was about 36 hours in tSS6; 
has been reduced by half. The maximum speed permitted in 
the canal itself is 10 kilometres an hour. 

The dues which the canal company was authorised to charge 
by its concession of 1856. were xo franct a ton. In the first 
instance they were levied on the tonnage as shown by the 
papers on board each vessel, but from March 1872 they were 
charged on the gross register tonnage, computed according to 
the method of the British Merchant Shipping Act 1854. The 
result was that the shipowners had to pay more, and, objections 
being raised^ the. whole question of the method of charge was 
submitted to an international conference which met at Con- 
stantinople in 1873. It fixed the dues at xo francs per net 
register ton (English reckoning) with a surtax of 4 francs per 
ton, which, however, was to be reduced to 3 francs in the case 
of ships having on board papers showing their net tonnage 
calc\ilated in the required manner. It also decided that the 
surtax should be gradually diminished as the traffic increased, 
until in the year after the net tonnage passing through the canal 
reached 2,600,000 tons it should be abolished. De Lesseps 
protested against this arrangement, but on the sultan threaten- 
iog to enforce it, if necessary by armed intervention, he gave 
in and brought the new tariff into operation in April 1874. 
By an arrangement with the canal company, signe4. in 1876, 
the British government, which in 1875 by the purchase of the 
khedive's shares, had become a large shareholder, undertook 
negotiations to secure that the successive reductions of the tanff 
should take effect on fixed dates, the sixth and last instalment 
of 50 centimes being removed in January 1884, after which the 
maximum rate was to be 10 francs per official net ton. But 
before this happened British shipowners had started a vigorous 
agitation against the rates, which they alleged to be excessive, 
and had even threatened to construct a second canal. In 
consequence a meeting was arranged between them and repre- 
sentatives of the canal company in London in November 1883, 
and it was agreed that in January 1885 the dues should be 
reduced to 9I francs a ton, that subsequently they should be 
lowered on a sliding scale as the dividend increased, and that 
after the dividend reached 25% all the surplus profits should be 
applied in reducing the rates until they were lowered to 5 francs 
a ton. .Under thisi arrangement they were fixed at 7} francs 



SUFFOLK, EARLS AND DUKES OF~-SUFFOLK, ist DUKE OF 25 



ymtamt die hcginning of &906. Foe iliip» in hftUaat n^uood 
Btts are ia force. For paasengiera tbe dues remain at 10 Iraocs 
t bead* the ficuze at whidi ihey were originally fixed. 

fiy like concesfiions of 1854 ^nd 1856 tbe dues were to be the 
aiae for all rr*'"*'^ preferential treatment of any kind being 
farlMlrlai, and the canal and its ports were to be open " commc 
poMges neatres ** to every merchant ship without distinction 
d nationality. The question of its formal neutralization by 
(BteraatSoaal agreement waa eused in an acute form during 
the Egypclaa crisis of t88x-8s, and in August of the latter year 
a few vcHcs befoce the battle of Tel-«1-Kebir, navigation upon it 
«s suspended for four days at the instance of Sir Garnet 
Wdadey, «bo was in command of the British forces. At the 
iatenatfoaal conference which was then sitting at Constantl- 
aeplc vanotis proposab were pat forward to ensure the use of the 
canai to all nations, and ultimately at Constantinople on the 
29th of October 1888 Great Britain, Germany, Austria, Spain, 
Fnace, It^, the Netherlands, Russia and Turkey signed the 
Svs Caaal Convention, the purpose of which was to ensure 
that the canal should "always be free and open, in time of 
w as in tlW of peace, to every vessel of commerce or of war, 
withoot <listmctioa <if flag. *' Great Britain, however, in signing, 
formnlatcd a leservation that the provisions of the convention 
ihovld only apply so Car as they were compatible with the 
actoal sitiiatioa, namely the "present transitory and exccp- 
ijooal condition of Egypt, " and so far as they would not fetter 
the Cbcrty of action of the British go v ern m ent during its occupa- 
ttta of that ooantiy. But by the Anglo-French agreement 
of the 8th of April 1904 Great Britain declared her adherence 
to the stipulations of the convention, and agreed to their being 
put A force, except as regards a provision by which the agents 
ia Egypt «f the signaUwy Powets of the eodvention were to meet 
«aee a year to takt note of the due execution of the treaty. 
It was by Tirtoe of this new agreement that the Russian -war- 
lAjps proceeding to the East in 1904-1905 were enabled to 
Bse the canal, although passage was prohibited to Spanish war- 
Aipa in 1898 during the war between Spain and the United 



Vlstkme a U Canal dt Stux, histerique, itat actud, by J. Charles- 
Rabx (7 «els.. Paris 1901), contains reprints of various official 
*M. « M encs idaling to the canal, with plates, maps- and a bibUo- 
fsphy cxtBediog to 1499 entries. 

SOrrOLK, EARU AMD DUKES OF. These English titles 
vac home in turn by tbe families of Ufford, Pole, Brandon, 
Gtey and UowanL A certain hdder of land in Suffolk, named 
joha de Feyton, had a younger son Robert, who acquired the 
lofdihip of Ufiotd in that county and was known as Robert 
de UfionL He held an important place in the government 
of Iidand under Edward I. and died in 1198; hb son Robert 
(1*79-131^ was created Baron Ufford by a writ of summons 
to parliament in 1309, and increased his possessions by marriage 
with Cicely, daughter and heiress of Robert de Valoin^ This 
Riotert had several sons, one of whom was Sir Ralph de Ufford 
(d. 1346), Jostidar of Irehmd, who married Maud, widow of 
Iblflam de Btngh, eari of Ulster, and daughter of Henry 
Plantigrnet, carl of Lancaster. Robert's eldest snrviving son, 
aaoiher Robert {€. 1298-1369)1 was an asaociate of the young 
bag Edwani III., and was one of the nobles who arrested Roger 
Morusser fin 1330. Ia 1337 he was created earl of Suffolk. 
The eari was employed by Edward III. on high military and 
dbplomatic duties and waa present at the battles of Ciecy and 
Ptuicfa. His son William, the 2nd eari (c. 133^1382). held 
■ipastaDt appointments nadtr Edward IIL and Rkbard U. 
He played a leading part in the suppression of the Peasants' 
fievob ia 1381, bnt in the same year be supported the popular 
inrty in pariiaflKat in the attack on tbe misgoveramcnt of 

I Rkhxrd H. Although twice married he left no sons, and his 
earUom became extinct, his extensive estates reverting to the 
CfQvn. 

I la 138s the earldom of Suffolk and the lands of the Uffords 

woe granied by Richard IL to his friend Michael Pole (c. 1330- 
i^Bg},. a son of Sir WSUam atie Pole, a baron of the exchequer 



and a nnnchant (see Pqle Paiin.Y)« After an active puhlk 
life as the trusted adviser of Richard II. Pole was H^cmi«pyi 
from his oQuce of chancellor, was impeached and seatcncfd ix> 
death< but escaped to France, where he died. His titles and 
estates were forfeited, but in 1399 the earldom of Saffolk and 
most of the esutes were restored to his son Michael (c, i36(- 
1415)* Michael, the 3rd earl (1394-1415)* waa killed at the battle 
of. AgiBQOuxt,and theearkiom passed to lUs brother WiUtam (1396- 
1450), who was created earl of Pembroke in i443« mar^ueis 
of SuCblk in 1444, and duke of Suffolk in 1448 (see SunouE, 
WzLUAM OS LA PoiE, Duxft ov). The duke's soi^ John, 
and duke of Suffolk (x44»«i49i), manied Elisabeth, <bttgbter 
of Richard, duke of York, and sister of King Edwaid IV., 
by whom he had six sons. The eldest, John (c^ 1464-1487), 
waa created earl of Lincoln, and was named heir to the throne 
by Richard UI. He was killed fighting against Hienry , VII. ^ 
the battle of Stoke, and w«s attainted. His brother Edmund 
(«. i47^i5U) should have socceedod his father in the duke- 
dom in i49>i but he surrendered this to Heniy VU. m return 
for some of the esutes forfeited by tbe carl of Lincob, and 
was known simply as eail of Suffolk. Having incurred the 
displeasure of the king, he left his own country in 1501 and 
sought help for an invasion of England. Consequently he was 
attainted in 1504 and was handed over in 1506 to Henry. He 
was kept in prison uniU 15x3, when he was beheaded by 
Henry VIH. His brother Richard now called himself duke of 
Suffolk, and put forward a claim to the English crown. Known 
as tbe *' white rose," he lived abroad until ts^5i when he was 
kUled at the battle of Pavia. 

In 15x4 the title of duke of Suffolk wts granted by Heniy 
VIII. to hs friend, Charies Brandon (see Suivolx^ ri^fntjy 
Ba&MDON, Puke of) and it was borne successively by his two 
sons, Henry and Charles becoming extinct when Charles died 
in July i55i« lu the saone year it was revived in favour of 
Henry Grey, marquess of Dorset, who had manied Frances, a 
daughter of the first Brandon duke. Grey, who became mas- 
qucss of Dorset in 1530, was a prominent member of the reform- 
ing party during the reign of Edward VI. He took part in the 
attempt to make his daughter, Jane, queen of England in 1553, 
but as he quickly made his peace with Maiy he was not seriously 
punished. In SS54» however, he took part in the rising beaded 
by Sir Thomas Wyat; be was captured, tried for treason and 
beheaded in February x5S4f. when the dukedom again became 
extinct. In 1603 Thomas Howard, Lord Howard de Walden, 
son of Thomas Howard, 4th duke of Norfolk, was created earl 
of Suffolk, and the earldom has been held by bis descendanU 
to the present day (see Sutfolk, Thomas Howaso, ist earl of). 

SUFFOLK. CHARLES BRANDON. iST Duke of (c. 1484- 
i545)» vi^ the son ol William Brandon, standard-bearer of 
Henry VII., who was slain by Richard III. in person on Bos- 
worth Field. Charles Brandon was brought up at the court 
of Henry VII. He is described by Dugdale as " a person comely 
of stature, high of courage and conformity of disposition to 
King Henry VIII.," with whom he became a great favourite. 
He held a succession of offices in the royal household, becoming 
master of the horse In ^5x3, and received many valuable grants 
of land. On the 15th of May 15x3 he was created Viscount 
Lisle, having entered into a marriage contract with his ward, 
Elizabeth Grey, Viscountess Lisle in her own right, who, how- 
ever, refused to marry him when she came of age. He dis- 
tinguished himself at the sieges of Teroucnne and Touznai in 
the French campaign of 1313. One of the ag<aits of Margaret 
of Savoy, governor of the Netherlands, writing from before 
Teroueime, reminds her that Lord Lisle b a aeoopd king and 
advises her to write him a kind letter. At this time Henry VHI. 
was secretly urging Margaret to numry Brandon* whom be 
created duke of Suffolk, though he was careful to disclaim 
(March 4, X5X4) any oomplidty in the project to her father, the 
emperor Majdoiillian L The regent herself left a curious accouiit 
of the proceedings (LeOars and Papers of Benry Vltl. voL i. 
4^50-4851). Brandon took part In the jousts which celebrated 
tbe marriage of Mary Tudor, Hcnxy*s sister, with Louis XXL 



4 



26 



SUFFOLK, 1ST EARL OF 



of France. He was accredited to negotiate variout matters 
with Louis, and on his death waa sent to congratulate the new 
king Frauds I. An affection between Suffolk and the dowager 
queen Mary had aubsbted before her marriage, and Francis 
roundly charged him with an intention to marry her. Francis, 
perhaps in the hope of Queen Claude's death, had himself been 
one of her suitors in the first week of her widowhood, and 
Mary asserted that she had given him her confidence, to avoid 
his importonitiea. Francis and Henry both professed a friendly 
attitude towards the marriage of the lovers, but Suffolk had 
many political enemies, and Mary feared that she might again 
be sacrificed to political considerations. The truth was that 
Henry was anxious to obtain from Francis the gold plate and 
jewels which had been given or promised to the queen by Louis 
in addition to the reimbursement of the expenses of her marriage 
with the king; and he practically made his acquiescence in 
Suffolk's suit dependent on his obtaining them. The pair cut 
short the difficulties by a private marriage, which Suffolk an- 
nounced to Wolsey, who had been their fast friend, on the 5th 
of March. Suffolk was only saved from Henry's anger by 
Wolsey, and the pair eventually agreed to pay to Henry £24,000 
in yearly instalments of £1000, and the whok of Mary's dowry 
from Louis of £200,000, together with her plate and jewels. 
They were openly married at Greenwich on the xjth of May. 
The duke had been twice married already, to Margaret Mortimer 
and to Anne Browne, to whom he had been betrothed before 
his marriage with Margaret Mortimer. Anne Browne died in 
151 1, but Margaret Mortimer, from whom he had obtained a 
divorce on the ground of consanguinity, was still living. He 
secured In 1538 a bull from Pope Clement IT. assuring the 
legitimacy of his marriage with Mary Tudor, and of the daughters 
of Anne Browne, one of whom, Anne, was sent to the court of 
Margaret of Savoy. After his marriage with Mary, Suffolk 
lived for some years in retirement, but he waa present at the 
Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1520, and in 1593 he was sent to 
Calais to command the English troops . there. He invaded 
France in company with Count de Buren, who was at the head 
of the Flemish troops, and laid waste the north of France, but 
disbanded his troops at the approach of winter. Suffolk was 
entirely in favour of Henry's divorce from Catherine of Aragon, 
and in spite of hb obligations to Wolsey be did not scruple to 
attack him when his fall was imminent. The cardinal, who 
was acquainted with Suffolk's private history, reminded him of 
his ingratitude: " If I, sim]^ cardinal, had not been, you should 
have had at this present no head upon your shoulders wherein 
you should have had a tongue to make any such report in despite 
of us. " After Wolsey's disgrace Suffolk's influence increased 
daily. He was sent with the duke of Norfolk to demand the 
great seal from Wolsey; the same noblemen conveyed the news 
of Anne Boleyn's marriage to Queen Catherine, and Suffolk 
acted as high steward at the new queen's coronation. He was one 
of the commissioners appointed by Henry to dismiss Catherine's 
household, a task which he found distasteful. He supported 
Henry's ecclesiastical policy, receiving a large share of the 
plunder after the suppression of the monasteries. In 1544 he 
was for the second time in command of an English army for 
the invasion of France. He died at Gidldford on the 34th of 
August in the following year. 

After the death of Mary Tudor on the 34th of June 1533 he 
had married in 1534 his ward Catherine (1520*1580), Baroness 
Willoughby de Eresby in her own right, then a giri of fifteen. 
His daughters by his marriage with Anne Browne were Anne, 
who married firstly Edward Grey, Lord Powys, and, after the 
dissolution of this union, Randal Harworth; and Mary (b. 1510), 
who married Thomas Stanley, Lord Monteagle. By Mary 
Tudor he had Henry earl of Lincoln* (1516-1634); Frances, who 
married Henry Grey, marquess of Dorset, and became the 
mother of Lady Jane Grey; and Eleanor, who married Henry 
Clifford, second eari of Cumberland. By Kathcrine Willoughby 
he had two sons who showed great promise, Henry (1535-1551) 
' "• fc. 1537-1551)1 dukes of Suffolk. They died of the 
ss withLi an hour ot one another. Their tutor. 



Sir Thomas Wilson, compiled a memoir of them, Vila et dH$ta 
duorum Jralrum Sufdcensium ( 1 5 5 1 ).■ 

There ts abundant material for the history of Suffolk's career In 
the Letlers and Papers of Henry VI If. (ed. Bmwer in the Rolls 



Series). See also Dugdale, Banomam 0/ Bnglaud (voL iL 1676): 
and G. E. C, . OmpUla Peera^, An account of hia matrimooial 
adventures is in the hiMorical appendix to a novel by £. S. Holt 



entitled 7%« Harvest of Yesterday. 

SUFFOLK. THOMAS HOWARD^ isx Eaxl or (xs6K>i6a6), 
second son of Thomas Howard, 4th duke of Norfolk, was bora 
on the 24th of August 1561. He behaved vesy gaUanlly during 
the attack on the Spanish armada and afterwards took pact in 
other naval eapeditions, becoming an admiral in 1599. Created 
Baron Howard de Walden in 1597 ard eari of Suffolk in July 
1603, he was lord chamberlain of the ipyal household from 1603 
to 1614 and lord high treasurer from 1^14 to x6x8, when he was 
deprived of his office on a charge of misappropiiatiag money. 
He was tried in the Star-chamber and was soiienced to pay a 
heavy fine. Suffolk's second wife waa Catherine (d. 1633), 
widow of the Hon. Richard Rich, a woman whose avarice was 
partly responsible for her husband's dowofalL She shared his 
trial and waa certainly guilty of taking bribes from Spain. One 
of his three daughters was the notorious Frances Howard, 
whoi, after obtaining a divorce from her first husband, Robert 
Deveroux, earl of Essex, married Robert Carr.earlof Somerset, 
and instigated the poisoning of Sir Thomas Overbury. The carl 
died on the a8th of May i6a6. He built a magnificaii residence 
at Audley End, Essex, which is said to have cost £2oq,ooow One 
of Suffolk's seven sons was Sir Robert Howard (x 585-1653), who 
inherited Clun Castle, Shropshire, on the death of hia brother, 
Sir Charles Howard, in 1623. He was twice impiisoDed on 
account of bis illicit relations with FxanceSv Viscountess Purbcck 
(d. X645), a daughter of Sir Edward Coke, and after sitting in 
six parliaments waa expelled from the House of Commons for 
executing the king's commission of array in 1642. He died on 
the a and of April 1653. Another of Suffolk's sons, Edward 
(d. 167 5), was created baron Howard of Escrick in 1628. He waa 
one of the twelve peers who signed the petition on grievances, 
which he presented to Charles L at York in 1640, and after the 
abolition of the House of Lords in 1649 be sat in the House of 
Commons as member for Carlisle, being also a member of the 
council of state. In 1651 he was expelled from parilament far 
taking bribes and he died on the a4th of April r6f 5. Hii second 
son, William, 3rd lord Howard of Escrick («. 1 626-1694), was 
a ntember of the republican party during the Common weaAih; 
later he associated himself with the opponents of the arbitrary 
rule of Charles II., but turning informer he was partly reapoa- 
sible for the conviction of Lord William Russell and of Algernon 
Sydney in 1683. On the death of William's son, Charles, the 
4th lord, in X7X5 the barony of Howsjrd of Esctkk became 
extinct. 

Suffolk's eldest son, Theophilus, and earl of Suffolk (1584- 
1640), was captain of the band of gentlemen pensioners under 
James I. and Charles I., and succeeded to the earldom in May 
1626, obtaining about the same time some of the numerous 
offices which had been held by his father, including the lord- 
lieutenancy of the counties of Suffolk, Cambridge and Dorset. 
He died on the 3rd of June 1640, when his eldest son James 
(16x9-1689) became 3rd earL This nobleman, who acted as 
earl marshal of England at the coronation of Charles U.. died 
in January 1689 when his barony of Howard de Walden fell 
into abeyance between his two daughters.^ His earldom, 
however, passed to his brother George (c. x6a5-x69i), who 

' Having thus fallen into abeyance In 1689 the barony of Howard 
de Walden was revived in 1784 in favour of John Griffin Griffin, 
afterward! Locd Braybrooke, 00 whose death in May 1797 it foil 
again Into abeyance In xtqo the bUiop of I>erTy, FrcdericI 
Aueustus Hervey, 4th eari 01 Bristol, a descendant of the 3rd ea^r 
of Suffolk, became the sole heir to the barony. On Bristol^ dcatl 
in July 1803 it passed to Charies Aueustus Ellis (l799-i't68), 1 
nandaon of the bishop's elder son, John Augnatus. Lord HcrW< 
(1757-1796), who had predeceased his father. It was thva aepanaact 
from the marqu^saate of Bristol, which paaaed to the bishop's onl^ 
surviving son. and it haa aince been held by the fanily of T * 



yorEllia. 



SUFFOLK, DUKE OF 



8? 



ktame 4Ch cad of SafoOt. GMiRe% M^bew, Btary, the 6di 
osl ^. 1670-171 if), who was ftresident of the board of tnde 
boa X715 to 17x8, left an caly son, Charles WUUain (1695- 
172 j), who iras succeeded in turn by his two uncles, the younger 
•I thcoi, Cbvles (1675-1733) becoming 9th earl on the death 
«f his brother Edward in June 1731. This earl was the husband 
cf Henrietta countess of Suffolk (1;. 1681-1767), the mistress of 
G»i|e II., who was a daughter of Sir Henry Hobart, bart., 
d "S^K-c Noffolk. When still the Hon. Charles Howard, 
he aad lus wife made the acquaintance of the future king in 
Baaovcr; after the accession of George I. to the English throte 
n 17L4 both husband and wile obtained posts in the household 
of the poBoe o£ Wales, whot when he became king as George II., 
pabSdy nchnowlcd g ed Mis Howard as his mistress. She was 
formally separalRl . from her husband before 1731 when she 
becuae coontesfc of Suffolk. The earl died on the aSth of Sep- 
iBirixr X73J9 hot the countess, having retired from court and 
Hfiied the Hod. George Berkeley (d. 1746), Hved until the 
36th of July 1767. Among Lady Suffolk's friends were the 
poeu Pope and Gay and Charles Mordaunt (earl of Peterborough). 

\ oDihciioa of Ldlers to oiuf frpm Hmridia Comnku ef St^oUt, 
t^ hv Smnmi Mmabamdt At Hmt. George Berkdey, was edited by 
j. W. Craher (ia24)- 

The 9th eaxi*s only son Henry, the xoth earl (1706-1745), 
dcd vithsat sons in April 17451 when his estate at Audley End 
pnscd to the descendants of the 3rd earl, being inherited in 
1762 by John Griffin Griffin (1719-1797), afterwards Lord 
Bovard de Walden and Lord Braybrooke. As owners of this 
estate the carls of Suffolk of the Howard line had hitherto been 
hoedhary viaiton of Magdalene College, Cambridge, but this 
dbce BOW passed away from them. The earldom of Suffolk 
vas aabexited by Henry Bowes Howard, 4th earl of Berkshire 
(i696-i757)» who was the great-grandson of Thomas Howard 
{< 1 990-1669), the second son of the ist eari of Suffolk, 
Tfaooas having been created earl of Berkshire in 1626. Since 
1745 the two earldoms have been united, Henry Molyneuz 
^»px Howaid Ox 1877)^ succeeding his father, Henry Charles 
(283^if9ft)» aa S9th earl of Suffolk and lath earl of Berkshire 
B189S. 

SVPfOU:. WILLIAM DB LA POLB, DuxE OF (1396-1450), 
anodsiNi of Michael dela Pole, second earl of Suffolk, was bom 
ea the i6ih of October 1396. His hither died at the siege of 
Haiieor, and his elder bcother was killed at Agincourt on the 
ijlh of October 1415. Suffolk served in all the later French 
i^m,^i^M of the reign of Henry V., and in spite of his youth held 
fe^ oommaAd on the marches of Normandy in i42i~3a. In 
1413 he jainad the earl of Salisbury m Cham|Migne, and shared 
ba vktocy at Cr^vant. He fought under John, duke of Bedford, 
«t Vemcuil on the 17th of August 1434, and throughout the 
Bot four years was Salisbury's chief lieutenant in the diiectk>n 
of the war. When SaUsbury was killed before Orleans on the 
jnl «f Novoabcr 1428, Suffolk succeeded to the command. 
Alter the siecB was mised, Suffolk was defeated and taken 
pcimoer by Jeanne d*Arc at Jai^geau on the 12th of June 1439. 
He was soon ransomed, and during the next two years was again 
J *««— >»«»^ on the Norman frontier. He returned to England 
b ^JowcnihfT i43i> After over fourteen years' continuous service 
btheheld. 

SaHolk had already been employed on diplomatic missions 
hf John of Bedford, and from this time forward he had an 
wportaat shaiv In the woik of administration. He attached 
binsdl nataraBy to Cardinal Beaufort, and even thus early 
irras U> have been striving for a general peace. But public 
epuwm in England was not yet ripe, and the unsuccessful oon- 
fcfcnoe at Anas, whh the oDnatquent defection of Burgundy, 
■iTBgihened the war party. Nevertheless the cardinal's 
i«boriiy remained supreme in the council, and Suffolk, as his 
chief suppostcr, gained lafTeawng influence. The queslibn of 
Hany VL'a manlage brought him to the front. Humphrey 
of Gtouceflteff favoured an Armagnac alliance. Suffolk brought 
about the natch with Margaret of Anjou. Report already 
nprtscBied Suffolk aa too friendly with French leaders like 



Charks of Orleans, and h was with rriaetanoe that henndcfteok 

the responsibility of an embassy to France. However, when he 
returned to England in June i444> after negotiating the marriage 
and a two years' truce, he received a triumphant reception. He 
was made a marquess^ and in the autumn sent again to Fiance 
to bring Margaret home. The French contrived to find occasion 
for extorting a promise to surrender all the English possessions 
m Anjou and Maine, a concession that was to prove fatal to 
Suffolk and his policy. Still for the time his success was com- 
plete, aiui his position as the personal friend of the young king 
and queen seemed secure. Htunphrey of Gloucester died in 
February 1447, within a few days of his arrest, and six weeks 
kter Cardinal Beaufort died also. Suffolk was left without an 
obvious rival, but his difficulties were great. Rumour, though 
without su6kient reason, made him responuble for Humphrey's 
death, while the peace and its consequent concessions rendered 
him unpopular. So also did the supersession <tf Richard of York 
by Edmund Beaufort, duke of Somerset, in the French com- 
mand. Suffolk's promotion to a dukedom in July 1448, marked 
the height of his power. The difficulties of his position may have 
led him to give some countenance to a treacherous attack on 
Fougiies during the time of truce (March 1449). 'Ric renewal 
of the war and the loss of all Normandy were its dirart conse- 
quences. When parliament met in November 1449, the oppo* 
sjtion showed iU strength by forcing the treasuxer, Adam 
Molyneux, to resign. Molyneuz was murdered by the sailors 
at Portsmouth on the 9th of Januaiy 1450. Suffolk, realising 
that an attack on himself was ineviuble, boldly chalknged 
his enemies in parliament, appealing to the long aad honourable 
record of his public services. On the 7th of Februaiy and again 
on the 9th of March the O>nunons presented articles of accusa- 
tion dealing chiefly with sDeged maladministration and the ill 
success of the French policy; there was a charge of aiming at the 
throne by the betrothal of his son to the little Margaret Beaufort, 
but no suggestion of guilt concerning the death of C^ucester. 
The articles were in great part baseless, if not absurd. Suffolk, 
in his defence on the 13th of March, denied them as false, untrue 
and too horrible to speak more of. Ultimately, as a sort of 
compromise, the king sentenced him to banishment for five 
years. Suffolk left England on the 1st of May. He was inter- 
cepted in the Channel by the ship " Nichobs of the Tower, " 
and next morning was beheaded in a little boat alongside. 
The " Nicholas " was a royal ship, and Suffolk's murder was 
probably instigated by his political opponents. 

Popular opinion at the time judged Suffolk as a traitor. This 
view was accepted by Yorkist chroniclers and Tudor historians, 
who had no reason to speak well of a Pole. Later legend made 
him the paramour of Biaxgaret of Anjou. Though utterly 
baseless, the stoiy gained currency in the Minow Jof Magu- 
trates, and was adopted in Shakespeare's t Henry VI. 
(act in. sc. iL). Suffolk's best defence is contained in the touching 
letter of farewell to his son, written on the eve of his departure 
{Paston Letters, f. 142), and in his noble speeches before pariia- 
ment {RoUs of Parliament, v. 176, i8a). Of the former Lingard 
said well that it is " difficult to believe that the writer could 
have been either a false subject or a bad man. " The policy of 
peace which Suffolk pursued was just and wise; he foresaw from 
the first the personal risk to which its advocacy exposed him. 
This alone should acquit him of any base motive; his oonduct 
was " throa^ut open and straij^tforward " (Stubbs). What- 
ever his defects as a statesman, he was a gallant soldier, a man of 
culture and a loyal servant. 

Suffolk's wife, Alice, was widow of Thomas, eail of Salisbury, 
and granddaughter of Geoffrey Chauctt'. By her he had aa 
only son John, second duke of Suffolk. 

BiBUOCBA PHY.— Suffolk is neccaierily prominent in all contem- 
potary authoritiea. The most important are J. Stevtoson's Wanei 
the EnHith ta France, Thomas Beckington's Correspondem*, T. 
Wrighfs PdUicai Poewu and Songs, li. W--2M (for the popular 
view)— these three are in the Rolls Series; and the Paslon UUers, 
Of French writers E. de Monstrelet and Jchan de Waurin are most 
useful for hb mitiuiy eareer, T. Basin and Matthieu d'Escooclr 
for hb fall (oU thoe are puUbhtd by the Soci«t« de I'Hbiebv* 



n 



28 



SUFFOLK 



Fnnee>' For inddeni accooiits ne especially W. Stubbs. Cmslt/u- 
Umal Hwtorv (favourable). The PUitical UisUny oj England (1906), 
vol. iv., by C. Oman (unfavourable), and C. du Fresne de Beau- 
court's HtiUnrt de Charles VIL See also H. A. Napier's Historical 
Notices ef Swineambe amd Bwelme (1858). (C. L. K.) 

SUFFOLK, an eastern coonty of England, bounded N. by 
Norfolk. E. by the North Sea. S. by Essex and W. by Cambridge- 
shire. The area is X488'6 sq. m. The surface is as a whole 
but slightly undulating. In the extreme north-west near 
Mildenhall, a small area of the Fen district is included. 
This is bordered by a low range of chalk hills extending from 
Haverhill northwards along the western boundary, and thence 
by Bury St Edmunds to Thetford. The coast-line has a 
length of about 62 m., and is comparatively regular, the bays 
being (^nerally shallow and the headlands rounded and 
only slightly prominent. The estuaries of the Deben. Orwell 
and Stour, however, are between 10 and xa m. in length. 
The shore is generally low and marshy, with occasional clay 
and sand cliffs. It includes, in the dedivity on which Old 
Lowestoft sunds, the most easterly point of English land. 
Like the Norfolk coast, this shore has suffered greatly from 
Incursions of the sea, the demolition of the ancient port of Dun- 
wicli iq.v.) forming the most noteworthy example. The prin- 
cipal seaside resorts are Lowestoft, Souihwold, Aideburgh and 
Felixstowe. The rivers flowing northward are the Lark, in 
the north-west comer, which passes in a north-westerly direction 
to the Great Ouse in Noriolk; the Little Ouse or Brandon, 
tfso a tributary of the Great Ouse, flowing by Thetford and 
Brandon and forming part of the northern boundary of the 
county; and the Waveney, which rises in Norfolk and forms 
the northern boundary of Suffolk from Palgrave till it falls 
into the mouth of the Yare at Yarmouth. The Waveney 
h navigable from Bungay, and by means of Oulton Broad 
also communicates with the sea at Lowestoft. The rivers 
flowing in a south-easterly direction to the North Sea are the 
Blyth; the Aide or Ore, which has a course for neariy 
10 m. parallel to the seashore; the Deben, from Debenham. 
flowing past Woodbridge. up to which it is navigable; the 
Orwell or Gipping, which becomes navigable at Stowmarkct, 
whence it flows past Needham Market and Ipswich; and the 
Stour, which forms nearly the whole southern boundary of 
the county, receiving the Brett, which flows past Lavenham 
and Hadleigh; it is navigable from Sudbury. At the union 
of its estuary with that of the Orwell b the important port of 
Harwich (in Essex). The county has no valuable minerals. 
Flints are worked, as they have been from pre-historic times; 
a considerable quantity of clay is raised and lime and whiting 
ate obtained in various districts. 

Ceohty-'-nM! principal geological formations arc the Chalk 
and the lertiary deposits. The lormer occupies the surface, except 
where covered by superficial drift, in the central and north-west 
pordons €A the county, and it extends beneath the Tertiarics in the 
south-east and east. In the extreme north-west round Mildenhall the 
Chalk borders a tract of fen land in a range of low hills from Haverhill 
by Newmarket and Bury St Edmunds to Thetford. The Chalk is 
quarried near Ipswich, Bury St Edmunds, Mildenhall and elsewhere; 
at Brandon the chalk flints for gun-kxks and building have been 
exploited from early times. The Tertiary formations include 
Thanet sand, seen near Sudbury: and Reading Beds and London 
Clay whkh extend from Sudbury through Hadleigh, Ipswich. Wood- 
bridge and thence beneath youn^ deposits to the extreme north-east 
d( the county. Above the E^xene formations lie the Pliocene 
*' Crags," which in the north overiap the Eocene boundary on to the 
chalk. The oldest of the crag deposits is the Coralline Crag, pale 
nndy and marly beds with many fossils; this is best exposed west 
and north of Aideburgh and about Sudboume and Orfora. Resting 
upon the CoralUne beds, or upon other formations in their absence, 
ia the Red Cng, a familiar feature above the London Clay in the 
cliffs at Felixstowe and Baudsey, where many foesils used to be 
found; inland it appears at Beniiey. Stuiton and Chillesford, where 
the " Scrabicularia Clay " and Chiliesford beds of Prestwkh appear 
above ic The last-named beds probably correspond with the Norwich 
Crag, the name given to the upper; paler portion of the Red Crag, 
tMcther with certain htgher beds in the north pan of east Suffolk. 
The Norwich Cra^ b visible at Dunwkh. Bavent, Easton and Wang- 
JOidL In t»i» iwi^fc ••■• Cttnentr Foretl -beds, gravels with fresh- water 
ns. may be seen on the coast at Gorton 
op of the London Clay and the base of 



the Ciags is the " Suffolk Bonr Bed *' with abondaat mammalii^ 
bones and phosphatic nodules. Glacial gravel, sand and chalki 
boulder clay are scattered over much of the county, ^nerally formini 
stiffcr soils in the west and lighter sandy soUs in tne east. Pebbli 
gravels occur at Wntleton and Halesworth, and later gravels, will 
palaeolithk: imriemems, at Hmme; while old rivcr-gnveb of ati 
Uter date border the present river valleys. The chalk and gauli 
have been penetrated by a boring at Stutton, revealing a liaR 
palaeozok slaty rock at the depth of about 1000 ft. 

Avicidtun. — Suffolk is one of the most fertile conntles in EngjUna 
In the i8tb century it was famed for its dairy products. Thi 
h^b prices of grain during the wan of the French Revolution Ice 
to the extensive breaking up of its pastures, and it is now one ol 
the principal grain-growing counties in England. There is con- 
siderable variety ct soils, and consequently in modes of farminf 
in different parts of the county. Along the sea'Coast a nady loan 
or thin sandy soil prevails, covered in aome places with the heatli 
on whkh large quantities of sheep are fed. intenpersed with tracta 
more or less marshy, on whkh cattle are giaxed. The best land adjoini 
the rivers, and consists of a rich sandy loam, with patches of lightei 
and easier soil. In the aouth-west and the centre is much finei 
grain-land haviag mostly a clay subsoil, but not so tenacious as the 
clay in Essex. Ia climate Suffolk is one of the driest of the Englisl; 
counties; thus» the mean annual rainfall at Bury St Edmunds i: 
rather less than 24 in. Towards the north-west the soil is generally 
poor, consisting partly of sand on chalk, and partly of peat and open 
hcatn. Some four-fifths of the total area of the county is undei 
cultivation. Bariey. oats and wheat are the most important d 
the grain crops. The breed of horses known as Suffolk punches 
is one of the most valued for agricultural purposes in England 
The breed of cattle native to the county is a polled variety, on thi 
improvement of whkh great paina have been bestowed. The *Ai 
Suffolk cows, famous for their great milking qualities, were of various 
colours, yellow predominating. The improved are all red. Mucli 
mil k is sent to London, Yarmouth, &c Many cattle, mostly imported 
from Ireland, are graaed in the winter. The sheep are neatly al 
of the blackfaced improved Suffolk breed, a cross between the okj 
Norfolk homed sheep and Southdowns. The breed of pigs mosi 
common is small and black. 

Mant^Qctures and Tro^.— The county b essentially agricultural, 
and the most imporunt manufactures relate to this Dranch oi 
industry. They include that of agricultural implement^ eiqxcialt) 
at Ipswkrh, Bury St Edmunds and Stowmarket, and that of artificial 
manures at Ipswkh and Stowmarket, for which coprolites are dug 
Malting is extensively carried on throughout the county. There 
are chemical and gun-cotton manufactories at Stowmarket and 
gun flints are still nude at Brandon. At other towns small miscd< 
laneous manufactures are carried on, including silk, cotton, linen, 
woollen, and horeehair and coco-nut matting. The priacipal port: 
are Lowestoft. South wold, Aideburgh, Woodbridge and Ipswich. 
Lowestoft is the chief fishing town. Herrings and mackml an 
the fish most abundant on the coasts. 

CotnmamtcafMUf.— The main line of the Great Eaatem railway, 
entering the county from the south, serves Ipswich and Stowmarkct, 
continuing north into Norfdk. The east Suffolk branch from Ipsw id 
serves Woodbridge, Saxmundham. Halcswonh, and Becclea, will 
branches to Felixstowe, to Framlingham, to Aideburgh, and t< 
Lowestoft; while the Southwold Light railway connecu with that 
town from Halesworth. The other principal branches are those froo 
Stowmarket to Bury St Edmunds and westward into Cambridge 
shire, from Essex into Norfolk bv Long Melford, Bury St Edmundi 
and Thetford, and from Long Melford to Haverhill, which b tlM 
northern terminus of the Colne Valley railway. 

Poptdotion and AdmtnistnUion.-^Tht area of the andcnt coanty t 
953.710 acres, with a population in 1891 of 371,235 and in 1901 a 
384,293. Suffolk comprises 31 hundreds, and for administrativ* 
purposes is divided into the counties of East Suffolk (557.854 acres 
and West Suffolk (390.914 acres). The following are municipa 
boroughs and urban districts. 

( 1 ) £ast Suffolk. M unicipal borought— Aideburgh (pop. 240s] 
Beccles (6S98), Eye (2004), Ipswkh, a county borough and th 
county town (66.630). Lowestoft (29,850), Southwold (aSoo] 
Urban districts— Buneay (3314), Felixstowe and Walton C5815] 
Halesworth (2246). Leiston<um*Siaewell (3259), Oulton Broa* 
(4044), Saxmondham (1452). Stowmarket (4162), Woodbridge (4640] 

(2) West Suffolk. Municipal boroughs— Bury St EdmuiMJ 
(»6.255), Sudbury (7109). Urban districts— Glemsfoitl (1975 
Hadleigh (t245). Hax-erhili (4862). Newmarket (10.688). whkh i 
mainly in the ancient county of Cambridge. 

Small market and other towns are numeroutt «udb ar 
Brandon. Clare. Debenham. Framlingham, Lavenham, MikSenhal 
Needham Market and Orford. For pariiamentary purposes th 
county constitutes five Hixisions, each returning one member, vii 
north or Lowestoft division, north-east or Eye, north-west or Sto« 
market, south or Sudbury, and south-east or Woodbridge. Bur 
St Edmunds returns one member and Ipswich two; pan of th 
borough of Great Yarmouth falls within the county. There i 
one court of ouarter sessions for the two administrative countie 
which is usually hekl at Ipswich for east Suffolk, and then h 



SUFFRAGAN 



39 



__, J t Btuy- St Edpiindi (or jfett Suffolk. EMt^Staffolk 

jk divided into 1 1 and west Suffolk into 8 petty scssio^i divinoos, 
Vx boroag:hs of Bnry St EdmundB, Ipswich, Sudbury, Eye, 
Levcaufc and Southwoid hftve separate commissions of the peace, 
aod tkt cbree fiiM-named haw also aepaiata 'courts of quarter 
wmirma Tbe total number of civil parishea is 5(9' The ancient 
cciuity coataina 46S ecclesiastical parishes and districts* wholly or 
«s osrt: it is situated partly in the diocese of Ely and partly in that 
of Nurwjda* 

Si^ary.—Thtoamtj o£ Suffolk (Sudfole, Stithfok) was lonn^ 
iron Utt scmtli pait oC the fcisitdoin ol East Aoglia which 
aeiiled by the Aostes in the latter haU of the 5th 

Tbe most iniportaut Aogb-Saxoii settlements appear 
le Imc bcca maik at Sodbttry and Ipswich, fiefotc the end 
tf tlK MenDftn dynasty strongholds had arisen at Eye, Clate, 
Wakfln aaMl Framlinejiam. FrobaUy the estebUahment of 
: as » aepnratc shire was scstfcdy tompleted before the 

J nnd aitliMigh it was reckoned as distinct from Nor* 
folk 'm tbie Domesday Survey of 1086, the. fiscal administration 
9i HotUOL and Svfiolk remained under one shenff until 1575. 
The boundary of the ooonty^ has undergone very litUe changei 
its area has been considetably afifected by coast 

Farts of Godestoo and Thctford, which formerly 
i to the andent oonnty of Snfioik, are now within the 
i ootnty ei Norfolk, and. othec slight alterations 
ol the a^kBimstiaiive botuadary hate been made. Utader the 
Locsl Gowenment Act of 1888 Soffolk was divided into the 
tooadamnistnttiveoonnties of east and west Suffolk. 

At fint tlie whole shire lay witfa&Q tbo diocese of Dunwich 
vhacfa was founded £. 631. In. 675 a near bishopric was estab' 
hshed at Ehnkam to cnrnptise the whole of Norfolk which had 
ianaerty beeo indudedin the see of Dunwich. The Utter came 
10 an «mI witJh tbe fncucsion of the Danca* and on the revival 
«f CktiaKanityin this district Suiidk was included in the diocese 
of Cfanlinm* sufaaequeatly tetaoved fraai South Elmham to 
Thetfoed and thenoe to Norwich. In xSjS'iSjd the archdeaconry 
of Sodbory was transferred by the ocdeaiastical comnuBsioners 
ts tke diocase of Ely. This archdeaconry .had been separated 
faoea tfaeodgiDal aichdeaooniy.ol Suffolk in 1127. <In 1256 the 
bticr tftftf>«***< thirteen deaiieriea which faavh since been snb< 
£«ided. io tkat at pncsent it oontffias eighteen deaneries^ Sud- 
haiy ascbdcAconiy which comprised eight deaneries in 1356 
pew indixlcs eleven. There were also three districts under 
pacaliar jurisdiction of Caatesbuiy and one Under that of 



The afane-cottit was held at Ipswich. In 1831 the whole 
eoaaty *"^»*t«*«* twenty-one hundreds, and three mumdpal 
»><TP-g *^ Most of these hundreds were Identical with those 
«i the Domesday Survey, but m xo86 Babexgh was rated as 
two buadxeds, Cosford, Ipcwicfa and Faxfaam as hall hundeeds 
tad Samfonlas a fanndicdand a half. Hone hundred was 
foKBKdy known as Bishop's humbed and' the viBs which were 
iadaded fatter in Thrediiag hundred were within Qaydoii 
kaadied in 1086. Two large ecclesiastical liberties extended 
ewr more than hall of the county; that of St Edmund inchidcd 
the hundreds ol Risbxidge, Thedwastry, Thin^De, Cosford, 
Lackfoid and Blackboum in which the kCng'swrit did not ran« 
sad St Aethelreda of Ely daimed a similar privilege in the 
kaadreds of Cariefocd, .Cobeis, Plumeagate, Loes, Wilford and 
Thredfittg. Aoong others who hid large Unds in the county 
vith co-estensive jurisdiction were the. lords of the hono^ of 
Cfaie, carls el Gloucester and Hereford and the ferds of the 
kooor o< Eye, held successively by the Bigods, the Uffords and 
the De U Fdea, eails of Suffolk. The WiogBelds, Bacons and 
Herveys hnvc been dosdy connected with the county. 

SollDlk auilered severe^ from Danish incursions, and after 
the Treaty oi Wedmocc became a part ol the Dandagh. In 1x73 
the cad ti Lricfstfy landed at Walton with an army of Flemings 
tad ws joined fay Hugh Bigod against Henry 11. In X317 and 
the anooeediog years a great part of the county was in arms for 
Thomas id Lancaster. Queen Isabella and Mortimer having 
landed at Walton found all the district in their favour. In 
i^jo the county was niied to suppxeas the supportczs of the 



carl of Kent; and agam &t X38X there was a serloui rUhg of the 
peasmxtry chiefly in the neighbourhood of Bury St Edmunds. 
Altheugh the county was for the moat part Yorkist it took little 
part in the Waxs of the Roses. In 7525 the artisans of the 
south suongly resisted Henry Vin.'s forced loan. It was froa^ 
Suffolk that Mary drew the army whidi supported her claim to 
the throne. In the Civil Wars the county was for the most 
part padiamentaxian, and joined the Assodationof the Eastern 
Counties lor defence against the Papists. 

The county was constantly represented in parliament by two 
knights from 1290, until the Reform Bill of 1832 gave fpur 
members to Suffolk, at the same time disfranchising the boroughs 
ol Dunwich, Orford and Aldeburgb. Suffolk was early among 
the most popuknis of English counties, doubtless owing to its 
proximity to the continent. Fishing fleets have left its ports 
to bring back cod and ling fxom Iceland and herrin^and madberd 
from the North Sea. From the X4th to the 17th century it 
was among the chief maoufactuxing counties of En^andowang 
to its doth-weaving industry, which was at the height of its 
prospoity duxing the x^th century. In the 17th and 18th 
centuries its agricultural resources were utilised to provixk 
the rapidly-growing metropiolis with food. In the fdlowing 
century variotts textile indtistries, such as the manufacture of 
sail-doth, cocoa-nut fibre, horse-hair and dothing were estab- 
Ushed; silk- weavers migrated to Suffolk from Spitalficlda, and 
early in the 19th century an important china factory flourished 
at Lowcstof L 

Antiquities. — Of ffionastic remains the most important are those 
of the great Benedictine abbey of Bury St Edmunds, noticed under 
that town; the college of Claxe, or^nally a cdl to the abbey 
o( Bcc in Normandy and afterwaids to St Peter's Westmiosteri 
converted into a college of secular caaons in the reign of Henry Vl., 
still retaining much of its ancient architecture, and now used as a 
boarding-school; the Decorated gateway of the Augusttnian priory 
of Butlcy : and the remains of the Grey Friars monastery at Dunwich. 
A peculiarity ol the church archicecture is the use of flint for purpose 
of ornamentation, often of a very elaborate kind, especially on the 
porches and parapets of the towers. Another characteristic is tfit 
round towers, which are confined to East AngTia, out are'considerably 
more numerous in Norfdk than in Suffolkt the prindpat bdng those 
of Uttle Saxham and HerrineAeet, both good examples of Norman, 
It is^ questiopable whether there are any remains of pre-Norm^a 
architecture m the county. The Decorateo is well represented, bu^ 
by far the greater proportion of the church^ are Perpendicular, 
fine examples of Which are so aumerous that it is hard to sdect ex* 
ample*. But the church of Bljrthburth in the east and the exqufsite 
ornate building at Lavcnham in the west may be noted as typu:aU 
while the church of Long Melford, another fine examp1e,.sbouid be 
mentioned on account of its remarkable lady chapel- Special 
Ceatures are the open roofs and woodwork (as at Sc Mary's, Bury 
St Edmunds, Eari Stonham and Stonham AspaO. Unord and 



Blythburgh), and the fine fonts. 

The remains of old castled are comparatively 
principal being the entrenchments and part of the walls of Bungay, 



remains of old castled are comparatively unimportant, the 



piinvipai LF«rtu|{ lire !;■>■'• viiwiiiiiciius aiiu ^Jam \n iiic waiis ut i^uiijjajr, 

the ancient stronghold of the Bigods; the picturesque ruins of 
Mettingham. built by John dc Norwich in the reign of Edward III4 
Wing^i^, surrounded by a deep moat, with the turret walls and the 
drawDridge still existing; the splendid ruin of Franilingham, with 
high and massive walls, originally founded in the 6th century, but 
restored In the tith ; the-outiines of the extensive fortress of Clam 
Castle, asciendy the baronial residence of the earls of Clare: and 
the fine Norman keep of Orford Castle, on an emtaencc overlooking 
(he sea. Among the many fine residences within the county there 
are several interesting examples of domestic architecture of the 
reigns of Henry VI If and Eliabeth. Hengrave Hall (c 1530). 
4 m. north-west from Bury St Edmunds, is a noteworthy example 
— an exceedingly picturesque building of brick and stone, enclosmg 
a court-yard. .Another is Helmingham Hatl, a Tudor mansion ol 
brick, surrounded by a moat crossed by a drawbridge. West 
Tudor: its gatehouse is fine, but the n 






Stow Manor is also 

has been adapted into a farmhouse^ 

See A. Sucklii^, Th« Hiftory and Antiquitits of Suffolk U8. 
184^): William White, History, jauUeer and direclcrj of Sujfoth 
(»855)5" John Kirby, Tht Sufoli TraveUer (iJZS); A. Page. Supi 
nteni to dn St^ffolk Tranetter O843) ; Vittoria County ai$t0ry, "-^ 

SUFFRAGAN (Med. Ltft. suJfraeAntus tuffragalor, one wh9 
assists, from suffratflri, to vote in favour of, to stipport) 
in the Christian Church, (i) a diocesan bishop in his relation 
to the meUopoUtanr (a) an asastant bishop. (See the ariidi 
BXSBQP.) ., :«4^ 



30 



SUFFRAGE—SUFFREN SAINT TROPEZ 



lUFnUGB (Lat si^rcgfmmh the Hght or tha andtt of ths 
light of voting is political affairs; in a more gencval setue, aa 
exprosion of opinion, assent or. approval; in eodesiaatical use, 
the short interooaory prayers in litaniea spoken oc song by the 
people as distinguished from those of the priest or minister. 
(See RipaisKMTATZON; Voen and Votxmo» and Reobtbation:. 
and, for the Women's Suffrage Movement, Womsn: | FoiUic^ 
lUgjkis.) The etymology of the Latin word suffragktm has ben 
much discussed. It b usually referred to sub" and the root of 
/rtsiifefe, to break, and its ori^md meaning must Una hive been 
a' piece of broken tile or a potsherd on which the names or 
initials of the candidates were mscribed and used as ja ^wting 
tablet or tabdia. There is, however, no direct evidence that 
this was ever the practice in the case of voting apOn legislation 
in the assembly (see .W* Corssen, Ueber Ausspraeke, &c.r der 
LaUimsdun S^aeke, i. 397, and Mbmmstti, Rdmische GeseUekU, 
iiL 4r2 n. i.)- 

SUFFREH BAIMT TROPBZ, HBHRE AMDRi DR(x799-X7S8), 
French admiral, was the third son of th^ maiqula de Saint 
Tkopea, head of afamOy of nobles of Provence which daimed to 
have emigrated from Lucca in the X4th century. He was bom 
in the Chateau de Samt Canat in the present department of Aii 
on the xTth of July 1739. -Th6 French navy and the Order of 
lialu offered the usual careers for the younger sonsof noble 
families of the south of France who did not elect to go into the 
Church. The connexion between the Order and the old French 
royal navy was dose. Pierre Andr£ de Sdffren was destined by 
his parents to belonis to both. He entered the dose and aristo- 
cratic corps of French naval officers.as a " garde de la marine "-r 
cadet or midshipman, in October '174:5, In the " Solidet " 'one 
of the line of battleships which^ook part in the confused engage- 
ment off Toulon in 1744. He was then in the " Pauline " in 
the squadron of M. Macnfinara on a cruise in the West Indies. 
In X746 he went through the due D'Anville's disastrous expedi- 
tion to retake Cape Breton, whidi was ruined by shipwreck and 
plague. Next year (1747) he was taken prisoner by Hawke 
in the action with the French convoy in the Bay of Biscay. 
His biographer OuuX assures oa that he found British arro- 
gance offensive. When peace was made in X74S he went to 
Malta to perform the cruises with the .galleys of the Order 
technically cslled " caravans," a reminiscence of the days when 
the knights protiKted the pilgrims going from Saint John d'Acre 
to Jerusalem. In Suffren's tinye this service rardy went beyond 
•a peaceful tour among the Greek ^idands. During the Seven 
Years' War he had the unwonted good fortune to be' present 
aa lieutenant in the '* Orph£e " in the action with Admiral Byng 
(^.f.), which, if not propoly speaking a victory, was at least not 
a defeat for the French, and was followed by the sunender of 
the English garrison of Minorca. But in 2757 he was again 
taken prisoner, when his ship the ** Oc^ " was captured by 
Boscawcn off Lagos. On the return of peace in x 763 he ii>tended 
again to do the service in the caravans which was required to 
qualify him to hold the high and lucrative posts of the Order. 
He was, however, luuned to th^ command of the " Camfl£on« " 
a zebcc—a vessd of mixed square and lateen rig peculiar to the 
Mediterranean— in which he cruised against the pirates of the 
Barbary coasL Between 1767 and 1771 he performed his 
caravans, and was promoted from knight to commander of the 
Order. From that time till the beginning of the War of American 
Independence he commanded vessels in the squadron of evolution 
which the French government had esublishcd for the purpose 
of giving practice to its officers. His nerve and skill in handling 
his ship were highly commended by his chids. In 1778 and 1770 
he formed part of the squadron of -D'Estaing iq.v.) throughout 
iu operations on the coast of North America and in the West 
Indies. He led the line in the action with Admirsl John Byron 
off Grenada, and his ship, the " Fantasque " (64), k)8t 6a men. 
His letters to hia admiral show that he strongly disapproved of 
D'Estalnjt's half-hearted methods. In 1780 he waa captain of 
" (74) » in the combined French and Spanish fleets 
i a great English convoy in the Atlantic His 
la his chief had done *>*«» no harm in the 



opinion of D;Estaing. ft U said to have be^ largdy by the 
advice of this admiral that Suffren was chosen to cofflmand a 
squadron of five ships of the line seat out to hdp the Dutch 
who had joined Ftance and Spain to defend the Cape against 
an expected English, attack, and then to go on to the East 
Indies. He sail^ from Brest on the 22nd of March on the 
cruise which has given him a unique |dace amon^ French 
admirals, and puts him in the front rank of sea commanders. 
He waa by nature even more vehement than able. The dis- 
asters which had befallen the navy of his country during the 
Iast*two wars, and which, as he knew, were due to bad adminia* 
tration and timid leadership, had filled him with a bnnung 
desire to retrieve its honour. He waa by experience as well as 
Jiy temperament impatient with the formal manoeuvring of 
his ooileagues, which aimed at preserving their own ships rather 
than at taking the English, and though hb did not dream of 
restoring the French power hi India, he dM hope to gain some 
flich siicoess'as would enable his country to make an honourable 
peace. On the x6th of April 1781 he found the English expedi- 
tion on its way. to the Cape under the command of Commodore, 
commonly called (jovemor, George Johnstone (x730*i787), at 
anchor in Porto Praya, Cape de Verd Islands. Remembering 
how little respect Boacawen had shown for the neutrality of 
Portugal at Cagos, he attacked at onoa .Thongih he waa in* 
differently supported, he inflicted as mudi injury as ha tuffered, 
and proved to the English that in him they had to deal with 
an admiral of quite a different type from the Frenduncn 
they had been accustomed to as yet. He pushed on to the 
Cape, iriiich he saved from capturo by Johnstone, and then 
made his way to the Isle de France (Mauritius), then held by the 
French. M« D'Onrea, his superior officer, di«l aa the united 
squadrons," now deven sail of the line, wercT on their way to the 
Bay of Bengal The campaign, which Suffren now conducted 
against the English admiral Sir Edward Hughes (1790^x794), 
is famous for. the number and severity of the encounters between 
'them. Four actwns took place In 1782: on the x 7th of February 
X783, south of Madras; on the xsth of April near Trinoomalee; on 
the 6th of July off Cuddalore, after which Suffren sdzed upon 
the anchorage of Trinoomalee compelling the amall . British 
garrison to surrender; and again near that port on the 3rd of 
September. No ship waa h»t by Sir Edward Hughes in any of 
these actions, but none were taktn by him. Suffren attacked 
with unprecedented vigour on every occadon, and if he had not 
been ill-supported by some of his captains he would undoubtedly 
have gained a distinct victory; as it was, he maintained his 
squadron with^ the hdp of a port to refit, and provided him- 
sdf with an anchorage at Trinoomalee. His activity encouraged 
Hyder Ali, who waa then at war with the Company. He rdusod 
to return to the islands for the purpose of escorting the troops 
coming out under command of Bossy, maintaining that hia 
proper purpose was to cripple thesquadronof Sir Edward Hugihes. 
During the north-east nxmaoon he would not go to the islands 
but refitted in the Malay ports m Sumatra, and returned with tho 
south-west monsoon in 1783. Hyder Ali was dead, but Tippoo 
Sultan, his son, was still at war with the Ompany. Buasy 
arrivod and landed. The operations on shore were slackly con* 
ducted by him, and Suffren was mudi hampered, but when he 
fought his last battle against Hughes (April so^ 1783), with 
fourteen ships to eighteen he forced the English admiral to retire 
to Madras, leaving the army then besieging Cuddabre in a very 
dangerous position. The arrival of the news that peace had beets 
made in Europe put a stop to hostilities, and Suffren returned 
to France. While refitting at the Cape on his way homc^ several 
of the vesseb also returning put in, and the captains waited on 
him. Suffren said hi one of his letters that their praise gave 
hun more pleasu|e than any other compliment paid him. In 
France he waa reodved with enthusiasm, and an additional 
office of vioe-admixal of France waa created for bins. 'He bad 
been promoted bailli in the Order of Malta during his nbacnce. 
His death occurred very suddenly on the 8th of December T788, 
when he was about to take command of a fleet collected in Brest. 
The official vcoion of the csom of dastfa waa apoplexy, a«l as 



suni^i 



3« 



feiM t iftxf coipiilBit maa it tppeafed pttislble. Bvt many 
yon sftcnrvds his body servant told M. Jalj the bistorio- 
ppbo of the French navy, that he had been kflledin a duel 
I17 lit prises de Mkepoiz. The cause of the caa>untcr» aooord- 
iEf to the senrant, was that Suffren had refused ia very atTOnc 
iiapttfe to use his inflnenoe to secure the restoration to the 
livy d tin of the prince's relations who had been dismissed for 



Safin «aa crippled to a large extent by the want of loyal 
■ad cspthle cooperation on the part of his captains, and the 
vtkmence of hii own temperament sometimes led him to 
<:angard pradencc, yet he had an indefati^ble energy, a wealth 
cf naovrce, and a thorough nndentandfaig of the fact— «o 
ystcs&y disregarded by FVench naval officers— that success 
I! ia is won by defeating an enemy and not by merely out- 
amamriBig him; and this made him a most lormidable enemy. 
Ik portnits of Suffrtn usually reproduced are worthlesa, but 
tbse is a good engraving by Mme de Cemd after an original 
fcyGinnL 

TVe tundaid authority for the life of Suffren b the Bistaire 
k BaSi d* S^frem by Ch. Cunat (1852). The Journal de Bord du 
^SHeSmffrtu dans VInde. edited by M. Morest was published in 
liftl There is an appieciative atudy in Captain Mahan's Sea 
f'ser in Huttry. (D. H.) 

iOfIuii {tat awmuf) , a term used by Moslems to denote 
ttrraziety of mystidam, is formed from the Arabic word ^itfi, 
viedi ns applied, in the and century of Islam, to men or women 
tb idopted an ascetic or quietistic way of life. There can be 
Bodoobt that i^fi/H is derived from fa/ (wooO in reference to the 
wika garments often, though not invariably, worn by sudi 
Wbk the phrase laHso*s-^ (" he clad himself in wool ") 
BeoBDiaQly used m this sense, and the Persian word pashmlnO' 
f^ vhich means literaUy " dotbed in a woollen garment, " 



_ with $4^ Other etymologies, such as $afA 
(P«riiy)-<i deiivatiMi widdy accepted m the East— and vo^, 
» open to object km on linguittic grounds. 
Is order to trace the origin and history of mysticism in Islam 
•e oast go back to Mahmnet. On one side of his nature the 
^^pbd was an ascetic and in some degree a mystic. Not- 
^^stjuidiog his condemnation of Christian monkety {rak- 
^k). i.e. of celibacy and the solitary life, the example of the 
Btti^mthaome of whom he was acquainted, and the Christian 
^BBiu made a deep impression on his nund and led him to 
P^ the efficacy of ascetic exercises, sudi as prayer^ vigils 
■fid Acting. Again, whfle AOah is described in the Koran as 
tk Ose God working his arbitrary will in unapproachable 
^Vmicy^ other passages lay stress on his all-pervading pres- 
ace ud mtimate relation to his creatures, eg. *' Wherever ye 
taa, there a the face of Allah "(ii. 109), " We (God) are nearer 
to kim (Man) than his neck-vein " G- xs)* '^^ germs of mys- 
^^ Utent in Islam from the first were rapidly devdoped by 
« political, sodal and intellectual conditions which prevailed 
« Uie tvo ccntuiics following the Prophet's death. Devasut- 
H dvO wan^ a ruthless militaiy despotism caring only for 
V tkingsof this work!, Measiank hopes and presages, the luxury 
«< ti>e upper dasses, the hard mechanical piety of the orthodox 
ooi, the spread of rationalism and-freethought, all this induced 

* imh towards asceticism, cpiietisro, spiritual feeling and 
^^^^oomI faith. Thousands, wearied and disgusted with worldly 
'^s^ devoted themsdves to Cod. The terrors of hdl, 
tovhidly dqiocted in the Koran, awakened ih them an intense 
^"^v^ouaoos of sin, which drove them to seek salvation in 
'^^ pracdocs. §af1ism was original^ a practical rdigion, 
f** 9ecnlative system; it arose, as Junayd of Bagdad says, 

frWB bvngrr and taking leave of the world and breaking 
2*^ ties and renouncing what men deem good, not from. 
JW^twu." The eaify §<ifIS were closely atUched to the 
fJ*^«naedaB chudL It is said that Aba H&him of KQfa 
i^Jwe kJD. too) founded a monastery for $Qfls at Ramleb 

* Fteine, but soch fkatcnitics seem to liave been exceptional. 
*f7**Gaie»of this period used to wander from place to place, 
^|«r^]onc or in small parties, sometimes living by alms and 

i.liy their own labour. They took up and emphasised 



certain Xoranfc terms< Tint dUir (pnSa^ of God) cooairtiBg 
of redtation of 'the Koran, repetition of the Divine names, 
Ac., was regarded as superior to the five canonical prayers 
inctunbent on every Moslem, and lawakkul (tnist in God) waa 
defined as renunciation of all personal initiative and voUtioa, 
leaving one's self entirdy in God's hands, so that some fanatics 
deemed it a breadi of " trust " to se^ any means of livelihood, 
engage in trade, or even take medidne. Quietism soon passed 
mto mystidsm. The attainment ol salvation ceased to be the 
first obg'ect, and eveiy aspiration wascentred in the hiwaid life 
of dying to sdf and Uving m God. " O God I " saM Ibrlhlm ibn 
Adham, "Thou knowest that the dght Paradises are little 
beside the honour which Thou hast done unto me^ and bedde 
Thy love, and Thy giving me bithnacy with the praise of Thy 
name, and beside the peace of mind which Thou hast given me 
when r meditate on Thy. majesty." Towards the end of the 
2nd century we find the doctrine of mystical love set forth in the 
sayings of a female ascetic, Ribi*a of Basra, the first of a long 
line of saintly women who have played ai» important r61e in 
the history of SOflism. Henceforward the use of symbolical 
expressions, borrowed from the vOcabulaiy of hiveoid wine, 
becomes increasiAgly frequent as a means of indicating holy 
mysteries which must not be divulged. This was not an unneces- 
sary precaution, for in the course of the 3rd century, $QiBsm 
assumed a new character. Side by side with the quietistic and 
devotional mysticisim of the early period there now tprvag up 
a speculative and pantheistic movement which was essentially 
aati-IsUunic and rapidly came into conflict with the orthodox 
vlemd. It ia significant that the oMest rq>reseaUtive of this 
tendency^*^a*rfil of Bagdad— wafe the son of Christian parents 
and a Pttsiaa by raee. He defined ^QfOsm as a theoeophy; 
his aun waa " to apprehend the Divine realities.*' A little later 
Aba Sulaimin al-Dbtnl m Syria and Dhu'l-NOn hi Egypt 
developed the doctrhie of gnosis Ona'tifat) through iflumination 
and ecstasy. The step to panthdsm was first dedsivdy taken 
by the great Persian $afl. Aba Yazld (B&yezld) of BistAm (d. 
A.D. 874), who introduced the doctrine of annfliilatioa (A>ff4), 
f .e. the passhig away of indtvidoal conackMisoess in the will of 
God. 

It is, no doubt, ooncdvable tbas^ the evolutku of ^fiflism 
up to this point might not have been veiy different even although 
it had remained wholly unaffected by influences outside of 
Islam. But, as a matter of fact, such influences made Uiem- 
sdves powerfully fdt. Of these, Christianity, Buddhism snd 
Neoplatonism are the chief. Christian influence had its source, 
not in the Church, but in the hermits and unorthodox sects, 
especially perhaps in the Syrian Euchites, who magnified the 
duty of constant prayer, abandoned thdr all and wandered as 
poor brethren, ^tflism owed much to the ideal of unworldliness 
which they presented. Conversations between Moslem devotees 
and Christian ascetics are often rdated in the andent $afl 
biographiea, and many Biblical texts appear in the form of 
sayings attributed to eminent ^Qfls of eariy times, while sayings 
ascriM to Jesus as well as Christian and Jewish legends 
occtir in abiindance. More than one §QfI doctrine — that of 
iaufakkul may be mentioned in particular—show traces of Chris- 
tian, teaching. The monastic strain which insinuated itself 
into §aflism in spite of. Mahomet's prohibition was derived, 
partially at any rate, from Christianity. Here, however, 
Buddhistic influence may also have been at work. Buddhism 
flourished in Balkh, Transoxiana and Turkestan before the 
Mahommedan conquest, and in later times Buddhist monks 
carried their religious practices and philosophy among the 
Moslems who had settled in these countries. It looks as thou^ 
the legend of IbriLhhn ibn Adhaiti, a prince of Balkh who one 
day suddenly cast off his rojral robes and became a wandering 
$Gfl, were based on the story of Buddha. The use of rosaries, 
the doctrine of /and, which is probably a form of Nirvana, and 
the system of " statk>ns" {maqdrndt) on the road thereto, would 
seem to be Buddhistic in their origin. The third great fbrdgn 
influence on ^Qflism is' the Keoplatonic philosophy. Betn 
A.D. 800 and 860 the tide of Greek learning, then at iu f ' 



BetwM 



52 



SUGAR 



«tteimed Usto Islam Iram tlie CSuiittiaii monasteries of Syria, 
from the Persian Academy of Jund&hApQr in Khflmtan,, 
and from the §ibiaDS of liLarrfin in Mesopotamia. The so-called 
" Theology of Aristotle," which was ttanslated into Arabic about 
A. D: 840, is full of Neoplatooic theories, and the mystical writings 
of the pseudo-Dionysius wem widely known throughooi western 
Asia. IC is not mere coincidence that the doctrine of Gnosis 
was first worked out in detail by the Egyptian §Qfi, Dhu 1<NQn 
(d. AJD..859), who is described as an alchemist and theurgist. 
$fillism on its Lhcosophical side was largely a product of AJes- 
ahdrian speculation. 

By the end of the 3rd oentuiy the main lines of the $&h 
mysticism were already fixed. It was now fast beooming an 
organized system, a school for saints, with rules of discipline and 
devotion which the novice was bound to learn from his spiritual 
•director, to whose guidance he submitted himself absolutely. 
These tikectors regarded themselves as being in the most intimate.' 
communion witb God, who bestowed on them miraculous gifts' 
(kafSmdt). At their head stood a mysterioa^ personage called 
>the Qufb (Axis): on the hierarchy oC saints over which he pro- 
sided Uw whole order of the universe was believed to depend. 
During the next two hundred years (a.d. qoo-iioo), various 
manuals of theory and practice were compiled: the Kiidb 
al LumtC by Aba Na$r al-Sarr&j, the Qat al-Qul^ by Aba T^lib 
al'Makkl, the Risah of Quahairl, the Persian Kaskf al-Ma^itb 
by 'AU ibn 'Uthmin al-HuiwM, and the famous Iby& by GhazftiL 
Inasmuch as all these works are founded on the same matetiab, 
viz., the Koran, the Traditions of the Prophet and the sayings 
of well-known $uf! teachers, they necessarily have much in 
common, although the subject is treaited by each writer from his 
own standpoint. They all expatiate on the discipline of the soul 
and describe the process of purgation which it must undergo 
before entering on the oontempilative life. The traveller 
journeying towards God passes through a series of ascending 
" sutions " imaqamSt): in the oldest extant treatise these are 
(1) xepentance, (2) abstinence, (3) renunciation, (4) poverty, 
(s) patience, (6) trust in God, (7) acquiescence in the will of 
God. After the " stations " cOma a parallel scale of '* states " 
of spiritual feeling {ahwal), such as fear, hope, love, &c., leading 
up to contemphition {mushUhadat) and intuition (yaqin). It 
only remained to provide $ufiism with a metaphysial basis, 
and to reconcile it with orthodox Islam. The double tzsk. was 
finally accomplished by Ghaz&li {qv.). He made Islamic 
theology mystical, and since his time the revelation ikashf) 
of the mystic has taken its place beside tradition {naqf)- and 
reason (^o^Q as a source and fundamental principle of the faith. 
Protests have been and are still raised by theologians, but Moslem 
sentiment will usually tolerate whAever is written in sufficiently 
absUuse philosophical language or. spoken in manifest ecstasy. 

The §flfTs do not form a sect with definite dogfmas. Like the 
monastic oiders of Christendom, they comprise many shades of 
opinion, many bcHooIs of thought, many divergent tendencies— ^rom 
asceticism and quietism to the wildest extravagances of ntatbeiim. 
European students of $ufiism arc apt to identify it with the panthe- 
istic type which prevails in Persia. This, although mote interesting 
and attractive than anjr other, throws the transcendental and vision- 
ary aspects of SafUsm into undue' relief. Nevertheless some account 
;must be giveil here of the Persian theosophy which has fascinated 
the noblest minds of that subtle race and has inspired the most 
beautiful religious poetry in the w^orld. Some of its characteristic 
features occur in the sayings attributed to Bayerid (d. •a.d. 874), 
whom Buddhistic ideas unquestionably influenced. He said, for 
example, '* I am the winedrinker and toe wine and the cup-bearer," 
and again, " 1 went from God to God, until they cried from me in 
me, 'O Thou I.'"^ The peculiar imagery which distinguishes the 
poetry of the Persian ^(ts was more fully developed by a narive 
of Kiiorasan. Aba Sa'id ibn Abi'l-Khair (d. A.D. 1049) in his mystical 
quatrains which express the relation between God and the soul 
by glowing and fantastic altegories of earthly bvc, beauty and 
intoxication. Henceforward, the great poets of Persia, with few 
exceptions, adopt this symbolic 'language either seriously or as a 
<eOn venient mask. The majority are §ufts by profession or convkrtton. 
' -4 thdr poetry," saya A. von Kremer^ *' is a loftily 
system, which recognizes in punty of heart, 
ation and b/'dUng of the passions the neces- 
tcrnal happiness. Attached to this we find a 
ibt emanatioa of all thmgc from God and their 



Mltiniate feunibd with htm. Akhongb on iitb sorfsoe Islam is ook 

directly assailed, it austains many indirect attacks, and frequently 
the thought flashes out, that all religions and revelations are only 
the rays of a single etenud sun ; that all prophets have only deliverer 
and prodaimed in diHevent tongues the same principles of eternal 
goodness and eteroal truth which flow Iram the divine soul of the 
world." The whole doctrine of Fcrsian ^Qfiisra is expounded 
in the celebrated JUathnawi of JaUIuddlh ROmi iQ-v.), but in such 
a discursive and unscientific manner that its leading principles are 
not easily grasped. They may be stated briefly as f(Mlow8>— 
' God is the sole reality (al-Uaqi)) 'and b above all names and 
definitions. He is not aaiy absolute Being, but alao abaolute Good, 
and therefore absolute Beauty. It is the nature of beauty to desire 
manifestation ; the phenomenal universe is the result of Uils desire, 
according to the famous Tkadition in which. God says, " I was a 
hidden treasare, and I desiied to be known, so I created thecRatuics 
in order that 1 might be known." Hence the §ufis, influenced by 
Nebplatonic theones of emanation, postulate a number of inter> 
mediate worlds or descending planes df existence, from theprimal 
Intelligent and the primal Soul, through which " the Truth " 
(,at-^ttqq) diffuses itself. Aa thinfes can be koown oahr throui^ 
their pppofites* Being can only oe knowq through Not-beii^ 
wherein as in a mirror Being is reflected; and this reflection le 
the phenomenal universe, which accordingly has no more reality 
than a Shadow cast by the sun. Its central point is Man, 
the microcosm, who reflects in himself all the Divine attributes. 
Blackened on one side with the' darkness of Not>being, he 
bears within him a spark of pure Being. The human soul 
belong to the spiritual world and is ever seeking to be 
re-umted to its source. Such union b hindered by. the bodily 
senses, but though not permanently attaln^le untfl death, it caa 
be enjoyed at times in the state called ecstasy ihdlj^ when the veil of 
sensual perception is rent asunder and the soul is merged in God. 
This cannot be achieved without destroying the illusion of self, and 
self-annihilation is wrought by means of that diviile love, to which 
human love b roerdiy a stepping-Stone. The true lover feels himadf 
one with God, the only real bemg and agent in the uaiverse; he b 
above all law, since whatever he does proceeds directly from God, 
just as a flute produces harmonics or discords at the win of the 
musician; he b indifferent to outward forms end rites, preferring 
a sincere idobterto an orthodox hypocrite and deemin^thie wajrs to 
God as many in number as the soub of men. Such in outline b 
the $an thcosophy as it appears in Persian and Turkish poetiy. Its 
perilous consequences are plain. It tends to abolish the distinction 
between good and evil— the btter b nothing but an aspect 
of Not-being and has no real existenoe-'^nd it leads to the deinca* 
tton of the hierophant who can say^ like i:;Iufain b. Maasur al-IjlaUa j, 
"I am the Truth." §&ff fratcrniues, living in a convent under the 
direction of a sheikh, bcdame widely spread before A.D. 1 100 and ga\-e 
rise to Dervish orders, most of which indulge in the practice of 
exciting ecstasy by musk:, dancing, drugs and various kinds of 
hypnotic suggestion (kk Deevish). 

BiBUOC RA PHY. — ^Tholuck. SHfismus sive theosopkia Persarum pan^ 
tJteistica (Beriin, 182 1); BtiUkensammlung aus der mofgenlandischcm 
Mystik (Beriin, 1825) ;E. H. Palmer, OrunkU MysUeUm (Cambridge, 
1867); Von Kremer, CesckickU der herrsdgmden Idem des Islams 
(Leipaig, x868) ; Goldriher, "Materialien sur Entwickelungsgeachichte 
deaSunsmus " in W.Z.K,M. xiii. 35 sqq. '* Die Heiligenverehrung ins 
Islam" in Muhammedanische Studwi.'li, 277 sqq. (Halle, X890) 
** The Influence of Buddhism on Islam *' in JJcA .5. (1904), 125 sqq- « 
and VerUsunttu iher den Islam, 130 eqq. (Heidelberr, 19x0): 
E. H. Whiofidd, .the Guhhan^RO^ of Ma^mOd SbsbistaA 
edited with 'translation and notes (London, 1880), and AMdg/ev 
translation of the Masnavi (London, 1898); E. G. Browne, A 
Year amongst the Persians (London, 1893); Merx, Ideen und Grund* 
linien einer aUgemeineu Gesckiekte der Mystik (Heidclber^i 
1893) : H. £th£, " Die mysriache und didaktisehe Poesie " in Geisei 
and Kuhn's Grundriss der iranischen Philologies ii. 271 sqq. (Straa^ 
burg, 1896-1904): Cibb, History of Ottoman Poetry, especially i 
33 Kjq. (London, 1900-1907); D. B. Macdonatd, " Emotional relieiof 
in Islam," in J.R.A^. {1901-1902)1 Development of Muslim the^g^ 
( New York, 1903} and The religums atlitude andtife tn Isfam (ChicasP 
1909): R- A. Nicholson. Sdected poems from the Dfvdm Shams 
Tahrit (Cambridge, 1898^. " Enquiiy concerning the origin an< 
development of SOffism^' in /./?j4.5. C1006), 303 sqq., and Tran^sUi 
turn oftheKashfal-Mabjilb (London, 1910) ; Sheikh Nluharomad Iqb^ 
The Development of Metaphysics in Persia (London, r9o8>. (RA Jsf .) 

SUGAR, in cheoustiy, the generic name for a certain seii« 
of carbohydrates, t.e. sufa^tancesof the general formula Ch(HsO>«, 
Fomerly the name waa given to compounds having a swee 
taste, e.g. sugar of lead, but it b now restricted to certain ox>i 
aldehydes and oxy-ketoaes, which occur in the vegetable an< 
animal kingdoms eilher free or in combination as glucosdde 
(q.v.) and to artificial prepaxations of simikir chemical structure 
Cane sugar has been known for many centuries; milk sugar -wa 
obtained by Fabririo Bartoletti in 16x5; and in the middle c 
the x8th oentuzy Marggraf found that the sugaa yidded by xh 



SUGAR 



S3 



ter cnot wtA Qthflf toots wnfe ftoBOticu wits 
T^ «gan obtained from homy were Investigated by Lowita 
ci PMst^and the latter decided on three spedes: (i) caae 
K^, (a) pape aiigar, and (3) fruit sugar; tire first has the 
knaU CoHriOii, the otheis QHuOb. This list has been con- 
TieiiAj devdopod by the discovery of natural as well as of 
liF^iaic sMgaa. 

it ■ ooavcniear to divide the aag^n into two main grovps: 
9mmodkuam» (formerly gbiepteft) and dwacchiroso (fomeily 
I iliiuM). The fine terra indudei sirople siicart oontaiBing 
a«t» aae atome of carbon, which are known teverally as biosa» 
8«a, Kcma. pentoace, httoefi, Ac.; whUat those of the second 
r*9 haw the formnbi CuH^)u and an charactenaed by VieUfaiK 
lao Dmonccharoae niolirnihts on bydiolyna. In addition trT 
fi^xnta aie known of the formula CuH^i: these on hydrolysis 
int one BolecuJe of a monoaaccharoae and one cf a diaaocharoae. 

- i^rtr of a ■oooaaocharaie. It ia fooed alao that some iaoiib> 
MxwtMes behave as akiehydea whilst others contain a kcto fronp: 
*-v bving the first character are called •oMomt, and the others 
kMKL AB aagara arw^oolourlcaa solids or sympSk vrtiich diar on 
^"•mt hema^; tfaer are sohiUe in water, foraiag sweet soluifioas 
^ (fificskly aolufcile in aksohoL Their, aoknlons are* opticaUy 
n.^ tc. they mtate the fdane of pohrirnd light; the amount cm 
^ nuaom haoK depen d en t upon the co noen tm tion, tenpentuitSi 
w. a tmtt cases, on the age of the aoltition (cf. Glocobb). The 
r-fusa KTvaB for the esciaiation of sagar solutioaa (saccharimetry). 

^ at iwatml to litnua and <io not combme with dilute actos 
' '-tm: mntqg Usars, sach as lime and baryta, yield s e r c h ata t ea. 
*U«. Mricr certain condidoaa, adda and acid aahydridea may 
'»^ate& Samn are alao liable to fermoiUtion.^ Onr knowledge 

• t> cfaemical atroctura of the moaoaaocharoaea may be rcgaided 
a imag isom iBfta, when Zincke eiiapected some to be ketone 

• "^oh. for it was known that akasoae and fructoae. for eaampfo. 
"^xl pema-acctatea, and on reduction gave hcxahydric akohols. 

• 'k «1mq reduced by hydriodic add. gave normal and secondary 
"-v^ioijida. The facto aaneated that the six carbon atoms 

'^*fi a duin« and that a hydroay grosp v«&a attached to five 
'*»■. for it ia very rare for two hydmxy groupa to be attached 
' '^v waie carbmi atom. The Semaining oxygen atom is aldehydic 
" k^ioic. lor the augars oomhim* with hydrocyanic add^ hydroxy- 
^ — » rnd oheaylhydraxine. The eorreetnem of this* view was 
"vri by Kdiaai in tSSs. He prepared the cyanhydrina of glucose 
' traolqse. hydrolyaed them to the torrcsponding oxy-acids, 

- -> wfakh the hydroxy. groups were split Out by reduction; it 
'0 I'juiid that jocose yielded normal heptylic' acta and fructose 
""V vnvUoetic acid; hence glucose is an aldehyde alcohol, 
' • ' H :(:HOH)rCHO. whilst fructose is a ketone alcohol 

- 'H (CHOH)»'COC HiOH « Kiliani also showed that arabinose. 
■^iOk a sugar found in cheny gum. was an aldopentose, and thus 

• Jatfil an eateuaSon of the idea of a *' sugar." 

^•ore prooeediag to the actoal synthesis of the sugars, it ts 
— mbie to diacosB their decoropositkms and transformations. 

I Cntkyirint. — ^The cyanhydrins on hydrolysb give mono- 
^'^«\iie adds» which yield lactones; these compounds when 
"^^•d by sodium amalgam in sulphuric acid solution yield a sugar 

'*'Hif one more carbon atom. This permits the formation 

* - ^ from a lower sugar (E. Fischer) 

Oim CHsOH 

CHOH CHOH 

^^OH), -. (CHOH), 

CKO tHOH 

fetoe -• Cyanhydrin -♦ 

1 Gsta<s..-.The oximes permit the reverse change, t.c. the 
^«Cc (ram a higher to a lower sugar. Wohl forms the oxime 
t' ' aR%crts it tato an acetylated nitrile by means of acetic anhydride 
-'1 Mfdium acetate; ammoniacai silver nitrate aolution removes 

• V^TMBC add and the resulting acetate is hvdrolysed by actins 
''k snaioeia to form an amide, which is finally decomposed with 

*aneariA 



CHiOH 


CHsOH 


ytH 


Ch-oh 


►_/(CH0H>. 


^ (CHOH), 


^ Choh 


CtHOH 


\Co 


Cho 


• Lactone 


-* Heaose. 



^HOH), ^. 

tH-OH 

OiO 



CH/>H 
<eH-OH). 
tHOH 
CH:N0H 
Oxieae 



CHiOH 
(CHOH). 

Choh 

CN 

Nitrile 



CH/)H 
-• (CHOH), 
CHO 

~* Pentose. 



'k£ efecu the same change by oxidizing the sugar to the oxy-add. 
Ser FtamsTTATNai; and for the rekstion of this property to 

^rtut sre SrSRBOfSOMBUSII. 

I^im fasmulae, however, reouire modification in aooocdanoe 
*^ the vievs of Lowrr and E. F. Armstrong, which postulste a 
^ '»Brie sncture (see Gtucosn). This, how«ycr. does not disturb 
'AtaaarafthefoOowi^ 



and then frnther oaUlsing this with Fcnton*t rcagcflt. «>. hytena 
peroxiite and a trsce of a lerraus salt: 

C4H/)«(CHOH).CHO-.C4H/)4(CHOH)-CQrH-<:4H/).CHO 
HesMK Add '^ Pentose. 

3. FhsHi^ydfanne Pernoinerv— Fischer found that if one mole- 
cule of phenylhydnuihe acted upon one molecule of an aldose or 
ketose a hydrazone resulted which in most cases was very soluUe 
in water, but if three molecules of the hydradne reacted (one <tf 
which is reduced to ammonia and anilme) insoluble crystalline 
substances resulted, termed ositvmes, which readily chaiacteriaea 
the sugar from which it was obtained. 

R 

-* Ch-oh 

CHrNNHPh. 
-♦ Hydrazone 

R 
-• C:NNHPh. .-♦ 

Ch,oh 

•• Hydraaoon 

On warmhig the osaxone with hydrochloric add the phenylhydrs* 
sine residues are removed and an os(me results, which 00 reduction 
with zinc and acetic add gives a ketose. 

R R R 

C:N«NHPh. -♦CO -« CO 

CHrNNHPh. CHO CH,0H 

Osazone -• Osone -t Ketose. 

A ketose may also be obtained by ledudng the osaame with dnc 
and acetic to an oMniMM^ which with nitnus acki gives the kstose: 
R R' R 

CjJNHPh. -t Co -♦ Co ' 

CH:NNHPh* CHiNH, CHiOH. 



R 
CHOH 

Cho 

Aldose 
R 
CO 
CHiOH 

Keinee 



R 

C:N-NHPh 

CHrNNHPh. 

Osaaona; 

R 

CrNNHPh 

CH:NNHPh. 



These reactions permit the transformatbn of an aldose !nto a 
ketose^ the reverse change can only be brought about by reducing 
the ketose to an alcohol, and oxidizing this compound to an aldehyde. 
It is seen that aldoses and ketoses which differ stereochcmically 
in only the two final carbon atoms must yield the same oaazQne; 
and since d-mannose, d-iduoase^ and d-fructoae do form the same 
osaaoac (d^lucosasone) differenoes either structural orstereochemicel 
must be plaioed in the two final carbon atoms.* 

tt may here be noticed that In the sugars there are asymmetric 
carbon atoms, and consequently optical isomers are to be expected. 
Thus glucose, containing four such atoms, can exist in x6 fonns; 
and the realisation of many of thcae isomers by E. Fischer may be 
regarded as one of the most brilliant achievements in modem chem^ 
istiy. The general jprinciples of stereochemistry being diacuued 
in Stereoisomerism (9.9.), we proceed to the synthesis of ^ucose 
and fructose and then to the derivation of their configurations. 



_ _ » unfermentable syrup, 
ittOb and. later, by using magnesia i 



which he named lormose, 
instead of lime, he obtained 

- - showed that methose wjs 

identical with the a-acrose Obtained by himsetf and Tafd hi 1887 



188^ a 

C«Htt(\ and. later, by using ma^ni 

the fermentable methose. Fischer showed that 



by decompodng acrolein dibromide with baryta, and subsequently 
prepared by ondizing glycerin with bromine in alkaline sohition, 
ana treating the product with dilute alkali at o*. Glycerin appeaes 
to yieU, on mild oxklation. an aMehyde. CHtOHCH(OH)CHO. 

and a kef "" " 



ketone, CH/>HCOCH,QH. and these < 
in the equation: 

CH/)HCHCOH).CHO-fCH/)HCOCH,OH- 

CH,OHCH(OH)CHCOH)CHCOH)CO.CH,OH-|-HA 
The oeaaone prepared from oracrose resembled most dosdy the 
glucosazone yielded by glucose, mannose, and fractose, but it was 
optkaUy inactive; also the ketose which it gave after treatment 
with hydrochloric add and reduction of the osone was like oidinary 
fractose except that it was inactiva. It waa surmiasd that •4U30ae 
waa a mixture of dextro and laevo fructoae. n aupposition 
which was proved correct by an indirect method. The starting 
point waa ordinary (d)maniute (mannitoI).CJIuCVa naturally oecur- 
ring hexakydric alcohol, which only differed from aHicritol| the 
afcohoi obtained by reducing a-acrose, with regard to oprical activity. 
Mannite on oxidation yields an aldose, mannose, (I,HnOi, which 



* To distinguish the isomeridcs of opposite optical activity, it w 
usual to prefix the letters d* and f-. but these are used only to indicate 
the genetic relationship, and not toe character of the optical activity: 
ordinary fructose, for example, being represented aa d^fructosc— 
although it exercises a laevoroUtory power— because it is derived 
fromi 



34 



SUGAR 



oo further oxidatloa glvet t mannonfe add. CtH«(OH)i'COhH ; this 
acid readily yields a lactone. Also KUiani found that the lactone 
derived from the cyanhydrin of natural arabinoee (laevo) waa 
identical with ^ previoua lactone except that its rotation was 
eaual and opposite. On mixing the csla ct o n es and reducing 
(a + /)-ninanitol was obtained, identical with ••acritol. A separation 
of a-acrose was made by acting with beer j^cast. which destroyed 
the ordinary fructose and left Mructose which was isolated as its 
osaxone.. Also (d+/) mannonic acid can be split into the dand / 
acids by fractional crystallization of the strychnine or brudne salts. 
The aad yields, on appropriate treatment, d-maiuiose and d-mannite. 
Similarly the / acid yields the laevo derivatives. 

The next step was to prepare glucose. This was effected in- 
directlv. The identity of the formulae and osazones of ^mannose 
and 4M[lucoBe showed that the stereochemicad differences were 
situated at the carbon atom adjacent to the aldehyde group. 
Fischer applied a method indicated by Pasteur in converting dextro 
into laevo-tartaric acid; he found that both d-nunnooic and 
d-glucdnic adds (the latter b yielded by glucose on oxidation) were 
mutually convertible by heating with quinoline under pressure at 
140*. It was then found that on reduang the lactone of the add 
obtained from d-mannonic add, ordinary fpucose resulted. 

Fiadier'si a-acroae therefore led to the syntheds of the dextro 
and laevo forms of mannose, elucose and fructose; and these 
substances have been connected synthetically with many other 
sugars by means of his cyanhydrin process, leading to higher 
sugars, and AVohl and Run's proc es s es , leading to lower sugars. 
Certain of these relations are here summarixed (the starting si^tance 
u in italics):— 

^Glucose 4— \-arabinose — > ^mannose *-> ^mannoheptose: 
glucononose <— a-gluco-octo«e <f— o-glucoheptose <r- d-f/tteoM — > 

^-glucoheptose —^ /^gluoo-octose; 
d-fMiifiM«-^d-mannohept08e'-^mannoK)ctose'~>inannofioiKMe ; 
d-glucose — > d-arabinose — > d-erythroae. 
l-pucosc-^ 6-aiabinose -> /-erythrose. 

Thdr number is further increased by spatial inveraon of the dicarb* 
oxylic adds formed on oxidation, followed by reduction; for 
examples d- and /-glncose yield d^nd ^gulose ; and also by Lo^ry de 
Bruyn and Van Ekenstdn's discovery that hexoses are transforaied 
bto mixtures of their isomers when treated with alkadis, allodine 
earths, lead oxide. &c. 

MoHosaccharoses. 

Bmml— The only possible biose is glycoUic aldehyde. CHO*CH/)H, 
obtained impure by Fischer from bromacetaldehyde and baryta 
water, and crystalline by Fenton by heating dihydroxymaldc 

of 

afa 

CI 
ac 

CO 

Tl 
b> 
to 
dil 
water: 



-"^ the action 

mentioned 
: aldehyde, 
n oxidizing 
Although 
m resolvra. 
u obtained 
le. redudng 
le oxime at 
Eth bromine 

3HCHO + CH,NQi -> (CH/)H),C.NO, -» (CH,OH),C.NH OH 
-> (CH,OH),C: NOH-»«:HiOH),CO. 
The ketone !s also obtained irhen Bertrand's sorbose baderium acts 
on glycerol; this medium also acts on other alcohols to yield ketoses; 
for exami^: erythrite gives erythruloee. aralnte arabinuloee, 
mannitol tructose. Sec 

retroses.-^Fow active tetroeea are possible, and three have been 
obuined by Ruff and Wohl from the pentoses. Thus Wohl pre- 
pared l-threose from l-xylose and Aerythrose from ^arabinose, and 
Ruff obtained d- and l-erythrose from d- and l-acabonic adds, the 
oxidation products of d- and Aarabinoses. Impure inactive forms 
result on the polymerization of glycollic aldehyde and also on the 
oaddation of erythrite. a tetrahydnc alcohol found in some lichens. 
d-Erythruloee is a ketose of thb series. 

PoHloses. — Eight stereoisomeric pentaldoses are poesible. and six 
are known: d- and /-arabinose. d- and l-xylose, (-ribose, and 
d-lyaoie. Schdbler discovered ^^uabinoee in 1869. and resarded it 
as a glucose: in 1887 Kiliani proved it to be a pentose. d-Arabinose 
is obtained from d-glucose by Wohl's method. /-Xylose was dis- 
covered by Koch in 1886; its enantiomorph is prepared from 
d-gukise by Wohl's method. ARibose and d-lyxose are prepared by 
inversion from /-arabinoee and /-xykne; the latter has also been 
obtained from d-gaUctoae. We may notice that the pentoses differ 
from other sugars by yiekling f urf urol when boiled with hydrochloric 
add. Rhamnose or isodnlote. a component of certain glucosides, 

* , '— nid combined in seaweeds and chinovose. present as its 

" "novite, in varieties of ouina-bark. are methyl pentoses. 
4)Uined from arabite and Bertrands sorbium 
'ose. 
hexoses may be regarded as the most important 



tl 
ff 

ol 
n 
b 
m 
n 
d- 
it 

ol 
w 
d 

•I 
n 



The reader is refored tx 

: of these substances. Thi 
ilannoae, first prepared h] 
and manna-ash (Fraxinu 
ns on hydrolysing cellukw 
eUulooe), found in csertaii 
iannose is obtained fron 
ind i-gulose. prepared fron 
c ados, whicn are obtaine< 
1 inversion; d- and A-idose 
- and l-gulonic adds, anc 
' and /-galactose, the fini 
igar with dilate sulphutii 
active jpiiactose (from th< 
»nic acid) with yeast; am 
lalactonic adds by pyrldin 
. (X the ketoses, we notio 
intain-ash, and d-tacatoae 
instein on treating gauctosi 
bdng formed at the sanv 
ial notice. 

ilane projection of molecuU 

b discussed under Stereo 

lay that, nnce the termina 

ferent and four asymmctri 



caitxm atoms are present, socteen faexaldoses are possible; and fo 
the faexahydric alcohols which they yicU on reduction, and th 
tetrahydric dicarfooxylic adds which diey give on oxidation, onl] 
ten forms are possible. Empbyin^ the notation in which th* 
molecule is. represented vertically with the aldehyde group at tb 
bottom, and calling a carbon atom-f-or— according as the hydrogri 
atom is to the left or right, the possible configurations are abovn ii 
the dianam. The grouping ol the forms 5 to 10 With 11 to 16 i 
designed to show that the pairs 5, 11 for example become identica 
when the terminal groups are the same. 











II 


13 


13 


U 


15 


16 










+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


- 










+ 


+ 


+ 


- 


- 


-h 










+ 


- 


- 


+ 


- 


- 










- 


+ 


- 


- 


- 


- 


+ 


+ 


- 


- 


- 


+ 


- 


- 


- 


- 


+ 


- 


+ 


- 


+ 


-• 


- 


+ 


- 


- 


• + 


- 


+ 


- 


+ 


+ 


+ 


- 


- 


+ 


+ 


+ 


- 


- 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


- 


I 


2 


3 


4 


S 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 



We can now proceed to the derivation of the structure of gtucoM 
Since both d-glucose and d-gulose yield the same active (d) sacchan' 
add on oxidation, the configuration of this and the corrcspondin 
/-add must be sought from among those numbered S'lo in the abov 
table. Nos. 7 and 8 can be at once ruled out, however, aia ad<j 
so constituted would be optically inactive and the saccharic add 
are active. If the coi^guration of d-saccharic add were given b 
dther 6 or 10, bearing in mind the relation of mannose to i^luco* 
it would thea'be necessary to represent d-mannosaochanc ad 
by dther 7 or 8 — as the forips 6 and 10 pass into 7 and 8 on changini 
the sign of a terminal group; but this cannot be done as mannossii 
charic add b optically active. Nos. 6 and 10 must, in consequcno 
also be ruled out. No. 5, therefore, represents the configuratie 
of one of the saccharic acids, and No. 9 that of the isomeride i 
equal opposite rotatory power. As there is no means of distingiusl 
ing bctiireen the configuration of a dextro- and lacvo-modificatio^ 
an arbitrary assumption must be made. No. 5 may therefore 1 
assigned to the d- and Na o to the /-add. It then follows tlu 
d-mannose b represented by No. i, and ^mannoee by No. 4, as mat 
noee is produced by reverung the sjgn of the asymmetric systci 
adjoining the terminal COH group. 

It remains to distinguish between 5 and II. 9 and 15 as representii 
glucose and gulose. To settle thb point it is necessary to consad 
the eonfiguration of the isomeric pentose*— arabinose and xylose* 
from which they may be prepared. Arabinose bdng convcrtib 
into /Hglucose and xylose into /-gulose, the alternative formulae to I 
considered are — 

CH.fOH) +COH 

CH,(OH)4-++-COH. 



^ The following account b mainly from H. E. Armstrong's art! 
CHBinsTkY in the loth edition of this Encyclopaedia; the represent 
tion differs from the projection of Meyer and Jacobsen. 



SUGAR 



H tbe avsrmmetric qFstem adjoMiic the CdH graop. wkick it thit 
vfodaoBd in •yntbeaiaiiK th« hcxoae from the pentaw. be diiiiiafttcd, 
i^ tomnhr ac diifXMal Tor the two pentose* are 

CH,(OH) COH 

CH,(OH)+--COH. 
Wa sach oompoumb are converted into corresponding dibanc 
*L^ CO»H4CH(OH)]«.COsH, the number of asymmetric carbon 
r>3s beconet reduced from three to two. aa the central carbon 
i • ^ is Am no loooer associated with four, but with only three 
if rtst radicles. Hence it follows that the " optical " formulae 
1 :be acids derived from two pentoses having the configuration 
pvtB above w31 be 

CO,H-0-CCVH 

CO»H+0-CO«H, 

tti that conaBOtteiitly only one of the adds wiO be optically active. 

* • « matter of fact, only arabinose gives an active pnxhict on oxida- 

: a; it is therefore to be supposed that arabinose is the 

r rjyywmd. and consequently 

CH,(OH) + COH - ^glllcow 

CH,(OH)+ COH-l-gulose. 

V^ xyloae 'r» combined with hydrocyanic acid and the cyanide 

■ 'rdniiyKd. tog^lher with /-eulonic add. a second isomeric add*' 
^'^MJc acad. is produced, whidi on reduction yields the hexaldose 
MecsK. Iklaea i-culooic add is heated with pyridine, it is converted 

cid. and vice versa; and ^-gulonic acid may in a 

. be converted into ^idonic add, from which it is 

p«Bblr CO prepare d-idose. It foBows from the manner in which 

'^>»« H praduGed that itt confisuration is CH^OH) + +COH. 

The renaiaiia^ aldohexoses tnacoveied by Fischer are derived 
"".^ ^italacioae ffom milk-sugar. When oxidued this aldohexoso 

■ ^-^ coavertcd iato the monobasic galsctonic add, and then into 
c^ijc sacic acid: the latter is optically inactive, so that xits 

^^tuacioo must be one of those given in the sixth and seventh 
. u of the table. On reduction it yields an inactive mixture 
> i^uaanic acids, some molecules being attacked at one end. as 
r «Tre. and an equal number of others at the other. On redudiijt 
"• aooee pfepared from the inactive acid an inactive galactose is 
..'.izr^ from which /-galactose may be separated by fermentation. 
I-i'S. when tf-si^lactontc add is heated with pyridine, it is con- 
^ -rd into talooic add. which is reducible to talose. an isomeride 
•-Tjtz to galactose the same relation that mannose bears to 
i ^^ It can be shown that d-galactose is CHt(OH) + - + -COH, 
^-1 heace d-talose is CH,(OH)+-+ + COH. 

'tx con%w«tioRs of the penu-and tetra-aldoses have been 
VfTniaed by similar arguments; and those of the ketoses can be 
Ced.«jed from tbe aldoses. 

The ilMMihiinsri have the formula CuHi^i and ate character- 

■Jed by yieldiaff imder suitable conditions two molecules of a'hexoae : 

HsOu-f-IW-CAHi^+CAHi^*. The hexoses so obtained 

-*■ aot necessarily identical : thus cane sugar yields d-glucose and 

.{-cctose (invert sogar); milk sunr and melibiose give d-glucose 

whilst n--* -"-" •" -• /-w^r^ii.. 



ts-i ^^ifhrtnar. 



Chemically 



maltose yields only glucose, 
'-fir) Appear to be ether anhjrdridea of the hexosesL the tmion bdng 
-^rifd by the aldehyde or alcohol groups, and in oonsequenoe 
"ir, are i^ated to the ethers of glucose and other hexoses, i^. to 
'W iBcfi glacosidea. Cane sugar has no redudng power and does 
M (ana an bvdrasone or osaaone; the other varieties, however, 
tiaat FchUac's solution and fonn hvdrazoncs and osazoncs, 
jftavtag as aUases, iA aa cx>ntainmg the grovo •CH(OH)-CHO. 
T^ ftlatioe of the <fisaccharoses to the •• and /l-glucosides was 
by E. F. Armstrong {Joum. Cktm. 5ac., IQ03, 85, 1305). 
d chat cane sagar and maltose were a-glooosides. and 
I •-clacoside of melibiose. These and other considera- 



- have led co the propomi of ao aUcylen oxide formula for glucose, 
ins fgr^wmd by Tollens; this view, which has been mainly developed 
'■^ ArMstronf and Fischer, has attained general acceptance (see 
CkccoK and Glucosivb). Fischer has proposed formulae for 
^ iiuarcaxA disaccharoses, and in conjunctkm with Armstrong 
tnrMDd a mrthoH for determfmng how the molecule was built up, 
dp ionBing the osooe of the sogar and hydrolyttng. whereupon 
tkr hi Houoif obtained indkates the aldose part of the moleoile. 
Uetov is thas found to be glucosido-ga lactose and melibiose a 
Piiaaamlo4pbicose. 

Sevsal <fisaccharoses have been synthenzed. By acting with 
^^nocidonc acid on glucose Fischer obtained isomaJtose, a dltoc- 
otttnm vesy similar to maltose but differing in being amorphous 
lad iiaftrimatablr by yeast. Also Mardilewski (in I899) syntht- 
•■^ cane sogar from potassium fructosate and acetochloro. 
t-^-Tmt', and after Fischer disco v ered that acetochlorohexoses 
"'•dJy reaohed from the interaction of the hexose penta-acetatcs 
>^ Kqaid hyditigca cfakiride, several others have been obtained. 

Canr sofsr. aaocharose or saccharobiose. is the most important 
v-earr. its am — fact u t e b treated below. When sbwly rryscallixcd 
• 'orms targe moaocKnic prisms which are readily soluble in water 
^tt (fiftcokly salable in alcohol. It mdts at t6o", and on cooling 
■•■"ihn to a glassy mass, which on standing gradually beoomes 



35 

u When hcat€d to about mo* it yleMs a 
Mtanoe, named caramel, used in colouring 
-ated sulphuric add gives a black carbonp 
itric add oxidizes it to d-saccharic, tartaric 
when heated to 160* with acetic anhydride 
produced. Like glucose it gives saccharates 
trontia. 

lactobiose, CuHbOu, found in the tpilk of 
k)tic liquid 01 cows, and as a pathological 
by evaporating whey and purifying the 
by crystallization. It forms hard white 
1H|0), which become anhydrous at 140* 
positkm at 205*. It reduces ammoniacal 
Did, and alkaline copper solutions on boiling. 
s a faint sweet taste, and is dextro-rotatory, 
olution being about twice that of an old one. 
ted by yeast, but readily by the hictk acid 
d by nitric add to d-saocharic and mude 
[ride gives an ocu-acetate. 
nialMbiose^ CuHflOa. is formed, together 
iction of malt diastase on starch, and as an 
ti the decomposition of starch by sulphuric 
by ferments. It forms hard crystalline 
le up of hard white needles, 
sacaiaroses are: Trehalose or mycose, 
in various fungi, €.9. Boletus edmlis, in the 
1 ergot of lye; melibiose, CnHriOu, formed, 
ysing the tnsaccharose melitose (or rafiinose), 
occurs in Australian manna and in the 
ufactnie; tooranose, CuHaOu, formed with 
se on hydrotyang another trisaccharose* 
H/D, which occurs in Pinms larix and in 
igavose, CnHiAi. found in the sulks of 
(X.) 

UGAR MaNOTACTUBB 

nber of the grass family, known botani* 
Sctfiomm, the succulent stems of which 
« sugar. It is a tall perennial grass-like 
erous erect stems 6 to X2 ft. or more in 
solid jointed root-stock. The stems aie 
ith numerous shining, polished, yellow^ 
s, 3 in. or less in length, and about i| in. 
>rBnched and bear in the upper portion 
r grass-like leaves arranged in two rows; 

a laige sheath and has a more or less 
In length or longer, and 3 in. or more wide, 
pikelets zit borne in pairs on the ullimatt 
I branched feathery plume-Kke terminal 
ft. or more long. Production of flowers 
Itivation and seed is formed very rarely. 

propagated by cuttings, a piece of the 

its nodes will root rapidly when placed 
ground. The sugar-cane is widely cul- 
( and some sub-tropical countries, but is 

plant. Its native country is unknown, 
natcd in India or some parts of eastern 

has been cultivated from great antiquity 
vation spread westwards and eastwards. 

{Origin oj Cultivated Plants, p. 158) points 
f its introduction into different countries 
hat its origin was in India, Cocbin-China 
lago, and regards it as most probable that 
extended from Bengal to Coch in-China, 
introduced by the Arabs in the middle 
ily and the south of Spain where it 
bundance of sugar in the colonies caused 

abandoned. Dom Enrique, Infante of 
he Navigator (1394-1460) transported it 
>rus and Sicily to Madeira, whence it was 
\ in 1503, and thence to Brazil and Hayti 
tury, whence it spread to Mexico, Cuba, 
tinique, and later to Bourbon. It was 
>adoes from Brazil in 1641, and was dis- 
to other West Indian islands. Though 
pical countries such as Natal and the 
« Union, it is essentially trooical in its 
seeds best in warm d « 



3^ 



SUGAR 



Cuba, Britfeh dvoKRA and HawaU, and in India and Java In 
the Old World. The numerous cultivated varieties are dis- 
tinguished mainly by the colour of the inuroodes, whether yellow, 
led or purple, or striped, and by the be^t of the culm. Apart 
from the sugar-cane and the beet, which are dealt with in detail 
below, a brief reference need only be made here to maple sugar, 
palm sugar and sorghum sugar!. 

Maple Sugflf. — ^This is derived from the sap of the nxk or aogar 
maple (Acer sauharinwn), a large tree growing in Canada and the 
Unued Sutea. 

The tap is collected in spring, just befoee the foliage develops, 
and is procured by making a notch or boring a hoJe in the stem of 
the tree about 3 ft. from the ground. A tree may yield 3 gallons 
of iuice a day and continue flowing for six weeks; but on an average 
only about 4 lb of sugar are obtained from each tree. 4 to 6 gallons 
of sap giving 1 lb of sugar. The sap is purified and concenuated 
in a simple manner, the whole work being carried on by farmers, 
who themaelves use much of the product for domestic and culinary 
purposes. 

Pahn Sumr* — That which comes into the European market as 
JH^y ^ T^y is obtained from the sap of several palms, the 
wild date {Phoenix syhesiris), the palmyra {Borossus fiabeilifer), 
the oooo-nut iCocos nucifera), the gomuti {Arenpi saaharijera) 
and others. The principal source is Phoenix syhesiris^ which is 
oultivated ia a portion of the Ganges valley to the north of> Calcutta^ 
The trees are ready to yield sap when five years old ; at dght years 
tJbey are mature, and continue to give an annual supply CiU they 
reach thirty years. The collection of the sap (toddy) begins about 
the end of October and continues, during the axX season, till the 
middle of February. The sap is drawn oil from the upper growing 
portion of the stem, and altogether an average tree will run in a 
season 350 lb of toddy, from which about 35 lb of raw sugar— 'jajifgery 
— IS made by simple and rude processes. Jaggery production is 
entirely in native hands, and the greater part oitnc amount made is 
consumed locally ; it only occasionally reaches the European market. 

Sorghum 5«|ar.— The stem of the Guinea corn or sorghum 
{Sorghunt saccharatum) has long been known in China as a source 
of sugar.^ The sorghum is haraier than the sugar-cane; it comes 
to maturity in a season; and it retains its maximum sugar content 
a.considerabIe time, giving opportunity for leisurely harvesting* 
The sugar b obtained by the same method as cane sugar. 

Cane Sugar Uanufaclure. — ^The value of sugar-canes at a 
given plantation or central factory would at first sight appear 
Commndal to vary directly as the amount of saccharine con-^ 
vmhite •/ tained in the - juice expressed from them varies, 
SugMT-caacM, ^^^ if canes with juice indicating 9* Beauni6 be 
made a basis of value, or worth, say at los. per ton, then canes 
with juice indicating 

ia degrees Beauro^ 10^ 9* 8* 7* 6" 

»nd containing in 

sugar. . . . 18-05% 1623% 1443% i2-6i% lo-8o% 
Would be worth per 

ton ... . ii/ii 10/- 8/10} 7^1 6/8 

But this is not an accurate statement of the commercial value 
of sugar-canes — that is, of their value for the production of 
siigar to the planter or manufacturer — because a properly 
equipped and balanced factory, capable of making 100 tons of 
sugar per day, for 100 days' crop, from canes giving juice of 
g" B., or say 10,000 tons of sugar, at an aggregate expenditure 
for manufacture (».e. the annual cost of running the factory) 
of £3 per ton, or £30,000 per annum, will not be able to make 
as much sugar per day with canes giving juice of 8* B., and will 
make still less if they yield juice of only 6* B. In practice, 
the expenses of upkeep for the year and of manufacturing the 
crop remain the same whether the canes are rich or poor and 
whether the crop is good or bad, the power of the factory being 
limited by its power of evaporation. For example, a factory 
able to evaporate 622 tons of water in 34 hours could treat 
1000 tons of canes yielding juice of 9** B., and make therefrom 
100 tons of sugar in that time; but this same factory, if supplied 
with canes giving juice of 6* B., could not treat more than 935 
tons of canes in 24 hours, and would only make therefrom 62*3 
tons of sugar. 

The following table may be useful to planters and central factory 

owners. It shows the comparative results of working with juice 

^'^^recs of density mentioned above, under the conditions 

or one day of 24 hours, and the real value, as raw material 

lure, of cane giving iuice of 6" B. to 10* B.. with their 

lue baaed solely oa the percentage of sugar in the juice. 



The canes in eadi ease are assumed ^contain 88 % of jutoe and 1 a ^ 
of fibre, and the extraction by milting to be 75% of the weight < 
canes — the evaporative power of the factory bung equal to 6a 
tons per 24 hours. The facuwy eimenses a/e taken at £30.000 p4 
of 10,000 tons (the sugar to co) 



annum, or 



A per ton on a crop t 
all tokl at the factory) 
100 working days of crop tinae. 



£8 per ton all tokl at the factory)— equivalent to £300 per day fc 
the 1 *-'— -* ' '■ — 



Degrees Beaum6. 


6- 


7* 


8* 


9* 


10« 


Tons of cane 












crushed per day 


935-6 


956a 


977-4 


[000 


1023-8 


Tons of juice ex- 












Tons of * irater 


701.7 


717* 


733-x 


750 


7679 


evaponsted . . 


632 


6M 


6» 


633 


633 


Tons of 1st Mas- 












secuite . . . 


79-7 


95» 


iH'i 


138 


145-9 


Tons sugar of all 












classes recovered 


6a-2 


74-3 


86-7 


100 


1 14-0 


ToUl output of 












sugar in 100 












days. Tons 


6^20 


7430 


8670 


10.000 


J MOO 


Total value of all 












sugars per day 












at £8 per ton 
Less factory ex- 
penses per day . 


£497. 6/- 


£594. 4/- 


£693. 6/- 


£800 


£912 


£300 


£300 


£300 


£300 


£300 


Leaves for canes 












crushed . . . 


£197. 6/- 


£^94. 4/- 


£393.6/- 


£500 


£613 


Real value of 












canes per ton 


4l2l 


6/a 


8^ 


10/- 


M/llJ 


Apparent value 

feie) '^':^"'"' 






















6/8 


7/9l 


8/10I 


lo^ 


ll/ll 



But it is obvious that it would not pay a planter to sell canes i 
4s. 2fd. a ton instead of at los. a ton. any moie than it would pa 
a factory to make only 62-2 tons of sugar in 24 hours, or 6220 tor 
in the crop of 100 days, instead of 10.000 tons. Hence arises t)i 
imperative necessity of good cultivation by the planter, and < 
circumspection in the purchase and acceptance of canes on the pa] 
of the manufacturer. 

The details of manufacture of sugar from canes and of suga 
from bectrootto differ, but there are five operations in the productio 
of the sugar of commerce from either material which are commo 
to both processes. These arc:— 

1. The extraction of the iuice. 

2. The purification or defecation of the juice. 

3. The evaporation of the juice to.syrup point. 

4. The concentration and crystallization of the syrup. 

5. The curing or preparation of the.cxystaJs for the market b 

separating the molasses from them. 
Exlnelion rf Juice.-^Thtj uice » extracted from canes by squeezin 
them between rollers. In- India at the present day there are thoc 
sands of small milb worked by hand, through which - y^^. 
the peasant cidtivators pan their canes two or three ^ pj; " 
at a time, soueezing them a little, and extracting per- •/"***"' 
haps a fourtn of tluur weight in juice, from which they make 
substance resembling a dirty sweetmeat mther than sugar. 1 
Barbadoes there are still many estates arakiog good Mascabatj 
sugar; but as the juice is extracted from the canes by windicilt 
and then concentrated in open kettles heated by direct fire, tl 
financial results are disastrous, since nearly hiUf the vield obtainab! 
from the canes is lost. In the best organized modem cane sugs 
csutes as much as I3i % of the wdght of the canes treated is obtainc 
in crystal sugar of high polarizing power, although in Louisiitni 
where cultivation and manufacture are alike most carefully an 
admirably carried out. the yield in sugar is orJy about 7 % of tl 
weight of the canes, and sometimes, but seldom, as much as 9^ 
This is due to conditions of climate, which are much less favourab 
for the formation of saccharine in the canes than In Cuba. Tl 
protection afforded to the planters by their government, howcve 
enables them to pursue the industry with considerable prod 
notwithstanding the poor return for their labour an saleable produo 
As an instance of the influence of climatic conditions combioi 
with high cultivation the cane lands of the Sandwich Islands ma 
be cited. Here the tropical heat Is tempeccd by constant tra( 
winds, there is perfect immunity from hurricaneSk the soil is pecul 
arly suited for cane-growing, and by the use of speciaUy>pcvpani 
fertilizers and an ample supply of water at command for irri^atic 
the land yields from 50 to 90 tons of canes per acre, from w hk 
from 12 to 14% of sugar is produced. To secure this marvelkM 
return, with an aonuiH rainfall of 36 in., as much as fawtojoi 
gallons of water are pumped per 34 hours from artesian veeHs < 
one estate akme. With an inexhaustible supply of irrigation ttati 
obtainable, there is no reason why the lands in Upper Egypt, 
scientifically cultivated and managed, should not yield aa abundant 
as those, in the Sandwich Islands. 



BUOAR 



37 



b Ae I^tfc EshHAiaa or 19M a < 

roller* a* u. in diameter by 60 
TuTei 



loag. It is 



^m by » powerful eaKine through triple gearing of 4a to 1, 
wtedei CO kmwt a tufface velocity of mllecB of 15 ft 9 in. per 
maa», Thi* mill is guaiaateeci to cnnh thoroughly and efficiently 
ka 350 to joo toM of caiMO in 2a bouf^ In Louuiana tmo diiUa, 
s ow bchJBd the other, «och with three BoUert 32 in. in tUametcr 
bv 79 hn lomr, and driven by one engiite through gearing of 15 
tt I. are ■p teoed to have a surface velodty of rollers of 15 ft. 6 in. 
per nioute (or 60% more than that of tne French mill desc ri be d 
isxml and they are efficiently cnuhiog 9OD to laoo ions of 
am in 24 hoMrs. In Australia, Demecara, Cuba, Java and Peril 
i -.Vr rrvsWg aisd nuueraUtm (first used on a oommercial scale in 
C'-aenra by the lace Hon. William Rassdl) have been geMrally 
a^?pted.- and in many places, especially ia the Hawaiian Islands, 
*^ crmtkmg (sA pamng the canes through three oonsacittiv* 
at* of raOna, ia order to extract evenrtfaiiw possible of extraction 
br imswii) is employed. In the south of apain, in some favouied 
«Qts vWre aignr-caises can be grown, they are eobmitted even to 
fejr wooessive cnidiings. 

It has been found in practice advantageous to prepare the canes 
far cnakiof in tbe nulls, as above described, by passing tbera 
tkrai^ a pair of preparing roUs which are grooved or indented 
a mk manner aa to draw in and flatten down the canes, no 
naaer ia wWch way thev are thrown or heaped upon the caae> 
ctroer. and tlMia prepare them for feeding the first mill of the aeries; 
tVa Ike work of crushing » carried oo unintemptecfly and without 
cmcaat stoppages from the mills choldag, as b often the case when 
ttetodb heavy and the canes are not pfepired. 

Ahhorab it cannot be said that any one system of extraction is 
tite bat watt placifi, yet the following oonsideiationa are of general 



a Wbaeever pnasuie be brought to bear upon it, the v^etable 
m woody fibre of crushed ougarcanes wiM hold and retain jm Uu 
f^ Aaa moaMwl a quantity of moisture equal to its own weight, 
rTv* ttsd in pracfirr 10% mom than ia own weight; or in 
^* ' otims- words, 100 & of tbe best crashed meaass will 
wBsiK fif 47-69 Vb of fiboe and 53-38 lb of nmisture->that is, water 
•Hik Mpr M solutioa, or jr-^-- 



«L Caaes vooy very much in respect of the quality and also as 
(0 the qoantity of the hiioe they contain. The quantity of the 
r»x is tbe teat to which recourse must be had ia judging the effit- 
rvrcy of- the extraction, while the quality is the main factor to 
te ahea mto mococmt with regard to tbe rcsulu of subsequent 
cisafxtoiB. 

Fv the apolication of tbe foregoing considerations to practice, 
the ■ih>Mwi| table has been poepared. It shows the greatest 
ca-idrT of jnicc that may be CJ^M^s se d from canes, according to 
'M (krff cRst peofnctiona of fibre they con ta in, but without employing 
bn, to wfach pco cemcj reference is made 
The percentages are percenti^ies of the original weight 
dtbe 





Per 


Pfcr 


Per 


Per 


Per 


Per 




Cent. 


Cent, 


Cent. 


Cent. 


Cent. 


Cent. 


Pm»age of fibre 














tn cases ... 


10 


ir 


u 


13 


14 


»5 


IWent^e of juice 














IB canes . .. - 


90 


89 


88 


87 


86 


85 


PiRcentase of juice 
;«amca in me- 














sus .... 


10 


11 


ta 


13 


14 


15 


fncentageof maxi- 
















80 


78 


75 


74 


79 


70 


!V»reaeafe of best 














«w. m practice. 


79 


7«-9 


74-9 


72.9 


70-6 


68.5 


IV tallage of juice 














Irftinmegass, In 














pvactice . . 


ir 


rt-i 


13-2 


14-3 


15-4 


165 



TV Britlsk Guiana Planters' Association appointed a 5ub<on>- 
mrtee to report to the West India Comnussioa on the manufacture 
d war« who itated the followine: — 

Unh cancn containing 12% fibre tbe following percentages of 
^v ace extracted from the canes in the form 6f juice.-^ 

Single crushing 

Double crushing . . . . . . . , , 

DottUe crushing with 13^ dlluuon , . . 

Triple crushing with 10% dilution . . . . 

DiOusioawitb as %dilutioo 

These rurfts are eqaivaleat to 

Ce-U % extiactidn for single crushing. 

74-io% .* n double cnisbtng. 

77'44% •• „ double cnishing with 13 *^dihitt6n; 

79-«>% „ „ triple „ „ 10% „ 

•»-7»% - „ dSffusioowith 2S% ^, 



94% 



To ptfeveftt tbe aefiout km of juloe lift in tbe 1 
tbe bmt double and triple crushing^ maoeratii 
introduced. The mcgam coming from the 



^it equal •" 

tobetw9ett20%and30%andupt0 40%af theoriginal ^T 
Consequently, after 



/jBfTove" 



and water, in weight equal 

^ ^«%anduDt0 40*" * ' 

weight of Che unennl 

thelast ceushing the mixtme retained by' the midual megam ami 
not juice, aa was the case when enishing was employed %rithoat 
macemtian, but juice nriuBd with .«mte«; and it was found that the 
lorn ia juice waa reduced by one-hall A further saving of iuiee 
waa sometimes possible if the market prioei of sugir were sucm a» 
to compensate for the ooct of evaporatiag an l is wa a wl qoantity 
of added water, but a limit wm nnposed by the fact that water 
might be used in excess. Hence in the latest dcsigna for lame 
factoriea it baa been proposed that as much nonaal iube as can be 
extsaeted by double enishing only shall be treated bv Ittdf, and that 
the m^aas ahall then beaouaed with twice as mucn water as there 
is juice remaining in it; after which, on being subjected to a third 
ciushina, it will yield a degraded juice, trbieb wonld also be treated 
byitsdi. It is found that m reducing the juioe of these two qualitica 
CO syrup, fit to pam to the vacuum pans for coolda^ to ciyotal^ 
the total amount of evaporation from the degraded juice ■ aboot 
half that leqidred from the normal juioe prodoeed by double 
eroshing. 

Great improvements have been made-la the means of feeding the 
mills witfc canes by dofaig away with hand labour and aubstitutiqf 
mechanical feoden or rakes, which by means of a 
simple steam-driven mechanism will rake tilt canes 
from the cane wanons on to tbe cane<arricta By 
tbe adoption of this system in one large plantation -— 
In the west Indies, eruahing upwatxlaof 1200 tons of canci pesday* 
the labour of slxty^fiocir buida was diepensed with, aad was taus 
made available for employment in Che fielcls. In Louisiana tbe 
use of mechanical feeden h almost univenaL 

With a view of safsguardiag themselves from breakdowns caused, 
by the inequality of feeding, or by the action of malicious petsooa 
introducing foreign substances, such a» crowbars, bolts, Ac., among 
Hw canes, and so into the mills, many f4anters have adopted so* 
called hydraulic attachments, applied either to the megam roO 
or the top roll bearings. These attachments, first invented by 
leremiah Howard, and described in the United States Patetii Joumai 
m 1858, are simply hydraulic rams fitted into tbe side or top caps 
of the mill, andf pree«ng asainst the aide or top brasses in such 
a manner ab to allow the side or top toll to move away from the 
other rolls, while an accumulator, weighted to any dedred extent; 
keeps a constant pressure on each of the rams. An objection to 
the top cap arrangement is, that if the volume or feed is large enough 
to lift the top nSl from the cane roll, it will simultaneously lift it 
from the megass roll, so that the m^^am will not be as wdl pressed 
as it ought to be; and an objection to the ride cap arrangement 
on the megam roll as well aa to the top cap arrangement is, that la 
case more canes are fed ia at one end of the rolls than at the other, 
the roll will be pushed out farther at one end than at the other; 
and though It may thus avoid a breakdown of the rolls, it b apt, 
in so doing, to break the ends off the teeth of the crown wheels 
by putting them out of line with one another. The toggle^ioint 
attachment, which b an extremely Ingenious way of attaming 
the same end as the hydraulic attachments, is open to the same 
objectiona. 

Extractwn of cane juke by diffusion (a process more fully d^ 
scribed under the head of beetroot sugar manufacture) ui adopted 
in a few plantatfons in Java and Cuba, in Louisiana . 
and the Hawaiian Islands, and in one or two factories.^ 
Egypt; but hitherto* except under exceptional' 



conditions (as at Aska, in the Madras Presidency, where the 
lor sugar is three or four times tbe London price), it 



local erioc 1 



would not soem to offer any substantial advantaee aw oouble or 
triple crushing. With the latter system practkraliy as much sugar 
is obtained from the canes as by diffusion, and the resulting m^am 
furnishes, in a well-appointed factory, sufficient fuel for toe crop. 
With diffusion, however, in addition to the strict scientific control 
necessary to secure the benefits of the process, foel~that is, cool or 
wood has to be provided for the working off of the crop, since the 
spent chips or slices from the diffueen are useless for tUs purpose; 
although it b true that in some plantations the spent chips aava 
to a certain extent been utiliaed as fuel by mixing them with a 
portion of the mdassrs, which otherwise would have been sold or 
converted into rum. The best results from extraction by diffusion 
have been obtained In Java^ where there is an abundance of deaf, 
good water: but in the Hawaiian Islands, and in Cuba and Demerara, 
diffuskm has been abandoned on several well mounted estates and 
replaced by double and triple crushing: and ft b not likely to be 
resorted to again, as the extra cost 01 working b not compenmted 
by the slight increase of sugar produced. Tn Louisiana diffusion 
is successfully worked on two or three larn estates; but tbe general 
body of planters are shy of using it, although there is no mck of 
water, the Mississippi bang near at hand. 

PttriJicaHon.— The second operation b the coagtdatlon of tbe 
albqmcn. and the separjitioa <x It with other impuxilies from tbe 



3« 



8D0AR 



juice wfuch holds them in mpenuon or taAntion. The nomeat 
the juioe it expcUed from the oeUs of the canes chemical inveraaoa 
oommencea, and the sooner it b stopped the better. This is effected 
by the addition of lime to neutxatise the free add. As cold joioe 
has a i^ter affinity for lime than hot jiiice, it is best to treat the 
iuice with lime when cokL This b easily done in liming or measuring 
tanks of known capacity, into which the juice b run from the milL 
The requbite amount ol milk of lime set up at lo* Beaum4 b then 
added. Cream of lime of 17* Beaum6 b sometimes used, but the 
weaker sdutkm b preferable, since the proper proportion b more 
cadly adjusted. In Demerara and other places the jukx b then 
heated under pressure up to 220* F. to 250^ F. for a few moments, 
on its wav to a steam and juice separator, where the steam due to 
the superheated juice flashes off, and b either utilised for aiding 
the steam supplied to the multiple effect evaporators, 
or for heating cold juice on its way to the main heater, 
or it b allowed to escape into the atmoophoe. The 
boiling juice b run down into subittding tanks, where it cools, and 
at the same time the albumen, which has been suddenly coagulated 
bv moinentary exposure to high temperature, faUs to the bottom 
01 the tank, carrying with it the vegets^le and other matten which 
were in suspension in the juice. After repottng some time« the 
dear juice b carefully decant«i by means of a pipe fixed by a swivd 
joint to an outlet in the bottom of the tank, the upper end of the 
fMpe bdngafways kept at the surface of the liquor by a float attached 
to it. Thus dear liquor alone b run off, and the mud and cloudy 
liquor at the bottom of the tank are Idt undisturbed, and discharged 
separately as required. 

In Australia a continuous juice separator b generally used, and 
preferred to ordinary subsiding or bltering tanks. It b a c>'Un<- 
drical vessd about 6 ft. deep, fitted with a conical 
bottom of about the same depth. Such a vessel is 
conveniently made of a diameter which will give the 
cylindrical portion sufficient capacity to hokl the juice 
expressed from the cane-mill in one hour. The hot liquor b con- 
ducts downwards in a continuous steady stream by a central pipe 
to eight horizontal branches, from which it issues into the separator 
at the levd of the junction of the cylindrical and CDnical portions 
_* ^u. 1 c. — .L '.a _•.- _* Ij^j liquor b leas than 

avity of the scum and 



of the vessel. Since the spedfic gravity of hot liquor b leas than 
that of cold liquor and since the raedfic gravity of the scum and 
particles of solid matter in suspension vanes so slightly with the 



temperature that practkally it remains constant, the hot Uquor 
rises to the top of the vessel, and the scums and partides of solid 
nutter in suspension separate themsdves from it and fall to the 
bottom. By the mode of admission the hot liquor at its entry b 
distributed over a large area relatively to its volume, and while 
thb b necessarily effected with but little disturbance to the contents 
of the vessd, a very dow vdodty b ensured for the current of 
ascending jukse. In a condnuous separator of which the cylindrical. 
IMrtioh measures 13 ft. in dUmeter and 6. ft. deep (a suitable 
size for treating a juice supply of 4000 to 4500 gallons per hour), 
the upward current will have a velocity of about x inch per minute, 
and It b found that all the impurities have thus ample droe to 
separate themsdves. The clear jukre when it j^rives at the top 
ai the separator flows slowly over the level edges of a cross cand 
and passes in a contiiuious stream to the service tanks of the evapo* 
ratore or vacuum pan. The sloping sides of the conical bottom 
can be freed from the coating of scum which forms upon them evory 
two / or three hours by two rotatory scrapen, formed of L-irons* 
which can l>e dowly turned bv an attendant by means of a central 
Bhaft provided with a suitable handle. The scums then settle 
down to the bottom of the cone, whence they are run off to the 
scum tank. Every twenty-four hours or so the flow of juice may 
be conveniently stopped, and, after all the impurities have subsided. 
the superincumbent clear Ikjuor may be decanted by a cock pbced 
at the dde of the cone (or the puipoae, and the vessel may be washed 
out. These separators are caietully protected by non-conducting 
cement and wood lauing, and are closed at the top to prevent k>as 
of heat : and they will run for many houra without requiring to be 
changed, the duration of the run depending on the auality of the 
liquor treated and amount of impurities therein. Smaller separaton 
oTthe same construction are used for the treatment of ^nip» 

In Cuba, Martinique, Peru and elsewhere the old-fashioned 
double-bottomed defecator b used, into which the juke b run 
direct, and there limed and heated. Thb ddecator b 
made with a hemispherical copper bottom, placed in 
an outer cast-iron casing, whkh forms a steam jacket, 
and U fitted with a cylindrical curb or breast above 
the bottom. If double-bottomed ddecatora are used in suffident 
number to dlow an hour and a half to two hours for making each 
defecation, and if they are of a dze which permits any one of them 
to be filled up by the cane-mill with juioe in ten to twdve minutes, 
they will make as perfect a defecatk>n as b obtainable by any known 
^jTstem; but their employment involves the expenditure of much 
mgh-preanire steam (as exhaust steam will not heat the juKe quickly 
enough through the small surface of the hemispherical inner bottom). 
and also the use of filter presses for treating the scums. A great 
deal of skilled superintendence is also required, and first cost b 
comparatively large. When a sufficient number arc not available 
■for a two hr»«««' ^^-/'•♦«-^n, h b the praaice in some factories to 



aMm off the acuffls tint ffae to the top, and then boil up the fvke 
for a few minutes and sidm a|{ain. and, after repeating the operation 
once or twice, to run off the juice to se|iaratore or substders of any 
of 'the kinds previoudy described. In Java and Mauritius, where 
very dean canes are grown, doubie^bot^med defecators are generally 
used, and to them, perhaps as much as to the quality of the canes, 
may be attributed the very strong, fine sugars made in tlioae islands. 
They are also employed in Egypt, being remnants of the plant 
used in the days when the juice passed through bone-bbck before 
going to the evaporators. 

A modification of the system of double-bottom defecators has 
latdy been introduced with condderable success fai San Domingo 
and m Cuba, by which a continuous and steady discharge ^. , ._ 
of dear ddecated juke b obtained on the one hand, and ^f?ff?y 
on the other a comparatively hard dry cake of scum or "•■"""*•" 
cachasa. and without the use of filter presses. These results 
are brought about by adding to the cold juice as it comes 
from the mill the proper proportion of milk ol lime set 
up at 8* B., and then delivering the limed juioe in a constant 
steady stream as near the bottom of the defecator as posdbic; it 
b thus brought into immediate contact with the heating surface 
and heated once for all bdore it ascends, with the result of avoid* 
ins the disturitence caused in the oidinary defecator by pouring 
cold juice from above on to the surface of the heated juke, and so 
establishing down-currems of ooM juice and up<urrrmsof hot juice 
In the cxntre of the ddecator an open-jopped cylmdrical %*caael ii 
placed, with its bottom about 6 in. above the bottom of the 
defecator and its top about 13 in. below the top of the defecators 
In this vessel b placed the short leg of a draw-off dphon, reaching 
to neariv the bottom. The action of the moderate heat. 210* F., 
on the Umed juice causes the albumen in it to coagulate; thb risitt| 
to the surface collects the cachasas, which form and float thereon 
The clear juke in the meantime flows over the edge of the cylindri< 
cal vessd without disturbance and finds its way out by the short 
leg of the siphon, and so passes to the canal for oollecting tbc 
defecated juice. The admission of steam must be regulated with 
the greatest nicety, so as to maintain an eouable temperaturr, 
ao8" to 310* F., hot enough to act upon the albumen ana yet noi 
enough to cause ebullition or disturbance in the juice, and so preveni 
a proper separation of the cachaxas. This b attained by the aid 
of a copper pipe, 4 in. in dbmeter, which foHows the curve of tfa< 
hemispnericau bottom, and b fitted from one dde to the other o| 
the defecator; one end is entirely closed, and the other b connected 
by a small pipe to a shalbw chcuiar vessd outdde the defecatory 
covered with an' india-rubber diaphragm, to the centre of whici] 
b attached a light rod actuating a steam throttle-valve, and capable 
of being adjusted as to length. &c. The copper pipe and ciiculai 
vessel are filled with cold water, whkh on becoming heated by the sar-i 
rounding juiot expands, and so forces up the uidia<nibber diaphragni 
and shuts off the steam. By adjusdng the length of the connectuig 
rod and the amount of water in the vessel, the araouht «f stearS 
admined can be regulated to a nicety. To make thb apparatoa 
more perfectly automatic, an arrangement for continually adding 
to and mixing with the juice the proper proportion of milk of lirac 
has been adapted to it; and although it may be objected that onoc 
the pfpportion has been determined no allowance b made for tha 
varbtion in the quality of the juice coming from the mill owins 
to the variations that may occur in the canes fed into the mllU, 
it b obviously as easy to vary the proportion with the automat k 
arrani^ment from time to time as it b to vary in each separate 
direction, if the man in charge will take the trouble to do so, whidi 
he very seldom does with the ordinary defecators, satbf ying himscli 
with testing the juice once or twice in a watch. The scums f<Mrniini 
on the top of the continuous defecator beoome so hard and drj 
that they have to be removed from timcL to time with a spediill) 
oonstmcted. instrument like a flat spade with three flat prongs is 
front. These scums are not worth pasdng through, the filter pre«sc« 
and are sent to the fields direct as manure. 

The scums separated from the juice by ordinaiy defecatkii 
entai^le and carry away with them A certam amount of the julci 

with Its contained saccharine. In some factories they .^ ^^ 

are collected in suitable tanks, and steam b bk>wn into 2II1"'* 
them,, which further coagulates the albuminous par- •'^'■^ 



tides. These in their upward passage to the top, 
where they float, free themsdves from the |uice, ,which they l^v^ 
below them comparatively clear. The juioe is then drawn ol 
and pumped up to one^ of the double-Dottomed ' defecators an< 
redefecatcd, or, vdiere juice-heaters have been used instead a 
defecators, the scums from the separators or subsiders are beaten 
and forced through filter presses, the juice expressed going to tb 
evaporators and the scum cakes (atja^ in the filter presses to tin 
fields as manure. 

^ In diffusion plants the milk of lime b added, in proper pirspoe 
tion, in the cells of the diffusion battery, and the chips or afi^ 
themsdves act as a mechanical filter for the juke; while in th 
Sandwich Islands corat-sand filters have been employed for som 
ycars,^ in additk>n to the chips, to free the juice from tmpuriti« 
held in mechanical suspension. In Germany very similar &ltet 
have also been used, pcarl-ouartz sravel taking tlw place of cors 
sand, which it dosely resembles. Ip' Mexico filters mled with dr 



SUGAR 



pofvilcMd wtfUB kft w boM IcmHl ftffy cnwiSBt for Nuiovnc tM 
bfe quaatky of imfNtritiei oontaiiMd in the inke expPMrtd Icom 
the very viforaiM but RMik oanea giowa in thAt wondof uUy ferdle 
csuotry, but unleit oonatant care u tmken in mawiyiig ttem, and 
la ckxttsiflC them at the proper tiio^ tbene ia siwt n>k of iaveerioa 
tkkiac piao<^ ^^itb oonaequent loss of tugar. 

After the joioe baa been defecated or purified by any of the 
neaaa above mentioned it ia aent to the evaporatinf af 
temnafter <ieacnbed, wheie it is concentrated to 36* or a8* 
xrd la then oooducted in a oontinuous atieam either into tli 
TMiks ti the ▼acuttm pan, if daric augan are i«equiied« or, if a 
ik-tter colour in wanted, into daiifien. The latter are dreidar 
<r rectanyilar veiaelw. holding from 500 to 1500 gajlona each, accord^' 
I'X to tbe capadty of the tactocy, and fitted with ateam coila at 
vat bottom and aintnming trougha at the top. In them the ayrup 
n qrnckly bffXJBgIn Up to the boil and skimnied for about five nunutea, 
vtm it ia ran off to the aervioe tanki of the vacuum pana. The 
^cat at which the aynip bpila in the clarifiera, »o* F., haa the 
praperty of aepnatiiig -a great deal of the gum acill remalaina in 
- aeid thwa deanaing the aolution of augar and water for oryatalfiaa* 
ina m the vacuum pana; and if after alamming the avnip la nm into 
vparaaon or aobaidera of any description, and allowed to aettle 
&^wa and cool befon being drawn into the vacuum pan for cryatalU* 
arkm. tfaia r't—-i'*C prooeaa will be more thorough and the quality 
d Uk final product will be improved. Whether the improvement 
«dl be pnofittble or ndt to the pfamter or manufacturer depends on 
eV mtflMt for the augar, and on the conditioaa of fordgn tarilla, 
•akik are not infrequently hostile. 

if Am Juiu to Syrup.—'Tht tUrd operation Is the 

ftbe approximately pure, but thin and watery, Juice 

» «>Tup point, by dnving off a portion of the water in vapour 
(tr-^ some aystem of heating and evaporation. Since on an 
a^cT^ge 70% by measurement ot the normal defecated cane jtiice 
iu 10 be cvapofTBted in order to reduce it to syrup ready for final 
ud-entratioo and crystallization in the vacuum pan, and since to 
truji. the same end as much aa 90 to 9$ % of the volume of mfaced 
.uit> has to be evaporated ^ben maoetation or imbibition b 
c-;^>ynd. it is dear that some more economical mode of evapora- 
tiA b ouy.sa ary in large estates than the open-fire batteries still 
car - noo in 'Baftiados and some of the West Indian islands, and in 
t-=&3 hacaenrias in Central America and Brazfl, but seldom seen 
c'jK^Sens. With open-fire batteries (or making the syrup, which 
•as afterwards finUhed in the vacuum pan, very good sugar was 
prvLiced. but at a cost that would be ruinous in to-day*s markets. 

Ia the best days of the so-called Jamaica Thdns in Demerara. 
An j cHtUa rtera of a ton of coal in addition to the roegass was burned 
yc ton of sag^ made, and with this for many years planters were 
rj =:cst. because they pointed to the fact that in the central factories, 
!hn worhing in Martinique and Guadeloupe, with charcoal filters and 
V ,,^-diect evapocatjon, 750 Idlos of coal in addition to the megass 
vw oonsiuaed to make 1000 Idloa of sugar. All this has now been 
^ItagaL St is unquestionably better and easier to evaporate 
tt xfw7 thaa Hf an open pan, and with a better system of firing, 
k TfTv Gbccal proviston of steam generators, and multiple-effect 
".i^-tsnton of impRTved construction, a far larger yield ot sugar is 
-^A-aed frma the juice than was possible of attainment .in thoae 
•- V and the menas often auffices as fuel for the crop. 

The multiple-eBect evaporator, originally invented aiul con- 
CRixaed by florberto Rilleux in New Orieans in 1840, has under- 
^ _ . t/oae many changes in design, and constniction since 

*"5^ that year. The growing demand for this system of 
f** evaporation for application in many other mdustrics 

^"t"^'^' bendes that of sugar has brought to the front a large 
•vAa di inventors. Foreetful or iniorant of the great prin- 

,« annou faced and cstabBshed by Rilleux, they have mostly 

r ,'H their energies and in|;enuity to contriving all sorts of 

-.piaaRcd amngemenU to give the juice the demity lequtred, 
■% ',.ciaii^ and repassing it over the heating surface of the apparatus, 
of a few equare feet of which would seem to have been 
In some instances the result haa been 



lobfect. 
. -ul and unnecessary 
'» veS-kavwa fact— ^ tl 



anaddi" 
. ]uie of h^-pressure steam, and ia all 
highest impoitanor in thb coancxio»— 



1 in it, and 



disregar d ed, that the shorter the time the 

„ _ _, t the MSB tnversbn will take place " 

vMqre the leas will be the hiss of sugar. But thia cc . 

; tsvemon. whatever the incentive, haa not been without 

because to-day, by means of very aimple improvements 

'h as the addition of ctiailatoni and inoeased ana 

. . what may be Uken to be the staMdanl type of 

'>T»>e<flcct evaporator (that is to say, vertical vacuum pana 
t^*i with veftical hearine tubes, through which passes the lic|Uor 
^ troted. and outside of which th? steam or vapour circu« 
-Vi; evaporates nearly double the quantity of water per aoaare 
'i« 4f taring soriace per hoar which waa evaporated by 
-•^qenas to use so recently as 1885— aad thia Without any 
--«aje ia the steam pressure. That evaporation m sacstf. in a 
%>*'^p^^«4feet evaporator, is advantageous by reason of the 
and amount of sugar obtained from a given quantity of 
.i««. aad by nmoa of eoooomy of fueU there ia no doubt, but 



39 

^^ ^ MttiM be of doidilef tiiptai qnadruple 

or quintuple effect will depend very much oa the amount of juice 
to be treated per day, and the cost of fuel. Thas, auppoaiag that 
1000 lb of ooal were required to work a nngle vacuum pan, evapoiat* 
lag, say, 6000 lb of water ia a given tiaae, then 900 lb of oosl would 
be Ksquixed for a double-effect appantua to do the aamc work. 
333 l> for a triple effect, 390- for a quadruple effect* and aoo lb 
tor a quintaple effect. In aome p|»cea where coal costs 6es. a ton. 
and where ateam ia laiaed by ooal, aa in a beetniOt factory, it might 
pay to adopt a quintuple^ffect apparatus, but on a cane sugar 
eatate, whem the steam neoesaary tor the evaporator ia laiaed by 
bumhis the magam aafuel, and ia first used in the engines worktna 
the mills, the exhaust alone paasinr to the evaporator, there would 
be very little, if any. advantage m employing a quadruple effect 
inateaa of a triple »ect, aad pnctlcal^ none at all in naving a 
quinta p l e a ff e ct appaaataa, lor the iateitst aad sinldng fund oa tha 
extm cost woald more than conntcfbalanoe the aaviag m '"* 

With th»juioe of some canes eonatdemUe difficulty is e 
ia keeping the heatinK auifaoea of the evaporatora dean aad free 
from incrustations, «nd cleaning b^ the use of add haa to be r 
to. In plaoea wfatra woric ia earned on day and night thnra 
the weak, the standard tvpe of evaporator lenda itaelf more readily 
entiona tnan any other. It ia obviously easier to 
out and dean veitical tubes open at both ends, and about 
6 ft. loagi oa which the scale haa already been looaened by the aid 
of boiling with dilute muiiatic add or a weak aofaitkm of caasdc 
soda in water, thaa it ia to clean either the inside or the outside of 
horiaontal tubes more than double the length. Thb considentiaa 
should be carefully remembered in the future by the planter who may 
require an evaporator and by the engineer who may be called upon 
to design or uius uu c t it, aad more espedallv by a < 
witliout practical ezpecieaoe of the working of his oonstn 

Conesnhvliais ond GryilatttsBMea.-~The defecated cane juice, 
havTng lost about 70% of its bulk by evaporation in the mult^fde- 
effect evaporator, is now syrup, and ready to enter the ^ 
vacuum pan for further concentration and crystalliaa' d^ST* 
tion. In a patent (No. 3607, iSia} granted to E. C llj"' 
Howard it b atated, among other things, that '* water '*** 
disaolvea the most uncrysUUizable in preference to that which b 
, most crystallixable sugar,'* and the patentee speaks of '* a discovery 
I have made that no aolution, unless highly concentrated, of sumr 
in water can withopt material injury to its colouring and crystalUa> 
ing power, or to both, be exposed to its boiling temperature during 
the period reqtured to evaporate such solution to the ciystallixing 
point." He stated that " he had made a magma of sugar and water 
at atmospheric temperature, and heated the same to 190* or 900* F. 
in a water or ateam bath, and then added more sugar or a thinner 
nu^ma, and the whole betnff then in a state of imperfect fluidity, 
but so as to close readily benind the stirrer, was filled into moulds 
and purged '* (drained). *' I do further declare," he added, ^ that 
although in the application of heat to the refiiung of sugar in my 
mid invention or orocess I have atated and mentioned the tempera- 
ture of about 300* F. acale as the heat most proper to be used and 
applied in order' to secure and preserve the colour and crystallia- 
ability of the sogara, and most easily to be obtained with precision 
and uniformity l^ meana of the water bath and steam bath, yet when 
drcumstanoes or choice may render the same derirable I do make 
use of higher temperatures, although less beneficial." Howard 
at any rate saw clearly what waa one of the indispenmble requisites 
for the economical manufaiicture of fine crystal sugar of good colour 
— the treatment of saccharine aolutions at temperatures very con- 
siderably lower than a 13* F., which b the temperature of water boil- 
ing at normal atmospheric pressure. Nor was he long in providing 
means for securing these lower temperatures. His patent (No. 
37SI of 1813) describes the. dosed vacuum pan and the air pump 
with condenser for steam by injection, the use of a thermometer 
immersed in the solution in the pan, and a method of ascertaining 
the density of the sotutbn with a proof stick, and by observationa 
of the temperature at which, while fluid and not containing grain, 
it could be Ve^ boiline under different presaures shown by a vacuum 
gauge. A table b abo given of boiling points from 115* F. to 
175 F., corresponding to decimal parts oi an inch of mercury of 
the vacuum gauge, since Howaid published hb invention the 
vacuum pan has been greatly improved and akeied in shape an^ 
power, and especially oireocnt years, and the advanragesof concen- 
trating sn same having been acknowledged, the system haa been 
adopted In many other industriea, and crowds of inventon havw 
turned their attention to the principle. In endeavouring to malm 
a pan of lew power do as much and as goiod work as one of grmter 
poawr. they have imagiaed many ingenious marhaniral oantrivaaocs, 
such as currents produced mcch^ically to promote evmratioo 
and crystallisation, feeding the pan from many pmnts m order 
to sprnd the feed einially throoKhout the mam of sagsr being 
cooloed, and ao on. All mdr endmvoun have ubta hi ed at best 
but a doubtful success, for they have.ovcrkiokcd the fact that to 
evapo rat e a given weight of water from the synp in a vacuum 
pan at least an equal weight (or in practice' about 15% more) of 
steam mnat be co n den sed , and the lint ooat of mechankial agitacioraw 
together isith the expeadkurt they 'wntm for motiv* pmmr mad 



¥> 



SUGAR 



onintftiMncc. aim be put agBinat the dkA« wving in the faeeibnc 
surface effected by their einployment. On the other hand, the 
advocatct of admitting the feed into a vacuum pan in many minute 
■treamt appeal rather to the ignomnt and incompetent sugar- 
boiler than to a man who, knowing his business thonxiffhly, wiU 
bqtl 150 tons of hot nw sugar in a pan in a few hours, feeding it 
thnH^h a stogie ^i^ and >^ve 10 in. in diameter. NeveitheiesL 



it has been found tn pmctice, when syniptt with lour quotient 
itient of imp 
r of different 



pHrity and high quotient tA impurity are being treated, injecting 
the leed at a number of different points in the pan docs reduce the 
time required t6 bofl the pan. though of no practical advaatsge 



with syrups of high quotient or purity and frse from the viscosity 
which impedes circulation and therefore quick boiling. Watt» when 
he invented the steam engine, laid down the principles 00 which it 
ie based, and they hold good to the present day. So also the prin> 
dples Uud down by Howard with respect to the vacuum pan bold 
good to-day: larger pans have been made and their heating surface 
has been increased, but it has been found by practke now. as it was 
found then, that an ontinaiy wonn or cod 4 in. in diameter and 
90 ft. long wai be far more efficient per square foot of surface than 
a similar coil 100 ft. long. Thus the most efficient vacuum pans 
of the present day are thooe which have their coils so arranged that 
BO portion of them eaceeds 50 or 60 ft. in length; with such coils, 
and a sufficient annular space in the pan free irom obstruction, in 
Older to allow a natural dosnxurrent of the cooking mass, while an 
ttp<ttrTent all round b also natilvaUy produced bv the action of 
the heated worms or coO^ rapid evaporation and crystallisation 
can be obtained, withont any mechanical adjuncts to require 
attention or afford excuse for negligence^ 

The choice of the siae of the crystals to be produced in a given 
paa depends upon the market for which they are intended. It is 
of course presupposed that the jnace has bens properly defecated, 
because without this no amount of skill and knowledge in cooking 
in the pan will a\'ail: the sugar nssaUing must be bad, cither in 
colour or grjiia, or both, and certainly in polaruiog power. If a 
very lar^ Itrm grain like sugarcandv is required the syrup when 
first brc»u«ht into the put must be ol tow density, say x>* to 21* 
BcAum4. but if a smaller grain be wanted it can easily be obtained 
from s^rup of 27* to 28* Bcaum4 On some plantations nuking 
sugar lor particular markets and use in refineries it is the custom 
to make onl^- one class of sugar, by boiliiv the roc4a«aes produced 
by the purging of oae strike with the uigu in the next strike. 
On other e»CAtes the second sugars, or sugars produced from bo3- 
ing m^>Us9es dione, are not pureed to dryness, but when sufikiently 
se|)Arai<xi from their mo(her-4iquor are mixed with the defecated 
juice, thcnrby increasiRg its saccharine richness, and after being 
eca^erted into $>rup in the usao* m.anner are treated in the vacuum 
paa as fir»t $u*;jrs. which in fjct thv>- really are. 

In ccftoio ulstncts. notably in the Straits Settlements, syrup b 
wefvired as de^^ribed abow for cr>'S5atti;jtton in a vacuum pan. 
but ta«i«>^ of being cooked tn socav it is sJowly boiled up in open 
do^btotvctom paa&. These puts are sorieiic;« heated by boiling 
oH. W(;b the k.v<A that uivJcr stxh condttioxts thcsu^or tkhxb Is 
kept stirred oil the time as k thickens cannot be burnt or coraznel- 
kRvl: but the uise o^icct con be attained more ecor)anuk:a''y 
with sreara of a gi\en prvssure by ut Hiring tt» latent beat. The 
sailor thu« {>rv«iuced. b> constant sfirrinj; and eva^vrattoo a!m\3se 
Co «lx%9rss. to4nis a sp«vle9 of srnall-«:rai-:ed coocrece. It is called 
** bosket sui;ar." and lucets «itl> a tv:^ sa!e. at rersuoer^icive 
pricev anJvv^^ the C%- x'se ox4Ior>: and as the st;gar as soon as 
Cvv»«*.v i» r»K\v\J rejviv Jor nur*.v;» wv;*So«t loair*: any wc^Ht by 
draia >v> *^»* -'-i '^h of sujcar- :tak. '* is a no*t lLcrai:\e one wheie- 
e%«r loere i* *;-Tvjcr?: Wxal cc-r-JinX Vcr> sir.-.'-ir ti xis of stiiar 
are also pr.xJ-_veu '.^r Kxal cc.->;>:"-.^<k''a ia Ccrtrol .Krierira oak! it 
>te&kx\ w kVc the oatie* of " Pax-^'a " a"i " Chacc*:a." but in 
^M«e coc itf'oj tbe »u<aj t* ge^vrx/x K-JcJ in puas pjaced o^yt 
Ip^viol ars.^-i^'AX'Tj. a-xi :lv tac:-'f;cs -.--iv :^ it are on acorsaoratixclv 
SBoail scale. »be*vj.> ^-s the SctaI:* SfUv-::*:?:* ;Se '* tuA^t su$jr ** 
factories, ore o: v-o.^>nierabte i'sportocx'e, ooki ore ikted wivh the Bb:4£ 

Carit* (jr F'-titausum ^ CrrsS^ f«r lAe Jlfarla< — The crrstaJ- 
fiwd sicgar t:vr> ;Se ^Areum par bj^'itow to be scfurmted t-v«n '.l^f 
mclosms or r.-ocVr- .n;«Kir sunv».*Kf »^ the cr**«x:s. Is ».in< 
||irts of McTuiv* a.*j vTencrJ A •>fT*:a I'^w sevviritva & soli edecced 
mr cmn'm; the s;<«car into <v«vai n^o^x^sw a»i piAri-^ on tbe top 
a Isyer o< ■w«»c cmv or carta wVc'^ hiM been ir'eaoeni in a b>.- « 
aM» a aoA poate Ihe osotat-jre irvra checUv, p*.*nA.v*;;ig tbivt.^h 
the BHSB «i sngnr wav^es amay tV Wbetirg s>vtaisx^ oao Va\e« 
tft» cey8Ca.'s coanpsrarixe^v tree onv* chtur. It om^ ^e noced tbat , 
mtm tite wtl we pnrge e«sii;% s/io '*«««% wkNcLiy *W: woe pttcge | 
ensaly asid ire«\\ m ceornijyajs. ikti tor a:l pt^ctvoi ,>T'-»ee« 1 
iW ttf^atn q£ csivisc sin^sr &» a e^ ni( .( ihe pa:<t. and tkc Sa'c et 
the awv nt enmiaar.f. m mam pureed m c«B:r*/ig-aIs. a» i^^deeo 
k hasheta Ssr mmm yiasi. The rewson b c^^iuhs. The cUyu^ , 
MMm ^^Rm^l e < ^k eBpunsr «« lofye csruw Wwaari aW the em- I 
piqpannt «f maagr hamfik sad .«ctv ddors at leaA were i(v:iarTd .or ■ 
an^kmai^ the epenscisa aatt rraikum thr mgar (»e ier the r-ttr^brt,. 
Wtaws witk miMBifiiM^* SMgar iwofani tentu^ csa ^ tw i>ariKt 



makiag clayed 
found advan- 



WhcaCiibamthccliiera 

sugars It was the custom (followed in refineries and I 
tageous In general practice) to dischar]^ the strike of crystallized 
sugar from the vacuum pan into a receiver heated bdow by steam. 
and to stir the mass for a certain time, and then distribute it into 
the moulds in which it was afterwards clayed. When centrifugals 
were adopted for putging the whole crop (they had long been used 
for curing the second or third sugars), the system then obtaining 
of cuantng the su^r into wagons or coolers, which as necessary 
for the second and third sugars cooked only to string point, was 
continued, but latterly " crystallixatioo in movement, a develop- 
ment of the system which forty years ago or more existed in refinenes 
and in Cuba, has come into general use, and with great advantage, 
especially where proprietors have been able to erect appropriate 
buildings and machinery for carrying out the system efficiently. 
The vacuum pan b erected at a height which commands the crystal- 
Kaers. each of which wilt, as in days gone by in Cuba, hold the con- 
temsof the pan, and these in their turn are set high enough to allow 
the charge to fall into the feeding-trough of the centrifugals, thus 
obvbting the neoeisity of any labour to remove the raw su^ from 
tbe time it leaves thit vacuum pan to the time it faUs into the 
centrifugals. For tlib reason alonc^ and without taking into 
consideration any increase ia the ybhi of su^ brought about by 
** crystallisation w movement*" the ^rstem is worthy of %4optkm 
in aU sugar factories making cnstal sugar. 

The crystaUiaers are lo^g, borlaontal. cyGndrkal or semJ-cylin- 
dracal vessels, fitted with a strong horiaontal shaft, mnnii^ troca 
end to end, which b kept slowly icvolving. The shaft g^mgjj^ 
carries arms and blades fised m such a manner chat mZ!m^ 
the mass of sugar b quietly twt thoroughly moved, *■"'"*• 
while at the same time a gentle but sustained evaporation U pro- 
duced by the continuous exposure of succesave portions of the mass 
to the action of the atmosphere. Thus also the crystals already 
formed come in contact with fresh mother-tkiuor. and^so go on 
addli^ to their size. Some crystallisers are made entirely cylin- 
drical, and are connected to the condenser of the vacuum pan ; in 
order to maintain a partial vacuum in them, some are fitted witfa 
cold-water pipes to cool them and with steam pipes tp heat them, 
and some are left open to the atmospbeke at the top. But the 
efficiency of aD depends on the process of almost iarperccptiblc 
yet continuous evaporatioa and the methodical addition of syrup, 
aj¥l not on the idiosyocraaes of the experts who manage tnem; 
and there b no doubt that in large coomercial processes of manu< 
focture the simpker the apparatus used for ootaining a dcstre<i 
result, and the more casSy it b understood, the better rt will bt 
for the manufacturer. The sngar made from the first syrups doe 
not require a cry^olluer in mo\-ement to prepare it for purging it 
the centrifugals, but it b convenient to run the strike into tin 
crystallber and so empty the pan at once and leave it ready tn 
commence another strike, while the aeoood sugars will be bettc 
for twenty-four hours* sturing and the third sugars for fony-e-tghl 
hours' stirring before going to the cectrtfugab. To drive thcs) 
machines electricity has been applied, with iocCfferent success, bu 
they have been very efficiently driven, each independently of tht 
others in the set. by meam of a m>v!ifirarinn Ola Peltoo wheel 
suppLvd with water under pressure from a pumping engine, i 
cotT^WJat»-e{y small stream strikes the wheel whh a pressur 
equi\alettt to a great head, say joo (t^ and as tbe quantity c 
water and numbn- of jets strlkins the wlwei can be regulated witl 
the greatest ease and nxety.eaca HMrhTf can Without danger b 
quxL'y broc^ht up to its fuu speed when porpcg high-ctass sugan 
c«^ ark>«cd to run slowly when pargtng lo«-oass sugars, until tb 
hea\>. sun^a-v o^-^Liaaes hat^ been expelVid; and it cam t hen fa 
brought up :^^ its ftJI »f«ed for ficaJSy dr^i^g the sugar ia the baskel 
a boon vHtch ofi practical si^^r-aciakers will appreciate. Th 
water forced by the torce-pcoep o^^alnst the Piriton wheels return 
by a wo^te-plpe to the tank, from which the foice-painp tak< 
it o^oia. 

Jtxfmi F^tprss^'^'Tht asanoiactasw of caae in|Bi has larsd 
increased la «v>!u«>e siace the year lOM-i^OdL laiSk apart frcM 
thr effect of the aU.Htcioa of the sugar boastx^ has been malrJy tl 
resclt oi the increttwd e«ip{o\nca( ol imprawed praccme% carriij 
o« if UBpn^^'vd apfurates. uaw^r skxcsed saperviskMS. and with <!< 
cejGsrd to the im^Torraace of the chetaioal aspects «f the work. 

^ttfaefous cent -at focrories have bee* erected ia several coumtrit 
witi^ vix'Ti ti< (arye cap»c-:>, and asaay ef thcss wcrk dsy aad aiig] 
'oe si% «ia>^ in the *«««.. T^efe wriw 173 «f these 
'oceorirs wvekt ^ w Ctobki ia tgo d t qoo^ among which 
the "Choporr^'' ia the ptv^iMe of Owwfie. tasned 
««t wpworvb of e^Ok?o u*ns ef sugar la the crap of aiboi 
JO w«i^ and the " Boi*toa " had ^m oacpwt af ahaat 6i.ooo to) 
ta the saase ti^*& C^ the t^S coctonei. at work ia Java ia 190I 
e«Mk. aearfk sll had vast e^fic^Tt puat icr crmtiog the cac " 
CJu*rt frcwtt ia t>*t 'a-kswrev? Ksa'xi. iSee JjtKriatk 1 



caceUd 



J. H it K^^^ - .... 



te, osae>frv«v4g. i'-^m :br 
■nu^ oo««u4tsiy c^niux 



the agrscwbHsal 



SUGAR 



+> 



» fliBBm for all tlie work tequired to be d 
adcitts crystak,- under 



OK ol die wstec-tttbc type. 
> <rft« called " — — ''i- 



'to nuae 
»ne in a iweU'^quipped 
skilful maaageiBcnt* 

^^ onnn* of the bagaise alone proceediog Irom the 

. -. ** cams nound, without the aid of other fuel.. ThebagatM 
^*^ eo ved b now oomoionly taken straight from the cane 

mtU to fmmu ee specially designed lor burning it. in its moist 
lase aod without psevi^ drang, and deltvenag the hot gases 
I h to ■tS»*M«» boilers, such as those of the moltitubular type 
The vahie of fnah bagasse, or as it 

_ gasse* as fuel varies with the kind of 

<aaes fnun which it conies, with their, tieatmcnt in the mQl, and 
vitb the skill used in firing; but it may be stated broadly that 
I b of fresh **<^ip**» will produce from i4 lb to aj Jb of steam, 
aocordiaB *Q. t^ oonditioas. 

Tbe one of picparing rolte with oomigations, to crush and equalits 
the Ceed ol cases to the miU. or to the first oi a series of diills, has 
tme generaL The Krajowski crusher has two such 

] rolU, with Vrshaped corrugatkms eictending lor^gi* 

tudioally acioas them. These rolls run at a speed 
sboet 30% greater than the speed of the first mill, to which they 
<feit%cr the canes well crushed and flattcaed» forming a dose mat or 
pisQes of caac 5 lo 6 in. long, so that the subsequent grindmg can 
be carried 00 without the stoppages occawoned by the mill choking 
vnh a heavy and irra^lar feed. The crusher b preferably driven 



br aa todepeadent m*ne. but with suitable gearing it can te driven 
by the ro3l ennne. The Krajewski crusher was invented some years 
•CO by a Po«i en^nea* resident in Cuba, who tcx^k out a patent 



iur k and gave it his name. The patent has- expired. The increase 
18 the ovtpot far a given time obtained by the use of the Krajewski 
crjiker hatf been estimated at ao to 35% and varies with the quality 
of tbe cai3£s: wfafle the yield of juice or o^traction is increased by 
I or 1%. 

TV oracess 6t continuous defecation which was introduced into 
Caba Utmm Santo Domingo about 1900 had by 1910 borne the 
^ _ test of some ten years' use with notable success. The 

^TT ^*' Hatton defecator, which is empbycd for working it, 
*^ las been already described, but it may be mentioned 

tbat the icffulatioa of the admission of steam is «ow simplified 
jad SBc aif e e by a patent thermostat — a self-acting apparatus 
la wUeb tlR woeqiial expansion of different metals by heat actuates. 
thraugh eocBpvesMd air, a diaphragm ithich controls the steam 
siap>valve— nad by this means a constant temperature of 310* F. 
t^l-A' C) ia maintained in the juice within tne defecator during 
dhewbole time it is at work. 

Earthf matter and other matter pnsdpitated and fallen on the 
copper doable bottom mav be dblodged bv a slowly revolving 
gaa p er ■ s a y every twelve hoar*— and ejected through the bottom 
<kLhii» ge oock; and thus the heating surface of the copper bottom 
vfil be kept in full efficiency. With ordinary care on the part of 
tbm mem m charge Hatton defecators will work continuously 
far wvcral days and nights, and the number required Ito deal with 
a {Tvea voiume of juice b naif the number of ordinary defecatofs 
«l eqml capaoty whkh wouM do the sarhe work; for it must be 
favna in mod that an ordinary dooble*bottomed defecator takes 
tw hoars ID deliver Hs charge and be in readiness to receive a 
b*sh charge. £^. to minutes for filling and washing out after cmpty- 
mf, €0 ■liniifn for heating tip and subsicfin^:; and 40 minutes 
far d r aw i n g off the defecated luice, without agitathig it. Apart 
bnm M Lieased yield in sugar or good quality, we may sirni up the 
sih HIT ■■ I II pracaraUe from the use of Hatton defecators as follows: 
««id famg; heatf ttg gently to the temperature required to coagulate 
fSw J b oBieii and not beyond it, whereby disturbance wonM ensue; 
vke coatiMsoan sepentioa of the scums; the gradual drying of the 
tcmmt K> an to vwtae them ready for the fields, without carrying 
away jaioe or feqoiring treatment in filter presses; and tbe con* 
r-*t9qa» supply of hot defecated Juice to the evaporators, without 
> of aubstding tanks or eliminatota; and, finally , the saving 
I plant, siidi as filter presses, &c., and wages. 

Bietmi Smior Mttmufachtfe.'^Tbie tMt beet Is a ctdtivatcd 
vsriety of Beta ntarUima {nat. ord. Chenopodiaccac), other 
\WK*Jt% oi which, undcx the oaiae of mangold or maagsl-wurzel, 
«* 9o«n as fcediBs n)ots for cattle. 

Abam. xt6o the Berlin apothecaxy Marggraff obtained in hb 
bbccatoTf, by means of alcohol, 6*3% of sugar from a white 
Torirty i beet and 4*5% ^rom a red variety. At the present 
iajr, thanks to the cafelul sttidy of many yeaxs^ the iibprovo* 
mesa «f cnkivatlon, -the careful' seltetion of seed and miltable 
sKaaring, c^Kdally wfth nitrate of soda, the average beet 
«z«tcd tip contains 7% of fibre and 93% of juice, and yields 
^ Omay \2'i9% t^ >& France 11*6% of its weight in sugar, 
la Graa Bfitaia In 1910 the culdvation of beet for sugar wm 
heh^ leriodsly undertaken in Essex, as the result of careftd 
•u'jE^idcratioa during several years. The pioneer cxpcri- 
a»c«ts oa Land Dcobicb'a estates at Kewabam Paddox, ia 



Warwickshire, fn toOb, had pmduced excellent results, both in 
respect of the weight of the beets per acre and of the saccharine 
value and purity of the juice. The average weight per acre 
was over 25I tons, and the mean percentage of pure sugar in the 
juice exceeded 15^ The roots were grown under exactly the 
sar*e cultivation and conditions as a crop of mangcl-wurzd^ 
that is to say, they had the ordinary cultivation and nuAuring 
ol the usual root oops. The weight per acre, the saccharino 
contents of tbe juice, and the quotient of purity compared 
favourably with the best results obtained in Germany or France, 
and with those achieved by tbe Sufiolk farmers, who between 
tS6S and 1872. siq>pUed Mr Duncan's beetroot sugar factory at 
Lavenham; for tbe weight of their rooU rarely reached 15 tons 
per acre, and the percentage of sugar In the juice appears to have 
varied between xo and 12. On the bcst-equippod and most 
skilfully managed cane sugar esUtes, whete the climate is 
favouxaUe for nmtuxing the cane, a similar return is obtained. 
Therefore, roughly speaking, one ton of beetroot may be con- 
sidered to-day as of the same value as one ton of canes; the 
value of the refuse chips in one case, as food for caUle, being 
put against the value of the refuse begasse, as fuel, in the other. 
Before beetroot had been brought to its present sUte of per- 
fection, and while the factories for its manipulation were worked 
with hydraulic presses for squeezing the juice out of the pulp 
produced in the raperies, the cane sugar planter in the West 
Indies could easily hold his own, notwithstanding the artificial 
competition created and maintained by sugar bounties. Biit 
the degree of perfection attained in the cultivation of the roots 
and their subseqtieat manipaiation entirely altered this ritua^ 
tion and brought about the crisis in the sugar trade refetred 
to in connexion with the bounties (see History bdow) and 
dealt with in tbe Brussels convention of 1903. 

tn beetroot sugar sianufacture the operations are washing, 
slicing, diffusing, saturating, sulphuring, evaporation, conoentratioa 
and curing. 

Slicing. — ^Thc roots are brought from the fields by carts, canals 
and raU ways. They are ^-eighcd and then dumped mto a washing 
machine, consisting of a large horizontal cage, Bubmereed in water, 
in which revolves a horizontal shaft carrying arms. The arms art 
set ia a sfpiral form, so that in revolviag they not only stir the 
roots, causinjf them to rub against each other, hut also force them 
forward from the receiving end of the case to the other end. Here 
they are discharged^ (washed and freed from any adharent soil) 
into an elevator, which carries them up to the t<^ of the building 
and delivers them into a hopper feeding the. slicen Slicers used 
to be constructed with iron ^\a about 33 to 40 in. diameter^ 
which were fitted with knives and made 14a to 150 revolutions 
per minute, under the hopper which received tbe roots. This 
hopper was divided Into two parts by vertical division plates, 
against the bottom edge of which tbe knives in the disk forced 
the roots and sliced and pulped them. Such machines were good 
enough when the juice was expelled from the small and, so to 
speak, chopped slices and pulp by means of hydraulic presses. 
But hydraulic presses have now been abandoned, for the juice if 
universally obtained by diflfusioa, and the small slicers have gone 
out of use, because the large amount of pulp they produced in 
proportion to slices is not suitable for the diffusion process, in 
which evenly cut slices are required, which present a much neater 
surface with far less resistance to the diffusion water. Instead 
of the^small slicers. machines nude on the same princi^. but 
with disks 7 ft. and upwards in diameter, are used. Knives are 
arranged around their circumference in such a way that the, hopper 
feeding them presents an annular opening to the disk^ say 7 ft. 
outside diameter and 5 ft. inside, with the necessary division plates 
for the^ knives to cut against, and instead of making 140 to 150 
revolutions the disks revolve only 60 to 70 times per minute. 
Such a sficer is capable of efficiently slicing 300,000 kilos of root* 
in twenty-four hours, the knives belne changed four times in that 
period, or oFtener if required, for It is necessary to change them 
the moment the slices diow by their rough appearance that the 
knives are losing jthclr cutting edges. 

Diffusion. — ^The diffusion cells are ck»ed, vertical, cylindricat 
vessels, holding generally 60 hectolitres, or 1320 gallons, and are 
arranged in batteries of 12 to 14. Sometimes the c«lls are erected 
in a circle, so that the spout below the slicing machine revolving 
above theiti with a corresponding radius can dischar^ the slices 
into the centre of any «rf the cells. In other factories the ceHs 
are arranged ia lines and are charged from the rficer Inr suitable 
telescopic pipes or other convenient means. A circular dispositiea 
of Che eeNs facilitates chafving by the use of a pipe rotating abe«e 
cbemj but k i«iidcn (ha dispoisl Of the hot apent el)' 



+2 



SUGAR 



diflicult and inconvenient The eractioa of the cdl* la stiaight 
lines may cause some little complication in chazsin^. but it allows 
the hot spent slices to be discharged upon a travellmg band which 
takes them to an elevator, an arran||ement simpler than any which 
is practicable when the. cdls are di^Maed in a circle. Recent!}^, 
however, a well-known sugar maker in Germany has altered his 
battery in such manner that instead oC having to open a large door 
below the cells in order to discharge them promptly, he opens a 
comparativdy small valve and, applying compressed air at the top 
of the cell, blows the whole contents of spent slices up a pipe to 
the drying apparatus, thus saving not only a great deal ol time 
but eAaa a great deal of labour of a kind which is both arduous 
and painful, especially during cold weather. The slices so blown 
up, or elevated, are passed through a mill whk:h expris the surplus 
water, and are then prttsed into cakes and dried until they, hold 
about 12% of water and 88% of beet fibre. These cakes, sold 
as food for cattle, fetch as much as £4 per ton in Rumania, where 
four or five beetroot factories are jiow at work. A cell when filled 
with fredi slices becomes the head of the battery, and where skilled 
scientific control can be relied upon to regulate the process, the best 
and most economKal way of beating the siicca^ prevk>us to admitting 
the hot liquor from the next cell, is by direct steam; but as the 
slightest inattention or carelessness in the admission of direct steam 
might have the effect of inverting sugar and thereby causing the 
kMS of some portion of saccharine in the slkes, water heaters are 
generally used, through which water is passed and heated up 
previous to admission to the freshly-filled cell. When once a cell 
IS filled up and the slices are warmed through, the liquor from the 
adjoining cdl, which hitherto has been running out of it to the 
aaturators, is turned into the new cell, and beginning to displace 
the juice from the fresh slices, runs thence to the saturators. When 
the new cell comes into operation and becomes the head of the 
battery, the first or tail cell is thrown out, and number two be- 
comes the tail cell, and so the rounds are repeated; one cell is always 
being emptied and one filled or chaired with slkes and heated 
up, the latter becoming the head oCthe battery as sooa'as it is 
ready. 

Saturation.— 'The juice, previously treated with lime in the 
diffusion battery, flows thence into a saturator. This is a closed 
vessel, into which carbonic acid gas (produced as described here- 
after) is forced, and combininjs with the lime in the juice forms 
carbonate of lime. The whole is then passed through filter presses, 
the clear juke being run off for further treatment. whHe the carbon- 
ate of lime is obtained in cakes whkh are taken to the fields as 
manure. The principal improvement made of recent ^^ears in this 
portion of the process has been the construction of pipes through 
whkh the carbonk acid gas is injected into the juice in such a manner 
that they can be easily withdrawn and a clean set substituted. The 
filter presses remain substantially unchanged, although many 
inecnious but slight alterations have been made in thetr details. 
The juke, whkh has now become comparatively dear, is again 
treated with lime, and again passed through* a saturator and niter 
presses, and comes out still clearer than before. It is then treated 
with sulphurous acid gas, for the purpose of decolorization, asaiit 
limed to neutralixe the acid, and then passed through a tnicd 
saturator wherein all traces of lime and sulphur are removed. 

A process for purifying and decolorizing the ji}ke expressed 
from Dcctroots by the addition of a small (juantity of maneanate 
of lime (30 to 30 grammes per hectolitre of juice), under the influence 
of an dectrk current, was worked with considerable success in 
a sugar factory in the department of Seine-et-Mame in the year 
1000-1901. A saving of 40% is stated to be effected in lime. 
Tne use of sulphurous acid gas is entirely abandoned, and instead 
of three carbonatations with correspondmg labour and plant only 
One is required. The coefficknt cl purity is increased and the 
viscosity of the juke diminished. The total saving effected is 
stated to be equivalent to 3 francs per ton of beetroot worked ap. 
This system is also being tried on a small scale with sugar<ane 
juke in the West Indies. If b)r this process a more perfect defeca- 
tion and purification of the juice is obtained, it wiu no doubt be 
highly benefic&d to the cane planter, though no great economy in 
lime can be effected, because but very little is used in a cane factory 
in comparison with the amount used m a beet factory* 

Evaporation and CrysUiUi2atiou.—Tht clear, juice thus obtained 
is evaporated in a multiple-effect evaporator and crystallized in 
a vacuum pan, and the sugar is purged in centrifugals. From the 
centrifugal the sugar is either turned out without washine as raw 
sugar, only fit for the refinery, or else it is well washed with a 
spray of water and air until white and dnr, and it is then offered 
in the market as refined sugar, although it has neVfcr passed through 
animal chanxnl (bone-black). The processes of evaporation and 
concentration are carried on as they are in a cane sugar factory, 
but with thb advantage, that the bc«t solutk>ns are freer from gum 
and glucose than those obtained from sugar-canes, and are therefore 
to cook. 



C«rf«i^.— There ace various systems of purging refined, or so- 
called refined, sugar in centrifugals, all designed with a view of 



ingenuity and large fums of money have been spent In peffccting 
these different systems, with more or less happy results But the 
iat achievement of recent manufacture is the production, without 
i use of animal charcoal, of a cheaper, but good and wholesome 



great 
the ui 



artkle, in appearance egual to refined sugar for all interns ud 
purposes, except for making preserves of fruits in the old-fashioned 
way. liie wholesale iam manufacturers of the present day use 
this sugar; they boil the jam in vacuo and secure a product that 
will last a long time without deteriorating, but it lacks the delkacy 
and distinctive flavour of fruit preserved by a careful housekeeper, 
who boils it in an c^sen pan with cane sugar to a less density, though 
exposed for a diort time to a ^preater beat. 

Carbonatttiion.'^Tht carbonic acid gas injected into the highly 
limed juice in the saturators is made by the calcination of limestone 
in a kiln provided with three cleaning dooiv, so arranged as to 
allow the lime to be removed simuluneouslv from them every six 
hours. The gaa generated in the kiln b taken off at the top by 
a pipe to a ipw-washer. In this it passes through four sheets of 
w:ater, by which it is not only freed from any dust and dirt that 
may have come over with it from the kiln, but is also cuoled to 
a temperature whkh permits an air-pump to withdraw the gas 
from the kiln, through the gas>washer, and force it into the saturators. 
without overheating. In some factories for refining sugar made 
from beet or canes this system of carbonatatkm is used, and en- 
ables the refiner to work with synips distinctly alkaline and to 
economiae a notable amount of animal charcoaL 

Refining.— Briery, sugar-refining consists of mdling raw or 
unrefined sugar with water into a syrup of 17** to aS" Beauro^, 
or 1230 spedfic gravity, passing it through filtering cloth to 
remove the sand and other matters in mechanical suspension, 
and then through animal charcoal to remove all traces of colour- 
ing matter and lime, thus prodndng a peifeclly dear white 
syrup, which, cooked in the vacuum pan and crystallized, 
becomes the refined sugar of commerce. 

Udling Pa»f.— The melting pans are generally drcular vessels> 
fitted with a perforated false bottom, on whkh the sugar to be 
melted is dumped. The pans are provided with steam worms to 
keep the mass hot as required, and with mechanical stirrers to 
keep it in movement and thoroughly mixed with tiie water arad 
sweet water .whkh are added to the sugar to obtain a solution 
of the specific gravity desired. Any sand or heavy matter in 
suspension is allowed to fall to the bottom of the pan into the 
" sandbox " before the melted sugar is run off to the doth fiUcrs. 
In a process employed with great success in some' refineries the 
raw sugars are washed before being melted, and thus a purer 
artkle is obtained for subsequent treatmenL In this process thei 
raw sugar is mixed with a small amount of syrup so as to form a 
suitable magma, and is then run into a continuous centrifugal, 
where it is suflkiently washed, and from whkh it runs out, com- 
paratively clean, into the melting pans described above. 

Filters.— TayioT bag filters are generally used for clearing the 
melted Uquor of iu mechankal impurities. They were introduced 
years ago by the man whose name they still retain, but they are 
very different in construction tOKlay from what they were wbea 
first employed. They consist of tanks or cisterns fitted with 
" heads from whkh a number of bags of specially woven doth 
are suspended in a suitable mannen and into which the mdtcd 
sugar or liquor to be filtered flows from the melting pans. The 
bags, though 60 in. or more in drcumference, are folded up in 
such a way that a sheath about 15 in. in circumference can b« 
passed over them. Thus a maximum of filtering suciace with a 
minimum of liquor in each bag is obtained. %oa a far greatei 
number of bags are got into a given area that wouM otherwise 
be possible, while the danger of bursting the ba^ hv Jeavine then 
unsupported is avoided. As the liquor goes on filtering thrxMigl 
the bags they gradually get filled up with slime and sludge, nn< 
the clear liquor ceases to run. Steam is then turned on to th< 
outskk of the bags and sheaths, and hot water is run throuEl 
them to vash out all the sweets they contain. Large doors a: 
the side of. the dstem are then opened, and as soon as the bag 
are coqfienough they are removed at the expense of very cxactini 
labour and consklerable time, and fresh bags and sheaths sure 6x» 
in their places ready for fikering fresh Uquor. The dirty bogs aiv 
sheaths are then washed, mangled and dried, and made vt;adi 
for use asain. In a refinery in Nova Scotia a system has beet 
introduced by whkh a travelling crane above the bag Otcrv lift 
up any head bodily with all its bass attached, and runs it to th 
mud and washing tanks at the eno of the battery, while aootftK 
similar crane drops another head, fitted with fresn bags, into th 
place of the one just removed. The whole operation of thu 
changing a filter occupies about ten minutes, and there is no nee 
for anyone to enter the hot dstem to detach the bags, which ai 
removed in the open air above the mud tank. By this artaiwemcr 
the work of a refinery can be carried on with about one-half tli 
cisterns otherwise required, because, although it does not reduc 



SUGAR 



43 



fecA bs^it iattwn of ony oncft tt bcfctoiOf& Is mmm refineries 
eke travcliiaic cranes are now run fay electxidty, which still further 
bciEcAtcs tike work. Another method of enabling more work to 
be done ta a pvea time in a given dstem is the use of a bag twice 
Che onHMary iesgth« open at both ends. This, being folded and 
placed is its sheath, is attached by both ends to the head, so that 
the Belted liquor runs into both openings at the same time. The 
anad collects at the bottom of the y, and alk>ws the upper part of 
the faoLg to filter for a kioger time than would be the case if the 
boctoai cad were ckxed andu the bag hung straight like the letter |. 

The dear, bright'syrup oonitng from the bag fAten passes to 
(he < hM»nil cisiems or fltcrs. tncae are large cyUndrical vessels 
tRMD ao to 50 ft. high, and of such diameter as to hold a given 
quantity of animal charcoal, (also called " bone-black " and " char ") 
ia ptop u i t iu M to the contemplated output of the refinery. A very 
snal aiae of dstem forming a convenient unit is one that wiU 
soAd JO tons of diar. Each cistern is fitted with a fKrforated 
iahe bottom, on which a blanket or specially woven cloth is placed, 
:a r e c e i ve the char which is po«ired in from the top, and packed as 
fvtaily as pooeible until the cistern is filled. The char is then 
* Kttled " by water being slowly run on to it. In order to p reve nt 
Che syrup making channels for itself and not permeating the 
■rittfe anas evenfy. The cistern beine thus packed and scttkd 
» closed, and the syrup from the bag filters, heated up to nearly 
bufaag point, is admitted at the top until the cistern is quite fulf. 
A unaB pipe enterirtg below the false bottom allows the air in the 
astern to escape as it is displaced bv the water or ^rup. In some 
nsfiaeriea this pipe, whkh is carriea up to a hKher le\^ than the 
tap of the dstjcrtu is fitted with a whistle which sounds as long as 
the air escapes. When the sound ceases the cistem is known to 
be (mB, and the entrance of further water or syru cd. 

The aynip in the dstem is allowed to remain for Ive 

hoars, by whsc^ time the char will have absorbed all ng 

issftrr m k, as well as ^the lime. A cistem well pa 20 

toos of char will bold, in addition, about 10 tons < nd 

afttr aettfiag. this can be pressed out by allowing a ity 

■vrap, abo heated to nearly boiling point, to entc. . . . jm 

itpwty ffom the top, or it may be p r ss wd out by boiling water. 
B> carefully watching the flow from the discharge cock of the 
caters the change from the first liquor to the next is easily de- 
tected, aad the discharge is diverted from the canal for the first 
k|sar to the canal for the second liquor, and, when required, to 
the cauls for the third and fourth liquors. Finally, boUmg water 
a admitted and forces out all the last liquor, and then continues 
*o ran and wash out the sweets until only a trace remains. This 
weak softotioa, called " sweet water," is sometimes used for melt- 
mf. che raw oMar. or it is evaporated in a multiple-effect apparatus 
•o Z7* Bcainae density, passed throogh the char filter, and cooked 
B ibe vacitum pan like the, other liquors. After the sweets have 
ccsBc away, cxm water u passed (hrou^ the char imtil no trace 
3< fine or sulphate of lime is found in it; then a large manhole 
it ci)c boMosa of the dsterh is opened, and the wasbedi and spent 
dbar is rensoved. la roost modem refineries the cisterns are so 
t— Ti^nl that the spent char falls oa to a travelliog band and is 
anlacted to an devator which carries it up to the drying floor of 
(^ charcoal kfln. 

Bamtsftr Hekmrtdng CMf.— The Ulnt are made wfth eMier fixed 
sr iiwi^Miair srtofta. The foriswr perhaps praduce a little better 
dBr. bat dw latter, working almost automatically, require leas 
hbwjiikd attention for an equal amount of work, and 00 the whole 
have proved very satisfactory. From the drying floor on which 
t^ ipeat char is heaped up it falls by gravitatbn into the retorts. 
ThoK asc sat ia a fcahi or ovea, and are kept at as even a tempera- 
umt as piisaiMr. correspoMhng to a dull cherry-red. Below each 
ttuxu aad attached to it, is a cooler formed of thin sheet-iron, 
•^xh receives the hot char as it passes from the retort, and at the 
Boetom of the cooler is an arrangement of valves which permits 
s ocrtaia ansovac of char to drop oat and no more. With the 
toed retorts these valves are worked from time to time by the 
anrndazst. hot srith revolving retorts they are worked continuously 
aad aatoatatically and allow from uxtccn to tMrcnty-four ounces 
^ ffcgr to csaapc per minute from each cooler, and so make room 
m the resort above for a corresponding quantity to enter from the 
' mt and cooled char is collected and sent 



Vaamm^ Pom and J2Mifeeri."-TW filtered liqu 



, The reburat 

mLk to the char cistems. In the best-appointed refineries the 
m'ifieoi the work in conneuon with the chacis performed mcchani- 
-aBy. with the exception of packing the filter cistems ^th fresh 
'^ar aad sswifjrint the spent and washed char on to the carrying 
iasda. bi former days, when refining sugar or ** sugar baking 
K» sBppored to be a mystery only understood by a few of the 
B- tsifed« there was a place m the refinery called the " secret 
Tx/r^.** aad this name is still used in some refineries, where, how- 
fi'TT, it app&es oc< to any room, but to a small copper cistem. 
■■■iiiM^if srith five or six or more divisions or small canals. 
a«o which all the charcoal cistems discharge thdr liquors by 
P190 fed up from them to the top of the cistem. Each pipe is 
4j-d with a cock and swIveU in such a manner that the liauor 
V-wm the cisccrv can be turned bito the proper divison according 



vaaum rams ana KKmen.^n^ filtered liquon. beii« ooliected 
in the various rervice tanks accordinff to their qualities, are drawn 
up into the vacuum pans and boiled to crystafs. There are then 
dMcharged into large receivers, which are generally fitted with 
stirrers, and from the reoeiven the cooked mass passes to the 
centrifugal machines. As in the beetroot factories* tnere machines 
work on different systems, but nearly all are arranged to turn out 
sugar in lumps or tablets presenting an appearance simiku- to that 
of k>af sugar made in moulds, as this kmd of sugar meets with 
the jsiaatest demand. Graaulated sugar, so called, is made by 
passing the crystels, after leaving the centrifugals, through a large 
and sUkhtly incUnnd revolvij^ cylinder with a smaller one inside 
heated Dy steam. The sorar fed into the upper end of the cylinder 
gradually works its way down to the lower, showering itwtt upon 
the heated central cytinder. A fan btest enten the lower end, and, 
passing out at the upper end, carries off the vapour produced by 
the dryu^ of the sugar, and at the same time assbts the evapora- 
tion. The dry sugar then passes into a rotating screen fitted with 
two meshes, so that three grades of sugar are obtained, the coarsest 
being that which falls out at the knrer end of the revolving screea. 

JiecftU (mprevtnwits. — ^Systematic feediqg for the vacuum pan 
and systematic washi^ of the roaswcuite have been recently 
introduced not only mto refineries, but also into sugar houses 
or factories on plantations of both cane and beetroot, and great 
advaittages have resulted from their employment. The first- 
mentioned process consists of charging and feeding the vacuum 
pan with thie richest syrup, and then as the crysuls form and this 
syrup becomes thereby less rich the pan b fed with syrup of lower 
richness, but still of a richness equal to that of the motner-hquor 
to which it is added, and so on until but little mother-liquor is 
left, and that of the poorest quality. The systematk washing of 
the massecuite is the reverre of this process. When the massecuite, 
well pugged and prepared for purging, is in the centrifugals, it 
is first washed with syrap of low density, to assist the reparation 
of mother-liquor of similar quality, this washiiig being suppls- 
liiented by the injection of pore syrup of high density, or '^clairce.** 
when very white sugar is required. The manufacturers who have 
adopted this system asrert that, as compared with other methods, 
not only do they obtain an increaised yiela of sugar of better quality, 
but that they do so at a less cost for mnaing their machines sikI 
with a reduced expenditure in sugar and " clairoe." " Cburce " b 
the French term for ^mp of 27* to 30* Beaumi specially prepared 
from the purest sugar. 

Apart from mocufications In the details of sugar refininr which 
have come into ure Ih kite years, it should be mendoned that loaf 
sngar made in oonkal moulds, and sisars aiade otherwire, to re* 
remble kiaf sugar, have practically duappesred from the trade, 
having been replaced by cube sugar, which is found to be more 
economical as subject to less waste t>y grocers and hourekeepers, 
and also less troublesome to buy and mm. Its manufacture was 
introduced into England many yeare ago by Messra Henry Tate ft 
Sons, and they subsequently adopted and ure now the improved 
process and apparatus patented in March 1890 by M Custave 
Adant, a foreman sugar refiner of Brasrels. 

The following is a brief description of the process and apparatus^ 
as communicated by the courtesy of Messrs Henry Tate ft Soitt, Ltd.: 
Group* of cells or moulds are built within and agaiiist a cylindrical 
iron casing, by means of vertical plates inserted in grooves and 
ret radially to the axis of the casing. Each cell is of suitable dimen- 
sions to tum out a sbb of sugar about 1^ in. lonr — this being 
about the height of the ceU—and about 8 in. wide and about 
ft in. to ( in. tnick. By means of a travelling crane the casina^is 
placed within an iron di^ini, to which it is secured, and is then 
broueht under an ovcHiead vacuum pan, from which the cells are 
fillea with massecuite. After coofing, the casng is lifted out of 
the dhim by a crane, asristcd by compressed air, and is then con- 
veyed by a travelling crane to a vertical centrifugal, inside of which 
it is made fast. Suitable provision is made for the egress of symp 
from the massecuite in the cells when undergoing purging in the 
centrifugal; and the washing of the crystals can be aided by the 
iniection of refined syrap and completed by that of "clairce." 
When this is done, the casing is hoisted out of the centrifugal and 
the vertical plates and the. slabs of sugar are extracted. The slabs 
are rent by a conveyor to a drying stove, whence they issue to pass 
throuch a cutting machine, provided with knives so arranged 
that the cutting tsSee» place both dcmnwards and upwards, and here 
the slabsare cut into cubes. The cubes fall from the cutting machine 
on to • riddling machine, whkh separates thore which are defective 
in sire from Uie rest. These latter pass to automatic weighing 
machines, which drop them, in quantities of i cwt., into wooden 
boxes of uniform measurement, made to conuin that weight: 
and the boxes are then conveyed to the storehoure. ready for sale 

Hislary and Statistics. —Sinho xv. I ao, has an inaccuntte 
notice from Nearchus of the Indian honey-bearing reed, and 
various classical writers of the first century of our era notice 
the sweet sap of the Indian reed or even the granulated salt- 
like produa which was imported fiom India, or fima Arabia 



4* 



SUGAR 



ind OpoM (these bein^ entrepots of Iii<Kan trade),' imder the 
Q&mc of sacchanim or v^opt (from Skr. ^ori^tifa, gravel, 
AUgar), and used in modicioe. The art of boiling sugar 
was known in Gangetk India, from whick it was carried to 
China in the first h^ of the 7th century; but sugar refining 
cannot haN'e then t>cen known, for the Chinese learned the use 
of ashes for this purpose only in the Mongol period, from 
Egyptian visitors.* The cultivation of the cane in the West 
sprtod from RhQiistin in I>Enia. At GundC-ShipOr in this region 
** sugar was prepared with art ** about the time of the Arab 
conquest,' and manufacture on a Urge scale was carried 00 at 
Shttster, SOs and Askai^Mokram throughout the middle a^ees.* 
It has been plausibly conjectured that the art of sugar reftmng, 
mhkh the farther East learned from the Arabs, was develop^ 
by the famous ph>*sicians of this region, in whose ph A rm accyocia 
sugar had an iropoitant places Under the Arabs the growth 
tnd manufacture of the rane spread far and wide, from India 
to SOs in Mocooco (Edifd. ed. Xkay, p, 62), and were abo 
klioduced into Sici^> and Andalusia. 

In the age of distoxxiy the Portuguese and Spaniards 
became the great disseminators of the cultivation of sugar; 
the cane was pUnted in Madeira in 14^; it was carried 
to San Domingo in 14^; and it spread o>*ef the occupied 
portions of the West Indks and South America cnr^ in 
the i6th c«fitttr>\ Within the fint twenty years of the 
I^^h ccntun- the sugar trade of San Domingo expanded with 
great rapidity, and it was from the dues levied on the 
imi^cifts boKKght thence to Spain that Ckirkti Y. obtained 
fun.is Kv hts (vdacr-tKiiMnif at Madrid and Toledo^ In the 
nu :iJe ases Vcr.ioc was ttu* jreAt Emvpean centre of the sugar 
ti«vU\ and tovkAids the end of the i^lh century a Vccdiia 
ctiLTcn lei-vivvd a lewaid «>f ico>«ooouowi» ior the invcntioQ oc 
the art 01 r.*ji'Ki:)jr Kv&t sugnu^. One oi the cartkst rrierences to 
S*M^xr in vinrat Br.:s'n ts i>jH cC loc^coe lb of sa?ir beirrj s>">ped 
tv» Lon.'.x^a in i^;;^ i>y IVniANSo LcK\ijiao, ^K^.^-l::l ot Ve^icv, 
to be e w Hxa^vi ix« wvx^ la : be aJinxc > var there apftxrs ia the 
•cviM«\;s of the chambtriain or x\xLiad a patyrocat at the rate 
«< is^ old. per lb foe s;::^3ur. 'n"v^<??x»ul E.rv^pe it o-.liaeed 
to be a c\^V luji.,:nf xiid article ot cac\iici::e ccly. till ibe 
isx^M^cag ua« c< tra aad vv<r<« ia the &i;.h ccaiuo' bi\>ugb: | 
il »ai* tW brf «,is pr:'Nr-:>vil tvvd sta-ves* The increase ift u* j 
cv>r^i.T?t^;v« ^ ^\c^;^ %>.i by ib«e lic; thil. wh > ia 1700 the , 
a"v>_«: usoi :3 G:vjl: F":.va '«is xCsXC :c:3i> ia iSoo it hid . 
rci^^ t«> t5Q^^>9 iccs.^ az^i La i^>5 i^ tccal x;«^xa:.:\ used was . 

a^'?^C«^« X.tJO.C«0 l\-<rSL I 

U 1*4* A-v*?r*s S. rsr-.-i-si Mx-^s^rraf. dr-<^v"W of t^p^N-sscal . 
d-*,vs» ia ;V Aci.U"> c* Svo-oc^ B<Tl.n. dscv»\vrcvi tbc 1 
evvjxvsoc' c4 vv.-* -iva >:H^ir ui Uxirwv^ ai« ia 2u.axrv'js ccbcr • 
fi.'siir rvxvs wlv" ^"w ja tc--r?«ffji:e' rcjpvosw Bvs cv> |x-a,v:xAl 
icst »-xs -*jt^v* wM xSf M>.\>vr« **----,t hi< J>t r.-^. Fx* erst 
to osCi. >i * Kv; j^CL? .ic:c^-v wjl$ b\> ?-" . ^"^ $;-,. .-rsscr, 

TSc f-xvvrts^fs -^-vx ^v^f at sr>i roo" uspc^svt. bi^t ;ae extra- 
err ^i"^ •v-'LA' »-5 ; V --rv-^r « s.;^rxr c« tac Cs>c:ir*Cx carsc^i 
t^ lie Nj^vocxv jv ^7^ iTAXT aa icrpfC.^ U" tic iact.;>i;y. 



/- V mr- y . t 






■ ' * i. ■^ > •>- f -» S V «,L. w*. C^"* ?«.x 

l."»C V * 'V*.' !>• TtK,- >» ;w v" »■"€*■ "V .T ?'o X a*, 






and beetroot fitlorws ^Ncre eitri i Kili rf at mni^ coAics both 
in Germany and in France. In Germany the enterprise came 
to an end almost entirely with the downfall of Napoleon I.; 
but in France, where at first more scientific and economical 
methods of working were introduced, the nnumfactuxcrs were 
able to keep the industry aUve. It was not, however, till after 
1830 that it secured a firm footing; but from 1S40 onwards it 
advanced with gjant strides^ 

Under the bounty system, by which the protectionist countries 
of Europe stimulated the beet sugar industry by boonties on 
exports, the production of sugar in bounty-pa>-xng countries 
was encoura^ and pushed far beyond the limits it could 
have reached without state aid. At tike same time the con- 
sumption of sugar was greatly restricted Ofwing to the 
heavy excise duties imposed mainly to provide for the payment 
of the bounties. The very large quantity of output m^de 
available for export under these exceptional condition! 
brought about the iooding of the British and other markeU 
with sugars at depressed prices, not unfrequcntly below the prime 
cost of production, to the haxassment of important industries 
carried on by British refiners and sugar-growing colonics. In 
these drcnmstaaceSft the Bridsk government sent out ittviu< 
tioos OB the sndof July 1887 for an inlernatjoaal conference to 
meet in London. Tbe oonferenoe met, and on the 50th of Augnst 
iSSS a convention was signed by aQ the powers represented 
except France-~naincly, by Austria, IMpnw, Gcxmany, Great 
Britain, Italy, the NetberfandB, Rnaaa and Spain. France 
withdrew beoiuse the United States was not a party to iL The 
first aitidc declared that ** Tbe hi^ contracting parties engage 
to take such mcasuics as shall consiitme an ahaolttte and com< 
pkte goaxantce that noopcBor disgnised bouBty ilaU be granted 
on the maaufactxne or expQctatk» of sagar." The sevectli 
article prv>\-ided that boccued sugars {sa^cs frimis) must be 
cxckded trom import iato the tcnkories of the signatory poweis, 
by absohite pcokibicica of entry or by levying thereoD a special 
daty in excess d the amount of the boontks, from which dotj 
su^:azs cociag &v>m Ibe coatractiag cocctiies, and not bounty' 
icd, muat be free. The convcn^ua was to be ratified 00 tk 
ist of August xS^o^ nad was to be pat in force «a the xst ol 
Septccsber iSoi. 

Tb* c-.-r.\TK:*ios of iSSS was rrrcr ra::ified, and it is doubtful 
t^hcihcr i:s railicaiioB was ur^ed, f« a. 1^ ictxoduoed by the 
Bht&sh gom&aect in iSSc to ghpe it cccct was not pccssed, 
a:^i it was raarifes* that tbere was fcesitatioQ— which presently 
bcoir* T«usal— to ;^bc;d t!» pv^cy cf t!;^ penalties on tb< 
iar^^ctatioia of bcvxiildd ssB>r wrg^^ifri by the seventh article, 
«;;ac«ot whxh the oocweatMB wiiiiH he so anch vaste paper* 

FcSt years later. «o tbe tst <rf Augvst i8e6, the bountid 
Cfrr^s* by tbf gcN-exr.-vrrs cc Gerrory asd .Vjsrrla-Hcngarj 
%crc d^v^-'v:=:j.:«I> Ok^'u.-xi. aa<i Fraace Lad a. bill in pnpan- 
t.oa tv> iac^eiftSf h«3S oaKtspt-efci.'fflT.aathowghitwns oomputed 
iStt they were e^t^M the- <»,::^\^lfa: t^ a grant oi £5, 591 per ton. 
^^ wtvie- Mr v>.i=rber*^2. t^ cv:-?*!! secrrtarr, 00 the 91I1 
c* Xc-.vbcc U\Jk «;:;^. t^ lie liviis;.ry. The miottle plainl) 
jCatAi iba; n ki^ ^neceea^ a «;uesuca whether the concimied 
e**v%— .>c**; <« jii\a.r:a«« lenrtag t'cua the istportarion d 
.V-'* Vc^-ry!\-»i s.jr.r rt? scn:* Fr.rah sdnstrxs did not 
^■.v\\«^ ;ic r*li cf .Sr 5r\ -^ Su^xr-^cidaciag coloaies; and 
«'^; ^ wx^ ^K w«fM.-vc a» »cs«vAr> cc state kr the colonies 
:^ ^>\>crc tSr xrs,vc&«^« :v « Alc*:!^jr ■artm to take ihei] 
vv 'ST !"^.t :.^ i.-;^. ^"^^ ." t'x-Tv^'r* cc ^r^-atcnrrtioo hithcrtc 
. "^-v,*. ij :.:,:. X w Uic bow'Jc* »..iicci having satisfied 
<"> ' "^v JL> ;o * :^: >cc\ a ^^i^ot ar.-)cu caUil as legardcd boUl 

S-' vv<V*sies j^o .V ev.^sv^^tjer. Mr i"han ImliTii conchidrd 
b i*< '^ %V<Sfr tV tTisirv w,'c\f cvoseat to sending I 
...V ^* ^.. .. . ^,^, .^» . y. Y» -< I-rcvs 1^ s*;:--.^:* into the efled 
vv sSc .^^v^^ si^i* Xx-r^ic* ctt :':k^ pnac^al indwstry. 

W T-r ftfi.T *v\vc\v\s Kr pir.Tv-sii. aa^i n royal frnnmiwoa 
?^,v«v^">; t^ :S: ^^^-^^ l->,.*r< -^ lVrjMr>er :5o6. and reported i 
%•• ^^v V *x ,' -• *>c~. !>- « *»t< c.t — ssuoeT. howrver, 
,v*,v.%>\>i .X W>*. - v* «* .V rs il ca ,» •! ;je wttcr breakdcm 
4« «s»>Ar aao «t vlr fnr>v<«&^ jsrx» w^nA *i ilmet hwl ■itiii rril 



SUGAR 



45 



tad fully acknowledged. But the minute and commission were 
fiot hairtA of result. A fresh conference of the powen assembled 
at Brussels, on the invitation of the Belgian government, on the 
fth U June 189S; and akhoo^ the British tidegatea were not 
t uipM n iie d to consent to a penal clause imposing counter- 
vailing duties on bountbd sugar, the Belgian premieti who pre* 
sided, was able taaasurc them that if Great Bxitain w^uld agree 
to sacfa « clause, he could guarantee the accession of the govem- 
iKQls of Gcfmany, Austria, Holland and his own. Of all the 
countries ngvcsoLted^Germany, Austria>Hungaxy, Belgium, 
Spain, France, Great Britain, the Netherlands^ Russia and 
Sweden on^ one, namdy Fiance^ was opposed to the com- 
pkte sopptCBskm of all export bounties, direct or indirect; 
a»l Russia, declined to discuss the question of her internal 
kgisUtioo, contending that her system did not amount to a 
bcuaty on exportation. 

Apart from the proceedings at the ^ttings, much of the actual 
«8ck of the conference was done by informal discussion, imder- 
takea to discover some means of arriving at a common under- 
•«fwiiog Was a conpnuniae possible which would bring about 
a satis^ctoiy ttttlement? The British delegates wrote that 
it appeared that there vere at that time but two methods of. 
miiiB^ the supptession pf the bounty system— an amngement 
lor Innitatian of the French and Russian bounties acceptable 
to the other sugar-producing states, in return (or the total 
abofitioo of their bounties; or, a convention between a certain 
rmber ol these states, providing for the total suppression of 
*'^>^T bountifes, and for the prohibition of entry into their tern- 
tocy of bounty-fed sugais, or countervailing duties prohibiting 
iaportation 

The |**^ ff***« ^rn r mwnmfnf thni^gltf ^ rrtmprf>mia<i might be 

passible. A proposal was annexed to the prtcks-mrbal of the 
fisal szttinf, and the president closed the first session of 
the conference on the asth of June 1898 with tHe compression 
of a hope that the delegates would soon reassemble. 

The snnual aggregate output of cane and date sugar in India 
wu short df 4^000,000 tons. Exportation had long ceased, 
p^nly owin^ to the bountied competition of beet sugar, and 
partly bccavse the people had become able to afford the con- 
smnpUoa of n p'eatcr quantity than they produced; and German 
sad Austrian sugars w«e pouring Into the country to supply the 
4e6dency. But the imporUtion of fotdgn sugar, ch^|>ened 
br foreign state aid to a price which matetially reduced the 
fair and reasoaable profit of native cultivators, was a state of 
tfii&gs the Indian government coidd not accept. On the soth 
of March 1899 an act, authorizing the imposition of cotmtervail- 
ti^ duties oo bounty-led articles at the port of importation, 
vas passed by the Couftcil of India, and received the assent of 
the gDWDOV-general. 

This decisive step was not \aag m making itself felt in the 
^uoeries ol Europe. In October igoo a conditional agree- 
writ for the reduction of the bounties was made in Paris 
farveen France, Germany and Austria«Hungary; in February 
fooi the Belgian government proposed a new session of the Con- 
IcscBoeol zl9S,4Lndon the i^ of December following Brussels 
ytfknmed once more the delegates of all the powers, with the 
eareptioa of Rusna, to the eighth European Sugar Bounty Con- 
ftrcace since that of Paris in 1862. The discussion lasted over 
rght sittings, but the conference, to which the British delegates 
kai come with powers to assent to a penal clause, arrived at an 
c^iemandxog, and a convention was signed in March 1902. 
TVs was ratified on the zst of February 1903, subject to a 
decbration by Great Britain that she did not consent to 
penalise boonty-fed sugar from the 'British colonics. 

It was agreed " to suf»|M«M the direct and indirect bounties 
vhich mUit benefit the production or export of sugar, and not to 
ctah'Jsh Douatiesof this kind durine the whole duration of the 
emveanaon,*' wfu'ch was to come into force on tfte ist of September 
1903, and to icnaio in force five yean, and thenceforward from 
|wrsoy«ar, in case no sute deaounoed it twslve months before 
(he ttc of aptfrnhfr in any year. A permanent oo mmi i i s ion was 
twahrnhcd to watch iu eaecution. 

XXVI a 



The full text in French, with an English translation, of the 
Sugar Coovearion. signed at finisaels on the 5th of March 190a 
fav the plenipotentianes of the governments of Germany, Austria- 
Hungary. Bdgi ura, Soain, Fruwe, G reat Bri tain, Italy, the Nether- 
lands and Sweden, will be found in a letui upresented to paxtiament 
in April 190a CMisoeUancouB, No. $. 1902, Co. 1013). 

Table I. — Amounts (reduced to English money per cwt. avoir* 
dupois} of the total net sugrar bounties granted by European powers, 
according to the computation issued by the aeoetary of the United 
Sutes treasary 00 the lath of December 189$. 



From. 
To . 



Sugars potarmng 



75* 8«* 65* 90' 88* 

88* 93* 98*198* 99* 



"^y 



98' 

991- 



Countries- 
Russia . 
Austria- 
Hungary 
France 
Crystals 
Refined 
Germany 



d. s.d. awd. •.d&d. ».dk<Lt.a. ■.d t.d 



233 



Bounties (per anl;) 



98; 
lOO* 



99: 

100* 



100" 



4 4l 



»3 



t3 



16 



i4*3 



410I 



193 



«9 3 



Smjors dossed as {per <■<:) 



Countries-* 



RawSogar. 



s. d. 
I 10 



Refined Sugar. 



a. d. 
o 76 



Sujors analysini iu pure sugar (ptr caC) 



Less than 

Country— 

HolUnd 



98% 
s^d. 
I to8- 



98% and o 
a.d. 
J 6 



Hard Dry Refined. 



(Additioeal) 
s.d. 
o 3 



Sir H. Besgne reported on the t7th of Joly 1907 to Sir Edward 
Grey that— 

"The permanent sesrion had met In special session on the 35th 
of July, to consider the suggestion of Hb Britannic Majesty's 
government to the effect that, if Great Britain could be relieved 
from the obligation to enfoice the penal provisions of the conven- 
tion, they would be prepared not to give notice on the 1st of Sep- 
tember next of their mtentioo to withdraw on the 1st of September 
1908 a notice which they would otherwise fed bound to give at 
the appointed time "; and he added that " At this meeting, a very 
general desire was expressed that, in these circumstances, arrange- 
nients should, if possible, be made wh^ would permit Great 
Britain to remain a party to the Sugar Convention." 

On the zst of August X907 the Belgian minister in London 
transWtted to Sir Edward Grey a draft additional act pre- 
pared by the commission for carrying out the proposal, of His. 
Britannic Majesty's government, and on the iSth of August 
following an additional act was signed at Brussels by the 
plenipotentiaries of the contracting parties, by which they 
undertook to maintain the convention of the 5th of March 
ipoiin force far a fresh period of five yean. 
. On the and of December 1907 Sir H. Bcqpie wrate to tho 
foreign office from Bniasels, rqportlQg that a special session 
of the permanent commission, established under the sugar 
bounties convention, had opened on the i8th of November, and 
the pondpal matter for iU ooosaderation had been the appUca* 
tion of Russia to become a party to the convention on special 
terms. A prstoool admitting Ruasia to the sugar convention 
was signed at Bniasds on the X9th of December 1907. 

Sir A. H. -Hatdinge on behalf of Great Britain made the 
following declaration>— ' 

" The assent of His Majesty's goremment to the present protocol 
is limited to the provisions enabling Ruasia to adhere to the con- 
ventioa. and does not imply assent ro the sdpulation tending to 
restrict the importation of Kussaan sugar." 

When, in April 1908, Mr Asquith became premier, and Mr 
Uoyd Gtargi chancdlot of the'exchequcr, the sugar convention 



♦6 



SUGAR 



Table IL 
The WKkft tnde la cane and beet sugar in tooa xvoiidupob at decennial periods from 1840 to 1870. inclusive, and jrearly from 1871 ti 
1901 iadosive, with the percentage ol beet sngar and the average price per cwt. in shillings and pence. Tons avoirdupoi 
of 2240 lb«- 1016 kilognunmes. 



Year. 


Cane. 


Beet 


Total. 


Percent. 
Beet. 


Average 

price 
per cwt. 


Year. 


ane. 


Beet. 


Total. 


Percent. 
Beec 


Average 

price 
per cwt. 












8. d. 
















s. d 


1840 


1.100,000 


50.000 


1.150.000 


4-35 


4B 


18 


II 


2.; 





2,545,000 


4,»96.ooo 
4.562.000 


51-98 


12 4 


1850 


1.200.000 




1.400,000 
1.899.000 


1429 


40 


18 


2,; 





2,223.000 


t^ 


13 I 


i860 


I.5IO.OOO 


389.000 
831,000 


2043 


35 


18 


87 


2.: 


D 


2,733.000 


5,078,000 


II 9 


1870 


I.S85.000 


2,416,000 


JJ^I 


32 


18 


88 


2^ 





2,45i«ooo 


4.916.000 


49-85 


12 9 


I 871-1872 


".599.000 


x.020,000 


2,619,000 


24 9 
24 « 


18 


«9 


2^ 





2.725,000 


4,988,000 


54-63 


14 10 


1872-1873 


1.793.000 


1,210,000 


3.003.000 
3,128,000 


4029 


18 


90 


2,i 


10 


3.633.000 


§.702,000 
6.265,000 


63-7« 


15 I 


1871-1874 


1.840,000 


1.288,000 


4x17 


22 10 


18 


91 


2.J 


10 


3.710,000 


59-21 


14 


1874-1875 
1875-1876 
1876-1877 


1,712,000 


1.219,000 


2,931.000 


4159 


20 I 


18 


92 


2,J 


10 


3.501,000 


6,353.000 


55-10 


13 6 


1.590,000 


1.343.000 


2.933.000 
2,718,000 


Ji:JJ 


18 I 


18 


93 


3.^ 





3428,000 
3,890.000 


6,473.000 


52-95 


14 3 


1,673.000 


1,045.000 


22 8 


18 


94 


3.- 





7,380,000 
8,322,000 


5271 


>3 5 


1877-1878 


1.825.000 


1,419,000 


3,244.000 


43-74 


23 


18 


U 


3.J 





4.792.000 


57-75 


9 II 


I87S-I«79 


2.Oia000 


1,571.000 


3.581 dOOO 


43-89 


19 2 


lU 


2,i 





4.315.000 


7.145.000 
7,818,000 


5030 


10 7 


1879-1880 


1,852^000 


1.402.000 


3.254^000 


43-08 


19 3 


18 


97 


2,3 





4.954.000 
4,872,000 


56-18 
62-70 


9 3 


i88<Ki88i 


I.9I 1.000 


1.7^8.000 
1.782.000 


3.659*000 


4613 
46-38 


20 4 


18 


98 


2^ 





7,770,000 


II 9 


1881-1882 


2,060^000 


3,842/x)0 


20 4 


18 


99 


2.< 





4»977.ooo 


7.972,000 


6270 


II 9 


1882-1883 
188J-1884 


2.107,000 

2.323.000 


2.147,000 
2,361,000 


4,254/)oo 
4.684,000 


50-47 
50-40 


20 a 
16 8 


18 
"9 


00 
,01 


2,« 
2,U 




.JO 


5.5io»ooo 
5.950.000 


8,414.000 


u- 


11 6 
11 6 



The quantities of cane sugar are based on the trade drcuhirs of Messrs Willett & Gray of New York; those of beet sugar on th 
trade circulars of Messrs F. O. Licht of Magdeburg; and the prices are obtained from statements supplied by importers into th 
United States of the cost in foreign coantries of the sugars which they import; The table has been adapted from the MonthI 
Summary of Commerce and^ Finance of the United Sutes. January 1902, prepared in the Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department 
Washington Cuvetumeut Printing OflSce^ X90S« 

Tabls Ul 
Quantities of raw and refined cane and beet txytu in tons avoiidopois imported into the United Kingdom in 1870 and in 1875. -am 
yearly from t88o to X901 inchisiTe. with the consumptioa per head of the population in B> and the pace per cwt. of rat 
and refined sugar. 















Consumption per head. 




Price Der cwt. 


Year. 


Raw Cane. 


Raw Beet. 


Refined Cane. 


Refined Beet. 


Total. 






TotaL 








Raw. 


Refined. 


Raw. 


Refined. 




Tons. 


Tons. 


Tons. 


Tona. 


Tons. 


n> 


Ih 


B> 


s. 


d. 


s. d. 


187a 


556.000 


84.000 


3.000 

16.000 


82,000 


725.000 

956.000 


— 












:iis 


705.000 


107.000 


128,000 


50-64 


^88 


59-52 
60-55 


21 


2 


30 4 


590,000 
633,000 
726,000 


260.000 


11,000 


140,000 


1.001.000 


51-09 


•1 

12-58 


21 


9 


H.f 


1881 


310,000 


5.000 
6,000 


135.000 


1.071,000 


56-01 


67-16 


21 


9 


1882 


265,000 


133.000 


I.IV>,000 

i,i83/)00 


58-78 


2t 


I 


28 8 


1883 


597.000 
582.000 


420,000 


7.000 


IS7.000 
160,000 


58-73 


68- to 


20 


I 


27 2 


1884 


399.000 


53.000 


1.194,000 


55-57 


6815 


15 


6 


28 11 


1885 


561,000 


410,000 


114.000 


152.000 


1,237.000 


55-46 
44-61 


15-75 
18-75 


71-21 


13 


to 


18 2 


1886 


468,000 


339.000 


71,000 


247.000 


1,135.000 


6336 


13 





16 8 


:iii 


439.000 


461.000 


39.000 


311.000 


1,250,000 


50-80 


20-25 


lj:S2 


12 


I 


15 8 


574.000 


319.000 


2,000 


342.000 


1.337,000 


4^1 


19-99 


■3 


5 


17 8 


1889 


470,000 
263,000 


407.000 


1,000 


448.000 
484.000 


1.326.000 


26-54 


74-92 


15 


i 


19 8 


1890 


503.000 


15.000 


1,385,000 


2822 


71-09 


12 


16 X 

16 6 


1891 


349.000 


461,000 


27,000 


540.000 


1.377.000 


32-94 
30^3 


78-02 


12 


10 


1892 


386.000 


429.000 


2,000 


529.000 


1.346,000 


44-58 


7S'2t 


13 





17 X 


1893 


368.000 


434.000 


2,000 


096,*O0O 


1.379.000 


4a-4i 


5317 


75-58 


14 


2 


18 4 


1894 


Jll:r 


391.000 


1,000 


1,412.000 


3718 


39-90 


g^s 


II 


5 


15 6 


\n 


4C3.000 
406,000 


1,000 


706,000 


1.558,000 


45-28 


40-10 


9 


7 


13 4 


381,000 


1,000 


738.000 


1.536.000 


40.94 


41-53 


8247 


to 


5 


13 7 


\^ 


242,000 
286,900 


434.000 
473,000 


1,000 
1,000 


793.000 
825.000 


1,469.000 
1,560^000 


U 


43-92 


JTa 


9 
9 



8 


12 3 

13 5 


1899 


186.000 


469.000 


1,000 


889,000 


1.545.000 
1,634.000 


35-611 


84.31 


10 


6 


12 7 


1900 


150,000 


512,000 


I.OOO 


961,000 


5223 


87-71 


10 


1 


12 ID 


1901 


178.472 


5*6,451 


1,000 


1.079.553 


1.785.476 


5640 


93-20 


10 


12 



of 1903 had thuft been renewed in a modified form. Great 
Britain, instead of agreeing to prohibit the Importation of 
bounty-fed sugar, was allowed to pennlt it under certain limits. 
Russia, which gave bounties, was to be allowed to tend into 
European markets not more than 1,000,000 tons within the 
next five years, and Great Britain undertook to give certificates 
guarantedng that sugar refined in the United- Kingdom and 
exported had not been bounty-fed. The renewal of the con- 
vention was disapproved by certath Liberal poUtldani, who In- 
sisted that the price of sugar had been raised by the convention; 
and Sir Edwaid Grey said that the government had intondtd 
to denounce the convention, but other countries had urged that 
Great Briton had Induced them to enter Into it, and to alter 
their fiscal system for that purpose, and It would he unfair to 
upeel tke (MfiMfimim. BeildML deniindation would not have 
,. — ''jLMMl'B'^i ^^ ^^^^ ccuntrics would 




have continued the convention, and probably with sue cost 
and would have proposed prohibitive or rctaliatOTy duties i 
respect of British sugar, with bad results politically. Still th 
British government had been prepared to denounce the coi 
vention in view of the penal clause which had ensured the c: 
elusion of bounty-fed sugar, cither directly or through tli 
imposition of an extra duty. But this had been removed, an 
it was now unreasonable to Insist on denunciation. Russi 
would have made the some arrangement she had obtainc 
had we seceded from the convention. She had formerly sei 
to England about 40,000 tons of sugar yearly; she might no 
send 300,000 tons. Was this limitation a reason for sacrifidr 
the advantages we had gained? Under the original tern 
of the convention Great Britain might have beoi asked to cloi 
her ports to sugar proceeding from one country of anotbe 
This was now Impossible. 



SUGAR 



47 



Tbr< 



Tm^B IV. 

td tte fMrfdfor 1909-19M. witli the average <^ ^ ciopi for the aeveo pncedlng yean from igot-igoj. 
in tOM of 2340 D. 

r (compiled ffon the Weekly Statistical Sugiw Trade JownaJ of Meein WiDett A Gray of New York, and books and report* 
pubkshed under the authority of the govemment of India). 



CouatfT. 



Onopi 
190^1910 



kmrngtcna 
for 7 years end- 
ing 190S-1909. 



Country. 



Crop. 
I909-I9M 



Aveiagecrop 
for 7 yean«nd- 
ing I90»*i909. 




Nata. .... 
Total in Africa . 



S5.000 

330,000 

4S.oa> 



33.J99 



ATieodoA . . 

Bnal . . . 

British Coloniet— 

Trinkfad 



276.000 



132.410 



TocdiaAflMrica 



Asia— 
British India and Depen- 

UeilLICB .... 



%jOdD 



^95&S)00 



ai><7t«y , 



2I8.3U 



45.000 



Aatigua and St Kitu . . 

Demenua ■ 

Lesser Antilles . . . 
Total in British Colonies 

CostaRica 

Cofaa 

DaaiBh Coloay* St Croix 
Dotcfc Colony, Surinaa 

French Colooiet— 

llagttnknio . . . . 



12,000 

25.000 

115.000 

6.000 



g43.ooo 
g'go^ 



45.23* 
37.49« 
13^53 

21,857 

I14.9M 

10,71s 



-i^a4Z; 



VOCT 



3.yso.ooo 



1,700,000 



i5/»0 



lAOOO 



'''^'f03 

USSL 



QtW 



Total in French Colonies 
Ecoador ...... 

Guatemala 

Haid and Santo Domingo . 

Ki 



40.0 



34»a79 
, 37ryo 



Dutch Colooi^-* 

Java and Madoera 
Tapan and Fomosa 
United States posaei 

Philippine Idands 
Siam .... 
Total in Asa . 



Austtalia and Bohmesii— 
British rolmiies 

New South Wales ! 
Total in Australia and 



1,000,000 



^teo,ooo 



t,ooo,ooo 



110.000 



UMft7» ' 



'*5.ooo 



7.000 

6.232.000 



6.000 



SiMMy 



136,000 

'4«yo 



m^ 



-ZiS 



lym 



tji 



^'^■»» 



1^.634 



7fyo 



90000. 



130.000 



8,oto 
5^043 




4r5«> 



4.260 



Spain .... 
Total in Bttiope 



1^006 



l6bOOO 



■ 'M73 



'M73 



150,000 



6.S00 



143.61 



3.619 



TcL 

PortoRico . . . 

Hawaiian Idands . . 

Total in United States 



32S<ooo 

10.000 

280.000 
490^ 



3«KrJ4 
I76,ar 



1.105.000 



090,99$ 



A frica 

America .... 

Asia 

AustiaUiandMyania 
Europe 

Total pfodnctioQ of 
sugar in the worid 



365.000 
3.955.000 
6,232,000 

ai9.5"> 
I6i000 



312.436 
3.107,252 
5,845.432 

214.634 
1*473 



lo.y87.50P 



1M99.22y 



from data furnished by the Sutlstlsches Bureau fOr die RObeoxucker Industrie dee Deutschaa Reicbes, of 
MrF..O.Xicht. Magdeburg). 



Crop, 
1902-1903. 



Crop. 
1903-1904. 



Crop, 
1904-1905. 



Cropk 
1905^19061 



Crop, 
I906**K907< 



Crop, 



1907-1908. 1908-1909. 



Crop, 



EiStinmted 

ciop^ 
1909-1910. 



Avemfleof 7 
years 1902-1903 
to 1908-1909. 




SEVBinkoaiL 
1.040.987 

220,550 
36,004 

8^,050 
I,734AI4 

100^793 

t,236!469 
192.376 
201,510 



I,I49»5«^ 

121,600 

I,l87!848 
204,847 
249.254 



875.353 
173.079 
^44.161 
612,592 
1*572.923 
134.394 

935'565 
206,410 
20*548 




cvokdiitpQik. 
1.322,716 

278.338 
65.942 

744,153 
2,20X8 10 

178,551 
104,702 
1,417,386 
426,171 
289,220 



7lQb2l8 

2.095.959 

'72.4«7 

133.818 

1.387.732 



1,376.501 

994*312 
2,049.951 
210,958 
162,701 
1.937,530 
377.945 
289.935 



1,240,102 
246,051 
^^973 
8H.970 

a.007,780 
196.841 
114.166 

'•;!J5S 

274.594 



1,236:172 
239.902 

53.548 
793.058 

1.990.637 
160,375 
rii,7i8 

1,194.105 
322,890 
250,030 



Total cffgp of the world 



5.665,796 



5*977.189 



4.840.798 



7.102,080 



7.030,989 



6.891,876 



6.818,458 



6.505.607 



6,332.455 



Tbe aaUcr tcmpocarily dropped, but certain Liberal membcit 
of parliaxBcnt continued to prcM for the withdrawal of Great 
Bntain from the conventk>n, it being stated that a proadae had 
ban privatdy given by Sir Henry CampbeU-Banoerroan thai 
ih* 00wiBncnt would withdraw as soon at practkabla. Oa 
tfe rstb oi July 1908, Mr Aaquith Mid that Sir Edward Grey 
had — nowirod in the House of Coruboob 00 the 6th of Juna 
fOD7 tlaA the Botiih fovemmcnt intended lo ncgstlate ^th 
the imrifs for the iMowal of the conventloD, on oondition that 
t^ votM iiiiiiiyiiih the pcnai ckiist^ i^ tbst aete el 



the obligations in the convention ~u renewed werie penal or 
required statutory authority. 

Tables It., III. (p. ?73) and IV. (p. 774) givt su^Icsof cane 
and beet sugar production. 

Thtf quantitieBf or India have been computed from Itafisnnatiott f or- 
nlshedtiqrlhe India oftcc and poUieatioos made under snthorky 
of the secretary of state and the com m ercial iatelligenw department 
of the Indian gDvermncnt. 

The whole of the sugar produced in India is consomcd in the 
country and sugar h Impotted, the bulk of it being cane sugar comin* 
from Mauritius and Java, and about 85% of the Import la of Mgk 
quality rrirmhliBg ^-^ 



d Java, and • 
fanned sugnr. 




SUGAR-BIHD-^UGGESTION 



SDQAS-Bmo^ the Eq^BA name commoDly ^Tcn in tlw West 
India Islands to the louinia "^^'"^fif ai the gtum Ctrtkitta 
(bdoaginc to the FuMrine haSty Cooebidae*) for thdr habit 
of f xeqnenting the cimnf-houses whexe sugar is kept, ap p ewaU y 
attracted thiths by the swanns of flies. They ef ten come into 
dwelling-hoases hc|)ping ficom one piece of fnniituxe to another 
and carefully exploring the suxtouiding ob jecU with intent to 
find a spider or Insect. In their fignre and motions they remind 
a northern natcraKst of a nuthatch, while thdr ooloiatiott — 
black, yellow, oGve, grey and white-tecsUs to him a titaoose. 
They genexally keep in pairs and build a domed but notify nest, 
laying therein, three cgss, wUte^ blotched with rasty-ied. 
Many apedes axe recognised, some of them with a very hmited 
range; three are continental, with a jcnnt range extending from 
aoathem Mcaioo to Peni, Bolivia and south-eastern Brazil, 
while others are peculiar to certain of the Antilles, and several 
cf them to 'one island only. Thus C. caboU is limited, so far 
as is known, to Cozumel (off Yucatan), C. ^icdmr to Old Provi- 
dence, C. fiwaeota (the type of the genus) to Jaaoaica, and ao 
on, while islands that are in s«ht of one another are often 
inhabited by different " species." The genus famishes an ex- 
cellent example of the effects of isolation in breaking up an 
original form, while there is comparatively little differentiation 
among the individuals which inhabit a large and continuous 
area. The non-appearance of this genus in Cuba Is very 
remarkable. (A. N.) 

SU6ER (c X081-1151), F^nch ecdesiastic, sUtcsman and 
historian, was bom of poor parents either in Flanders, at St 
Denis near Paris or at Toury in Beauce. About logr he 
entered the abbey of St Denis. Until about 1 104 he was educated 
at the priory of St Denis de TEstrfe, and there first met his 
pupil King Louis VI. From 1104 to xio6 Suger attended 
another school, perhaps that attached to the abbey of St 
Benolt-«ur-Loire. In rro6 he became secretary to the abbot of 
St Denis. In the following year he waa made provost of Bemeval 
in Normandy, and in xiog of Toury. In 1118 he was sent 
by Louis VI. to the court of Pope Gdasius H. at Magudonne, 
and lived firom 1x21 to xxaa at the court of his successor, 
Caliztua IL On hia return from Italy Suger was appointed 
abbot of St Denis. Until X137 be .occupied himself at court 
mainly with the temporal affairs of the kingdom, while during 
the following decade he devoted himself to the reorganization 
and reform of St Denis. In X137 he accompanied the future 
king, loois VII., into Aquitaine on the occasion of that prince's 
marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine, and during the second 
crusade was one of the regents of the kingdom (1147-XX49). 
Be was bitteily op()osed to the king's. divorce, having himsdf 
advised the marriage. Although he disapproved of the second 
crusade, he himsdf, at the time of his death, on the 31st of 
lanuary 1x51, was preaching a new crusade; 

Suger was the friend and counsellor both of Louis VI. 
and Louis VII. * He urged the king to destroy the feudal 
bandits, was responsible for the royal tactics in dealing with 
the communal movements, and endeavoured to regufavise the 
administration of justice. He left his abbey, which possessed 
considerable property, enriched and embdUshed by the con- 
struction of a new church built In the nascent Gothic style. 

Soger was the foremost historian of his time. He was the 

* Known in Fieoeh as GnAknte. a name used for them alio by 

tiMra Tha Oti^imi of Hemandoa (Acr. mtHe. M 

" ~ '■ by hhn to be of native 

;h thought by Moatbdllanl 

Ja BOW known Sk C^ntba 

i^ Thenanie (• probably 

M: tha" quit ''^appMMl 



tEagliah wrii 




anthor of a pancgyiic en Loida VL {VUa Udatid regU)^ nnd 
part-asthor ol the pcrhafM more xaapattial history of Lonis VII. 
{HUlma tforian rtgis Ludavici), In his Uber 4e rebus in 
adimmOniUne ma fcsltf, and its sopplement LibdhiS de con- 
ucraUone ecfUnae S. Dumym, be treats of the improvements he 
had made to St Denia» describes the treasure of the church, aiul 
gbcs an aoooont of the rebuilding. Soger^ works served to 
imbue the moaks of St Denis with .a taste for histoiy, and 
called forth a long series of quasS-olBdal chxonides. 

See OL CartrilJeri. AU Smur mm Snui-Demis (Berlin, X898); A. 
Lochave, Imus U Grer (F^ns, 1890): F. A. Gervatae^ Histwe de 
Sti§ir (Paris, X731X 



By the older Britiah writers on psydiology 
the woeds" suggest "and "suggestion" were tised in senses very 
dose to those which they have hi cnmmnn speech; one idea was 
said to suggest another when it recalled that other to mind iJt 
(in the modoni phrase) repsodnced it. Modem studies in mental 
p a tho logy and hypnotism (g.v.) have led to the use of these 
words by psychologists in a spedal and technical sense. The 
hypnotists of the Nanqr achool redboovered and gave general 
currency to the doctrine that the most essential feature of the 
hypnotic sUte is the unquestioamg obedience and dodlity with 
wtdch the hypnotised nbject aoxpts, believes^ and acts in 
accordance with evoy command or proportion of the hypno- 
tizer. (Commands or propositions made to the subject (they 
nuiy be merdy implied by a gesture, a glance, or a chance 
remark to a third poaon) and accepted with this peculiarly 
uncritical aiMl intense belief vere called "suggestions"; and 
the subject that acoepted them in this fashion was said to be 
" soggc^ibk." It has abn been made abundantly dear, chiefly 
by the labooBi of Erench physicians, that a Mgh degree of 
" suggestibility " is a leading feature of hysteria, and that this 
fact is the key to the understanding of very many of its protean 

It is abo beannhig wxddy itcoginaed that the tuggestibiUty 
of hypnosb and of hysteria b conditioned by a peculiar state of 
the brain, namdy a cerebral or mental dissociation, which in 
hypnosis is temporarily induced by the operations of the 
hypnotist, and m hysteria arises from some deJBcicncy of energy 
in the whole psycho-physical system. In respect to these point s 
there is now a wide consensus of opinion among the leading 
authorities; but as to the range and aoope of suggestion in our 
■aental life great difieeenoea of opinion still obtain. We may 
dinin g tn'sh three ptind^ views. Firstly, it is maintained by 
a number of physidans (notably by Professor Pierre Janet, 
whose profound studies of h>'5teTical patients are justly cde« 
brated) that all hypnotixahle persons are hysterical and that 
suggestibility is a condition peculiar to hysterical subjects. 
In view of the assertions in recent years of several phyadans 
of high repute to the «Sect that th«y find more than 90% 
of all subjects hypnotiiable, it wouM seem that this view can- 
not be maintairwd, and that this restriction of suggestion to 
hysterical subjects only, and the stigmatization of suggestibility 
as in every case a morbid symptom, are errors arising from too 
exdusive occupation with its manifestations in this fidd. A 
second group consists of writers who athnit that suggestion may 
operate in nonnal minds, but who, while reoognixiag that it is 
not an essentially pathoiogical prooes^ maintain that it is a 
proces» of very peculiar and e x c eption al nature that has little 
or no affinity with normal mental cpeiatioDa. Hicy hold that 
suggestion, whether it occun in morbid or in healthy subjects, 
always implies the coming into operation of some obscuidy 
coocdved faculty or region ol the mind whidi is present ir all 
men, but which usnaSy lies hidden or submerged beneath the 
flow of our more oommoaplaoe mental activities.. Thb sub- 
merged faculty or system of faculties, winch is hdd by these 
authors to be operative in all processes of suggestion, is variously 
designated by them the secondary or submerged stratum of con- 
idoQsness, theMboonacious or subliminal adf (see SonUKiHAL 
Si»). Tha writers of this group inabt npon tha more start* 
Kng of the effects prodndble by suggestion, the more pro- 
found chaagaa of bodily and aMntal ptoccaasa, rach as paralyiis« 



SDGGESnON 



49 



contnctatt^' liypcimettlicaaa, increased power of reeellectioB, 
Wlhirmatiops (g.f.), &c.; and they regard diaaodatfon aa the 
procaeas by which the submerged and supernormal faculty (or 
hcoltiea) that they postulate ia libented from the- dominance 
of tbe normal waking self. 

A third view has been rapidly gaining groond and is now 
psedoniaant. It connects itself with, and bases itself upon, 
the view of Prafeaaor Bemhetm and his colleagues of theNancy 
school of hyixDotism. Aeooiding to this view all men are nonnaDy 
SQgscstible under favourable conditions, and the Jiypnotic 
subject and the hysteric patient differ from the normal human 
beag ciiiefiy in that their normal suggestibility ia more or less 
(sonetinKS very greatly) increased, owing to the prevalence of 
the state of cerebral diaaodation. ■ 

According to this third view, suggestion may be defined as the 
CDBxnaaication of any proposition from one peraon (or persons) 
to another in such a way as to secure its acceptance with 
cooviction, in the absence of adequate logical grounds for its 
accepcaace. Thit idea or bdief ao introduced to the mind of 
the napknt is held to operate powerfully upon his bodily and 
mtatal pcoccssea in proportion to the 6egnt of its dominance 
orer all ether ideas or mental processes ^ and the extraordinary 
fhsruftrr of the effecta» both bodily and mental, of suggestion 
in hypnotic and hysterical subjecta is held to be due to the fact 
that, in these conditions of mental dissociation, the dominance 
of the aagsested idea ia complete and absolute; whcceaa in tbe 
absence of such dissociation the operation o£ the suggested idea 
is U«ays subject to some weakening or ihhibition through the 
irjjnrncr of many opposed or incompatible tendendea and ideas, 
r»en il these do not rise into explidt consdous n ess. 

This third view seems justified by the facU that no sharp line 
caa be drawn between the suggestibility of normal men and 
that of hypnotized or hysterical subjects, and that under favour- 
able oondrtiona many of the most striking lesalts of suggestion 
(< {. it»n»irfnM»v>n«, oontrmctttres, inability to move, insensibility 
of various sense-organs, and so forth) may be produced in 
scfajetts who present at tbe time no other symptom of the 
hypnotic or hysterical condition. 

If, then, we recognise, as we must, that the aloj^cal produc- 
tioa of conviction is the essence of suggestion, and that this 
fnqoently oocitis in normal minds as well as in those suffering 
from various degrees of dissociation, it becomes neoeasary to 
dearae the conditions that faveur tbe operation of suggestiott in 
aonaal minds. 

These cosditions are resident, oa.the one hand, in the redpient 
ci the soggastion, and, on the othet hand, in the source foom 
«^kh the suggestion comes. Of the conditions of the former 
duB three seem to be of principal importance. 

(a) Defect of knowledge: the defect may be quantitative or 
cuzfitative, ix. it may consist in the lack of knowledge or of 
trafy established beliefs about the subject of the proposition, 
07 i: may consist in the lack of systematic organization of such 
Lwvledge as the mind possesses. The weU-traified mind is 
relarivdy tnsuggcstible, firstly because it possesses large stored 
M kaovledge and belief; secondly, because tfab mtss of know* 
H;^ and belief is systematically organized in such a way that 
ill as parts hang together and mutually support one another. 
On the other hand, the young chQd, ^e uncultured adult, and 
opcaaliy the savage, are apt to be suggestible in regard to 
y^Tj many topics, first, because they have relatively h't tie know* 
ir.K', secofl»dly, because what little they have is of a low degree 
%i cqpuixatiDa; te. it does not form a logically coherent system 
»*Jtise parts iccipnxally support one another. Suggestion in 
»^h cases may be said to be conditioned by piimitive credulity 
er ihe suggestibility of ignorance, (b) But the same person 
ri£ not be found to be equally suggestible at all times under 
s^silar external conditions. There are changes of mental state 
v^kh, without overstepping the limits of the normal, condition 
varytug degrees of increased suggestibility. A man is least 
seg^eataile when his mind works most effidently, when he is 
I and most wide awake; every departure from this 
i to fatigue, bodily ill-health, emotional perturbation, 



drags or any other<auae, favours suggestibility, (c) fttsons 
of equal degrees of knowledge or ignotance will be found, even 
at their times of greatest mental efficiency, to be tmequally 
suggestible owing to differences of native disposition; one person 
is by nature more open than another to personal infhience, more 
easily swayed by others, more ready to accept thdr dicta and 
adopt their opinions for his own. Differences of this kind are 
probably the expression of differences in the naCWe strength 
of one of the fundamental instinctive dispositions of the fatmian 
mind, an Instinct which is called into play by the presence of 
persons of superior powers and the exdtement of which throws 
the subject into an attitude-of submission or subjection towards 
the Impressive penonafity. 

Considered from the side of the agent, suggestion is favoured 
by whatever tends to render him impressive to the' subject or 
patient— great bodily strength or stature, fine clothes, a con- 
fident manner, superior abilities of any kind, age and experience, 
any reputation for spedal capadties, high sodal position or the 
ocenpatien of any position of ackfK>wledged authority; in short, 
all that IS summed up by the term •* personality," aU that 
contributes to make a personality ** magnetic " or to give ir 
prestige renders it capable of evoking on the pert of others the 
sul^miasive suggestible attitude. A group of persons in agreement 
is capable of evoking the suggestible attitude far more effectively 
than any single member of the group, and the larger the group 
the more strongly does it esert this influence. Hence the 
sug^tive force of the populariy accepted maxims and well- 
established s6da] conventions; such propositions are collective 
suggestions which carry with them all the immense collective 
prestige of organised sodety, both of the present and the past; 
they embody the wisdom of the ages. It is in the main through the 
suggestive power of moral maxims, endowed with all the prestige 
of great moral teachers and of the collective voice of sodety, that 
tbe child is led to accept with but little questioning the code of 
morals of his age and country; and the propagation of all religious 
and other dogma rests on the same basis. The normal suggesti- 
bility of the child is thus a principal condition of its docility, 
and it is in the main by the operation of normal suggestion that 
sodety moulds the characters, sentiments, and beliefs of its 
members, and renders the mass of its dements harmonious and 
homogeneous to the degree that is a necessary condition of its 
collective mental life. Normal suggestion produces its most 
striking effects in the form of mass-suggestion, i.e. when it 
operates in large assemblies or crowds, especially if the members 
have but little positive knowledge and culture. For, when a 
belief is propagated by collective suggestion through the large 
mass of men, each falls under the suggestive sway of the whole 
mass; and under these conditions the operation of suggestion is 
further aided by the universal tendency of mankind to imitation 
and sympathy, the tendency to imitate the actions of, and to 
experience the emotions expressed by, those about one. 

Conditions very favourable to mass-suggestion prevailed 
during the middle ages of European history; for these "dark 
ages " were characterized by the existence of dense populations, 
among whom there was free intercourse but very Utile positive 
knowledge of nature, and who were dominated by a church 
wielding immense prestige. Hence the frequent and powerful 
operations of suggestion on a large scale. From time to time 
fantastic beliefs, giving rise to most extravagant behaviour, 
swept over large areas of Europe like virulent epidemics— epi- 
demics of dandng, of flagellation, of hallucination, of belief in 
the miraculous powers of reh'cs or of individuals, and so forth. In 
these epidemics all the conditions favourable to normal sugges- 
tion were generally present in the highest degree, with the result 
that in great numbers of persons there were produced the more 
extreme effects of suggestion, such as are usually associated with 
the h3rsterical or hypnotic state. At the present time snnilar 
manifestations occur in a modified form, as e.g. the popular 
pilgrimages to Lourdes, Holywell and other places that from 
time to time acquire reputations for miraculous curative powers. 

Auto-suggesH9H. — Although auto-suggestion does not strictly 
fall under the definition of suggestion given above, its usage to 



50 



SUHL^-^UIODB 



t a menu] proonft vludi piodnocs cffccu very timlUr to 
those pcodndbk by svtggstion is now lo well fstaWithcd that it 
must be accepted. In«ito-s«cgestioB«propositioaisfonniilated 
ia the mind of the subject rather than communicated fiom aaotber 
mind, and is accepted with oonvictioa in tiie ahynoe oi adequate 
h>gical grounds. Generally the beheC is initiated by some cxLemal 
event or some bodily change, or through some aateipictation of 
the behaviour of other persons ; €,g. a man fails on the road and a 
a-agon very neaiiy passes over his. legs, perhaps grazing them 
merely; when he is picked up, his legs are found to be panJysed. 
The event has induced the conviction that his legs ar^ seriously 
injured, and this conviction operates so effectively as to realize 
itself. Or a savage, suffering some sUght indispositkm, inteipcets 
the behaviour of some peiaoa in a way which leads him to the 
convictiod that this perwn b compassing ins death by means of 
magical practices; acoording^y he lies down in deep despondency 
and, in the course of some days or weeks, dies, unless his friends 
succeed in buying off, or in some way countecacting, the malign 
influence. Or, as a more faipiliar and trivial instaiye of auto- 
suggestion, we may dte the case of a man who, having taken a 
• bread [mII in the belief that it contains a strong pui|Eative or 
emetic, realizes the results that he expects. 

LiTBRATUBB. — ^H. Bemheim,D<Za Suigesttim, el desesapphcoHoms 
4 la thirapetdupu (2nd cd.. Plant, 1887); Pierre lanet. The Majmr 
Symptoms of MysUria fLondon, 1907); Otto Stofl, Sugtestion und 
Hyfmotismus in der Yiikerfsjckdotie (snd ed., Leipzig, 1904); 



"^T^^ 



Bons Sidis. Th* Psyckdoty ^ ^KfreJum (New York, i^^'; V^! 
Keadnge, SuujuHofii mi E a m cQti t m (London. 1907) ; F. W. H. Mycn, 

Human Personality and Us Snrvaal cif Bodily Death (Lmidon. 190A; 



abridged, 1907): A. Binet, La SuggicstibUUi (Paris. 1906). 
. , (W. McD.) 



2iid ed.. „ 

See also literature under Hypnotism. 



SUHt, a town of Germany, in the province of Prussian Saxony, 
picturesquely atuated on the Laoter, on the southern sl<^ of the 
Tburingian Forest, 6\ m. N.E. of Meiningen and 39 m. S.W. of 
Erfurt by rail Pop. (190$), 13,814. The armourers of Suhl are 
mentioned as early as Uie 9th century, but they enjoyed their 
highest vogue from 1550 to 1634. The knights of south Germany 
especially prized the swords and armour of this town, and many 
of the weapons used in campaigns against the Ttirks and in the 
Seven Years' War are said to have been manufactured at 
Suhl. It has suffered considerably in modem times from the 
competition of other towns in this indiistry, e^)edally since 
the introduction of the breech-loading rifle. It still contains, 
however, large factories for firearms military and sporting, and 
side arms, besides ironworks, machine-works, potteries and 
tanneries. The once considerable manufacture of fustian has 
declined. A brine spring (Soolquelle) at the foot of the neigh- 
bouring Domberg is said to have given name to the town. 

Suhl, which obtained civic rights in 1537, belonged to the 
principality of Henneberg, and formed part of the possessions of 
the kingdom of Saxony assigned to Prussia by the Congress of 
Vienna in 1815. 

Sec Werther. Chrtmik der Stadt 5uUj2 vols.. Suhl. 1846-1847). 

SUICIDE (from Lat. < mi, of oneself, and cidinm, from caedert, 
to kill), the act of intentionally destroying one's own life. The 
phenomenon of suicide has at all times attracted a large amount 
of attention from moralists and social investigators. Its 
existence is looked upon, in Western civilization, as a sign of the 
presence of maladies in the body politic which, whether remediable 
or not, deserve careful examination. It is, of course, impossible 
to compare Western ci\ilization in this respect tvith, say, Japan, 
where suidde in certain drcumstances is part of a distinct moral 
creed. In Christian ethics and Christian law it is vvTong, indeed 
illegal, as a/e/<> de se, self -murder. It is within coroparatrvely 
recent years that the study of suicide by means of the vital 
statistics of various European countries has demonstrated that 
while the act may \ft regarded as a purely voluntary one, yet 
that suicide as AjMkfi9^orms there to certain general laa-s, 
** ' . other than mere individual 
• jt can be shown that each 
1 that while the rate for 
» year, yet it maintains 
I to the rates of other 




countries. The UBomiag 



table 
(Bertilhw)^- 

Table I. 



Cooliy. 


Period <^ 
Obeervatioo. 


Anaual Number 
of Suicides 
per Minion 
Inhabitants. 


Seaoay 

Demaaric 

Switzeriand 

Baden ....... 

WOittembeif 

France 

Pnissia 

Belgium 

Sw^n 

EnglaadandWalcs . . . 
Norway ...... 

IreUnd ...!!!" 


I87ft-l88a 
1880-1883 
1878-1882 

»» 
•f 

1877-1881 

1878-188Z 


392 
251 

180 

100 
9^ 

49 
17 



In adchrion to furnishing materials for sm approxima'tely 
accurate estimate of the number of suicides which will occur in 
any country in a year, statistics have demonstrated that the 
proportion of male to female suiddes is practically the same from 
year to year, viz. 3 or 4 males to 1 female; that it is possible to 
predict the month of greatest prevalence, the modes of death 
adopted by men on the one hand and women on the other, and 
even the idative frequency of suicide amongst persons follotiing 
different professions and employments; and that in most of the 
countries of Europe the suidde-rate is increasing. In England 
and Wales the annual death-rate per million from suicide has 
steadOy advanced, as is shown by the following figures foi 
quinquennial periods.' — 



T861-T865 
1866-1870 

1876-1880 
1881-1885 
1886-1890 
I 891-1895 
1896-1900 
1901-1905 



6s per miOratt Irving. 
66 „ „ 

^ M »» 

74 ». N 

75 



89 
100 



The next table iHustcatei the continued increase in recent 
years, and at the same time shows the total number and tht 
number of male and female aoicidea each year from 1886 t< 
1905. 

Taslb f L 
Total Snkidis-'MaU and FemaU-m Em^nd and Wales, 
i98^ig€>s, tagdker with ike mmnal rate per wittion lioimi 
{Pegisirur-Ceneraes JUporU\ 



Year. 



1886 
1890 
1895 
1896 

;i^ 

1899 
1900 
1901 
1903 
1903 
1904 
190S 



TotaL 



»fi.546 



Female 



1694 


560 


1635 


570 


ao7i 


726 


1979 


«77 


2090 


702 


3166 


711 


ai2T 


7»3 


2166 

2318 


1^ 


2460 

2640 


m 


2523 


822 


^ 


862 



9564 



TotaL 



2254 
2205 
2797 
2656 
2792 
2877 

9K2I 

3267 

35" 
334S 
3545 



38,119 



Suicide-rate 

per Millioo 

Living. 



83 
77 

90 

91 
89 
90 
96 
99 

105 
99 

104 



The reason of the hig)i suidde-rate in some countries as com 
pared with others, and the causes of its progressive increase, ai 
not easily determined. Various explanations have been offere< 
such as the influence of climate, the comparative prevalence < 
insanity, and the proportionate consumption of aloobolic drinks 
but none satisfactorily accounts for the facts. It may. howevei 
be remarked that suidde is much more common amon^ 



8UIDAS— SUITE 



PMCcstABt ttes mflMOgat Rooub Ctttbolk oommmiidct, while 
fews hrve a smaller suicide-rate than Romui Catholics. A point 
of ooosidenble interest is the increaae of Boidde in illation to the 
adTBitce of demenury education. Qgle states that suidde Is 
note ooBBiDon among the educated than the illiterate claiscs. It 
a also more prevalent in urban than in run] districts* A curious 
feature in large towns Is the sudden outbrealc of self-destiuctioB 
whidi sometimes occurs, and which has led to its being described 
as epidemic. In such cases forte of example and imitatioii 
■Bdoubtedly play a considerable part, as it is weU recognised that 
both these forces exert an influence not only in causing suidde, 
bot aJso in suggesting the method, time and place for the act. 
Ko age above five years is exempted from fUmishing its quota of 
sokidal deaths, although self-destruction between five and ten 
years fa very rare. Above this age the proportion of suiddes 
Bcreases at eadt period, the maximum being reaehed between 
fifty-five and sixty-five. Among females there is a greater 
rditive prevalence at earfier age periods than among males. 
The modes of suidde are found to vary very slightly in different 
CDuntrieSw Hanging is most common amongst males; then 
dzowning. Injuries from fire-arms, stabs and ctits, poison and 
psvc^tation from hdghts. Amongst females, drowning comes 
iist. while ponon and hanging are more frequent than otiier 
methods entailing effusion of blood and disfigurement of the 
person. The methods used in England and Wales by suiddes 
'irring 1888-1897, and in Scothmd during the years 1881-1897, 
are given in the following table: — 

Table til. 
U«Am of SmieUt m Emtfand antf W^s, iS88^jS^. 



(Mer 

ofFxe- 

qaeacy. 


Males. 


Females. 


Both Sexes. | 


Mode. 


Num- 
ber. 


Mode. 


Nam- 
ber. 


Mode. 


Num- 
ber. 


1 
t 
3 

4 

I 


Hanging 

Stab-cat 

Drowning 

Pouoo 

Fire-arms 

Otherwise 


5669 
3594 

1773 


Drowning 

Poiaon 

Hanging 

Stabcut 

Fire-arms 

Otherwise 


3089 

1336 
771 
5^ 

527 


Hanging 

Drowning 

StabKstt 

Poiaon 

Fire-arms 

Otherwise 


7005 

4365 
3916 
7204 
2300 




Total 


18.895 


Total 


6427 


Total 


»S.3« 



Modes ofSmkiie in SetSand, tSSr^ri^. 



Order 
ofFre- 
:;.Kflcy. 


Males. 


Females. 


Both Sexes. | 


Mode. 


Num- 
ber. 


Mode. 


Nam- 
ber. 


Mode. 


Num- 
ber. 


1 
2 
3 
4 

I 


Hanging 

tjtowtuttft 

Seab-cut 

Pbina 

Firearms 

Otherwise 


741 
630 
5S6 
357 
245 
207 


Drowning 

Hanging 

Poison 

Stab-cut 

Fiie-arms 

Otherwise 


430 
«57 
145 

'*t 

100 


Drowning 

Hanging 

Sttb<ut 

Poison 

Fire>arms 

Otherwise 


1060 

99« 
700 
402 
251 

307 




Total 


2636 


Toul 


10B2 


Tocal 


3718 



The seaaon oi the year influences suidde practically uhlbrmly 
■ aA Eon^Kan oountties, the number incRasing ftom the com- 
ascciacBf of Che year to a maximum in May or June, and then 
dmt<imiwi^ agaiA to a minimum in winter. Morseili attempts to 
•camat for this greater prevalence during wliat may well be 
calfed the Dott beautiful months of the year by attributing it to 
The iaiacocc of iaaeaicd temperature upon the organism, while 
Dackkesm iMfgrstTi that the determining factor is more probably 
la be found in the length of the day and the effect of a longer 
period of daily activity. The soidde-rate is higher in certain 
male ecoifrntioas and professions than in othem (Ogle). Thus 
it B Ugh aaMnpt addieis, doctots, innkeepers and chemists, 
sad low for deigy, bargemen, railway drivers and stokers. 
The MBddeotc la twice as great for unoccupied males as lor 



ArmnriBS.— Moffsefli, JI Skkidio (Milan. 1879): Lcgsyt Le 
• cf watdem (Paris, t88i) : WeMcott. Smeidt: its Hts»or% 



\uf0, ^.. (Undone 1885); Ogle. "Sokidea in England and 
'ales, jn relation to Age. Sex. Season, and Occupation/* Journaf 
cf the Statistical Society (1886). vol. xlix.; Strahan, Suicide and 
Insanity (London, 1893); Mayr. "Selbstmord atatistik," in Hand- 
wMerttiek der Slaaismiwuekaftm Oena. 1895); Durkbeim, £4 
Smkide{f^ui%l99T>> (H.H.L.) 

BOIDAS. Greek leacographer. Kothtng Is known of him, 
except that he must have lived before Eustathius (isth-ijth 
century), who frequently quotes him. Under the heading 
" Adam " the author of the lexicon (which a prefatory note states 
to be " by Smdas ") gives a brief dironology of the world, ending 
with the death of the emperor John Zimisces (97 s), and tmder 
"Constantinople" his successors Basil and Constantine are 
mentioned. It would thus appear that SUIdas lived in the latter 
part of the xoth century. The passages in whidt Michael 
PscUus (end of the t xth century) is referred to am cbttsidered later 
interpolations. The lexicon of SVdas is arranged alphabetically 
with some slight deviations, letters and combinations of letters 
having the same sound bdng placed together; thus, m andc follow 
8, and o, If, I follow ^. It partakes of the nature of a dictionary 
and encyclopaedia. It tndudes numerous quotations from andent 
writers; the scholiasts on Aristophanes, Ifomer, Sophocles and 
Tbucydides are also much used. The biographical notices, the 
author tells us, are condensed from the Onomaiohpon or Pinax 
of Hesychius of Miletus; other sources were the excerpts of Con- 
stantine Porphyrogenitus, the chronicle of Georgius Monachus, 
the biographies of Diogenes LaSrrius and the works of AthenaeuS 
and Philostratus. The work deals with scriptural as well as 
pagan subjects, from which it is inferred that the writer was a 
Christian. A prefatory note gives a list of dictionaries from which 
the lexical porrion was compiled, together with the names of 
thdr authors. Although the work is uncritical and probably 
much interpolated, and the vahie of the articles is very unequal, 
ft contains much information on ancient history and life. 

Edttio princeps, by Demetrius Chalcondyles (r499): later editions 
by L. KCbter (1705). T. Qaisford (1834). C;. Bemhaidy (183^1853) 
and I. Bekker (1854); aee K, Daub. De S. Biagraplmcmm on^ 
cf fide (1880) and Studien su den Biograpkika des S. (1882): and 
|. £. SandySk Hisi. of Cassical Scholarship (1906). p. 407. 

tUIDUN (Chinese, Sm^M-cAen), a town of China, capital of 
the province of Kulja. It fs the reaideace of the 9»vemor- 
general, and was founded in 176a duiMig the Muswilman rising, 
and rebuilt in 18813. Ic is a militafy town, with provision storeSk 
an arsenal tad am aims workshop. Its walla are armed with 
steel guask 

SUUIA* a gionp of aoa^rununating actaodactyle ungulate 
mammab typified by the swine (Suidae), hut also indudiag the 
hippopotamus (Hippopotamtdae), and certain ettina forms. 
(Se eAnt iopiCTYLA; HmoporAitim; Pbocakv; Swine.) 

aUITB iSnUe dt pUctr, Ordn; Partita), hi muaic. a gioup of 
dance tunes, mosdy in binary fonn, of a type which, may be 
described as " decoiatsve " (sea Sonata. Foaiis); constituting 
that daasical form of early i8th<entMiy instnimental music 
which most nearly foreshadows the Uier sonata. As ukideistood 
by Bach, it consists essentially of four principal movtmcnts with 
the insertion of one or more lighter movements between the Ihini 
and the last. The iirst movement is the olUmande^ of solid and 
intricate texture, in slow common time and rich flowing rhythm, 
be^nning with one or three short notes before the first fuU bar. 
The second movement is the cmtftUe, of which theie are two 
kinds. The French eourante is again an intricate movement, aUo 
b^'nning with one ot thice notes before the main beat, and in a 
triple time ({) which, invariably at the cadences and sometimes 
elsewhere, drops into a crossing triple rhythm of twice the pace 
(]). The effect is lestkss and confused, and Was suppoaed to 
form a contrast to the aVeroande; but it seldom did so effectively. 
Bach's study of Couperin led him to use the French oourante 
frequently, but he was happier with the Italian type of camnU, 
which did not owe its name, like the French type, lo the use of 
spasmodic runs, but was a brilliant continuously nianiag piece 
ia quick triple time (J or {), forming a dear and lively contrast 
both to the allemande and to the third movement^ which is 
generally a s^abtmic 



52 



SUKHUM-KALEH— SULCI 



The sarahande b & slow movement In triple ttme beginning on 
the full bar. &nd with at least a tendency to the rhythm 
of which Handel's aria Lascia 
3 J J X J I «} tf I ^^'*^ pianta is a famttiar example. 
Bach's sarabandes are among the 
most simply eloquent and charaaerisdc of hit smaller com- 
positions. Then come the gaianteries, from one to three in 
number. These are the only suite-movements which ever have 
an alternative section and a da capo (with the exception of 
Couperin's courantes and the courante in Bach's first English 
suite). The commonest gaianteries are: (z) the iHtHutt, often 
with a second minuet which is called " trio" only when it 
is in real three-part writing. It is a little faster than the stately 
minuet in Mooart's Don cHooanni, but it is never so quick as the 
lively minuets of Haydn's quartets and symphonies which led 
to the Beethoven scherzo; and it Invariably begins, unlike 
many later minuets, on the full bar; (2) the tflvotte, a lively 
dance in a not too rapid alia brtve time (the textbooks say 
] time, out there is no case in Bach which could possibly be 
played so slowly, whatever the time signature.may be). The 
gavotte always begins on the half-bar. A second alternating 
gavotte is frequently founded on a pedal or drone-bass, and is 
then called miudXc; (3) the bourrie, which is not unlike the 
gavotte, but quicker, and beginning on the last quarter of the 
bar; (4) the passepUd, a lively dance in quick triple time, 
beginning on the third beat. These dances are not always cast 
in binary form, and there are famous examples of gavottes 
and passq>ieds en roudtan. Other less common gaianteries 
are (5) the lourCt^ a slow <lance in I time and dotted rhythm 
(dactylic in accent and amphimacer in quantity); (6) the 
polonaist, a leisurely triple-time piece, either a shade quicker or 
(as in the exquisite unattached examples of Friedemann Bach) 
much slower than the modem dance-rhythm of that name, with 
cadences on the second instead of the third beat of the bar; (7) 
the air, a short movement, quietly flowing, in a more florid style 
than its name would suggest. It sometimes precedes the sara- 
hande. The suite concludes with a gigue, in the finest examnles of 
which the decorative binary form is combined with a light fugue 
style of the utmost liveliness and brilliance. The gigue is gener- 
ally in some triplet rhythm, eg. {, {, Sr V> ^^^ examples in a 
graver style may befound in slow square time withdotted rhythms, 
as In Bach's first Ftench suite and the sixth Partita of the Klaner- 
Ubung. In gigues in the typical fugato style Bach is fond of 
making the second part either invert the theme of the first, or 
else begin with a new subject to be combined with the first in 
double counterpoint. The device of inversion is also prominent 
in many of Us allemandes and French courantes. 

All suites on a large ^cale, with the exception of Bach's second 
and fourth sdo violin sonatas, begin with a great prelude in 
some larger form. Bach's French Suites are small suites without 
prelude. His English Suites all have a great first movement 
which, except in the first suite, is in full da capo concerto form. 
His clavier Partitas show a greater variety of style in the 
dance movements and are preceded by preludes, in each case of a 
different type and title. Some large suites have finales after the 
gigue; the great chaconne for violin solo being the finale of a 
partita (see VASiAnoNs). 

Handel's suites are characteristically nondescript in form, but, 
in the probably earlier sets.published after what is called his first 
set, there is a most interesting tendency to make several of the 
movements free variations of the first. Earlier composers bad 
already shown the converse tendency to make variations take 
the forms of suite movements. In general HandeTs suites are 
effecrive groups of movements of various Iengths,witb a tendency 
to use recognizable suite movements of a Franco-Italian type. 

In modem times the term " suite " is used for almost any group 
of movements of which the last is in the same key as the first, 
and of which a fair proportion show traces of dance-rhythm, or at 
least use dance titles. It is often said that the suite-forms have 
shown more vitality onder modern conditions than the dassicsl 

I The (M^ef Bftch*att^&hAi aidit has In some editUma been 
cslled the asQOttd l«viififeMHH|MHrif|ate«f^ 




sonata forms. But thk only oMans that when composers do not 
feel inclined to write symphonies or sonatas they give their 
groups of movements the name of suite. Certainly there is no 
such thing as a definite modem suite-form distinguishable from 
the selection composers make, for use in concert rooms, d 
Incidental music written ior plays, auch as Grieg's Pta Gynt 
suites. (D. F. T.) 

SUKHUM-KALBH. a seaport of Russian Caucasia in ihe 
government of Kutais. Pop. (1900), about 16,000. Itissiiuaud 
106 m« N. of Batum, and has the best roadstead on the east coast 
of the Black Sea, being sheltered by mountains on three sides and 
never freezing. In spite of the difficulties of commuoicatioQ 
with the interior, and the malarial marshes which surround ibe 
town, it has become important for the export of grain (chicfiy 
jnaize). There is also a trade in tobacco. It stands on the site 
of the ancient Greek colony of Dioskurias. The annual me^n 
temperature b 59* F. There are here a cathedral and a 
botanical garden. The town was captured by the Russians io 
1809, but not formally relinquished by Turkey until 1829. In 
1854 and again in 1877 it was occupied by the Turks. 

8UKKUR. or Sakhar, a town and district of British India, in 
Bind, Bombay. The town is situated on the light bank oi the 
Indus, 24 m. N.W. of Skikarpur. Pop. (i9or), 31,316. SuLkur 
has always commanded the trade of Sind, and the river is now 
crossed by a cantilever bridge carrying the North-A^'cstero 
railway to Kotri. The town was ceded to the Khairpur mirs 
between 1809. and 1834. In 1833 Shah Shuja defeated the 
Talpurs here with great loss. In 1842 it came under British 
rule.. 

The DisntiCT or Sukkus was created in 1901 oat of part of 
Shikarpur district, the remainder of which was formed into the 
district of Larkana. Area, 5403 sq. m. It is chiefly allmnal 
plain, but there are slight hills at Sukkur and RohrL In the 
higher-lying parts are salt hinds {Kalar), or even desert in the 
area *-nown as the Registan. The climate is hot, dry and encr< 
vating. The annual rainfall at Sukkur town averages only 4I in- 
The population in 1901 was 533,345, showing an increase of io*!« 
iiS the decade. A considerable part of the district is irrigated, 
the principal crops being wheat, millets, rice, pulses and oil seeds. 
Earthen, leathern and metal ware, cotton jdoth and tiusorc 
silk are manufactured, also pipe-bowls, snuff-boxes and scisson 
Lines of the North-Westera railway serve the district, and then 
is a branch from Sukkur towards Quetta. 

«ULA ISLANDS (Sulla, Xuihi.Dutdi 5oeia), a chain of iskndj 
forming a prolongation of the eastern prninMila of Celebes anc 
the Banggai Islands, Dutch East Indies. The three main islands 
are long and narrow (Tidiabu, 68 m. long, Mangoli or Mangala 
63 m. and Besi, 30 m.). The two first lie in line, separated b^ 
the narrow Chapalulu Strait; Besi extends at right angles to thi 
south coast of MangolL The natives of Taliabu are allied t o t hosi 
of the Banggai Islands and the eastern peninsula of Celebes; bu 
immigrant Malays are the principal inluibitants. Economicall) 
Besi is the most important Uland. A Dutch commissione 
resides at Sanana, at its northern extremity. It is fertile, an 
produces wax and honey, and coal has been found. 

VUhCU an andem town (mod. S. Antioco), situated on the eas 
coast of an island on the south-west of Sardinia. The date oi '\\ 
foundationis not known, but it is certainly of Carthaginian origii 
The assumption that it was originally an Egyptian colony is nc 
justified. Its walls, of large rectangular blocks of stone, can V 
traced for a circuit of upwards of. a mile: it exunded to the Io 
ground on the shore near the modem cemetery, where a dedio 
tory inscription set up by the people of Sulci in honour of Hadria 
in A.D. xa8 was found (F. Vivanet in Nolitie degli Scan, 189 
407). Various discoveries have been made within the circui 
both of Phoenician and of Roman antiquities, including sever 
sutues^and inscriptions and many smaller <^jects, gems, &< 
but at present few traces of ancient buildings are left, owing 
their continued destruaion in medieval and modem times. 
dstem of fine masonry, perhaps dating from the Punic perio 

*A statue of Drusus, the brotjier of Tiberius C7) was found 
190&' 



SULEIMAN L— SULIMAN HILLS 



53 



k the !»« groaad bdow tk» modem town, may be mcBlioned. 
Claae u> it, amoog the houses of the modem town, a solid base 
about 2 sit. s4|uaBet bekwgiac possibly to a lighthouse or a tomb, 
itoords the existence of a tempte-of Isb'and Serapis during the 
iapcxial peciod. Abilingiudinscxiption of the ist century B.C. ( ?) 
ia L&tin and in neo-Punic records the erection of a statue to 
Uicnilkat, who had carried out a decrae of the loosl tetMhts for 
ite csectAon of a temple to a goddess (described in the Punic 
fttsion as d&wuna d«s— possibly Tanit hecaeU) by his son 
HimOkat (T. Mommsen in Corp, iuser, laL z. 75x3, 7514)- 
Tile Phoenidaa tombs consist o( a chamber cut in the rock, 
acssastug about 14 ft. square and S ft. high, and approached by 
astaamaei some of these have been converted ihto dwellings 
IS modem times. Many of the curious sculptured sidae found 
in I hoe tonbs are now in the museum of Cagliari. On many of 
them the foddcssTanit is represented, often in a form resembling 
Lis. which gave rise to the unfounded belief of the Egyptian 
orism of Suki. The ^oman tombs, on the other hand, are 
*:^4>ly trenches escavsted in the rock. 

There are abo several catacombs: a group stUl exists under 
the cfaiudi, in which was discovered the body of the martyr 
St Aatiochoa, from whom the modem town takes its name. 
The chofcfa-is cxnctform, with heavy pillars between nave and 
lidcs, mad a dome over the crossing: it belongs to the Byzantine 
period, and oontalns an inscription of Ibrootorius, pzoto^tarius 
and SiJnsiaa, ftpxur, dating from the xoth century a.d. (A. 
Tarxmelii ia Arckirio stmica sardo, 1907, 83 sqq.). Others 
iuther sotttli>west were Jewish; they have inscriptions in red 
painted oa the plaster with which they are lined, and the seven- 
tiranrhed caadlestidc occnn several times. The fort which 
occupies tlie highest point-»no doubt the acropolis of the 
huwc period— is quite modem. The long, low isthmus which, 
viih the hdp of bridges^ connects the island with the mainland, 
is irary likely in part or entirely of artificial origin; but neither 
a nor the bridges show any definite tracefc of Roman date. On 
dihcr mde of it ships oookt find shelter then as nowadays. 

The origin of Sold is attributed by Pausaniaa to the Cartha- 
paui%, and the Punk antiquities found there go to indicate . 
the oerrnctwess of his account. It is mentioned In the account 
of the First Punic War as-the place at which the Carthaginian 
A^fniial Haanib^ took refuge after his defeat by C. Sulpicius, 
o«t «ss crucified. In 46 B.C. the city was severely puitisbed by 
Cjcssr for the assistance given to Pompe/s admiral Nssidius. 
Uidrr the empire it was one Of the most flourishing cities of 
Sudznia. It was attscked by the Vandals and Saracens, but 
i to exist' before the 13th century. Previously to this it 
t of the four episcopal sees into which Sardinia was 
^vided. A csstle in the low ground, attributed to the index 
Toetsotorins, to the south of the modem town, was destroyed in 

in NoHtU dtgfi umi {1906), 135; (1908), T45, 193. 
(T.As.) 

SULEnAM I.Mhe "Magnificent" (1494-1566), suUan of 
T jxkey. sooccedcH his father ScUm I. in xsso. His birth coin- 
cided frith the opening year of the loth centuiy of Mussulman 
cknoooiogy (a.b. 900), the most Morions period in the history 
of Islam. Eventful as the age was both in Europe, where the 
Seaeissance was in lull growth, and in India, where the splen- 
dsrjr of the emperor Akbar's reign exceeded alike that of his pce- 
i h ii M Biiii and his successors, Suleiman's conquests overshadowed 
al these. It is noteworthy that though in Turkey he is dis- 
ta-TPiishrd only as the law-giver (ioaam) , in European history 
kc is kaowm by such titles as the Bffa^iifioBnti He was the most 
igctuBxte of the saltans. He hsd no rival worthy of the name. 
FfOD his lather he inherited a weU-organised country, a dis- 
dfSiaeA array and a full treasury. He united in his person the 
kcA qnafitiea of his predecessors, and possessed the gift of taking 
iaJ adtaotn^B of the talcnU of the able genecals, admirsls and 

'Tiihhiiin Mtit son of Bsyssid f^ who nialntahied himself as 
wa,am at Adrianople fnim 1402 to 1410, » not reckoned ss legiti- 
«a.te by the Ottooien hbtorioKraphen, who reckon Suleiman the 
3l«f ttfc«n t as the fint or the name. By others, however, the latter 
« nMMiieMB styled Suleiman It. 



<»eA.Ta«awei8 



viziers who illustraled his reign. If his campaigns weie not 
always so wisely and pradentiy planned as those of some of his 
predeccssocB, they were in the main eminently fortunate, and 
resulted in adding to his dominions Belgrade, Budapest, 
Temcsvar, Rhodes, Tabrir, Bagdad, Nakshivan and Rivan, 
Aden and Algiers, and in his days Turkey attained the 
culminating point of her glory. 

The alliance concluded by hhn with France reveab him at 
once as rising superior to the narrow prejudices of his race and 
faith, which rejected with scorn any union with the unbeliever, 
and as gifted with sufficient political insight to appreciate 
the advantage of combining with Francis I. against Charles V. 
His Pfcrsian campaign was doubtless an error, but was due in 
part to a desire to find occupation, distant if possible, for Kjs 
janissaries, who were always prone to turbulence while inactive 
at the capital. He was perhaps wanting in firmness of character, 
and the undue infltience exercised over him by unscrupulous 
ministers, or by the seductions of fairer but no less ambitious 
vourics of statecraft, led him to make concessions which 
tarnished the glory of his reign, and were folfewed by baneful 
results for the welfare of his empire. It b from Suleiman's 
time that historians date the rise of that occult faifluence of the 
harem which has so often thwarted the best efforts of Turkey's 
most enlightened statesmen. 

^ Suleiman's claims to renown as a legislator rest mainly on- 
his organization of the Ulema, or clerical class, in its hierarchical 
order from the Sheikh-nl-Isbm downwards. He reformed and 
improved the administration of the country both civil and mili- 
tary, inaugurated a new and improved system for the feudal 
tenures of limitary fiefs, and his amelioration of the lot of his 
Christian subjects is not his least title to fame. He was also not 
unknown to fame as a poet, under the pseudonym of " Muhibbr " 
(see Hammer^Purgstall, Geseh, d. Osmon. Reichs. ii. 331; and 
further TVaitEV: History), 

Suleiman died on the sth of September 1566, af the age of 
77, while conducting the siege of Szigetvlr. 

SULEIMAN n. (1641-1691), sultan of Turkey, was a son of 
Sultan Ibrahim, and succeeded his brother Mahommed IV. in 
1687. Forty-six yeaia of enforced retirement had qualified him 
for the cloister rather than for the throne, and his first feeling 
when notified of his accession was one of terror for his brother's 
vengeance. Nor were the circumstances following on his 
elevation to the throne of a nature to reassure him, as one of 
the most violent of the revolts of the janissaries ended in the 
murder of the grand vizier and the brutal mutilation of his 
family, with general massacre and pilUge throughout Con- 
stantinople. The war with Austria was for Turkey a suc- 
cession of disasters. At this time, fortunately for the Ottoman 
Empire, a third great kuprili (Mustafa) arose and re-estab- 
lished order in the sorely-tried state (sec Kupriu). In the 
reforms which followed, whereby the situation of the Christian 
subjects of the Porte was greatly improved, Suleiman is at least 
to be given the credit of having allowed Mustafa Kuprili a free 
hand. With an improved administration Turkey's fortunes in 
the war began to revive, and the reconquest of Belgrade late in 
1690 was the last Important event of the reign, which ended 
in 1691 by Suleiman's death. (See also Turkey: History.) 

SUUBHAlflBH, or Sulehiaota, the chief town of a sanjak of 
the same name in Asiatic Turkey, in the vilayet of Mosul, situated 
on a treeless plain in the Kurdistan Mountains, in the region 
known as Shehrizor, some 40 or 50 m. from the Persian frontier, 
at an elevation of 3895 ^* It is a military station, and was 
founded towards the close of the nth century. The estimated 
population is about ia,ooo, of whom xX|OOo are Kurds, and the 
majority of the remaining 1000 Jews. 

BXSU.UAX HILLS, a mountain system on the Pera Ismail 
Khan border of the north-west frontier of India. From the 
Gomal river southward commences the true Suliman system, 
presenting an impenetrable barrier between the plains of the 
Indus and Afghanistan. The Suliman Mountains finally merge 
into the hills of Baluchistan, which are inhabited by the Marri 
and Bugti tribes. The chief mass of the range is known as 



54 



SULINA— SULLA 



Takhi-ft-SuUxnan or Solomon's tluone. It piay be wtea on the 
western horizon from Den Ismail Khan, a grey, flat-looking 
nunport rising from the lower line of mountains north and south 
oi it, slightly saddle-backed in the middle, but culminating in a 
very well-defined peak at its northern extremity. The Icgoid of 
the mountain is that Solomon visited Hindostan to marry Ballus, 
and that as they were returning through the air, on a throne 
sui^rted by genii, the bride impkned the bridegroom to let her 
look back for a few moments on her beloved land. Solomon 
directed the genii to scoop out a hoUow for the throne on the 
summit of the mountain. The hollow is a cavity some 30 ft. 
square cut out of the solid rock, at the southern extremity of the 
mountain and is a place of pilgrimage for both Hindus and 
Mabommedans. The actual shrine is about two m. south of the 
highest peak. Tlie whole mountain was traversed and surveyed 
by the Takht-i-Suliman Survey EjqMditkm of 1883 (see Sbekamx) 
and was found to consist of two parallel ridges running roughly 
north and south, the southern end of the^astem ridge culminating 
in a point 11,070 fL high, which istheTakht proper On which the 
shrine is situated, and the western ridge culminating at iu north- 
ern end in a point xx ,300ft. high known as Kaisaigarh. Between 
these two ridges is a connrrtipg tabldand about 9000 ft. high. 
This plateau and the interior ^opes of the zidges are covered 
with Mlgkosa (edible pine) forests. The mass of the mountain 
is composed of nummulitic limestone. No water is to be found 
on the summit. 

SUUNA, a town in Rumania, at tiie moutb of the Sulina branch 
of the Danube. Fbp. (1900), 561Z. Sulina is the only free port 
00 the Danube, and is much used for the transhipment into sear 
going vesscb of grain which is brought down the rxvcr in large 
lighters from Rumania, Russia, Bulgaria, Servia and Austria- 
Hungary. No agricultural produce is grown in iU neighbour^ 
hood, owing to the reed-covered swamps with which it is sur- 
rounded. Sulina is the headquarters of the technical depart- 
ment of the European Commission of the Danube (9.1.). Large 
steamers navigate up to Galatx and Braila. la rgox , 141 x steamea 
and sailing craft aggregating 1,830,000 tons register cleared from 
Sulina for £un^)eaa ports caxiyiog, besides other merchandise:, 
ncariy 13,000,000 quarters of grain. Owing to the improvements 
effected by the European Commissioii, there is a depth of 
S4 it. of water on the bar, and of 18 to sa ft. in the fairway. A 
lighthouse overlooks the estuazy. The town contains the only 
Englis h chx irch in Rumania. 

SUUTBUIA, a mountain on the frontier between Norway and 
Sweden, forming a salient (6x58 it) of the KjQl or " keel " of ihe 
Scaodiiuvian prninsuhi. The mass, mmposed of three peaks, 
is situated in 67^ 10' N., and covered with a snow-£cIdirom which 
many gUders descend. In these rise feeders of the Swedish 
rivers UUa Lule and Pile, flowiog south-east. Westward, the 
foothills descend upon the Skjexstad Fjord, above which are two 
lakes, Nedre and Ovre Vand. From Sjonslaa steamers on the 
Langvand and a light railway give communication between the 
sea and Fuiulund, \h« headquarters of the Swedish Sulitelma 
Mining Company. A mountain track descends from Sulitdma 
to Kvickjock (or K^-ikkjokk), a considerable village magnificently 
situated on the Tamgock, a head-stream of the Ulla Lule. This 
is disUnt thre e da> 's' journey on foot from Furulund. 

SULLA. LUCIUS CORHEUUS (138-78 b.c), sumamed Fc/uc, 
Roman general, politician and dictator, belonged to a minor 
and impoverished branch of the Caxnous patrician Cornelian gens. 
He received a careful education, and was a devoted studcst of 
fiterature and arL His political advancement was slow, and 
he did not obtain the quaestocship untH 107, when he served in 
the Joguzthine war under Marius in Africa. In this he great^ 
distinguished himself, and daimed the credit of havingteiminated 
the war tw OH>tiizioig Juguitha himsdf. La these African 
jis SoSa ilkpivQdtte he knew bow to win the confidence 
of hbaoUieilLsUHiHaiklilfimriheaeaet of his success 

of his tzoc^, 

g^bwifigthem to 

k X04 to tot 

» ^]<^i;>p and 




Teutooes and fought in the last great battle in the RaodUo 
plams near Verona. It was at this time that Marius's )eslousy 
of his legate laid the foundations of their future rivalry and mutual 
hatred. When the war was over, Sulla, on htf return to Rone, 
hved quietly for some years and took no part in politics. In 
93 he was dected praetor after a lavish squandering of money, 
and he delighted the populace with an exhibition of a hundred 
lions from Africa. Next year (92) be went as propraetor of 
Cilida with special authority from the senate to make Mithn* 
dates VL of Pontns restore Cappadoda to Ariobarzanes,ODeof 
Rome's dependants in Asia. Sulla with a small army soon wool 
victory over the ge&eial of Mithradates, and Rone's client-king 
was restored. An embassy from the Farthians now came 10 
solicit alliance with Roue, and- Sulla was the first Roman who 
held dipkmuoic interoouzae with that remote people. In the 
year 91 , which brought with it the imminent prospect of sweeping 
political change, with the enfranchisement oi the Italian peeves, 
Sulla returned to Rome, and it was generally felt that he was the 
man to lead the conservative and aristocratic party. 

Meanwhile Mithradates and the East were forgotten in the 
crisis of the Social or Italic War, which broke out in 91 and 
tjireateoed Rome's very nrisfrncf. The services of both Marius 
and Sulla were given; but Sulla was the more successful, or, at any 
rate, the more fortunate. Of the Italian peoples Rome's old 
foes the Samnites were the moat formidabie; these Sulla van- 
quished, and took their chief town, fiovianum. In recognition 
of this and other brilliant services, he was dected consul in 88, 
and brought the revolt to an end by the capture of NoU in 
rsmpanis The question of the command of the army against 
Mithradates again came to the front. The senate had already 
chosen Sulla; but the tribune PuUius Sulpidus Rufus movd 
that Marius should have the command. Rioting took placi; 
at Rome at the prompting of th6 popular leaders, Sulla narrowly 
"•^p^g to his legiooa in rampania, wheaoe he marched on 
Rome, being the lint Roman who entered the dty at the head d 
a Roman army. Sulpidua was put u> death, aad Marius fiedi 
and he and his party were cniihed for the time. 

Sulla, leaving thkigs quiet at Rope^ quitted Italy in S7, ^ 
for the next four years he wbs winning victory after vicioq 
against the armies of Mithrsdatea and aocomulating boundless 
plunder. Athens, the headquarters of the Mithxadatic cauifi 
was taken and sacked in S6; and in the same year, at Chaeroneia 
the scene of Philip IL of Mandon'a victory mocc than two and) 
half centuries before, and in the year followiag, at the neighboui 
ing Orchomenus, he scattered immense hosts of the enemy wit] 
trifling loss to himself. Crossing the Hellespont in 84 into Asia 
he was joined by the troops of C Flavius Fimbria, who soo 
deserted their general, & man sent out by the Marian party, noi 
again in the ascendant at Rome. The same year peace wii 
concluded with Mithradates on coudition that he shoukl be pv 
back to the position he held before the war; but, as he raise 
objections, he had in the end to content himsdf with being siropl 
a vassal of Rome. 

Sulla returaed to Italy m 83,1aAding at Biundiahim, havii 
previously informed the senate of the result of his campaigns i 
Greece and Asia, and annosmced his presence on ItalSan groum 
He further complaxaed of the ill-treatment to which his fxieo^ 
and partisans had been subjected dnriog his aliRmoe. Marii 
had died in <6, and the rewolntianary party, specially represent 
by L. Conelius Cimu, Ol ^pirius Carbo and the youo^ 
Marius, had masacred Sulla's soppoitas wfaolesalo, confiscati 
his property, and declared him a pid>lic enemy. They ielt tbt 
must resist him to the death, and with the troops scatter 
thnrag^t Italy, and the newtymfranrhisrd ItaUana, to wbon 
was understood that SoUa was bittcriy hostile, they oosintcd con 
dently on sacoess. But oa SaDa'a advance at the hcaii o( 1 
40,000 vetcnas maay of them kat heart and deserted th 
Icftdos, wdiile the Italians themsdvca, wham he caofinned 
their new privileges, were won over to his sde. Only the S^ 
nites, who were as yet without the Roman franchise, resnui 
his enemies, and it seemed as If the old war between Rome a 
Samnium had to be fought onot again. Sevecal Roman oobl 



SULLIVAN, SIR A. S. 



55 



I F w iy dm (fVKOpty tke Gratt), Q« Gfeedfiuft 
I Plus, MaicnsIictniwCnuBai, MarcwLldBiuLuaillni, 
, and in the folkmiag year <8a) he wm a dKkhre 
vrrtory over the younger Muhis near Ptaenttte (mod. Palettrina) 
aad tbea. matched upon Roaae, whem agaby jeat bcime hiidclBat 
of Mania* there had been a great maMacre of htaadhcanta, hi 
vfaich the leuned jinist Q, Mudoa Scaevda perished. Some 
vae at the aame time in catrene peril from the advinee of a 
Soanitc acmx, and itas faaRly saved l^SoDa, who, aftera hanl> 
ibaghit battle, routed the enemy mder Poathis Tekrinns at the 
CdSoe gate «l Rome. With the death of the yoimger Mariua, 
1^ killed fcamaelf after the sorreader of Piaeaeste, the chrfl war 
was at an CDd, and SaHa was master of JUme and of the Soman 
wecld. Then caase the m e m owble " proscription/' when for 
the first time in Roman hiatocy a Iht of men dedarsd to be 
ombws and fmblic enemies was eihiblted in tlie Isium, and a 
leigBoftetxarbegianthxioogboat Rome and. Italy. The title of 
" dktator " was rrdred and Sulla was in fact e mp e r or of Rome. 
After cekbimting a splendid triumph for the Mithradatic War, 
aaA mmnaa^ the snmame of **F«|ix" C £l»phnditns>" 
" yema\ fawonite/'^ he styled fafanself hiaddiessing Grseha), he 
csnied faiSonnd Tphisgrcat politkalvBforms<iee Rons: Hislcry, 
lL"TigK0pmbHe'% The main object of these was to invest the 
sraate, whkh he recruited with a number of Ins own party, with fnU 
oobcxqI over the state, ever every magistrate and every pnivinoe; 
sad the mainstay of his political system was to be the military 
OB^nia which he had established with grants of land thiouf^ieiit 
erery part of Italy, to the rain of the old lufian freeholdeia 
■ri fBBBem* who from this time dwindled away, leaving whole 
drtrkts wnstc and desolate. 

la 79 Snln resigned his (Bctatorship and retired to Pateoli 
(nod. Foasnoii), where he died in the foUowiag year, probably 
hen the hantlr« of a blood-vessel The story that he fell a 
victim to a dSaeaae simiUr to that which cut off one of the Heroda 
(Acts xiL 93) to probably an inveatlen of his eacnics. The 
"half Hon« half foV' i* ^ enemies called him, the " Don Juan 
of poGtacs '* (IfonuBien), the nun who carded out a pohcy of 
' blood aad iron " with a grim humour, amused himself m his 
bst days with actoTB and actresses, with dabbling m poetry, and 
«wnifa»Siig the liemoks (cawmieitfa r ff, tano^/Mtm) ef his event- 
fal He (see H. Feter, HitUHconm r^maitcrum rdtquia*, 1870). 
CvcB then he did not give up his interest hi state and local affairs, 
Md hm end is aaid to have been hastened by a At of passion 
famn^ on hy a remarlt of the quaestor Gtanius, who openly 
laaiuil that he would escape pajrment of a sum of money doe 
to the Rrwf!'"«, since SuAa was on his death-bed. SnOa sent 
far ham aad had him strangled in his presence; In his ezdtement 
he bfohe a fafcod'VciMi and died on the foUowhig day. He was 
Mimd ed n magnificeat public funeral, Ms body beiag removed to 
Some and buried hi the Ckmpua Martins. His manumeat bore 
m iuanipti on written by himself, tothe effect that he had always 
fally rvpahl the Idndnesses of his friends and the wrongs donehim 
by his fftf«i*» ffis military genius was dispfaiyed in the Sodal 
War and the campa^ns against Mithradates; while his constitn- 
taaal refdmB, although doomed to faHnre from thelacfcofsuc- 
QcsBDCB to carry them out, were a triumfiih ef oigaoiaation. But 
he aw ■■lint hto enemies in ooM bloedt and exacted vengeance 
wish piaSkaa and calculated cruelty; he sactificed cveiythfaig to 
hh own anahidoo and the triumph of his party. 

The «-'-g**»* authorities for Sulla a^d his time are Us Life by 
PIcsaxch (who made use of the Ifammrs); Appian, BetL cw.; for 
tte lUkujua a in Cicero see Oreili'aQiMawftfeia TulUcimm. Modera 
ttwim by C & Zaeharii. X- CmwtfNr 5. eb (Ma«r i^ fAwMeikM 
Fnjatmrt (iAm); T. Laa. Lacitu ConuUtu 5»fla(i855); £. 
Umku, Dt heuo ctvOi SvBand ^1896); P. Cantalup!, La Cuerra 
d»ae StMam* in Italia (1892); C. W. Oman, 5nen Roman Statesmen 
fras); F. D. Gerlach. Marius und SuOa (1856); j. M. Saadeo, " De 
B l ii M wia pettsCaae a Ludo SuUa iaMainnta'* ia Skrifiar utgUfna 
of L fcaMaai'itflii VdenskapsHUnfundel i UptaUt v., 1897, in which 
a m atfptd against Mommaen that Sulla did not deprive the tribunes 
<tf the right of jprvnoaing rogations. See also Nf ommsen's History 
< J^mie. voL in., ok. W., dn., 8, 9; Drumana, Go fkicku Rams, 

'A 8i»ort eptcram on Aphrodite in the Creek Antkclory (Anth. 
M, 4f#«aJSa 153) ^ Mcribed to Urn. 



aad ed. by Gmehe. il. 36i<4S»s ftaly-Wlsmaia, IMmeyd^pddu, 
tv. 1522-1566 (Frdhlich). 

His nephew (aa some say, though the degree of relatioaship 
cannot be clearly established), PuBXiui ConiEUUS Sulla was 
ooOBul in 66 B£. with R Autionias PMtus, Both were convicted 
of hcOiesy, and Faetua anhseqnently joined Catiline m his first 
conspiracy. There iaiittkdenbt that SuUaaho was haplkated; 
Salfantdaes not mention it,b«t other aatbatfties defoitay assert 
hh guilt.- After the second Qoospiracy he was accused of having 
tafceapart hi hoth conspiracies. S«Ha was defended by Cicero 
and Hortcnshia, and acquitted. There is no doubt that, alter his 
firu conviction, SuOa lemafaied very cpiiet, and, whatever his 
^mpathlea may have been, took no active part in the conspiracy. 
When the eivll war broke oul, SuUa took the side of Caesar, and 
commanded the right whig at the battle of Phaisalus. He died 
in 45- 

See CIceRs Pfo StUa, passim <edb J. SL Reid, 1882); Ad fam. 
ia. io» XV. 17; Dio Caaaiusxacvi.' 44, xaxrii 25: Suetonius, Caesar, 
9; Caesar. BeU. cn^ iii. 51, 89; Appun, Bell, ess. jL 7& 

WLUVAir, SIR ASlttUR 8BTII0UR (1842-1900), English 
muaical oompooer,- was bom hi London on the rjth of May 1849, 
being the younger of the two sons of Thomas Sullivan, a culti^ 
vatcd Irish musickm iriko was bandmaster at the Royal Military 
CoHcge, Sandhurst, from 184s to 1856, and taught at the Miiiury 
School of Music at Kneller Hall fmm 1857 tiU his death in 1866. 
His mother, wfa Mary Coghkn (18(1-1882), had Italian blood in 
her veihs. Arthur Sullivan was brought up to music from boy- 
hood, and he had learnt to play every whid instrument m his 
father's band by the age of eight. Hie was sent to school at 
Bayswater tm he was twelve, and then, through Sir George 
Smart, he was, at his own persistent request, made a Chapel 
Royal chorister, and entered Mr Hdmore's school for Chapel 
Rf^ boys in Cheyne Walk. He had a fine treble voice, and 
sang with exceptional taste. In i8j^ the MendeJasnhn Schohtf« 
ship 'at the Royal Aoademy ol Music was thrown open for the 
first time for competition, and was won by Sullhraa, his nearest 
rival befog Joseph Bamby. At the Academy he studied under 
Stemdale Bennett, Arthur O'Leary and John Gon, and did so 
well that he was given an extenaion of his schohuriiip for tivo 
years in succession. In 1858, hb voice having broken, he was' 
enabled by means of his schobnhip to go to study at the con* 
servatorium of Leipsig. There he had for teachers Moschdes 
and Phtidy for pianoforte, Hanptmann for counterpoint, Rieta 
and Rebiecke for oomporition, and F. David for orchestral pbymg 
and conducting. Among hia feUow-atudenU were Grieg, Cari 
Rosa, Walter Bache, J. F. Bamett and Edward Dannreuther. 
Instead of the Mendelssohn cidtei which represented orthodoxy 
m London, Gennaa musical intermt at this period centred in 
Schumann, Schubert and the growing reputation of Wagner, 
whilst Lisat and Von BOlow were the celebrities of the day. 
Sullivan thus became acquahited for the first time with master* 
pfeees which were then practically ignored hi England. He 
entered enthusiastfeally Into the spirit of the phux, and after two 
years' hard study returned to London m April 1861. Before 
domg so, however, he had composed his incidental music for 
Tke Tempaa, which he had begun as a sort of diphmaa work. 
SulBvansetlilmsblf to find converts in London to the enthuaiasms 
he had imbibed at Ldpsig. He became acquainted with 
George Grove, then secreUry of the Crystal Pahioe, and August 
Manns, the conductor there; and at his instigation Schumann's 
Phat Symphony was hitroduoed at one of the winter concerts. 
Early hi r862 Sullivan showed Grove and Manns his Tempest 
music, and on the 5th of April it was performed at the Crystal 
Palace. The production was aa unmixed triumph, and Snlhvan's 
exoepti6nal gifu as a composer were generally recognized from 
that moment. He had hitherto been occupying himself with 
teadiing, and he continued for some years to act aa organist at 
St Michael's, Chester Square, but henceforth he devoted most of 
his time to composition. By 1864 he had produced his '* Keail* 
worth " cantata (remembered chiefly for the lovely duet, " How 
sweet the Moonlight "), the " Sapphire Necklace " overture, and 
the live beautiful . songs from Shakespeare, which include 



S6 



SULLIVAN, SIR A. & 



" Orplieas with liis Lute/^*'Oli Ifistiwt Mine " and "The Willow 
Song." His attnurtive personality, combined with his un- 
doubted genius and brilliant promise, brought him many friends. 
Costa, who was. conductor at Covent Garden, gave him the post 
of or^mist, and in 1864 he produced there his Vtlc Emkantte 
ballet. Some of his spare time was spent in Ireland, where in 
1863 he began the composition of his (" Irish ") Symphony in E, 
which was produced at the Crystal Palace in 1866. The most 
important event, however, at this period, as bearing upon his 
later successes, was his co-operation with F. C. Bursand in the 
musical extravaganxa C^x and Box, which first showed his 
capacity for musical drollery. This was acted privately in x866, 
and was completed for public performance in 1867, in which year 
Sullivan again co-operated with Bumand in CMtrabanditia, 
Meanwhile he was in request as a conductor, and was made 
professor of composition at the Academy. His father's sudden 
death in 1866 inspired him to write the fine " In M^moriam " 
overture, whith was produced at the Norwidi Festival. In 
1867, besides producing his " Marmion " overture, he and Grove 
did a great service to thdr art by bringing to Ught at Vienna a 
number of lost Schubert MSS., indudii^ the Rosamundt music 
About this time Sullivan induced Tennyson to write his song- 
cycle" The Window," to be illustrated by Mlllais, with music 
by himself. But Miflais abandoned the task, and Tennyson 
was not happy about his share;.and the aeries, published in 1871, 
never became popular, in. spite of Sullxvan''s dainty setting. 
In 1869 he brought out his oratorio The Prodigal Son at 
Worcester, and in 1870 his overture " Vi Ballo " at Birmingham. 
In Z871 Sullivan had become acquainted with W. S. Gilbert 
(q.v.), and in 1873 they collaborate in a piece for the Gaiety. 
Theatre, called Theses; or, Th4 Gods GromuOld, which was a 
great .success in spite of the limiteil vocal resources of the per- 
formers. In 1875 R, D'Oyly Carte, then acting as manager for 
Selina Dolaro at the Royalty, approached Gilbert with a view 
to his collaborating with Sullivan in a piece for. that theatre. 
Gilbert had already suggested to Sullivan an operetta with its 
scene in a law court, and within three weeks of his completing 
the libretto of Trial by Jury tht music was written. The piece 
succeeded beyond all expectation; and on the strength of its 
promise of further successes D'Oyly Carte formed his Comedy 
Opera Company and took the Op6ra Coraique Theatre. There in 
1877 The Sorcerer was produced, George Grossmith and Rutland 
Barrington being in the cast. In 1878 HM^. Pinafore was 
brought out at the Op£ra Comique. At first it did not attract 
large audiences, but eventually it became a popular success, and 
ran for 700 nights. In America it wis enthusiastically received, 
and the two authors, with D'Oyly Carte, went over to the States 
in 1879, with a company of their own,, in order to produce it in 
New York. To secure the American rights for their noit opera, 
they brought out Tke Pirates of Pemance first at New York in 
1879. In z88o, in London, it ran for nearly 400 nights. In 
1 88 1 Patience was produced at the Op6ra Comique, and was 
transferred later in the year to the Savoy Theatre. There all the 
biter operas came out: lolanthe (1882), Princess Ida (1884), Tke 
Jfikado—^^h&ia the most charming ol all — (1885), Ruddigore 
(1887), Tke Yeomen of the Guard (1888), The Gondoliers (1889). 
This succession of pieces by Gilbert and Sullivan had made their 
united names stand for a new type of Hght opera. Its vogue 
owed something to such admirable performers as George Gros- 
smith-— famous for his "patter songs*' — Rutland Barrington, 
Miss Jessie Bond, Miss Brandram, and later W. H. Denny and 
Walter Passmore; but these artistes only took advantage of the 
opportunities provided by the two authors. In place of the dki 
adaptations of French optra bouffe they had substituted a 

genuinely English pror"--" *- -* ->-»-«-*'^* —..i.— . 

a tinge of vulgarity 01 
now arose between the 
ship. Sullivan's next 
a libretto by Sydney < 
collaboration in 1893 i 
Tke Grand Duke, was 
music, however, still 1 



Chieftain (1894)— largely an adaptation of Coutrabandisia', The 
Beauty Stone (iSgB), with a libretto by A. W. Pinero and 
J. Comyns Carr; and particularly in Tke Xosf of Persia (1900), 
with Captain Basil Hood. 

In the public mind Sir Arthur Sullivan (who was knighted in 
1883) had during these years become principally aawdated with 
the enormous success of the Savoy operas; but these by no means 
exhausted his musical energies.- In 187a his Te Deum for 
the recovery of the prince of Wales was performed at the Crystal 
Palace. In 1^73 he produced at the Birmingham Musical Festival 
his oratorio iTke Light of (he World, in 1877 lie wrote his 
incidental music to Henry VIIL, in 1880 h^ sacztd cantata 
The Martyr of Antiock, and in 1886 his masterpiece, Tke 
Golden Legend, was brought out at the Leeds FcativaL Tke 
Golden Legend satisfied the most exacting critics, that for 
originality ol conception and grandeur of execution English 
music possessed in Sullivan a codiposer of the highest calibre. 
In 1891, for the opening of D'Oyly Carte's sew English opera- 
house in Shaftesbury Avenue he wrote his "grand opera" 
Ivankoe to a Ubretto by Julian Stuigis. . The attempt to put an 
English opera on tht stage for a long run Was doomed to failure, 
but Ivinkoe was full of fine things. • In 1892 he composed inci- 
dental music to Tennyson'a Foresters. In 1897 he wrote a t>allet 
for the Alhambra, called Victoria mid Uerrie England. Among 
his numerous songs, a conspicuous merit of which is their admir- 
able vocal quality, the b^ known are " If Doughty Deeds " 
(1866), " The Sailor's Grave " (1^72), " Thou'rt Passing Hence " 
(1875), " I would I were a King " (x87<), " King Henry's Song " 
(1878) and " The Lost Chord " (1877). This last, hackneyed as 
it became, was probably the most successful F.nglish song of the 
19th century. It was written in 1877, during the fatal illness of 
Sullivan's brother Frederic, who, originally an architect, had 
become an actor, and by means of his fine voice and powers as a 
comedian (best shown as the Judge in Trial by Jury) had won 
Considerable success. Among Sullivan's many hymn tunes, the 
stirring "Onward, Christian SoldiersI^' (1879) is a permanent 
addition to Churchmusic. In 1876 he accepted the prindpalship 
of the National Training. School of Music, which he held for six 
years; this was the germ of the subsequent Royal College. He 
received tfaehonorary degree of Mua. Doc. from Cambridge (X876) 
and Oxford (1879). In 1878 he was a member of the royal com- 
mission for the Paris Exhibition. He was conductor of the Leeds 
Festivals from 1879 to 1898, besides, being conductor of the 
Philharmonic Society in 1885. Apart from his broad lympatby 
and his practical knowledge of instruments, his work as a con- 
ductor must always be associated with his efforts to raise the 
standard of orchestral playing in England and his unwearying 
exertions on behalf of British music and British musicians. 
SttlUvan liked to be associated in the public mind with patriotic 
objects, and his setting of Rudyard Kipling's " Absent minded 
B^gar" song, at the opening of the Boer War in 1899, was, with 
the exception of The Rose «/ Persia, the lastof hiscomposiiiocks 
brought out in his lifetime. He died somewhat suddenly of 
heart failure on the 22nd of November 1900, and his burial in 
St Paul's Cathedral was the occasion of a ren^kaUe denM>n- 
stration of public sorrow^ He left unpublished a Te Deum 
written for performance at the end of the Boer War, and an 
unfinished Savoy opera for a hbretto by Captain Hood, which, 
completed by Edward German, was. produced in 190s as Tlu 
Emerald Isle, 

Sullivan was the one really popular English composer of any 
artistic standing in his time; and his celebrity as a public man 
has somewhat interfered with a definite judgment as to his place 
in the histoiy of En^^ music In his own time, English 
f-.i J-. i-__j . '-*-'* degree; and mu&icaj 

idined to do jusiic^ 
reeable companions] 
n, he was intensely 
sd though his health 
f years at intcrvalj 
t worM who en joycti 
:iliithoul being ^xiilt 



SUIXIVAN, J.-SULLY, JAMES 



bf k. He was alwrnys a devoted and an induliwaB musidaii) 
aad from Che day he left Leiptig his influeace was powerfally 
CBftcd in tevour of a wider and fuller recognition of nraaital 
cdtitre. He was accused in some quarten of bdng unsympathetic 
iDwafds Wagnrr and the post-Wagnerians, yet he had been 
one of the first to introduce Wagner's nniaic to English audiences, 
lie was keenly appreciative of new talent, but his tastes were too 
edectic to satisfy the enthusiasts for anjrpartScular school; he 
oBtainly had no liking for what he considered uninspired 
»r*4npy writing. Serious critics deplored, with more justifica- 
doB. that he ahouU have devoted so much of his great natural gift 
not mexdy to light comic open, but to the production of a number 
<jf snogs wlilch, though always musicianly, were really of the 
lutare of *' poC-boiiing.*' SuUivan was an extremely rapid worker, 
and his fertility in melody made it easy for him to produce what 
vodd pleaae a laige public. Moreover, it must be admitted that 
hi» great social success, so early achievod, was not calculated to 
i^Hzmh a rigidly artistic ideal. But when all is said, his genius 
mnains undisputed; and it was a genius essentially English. 
His dioTch music alone would entitle him to a hi^ place 
a»ong oMnposers; and The Gdden Legend, I'tankoe, the In 
Uemmam overture, the " Irish *' symphony and the charming 
** incidental imi^c " to The Tempest and to Benry VIII. form 
a splendid legacy of creative effort, characterised by the highest 
sriiolarly qualities in* addition to those beauties which appeal to 
every ear. Whether his memory wiU be chiefly associated with 
these worfcs, or rather with the world-wide popuhrity of some of 
his songs and comic operas, time alone can tell.' The Savoy 
operas <fid not aim at intellectual or emotional grandeur, but at 
pRmdins innocent and wholesome pleasure; and in giving 
Dbsical focm to Gilbert's witty librettos Sullivan showed once 
lor an what light opera may be when treated by the hand of a 
Bttstcr. His scores are as humorous and fanciful qtid music as 
Gafccft^ vcnes arc qud dramatic literature. Bubbling melody, 
iiiiiaiiiimatf orchcatfation, lovely songs and concerted pieces 
(vxMf the famous vocal quintets) flowed from his pen in un- 
exhausted and inimitable profusion. If he had written nothing 
dK, Us «iiiqne aocoess in this field would have been a solid title 
uy lame. As it was, it is Sir Arthur Sullivan's special distinction 
wt only to have been prolific in music which went straight to the 
hearts of the people, but to have enrichi^ the English rSperioire 
vitli ackniwledged masterpieces, which are no less remiufcable 
ior their ^f*^^»«<^*1 accomplishment. 

^ abo Sir ArAur SuUiieaH: Life-ston, Letters^ tad R tmim i K encn, 
by Arthur Lawrence (London: Bowden, 1899)^ Bendea being 
Uridy aotobiogFapbicai, this volume contains a complete lift of 
^ttvan's wocfcSb coopiifed by Mr Wilfrid Bendall, who for manv 
jtan acted aa S«r Artanr's pnvate aeaetary. (H. Ch.) 

WaUIWMM* lOHH (1740-1795)1 American soldier and poUtl- 
al leaikr, was bom hi Somersworth, New Hampshire, on the 
iBih of February 1740. He studied law in Portsmouth, N.H., 
and practised at Berwick, Maine, and at Durham, N.H. He was 
a ccoabec of the New Hunpshire Provincial Assembly in 1774, 
aed m in^-'TTS ^'^ *- delegate to the Cdntinental Congress, 
la 1777 be bad been commissioned a. major of New Hampshire 
mTfim^ MmA cu thc K5th of DccembeT 1774 he and John Langdon 
fed an cspedition which captured Fort William and Mary at 
Krw Ckstle. SuIUvaa was appomted a brigadier-general in 
•he Contmeatal army in June 1775 ^^^ * major-general in 
^;^j5t 1776. He commanded a briffiide in^the siege of Boston, 
la June 1776 he took command of the American army in Canada 
ad alter an unsuccessful skirmish with the British at Three 
Rhrrs (Joae 8) retreated to Crown Point. Rejoining Washing- 
*xfi's itmft he served under General Israel Putnam in the battle 
« Loas fcfanil (August 27) and was taken prisoner. Released 
I Iw bore a verbal message from Lord Howe to the 
1 CMgreas, which led to the fruiUen conference on 
In December he was exchanged, succeeded 
Lee in command, of the right wing of Wash- 
w« a the battle of Trenton led an attack on the 
lied a night attack against British and Ix>yalists on 
, OD the a2Qd of August i777- In the battle of 




57 

Bnodywhie (Sfept. n, 1777I %e aga& commanded the American 
right; he took part in the battle of Cerraantown (Oct.. 4, »777); 
in Mardi 1778 he was placed in command in Rhode Island, and 
in the following summer plans'^were made for his cxvoperation 
with the French fleet under Count d'Estatng In an attack on 
Newport, which came to nothing. Sullivan after a brief engage- 
ment (Aug. 39) at Quaker Hill, at th* N. end of the island of 
Rhode Island, was obliged toretreat. In 1 779 Sullivan, with about 
4000 men, defeated the Iroquob and their Loyalist allies at New- 
town (now Elmira), New York, on the 29ih of August, burned 
their villages, and destroyed their orchards and crops. Although 
severely criticised for his conduct of. the expedition, he receiv«l, 
in October 1779, the thanks of Congress. In November he 
resigned from the army. Sullivan was again a delegate to the 
Omtinental Congress in 1780-1781 and, having accepted a loan 
from the French minister. Chevalier de la Luseme, he was 
charged with being influenced by the French in voting not to 
make the right to the north-east fisheries a condition of peace. 
From 178s to 1785 he was attorney-general of New Hampshire. 
He was president of the state in i786'-r787 and in 1789, and 
in 1786 suppressed an Insurrection at Exeter immediately pre- 
ceding the Shays RebelHoo in Massachusetts. He presided 
'over the New Hampshire convention which ratified the Federal 
constitution in June 1788. From 1789 until his death at 
Durham, on the 33rd of January 1795, he was United States 
District Judge for New Hampshire. 

See O. W. B. teahody, ** Life of John Sullivan " in Jared Sparks*s 
Library ef Amerkan Biorrapky, vol. iii. (Boston. 1844); T. C. 
Amory. Central Jekm SmUimm, A VindieaHttt ef M Chancier om 
a SoUier amd a Patriot (Morrisania. N.Y., 1867); John Scales.: 
" Master John Sullivan of Somersworth and Berwick and bia 
Family.'* m the Proceedings ef the New Hampshire Historical 
Society, vol. iv. (Concord, 1906}; and Journals of ike itililary 
Bxpedition of MaJor-CenonU John SuOioem egfliiui the Six NoHont 
<fj»d$em$ CAubuni, N. Y.. 1887). 

SUlUVAir, TH01IA8 BARRY (1824-1891), Irish actor, was 
bom at Birmingham, and made his first stage appearance at 
Cork about 1840. His earliest successes were in romantic 
drama, for which his graceful figure and youthful enthusiasm 
Qtted him. His first London appearance was in 1852 in Hamlet, 
and he was also successful as Angiolo in Miss Vandcnhoff's 
Woman*s Heart, Evdya in Money and Hardman in Lord 
Lytton's Not so Bad as ipc Seem. Claude Melnotte— with Helen 
Faudt as Pauline — ^was also a notable performance. A tour 
of America in 1857 preceded his going to Australia (x86i) for 
six years, as actor and manager. He completed a trip round 
the world in x866. From x 868-1870 he managed the Holborn 
theatre, where Beverley in The Gamester was one of his most 
powerful impersonations. Afterwards he travelled over the 
United States, -Canada, Australia and England. Among bis 
later London performances were several Shakespearian parts, 
his best, perhaps, being Richard UL He was the Benedick 
of the cast of Much Ado About Nothing with which the Shake- 
speare Memorial was opened at Stratford-on-Avon. He died 
on the 3rd of May 1891. 

STJIXY, JAMES (X842- ), English psychologist, was born 
on the 3rd of March 1842 at Bridgwater, and was educated at 
the Independent College, Taunton, the Regent's Park College, 
G5ttingen and Berlin. He was originally destined for the 
Nonconformist ministry, but in 187 x adopted a literary and 
phUosophic career. He was Grote professor of the philosophy 
of mind logic at University College, London, from 1893 to 
X903, when he was succeeded by Carveth Read. An adherent 
of the assodationist school of psychology, his views had great 
affinity with those of Alexander Bain. His monographs, as 
that on pessimism, are ably and readably written, and his text- 
books, of which The Human Mind (1892) is the most important, 
are models of sound exposition. 

yNonxs.^Sensation and Intuition (jBjuX Pessimism (1877),' 
lUusions (1881; 4th ed., 189S). Outlines ef Psychology (1684; 
many editions), foacher's Handbooh of Psychology (1886). Studira 
of Childhood (1895). Children'* Way* (1897). Mnd An Essay on 
Lat^hter (1903). 



Mftntes, oa the ijthof December 1560, of anobleUmily of Flemish 
deKent. His father, Francois de Bithune, baron de Roany, 
(1532*1575), was the son of Jean de B^tJhune, to whom in 1529 
his wife Anne de .Melun brought as part of her dowry a seigneurie 
at Rosny-sur-Seine, which later (160O was made a marquisatc. 
Brought up in the Reformed faith, Maximilien was presented to 
Henry of Navarre in 1571 and was thenceforth attached to the 
future king of France. The young baron de Rosny was taken 
to Paris by his patron and was studying at the college of Bqut* 
gogne at the time of the massacre of St Bartholomew's Day, 
from which he escaped by discreetly carrying a book of hours 
under his arm. He then studied mathematics and history at 
the court of Henry of Navarre, and on the outbjreak of civil 
war in 1575 he enlisted in the Protestant army. In 1576 he 
accompanied the duke of Anjou on an expedition into the 
Netherlands in order to regain the former Rosny estates, but 
being unsuccessful he attached himself for a time to the prince of 
Orange. Later rejoining Henry of Navarre in Guienne, he dis^ 
pitted bravery in the field and particular ability as an engineer, 
in 158 J he was Henry's special agent in Paris. In 1584 
be married Anne de Courtenay, a wealthy heiress,* who died, 
however, in 1589. On the renewal of civil war Rosny again 
joined Henry of Navarre, and at the battle of Ivry (1590) 
was seriously wounded. He counselled Henry IV. 's conversion 
to Roman Catholicism, but steadfastly refused himself to become 
a Roman Catholic. As soon as Henry's power was established, 
the faithful and trusted Rosny received his reward in the shape 
of numerous estates and dignities. On the death of D'O, the 
superintendent of finances, in 1594, the king had appointed a 
finance commission of m'ne members, to which he added Rosny 
in 1596. The latter at once made a Jtour of inspection through 
the generalities, and introduced some order into the country's 
affairs. He was probably made sole superintendent of finance^ 
in I sqS, although this title does not appear in official documents 
until the close of 160 1. He authorized the free exportation of 
gr.\in and wine, reduced legal interest from 8| to 61%, estab- 
lished a special court for the trial of cases of peculation, forbade 
provincial governors to raise money on their own authority, 
and otherwise removed many abuses of tax-collecting, abolished 
several of{)ces,and by his honest, rigorous conduct of the country's 
finances was able to save between 1600 and 1610 an average of 
a million Itvres a year. His achievements were by no means 
solciv financial. In 1599 he was appointed grand commissioner 
of highways and public works, superintendent of fortifications 
and grand master of artOlery; in i6oa governor of Mantes and 
of Jargeau, captain-general of t^e queen's gens d'armes and 
governor of the Basrille; in 1604 governor of Poitou; and in 
1606 duke and peer of Sully, ranking next to princes of the 
blood. He declined the office of constable because he would 
not become a Roman Catholic. Sully encouraged agriculture, 
urged the free circulation of produce, promoted stock-raising, 
forbade the destruction of the forests, drained swamps, built 
rmds and bri<lges, planned a vast system of canals and 
actu.'dlv bcsan the cannl of Briare. He strcnfithcned the French 



mother gave him 3oo/>oo livres for his services and confirmed him 
in possession of his estates^ He attended the estates-general 
in 1614, and on the whole was in sympathy with the polky and 
government of Richelieu. He disavowed the plots at La 
Rochelle, in 162 1, but in the* following year was arrested at 
Moulins, though soon released. The baton of marshal of 
France was conferred on him on the i8th of September 1634. 
The last years of his life were spent chiefly at Villebon, Rosny 
and Sully. He died at Villebon, on the 22nd of December 
1641. By his first wife Sully had one son, Maximilien, 
marquis de Rosny (1587-1634), who led a life of dissipation 
and debauchery. By his second wife, Rachel de Cochefilet, 
widow of the lord of Chiteaupers, whom he married in 1592 
and who turned Protestant to please him, he had nine children, 
of whom six died young, and one daughter married in 1605 
Henri de Rohan. • 

Sully was not popular. He was hated by most Roman 
Catholics because he was a ProtesUnt, by most Protestants 
because he was faithful to the kiiig, and by all because he was 
a favourite, and selfish, obstinate and rude. He amassed a large 
personal fortune, and his jealousy of all other ministers and 
favourites was extravagant. Nevertheless he was an excellent 
man of business, inexorable in punishing malversation and 
dishonesty on the part of others, and opposed to the ruinous 
court expenditure which was the bane of almost all European 
monarchies in his day. He was gifted with executive ability, 
with confidence and resolution, with fondness for work, and 
above all with deep devotion to his master. He was implicitly 
trusted by Henry IV. and proved himself the most able 
assistant of the king in dispelling the chaos into which the 
religious and civil wars had plunged France. To Sully, next 
to Henry IV., belongs the credit for the happy transformation 
in France between 1598 and x6io by which agriculture and 
commerce were benefited and foreign peace and iatemal order 
were I 



ttconomies d'estat. iomestiques, pdii 
U Orand^ Fexempiaire des toys, U pH. 
loix, a U pht tn effet ie ses peuf>les f 
obisstmces cotnenableSt et admintstr 



Sully left a curious coOectioa of .memoirs written in the ncowl 
person and bearing the quaint title, Mimoirgs des sages ti rfy&es 
arc onomus ^d'estat J domestiqtus, pdiUques, et miUtaires de Henry 
' ^ ' " ' • • prince des 9ertus, des armes^ el des 

. . es fmnfffis; et des servHudes mtOes, 
od/ntiitistnUoHS i&yoles de ^b.thw, dv 
Bitknne, rmn des ^us confidens, familiers, et utiles soldais et servUemrs 
du grand Mars des Francois: didides A la France, d Urns les hons 
soldats, H fM» beupUs franfois. The memoirs are very valuable 
for the hiitory oi the time and as an autobiography cf Sully, in sfnte 
of the fact that they contain many fictkms, Macfi as a miasMm under- 
taken by SuUy to Qoeen Elizabeth in 1601, and the famous ** CraiKl 
Design, ' a plan for a Christian republic, which some historians 
have Ukcn seriously. Two folio volumes of the memoirs were 
splendidly printed, nominally at Amsterdam, but really andcr 
Sullv's own eye, at hb chlt<^a in 1638; two otbervolttmes appeared 
posthumously in Paris in 1662. The abb6 de I'Ecluae rewrote the 
memoirs in ordinary narrati\'e form and edited them in 1745- The 
best edhion of the onrinal is that in J. F. Michaud and j. t. F. 
Pbujoulat. NnmHt cailecHm des mimaiwts. rdoH/sA rAutoMV d^ 
Frtmce (1854). vol& xvl-xviL An EngUsfa tmulatioa by Chadarte 
Lennox appeared in 1756 and was later revised and republished 
(4 \x4s., London, 1 856). " 



iOMME, R. F.— SOLMONA 



ttoLODdOQ 

vtuined in 

[am visited 

of Queen 

ift. SnUy 

He died 

(luspor- 

f York); 

lytvania 

ndepcB- 

', West 

e, end 

officer 

in tbe 

mded 



the 
te. 



59 

He ms one of the esiliett cfasmpions of CapUin 
Dreyfus. Ini9Mhe«iote,incoUsboiattonwithCluuksRkhet^ 
Lm FrMkim in muau fmaUa. Daring his later yeais iw fived 
•t CbitcnBy in great isolation, a victim of perpetnal iU-bealth, 
and Buinly oconpied with his j^roie rdifian tdom Pascal (190$). 
He had been partially paralysed for some time when hie died 
soddenly on the 6th of September 1907. He left a volune of 
impaUfahed verse and a prose work, Le Lien mcmI, which was 
a revision of an introduction which he had contribnted to 
Michelet's £« BiUf 4fe r*MmiMl& 

What strikes the reader of SoUy-Prudhomme's 'poetry first 
and foremost is the fact that he is a thinker; and moreover a 
poet who thinks, and not a thinker who turns to rhyme for 
leaeation. The most striUngly original portion of his work 
is to be found in hisphikMophic and scientific poetry. If he 
has not the scientific genius of Pascal, he haa at least the 
scientific habit of nrind and a delight in mathematic certainties. 
In attempting to interpret the universe as science revcab it to 
us he has created a new form of poetry which is not lacking 
in a certain grandeur. One of hb most beautiful poems, 
" L'ld^ " {Stances si pohnes), is inspized by the thought, which 
is due to scientific calculations, of staa so remote from our 
pbmet that their light has been on iu way to us since thousands 
of centuries and will one day be visible to the eyes of a future 
generation. The second chief charactciistlc of SuHv-Prud' 
homme's poetry is the eztzeme sensibility of soul, the pra- 
fbundly mdancholy note which we find in his k>ve lyrics and 
his meditations. Sully«Pnidhomme is above all things intro- 
spective; he penetrates into d»e hidden comers of hk heait; 
be lays bate the subtle torments of hb conscience, the shifting 
currents of hb hopes and feais, belief and dbbelief In face, of 
the riddle of the universe to an extent so poignant as to be 
sometimes almost painful And to render the fugitive phases 
sad tremulous adventures of hb spirit he finds incomparably 
ielicate shades of expression, an exquisite and sensitive diction. 
Ve are struck in reading hb poems by the nobility of hb ideas, 
J a leligioaB elevatk>n like that of Pascal; for there b in hb 
ork something both of Lucretius and of Pascal. Yet he b 
r from being either an Epicurean or a Jansenbt; be b rather 
Stoic to whwn the deccptwns of life have brought pity instead 
bitterness. 

is an artbt Snily-Prudhomme b remarkable for the entire 

inoe of oratorical effect; for the extreme simplicity and faa- 

tus precision of hb diction. Other poets have been endowed 

a more glowing imaginatk>n; hb poetiy b neither exubersnt 

lour nor rich in sonorous harmonies of rhyme. The gnoe 

I vctK b a pace of outline and not of colour, ^ mdocfy 

: subtle rhythm; hb vene b as if carved in ivory, hb wmssc 

bat of a perfect tmlson of stringed instruments. Ifis 

ation b inseparable from hb ideas, and thb bjibe 1 

tztraordinary penpicuity of hb poetic style. 

:o two extreme limits; on the one hand to tbi 

ureal and the dreamlike, as hi a poem nm^ as * Lc 

lous " iVames Undresses), in whfeh he snma >f<«wrcs 

DressiUe in precise language; on tl»4«Aar heme xr ?s 

poems he encroaches on the pHH^a « umi Sn 

plastic in the creatico of fan»«liM it^^^^ - 

kre emotions and hb iUvmnfi < 

lib pure and perfect pbmse ^ 

'gnlty which informs aB h» «« 

-ok among the fun mmr « 1 

inion, U PkOmitfim ^ S«S^ 




m ;— «• 



**3 



temf* 5^- 



6o 



SULPHONAL— SULPHONIC ACIDS 



kUsahoinSw Mam ddb Tomba a good ttunpk of 
. pure Gokkk. S. FnmotsA d'Aasisi oocapks tbe site o£ on 
•Mer umI kiser dnucli, the Romaacaqae poKtal of wbich still 
ttuMh at tlie omI of tbe Cono Ovidb, and fonas the entnace 
to tbe laeat MaikeL Opposite is a pktiirsque aqocdnct of 
is66«itlipoiatedarckea. S-Afostiao has a good Gothic pcctaL 
Tlie 0!pfifTi^» Oraico, next to the church of the Annniiaata, 
hcgoB ia the fist half of the 15th oentuiy» shows aa iateRstiaK 
Buxtaie of Gothic and Bmamtnce stjks. The viadim of 
the PaUsao Tabaasi i^*siinilar» and both ave due to Lonbanl 
BBttsteis. Ia the oooit of the gnainar school is a fiae istb- 
ctaittiT statue of Ovid, the most oelcbntcd native of the tows, 
whcoe neaoiy is pceserved .among the prasant% ia songs and 
foik-lore. The BmU Napoti b an interesting gate of the eaily 
14th centttiy. Innocent \IL was a native of the town. In 
the Tkinky of the town is Monte MoRone vbae Pietio di 
Morane h^-ed (c itst) as a henut and founded a monastoy 
fc«r hb hetmits, who ^ter his devation to the papacy as Ceks- 
tiae \\ took the name of Okstines; the raonaasteiy (S. Spixito) 
leauuned till iS^Ok when it was tnasfonaed into a piisan. 
TVete aie some nuns of the impefial penod. attrflmted, gnMind- 
lesily, to the boose of Ovid near it. Tbe chmch ronUins a 
Gocitk tocsb of X41' by s Gennaa master, in vfakh Renaissance 
indueskce i»« according to BurckhudL. tzaceibke far the first 
tiase ia sixitb Itai^y in the re&lisuc chanctcnaiion of tbe 
portrait %iu«& 

^Inck a d:y of the Piadigai, is first mtntSooed duiing the 
Scvxvxi Puaic War iiii n.c.K It was the secoed town of the 
P»r>^<:ai ia imponaoce. Cef^aiom coening hist. It became a 
Komui «»ik»y prolubh- in the rt«ga of Amrostos. and as a nmni- 
ci^'.jm it coaiiavwd 10 doumh throughout the empire. It was 
9:«ated j m. south-east oi Cocfiniom on the toad 10 Aesemia, 
and wns famoos for its ironwnithft* Hazd^ any renaias of the 
anoirot oly exist above gnoczMl. owing to fn q umt eaitb- 
^«iAk<s.. A Bomber <« dxscoxxsvs of t<«r.tei. iboth arviuic and of 
iK* Rcocoa pnicM^. Ac^ b*ve hcwrvxr been a&aie icf. A. de 
N;ai(v ia .Yv^ftsa* i^i^* ^x?*, passira^. Ooiies Y. erected it into 
a fM*vTxi;^l;>\ wbvii be bestowed on Cbuvs La&aoy, vbo had 
CA^<^rtd Frars-t& L at tbe Kattk of r^ria. It chuaately 
p&>^4d to tbe Cor7»» and B<Micbcst fiimhri The beshopnc is 
hrvw-a as t>k*t of VaIxti stk* ^u'.'>l•«a- 

SCLraOKAW orai^oe^-^ifiVxi^tpjKWvCTljSCvSOsCAV 
a xxl-abie kxTWCic peroArM bv <ocvrrsi~^ aoKoae w::b 
«>\i TirrrcifCAs a tbe rv««vif ol fev^iro^i-Woc acii. tbe wrr> 
ca^«x AHi'*r^^v>v-Hii 5cc3»c\i bets^ sslvtnqiotttOy oxaiiard by 
|v>.i?is.*r» nerrjL:^rt::ut:c ^i^^ Rauauj;^ 5.*^ tiSJiN to. p^ a^jiSV 
fc Si *sc» tccsyu S :^ a.":x^ « aiOv>Kmi: |v>«jt5ii ai«d nie'.\>l 

<.w?v:i » i.'croj; i^* ti*- osjdtiv!-. of d:^v\KT<Al wkSi 
|KCic&Cv» pt^T.i3^p».T.4:*V I; <tx'$:a.:.?c* ia ?«•->«$ aaev:.?^ 
«: s;5* mitki 4?e joctvi".^ rssoL^S^^ la cwi irabcr, b^t 

«&cvOl« a 5? ttt-^ *C K< JOfci Aio =t AKx^Jvi Jl5P«i «<Vr, 

m LK V>r. 1: TcvNT-s^w k-«\r:><«Ni >jtf««» '^ t^'^c*.w«a! 
•r-p.MS mwaK7.i&. XT»>' js tisc asr ,. ui :»di-^;x . htuv$ St>t>o w»Sh 
ar-i-.o^r « ».-»na <c .- K«c *v,.v5s». *«.•$ tx> it* »-vV^S^.l>. 

«r .nor:.. i«-: s$. c :» tvc a .v-.v7««s3 ♦; N* :bf KNirt s-c rr<?v -5:v« 
a: c^T ** ««< w-Ww nv^-rx* .i? <e ci-ora: are <w.-a tr vi:<>i 

TT cta^ sibr> »*«a :iVr* aS b<v^ -^r. iu* f«vv.N:^ 

T»fTr ssv v»lvi»\T^ a iTw».Toa.'. ,»we ^sa he a\v«k^i V* a «*«?♦ 
auac-ve tie mar&c« ^-set .^s acm^oacaaivet Ix ifii ajiwtje ;o 
cstf A «c riMHtt .'t vr anme ibaa a iro A>^ al a tonr, «» « 
Xbe sobtea^ boKx. «Vx>^ ^ mx<>9kW. Vx 
cirbttK«s of ^«r>.vii^ |^>a*rt«». 

mpMM^ ^ al^ «ii#nMa^ a»fi tbe ^^4^ 

sai%^iAmiiontom >i m »mn ^^ ii asrt i jk M>^^**' 

eiia^«tKSk Mav «Ma vwMft of «d|r^M«M; 



a sin^ hige dose. Tiidoai (Ca)(QIiaC(S(VOH^. and 
tetiooal, (C»Hi),C(SO^ii«),, are also hypnotics. They are 
faster in action than salphonal, and tiional docs not diaoider 
the digestion. 

SUIPBfMOG ACDSk in oiipnic cfaemistiy, a gnMip of oom- 
poonds of tbe type R-SObH, where R is an alkyl or an aryl 



AUpkaik Stdpkmde Adds.— Tht menbeis of this d^ may 
be prepared by the direct adphooation of some r»T«jliii« (i. 
WocOail. ilaMr.CA(ai.yanni., tSgS, ao.pL6fi4).by theoiidatiott 
of UKTCaptans with oonccntnled nitric acid (H. Kopp, iloa., 
t84o, 55, p. 546) ; in the fana of tfadr aahs from tbe aO^ halides 
and alkafiae «ipintfs and aa esurs from the alkyl halides and 
aih-cr aalphite. They are fw h wriraa oib or crystalline soUds 
which aie » ttitw i rly hygnaoopic, way lolable in water and 
have a atiungly add reaction. Tbey are anaUcctcd by heating 
with aqoeoas alkalis or acids and are stehle towards eoncentrated 
nitric ackL Phosphoms peataddoride uawato them into tbe 
concspoDding acid chlorides^ RSO^Cl, which are decomposed 
sbwly by waiCL TiMse eUorides, on irdoction by sine and 
SDlphaiic acid, pass readily into the nil r ca| il an\ vhabt M sine 
dust and akobol he laed they are caanfcned into th» •ntfiitinif 
addvR-SCML 

UakyI smtpkmie mai. CHrSQiH. was ohiaiaed by H. Kolbe 
(.4««. I&I5. S«. p. 174) by J " - -•• • - - 



. Chtm, Jotau., 





chkiride .foroiked from chlorioe ajid caibon *»«"'rhn**' ia the c 
of « iter : CS,-r5a»+2H,0 ^CarSOrO -MHO+Saj with sodium 
amiHrxm. It is a coloariess sxTvp «hidi decom p o se s when heated 
abo«v im* C The oocrespoodkng add chloride b aa cxtrnndy 
suble 90i*i vhich meha at 135* C It is focaaed by the action of 
cartxso bUwl;>h:Je on porawBara b i chrum ale ia the mesence of 
nitric Aod fcxdr.x-JiVoc aciis Xocm. ZtxL /, Chem^ 1869, p. 82). 
WImv beattxi uTKier prtssare it deoosrtposrs vith the final prodtic- 
tiM of caiKxix-l and iJikvtxl ciiK-«>les: COrSO^-CCI^-fSO* — 
COOx^SOO,.' £:«> Akr*''*^ A^-x. C«Hk -SOdH. iaa etyttaBine del*. 
j qjrsorrxt 7«.'';i forrwi b\ vix>.rhr.g ctfcxl nercaptaa or hy reducaiw 

I !**< >X CV W<-V 

T>Jos4'?licr.ic ackk of the rrpe R-SCVSH are farmed by tbe 
an>c n of tbe s>.ph.v^;icndes 00 a ooooeatntcd whrt i nn irf potaaaium 
s^v. v.r ; R <v\C: - K^ » R SOiK -rS-r KQ -Ka+ iTsCVSK : 
cr ^^ t V art:.-^= ci :Sr si!t of a s^.ilf->.iT-.x: add oa aa aFVallnt sulphide 
ia tbe pKJ m c t ct Kfiat ;lXt»» Ber^ 1S91. 24. p. 144). 

I A r.*Tu£k: 5ah'f>t.-<«3ir Adis^—Tht acids of this groiq> are very 

! sirr-ilir to the oxT«cx»ii2g al^^tic 5i;!iAocic acids and are 

' x:^.ii.l>ir c»i<Aiaed by ibe direct beatisg of an arocoatic bydro- 

I cartv-o wiih coocesitrated s::l7&=ric acid, haaing sulphuric add 

I or scbhur ci:V.Y^yiria. After tbe action is cooq^cd they 

j CUT tT«>:;ws:t:Y be ~ sahed ocl "* by ad^ag ooounao salt to 

tbe ivSd soh::x« t:rt£ 3i> oore &8o^^es. wbcs tbe sodium salt 

. v^ tbe acii se?ura:» vl^ Gi::trra';'n, &r^ 1S91. 24, p. 2121). 

' Tij^y aw aiso tccT-<\i >y j«:ii.:i=^ th i op b eaob or by deoompos- 

i-^ ^juvvrura sah* mv.V s.>b:Lr.>3S acid. The free acids are 

cs5jil\ S^xTposc^^Tir. vT>H:t. T>e scx^>H wik^ are readily soluble 

Iia v;itxT >iiy<-7. ^e^:M c;>ier tK c ssuic witb concentrated 
^yx*r«.v SXvv ac?d ?o aK'«t 150* C they yiehl hydrocarbons 
' a-v1 94.V>,:rv ac^,! TV salts assalSr crysta^liie wdl, and 
xS.Tse' v>t The **Ax\ rv-.ii* art cr>cj-ed za ibe piepaiatioa of 
r^^'-N-i^ irtyx »5:c>. tK'r p^tss *bca fesed with tbe caustic 
all A* -J. WVf*; djs:.*cc ^'\ tvoess^cm c^-aaSde thqr yield tbe 
i-xN— .j:v r.^r^-s. TNc >;..ViV'*v'^ *^iis ▼iiSi phosphorus penta- 
c^.'s' > A-v vv..•xvr.^i! ir:c sCrevxii^5es wiicb are suble 
»*tce >vl * •> ar'T».-ca iVy yidd sulpbooamidc^ 
^c ibe y);Aonir acids. 
<^ '■k.nt, A^ v'.^ii >v\H NH-CV crvstaSam in amail 

-X jk ,N<x»,s, '•».><> , • -^ v^.;,, mrc*- S.^^ it 5^^"* C (10 mm.). The 
*' -N^KssjiMie «,K,-*K'v»»,- *r*.s^ n;rTVTcar*v the meca and para 
^N^^.ys, -V K M« wx •«<^^<%i.».Y rmtt^c »o t^*sr m^ilo^mcnt in thr 
xV-kN.. .x-4?<.>^ W' ,\ w; s.»v*>v»u^».ia 01 ao^Lae ywsklK the para 
^. -, -fc "^iw*** A.U v\-, \'-. >>'-.- > »-^a:A jyWaBirrs in itm\\ 
v^oiw^ aifc.* w JB^TT^N H.V. "-i*: -t ,-v»c wars". When fused «ith 
»*-.-<v 9v<*<h tj \-«nu4» i— "*.nr '•-rise mssxMM "w^ fhrranic acid 
x«>u» bwaat<&i>ia>a> .a ^va^-aapao ^ k ,aiihaHj m be rcfarded 

awawMiMm «^ CVvv ^ ^ >. When dmaotiaed in 

«mA«ih8lihaam^<v<4|r<M w«^ iHiNci^tJ' u&imeir }irlis heiiamhiae 



5^ 



a ^NvW 



SULPHUR 



6i 



ihs wdi— I «R of tirtndi U iMd •» «■ infibtfor <fA). 

•rW C«H«{NHi) (S6Ji) (i.3J. wliicli ctyttallnei in primia. b formed 
t>>' the Rductioa of meu-nitrobenxeoe sulphonic acid and is iwed 
m the prepantioa of various azo dyee. 

SidpHmie acids, R-SOtH, are formed by reducing sulpho- 
dilorides with xinc dust, hy the action of sulphur dioxide on 
the line alkyls (Hobson, Ann, 1857, 103, p. 7}, 1858, 106, p. 
787): by the action of sulphochlorides on mercaptans in alkaline 
s>hitioo; and by the action of the Grignard reagent on Sulphur 
dioxide or thionyl chloride (Rosenheim, Ber , 1904, 37, p 3152, 
Oddo, R. Accad. Lin.^ 1905 (5), 14 (i.), p 169) The free acids 
are unstable. They are readily oxidized to sulphonic acids 
and reduced to mercaptans Their alkali saks on treatment 
with the alkyl faalides yield sulphones, RiSOs. Ethyl sulphmic 
add, CsHa'SOsH, b a colourless syrup. Benzene sulphmic acid, 
C«R|SOiH, crystallizes in brge prisms and acts as a reducing 
agent. It decomposes when heated with water under pressure 
3C«H,SO,H«CJl,S0,H+CaiiS0,S CA+HzO The potas- 
stta salt when fused with caustic potash yields benzene and 
pctassiom sulphite. 

SULPHUR [symbol S, atomic weight 3307 (0«i6)), a 
Don-metallic chemical element, known from very remote times 
and regarded by the alchemists, on account of its inflammable 
nat'jre, as the principle of combustion, it b also known as 
brnistotie {qv ). The element occurs widely and abundantly 
distributed in nature both in the free state and in combination. 
Free or native sulphur, known also as " virgin sulphur," occurs 
in connexion with volcanoes and in certain stratified rocks in 
se%-cral modes, viz. as crystals, and as stalactitic, encrusting, 
rrniform, massive, earthy and occasionally pulverulent forms as 
, " sulphur meal." It seems rather doubtful whether the unstable 
monoclinic modification of sulphur (Sulphur) b ever found 
ir a native sCate. 

The crystals belong to the orthoriiombic system, and have usually 
a p>nmidal habit (bg ), but may be sphenoidal or tabular. Twins 
are rare. TTie cieava|ie i» imperfect, but there b 
a well-marked conchotdal fracture. The hardness 
ranges from about 1 to a. and the sp^gr fromi<9toa i. 
Crysubof sulphur are transparent or translucent and 
highly refractive with strong birefringence, they 
have a resinous or slightly adamantine lustre, and 
preaent the characcerbtic sulphur-yellow cok>ur. 
Imporities render the mineral grey, greenish or red* 
dish, bituminous matter being often {present in the 
massive varieties. Sulphur containing selenium, 
as oecors in the lale of Vulcano m the Lipari Isles, may be 




. t-nd . and a sioiilar cdour b seen in sulphur which 
anenic sulphide. Mich as that from La Solfatan near Naples. The 
pmcnce <» tellurium in native sulphur b rare, but b known in 
cer^m specimens from Japan. 

V'okaok solphur usually occurs as a sublinute around or on the 
«alh of the vents« and has probably been formed in many cases 
by the interaction of sulphur dioaide and hydrogen sulphide. Sub* 
laed sulphur also results from the spontaneous combustion of 
cijol seams containing pyrites. Deposits of sulphur are frequently 
formed by the decomposition of hydroeen sulphide, on exposure 



to the atiiKMpheic: hence natural sulphureous waters, especnily 
sprian. readily deposit aulphur The reduction el aulphat 
salpbides by means of organic matter. 



bM 



The reduction el 

, -, ^ _ „ - Jtter, probably through the 

afracy of sulphur-bactena. may also indirectly furnidi sulphur, and 
b^e it b frVquently found in deposits of prpsum. Free sulphur 
■lay also result from the deoomposition 01 pyrites, as in pyritic 
dules and lignitea. or Irom the alteration of galena* thus ciystab 
of rjlpbur occur, with anglesite. in cavities in galena at Monteponi 
ftsir igtestas in Sardinia; whilst the pyrites 01 Rio Tinto in Spain 
wnctrntes yield sulphur on weathenng. It should be noted that 
tbe oxidation of sulphur itself bv atmospheric Influence may give 
noe to Milphuric acid, which in the presence of limestone will iorm 
K-.p>um thus the sulphur-deposits of Sicily suffer alteration of this 
< - 1. and have their outcrop marked by a pale earthy gypseous 
rack called bmcaU. 



i of the most important deposits of sulphur in the world 
aic worked in Sidly, chiefly in the provinces of Caltanisetta 
aad Girgcnti, as at Racalmuto and Cattolica,; and to a less 
cstent M the provinces ol CatAoia, Palermo (Lcrcara) and 
Trapaai (Gibellina). The sulphur occurs in Miocene marb 
aad limestone, associated with gypsum, cclestine, aragonite 
and caidte It was formerb^ believed that the sulphur had a 
vokaoic origja, but it b now generally held that it has cither 



been reduced from gypsum by organic agendcs, or mote pro- 
bably deposited from sulphur-bearing waters. Liquid occasion- 
ally enclosed in the sulphur and gypsum has been found by O. 
SUvestfi and by C. A. H. Sjogren to oonuin salts like those of 
sulphur-springs. An important xose of sulphur-bearing Miocene 
rocks occun on the east side of the Apennines, constituting a 
great part of the province of Forii and part of Pesajo. Cesena 
and Perticara are well-known localities in thb dbtrict, the Utter 
SneMIng crystab coated with asphalt Sulphur b occasionally 
found crystallized in Carrara marble; and the mineral occurs 
abo in C alab ri a. Fine crystab occur at Conil near Cadu; 
whibt in the province of Teruel in Aragon, sulphur in a compact 
form repbces fresh-water shcOs and plant-remains, suggesting 
its origin from sulphur-springs. Nodular forms of sulphur 
occur in Miocene marb near Radoboj in Croatb, and near 
Swoszowk, south of CrMWw. Russia possesses large deposits 
of sulphur in Daghestan in Transcaucasia, and in the Transcas- 
pian steppes. Important deposits of sulphur are worked at 
several localities in Japan, especially at the Koeaka mine in the 
province of Rikuchiu, and at Yatsukoda-yana, in the piovince 
of Motsu. Sulphur b worked in Chile and Peru. A complete 
list of localities for sulphur would include all the volcanic regions 
of the world. In the United Stales, sulphur occurs in the 
following states, in many of which the mineral has been woiked* 
Utah, Cobrado, California, Nevada, Abska, Idaho, Loublana, 
Texas and Wyoming. The Rabbit Hole sulphur-mines are in 
Nevada, and a great deposit in Utah occurs at Cove Creek, 
Beaver county. , In the British Islands native sulphur b only 
a mineralogical rarity, but it occurs in the Carbonifeious 
Limestone of Oughterard in Co. Galway, Ireland.* 

In combination the element chiefly occurs as metallic sul- 
phides and sulphates. The former are of great commercial 
Importance, being, in most cases, valuable ores, e.g. copper 
pyrites (copper), galena (lead), blende (zinc), cinnabar (mer- 
cury), &c. Of the sulphates we notice gypsum and anhydrite 
(calcium) , barytes (barium) and kieserite (magnesium) . Gaseous 
compounds, e.g. solpbiir dioxide and sulphuretted hydrogen, 
are present in volcanic'exhaJations (see Volcano) and in many 
liuneral waters. The element also occurs in the animal and 
vegeuble kingdoms. It b present in hair and wool, and in 
albuminous bodies, and b abo a constituent of certain vegeuble 
ofls, such as the oils of garlic and mustard. There is, In addition , 
a series of bacteria which decompose sulphureous compounds 
and utilise the element thus libeimted in their protoplasm (see 
Bactekiolocy). 

Extraetion.-^A% quarried or mined free sulphur b always 
contaminated with limestone, gypsum, clay, &c.; the principle 
underlying its extraction from these impurities b one of simpla 
Uqaation, i.€. the element b melted, either by the heat of its 
own combustion or other means, and runs off from the earthy 
residue. 

In the simplest and crudest method, as practised in Sicily, a mass 
of the ore b placed in a hole in the ground and fired : alter a time 
the heat melu a part oi the sulphur which runs down to the bottooi 
of the bole and b then bdled out. This exceptionally wasteful 
process, ia which only one-third of the sulphur is recovered, has been 
improved by conducting the fusion in a sort of kiln. A semiciicular 
or semi-elliptical pit (iaUaront) about 33 ft. in dumeter and 8 ft. deep 
b dug into the slope of a hill, and the sides are coated with a wall 
of stone. The sole cooabts of two halves sUnting against each other, 
the line of intenection forming a descending gutter which runs to 
the outlet. Thb outlet having been closed by small stones and 
sulphate of lime cement, the pit b filled with sulphur ore, which b 
heaped up considerably beyond the edge of the pit and covered with 
a byer of burnt-oat ore. In building up the heap a number of 
narrow -vertical passages are left to aJloni a draught for the fire. 
The ore is kindled from above and the fire so rcguUtcd (by making 
or unmaking air-holes in the covering) that, by the heat produced 



» RfftrtHces.—A very full article (" Zolfo ") by G. Akhino, of the 
Geological Sunrry of Italy, will be found in the Encielopedia ielle 
arte e tndustrie (Turin, 1898). Thb includes a full bibliography. 



See alto J F Kemp in Rothwell's Mineral Industry (1895), vol. ix.; 
Jules Brunfaut, DeVExpUnlalion des umfres (znd cd., 1 874): Ceorcio 
Spezia, SuU* erietne del solfo nei iiacementi solfiferi deila Snuia 
(Turin, iSoa). For Japanese sulphur see T. Wada, Minerals tf 
Japm (TQfcyOk IV^H)* 



6a 



SULPHUR 



by th« combttstion of tbt Imm tuflicicat quantity of anlphur, tlie 
it«t U liquefied. The molten tulphur «ccumuUies on the tote, 
whence it tn fii>m time to time run out into a square stone receptacle, 
from which it is todled into damp poplar>wood moulds and so beousht 
into thn shape of truncated cones wewhinc no to 130 lb each. 
These oakes are sent out into commerce* A cakarone with a capacity 
of »$,I36 cub« ft. bums (or about two months, and yidda about 
woo tons of sulphur. The )'icki is about 30%. The immense 
vttluiMS of aalphurou* actd evolved 4iive rise to many complaints, 
all the minor pits! tutpend work durinf the summo' to avoad de9truc> 
two of the cfopa. A cahranMie that is to be used all the year round 
must be at least no >xl«. from any inhabited place and. no yds. 
from any (WM umler cultivation. 

More elhcient is the Oitl kUn which uses coke as a fuel. The kiln 
ctM»«Mt« of two (or more) connected ceSs which are both chai]|ed 
with the ore. rW &r»t cell t« heated and the products of oombusttoa 
are k\l into the scw^nd cell where they p^^ up part of their heat 
tx> the ciM^tained o<t>. so thut by the time the fust cdl is cadhaosted 
Ihr nvA«s in the 9rcv>nd cell n at a sutficiently hS»h tempenture to 
«t«ute »f«^^ntanevMul>* when air is admitted* Other Methods have 
bten ew|^nx<iU but mith varyinf oommecrisl success. For otample. 
la the Ctn(ti ackI OrUmki procenea the ore is clurfcd into retorts 
eav) the iusKyi ctfvcted by superheated ste«m. the sulphur beinc 
ma \ifT as tt«ujil. or as wa* 9u$$ested b^ R. E. Bollinaa in 1M7 the 
«\ee ma^t be e«tracte<l bv carbon btsulphidek 

v>u>ie 9uH>*^ur. a» obtained fivva kiln«» contains about a\ of 



v-a 



eartN\ i«»HH.:'t*<^ 4IK.I x\^'v^<\;urmlv nrcd& Te4lmM'. The (ouo* 
jtivMDitut v»n\y<«<\! v>m»{v»MN b> Miohd of ManeUies and iropfo\ed 
M»N<\5«e«m b\ ot>»«r**> enjil>fcp» the RMnuUctwee to produce etther 
\>i tw«> Kvwk* «e " nran<U " »ul»<iiir which coasmcece deminds. Ic 
c\v%9k«is %>l a Istiee av^aie cKimNsr which coasmiuttcates directly 
^fci:N i»v .C^biiK jl»v.. "{< tv^^lkr letortt of irvxu The retvxt* are 
cV»:^:*vl »\tS l•^.^^f« *-. ^^ur uwn an c^hvt resrrsv>tr. w*ivh 1$ kept 
at ?V rf\ja-«te frCv^i^erstJTe b> r-wvi-s o# the kw« heat o< the ret.vt 
arc«k The «^Mt«r V^ a »jii<<><\ \ aW at the t<«p oi its vaU;. whach 
«» A> b*Uncx\i tSat iSe W^ ^ur^^ji^ ptessore ftv«n wHhat 9v«sl» it 
ki.v l>e ar« IX d c* *^.'^"^JI >Aivvir »iix-a «fi:er» tSe c?u:p.i>er 
ta^tr* S^e *!^.* cv>Rvvt> :V ji . <>J tS.- v^a»"S« i^:.> a wxture vV r. :n»- 
Jl<^• *->!«. s^^vr V* v'a-nVv fV er\t f-oA>*tr^ i-^A'tre—w or x A^-'ur. 
|<r;.. IC N£k>»^ii^ ih vH^Vw; a bree «»*«» of ceUtn«4v cv«l $Wk 
cv^-vv-a* tftv" a hi >i V4 ** *.'v»w» ■ h<»«w »a cviewaaeecY a«d vakaed 
a* ' i',^*«T» cd *!-V*^*>'* ^f.-rr* *»*'.M»rv»\ Pn cuMiAti^y the 
>*7^. "V.vM A'-^N *> tVjt tS* t^'-.vrtrvre wj:>'a tSe cVa.:«^e<■ 
»T**Ni •* a; a ft. "K 5c«*tN V.'« Je>c*\x. ': •?» yv\»«N»f tv* v>6<aui :W »SoAf 
a* iVe cew<vt aa iW K^.-« « " rik^henk " it <v«t£>»ct Crofi "" ' 
SMI >^ . • r* «a»^^i *,he cj6>. Ja;ik'« i» rvsJe 10 fo on at the q««k best 
*.' ^ >is ,>Je rsrev rke te«~^>r-iunp oi 5i< v:r->jc ot tV c^^2^f*■ 
ifcvs* -^-^ V •».'«> tyjci tv . w>i -^ '.VN. n ct s-'^^^tf v«-^* C aV 
tV -.. a.v JKV. n, a-v< *: tSe X^.:x^'a a» a iV;ivi. »'>v^ * ci^-f^vi 
^ -,'*• ,i*»«f ^^ t .t»ir »t^ ^r CJt»« *'»ro' t >e c««c-o«kark dcr» o* kv^ 

F Aj*.* a J>ici. i: cvH-^v-'v^ «i m ><. ^ a Sxr^^vf. i sec ;Sf aiv* -.x*" 

ju ^ .>i»>c S •^ :,* •• » .: ..• "v x*- :Vt •v\: ^ ♦ : V -^^t j: 7 *-^ 
c<l« rt««*« •!*<>«< t ,K TV? ^w*^ t x-o »v.»-<t5«rH. j/t vh-c -^ *V«^ .*e %-*». 

* >•».'• -t'»v>* ,x,-»t :'c . ^j. A,v **w ^..'". v"^ •%» :^f •^" 
S* -* -' 1 'v' » 1 •.*« V >vX\ V i' « • \ .^ » * ^1 
'V * .* " •■<>> V V »i .,^r > '"vtiV ■ V Ov- ,,- ^ x-^ ; a^ .X"t -^T 
jd •.•■ ^*» ^!C ' ♦ t-Cv * V 1^ /«» j» ■*.» OvV .' .»«?v t. ^'>> * .•v.irt 

••I. • j» ,V V* -* .1 *> >N>.t . AV- ^Vh> • .*, ^v ■* ^>-~ i "v; 
»"n » . •>•< m ^v ."I ♦v •' *■** ^'^* ''*^ *' .•v».^s%; it 4 m v»*. .♦- ^ w 

♦ l-'t.Af r*V t . •'*■ ■« V - HV *«* j» -.^ s * I .X * «. .%">»' *..>« V»» ,H 

**-v'» o'/Jvv "^ .» *v i»V'*«r >^.. V ,N» i» ^-^ •«9*i -♦.>?» <■». ,xw ■*.■»«: 

•^ • "«. -«.•»» «i s' ->i. . •>" J"** n-.K- ».» • M fa-**!**.. *.!*» ;'.'»n<' 
,^»o '^ ». ,-« ex» » • ' V Nf» >«».*«.«bt ^t::<»h«f> aliv^ » «ij»ak^fi-» 

, 'y ^i-.r-.v*. i.'r: -sv vNr»^y»rx» ♦••tw *^-> w.'gs «-we V.i.%.: 



1 white, powder. The 

• aad dried at a very moderate heat. 



>^l 



«.)>Om< • iia*: -^ 



•"V' ■MOmau i W 'r a!«e«n» wt * w^* 



• •• t 

Vwcv vr xfNMc m >«wf jr e<^e e . * Vf% "jk- >«. 'i*i*« .tse^"*"^!?*. '"Nf 

h ::«r»<«rtf. :4hcw« wye*^ ***« *•«* t- w^. • J' * r-sN v * h 

^Inr ♦ iig i ^i w A TVe natrt^ww a. WMwe v>*. %vm.w 
■||H^^M;^H(Ma^ a«V>^ li(3n||pftar ^ *r kwow a -V S^^N 




Are^cHaes.— Sulphur exisU ia teveral allotrppic modificalioiis, 
but before oooiideriiig these systcmaticaUy we will deal with the 
properties of ordinary (or rhombic) sulphur. Comaerdal 
sulphur forms yellow crystals which melt at 113* and boil at 
444-S5* C under ordinary pressure (H. L. Callendar, Ckem. 
Newi^ 189X, 6j. p. t). just above the boiling point the vapour 
b orsnfe-yellow, but 00 continued heating it darkens, being 
deep red at 500* , at higher temperatures it l^tens^ becoming 
straw-yellow at 650*. These cohMir changes are connected with 
a djwyjs t ion of the molecuks. At 524* Dumas deduced the 
structure S« from vapoar-<knsity delermmatioos, whilst for the 
range 860* to 1040*. Sainte-Claire Deville and Troost deduced 
the formula S|. Bilu (fier., 18SS. 21, Pl 2013; 1901, 34. P- 
MOo) showed that the vapour density decreased teith the tem- 
perature, and abo depended on the pressure. G. Preuner and 
W. Scfaupp {ZtiL pkys, Cieau. 1909. 69. p^ 157). in a study of 
the dissociation isotherms o^'^er 3oo*-Sso*, detected molecules of 
Sh Ss and ^ whibt Si appears to exist beknv pressnres ol 30 mm. 
Boiling and freeAag-point de;enninations of the mdecular 
weight in solutioB indicate the iormula S*. The ifeosiiy of 
solid sulphur is 2-062 to 2-070, and the specific heat 017 12, 
it is a bad conductor of e&ectikitj and becomes negatively 
ekctiiJkd on friction. It ignites in air at 363* and in oxygen 
at 2;s-*So' (U. Moissan. Caat^ nmi^ 1903, 137, p. 547). 
burning with a chan<ricris£k Uue iame and focming much 
suSphur dxMiide, reo^^piiaed by its puaynu odoor. At the same 
tune a little txiauoe is formed, and, accordi^ to Uempel 
v&r., iSgok ^, pk t45>^. hak the siJpbar is con%Tfted into this 
oxivie if the o!>Kb:£siMo be earned out in oxygen at a pressure * 
of ao to 50 a^Bkcsphetes. SiJ^ur a^so romhinei direaly with 
most of the cseasects to fona ^•.'fWrnirfc The atomic weight 
was detefmiaed b? B<r3eL-.A. Erdssana and yaietend. Diunaa 
and Stas. Thdanxn r«^ pkys. Caem, 1894, 13. p. 726) 
obtained the vxlwe 32000*. 

j«w*v/«. ff - - y--|-f ''i^liB ■1ITMIIT fijmniiif. nmor- 
;;^SK3$ aasi ^^fiSiK^' ccCcuii: aones. BissoeicaDy the most 
is?octaai as« the iK>b^ ^S«.i aad moarwihiir (^> lonns, 
ofeSOBsed by E. M tschexhch in k$^2 tsee Amm. chat, fkys., 
iSix, ra. ^ :«wA T^e tnss^xraarieas cf these two fonos arc 
.*^-isseNi -: Ciciicrsr^v. /liMakjiL Rhcnbsc se^shnr mny be 
c^;x.2l^i ar:^.>c-.j..\ by skfvi^ cr^^salLang a vnVirm ol sniphar 
j^ cai^iNx bcn.>a:joe. er. better, ^y capwsing pyridMe salaratcd 
w«:^ sa,;^^^«fet^e^i ^^xft's^e*? is» a rawe^ &etg o ax^ti e w (.\hrens, 
^- :5s.w it ^ r-c\5* !t » nsoc.iur =1 wa:er.« bat tcadily 
s^ :^ sit cartsa btdoi^oe. si.I^car cikcide and od of tnr- 
3«tt. le. The <«mBN.iis K«mix:iaac vaaety is oheained by 
X'V^'v^ a crrcst M> >»-9 <ver aiiit l lijn su^ wi by partially 
,\vv -^ V a>; ^Sra Vr*i'i.Tg Ae crts« aaif pco^ cS the 
>.J ;sv< ^Ktvo. «s«tx><c«in :^ zTAvr «f the weasel will 
X ».M.>2 c««>e>a weu> ».*Qy ««iikes or ^hs vaarty. like S. It 

* «^^ >i«f <!» csrSm >«!st.r^r.ce Tlree acher ! 
M>e >«« jift<~^-*i F^ »:rfl:p i^vo a sbAi:x« of 
*.»•>»>;*-::.>*;■? •»..> ^S-fSbsssax ^«an>yft-.fc a. Geznes Cjmpi. resntf. 
;>isai. \>x > x«4 .^^^xi3«a a »ircK woack he seemed matmi (a 
."*»* -s <.'**** ir ;W s»aw ii*iaiic»-vtt w«s iftirMad by Sahntie: 

>^..* *<^v ^>^ ^ t,x,'? w ?ffi4:ag V«'i 

• .> *rv\>iv* ve i'.HT^ I. * ^aaiJ** csx&^iflr 
'•tot^Ssr \>f«W vevc afe.wj« wr^t ::Je vnt? j 
» .Ns » vx» >* >,■* **!? J >» » weiitiiws <r A si ul i» n 
A «.*- •^'"'T . n SiutM ct» s» iTjcflC w^ r s m ^rth g aaaf 

V Ti \ 4"^ >^ i.r K *Vu 5* TcT^c* > »iMtwr^ 
^'•»* --^' Sc ♦ * •* >^v» :* r^\*i .Tv»; ?^ iR.vi?;p a sol--'. 

•k'-v ».'v-«'. jt •»•*? ,— ^K ni *'-> ^-^o^.ivrw the cstnti 
^•c*. ' e V »»» V "■ A> ,•• »!>?>-* vwi % — v-:a*c ainn rr rh'mrd 

»•*-• ^ V •> > t»%'v>*:* 



SDLPHOR 



63 



K salpfaur or Sy etku in nm foivtt, one tohible in 
cmrboB bbolpliide, the other insoluhfe. MUk of sulphur (see 
ftbow), obtained by decomposing a polysuiphidc with an acid, 
contains both fonns. The insoluble variety may also be obtained 
^ < Wirom j[>n M ng sulphur chloride with water and by other re> 
actions. It gradually transforms itself into rhombic sulphur. 

Hie colloidal sulphur, S4, described by Debus as a product 
U the interaction of sulphuretted hydrogen and sulphur dioxide 
in a q im oua solution, is regarded fay Spring {Jitc. Irm. ckim., 
1906, 25, p. 3S3) as a hydrate of the formula St-HiO. The 
**blue sulphur," described by Orloff, has been investigated 
by PSatciad and MauucchcUi {Abs. Joum. Ckem. Sac., 1907, 
ii. 4S>). 

M^Uem 5iif^icr.— Several interesting phenomena are witnessed 
when solphur is heated above its melting point. The solid 
^ts to n pale yellow liquid which on continued healing grad> 
aaiiy dartena and beoomes more viscous, the maximum viS' 
cMity occuiring at 180*, the product being dark red in colour. 
This change b associated with a change in the spectrum (N. 
Luckyer). On continuing the heating, the viscosity dmiinishes 
vmie tbe colour irmains the same. If the viscous variety be 
rapidly cooled, or the more highly heated mass be poured into 
•ater, an elastic substance is obtained, termed plastic sulphur. 
This substance, however, on standing becomes brittle The 
riiiiirtrr of molten sulphur has been mainly elucidated by the 
Rscarcbea off A. Smith and his colbiboratOTS. Smith {Abs. 
JetifM. CktM. Soc., 1907, ii. 30, 451, 757) regards molten sulphur 
as a mixture of two isomers Sa and ^ in dynamic equilibriiuB, 
& bcJBf light in colour and mobde, and S«i dark and viscous. At 
b« temperatures Sa predominates, but as the temperature 
is raised Si* increases; the transformation, however, is retarded 
by some gases, «.g, sulphur dioxide and hydrochloric acid, 
sad accelerated by others, e.g. ammonia. The solid derived 
fron Sa it crystalline and soluble in carbon bisulphide, that 
bom S» is amorphous and insoluble. As to the formation of 
precipitated sulphur, Smith considers that the element first 
srparatfs in the liquid Sp condition, whkh is transformed into 
S« and finally into S«; the insoluble (in carbon bisulphide) forms 
sriie when little of the Sft has been transformed, whibt the 
soluble consist mainly of S*. Similar views are adopted.by H. 
EnlanaDB {Ann,^ 19018, 36a, p. 153), but he regards S^ as the 
polymer S, anaJogous to ozone Oa, Smith, however, regards 
SpasS». 

Compcmndi. 

SolplMirctccd hydroeen. HtS, a compound tint exanmned by 
C. Scbccle. may be obtatned by heating tulphor in a current ojf 
> >d ro t«ii. combination taking pUee between 300* C. and 358* C, 
imJ being complete at the latter temperatore, di«ociatioa taking 
place adbo«« this temperature (M. Bodenstein, ZetL phyt. Ch«m., 
t999. >9. p. 315): by heating some metallic sulphides in a current 
of bydrocen: by the action of acids 00 various metallic sulphides 
iierrptis sulphide and dilute sulphuric acid being most generally 
emptoyvd): by the artMMi of sulphur en heated paraRin wax or 
vaaelme. or by heating a solution of magnesium sulphydrete. It 
ii afao produced dann^ the putrefaction of ofganic substances 
ooerainiitg sulphur and is found among the products obtained in 
the destructive disr^tion of coal. To obtain pure sulphuretted 
t yj i u e e n the method genenlly adopted consists in decomposing 
piecipitated antimony sulphide with concentmted hydrochloric 
and As an ahemarive, H. Moissan {C^mp. rgnd., 1903. 137. p 363) 
CDwdew j es the gas by means of liquid atrand fractionates the product. 

Sulphuretted hydrogen is a colourfess f^ possessing an extremely 
oJen w ire odour. It arts as a strong poison. It barns with a pale 
Mae flane. forming sulphur <fioxide and water. It is moderately 
soluble in water, the solution possessing a faintly acid reaction. 
This Mluiion b not very stable, since on exposure to air it sk>wly 
evJtzes and becomes turbid owing to the gradual precipUation 
of solphur. The gas is much more soluble in alcohol. It forms a 
hydrate of composition H>S7HA (Oe Forcrand. Ctmpt tend, 
tSM. 106. p. t357.) The^as may be Kouefied by a pressure of about 
t7 atmospnefes. the liquid so obtatned boiling at ~6i 8* C . and 
by forthn^ cooling it yields a solid, the melting pcnnt of wl^ch is 
grren by various obs e rvers as —82* to —86* C (ace Ladenburg. 5ff.. 
'9<iO' 33. P 637}. It IS decomposed by the haloeens. with liberation 
ol stt^ur Con c en t r a ted sulphuric acid also decomposes it 
H,SO,+H3-2HiO+S0i+S. It combines with many metals 
to form sulphides, and also decomposes many metallic salts with 
pradectioa of sulphides, a property which lenders 11 



extremely useful In chemleal aoalyaiB. h Is ft^equentfy used as s 
reducing agent: in acid solutions it reduces ferric to ferrous salts, 
arsenates to araenitcs, permanganates to manganous salts, Ac., 
whilst in alkaline solution it converts many organic nitro compounds 
into the corresponding aminoderivatives. Oxidisinig; asents rapidly 
attack sulphuretted hydrogen, the primary producu of the reaction 
being water and sulphur. 

By the actbn of dilute hydrochkKic acid on metallhr polysulphides, 
an oily product is obtained which C. L. BerthoUet considered to 
be HaS*. L. Th^nard. on the other hand, favoured the formula H|S|. 
ft was abo examined by W. Ramsay {Joum. Ckem. Soc., 1874. is. 
p* 8^)' Hofmann. who obtained it by saturating an alcoholk: 
•otution of ammonium sulphide with sulphur and mixing the product 
with an alcoholk solution of strychnine, considered the resulting 
product to be H«Si: while P. Sabatier by fractionating the crude 
product in vacuo obtained an oil which boiled between 60* and 
85* C and possessed the compositbn HtS». 

Seveml hakwen oompounds of sulphur ate known, the most stable 
of whieh is sulphur fluoride, SF«. which was first prepared by f1. 
Moissan and Ltheau (Cmm^. rend., 1900, 130. p. 865) by fractionally 
distilling the product formed in the direct action of fluorine on 
sulphur. It n tastelesa, cotourtess and odourless gas. which is 
exceedingly stable and iner . It may be condensed and yields a 
solid whuJi melto at ^55* C. Sulphuretted hydrogen decomposes 
it with formatuM of hjrarofluoric acid and Kbemtion of sulphur. 
Sulphur chloride; S|C1«. ts obtained as a by«product in the manufac- 
ture of carbon MCiachloride from carbon bisulphide and chlorine, ond 
may also be prepare d on the small scale by distilling sulphur in a 
chlorine gas, or by the actfon of sulphur on sulphuryl chloride in 
the presence of aluminium chloride (O. RufQ. It is an amber- 
coloured, fuming liquid possessing a very unpkasant irritating smdl. 
It boils at 139» C. and is solid at -8o» G. It is soluble In caibon 
bisulphide and in benaene. It u gradually decomposed by water: 
2SiCl. + 3HiO - 4HCI + 2S + H,S,0,. the thiosulphuric eckl pro- 
duced in the primary reaction gradually decomposing into water, 
soMiur and sulphur dioxide. Sulphur chkmde dissolves sulphur 
with great readiness and is-eonsequently used largely f6r vukanixing 
robber: it also dissolves chlorine. The chloride SCh according to 
the investigations of O. Ruff and Fischer (Ber., 1003. 36, p. 418) 
did not appear to exist, but E. Beckmann {Zttt. pkys. Ckem., 
1909. 4S, p. r839) obtained it by distilling the product of the 
interaction of chlorine and S>CI| at low pressuiea. The tetrachloride, 
SCI4, is formed by saturatine StCli with chlorine at -S3* C. (M ichaelis. 
Ann.t 1873. 170, p. I). It IS a yelkiwbh'brown liquid which dissoci- 
ates rapidly with rise of temperature. On cooling it solidifies to 
a crystalline mass which fuses at ~8o* C. (RufT ibkl.). Water 
decomposes it violently *with formation of hydrochloric and sul- 
phurous acids. Sulphur bromide. SiBri. is a dark red liquid which 
boils with decomposition at about soo* C. The products obtained 
by the actk>n of iodine on sulphur are probably mixtures, ahhough 
E. Mdvor {Ckem. Sevs, 1902, 86. p. 5) obtained a substance of 
compositkm Salt (which in all probability is a chemical individual) 
as a reddish-coloured poller by the action of sulphuretted hydrogen 
on a solution of k>dine trKhlonde. 

Iv>ur oxides of sulphur are known, namely sulphur dioxide. SOr. 
sulphur trioxide, SO9. sulphur sesquioxide. S|0*. and persulphuric 
anhydride, SiOr The dioxide has been 1tno«^ since the eariiest 
times and is found as a naturally occurring product in the gaseous 
exhalations of volcanoes and in solution in tomt volcanic springs. 
It was first collected in the pure condition by J. Priestley in 1775 
and its composition determined somewhat later by A. L. Lavoisier. 
It is formed when sulphur n burned in air pr in oxygen, or when 
many metallic sulphides are roasted. It ntay also be obtained 
by heating carbon, sulphur and many metals with concentrated 
sulohuric acid : C + 2H30« - 2SOi -f- C0» + 2HiO; S -f 2HiSO, - 
3S6i + 2HiO; Cu +2H,SO, * SO, -I- CuSO, + 2H,0: and by 
decomponnff a sulphite, a thiosutphate or a thionkr acid with a dilute 
mineral acid It is a colourless eas which possesses a characteristic 
suffomting odour It does not burn, neitner does it support com- 
bustion. It is readily soluble in alcohol and in water, the solution 
in water possessing a strongly acid reaction. It is easily liquefied. 
the liquid boiling at •^8* C, and it becomes crystalline at -72 7* C 
(Walden. ZeU, pkys. Ckem., looa. 43. p 43') Walden (ibid.) has 
shown that certain salts dissolve in liquid sulphur dioxide forming 
additive compounds, two of which have been prepared in the case 
of potassium iodkle: a yellow crystalline solid of composition, 
Kl'14 SO*, and a red solid of composition, Kl 4S0i. It is decom* 
posed by the influence of strong light or when stronely heated 
It combines directly with chlorine to form sulphuryl cnloride and 
also with many metallic peroxides, converting them into sulphates. 
In the presence of water it frequently acts as a bleaching agent. 
the bleaching process in this case \mn^ one of reduction. It b 
frequently used as an " antichlor," since m presence of water it has 
the power of converting chlorine into hydrochloric acid SO, -h Cli -h 
2HiO * 2HCI + HtSO*. In many ca^es it acts as a reducing agent 
(when used in the presenceof acids): thus, permanganate* are reduced 
to manganous salts, wdatesare reduced wtih liberation of iodine. &c , 
2KMnO, + 5SO, + 2H,0=.K,S0« + 2MnS04 + 2H,SO«: 2K10,+ 
5SO, + 4HK) - Ii + 2KHSO, -f- 3H,SO,. 



H 



SULPHUR 



» or b» aa «qu3ibciiia nuiturt of theat 



It U prvpartd on the InduttrUl teilo Cor feho maoufacture of 
iulphurlc Actd, (or the prtp«ratk>n of lodlum sulphate by the 
HmgroavM procttc. and Tor um as a bleaching-diainfoctinf agent 
and At a preterv«uv«. Whrn comprosMd it m also uwd targdy 
«• A rr(rlscr«ting •gvnt. and in virtue of its property of neither 
burnInK m>r •upuortiiig coniboMion it is also used as a ore cxtinctor. 
Thr Muitlon oitliv B<tB in WAter is u«cd under the name ol sulphurous 
acid. The frvt ectd has not been isolated, since on evaporation 
tho volution RrAduAlly loses sulphur dioxide. This solution possesses re- 
duving pn>|HMties«and gmduAlly oxidises to sulphuric add on exposure. 
When hmted in a seAled tube to 180* C. it is transformed into sul- 
phuric acid, with liberation of sulphur. Numerous tilts, termed 
Milphiies, Are known. Since the free acid would be dibasic, two 
•CI N« uC salts exUt, namely, the neutral and acid salts. The neutral 
alkaline salts are soluble in water^and show an allcAline reactioa, 
the other neutral sells being eith«r insoluble or difficultly soluble 
in w.«trr. The acid salts have a neutral or slightly acid reactioo. 
The »uli>hltvs are prepared by the actioo of sulphur dioxide on the 
«xUle*. nvdro.\idc» or carbooatee of the metals, or by pro ceases of 
Mt\ i^nt At ion. Sulphurous add nay have either of the coostitation 

, >a oT r /OH 

twt> substances. Altho«tgh the correct loraMila lor the add ta not 
known, suU^itea are known of both typaa. Sodium sulphite is 
Alnu^t certainly of the second and unsymmetrkal type. Two ethyl 
«4il|«hit<<« aie known, the hnl or symmetrical forsa beinc derived 
lix^n «uU^ur>i chloride and alcohol, and the second and arnym* 
metiKAl (txim sodium sulphite and ethyl iodade; the junction of 
4Me ethyl gnmp with a sulphar atom in the second seh follows 
bc\^u«e it yiekls ethyl sttUthonic add, also <4>tunAble from ethyl 
mcnA^Han, CtlUS^I. Two isomerk sodium pi^assium sulphites 
aiv' ktK^wn. and mav be obtained by ncutnsluiog acid sodium salohite 
«)ih ix^Msium ciaitHMMite. and acn) not»>erium solohite with sodium 
«AiKM%Ate; their lovmuUe art: Oc>KvONa) and U»SNa(OK). 

rSir<Y Anr >^arioas Kahwl d«fi>^ti>^(<s of sulphmous acid. Thioaiyl 
II^NHuW. S^>K^ has been obtained as a fuming gns bv dtcompoaaiv 
Ai^^itK AMs.>cide w^th thioayl chkwide vMoM»Aa end Lebeau. itmft, 
r(«i , ig^vv i%«\ p^ lavV'V It » dccoiapoiKd by w«tee into h\\k«- 
Wjxmk^ Ait^l «uUih«N«ias «ci«lik Thionyl chkvidr. SOCH. snsy hie ob- 
tAt>K\l ^\ the 4kik>ii of pKcwphcvus peote^ hVande on sodium sulo^ite: 
b\ tN* jKtk^M) ol 9«il|>hiir thvvudr c«k Mlphur dichkviJe at 7^— So* C 
V,\%**. 1 Wii, ^Wk\. l^MA. fv 4^>^ ; mmI bv the action «* chKxiwt 
WKN.K\\rxV \wi '<*)^>httr at Vvs te«n)wraturs. It is a ootourksa. hi^hK 
rr :ac<* ^ i»s)ttsl. KnUng at 7>*: 11 iumcs 00 exTvwurr to m«tt$t air. 
\\jitv« >V\viia;v^ses « oitv* h>\fcvvhWmc a«d mv^^utxhi^ acid*. On 
tivs»,,')kir«ki *.,S vv«a«Rj«ii b«\.«iK*r K >ieU» thK>A\l bffv>m»ie. SOBev 
« 4 x^ A •^- VT^ o» t^^AKl mSx h Km'.-» at e** C t.«i> auKk) yKanoe and 

>v'.>h«i tiwvKW SkS. Bsr »?N>-<*<^I b\- Batti Valrtitme «» the 15th 
cv**, •*. %<•* v>K«>«MNJI t\ V Umwrx- n »o;>5 Sv <!k "*ag grvew 
\v.x4 It MM^ t^ j»re^>*wsl b\ *fc^»I*.»««ij lumir^ *«'4*cnc ac^j. 
V* *VN-e«K*MVNi s«ki.'S^x jktJ o*«t v>.Nv<w^>Kooc» t,>f»K«»Jhf. or b>i 
tV X- \vt « •v\* v< >,\-^.t v-vvAt «uh vxwvvB « tW pw«»ce ct 
a > *. i \^ '*vS> a* i,>fci: *jcvi Jiiisfwtv* vj*pe Si i rni asc Acip\ Th» 

*, '« ** v" I; v\'«»v>»v>f^ t\^ tW >*— .s»r w^>4«^^.'.Ar <vi^,>«f\ >0v 

,* .• ,V « >\-«a i; .\>»* .■^•vN'vt* t»> xV rvNKvv'ijKr «,v«^^\ >x"^- > 
ViN ' «v • <vx \ %' ^ :^ ^ vNvw Va* ».«ca«>ex- vX-.xvnrs .; vxvt^t •*♦ 
»v,N X iv'»<xv«\ •♦;^ «^«.cc t.» S>t'm s. .n^.^tc *.>!. ••:» tJie 

«.*>>• V' X V ' ««-.)[ auLtx ,»^j. t V o.^M»,N>fc N^-ss ?4 ♦v'x'Tjf :i>r <m » Ki '»c» 
Vk «a.. •* ifu rx ..^^«*^ AV k:v»x»j^p A cji S,'.» -x^' T'^JK.^ h Vx?ct- 
J^.vx *•* •scv\S »',■* rN*»* c*.-*- vto ,fv* cv.-^«,.vx •VI. i n: -"rv:.f»**^ 

>v. \^ . X . *-.^ ■» -vx' V\F% Vfwinl V* At ».TCff M 'ttccrnae jw «»f- 
»,Kii , X x>Wf -' V ,«««vaiL .V"^ A. ^•vu v>r ^ V*. T**' o».Yec» '^p'* 
■«fc .^.v <v»Vu. •r^* Jfcx *: .V,. 6*x An x-«-: *.T>. >iv%vftint ipiAixj *s 
♦ Nv4 - N'* x' S.'^*-**'* x*u.x*vv >v.W^ k">t A."* i. tv>; .r "^^^rf 
>. V xh**'l ♦<«•.*•. *<•-- >-N «*«. .'. ""V >• *Wair'.«M 

v» X » » . -••• J* a «fcA.A«* y» ,,« >«-«rae a*.- -s.i^-c^ c:v'*».« vki* xsw 
K ..''. • r»{\j» >i» ;-v ii-«svt A^MCu jx -M. •.»>*»- ..c*;«xir .^ic .h*.*!— nt 
,->»xv . "^ a J"hf A^r«e»K.^ 4« a «v.'» otirw-.S"* a>nt >» >«:«-»* 
,"• ..x>w vKxKv ♦.-< »f s^ #r«««i«Mr w* a ^a-a *»<< s,x'V !>- »:",'4'x 

. • x>v V «..*xNMMft<«^ ^«i»i^ u«iavr a*iv» X>»:^-i' ?»» " ^ a ic • ">.x^ 

> • K a^*^>» A a.* «wi» 4» V»».txjAwrx «k-v a* ^vI^ommm ^«ul^aKr 

V ^ cys«»v J w»g *.>*. SkW* x.>». arsc a wj s i ^nr i* V m Uks.i>^v* 

■•x* Jt^ >:^ • >:«. "^ a. . ^ •!»* Mwct uMiw J* "^ ,.s* «• 

J ■>.-«*«- «<•% l «ia » t c> ibp^. a^xa «b. iH« 4tSk» >a wS^ai— tf K, «t3v •■• 

.«c >.xam8«ssimMM m^r^Mr^. *.w «v-> j»s » i » jms> aK»<.-w.i<vY 



c •dd.eBlphafykUpride. Ae. 

explosive violence. Disuiphuryl chlonde, S^»Ctt. corresponding 
to pyrosulpharic add. is obtained by the actioo of sulphur trioxi<ft 
on sulphur dichloride, phoephoros oxychloride, sulphuryl chloride 

-~OCU-"'" ' — 



or dry sodium chloride :6SOs+2POCli 
5SQ, - S*O.CI, + 5S0,: SO. + SO^Cl, - 



P«0»-f SS^CU: SiCit^ 
S>«0,Cls. 2Naq+3SO,' 



S|0»CIt+Na,SO«. It may also be obtained by distilling chlor 
sulphoiuc add with phosphonss pentacbloride: 2S()tC1-OH-f POk- 
S^tCh -(- POCU + 2HC1. It is a colourless, oOy. fuming liquid 
which is decompoeed by water into sulphuric and hydrochknc aods. 
An oxychloride of compoation S^^U has been dncribed. 

Sulphur sesquioxide. SJOu is formed by adding well-dried flowers 
of sulphur to mdted sulphur triozide at about ia-15* C. The 
sulphur dissolves in the form of blue dropa which sink la the liquid 
and finally solidify in blue-green crystalline crusts. It is uostaUe 
at ordinary temperatures and rapidly decomposes into iu faeaeratcri 
on warming. It b readily decomposed by water with format ion 
of sulphurous, sulphuric and thioculphuric adds, with simultaneous 
liberation of sulphur. Hyposulpharottaadd. H^^i. was fiint really 
obcaiaed bv BerthoUet in 1789 when he ehowed that iron left in 
rith an aqueous solution of sulphur dioxkle dissolved with- 



out any evolutioa of gas, whilst C. t Schdnbdn subsequently 
showed the solutton poaeeaaed redudmr properties. P. Schutxen- 
beraer { C mm pi tend.. 1869^ 69, pL 169) obtained thr sodium salt 
by the action of mnc on a ooncentntfid solution of sodium bisulphite 
Zn + 4NaHSO.-Na.SdO«-|-ZnSOi + Na,30s-l-2HA the sak 
being separated from the sulphites formed by fraaional precipita- 
A solution of the free acid may be nepared fay aading 
•cid to the aohrtian of the oodiom anic This aoMion is 



at oniinaty 
ire sine salt 



pocassHia 
• Issge tab«br crystals. 
■ otfoayfem. 



and m very nnsrahir ^ 
into sulphur and sulphur dSoaide. A fsire ; 

1 by Kabl (ifraa^.. 1899, ao. p. 679)by acting 
with sine on a sohttion of sulphur dioxide ra absohite akobol. whilst 
H. Mosasan (Cam|t.'fl«nd.. 1908. I3«t. p. 647) has akso obtained snha 
by the action of dry aulphnr diasDde on varioM metallic hvdridesw 
Consideiable oontrovrny arose aa to the constitution of the salta 
of this acid, the formula of sodium salt, (or exampie. being written 
as NaHSOi and Na*S/>«; but the inxTstigations of C. Bernthsen 
V4nn.. iSfti. aot. IK 14a: itta, eii. pL 185: Btr., 1900. jj. pl 136) 
seean 10 decMfe deftnitdy in favmir of the Inner (ne abp TS. Price. 
JjmnuChtmk.Sm.1 ako Buchcrer and Sch«aibr. Zai. CHfm. ClesK., 
1404. 17. p^ 1447)- Ahhow^ thb acid appears to be dnived from 
an oxide b/K it is not certain thai the known \ 
anhxdrkle. 

IVrssilphnric anh>^iMde. ^Os b a thick \ 

bv the action of the suewi d»:karge epon a mixxaee of aniohur 
trroxkjr aaJ vxyx-jrea. It fcikiiSes at about o* C to a mass of long 
atedV?^ aftki is x^err \T<tiTTV It is drrocrposed readBy uKo sulphur 
tricvude ar«d ete x fe a whew bcntcd. Water ikm rn pu s tj n wish forma> 
taon << «:;f^«nc ac«d and osxvrw • S^0» -«• 4H^ • 4H£Oi 4- Oi. 
l\r^'vx''.rK acad. HS.V tV Aoi corrcsccndiag to SdOt. haa not 
berta c<Mx -x?d ;a :Se rr* sta^e. K: us. silts wmt Sn» psvpaied in 
li^tVx H MiTihu .'rmrm C*m Sx., itei. p. 771 ' b> ckctrohrsang 
4ch£:«<>ns ol tbe A*ki lar bKMtVhsssi. The pocassHicn ak. after 
rrcrvvtaJisaatK^ ;*vxaa w.traa w.a««t. 9 . 
It» *4neo«s k4. :«.>• f*MC ^ *% <teoM»:i 
tv'^a^ws as a «erx(^ oiuku-t. a^i VSeratcs kiiine ( 
Kvoe. 5x<x\. loots OK ;«rR^'viku<^ a tV ccU gnte no predpatate 
wKk SRrk«.wi c"^ •.rx.v kx.t w^ew wamec b^nnm ax.';^ce is prccipi- 
tatrd w*c> >i*w. :i ««x>i«> LCiesao.^ vs c^xanae lUS^ -r BaC^ » 
K»>x\ ♦ KaSv\ T C* TV cv.'»:ian.x'.x mi a 111 mill of G, 
^^(x.-^ ~v. T< t^ tac >i ^ cv>is«<«ui( t V ccwSt: tJC JT «aa 

T> v^ ,*.^*-*: ac-xr ..fTam.x xm V; i . cv«i.-.:»i *r£*A acid, H^iOa. 
c»*"v< Sr ; f r-*trxt\: -t '.W r-v* -ftj:* $.j..ie < $r»sulT dKomposea 

>^S.\*.-^\ ;Vf >.*->*•» ;fcr auTJi. kcwrtee. «e srabk, the 
Sk.v .4 ^ sfcX '* AS. '. -r«lw tx .i^^-f<c'x i2<>^ .Y pbtx^nsfhac nnniriM 1 
i iv.Tc< ,W fci ~« .•• > .w'. * 2 j> >J.t ¥1.1 . >e ggrpiw^ b> digrsttag 
ie»-«T> .«• IK* *,rf- * V > swt J -^ vJ *•»■ ' ; tc*^ "Aaa ar 5% txni^ag snlphas 
w<> w < .X ^.ne .a :%a a:v«r neacrvxs tar «m9 ^-w« soKstjon 
,s^u. 'xxi e«^ evK>v< ;^ *.- wX.'S .ar cxiruas pc»vsfc:*»ie lorascd 
» 4r*w»*a ^ vV^i^xTiv' lie," t^.os* .-**» i* j."v*c*riiw«. and the 
ot V . n *xi. ; » A> ,x-«xxr ts ^XNT »<r-. i^i ^ v : *c *.'»ri— "^ ii-X • > <o di» t n> 
■rjrix.xakK<r cr >^ ^a ,- *>< .**.>.. .r.^a?^ »?^ 7r*;,»N cxcc-xfosed 
>xk m.w-x a^-v-^ % * :^x-*^. v,» a <..»»ar Ccaa» a."»i »«c:xtfa ,on 
>J« «ti'.>«>>tf \.*:>^ X ^ ,' - . *iXaO '-S-'-S:* -HsO Tbty 
vrw n»», A.M>Ne s**^ 4 ^ f x< a jtt-< «a.-t4K ^.n ni en w>th icrrjc 
%h».v>»*«r xc»."vx». > •* .xnvxtx Sf%«»'t(r c^ ...;-« • in*i rorir-.a; oa 
9^*u».tif ii»iki-.'>** >c T< .t-rx »>psr .^ *.'; » .-T-a..oemJ 10 
suwie'V' w <■ -.v' i.tt vV- <- C« • x-Jv^ >.vTim -1 v-6^ :aiA£c "escts 
wit> f.^xi >w»w« M- (tx^ si.>2 4'n (xvit >T.os*. .-^J.:* »*jch oa 
rTWW't'tc %«x> ^<»-^4.w H>»eror i r^ .nvs-iiu.:*' ^r..,^ etVyl 

..• » , . a V >U>.^'fc * N. X ^ , .->, .' ^.v .~ •.- ^ b!^ WS-Cl pSLZtS 
V V jxrr*..'x-f X V: ^*- vv • t 'v tv vv » t 
:V . * .. i^ .. • . V ••>*.« ' ^ J' - ' ^ r -iz M:r*is^ '^ {■ ; -J tr al 

X.«»-t» i a •* >w**w ^Xt*-: >. ^ > *'■ .'."sc- '• ?- «*:"" -"'"'JC 



'SULPHURIC AOD 



«$ 



M tkt fonn 4 

b>dnted mai 
ioto the nuxt 
npitargd byi 
BungAocse ill 
peoter iJamn 
Alxiostentird] 
tenic oxide, 

2Fe^oH), +.; 

the available i 

ci ferric OJutk 

free- add nUK) 
dilute suiplmi 
It 4Uaias a da 
ikm leadittc U 
Acid. Thedtl 
kydrocbkxic ] 
iucmation of . 
t^ (orm oC it 
utjtKinoCppl 
or b«r warin 
K-Ajio, - A 
by addins Kxi 
\'^,SO, + Si 
stable; aad a 
k>droAttosaiici.. 



iphur dioxide 
It is then pre- 
>xide. Much 
id H. C. Car- 
It this can tie 
ieby hydrated 
the equation: 
loints out that 
SO. + H^ + 
lat in the case 
te is obuincd, 
olution ci the 
turn salt with 
in vacuo until 
hex concentra- 
and sulphuric 
en boiled with 
ir dioxide and 
s obtained in 
r dioxide on a 
2K,S,0,-hS: 
thio&ulphate: 
i>' be prepared 
and sulphite: 
sahs are un- 
be addition of 

■^wuwwr^ni. .. ■ . , ation iu vacuo 

decomposes capNlly: HtS^c - HtSOi + S -f- S0|. Tetrathionic 
acid. HtSwO*. is obtained in the form of its barium salt by digesting 
barium thkiaulphate with iodine: 2Ba,S|0i + Ii « BaS/)* + 2Bar 
the btariufli iodide formed being removed by alcohol; or in the 
(orm of ■odium salt by the action of iodine on sodium thiosulphate. 
The free acid is obtained (in dilute aqueous solution) by the 
addkioo of dihite sulphuric acid to an aqueous solution of the 
banum salt. It is only stable in dilute aqueous solution, for on 
coocentratioa the acid decomposes with formation of sulphuric acid, 
loipbur dioxide and sulphur. 

Wackenroder's solution (Debus, Joum. Ckem. Soc., 1888, 53. p. 278) 
b prep ar ed by passing sulphuretted hydrogen gas into a nearly 
uturatcd aqtieous solution otf sulphur dioxide at about o* C. The 
KAutiott is th«a allowed to stand for ^8 hours and the prodeas repeated 
■naay times antil the sulphur dioxide is all decomposed. The 
reacxioos takinff place are complicated, and the solution contains 
aitimately small drops of sulphur in suspension, a colloidal sulphur 
< « hich Spring (Rtc. trav. chim., x^o6, si, p. ^i) considers to be a 
hvdrate <» sidphur of composition S|-H]0), sulphuric acid, traces of 
mrhkmic acid, tetra-and pentathionic acids and probably hexathionic 

arid. Tbe solution obtained may be eva] '— * " — *" *t 

artaias a density of 1*46 when, if partially 1 (i 

s . drvjxide and filtered, it yields ciystals of 1 

K:S..(V3H/>. The formation of the pei e 

nrpresented most simply as follows: 5S0} + 

4H|0. The aqueous solution of the acid is / 

'.^mperatme*. The pentathionates give e 

Kkinaoa of ammoniacal solutions of silvr / 

a bUck pre ci pitate. Hexathionic acid, Hj! t 

« the raotber nqoon from which potassium \ i. 

fbe solution on the addition of ammoniacal s — ^.w - 

lariy to that of potassium pentathionate. but differs from it in giving 
19 immediate precrphate of sulphur with ammonia, w' lu- 

tJOR of the pentathkxiate only gradually becomes turl rtg. 

The per-acids of sulphur were first obtained in iro 

(Zni. amgrw. Chem., 1 898, p. 845) who prepared mc ric 

add by the action of sulphuric acid on a persulph; cid 



It 
dy 

, ,^_ ^ , 3». 

See ff. E. Armstrong and Lowry, Ckem. Hews (1902). 85. J>- I93; 
" '" " ' " ~ : H. E. Arm- 



Biay a ^ be prepared by the electrolysis of concenti 
x:id. and ft IS distinguishable from persulphuric ac 
that' it immediately liberates iodine from potassii 
beiuvo as a strong ondant and in aaueous soli 
k>-tirolysed. It most probably corresponds to the 1 



Lowry and West. Joum. Chem. Soc. (1900). 77. p. 950 
strong and Robertson, Froc. JJoy. Soc. 50. p. 105; 
Ber . 1902. 35, p. 291 ; Jemm. Chem. Soc. (1906). p. 53; A. v, Baeyer 



Fhmnmacoiogy. — The sources of all sulphur preparations used in 
nedkiae (except cabi sulphurata) are native virgin sulphur and the 
sulfides of metals. Those conuined in tbe British Pharmacopoeia 
are the following : (I ) Sulphur suUimalum, flowers of sulphur (U.b.P.). 
vhich is insoluble in water. From it are made (a) conjcctio sidphurii ; 
Kiii uniumimm iulphurisi (e) xit/^iiMr^a«ct^'(a/um, milk of sulphur 
U.S.P.) which has a sub-preparation trochiicus sulphuris each 
krOAce conlaining $ grs. of predpttated sulphur and i gr. of potassium 
add TAwnte; {fi polaisa iulpkurata (liver of sulphur), a mixture 
of sahs (k wluch the chief are sulphides of potassium: (0 sulphuw 
iodidum (US.P.). which has a preparation unguentum sulffhuris 
iodidi, strength 1 io ac From the heating of native caldum sulphate 
aMd cwixm is^itainedf o/x sulphurata (U.S. and B.P.). or sulphurated 
&me, a greyish-white powder. 



ThtrapeuiUs.-^ExUnMy, eulpbttr is of use in aUn affectaMM. 
Powdered, it has little effect upon the skin, but In ointment or used 
by fumigation it has local therapeutic properties. In scabies (itch) 
it is the best remedy, killi^ the male parasite, which remains on the 
surface of the skin. To get at the female aad the ova prokmgcd 
soaking in soap and water b necessary, the cpiderm being rubbed 
away and the ointment then applied. Predpitated sulphur b also 
useful in the treatment of acne, but sulphurated lime is more power- 
ful in acne pustulosa and in the appearance of crops of boils. Inter- 
nallv, sulphur is a mild laxative, being converted in the imestine into 
sulphides. Milk of sulphur, the oonfection and the bxenge. b 
used for thb purpose. Sulphur and sulphur waters such as those 
of Harrogate, Aix-la-Chapelle and Aix-les- Bains, have a powerful 
effect in congested conditions of the liver and intestines, haemor- 
rhoids, gout and gravel. Sulphur b of use in chronic bronchial 
affections, riddiiig the lungs of mucus and relieving cough. In 
chronic rheumatism sulphur waters uken internally and used as 
baths are effectual. Sulphur in some part escapes unchanged in 
the faeces. 

When sulphur is burned in air or oxygen, sulphur dioxide b 
produced, which b a powerful dbinfectant. used to fumigate rooms 
which have been occupied by persons suffering from some infectious 



SULPHURIC AaD. or On. of Vitriol, H»S04, perhaps the most 
important of all chemicaU, both on account of the large quanti- 
ties made in all industrial countries and of the multifarious uses 
to which it U put. It a nol found in nature in the free state 
to aoy extent, and although enormous quantities of its salts, 
especially calcium and barium sulphate, are found in many 
localities, the free acid b never prepared from these salts, as 
it b more easily obtainable in another way, viz. by burning 
sulphur or a sulphide, and combining the sulphur dioxide thuf 
formed with more oxygen (and water). 

Originally prepared by heating alum, green vitriol and other 
sulphates, and condensing the products of dbtiUation, sulphuric 
acid, or at least an impure substance containing more or less 
sulphur trioxide dissolved in water, received considerable at- 
tention at the hands of the alchemists. The acid to obtained 
from ferrous sulphate (green vitriol) fumes strongly in moist 
air, hence its name " fuming sulphuric acid "; another name 
for the same product b " Nordhausen sulphuric acid," on account 
of the long-continued practice of thb process at Nordhausen. 

Ordinary sulphuric add, H3SO4, may be prepared by dissolv- 
ing sulphur trioxide in water, a reaction accompanied by a great 
evolution of heat; by the gradual oxidation of an aqueous 
solution of sulphtir dioxide, a fact which probably explaius 
the frequent occurrence of sulphuric add in the natural walets 
rising in volcanic dbtricts; or by deflagrating a mixture of 
sulphur and nitre in large glass belb or jars, absorbing the 
vapours in water and concentrating the solution. The Utter 
process, which was known to Basil Valentine, was commercially 
applied by the quack doctor, Joshua Ward (1685-1 761), of 
Twickenham, England, to the manufacture of the acid, which 
was known as " oil of vitriol made by the bell " or per campanum. 
Dr John Roebuck (17 18-1794), of Birmingham, replaced the glass 
vessels by leaden ones, thereby laying the foundation of the 
modem method of manufacture (see bdbw). 

Properties. — Pure suli^uric acid, HjSOi, b a colouriess^ 
odourless liquid of an oily consbtency, and having a specific 
gravity of 18384 at is*. It boiU at 338'*, and at about 400* 
the vapour dissociates into sulphur trioxide and water; at a red 
heat further decomposition ensues, the sulphur trioxide dis- 
sociating into the dioxide and water. It freezes to a colourless 
crystalline mass, melting at Io•5^ The acid b extremely 
hygroscopic, absorbing moisture from the atmosphere with 
great rapidity; hence it finds considerable application as a 
desiccating agent. The behaviour of aqueous solutions of sul- 
phuric acid b very interesting. The pure acid (100% HiSOJ 
cannot be prepared by boiling down a weaker acid under any 
pressure (at least between 3 and 300 centimetres of mercury), 
an add of the composition H>S04,i>7H>0 or 12S0>,13HX> 
being invariably obtained. Neither is there any advantage 
gained by mixing this hydrate with sulphur, trioxide; for 
when such a mixture b concentrated by evaporation, sulphur 
trioxide b vaporized untQ the same hydrate b left. The pure 
add, however, may be obtained by strongly cooling thb hydrate; 



u 



SULPHURIC hClD 



iHMn It MpM»tn In tkc form ol white cryitab, which melt at 
10*5*1 tod on ftcntk htatlug e>t>lve sulphur trioxide and again 
|i>rm lh« tamt hydrate. When strong sulphuric acid is mixed 
with water there b a great development of heat; the hea| 
•v\4vvd when four parts ot acid are mixed with one of water being 
auRWienl to rsi«e the temperature from o* to xoo* C. (Hence 
the Ultoratory precaution i4 always adding the add to the water 
ami not the water to the acid.) In addition to the heat evolu- 
tion there is abo a diminution in volume, the maximum occurring 
when the c\>n\ponents are present in the ratio HiSOi:2HtO, 
thus )x4ut\i\g to the existence of a hydrate lIiSO«,2H40. 
A second h>^rate« H«StX.HiO» may be obtained as rhombic 
1 i\«laU« which melt at ?* ^nd U^l at »o5*. by diluting the strong 
avul until it has a spccinc gravity of 1*7$, and cooling the 
n^ixtutf ; this convi^und b sometimes known as (/u«ia/ smlpkttnc 
a. *J. Both the mono> and dih>>irates form freeing mixtures 
wah snow. Olher h>>lrat«a have also been described. 

K.N*<.fiNMM ^IphMno 4Kid h*« ih* xiHteM <\^mmec\-«l Applicftiioa 
%4 aU vtwm«<4l iVvVkV«t*. Hcrr \v\U hmvIkwu of conuiwtvSAl 
Mtthu «tn te \»«*Kk<r\l. AfHl rfKM>f«HY *KvHila l>e mjK*p to the article 
S^ i r«ii a Kw rMctKMis inhK-K Jitv ra«w v>( j puirly Aricett6c ictceeat. 

>*^\v \t 4x«»vf Uh »»k;V-s Ai»<i u> ix^mift vi» fvx^'<K o;h<* acid* 
tivv^ iW*t *aV.v Itt lix- lii>: suvp *< Kavt u* ■K-iK>t the use of j 

(«^ «k».)i ma^t t«e u^ xUnvtN. a« K«c w!Ut.^ balkx>o» «>r lor | 

|V ^SVt* Ol <\V*«b<^v{KMIC Off Mft lK<- <M«,rf«J \VAvt4tMaL toff iv\ivctK>a 

is .;xv*^. a* fiv N^ A -^ » iSr \as»f 1 * x^v-* '.k^ v i>v>*" •»«> v'** Ami ivfc^ 

v^*^ >r ^V,v^. X' *vv* »»^\ tKr tiV»A*v>« N *'>'*-.x<"» «" ac\v*\*i-v^ 
%..N .V vv.^^ *• <fv:, i,vsx \| -^ tU>«.\ - M^^V f 11^ vM vVa.-:icsf 
Vhi*.- a^v«^ >•« v»^A .>*t vx t%v* an>«fc* o«l a »v>.wjiVft< ar^ai . *Vtif 

av k»H.N.Nv na \V »\vv > . ."r a..* V,.; c>jK'^N«f *~ :V t^^; 
«( . ^ *v v «.^oW -vNa.x >- ' ^^.- s-..-v-,V •>-*: M - Jil:^\- 

aK »• ,<«» 1\*^ xV»»: '-<\ S*.' ^^ '•t.Ji ;W\'<wa"v .s ofc"N>a cvoe 

S.S >vx* \i .-Vv *.s -v .-'•'X^ oA-N",,.v -^a,x'%v- .vv-^v.-xxi 

>^\-»v i.* '.t%"^5«k *.'»/■ V Jt.»v xx*v V\o%-».*»vvv r ;-x' j^~>fc~Vnc 
4i»v aut^ vxK-N *» v> av '<.■■.- *... *A- >» .W >>,*.* »x ?*. '^i -c 

^ Vx fc.-vN 

,"*.»' "X * "^ .\^>v->« vi» l^>.. ^ .» <N -. "- .V i-V •>^ ■» 

^ m "% -An »>— V > V O • "V • ' ^•*» '^' ' V • ♦^ * - •-* 

*. ^ C** «K a •• X .i *.• A ,*.-X^' '^>iv.\v.v i'C , • v.v "^ .T - *.--»»\-». 
flV * »v- '^ "H"* « »x ♦ V"V J- \\«»r 'jx vV V xNNr».' vnj> ,•* .*V ^V.-X'''^ 
«(v * rsi • »n I-.. » .'.V»x^* » -V ,\N"*,xx* tv.^ -^ ^Jii*. Z* ' ^ -c 

^ » A, X * K -xsx ^ N. • ,-v . * \x -•'S*.'^ T?v '.» - <. .» 
^ ,'.».\'«^ » X ,- S,"N I ', x"v""v' *'» •..V- ■ w :« -V ;»'r-<^•^^r ,^ *> 
^•.*'. 1 *»>c ak-^x, It *.» ,%-\x>H V t^ •vx,. jt ^-nf- •< t ,ji*^ ji4\, »v 
^X x'«*p'*o»»'^ ,x » •■» V .^■%*'.x>..!\rfc •» i's p -.v> *'» ,va'»»r'-'5V 
•»\x» x-\-~ v.x"^ * »v x^xw;^ 0%^ «. 'V .V • « 5> «x. • >» ,j..s«.xr 

V . iX---v -X • .>v 4.. *.' .V x .V- ' -- .-. ^- .t 

> 1. •• . tx >.•>-. .► .. -.x-' V .'•' •. V ^ 

«| V J.^ * X V JV"^'- ^^ '*- !• ^--v, . -I** .«'TV 

,*«i« in ^ 1^ .» >^-x %V'»» - -x t -V >'-^ V. ♦ ^•♦.XWx >«*il-». V 



sokiUe in water, mluble in steong sutphttric sdd. and almo§c 
tniolubb in alcohol. 

Sulphates may be delected by hesiinn ^^ '^^ miscd with sodium 
cnrfoonate on charcoal in the nducing flame of the blowpipe: 
•odium sulphide b thus formed, and may be identified by the 
black slain produced if the mass be tnnsfencd to a silver coin 
and thtfi mois t ened . In solution, sulphates are always detected 
and estimated by the fonnatioo of a white precipitate of barinm 
sulphate, insoluble in water and all the common reagents. 

jHasM/odnrr. — ^The first step in its manufacture is the com> 
bustioo of sulphur. Formerly thu was employed eachnively in the 
free state as brimstone, and thb is still the case to a considerable 
extent in some countries, noubly in the United States, but the 
givat bulk of sulphuric acid is now maide from metallic sulphides, 
especially those of iron and zinc. Most of the brimstone of trade 
comes from Sicil>-. but in the United States Louisiana soMiur is 
playing an important fart, and seems Itteely to oust the biciiian 
sulphur. Free sulphur is abo contained as gas sulphnr ** in ihc 
** spent oxides*' of gasworks, which are actnBy utilized for the 
■uiuifacture of sulphuric x\± Sulphur b aho wow ere d in a very 
pure state from the " alfc::*> waste " of the fjrblanr process, but 
thtt ** recovered sulplmr is too enpcusne to be burned for the 
purpose in question. In the Uniied Kingdom much gas sulphur 
IS used for the ssanufacture of sulphuric acid, logctlier with a 
limited ooanticy of SkiKan sn^ur for the productioa of sulpliuTic 
acid freeliom aiseuic 

4 much larger percentage of the snlphniic ac ' 

Crfites, a^ more or less pure dtsulphide of iron 
tve ouantities in macv oocatries. Great Briiai— , _., 

lutV 01 it. Irelaid a bttV mere, but of poor quality. Most of ihie 
rxrittrs cvMksciaoi in the I' tared Kiafdom come firom Spaiw; this 
NMub^ pvntcs geoerkUv (ao* alwav-s) contains tnumth copper 
\«av ^ or 4"^^ to make tr& extractioa from the residues (** cinders ") 
a pa> i^ prucY«Sx asxi :hi» oi course cheapens the price of the sulphur 
to :br noj min'jjacta'vr. Sp^iia abo scpohes much pyrites to 
G«rra&ia\. Frarce aitti Aoenci ^U ot which couatiics are them- 
9ei\vs pcvxfucvTs of tkzs ore. Swevim ajhi Norway are mqwrten 
vX i: tc 4*1 rS«ie cv^c-rne^^ OxV rxT-.-« contains fiom 4S so y>**. 
exvY^xxv: -> ^r*" to 52S 01 w'.>i^. of whicb al but from i to 
4*. & -• -"Ai mSr-a S-r- -"c i>t one Arx-<Ser metallic snl^>hide, 
Nv-iif, - ai\ » J« -~ Axti -vif Sx>» Orf-iu.-^. B«^.«m«nd the Cniied 
Sr J, rx"^ "? ^^v - Vrss >o • cc ; "^ V ~ • xi Kl-^ j. sa. as a .mmce of sulphur. 
Bx- jv cc»-:a.*s xX-V ir».>.: iu. *» =r-*:r <wr*jr as good pyrite*, 
a^^ :'^i.> c^-c i.x S: ^4.: x:«^ jfi as caaf-. as trom pyntcs^ but this 
rt.>a>: x ^-^ -«' >< >^ - 'v >xx->cv« ^ a=) case is order to prepare 
sSc .XT .,v :Sj <\--- . "- ,» -.N: r.»r. 

cv- ->c.^.ae 2N «^>..« :«. -"vc »-.-iicut axr csamnenus help: indeed 
?W xX-A .-rtfv-i^rxNT -!!v;, -."c a» ^» :.aaM c*-e fest the beat produced 
>» ;ssc Vw t-^j: -«- v^**J >••■- --»:: ace -i-.x;*: :.je part of it an the ua> 
S« ''ICC <A"f. F^.c^ x'ajt w* ««■ ^( r*r--«i> axQufad. and SMuetinMS 

*~Nf r.-w.. x xX .* ".c». ^».i'> :;^^s» T^ace ■riWjt wsmg any 
«\~»'Kv>>-* *-<» :'Sf kr*: c.»vi .-rf r* r"^ ^jods'iaa ol the sulphur 
a:^^ :i« mv.t >cxx x- V jx.Jtv.-xTC 5c car-> oa £Ik ^rooesa. It the 
xXT » .* .xk.xw xX .2kf S..A; .:& a «xkij^c jr •sw-ards. SK is snnsted in 
.Xw. t *(.''&.* xV ^«.-Y'>x' ;t>.-<-t.A!vi w^ a gating «if cuicable 
x^N-^j-A— c vv -K* ■^-x.-.i' ^ -.♦»: c-_?OBTh. wr-i n saJe doer in the 
. > x-« .V . •.-> .^^w X- ')s ' >*^ "«^^ ^<^ ^«: K^e asp of the partially 
:^ *vx- .%-r J x: • . I * t * -. >.jx».i„iev: -xX.-* r<um whic^ the bunhcr* 
x.«^ » ,-4. '*wx j% i« .1 i K< x^.tT.nutt s^ a %ah3w me «tf Usk. The 
Ml .-«- a^r; J. «i .^ ^«v »x A .-</<« xX zvc'xe jr isdEC and ant <me after 
ix,^xrt ^v vx" -^JvTf jr z»x.^ a .2J.I a: a^civcnase imerxals, 
*.- rax i W-- x' .-ii* »■« .» *.•»' ^iss iik^or ^ me ^^ ro^nd- B> 
.-"•..-^i . jsi -X4. ,c ..xv** v.-ix a c^ «■* a.rcT-,aK«aaaci> uufonn 

. x">. '„» IX .X-- -vx .'.-«• • • .r^ T'^as. 
>v"k » * a I I -X- v.\. S»' , * ii i>Att ii *» dt oK^gcai. ' 
^ r xt '.. ' ^.".v :» \.k x\.- V- Cij ..-jr *I r*? 50^ moo SOi or 
" ^^* X ?^ -. x«» "^t*- '> -•>■ .i'*^^ * ■«»» ' ^t anriK L on uidi i i.d 
- -> •t» .X . V . L * X. x.-.Tir-.'-r .Xm.x :t*: d£ pmoeSk butt iJiia 
• TTv.i-. >. x vvt rtv x'» .• x" ..tis *i v*.-u» wav^ |nim.]|i iTIy 
K- vv . •.. ♦*{» xiv *- • -vovrwv X. 3* £► Maiecra. and 
mx-s. X- H .^v -tv^*x %tv}^ •«■-. • -cx"^ ibjAisc anauci^ CDSiSned 
•■• V'v •• * >v«x -V .«--(^ .\ «x..r » 




r-.-^ x«:>2iaae than the 

«<t>t imaRssuwd. 9mA gas 
n ^iHK.frr ID that 
swrsrc»»sa9T abo 



SULPHURIC ACID 



The ns prodoccd in the buraiBg of lulphor ofcsi when imiinc 
from the burner, holds io oaechafucal suipensioa a considerable 
qoaamy of " Boe^ust," which must be removed at far as iscMactic- 
afalc before the |as io sobjected to further treatment. Flue-dust 
nodfHuly fenic oxide, aiiie oxid6, acsenious and sulphuric 
t small quaiititka of the various metals oocurriag m the 
I the market b obtained 



» the bumcr-gas is employed diractly 

far the sohe ot the SOb which it coauins, principally in the madu- 
factsie 9i " sttlphtte oellttfese" liom wood. When the fas is to 
be otiliaed for toe maoufactoie of sulphuric acid the S0| must be 
usiiKf d with move OKyflen, for which purpose an " oxygen carrier " 
■sft be employed. Until recently the onl^r agent practically used 
for this pu f poo e was furnished by the oxides of nitrogen; more 
recently other oocycea earners, acting by " conuct processes," have 
abo come into use (see below). 

The pniduction of sulphuric acid by the assistance of the oxides 
of the oitfogen is caitied out in the " vitriol chambers." These 
are iaiiQi nstf iwxptaclei. mostly from lOO to 200 ft. long, ao to 30 
ft. vide, umI is to 25 ft. high, constructed of sheet-lead, the joints 
o< the dieeta betag made by '* bumiog " or auK)genous soldering, 
Kf. tummg ihera tO0eiher by a blow-«pe without the aid of solder 
(which would be quickly destroyed by the add). The vitriol 
chambers moat be aupported on aU sides by suiuble wooden or 
ipM framework, and they are always erected at a certain height 
over the pwand. so that any leaks occurring can be easily detected, 
le nesnly aU cases several ce these chambera are connected so as to 
fonn a set of a cubic capacity of from 100.000 to aoQ.000 cub. ft. 
The banser gaa is introduced at one end, the waste gases issue from 
the other, the movement of the gsses being impelledpartly by their 
•«■ c h emi c a l reactions, partly by the draught produced b;^ a 
chimatT (or tower), or by mechanical means. At the same time 

' IS incroduccd in a number of places in the shape of steam 

' ' I as a spray, to furnish the material for the reaction 
H.SO4. - * 



SOi -!> O -f HsO « 



As this reaction of its own accord takes 



plve only to a very smaH extent, an " oxygen carrier " is always 
lairedttccd ia the shape of the vapours of mtric acid or th^ lower 
ondes of nitrofcn. By the play of reactions induced in this way 
practically the whole of the SOs is ultioMtely converted into 
mip haii c acid, and at the same time the nitrogen oxides are always 
l euw e t e J with comparatively very slight kMses and made to serve 



The reactions taking idace in the vitriol chambers are very 
ooaiplicated, and have been explained in many different ways. 
The view hitherto accepted by most chemists Is that devek>ped 
by G. Lunge, according Io which there are two principal reactions 
- each other, it may be in quite cont«uous places, but 

reat condidons^ Where the nitrous fumes i>revail and 

there ia lean water present, sulphur dioxide combines with nitrous 
acid and oayten to form nitro«o>sulohuric acid, a crystalliae sub- 
waacc of the formula SO»(OH)(ONO). The reaction is therefore: 
SOb + O -f HNOk - SOiNH. The solid aubetanoe is, however. 
only enoeprioaaUy aaet with, as it at onoe diawlves in the mist 
ef iB^phuric acid floating in the chamber and forms " nitrous 
TtfrioL" Wherever this nitnuM vitriol comes into contact with 
liqwd waeer (««f atcam)* which is ako present in the chamber in 
the shape of mist, and practically as dilute sulphuric acid, it is 
itaua^Kwrd into sulphuric and nitrousackl. thus: S0b(OH)(ONO} -f 
UyO - HJSO4 + HNOh. The re-formed nitrous acid, although not 
waUe. any more ihaa is its anhydride. NaOt, is nevertheless the 
** osygcn carrier " in questuMi, as the products of its uxmtaneous 
deeomjpoaition. when meetmg with other compounds, always react 
fake aitfviia acid itrelf and thus may transfer an indefinite ouantity 
of uaygu' to the corresponding quantities of SOi and Ha>. with 
the carrespoodiog formation of HasO*. This theory at once expbins. 
imeag other thuiga, why the acid formed in the vitriol chambera 
always cootaios an excess of water (the second of thfi above-qnoted 
nanions requiriog the " mass action " of this excess), and why the 
exienial coolrng produced by the contact of the chamber sides 
wMh the air is of great importance (/ifuuf water in the shape of 
a mist of dilute sulphyric acid being necessary for the process). • 

la 1906 Lun^ (in a paper published with Bert) to some extent 
SBorfified hi» views, by introducing an intermediate compound. 
mlphfwitnmic acid. SO^NHi, whkh had beva noticed by various 
chemists for aosae time through its property of imparting a deep 
bloe coloor to sulphuric add. It is evident that the ^' nitrous 
gases " pseseat in the vitriol chamber consist esientially of a mixture 
•f NO and NOa, the latter being formed from NO by the excess 
of oxysen present. The NOi (or NO + O) reacts upon SOi + H|0. 
fanmna SO»NHa. which, being extremely un«table, is at once oxidized 
10 SOjiH (nitroao-sulphuric acid). The latter is now either con- 
verted by hydrolysis into sulphuric acid and nitrogen oxides: 
3SO»NH + H/> « 2H,S0« 4- NO + NOi. the Utter acting as 
before: or it reacts with more SOi. forming again sulphonitronic 
acai: 2SO»MH -f SOi + 2H|0 » H,SO« + 2S0»NH«. The Utter 
caa alsoapKt up directly into NO and S0«Ht. 

Wharever be the true theory of the vitriol -chamber process, 
thrre is an doubt about the way in which the reactions have to be 
camad out ia ptactirs. Since the reactions occur among gases 



and lifiuids m the nrtUA'Au •r«> ^w .... 

in which the proM** Mw/ U '.'/^' ,^ ' 

before the waste «*m» >m •.i.^*-- ' > • ' ' 

These spaces caoocA U «//w w 4/ 

ally done in the shape tA ♦/- - ws - 4...., ^ > 
work can be employed Urn ti^ \^4^^ . .• ' . 
destroyed by the acid ljqutd«««<<^fe..«,i.. ' 

WheA issuing f mm the 'tM*'.«>i> ■•«•/>-* . 11 ., 
of the free nitrogen conuiMjd u**** t^ r'..^ * ..^ ' ' 

burners, together with aU^/t »«#/<^*..^.,, 
oxygen originally present thcr»t», *■•'« « ,^^ . ./ .„ 
quired in order to carry out il*** */fu,*i ^,* ,/ -., ' 
into sulphuric acid as complctt-ly »* ^,.: ,^ , ^ 
it Is necessary to employ much ttuft* «.« «/ .,^ . , 
H^O«; and this u all the more n*"*^*/^ ** ,. ^,, 
dissolves the nitrous compounds in tU »>.•<>• ,4 ,., 
add. and thus withdraws these oxyg»n r^//^*, 4,.^ 
of the chambers where the nacesMry i^m^t^L,*^ %,.^ ', 
foOows from this that the acid coll«rfing ^ t'l^ v/ '. / . 
chambera must never exceed a cen«in tin^Aut, <^., 
H^4 having a spedfic ^vity of i -61 5. l/ui lU^i^»\, , 
it only 66 to 67%, having a specific grsvity *A \ f.i ., t ^ ', 
the other hand, it should never go downliekrw O/ % | \hu ^a - 
to a specific gravity of 1-50. ». »- • 

The commercial production of sulphuric «/id uni^i **>.'*, 
requires that the nitrogen oxkles (which oririnaU/ ^t7t ... / 
introduced in the shape of nitric acid) should l>r itv^tUt^ ». i,/, . 
as possible, before being lost mechanically or hy tt-Ati* im/u u, '. i 
inactive forms of nitrous oxide or elementary nitr«A/ii |i« 
first step towards securing this requirement was XttVm «» m\/ 
as 1827 by Gay-Lussac, who discovered that the n\\ttm% fuu^ 
otherwise carried away from the lead chambers by the wd*te »u»tt,' 
spheric nitrogen and oxygen. couM be retained by brir»g»»|( il.» 
eases into contact with moderately strong sulphuric arid, iW m g|i 
being the formation of nitroso-sulphuric acid: 2HtS04 4- N,^;, *- 
2SOi(OH)(ONO) + H|0. and^ the latter remaining i\\<mA>,n\ \n 
sulphuric add as " nitrous vitriol." But this important Invrnti^M 
was of little use until John Glover, about 1866. found that iks 
nitrous vitriol could be most easily reintroduced into the proceM by 
subjecting it to the action of burner-gas before this enters into 
the lead chambers, preferably after diluting it with chamber 
acid, that is, acid of from 65 to 70%, HsSO*. as formed in the lead 
chambers. The reaction is then: 2SOs(OH)(ONO) + SOi + 2H|0 m 
SHjSO* + 2N0: that is to say. all the ^' nitre" u returned to 
the chambers in the shape of NO; the sulphuric acid employed in 
the Gay-Lussac process is not merely recovered, but an additional 
quantity is formed from fresh SOi: as the heat of the burner-gases 
also comes into play, much water is evaporated, which supplies part 
of the bteam required for the working of the chambers: and the 
add issues from the apparatus in a " denitrated " and sufficiently 
concentrated state (78 to .80% HsSOO to be used over again for 
absorbing nitrous vapQufs or any other purpose desired. Since 
that time, in every properly appointed sutpnunc acid manufactory, 
the following cycle of operations is carried out. To begin witn, 
in the bumen pyrites (or. as the case may be. brimstone or blende) 
is made to yield hot burnef-cas containing about 7 % (in the case 
of briautone 10 or 1 1 %) of SCV This, after haviqg been deprived 
of most of the flue-dust, is passed through the " Glover tower." 
t.e. an upright cylindrical or souare tower, consisting of a leaden 
ahell lined with lieat- and ackf-proof stone or brick, and loosely 
filled or " packed " with the same materUI, over which a mixture ' 
of acid from the Gay^'Lussac tower and from the chamben trickles 
down io such proportions that it arrives at the bottom as denitrated 
acid of from 78 to 80% HaSOi. The gases now pass on to the lead 
chambers, described above, where th^ meet with more nitrous 
vapours, and with steam, or with water, converted into a fine dost 
or spray. Here the reactions sketched above take pUce. so that 
" chamber-acid " as already described is formed, while a mixture 
of gases escapes containing all the atmospheric nitrogen, some 
oxygen in excess, about o-s% of the total SOx> and some oxides 
of nitrogen. This gas is now passed through the Gay-Lussac tower, 
which eoraewhat resembles tne Glover tower, but is usually filled 
with coke, over which sulphuric acid of about 80% HaSO* trickles 
down in sufficient quantity to retain the nitrous vapours, t'lli- 
mately the waste gas is drawn off by a chimney, or sometimes by 
mechanical means. 

Of course a great many specUl improvements have been made 
in the plant and the working oif chamber sysums; of these we mention 
only some of the roost important. By iudick>usly watching all 
stages of the process, by observing the draught, the strength of 
the acid produced, the temperature, and especUUy by frequent 
aaalyses <M the gases, the yield of add has been brought up lo 
98 % of the iheoretkaJ maximum, with a loss of nitre sometimes 
as low as two parts to 100 of sulphur burned. The supply of the 
nitric add reouired to make up this loss is obtained in EogUnd 
by " porting that is. by decomposing solid nitrate of aoda by 
sulphuric acid in a Hue between the pyrites burners and the chambers. 
On the ccmtinent of Europe makers generally prefer to employ 
hquki nitrir acid,- which la run through the Glover tower together 



68 



SULPHURIC ACID 



«Hth tht nitrout vitriol. Althbufth this mechod appeara more 
tToublrsome, it allowt the amount oTnitre to be more easily and more 
accurately regulated. The stxe of the Glover towers, and more 
rsprciallv that ot the Gay>Lu>»ac towers, has been progressively 
increasffo, and thereby the cube ol the lead chambers themselves 
has been diminished to a much greater extent. By improved 



OFWsTtai*^*'' 



Sul^xhunc Xcid riiBt- 

\. TVr^te* NiratTk H, .•KchI ^iiar? or Tr«"rr>x«r? fcr 

Iv \\r<r o\v\ jvu— /: VJ the acvi to lop oi 

l\ Cvv' »^ jv.x* lor Gk>>itr^ K'MltT tx>c brvi'w.-i up 

tv^*v% *s>i r\* .^■-'k 

r r K. \ >:vbuL»Ntfv j. c> v\- 

" j».A»*< ** tNr tT»wtr* W>^ ^^p• r»*vV*T'* -*vnv v*. ->Sl^ »*•< •• 'V 

t* AN-.'iv' 'i iV .<«c >,M a vx"** .Nixl. 'i %^v^ *»t> % v<« t'^at 
»•^■^^NV *■» a \v-v -^ *cf': V: •> *,:,-— .jx ^^^w Sc\« —jv 
V ":n >.x iSf vVi-Sr- v.>»v-^ i'x i.-.\X %T.x •' V- * sV r.-^ K'* ~< jN.x,t 

tV •? <H yx'tv »p» »>* •» . \>."^ X • -.■» A» • V .s >v o ''vv--. -< It 
;V .^J -St %' ^ <>»>.^ .N s.- X >.♦ • ^ -V- s^j -S. *• •v -»^, r 

tVr Cl '•••^ "^"t > v.«>,\-v»., A • * •«.. 'V *^->^ C^'^V A \ i ■ vx! 
l.XM »".x ."< t"^ ^ <. •*♦ XX :V I. v'"^.^* "V. '» <V.r .NN - -x 

tV ■» x"v.* -> *- *.!• • ■ "a t ^ » \x N -^\> ,»^ X- w > . >*> " ! V a:. 

<«,» V r,v ,"* -V N"»,--» X .v-* i"« »»> X- •.« •x-N.* >> •*o»»> ,x »v " 

V "^t. .t .V V. -»* -v: .v-^- '•\»«' N-»-. TV* TV '^"« 'rv:--'^* ro St ,"< 
J* -.-K \ »>. ,v '».* ,•« J V a .>.«-•>»».»•.- r'^ .V v> Sr V .\« .'•v 

■'^^ >,• Si.* T^ :v .t •-.'tKV K>« *^ yVVX* . ? V- * >• ,-* ^.*s^ 

u K- na -^ Jk. . ■^ .-» >- «v. .-,.■» ^v ..•. > * « "-.x^'N v •«. «>• .^t* 
,Wt.n>x» >i t * fv» *t »V ••a* K'. V »"« -^ V '•>»». ^ Vt -y^ S » 

f.^tW'N *t 'Stv* *».^«i? »«* T^jvfV *^» X-^ »; ,•».'•'• : ><• , t K N* 
siw «%n,-^ rurnfMC a «r«ae xj*vc» ,-« r ^ v > .-» %»-.. '^v* .v» *. V* 

«KWir»4t a ^«c««n — a ;r^m m^-.x* Vk* ••we ••(♦ *'*^ •••^^ * xn-w 
r^ « c <% diva w —.^ ««<^ f tm r aJ N r<i> ^ -»w «•«» Wx x. • >.. - 
s**.-* v^c^ ^X^x-U •- 




consideration is the form of the vesads; tliefle may be open pans 
or dishes, or closed retorts, or combinations of both. We also note 
the Faure and Kessler apparatus, which consisU of a platinum 
pan. surmounted by a double*waUed leaden hood, in such a manner 
that, while the hood is constantly cooled from the outside by water, 
the thin add condensing on its inside is carried aaray without being 
albwed to flow back into the pan. The majority of acid makers, 
however, prefer retorts made entirely of pbtinum, preferably pro- 
vided by the Heraeus process with a dense, closely adherent coating 
of gold, including the top or " dome." The new Kessler furnace is 
a vetv ingenioos apparatus, in which the fire from a gas-prodiacer 
travels over the sulphuric acid contained in a trough nade of 
Vdvic lava, and surmounted by a number of perforated plates, 
over which fresh acid is constantiv running down ; the te m perature 
is kept down by the production of a partial vacuum, which greatly 
promotes the vobtiluation of the water, whilst ivtacding inat df 
the acid. This furnace is also very wcU adapted for impure aods, 
unsuitable for phtinum or platinum-gold stiUs on account of the 
crusts forming at the bottom of the retorts: and it b more and inore 
coming into use both in Great Britain and on the Continent. A thitd 
consideration b the condensation of the vapours formed in the con- 
centrating process: the further the ooncentratiott proc e ed s the more 
Milphuric add they conuin. Condens a tion b a cooopamti^y ea^-y 
task in the case of platinum apparatus, but with glass or potrelain 
beakers or retorts it presents great diAcultics. In tkb re sp e ct 
the Kessler furnace has also prm-ed to be very eftcariow. ao that 
it is at the present time considered the beA apparatus for the 
concentration of sulphuric add found in the trade. 

The highest strength of vulphnric acid practically attainable bv 
N>(Un^ do»n b 98*« H}SO«. and thb b only exrepnonaDy rmchca. 
>ir.vv It inx'olves much expenditure ol fuel, loBof acid and wear and 
tear of apparatuv The usuul strength of the O.V. cl coasneice, 
mv-kftly de>ignated b\- its sred6c gravity as i68* TwaddeH. m froos 
45 to Q5, or at most 96 '.• H<SO«. \Mien attempts are made to push 
the prv>ce« be>x«nd qS' . it is found that the acid mhic^ «fcittls over 
i> a$ »trc«n^ as that j^hhrh remains begird. Real ** aaonobydrate " 
or scid ai^ixTQchini; loo ' .. can be made b> Lunge's process of cooling 
>trx^rc O \ . c!c>» n to — 16* C- mhen HjSC). crystaUiaes oat. or by the 
adviition of anh\ .*rc>es SOj in the sk.ape of futning add. 

Snce the dcxr^^p-nert oi the contact rrocesses the faming acid 
ha* K>cv"ne so cho-ap that it is new e»clu>«\ely used for the prrpara> 
iK'i o( ;he acivi> j ■ •%\i.'' -c tSe ccrrjv^tjon of " monohydrate." 

f»» x»f .— .Wi;.kv« t."h, cf Vt>:jl, a iraxtwve or cbeaaical com- 
pc'und v^< HjSOv «"th r^.xr or less SO:, has been made for centuries 
b\ e\Tvxj-c pwTv HT^.-t to the irf^L^ence ol atsncafilieric agents. 
vv vvtirhf the i*>*_:A.>n o< hrrrces and terric sulphate thus formed. 
K\ . -^ u d.^m-B ir.tjk a ^a*i rvass ^^ \itnc)^ein ") and heating thia 
tc» a k»« rcNi heat ia sr-u' ranSeB-ware retorts. Since about 1800 
:>»> i-.'-^rx K»d bem vA%-'-x>i to the rortS-«»est of Bolwmia. and 
jt •i'Aiwxi '.^ '■- ^'*^^ »*je^ k wa« eetire*y ab—doned — doC 
Svj.><- i;< r.vsf j.-t Kv* Sv <:^e a-*> W-ss m fiwary. b«t. qnite on 
:^.- V -'•t-A'A . bwva..^ th-^ cv.-T-vx.-^ i'vrta>iaf liftnd for fmninf^ 
^i."^''.-x• >.-• ;• jr^ic j^^-A.i^ tW <f-3rvne«-v «f artiftcial aKaarine 
a~* ^>t''.- c.v^tir cv»vx.T>» o.x-".: ace fosslK be sw ppSed by the 
V*- -^N Iv^V- .* v^xY-w. i>Nfr $o«rre« s.i ivp^ Ima accordingly 
i\> Sr s^N-v^: a-v: tNrv «r^ •..x.-i b% c>r=^ back to a neaction koovn 
v~,r tV ^ ^ <-aT.'- .>* :Sf i,:.^ oe-:-'^. «W« Jk^*- Dibefeiner 
^- >vv\r-\x* :V v^.v ^ ^arva o< SCV i^ O »to 50> by Bweni of 
v>.*'o I'-^i* ---*- T" - TirtvoL acw k-x-ww by tbe name ol the 
v-a:i X', V vv V- "jvt rr.vTVN, »a* tu.S? ^^^e <«bf(<ct of n patent by 
J\ \x *-«< J"^ .>^ >» :>"t a-ad «a- trx^i bter a many ways, but 
^a/. Vxv-^ i*%a^-> o,H-^ x'-.-vi a* ssrVs* *cr prvtical paapoan nntfl 
5>"S ^V* : mjr* ^••^ ": w\.vN j-^i - Vor-^dratN taben wp by 
j.\--»-v\V vv- • r-r v'i a-'- "^ ^\ S. >«; ..^rr awd R. MesK^I in 
l«-^- .>.v tv^^ -Sr^*? •'.•. ♦ ,x> Srcii » the saMe mxy, via. by 
v"^"--^'-^ '\ -^- •'• -^ -- ".-V *^x: V« a k:*k tenapcniwie into 
^V v^ A V t\0 V a^ .» o.-^-Mf S:-^ idi tW ibapf «f steam). 
*S<^N '< -.V •J'rr ^* ^ ■^^.-v- *^-«- a'c cam.-<xn^ the SO» and O 
t>» o.-^-'N x* re S>s ^'. -X- : -- .-. Txxx -a v» W>a«rd j^timoB in a fine 
^ ♦ ^ <>< .*^ --V**- \\ -v^-r ^.'S'^.pi :>,^ t*as ffc-> i irm was brsl 
,^^x 1 XX* ^* ■*.\»c x; a<s>r.>s ^^^f"* a *r^ »-vo «l platinmni chloride 
^-. .\x>«v.x; -v ..J '. - :.» *V T<*;-4 jv *«»ie. «mS he described 
vi N> a Hvv " ac sv 4 — H • c->>t*.-: '•uSca.wce." pRpnied fro« 
.>»-,>v at a v« '»r«i'->f-jn-e Tkis mi i a l «l the 
XX ,s.vv*' ,x-,x»..'v.. 01 Svx a: a t«rvd wbea this article 
Wv- v,..vv>»s Nx^^•^ »x {-«- : - .x-r»aice lawjtd the ffiente«t 
<•>• ' ,>-x * I rx^t< ov- ^ - i-o i^-* *.• ^-nef-ws ariinnai ia the 
>>•■«?« ^ '^» x.>i-nr .•» •'^v* *v^ ac .«««».-» <dhcv»rbr mutt ufal 
,,• >-" N V %'^> ;Nr ^^V ' •» .^rx-'^ss h «»* $cwa kvwd that the 
-.-.N'-x XV. ^M a •*• x- J V .^ ^\ i tv.- .^ -tft ^ tr*«v acid, as above 
.^-». "^^^ ^*^ Sx> x>'xi «. ^«,t«f a X.- .'.-^s Mid^Tcrn SMtnabrr 
,<» rvx -.v^f-x .► v%>v> ,".-,v>^»-x .»%r-«-.-rx «r^ hack to the a»e 
.^ ,^.. .» ^ >x,.'x>-<-x v,^ .- -*. f.^- .^v.>,«^ Herners. For a 
4VVX' "x. t^ ^x.'x .V ,.-V^ .X".. «x-Txr<H' .n r%iK( aw ^as U -y WM 

^.-.v -v-vv >% v"^ ^- •»-,'> Ni ^ w^ ctw* tkaa a sMt<:fac> 

« t XV .^•r.r'- >^^^x.» ^ ux- , *^-x>r«^ aKi ia Lon<V>n. 
^. K .»x>x#.-» N V «ix-'N» .,-., .,-v, *^ -A-^^vr 1h w^Wr aad Dr 
*«^ wi-xvN cac«»f >5 ¥he saT 



SULPICIA— SULPICIUS RUFUS, PUBLIU8 



iathel 



he 
ice 

ler 
b 
nit 
As 
ist 
of 
be 
is 

Eh 

At 

he 

he 

^ , JCt 

•I^Mzatus by means of the gBseous mixture to be later submitted 
to the catalytic action, the mixture is at the time heated ^ to the 
requiaitie temperature, and a considQuble savir^g oi fuel is the conae- 
Mence. Akosether this process has beentirou^t to such a pitch of 
sBDpGdty and perfection, that it is cheap enough, not merdy for 
dK maxlufacture of fuming oil of vitriol of all strengths, but even for 
that of ordinary sulfiAiunc acid of chamber-add strength, while 
k m decidedly cheaper than the old pcooessln the case of stronger 
•cids. otherwise obtained by concentration by fire. It should oe 
aoted tfiat these are not the results of a few years' working with an 
csperimental plant, but of many years' work with large plant, now 
equal to a capacity of 120,000 tons of pyrites per annum. It b 
thcrdbre not too much to say that, in all probability, the contact 
process will ultimatdy be employed generallY for concentrated 
adds.. Scill, for the reasons given m the beginiong of this article, 
the revolution thus impendtnr will require « certain time for its 
hment. Since the' Badische process has become known 
r contact processes have come into the field, in some 



itiilii ulty aj 
revcrsble. the 4 
Etde above the t 
far as is known 4 
lesnlu obtained i 
the theoifCical q 
converted into sa 
now known, the 
wss the pnxess <f 
of the badische i 
acricUy secret ud 
prindpal features 
purification of th 
time, both io a < 
preventiooof sup 
slways occurred I 



of which ferric onde is employed as contact substance, but we must 
icfiaia from ctescribing these in detaiU (G. L.) 

ifsdiciJM.—- Sulphuric add or oil of vitriol is a colourless oily< 
lookioc liquid incompatible with alkalis and their cnbonates, lead 
and olciom. There are two medidnal preparations: (i) Acidum 
nlpkmricuM dSmlitm^ containing 1^-65% of hydrogen sulphate, (a) 
madmm smlpkmricum aromalkum (dixir of vitriol), containing alcohol, 
tpait oT «3nnamon and ginger and lyS % of hydros|en sulphate. 

rkentptuties — ^For external use* sulphuric add is tt powerful 
irritant and caustic, acting by its powerful aAcity for water and 
t hn t fane defaydiatine the tissues and causing them to txnn black. 
It ffM g ^lafga the albumen. Strong sulphuric add is occaaonally 
ued as a caustic to venereal sores, warts and malignant growths, 
h if difficnit, however, to limit its action, and ^^adal acetic and nitric 
scads are preferable for this purpose. Considerable bums on the 
face or booy may result from the application of sul^^uric add in the 
pnctice known as " vitriol-throwing." a brownish black eschar 
' I to distinsuish the bums produced by this acid from those of 
nmyf^ flidds. Intemaliy, dilute mlpburic add is used in 
; by alkalis as a nsutralixing agent. Both it and the 
lofatOTn are powerful intestinal astrioj^ts. and are there- 
fore oselal ia diarrhoea of a serious type, being strongly recom- 
Mtaded both as a prophylactic and as a treatment during epidemics 
of Asiatic cholera. Small doses of the aromatic add also serve as 
s p rep hyla ctic to those artisans who work in lead and as a treatment' 
k lead poiaoosng in order to form an insoluble sulphate' of lead. 
' -; the body with very dilute solutions of sulphuric add is 
' ' *r the night-sweats of phthisis. 

T0*kaUgy. — Gtvea in toxic dosto or in strong solution, sulphnric 

sdd is a severs gastxo-iatestinal irritant, -cauang intense burning 

r from the mouth to the stomach, and vomiting c4 

nee-coloured material. The eflFects of the ingestion 

of large quantities iq^y be so rapid that death may take dace in a 
cxnle of hoars, owing to collapse, consequent on perforation of the 
«al0 of tbe ocsofiAiagus or stomach, or from asphyxia due to swdling 
of the flottia coasequent on some of the aad having entered the 
Isryax. Should the patient survive the first twenty-four hours 
death generally results later from stricture of the oesophagus or 
tstcstiae; from destruction of the glands of the stomach or from 
ezhaastioa. Death has occurred in a child firom the ingestion of 
laM a tcsapoonfttl of the strong add. but recovery is recorded after 
kaH aa ounce had been swaUowed. The treatment consists in the 
prompt oeutralixation of the add, by chalk, magnesia, whiting, 
piaster, soap or any alkaline substance at I^nd; emeticf or the 
stomach pump should not be used. Morphipe nay be given 
hypodemacaHy tb midgate the pain. Should the patient survive 
he wifl prahamy have to be fed oy rectal enemata. The prognosis 
of aolphoric acid poisoning Is bad, €0 to 70% of the cases proving 
fstaL The poft-mortera appearances will be those of corro siv e 
pfMaiehia The huraal muoous membrane will he grcyidi. brown 
flrbbcktfi coknir. d«e to the corrosive effecu of the add. 



5po ag in(^ 
Qsefta tO( 



I 



SULPICIA. the name of two Roman poets. The eazUer Hved 
in the ragn of Augustus, and was a niece of Messalla, the |>atroo 
of literature. Her verses, which were preserved with those of 
TibuUus and were for long attributed to him, are elegiac poems 
addressed to a lover called Cerinthus. possibly the G>mutus 
addressed by TibuQus in two of bis ElegUsihk.. ii., 2 and 3; see 
Schanz, Cesck. d. rdm. Uu. \ 2^4; F. Plessis, La J*oisu latine, 
PP- 376n377 ud references there g^vcn). The younger Sulpicia 
lived during the reign of Domitian. She is praised by Martial 
U- 35> 3S)* who compares her to Sappho, as a modd of wifely 
devotion, and wrote a vobmeof poems, describing with consideff- 
able freedom of language the methods adopted to retain her 
husband Caleaus's affection. An extant poem (70 hexameteis) 
also beats her name. It is in the form of a dialogue between 
Sttlpida and the muse Calhope, and is chiefly a protest against 
the banishment of the philoaopheis by the edict <A Domitian 
(a.o. 94), aslikely to throw Rome back into a state of barbarism. 
At the same time Snlpida expresses the hope that no harm will 
befall Cakmis. The muse reassures her, and prophesies the 
downfall of the tyiant. It is nam genemlly agreed that the 
poem (the MS. of which was discovered in the monastery of 
Bobbk) in 1493, but has long been lost) is not by Sulpida, but 
is of much later date, pfobably the jth century; according to 
soma it is a tsth-century production, and dot identical with 
the Bobbio poem. 

Juvenal and Peraius, revised by F. 
Bl nens, Vt Stdpkia* gua» woeahir schm 

t . C. Boot (1868) ; k. Ellis inAcadimf^ 

Pkiiolon (1874). vd. V. : 0. lUbb^ 
ftng <i893), vol. iii.; U. E. Butler. 
Pi u 174*176 ; M . Schans, Cesekickle da 

rt 2 ; Teuffd, Nisi, ef Jtoman IMtraHtrt 

(I There are E^lish translations by L. 

E' \Ty (prose, with Juvenal and Persius) 

as }. 

SULPICIUS RUFUS, PUBUUS (^.~^ xti-«8 B.C.), Roman 
orator and statesman, legate in 89 to Cn. Pompdus Stnbo in 
the Sodal War, and in 88 tribune of the plebs. Soon afterwards 
Sulpidus, hitherto an aristocrat, declared in favour of Marius 
and the popular party. He was deeply in dd>t, and it seems 
that Marius had promised him financial assistance in the event 
of his being "appointed to the command in the Mithradatic Wac. 
To secure the appointment im Marius, Sulpidus brought in a 
franchise bill by which the newly enfranchised Italian allies 
and freedmen would have swamped the old dectors (see further 
Rome, History, IL " The Republic "). The majority of the 
senate wertf strongly opposed to the proposals; a justitium 
(cessation of public business) was prodaimed by the consuls, 
but Marius and Sulpidus got up a riot, and the consuls, in'fear 
of thdr lives, withdrew tht justUium. The proposals of Sulpidus 
became law, and, with the assistance of the new voten, the 
command was bestowed upon Marius, then a mere privatus. 
Sulla, who was then at Nola, immediatdy marched upon Rome. 
Marius and Sulpidus, unable to resist him, fled inm the dty. 
Marius maujiged to escape to Africa, but Sulpidus was discovered 
in a villa at Laurentum and put to death; his head was sent to 
Sulla and exposed in the forum. Sulpidus appears to have 
been originally a moderate refonner, who by force of drcum-* 
stances hecame one of the leaders of a democratic revolt. Al- 
thou^ he had impeached the turbulent tribune C. Norbanus 
(g.f.), and resisted the proposal to repeal judicial sentences by 
popular decree, he did not hesitate to incur the displeasure of 
the Julian family by opposing the candidature for the consulship 
of C Julius Caesar (Strabo Vopiscus), who had never been praetor 
and was consequently ineligible. His franchise proposals, 
as far as the Italians were concerned, Hrcre a necessary measure 
ol justice; but they had boen canned by violence. Of Sulpidus 
as an orator, Ciceip says (BmtuSt 55): " He was by far the most 
dignified of all the orators I have hesrd, and, so to speak, the 
most tragic; hb voice was loud, but at the same time sweet and 
dear; his gestures ware fuU of grace; his huiguage was rapid 
and voluble, but not redundapt or diffuse; he tried fo imitate 
Crassu^, but lackad his chann.'* Sulpidus left ao written 



7© 



8ULPICIUS RUFUS, SERVIUS— SUNTATRA 



•peedict, those that bore his luuiie being written by a certain 
p. Canutius (or Cannutius). He ia one of the interlocuton in 
Cioeio*8 De oratore. 

See Appian. Bdl. eio. i. 55-60: Phitarch, SuOa and ifarttUi 
VelL Pat. ti. 18; Livy. Epii. 77; E. A. Ahrens, Du dret VoUkstrtbtaun 
(Leipag, 1836): Mommaen, HisL tf Rome, blc iv. ch. 7; Long. 
Decline oj lA« Raman RepiMtc, vol. iL ch. 17. 

8UU>ICin8 RUFU8. 8ERVIUS (c. 106-43 b.c), sumamed 
Lewumui from the tribe to which he belonged, Roman orator 
and jurist. He studied rhetoric with Cicero, and accompanied 
him to Rhodes in 78 b.c Finding that he would never be able 
to rival his teacher he gave up rhetoric for Uw (Cic Brut. 41). 
In 63 he was a .candidate for the consulship, but was defeated 
by L. Lidnins Murena (q.v.), whom he subsequently accused 
of bribery; in 51 he was successful In the Civil War, after 
considerable hesitation, he thr^ in his lot with Caesar, who 
made him proconsul of Achaea in 46. Ha died in 43 while on 
a mission farom the senate to Antony at Mutina. He was ac- 
corded a public funeral, and a statue was erected to his memory 
in front of the Rostra. Two excellent specimens of Sulpidus*s 
style are preserved in Cicero {Ad. Fam. iv. 5 and x a). <^uintilian 
iluslU. z. z, xz6) speaks of three orations by Sidpidus as still 
in existence; one of these was the speech against Murena, another 
Fro or Contra XnjS^m, of whom nothing is known. He is 
also said to have been a writer of erotic poems. It is as a jurist, 
however, that Sulpidus was chiefly distinguished. He left 
bdiind him a large number of treatises, and he is often quoted 
in the Digest, although direct extracts are not found (for titles 
tee Teuffel-Schwabe, Hist, of Roman Lit. 174, 4). His chief 
charaaezistics were lucidity, an intimate acquaintance with 
the prindples of dvil and natural law« and an unxivalled power 
of es^iession. 

See R. Schneider. De Senio Sutpicio Rufo (Letpzig. 1834); 
O. Kariowa. Rdmische Ruhtsges£kichte, vol. 1. (Leipzig. 1885) ; the 
chief ancient authority is Ckera. 

SULTAN (an Arabic word meaning " victorious " or ** a ruler," 
suitat, dominion), a title of honour borne by a great variety 
of rulers of very varying powers and importance in Mabom- 
medan Africa and the East. The word has thus no exact 
eqtnvalent in English, atid was eariy imported into the language 
in the Middle English form of soudah (from old Fr. soudan, 
sonldan). This title is that conventionally applied by foreigners 
to the rukr of the Ottoman Empire, the sultan par excoUence, 
whose proper stylejs are, , however, padishak (emperor) and 
"commander of the faithful" (see Amis). The feminine 
form " sultana " la derived from the Italian (fem. of suttano), 

SULTANPUIl,. a town and district of British India, in the 
Fyzabad division of the United Provinces. The town is on the 
right bank of the river Gumti, midway between Benares and 
Lucknow, op the Oudh 8c Rohilkhand railway. Pop. (Z901), 

95SC. 

The Disraicr or Sultanfui has an area of 1713 sq. m. 
The surface is generally level, being broken only by ravines 
in the neighbourhood of the rivers. The central p9rtion is 
highly cultivated, while in the south are widespread arid pUins 
and swampy jhils or tnarshes« The prindpal river is the Gumti, 
which passes through the centre of the district and affords a 
valuable highway for commerce. Minor streams are the Kandu, 
Pili, Tengha and Nandhla, the last two being of some importance, 
as their channels form the outlet for the superfluous water of 
the jhils, draining into the Sai. There are po forests in the 
district, only stunted dkdk jungles used for fueL In zgox the 
popuktion was z ,083,904, showing -an increase of less than 
t % in the decade. Sultanpur is i purely agricultural district 
with a very dense populatioil/ The prindpal crops are rice, 
pulses, wheat, barley, sugar-cane and a little poppy. The main 
line of the Oudh & Rohilkhand railway (torn Lucknow to Rae 
BareU and Mogul Serai serves the soudi-wcstem portion. 

The only inddent worthy of note in the history of the district 
since the British annexation of Oudh is the revolt of the native 
troops stationed at Sultanpor during the Mutiny. The troops 
foie in rebelUon on the 9^h of June Z857* •*^* ^^ mutdcring 



two of their -oBccn, sacked the station. Upon the restoratioo 
of order Sultanpur cantonment was strengthened by a detach- 
ment of British troops; but in z^z it was entirely «hflH'*nti 
as a military station. 

See Sultanpur Dtstrict GauOeer (Allahabad. 1903). 

SUMACH. The Sumach of commerce is the finely ground 
leaves of Rhus coriaria, a native of the North Mediterranean 
region from Portugal to Asia Minor; it is a shrub or low tree 
with hairy leaves composed of 11 to Z5 elliptical leaflets with 
large blunt teeth, azid la^e loose paziicles of whitish-green flowers. 
Another species, Rhus cotinus, known as Venetian Sumach, 



I. Flower. 



Sumach, Rhus cortarfa. 
2. Ouster of fruit. 3. One (nut. 4. A seed. 



also a native of southern Europe and Asia Minor, yields the 
yellow dye-wood known as young fustic; it b also known as the 
Smoke-plant or Wig-tree, from the feathery or hairy appearance 
of the flower-stalks, which become ek>ngated and hairy after 
the flowering. The genus Rhus is a member of the natural 
order Anacardiaceae and contains about zao spedes of trees 
or shrubs mostly native in the temperature regions of both hemi- 
spheres. The leaves are alternate and simple or compound, 
with few to many entire-margjned or serrated leaflets, and 
terminal or axillary panides of smaU flowers with parts i» fouiB 
or sixeSk The spedes are mostly poisonous> some being espedally 
noxious. Such are Rhus toxicodendron^ the North American 
poison ivy, a shrub climbing on locks and trees by meazis of 
rootlets, and poisonous to the touch. R. senewia, the North 
American poison dder sumach or dogwood, also contains an 
extremdy irritant poison. R. vermicifera is the Japan lacquer 
or vamlsh-tree. Several spedes axe cultivated in the BzUiah 
Isles as store, greenhouse or hardy trees. 

SUMATRA, the westernmost and, next to Borneo, the largest 
of the Great Sunda Islands in the Malay Archipelago. It 
stretches N.W. to S.E. from Malacca Passage to Sunda Strait, 
between 5* 4</ N. and 5* 59' &, and 9$'* t6' and 106** 3! 45* £. 
lu length is about zxoo m., iu extreme breadth 950 m., azid its 
area, induding the ndghbouring islands, except Bank^ antl 
Billiton, is Z78,338 sq. ro. Ther northern half runs roughly 
paralld to the Malay Peninsula, from whid^ it is separated by 
the Strait of Malacca, and Che aomhtm end isttpsratsd 1^ tb« 



SUMATRA 



7« 



uu vtM»«u«.a uautc iv aciiwus vcuiauuuB uuc 

to zrregnlarity of supply from the mounUios and sudden rain- 
Uh. la their lower courses some of them form enormous 
interroiniminirsfing deltas. The mountainous regions contain 
BoaKSOOftbkes, many evidently occupying the craters of extinct 
volcaaoea. When, as sometimes happens, two or three of these 
crsten bsre laergcd into one, the lake attains a great size. 
AaMng tbe Urfer lakes may be mentioned Toba; Maninyu, 
wot oC Fort de Kock; Singkara, south-east of Fort dc Kock; 
Koriadis, tnlaad fsom Indrapura; and Ranua, in the south- 



rh^trupky.^-lm order to appreciate the orography of the isbnd 
f*i* IrJtitjmiof secthMU of Sumatn dioald be discriminated one from 
•sa^bsr: Cs) The valley of tbe Adua or Atidi River, UI The pUios 



through which the rivers cleave thcirway in a curved and iiregular 
course. South of the Middenecbeme* however, the nortnem 
affluents of the Batang Hari, the Selitt, Gumanti, Si Potar, Mamun 
and Pangea, at least those in the west, again run in longitudinal 
valleys. These affluents and the Batang Hari itself (except the part 
at the mouth. Mamun-Simalidu) are navigable only by praus drawing 
not more than \3 in. (6) South Sumatra, so far as known, presents 
everywhere in its valleys the nme character as that of the Batang 
Tom. Batang Gadis. Sumpur, ftc They also are closed in on the 
north and south by volcanoes which have here produced ^mtlar 
masses of tuff, with lakes and rivers of the same formation as in the 
north. Such are the valley of Korifiehl, with the river of the same 
name, between the peak of Korinchi and Mt Raja; the valley* 
of Serampd and Suncei Tenang (as imperfectly known as that of 
the Korinchi). in whioi are to be aonfifht the soarees of the Tambesi 
aod AMi* both aflueots of the Jambi; the kmgiltidhial valley of 



7« 



SUMATRA 



KftMOi. in LcboBC, ioirfi« to tht-^m. coa«. aad eC the upper 
liari, aowiagto the cut cent ;the imlleysoC Mftkakaa uid SdabhiaK 
or the opper Komaii«, aa aiBaeiit of the Mini, between Scbdat 
end Kam. The MaknkBtt end Sdabong drain into Lake Ranau, 
which on the eovth mie is danuncd by the volcano Seminuttf. The 
■outhenunotf longkudinal valle^ of Sumatxl is that of the Semanglca, 
which flows into the bay of the same name. Generally the tower 
vaBeys of the rwtn lie at olevatyons of 600 to xooo ft.; hither np 
they nse to 3500 or jooo ft.; the moontain chains rise to 5x00 ft.; 
the vokaaoes tower op ftom 6900 to neaiiy io/ko ft. (7) The 
section of south Snoatn b u w am the eastern chain of old rocks- 
and the east coast with iu nnmcrous river mouths is formed of the 
alhivium of sea and rivers. In the river-beds, however, and at some 
diManoe from the sea, older strata knd eruptive rocfca underlie the 
aBuvium. The strata near the mmmtain chains and volcanoes 
ooniwt of diluvial tufb. 

GcoCofT-— The oldest rocks aregneias, sdust and-qoaitxite, the 
schist otten mntainiuf nhL Thier. probably bdonk to several 
neoloKical periods, but all were folded and dmiidcn before the 
CarboniferxMis beds were deposited. They form the backbone of the 
isbnd, and crop out 00 the surfsoe at intervals along the tnonntain 
chain which runs parallel to the west ooast. Here and there they 
are p ene trat ed by granitic intrusions which are also Pr&<!!arboni- 
ferooL The next series of rocks oonsists of slates bdow and lime- 
atones abovcw It lies uneonfonnably upon the older rocks; and the 
BoKstone contains FmsMlima, J'hUhfKtf and Productus, Indicating 
that it bdones to the Upper Caiboniferous. These beds are found 
only in mrt bern Sumatra. They am accompanied by intrusions 
of diabase and gabbio^ and 4|iey are sonirtinifs folded, sometimes 
bat little distnrbed. No I^ennian beds are known, and for many 
years Mesoioic deposits were eu poosed to be entirely absent, but 
Triasnc days and sandstones with Daonella have been found in 
the upper part of. the basin of the Kwaht (East Sumatra). They 
vest mioonformabiy upon the Carboniferous beds, and have them- 
sdvcs been tilted to a sleep angle. CretaoeoOs beds also have been 
king. Tertiary deposits are very widely spread 
nd low-lying counbyt Thoy consist of brccdas, 
, saadttones, marls, and Kmestoncs. with seams of 

. e. The most valuable coal oocnra in the Eocene beds. 

At the dose df the Eocene period neat eroptionB of augite-andesite 
took pboe from two fissures which ma along the west coast. The 
Miocene oonsista chiefly of marts, with occasional beds of lignite and 
Ijinrsronc On the east ooast it sometimes yields petroleum. The 
TOocene occun diiefly in the low-tying land uid is generally covered 
by drift and alluviusi. fi o mftim r t it containi thykaeams of lignite 

t volcanoes lie along a Gne (with offshoots) which runs 
I to the west ooast, but some distance to the east of the fissures 
1 which the early Tertiary lavas were poured. Lava streams are 
aeldoa endtted foam these volcanoes, the material erupted consisting 
chiefly of ash and scoriae, which are spread over a very wide extent 
of country. Augite*aiidesite predominates, but basalt Mad rfayolite 



CUwuU. — hi thfOi»hout the whole of the Malayan Archipdaso, 
ao in Sumatra, wUch lies about equally halanrrd on both rides 
of the equator, the temperature stands at a high levd subject to 
but sliriit variations. The monthly tempoature mounts only 
from TT F* in February to 80-6* in May, August and November. 
In the distribution of the rainfall, as dependent .on the direction of 
the winds, the following parts of Sumatra must be distti^iihed : 
(1) south-east Sumatra, on which, as 00 Baalca and BiDfton. the 
hciviest rainfall occurs during the north-west monsoon, the 
annual volume of rainfall increaring.from 08-4 in. in the east to 
139 in. in the west. Of the 119 in. of %'eariy rainfall. 9i>7- ui. are 
brought by the north-west and 47*3 in. by the south-east monsoon. 
(3) The west coast. Httt the xaimall for the year increases from 
the southern and northern extremities towards the nuddle. Ben- 
kulen. «./. geu 136 in.; Singkel (a* 15' N.\ 172 in.: and Padang 
184 in. m the year. Here, too, the prevailing rainfall is brought 
by the north-west monsoon, but in this belt its prevalence b not so 
pronounced. Padang gettin|; 94 in. of rain dunng the north-west 
monsoon, against 90 in. during the south-east. The mountain diain 
dy overhanging it, Uie high temperature of the sea wash- 
i frequent thundentorms to which it is subj 



ing it. the frequent 1 



abject, the moist 



atmosphere of its equatorial situation, and the shorter regime of the 
dry south-east wiad are the principal causes of the heavier rainfall 
on the west coast. The higher stations of middle Sumatra, on the 
lee side of the western mountain chain, have a yearly rainfall of only 
78-7 in. (3) The northern and north-eastern parts of Sumatra 
are swept by a variety of winds. The sooth-east wind, however. 
predMmnatek Blowing over land and in the direction of the 
lottgitudinal valleyft. the south-east wind is oompaxativdy dry, and 
thus favuias the lormation of steppes in the aortn such as the Toba 



plains. The nortb<ast and south-west winds, on the other hand^ 
beins laden with the raootuie of the sea, bring rain if they blow for 
any length of time, 
/b— u. ■ Thou^ Sumatra w separated from Java by ao narrow a 
k. both the auu i u t i a t and the bocanast nt once find that the^have 



k the aoobgMt and the bona nisi nt 
V ^nond «■ ooHiaK to the BORh 



iSnmopilkeau mdalopkus). 
the only ape f q— »^ ia ^^m ^ 
tail ape (Maeacus ncmolr 
" DcscrndveCatatogneof- 
Trans. JJmm. 



__ . ^^ ****** **iMii» »m i^^mmf^mi9w»m fa||M; not OWV 

aire the Hnnoceraa (Ak. tmmatnmms), the Sna ssiMns, and the tapir 
oommon, but the elephant, altogether absent from Java, ia rraro* 
aented in Surnktra by a species considered by some to be peculiar. 
The SomatraJB thinooeros diAers from the Javanese in having two 
horns, like the. African variety, it as oommonest ia the manliy 
lowlands, but extends to some 6900 ft. above sra lewi. The 
range of the elephant docs not extend above 4900 ft. T^ wikl 
Bos sumdaiems does not appear to exiit in the island. An antelope 
(JhuuMag-alm) occurs in the lo nel ies t parts of the njrfands. The 
commonMalaydeeruwidelydiceributed.GiTva«Mmi(^leiBso. The 
ocang-atai«oocori, rarely, in the nort h e as t Theaiamang [.Smmmtm. 
syndatiyia) is a great ape peculiar to the idaod. The nngko {Hyuh- 
bates agilis) is not so common. A fairiy familiar form is the simpei 
. , ., » Tht dag^ {Cenactbut eymomeltus) v» 
i Saiu a ua in a tame aCRe. The ^> 
(Irinsx)— «a Baflka diarrihari it in his 

. a Zooiogaral Colhction madajn Sumatra." 

Sac* (1820), xiiL 243— 4s tnined by the natives of 
ascend oooo-nnt trees to gather nnta. The Gnfeo- 
pilktcms voUutt (hiAts, flying cat or flyiitt lemur) ia fairiy oomooik 
Bau of some twenty-fi^ species have been registcrad; in central 
Sumatra they dwdf in thousands in the Cmetone oaves. Tht 
RUrapus edmis (falong, flying fox) is to be met vnth almost every 
where, cspedaOy in the durian trees. The tiger frequently makea 
his preeenoe fdt, but b seldom seen; he prefers to prowl in what th4 
Malays call tiger weather, that is. dark, starlesa, tnisty nights^ 
The clouded tiger or rMuon Mn {Fdis macroseelis) is also knowi^ 
as well as the Malay bear and wdd dog. ParaioKmna musmf 
(** coffee-rat '*. of the Europeans) b only too abondaat. The 
Sumatran hare (Le^ netseheri), discovered in 1880^ adds a second 
species to the Ltpms WfncaUis, the ovfy hare previously known ia 
the Malay ArchmdagOw The iiamis jaaamcms b the only repr» 
sentative of the Edentata. Some 350 species of birds are knonn^ 
and the avifauna dosely lessmbles that of the Malay PeninsoU 
and Borneo, induding few peculiar spedes. 

Floro.— Rank grasses (kilaag. fMcs), which cover great arena 
in J ava. have an even wider range w Somatn^ desrending to withia 
700 or 800 ft. of aea-levd; whcrcvera space m the forest b cleared 
these aggressive grasses begin to take possesoon of the «dO, and 
if onoe they are fully rooted the woodland has great difficulty ia 
re<establishing itsdf . Among the orders more strongly rcpresemed 
in Sumatra than in Java are the Dipterocarpaoeae, ChryBohalanaren<% 
sdcrocarp M>'Ttaceae, Melastomaoeae, Begoniaa, Nepenthes. Oxali* 
daoeae, Myristicaceae, TernstrS miac en e, Conaaraoeae. Amyridaoea^ 
Cyrtandraoeae, Epacridaccae and Eriocaulaceae. Many of tht 
Sumatran f < 
Peninsula. 



Many o 
1 in the! 



Sonutran forms which do not occur in Java are found in the Malay 
In the north the pine tree {Piniu Merkusii) hat 
itor, and in the south are a variety kiI 
Australian repon. The ^distribuvoa 



advanoed almost to the eouator, and in the soitth are a variety kiI 
species characteristic of the Australian repon. The distriburioa 
of species does not depend on elevation to the same extent n* 
In Java, where the horizontal aones are deady mariBed; and that 
appears to be a tendency of all forms to grow at lower altitudca 
than in that island. A - •• • • .. ^ 



^ that island. A remarkable feature of the Sumatra^ 

ffora b the great variety of trees that vie with each other ia 
suture and beauty, and a^ a thnber-pcodndng oou&try the 



island tanks high < 



the fkhly 



the 



archipdago. Forest prod u c ts g n ma and resias of variom sorta» 
L-percha— are valuable articles << export. 



such as gutta-percha— are valuable articles << export. The pro 
cess of reckless ddoiestation b percep t ible in certain distncta^ 
the Bttsves often destroying a whole tree for a plank or rafter. 
The jxindpal cultivated plants, apart frote sugar-cane and coffee, 
are nee Gn great variety 01 kinds), the coco-nut palaa, the aicag f 
the areca aind the sago pafans, maiae, yams, and sweet 



^ 



among the fruit trees are the Imjian tamarind, pomcnanate, guava. 
Even before the arrival of EuropeaiM 



papaw. orange and lemon. ^ 

Sumatra was known for its pepper ptamations: and these sdll form 
the most conspicuous feature ol the south of the idand. For the 
foreisn iriarket coffee b the most in^wrtaat of all thecsppa, the Padaiag 
districts being the chid seat of iuoiltivntion. Bcnaoin was formerty 
ohrainrri ahnost exdusivdy irom Sumatra from the Sljros hauoin. 

PppuIcii&m.'—'Tbt foDowing ubie gives tJie trea axul estimated 
population of the seyeiml political divisions of Sumatia and of 
the Island as a whole (exduding the small paxt bdooging to 
the Rioaw-Lingga residency) ^-^ 



Dt>'ision. 


Area in sq. IB. 


PV^wJationi 
1900. 


Sumatra, West Coast .... 
Sumatra, East Coast .... 

Bcnkulen 

Lampoog Districts 

Palembang 

Achin (Atjsli) 


31.649 
3Wt» 

S3497 


1.5»7.S97 
421.090 
ito.396 

110304 


Total 


t6t,6u 


3.l68a» 



SUMATRA 



7J 



or the total popnh ti on, aboot jooo tre Buropeaas, 9$fi09 
Qnmae, ss^o Anba, 7000 fdit^giiMS of other nations, and the rest 
aatlvca. In 1905 the total population was ^ven as 4,029,505. 

The natives of the mainland of Sumatra are all of MUay stock 
(those ol the north being the most hybrid), but it is doubtful 
lo vhat extent Malay has here absorbed pre-Malay blood. The 
<fifrerent tribes vary in language, cnstonis and dvilization. 
No race of true Negrito type has been found. The Kubos (f .v.). 
a sBTage forest people of the highlands, were believed by some 
10 be Negrito owing to the friasled character of their hair, but 
it appears certain that they are Malayan. The north of Somatra 
B occupied by the Achinese (see Aeaiif). South of Achin and 
vest of Lake Toba is the country of the Battas (g.v.) or Battaks. 
In the hill-country south of the lake are two forest tribes, 
Orsng-uiu and 6rang-4ubu, pure savages of whom practically 
nothing is known, affiliated by most authorities to the Battas. 
The plains east of this territory are occupied by the Siaks, and 
farther south on the east cOast are the Jamb^, both Malays. 
Above Padang are the several tribes of the prosperous and com- 
paratively dvilized Mlmangkabos iq.v.). The Korinch& live 
aoMMig the mountains south of Padang. and farther south On 
the borders of Palembang and Benkulen are the Rejangers, a 
peculiar tribe who employ a distinctive written character which 
they cut with a kris on bamboo or lontar. The same character 
ts employed by their immediate neighbours to the sooth, the 
PiKomas, who bear traces of Javanese influence. In the extreme 
stMth are the Lampong people, who claim descent from the 
Mcnanglabos, but have idso an admixture of Javanese blood. 
The inhabitants of the islands west of Sumatra are of mixed 
or^itt. .Simaltt is peopled partly by Achinese and partly by 
Henan^abo settlen. They profess Mahommcdanism but are 
pracUcally savages. Nias (q,v.) has an interesting native 
populatioB, a ppa r ently of pre-Malayan origin; and the Mentawi 
cdands (f .«.) sre inhabited by a race generally held to be a 
Polynesiaa settlement which has escaped fusion with Malayan 
stock. As regards education and the spread of Christianity 
among the natives, the west coast division is far in advance 
ef the rest of the island. Here about 33,000 natives profess 
Christianity and there are about 300 schools; elsewhere schools 
are coopara.tively few and the adhesion to Christianity very 



Adanmxiraiae Dhisions and Towns.—ln the west coast lands 
European influence, fntite kmI, comparativdy eood roads, agricul- 
tnxe timber, and coalfields have created populous se ttl e m ents on 
Che coast at Padaiy (the capital of the west coast, with 35.158 inhabi- 
tants in 1897, of whom 16^ were Europeans), Priaman, Natal, 
Arer Bangis. Siboga. Sinskel, and also on the ptsteaua at Fort de 
Kflcfc, Fayokombo, ftc. In the east coast lands it is only at the 
■feonths of riven — ^nlembangat the mouth of the Musi, with 53.000 
inhabitants* and Medan in Ddi, the residence of the highest dvil 
and military officials of the east coast, in which a fine government 
kouse has t)oea ere ct ed — that considerable centres of population are 
to be found. Nine-tenths of the natives of SumafrA live by agri- 
cshare, the rest by cattle-rearing, fishing, navigation, and, last but 
not least, from the products 01 the forests; they are therefore 
Ettle coooentnted in towns. 

The Dutch government of the west coast, extending along the ihore 
of the Indian Ocean from a* 53' N. to 2* 2%' S., comprises the 
■ ■■jjfa^i &>■ of the Padang bsriands, Tapanun and the ^dang 
highlaniis . The governor has his residence at Padang, which 
m also the capital of the lowlands residency. Padang Sidempuan, 
the chief town of Tapanuli, lies inland, south of Mt Lubu Raja. The 
towB of Siboga has oonaidereble connnercial Importanoe, the bay 
on wWdi it stands being one of the finest in all Sumata. Bukit 



Uaads. a aoull limestone group, well wooded and sparsely peopled 
Mas: Ban Idands (Pulu Ptni, Tana Masa, Tana BabTac.). 
Mcntasri ami Pegch or Nassau Islands. The residency of Bankulen 
(ix. Bmmg Knion, " west coast ") lies alooK the west coast from the 
southcam extremity of the west coast government to the south- 
western end of the iiiand. The capital, Benkulen, is on the coast 
nesr Pulu Tifcu. or Rat Island, in a kiw and swampy locality, and 
on an opcw nwdstead. This was the chief estahiiwhrnent poasesMd 
by the Bcitiah East India Company in Sumatra. Among other 
no t ew o r t h y places are Mokko-Mokko, with the oU Britwh fort 
Ama: Pasnr Biatuhan. and Lab (Laye), the former scat of the 



The residency ef the Lampong 
in the iabnd, bans separated from 



„ districts Is the soothernnKMt 

. ted from Pislembang by the Masu)i River. 

It is partly mountainous, partly so fiat as tolw under water in the 
rainy season. The more important places are Tdok Betong, chief 
town of theresidency. MenggaU (with a good trade), Gunung Sugi. 
Sukadana, Tanjona Karang, and fCota Agung. 

The resklency or Palembang consists of Uie former kimrdom of 
this name and various districts more or less dependent on that 
monarchy. Between the mainland dependency of the Riouw- 
Lingga leiidency and the residency of Palembang Ues-Jambi, an 
extensive sultanate, of whkb a portkm belongs to the residency of 
Palembang as a protectorate, the sulun having in his capital (also 
called Jamhi) a Dutch " comptroller." who represents the resident 
of Palembang; another portion » claimed by a quasi-independent 
sultan who reisns in the interior. Of this interior very little was 
known until the scientific expedition despatched by the Dutch 
Royal Geographical Society towards the end of the 'seventies, but 
m 1901 an armed Dutch expedition, neceasiuted by frequent dis- 
turbances, peoetsated right into the Iambi hinterland, the Gajo 
districts, where until then no European had ever trod. The town of 
Palembang is a large place on the river Musi, with 50,000 inhabitants 
(2500 CbiineM), extensive barracks, hospitals, ftc., a mosque (i740}t 
cooaidcred the finest in the Dutch Indies, and a traditiooal tomb 
of Alexander the Great.* The residency of Riouw, which embraces 
many hundreds of blands, great and small, also includes a portion 
of the Sumatra mainland, between the residencies of Palembang to 
the south and the east coast of Sumatra to the nosth. This is the 
old Ungdom of Indragiri. nod lies on dtbqr hand of the river 
of that name.' 

The residency of the east coast was formed in 1873 of the territory 
of Stak and its dependencies and the state of Kampar. In includes 



perhaps the richest and best-developed districts of northern Sumatra, 
namely. DeU (with an aish ... 

Itttk known in 1873, , „ „ 

century famous among the chief tobacco-producing countries in the 



ly. DeU (with an aasistant-tesident), Langkat, Serdang, ftc.-- 
but by the banning of tne aoih 



woHd.' Belawan is the harbour to Deli, but the capiul is Medan,' 
where the sultan and the Dutch rssideat reskle. Belawan is 
ro B W T t f d with Medan by a rsllway* constructed before 1S90 by a 
private company, almost entirely dependent for its earnings upon 
the numerous tobacco plantations, several of which txTong to 
British corporations. The i^ntarion labouren are almost entirely 
alien coolies, largiriy Chinese, and the Malays are oompararivdy few 
in number. The tobacco plantations of British North Borneo were 
neariy all started by olantcrs from DelL 

The government of Achin (c.s.) occuoies the northern port of the 
island. No little p i o g re ss has oeen made by the Dutch even in this 
war-ridden territory. There Is a railway in the bwer valley of the 
Achin River, con n ecting the capital, Kotaraia. and neighbourhood 
with CNehleh. a good, free port, with an active trade, carried on by 
numerous steamers, both Dutch and foreign. Edi on the north-east 
coast, with anotAcr harbour, is capital of a sultanate which formeriy 
owed allegiance to the sultan of Achin. but has formed a politicak 
division of the foveimntttt of Achin since 1889, when an armed 
expedition restored order. Edi is a centre of the still extensive 
pepper trade, carried on mainly with the Chinese at Singapore and 
Penang, which island faces Edi. 

Products and Industry.— Faitits and natural vegetation cover 
a much brger part of Sumatra than of lava. Whereas in Jav» 
tall timber on the mountain* keeps to altitudes of not less than. 
^MX) fc, the tall timber on the mountains of Sumatra commonly 
descends bdow 1000 ft., and in many cases risht down to the coast. 
In Sumatra, as In Java, the vegctarion of the lowbnds vp to neariy 
1000 ft. is distinct from the v^etation of the mountain slopes and 
pbteans from that devation up to 4000 ft. and over. The principal 
exports from all the regencies alike are black and white pepper, 
baimboo (rolan)t gums, caoutchouc, copra, nutmegs, mace and 
gamlnr. From the west coast and Palembang conee u also 
exported, and from I^, tobacco. The system of compulsory 
cultivation of coHee was aboUshcd in Somatra in 1908. 

Sumatra pnssrwm various kinds of miooral wealth. Gold occura 
in the central region, where it is worked at a profit, and it has also 
been worked In the Menang^kabo district and the interior of Pada^ng. 
Tin is known, especially m Sbk. Copper has been worked in 
the Padana highbnds (most largely in the district of Lake Singkara) 
and at Muld ia Achin. Iron is not infrequent. The most important 
mineral economically, however, is coaL Coal seams exist in the 
Malabuh valley (Achin), in the Stnamu valley, and on both aides of 
the Ombifin River; the Ombilin fieM was brought faito espedal 
noiioe by D. D. Veth of the 1877^^ eapedition. The ptoductioa 
of this fidd increased from 17^0 tons in 1893 to 78,500 metric tons 
in igjn. The profit on the working, which ucazried on by the state, 
is slight. Lignite of good quality b found in several localities. 
The production of petroleum began to be strongly dev eloped towards 
the cbse of the i^th century; on the Lepan River m Langkat 
it' mounted from 369.880 galkms in 1891 to ao,i4i/)00 gallons ia 
1899^ Muara Enim in Palembans also produces peQoleum. Pcriak. 
formerhr a tributary state of Achin and now a politica] division or 
the Achin government, has become one of the chief centres of the 
prtmbwn mdustty. The crude oil b conveyed in pipes to Aru Boy* 



74 



SUMBA 



mm ccMl. 9mA nCMd in tl» MUad «l 



Mh|ictT«»«lttm, Mphth4 and Milnhur may becolkctcd w the vokantc 
dw(rkt«» A ay«t«iMtk miiwraloticAl turvey bna ben aadcftakea 
in central SiiaMtra. ,...«. 

AM4t «nrf ie«iJMyt.^In th« wot. witk lU knc hae of cqmi and 
nun^mMM vaUr\*». the traaieoct «C co«e« has induced the oonAnic> 
tK>n 4»C v«ry loiiBd tondt as far aa the Lalcc of Tofaa. owmc to the 
want U na^-icabW nvt«. Th«fB a a railway connecunK not only 
tW ix^lMd* of the OmbiUn >«Ucy with Paduc. but aba the 
Ombain lixTT and the Uke of Singkara w«h the moct piedttctive 
and defuch* pDf^latcd pUteaw and ^mtteys. north tmA touth of 
the hne ol the \>>k-^Anoe» SiixgAUn«. Mcca|>» and boco^ A aecond 
iMlwa\ itt the dUttkt ^ IVU oMowct* the inUnd pbntatnns wnh 
tS*" *\\»«, «nd thece b another* *» alitnd)- indicated, in the lower 
VSm \atW\. Otood i\Md» tTa>nrr« the bcuad pUins of Benkiikn. 
|\kAMwtNAn( And the LamiMn« distrkta. 

// . ,.vrvx— A» far as n known. Suinatnnciviluatiuauidctilttive 
aiv^ v>l Himbt vxijpn; and H » nol impn>b&ble that the ishad 
wa» the 6r«t \>f aU the aKhipeU|y> to receive the Indiaa imini- 
fTAnls «ho laJO"*^ •» importam a part in the histoiy of the 
T^tc>v»w Certain inamptiom diaoovctrd in the Pndaag high- 
U xK «<f4 t\> vvttit> thceustence in the :th eentniyof n pom- 
lU Hi ^tu ii xcvkvnx in Tutah IXaiar. not far frosn the site of 
tW Ut<t oaiMt.vl ol MenansiaUv la l^-sc in&-Ti(<>o(KS Sumatra 
k* vaU.-vI iK" *' nrrt Ja>'^" IVe traces ol Hu'wiu mriuence still 
tvN b^ NH:t^i in the island tie eutwnexv au*x><tvHK) thovirh far 
•tv>«» K-vs *> i-Hx>«tARt a$ liK>« « JAxa. TVctc aw rvins of 
Ui->.hi KcviN^r* ** ^«»*' » ^'^ "^-^ I>ftt..ii. en the Paabi 
t^^ve at U?»»b<. in the u".<t>» v^ kVcwKi-^f aboive LaH^t. and 
t* -3-vrvNu* v<V<e KvV .srsk i>*e «« the r^.iw-|>»l H-vU n»:» 
»* xt Xtuita rfckc* v>R ;he ka-v^- pStt, I aw- bcIO.-^ v^r-v^-i- 
i>C a »,\. VN* 40 tt, h^^ tt^\ vxxss^>;> OAXe twm the i r.ii cer.tutx ■ ^^ ?t«rKw^ d^kac ww\ Sa^atn m rwrr * 



: - V ! 









\« kXe^r Rv ^.-^ atv ir>T«u <:v«x* wnh .-rswT'jHfc.Wtt la >ar*kn 
a-vt Mv^m-^aS* >U>\\ SirsAr* ws^ts- ^nvitr ia ibe '»'arww 
U \tvj<ccs. >iv<x"^ ' 'r: iSc ^a-n*. . 4 >i l V f a mf »;t'.j: ws.\ tSe SKToi 
tr«^ W :W U. M- s> *^^ tSr v*v-.v\i isteot ihe £jL.i.::k Al a 
la.<e r«fo>xt ti< W .<i vt .Pctacr » N*wA:r» nx*>cx>:!«rV*cd 
b'* *-* :--\:\ >?* i* -^v* t.\Nt ,Ux:iL *V> s«ft:"vv. - rxv— Si:r^ 

tV«* .^*- v\Ni*c^- %{ > ,\ « ^ • ?, . -^ >- V.-v;^*-?i :• .K -V -,V 
It tVe \ i;k x>.'«^%*'> ^i iV-«n*xva •--^t S:^^ * ^'^ sbju.c .jos.. .... 

a*v -.» ,VH..-^ H> V ►•< sxXNi a i -t K\v ^xv sc^e cc ••>* -^^i 
i-,xx'.$-; ^* .-^ l> \t.-tv^'N\ .cr >ci-v^ :V W.v 

rv'xx^ 'xv ^Nv*tvv< .V v"vi. ix 

>S ' .vx n * - i. V. X vx V >^ V ^f ► ' • >v, • • v-- > 

w .hr >»•*•,> v.. xK ►>.. ^:* »'-^" -^-^ «'• •»*-''v' > • "•' • * 
<v*",.xva V*. .*> •>^v \"S.v «v a x- ..«^ CA-^-i 5ai:*virA 

S. " -» • < ^N- -c lx-»* K* r*-w«-^ •V-^^ ?V 

^^« .V • -^ ,>* <^ i » >> •'»• V »-> 'f»' -^"^ ^'^^ '^* *• 

.\^' .. %v •'>. -^'--^ • *-» ^V^'X'T V--^<-nr»t> ^.*» 
J ^ . V ., . ,. ,v ^. ^ v^ , * ». r : ^i^ ■ .^.••^•^Ax- .• 

v^ .. >...♦,* V- .• -S-> V !?*«-* 

^ ♦• * *, > . 'v'» irw r-»- v.t 1 • *T 
. ^ . % » V • V >:- >»» •»cfc%x xi'K^ a 
, s' *^ -v-v- '> *. c ■*»>;•• V >.\n 

I , .> . . t . - • .^n .X it M. '^! 

^, » ,v» ". " •**■ -"^■'•'- * ^.•>aiv: a -^vwftv* *i 

mv-.'*^*^* *» w J^^t»v*^ - -r X^^ X'^«» 

>i X- .«?>*«> l» •*-"" X it ^•^ V» 

K._-v i.:c J.** ^ -*« ^- '^ • - *• ' '-"— "-• *^"^^ ^^ 
r,pM«- 7tm «» «^ ^r»*-=^ "^"^ V ^ i *i *^x 
^jjs « -^ "^•le- Wfl-» ♦»> '«jv'«^v 

.1 Xi> fcK^ X ^x . ,-». ,,^„. ^ 

4fe^* wan n«» «k>«w« . ^. x 



igiiml AchiiL In 1876 IkcR wm an apeditioa i _ 
Jutnn (east coaat) and the cmandpntion oC akvcs was curied 
out OB the «cat const. In 1878 BrnknVw was made a icsideDcy, 
and the dvfl admiiftrtratioa «( Achu aad depcadeodci was 
ciilnisted to a fovcnnr. Frooi 1883 to 1894 tbe foivemacttt, 
with the help of mrB«nMrir% cstcpdrd iis aotbodty over the 
south-east and south-wot of the ialaad, and also over sobw of 
the lands to the cast aad Borth of Toba lake. iDdodias the 
dtttiicts of Toba, Silinrtom aad Tanah Jawa, and is 189$ over 
the southuB part of tho pmimuh of Samosir ia Toba lake. 
Its juriadictiaB was also cxtcaded ever Taaiaas* till thea tJw 
noithefB frontier of the Dutch eatt coast of Saaiatia. By 
Biilitaiy espcditioas (i89»-9s) the Dutdi intufwy ob the 
Batang Han» or Vpfier JamU, was iaocased; as also ia 1899 ia 
the Una Kotns* in ccnual Sunatia, iachidBd wichia tbe tenitory 
oiSiak. ThewariaAchiBdidBot»almllyfeianlthedevelop- 
mcttt of SasBatia. aad ahhongh the titular sultaa of Acbin 
cootiaiicd a dtsnhoqr tiattaiSU waifaie agaiast the Diacb ia 

sible Fteei co^tiy. realty active waiiare has loag ceased. All 
aliMtg theaaia coastsof the fonncr sultanate of Adua ouGtaiy 
posts kane heca eoaMi-shrd aad nclicaiy roads oonstnictcd; 
even in Fedir, oa the aotth ooast« aaul 1^99 the anat actively 
turbuknl ccncxe of resBtaace of the askaa^ party, aad still 
Uicr ocIy padncd ia paita^ Ikrtdi f a ftiiiis were able to build 
a hi$^wav to cocaect the west wich the cast coast, aad other 
wori^ ha>^ heca SQcccss:*^y caioed o«.t. ftactacaSy the whole 
«k ;he ksjqc is aow 1 

Of the 



.>io«- »vc«» tW Sfsc w->»»m i» \V. VATiitiea. litsury af «- 

.l.-.-vivix i>»: . A :- :st of cxiicr .:^,-r A.r^crities wifl be found 
n r J. \.-V» .<*'-*:-. f t^xj^i «.x-i.*TJw»« 3CW 3Merf. IrndU 
^<f<^ A— '.-t-:? b?r' ^vrfcs c-w ot «r«it :=zT«wtanoe ia MiMrm 
<««M>ar X.-,v-w m v^uc-5Mr«-'««r« jir- :>a.wii3w Fwpgi^. lltTh" 
:»>.• ....■«.>r'S. »v>:. sc^ - ec -"•- -v F J. \«a. See abo Beau de 
>wi;-r«x l-j>*. . , -V ^'^ . «r>.-i r^-.-x is-'-H. . E. B Kkucxa. ^eschnf;- 
r ti rji A.- .( I « .\ ■ •; >"^^ -' >>^- i-^ " Svr^tns West-Ku 



'-J 






1 5^- : OB the history of 

i:. v.Vij_ ,; Nj^-iSij - For topo> 
r^ * T 'cc\fa^r_scie en s»olo- 
*i prS'? "^s W«stkn=st. Jr./' 



^- 



"X*^ .fV 



i*-^ 



-.-it--^' 15*7'- VkT. Voir, 
;i.i N.Ti-SwBJT-a." Zeii:xtr. 

.'-T. J". ^i_ -Jir»r is aeries.. ijL 
: A^ r. ^ Er*>, ' BckTJ«e 
swc' *«« ^cs-K'late *on. 

' F r-.^«rT- r« On- m»d 

-.-^ i--jr ,x^t rifciHeak kSqS^ : 

a: - :»a: 1. JTisrore J P. -v-aa 
xi • .-^- .' "*' rfc* c»i Wez:KcT 



^^r'vXx /r 5- ^^^t.«g«^ . aovjf the! 




L \ 



K-t **> 



w.. c.-62£S!^ .-c a p^Laeaa with 






*»,xv .xv>. 



<• .X 



■^^^ at 



i;:^«a( ' 






s» "."v •s'*'^ ^<*' v%» X »xwi jv-'-» *- asnx. a^.a»ajLs feo be 
o ••*.x*5*.x* 'M s .»» ^.*,.-^,. -, ^ xx't-'s^ ?• Ve a iKt*' Malay 
vvN. .. vM ,-v, f. '> V' xx\ jcv: . <vrr^^- r-*.->r 21 ci^ij e ti on 

^- ^ .x'S' ». ^ t *^ K' .'hw ,vr -^ BIT '••j.vA 3S "Mj 

K ".^ -•> \^-H sN v\ " 'w 'V "*^'" '•■ '> -ie hsBBT i^Aod 
A x» '«h V V .taEs. ^ v>ft *^ .jst jwju le WES as *^fV' — ■ ! 
>* • '>.x StttOw ♦•x» ,>r *<-••• s jr^-^T-a >»— V asad. T^mi 

Xv . . . K ,^Xp * . 



SUMBAWA—SUMER AND SUMERIAN 



75 



AWA(I>tttcb50Mitoiw),oiie4>ftheLlttkSuiidftUA]id9 

_i the Dutch East ImKes, e«t of Lombok, Ikon -which it js 
scpaniMl by the nanow Alu Strait. It haa an area of 4^00 
sq. m., or, indttding the ndKhbouring itianda, SHO iq. m. The 
deep bay «C Sal£ or Sumbawa on the north divides the island 
inio two pmfff«wi«», and the isthnivs Is farther ledoced by the 
tuiTowcr Bay of Chempi on the south. The eastern peninsula 
is dcqily indented on the north by the Bay of Buna. Four 
moutttaia dMuna cxosa the island in a west to east direction. 
The northern, as in Bali and Lonbok, is of volcanic origin. 
Tamboim, foming a minor penhisola east of Sombawa Bay, 
is said u> have lost a third of its elevation in the eruption of 
]ftiS» bat ia still 9055 ft. high. In the southern cfaa&i is fontod 
a linestoBfe formation aaak^us to that in Bali, Lombok and 
Java. Between these two chains aie round hills consisting of 
lavas or sometimes of volcanic tnlEs, covered with the long silvery 
grass wtdch also clothes vast prunes in Java and Sumatra. 
There are no navigable streams. The climate and piodnctlons 
are not onUke those of Java, though the rabs are heavier, the 
diwight none seveie, and the fertility less. Sulphur, aneaiC) 
asphalt and petroleum exist. The natives live solely by sgri* 
caltarc. But out of a total population of about 75^000 there 
aic 114000 ioreignen, living mostly by trade and navigation. 
The nativea consist of Sumbawans proper, a people of Malayan 
stock; o< Bogioese and Macassar immigranU, and of wild tribes 
of themouatainsof whom nothing is known. Mahommedanism 
ptevaOs throughout the island, except among the mountain 
trifaea. 

_' Suml 
to tke 



iwa, with Its four independent states, belongs 
states of the govemnieat of Celebes and ha 



dependeKseSL a situation to be eapbdned by the fact of the old 
SQprexnacy of the Macassarest over Sumbawa, Florcs and Sumba. 
Tr» indepciident states are Sumbawa proper, Dompo, Sangar and 
la. Two or" ^'- "^ '' ' '*" "'"- ' 



.^.^ . I other states on the northern extremity of the island 

vere ao far devastated by the Tambora ortration of .1815 that their 
icrntory, after lyii^ iac long uninhabited, was in 1666 divided 
Iccween Dompo aad San^. Sombawa proper oocupies the 
mtritcra peninsula. Tlie residence of the sultan is Sumbawa on the 
r^nh coast. It is surrounded with a palisade and ditches. The 
inhabitaatt of this state employ sometimes the Malay and Bometimes 
the M u assir chaxacter in writing. A considerable trade is carried 
on ia the export of horses, buffaloes, goats, dinding (dried flesii), 
ikitis, Inrds* nests, wax. rice, katyang, sappanwood, &c. Sumbawa 
entered into treaty relations with the Dutch East India Company 
in 1674. Dompo is the western half of the eastern peninsula. The 
i"afJrai of the state, Dompo, lies in the heart of the country, on a 
ttfcam that falls into Chempi Bay. Bada, the sultaa's residence, 
h Uxther west. Sangar occupies the north-western promontory 
ef the island, and Bima the extreme east. Bima or Bodjo, the chief 
town of the latter state, lies on the east side of the Bay of Bima; it 
has a atocK-walkd palace and a mosque, as well as a fXitch fort. 

See ZoUii^r, " Soembawa," in Verkandelinitn van hel Bclm» 
GenootKhap, xxiii. ; Ligtvoet, " Antcckeningen betreifende den 
ccnnomtschea Toestand en de Ethnographic van Soembawa,*' in 
rtjdickr. BsL Cen. xmL 

SUMMXJL, or Sumbal, also called Musk Root, a drag occasion- 
ally employed in European medical practice. It consists of 
the root of Ferula sumbtd, Hook., a tall Umbelliferous plant 
fcuxul tn the north of Bokhara, its range apparently 
cr. ending beyond the Amur. It was first brought to Russia 
ID iSiS as a substitute for musk; and In 1867 was introduced 
t.'.o tbe British pharmacopoeia. The root as found in com 
r-erce consists of transverse sections an inch or more in 
th-4.koea& and from x to 3 or more inches in diameter. It has 
a dark thin papery bark, a spongy texture, and the cut surface 
i> marbled wiUi while and blackish or pale brown; it has a 
sRttsky odour and a bitter aromatic taste. The action and 
uses of tbe drug arc the same as those of asafetida (g.v.) It 
owes its medicinal properties to a resin and an essential oil. 
Of the former it conuins about 9% and of the latter } %. 
The resin is soluble in ether and has a musky smeD, which is 
C)M fuUy developed until after contact with water. 

Vt^a the name of East Indian sumbvl, the root of DorewM 
ammamiatum, Don., has occasionally been oRered in English com- 
merte. ft Is of a browner hue, has the taste of ammoniacum. and 
f.cs a much darleer tincture than the genuine drug; it is thus 
ea-aly detected. The name " sumbal " U word of Arabic origmi 



«0aifying a spike or car) Is afmlied to ip^enl fragrant roots In the 
East, thejprincinal being NardMtafkys jalamonsi, D.C (m» Snxs- 
naed). West African sumbul b the root of a species of Cyperus. 

SUMBR and SUMERIAN. The Babylonian name Shumer 
was used in the cuneiform inscriptions together with Akkad, 
vis. mat Skumeri u Akhadi, ** land of S. and A.," to denote 
Babylonia in general (see Akkad). In tht noo-Semitic ideo- 
graphic documents the equivalent for Shumer is Kingi, whidi 
seems to be a a>mbination of Urn, ** land " 4- ««, "* iced," 
f .e. " land of reeds," and appropriate designation for Babylonia, 
which is essentially a distri^ of reedy marshes iormed by the 
Tigris and Euphrates. It was formerly thouf^t that Shumer 
«as empkiyed especially to denote the south of Babylonia, 
while Akkad was used only of the north, but this view is no 
longer regarded as tenable. It is mpie probable that the expres- 
sion Shiuner designated thte^ vdiole of Babylonia in much the 
same manner as did Akkad, and that the two words " Shumer 
aad Akkad" were used together as a comprehensive term. 
That Simmer actually did mean all Babylonia appears evident 
from the biblical use of Shinar^Shtuncr to describe the district 
which contained the four chief Babylonian cities, via. Babel, 
Erech, Aocad and Calneh (GctL z. xo), which, according ta the 
Old TestsBlent account, constituted the be^nnings of Nimrod^ 
kingdom. The identity of Shiaar and Shumer is also demco- 
Btrated by the Septuagiat rendering of Shinar in Isaiaih xi. ix by 
*' Babylonia." in short, these can be no doubt that the bibUcal 
name Shinalr was practically equivalent to 'the mat- Skumen u 
i4ibbadl»non*SemiticKliigs-{/ftaf the Babykoian Inscriptions. 
Furthermore, the fact that the Syiiac 5«fiW« Shinar was 
later used to denote the region about Bagdad (northern B^iy- 
lonia) does not necessarily prove that Shinar-Shuwer meant 
only northern Babylonia, because, when the term Stm^ar was 
applied to the Bagdad district the great southern Babykmian 
civilization had long been forgotten and " Bidiylonia " really 
meant only what we now know as northern Babylonia. 

The actual meaning of the word Shumer is lucextaki. Dr 
T. G. Pinches has pointed out^ that Shumer may be a dialectic 
form of an as yet uaestablished non-Semitic fotm, Shenger, 
just as the non<Semitic word dimmer, " god," is equivalent to 
another form, dintir. Others have seen in the andent Baby- 
lonian place-name Ctr-tu an inversion of Sm-pr^Su-^ir, 
which has also been identified with Shumer. In this connexioa 
Hommd's theoiy' should be mentioned, that the word Shumer 
was a later palatalixation of /Ci-s'ingtr, " land of Imgir "^Ski- 
imgir, subsequently Skmgi with palatalized k^sk. and elision 
of the finsi r. The form imgir (i mgirr), however, as a place-name 
for Babybnia is uncertain. All that can be said at present about 
this difficult etymology is that in the non-Semitic Babylonian 
the medial m represented quite evidently an indeteiminate nasal 
which could also be indi<&ted by the comblnatmn ^. Hence 
we find Shumer, probably pronounced Skuwer, with a soand 
similar to thai heard to-day in the Scottish (jselic word lamk, 
*' hand "; via. a sort of nasalized «. This gave rise to tbe hiter 
inaccurate forms: Greek, Senaar; Syriac, Sen'ar; and biblical 
Hebrew, Shinar -^Ai^Qor. 

The so-called " Sumerian problem," which has perplexed 
Assyriologisu for maay years, may be briefly stated ss Ibttows. 
In a great number of Babylonian inscriptions an idiom has kog 
been recognised which is clearly not ordinary Senrfticin character. 
This non-Semitic system, which is found, in many Instances, 
on alternate Unes with a regular Semitic translation, ia other 
cases ia opposite oolimins to a Semitic rendoxiag, and again 
without any Semitic equivalent at all, has been held by one 
school, founded and still vigorously defended by the distinguished 
French Assyriobgist, Jas^ Hal£vy, to be nothing more than 
a priestly system of cryptogrephy baaed, of conne, on the then 
current Semitic speech. This cryptogr«i>hy, according to some 
of the Hal6vyans, was read aloud in Semitic, but, according to 
other expositors, the system was read as an " ideophonic," 
secret, and purely artificial language. 

The oppDsing school (the Sumerists) insists that these 
* Haatiags's Dia. BibU. tv. 503. * ^^- ' 



76 



SUMER AND SUMERIAN 



BOD-Semitic docnmenta were evidenUy in an aoJlati&Ative 
language, naturally not uninfluenced by Semitic elements, but 
none the leas essentially non-Semitic in origin and fundamental 
character. Scholars of this 6pinion believe that this hmguage, 
which has been azbitraxily calltei " Akkadian " in England and 
" Sumerian " on the European continent and in America, was 
primitively the ^seech of the pre-Semitic inhabitanu of the 
Euphratean region who were conquered by the invading Semites. 
These invaders, according to this latter view, adopted the religion 
and culture of the conquered Sumerians; and, consequently, 
the Sumerian idiom at a comparatively early date began to 
be used exclusively in the Semitic temples as the written vdiides 
of religious thought in mudi the same way as was the medieval 
Latin of the Roman- Church. The solution of this problem is 
of vital importance in connexion with the early histoKy of 
man's de\'elopment in the Babylonian region. 

The study of the Sumerian vocabulary falls logically into three 
divisions. These are (i) the origin of the cuntifomi signs, 
(t) the etymology of the i^onetic values, and (3) the du cid a tio n 
of the many and varied primitive sign-meanings. 

Previous to lYofessor Friedrich Dditasch's maiterly work on 
the origin of the most ancient Babylonian system of writing,* 
no one had correctly understood the facts regarding the be> 
gipninga of the Cuneiform system, which is now generally recog- 
nised as having been origLiaDy a pure picture writing which 
later developed into a oonvcntiooaliiBd ideographic and s^bic 
sign-lisL In order to comprehend the mysteries of the Sumerian 
problem a thorough ezaminatioa of the beginning of cveiy one 
of these signs is, of course, impenitive, but it is equally necessary 
that every phonetic Sumerian value and wotd<combination 
be also studied, both in connexioa with the equivalent signs and 
with other allied phonetic vahics. This etymological study 
of Sumerian is attended with incalculable diflficnlties, because 
nearly all the Sumerian texts which we possess are written in 
an idiom which is quite evidently aider the influence of Semitic. 
With the cirception of .some very ancient texts, the Sumerian 
litetatmt^ conristing largely of religioos material such as hymns 
and incantations, shows n namb^ of Semitic loanwords and 
grammatical Semitisms, and in many cases, although not always, 
is quite patently a translation of Semitic ideas by Semitic pti«sts 
into the fbmal reUgious Sumerian language. Professor Paul 
Haupt may be termed the father of Sumoian etymology, as 
he was really the first to place this study on a scientific basis 
in his SmmtHan Fmnly Lams and Akkodiam m$td Swmeriam 
Ctmeiform Fair.* It is significant that all phonetic and gram- 
matical work in Sumerian tends to confirm nearly every one 
of Hanpl'is views. Professors Peter Jensen and Zimmera have 
also done excellent work in the same field and, together with 
Haupt, have established the correct method of investigating 
the Sumerian vocables, which should be studied only in relation 
to the Suancriaa literature. Samrriatf^vords should by no means 
be compared with words in the idioms of more recent peoples, 
such as Turkish, in spite of many tempting resemblances.* 
V'ntil further light has been thrown on the nature of Sumerian, 
this language should be regarded as standing c(Uite alone, a 
piehistocic phiMegical remnant, and its etymoloiry should be 
studied only with rt f cre uc e to the Someriaui inscriptiom then- 
selves^ On the other hand, grammatical and constructional 
examples isay be dted from other more modem afcglutinative 
idioms, in order to establish the truly linguistic character of 
the SOmcriaa peculiarities and to disprove the Hal^-an 
contention that Sumerian is really not a luigua^ at all.* 

It is net sarpriiii« that HaKvy% view as to the cryptographic 
nature of Samermn shooM haw aiiscnL .la fact, the fiist 
I hv the bewfldeiing labyrinth of the Sumerian 
mia iHniin StM^tfitmmi tdtr dtr Vrsfnmg da 
iLrina^iSn). 

» Dm smmitixhm fm^ilmttiiht (i&r^^. t>i* •UbaduAt Spfch* 
(Beriiii. i«i^. itUMuch - - - - . ^ - . . 

t<8i). See especially his 



ht K«uxhn*iitsie (Lrtpxic. 
ta titts tetcr votk. 




word-Ust is the oosdusion that such a vocabidary eoohl never 
have arisen in a regularly developed language. For example, 
anyone studyuBg Brflnnow'sLisf' will find the same sign denot> 
ing pages of meanings, many of which have apparently no con* 
nexion with any other meaning belonging to the sign in question. 
A great multiplidty of meanings is also attributed, apparently 
quite arbitrarily, to the same sign, sound-value or word. In 
these instances, however, we can explain the difficulty away 
by applying that great fundamental principle followed by tho 
Semitic priests and scribes who played with and on the Sumerian 
idiom, and in the course of many centuries turned what was 
originally an ag^utinative language into v^t has almost 
justified HaMvy and his followers in calling Sumerian a crypto- 
graphy. This prindple is that of popular etymology, t.e. of 
sound-assodation and idea-aasodation which has brought 
together in the word-lists many apparently quite distinct 
meanings, probably primarily for purposes of mnemonic aid. 
The present writer in his Materials Jor a Sumerum Lexkom has 
m e ntioned this ruling phenomenon acain and again. A very 
few fxamplfs, however, will sufi&ce here. Thus the w(»d 
OfBtbe sign RAM^rdiaa, "love" (proper meaning) is 
associated with ramdmu^ " to roar," lor phonetic reasons only. 
The word o"* the sign A^ " water '* (original meaning) can 
indicate anything whatever connected with the idea moisture. 
Thus, «">" water, moisture, weep, tears» inundate, irrigate," &c. 
The word a can also mean " shining, glisrming," an idea 
eWdenUy devdoped from the shining rippling of water. Note that 
in Turkish su means both " water " and " the lustre of a jewd," 
while in English we speak of ** gems of the first water." The 
combination o-md-ia, literally ** water enter ship," means abUbu, 
** dduge," ordinarily, but in one passage am d tM h asade the 
equivalent of skabiUmt ** ffame," a pure pun on oMUw, " dduge." 
Examples of this, the leading prindple which was followed by 
the framers of the Sumierian system, mi^ be cited almost 



Facts of this character taken by themselves would perhaps 
be suffident to convince most philologists that in Sumerian we 
have an arbitrarily compounded cryptograi^y just as Halevy 
bdievcs, but these facts cannot be taken by themselves, as the 
evidences of the purdy linguistic basis of Sumerian vt stronger 
than these apparent proofs ot its artificial character. 

Briefly considered there are six most striking proob that the 
Sumerian was based on a primitive ag^utinative langiiagr 
These may be tabulated condsdy as foUowsrT- 

r. Sumerian presents a significant list of internal phonetic 
variations which would not have been possible in an arbitrarily 
invented language. Thus, taking the voweh alone; e«a by 
the prindple of mtidaal. Hence, we find the words ga sth! ge, 
o and e for the same idea respecti%tly. The vowd t could 
becAne s as i£r»</t, &c. Consonantal ^-ariatioa is most 
common. Thus, &««, as kartm^wiantn. Compare the 
modem .\rabtc pronundation IfCixlbfk for Baalbek. Perhaps 
the most inteitstiog of these consocantot interchanges b that 
occurring between » and the sibilants sk and z; nef^sker; 
na^xa, which by some scbdixs has been declared to be pho- 
netically impossible, but its existence is well established between 
the modem Chinese coUoquiai idioms. For example, Peiungcse 
rArti, Hakka ny»», Fuchow «J«j, l^Hngpo zMing and wytwf , 
WSnchow ung axkd auwj all -" man." This demoitst rates 
be>x>nd a doubt the pos^'btUty of a strongly palataUxed n 
becoming a palatal sibibct or vice versa, between which 
utterances there b but a \-^r>* slfght tongue nio\-enicnt. 

The <&cussx)n of these phenomena brings us to another pcunt 
which predudes the possibility of Sumerian having been merely 
an artificial system, and that is the undoubted existence In this 
language of at least two dialects^ which ha\x been named, 
following the inscrptioBs. the Eme-tu, *' the noble or nfcale 
speech/* and the Emt-sal, •'the woman's language.** The 
existence and general phonetic character of the **w«mian^ 
language** were first poiated out by Professor P^ol Haupt, 

. A?L S ^'tS??*' ^ Outiied List0faa Simpk mmd Csmptmnd 
/ dwye ^j (1869). "^ 



SUMMANUS 



11 



«fao died, for aampk, the feUimiog very •oomiDon {ntenlla- 
kcdc variations: Ente-ku^— Eme-aalmcr*, ''foot"; Eme-ka 
«rBEme*«ai xAer, "ruler"; Eme-kn ^«ga**Eiiie-sal seto, 
" knee,** Ac Such phonetic ind dialectic cbanget, so difFerent 
fmn any o< the Semiiic tingniirir phenomena, ave all the more 
viloahie bec a use they are set before us only by means of Semitic 
equivaleBta. Certainly no ayptography based eidnsively on 
SLffiitic could exhibit this sort of inteichange. 

It should be added here in passing that the geogEsphicsl 
or tribal aigntiicance of these t^vo Sumerian dialects has never 
bmi estabMahed. There can b$ no doubt that Eme^sal means 
"woman's language/' and it was. perhaps thus designated 
bccwsc it was a softer idiom phonetically than the other dialect, 
la il were written moat «f the penitential hjfmnsi which were 
possibly thought to require a more euphonious idiom than, for 
fxampie, hymns of praise. It is doubtful whether the Erne-sal 
ik^ ever r^y a woman's language similar in character to that 
of dieCarib women of the Antilles»or that of the Eskimo women 
of GveenlaxKL It is much more likely that the two dialects were 
thus designated because of their respectivdy harsh and soft 
phoDcticSb^ 

2. Sumerian baa a system of vowd harmony strikingly Hke 
that seen in all modem agglutinative languages, and it has also 
Tocaltc dissmilation similar to that found in modem Finnish 
aad Esthonlan. Vocalic harmony is the internal bringing 
tognber of vowels of the same class for the sake of greater 
caphony, while vocalic dissimilation is the deliberate insertion 
of oflotber daas of vowels, in order to prevent the disagreeable 
e^onotooy artsing from too prolonged a vowel harmony. Thus, 
£ Sumerian we find such forms as numunnih-Ht " he speaks 
aoi to faioi,'' where the negative prefix nu and the verbal prefix 
«m are in harmony, but in dissimilation to fhe infix nib, ** to 
k«n/* and to the root H, " speak,*' which are also in harmony. 
Compare also mhsud-dam, " Uke the heavens^" where the ending 
iiM stands for a usual dim, being changed to a hard dam under 
the infloence of the hard vowels in ofhsttd. 

S- Sumerian has only postpositions instead of prepositions, 
vhkh occur exclusively in Semitic. In this point also Sumerian 
fi in aoooid with all other ag^tlnative idioms. Note Sumerian 
»^ii. ** to the house " (e, ** house," +(fa, " in," by dissimilation), 
azd compare Turkish w, " house," de, " in," and etde, " m the 



4. The method of word formation in Sumerian is entirdy non* 
Seeiitic in character. For example, an indeterminative vowel, 
«. r, « or sr, may be prefixed to any root to form an abstract; 
ti js, from me, " speak," we get e-m«, " speech "; from ra, 
" to 99/* we get o-ro, " the act of going," &c. In connexion 
viih the very complicated Sumerian verbal system* it will 
be mAdent to note here the practice of infixing the verbal 
effect wluch is, of course, absolutdy alien to Semitic. This 
I'L'.saaxnoo. appears also in Bssque and in many North 
Ajacrican laqguages. 

5. Sumerian is quite devoid of grammatical gender. Semitic, 
''. the other hand,^ has grammatical gender as one of its basic 
piircq)leSk 

6. Furtlicrmore, in a real cryptography or secret language, 
:f vhicfa EngBsh has several, we find only phenomena based 
( the language from which the artificial idiom is derived. 
T'lus, in the English " Backslang," which is nothing more than 
crtJiuy £ngiiah ddiberatdy inverted, in the similar Arabic 
i -rm used among school children in Syria and in the Spanish 
- ,i\€^ dialect, tile prindplea of inversion and substitution 
; ^y the diief part. Also in the curious tinker's " Thary " 
spoken sUll on the English roads and lanes, we find merely 
ts often inaccuratdy inverted Irish Gadic But in none of 
:b<se nor in any other artificial Jargons can any grammatical 
^ .-rk^pment be found other than that of the languagr on which 
i!tfy are based. 

7. AD this is to the point with regard to Sumerian, because 
these very principles of inversion and substitution have been 

* Prince, Maleriais for a Sufnerian Laekcn, p. 14. 
•Ibid. pp. ao-^ 
XXVI, !• 



dted as bebig the basb of many of the Sumerian comblnationi. 
Ddiberate inversion certainly occurs La the Sumerian documents, 
and it is highly probable that this was a priestly mode of writing, 
but never of speaking; at any rate, not when the language was 
in common use. It is not necetsary to imagine, however, that 
these devices origmated with the Semitic priesthood. It is 
quite conceivable that the still earlier Sumerian priesthood 
invented the method of orthographic inversion, which after 
an is the very first device whidi suggests itself to the primitive 
mind whjn endeavouring to express itself in a manner out of the 
ordinary. For example, evident Sumerian invcrsbns are GbU, 
" the fire god," for BO-gi; uskar for Sem. shanu, " kmg," ftc. 

It is, moreover, highly probable that Sumerian had primitively 
a system of voice-tones similar to that now extant in Chinese. 
Thus, we find Sumerian ah, "dweOhig," "sea"; aft, " road," 
and -aft, a grammatical sufl&x, which words, with many others of 
a similar character, were perhaps originally uttered witl\ dififerent 
voice-tones. In Sumerian, the number of conjectural voice- 
tones never exceeds the possible number dght. 

It is also dear that Stunerian was actually read aloud, probably 
as a ritual language, until a very late period, because we have 
a number of pure Sumerian words tvproduced in Greek trans' 
literation; for example, DeUphta ^DShot, "the Venus^tar''; 
i//MMW»the god /0t/»Bd; aid$^itm, "month," &c 

In view of the many evidences of the linguistic character of 
Sumerian as opposed to the one fact that the language had 
engrafted u^xm it a great number tit evident Semitisms, the 
opinion of the present writer is that the Sumerian, as we have 
it, is fundamentally an agglutinative, almost polysynthetic, 
language, upon which a naore or less ddiberatdy constructed 
fo k ^Mmi of Semitic Inventions waa supcrimposcfd in the course 
of many centuries of accretion under Semitic inftiences. This 
riew stands as a connecting link between the extreme Idea of 
the Hal£vyan school and the extreme idea of the opposing 
Snmeriat schooL 

LiTBKATuu.^Radau, Barty Bahyloman fliiitory; Lenormanti 
Sludts accadienueSt it. 5k P. 70; Eberiurdt Schnder, Keilnuckriflem 
tft. das AlU TettamerU, iu 118 ■qa., KMinsckriflen u. GesfkickU* 
foTSchuntj pp. 3QO, 533; Wcissbacn, Zur LUsung der sumaiscken 
Frage; T. C Pinches, *' Lan[^uage of the Early Inhabitants of 
Mesopotamia," in Joum. Raif. Asiatic Soe. (1B84). pp. 301 sqq.; 



Comptes rendus, 3rd sencs. vol. iv. p. 477; 3rd series, vol. Iv. pp. 138. 
t^*. Joufnal asicH^, Ttn aeriesi vol. viii. pp. aoi sqq.; JUckercM 
eriUnies tur Forigtne di la cmlisatUrti babyumietms (Paris, 1876); 
f. D. Prince, Journal of tk^ American Oriental Society, xxv. 49* 
07; American Journal of Semitic Languages, xix. 303 sqc).; 
Materials for a Sumerian Lexicon, with grammatic introduction 
(Leipxig, 190S-1907). Compare also the material dtsed in the foot- 
» above, and note the correspoadenoe b e tw een BrOnnow and 



Hab&vy in the Banu simitiqm (1906). <J- P* P>«) 

fOmAlfUSk according to some, an old Sabbe or Etruscm 
ddty; the name, however, is Latin, formed by aasimilatiott 
from sub-mdnus (cf. mane, Matuta), signifying the god of the 
time "before the morning." His sphere of infiuence wss the 
nocturnal heavens, thundefsUmns at night being attributed 
to him, those by day to Jupiter. Summaaus had a temple at 
Rome near the Qrcus' Maximus, dedicated at the thne of the 
invasion of Italy by Fyrrhus, king of Einnis (378), when a terra- 
cotta image of the god (or of Jupiter himsdf) on the pediment 
of the C^iitoline temple waa strudc by lightning and hurled 
into the river Tiber. Here sacrifice was offered crvery year to 
Summanos on the soth of June, together with cakes called 
summanalia baked hi the form of a whed, supposed to be sym« 
boiled of the car of the god of the thunderbolt. In Plautus 
{Baukidet iv. 8, 54) Summanus and the verb fMUMaifara 
are used lor the god of thieves and the act of stealing, with 
obvious rderenoe to Summanus as a god of ni|^t, a time 
favourable to thieves and their bushiess. The later e]q>lanatk>tt 
that Summaaus is a contraction from Summus Manium (the 
greatest of the Manes), and that he is to be idencUM with Pis 
Pater, Is now generally rejected. 
_ See Augusdna. De tiutak dei, iv. a3i Ovid. Fasti, v«. • 



78 



SUMMARY JURISDICTION 



Kidtus ier Rdmer 



MJK. Pn oa num Mgofx G. Wtssowa, Jtdigion und J 
(1902}: W. W. Fowler. The Rfmian Fesiwols (1899}. 

SUMMARY JURISDICnoir. In the widest sense this phnse 
in English law includes the power asserted by courts o£ record 
to deal breoi manu with contempts of court without the interven- 
tion of a jury. Probably the power was originally exercisable 
only when the £act was notorious, ue. done in presence of the 
court. But it has long been exercised as to extracurial contempts 
(see Contempt ov Couki). The term is also applied to the 
special powers ^ven by sUtute or rules to the High Court of 
Justice and to county oowts for dealing with certain classes 
of causes or matters by methods more simple and expeditious 
than the ordinary procedure of an action (see Suuuons). But 
the phrase in modem times is applied almost exclusively to 
certain forms of jurisdiction exerdsed by justices of the peace 
out of general or quarter sessions, and without the assistance 
of a jury. 

Ever since the creation of the office oi justice efthe peace iq.v.) 
the tendency of English legislation has been to enable them to 
deal with minor offences without a jury. I^e^slation was 
necessfiry because, as Blackstone says, except in the case of 
contempts the common law is a stranger to trial without a Jury, 
and because even when an offence is created by statute the 
procedure for trying must be by indictment and trial before 
a jury, unless by the statute aeaiing the offence or some other 
statute another mode of trial is provided. In one remarkable 
instance power is given by an act of 1735 (rs Geo. I. c. 29, s. 4) 
to judges of the superior courts summarily to sentence to trans- 
portation (penal servitude) a solicitor practising after conviction 
of barratry, forsery or perjury (Stephen, Dig, Crim. Law, 6th ed., 
1x3). In oUier words all the summary jurisdiction of justices of 
the peace is the creation of statute. The history of the gradual 
devdopment of the summary jurisdiction of justices of the peace 
is stated in Stephen's Hist. Crim, LaVt voL L ch. 4. The result 
of le^slation is that summary jurisdiction has been conferred 
by statutes and by-laws as to innumerable petty offences of 
a criminal or quasi-criminal character (most of which in French 
law would be described as contraventions) , ranging through every 
letter of the alphabet. The most important perhaps are those 
under the Army, Game, Highway^ Licensing, Merchant Shipping, 
Post Office, Public Health, Revenue and Vagrancy Acts. 

A court of summary jurisdiction is defined in the Inter- 
pretation Act 1889 as ** any justice or justices of the peace or 
other magistrate, by whatever name called, to whom jurisdiction 
b given by, or who is authoriased to act \mdar, the Summary 
Jurisdiction Acts, whether in England, Wales or Ireland, and 
whether acting under the Summary Jurisdiction Acts or any 
of them or any other act or by virtue of his commission or under 
the common law " (s« & S3 Vict. c. 63, s. 13 [xij>. This defim- 
tion does not apply to justices of the peace sitting to hold a 
preliminary inquiry as to indictable offences, or in the dischsrge 
of their quasi-administrative function^ as licensing authwity. 
The expression "Summary Jurisdiction Acts" means as to 
England and Wales the Summary Jurisdiction Acts of 1848 
(11 & X2 Vict, c 42) and 1879 (44 & 43 Vict, c 49) and any act 
amending these acts or either of ihem. These acU define the 
procedure to be followed by Justices in those cases in which they 
are empowered by staiiUe to hear and detannine civil or criminal 
cases witbont the intervention of a jury or the forms of an 
actioa or indictment at law or a suit in equity. Besides these 
two acU the procedure as to the exercise of summary jurisdiction 
is also regulated by acts of 1857 (20 & sx Via. c x, c. 43)» x884 
(47 & 48 Vict, c 43) and 1899 (63 & 63 Vict, c 22), and by the 
Summary Jurisdiction Process Aa x88x (44 & 45 Vict. c. 24). 

The act ol 1848 repealed and consolidated the provisions 
of a large number of earlier acU. The act of X857 provided a 
mode of appeal to the High 0>urt by case sUted as to questions 
of law raised in summary proceedings. The act of 1879 amended 
the procedure in ma^y details with the view of uniformity, and 
enlaxipd th* powers of justices to deal summarily with certain 
classes of offences ordi^ ~ ' * * 'e on indictment. The 

act glra poww U> ir '. details of procedure. 



The raks now in force were madte In x886, but have since been 
amended in certain details. The act of x8a4 swept away special 
forms of procedure contained in a large number of statutes, 
and substituted the procedure of the Summary Juxisdiction 
Acts. The act of r699 added the obtaining of property by false 
pretences to the Ust of indirtsMft offences which could sufr modo 
be summarily dealt with. The statutes above mentioned foras 
a kind of code as to procedure and to some extent also as to 



As alreacfy stated, to enaUe a justice to deal ■amoaxily with aa 
offence, whether created by statute or by*Uiw, aome statutory 
authority must be shown. A very large number of ^ctty offences 
(contraventions) have been created {e.t. poaching, nunor forms ol 
theft, malicious damage and assault}, and are annually being 
created (i) by legislation, or (2) by the by-laws of carporadons made - 
under statutory authority, or (3) by departmenta of rtate acting 
under such authority. The two latter classes differ from the fin* 
in the necessity of proving by evidence the existence of the by-Uw 
or statutory rule, and if need be that it is ifttra vires. 

In the case of offences which are primarily made puniahable only 
on summary conviction, the accused, if the maximum puniohmcDC 
is imprisonment for over three months, can elect to be tried by a 
jury (act of 1879, ^ '7). 

In the case of offences which are primarily punishable only on 
indictment, power to convict sommarily is grven in the following 
cases s~— 

X. AU indicuble offences (except homidde) committed by children 
over seven and under twelve, if tne court thinks it cxpediei&t and the 
parent or guardian docs not object (1879, s. 10). 

a. All indictable offences (except homicide) committed by young 
persons of twelve and under sixteen, if the youn^ person coosenta 
after being toU of his right to be tried by a jury (i879,a. xi; 
1899,8.2). 

3. The indictable offences specified in sched. r, col. 2 of the act 
of 1879 and in the act of i899f if committed bv adults, if thcv consent 
to summary trial after being told of thdr right to be tried by a jury 
(1879^. 13). 

4. The indictable offences specified in sched. i. col. x of the act 
of 1879 and the act of 1890, it committed by an adult who pleads 
guilty after due caution that if he does so he will be summarily 
convicted (1879. a X3). 

Adults cannot be rammarily dealt with under 3 or 4 if the offence 
is punishable by law with penal servitude owing to previous convic- 
tion or (fK/tc/men/ of the accused (1879,8. 14). 

It will be observed that as to all the indktable offences falling 
under heads i to 4, the summary jurisdktion depends on the consent 
of the accused or a person having authority over him after recci\^og 
due information as to the ri^t to go to a jury, and that the punish- 
ments on summary conviction in such cases are not those which 
could be imposed after conviction or indictment, but are limited as 
followB.^ 

Case I. Imprisonment for not more than one month or fine not 
exceeding 40s. and (or) whipping of male children (not more than 
six strokes with a birch) ; sending to an industrial school or reforma- 
tory. 

Case 3. Imprisonment with or wkhout hard labour for not more 
than three months or fine not exceeding £10 and (or) wbippiiig erf 
males (not more than twelve strokes with a birch) ; sending to an 
industrial school or reformatory. 

Case 3. Imprisonment for not more than three months with or 
without hard labour or fine not exceeding £20. 

Case a. Imprisonment with or without hard labour for not over 
six months. 

These limitations of punishment have had a potent effect in 
inducing culprits to ayc^d the greater risks involved in a jury trial. 

Where the offence is indictable the accused is brought before the 
justices either on arrest without warrant or 00 warrant or summons 
under the Indictable Offences Act 1848, and the summary juria- 
diction procedure does not apply till the necessary option has been 
taken. 

Where the offence is indktable only at the election of the accused 
the sumoiary jurisdicrion procedure applies until on being informed 
of his option the accused elects for jury trial (act of 1879, *• I7)> 

In the case of an offence pumshable on summary conviction the 
procedure is ordinarily as follows : — 

Information, usually orsl. is laid before one or more justices of 
the peace alleging the consnusaoB of the offence. An information 
roust not state more than a single offence, but great latitude is 
given as to amending at the hearing any defects in the mode of 
stating an offence. Upon receipt of the information the justice 
may issue his summons for the attendance of the accused at a time 
and place named to answer the charge. It is usoad to sammon 
to a petty sewional court (».«. two iustioes or a stipendiary maeistrate. 
or, m the city of London, an alderman). The summons la usuallv 
served by a constable. If the accused does not attend in obc<Stence 
to the summons, after proof of service the court may either Ls&ue 
a warrant for his arrest or may deal with the charge in his ab&cncc. 



SUMMARY JURISDICTION 



..ekiwbatUcaUedaooatiiuung 

sumiBaiy c»aea the accused t» arrested 

without apptlcation to a justice, e.g. 

Kgabonds and certaiA classes of offences 



t it Muad in (bee of a Munnooi in the fint 
j the iirforroation must be laid in writing and 

verified bv qath. The ptoceedings must be begun, »^. by laying 
the lalonBatMB, not later than mx months after the commisMon 
of the ndJranr. aleBB bv aome particular atatnte another period 
is aaacd or naleas the odenoe ia what ia called a oontinoing oflFence. 

la a cotain number of 
awkr statutory authority 
lA the case of rogues and vagabonds 

oonsmktcdiatlwscraet in view of a constable or by ni^ht. Whether 
xht aujua d ia brau^ht before the court on antst with or without 
warraot or attends in obedience to summona^ the procedure at the 
ke^nag is the same. The hearing is ordinarily before a petty ses* 
iiyrM court, tJt. before two or more justices sittiiw at their regular 
pLhct of meeting or soma plaoe temponirily appointed as the sub- 
Rirute for the ragular oonrt-houae, or before a stipendiary nu^ia- 
tr^te. or ia the cky of London an alderman, sitting at a- pUoe where 
br may by bw do alone what in other places may be done by two 
]s -ices (1879. a. 3o; 1889, a. 13). A single jusdoe sittmg alone 
m the ordinary court-house or two or more justices sitting together 
ix aa nil liiiMiil oonrt-faouae have certain jurisdiction to hear and 
(kscnniae tlie case, but cannot order a 6ne of more than 30a. or 
icipriMonicnt for more than fourteen days (1879. s. 20 I7]). The 
bf inar must be in open court, and parties may appear by counsel 
or wwitar. If both narties appear, the justices must near and 
•irtennne the case, li the defendant doca not appear, the court 
Tjv hear and detemane in his absence, or may issue a warrant 
ir.i a'fjoum the hearing until his apprehension. Where the dcfen- 
di-** is repneaented by solicitor or counsel but is not himself present 
•• 1* u*a3l. exoept in serious cases, to proceed in his abaenoe. If 
;^>■ defendant is present the substance of the information is stated 
to Kt-n and he is asked whether he is guiltjr or not gnilty. If he 
pVsds iruilty the court may proceed to conviction. If he doea not 
rh^ court iKars the case, and witnesses for the nroaecution and 
i:.^>ny-e ai« examined and croe-examined. If the complainant 
'^ <^ n^ appear, the justices may dismiss the complaint or adjourn 

H neoesaary rebutting evidence may be called. The prosecutor 
i« P7t allowed to reply in the case of the defendant. On the com- 
r *vyy of the evidence the court proceeds to convict or acquit. 
WNrre the case is proved but is trifling the court may. without 
:r ;:-eding to conviction, make an order dismissing the information 
« .^;ccT to payment of damages for injury or compensation for loss 
U7 *o £10 or any higher limit fixed by statute as to the offence, and 
' '-.* 5. or diacharpng the accused conditbnalty on hb giving security 
: •^ ^.-Tod bdfiaviour and on paying dama^esand costs (1907, c. ly.s. i). 
T ' 'h>5 order probationary conditions may be attach«Ml <9. 3). Subject 
to this pffDviMm the punishment which may be enforced depends 
a« 3. seneral rule on the statute or by-bw ddinio^ the offence, and 
oitvtsts in imprisonment and (or) fine, esccept m cases where a 
ruajaivm fine tt sripubted for by a treaty, &c., with a foreien 
K^'c €.g. in sea fishc^ conx-emions. The court may mitigate tne 
fi-r in tne case of a ftrst offence, even in a revenue case, or may 
r^jre the period of imprisonment and impose it without hard 
U'Tfor, or substitute a fine not exceeding £25 for imprisonment. A 
vak is prescribed for imprisonment on Allure to pay money, 
Hn. or costs, adjudged to be paid on a conviction, or in default 
erf a sufBdcnt distress to satisfy the sum adjudged (1879. s. 5). 
Intfad of sending the defendant to prison for not paying fine and 
'^Xk the court may direct its levy by distress warrant, or may 
^ ept payment by instahnems. In the case of distress the wearing 
4;>ar«1and bedding of the defendant and his family, and to the 
vt !.e of CS ^be toob and implements of his trade, may not be taken 
A t of 1879, a. 21). If the defendant after going to prison can pay 
pan of the money his imprisonment is reduced proportionally 
<?r>,iM Act 1898, s. 9). The imprisonment is without hard bbour 
*.'>» hard bbour is spedally authoriiEcd by the act on which the 
c-:virtion U founded. The maximum term of imprisonment 
vuhjKit the option of a fine is in most cases six months, but depends 
c the particubr statute. Imprisonment under order of a court 
of Mimmary jurisdiction is in the common gaol (5 Hen. IV. c. 10), 
te laz kxal pn*cM decbvcd by the home secretary to be the common 
5>ol (or the county, Ac, for which the court acts. The pbce of 
mpruooment during remands or in the case of youthful ctfendetB 
sj , ia certain casesbe elsewhere than in a prison. 

The court has power \o order costs to be paid by the prosecutor 
nr tSe defendant.^ Where the order is made on a conviction it 
* mforceable by imprisonment in default of payment or sufficient 
Issrcss.. 

The eOeaC of the local jinildiction of justices exernsing summary 
luoadiction b defined by s. 46 of the act of 1S79 with reference to 
offences commirted on the boundaries of two jurisdictions or during 
jo^jrneys or on the sea or rivers or in harbours. 

ProcecdRigs under the Bastardy Acts are reguTated by spedal 
hgidation. but as to proof of seivice and the eniorcement of orders 
<ad appjub are assimibted to convictions under the Summary 
jjrMfattion Acts. The same rub applies (except as to appeals) 
lo orders «ade under the Summary Jurisdiction (Married Women) 
Act tf9S M nnoKbd by the Licensing Act 1909* 



79 

A wanrnnt of atrest b eaKuted by tht.coaaUbb or pmon to 
whom It la dwected withm the local junsdiction of the isfuias 
oourt; OK a fresh pursuit within seven miles of its boundaries, with* 
out endonemeat , in th^ rest of Engbnd and Waba» and ia Scotland* 
the Channel Isbads and Isb of Man after cndoiseoicnt by a oam- 
petent magistrate of the pbce where the accused b. and in Ireland 
by a justkeof the peaceor an inspector of conaubulaiy. An English 

to a defendant or witness, except in respect of civil 

served in S oot bnd after endorsement by a competeat 
magistnite there (Sumiaary Jurisdiction Prooeas Art 1881, 44 and 
45 Vict. c. a4). The attendance of a witnem who b an prison 
b obtained by writ of habeas corpus or by a aecretaiy of state's 
order under the iVison Act 1898. If awitnem will not attend 00 
summons he can be brought to the court by wanaat, and if ha 
wiU not answer qucstbna bwfully put to him miiy besent to prison 
for seven days or until he sooner oonaents to answer. 

Cbaf Jarssdicibn.— >ln cases where iosticas have a summary 
cavil jurisdiction, «.g. as to certain ^vil debts recoverable summai^, 
or to make orders to do or to abstain from doing certain acts, «^. 
with refcfnnce to nuisances and building, the praoedure diffen m 
certain detaib from that in criminal caso. 

I. The summons b issued on n complaint which need not be in 
writing nor on oath, and not on an ioformatbtt, and warmats of 
arrest cannot be issued. 

a. The mica as to the evidence of the defendant and hb «r her 
spouse are the same as in civil actbns. 

3. The court's deotdon b by order and not by conviction. 

4. The Older if for payment of a dvil debt or costs in oonnedoft 
therewith b enforceabb by distrem and sab of the defendant'* 
effects or by imprisonment, but only on proof that the defendant 
has had siaca the order means of paying and has refused or "f g ltrttd 

Proceedings tor the enfoKcement of local rates are not affected 
by the Summaiy lariadictson Acts except as to the power of sub- 
mitting to the High Court questions of bw arising on a s 
enf Otoe rates {re Alkn, 1894. a Q.B., 984). The f uoctbns 
aa to such rates are sometimes but not ouite aocwateiy dmcribcd 
as nunisterial, for their powers of inquiry though limhed are judicial 
and of a <iuas»<riininal character. 

AppeaL — The orders and convictions of a covrt of 



'The f uoctbns of jusUces 



jurisdiction are In many 



bhle to quarter sessioas. The 
on the specific provisions of a 



right to appeal b always , , 

statute. The Summary Iiirisdiction Act 18^ pves a general power 
of appeal i^nst an adjudication on conviction (but not on plea 
of guilty) to imprisonment withont the option of a fine, whether 
as punishment for an offence or for failure to do or abstaining from 
doing any act, other than oomplianoe with aa order to pay money 
or mul sccuriw or enter into tecognixanom or to find suredea 
(1879, s. 19). The procedure on the appeab b regulated and made 
Uniterm by the acts of 1879, ss. 31, 33; and 1884. These provisions 
are supplenwntary of the pnrticuhn' pcovisions of many statutes 
authoruingan appeaL 

The deasiont of eourta of summary jurisdiction 00 pdms of 
law are generally reviewed by a case stated for the opinion of the 
High Court under the acta of 1857 and 1879, but are occasionally 
corrected by the common bw rmedies of onradftinw, prohibition 
orc«nbrori. The appUcation of the la*-named lemcdy b restffkted 
by many statntei. The coot of appeal has iurisdietiQn to revbw 
Tudgments and orders of the High Court dcnhng with appeals, &c., 
from the decisions of justices m the exercise of their civil juris* 
diction; but not when the subject-matter b a criminal cause or 
matter. 

In proocscdion b e tween husband and wife for separatson orders 
there M a special form of app^l on facts as well as law to the probate. 



the High Court (Summary 
Jurisdiction (Married Women] Act 1895; Licensing Act 1902, 



divorce and admiralty division of 

• is" - 

I). 



SC0TL4M0. Cmf.— ;In the Court of Session them are certain 
forms of summary civil proceedings by petition, e.g.with reference 
to eouils, custody of children, guardians and factors of minors and 
lunatics, which are applications for exercise of the nobde efieium or 
extraordinary jurisdiaion of the court (see Mackay. Court of Sessi^m 
PrectiUt i. 309, ii. 355). Summary jurisdiction e given to justices 
of the peace as to t he recovery of small debts. 

Criminal and Quasi-criminal. — The only act rebting to summary 
jurisdiction procedure common to Engbnd and Sc^tand is the 
Summary Jurisdiction Process Act 1881. Summary jurisdietioa 
in Scotbno depends chbfly upon the Summary Jurisdiction (Scot* 
land) Acts i86iand 1881. The acts follow, to some extent, the lines 
of English Ic^slation. but the sheriff and his deputies and substitutes 
are included in the definition of the court, as are stipendiary mai;is- 
tnites (1897, c. 48). The acts abo apply to proceeding before 
burgh courts, or burgh magistmtes, and to justices of the peace 
where they have by other statutes power to try offences or enforce 
penalties. AH proceedings (or summary conviction or for recovery 
of a penalty must be by way of complaint according to one of the 
forms in the schedule to the act of 1864. The Engtbh cummoas and 
warrant are tepresented in Scotbnd by the warrant of chation and 
tba wanaat of apprehension- Where no punishment b fixed for a 



6o 



8UMMIT-~SUMMONS 



MAtutory olTenee, the court ainnot sentence to more than a line of 

Kilxty dayt' impritonroent. in addition to ordering caution to 
the pMoe. The act of iMi adopts certain of the provisiont 
KngliBh act of 1 $79 as to mitiption of fines, tenns of impriaon- 
mrat, Ac. and alio gives a discretion as to punishment to a sheriff 
trying by jury In cases where the prosecution might have been 
by complaint under the acts. By the Youthful Offenders Act 1901, 
Scottish ooorts of summary jurisdiction have acquired the same 

{ttrisdiction as to offences by children as was conferred on English 
ustiees In 1879. Appeals from courts of summary jurisdiction 
are no^r mainly regulated by the act of 1875 (38 and m Vict. c. 6a), 
and proceed on case statea by the inferior judge. A bill was sub- 
mitted to pariiament in 1907 for consolidating and amending the 
Scottish summary procedure; 

lasLAND.^ — In Ireland the High Court has the same summary 
powers in cases of contempt, and the term "court of summary 
Jurisdiction " has the same meaning as in England (Interpretation 
Act 1889, 8. 13 (ii|)f subject to the definition of the Summary 
Jurisdiction (Ireland) Acts, which are, as regards the Dublin metro* 
polftaa police district, the acts regulating the powers and duties 
of justices of the peace or of the police of that district, and as le sp cu a 
any other part of Ireland the Petty Sessions (Irdand) Act 1851 
(14 and 15 Vict. c. 5^3) and any act amending the same. The acu 
are more extenave in their purview than the English acts, as they 
form in a great degree a code of substantive law as wdl as of pro- 
cedure. By an act of 1884 the same jurisdiction was given as to 
offences by children as by the act of 1879 in Enahuid. Stipendiary 
or resident magistrates may be appointed in the dboe ot unpaid 
justices under an act of 1836 (6 & 7 W. IV. c 13). The exceptional 
political circumstances of Ireland have led to the conferring at 
afferent times on courts of summary jurisdiction of an authority, 
generally temporary, greater than that which they can exercise 
in Great Britain. Rnrent instances are the Peace Preservation 
Act 1881, and the Prevention of Crimes Act 188a, both expired, 
and the (Criminal Law and Procedure (Irebmd) Act 1887. 

British PoiaNioNS beyond the Sbas.— The l^dation of 
British poaseasions as to summary jurisdiction foUows the lines of 
English legislation, but, and espeoally in crown colonies, tibere 
is a disposition to dispense with the jury more than under Eng^h 
procedure, and in most colonies stipendiary magistrates are more 
treely employed than unpaid justices of the peace (see British 
Guiana, (>rd. Na 10 of 1803). Many of the colontal criminal 
codes include a number of offences punishable on summary convic- 
tion. The procedure closely follows English models, but has in 
many cases been oonsoUdatM and ampli&ed (e.£. Victoria, Justices 
Act 1890, No. 1105; British Guiana, Ord. No. I3 of i8g|3). In 
many colonies stipendiaries and justices of the peace exercise dvil 
jurisdiction as to matters dealt with in Englamd by the county 
court («.g. British Guiana, Ord. Na xi of 1893). 

Umitbd Statbs.— By art iii. s. 3 of the constitution, the trial 
of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, is to be by jury. By 
art. V. of the amendments no person can be held to answer for a 
capital or otherwise in£amoua crime unless on a presentment or 
indictment of a grand jury. Considerable changes have been made 
by sute legislation in the direction of enlaiging the powers ot courts 
of summary jurisdiction. 

EuKorBAN CouNTRiBS.-— On the continent of Europe trial of 
criminal cases by a bench of judges without a jury is the original 
and normal method, and continues except in those cases as to 
which under the penal and procedure codes jury trial is made 
neccssaiy. In Fiance the place of courts of summary jurisdiction 
is filled by tribunatix conecUonds. (W. F. C.) 

SUMMIT, a dty of Union county, New Jersey, U.S.A., in 
the north-east of the state, about ax m. W. of New York City. 
Fbp. (1900) 550a, of whom 1397 wereforeign-bam; (1905) 6845; 
(1910) 7500. It is served by the Morris & Essex and the 
Psusaic & Delaware divisions of Delaware, Lackawanna & 
Western railroad, and by the Rahway Valley railroad extending 
to Roselle, 9 m. distant. Summit is picturesquely situated on 
the crest of a ridge called Second Mountain, with a mean eleva- 
tion of 450 ft. It is a residential suburb of New York, and 
attracts a number of summer residents. Among its institu- 
tions are a public library (1874), a home for blind children, 
the Overlook hospital and the Kent Place school (1894) for 
girls. On Hobart Hill there is a monument marking the 
site of a beacon light and a signal gun used during the War 
of Independence. Summit was incorporated as a township in 
1869 from parts of the townships at Springfield and New 
Providence, and was chartered as a dty in 1899. 

SUMMONS (Fr. senumUt from semotmer or semondre, Lat. 
sumnumere, summonUio), in English law (i) a command by a 
superior authority to attend at a given time or place or to do 
some public duty; ' ^ntaining such command, 

and not infrcque- he oonsequencca entaSed 



by neglect to obey. The oral summons or dtation seems to 
have preceded the written summons in England, just as in 
Roman law in jus vocatio existed for centuries bef6re the lihtUus 
amveniionis. The antiquity and importance of the summons 
as a legal form in England is shown by the presence of the 
" sompnour," or summoner of the ecdesiastical court, as one 
of the characters in the Canterbury Taies^ and in The History 
of Sir John Otdcastkf where the sumner is made to eat a citation 
issued from the bishop of Rochester's court. The term is used 
with reference to a demand for the attendance of a person in 
the high court of parliament. As regards English courts of 
justice it is equivalent to what in the dvU and canon law and 
in Scots law, and in English courts deriving their procedure 
from those sources, is known as " dtation." That term is still 
preserved in English ecdesiastical courts and in matrimonial 



It is an essential prindple of justice that a court should not 
adjudicate upon any question without giving the parties to 
be affected or bound by the adjudication the opportunity of 
being heard and of bringing thdr witnesses before the court. 
The most usual term in English law for the process by which 
attendance is cosmuuided or required is the " scunmons.'* 

Civil Proceedings,— tn the High Court of Justice, dvil actions 
are begun by obtaining from the officers of tiie court a document 
known as a "writ 01 summons." In this document are stated 
the names of the parties and the nature of the claim made (which 
in the case of liquidated sums of money must be precise and particu- 
lar). It is sealed and issued to the party suing It out, and served 
on the opposing party, not by an officer 01 the court but by an agent 
of the plaintiff. The tenor of the writ is to require the defendant 
to appear and answer the claim, and to indicate the oonsequenoes 
of non-appearance, vis. adjudication in default. 

Many proceedings in the High (^urt and some in the county 
court are initiated by forms of summons different from the writ 
of summons. Of those issued in the High Court three classes merit 
mention >~ 

I. For determining interiocutory matters of practice and pn>- 
oedure arising in " a pemling cause or matter. These are now 
limited as far as possible to a general summons for directions, intro- 
duced in 1883 so as to discourage frequent and ezpemive ap^ica- 
tions to the masters or judges of the High Court on questions of 
detail. These summonses are sealed and issued on awUcation at 
the offices of the High Court. The matters raised are dodt with by 
a master or judge in chambers summarily. In matters of practice, 
and procedure there is no appeal from a judge at chambers without 
leave from him or from the court of app^. 

a. For determining certain classes of questions with more 
despatch and less cost than is entailed by action or petition. This 
kind of summons is known as an " originating summons.*' because 
under it proceedings may be originated without writ lor certain 
kinds of relief speafied in the rules (R. S. C., O. ^5, r. 3). The 
originating summons may be used in all divisions of the High Court, 
but is chiefly employed in the chancery division, where it to a great 
extent supersedes actions for the admmistration of trusts or oT the 
esutes ot deceased persons;^ and for the forecbsure of mortgages 
a similar but not identical procedure was created by the Vendor 
and Purchaser Act 1874, and the .Conveyancing Act 1881, with 
reference to questions 01 title, &c., to real property. In the king^s 
bench and probate divisions the originating summons is used Tar 
determining summarily questions as to property between husband 
and wife, or the risht to custody of children, and many other matters 
(O. 54, rr. 4 B-4 F). The proceedings on an originating summons 
are conducted summarily at chambcn without pleadings, and the 
evidence is usually written. In the chancery division where the 
questions raised are important the summons is adjourned into 
court. An appeal lies to the court of appeal from decisions on 
originating summonses. 

The forms of summonses and the procedure thereon in dvil cases 
in the High Court are regulated by the Rules of the Supreme Court 
1883 to 1907. 

3- .Certain prxeedings on the crown side of the king*s bench 
division are begun by summons, e.f. applications for bail: and in 
vacation writs of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition and certiorari 
are asked for by sununons as the full court is not in sessioii. (See 
Crown Office Rules, 1906). 

In the county courts an action is begun by phunt and summons. 
Two kinds of summons are in use — the ordinary summons used for 
every form of county court action, and the default summons, which is 
an optional remedy of the plaintiff in actions for detvts or liquidated 
demands exceeding £5, and in all actions for the price or hire of goods 



* A similar practice existed before 1883 under the powers given by 
15 A 16 VfCt. c 86. but was very limited in its operation, as it arolied 
simply to the personal csute of a deceased person. 



SUMMUM BONUM— SUMNER, C. 



aUorkC toifcedcieiKlaiittobeiiMdiatiiewiyof hbcaUinf. It 
■ly abo iMoe by kave o( the judge orregixtnx in other cases, with 
the siaslc exception that no loav* can be given in claims under £s 
where tne datm is not for the price or hire of goods sold or let as 
above, if the affidavit of debt discloses thatthe defendant is a.servant 
or penoa casaf^ ■" manual labour. The advantage of a* default 
airansons is that judgment is entered for the plaintiff without hearing 
aiiJcas the defendant gives notice of defence within a limited time. 
A default sommons must as a rule be served personally on the 
dcfe«Mfant; an ordinary summons need nor be served personally, 
bat may in most cases be deUvered to a person at the defendant s 
home or place c£ bu«nea& A summons is also issued to a witness 
in the county court. Forms of summons are given in the County 
Court Rules 1^3. These include certain special forms used in 
aHiiiraky and interpleader actions and in proceedings under the 
Fnrndly Societies Acts and the Married Women's Property Acts. 
Sttsinooaes issued from oounty courts are usually served by a 
hjtiiff of the court and not by tne party suing them out. 

Justices of the peace have power to issue summonses to persons 
srniaeri of iadictaDle offences, or of offences summarily punishable, 
(or their atte n danc e , for preliminary inquiry or summary trial 
according to tbe nature of tne charge, and also to persons awainst 
whom a complaint of a civil nature within the justices' jurisdiction 
ft tauSte. On failure to attend on summons, attendance roajr be 
enforced by warrant; and in the case of indictable offences this is 
the course always adapted. Tbe forms in use for indictable offences 
an scheduled to the lodicuUe Offences Act 1816, and those for 
other purposes to the Summary Jurisdiction Rules 1886 (see 
S-WARV IijrisdictionT. The attendance of witnesses before 
jiKtires of the peace may be required by witness summons, enforced 
m the event of disobedience by arrest under warrant (see Witness). 

The attendance of juron in dvil or criminal trials is required by 
junr summooa sent by registered jMst. 

In courts for tbe triaf of indictable offences the attendance of 
tbe accu sed and of the witnesses to not secured by summons. .Both 
snSnarily attend in obedience to recognizances entered into before 
JBstices for tlidr attcadaiice. in tike abaeooe of recognisances the 
attendance of the acscuaed is enforced by bench warrant of the 
rf3t of trial, or by justices* warrant, and that of the witnesses by 
writ of tmbpoaid issued from the crown office of the High Court. 
Dimbedienee to the writ is punished as contempt of court. 

SfwMawJ — Snamoos ia a term confined in strictness to the 
i»yiwy;i«l|r of an action in theCourt of Session. The summons Is a 
vniin tBe aovercign's name, ngncd by a writer to the signet, citing 
dK defender to appear and answer the claim. The " will of the 
■namoaa ** is the concluaioa of a writ containing the will of the 
aiwutiga nr iudse, rhaiging the cncuttKe officer to cite the party 
whose attendance ia icquirad. It is regulated by several acts, «.{. 
The Debtors CSootlaod) Act 1838 (i & a Vict. c. 114) and the 
Court of Session (Scotland) Act 1868 (ai & 32 Vict. c. 100). A 
privikved a uw rno ns h one where the iniitciag are ^ortened to six 
<fays ^aanat def en ders within Scotland (Court of Session [Scotland] 
Act t6as» a. 53). Defects in the summons are cured by ainendment 
arbyasupplen>eittaiysuromons. The summons goes more into detail 
than the bigfish wnt of summons, though it no longer states, as it 
oaoe did. the grounds of action, now stated in the condescendence 
and purwer'n pleas in law annfitfd to the summona. The form of 
tbe sumnona ts rtnilaied bv' tbe Court of Seasioa (Scotland) Act 
165D. s. t and schedule A. After the action has been set on foot by 
, the attendapce of the parties and witnesses is obtained by 
The Citation Amendment Acts 1871 and 188a give 

1 «f«-a;»;<i« for the encutloa of dtations in civil cases by 

___> of l e gisftre d letters, instead of bv the old process known aa 
" lock hole dtatioo." In the act of 1871 the term " summona " 
is used to denote part of the process of inferior civil courts. 

la the sbofff court an action is now begun by writ (Sheriff Courts 
^'^iif^-**! Act 1907). and oot as formeriy by petition or summons. 

la cnaanal cases the amnmoas of the accused, or of witnesses, is 
by wanant of dtarioo. and of jurora by citation sent by rq;utcnd 
port 0868. c 9Sf •• 10}- 

trtlmmi. — In Trebnd summonses are used substantially for the 
anne fmyu m 1 and id the same manner aa in Eii^nd, but eenerally 
T*"^'"^ under atatotesaod lulcs applyiflK only to tbe Irish courts. 

(W.F.C.) 

UnonV BOmni (Lot. for "Mghest good "),in ethics, tbe 
ideal of human mttalniiKat. The stgnificance of the term depends 
upon the character of the^ethical system in which it occnts. It 
■ay heirieved at a perfect moral state: as pleasure or happiness 
(see HnomfM; EVDABifOinsic); as physical perfection; as 
wealth, and so forth. If, however, we abandon intuitional 
ethics, it is reasonable to argue that the term summum bonum 
ceases to bave any real sipcuficance inasmuch as actions are 
not iotiSasically good or bad, while the complete sceptic strives 
a fter ao sy stematic Sdeal. 

WffMMESU CHARLES (i8TX-f874), American statesman, was 
bora IB Beaton, Massatihusetts, on the 6th of Januaxy 181 1'.' 



81 

He graduated In 1S30 at Harvard'CoUege, and in 1834 graduated 
at the Harvard Law School Here, in closest intimacy with 
Joseph 'Story, be became an enthusiast in the study of juris- 
prudence: at the age of twenty-three be was admitted to the 
bar, and was contributing to tbe American Jurist, and editing 
law texts and Story's court decisions. What be saw of Congress 
during a month's visit to Washington in 1834 filled him with 
loathing for politics as a career, and he returned to Boston 
resolved to devote himself to the practice of law. The three 
years (1837-1840) spent in Europe were years of fruitful study 
and experience. He secured a ready command of French, 
German and Italian, equalled by no American then in public 
life. He formed the acquaintance of many of the leading 
statesmen and pubiidsts, and secured a deep insight into 
continental systems of government and of jurisprudence. In 
England (1838) his onmivorous reading in literature, history 
and jurisprudence made him persona grata to leaders of thought. 
Lord Brougham declared that he " had never met with any man 
of Sumner's age of such extensive legal knowledge and natural 
legal intellect." Not till many years after Sumner's death 
was any other American received so intimately into the best 
English cirdes, social, political and intellectual. 

In his thirtieth year, a broadly cultured cosmopolitan, Sumner 
returned to Boston, resolved to settle down to the practice of 
his profession. But graduaUy he devoted less of his time to 
practice and more to lecturing in the Harvard Law School, to 
editing court reports and to contributions to law journals, especi- 
ally on historical and biographical lines, in which his erudition 
was unsurpassed. In his law practice he had disappointed 
himself and his friends, and he became despondent as to his 
future. It was in a 4th of July oration on "The Tt^e 
Grandeur of Nations," delivered in Boston in 1845, that he first 
found himself. His oration was a tremendous arraignment 
of war, and an Impassioned appeal for freedom and for peace, 
and proved him an orator of the first rank. He immediately 
became one of the most eagerly sought orators for the lyceum ' 
and college platform. His lofty themes and stetely eloquence 
made a profound impresnon, especially upon young men; his 
platform presence was imposing, for he was six feet and four 
inches in height and of massive frame; his voice was dear and 
of great power; his gestures unconventional and individual, 
but vigorous and impressfve. His literary style was somewhat 
florid. Many d his speeches were monuments of erudition, 
but the wealth of detail, of alluaon, and of quotation, often 
from the Greek and Latin, sometimes detracted from their 
effect. 

Sumner co-operated effectivdy with Horace Mann for the 
improvement of the system of public education in Massachusetts. 
Prison reform and peace were other causes to which he gave 
ardent support. In 1847 the vigour with which Sumner de- 
nounced a Boston congressman's vote in favour of the Mexican 
War BUI made him the logical leader of the " Consdence Whigs," 
but he declined to accept their nomination for Congress. He 
took an active part in the organizing of the Free Soil party, in 
revolt at the Whigs' nomination of a slave-holding southerner 
for the presidency; and in 1848 was defeated as a candidate for 
the national House of Representatives. In 1851 control of 
the Massachusetts legislature was secured by the Democrats 
in coalition with the Free SoOexs, hut after filling the state 
offices with their own men, the Democrats refused to vote for 
Sunmer, the Free Soilers' dioice for United States senator, and 
urged the sde^on of some less radical candidate. A deadlock 
of more than three months ensued, finally residting in the election 
(April 34) of Sumner by a majority of a single vote. 

Sumner thus stepped from the lecture pbtform to the Senate, 
with no preliminary training. At first he prudently abstained 
from trying to force the Issues in which he was interested, while 
he studied the temper and procedure of the Senate. In the 
dosing hours of his first sesaon, in spite of strenuous efforts to 
prevent it, Sumner delivered (Aug. 26, 1852) a spcedi, ** Free- 
dom national; Slavery sectional," which it was immedlatety 
felt marked a new era in American history. The convr-*^' — 



82 



SUMNER, C. R. 



o£ both the gitat putiet had jost affirmed the finality oC cveiy 
provision ot the Compromise of 1850. Eleckkss of political 
expediency, Sumner moved that the Fugitive Slave Act be 
forthwith repealed; and for more than three houn he denounced 
it as a violation of the constitution, an affront to the public 
conscience, and an oCTence against the divine law. The speech 
provoked a storm of anger in the South, but the North was 
heartened to find at last a leader whose courage matched his 
conscience. In 1856, at the very time when " border ruffians " 
were drawing their lines closer about the doomed town of Law- 
rence, Kansas, Sumner in the Senate (May 19-20) laid bare the 
" Crime against Kansas." He denounced the Kansas-Nebraska 
Bill as in every respect a swindle, and held its authors, Stephen 
A. Douglas and Andrew P. Butler, up to the scorn of the world 
as the Don Quixote and Sancho Panza of " the harlot. Slavery." 
Two days later (May 32) Preston S. Brooks (1819-1857), a 
congressman from South Carolina, suddenly confronted Sumner 
as he sat writing at bis desk in the Senate chamber, denounced 
his speech as a libel upon his state and upon Butler, bis relative, 
and before Sumner, pinioned by his desk, could make the slight- 
est resistance, rained blow after blow upon his head, till his 
victim sank bleeding and unconscious upon the floor. That 
brutal assault cost Sumner three years of heroic struggle to 
restore his shattered health— years during which Massachusetts 
loyally re-elected him, in the belief that in. the Senate chamber 
his vacant chair was the most eloquent pleader for free speech 
and resisunce to slavery. Upon returning to his peat, in 1859, 
the approaching presidential campaign of x86o did not deter 
him from delivering a speech, entirely free from personal rancour, 
on " The Barbarism of Slavery " — to this day one of the most 
comprehensive and srathing indictments of American slavery 
ever presented. 

In the critical months following Lincoln's election Sumner was 
an unyielding foe to every scheme of compromise. After the 
withdrawal of the Southern senators, Sumner was made chair- 
man ol the committee on foreign relations (March 8, 1861), a 
position for which he was pre-eminently fitted by his years of 
intimate acquaintance with European politics and statesmen. 
While the war was in progress his letters from Cobden and 
Bright, from Gladstone and the duke of Argyll, at Lincoln's 
request were read by Sumner to the cabinet, and formed a chief 
source of light as to political thought in England. In the turaM>il 
over the " ' Trent' affair," it was Sumner's word that convinced 
Lincoln that Mason and Slidell must be given up, and that 
reconciled the public to that inevitable step. Again and 
again Sumner used the power incident to his diairmanship to 
block action which threatened to embroil the United States in 
war with England and France. Sumner ppenly and boldly 
advocated the policy of emancipation. Lincoln described 
Sumner as " my idea of a bishop," and used to consult him as 
an embodiment of the conscience of the American.people. 

The war had hardly begun when Sumner put forward his 
theory of reconstruction; that the seceded states by their own 
act had " become JeLo de se" had " committed state suicide," 
and that their status and the conditions of their xeadmission 
to membership in the Union lay absolutely at the determination 
of Congress, as if they were Territories and bad never been 
states. He resented the initiative in Reconstruction taken by 
Lincoln, and later by Johnson, as an encroachment upon the 
powers of Congress. Throughout the war Sumner had con- 
stituted himself the special champion of the negro, being the 
most vigorous advocate of emancipation, of enlisting the| blacks 
in the Union army, and of the establishment of the FMcedmen's 
Bureau. Ihe aedit or the blame for imposing equal suffrage rights 
for negroes upon the Southern states as a condition of Reconstruc- 
tion must rest with Charles Sunyicr more than with any other one 
man. Heedless of the teachings of science as to the slow evolu- 
tion of any race's capacity for self-government, he insisted on 
putting the ballot forthwith into the hands of even the most 
ignorant blacks, lest their righU be taken from them by their 
former masters and .the fruits of the war be lost. But it 
must be remembered that in Sumner's plan equal suffrage wa» 



to be accompanied by free bometteadt and free Kboab for 
negroes. 

In the unpeachment proceedings against Johnson, Sumner 
was one of the president's most implacable aaaailanta, Sumner's 
opposition to Grant's pet scheme for the annexatioo of San 
Domingo (1870), after the president mistakenly supposed 
that he had secured a pledge of support, brought upon him the 
president's bitter resentment. Sumner had always prixed 
highly his popuUuity in England, but he unhesiutingly sacri- 
ficed it in taking bis stand as to the adjustment of claims against 
England for breaches of neutrality during the war. Sumner 
laid great stress upon "national claims." He held that 
England's according the ifghu of belligecenu to the Confederate 
states had doubled the duration of the war, entailing inestimable 
loss. He therefore insisted that England should be required 
not merely to pay damages for the havoc wrought by the 
*' Alabama " and other cruisers fitted out for Confederate service 
in her ports, but that, for " that other damage, immense and 
infinite, caused by the prolongation of the war," the withdrawal 
of the British flag from this hemisphere could " not be abandoned 
as a condition or preliminary of such a settlement as is now 
proposed." (At the Geneva arbitration conference these 
'- national claims " were abandoned.) Under pressure from the 
president, on the ground that Sumner was no longer on speaking 
terms with the secretary of state, he was deposed on the loih 
of March 1871 from the chairmanship of the committee on 
foreign relations, in which he had served with great distinc- 
tion and effectiveness throughout the critical years since 1861. 
Whether the chief cause of this humiliation wis Grant's vin« 
dictiveness at Sumner^ opposition to his San Domingo project 
or a gennine fear that the Impossible demand, which he insisted 
should be made upon England, would wreck the prospect of a 
speedy and honourable adjustment with that country, cannot 
be determined. In any case it was a cruel Mow to a man already 
broken by racking illness and domestic sorrows. Sumner's 
last years were further saddened by the misconstruction put 
upon one of his most magnanimous acts. In 187a he introduced 
in the Senate a resolution providing that the names of battles 
with fellow citizens should not be placed on Jhe regimental 
colours of the United States. The Massacbusetu legislature 
denounced this battle-flag resolution as " an insult to the loyal 
soldiery of the nation " and .as " meeting the unqualified con- 
demnation of the people of the Commonwealth." For more 
than a year all efforts— headed by the poet Whitiier— to rescind 
that censure were without avail, but early in 1874 it was annulled. 
On the xoth of March, against the advice of his physician, 
Sumner went to the Senate— it was the day on which his 
colleague was to present the rescinding resolution. With those 
grateful words of Vindication from Massachusetts in hia cars 
Charles Sumner left the Senate chamber for the last time. That 
night he was stricken with an acute attack of M^na pedpris, 
and on the following day he died. 

Sumner was the scholar in politics. He could never be in- 
duced to suit his action to the political expediency of the moment. 
" The slave of principles, I call no party master," was the proud 
avowal with which he began his service bi the Senate. For the 
tasks of Reconstruction he showed little aptitude. He was less 
a builder than a prophet. His was the first dear pro^ramDie 
proposed m Congress for the reform of the dvil service. It was 
his dauntless courage in denouncing compromise, in demanding 
the repeal of the Fugitive Slave Act, %nd in ansirting *upon 
emandpation, that made him the chief initiating force in the 
struggle that put an end to slavery. 

See Sumner's Works (15 vols., Boston. 1870-1883), end Edwaitl 
L. Pierce's Memoir and Litters of Choffes Summer (4 vols., Boeton, 
1877-180O. Briefer biographies have been written by Anna L. 
Dawes (New York, 1802) ; Moorfield Storey (Boston, 1900) ; and 
GeofKe H. Haynet (Phibdelpkia, 1909). 

fUMKER, CHARLES RICHARD (1790-1874), English bishop, 
was bom at Kcnil worth on the a 2nd of Novembw 2790, yr yj 
was educated at Eton and at Trinity College, Cambridge. He 
graduated B.A. in i8i4> M.A. in 1817, and was ordaUied deacon 



SUMNER, E. v.— SUMPTUARY LAWS 



83 



Ukd piiat. In die two wioten of i.8x4ri8i^ he tninbteted to 
the Eacliah conKregatioii at Geneva, and (romx8i6 to 1821 waa 
cnxate of Higbdere, Hampshire. In x8ao George IV. wished to 
appoint bim canon of Windsor, but the prime minister, Lord 
Liveipool, objected; Sumner received instead a royal chaplaincy 
and Hbraiianshtp, and other preferments quickly fo^owcd, 
till in x8a6 be was consecrated bishop of Llandaff and in 1827 
bishop d Winchester. In his long administration of his latter 
daocesc he was most energetic, tactful and munificent. Though 
evangelical in his views he t>y no means confined his patronage 
to thai school. In 1869 he resigned his see, but continued to 
live at the ofl&cial residence at Farnham until his death on the 
xjth of August 1874. He published a number of charges and 
lensoDs, and Tlu Minisl»ial Character of ChriU Practicatiy 
C0nsii€r€d (London, 2824). He also edited and translated 
John MiUod's De doctrinQ ckristianat which was found in the 
Suu Paper office in 1823, and formed the text of Macaulay's 
famous easay on Milton. 

See the £^«. by his son. G. H. Sumner (1876). 

Smnm* VDWIM VOSB (1797-1863-), American soldier, 
was bom at Boston, Massachusetts, and entered the United States 
■nay in 18x9. He served in the Black Hawk War and in 
vaxioas Indian campaigns. In X838 he commanded the cavalry 
■Mtractional cstabUshment at Carlisle, Pennsylvania. He took 
part in the Mexican War as a major, and for his bravery at 
Mflliao dd Rey he received the brevet rank of colonel. In 1857 
he oomxnanded an expedition against the Cheyeime Indians. 
At the outbreak of the Qvil War, four years later, Sumner had 
|Ht been pconoied brigadier-general U.S.A. and sent to replace 
Sidney Johnston in oonuaand on the Pacific coast. He thus 
taek no part in the fint campaign of the Civil War. But in the 
aatmnn he was brought back to the East to command a division, 
aad soon aitermrds, as a major-geneaal U.S.V.y a corps in the 
aODj thai was being orgaaiaed by McClellan. This eorpa, 
inlwiird n., lalained its independent existence throughout 
the war, and tuider the command of Sumner, Couch, Han- 
cock aad Humphreys it had the deserved reputation of being the 
bat in the Union army. Sumner, who was by far the oldest 
flf the fOKrals in the army of the Potomac, led his corps through- 
out the peninsular campaign, was woimdcd during the Seven 
Days' Battle, and received the brevet of major-general U.S.A., 
aad was affain wounded in the battle of Antietam. When 
Burxnide succeeded to the command of the army of the Potomac 
he grouped the corps in "grand divisions," and appointed 
Sumner to amimand the right grand division. In this capacity 
the old cavalry soldier took part in the disastrous battle of 
Ficdericksbarg, in which the 11. corps suffered most severely. 
Soon afterwards, on Hooker's appointment to command the 
ansy, Sumncf was relieved at his own request. He died 
suddenly, on the 2xst of March 1863, while on his way to 
asume supreme conBmand in MissourL 

ginniBB, JOHN BHID (X780-X862), English archbishop, 
eider brother of Bishop Charies Sumner, was born at Kcnil worth, 
Warwickshire, and educated at Eton and Cambridge. In 
1S02 he became a master at Eton, and in the following year he 
took, orders. He was elected a fellow of Eton in 1817, and in 
1^18 the college presented him to the living of Maple Durham, 
Oxfordshire. After holding a prebendaryship of Durham for 
wmie years, he was consecrated bishop of Chester in 1828. 
Dniing his episcopate many churches and schools were built 
la the diocese. His numerous writings were much esteemed, 
especially t>y the evangelical party, to which be belonged; the 
best known are his TreaHu on ike Records 0/ Creation and ike 
Moral AttribmUsofihe Creator (London, x8i6) and The Evidence 
if CkriUiamty derieed from its Nature and Reception (London, 
iSzx). In X&48 he was consecrated archbishop of Canterbury, 
ia which capacity he dealt impartially with the different church 
panics. In the wcU-knowa "Gorham case"' he came into 

iGeofge CbmeCua Gorham (l787-!i857} wa» refused institution 
by Bishop PhillpoCta becauae oi ni» Calvinistic vic«-& on baptismal 
•cfeaeratJoa. The court of arches u{>h«ld the biabop, but iu 
decbioD was revtned by the privy council. 



conflict with Bish^ Henry Phillpotts of Exeter <x 778-1869), 
who accused him of supporting heresy and refused to com- 
municate with him. He supported the Divorce Bill in parlia- 
ment, but opposed the Deceased Wife's Sister Bill and the bill 
for removing Jewish disabilities. 

SUMNER, WILUAM ORAHAM (1840-19x0), American 
economist, was bom, of English parentage, in Paterson, New 
Jersey, on the 30th of October X840. He was brought up in 
Hartford, Connecticut, graduated at Yale College in X863, 
studied French and Hebrew in Geneva in X863-X864 and divinity 
and history at Gdttingen in X864-X866, and in 1866-1869 was 
a tutor at Yale. He was ordained a priest of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church in 1869, was assistant rector of Calvary 
Church, New York City, and in 1870-1872 was rector of the 
Church of the Redeemer, Morristown, New Jersey. From 1872 
to X909, when he became professor emeritus, he was professor 
of political and social science at Yale. In 1909 he was president 
of the American Sociological Society. He died at Engiewood, 
New Jersey, on the X2th of April X910. 

He was notable especially as an opponent of protectionism, and 
was a great teacher. He wrote: History ef American Currency 
(1874); Leanres on the History of Protection in the United States 
(1875) ; Life of Andrew Jackson (1882), in the " American Statesmen 
Sencs"; What Social Classes Owe to Each Other (1883); Collect^ 
Essays in Political and Social Sciences (1885): Protectionism (,i6Bs); 
Alexander Hamilton (1891). and Roberi Morris (1891), in the " Makers 
of America Series "; The Financier and Finances of the American 
Revolution (a volt., 1891); A History of Bankine in the United States 
(1896): .and Folhways: a Study of the Sociological Importance of 
Usagest Manners^ Customs, Mores and Morals (1907), a valuable 
sociok>gical summary. 

8UMFTER, a pack-horse or mule, a beast for carrying burdens, 
particularly for military purposes. There were two words onc^ 
in use, which in sense, iif not in form, have coalesced. These are 
" sommer " or " summer " and " sumpter." The first comes 
through the Old French sommier, a pack-horse, the other 
through sommetieft a pack-horse driver. Both come ultimately 
from Late Lat. salma^ from iagma, a pack, burden. Old French 
somnUf saume; Greek <rdY/ia, burden, <r&rrciy, to load. 
" Siunpter " in the sense of a driver of a pack-horse Is rare, and 
the word is always joined with another explanatory word. 

SUMPTUARY LAWS (from Lat. sumptuarius, belonging to 
cost or expense, sumptns), those laws intends! to limit or 
regulate the"private expenditure of the citizens of a community. 
They may be dictated by political, or economic, or moral con- 
siderations. They have existed both in ancient and In modem 
states. In Greece, it was amongst the Dorian races, whose 
temper was austere and rigid, that they most prevuled. All 
the inhabitants of Laconia were forbidden to attend drinking 
exitertainments, nor could a Lacedaemonian possess a house or 
farniture which was the work of more elaborate implements 
than the axe and saw. Among the Spartans proper simple and 
frugal habits of life were secured rather by the institution of the 
pheidilia (public meals) than by spedal eiuictments. The 
possession of gold or silver was interdicted to the dtiaens of 
Sparta, and the use of iron money alone was permitted by the 
Lycurgean legislation. " Even in the cities which had early 
departed from the Doric customs," says K. O. Miiller, " there 
were frequent and strict prohibitions against expensiveness of 
female attire, prostitutes alone being wisely excepted." In the 
Locrian code of Zaleucus citiaena were forbidden to drink 
undiluted wine. The Solonian sumptuary enactments were 
directed principally against the extravagance of female apparel 
and dowries of excessive amount; costly banqueta also were 
forbidden, and expensive funeral solemnities. The Pytha- 
goreans in Magna Graccia not only protested against the luxury of 
their time but encouraged legislation with a view to restraining it. 

At Rome the system of sumptuary edicts and enactments 
was largely developed, whilst the objects of such legislation 
were concurrently sought to be attained through the exercise 
of the censorial power. The code of the Twelve Tables con- 
tained provisions limiting the expenditure on funerals. The 
most important sumptua/y laws of the Roman comaonwealtk 
are the following.'— 



8+ 

<i) Th« Opplim Iaw, 3IS B.c^ providad that no woman ahould 
poueu more than half on ounce o{ i^old, or wear a dress of different 
coloun. or ride in a carriage in the city or within a mile of it except 
on occoalona of public religious ceremonies. This law, which had 
been partly dicUted by the financial necessities of the conflict with 
Hannibal, was repealed twenty years later, againot the advice of 
Cato. Livy (uuuv. 1-8) gives an interesting account ol the com- 
motion excited by the proposal of the re^l, and of the exertions 
of the Roman women against the biW» which almost amounted to a 
female itmuk* (a) The Orchian law, 187 B.C., limited the number 
of guests at entertainments. An attempt being made to repeal 
this law, Cato offered strong opposition and delivered a speech on 
the subject, of which some fragments have been preserved. (3) 
I'he Fannian law, 161 ex., Kmited the sums to be spent on enter- 
tainments: it provided amongst other things that no fowl should 
bo ttrvtii but a single hen. and that not fattened. (4) The Didian 
law. 143 BXw extended to the whole of Italy the provisions of the 
Fantiian law, and made the guests as well as the givers of entcrtain- 
tnvnl* at which the law was violated liable to the penalties. After 
a amsidersble interval. Sulla anew directed lagislation against the 
luxuiy of the uWe and also limited the cost of foncxals aftd of 
•1 pulchral monuments. We are told that he violated his own law 
an to funerals when bur>'ing his wife Metella, and aUo his law on 
entertainments when seeking to forget his grief for her loss in 
extravagant drtnk«ng and feasting (Plut. Suit. 35). Julius Caesar, 
in the rapacity of pra^tctus mofi&ms, after the African War re- 
en^clvd some of the sumptuary laws which had fallen into ncelect : 
ricrro implies (£^ ad AH. xiii. 7) that in Caesar's.abeence his legis- 
lation of this kind was no$ attended ta Suetonius tells us that 
Cae»ar had officers stationed in the market-places to seiae such 
provisions aa weiw forbidden by law, and sent lictors and soldiers 
to feasts to remov« all illegal eatables (/«!. 43). Augustus fixed 
•new the etpcnse to be incuircd in entertainments on ordinary and 
fr«tal days. Tiberius abo sought to check inordinate expense on 
Utnquets, and a dccvce of the senate was passed in his reien forbid- 
ding the use ckf gold va<ws except in sacred rites, and prohinting the 
wearing, of silk garments by men. But it appears from Tacitus 
{An». ul. 5. where a speech Is put into his mouth >'ery much in 
the »p5rit w Horace's" Quid leges sine moribus >-anae proficiunt?") 
that he k)dMd more to tW im|irovement of manners than to direct 
legislative action for the restrictioa of liunivy. Suetonius nsentions 
sluuc ftgiibtions maile by Nero* and we hear of further legislation 
of thU kind by Hadrian and later emperors. In the time of 
TrrtiiUian the sumpluar>' laws appear to ba>T been things of the past 

In modem timet the first importuit samptmiy legislatioB 
was: in Italy that of Frederick II.; in Arason that of Jamo L, 
in 1134: lii Ftnnctt that of Philip IV.; in fi«laad that of 
£4) ward IL and Edward III. In 1 204 P^ilip IV. made provisiona 
•a to the drr» and the table expenditure of the *vcral onlcnof 
men in his kingdom. Chailca V. of France fort>ade the use of 
kM'jhpointcd shoes, a fashion airoinst which popes and councils 
lud pi>)tcstcd in vain. Under later kin^ the uM «f gold and 
tih cr embroidery, silk stutTs and noe linen wvei wns rertncted 
«— «t nrst morsi and aitcrwanis economic motives being pnt 
Kvwani the latter cspcciaU>- from the rise of the mcisnntile 
th«>»v. In lin^skand we hear much from the wtttecs of the 14th 
cttttunr «tf the cxtravairxncc of drma at that period. Tbcy 
let'Jirk Itttli on the fiv«t splendoor and eipeastveoess of the 
nrcv.rW v>i the k-4(h«r or.icrs asd on the tanta>iK- and vkionnini: 
ii0.x^as nk.kMX<\i br persona of all raikv The piriuunent heid 
ntWrstm-tfxvr m i5\t mA^Je kawa i.tr Bdw. III. «. *-i4) to 
testrjun (ius iirsi.we e\r<nd::iue and t« regnlatc the dress of the 
sr\t«ai ciasscs ol ibe pcv>f^\\ IlMse statutes were rvpnict) in 
tVe KvA.^«i:q^ \^ear. Uit $k-\]Ur ones wet* fu&sevl ajpom ia the 
»a*.>e t^N^fls. 1>*^ jitesa. K^wertr. t«» have had i.::'* ea«<t. fc» in 
the te*^ of Rxrarvi U. t jw- «»=»e e\crssrs prouU<d. oppoie-tiy 
Is a uJl fTtwter «^-«e .-\-xxbKr stat-.te sras ;a&»<\i m the 
jj^sfcT i4\t \5 kiw, i\. c 5' lv>r lise r«;pi'a:<>n « the drr» oi 
^crA.>ais «i 02 ra-tis. U i."^^ « wns stat<>i that *^ the cvhsskvk^ 
«i tW rceifea. as «et; smsi 05 «v«weL wmr eix'o^'vv a>i i»(,>rvh> 
sate af^\sRi t«» the fcrra: c^<ttsace- « U.>L ike e&TKkrr^ of 
st*i.«^ T«nA5i. ofia tk< cesfnx-xvn «c tk<$. rosia^"* An act oi 
S4L44 k*i pee%>.x2S<r verut<\i thev-v<5;.af. when « *x»«v* |urt 
oi : W- wnfts. «t s«r»;sa» ew^v^^e^i a h«{l«aa^ : a Ki ' ■• *r 
Wkvf^MT w«* t* *kit* m ax*«a.Tcr ^ 5^ a >e»r s«» hK» cV;^ -*. 
» k-*4 ew i«-.>o(^ seoTSff: as. a»: on oc-cr.%ar? mowM ,». ♦vf - 
Ks$«ct.«v*<^ I* ?afc^ ♦»^ a»i x«- •►* <^ ^*** 
AkTftw^ -- ikef^«t F^wn^i U a ;x\v*.fT'-i 



SUMPTUARY LAWS 



muhitude of meats and dishes which the great men of the kin^ 
dom had tised, and still used, in their castles/* as well as '* per^ 
sons of inferior rank imitating their example, beyond what thdr 
stations required and their drcnmstances coald afford "; and 
the rule was laid down that the great men should have but two 
courses of flesh meat served up to their tables, and on fish days 
two courses of fish, each course consisting of but two kinds. In 
X336 Edward m. attempted also to le^slate against Kixurioua 
living, and in 1363, at the same time' when costtunes were 
regulated, it was enacted that the servants of gentlemen, 
merchants and artifkeis should have only one meal of flesh or 
fish in the day, and that their other food should consist of milk . 
butter and cheese. Similar acts to those above mentioned were 
passed in Scotland also. In 1433 {kmp. James I.), by an act 
of a parliament which sat at Ptfth, the maimer of living of all 
orders in Scotland was prescribed, and in particular the use of 
pics and baked meats, which had been only latdy introduced 
into the country, was forbidden to all under the rank of 
baron. In 1457 {temp. Janes II.) an act was passed against 
" sumptuous ddthing." A Scottish sumptiiaiy low of 1621 
was the last of tlie kind in Grcnl Britain. 

In Japan sumptuary laws have been passed with a frequency 
and minuteness of scope such as has no parallel in thnjustoey 
of the western world. At the beginning oif the nth cenTuiy we 
find an Imperial edict regulating the sine of a hmisc and even 
imposing restrictions as to the materials of which it is to be 
built. But it was during the Tokugawn period that sninpttiaiy 
laws and regulations were paswd in the most bcwiidcring 
profusion; every detail of n man'a life was regulated down to 
the least particular— from the wearing of • beaidor the dressiag 
of the hair down to the cost of his wife's hsifpins or the price of 
his-cbihisdolL* 

A. Fergoson and others have pointed oat that ** foxory ** is a terra 
of relative import and that all laiMries do not deserve to be dia> 
coucBced. Roschcr has called attention to the faa that the natuse 

of the prevalent luxury changes with the stage of sodal cievelop* 
"^ He endca\t>urs to show thai there are three periods in toe 



history of luxury — one in wliich it is coarse and profuse: a second 
ia which it aims naialy at comfoft and deganoe; and a thiid. 
proper to periods of de r a dpncr . in wltich it-is perDfi w d to vicious 
and unnatural cods. The second of these began, in m odem times, 
with the enicr^nce of the Western nations from the medieval 
period, and in the ancient communities at epochs of similar transi- 
tioa. Roschcr hoki5 that the suBptuwy lfanlstion wMch regularly 
appears at the opening of this stage was then naef id as piwmoting 
the reformation of habits. He remarks that the contemporary 
fv>rmatK>n of strong co>'«nuDents, disposed from the consciousness 
of th«r strength to intrrffte with the &>'es of their subjects tended 
to encourage Mch legislation, as did also tho icaioiBsy felt by the 
hitherto doniauit ranks of the risiag «cnkh of the OftiacB dames. 
vho ace opt to izaitatc ihe oooduct of their superiors. It is certainly 
i2«^abfe that lubits of maueful expeodiiuie and frequent and 
wantcm changes of (a.^hioo should he d'scouragcd- But such action 
heloAfrs n«onr proprrh- to the Hvitaal than to the t e mpor a l povcr. 
In annmt. e^^u >y Roman, fcicw vhen there vns a omfaamn <rf 
the t«x> M«vT» la the state sv^em, sumptnary hgistatioa was more 
nat.rjil iKan in the rt.xkm moriu. is «hkJi those powers lia\-e been 
ia s*".<rAl r«.v.''>. thc^^v** Jr^ptTfecrYv. seforated. I>Dlitical ecooo- 
m:« are prjKtK-JiMv ifun>"ic<us tn tWir leprobatioo of the policy 
ot hrvrt^tnv oxcpubaoa u itKse anatters. la a niM tmmn paaaage 
.VU a S«-a-tS pr>.xc^ts ^jiia»< iK^ ~ impotimnce awl prcmmption 
vx k-.-T^r* a k'. niu'~s:ers ia t.>rrtc-x-:^j 10 «a:vh o^er the ecoaomy of 
pn\ Atv- ?x\\*f aftJ tv» rp<rj,.-s tbc-r «f\peas<, btir.^ theBi«4:l\-es almays 
ji>1 witSxit aR\ ewcTpf^-* tSr i:^j»«« sr e»x*thrrfts in theancietY." 
^ «« be ^i.x« SM srem to la%Y ber* a\er^ ftom ai astempta to inAu* 
««Ke thrv^:^h toaaboa tW ea|KShJ>t.«e ot ihr hismhler clMsa. The 
rxvSrm taxes on carnAj:es. coisss ct araih. male scrvaata. playing 
vMr<.*>. ^- . vXi^St peT^.x;* a^x to* be ir^irJcd as lesring on the 
j>r v.* of 'tr-ixrmr* 'uwn. Nn c-S as caeaas «f peopartiooiitg 
taviiK^o to tW ctpaotv 01 U^anoat tSe Krcen. 

v>9c w^i ,Mwiki on Kow-tija ikj:r3«Mr% mws me Gdfaa^ NmOu 
*•' \*f* "^ ^.•'^ MA.tv>:»-^. J^iJB^ i*. 17. For Gs«at Briiaia 
>*v hv-ir> sV H- -;.-vA.j. :: ji.r»« {v^'Vva y" Ro^Ls Series.** cd. T. 



fc^ ,.*\4 i luj^ tvs^. 140-^44. ft x»x g^ iv. 157-163; Tnusa. 
;' **. .' "^^ "• ''^*" /^ -*. N- V w^ V.V . \.VT* ce Laad Tetrane and 

>•-'» „^"* ^ " Mt-rr-jK t«» ;v >t jlS ct i'niace La« u Old Ja|ma,*' 



SUN 



Plate I. 



(i) 1905, June 2sd. 4h. i6m. 153. 



(2) 1905, June 25d. 4h. 17m. 153. 




(3) 1905. June 25d. 4h. 17m. 40s. 



(4) 1905, June 25d. 4h. 19m. os. 



Enlarged Photographs of the Solar Surface. Taken by M. A. Hansky at the Observatory of Pulkowa (1905, 
June 25), at intervals from 253. to 80s. 



Plate II. SUN 



1905, Jan. 3od. i2h. 8m. 27s. 1905, JaxL 3id. iih. 17m. 27s. 



10C5, Feb. nL ich. 5cm. .Ss^ 1005, Feb. S<i. ij;b- j;m. 5s. 

Photographs of the Sun. ijiken ai the Royal Observaton-. Ciiwnwich. ObM^ner; E. W. Maunder. 
Instrument, Thompson Photoheliograph. FocaJ leo^ith. 9 ft. .-Vperture, 9 in. 



SUMTER, T.— SUN 



8S 



i W. J. Aohky. Inkoiuitim to Eaifuk Beaummie History 

oW Tkcary (1893)^ W. Denton. England in Ike F^toentk Ctntmn 
f ittS). One of the bert extant trmtnents of the whole subject w 
that by RoaciMr, in his cssavt Uher den Luxtu, republished in hia 
dmuektom dar Ydkarirtkakadt ami dan gewkieMiclm Stondfunkto 
( yded.,lg7 8). O-Kfl.) 

SUITTBR, TBXmUA (X736-X833), Amcricao soldier, was bom 
is Hanover county, Viiginia, on die X4tb of July 1736. He 
KTved ia t&e Vuginia militia during the Fxench and Indian War 
tad was present at Braddock's defeat (1755). Some time after 
17^2 he fcmoved to South Carolina. He is best known for his 
sovioe ihiring the War of Independence, but he saw little 
active service until after the fall of Charleston in May 1780. 
Is July 1780 he became a brigadier-general of state tro<^». 
Daring the remainder of the war he carried on a partisan cam- 
paiipi, and earned the sobriquet of the " Gamecock." He failed 
in as attack upon Rocky Mount (Cheater county) on the xst of 
.August 1780, but on the 6U1 defeated 500 Loyalists and regulars 
at Hangins Rock (Lancaster county), and on the 15th inter- 
cepted and defeated a convoy with stores between Charleston 
and Camden. His own regiment, however, was almost annihilated 
\ff Licut-^olonel Banastre Tarieton (175^x833) at Fishing 
Otek (Chester county) on the i8th. A new force was soon 
lecniited, with which he defeated Major James Wemys at 
Fbhdam (Union county) on the night of the Sth-Qth of Novem- 
ber, and repulsed Tarleton's attack at Blackstock (Union county) 
en the zoih, when he was wounded. In January 1781 Congress 
fwmany thanked him for bis services. He was a member of 
the state convention which ratified the Federal constitution 
for South Carolina in 1788, he himself opposing that instrument; 
of the national House oif Representatives in 1789-1793 and again 
m 1797^x801, and of the United States Senate from i8ox to i8xa 
At the time of his death at South Mount, South Carolina, on the 
i\\ of June XS32, he was the last surviving general officer of the 
War of Independence, 

See Edward McCndy, Tk* History tf Sauik Carolina in tie RaUvh 
tian (2 vols.. New York, i9Oi-i909f. 

SUMTBB, ft city and the county-seat of Sumter county. 
South Caxolixu, •UJS.A., 42 m. by rail £. by S. of 0>lumbia. 
Pbp. (1900) 5673 (3160 negroes); (19x0) 8109. Sumter is 
served by several divisions of the AtUntic Coast line and by the 
Southern railways. It is the scat of St Joseph's Academy 
(Soman Catholic) for girls. The region produces tobacco, 
vegetables and cotton, and there are various manufactories in 
t}^ city. Sumter was founded in tSoo and was luuned in honour 
vL Ccacgal Thomas Sumter; it was £rst chartered as a city 

SUVT, a town of Little Russia, in the government of 
ChariunTr xsa m. by rail N.W. of the city of Kharkov, founded 
m x6sa. Pop. (xgoo), 28,5x9. It is an important centre for the 
trade ol Great Russia with little Rusaiar-cattle and cocn being 
sent to the xMrth in exchange for manufactured aiKi grocery 
wares. It has ixx^witant sugar manuiacture, and s technicad 
schooL 

sm (O. Eng. jif9iM, Ger. saiut*. Fr. saUil, Lat. sol, Gr. 
$}Uof, fiom which comes hduh in various English compounds), 
th? name of the central body of the solar system, the luminous 
«b from which the earth receives Ught and heat; (see SuMSKDif); 
hence by analogy other heavenly bodies which loim the centre 
«( sysieiBS are called suns. 

To understand the phenomena of the sun, we should reproduce 
ihcm upon the earth; but this is dearly impossible since they 
uk£ pla43e at temperatures which volatilize all known substances, 
llcaoe oar only guides are such general laws of mechanics and 
peyiics as we can hardly believe any circumstances will falsify. 
h^ it must be remembered that these require extrapolation 
bcm experience sometimes sufficiently remote, and it is possible 
i'rxy may lead to statements that are obscure, if not contrar 
<Ltiary. The body of the sun must consist of uncombined gases; 
ai the surface the temperature is some 2000° C. above the boiling 
poiat of carbon, and a little way within the body it may probably 
exceed the critical point at which increase of pressure can produce 
the lk|akl stau in any substance. 3ut »* th« mean density 



exceeds that of water, and probably falls but little from the centff 
to the surface, these gases are gases only in the sense that if the 
pressure of neighbouzing and outward parts gravitating to- 
wards the centre were relaxed, they would expand explosively, 
as we see happening in the eruptive pronunenoes. They' have 
knt completely the gaseous chaxacteristic of producing a line 
spectrum, and radiate like incandescent aolids. The surface 
region which yields a continuous spectrum is called the photo^ 
sphere; it possesses optically a sharp botmdary, which b genets 
sJly'a perfect sphere, but shows occasionally at the rim slighr 
depiesaions or more rarely elevations. Exiciosiag the photo* 
sphere is a tiuly gaseous envelope which b called the ckr&mo^ 
sphere, and whidi shows a spocttum of bright lines when we can 
isolate its emissum from that of the photosphere. This envelope 
is also sharply defined, but lis normal appearence Is compared 
to the serrations which blades of grass show on the skyUnr of a 
hil], and it is disturbed by the outbursts, called prominences, el 
which details are given below. Outside this agam is an envelope 
of matter |rf enoxmous extent and extreme tenuity, whether 
gaseous or partly minute liquid or solid drops, which is called the 
corona. It has no sharp boundary, its briii^tncss diminishes 
npidly as we recede from the limb, and aach strooiure ss it 
shows consists of long streaks or fiUments extending outwards 
from the limb in bvmid curved sweeps. Finally there is thtf 
envdope of still vaster extent and of unknown constitution which 
gim the zodiacal light (q.v.); its greatest extent is dong the 
ecCptic, but it can also be certainly traced for 35** in a perpen- 
dicular direction. The lower gaseous cloaks absorb a large part 
of the Ught admitted by the photoq>here, and especially at the 
limb and for the more refrangible rays the loss of intensity is 
very, marked. 

Jn the instants iriien a sharp inmge of the photosphere is sees 
or photographed, it shows a granulated appearance like white 
flakes strewed fairty evenly upon a dark greuxui. The figs. 
If 9, 3, 4 (plate) ahow enlargements from photo- (fcMmr 
gnphs by Hansky at Polkowa (June 25, 1905); Apmormmee 
they are aepanted -by intervals^ fiom 25 to 80 •"*•«•- 
seconds, and he has succeeded in" showing identity '^^"^ 
in many of the granules, or more properly, clouds represaited. 
Thus they exhibit at once general appfaxance and its changca. 
The diameteis lai^e from 400 m. or less up to xsod m., and the 
speeds relative to the spot range up to 2 or 3 m. per second. 
M. Hansky believes these motions may be the consequences 
of matter rising from bebw and thrusting the suriace groups 
aside. UsaaDy the changes are such that it is impossible even 
to recognise the formations in successive photographs. Besides 
granulations the sun's disk shows, as a rule, one or more spots or 
groups of spots. Each spot shows with more or less completeness 
a ring-shaped penumbra enclosing a darker umbra; the umbra, 
which looks black beside the photosphere, is actually about as 
brilliant as limcUght. In the neighbourhood surrounding the 
penumbra the granules appear to be packed more closely, forming 
brilliant patches called Jaculae. In the shape of a spot there is 
neither rule nor permanence, though those that are neairiy circular 
seem to resist change better than the others. They arise from 
combinations of smaller spots, or from nothing, in a short period, 
say a day. They are never wholly quiescent. Bridges, more 
brilliant than the rest of the photosphere, form across them, and 
they may divide into two parts which separate from one another 
with great velocity. The largest spots are easily seen by the 
xuiked eye, if the brilliancy of the disk is veiled; the \uahn. may 
be many~ten or more — diameters of the earth in breadth. 
The length of their life Is difficult to assign, because there is 
some tendency for a new group to arise where an dd one has 
disappeared; but one is recorded which appeared in the same 
place for eighteen months; the average is perhaps two months. 
They are carried across the disk by the sun's rotation, partaking 
in the equatorial acceleration; they also show marked dis- 
placements of their own, whether with, or relative to, the neigh* 
bouring photosphere docs not sppcar; at the beginning of their 
life they usually outnm the average daily rotation appropriate 
to their latitude. Spots are rarely found on the equator, or 



86 



SUN 



more than $f N. or S. of it, and at 4$* are practkally 
unknown. Their oocuirence within these zones follows statisU' 
cally a uniform law (see Aukora). Other information about 
the spots is given below, in connexion with their spectra. It 
may be said that nothing definite has been esublished aa to 
what th^ aie^ The statement known as A. Wilson's theory 
(1774), that they are hollows in the photosphere, long supposed 
to be proved by perspective effects as the spot approached the 
limb, is discredited by F. Howlett's careful drawings, which, 
however, do not establish the contrary. To draw a trustworthy 
conclusion it is necessary that the spot should be quiescent, 
show a well*developed and fairly symmetrical penumbra, and be 
observed near the limb and also near the centre, and these 
conditions are satisfied in so few cases as to withdraw all 
statistical force from the condusnn. Figs. 5» 6, 7, 8 (plate) 
are reproductions of the Greenwidi photographs of the sun 
from the ^oth of January to the 8th of February 1905. 
The first, taken alone, might seem to bear out Wilson's 
theory, but the others show that the penumbra is really 
very un^ymmetrical and mudi broader on the side towards 
the limb, apart from anything which perspective may have 
to say. The photosphere does not route in one piece, lower 
latitudes outrunning higher. This was discovered by R. C. 
CarTingt<m from observations of the spots, extending from 1855 
ffXiTtoa of to z86i, from which he determined also the position 
f**p*«te- of the sun's axis^ But conclusions from the spots 
f^w«. are full of anonnalica. £. W. Maunder and Mrs 
Maunder found that different spots in the same aone differ more 
than do the means for different aoncs, while a long-lived spot 
settles down to give more consistent results than are furnished 
by spots of one apparition. In the span of two complete san<* 
spot petKKh no evidence was found of periodic or other change 
with lapse of time. The problem still awaits complete discussion. 
The irregularities incidental to use of the spots are escaped by 
comparing the rdative Dopplcr di^iiaoements of the same 
spectral line as given by the receding and advanckig limbs of 
the sun. The observation is a delicate one,-and was first success- 
fully handled by N. C. Dunfr in 189a But his determinations, 
repeated recently (Ada upsal. IV. vol. i., 1907) as well as those 
of J. Halm at Edinburgh {AsL Nach. vol. 173, 1907), are super- 
seded by a photographic treatment of the problem by W. &. 
Adanis {Aslropkys. Joum., zzvL, 1907)* 

The di^Tmm (fig. o) shows Adams's value for the angular velocity 
t for different latitudes f , the dots rrpresenung the actual observa- 
tbns. Fig. to shows the consrauent distortion of a sec of racridians 
after one revolution (at lat. 30^). An impoitant feature added to 
the discussion by Adams is the different behaviour of spectral lines 



yW 



'*o* lir j«r jr 4«» »• lir w sr •«• ^ 
Flo. 9. 

which are believed to originate at different levels. The daU given 
above refer to the mean re\'crsing layer. Lines of lanthanum and 
carbon which arc betiex-ed to belong to a low level showed s>*stem- 
atically smaller angular velocity than the average. This promises 

to ba a fertile field for futum ir * *" "' ' '^ 

evidence from the spectroscope, 
■urfaoa retitioa of 



rfaoa retstioa of tha sua appean to be tl 



innuliy. Fmding more conclusive 
, Che wteqMetation of the 



_ , pecul 

to be that the central parts 

outside them; for if 

Fbr 



conaider first a frictioalesB fluid. The equatiafis of surfaces of eqval 
angular motion would be of the form r>R (i— < cos^), where 
c IS proportional to the square of the angular motion, supposed 
small, and R increases as « diminishes. Consider the traces th«ae 
surfaces cut on any i^ihere r^a: we have d^d^«2csintfcos9/|cos*9- 
aK'VR/dt\, which is positive and has a maximum in the middle 
latitudes; so that, proceeding 
from the pole to the equator 
along any meridian, the aaguUr 
velocity would oootinually in- 
crease, at a rate which was 
greatest in the middle latitudes. 
This is exactly what the ob- 
servations show. Now if this , 
state be supposed established in 
a frictionleas fluid, the ooo> 
sidcration of internal friction 
would simply extend the char- 
acteristics found at any spot to 
the fieighbourfaood, and there- 
fore if the boundaiv, were a 
sphere and so for a frictionlesa 
fluid an exception, it would 
cease to be an exception when 
we allow for viscosity. But this 
theory gives no due to the results veiattog to hydrogen, which 
belongs to a high levd, and wht^h Adams has shown to move with 




an angular velocity decidedly gieater than the eouatorial angular 
velocity below it, and not to snow any «gn of faili " 
the poles. 



uling off towards 




It b useful to form a conception of the mechanical state within 
the sun's body. Its temperature must be dominated directly 
or indirectly by the surface radiation, and since the , 
matter is gaseous and so open to redistribution, the • 
sam^ is true of dettsity and pressure. It a true that 
within the body radiations must be stifled within a short 
distance of their source; none the less, they will determine 
a temperature gradient, falling from the centre to the borders, 
though for the most part falling very slowly, and we may ask 
what relative temperatures in different parts would maintain 
themselves' if once established. Stefan's law of radiation ac- 
cording to the fourth power of the temperature is too difficult 
to pursue, but if we are content with cognate results wc can 
follow them out mathematically in a hypothetical law of the 
first power. We then find that the density would increas< 
as we go outwards, at first slowly, but finally vnih cxircm< 
rapidity, the last tenth of the ra<fios comprising half the mass 
The radiation from such a body would be practically nil, n< 
matter how hot the centre was. Of course such a state woulc 
be statically unstable. It would never get established because 
currents would arise to exchange the positions cf the hotter 
less dense, iimer parts and the cooler, mofe dense, outer ones 
By this interchange the inner parts would be opened out aind th 
total radiation raised. Since the only cause for these con vect io 
currents is the statical instability produced by radiation, an 
the rapid stifling of radiations within the body produces tber 
a temperature gmdieRt falling very slowly^ they would be for xY 
most part extremely slight. Only near the surface would the 
become violent, and only there would there be a rapid fall < 
temperature and density. Through the main body these yiix>u] 
remain neariy constant. Indeed it seems that, in thr fin 
distribution of density throughout the part which is not subje< 
to violent convection currents, it must increase slightly fro 
the centre outwards, since the currents would cease alto^eth 
as soon as a uniform sute was restored. In the outer stra 
a different state must prevaiL Rapidly falling tcmpcraL.l\i 
must (and visibly does) produce furious motions which ^v^hol 
outran mere restoration of statical balance. Portions cHan 
places so rapidly and so continually, that we may take it . ^b< 
any average is reached, the energy is ao distributed that t Here 
neither gain nor k>ss when sudi a change occurs. This is 1 
law of convective equilibrhmt. But in the sun's atniosph< 
gravitation alone is a misleading guide. Convective eqiailibr ivj 
which depends upon it, gives far too ste^ a tcmperaiti 
gradient , for it yidds a temperature of 6o6o' only aoo 
within the free surface, whereas the chromosphere is of an sLX'er 
thichacss of sooo m.. and attains that temperature only «,t 
hise. PNbaMy the factor which thus *«nii«uh^ the cfiTect 



SUN 



«7 



power of gnviutfcm st the sun's bordcn b the 
preasore of radiation. 

The radiations from the sun must be considered in two parts* 
coffTcqxxHiing respectively to the continuous spectrum anid the 
tine-spectrum. The latter is considered below; 
' it is indicativeof the chemical elements from which 
the lines can proceed, and its state at the time of 
the former is indicative only of the rate of loss of 
energy fron the sun by radiation, and is inwoven with a remark- 
able group of physical theory and experiment, known as 
(be theory of the black body, or as black radiation. The 
" black body " b an ideal ho&y with surface so constituted 
as to reflect no part of any radiations that fall upon it; in the 
case of socfa a body Kirchhoff and Balfour Stewart showed that 
uzviess energy were to be lost the rate of emission and absorption 
Bust be in fixed ratio for each specific wr ' — *^ 

The name has no reference to the appeal the 

e>r : «rb«i emitting enern^, its radiations wi hs, 

uui li intense enoufh will appeal to the e sen 

»i>mt wave-letigths 7600 and 4000 tenth-i ' is 

a q jr>tion of temperature, and as it b exq to 

ipeak of the bulk of the sobr radbtions ] vill 

speak instead of amorphous radbtions front rhe 

ifieni radintor b realised within any ckned c ich 

VT mnintttwed at a definite temperature b 

iifed wkli radiations correspondini^ to thb ese 

aniin a certain equilibrium which permits „^ ion 

ao be spoken of as a whole, as a scalar quantity, without express 
srfcrence to the propagation or interference of the waves of which it 
i» oompjsed. It b then found both by experiment and by thcrmo- 
&vnMmtc theory that in these aroorphoos radiations there is for each 
trmperatare a definite distribution of the energy over the spectrum 
acoankog to a law which may be expressed by ^(9\)d\, between the 
Tave^teagiths X. X+A; and as to the form of the function ^, Planck 
kz* "-hamn (SiisuMfsber. Berlin Akad. 544) that an intelligible theory 
c-a be gtTeo which leads to the form ^{9\)^Ci/\exp(ctp<$)—i\, 
a (era which agrees in a satisfactory way with all the experi- 
ments. Fig. II shows the resulting 
distribution of energy. The enclosed 
area for each temperature represents the 
total emission of energy for that tem- 

Eature, the abscissae are the wave- 
gths, and the ordi nates the corre- 
sponding intensities of emission for that 
wave-length. It will be seen that the 
maximum ordinates lie upon the curve 
>tf>- constant dotted in the figure, and 
00, as the temperature of the ideal body 
rises, the wave-length of most intense 
radbtion shifts from the infra-red 
^ towards the liraiinous oart of the 
p.^ . , spectrum. When we speak of the sun's 

radbtion as a whole^ it is assumed that 
k n of the character of the radiations from an ideal radbtor at an 
«( i Topriate temperature. 

The first adequate determination of the character as well 
a« amoant of solar radiation was made by S. P. Langley in 
I5Q3 at Mount Whitney in California (14,000 ft.), with the 
, an exceedin^y sensitive instrument which he in- 
vented, and which enabled him to feel hb way 
thermally over the whole spectrum, noting all the 
chief Frtunhofer lines and bands, which were shown 
by sharp serrations, or more prolonged depressions of the 
carve wtuch gave the emissfcms, atid difcovering the lines 
asd bands of the invisible ultra-red portion. The holograph 
Hktis obtained must be cleared of the absorption ol the earth's 
iitua^Atn, and that of the transmittmg apparatus— a spectro- 
«c0pc and sideroctat. The first in itself requires an elaborate 
stody. The first essential b an elevated observatory; the next 
A a long series of holographs taken at different times of the year 
and of tbe day, to eiamine the effect of interposing different 
TlniiMf ■ of air and Its variation in transparency (chiefly 
dje to water vapour). It b found that atmospheric absorption 
b generally greater in summer than in. winter, a difference of 
ao% being found between March and August; morning hours 
ibow a rapid and often irregubr increase of transparency, 
rsiamatxng shortly after noon, after which the diminution is 
iSow and comparatively regubr. 
The fcaiilting allowances and condudoo are illustrated in fig. is, 




taken from an articb by Langley in the An ,^ ., 

(1903), xvU. a. The integrated cmissbn of energy b f^nrm by the 
area of the outer smoothed curve (4), and the conclusion from thb 
one bobgraph b that the " solar constant " b s*^ calories. The 
meaning of thb statement b that, aisuing away the earth's atmo* 
sphere, which wastes about one-halt what b received, a square 




Fig. 13. 

centimetre, ex po se d perpe ndi culariy to the sun's rays, 
" ' r mmute to raise 2*54 grams of 



receive 
sufficient energy per minute to raise 2*54 grams of water 1® C. 
Langley's general determination of the constant was greater than 
this — ^3'0 to 3*5 calories; more recently C. G. Abbot at Mount 
Wilson, with instruments and methods in which Langley's expe- 
rience is embodied, has reduced it greatly, having proved that one 
of Langley's corrections was erroneously applied. The results 
vary between i-8q and 2'22, and the varbtion appears to be soUr, 
not tcrrestriaL Taking the value at 2«l the earth b therefore 
receiving energy at the rate of 1-47 kilowatts per square metre, or 
1*70 horse-power per square yard. The corresponding intensity 
at the sun's surface is 4-62X10' as great, or 6*79X10* kilowatts per 
square metre -^ 7*88X10* horse-power per square yard — enough to 
melt a thickness of 13*3 metres ( ""39*6 fL) of ice, or to vaporiae 
I '81 metres (-5*92 ftj of water per minute. 

If we assume that the holograph of sobr energy b simfdy a graph 
of amorphous radbtion from an ideal radbtor, so that the con- 
y . stants Cu f», of Pbnck'sformub determined terrestrbUy 

ZZ^s^^ apply to it, the hyperbob of roaximuhi intensity b >«• 
arisvAwa. 2*921 Xio'; and as. the sun's maximum intensity occurs 
for about X 04900, we find the absolute temperature to be 5960® abs. 
If we calcubte from the total energy emitted, and not from' the 
position of maximum intensity, the same result is obtained within 
a few degrees. But to call thb the temperature of the sun's surface 
b a convention, which sets aside some material factors. We may 
ask first whether the matter of which the surface b composed is 
such as to give an ideal radbtor; it is impossible to answer thb, 
but even if we admit a depArture as great as the greatest known 
terrestrbl exception, the estimated temperature b diminished only 
some 10%. A second question rebtcs to the boundaries. The 
theory refers to radbtion homogeneous at all points within a single 
closed boundary maintained at uniform temperature; hi the actual 
case we have a double boundary, one the sun's surface, and the other 
infinitely remote, or say, non-existent, and at xtro temperature: 
and it is assumed that the density of rsdbtion in the free space 
varies inversely as the squsres of the distance from the sun. 
Though there b no experiment behind thb assumption it can hardly 
lead to error. 

A third question b more difficult. The temperature gradieat at 
the confines of the i^iotosphere must certainly ascend sharply at 
first. When we say the sun's temperature b 6000*, of what level 
are we speaking 7 The fact b that radbtbn b not a superficial 
phenomenon but a molar one, and Stefan's bw, exact though it be, 
is not an ultimate theory but only a oonvenbat halttng-pbce, and the 
radbtions of two bodies can only be compared by it when theirsuriaces 
are similar in a specific way. One characteristic of such surfaces 
b fixity, wluch has no trace of parallel in the sun. The confines 
of the sun sre visibly in a state of turmoil, for which a sufficient 
cause can be ass^^ned in the rebtive readiness with which the outer 
portions part with heat to space, and so condensing prx)duce a 
state of staric instability, so that the outer surface of the sun in pbce 
of bein^ fixed is continually circubting, portions at high tempera- 
tures nsins rapidly from the depths to positions where they will 
part raptdiy with their heat, and then, whether perceived or not, 
<lesdending again. It b dear that at least a oonsiderabb part of 
the sobr radiations comes from a more or less diffuse atmo^here. 
With the help of theory and observation the part pbyed by .thb 
atmosphere b tolerably precise. Its absorptive effects upon the 
radbtions of the Inner photosphere can be readily traced p i o gies ' 
sively from the centre to the rim of the sun's disk, and it has 
been measured as a whole by Langley, W. E. Wilson and others, and 
for each separate wave-length by F. W. Very (As»npky$. Jeum., 
vol. xvi.). The entries in the table on following page express the 
reduction of intensity for different wave>bfigths X, when the slit b set 
at distances irX radios from the centre of the disk. 

Building upon these resulu A. Schuster has shown {Astrcpkys, 
Joum., vd. xvi.) that, if for the sake of argument the sobr atmo- 
sphere be taken as homogeneous in temperature and quality, forming 
a sheet which itself radbtes as well as absorbs, the radiation whbh an 
unshielded kleal radbtor at 6000* would give b represented well, 
both in sum and in the distribution of intensity with respect to 
wave-length, by another ideal radbtor-^ow the actual body of 



88 



SUN 



tha •un'-«t about 6700*. shieldod by an atmotphere at an mytsjkgt 
t«mparatutf« of 5500^ and that such an atmosphere itself provides 
about 0>3 of the total radiations that reach us. 

In ronnoxion with this subicct it may be mentionca that the highest 
measured temperature produced terrestrially, that of the arc, 'v 
About 3500* to 4000* abe. 



X. 


7-0.3. 


7-0.75- 


7-0-95. 


mm. 








1500 


0959 


0*950 


0856 


lOlO 


0-V43 


0885 


0-765 


7«i 


0941 


2:a? 


615 


0948 


0845 


550 


0-933 


0-831 


0587 


468 


o-9oa 


0764 


0-462 


4I6 


0858 


0-744 


0-471 



The encrjjv which th« sun poun out into space is. so far as nt 
kmiMk, and except for the minute fraction intercepted by the disks 
jtg^^t^ of *nc nlxnets (\ia«SaDro"> ahsolutelv lost for the pur- 
Cc- po«e« oi further mechanical cflfect. The amount is such 

"^^ th.1t, MippoMng the avTcage s})ccific heat of the sun's 

body as high as th«it of water, there woukl result a general fall of 
temperature of a -o* to 7^$* C. in the lapse of each >Tar. Hence, 
if no other agency is in\x)ked, at an e|xx"h say yXiooo years 
a\;»». the sun's hr.tt wwuld haw l»een gTr.iter than now by the 
Lictor I +T 3H, where »X6ooo* is taken for the sun'i present mean 
tetniv-r.iture. It seems possible that n is not a large number, and 
if *e t.ike jt equ.»l. sav, to Joo. m-e come to the most ix>cent estimate — 
the a*trx»m^nm'al — ci the tlaie of the earth's sUcial epoch, when the 
sun'x ratlwt ton xnas certainlv not much more th,»n it Is now, while this 
faottvr «-ouK) iliUcr materially from unity. Hence Kws dees not go on 
\«itlu>ut iTjret>cr»iton. and \»^ are apnarentlv at a stage when there 
i'i .«n apprx\\imate Kibnce between tWm. It is in fact an impo&si- 
InlitN th.tt kv*« shiHiki go on without regeneration, for if any part of 
the 5un*« U^lv kw*« hrist, it m-ill l^e u»uble to support the pre-^urc 
of n<- chboorins p»tt» U|x»n it: it will therefore be c\mipr«s«l, in 
a vct>cfal setise towanls the sun's centre, the \Tlivit»e» of its mole- 
ctjK^ will ri^. anil iti» temperature will again teml upwards. In 
o«M'<\iuc«ce « the radiation of heat the whole NvK- will be more 
v\»'vVtt'<\l than K^foTe, bot whether it is hotter or c\>Kler than before 
will iVci^entl on whether the coniractiv^n set up is f« ^re or k-s* than 
e^nij^h to re*to«e an exact l\*laiK«. If srr are dc.\Jin<j «ith a-»m- 

rAr.titxrlv rwent perii>if« there i* ik> «>iilenoe of prw<Trvst\T chance, 
•t tl SUV go ti> remote etxx'h> ami «ippce»e the s«n to h.i\T once l^een 
»t^'K..»pil in a f»rt>. Vmi« state, it is clear that it* shrinVase. in spite 
W r.u*MtKvi. Ki* Wii it h«>tter. *> that the shrinkase ha* outrun 
%S.t «>><:ivl Mittice to maintain it* rav!u?»i>«. . 't is e*)»:anv clear 
t*»At tKcre »* a r^MOt l>e\o»vJ mhK-h o^ntra^tv-^n cantn^t gv». ami 
tK.rv*';w. it o»^l ;>c<\,>re. the IkxK «tU Ux»n toc^n** \>^»k-r. 1>crr 
%!^ tS.^* a twr-.'v; '.'oMnt in the h»e ol e^<•r^ ^tar. TV rv%ep'»c->t 
tv>«.;nH civ'.f.ixtK^..* ami iv'»>»\;i>o«tt nve W temj^rati.'r »^Kh 
r3iv*a:v>n sc<* i-jv hie o<*t«T mvM ^^'tik oxmuns the <«>;.• MTiir-n- 
IV •: .^ «N K-»v^cr bv a 'v.. '.tr a ".xn:!'t: the avvv: '-.■.' a te\1 c\\>r<se< 
% -•> a" v*'*** •«*"*■ '^''^ s^o-Tcvi «n the s^m mvi kl ma«' ta» 1 its rai.iu- 
t . -* at tSc-r »v\-v<vt late lor m>v$«o >Tat^ that cs for a lew 

l^r.T t- a s-.;^" -r >>tit tv» the i^vurt^tv of e-eTr»* w*»ic*t can be 
^ -^y\i ti\>r> vv A.-t >v It «np x. vv«p the j^-** r\*<s* o-vr 
ev »:«v 1*. a *ia^f »>« c\t.\N->e vt.*-^*.^ tV ery-j:\ n tr'A^I b\ o.''Vvt- 
».% ,; .'?o It-* iv\«^ •*: ovvAjvis* »\x \i «s,>» *■. ^ny- Tv^ rr^tt-T.i-t it-*. 
f.\vf: raw V :-.* ». .si K-* -'.-.rp iV. a I* vxx» »xv \ra»s «■» tV XMo^t . 
»».v I* t* »vAt »»>- >>t\ *\'e I X "art-S to r*^ to cx^t t -x^ ♦?> 
fv.\-'*v-: jt-xv -r N "•>#* '.V»:- t^-i" v»— »f :vc >" -n tV t, t.nr T> ^ 
^ vx-**^ XV I »c«; vV -N^JN -WA "\ * - . — •. . »l »l » "VNJ fc- •.•.v^«. 
a*» i*vv-: a»' sV to xV Jo •*v< f»,-«xv* »* n. >r»j»oi«<»* ♦•\'*<i tS- 
U v*" V .x>* ji .N>- .•< V*;* y"* 00 r* i* tV >*.»N fjix*,* ».x ■• 
»-..•:«• :S- i-kx-^ -: r.- v«.vrt w .V5>x» w.-*^ S.^-* a r»»e v-v: 
c» -cv *VN o Nr o ^r ?>*■--- w * - • »v , «• •*— t''at Kv "Yv^f*-? 
t • -k St.-? -• •^^ Ti-^-^t.' -x-A. v« i'\ o«V 'jKTo' t*-! - *\v-.r». !v\«, 
K •« 0,'o^vv .- v-vNx ,vv< ■. - fc . »-.-:■«-:»- \>ek-v»* 
Tiv'^ ^C-»'- •»-**-* ^'^ *^ 4jk.»^-wt.«^* •*r^.>Vs^« Kx-\ 
V Vs: .*T •.>*. V* ra.-a T r'v o * •*'*" c^-N 
>». , i -^1, • .%5 A^ »v - . ► *.^ 4 -» o Sre .•>>-s.v »' 
• .xx\»xx* Nv» "v Jtc^' : V .'^ . *" *>.^<> •*•«■ x» *»^ ."*r-«-*i 



k ;!♦ W*- \<»x •»." 

I.-* .► ; a-v: H ■:> . 
• x.«> " 



during the year from a •phecfcal «pM» enending befond the orbit 

of Jupiter. The earth would intercept an amount of it proportional 
to the solid angle it subtends at the sun; that is to say, it would 
receive a deposit of meteoric matter about one-tenth of a millimetre, 
of density say 3, over its wlx^ aurCace in the ooune of the year. 
So far there is nothirtg impoesible in the theocy. But there are two 
fatal objections. The sun Is a Moall ^ tar^get ^ for a meteorite 
coming from infinity to hit, and if this considerable quantity 
reach^ its mark, a much greater amount will circulate round the 
•un in parabolas, and tbm b no evidence of it where it would 
certainly make itself felt, in perturbatioos of the i^neta. A secoiHl 
objection is that it fails in its purpose, because 20.ooo,opo years ago 
it would give a sun quite as much changed as the contraction 
theory gave. If we examine chemical sources for nuiintenance of 
the SUITS heat, combustion and other forms of combination are 
out of the question, because no combinations of different elements 
are known to exist at a .temperature of 6000*. A source wbicii 
seems plausible, perhaps only because it is less easy to test, is 
rearrangement of the strticture of the elements* atoms. An atom 
is no longer figured as indivisible, it is made up of more or less 
complex, and more or less permanent, systems in internal circubt ion. 
Now under the law of attraction according to the inverse square 
of the distance, or any other inverse power beyond the first, the 
energy of ex-en a single pair of material points is unlimited, if their 
possible closeness of approach to one another is unlimited. If the 
sources of energy within the atom can be diawa upon, and the 
phenomena of radio-activity leave no doubt about this, there is 
acre an incalculable source of heat which takes the coj^encv out of 
any other calculation respecting the souroes maintaininff the sun's 
radiatioiu An equi\alent statement of the same conclusion may 
be put thus: suppoung a gaseous nebula is destined to condense 
into a sun, the elementary matter of which it is composed will develop 
in the process into our laiowa tervestxial and solar dements, partixi£ 
with eaergy as it docs so. 

The continuous spectrum leads to aoinferenoe, except that of the 
temperature of the central globe; but the multitude of dark liues 
by which it is crossed repeal the elements composing 5--,^-^ ^ 
the truly gaseous cloaks which enclose it. A table ol ^iTrt^ 
these lines is a ph>-sical document as exact as it is 
intricate. The \-i$ua] portion extends from about W.L3700 to 7300 
tenth-metres; the ultra-violet begins about 2970, beyond which 
point our atmosphere is almost perfectly opaque to it; the infra- 
red can be traix\l for more than ten times the visual length, but 
the gap> «hich indk^atc absorption -lines have not been mapped 
bcNonU 9S71V The ultra-vLckt and the visoal portioa aiv re- 
corvkxl phot«,'^:TaphioaUy ; Ri»« land's classical . wo» showa some 
57vx> line$ in the tonr.er, and 14^200 in the latter, on a graduated 
scale of inten>ii'.»'s from ivxx» to o, or cooo, for the faintest Iir>e*; 
lx:«e«n a qi artcr and a third of these lines have been identificil, 
fu'.iv rooo bclv^r);in^ to iron, and se\cral hundred to water vapoui 
an»f other atn;o-.iVric ab>orp:!oa. The infra-fcd lequiics special 
ap,Ijr,<Ts: ic ha> Ncvn eJiomirred \-i>ualiy by the help of p^bosphor- 
c-sov.t j-lates vlHX-\;-crvl . a-.d with special photographic platen 
v.\V.-w\ ; but tSe m.-st eSiv \-ci way is ro use the bolometer 01 
rax'vx'rivnxneter; by this nvkuis some 500 or teo fines have beec 
«kir;xxL 

iV f-rst pavV!c-a cl the spectrum ts to ideatify the effects ol 
atn^v-jvjVcnc aVv.", 1^3. especiiUy oxygen, carbcmsc acid ar»e 
maicr \a,x^^r; t^ ^ »< J --»f j^r-wri"y b\ coeapaiing the qac ct ra of th< 
«:n at grvat arJ «r«\ ae-.ch-distancr*. or by reducinc the atroo 
s|>hrric rt«<\-t bv oNiirrxii^ troo a great elew«tiMW «s aid P. J. C 
J.^-vscn iro-a tSc N«rr.-ai o* Moc: ECasic. but the only unquestion 
.-' V* te^t r» to t^ - i t\«* l.-vs »b.vi ire rvx touched by X>oppl«"! 
r-vvt xV« the rtvxx" -,: a- J a*>^->. — ^ Hrrbs of the sun are com 
jM.wl ,v\^^v' . b\ th:< fwetS xl H. F. Nevsll has vcrihed the presence 
iM *-va-xven in the x>So:v>spSfw» «sid it had pfevinariy served t« 

V WW tSr $olxr ^v <;> « o< orrxa<^ vvi.x'«:es lines., la fact, doubt loni 
s, o. Nxx' :Sx- i^rvx xx* vx ow^x - t- ihe s«n, aad was not set a 
Tx^t 1 : • K I'* T K.-;x i~.^ F. Paschcn in iS^S identified at 

1 - -*<ji t»b*f vVixTpr* f-jJe* i*» tV rrfra-ted. which is shosm terre^ 
t.xi.A ix-\ la (Wxar&.ss tvV. wVfethespectnmais^rery-difieTen 

of ih 

.Xii t*.^ 

ility tKj 

it tTAn 

naitv, 

if th 



I w-s i\a: vX a; -x^y^-xix. a,..>cr;x awvis. The absca o e of 
%.x\?- "^ V* a-\^ i\ - X ■: :- >-. :^t s«.iir spectntm is no 



^SMtt a ncMar^s'-va wsf h 



;Vs «x<*v -xx (K^ )k*%e %«v« s^juMa.iNv; 



fxser«» M *v»N %\'*v TcaV :W 



■apt ^ t)»«» iiiyphi I 



xv% ;tK\xx 






■^ 'Sf 5;.-: arvir: frcca the 
tc-tre«a; j^ a.»tii ocScr on-, v^rstxvs nay 
:.<«nx*vi "JO '«.>r^ vi*,'X'-«w tacxV, mix* t> rerhafK the 
»x ;V a.xNXY xX r,-. ^voa. »;^ .-.ae a-kS ocber 
<\ -v: .- .V ^'^'^ * . K »r i^: »e siici-.*- c:ipect it to be fov 
o*N f ♦. V' V-'fc's-^ < .- i ."* tSf >.-*s atrxxsr.Srre. wbcre its tcmfx'-. 
t . -t- %a* scM N «v .u :o tVa? x-rf -W oe^faJ g* ^e. sad soaary ab^^M^ 
t«.x^ * *«■ w^x* < >.V*rN5 »vx c Se %Tat T>-$ is u m l ij^ bt edly if 
vA'* » -k Ik I.' ax. s..%r«' *-v r»~v>Nrro wtii aaefcaiy aUo. I 
'^ •" » ;- V v^ • vv~ :Sr i-v >jcr:-a of 6k follow irtg ai 
-X- • X.X* ;N<> o-x-* -< 4-xx- v-JN-S t*ii; «f the Bxunbers < 
»v X.V *^«<rv r\.v>t-. -i^ .:-,-,-: , -^ tS.-He which are tov upc 
^*^• »< * » ■r»'»-t-^--«v A -*- ^^ " -xr*^ vX sms'- xrtesarr. Tbechraan 
^^Sx *-x-^ .sv .J*ve »»:< w^ :ht ft<. Tie szraaccs Unci at 
•"^ '•■ »'-••* " -kAix^-^ar. -V*, >i»w xv**^- 5*xi-*sf. rjcayel, tD the <kni( 

•X. XNV 



«UN 



89 




Tht iwHJUin taken near the timb of the ran sho«« incresMd 
fnerai «baori>tMNW but also definite peculiariuM of f reat interett in 
.onmioa with the spectra of the spott, Irhich it wiU be CDavenient 



\Mica the dit of the spectrotoope it let acroas a spot, it abowi, as 
Bigfat be expected, a general reduction of brightness as we pass from 

» . the photosphere to the penumbra ; and a still gicater one 

j^L^!^ M ^ive P>s* to the umbra. This is not a uniiorm shade 
^^^^^ ewer tne whole length of the specmim, but shows in 
Un4« or Aatlngs of greater or less darkness, whkh in places and at 
■rrrrv-als have been resolved by Young. Duo^ and other unque*- 
&<iuUle e b s e rv er s into hosts of danc lines. Besides thb the 
rctrum ehows very many differences from the mean spectrum 
«' tSe disk, the interpretation of which is at present far from clear. 
Comity speaking, the same absorption lines are present, but "with 
*■ -rttd intensities, which differ f ngm one ^K>t to another. Some 
bvrs r/ certain elements are always seen fainter or thinner than on 
c^« photoaphctv. or even wholly oblitefated; others sometimes show 
tie «ne features, but not alwaysf other lines of the same elements. 
perHap* or%inatiiig at a levd above the spot, are not affected ; there 
sre J A bright scieaks where even the genersl absorptioa of the spot 
19 Abaeaf . and sometimes such a bright line will correspond to a dark 
b'-e on the photosphere; most generally the lines are intensified. 
itrtraBy us breadth, sometimes in darkness, sometimes in both 
r- ether, sometimes in one at the expense of the ottier; oeruin lines 
tb^ Ken ia the photosphere show only across the umbrs, others 
rr« umbra and penumbra, others reach a short distance over the 
{>ro«phet«i A lew of the lines show a double reversal, the dark 
«^*tfjrpurMi Koe beii^ fteatly increased in breadth and showing a 
fcm/hc emission line in its centre. The umbra of a spot b generally 
»-: tormented ^ rapid lineof>sieht motions; wliere any motion has 
btrt foond G. K. Hale and W. S. Adams make its direction down* 
• -H« : but nMind the rim and on bridges the characteristic distortions 
6ae to eraptive prominences are often observed. There appears to 
br •otnc oonmdon between pcominences and spots ; quiescent prorai> 
b-^*<^ are sometimes found above the spots, and w. M. MitcheU 
w .rck an eruptive prominence followed next day in the same place 
(">- *he appearance of a small spot. It does not appear that the 
ai^ted Goes follow in any way the sun-spot cycle. The radiation 
f - 'n a spoC chaises little as it approaches the sun's limb ; in fact 
H.Ve and Adams find that the absorption from the limb itsdf differs 
i'ln chat of the centre of the disk in a manner exactly resembling 
ti^t from a spot, the same Knes being strengthened or weakened 
IS the «affla way, tluMigh in much less drarcc, with, however, one 
narerial eanception: if a line is winged in the photosphere the wings 
a'9 lescrally increased in the spot, but on the limb they are weakened 
r' oblircratcd. If the spot spectrum is compared with that of the 
rfc-^iTBOApfaere it appears that the lines of most frequent occurrence 
e The latter are those least affected in the spot, and the high levd 
cy T f u oBpheric liaes not at all; the lutural interpretation is Uiat the 
« *# is below the chromoephefe. As to whether the spots are regions 
'4 k'^her or lower temperature than the photosphere, the best 
T.ak&ed >adffes are reserved or discordant, but recent evidence seems 
*9 potst irery definitdy to a lower temperature. Hale and Adams 
k«vc tho^rii that the spectrum oontains, besides a strong line- 
av^ram of titanium, a faint banded spectrum which is that of 
tt*^iii«ua ande, and a second banded part remarked by Newall has 
bren ^ik— *ft'*< by A. L. Fowler as manganese hydride. The band 
r* t t r sm. which corresponds to the compound or at least to the 
-^•^ ule of titmnium, certainly belongs to a lower temperature than 
r'^-c l.'ne spectrum of the same metal. Hence above the spots there 
t-^ -.scours of tcmperatitre low enough to give the banded spectra 
' 'Vri re f mrtor y metal, while only line spectra of sodium, iron and 

^-'^ foible at more moderate temperatures are found (see also 
^ rT'-rarrvKUOCaAra). 

TV chromosphere, which surrounds the photosphere, is a doak 
^ gajea of an avenge depth of 5000 m., in a state of luminescence* 
,^ leas intense than that of the photosphere. Hence when 

~2*"** the phocoqiliere is viewed through it an absorption 
** ■* s fttima is shown, but when it can be viewed separately ' 

a bri^ Cae spectrum appears. Most of the metallic vapoure that 
prna} jce this fie too dose to the photosphere for the separation to be 
" *«te caeeiit during: eclipses, when a Aadi spectrum of bright lines 
*^*ws oat fbr. say, five seconds after the continuous spectrum has ' 

ATprared. and again before it nsappears (see Eclipse). F. W. 
I>i« hu meaaanBd some eight hnadred lines in the lower chromo- 
^4crc and identified them with emission qxctra of the following 



im, magnesium, aluminium, silicon, 
I, vanadium, chi 



cyanona 
, scandiun 



iromium, manganese, iron, sine, strontium, 
yttrium, siroonium, barium, lanthanum, cerium, neodymiun^ 
ytterbium, lead, eurapittm, besides a few doubtful identifiaitions: 
It b a cunous fact that the agreement b with the spark spectra 01 
these elements, where the photosphere shows exclusively or morl 
definitely the arc lines, which are generally attributed to a k>wer 
temperature. In the higher chromosphere the following were 
reoogiuaed: helium and parhelium. hydrogen, strontium, calcium, 
•iron, chromiioa, magnesium, scandium and titanium. 

in the hq(her chromosphere on occasions metallic gases are carried 
up to such a level that without an eclipse a bright line spectrum of 
many elements may be seen, but it b always possible to see those 
of hydrogen and helium, and by opening the slit of the ^pettraacope 
so as to weaken still further the continuous spectrum from tae 
photosphere (now a mere reflection) the actual forms of the gaseous 
structures called prominences round the sun's lim may be seen. 
In the vbual spoctrum there are four hydrogen lines and one hdhiA 
line in which the actual shapes may be exammcd. The features seen 
differ aeoording to the Kne used, as the circumstances prevailing at 
different leveb of the chromcisphere call out one line or another with 
greater intensity. The helium formations do not reach the sun's 
limb, and it is another puaaUag detail that the spectrum of the didi 
shows no absorption Une of anything like an intensity to correspond 
with the emissKM line of heUum in the chromospheres The promi- 
nences are of two kinds, quiescent and eruptive. Some of th^ lormer 
are to be seen at the limb on roost occasions; they may hang for days 
about the same place; they reach altitudes of which the avenge b 
periiaps 20,000 m., and mow the spectral lines of hydrogen and 
helium. Sometimes they float above the surface, sonetinies they 
are connected with it by stems or branches, aad they show delicate 
striated detail like cirrus doud. Hie eruptive prominences, called 
also metallic, because it b they which show at their bases a compleie 
bri^t Bne spectrum of the metallic dements, rush upwards at wee<h 
which it b difficult to associate with transfers of matter; the voocity 
oftm exceeds 100 m. 4 second: W. M. Mitchell watched one rise at 
250 m. a second to the height of 70,000 m., and in five miaules after 
it had faded away and the rcnon was quiet. Thb is remarkable 
only in point of vek)city. hluch greater heights occur. Young 
records one which reached an elevation of ^50,000 m., or more than 
three<quartera of the sun's radius. Since identification of spectral 
lines b a matter of extreme refinement, any cause which may displace 
lines from their normal places, or otnerwise change their features, 
must be examined scrupulously. We have ^een above numerous 
applications of the Doppler effect. Two other causes of dbpUce* 
ment call for mention in their bearing on the solar spectrum-' 
pressure and anomalous dbperaion. The pressure which prtKlucet 
a continuous spectrum in ppises at a temperature of 6000" must be 
very great. Recent experiments on are spectra at pressures up to 
too atmospheres by W. J. Humphreys and by W, C --«_^ ., 
Duffidd show several suggestive peculiarities, though S*^^ ^ 
thdr bearii^ on solar phenomena b not yet determined. y? *|T •" 
The lines are broadened (as was already known), the ij^ 
intensity of embskm is much increased, but some '*'"**' 
are weakened and some strengthened, nor b the amount of 
broadening the same for all lines, nor b it always symmetrkraL 
bdng sometimes greater on the red side; but besides the effca ol 
unsymmetricai broadening, every line b ditt>laced towards the red: 
diiTerent lines again behave differently, and they may be arranged 
somewhat roughly in a few groups according to their behaviour; 
reversals are also effected, and the revenwd line does not always 
correspond with the most intense part of the emission line. For 
example, in the iron spectrum three groups about wave-length 
4500 are found by Duffield to be displaced respectively 0-17, 0*34, 
0-66 tenth^metres, at too atmospheres. Thb shift towards the 
red* J. Larmor suggests b due to relaxation of the spring of the sur- 
rounding ether by reason of the crowding of the molecules; a sliif l of 
0*17 tenth-metres vwuld, if interpreted by Doppler's principle, have 
been read as a receding velodty of 1 1 km. per second. It is clear 
that these results may give a simple key to some puxzling anomalies, 
and on the other hand, they ma.y throw a measure of uncertainty 
over absolute determinations of Ime-of-sight velocities. 

The possible applications of anomalous dispersion are varied 
and interesting, and have recently had much attentk>n given to 
them. W. H. Juliuf hokls that thb sole fiact robs of 



objective reali^ almost all the features of the sun, 
including prominences, spots, faculae and flooculi, and 
even the eleven-year penod. Though few follow him so far, an ex- 
planation of the principle will make it clear that there are numerous 
possible opportunities tor anomalous dispersion to qualify inferences 
irom the spectrum. Theoretically anomalous dispersion h insepar* 
able from absorption. When a system vibrating in a free period 
of its own encounters, say through the medium of an enveloping 
aether, a aeoond systeas havias a different freepeood| aad sets it -- 
vibration, the amplitude of the second vibration b ti '"* — *" 



^ ^bki, 

except when the periods approach equality. In such a case the 
two systems must be regaxdied as a suttle more complex one, the 
absorbed vibration becomes larie, though remaining alaavs finllfi^ 
and the transmitted vibiatbn undergoes a remarkable cnange iq 



90 



SUN 




ito period. This It illuitmted in fig. I3« vbere the effect of a singk 
abiorbiJif tyttiOa upon vibrations ol all wave-lengtha is shown. 
The line n shows the factor by 
which the index of lefraction of 
the trananuttcd vibration is 
jnuitiplied. and the curve p the 
intensity of the absorbed vibra- 
tion for that wave-length. The 
relative increase of index takes 
place on the side where the wave* 
length is greater than that of the 
absorbifig system. The effect of 
sach a cnange may be to ber^ 
•■W*. 13. back the coloured ribbon of the 

spectrum upon itself, but just where this is done all its light will be 
robbed to maintain the absorbing system in vibration. Theory is here 
much less intricate than fact, but it seems to cover the most important 
features and to be well confirmed. Omitting extreme examples, 
like fuchsin, where the spectrum is actually cut in two» it n of more 
general importance to detect the phenomenon in the ordinary 
absorption lines of the metallic etements. This has been done most 
oompleteiy by 1^ Pucdanti, who measured it by the interferometer 
in the case of more than a hundred lines of different metals; he found 
its degree to differ much in different lines of the same spectrum. 

Diuerenccs of refractive index produce their greatest dbpersive 
effects when incidence on the refracting surface u nearly tangential. 
W. H. Julius has used this fact in an admirable experiment to make 
the effects visible in the case of the D lines of sodium. A burner 
was constructed which ^ve a sheet of flame 750 mm. long and 
I mm. thick and to which sodium could be supplied in measured- 
quantity. Light from an arc lamp was so directed that only that 
part reached the spectroscope which fell upon the flame of the 
burner at grazing incidence, and was thereby refracted. As the 
supply of sodium was increased, the lines, besides becoming broader, 
did BO unsymmetrically, and a shaded wing or band appotred on 
one side or the other according as the beam impinged on one side 
or the other of the flame. These bands Julius calls dispersion 
bands, and then, assuming that a species of tubular structure pre- 
vails within a large part of the sun (such as the filaments of the 
corona suggest for that region), he applies the weakening of the light 
to explain, for Instance, the broad dark H and K calcium lines, 
and the sun-spots, besides many remoter applicatbns. But it 
should be noted that the bands c^ his experiment are not due to 
anomabus dispersion in a strict sense. They are formed now on one 
side, now on the other, of the absorption line; but the rapid increase 
of refractive index which accompanies true anomalous disjxrsiDn. 
and might be expected to produce similar bands by scattering the 
light, appears both from theory and experiment to belong to the 
side of greater wave-len^h exclusively. Julius's phenomenon 
seems inseparable from grazing incidence, and hence any explanation 
it supplies depends upon his hypothetical tubular structure lor layers 
of equal density. There are other difficulties. In cakrium, for 
instance, the £ line shows in the laboratorv much stronger anomalous 
dispersion than H and K; but in the solar spectrum H and K are 
broad out of all comparison to g. Hale has pointed out other 
respects in which the explanation fails to fit facts. In connexion 
with the question whether the phenomena of the sun are actually 
very different from what they superficially appear. A. Schmidt s 
theory of the photosphere deserves mentkm; it explains how the 
appearance of a sharp boundary misht be due to a qsecies of mirage. 
Consider the rays which meet the eye (at unit distance) 
f^r^j-z^ ? at an angle d from the centre of the sun's disk; in their 
'^■•■^•' previous passage through the partially translucent por- 
tions of this body we have the equation sin <f ar/i sin i 
(fig. 14). Now generally m will decrease as r increases, 
but the initial value of i* is not likely to be more than, say, twice 
its final value of unity, while r increases manifold in the same range, 
hence in eeneral tm will increace with r, and therefore for a given 
value ol a, 4 «all continually increase as we go inwards up to 90*, 
which it will attain for a certain value of r, and this will be the deepest 




Fko. 14. 



wiN reach the eye at the 

* f* to f ' throughout 

' * cuts the outer 

I, and can 

to 90*. 




Apart then from abaorption there will be a discontinuous change 
in brightness in the apparent disk at that value of the angulli 
radius d which corresponds to tangential emission from the uppei 
lever r' of this mirage-forming region. Of course we are unable tc 
say whether such a region is an actuality in the sun, on the earth 
it IS an exception and transient, but the greater the dimensions ol 
the body the more probable is its oocunrenos. The theory can be 
put to a certain test by considering its implications with respect tc 
colour. The greater |i is, the greater would be the value of d, th< 
apparent angubr radius, corresponding to horixontal emission froiri 
a given level r, and that whether we accept Schmidt's theoiy or not. 
Hence if the sun's diameter were measured through different^ 
coloured screens, the violet disk must appear greater than the rta 
Now measunes made by Auwers with- the Cape heliomeler showec 
no difference, amounting to o-i', and so far negative the idea thai 
the rays reach us after issuing from a level where j* is sensibly differ 
ent from unity. Presumably, then, the inner emissions areaosorbo; 
and those which reach us start from veiy near the suxface. 

The sun'it, distance is the indispensable link which connect! 
terrestrial measures with all celestial ones, those of the moon alon^ 
excepted; hence the exceptional pains taken to deter- 
mine iL The transits of Venus of 1874 and i88a were If^ ' 
observed by expeditions trained for the purpose before- *»'«<«««•, 
hand with ev^ possible foresight, and sent out hy the Briti&h 
French and German governments to occupy suitable station 
distributed over the world, but they served only to demonstrat* 
that no high degree of accuracy can ever be expected from thi 
method. It is the atmosphere of Venus that spoils the obsetvation 
Whatever be the subseouent method of reduction, the instant i 
required when the planet s disk is in internal contact with that oC th 
sun; but after contact has plainly passed it still remains connecter 
with the sun's rim by a "black drop," with the roult that traine 
observera usiiu^ similar instruments set up a few feet from one aiK>the 
somttimes differed by half a minute ot time in their record. It 1 
little wonder, then, that the several reductionsof tbecdJccted result 
were internally discordant so as to leave outstanding a considcrabl 
" probabte error." but showed themselves able to yiod very differcs 
conclusions when the same set was discussed by different persoaj 
Thus from the British observations of 1874 ^ ^* ^' ^*^ deduce 
a parallax of 8*76' and E. J. Stone 8*88'; from the French observe 
tions of the same date Stone deduced 8-88' and V.PuiKux 8-91' 
The first really adequate determinations of solar parallax were thos 
of Sir David Gill, measured by inference from the apparent diunu 
shift of Mare anrang the stanaa the earth turned dittrnally upon h 
axis; the observations were made at the island of Atcensioa in 187^ 
The disk of Mare and his cok>ur are certain disadvantages, and G% 
afterwards superseded his own work by treating in the same wa 
the three minor planets Victoria* Iri« and Sappho— the last wa 
observed by W. L. Elkin. These planets are more remote than Mar 
but that loss is more than outweighed by the fact that thciy ai 
indistinguishable in appearance from stars. The nwasurcs 'Wr^i 
made with the Cape heliometer and have never been superBe<le4 
for the latest results with the minor planet Eros otactly cotk&n 
Gill's result — 8'8o' — while they decidedly diminish the associate 



Man and Jupiter. Its mean distance from the sun is Z'46 tim 
that of the earth: but, besides, the eccentricity of its iM-bit 
latig^e (0-22), so that at the most favourable opportunity it cs 
come within one-seventh of the distance of the sun. This Cavou 
able case is not realized at every oppositbn, but in 1900 the diatan 
was as little as one-third of that of ue sun. and it was obceived tioi 
October looo to January 1901 photographically upon a concert^ 
but not absolutely uniform plan by many observatories, of v^hi^ 
the chief were the French national observatories, Greeawici 
(Cambridge, Washington and Mount Hamilton. The planet sbow( 
a stellar disk varying in magnitude from 9 to 12. On sooac plati 
the stars \tr-ere allows to trail and the planet was followed, ia oth^; 
the reverse procedure was taken: in eitlier case the planet's posit ii 
is measured by referring it to " comparison staiv " of apptoioaiatq 
its own magnitude situated within 25' to 30' of the centra of t| 

Elate, while these stara are themselves &icd byiaeasunement (rv 
righter ** reference stars,'* the positions of which are found | 
meridian observations if absolute places are desired. Tlie be 
results seem to be obutned by comparing an evening's obaervaticM 
with those of the folkywing moning at the same observatory ; t 
reference can then be made to the same stacs and errors in th< 
porition are therefore virtliaUy eliminated; even if the obeervatio 
of a morning with those of the following evening are used the pm 
able error is doubled. The observatkms at Greenwich thus netiuc 
gave errora *fcO'0O36' and *<H>o8o' sespectivelv. The srenei 
result is 8'8oo' ai«o>0044'. To collale the whole of the snaterial ace 
mulated at different paits of the workl is a much more diflicult tas 
it requires fi^vt of all a most carefully constructed «tar«catatlo0 
upon which the further discussion may be built. The diccussi 
was completed in 1909 by A. R. Hinks, and includes the material f c^ 
some hundreds of plates taken at twelve oUervatories; in ceoei 
It may be said the discusiion proves that the material ia distiA^ 



SUN-raRD 



9» 



ketiiumtmum, mud that in phoeswtor^k would hudly be eatpccted. 
The POBlt is nearljr the tanoe as found at Groenwich alont. S*8o6' 
*ooo2b', or m. mean distance ci 92,830,000 m. *-t-493XlO^ cm. 
virh an error which is as probably below as above jOf 000 miles. 

The son's distance enters into other relations, three of which 
peraHt at its determination, viz. the equation of light, the constant 
^ abensMsoo, and tlM» paialtectic inequality of the moon; the value 
^ the velocity of propagation of light enters in the reduction of the 
two first, but. as this is better known than the sun's parallax, no 
£»dvantage resiitts. The equation of light is the time taken by 
igfat to traverse the sun's mean distance from the earth ; it can be 
^md by the acceleration or retardation of the ecIijMes of Jupiter's 
Btdlites aooordtng as Jupiter is approaching opi>osition or conjunc- 
txMi with tbe flon ; a recent analysts shows that its value u 498*6', 
which lend* to the same value of the parallax as above, but the 

bnami discrepancies of the material put ■* **■"- — a 

■ach \awcr leveL The constant of aberratioi ni*i 

dmance by a comparison between the vcloci its 

orbit and tlfee velocity of light. Its determii >e- 

caice it is involved with questions of the chanj he 

euth's axis of rotation, b. C. Chandler cons ;2' 

it veil established ; this would give a parallaj tef 

term in the lunar longitude which mtrodu he 

dKtaoces of the sun and moon from th( is 

kiovn as the parajlactic inequality ; by analy: tns 

F H. Cowell nnds that iu coefficient is i24-7< to 

L W. Brown's lunar theory would imply a pa 

The best discussion of the sun's apparec en 

Bade by G. F* J* A. Auwers, in connexion of 

•^-__, tbe Cerman observations of the — of 

yyf t87A and 1882. It was found that personality olayed 
"■"■"^^an important part; the average effect might be 1% 
bet frequently it reached 3', 4', $' or even 10', with the same 
wtnuaent and method, nor was it fixed for the same observer. 
Sksc 15.000 observations, from 1 85 1 to 1883. taken by one hundred 
cbwTvers .at Greenwich, Washington, Oxford and Neuch&td, 
dnued as Car as possible of personal equation, showed no si^ of 
ckaage Uai could with probability be called proere«sive or pcnodic, 
oarticolarty there was no sign of adhesion to toe sun*spot period. 
Btrner determinations of the actual value came from the neliometer, 
mi iya\-c an angular diameter of 31' 59-26' *»o-io', and the value 
of the polar diameter exceeded the equatorial by 0-038 '*o«033', 
T^ coudtmaioa is that the photosphere is very sharply defined and 
ihovs 00 definite departure from a truly spherical uiape. Using 
t:x parallax 8-8o', the resulting diameter of the sun is 864,000 m. 
«i 390X10" cm. 

If we regard the son as one of the ttart, the first four ^uettioos 
er should eeek to aniwer are iu distance fn>m iu acikhboursp 
_. proper motion, magnitude and sfiectral type. In some 

'T*'* re sp ects the systematic prosecution of these inquiries 
•*^* has only begun, and property conadered they involve 
seat ««8earches into the whole stellar system. It would take us 
too far to treat them at any lengthi but it may be convenient to 
flaa^arize aome of the results. The sun's nearest neighbour is 
s CcBtauri. which is separated from it by 270,000 times tne earth's^ 
^stance, a space which it would take light four years to traverse. 
It b fairly certain that not more than six stars lie within twice this 
dwrjinir No certain ^ide has been found to tell which stars are 
aesrest to aa; both br^tness and large proper motion, though of 
owrse iacnased by proximity, are apparently without systematic 
a-s-ra^e relatioa to parallax. 

T^ son's proper motion among the stars has been sought in the 
pnu as the aawmption that the universe of stars showed as a whole 
' ' ' "iplaoement of its parts, ^nd, on this assumption, 

MS of reduction which attributed apparent relative 

_^^ nt of parts to real relative displacement of the sun agreed 

hxly ««8 in concluding that the " apex of the sun's way '*^ was 
6i«csrd to a point in right ascension 275*,. declination + 37 (F. W. 
I>ivo and W. G. Thackeray), that is to say. not far from the star 
Vezi IB the ooostellation Lyra, and was moving thither at a rate of 
iui Jm. Bflea per second. But recent lesearcheA by J. C. Kapteyn and 
A. S. Eddington. confirmed by Dyson, show that there is better 
{rosed for befierhir that the universe is composed mainly of two 
4M«!xms of fltars. the members of each stneam actuated by proper 
cAmfin of the same sense and magnitude on the average, than that 
'V rHarive motions of the stars with one another are fortuitous 
'Vs Stas). This removes comfpletely the ground upon which the 
'^'-T J u^ of the sun's way has hitherto been calculated, and leaves 
"^ ^a es rioo wholly without answer. 

A or is said to rise one unit in magnitude when the logarithm of 
'i brightaefls diminisbea by 0-4. Taking as a star of magnitude 
' • Taari or c Aquihe. where would the sun stand in this scale ? 
S-*^ral eatamates have been made which agree well together; 
«''v^her direct use is made of known parallaxes, or comparison i$ 
mm^ vith bioanes of well-determhied orbiu of the same spectral 
rype as the nro. in which therefore it may be assumed there is the 
mmt relatioa bu swc eu mass and brilliancy (Gore), the resuh is found 
^m iheeen's magnitude is —26-^. or the sun is to** times as brilliant 
SB a irfT aijg e itu de star: it wookl follow that the son viewed frxmi 



aees of development merely, and that the former repccseot the 
irrier stage. ^ This again is disputed, and there is indeed as yet 



a Centaup iKwld to^ear as of magnitude 07. and from a star ol 
average distance which has a parallax ccrumly less than o-i', it 
would be at least fainter than the fifth magnitude, or. say, upon the 
border-line for naked-eye visibility. We cannot here do more than 
refer to the spectral type of the son. It is virtually identical with 
a group known as the "yellow stars." of which the most prominent 
examples are Capella, Pollux and Arcturus; this b not the most 
numerous group, however; more than one haU of all the stars whose 
spectra are known belong to a simpler type in which the metallic 
hues are faint or absent, excepting hydnmen and aometioBes helium, 
which declare themselves with increased prominence. These are 
the white stars, and the most prominent examples are Sirius. Vega 
and Procyon. It b commonly tiiou^ not universally held that the 
difference between the white and yelbw stars arises from their 
sta« ' • • • . . . - 

earrK „ „ ^ 

slight material for a decisive statement. 

Summary of Numerkol Dalih 
Parallax : 8-8o6» * O'0O3'. 
Mean diytance from earth: 92,830.000 m.*> 1-403X10** cm. 

(Time taken by light to traverse this distance: 498^6'). 
Diameter: Angular, at mean distance, 1919-^'. 

Linear, i09Xearth's equatonal diameter ■864.000 
m.- 1*390X10" em. 
Mass: ^32,oooXmass of the earth. 
Mean density: •256Xmean density of earth « I'4I5. 
Equator: inclination to ecliptic: 7* 15'. 

Longitude of ascending node (19080). 74* 28-6'. 

Rotation period: latitude o**: 24-46^ 

30*:26.43<« 

6o*:29-63«« 

8o»:3o-50* 

Solar constant, or units of tner^y received per minute per square 

centimetre at earth's mean distance: 2-i calorka. 
Effective temperature, as an ideal radiator or " black body ": 
6000** abs. 

Bibliography.— NeaHy all the chief data respecting the sun have 
lately been and still are under active reviaon, so that publications 
have tended to fall rapidly out of date. The most important series 
b the Astrophysiail Journal, which b indufjensable, and in itself 
almost sufficient; among other matter it contains all the publications 
of Mount Wilson Solar Observatory (Professor G. E. Hale), H. A. 
Rowland's roW«-'"' — '- — l. _^_-.t^. _ .. . 
reproductions of i 
papers which can 
of the Royal Astr, 
3. P. Langlcy's I 
Department (Sig 
parallax researdK 
of the sun's dbi 
observations for 
whole subject bC 
an euellent sunu 
permits, is in Fn 
«co/>y (1E94). Sc 
(1899), contains 
collected and dis 
latest moot poin 
Solar Hesmnk (B 
issutd in 1906. and VOL ii. ia 1908. (|L A. Sa.) 

SUN-BIRD, a name more or less in use for many years,' and 
now generally accepted as that of a group of over 100 species 
of small birds, but when or by whom it was first apph'ed is un* 
certain. Those known to the older naturalbts were for a long 
while referred to the genus Certkia (Tsee-cbeeper, q,v.) ot 
some orticr groap, but they are now fully recognised as forming 
a valid Passerine famOy Nectariniidae, from the name Nee* 
tarinia invented in x88x by UUgcr. They inhabit the Ethiopian, 
Indian, and Australian regions,* and, with some notable 
exceptions, the species mostly have but • limited range. They 
are considered to have their nearest alGes in the Meliphagidae 
(see Hokey-eater) and the members of the gentis Z0sUrops; 

* Certainly since 1826 (cf. Stephens, Cen. Zooioty, vol. xiv. pt. r, 
p. 292). W. Swainson (Nat. Htst. and ClassiJ. Birds, i. 145) says 
th^ are " so called by the natives of Asia in allusion to their splendid 
and shining plumage,]^' but gives no hint as to the nation or language 
wherein the name originated. By the French they have been much 
longer known as " Souimangas," from the Madagascar name dl one 
of the species given in 1658 by Flacourt as Soumaniha. 

' One species occurs in Baluchistan, which is perhapa outside of 
the Indian region, bat the fact of iu bemg found there wuay be a 
reason for including that country within the region, ivst as the 
presence of another species in the Jordan valley tndiices aoographers 
to regard the Gh6r as an outlier <m the Ethiopian region. 



9« 



SUN-BITTERN 



but their relations to the last require further investigation. 
Some of them are called " humming-birds " by Anglo-Indians 
and colonists, but with that group, which, as before indicated 
(see HuMifZNG-Biso), belongs to the PUariaet the sun-birds, 
being true Passens, have nothing to do. Though part of the 
plumage in many sun-birds gleams with metallic lustre, they 
owe much of their beauty to feathers which are 
not lustrous, though almost as vivid,^ and the 
most wonderful combination of the brightest 
colours— scarlet, purple, blue, green and yellow 
— is often seen in one and the same bird. One 
group, however, is dull in hue, and but for the 
presence in some of its members of yellow or 
flame-coloured precostal tufts, which are very 
characteristic of the family, might at first sight 
be thought not to belong here. Graceful in form 
and active in motion, sun-birds flit from flower to 
flower, feeding on small insects which are attracted 
by the nectar and on the nectar itself; but this 
is usually done while perched and rarely on the 
wing as is the habit of humming-birds. The 
extensible tongue^ though practically serving the same end in 
both groups^ is essentially different in its quasi-tubular 
structure, and there is also considerable difference b^ween 
tKis organ in the Nectariniidae and the Meliphagidae.* The 
nests of the sun-birds, domed with a penthouse porch, and 
pensile from the end of a bough or leaf, are very neatly built. 
The eggs are generally three in number, of a dull white covered 
with confluent specks of greenish grey. 
The Nectariniidae form the subject of a sumptuous Monograph 



whi 



G..E-Shelley (4to, London. 18^6-1880), in the coloured plates of 
ich fulj justice is done to the varied beauties which these gloriously 



arrayed little bdngs display, while almost every available source of 
information has been consulted and the results embodied. This 
author divides the family into three sub-families: Neodrepanirwe, 
consisting: of a single genus and species peculiar to Madagascar; 
NectarinTinae, containing 9 genera, one of which, Cinnyru, has more 
than half the number of species in the whole group; and Arachno* 
therinae (sometimes known as " spider-hunters "), with 2 genera 
includine ii species — all large in uze and plain in hue. To these he 
also ados the genus Ptomerops} composed of 2 species of South 
African birds, of very different appearance, whose ainnity to the rest 
can as y^ hardly be taken as proved. According to E. L. Layard, 
the' habits of the Cape Promerops, its mode of mdification, and the 
character of its eggs are venr unlike those of the ordinary Nectari- 
niidae. In the British Museum Catalogue of Birds (ix. I-126 
and 291) H. J. Gadow has more recently treated of this family, 
reducing the number of both genera and species, though adding a 
new genus discovered rince the publication of Shelley's work. 

(A. N.) 

SUN-BITTERN, the Eurypyga hdias of omithobgy, a bird 
that has long exercised systematists and one whose proper 
place can scarcely yet be said to have been determined to 
everybody's satisfaction. 

According to Pallas, who in 1781 gave (N. nordl. BcytrAfii,v<AAu 
pp, 48-54, pi. 3) a good description and fair figure of it, callmg it the 

Surinamische Sonnenreyjjcr," Ardea htltas, the first author to 
notice this form was Fermm, whose account of it, under the name of 
** Sonnenvog^,!' was published at Amsterdam in 1759 {Descr.t 
&c., de Surinam^ iL 102), but was vague and meagre.^ hi 1772* 
howcveTj.it was satisfactorily figured and described in Rozier's 
Obsfrvahonssur la physique. Sic. (vol. v. pt. i, p. 212, pi. l), &» the Petit 
paon des roseaux — by which name it was known in French Guiana.* 
A few years later D'Aubenton figured it in his well-known series (Ft. 
Enl., p. 782), and then in 1781 came Baffon (/f.AT., Oiseaux, vol. viii. 
pp. 160, 170, pi. xiv.), who, calling it " Le Cauri& ou petit paon des 
roses, announced it as hitherto undescribcd and placed it among the 
Rails. In the same year appeared the above-cited paper by Pallas, 



for " roMBiix,*' BttffoA turned the ooloobt aame bom one that had 
a good meaning into nonsense. In 1783 Boddacrt, equally ignorant 
of what Pallas had done, called it Seoiopas Solaris,* aSad in referring 
it to that genus he was followed by lAtham {Synopsis^ iit 156). by 
whom it was introduced to English readers as the Caurale Snipe. 
Thus within a dozen years this bird w«s referred to three perfectly 
distinct genera, and m those days genera meant much more chaa 




(PvmC4imMd9tNatunt Biibrj. roL h.," Biidt,** fay pcnniiuMol 
MKnuUoa&Ca.LuL) 

Fig. i.—Sun-Bittem {Eurypyga helias). 

they do now. Not untU 181 1 was it recognized as forming a genua 
of its own. This was done by lUiger, whose appellation. E ur y p y g a 
has been generally accepted. 

The sun-bittern is about as big as a small curlew, but with 
much shorter legs and a i&Xhtt slender, straight bill. The 
wings are moderate, broad, and rounded, the tail laiher long 
and broad. The head is black with a white stripe o>ver and 
another under each eye, the dun and throat being also white. 
The rest of the plumage is not to be described in a limited space 
otherwise than generally, being variegated with Uad^ brown, 
chestnut, bay, buff, grey and white — so mottled, q>eclded and 
belted cither in wave-like or zigzag forms as somewhat to 
resemble cotain moths. The bay colour forms two conspicu- 
ous patches on each wing, and also an antepenultimate bar 
on the tail, behind which is a subterminal band of black. The 
irides are red; the bill is greenish olive; and the legs are pale 
yellow. As in the case of most South American birds, very 
little is recorded of its habits in freedom, except that it fre- 
quents the muddy and wooded banks of rivers, feeding on small 
fishes and insects. In captivity it soon becomes tame, and has 
several times made its nest and reared its young (which, when 
hatched, are clothed with mottled down; Proc. Zool. Soc, 
1866, p. 76, pi. ix. fiig. x) in the Zoological Gardens (London), 
where examples are generally to be seen and their plaintive 
piping heard. It ordinarily walks with slow and precise st eps, 
keeping its body in a horizontal position, but at tinges, when 
excited, it will go through a series of fantastic performances, 
spreading its broad wings and tail so as to display their beauti- 
ful markings. This spedes inhabits Guiana and the interior of 
Brazil; but in Colombia and Central America occurs a larger 
and somewhat differently coloured form which is known as 
E. major. 

For a long while it seemed as if EuryPyga had no near ally, bat on 

the colonization of New Caledonia by the French, an extresncly 

curious bird was found inhabiting most parts of that island, to 

which it is peculiar. This the natives caUed the Kasu, and it is 

the Rhinocketus jubatus of ornithology. Its original dcscribcra, 

MM. Jules Verreaux and Des Murs, regarded it first as a heron and 

then as a crane {Rev. et Hag. de Zoologte, i860, pp. 4^)9-441 , fd. 2 1 , 

-•'- — -42-144); but, on Mr George Bennett sending two Uvt 

* the Zoological Gardens, Mr Bartlctt quickly detected 

affinity to Emypygjn {Proc. Zoo/. 5bc.,^ 1862, pp. 21 ?t, 

c), and in due time anatomical investigation shorn txl 

right. The kagu, however, would not strike the ordi- 

^er as having much outward resemblance to the sun- 

^hich it has neither the figure nor posture. It is rather a 

bird, about as large as an ocdinary fowl, walking quickly 

' he saw in the bird's variegated plumage a resemblance 
Led snipes. Rhynchaea. His specinc name shows tfaait he 
known how the Dutch in Sunoam called it. 



iSUNBURY—^DN COPYING 



<n 



Md thm «uida« alwMl motfapleat , viflk biqiht red bill aad legs, 
h.'^cycs.a full pendent <;reat» and is generally of a U^t date-colour, 
paltf beneath, and obscurely barred on ita longer winje-coverts and 
tail wTtli a darker shade. It is only when it spreads its wings that 
these are max to be marked and spotted with white, mat-colour, and 



Fig. a.—Kagu {Rhinochelus jvbdius). 



Hack, somewhat after the pattern of those of the sun-bittern. Like 
CB^i bird, tog^ the ka|[u wul, in moments of excttemen^ give ui> its 
crJnary f^aad behaviour and execute a variety of violent gesticUr 
Urj'vns. some of them even of a more extraordinary kind, for it will 
^tsxx rowod, holdii^ the tip of its tail or one of its wings in a way 
that ■• otker Ufd is known to do. Its habits in its own country 
were deanbcd at some length in 1863 by M. Jouan (Mim, Soc» Sc. 
SiL Ckerbottrg, Ix. SH aod 335), and in l870 by M. Mazie {JicUs Soc 
L^m. B&rdeaux, xxvii. 323-326), the last of whom predicts the speedy 
axiacisHi of this interesting form, a fate foreboded also by the 
».t— ^ of Mean LayanfU^u, i8Sa, pp. 534* 535) that it has 
asily dinppearod from the neighbouifaood of ttie moco settled and 
iioabucd parts. 

The intemal and external structure of both these remarkatie 
brais is bow folly known and it appears that they, though separable 
«<fisttactfH^3ies,Earypygidae)Miid Rhinochetklae, must be deemed 
liK rdk» of very ancient and generalized types more or less related 
tB the Rallklae (see Rail), and Psophtidae (ace Trumpetbr). It is 
(suy CO be remarked that the eggs of both EMrypyta and Rhincchetus 
kime a very stxxmg ralline appearance — stronger even than the 
igins r"»i»^«i»**t iPrtc. Zool. Soe.^ 1868, pL la) woukl indicate. 

(A.N.) 

HnreORT, a borough and the CDonty seat of Northuniber- 
Ind ooanty, P)ellllSjrlvanU^ U.S.A., on the Suequefaanna river 
aboot 53 ■&. by nfl N. by £. of Harrisburg. Pop. (1900), 9S10, 
d flrfsom 197 wexe foreign-boni; (1910 U.S. censtts) i3»770* It 
■ KTved by the Penoaylvania, the Northern Gentral (cdntroUed 
by the Pennsylvania) sad the Philadelphia & Reading railwayi. 
Saabaxy'a ftrindpal induftry is the mannfactttre of silk; the 
fteau aylva nia railway has repair shops here. The total vahie 
ef the botoogb's factory piodacts increased from $1,868,157 
a 1900 to $2,592,8 J9 in 1905, or 38*8%. The borough stands 
aa the site of the old Indian vOlage, Shamokin, which wss 
yr tfi^^ l by Delawaics, Senecss and Tutdos, and was long the 
Indian village in the pro'vhicc; in i747-i7S5 
I s Moravian mission here. * Owing to the strategic 
bpoftaace «f the place the provincial government erected 
Fvt AfltgosU bete in 1756; during the War of Independence 
saay of tbe fugitives from the Wyoming Massacre came to this 
hmrL Soabcvy was first surveyed in X772 and was- incorporated 
as s boroogb in X797« 

fUlBUET-OV-THAMES. an uiban district in the Uxbridge 
^arlusBeBiary divmon of Middlesex, England, 17 m. S.W. of 
V FasTs Cathedral, London,- on a branch of the London & 
Sc9!h Weatcm railway. Pop. (1901), 4544. It is a favourite 
'i-crszde resort and has grown considerably as a residential 
^jKxkt. Tbe church of St Mary, Byzantine in style, dates 
bam t7ss. Tbcre are pilmping works and filtration beds ior 
lbc water •5U|>ply of London. To tbe north-esst is Kcmpton 



Park, tbe maaor-house of wbfch was a royal residence early 
in the 14th century. The park is famous for its race-meetings, 
the priodpal fixture being the Jubflee Handicap, established 
in 1887. ,The manor was granted by Edward the Confessor to 
Westminster Abbey, and.passed in the 13th century to the see of 
London and in the i6th to the Crown; but was not so hekl later 
than 1603. 

SUN OOPmiO, or Pboto Copying, the name given to that 
branch of photographic contact printing which is carried out 
without the aid of a camera-made negative. It is now used 
very extensively for copying documents, especially the plans 
of architects and engineers. 

The earliest discovered process, the ferroprussiate, is still 
the one most largely used, on account of its economy and per- 
manence, combined with a simplidty of manipulation that 
renders it highly suitable for oflBce use; It was invented in 1840 
by Sir John Herschd. This method has the disadvantage that 
the copies are blue in colour, and, as it is a negative process, the 
blade lines of the original become the wMte lines of the print; 
the development is by washing in water, so that the important 
feature of accuracy of scale is lost. The next step of importance 
was in 1864, when WHliam Willis of Birmingham, the father 
of the inventor of the platinotypc system of (Jiotographic 
printing, invented the aniline process. In this method a paper 
sensitized with bichromate of potassium is exposed to light, 
with the doctmient (generally a tiadng) in front of it; the un- 
protected lines are bleached out, but the protected ones remain 
and are developed by contact with vapour of aniline, a sub- 
sequent washing for the removal of chemicals completing the 
print. For twenty years this process was successfully used 
with little opposition other than that of the blue prints pre- 
viously referred to, and of the Pellet process, which gave a blue 
line on a white groimd, the inventor being associated throughout 
with the firm of Vincent Brooks, Day & Son; but since that time 
a large number of other methods have come into use, some 
requiring a paper negative In the first instance and some 
not, but an much aided by improved methods of applying' 
electric light. The earliest of these improved systems 
utilizing dectric light was that invented by Mr B. J. Hall,* 
whose photo-copier consists of two semi-circular glasses forming 
a cylinder, ^ifh'ich may be revolved, and through which an arc 
lamp travels, while the tracing and sensitized paper are strapped 
to its outer surface. 

Between 1900 and 1908 attention was chiefly directed* to 
overcoming the variation of scale that is inevitable in all systems 
that require a final washing in water either for development or 
for the removal of chemicals; and at least four excellent systems 
have arisen. While Mr F. R. Vandyke was perfecting the system* 
which he patented in 1901 and which has been adopted by the 
Ordnance Survey Department at Southampton, Messrs Vincent 
Brooks, Day & Son were working along somewhat similar lines, 
the outcome of which was their " True-to-Scale Photo Litho " 
system. In both these methodis a reversed positive print is 
secured on zinc, from which copies can be made in printer's 
ink of any colour by the usual lithographic method on almost 
any material that may be desired. The plates prepared by these 
methods are so sensitive to light that excellent results can be 
secured from drawings made even on semi-transparent material 
such as drawing paper, and of course the plates when made are 
capable of alteration or addition and can be stored for reprints. « 

An admirable process had since been invented by MM. 
Dord Frdres of Paris, which is even more expeditious, and 
being less in prime cost is more suitable when only a small 
number of prints is required. In this case a large sheet of thin 
zinc is coated with chemically-treated gelatin, with the result 
that when a ferroprussiate pcint is prised down on it dther. 
with the hand or by a roller the protected lines affect the gelatin 
in such a way that the parts that have been in contact with them^ 
receive a greasy ink while the remainder of the surface rejects 
it, so that a small number (not generally exceeding Six) of very 
excellent prints can be secured. The inventors rdtrained from 
taking out_a patent cither in France or dsewhere, preferring to 



9* 



SUNDA ISLANDS— SUNDAY 



woik their invention as a secret process, but the lonnuU appean 
either to have leaked out or to have been discovered, so that the 
process is, perhaps with sUght variations, used under numerous 
names. With the aid of the various systems of rotary copiers, 
by which blue prints of almost any length can be secured, 
Dorel prints identical in scale with the originals have been made 
of the length of 2 a feet. An interesting kindred process bat 
with well defined variations is known as vebgrsphy. 

For the technical and chemical details of the various meijhods 
reference may be made to Ferric and Hdiagrapkic Procesus by G. E. 
Brown (DaWbara & Ward). (F. V. B.) 

SUNDA ISLANDS, the collective name of the islands in the 
Malay Archipelago which extend from the Malay Peninsula to 
the Molucau. l^cy are divided into the. Great Sunda Islands— 
i,e. Sumatra, Java» Borneo, Celebes, Banka and BilUton, 
with their adjacent islands— and the Little Sunda Islands, 
of which the more important are Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa, 
Flores, Sumba and Timor. 

Sunda Strait is the channel separating Sumatra from Java 
and uniting the Indian Ocean with the Java Sea. It is 15 m. 
broad between the south-eastern extremity of Sumatra and 
the town of Anjcr in Java. In the middle is the low-lying 
well- wooded island of Dwars-in-den-Weg (" right in the way ")i 
otherwise Middle Island or Sungian. In 1883 Sunda Strait was 
the scene of the most terrific results of the eruption of Kxakatoa 
(ff.«.)» * volcanic island further west in the stzait. 

SUlfDARBANS, or Sundesbuitos, a tract of wasto country in 
Bengal, {ndia, forming the seaward fringe of the Gangetic 
delta. It has never been surveyed, nor has the census been 
extended to it. It stretches for about 165 m., from the 
mouth of the Hugli to the mouth of the Meghna, and is bordered 
inland by the three settled districts of the Twenty-four Parganas, 
KJiulna and Backergunje. The total area (including water) 
is estimated at 6536 sq. m. It is a water-logged jungle, in which 
tigers and other wild beasts abound. Attempts at reclamation 
have not been vexy successfuL The forest department realizes 
a large revenue, chiefly by tolls on produce removed. The 
characteristic tree is the SMndri {Heritiara liUoralis), from which 
the name of the tract has probably been derived. It yields a 
hard wood, used for building, and for making boats, hmiiture, 
&c. The Sundarbans are everywhere intersected by river 
channels and creeks, some of wbich afford water communication 
between Calcutta and the Brahmaputia valley, both for steamers 
and for native boats. 

SUNDAY, or the Lobd's Day (4 roD ^Uou ^/i^, dies solis; 
4 tcvpcojoil ^{"h^ ^i^ domimca^ dies dtminicus 0, in the Chris- 
tian world, the first day of the week, celebrated in memory of 
the resurrection of Christ, as the principal day for public worship. 
An additional reason for the sanctity of the day may have been 
found in its association with Pentecost or Whitsim.* There is 
no evidence that in the earliest years of Christianity there was 
any formal observance of Sunday as a day of rest or any general 
cessation of work. But it seems to have from the first been 
set apart for worship. Thus according to. Acts zx. 7, the 
disciples in IVoas met weekly on the first day of the week for 
exhortation and the breaking of bread; i Cor. zvi.- s implies 
at least some observance of the day; and the solemn com- 
memorative character it had very esxly acquired is strikingly 
indicated by an incidental expression of the writer of the Apoca- 
l>T>se (i. 10), who for the first lime gives it that name (" the 
Lord's Day") by which it is almost invariably referred to by 
all writers of the century immediately succeeding apostolic 
times.* Indications of the manner of its observance during 
this period are not wanting. Tcackini of the ApcsiUs (c. 14) 

*The Teutonic and Scandinavian nations adopt the former 
destsnatkm (Sundsy, Semntnt, S^ndat, Ac.), the Latin nations the 
latter { dimanckt ^ d^memiem, deminm, ftc.). 

* Fram an c » ipw »ii u a in the Epmle of Barnabas (c ts)« tl wo«M 
almost seem as if the Ascension also was believed vy some to hav« 
taken place on a Sunday. 

• In the Epbtle of Barnabas already nifemd to (c i^U fo caM 




contains the precept: " And on the Lord's day of the Lei 
{Karii cupuua^r ku^Iou) come together and break bread an 
give thanks after confessing your transgressions, that yoi 
sacrifice may be pure." Ignatius (Ad Magn. c. 9) speaks < 
those whom he addresses as " no longer Sabbatizing, but liviu 
in the observance of the Lord's day (card Kupuxidlw ^urm) a 
which also our lifo sprang up sgain."* Eusebius (H.E. iv. 2^ 
has preserved a letter of Dionystus of Corinth (aj>. 175) to Sole 
bishop of Rome, in which he says: " To-day we have passed tl 
Lord's holy day, in which we have read your epistle ", and tl 
same historian {H.B. iv. 36) mentions that Melito of Sard 
(a.d. 170) had written a treatise on the Lord's day. Pliny 
letter to Thijan in which he speaks of the meetings of the Cbri 
tians " on a stated day " neisd only be alluded to. The fir 
writer who mentions the name of Sunday as applicable to tl 
Lord's day is Justin Martyr; this designation of the first day * 
the week, which is of heathen origin (see Sabbath), had con 
into general me in the Roman world shortly before Just: 
wrote. He describes {ApoL I 67) how "on the day caU* 
Sunday " town and country Christians alike gathered togetb 
in one place for instruction and prayer and charitable offerini 
and the distribution of bread and wine; they thus meet togeth 
on that day, he says, because it is the fixst day in which Gt 
made the worid, aiul because Jesus Christ on the same day ro 
fh>m the dead, 

A& long as the Jewish Christian element continued to ha< 
any influence in the Church, a tendency to observe Sabbath 
wdl as Sunday naturally peoisted. Eusebius {H.E. iiL i 
mentions that the Ebionites continued to keep both days, ai 
there is abimdant evidence bom Tertullian onwards that so i 
as public worshq> and abstention from fasting are coocem( 
the practice was widely spread among the (kntile churcht 
Thus we learn from Socrates (H.E. vi. c. 8) that in his tit 
public worship was held in the churches of Constantinople 1 
both days; the Apostolic Cofums (can. 66 [65]) sternly prohit 
fasting on Sunday or Saturday (except Holy Satupday) ; and ti 
injunction of the Apostolic dnsHhOiom (v. so; cf . li 59, vii. a 
is to *' hold your solemn assemblies and rejcnce every Sabba 
day (excepting one), and every Lord's day." Tlius the carlic 
observance of the day was confined to congreffstioaal worshj 
either in the eariy morning or late evening. The social co 
ffition of the eariy Christians naturally forbade any genei 
suspension of work. Irenaeus {c i4»-2oa) is the fixst of t] 
early fathers to refer to a tendency to make Sunday a day 
rest in his mention that harvesting was forbidden by the Chun 
on the day. Teituliian, writing in ao3, says " On the LoR 
day we ought abstain from all habit and labour of anxiet 
putting off even our business." But the whole matter « 
placed on a new footing when the dvil power, by the coostit 
tion oi Constantine mentioned below, began to legislate as 
the Sund^ rest. The fourth commandment, holding as 
does a conspicuous place in the decalogue, the precepts of whi 
ooold not for the most part be legaxded as of merely ttansito 
obligation* and never of course escaped the attention of t 
fathers of the Church: but, remembcnng the liberty given 
the Pauline wridngs ** in respect of % feast day or a new mo 
or a Sabbath " (CoL iL 16; cf. Rom. zhr. 5, GaL iv. 10, ii), th 
usually ocplained the " Sabbath day " of the commandment 
meaning the new era that had been introduced by the adve 
of Christ, and interpreted the rest enjoined as meaning oessati 
from sin. Bnt when a series of imperial decrees had eDJoio 
with increasing stringency an abstinence from labour on Si] 
day, it was inevitable that the Christian c ons rie nfe should 
roused on the subject of the Sabbath rest also, and in inaJ 
minds the tendency would be such as finds' exprcKion in t 
Apostolic ComstHmHoms (viiL 13): " Let the slaves work fi 
days; but oa the Sabbath day and the Lord's day let them ha 

« The longer recensaoa ruat: " Bat let cvoy one of you keep I 
Sabbath after a spiritual maxuicr . . . And alter the obaervaoce 
the Sabbath let every friend of Christ keep the Loid*s day as a f 
li^» the ivsunvctioci day. the queen awl ^kf of aO the day 
The writer finds a rcfcrenoe to the Lord's day in the titles to Pa- 
Ud aik. wIM are ** set to the eighth." 



SUNDAY 



95 



loRM to CO to dMuth for iBftnctloil iu piety." Ttot & cvl* 
4Boe of tiie aane tendency in the at>poiUte amon (39) of the 
oooadl of Lftodkcm (j63)» wUch forbids Clinatiaas inm Judaw- 
uf aad ivstinc 00 the Sabb&th day, and actually enjoins them 
u vark oA that day, peel etciag the Lord's day and so far as 
pomMc resting as Chiisdans. About this time accordingly 
•e find traces of a (fijpoittloaiB Christian thii&en to distingnirfi 
^emcA A temponiy and a petmanent clement in the Sabbath 
<it]r pncBpC; thus Chrysostom (10th homily 00 Genesis) distens 
t£e hmdaamtal pcoidpie of that precept to be that we should 
<iK!icate <me wbok dny in the dide of the week and set it apart 
for ciacise ia spixitual things. The view that the Chrisdan 
Lofd's day or SuBdny is but the Christian Sabbath transferred 
hxim the seventli to the first day of the week docs not lind 
catesBocal cs p p esa i op tilt a much later period, Alcvin being 
sppamily the first to allege of the Jewbh Sabbath that " ejus 
obMtvatioociD mos Christianus ad diicm dominicam oompe- 
icacius tnaaiulit " (cf . Dbcalooub). 

Law Relatuto to Sukdav > 
The ***«*^ recognition of the observance of Sunday as a 
lepi duty ia a constitution of Constanttne in 321 AJ>., enacting 
121.1 aB courts of justice, inhabitants of towns, and workshops 
voc to be at rest on Sunday {vtnerabiU dU sdis), with an 
' " t' ^* ii^ favour of those engaged in agricultural labour. 
Tha was the first of a long series of imperial constitutions, most 
cf which are incorporated in the Code of Justinian, bk. liL tit. 
:j iDt f€Hi$y The constitutions comprised in this title of the 
cadt b^iiB writh that of Constantine, and further provide that 
rauKxpatioa and manumiadon were the only legal proceedings 
piTmisible on the Lord's day (dU domnico)^ though contracts 
iad compcomiscs might be made between the parties where no 
iiiiifiHliiw of the court wss necessary. Pleasure was forbidden 
a wdl a» boaiseas. No spectacle was to be exhibited in a 
'hextre or circus. If the emperor's birthday f cU on a Sunday, 
as oefebcatioa was to be postponed. The levra days before 
lad after Easter were to be kept as Sundays. In Cod. i. 4, 9, 
ippears the singulation that prisoners were to be brought up for 
rxaaisaXJoa aad interrogation on Sunday. On the other hand. 
Cod. bL xa* zo^ distinctly directs the torture of robbers and 
piatcsycwea on Easter Sunday, the divine pardon (says the law) 
boBg hoped for where the safetv of society was thus assured. 
.Ifter the time of Justinian th^observance of Sunday appears 
'e have baoome etriaer. In the West, Charlemagne forbade 
aboor of aay kind« A century later la the Eastern Empire No. 
br. of the Leonine constitutions abolished the exemption of 
^pcultunl labour contained in the constitution of Constantine; 
i-A this exemption was specially preserved in England by a 
UMiiiiatiiai of Archbishop Meopham. The canon hiw followed 
the fc«*« of Koman law. Hie decrees of ecclesiastical coundls 
oa the subject have been numerous. Much of the law is con- 
t«aed ia tbe Decretals of Gregory, bk. ii. tit. 9 {Defenis), c. 1 
fd which (tramdated) runs thus: " We decree that all Sundays 
:* chserred from vespers to vespers (o vesfer* cd vesperam), 
sad that aB ndawful work be abstained from, so that In them 
xadbv ^ 1'9>' pioceediogs be not carried oa, or any one con- 
domMBd &a death or pumshment, or any oaths be administered, 
Qopt for peace or other necessary reason." Works of necessity 
•'•^edaBy in the case of perishsble materials or wheie time 
«« iiBportaait, as in fishing) were allowed, on conditioa that a 
•^w prepodion of the gain made by work so done was given 
•) the ctasdi aad the poor. The consent of panics was in- 
laficseai to give jurisdiction to a court of law to proceed on 
Vmiiliy, tboogh it was suflSdenI in the case of a day sanctified 
^ the ecdcsiastical authority for a temporary purpose, e,g. 
«> thufcssrriag for vfattage or harvest. 

la v* ffM»A kgiilatloa on the subject begu early and con- 
*m9a dowB to the most modem times. As eariy as the 7th 
^iicnr the laws of Ina, king of tbe West Saxons, provided that, 
a * theowmaa ** worked on Sunday by his lord's command, 
1 ' was to be free aad the lord to be fined 30s.; if a freeman 
wwkod wiihoat Us kiid'acommand, the penalty waa foricit«se 



6t fkeedon or ■ fine e^ 608., and twfce u much in the case of a 
priest. The laws of .Athelstan forbade marketing of iEthelred 
fdlkmooU and hunting^ on the Sunday. In almost aU the pre> 
Conquest compilations' there are admonitions to keep the day 
holy. The frst aDusiaa to Sunday fahstatute law proper is in 
13 $4 U^ £dw« III. c 14 iep-)> forbSfkHng the sale of wool at the 
staple en Sunday. The mas of legidatnm from that date 
downwards may be convemently, if not scientifically, divided 
into five da si e a cc desiasticsl, constitutional, judicial, sodal 
and csmmePclai. The terms ** Sunday '* and ** Lord's day " 
are used ia the statutes, hut the term " Sabbath " occurs only 
m ordlnaaoes of the Long Parliament. ^ Sabbath-brealung " 
is sometimes used to -describe a violation of the Simday obser- 
vance acts, hot is objected to by Blackstone as legally incorrect. 
Good Friday and Ottistmas Day are as a rule hi the same legal 
position as Sunday. In English tew Sunday is reckoned from 
midnight to midnight, not as in canon htw o fespifa ad tesperam. 

The acts to be mentioned kst Mill law unless the contrary is 
stated. 

SccUtiaslk^.-^'Bdon the Reformation there appears to be 
little or no statutory recognition of Sunday, except as a day on 
which trade was interdicted or national sports directed to be 
held. Thus the repealed acts of 1388 (is RSc n. c. 6) and 1409 
(ix Hen. IV. e. 4) enjoined the practice of archery on Sunday. 
The church itself by provincial constitutions and other means 
declared the sanctity of the day, and wss strong enough to visit 
with its own censures those who failed to observe Sunday. At 
the R^orraation it was thought necessary to enforce the obser- 
vance of Sunday by the state in face of the question mooted at 
the time as to the divine or merely human institution of the day 
as a hdy day. Sunday observance wss directed by injunctions 
as well as by statutes of Edward VI.. and Elisabeth. The 
second Act of Uniformity of r 551 (5^6 Edw. IV. c. 1.) enacted 
that all inhabitants of the realm were to endeavour themselves 
to resort to their parish dnuch or chapel accustomed, or upon 
reasonable let thereof to some tsoal place where common prayer 
is used every Sunday, upon pain of punishment by the censures 
of the church. The same pwindple was re-enacted by the Act 
of Unifonnity of 1558 (i Elis. c. 9), with the addition of a tem- 
poral punishment, vis. a fhie of twelve pence for each offence. 
This section of the act is, however, no longer lav, and it appears 
that the only penalty now incurted by non-attendance at church 
is the shadowy one of ecclesiastical censure. Protestant dis- 
senters, Jews aad Roman Qitholics were in 1846 (9 ft 10, 
Vict, c 59) exempted from the set, and the pecuniary penalties 
were abrogated as to all penons; but the acts as to Sundays 
and holy days are still binding on members of the Church of 
England [Jfsriikolf V.6fdtosf, 1907, 3 K.B. 112]. 

Aa act of 1 551 (5 & 6 Edw. VI. c. 3) directed the keeping of all 
Sundays as holy days, with an exception in favour of husbandmen, 
labourers^ fishmnen and other persons in harvest or other time of 
necessity. Canon 13 of the canons of 1603 provides that "aU 
manner of persons within the Church of Ei»;Und shall celebrate 
and keep the Lord's day, commonly called Sunday, accordine to 
God's hmy w31 and pleasure and the orders of the Church of England 
pmcribed in that behalf, that is, in hearing tbe wofd of CkxI read 
and taught, in private and public prayers, in acknowledging their 
offences to God and aritendment of the sanie.^ in reconciltng them- 
selves charitably to their neighbours where displeasure hath been, 
in oftentimes receiving the communion of the body and blood of 
Christ, in visiting the poor and sick, using all godly and sober con- 
versation." The Lone Paxiiament, by an ordinance of 164^, c. 51. 
directed the Lord's day to. be celebrated as hdy. as being the 
Christian Sabbath. Ordinances of 1650, c. 9, and 1656, c. 15. con- 
tained various minute descriptions of crimes against the sanctity of 
the Lord's day, including travelling and " vainly and profanely 
walking." These ordinances lapsed at the Restoration. The 
Act of Untformity of i66f (13 & 14 Car. II. c. 4) enforced the reading 
on every Lord's day of the morning and evening prayer according 
to the form m the Book of Common Prayer— a duty which had been 
previously enjoined by canon 14 of 1603. By the Church Building 
Act 1818, the bishop may direct a third service, morning or evening, 
where necessary, in any church built under the act (s. 65). By tht 
Church Building Act 1838, he may order the performance of two 
full services, each if he so direct to include a sermon (s. 8). The 
Burial Laws Amendment Act 1880. which authorizes burials in 
chuiuhyards of the Oraich ol EoghMd without the «« of the funeral 



96 



SUNDAY 



oflioe of that chutch. does not allow mcb boriala to take place on 
Sunday. Good Friday or Christinas Day if the parson of tlie church 
objects.' Under the Metropolitan Police and Streets Acts, the 
T&mt Police Oaoses Act 1841 and the Public Health Acts, street 
traffic amy be regulated during the hours of divine service. 
' Constitutumal.—'Vaidxuaent has. occasionally sat on Sunday 
in cases of great aneigcncy, as on the demiae of the Crown. 
Occasionally divisions in the House of Commons have taken 
place early on Sunday moning. The Ballot Act xSya enacts 
that in reckoning time for election proceedings Sundays are to 
be excluded. A similar provision is contained in the Miuiicq>al 
Coiporations Act 1882, as to proceedings under that act. 

Judicial.— As a general rule Stmday for the purpose of judicial 
proceedings is a dies wmjuridicus on which courts of justice do 
not sit (9 Co. Rep. 666). By s. 6 of the Sunday Observance Act 
1677 legal process cannot be served or executed on Stmday, except 
in cases of treason, felony or breach of the peace. Proceed- 
ings which do not need the intervention of the court are good, 
eg. service of a citation or notice to quit or daim^to vote. By 
8. 4 of the Indictable Offences Act 1848 justice may issue a 
warrant of apprehension or a search warrant on Sunday. The 
rules of the Supreme Court provide that the offices of the 
Supreme Court shall be closed on Sundays, that Sunday is not 
to be reckoned in the computation of any limited time less than 
six days allowed for doing any act or taking any proceeding, 
and that, where the time for doing any act or taking any 
proceeding expires on Sunday, such act or proceeding is good 
if done or taken on the next day. In the divorce rules Sundays 
are excluded from compilation. In the county court rules 
they are excluded if the time limited is less than forty-dght 
hours, and the only county court process which can be 
executed on Sunday is a warrant of arrest in an Admiralty 
action. Where a time is fixed by statute, the Sundays are 
counted in. Where a term of imprisonment expues on Sunday, 
Christmas Day or Good Friday, the prisoner i» entitled to 
discharge on the day next preceding (Prison Act 1898, s. ix). 

•Social.— Under this head may be grouped the enaetmepta 
having for their object the regulation of Sunday travelling and 
amusements. The earliest example of non-«cdesiasttcal inter- 
ference with recreation appears to be the Book of Sports issued 
by James I. in 1618. Royal authority was given to all but 
recusants to exercise themselves after evening service in dandxkg, 
aachtry, leaping, vaulting, May-games, Whitsun-ales, mofris- 
dances and setting up of Maypoles; but bear and bull-baiting, 
interludes and bowling by the meaner sort were prohibited. 
The Sunday Observance Act 1625 (i Car. I. c. i), following the 
lines of the Book of Sports^ inhibited meetings, assemblies or 
concourse of people out of their- own parishes on the Lord's day 
for any sports and pastimes whatsoever, and any bear-baiting, 
bull-baiting, interludes, common plays or other unlawful exer- 
cises and pastimes used by any person or persons within their 
own parishes, under a penalty of 3s. 4d. for every offence. The 
right to enforce ecclesiastical censures is left untouched by the 
act. The act impliedly allows sports other than the excepted 
ones as long as only parishioners take part in them. In 1897 
some lads were prosecuted at Streatley under this act for 
playing football in an adjoining parish, but the justices dismissed 
the charge, treating the act as obsolete. But in 1906 the Sodety 
for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals instituted a prosecu- 
tion under the act with the object of preventing extrarparochial 
rabbit-coursing on Sundays. The Game Act 1831 (x & 3 
WiU. IV. c. 32, 8. 3) makes it punishable to kill or take game, 
or to itsc a dog, net or other instrument {e.g. a snare), for that 
purpose on Sunday. The prohibition only applies to game proper 
and does not extend to rabbits. 

There is no law in England against fishing on Sunday except 
as to salmon. Fishing for salmon on Sunday by any means 
other than a rod and Une is prohibited by the S^on Fishery 
Act x86i, and free passage ior salmon through aD cribs, &c., 
used for fishery is to be left during the whole of Sniday, 

The Sundav Observance Act X78x iit Geo. IIIlttdllUMlBi 



debate vpOD any part of the Lord's day called Snndiy , to wlikli 
pcTMns axe admitted by payment of money or by tickets sold 
for money, is to be deemed a disorderly house. The keeper is 
to forfeit £300 for every day on whldi it is opened or used a& 
aforesaid on the Lord's day, the manager or master of the cere> 
monies £xoo and every doorkeeper or servant £50. The advcr> 
tising or publishing any advertisement of such an entertainment 
is made subject to a penalty of £50. Proceediiigs under this 
act for penalties may be instituted by a common infomicr 
within six months of the offence. It was held in 1868 that a 
meeting the object of which was not pecuniary gain (though 
there was a charge for admission), but an honest intention to 
introduce religious worship, thoug^ xkot according to any estab- 
lished or usual form, was not within the act. The hall used 
was registered for religious worship. On this principle, forms 
of worship such as Mormonism or Mahommedanism are pro- 
tected. In 187s actions were brought against the Brighton 
Aquarium Company and penalties recovered under the net. 
As doubts were felt as to the power of the Crown to remit the 
penalties in such a case, an act was passed hx 1875 to remove 
such doubts and to enable the sovereign to remit in irixole 01 
in part penalties recovered for offences against the act of xySx. 

The substantive effect of the act is to hit all Sunday exhibition; 
or performances where money is charged for admission. In i9^* 
it was decided that the cfaainnan of a meeting held to hear a lectun 
was not liable as manager of the mcetiiiK, and the soUcitar of th< 
liquidator of a company was held not to be liable for merely let tin] 
the halt for the meeting. In X906 ah attempt was unsuccessful}^ 
made to apply the act of 1781 to open-air meetings for rabNt 
cournng. The rules for the govcrameat of theatres and places a 
public entertainment, and the terms of the licences issued, usual!] 
prohibit performances on Sundays. The lessees of certain place 
of public resort in London have in some cases obtained their licence 
from the London County Council on condition that they do not faoli 
Sunday concerts, but the recent policy of (he Council has been no 
to interfere with or restrict the giving of Sunday oonoerts unless thei 
are dvcn for private gain or by ^-ay of trade. The Council has n 
legal authority to dispense with the Sunday Observance Act 1781 
^ich enforces penalties on chring entertainments to which person 
are admitted by payment of money or by tickets aold for oKMie) 
The law has been judicially inteipreted, however, to mean tha 
charges for reserved seats are not incompatible with free admiseior 



Queen's 

ilaces within that jurisdiction. No chaige is made for admisstot 
but thote who wish (or seats mufUpay for them, and the procec<;! 
of the concerts are not made the subject of profit. At the Iicensin 
sessions conflicts have annually arisen on this subject between th 
advocates and opponents of Sunday mnac 

Bands play on Sundavs in roost of the paries in London, wheth< 
royal or under municipal control ; and it is said that local authocitu 
cannot make bylaws forbidding bands of music in the streets o 
Sunday (Joknsen v. Croydon Corporation, 1886, 16 Q.B.D. 70S 
Libranes, museums and gymnasiunis maintained by local autbontii 
may, it would seem, be lawfully opened on Sundays, and the natinrr 
gaJIeries and museums are now so open for part of Sunday. 

CpmsMrcfo/.— At common law a contract made on Sunday 
not void, nor is Sunday trading or labour unlawful, and cixbs 
ment of a soldier on a Sunday has been held valid. At stn «ar 
period, however) the legislature began to impose restrictioB 
at first by making Sunday trade impossible t^ dosing tl 
places of ordinary business^ later by declaring certain kin 
of trade and labour illegal, stiU later by attempting to j>rohit 
all trade and labour. 28 Edw. III. c. 14 (i3S4i xk>w vepeale 
closed the wool mariiet on Sunday. An act o£ 144S ( 
Hen. VI. c. 5) prohibits fairs and markets on Sunday (necessa 
victual only excepted), unless on the four Sundays in harvest 
an eumption repealed in 1850 (by 13 & 14 Vict. c. 933 
Edw. IV. c. 7 (u64 rep.) restrained the shoemakers of Ix>nd< 
from carrying on their business on Sunday. An act of 1637 
Car. I. c. 3) imposes a penalty of aos. on any carr&fer, wa^oz 
or drover tmveUing on the Lord's day, and a penalty of 6s. I 
on any butcher killing or selling on that day. The act docs i 
aiiriy to stage coaches. Both this and the act of 16*5 w< 
._v:*^« J ^y ^ ^ limited period, but by — * 



SUNDAY 



97 



Ike better obseivavcc of Uie Liud't day, owniiHiriy ctUed 
Soaday." 

After an exhortation to theobaervatioa o( the Lord's day by ex^ 
caes in the duties of piety and true reUsjon.-pubUdy and privat^y, 
Ae. act pcvtidcs as ToUows: No tradesman, artificer, workman* 
hboorer or ocIks oenon itjutdem iemeris) whatsoever shall do at 
cstndse any worldly labour, business or work of their ordinaiy 
offiap opQO the Lxird's day or any part thereof (works of necessity 
sad chanty only excepted); and every person betnK of the age a 
fourteen yean or npwaids offending in the |>remises shall for every 



:h ollenoe forfeit the sum of sa.; 

aball publicly ay, show forth or < 



iebyh 
wouldt 



and no persoik or persons what- 

y avt abow forth or expose to saJo any i^rarea, 

laerchamliaes. fruit, henia, goods or chattels whatsoever upon the 
Lord's day or anv part thereof upon pain that eveiy person so 
dUfndta^ shatll fondt the same goods so cried, or showed forth* or 
exposed to sale (s. i). A barber was hcid in i^oo not to be a trades- 
nan. artlftoer, Ac within the act* and to be free to shave customers 
M Sooday*; Aor is a farmer. No drover, horse-courser, wagoner, 
hatcher. hi0ler or any of their servants, shall travel or come into 
~|ing upon the Lord's day or any part thereof, upon 
and eveiy such offender shall toncit aos. for every 
«rh offence: and no person or persons shall use, employ or tnivd 
spoB the Lord's day with any beat, wherry* lighter or bar]^. except 
a be npon eatmonunary occanon to be allowed by some justice of 
dK pence, Ac., npon pain that every person so offending shall forfeit 
and bae the sum of 5S. for every such offence. In default of distresa 
or wm-paymeot of forfeiture or penalty the offender may be set 
Mbfidy in the stocks for two hours (s. a), a punishment now obsolete. 
Nochiiqp in the act is to prdiibit the dressing of meat in families, 
or the dresaing or sdling of meat in inns, cooks' shops— which in- 
dsde fried hA shops (Batfrn y. Ward, i^s, 74 L.J.K.B. 916)— 
or victnaJSog houses for such as cannot be othorwtse provided, nor 
the crytttK or selling of milk before nine In the morning or after four 
is the aitemooa (a. 3). Proaecutiona must be within ten days 
after the offence (s. 4). The hundred is not responsible for robbery 
si penoais tisvclbn|p upon the Lord's day (a. 5). This act has fre- 
oBcatly leoeived judicial construction. The tue of the word 
ordinary " in aectioa x haa led to the establishment by a series of 
I of the principle that work done out of the course of the 
"* : of the penoo doing it is not within the act. Thus 
. _arae on Suaday by a hone'dealer would not be en- 
r him and ha wotud be liable to the penalty, but these 

1 not foOow in the case of tf sale by^ a person not a horse- 

Certain acts have been held to laH withm the exception as 

ro vodtaa of neoeaBsty and charity, €.g. baking provfsiona for customers 
Cb«t not faaldnff bread in the ordinary course of business}, running 
^leNcoacliss, or hiring farm-labourers. The kf^ture also inter- 
vened to obviate some <rf the inconveniences caused by the act. 
By 10 WaL III. c xa .<i696} maclcerel was allowed to be sold before 
a^ after mtrvkat. By II Will. IIL c ai (1699), forty watermen 
«m« aBowed to ply on the Thamea on Sunday. By 9 Anne, c 2$ 
(1710), iift ■»■««< coachmen or chairmen mic^t be hired on Sunday. 
Bw an act of 1794 (34 Geo. III. c. 61), baloers were allowed to bake 
and adi bread at certain hours. ' Theie acts are all repealed. StiU 
Ia««c the acts of 176a (a Geo. IIL c. 15 s. 7), allowing fish carriages 
Ts cxsvd on Sonday in London and Westminster; 18^7 (8 Geo. IV. 
r. 75), rcpeaKnc SL a of the act of 1677 as far as regards Thames 
bMcnea. The Bread Acts of iSaa (3 Geo. IV. c 106) allow bakers 
m Loodan, and of 1836 (6 & 7 Will. IV. c 37) aUow bakers out of 
~ , to carry on their ttade up to 1.30 p.m. Since 1871, by an 
xMitiaoed (34 & 35 Vict, c 87), no proseeudon or 

penalties under the act of 1677 can be instituted 

t vidi Che consent in wridng of the diief officer of a police dis- 
> tJse consent of twp justices or a stipendia^ magistrate, 
snnt he obtainfd before begmnmg the prosecutM)n, t.<. before 
a;i^yii« lor a snmmoas (Vrnffer, PrieihuU, 1897. i, OB. 159). 

The ace of 1871 does not apply to bicachea of the Bivad.Acta 
(£. T. JTand. 190a. a K.B. 3ia). 

A good znaiiy biOa have been Intzodiiced with respect to Sun- 
day tradxns. Host have been directed to the dosing of pablie- 
houaes on that day; but the Shop Houn Bill introduced in 1907 
coniaiaed clanaes for dosiDg shops on Sundays, with the ezcep- 
*^o. of cotain ipedfied trades. The xesolt of the act of 1871 
d LoDdao has been in substance to make the Lord's Day acts 
a dead fetter as to Sunday trading. The commissiooer of police 
areiy if ever allows a prosecution for Sunday trading. Suaday 
w>T%fft are usual in all the poorer districts, and .shopkeepers 
cci hairicers are allowed freely to ply their trades for the sale 
«f eataUes, tesipcrance drinks and tobacco. But the conditions 

* It k t mi n u s that by an order in oouadl of Hen. VI. to regulate 
1^ aanctnary of St Martin-le^Jrand it was provided that all aruncers 
*— <»^ wioin the said aanctuar)^ (as well barbers as others) keep 
i3*r the Snndays and other great festival days without br^ch or 
laiai'iriiir their craft aa do the ddaens of Loodoa (Gomme, (tosens* 
nsM ^ Zaadsn. 1907. P- 339). 



anottsUy o 
seedinn lor 



of BotBcea for tfaesab of faitcnicants and for refttshmeht bonea 
are strictly enforced with respect to Sunday. In districts 
where the town coimcHs have oontrol of the police, prosecutions 
for Sunday trading are not infrequent; but they seem to be 
instituted rather from objection to the annoyance caused by 
street traders than from letigiona scruples. The Hmitatioii of the 
thne for pmaecutioa to ten days, and the necessity of the previous 
consent oLthe chief consuUe, have a great effect in restricting 
prosecutions. In moit districts there is a distinct disposition 
to lefnin from enforcing the strict letter of the older hiw, and 
to pennit the latitude of what ia described as th« " Contioental 
Stinday," except xa the case of businesies carried on so as to 
interfere with tiie public comfort. In most districts liberality 
in admtnis^mtion has pragiessed ^ori paisu with a change ill 
public opinion as to the uses to whkh Stinday may properly 
beput; it is becoming less of a holy day and more of a holiday. 

These is great activity among- those intcnsted in. different 
theories aa to the proper use of Sundays. On the one side. 
Lord's day observance societies and the organizations concerned 
in the promotion of " temperance " («.«. of abstinence from 
alcoholic drinks) have been extremely anxious to enforce the 
existing kiw against Sunday trading and against the sale of 
intoxicants to persons other than bona fide Uavellers, and to 
obtain legislatbn against the sale of any alcohol on Sundays. 
On the other side, the Sunday League and other Ukeorganiza* 
tions have been active to organise lectures and concerts and 
excursions on Sundays, and' to promote so far as possible every, 
variety of recreation other than attendance at the esDcrcises of 
any religious body. Travelling and boating on Sunday are 
now freely resorted to,- regardless of any restrictions in the old 
acts, and railway companies run their trains at all hours, the 
power to run them being given by their special acts. Tnm- 
can and omnibuses run fredy on Sundays, subject only to 
certain lestrictiona. Hackney carriages « may in London ply 
for'hire on Sundays (1 & 2 WiU. IV.. c 22). 

Besides the general act of 1677, there are various acta dealing 
with special trades; of these the Ucensing Acts and the Factory and 
Workshop Acta are the m<^t important. By the Licensing Acts,' 
187a and i874« premises licensed lor the sale of intoalcating nquovs 
by retail are to be opoa on Sunday only at certain hours, prying 
according* as the premises are situate in the metropolitan district, 
a town or ^opuloos place, or dsewher& The hours may be varied 
to fit in with the hours of religious worship in the district. Alt 
exception is made in favour of a person lodging in the house or a 
bona fide traveller, who may be served with refredunent during 
prohibited hours, unless In a house with a dxday ficeooe. In thd 
case <rf ttx-day licenoes, no sale of liquor may be made except to 
penons lodging ia the house. Attem|>ts have often been made 
to induce the legislature to adopt the principle of complete Sunday 
ckKing in England as a whole, or in particular counties.' In the 
session of 1880 a bill for Sunday doang in Durham was passed by the 
Commons but rriected by the Lords. The advocates of Sunday 
dosing in Wales have been more successful. The Sunday Closing 
(Wales) Act 1881 contains no exo4>tions of towns and the only 
exemption is the sale of intoxicating liquors at railway stations. 
Public biniaid tables may not be used on Suaday (8 & 9 Vict. c. 109) . 
The Factory and Workshop Act (1901) forbids the employment of 
women, young persons or diildren on Sunday in a factory or work- 
shop (s. 34). But a woman or young person of the Jewish rdigioa 
may be employed on Sunday by a Jewish manufacturer if he keeps 
hi^ factory or workshop closed throughout Saturday, and does not 
open it for traflk: on sonday, and doea not avail himadf of the 
excqitioas aathociziiig employment of women or young persons on 
Saturday evening or for an additional hour on other weekdays 
(ss. 47, 48). There are a few other legislative (Movisions of less 
importance which may be noticed. Caxrying on the budness of a 
pawnbroker on Sunday ia aa offence within the Pawnbrokers Act 
187X Distilling and rectifying spirito on Suaday is forlndden by 
the Spiriu Act 1880. The effect of Sunday upon bilb of exchange 
is declared by the Bills of Exchange Act iKa. A bill is not invalid 
by reason eniy of its bearing date on a Sunday (s. 13). Where the 
UMt day of grace falls on a Sonday, the bill is payable on the pre- 
ceding buatncss day (s. 14). Sanoay is a " non-busineas day " for 
the purpoees of the act (s. 9a). 

5'colbiid.^The two eailiest acts which dealt with Sunday 
are somewhat out of hannony with the feneral legidation on 

* The act 1 Tames T. c. 9 (now repealed) appears,' however, to have 
provided lor cioaing ato-hoases in moat cases, except on uAal working 



«UNDAY 



the subject, Thtt of uSTi c 6, ordered the pnctke «( ucliery 
on Sunday; that of 1526, c 3, allowed markets for the sale of 
flesh to be held on Sunday at Edinburgh. Then came a loog 
series of acU forbiddinf the profanation of the day, especially 
by salmon-fishing, holding fairs and markets, and working in 
mills and salt-pans. The act of Z579> c. 70, and x66x, c. x8, 
prohibit handy kUwuring and working, and trading on the Sab- 
bath. Under the act of 1579 the House of Lords in 1837 held 
that it was illegal for barbers to shave their ctutomers on Sun^ 
days, although the deprivation of a shave might prevent decently 
di^xised men from attending religions worship, or associating 
in a becoming manner with their families and friends through 
want of personal douliness. The later legislstion introduced 
an exception in favour of duties of necessity and mercy, in accord- 
ance with ch. szof the Confessioa ol Faith (1690,0. 5). 

In more modem times the exigencies of tiax^ning have led to a 
still further eMenaion of the exception. In theie acts the woid 
Sabbath is generally used as in the G>mnionwealth ordinances. 
The Sabbath Observance Acts were freouently confirmed, the last 
time by the Scots parliament in 1696. The Scottish Episcopalians 
Act 17x1 (10 Anne, c 10) contains a proviso that all the bws made 
for the frequentina of divine service 00 the Locd's day commonly 
called Sunday shall be still in force and esecnted against all poBons 
who shall not resort either to some church or to some consregation or 
assembly of religious worship allowed and permitted 6y this act. 
The Scoto acts wereheld by the High Court of Justiciary in 1870 to 
be still subsisting, as (ar as they declare the vkaepine open shop 
on Sunday to be an offence by the bw of Scotland (Bute's Case, 
1 Couper's Reports, 49$), but all except those of 1579 <^nd 1661 above 
specibed were repealed in 1006. The Ltcenstng Scotland) Act 1903 
provifles by the sqheduledf forms of certificate for the dosing on 
Sunday of public-houses, and plaoes licensed for the sale of excisable 
liquor, and m the case of mns and hotels forbids the tale of intoadcants 
except for the accommodation of lodgers or travellers. There has 
been litigation as to the legality of ninm'ng tram-cars on the Sabbath. 

By the Herring Fishery (Scotland) Act 1813. s. 11, herring nets 
set or hauled on the coast or within two leagues thereof on Sundays 
are forfeited. By the Salmon Fisheries (Scotland) Act 1868. s. 15. 
fishing for salmon on Sunday, even with a rod and line, is an offence, 
as is taldng or attempting to take or assisting in fishine for salmon. 

Aa to contracts and legal process, the law u in general accordance 
with that of England. Contracts are not void^part from statute, 
simply because they are made on Sunday. Diligence cannot be 
executed but a warrant of imprisonment or nudUatic fupu is 
•• enrdsable." 

Irdcnd.^Jn Irehmd an act of 1695 {7 WOl. m. c. 17) coven 
the same gfotmd as the English act of 1677, but the acts referred 
to under England do not apply. An act of X851 (14 8c 15 V. 
c 93, s. xx) provides for the issue and execution of warrants 
for indictabk offences and search-warrants 00 Sundays. But 
proceedings to obtain sureties for the peace taken on Sunday are 
void. The Irish act of 1787 against killmg game on Sunday 
(?7 (ko. m. c 35, s. 4) includes rabbits and quaH, landrail or 
other wild fowL The Sunday dosing of public-houses with 
exemptions as to certahi dtxes and as to raOway sutions, 
packet-boats and canteens, is enforced by legislation of 1878, 
continued annually until 1906 and then made perpetual with 
certain modifications (1906, c. 39, a. z), and in the case of six- 
day licences by acts of X876, X877 and i88a 

In 1899 a race-course used for Sunday radng was dosed by 
injunction as causing a i^uisance to the Stmday peace and quiet 
of the neighbourhood and the services of the adjacent churches. 

Where railway trains are run on Sundays one dieap train 
each way is to be provided (7 & 8 Vict. c. 85, s. xo; repealed 
in 1883 as to Great Britain). 

British CoUmUs. — The English law as to Sunday observance 
was the original law of the colonies acquired by settlement, 
and in many of them so much of it as does not relate to the 
Church of England is left to operate without colonial legislation. 
In other colonies it is supplemented or supecKded by colonial 
acts. Canada has an act (No. 27 of 1906) prohibiting aU buyfaig 
and selling and all exercise by a man of his ordinary vocations 
or business, either by himseli 
day, except in case of works 
Zealand an act of 1884 (c. 24 
hibits the carrying on on Sue 
the exceptions are numerous, 



or chtfity, Indiide driving Kve stodt, sale of medidnes, sale 
or delivery of milk, hairdressing or shaving before 9 a. m., 
driving public or private carriages, keeping livery subles, 
workmg raflways, ships and boaU, and letting boau for hire, 
and work in coimexion with post offices and telegraphs and 
with daUy newspapers. (W. F. C.) 

Pcrdgn Cotmfrtef.— Consequent on the faitroduction of a 
Weekly Rest Day Bill (which obtained a second reading) in 
the English House of Lords in 1908, a parliamentary paper was 
published in 1909 (cd. 4468) containing " Reports from His 
Majesty's Representatives Abroad as to Legislation in Foreign. 
Countries Respecting a Weekly Rest Day." The principal 
points are summarized below: — 

ilitf/r*a.— Legialation is embodied in laws of 1895 and 1905. 
which prohibit any industrial work on Sunday, rest on that day 
beginnmg not later than 6 a.m., and lasting for not less than twenty- 
four hours. Permission is given (or absolutely necessary work, 
provided the empbycr' submits to the authorities a list giving the 
names of the persons empbyed, and Uie place. duratk>n and nature 
of thdr employment. S^unday work is permitted in ceruin indus- 
tries. As to buying and aeUing. Sunday trading is permitted, for 
not more than four hours, kxal authorities bemg the power for 
arranging the time; they may also forbid Sunday trading altogether, 
if they think it necessary. Traders who do not employ workmen 
may not work for themselves unless the doors by which the public 
may enter are closed. On feast-days, empk>yees must, according 
to their respective religious bdiefs, be allowed the necessary time (or 
attendance at morning service. Offences are punishable bv fine; 
a warning, however, is given 00 the first offence, and the fine (4s. 2d. 
for the first offence) rises for each subsequent offence. 

Bdgium. — ^Laws of 1^ and 1907 forbid work on Sunday to per- 
sons engaged in industnaland commercial enterprises, with certain 
exce(>ti<ms, such for example, as industries which exist Only at 
certain periods of the year^ or which have a press of work at certain 
times, or open-air industries which depend on the weather. 

Denmark. — ^The only legislation b a bw of 1904 oonoeming the 
public peace on the National Church hdidays and Constitution Day. 
It fcwbids all kindis of occupations, which, 00 aooount of noise, misbc 
disturb the holiday's peace. In the larse towns carriage traffic lor 
business purposes is also forbidden after 10 a.m. 

France.— A law of the X3th of July 1906 established a weekly day 
of rest, for every workman or employee of not less than twenty- 
four consecutive hours. The weddy day of rest must be Sunday. 
The law applies irrespective of the duration or character of the work 
done, and to employees in all establishments of a oomnyaoal or 
industrial character. There are certain necessary exceptions, such 
as shops for retailing food, occupations in which pteoe, season, the 
habits of the public. &c, make observance impossible, and in sudb 
the weekly day -of rest must be given in roution to the employees 
or a compensating holiday instead. 

Germany. — Regulations as to Sunday rest are contained in the 
Trade Regulations ipewerbeordnuni) of the a6th of July 1900. accord- 
ing to wmch manufacturers cannot compel workmen to work on 
Sundays or holidays, except in certain cases of necessity. Nor in 
trading businesses may asMStants, apprentices or workmen be em- 
ployed at an on Christmas Day, Easter Sunday and Whitsunday, 
or on other Sundays and holidays more than five hours. The regula- 
tions do not apply to hotels, caite. &c., <>r to theatre or other piaoe« 
of amusement, or to means of oommunication. ^ Infringement of tk« 
r^ulations is punishable by a fine, not excnrdrng 600 marka oc by 



.mpnsonmsnt. 

Araa^ofy.— By a Uw of 1891 and others of 190s and 190S al 
industnal work is prohibited on Sundays and St Stephen's Day itru 
patron saint of Hungary). Certain categories 01 industries an 
exempted on account of necessity or the needs of the coosumini 
public; independent small craftsmen who work at home withou 
asustants are also exempted. The bw is enforced by the polto 
authorities and infringement is punished by fine. 

Italy. — ^A weekly rest day has been enacted by a bw of the 71! 
of July 1907. Exceptions to the law are river, bke and m»ritim 
navigation ; agricultural, hunting and fishing induttries ; state rail 
ways and tramways and state public services and' Industrial under 
Ukings. 

Other European countries which have l^isUtion are the Ncthct 
bnds (bw of 1889. as amended by a law of 1906: Spain (law c 
March 1904, Regubtions of April 1905); and Switrerland (1906). 

UniUd States.— In the United States there is no Federal Uw 
the question of a rest day being left entirely to the state Icgv 
Jktttrei, consequently ''there exists considerable diversity < 

le old Quaker la^^ < 
ig of the x8th centui 
stem agricultural an 
however, where it 
who Is forced to woi 



SUNDERLAND, 3RD EARL OF— SUNDERLAND, 2nd EARL OF 99 



« Saoday slnll receive mnother equivalent day of rest." {Re^eH 
4 SM. Ambaaadcr to Ou t/^. xid4 supra). In Massachusetto, 
tUcb Bay be iairiy taken at lepitientmg the Eastern staiei» 
pifaSc aemoe oorporationt, aiidi as railway, atieet xailwny, 
steamboat, tdegnph, telephone, electric lighting, water and gas 
conpanies, are permitted to serve the public in the usual manner. 
Fohlic padss and baths are open. Tobacco nuy be sold by 
kesMd iaabolderB, common victualleis, dniggista and news* 
(kalea. Bake shops may be open during certain hours. AH 
o(kr shops most be dosed. Saloons are dosed, and liquor can 
be served oidy to the guests of licensed innh<4defs. Horses, 
oniages, boats and yachts may be let for hire. AU games and 
eateitaxnmenu, except Hcensed sacred ooncerU, are prohibited, 
b Ctenecticnt Sunday recreation is still prohibited, but electric 
ud steam can are allowed to run.- Sunday is a dose time for 
gnae sod birds (1899). In many of the Western states base-ball, 
ptflKs and vatioas entertsinments for pay are permitted, and 
a some takxms are open, bi many but not all the states such 
persons as by tiidr rdigion are accustomed to observe Saturday 
m ifloved to pursue their ordinary business on Sunday, hk 
Mivare and Illinois barbers may not shave customers on Sun- 
days; snd m Georgia guns and pistols may not be fired (rSoS). 
h North Dakota the fines for Sabbath-breaking have been 

n ised. 

SUIDBtLAlID, CHAS188 SFBHOBR, 310 Eau. ot (e. 1674- 
1722), En^ish statesmsn, was the second son of the snd earl, 
bat 00 the death of ha eider brother Henry in Parts in Septem- 
ber 1688 he became heir to the peerage. Called by John Evdjm 
"a foiith of extraordinary hopes," he completed his education 
ai Utrecht, and in i69S-a>tered the House of Commons as mem- 
ber hr Hverton. b the same year he married Arabella, 
6sghter of Henry Cavendish, and duke of Newcastle; she died 
B 1698 snd in 1700 he married Aime Churclull, daughter of the 
iuBoai duke of Mariborough. This Was an important alliance 
lor Sonderiand and for his descendants; through it he was 
iBtTodcoed to political life snd bter the dukedom of Marl- 
boTDQgh came to the Spencers. Having succeeded to the 
pRizge in 1703, the earl was one of the commisnoners for the 
■BOO between England and Scotland^ aid in 1705 he was sent 
bo Vleona as envoy extraordinary. Although he was tinged 
ind> repnhficxn ideas and had rendered himself obnoxioua to 
(^ea Anne by opposing the grant to her husband. Prince 
Ceuye, through the influence of Marlborou^ he was foisted 
isto the nmiistry as secretary of state for the southern depart- 
DCBt, taking^ office in December 1706. Fkom 1708 to 17x0 lie 
«as Qoe of Uie five whigs, called the Junta, who dominated Uie 
rnrenuaent, but he had many enemies, the queen still dislfted 
bia, and in June 1710 he was dismissed. Aime offered him 
a peasion of £3000 a year, but this he refused, saying " 9 he 
odd not have tlie honour to serve his country he would not 
plnderit." 

Sunderland oontinued to take part in public Sfe, and wtt 
ifthre hi oummum cating wi^ the court of Hanover about 
t!ts sttps to be taken hi view of the approadiing death of 
^ qceen. He made the acquaintance of George I. in 1706, 
t«! when the elector became king the office which he secured 
«is the comparativdy unimportant one of lord-Keutenant of 
bdaad. In August 17x5 he joined the cabinet as lord keeper 
«' the privy seal, and after a visit to George I. in Hanover he 
ktaicd in April x 71 7 the portion of secretary of state for the 
:ar:beni dqnrtment. This he retained until March 17 rS, when 
b became first kn4 of the treasury, holding also the post of 
krd pre^dent of the conndL He was now prime minister, 
^^edeiind was especially hiterestcd in the proposed peerage 
^ a measwe dfwgpcd to limit the number of members of the 
Hbw oI I«c^» ImC tt5» ivas defeated owing partly to the opposi- 
'in rf Itir HJafrK Wilf I ill He was stm at the head of affairs 
' I bubble burst and this led to his political 
Mne part in launching the scheme of 1720, 
1 finandafly by it; however, public opinion 
Bm and it was only through the efforts 
^ Sfr SIHH^BBia ^i be was acquitted by the House of 




Commons, when the matter wis investigated. In April 17a] he 
reafgned his offices, but he retain^ Us Infiuence with George L 
until his death on the xgtb of April 17SS. 

SuadeHand ioherited hia father's paaaion for intrigue, while hia 
naahen were lepeUing, but he standa high among his aasodatea 
for diainteiestedneaa and had an alert and diaoerning mind. From 
hia eariy yeara he had a great love of books, and he sjpent his leisure 
and hia wealth in forming the fibrary at Althorp, which in 1703 was 
described as " the fineat in Europe." In 1749 part of it was fejmyvea 
to Blenheini* 

The eari's aecond wife having died in April 1716. after a career 
of cooaiderable influence on the political life of her tune, in 1717 be 
married an Irish lady of fortune, Judith Tichbome (d. 1749). By 
Lady Anne Chuidiilf he had three tons and two daugfatera. Robert 
(1701-^x730), the eldest aon, aageeeded as 4tfa eail, and Charies 
(<706*t7S8), the aecond smu became the 5th earL In 1733 Charles 
inherited the dukedom of. Marlborough and he then tranaerred the 
Sunderiand estates to hia brother John, father of the tat Eari Spencer 
(aee MARLaoiouoH, Eabls and Dukbs op). 

For the career of Sunderlaad see W. CoBce^ Jtfamdra 0/ Jfoi " 



(1847-^849); Earl Stanhope. Hittofy ef SngjUuid (1853), and 1. 9w 
Leadam, Politkai History tifEutfani, 1709-1760 (1909). 

SmfllBRlASD^ R09BR1L8PBHGBB, smd Eau. or (1641^1703), 
En^ish politician, was the oidy son nf Henry Spencer (i6a»< 
1643), who succeeded his father, William, as 3rd Baron Spencer 
of Wormleii^n in 1636. This baioiqr had been bestowed in 
1603 upon Sir Robert Spencer (d. 1627), the only aon.of Sir John 
Spencer (d. x6oo) of Althorp, Northamptonshire, who claimed 
descent from the baronial family of Deqsenser. The fortttnes 
of the family were founded by Sir John Spencer (d. issa) of 
Snitterfieid, Warwickshire, a wealthy iprasicr. Hia descendant, 
Sir Robert Spencer, the xst baron, wfts in 1603, "^reputed to 
^ve by him the most mon^ of any person in the kingdouL" 
Sir Robert's grandson, Henry, the 3xd baron, was created earl 
of Sunderland hi June 1643, uid was killed at the battle of 
Newbory when fighting for the king ft littk later in the same year. 
He married Dorothy (16x7-1684), daughter el Robert Sidney, 
snd eari of Ldoestcr. She was the Saefufissa of the poems 
of her admirer, Edmund Waller, and for her second husband 
she msrried Sir Robert Sniythe. Theur son Robert, the and earl, 
was educated abroad and at Christ Church, Oxford, and in 
i66s married Aime (d. 17x5), daui^ter of John Digby, 3rd earl 
of Bristol; she was both a beauty and an heiress, and la also 
famous for her knowledge and love of intrigue. Having passed 
some time in the Court drde, Sunderiand was socoessivdy 
ambassador at Madrid, at Paris and at Cologne; in 1678 he was 
again ambiiaador at Parift, In Pcbruaiy 1679, when the ooontry 
was agitated by real or f anded dangers to the Protestant religion, 
the cad entered political life as secretary of state for the northern 
department and became at onoe a member of the amall cKque 
responsible for the government of the country. He voted for 
the exdusion of James, duke of York, from the throne, and 
made overtures to William, prince of Orange, and consequently 
in x68x he lost both his secretaryship and his scat on the privy 
council. Early in 1683, however, through the influence of the 
king's mistress, the duchess of Portsmouth, Sunderiand regained 
his place as secretary for the northern department, the chief 
feature of his term of office being his rivalry with his brother- 
in-law, George Savile, marquess of Halifax. By this time he 
had made his peace with the duke of York, and when in February 
1685 James'became king, he retained his position of secretary, 
to which was soon added that of lord president of the council. 
He carried out the wishes of the new soverdgn and after the 
intrigues of a iew months he had the satisfaction of securing 
the dismissal of Lawrence Hyde, earl of Rochester, from his 
post as lord treasurer. He was a member of the commission 
for ecdeaiastical causes, and although afterwards he claimed that 
he had used all his influence to dissuade James from removing 
the tests, and in other ways illegally favouring the Roman 
Catholics, he signed the warrant for the committal of the seven 
bishops, and appeared as a witness against them. It should be 
mentioned that while Sunderland was thus serving James II., 
he was receiving a pension from France, and through his wife's 
lover, Henry Sidney, afterwards earl of Romney, he was furnish- 
ing WlUam of Oimnge with particnlan about affairs in KngJMid. 



100 



SUNDERLAND 



Ifl tke last months o£ Jamet's reign be wu obviously unooBfoct* 
abb. Although he had in 1687 openly embraced the Roman 
Catholic faith, he hesitated to commit himsdf entirely to the 
tcU o( the fierce devotees who sunDunded the king, whom he 
advised to reverse the arbitrary acts of the last year or two, and 
in October 1688 he was dismissed by James with the remark 
'* I hope you wiU be more faithful to your next master than you 
have been to me." , ^ „ . 

Sunderland now took refuge in Holland, and from Utrecht 
he soo^t to justify his recent actions in A letter to a friend wi the 
country. He had been too deeply involved in the arbitrary 
acts of James II. to find a place at once among the advisers of 
William and Maty, and he was excepted from the act olindemnity 
of x6go. However, in 1691, he was permitted to return to Eng- 
land, and he declared himself a Protestant and began to attend 
the sittings of parliament. But his experience was invaluable 
and soon he became prominent in public affairs, a visit which 
William IIL paid him at Althoip, his Northamptonshire seat, 
in 1691, being the prelude to histecall into the royal counsels. 
It was his advice which led the king to diooee aU his mimaters 
from one political party, to adopt the modem system, and he 
managed to effect a lecondKation between William and his 
Bstcr-in-law, the princess Anne. From April to December 1697 
he discharged the duties of ferd chamberlain, and for part of 
this time he was one of the lords jusUoes, but the general suspicion 
with which he was rcprded terrified him, and in December he 
resigned. The rest ol his life was passed in seclusion at Althorp, 
where he died on the aSth of September 170J. The earl was a 
great gambler, but he was wealthy enough also to apejd money 
on improving his house at Althorp, which he beautified both 
within and without. His only surviving son was Chaxlea Spcaoer, 

5id call of Sunderland (9^.). 

Lord Sunderland poasessed a keen intellect and was amsumcd 

by intense lestkssnos; but hischaracter was wanting in stead- 
fsstnes, and he yieWed too easfly to opposition. HIsadioitn«8 
in intrigue andhis fsyinating manners were exceptional even to 
mtH^wktn nuA quaUties formed part of every statesman s 
edu^don; but the characteristica which ensured hun success 
S^hTSise of Lo«ls and in the Ko«l doset led to f aduie m 
ysattcMts to understand the fedings of the massofhiscountry- 
-^raSrtency of condBct was m>t among the objects which 
he aiiiwl at, aor did he shrink fitwi thwartingTxf seoet a pohcy 

wLh he «|iport«J i* I~Wi<^ A large A« of theAsaedit 
ttSbg toSTmeasures oljames n. most be assigned to the 

"^be* arcane <^ S^^^'*^ j"^^^^, '^' ^***«*' ^ 
Ifce I>«iL JTit .»«»• whkh give, a f ufl bihliogfaphy. 

SUmBLUnH a seaport and municipal, county and parlU- 
J^^^ o£ DiAam. En^and, at the mouUi of ^e 
^^'t^^iht North-Eastem tailway, 261 m- N. by W. 
k^i^^lJ^Ycp. (189O, 131.686: (1901) u6/>77. The 
h^-^b^^ thTtownship of Bishopwcannouth.lo the souUi 
uL-^l^Tp^^X^^ ^ on.the south b^ olthe 
?.- aza tjj^ rfMonkweannduth, on the north bank. 
/l' iJn^ tt^iwtaxiDouth on the north-west is the exten- 
t:r^ iL^^izi^ of Southwick, within the P^J^-^lw 
t" IX A z?«it cast-iron bridge crosses the nvcr with a 
^ .ie'^V;^ ft, a«3 a hdght of 100 ft. above low water 
t ilv^ r-u^i by Ronlind Burdon, opened m 1796. ^^ 
V^i^^^^^^:^ of Robert Stepteison in 1858 
--.f ' - - -2 of a-ViT-^rian iiitcrest b the church of St 
?' ./ y^l^^^I^jr^Jh, in whkh part of the tower and other 
l-^^'i^J^T^lit S«oo bdldiBg attached to the 
i-li«^, C.^^: by Bo^ct Bisect, in 674- Tl»e churA of 
^■' ' iLk' i.^-::^-r4r»:-ih, is oa an andent site, but is a 
I'.'"-- -z A lie :-/.]5 ccriv-ry. Tb«ie b a large park at 
i V"^'^' ti* =crJ:^ct3t a ibc towm a favourite seaside 
rir-" J^ ;=..--« c-brr p^ro that at Bisfcopwearmooth 



bourkood. the exicteoce of which gave rise to an export tiade in the 
reign of Henry Vll., which has erown to great importance Manu- 
r.^.i^tnA ;n«iiie«YMa inMiirff^ fthinhiiiMiitff. iron and stcd workA 



worka ana paper nuus. ljidcsuiik: u wgay wwi«w. . «. a —. 
above iu mouth the Wear resembles on a reduced scale the Tyne 
in its lower course. The harbour is constantly undergoing um)ro\'e- 
ment The docks cover an area of upwards of 200 acres, and there 
are several graving docks no to 44( ft. in length. The pwiamentary 
boiough returns two membera. The muwcipal borough is undera 
mayor, 16 aldermen and 4a councillors, and has an area ol 3357 
acres. 






Yit:zsy Havdock, who was boni 
-rbcod. 



The history of Sunderland is complicated by the name Wear- 
mouth {WiramuA, Wermuih) being applied impartially to the 
Monk's town on the north bank of the Wear; the Bishop's 
town on the south and the neighbouring port now known as 
Sunderiand. In both Monk's and Bishop's Weannouth the 
settlement was connected with the church. Benedict Biscop 
in 674 obtained from Ecgfrith king of Northumbria seventy 
hides of Und on the north bank of the river, on which he founded 
the Benedictine monastery of St Peter. Not more than a year 
after the foundation Benedia brought over skilled masons and 
glass-workers from Gaul who wrou^t his church in the Roman 
fashion, the work being so speedily done that Mass was celebrated 
there within the year. A subsequent visit to Rome resulted 
in a letter from Pope Agatho exempting his monastery from all 
external control. lAter Benedict acquired three hides on the 
south side ol the river. The abbey, where Bede was educated, 
was destroyed by the Danes and probably not rebuflt until 
Bishop Walcher (1071-1081) settled Aldwin and his companions 
there. They found the walls in rums from the ne^ect ol 208 
years, but the diurch was soon rebuilt. Bishop William of 
St Carileph (1081-1099), desiring to acquire the possessions of 
the house for his new foundation of Durham, transferred the 
monks there, Weannouth becoming henceforward a ceQ of the 
larger house. Meanwhile Bishop's Wearmouth was becoming 
important, having been panted to the bishops by iEthelstao 
in 930. As a posKssicn of the see it is mmtion rd in Boldon 
Book in conjunction with Tunstafl as an ordinary rural viK 
rendering one milch oow to the bishop, while the demesne 
and iu mill tendered iao, the fisheries £6 and the borough of 
Wearmouth 20s. There seems no doubt but that the borough, 
identical with that to which Bishop Robert de I^nset granted 
his charter, was in reality Sunderland, the name Wearmouth 
bemg used to cover Bishop's and Monk's Weannoath and th« 
modem Sunderland. It was from Weamouih tJhat Edgai 
iEtheling set saQ lor Scotland, the account implying that this 
was a frequented port. Ittii97 the town of Wearmouth rendered 
37s. 4d. tallage during the vacancy of the see, and in 1306-130; 
the assessment of a tenth for Bishop*s Wearmouth was £5, 5Sw 4d., 
whae that of Monk's Wearmouth waa£x, 6s. 8d. Probably ih4 
northern town remained entirely a g rimltur a l , while the shipping 
trade ol Bishop's Wearmouth was steadily increasing. In ijS^ 
what was piob^ a dock there Rfldeaed as, and in 1385 tb 
issues of the town were worth iAi»9^ sd-annnally. In 1431 
the rent of assise from the demesne lands oC Monk's WearmouU 
was£5,ia.od. A further contrast is shown by the number a 
houseling persons, or those who received ibe sacrament, retuniej 
in 1548: Bishop's Wearmouth had 700 ««1 Monk's Wearmout] 
300. From this time, at least. Bishop^ Weannouth seems ti 
have been completely identified with Sondedand: in is^ 
Wearmouth was one ol the three ports m Durham where pri 
cantiow were to be taken against pintes, while no menUon ] 
node of Sunderland. Monk's WcazmoeCh roMined purd, 
agricultural until 1775, **« * Aipb^adfag yarf was estafc 
Sed and prospered to sack an estcwft that by X795 ^V 

similar yards were at work. » . d 

The Boldon Book states that S^drfsnd was al £annmug 

JtSStTiiSiDingsa-ithrt— ciS-d^ 

58 shillings taBage in 1197 *«!■« *^ J"^? !c^.^J 
HgTrhS^tovin hcW the l«^ 
te rent, courts «*d tolk^ w«ty^^«;^^^^ 
.^ sedevacnnje. gm-eda ^'igjtft ~t o^ 




SUNDEW 



lOI 



■kb dmpped to £4 u> 1590. Bfahap Moiton JnoMponud 
Sand ffbn d ia i634t stating that it had been a borough from 
lime iaimrmoiial under the name of the New Borough of Wear- 
■ottih. This charter lapsed during the Civil Wars, when the 
bonxigb vas sold with the manor of Houghton-le-Spiing for 
l^Sh 9&- 6d. Nevertheless the inhabitants retained fhdr 
tiifau. SonderlaiKi became a (MLrliamentary borough returning 
two members in 1834. The charter of 1634 granted a market 
aad ajuuud fair which are still held. The dharter of Bishop 
Hagb provided for pleas between burgesses and foreign mer- 
(kois, and directed that merchandise brought by sea should 
be luded before sale, except in the case of salt and herrings. 
Bishop HatSeld gave a lease of the fisheries in 1358. In the 
19^ ceolury commissions were held touching aalmon<fisheriet 
aad oUiractions in the Wear, while Bishop Barnes (x 577-1587) 
appoioicd a water-bailiff for the port, and licensed the building 
di wharves for the sale of coal. During the 17th century 
SttBdrrUnd was the seat of a vice-admiralty court for the county 
fihtiat and in 1669 letters patent permitted the erection of a 
pa aad Uglitliouse as the harbour was " very oommodiously 
ttBite for the shipping of vast quantities of sea-coles plentifully 
ftlcD lod wrought there." 

See WHfiam Hutchinson, History and AnHomties ef the County 
faktmcfDurkmm (Newcastle, 178S~I794): J- W. Summeri, History 
udAMuraties iff Snuderlamd (Sunderland, 1858); Victoria County 

nnnffW* in botany, the popular name for a genus of plants 
kaovsasDroMTACGr. 5p6a»;,dew; Fr. r^ua/u, (}er. SonnaUkau) 
KcaOed fiom the drops of v^dd transparent glittering secretion 
boott by the tentacles which cover the leaf-surface. It is a 
osanpditan grans of slender glandular herbs, with leaves 
maaged ia a basal rosette or alternately on an elongated step, 
ad iiicpresented in Britain by three spcdes, which are found 
iaipQBg^bo0i and heaths. 

The conraon sundew (D. rohmdifoUa) has extremely small roots, 
ad bean 6ve or aix radical leaves horizoouny extended in a rosette 
wwad the fiower-stalk. The upper auciace of each leaf is 
ntmd vith gland-bearing filaments or " tentacles," of which 
tWn are on an averaee about two hundred. Each gland is 
anottfl de d fay a large dew-like drop of the viscid secretion. A 
— " "^ ' r baiidle (6, fig. 3, B), consisting mainly of m»ral 



Fta I. — ^Lcsf of Sundew (prosera rotundifUia). 



. rum vp throagh the stalk of the tentacle and Is surrounded 
y a layer of tWyated parenchyma odls outside of which is the 

^'^ " fitted with a homogeneous fluid tinted purple by a 

r <€ cidomphyll (eryhrophyll). The epidermis bears small 

*"" ""^^ ei^ The glandular head of the tentacle 

_ _ ,._ I of sphally tWckencd crJIs (trachetds) in 

jtaCMMMilCwflhthe opper end of the fibrovascniar bundle. 
IffSSBSttBiSf^^ ^*^ colguikas thin walled <eUs which 



diorter time, over inorganic bodies. Alter Danria. 

The benduig of the tentacle takes r,^ . t „f c e j 
place near itf base, and may be Jj^:/''!^^'''!^'^' 
Srited (I) by repeated toi^hes, ^' ^^hL J^SjS'^ 
although not by g!irts of wind or ?" |1~ J**t^^Sl/*^ 
drops of tain, thus saving the plant fuj^zj^ ™*^ P**^ ^ 
from much oselesa movement; (2) by 

contact with any solid, even though insoluble and of far greater 
minuteness than could be appreciated by our sense of touch— 
a mond of human hair weighing only ^)«, of a grain, and this 



(After Dodd-Poct.) 

Fic. 3.— <;iands of Sundew „ 
A, External aspect with drop of secretion 



I, Internal structure. 



largely supported too by the viscid secretion, sufficing to induce 
movement: (3)by the absorption of a trace of certain fluids, mostly 
nitrogenous. During the inflexion of the tentacle, and even before 
it touches the stimulating object, the secretion of the gland increases 
in quantity, and, instead of remaining neutral, becomes acid. The 
secretion contains a digestive enzyme which renders soluble the 
nitrogenous substances of the insect's body: 
these are then absorbed through thin-walled 
cella at the base of the gland. After absorp> 
tion the tentacles recurve and the Inf 
assumes its normal appearance. 

Closely allied to Drosera is DrosopkyUum 
lusitanicum, which catches such vast numbers 
of flies in a state of nature that the Portuguese 
cottasers call it the fly-catcher, and hang up 
branches of it in their houses for this purpose. 
Its long narrow leaves are thkkly covered 
with stalked glands, which resemble in the 
main the tentacles of Drosera, save in that 
they are incapable of movement, and that 
the secretion is less viscid and freely leaves _ n ^ ^ 

the gland to wet the insect, which, creeping , ''l^' J-'~\^, " 
onward, soon clogs its wings and dies. There Lea/ ol DrosopkyUum 
are, moreover, many minute colourless sessile tusttanuum. 
glands, whkh, when stimulated by the absorption of nitrogenous 
matter, excrete an acid digestive secretion similar to that of the 
sundew, by means of winch tha body of the captured insect is 




I02 



SUNDSVALL— SUNFLOWER 



tUNDSVALL. a seaport of Sweden in the district {tan) of 
Vestemorrland, on a wide bay of the Baltic, at the north of 
the Selinger River, 360 m. N. by W. of Stockholm, the terminus 
of a branch from Ange on the northern railway. Pop. (1900), 
14,831. It was rebuilt in brick and stone after a destructive 
fire in x888. In the town and its vicinity are numerous steam 
saw-mills, besides wood-pulp factories, steelworks, brickworks, 
engineering shops, breweries and joineries, but Sundsvall owes 
its chief importance to its export trade in timber (6 to 7 million 
cub. ft. annually), the bulk of which goes to Germany, France 
and Great Britain.^ It also exports wood-pulp, iron and fish. 
There is a special t'rade with Finland. The harbour, which is 
usually dosed by ice from about, the middle of December to 
the second week in iSlay, is sheltered against the east winds by 
a group of islands. 

8UKFISH, a ^ame chiefly and properly applied to a marine 
fish {Orthagoriscus) of the order Plectognathi, which by its large 
size, grotesque appearance and numerous peculiarities of organi- 
zation has attracted the attention equally of fishermen as of 
naturalists. Only two species are known, the rough or short 
sunfish (0. fiio/a), which is found in all seas of the temperate 
and tropical zones; and the smaller and scarcer smooth or oblong 
sunfish (0. ^iMco/Mj), of which only a small number of specimens 
have been obtained from the Atlantic and Indian oceans. 

Sunfishes have the appearance of tailless fish. This is due 
to the extreme shortening of the caudal region which is sup- 
ported by only a few short vertebrae; the caudal fin is absent, 
what appears to be a tail being formed by the confluence of 
dorsal and ventral fins: pelvic fins are aj^ wanting. The anterior 
parts of the dorsal and ventral fins are high* and broad, similar 
to each other in size and triangiilar in form. The head is com- 
pletely merged in the trunk, the boundary between them being 
indicated only by a very small and narrow giU-opening and a 
comparatively small pectoral fin. This fin can be of but little 
use in locomotion, and the horizontal and vertical movements 
of the fish, as well as the maintenance of its body in a vertical 
position, are evidently executed by the powerful dorsal and anal 
fins. The small mouth, situated in front of the head, is armed 
with an undivided dental plate above and below, similar to but 
weaker than the teeth of the gbbe-fish (Diodon). 

Sunfishes are truly pelagic, propagating their species in the 



open sea, and only occasionally approach tBe cosft^ Diliing 
the stormy season tt " • •• - *.»-..-.:- 

bright weather the] 
their dorsal fin high 



to the popular name " sunfish," a term also sometimes iipplied 
to the basking-shark. In some years the rough sunfish is 
by no means scarce on the south coast of England and on the 
Irish coasts, where it appears principally in the summer months. 
The usual size is from 3 to 4 ft. in length, but this species 
attains to 7 ft. and more. One of the largest specimens (shown 
in the figure) was cai^t near Portland (Dorsetshire) in 1846, 
and is now in the British Museum; its length is 7 ft. 6 in. The 
sunfish has no economic value, and is rarely, if ever, eaten. 

Whibt the rough sunfish has a granulated, rough, shagreen- 
like skin, the second q>ecies (0. Iruncalus) has the surface of 
the body smooth and polished, with its small dermal scutes 
arranged in a tesselated fa^ion. It is oblong in shape, the 
body being much kxnger than it is deep. The sides toe finely 
ornamented with transverse silvery, black-edged stripes running 
downwards to the lower part of the abdomen. It has not 
been found to exceed 2 ft. in length. Only a few specimens have 
been captured on the coasts of Europe, at the Cape of C^ood 
Hope and off Mauritius. 

SUNFIX)WER. The oommon sunflower, known botanically 
as Hdiantkus annuusy a member of the natural order Compositac, 
is a native of the western United States. It is an annual herb 
with a rough hairy stem 3 to xa ft. high, broad coarsely toothed 
rough leaves 3 to 12 in. long, and heads of flowers 3 to 6 in. wide 
in wild specimens and often a foot or more in cultivated. Double 
forms are in cultivation, one (ghbosus jistulosus) having very 
large globular heads. The plant is valuable from an economic as 
well as from an ornamental point of view. The leaves are used 
as fodder, the flowers yield a yeUow dye, and the seeds contain 
oil and are. used for food. It is cultivated in Russia and other 
parts of Europe, in Egypt and India and in several parts of 
E^^land hundreds of plants are grown on sewage farms for the 
seeds. The yellow sweet oil obtained by compression from the 
seeds is considered equal to olive or ahnond oil for table use. 
Sunflower oilcake is used for stock and poultry feeding, and 
largely exported by Russia to Denmark, Sweden and elsewhere. 
The genus Hdiantkus contains about fifty species, chiefly nati\*es 
of North America, a few being found in Peru and Chile. They 
are tall, hardy annual or perennial herbs, several of which arc 
well known in gardens where they are of easy cultivation in 
moderately good soil. H, decapetalus is a perennial about s ft, 
high with solitary heads about 2 in. across in slender twiggy 
branchlets; H. multijlorus is a beautiful spedes with several 
handsome double varieties; H. orygalis is a graceful perennial 
6 to 10 ft. high, with droopmg willow-like leaves and numcroxis 
comparativdy small yellow flower-heads. H. atrorubens, bettei 
known as Harpalium rigtdum, is a smaller plant, 2 to 3 ft. high, 
the flower heads of which have a dark red or purple disk and 
yellow rays. There are many fine forms of this now, some oi 
which grow 6 to 9 ft. high and have much larger and finer flowen 
than the type. Other fine spedes are H. giganleus, xo to 12 ft. 
H, laetijlorus, 6 to 8 ft., and H, tnoUiSt 3 to 5 ft. H. tubfrossn 
is the Jerusalem artichoke. 

Since the word " stmflower," or something corresponding t< 
it, existed in English literature before the mtroduction o 
Hdiantkus annuus, or, at apy rate, before its general diffusioi 
in English gardens, it is obvious that some other flower mus 
have been intended. The marigold {Calendula officinalis) i 
considered by Dr Prior to have been the plant intended bj 
Ovid {Met. iv. 26^270) — 

"... nia Buum, quamvis radice tenetur, 
Vertitur ad solem; mutataque servat amorem "— 

and likewise the solsaece of the Anglo-Saxon, a word equivalcn 

to sdsequium (sun-following). But this movement with th 

sun is more imaginary than real, the better explanation for th 

application of the name to a flower being afforded by the re 

semblance to "the radiant beams of the sun," as Oerari 

expresses it. The rock-rose (Hdiantkemum vulgare) was aJs 

termed sunflower in some of the herbals from its flowei 

he sunshine. AciineUa grandijlara, a pr^it 

in. high, from the Colorado mountains, j 

sy sunflower. 



SUNIUM— SUNNITES 



103 



iOnini (Zgtwar; mod. Cftpe C6lonna), » cape at the 
•ootbern extrexnity of Attica, with a temple of IVsddon upon 
It, which serves as a landmark for all ships approaching Athens 
froB the cast. 1^ rocky promontory *oi» which the teiiq>le 
tfiads was fortified fay a wall with towers, hi 413 b.c, as a 
protection against the Spartans in Decelea^ but it was soon after 
seiccd by a body of fugitive slaves from the Lauriiun mines. 
In the 4th oeniuiy it was still kept up as a fortress. The temple 
■as ahawB by an inscription found in 1898 to be dedicated to 
^nddoB, not, as formerly supposed, to Athena, the remains 
«f whose temple are to be seen about a quarter of a mile away 
to the north-east; they are of a peculiar plan, consisting of a haU 
with a coloiinade oa two aides only. The extant temple on the 
prcimoatovy was probably buOt in the time of Perides. It took 
the place of an earlier one, of similar proportions but built of 
tda or ** poros " stone. There are still standing nine columns 
cf the sovtb side and two of the north of the peristyle, and ene 
of the ami<t€ and an inner cohmm of the pronaos. They are 
boOt of local white marble, which has suffered much from the 
weathet'. In form they resemble those of the Parthenon and 
TheseuBi, bat they have only sixteen flutings. Recent excava- 
tioas have revealed porticoes, a gateway and other buildings, 
and also the remains of several colossal early statues, the best 
pieservcd of which is now in the museum at Athens. The site 
of Cape Cbkmna is extolled by Byron, and is the scene of 
FaJmo^ - Shipwreck." (E. Gk.) 

SOm, or ImfiA Hexp {CroHolaria juncea), a plant which is 
a native of India and Ceylon. It frequently receives other 
aunes, c^. false hemp, brown hemp, Bombay berop, Jubbulpore 
heaip, Sana, ftc The plant b an annual, requires a light soil, 
xcd is easily cultivated. The ground is ploughed two or three 
times, and from 80 to xoo lb of seed are sown broadcast. The 
Kcdiings qnickly appear above the surface, but it is about four 
■KNiths before the plant begins to flower. Sometimes the seed 
is sown in October for the winter crop, and sometimes in May 
cr June for the summer crop. When the seeds are sown in 
Hay, the bri^t yellow flowers appear fai August, when the plant 
cay be gathered. It is not unusual, however, to defer this 
cpnatJoii until the seed is ripe, especially if a fibre of great 
ttrength is desired. The stems may be puUed up, as is the case 
with 5aZy or they may be cut down. Different opinions exist 
as to whether the stems should be steeped immediately after 
they are pulled, or left to dry and then steeped: in the wet dis- 
tricts they are taken direct to the water. Since the root ends 
are much thicker and coarser than the tops, it is common to 
pjrcc the bundles erect, and to immerse the root ends in about 
a foot of water. Afterwards the bundles are totally immersed 
iL the pon^, and in two to four days the fibre should be ready 
lur stripping. There is the same danger of over-retting and under- 
Rtting as in other fibres, but when the retting is complete, the 
workmen enter the poods, take iip a handful of stems, and swish 
them upon the surface of the water until the fibre becomes loose. 
AJter the fibre has been peeled off it is hung over poles to dry. 
M'hen intended for ck>th it is combed in order to remove any 
iorciga matter, but if it is intended to be used for rope or similar 
p&rposes, the fibres are simply separated and the woody matter 
csmbed out with the fingers. The fibre is of a h'ght grey colour, 
and has an average length of 3 to 4 ft. It is extensively used 
lor rope and cordage and also for paper-making in its native 
co^try, but it has made little, if any, progress in talis country. 
Acconiing to Warden, the fih» was tried in Dundee in the 
beginning of the 19th century. About 1820 the price of India 
hemp bagging, as quoted in the Dundee Advertiser, was i|d.' 
per yard below bemp bagging, and |d. a yard below tow warp 
h«ing. 

It k soted in Sir G. Watc*s Diettcmry eUhe B<oHomk Products, 
tf Indim that a cord 8 in. in siac of best Fetenri>uiir hemp broke 
«nh 14 tons, 8cwt. x qr., while a Mmilar rope of «unn only gave way 
•kh 1% toQS, 7 cwt. I k^. Roxburgh's experiments with ropes made 
ina tats and other fibres appear oo p. 607 of the above work. The 
Mm wBf* toted la the fnish state, and also after having been im- 
fiw no days. His results, reproduced in the 



Mim»«ltkirtaata^ 


' JUi;i«iWi^awMik«di«ttiih.l>«k.. 1 


Wkaifmk. 


Alter no d^mMMn. 


WUte. 


Tuned. 


Ttiwd. 


White. [Tiiii>«l|Ttet^ 


English hemp, a piece of 
new tiller-rope . . 


I«« 


- 


- 


Rotten, aa was also 
the EngUsh log-line. 


Hemp from the East 

nearCafcutU. . . 


1" 


Ij9 


45 


All rotten. 


Sunn hemp of the Be» 
gafc« 


J 68 


69 


60 !lottec 


5« 


65 


lute CBHi«hi.pit) . . 


68 


-iSL 


61 


40 


-iSL 


60 



It would appear that, after maceration, neither ordinary hemp nor 
una hemp can compare with jute for strength. 



literally, <* tfaoee of the path," nmnat U. followeis 
of the Prophet's directknis, the name of one of the two main 
divisions of Uam, the other being' the SbTites (9.9.). The 
Smmltes, who accept the orthodox tradition {Simna) as well 
as the Koraifc as a source of theologico^juristic doctrines, pre- 
domiiuite hi Arabia, the Turkish Empire, the north of Africa, 
Turkestan, Afghanistan and the Mahommedan parts of India 
and the east of Asia; the Shf rtes have their main seat in Pershi, 
where their confession Is the state religion, but are also scattered 
over the whole sphere of Islam, especiatty in India and the regions 
boftlering on Persia, except ainong the nomad Tatars, who ate 
all nominally Sunnite. Even in Turkey there are many nati^ 
Shfites, generally men of the upper classes, and often men in 
high ofiice (see generally Mabommeoan Reugion). 

Orthodox Idam preserves unchanged the fmm of doctrine 
established in the loth century by Aba *1-Qasan al-Ash*aif 
(see ABH*Aitl). The attacks of rationalism, aided by Greek 
philosophy, were repelled and vanquished by the weapons of 
scholastic dialectic borrowed fnmi the enemy; on most points 
of dispute discussion was forbidden altogether, and faith ia 
what is written in Koma and tradition was enjoined without 
questmn as to how these thhigs were true {bUd kaifa). Freer 
allegorical views, however, were admitted on some spedaNy 
perplexing pdnts, such as the doctrine of the eternity of the 
Koran, the crude anthropomorphisms of the sacred text, &c.; 
and, since Mo*tazilite (Mu*taziltte) views had never taken deep 
root among the masses, while the caliphs required the help of 
the clergy, and from the time of Mouwakkil (a.d. 847) became 
ever more closely bound to orthodox views, the freethinking 
tendency was thoroughly put down, and to the present day 
no rationaUzing movement has failed to be crushed in the bud. 
Phflosophy still means no more than scholastic dialectic, and 
is the humble servant of orthodoxy, no man veniuring on deviou$ 
paths except in secret. In the years 1872-1878 the Afghan 
Jamil ud-Din, a professor in the Azhar mosque at Cairo, at* 
tempted to read Avicenna with his scholars, and to exercise 
them in things that went beyond theology, bringing, for example, 
a globe into the mosque to explain the form of the earth. But 
the other professors rose in arms, forbade him to enter the 
mosque, and in 1879 procured his exile on the pretext that be 
entertained democratic and revolutionary ideas. Thus the 
Later movements of thought in Islam never touch on the great 
questions that exercised Mahommedanism in its first centuries* 
e.g. the being and attributes of God, the freedom of the will, 
sin, heaven and hell, &c. ReUgious earnestness, ceasing to 
touch the higher problems of q>eculative thought, has exproscd 
itself in later times exclusively in protest against the extrava- 
gances of the dervishes, of the worship of saints, and so forth, 
and has thus given rise to movements analogous to Puritanism. 

That even in early times the masses were never shaken in 
their attachment to the traditional faith, with all its crude and 
grotesque conceptions, is due to the zeal of the trr tmj. 
ulcma (clergy). Mahommedanism has no priest- 
hood standing between God and the congregation, but Koran 
and Sunna are full of minute rules (or the detalb 6f private 



104 



SUNNITES 



and dvil U(e, the Vnowledge of which is necessarily in the hands 
of a dass of professed theologians. These are the 'vlemA {q.vX 
"knowers," theology being briefly named "the knowledge" 
Ctfm). Their influence is cnonnous and hardly has a parallel 
in the history of religions. For it is not supported by temporal 
agencies like the spiritual authority of the Christian priesthood 
in the middle ages, but is a pure power of knowledge over the 
ignorant masses, who do nothing without consulting their 
spiritual advisers. When the vigorous Spanish sultan Man$Qr 
b. Abl 'Amir proposed to conflscate a religious foundation and 
the assembled ulemi refused to approve the act, and were 
threatened by his vixier, one of them replied, " All the evil 
you say of us applies to yourself; you seek unjust gains and 
support your injustice by threats; you take bribes and practise 
ungodliness in the world. But we are guides on the path of 
righteousness, lights in th» darkness, and bulwarks of Islam; 
we decide what is just or unjust and declare the right; through 
us the preoepU of religion are maintained. We kftow that the 
auUan will soon think better of the matter; but, if he persists, 
every act of his government will be null, for every treaty of 
peace and war, every act of sale and purchase, is valid only 
through our testimony." With this answer they left the 
assemb^, and the sultan's apology overtook them before they 
had pascd the palace gate.' The same consciousness of inde- 
p«aHient authority and strength still survives among the ulemft. 
ThiB the sheikh ul-IsUm 'AbbAsI (who was deposed by the 
piofcsaoii of the Aahar in iSSa) had in the first period of his 
presidency a sharp conflict with 'Abbis Fasha, viceroy of Egypt, 
who asked of him an uiuust kgai opinion in matters of inherit- 
«nce. When bribes and threau failed, the sheikh was thrown 
into chains and treated with great severity, but it was the puha 
who finaUy yidded. and *Abb«sI was lecalled to honours and 
Ach rewards. 

The way in which the ulenA are recnuted and formed into 
» hierarchy with a \Sgon>us *sprU de corps throws an instructive 
Ught on the whole subject before us. The brilliant days are 
past when the universities of Damascus, Bagdld, NishlpQr, 
Cairo* KairawSa. Seville, Cordova, were thronged by thousands 
of students of throk«>% when a professor had often hundreds 
or even, like Bukh&rl, thousands of hearers, and when \'ast 
estates in the hands of the clciv>' fed both aoasteis and scholars. 
Oi the groat unixxrsiiics but one survixrs— the Xihar mosque 
at Cairo— where thvuxsands of students still gather to follow a 
cv»ur^ c\t $tudy mhich giv-rs an accurate picture of the MahoBi- 
auxUn itlcjd of thcoU^piCAl education. 

IW sjuvk^i* *4 thtv\>:N v^MKJ-i'iy bc^m their cour« in oxrly 
jvvjth, Isjt Tv^t j*'l.^^m in iljvr wars. .■Mrwt a\\ c\m'h» fr\^m th<' 

^ ..K>ttT»t »'«c\K'f». a !^» frvMn the rrhK^lc cIjk^'N aini none 

I?''y trvvK tbe hivbe^ mpW of fcvirtx' — a l*ct mkich i« 
^™**""™ u»:( eichisk-^ *X\ enM>ient» of Ircer And morr iv6nrd 
es'.»*c-tJon. TS'sc *cn* of jvx>r iv.\5ant\ ariisins or trAdovnH^n 
av A'tw.viv ii:>,XM*\I i*^ n,\:T\^w fA Mrni^m. AnJ grncrAMv tale »tp 
«is'\ ** A •*«<NAn< x>* li\vLSx>d rjitScr tK.%n frv^m g\"rn!i'>e irS'.^v^i:* 
im ,t^. n>c •.-S*Niar Aj^>cir» lvt«.^(V the i^-^viont** xvixJAn 
*',^ h»* |xv\r N' «" y t'C* t*^^^ »!r iw A ie\l h*nkiWnhrc<, *ihJ Alter 
A J .» ; 1 ,»'r.>v-»*> •> * c ■:;x:\>'. »^n the list ^^( «^ "h' v'*! tSe 'vMir ^nh Vviax 
ru^ >' .''.I .'. • ^\ ^^•l Vite a ^^ i{\\*^ .' 10 v<«v >! MiovMi ^vN 
i *H\ It V r« '-.vvN he STt* A jJiv-.N^j; »^'.»v>e mstSm the rN^^jij^^. 
a c*'*^ to »K.\i h»^ t^'C^ Aivl A a.u;\ rAtixMt of hrrA»i. The Vp« 
l.\ . , w:.» *\Alr vS n lo . \v *m.:vnV* A". l^e»t i V\ cAn. Uit Anc a" vIav 
i* :"^. '»^•*',^^ j; xt aiv vUv-". v*cvf;<\'. bx Mov\-mcS.-.: i\, HA\jrj 
I v^^» .V ^A -.•* .>S xS<^ s-S.kN Ajxi lc>v Vr* »>l S* A-S^x>!. tV i>; ; : 
A* . N tV ^<v -•*:-.»: «>« tV K\-T«r«k F«M' KxnI< a fewc^'"^•,v-^;u•.r->» 
R -Skv h- n. lV>«le^%>ni Aivi Ktmirot* f at her exTty f»on)s<v< N* the 
c . X ft wtt: tSe« the pcvve**ir» tAlje tJw^t «Nir» At the i»v>t ct the 
1 * ^ .. '^s- CTTVit »v^:t A.v; the «* .V-t* ctv-u^h on nut-* At tSer 
f.-. : T^v- NV vv' tAVr* ^»M a cwrsie »« the »;.A'rrvir v>* cUk*.va{ 
.A Sc v ' Se Kx* h;:hefto leartwd ^^•^'v w* wokI >«Ti^ aiM ewT-r. 
1 V r^^f* <rf cr»*»iMr are nad o«t in the i i io K il x^enM c* tfce 
4 -« - >^ a«3 the teochcr addi aa expoNtvoa. y a t f m ty l«*d liv«i 
"* I'^schitf ia«k tft to i»m the rUe* 



V> 



rr«entAi>\ tWttwiaat'^s 
s •.>Nv-."C:«S»4, he Is 

»-> A cer. x-^Aje vV^totV i i nm < 

h.ai i« »Mcli it io ethtta. D* 

V^c.\M A-d ane^WX 

ass ct l«kAa atre Mt 



^jwaiw rd at the ee4 <f tbe >ear 

la Ms ViffMv^i^ 




; They are demonsmted by sdMlascfe dialeetic 



•object taken up." - * 

and at the end of his second year the student, teceiving his certificate, 
deems himself a pillar of the faith. The study of law (fiqk\ which 
rests on Koran and tradition, is more difficult and complex, and 
bc^na, but is often not compleced, in the third year. The student 
had learned the Konm by heart at school and has often repeated it 
since, but only now is the sense of its words explained to him. Of 
the traditions of the Prophet he has learned something incidentally 
in other lectures; he is now regularly introduced to their vast artificid 
system. From these two sources are derived all religious and cK-il 
laws, for Islam is a political as well as a religious institntion. The 
five main points of religious law, " the pillars of Islam," have been 
enumerated in the article Mahoioiboan Religion; the civil law, 
on the development of which Roman law had some influence, is 
treated under heads similar to those of Western jurisprudence. 
It is here that the differences between the four schools come most into 
notice: the Jijanifite praxb is the least rigorous, then the Shifi'ite; 
the ^anbalitcs, whose system is the strictest, have nacticaUy dis- 
appeared in the Mfilikites. The Hanlfite rite is official in the Turkish 
Empire, and is followed in all go v ernment offices whenever a decision 
still depends on the sacred law^ as well as by all Mahominedans of 
Turkisn race. In this as in the previous studies a compendiom is 
learned by heart, and explanations are eiven from comntcntaries 
and noted down by the students word for word. The professors 
aie expressly forbidden to add anything of their own. The rt^cog• 
niaed books of juriqinidence^ some of wfaicfa nm to over twenty 
folio volumes, are vastly learned^ and occasionally show sound 
sense, but excel mainly in useless hair-splitting and feats of scholastic 
gymnastics, for which the Arabian race has a natuxal gift. 

Besides the three main disciplines the student takes up according 
lo his tastes other subjects, such as rhetoric (iiia'M «a6ayd«). 
logic {mantiq)^ prosody ('orfi^, and the doctrine of the correct 
pronunciation oi the Koran (^trd'a wo/iyieid). After three or four 
years, fortified with the certificates of hb various professors, he seeks 
a place in a Iaw<ourt or as a teacher, preacher, cadi, or mufti of a 
viUage or minor town, or else one of the innumerable posts of con- 
fidence for which the complicated ceremonial of Mahommedanism 
demands a theologian, and which are generally paid out of pioua 
foundations. A pbce is not hard to Sm. for the poweriul corpora- 
tion of the u1em& seeks to put its own mc m ben s into all posts, and, 
though the leiwiaeiatioa is at first small, the young 'Olim graduailv 
aocumolates the revenues of several oflkes. Gifts, too, lul in. aod 
with his natt\'e a\-arice and economy be rises in wealth, position and 
reputation for piety. The commonalty revere him and kiss hi« 
hand; the rich show him at least outsnrd respect; and even th( 
Ko\enunent treats him as a person to whom consideration ia du« 
tor his influence with the masses. 

This sketch of his education is enough to explain the narrow- 
mindedness of the *tfiiii. He deems all ifc>n-thcological scienci 
to be \-ain or hurtful, has no notitm of pcoeress. and resaids tru< 
science — tjc theok)sy~«s having reached hnality, so that a nov 
superrommcntary or a new students' manual is the ooly thing iha 
h (vrhAps »:in «x>rth writing. How the mental faculties are t)lunte« 
b> scholasticism and mere memory work muatt be seen to be belieM-d 
such an eiiucation is enoofh to i^xal the best head. All originality 
is crushed out and a Mind and l u d fcr o ns dependence on writrei 
trA.ii;ivVi — e\T^n ia things profane — takes its pisoe. Acutenes 
iVj:r-^orAte$ into Ivi:r->plucii;g and cle%^cr plays on words after thi 
m.i^ner of the nbMns. T^ Axkar students not s^dom entc 
pi\'emme»t o^t«ce« and even hold insportant administtati%'e posti 
Uut th«-v ne\-er lose the stM9p of their education — the narrow, un 
tck»i HaVio H^'^t. inc.>|aUc of progiess,al«ayslo8t in external dot Aih 
Artvl ixwr at !c to i;TAsp principles and get behind fonns to tb 
»*:J stance of a mAtter. 

Yet it i« but a srvaH fraction of the nlenl of die Modem wx^rl* 
that eov>v even such an ed j»it«oa astlK Azhar affords. It dra v 
lew $4wNit IKS iTv^nn io<\-i:n ports,* where the local schoob 
Air d' the jvx^jx-^ V. ' ,:. t \Cv~p: in lodia , thanks to a Bridsh 
fyNXTr-x'-t^ ATv! pfrh.»p> «r. Or>tA=t:rc»p*e.» Bokbira was onee 
ehJvM" Mat ol lear;:-c ^-: »* now so sunk ia narrow fanatkrism that ii 
etj:*'iT t«A^:ij,t •e.iift.s.'f* »-ith tbeir 5000 students only turn o* 
A Y V »:i\i a:x. !sx. v-i c\ rp vVAtalA>).* Bet for this very K-«sa 
P^ v\.;ri i> lir.Hv! A* A l-r.I-urr of rcie theology and spreads ii 
i-!'..\-^-ve vMXr T.;-Kes*a'. 5>.beria, Chi-%A, Kashmir, Afghanistai 
Arvi e>T*. cxrr Ir "•ia. Mirjor 5cS.-vi$ arr^hed to mosques are foi: n 
in orKrr pUces, bnt tea:h scii kss than the great somols alrrvad 
■aentv><xM> 

Except ia Ibi&» whete it ia cmtro&ed by the govcnunen 

* Tn 1^? <» < TO t« <'* Wrr-e-r^-r-* c/ tV Axiur had 3707 student 
af mKxti orS m CA«?te J- .-r Co-VA-t"*-'pJe aod the northern pa.r 
oltheOtNM»Aa£w)ik?v «> .'voaXon^a.Vataa, 1 from the cofvemrxvei 
of Rat»i>i. td lAMs K>R«.VMt and ; inxa India with its tiair-i 

■H&Ma SuSSMO. 

* In Kaaaa «>a» the wab^lt^! cf ksraiag aeems to havw bee 
h^ Kewsna a<id Ueser ■« atSoW^ 

* The lejtiasi «» Ikiy a c.xtr^c fv-iefAlS> attnched to a naoaau 
«^)»«i«ft «4Msr ir\v^.«« .-«>c^xx :«k^ rvsk»«l -nstnirtioa a»d 

alasltfodaAittwOvivx i^ scifc jar% and aearfMV 



BUNNITBB 



105 



tkopirinlioii «r tbe prii^ Md jidUal . 

■ ihe fcaoob is a comtKomiic bctiPttti wimi thcologiou piiii' 

_^^ dpla dkute and what the lUte demuds. Neither 

mt Kann nor Siuna dirthiguiabca. between tenpofal 

T i n piwf aad spiiittial powcia, and no sttch dutinction was 

^ **' known as long as the caliphs acted in all things as 

"*"^' sucoessocs of the prophets and heads of the commnnity 

d the bhhtvL Bat, as the power of the *Abbisids declined. 

in article Caupdatc, ad fin.) and external authority fell in 

the pcovinces into the hands of the governors and in the capital 

i:;ic those of the amir al-cmardf the distinction became more and 

Qore paJpaUe, eq>eciaUy when the BOyids, who were disposed 

to ShTitc views, proclaimed themselves sultans, i.e. possessors 

of all ml auihority. The theologians tried to uphold the ortho- 

dn theoiy by declaring the sultanate to be subordinate to the 

isimtc or soveieignty of the caliphs, and dependent on the 

latter espedally in all religious matters; bOt their artificial 

ihema have never modified facts. The various dynasties 

cisuluns (Blkyids. Chaznevids, SeijQVs, and Snally the Mongols) 

uitr paid httd to the caliphs, and at length abolished them; 

b«i the fall of the theocrscy only Increased the influence of the 

dogy, the expounders and practical administrators of that 

crisUtion of Koran and Sunna which had become part of the 

liic oi the Mabommedan world. The Mamelukes in Egypt 

liti to make their own government appear more legitimate 

tj aominally recognizing a continuation of the spiritual dignity 

u \ht caliphate in a surviving branch of the ^Abi^std Hne which 

fky proteaed, and in 923 a.h. (1517) the Ottoman Selim, who 

^royed the MEameluka power, constrained the *Abbftsid 

M-vtavakkil IIL, who lived in Cairo, to make over to him his 

^ziiial caliphate. The Ottoman sultans still bear the title 

d " soccessors of the Prophet," and still find it useful In foreign 

rtiatioiis, since there is or may be some advantage in the right 

cf *be caliph to nominate the chief cadi {id4l) of Egypt and in 

;U Ua that the spi^itnal head of Khiva calls himself only the 

>4ii (vic^crcnt) of the sultan.* In India too the sultan owes 

Ksethiiig perhaps to his spiritual title. But among his own 

*:^:Wts he IS compelled to defer to the ulemi and has no con- 

i icrzble iaflnence on the compotition of that, body. He nomin- 

ns ihe Sieikk ul-IsJam or mufti (q.v.) of Constantinople (grsnd 

e&'tij. who is his representative in thelmamate and issues judg- 

BoiU in points of faith and law Iron which there is no appeal; 

^ the nomination must fall on one Of the tndlahs^ who form 

it opper stratom of the hierarchy of ulemi. And. though the 

«v»as places of religious dignity are conferred by the sultan, 

^ one can hold office who has not been examined and certified 

^y older uleml, so that the corporation is self-propagating, 

uj palace intrigues, though not without influence, can never 

brtak through iu iron bonds. The deposition of *Abd ul-AzIz 

£ u avaple of the tremendous power that can be wielded by 

*"< okmi at the head of their thousands of pupils,* when they 

->MK to stir up the masses; nor Would Ma^mad 11. in 1826 

^n vent vcd to enter on his struggle with the janissaries unless 

ke had had the hierarchy with him. 

The student who has passed his examinations at Constantly 
^ or Cairo may take up the purely religious bffice of imAm 
^^^ (president in worship) or hhatib (preacher) at a 
^Sa roosqiae. These offices, however, are purely minis- 
terial, are not necessarily limited to students, and 
9VC BO place In the hieiarcby and no particular consideration or 
^ccaI status. On the other hand, be may become a judge or 
-:^ Every place of any importance has at least one cadi; who 
1 r^aiaated by the government,^ but has no further dependence 
/ Tin the Ruwians gained preponderating influence the khin of 
'*\ Vi also acknowledged the suttan as his suzerain. 
- M^Oah is the Penv-Turkish pronuncktion of the Anbie msmM.- 
*riXy "pstron," a term applied to heads of orders and other 
'^'c'oQf dieiiitariea of various grades. 

'Called la Coosteodnople sagta, Ftanaa OkkiOt burned up, sci}., 

>rh nal or love to God. 

* la Efypc before tho time of Said F^sha (1854-1863) the local 

!»•« ^ere appointed by the chief cadi of Cairo, who re sent from 

Since then they have been nominated by the 



^: 



on it, and if anacnblt only to a mfenbcr of the tUfd dais 
of the ukmg, via. the mufti or pnmouncer of faHoas, A falwa 
is a decision according to Koran and Suntu, but without reasons, 
on an abstract case of law which is brought belore the mufti 
by appeal from the cadi's judgment or by lefeienoe from the 
cadi himself. For eiamplc, a dispute between masur and sUve 
may be found by the cadi to torn on the general question, 
** Has Zaid, the niaster Af ^Amr,« the absohite right to dispose 
of his skve's earnings?'' When thb is put to the mufti, the 
answer will bfc simply " Yes," and from this decision there is 
no appeal, so that the mufti is sopreme judge in his own district. 
The gcand mufti of Constantinople is, as we have seen, nominated 
by the sultan, but his hold on the people makes him quite an 
uidependent power in tlm state; in Qdro he Is not even nominated 
by the government, but each school of law chooses its own sheikh, 
who Is abo mttiti, and the Hanifitsa ia head mufti because his 
school Is official In the Turkish Empire. 

AH this gives the judges great private and political influence. 
But the former is tainted by venality, which, aggravated by 
the scantiness of judicial salaries or in some cases 
by (he judge having no salary at all, is almost ctearM. 
universal among the administrators of justice. 
Their political influence, again, which arises from the fusion 
of private and political law in Koran and Sunna^ is highly 
inconvenient to the state, and often becomes intolerable now 
that relations with Western states are multiplied. And even 
in such distant parts as Central Asia the law founded on the 
conditions of the Prophet's lifetime proves so tmsuitcd to modem 
life that cases are often referred to dvil authorities rather than 
to canonical jurists. Thus a customary law {*orf) has there 
sprung up side by side with the official sacred law {sharfa), 
much to the displeasure of the moUahs. In Turkey, and above 
aQ In Egypt, It has been found necessary greatly 10 limit the 
sphere and influence of the canonical jurists' and to introduce 
institutions nearer to Western legal usage. We do not here 
speak of the paper constitutions {khait-i-skerXf) and the like, 
created to impose upon Western diplomatists, but of sucfa things 
as consular and commercial courts, criminal codes, and so forth. 

The ofiRdal hierarchy, strong as it is, divides its power with 
the dervishes. A religion which subdues to itself a race with 
strongly marked individuality is always influenced in cultus 
and dogma by the previous views and tendencies of that race, 
to which it must in some measure accommodate itself. Mahomet 
himself made a concession to heathen traditions when he recog- 
nized the Ka*ba and the black stone; and the worship of saints, 
which is now spread throughout Islam and supported by obviously 
forged traditions, is an example of the same thing. So too are 
the religious orders now found everywhere except in some parts 
of Arabia. Mystical tendencies hi Mahommcdanism arose mainly 
on Persian sofl (see ^Orfissf), and Von Krcmcr has shown that 
these Eastern tendencies fell in with a disposition to asceticism 
and flight from the world which had arisen among the Arabs 

before Islam tinder Christian influence.* Inter- ^ 

course with India had given Persian mysricism S^Jv^^. 
the form of Buddhistic monkery, whil^ the Arabs 
imitated the Christian anchorites; thus the two movements 
had an inner kinship and an outer form so nearly idenrical that 
they naturally coalesced, and that even the earliest organiza- 
tions of orders of dervishes, whether in the East or the West, 
appeared to Mabommedan judgment to be of one type. Thus, 
though the name of ^Hjl (see ^OfIisv) is first applied to Abd 
Hashim, who died in Syria in 150 a.h. (767), we find it transferred 
without question to the mystical brotherhood which appears 
in Khorasan under Aba Sa'fd about 300 a.r. (8 1 5/8 16). Yet 
these two schools of $afls were never quite simOar; on Sonnlte 
son ^fiftism could not openly impugn orthodox views, while 
in Persia it -was saturated with Shf ite heresy and the pantheism 
of the extreme devotees of *Alr. Thus there have always been 
two kinds of ^Qfls, and, though the course of h&tory and the 
wandering habits which various orders borrowed from Buddhism 

■ Zaid and *Amr are the Caius and Sempronius of Arabian 1am 

* Op. cit.p.s' *^* 



ro6 



Sl^NSHINE 



have tended to bria^ tbem doeer to one eaother, we still find 
that of the thirty-six chief orders three cUlm an origin froa» the 
caliph AbObekr, whom the Sonnites honour, and the rest from 
*A1I, the idol of the Shf ites.> Mystic absorption in the being 
of God, with an increasing tendency to pantheism and ascetic 
practices, are the main scope of all lafdsin, which is not neces- 
sarily confined to membezs of orders; indeed the secret practice 
of contemplation of the love of God and contempt of the world 
is sometimes viewed as specially meritorious. Anid so ultimately 
the word fUfi has come to denote all who havi thb religious 
directbn, while those who follow the spedal rules of an order 
are known as dervishes (begffusr in Arabic fuford, aiag.f^lr 
— names originally designating only the mendicant orders). 
In Persia at the present day a $Qfi is much the same as a free- 
thinker? 

I.) oo the Moslem 
I t Idtm da Jslams 

t Studien, vol. iL 

y (London, loot); 

1 I, 1870): N. B. K. 

i860; £.Sechau, 

vi (Stuttgart and 

(trans, by Houdas 

) tiu lianners and 

For the oraaniza- 
\ g the middle ages 



'^,:^rr'' 



^.) 

SUNSHINE. As a meteorological dement sunshine requires 
some conventional definition. There is uninterruptea continu- 
ance of gradation from the burning sunshine of a tropical noon 
to the pale luminosity that throws no shadow, but just identifies 
the position and shape of the sun through the thin cloud of 
northern skies. 

The Campbell-Stokes 'Sunshine Recorder.— In the British Isles 
the sun is allowed to be its own timekeeper and the scorch of a 
spcciaJQy prepared card used as the criterion for bright sunshine. 
The practice arose out of the use of the sunshine recorder which 
depends upon the scorching effect of a glass sphere in the sun's 
rays. The original form of the instrument was suggested by 
J. F. Campbell of Islay in 1857. He used a glass sphere within 
a hemispherical bowl of wood. The scorching of the wood along 
successive lines of the bowl as the sun alters its declination from 
solstice to solsUce leaves a rugged monument of the duration 
and intensity of the simsbme during the half-year, but does not 
lend itself to numerical measurement. The design of a metal 
frame to carry movable cards and thus give a decipherable 
record of each day's sunshine is due to Sir G. G. Stokes. The 
excursions of the sun to the north and south of the equator are 
limited by the tropical circles, and the solar record on the hemi- 
^herical bowl will be confined within a belt 23* 27' north and 
south of the plane through the centre parallel to the equator 
or perpendicular to the polar axis. Thus a belt 46^ 54' in angular 
width will be suitable for a sunshine recorder for any part of 
the world. Wliatever place be chosen for the observation the 
same belt will do if it is set up perpendicular to the earth's 
polar axis. But there can be no record if the sun is below the 
horixon; hence any part of the belt projecting above the horixon 
b not only useless for recording but is liable to shadow a part 
of the belt where there might be a record. Hence to meet the 
requirements of a particular locality the belt as set up rOund the 
polar axis shoxild be cut in two by a horixontal plane through 
the centre and the half projecting above the horixontal removed. 
Reversed it makes a half belt, exactly similar to what b left, 
and thus each complete belt b cut by a horixontal plane through 
the centre into two frames suitable for sunshine recorders for 
the particular locality. 

The cutting of the belt may, of course, vary between the direct 
transverse cut along the poUr azb which gives a half -ring belt 
to be set vertical in order to receive the record for a point on 
the equator, and the cut perpendicular to the polar axb which 

CHretri onter to apTHi^ WWBHW fcJWP wl tt# CMM| lndlliuiiiliitii 
aedtoleatk . *-« ^-ra.MK^_a . ^ . .. 

^Fortheairvyi 




divides the bek lato two liBilar ifaigi subaUe for leeetdisg the 
s un s hine at the poles. Clearly, when the belt b so cut that im 
complete rings are formed, a continooas reeord of suuhini 
throughout the twenty-four hours may be expected, so that foi 
the polar drdes the cut will ran diagonally between opposite 
points of the extreme circles of the sun's records. As example; 
of the cutting of the belt for different btitodes we may put sid< 
by side the recorder as used in temperate htitudes (fig. 1) aac 




Fig. I.— Campbell-Stokes Sunshine Recorder. 

the spedal form designed in the Meteorological Office, Londo 
for use On the National Antarctic Expedition, 1 901- 1904 (fig. 2 
A belt cut for a particular latitude b serviceable for some n 




Flo. t.— Antarctic Sawhinr Reconler. to carry la-hour recor 

on either side of that latitude if the cards are not trimmed 
doeely to the cutting of the belt. The bdt must always 
adjusted round the parallel to the polar axis. If the cut of 
beh b too oblique for the latitude of the place where it Is expo 
and the cardi^are cut strictly to the belt, the northern side d 
cut will be below the horison and the southern aide abov 



SUNSHINE 



107 



»rst — *»>^"* nay be kit near waaaiat or saoaM itt the winter 
because there is no urd to receive it. The part projecting above 
(k horiacm in sommer will partly shadow the globe, and faint 
Bsahine may be lost/ for at most only half the globe can be 
■>lari»H at sunset. But the loss due to this cause is unimportant. 
Siokes designed the complete belt to use successively three cards 



Fio. 3. 

of dtfexefltihj4>e for different times of the year. The equinoctial 
card fonas a portion of a cylinder round the polar axis for spring 
lad autumn, the sommer card and the winter card each forms 
I part of a cone making a vertical angle of 16^ with the polar 
Mm as indicated in fig. 5. 

Adjmstm€Mls, — ^The adjustinents of the instrument are to. set the 
bek so that its axb is parallel to the polar axis and symmetrically 
adnisted with reference to the meridian of the place, and to set the 
ipbere so that its centre coin- . 
odes pfccasely with the centre 
of the belt. No ooe of the 
tkree adjasbaenU aaaa^ to 
gafceortotcat because neither 
tSe ceotre of the sphere nor 
ite ceatra inor indeed the 
uis)of the belt can be easily 
■*wtf^ft»*<- For an instrument 
for testinc tlieae adjustments 
•c QmarL Jpmm, Kay. UtL 
5k. noDi. 249- 

laatnunenta cUffer aoooni' 
isf to the aneans provided for 
BOBBting or adjusting the 
postkaw of the bdt or spbera, 
aod is that known as the 



regafd to the equinoctial card. The section of the supporting 
surface by a plane through the polar axis is to be as in fig. 3. 

ThA Sphere. — The material for the sphere must be '"crown " 
glass, colourless, or of a very pale yellow tint. The diameter 4 in. 
The wewht bet ween 3*93 and 3*09 tb. The focal length from the 
centre oTtho sphere to the geometrical focus for parallel rays should 
be between 3«96 in. and 3*99 in. 

Mtaswcmml «/ the Stmduae Reecrd.-^li was mentioned that 
the Campbell-Stokes recorder involves a conventional definition 
of sunshine. The recorded day of sunshine is less than the 
actual time during which the sun is above the horizon by about 
twenty minutes at simrise and sunset on account of the want 
of burning power of a very low sun. Some further convention 
is necessary in order to obtain a. tabulation of the records which 
will serve as the basis of a comparison of results for dimato- 
logical purposes. The spot which is scorched on the card by the 
sun is not quite limited to the image of the sun, and a few seconds 
of really strong sunshine will produce a circular bum which is 
hardly distinguishable in size from that of a minute's record. 
(See fig. 4*) Consequently with intermittent sunshine exaggera- 
tion of the actual duration of burning is very probable. Strictly 
speaking m fa sur e mrnts ought to be between the diameters of 
the circular ends of the bums, but the practice of measuring 
an the trace that can be distinctly recognized as scorched has 
become almost universal in Great Britain, and appears to give 
a working basis of comparisons. 




^'bsppie Casella instrument 
. the feted bdt b replaced bv a movable card holder. The chief 
Advantage of Stokoi's specification is the simplicity of the use 
o( tke MMtnu neat when ooce it has been properly adjusted and 
fisd. 
It is isarnfiil that the glass sphere should be of the proper size 

sad vdndtiy index to give an image —~^ 

of tke son on the prepansd card or 
vehia the aoth of an inch of it nearer 
t^ centre. It b abo essential that 
t>se cards ased riiould not only be of 
useable mnterial but abo of tne>right 
<&wMoea for the bowl. The colour 
a«j aaterial of the cards wen selected 
WScokes in consultation with Warren 
Ik b Roe, who was at that time hb col- 



FkG. 4. — Records obtained by exposing a Campbell-Stokes Sunshine. Recorder for 

nvab varying from one second to thirty mini'— '**''" "* ' ' '*■ ' "*'■ 

burns increases from right to left of the diagram. 



Intervab varying from one second to thirty minutes. The duratioo of the exposure of the separata 
reasesm> ' *^' " * '" ' ' " 



kw«e 00 the hfeteorolof^cal Council, 
adthe cards osed T 



Ivkal ofioe are still supplied by 
M«9«B De b Rue & Ca Accuracy in 



by thb method depends upon 

6e proper adfaatment of the dimen- 
momid the dXtnat constituent parts 
of Che lecorder aad accordingly the 
fu B u ^ ii^ snecifieatioo of sundard 

■Kteoralatical oflUJe. 

7\e Timu ScmU, — On the time scab 
«f the equinoctial casd twelve hours 
wr uij uss nrrrt bT 9«> in.- 

n* BmsA.-— The dbmeter of the 
Wi measascd between tbeoentrtsof 
•ke 6 o'do^ m aHcsoo a me^l coui- 
■Qcfiat cxrxl of ihkkness Xf02 m. wnen 
•litsp&ce. btobe5-73in<*o-o«in) ^ , 

Hill— II cdgen of tke upper winter flange and the 
fawe flSBst not be bss than a-4$ in., nor exceed 3*50 in. The 
a^ a »* — fntm the aoiddb line on the cqninoctbl card to the 
»i4>^ liDca on the summer and winter cards are to be 0*70 in. 
I * o^a SB.). The iocUnation of the summer card, in place, to the 
•soarcasdLla 




Other Types oj Sunshine JZteofdef .—There are, however, various 
other conventions as to sunshine which are used as the basis of 
recorders of quite different types. The Jordan recorder uses ferro- 
cyanide paper and the sun keeps the time of its own record by the 
traverse of a spot of Ught over the sensitive paper, arraogcQ as a 



• K) II Hid. I 2 3 4 5 




7 8 



Fig. 5.— Sunshine Record Oune 19 aad 30, 1908). 
The distance between the \ cylinder about a Kne parallel to the pobr axis^ The effect thereby 
necorded b a photochemical one, and the comppate character of the 
sun's radbtioQ, modified by the elective absorption of the atmosphere 
makes the rebtion of the record to that of the sun's scorching power 
dependent upon atmospheric conditions and therefore on different 
occasions, so that the two records give different aspects of the solar 
Other fscotden use the thermal or photographic effect 



I place* b to be 3a* * |*,cynmMtricallyanangBdwith 1 influence. 



io8 



SUNSHINE 



4 



of the tun't rmyi and rocord dimtloa by a clock imtMd of allowinf f excluaively local, and mdacd the ^oidble daiatioii of soiuhine ; 

the sun to keep Ui own time. la the Marvin eunahine recoiden of I any sutioa is a local cfaaracterisUc whkh it b denrabks to kno^ 

Consequently at evidence of the peculiarify 4 
the site the recorded sunshine mignt be rcfcrrt 
to the total poanbte with a free horison. On tl 
ochor hand, taidng -the rsoord of sunshine as i 
iodicatioo of the dca n wts of the sky for tl 
purposes of general meteorology, the scxeenir 
of the sua by hills must be vesaided aiinply i 
limiting the time during which observation 
possible and the duration of the sunshine recordt' 
should be referred to the possible duration at tl: 
particular site. It would, therefore, be desirab 
m publishing records of the duration of sunshir 
recorded to note also the possible amount for tl; 
tnstnimcnt as exposed {see Hourly Means 1 
Fwe Oksamlana nmier tke.Mdtvratogical Couru 1 
1891, No. 113. p. 10). The table shows i\ 
number of hours die sun is above the horizc 
during each month in the latitude of the Brit is 
Isfes. 

By way of exhibiting the results obtainc 
from sundiifie records we reproduce (fie. 7) tl 
sunshine map of the British Ides taken from tl 
annual summaiy of the Monthly " Weatb 
Report," 1908 {Britisk MeieorologiaU Year- Boo 
pt. ii.)> Corresponding maps embodying dai 
from ox-er 130 sutions are prepared each montl 
fg. 8 shows the variation in the distribution 1 
sunshine that may take place in different month 
Farther, lig. o represents the a\-erage week! 
distributioo of sunshine in different scctioi 
of the British Isles according to the average < 
twenty-five years. 




Fl<k (k — Monthly A\<t(age Duration of bright Sunshine for each hour of the day 
at Valencia (Ireland). 
the I'mted State* weather bureau an electrical contact is made h» 
the th«Tnuil effect of the sun and the duration of the contact b 
ftconKM. An instrument which gi\<es a corresponding result b 
dr«:nb(\1 by \V, H. Dines {Q—rt /♦am. R»y. UH, S«€. xx\-i, h^)- 
TV^c define sunshine by the effect necessary to produce or maintain 
a crrtAin thermal effect, but the definition once aocet^ted there b 
IH> unixrtainty as to the record. The CaUendar sunshine raeonler* 
gix-ve a iTcord of the di ff erence of temperature of two wires, one 
•Alxrbird and the other not. and it b therefore a continuous record 
of the ihemvU effect of s*.>Ur and tenestri*! radiation. It b vastly 
more tktAiKAi thAn that of other instruments (see fig. 5). but thr 
interprt'tAti\>n of the record in terms suitable for meteorvlo^sl 
or clutvtu>k^iv-Jil |Hinxt«e« is a mcial ^udy, «hich has not >et been 
attempted. In a wynem-hat similar wny inforwMtiaa about the 
duratk^ and intensity of sunshine with an abundance of drtjul can 
W obtaimvl from the rrcwvi ufon photv^aphic psper pasnnr under 
aa a^xTtuce in a drum mhich lew^es with the sun, asta theLaader 
VCWMxkT, but the j4u\t\- of Mich detAn» has not been betun. 

:<^»,v|i«f Ka.o^j* \^ ikt 5':, I* 4 1ms —The interest m the nse of 
(waPsSi.-te iTcon'.cr* i» nnvr %i»kl\ cxtcxxVeJ in the British Ides than 
e?'*»he<r>w arsi il ix *o Ur as the pcMv «re concerned, the nscvrf 
iccixxtant metevTv^o^vAl e'.e«">eat, but it b MtuuUr that up to the 
pre*'^t A ki»o«rt<vl^ »ii the Iv^:aI anvHjat of *»inj}i;«e recxvdevl drnn^ 
the »U\, the wre*« the mcvith or the \T*r b all thjn i* ar*^*re«tl\ 
Htv;. r»Ni F\v>e^c for iSe obsrrsAiories in cv>«'X'\iv>n >Mth the 
»x<vxw>\xvx' v>rSct> awn^ a fesi vsVrs the dbtr.^H.tJ\>« *>f *>«!»> sSirs'- 
d r X jSe vii\ I* -^.s txVcn xn t» *." tVvt *r ait' st." H^rte\li>rAtK>e t'w^ 
a::*. Jl. ■« the tvv>{^ ~~* •^n>o-^f^^ ^^ tV •» >rr ^V?-*-!-^ vf '•v^'ar wvwxH 
F^ e vV«> the AwA^ce v*v4t .^a vM N'c*»t »i,'*.>h'ne lv^e>*cl» K%^t 
« ;Kf »*A\ \v OK H -v>- .^ At \ Jk V V a, W exixv tAtuva k>I n» nv^ »<• 
i^ C'VAr.-v: At \ 1% ~i A%! r , w »-» Ma>.>*>,Kc there b a ^v<* r^Atitv* 
st\\ Nixo rvA\ ••.;r i« ><-.\v- vVr. 

.'iN »-f Wt »\^w cvv^vVt **»%t the \ii»'N |•tf>^J^K> nN\>f^* 
*VA .>» '.v. or »«A«v«^ eN>»»». \« vVgil e\)>»««ife has au u«H-;tfr 



TCv C.tJOO. teCO tt^a r9C9tmt. 



^'coo 




a-v* »^i«'*S"tr ;V* w» ,•* tV *'^ 
K; v.^i evtvvs, "i>. t V ,x A*^* w» tv> 

S< ,^^, t "VN* I* -V's • . VN. •» s "•..'xt* 

|c - V .^- N »; -^tx N- -' A-».^ :-4e tv* 
tv A vrt «* •*»v^ iS" *. < ** ».>t 
vxS<-.v-^>i fsv A« a*v«»'^v»>v Atn »"< 
1^ .'AX I ». ? V«r V \ , ' vjA v>e« *l 
Ktv\N->r< A -j^v"^ vs» *Sf>.S\ -, x* » *^N. •t 

M> tV i^V— , ■• (>>ra.>V K^ ** vn 
i*;Tr~.T«ei Kv'j^^ v^ tV »*.fcv «m '«* 
|v>.v*>ie K>r tV parxN^iUr eMvi^'te^ 
TV X «wer »> the ^w<«« nwi wmCN A>»v*n*» *^v*» tW|>«ii(>v>i«- n^ «as )k 1 

the » >C.Wa«k.Wt ^ W^MMei- A* A * .■ •^IKxxh>t«»'A\ I4««1>^ 01 \W *»S-JkWt\ 



FivV r.~>«scc$ft>ine m the Britbh isles in 19OS. 
tf ike British Isles, 



^ f *^ .'^%N»'«r m :W 



!'i; 


U- 


r<<v 










5»'* 


->N,' 


'•<* 


.V'SS 


v.* 


:^\" 


,*"\N 


\Sv 1 


v-* 


•v-^* 


♦\\ 


.^^ 


M* 


>*• 


'•\ 


^St 


>«* 


N^^ 


>N* 


r*^ 


M* 


2s<" 


.-^^ 


f-^ 


,VA* 


^^•' 


NV 


*'A 


K** 


?>> 


NV* 


^-N'' 


>** 


J>^ 


"V 


•.' * 


T^* 


tn 


Vv\ 


J!;*^ 



U-e*' 


\,>.^' 


Max 


?.-* 


UN A^- 


Sepc 


Oct- 


Nov. 


Dec. 


,%.\\ 


4UX 


4*:^ 


4^^ 


4^5 1 ♦*» 


373 


3*1 


266 


*46 


jt-\\ 


♦ «» 


4'" 


4>- 


4^ 1 444 


3J3 


3x5 


262 


241 


^%.\v 


♦ U* 


4^» 


*ct 


40^ 1 ^40 


374 


3*4 


258 


a,l<> 


>^4 


«U 


4J* 


40S 


4<^ A?P 


5T5 


3»3 


»S4 


23« 


>^N^ 


4^* 


♦*^ 


>"'\'^ 


5^ 4S5 


3.^5 


3M 


a5« 


2*5 


,t>^V 


4>> 


*^ 


> ^^ 


^ 


3«9 


a45 


21* 


tvN.' 


4.V 


*xV 


^.^ 


5 ^ • A5'» 


3:* 


3t* 


239 


311 


^^.^ 


4.\\ 


S>* 


.v.^4 


5^.51 I -t^ 


^ 


3U 


«36 


205 


,*"» 


•J^ 


5to 


.Vi 


• V>^ • 4e: 


3?k 


jia 


»3» 


197 


VI 


«v 


>*" 


M- 


foJ" 1 *:» 


3,"^ 


3»9 


«5 


1*7 



•^ 4fe« l*M>. V T^vv«.««< — ^h b ctaar that so far 'as col 
W w«e ■ >>«• ^> * ..> jv« ' \ IK thb fwnirt^ar regioiw the annU 



the »hai«^ CJM hx the iWff)M»ih<^ Mb b «« waiMtt An^<^ A ^ |xa«< , ««kx* •< ^ «*■*»»». -if «'. «% • -Ov>« » ww fees ncnhwanl. It uoult 
«i the iiimnn h««wp«a the l w »h » \ m l«e npoi hw ^ «wA <N<*t W^ • W«^ xv*. im« >ie ^mt iw« vy^-«.vV ;has ct;is dMbMOMi m the aggn 

' V4 »wts. bi r 1 . ... 




aia^> t^^tr^ u I ^h^k ^iMmt*^ « 



fBcs an writfaout I 

•A. .\c least the conenpondiu 

iw«MsiMl««we«i liieninftbnbeai^phrre. No doul 



SUNSHINE 



Y09 



ortunhine 
anti- 



tk (nqiiency of doad and the conacquent tern ol dunticMi of 8U B 
•odd tocnaae (or correaponding latitudes from the tropical 
O^looe touthward, but beyond the r^on of minimum pressure 
It the winter quarters of tnc *' Discovery ** in latitude 77 51' S., 
ptvde 166* 45' E., die amount of bright sunshine recorded during 



The total for 
. , . ,. and in December" of that y«ar an 

ivenge of 16 hours per day was registered. 



ue r»o y%an tooa and igot waa remarkably targe. 
1903 equalled that for Sally. • * -^ 



tS0JOO^6.3O0 mm4 350 k,a. 






•? / 










.Aji/1. ^'^^^ 


r^ 




f 


«»*^ X^^^"^**^""^ 


«,^ 




^ 


-l'^^ 


r 



May 1909. 



June 1909. 

Fic. 8. — Sunshine in the British Isles in May and 

June 1909- 

^nmskxme Results for Other Parti of the 1Vortd.—M»pe showing the 
i"*"!^ amiiud distribution of sunshine over Europe and North 
•''•"'nca are given in Bartholomew's Physical Atlas, vol. iii. Atlas 
ff M£teerelogy. Over Europe the largest totals, over 3750 hours 
.%- aanom, are abown over central Spain. In North America, 
nijcs es»d 3350 hours per annum in the New Mexico region. 
• ^ ntber psirta of the world the information available is not suflfi- 
-"t^My extensive for the construction of charts. 

tfea npom Stmskssu Records of the Smoke of Great Cities.— Much 
^v-oMKifi has taken place from time to time as to whether the 
Hitte of a locality can be altered by artificial means. Questions 
'i»^ bcm raised a» to the effect of forests upon rainfall, as to the 
*^T»-^ effect of irrigation or the converse jirocess, the oblitcra- 

s fj rutttral irrigattoa by blown sand, and as to the possibility 
•* prvJudns. •rregdag or modifying ramfall by the (fischarge of 

XXVI 3 



The one question of the kind to which the sunshine recorder 
gives an absolutely incontrovertible answer is as to .the effect of the 
smoke of great cities in diminishing the sunshine in the immediate 




Spring 



ExtnmB 



eMtMm§ South 



Woatem 



faatern 



30 



Summer 





Section 




Section 



Autumn 



3SL. 



Fig. 9. — ^ATerage Duration of bright Sunshine in the British 
Isles Cor each week. 

neighbourhood. This may be illustrated by the figures for sunshine 
dunng the winter months off Bunhill Row, E.C., in the middle of 
London, Westminster, Kew and Cambridge. 
MomtUy Average Duration of Brigjkt Sunshine derned from OAmts** 
lions extending ooer Twenty Years, 



Sution. 


NoN-ember. 


December. 


January. 


February. 


Bunhill Row . . 
Westminster , . 
Kew . . . . 
Cambridge . . 




7-5 
406 


141 
18.4 
403 
489 


30.6 
32-8 
54-6 
73-8 



This is not a question which comes out merely by taking averages. 
The answer can be seen directly by comparing the daily cards (sec 
fig. 10, Sunshine Cards for Cambridge, Westminster and Bunhill 
Row for December 1904). Thus it appears that the direct effect of 
the local contaminauon of the London atmosphere results in tht 

2a 



no 

diminution of the recorded sumhtne for the whole year by 37%. 
4nd tt w dear that the contamination extends in some degree as Car 
•s Kew. where the Iocs amounts to about 10%. There is evidence 
of various kinds to show that the effect of the smoke doud of cities 



SUNSTONE— SUNSTROKE 



Cambridge. 



Westminster. 



BunhiURow. 



can be trared mmcttme* (or great distaaoes, and in special conditioats 
ol wvcithcr with easterly winds the effect is soaetiaaes remarkably 
P«T»»««»t. (W. N. S) 

SUMSTOiraL t felspar exhibiting in certain dircctioos a bril- 
haat spangled appearance, which has led to its use as an 
omamental stone. The effect appcais to be due to reflections 
from enclosures of red haematite, in the form of minvte scales, 
which are hexagonal, rhombic or inegular in shape, and are dis- 
posed parallel to the principal deavagei>Une. These cndosures 
giN-v the stone an appeannce something like that of a\TRturine 
(if.ej, whence s u n stone is known also as " aventurinc^febpar." 
It is not common, the best-known locality being Tvrdestrand. 
near .^rendaK in sooth Norw^, where masses of the sonstone 
occur embcvkicvl in a \Tin of quarts running through gneiss. It b 
f(>ttad abo near Lake Baikal, in Siberia, and at several locaKties 
in the Vnited States^ notably at MtvkUetown, Delaware county, 
ryfRa^jj-tvAr.!!. and at StJit«\-iIle in North Carolina. The fcbpar 
which usually dr:>plays the a^^nturine apfvarance b oligcdase 
(< T ^. b«l the edect b socnetioKS seen also in ortbodase ^^.r.): 
hirncr two kIsJs of suostooe are dz5tingu*$hed as " oHgocLase 
s«rR5tooe " aad * orthcciise snnstooe.** The htter has been 
KMtad near Crowwpciiat and at srtrtral other localities in the 
state of New Wvi. as abo at <*<n RivlJle in Delatrire cxmtr. 
IVR£:^v|\:a:us« and at Amdtia Conzt Uoose, Amcuia ooontjr, 

SUKSraOm C?7a::^n>.i1v; /«j:;w.'w«c; rkrr«nc Fiwr: 
^'jTfctswV. a term Af>oocd to the efi^t* pro^luced upon tSe CYWtral , 
SMTWUS 5>r<tc^. irxi t^roc^ it apoo otbNfr ocyir* o< tb»e body. ' 
bv eip*.>svLre' ts> the jua oc to owrVAtrd jur-. Ai:S.H;3jrti BBC«t 
lnfN;««::»Y x>^i!«^oe^i irs irvr-c^ nqpc^s^ tk» df^eajie vvvur* abo 
in ter-'pctjiw' V roAtc* oar.atg bic< wratiiNrT A wcvsa cvao:Uk» 
•I the a:aai>5jrVfte. whxn . i:<^-.co» w::h v>}ccs«c vx t !3k^ OTerhe*ted 
K.v*v. fTtMtly :scTt-*5e» tW ^a> :v tv"» «i*Trr »Tom ^^c* iI'rMfc!. i 

S^:r5trde bji* Nrm c^-v/^ c^tvr^r^j aatvi i*5>.v<:-^ji:<\i as ' 

SeoKv aavi la the iv«k;iae v< xvu a-i'v cv;r. cisk c* tbtss ,s;:>oiLsr 
cvvt:$titwt(«i a cv«s».icraNit :t<« v*! stvi-rss aavi atK-rti'iiv, Ihc 
wcreased aitcrtvo »>• imxI by w-* 4•^ a^iV-.o :s» »he 
l<r»Mal hcA^ sjai com^-xl of the soicxr. |Mr.v->^*a-N as 

ituaiiiihniiaft a nwiiiiiiriT an^f trrn irtrt*^ r'V iWcsnr 

taik<n ai iw l^ i firif iW time nad moile mi »» vs— n t «• iiw>ps« 
h» awr «wA to loMB tie soctafity ^'vm tHs ca^^ h 
( UQT oae UfMi^i t« (Jht iaJMKe «f 1 



I strong solar heat may suffer from the symptoms of sunstroke, 
there are certain conditions which greatly predispose to it in the 
case of individuals. Causes cakukted to depress the health 
such as previous disease, particularly affections of the nervous 
system—anxiety, worry or overwork, irregularities in food, and 
in a marked degree intemperance— have a powerful predisposing 
influence, while personal undeanliness, which prevents amon| 
other things the healthy action of the skin, the wearing of tight 
garments, which impede the functions alike of heart and lungs, 
and living in overcrowded and insanitary dwellings have an 
equally hurtful tendency. 

While attacks of sunstroke are frequently prcdpiuted b> 
exposure, especially during fatigue, to the dirert rays of the sun, 
in a large number of instances they come 00 under other drcum- 
stances. Cases are of not infrequent occurrence among soldiers 
in hot climates when there b overcrowding or bad ventilation 
in their barracks, and sometimes several will be attacked ii 
the course of a single night. The same remark applies to similai 
conditions existing on shipboard. Further, persom wbos< 
occupation exposes them to excessive heat, such as stoker^ 
laundry workers, &c, are apt to suffer, particularly in hot seasons 
In the tropics Europeans, especially those who have recenU> 
arrived, are more readily affected than natives. But natives 
are not exempt. 

The symptoms of heatstroke, which obviously depend upor 
the dbotganization of the normal heat-regulating mechanism, 
as well as of the functipns of drculatkm and respiration, vary 
in their intensity and likewise to some extent in their form. 
Three chief types of the disease are wsnally described. 
, I. HtalSymc»pt,—ln the form the symptoms are those of ezhaus. 

A fully deydoped attack of thn deacriptioa b nsnaDy preceded h\ 
acknos. gKkhaes^ some aoKNuit of aMtal eadtcment followed hi 
^^T^'^L*^ ^ the pasMge into the i^noopal cooditioa. ir 
which there are pallor and coidMas of the skuTaTweak, quick kn" 
mtenmttcm pube. aitd nsfuc or sighiiic respiratioa. Ilie pupils 
are often cootrxted. Dcmth may qi^cldy oocar; but if ^cly 
treatment b available recovery atay take pboe. "««> 

irbet her y eceded or M by the pru mimtu i y symotoom already 
mentioDed. B usually sudden, and occurs in the farmlininapoplectK 
seiOTe. with great r^cubx enrasMeM. as «eea in the fluabedface, 

^.—^^ 1. i.n __iL_ ^^ srertwmm fanathing. There 

...I , jj^^^ 

to 



. ..^ great ..»».» 

congested e>Ts, quick fuH 

b usuaU>- insensibtHty. and ooorubioas are mx. 

ts often terv sudden. Thb fans, houov, 

treatment. 



(hyperpjrresia). the 1 
o6^«oiio*F.orMon 



the b(xi>- rising at such times to 106' _^ — — «. 

ing thb are the other •ywvicms d[^t^ lebr£ disturiS^^' 
jS/*^* *^^ qwckfuU pobe. paiws t kwj M i;hu ui the bodv. 



^'^"^^ ""-r »•"-* »— ^. H»-«-^.»«*» t-wcw;. puns awoonont 

^!~*^*J**"*^ *** >ora«t«t. toerthcr with respbatflry embarraii^ 

cc two da%^ death may eaaue from coa»e oTfrom thT^ 
*wum.:^ the sjpo^jfcvtK f«Tn already dacSed. But here, too 
treat ni«rnt (tuy be sucwssfiH li it b preamch* asnibd. 

&»»!» tk»ev other vamtWs <1i-p«£h owthe imiiu , ^c 

'^^,;^\*\r^''*^x*^. accasiMilS met inth. The chvi chancer 
in tSe Kxh jitrr d»th fnxn hoMstnjke aie those of aaaeiaia^ Hie 
^^^4 V*;!:^^'^^'" '^ ''*' ^''^^^ ^^fether with softaem of the bean 
t'^ : J^ '"f'^i^lLlS?** •'*^^:- Th* Wood b dark and fluid 
A-xl iSr Nvxxi vvrr«wc*e* are »ocwbit akcred ia skape. Attacka 
vH ««s«rv^ xre Ape to ka^e tiac« of their ejects «|»atb^ coastitu- 
ll'^i 'w?^'! \ '?^'* ^^ aerivw s>>scem. A Kabffity to aex^err. 

.^'^ c*.^ '^;^T««u'^ t_>. n^^xic fas. maSlk^Slity^ i 
x:t*^:w«» un iW v^o^>»t:x^ a.-T amoiw the ->^ — mnortaat. 1 1 i^ 
"''C'^ S?!!rT^ ^^ ^^^ :^ ^^" »^^*» ^^^ aftsrwKs in borae^ 

t ux'I: t'^ ^ ■^^'' ^^ «-«K«SLttdVSJS 

; -.: ^;rf^~M<*a» sJ^xOi Up aA?pc«l •» pR^es attacks ia th« 

otoif .^^ ;.K^ wW 3.t»« »tv>:s&ir» 5e expand to tkea^ Tfc-S^ 
A>«..< .« tW ^jm- ^< w» Kv>*r cv.^^^ with the ck»Sm of VhS 
Sra.^.' v^ ml^^ .n k^; :,> i^ ^,^ , ^^^^ ^ head. ir2«3t«tioS 



^m 



SUPERANNUATION— SUPERINTENDENT 



/ to dfltth from bean failure, rest In thit recumbent poeitlon, 
tk ttse of diffusible admulants, auch a» aromonw or ether, &c., 
togetber with friction or warmth applied to the ^actremtties, arc the 
■eaiB to be adopted. Where,- on the other hand, the symptoms 
« those tA apoph^xy or of hypcrpvrewa, by far the most successful 
Rsolts an obtained by the use of cold (the cotd affusion, rubbing 
the snrface with ice. enemata of ice-cold water). The elfect is a 
aurfced lowering of the temperature, -while at the same time a 
tfimaltts is riven to the respiratory function- Mustard or turpentine 
ippbed to the nape of the neck or chest is a useful adjuvant. Should 
the tempersture be lowered in this way but unconsciousness still 
pmisi, fcmoval of the hair and blistering the scalp are recommended, 
msobseqaeot treatment wiU depend upon the nature of the result- 
isg symptoms, but change to a cool curaate is often followed by 
marked benefit. 

lUnUAinnfATIOIf (formed on the basis of "annual," 
' uunaty," Irom the Late Lat. superannaius, one that has lived 
btjoad the year, super, above, and an^us, year, Fr. suranner, 
to grow very old), properly a dhqualification or relief from office 
or service on account of old age, infirmity, or of passing the limit 
of age fixed for service, hence the pension or allowance granted 
b respect of service at the expiry of the term or the retirement 
(«e Pkxsion). Educationally the term is specifically used 
of the removal of a backward pupil, who would otherwise remain 
is a diss or form below that which his age demands. 

8UP1SCAROO, a term in maritime law (adapted from the 
Span, sobncargo, one over or in charge of a cargo) for a person 
eapbyed on board a vessel by the owners of the cargo to manage 
their trade, sdi the merchandise at the ports to which the vessel 
8 saifing, and buy and receive goods for shiptnent homewards. 
He has control of the cargo unless expressly or impliedly limited 
by his contract or agreement. He differs from a factor, who has 
I fixed place of residence at a port or trading place, by sailing 
fro m port to port with the vessel to which he is attached. 

tUPUEROOATIOIf (Late Lat. supererogaiio, payment 
beyond what b due or asked, from iuper^ beyond, erogarCt to 
payout, expend, ex, out, rogare, to ask), the performance of more 
than B asked for, the action of doing more than duty reqtiires. 
b the theology of the Roman Church, " works of supereroga- 
tioo " are those which are performed beyond what is required 
by QoA, thus forming a reserve store of works of merit which 
on be drawn upon for the dispensation of those whose works 
hfljort of the s tand ard requiiied. 

SVPBElllTKNDEirr, a term which, apart from its general 
sse for an official in charge, has a distinct reh'gious connotation, 
bong applied, e.g. to the head of a Sunday school and to the 
chief minister in a Methodist circuit. In its most important 
biitorical sense it refers to certain ecclesiastical officers of 
ttfonned churches of the Lutheran mOdeL 

At the Reformation the question of the ordering and con- 
SitBtion of the churches was urgebt. The greatest confusion 
pievafled: the priests were often dissolute, the people were 
iporant, and meanwhile nobles were seizing the Church lands. 
Uther tad Mdanchthon would have preferred to retain the old 
Wopal control, and to have charged the bishops with the 
Any of making the necessary alterations in the ecclesiastical 
Qnstitvtioa. For, while they taught that in spiritual powers 
il onaisters were equal, they recognized the propriety of aUowing 
xhainstrative distinctions. But the bishops were. unwilUng 
totoaeto any terms with the Reformers, and it became necessary 
to appoint officers of some new kind. The name of super- 
ialesdeat was then given to a class of men who discharged 
xoy of the functions of the older bishops, while bearing a 
cbancter which in several respects was new. Only in Denmark 
*tt the name of bishops reserved for the new officen after the 
Latheran model had been adopted and the older bishops had 
been dqxaed and imprisoned. It is still used there, though 
M daiiB is made that it is the sign of formal apostolical succes- 
^- In Scotland the First Book of Discipline provided not 
^y for ministers, teachers, elders and deacons, but also for 
BVerintendents and readers. The superintendents (who were 
appointed because of the scarcity of Protestant pastors) took 
<bv^ of districts corresponding in some degree with the 
■pttcopil dioceses, and made annual reports to the general 



III 

assembly of the ecclesiastical and relfgfous state of their 
provinces, in the churches of which they also preached. 

The dbtinctive character borne by the new officers was 
detennined by the cardinal principles which Luther had laid 
down in his work regarding the religious 'functions of the state. 
He concci^'ed of the secular govenmient as an ordinance of God, 
and as being set to direct and control the external fortunes 
of the Church. He hoped that righteous magistrates would 
at all times form a sound court of appeal in limes of ecclesiastical 
disorder, and that they would guard the interests of truth and 
justice more securely thaii had been done under papal jurisdic- 
tion. The superintendents who now had to undertake large 
administrative responsibilities in the Church were therefore to 
be appointed by the civil power and to be answerable to It. 
They were to stand as intermediaries between tJie prince or 
magistrates on the one hand, and the ministers in their districts 
on the other. 

In his earlier writings Luther had laid his main emphasis 
on the spiritual priesthood of all believers. Every sincere 
Christian was declared free, not only to preach, but also to 
administer the sacraments and to rebuke evil livers. The 
differences in office and function between the members implied 
no difference in rank, for the members of Christ's Church were 
all members of Hia body, and Luther believed that they would 
all be ruled into true order and charity by the Head. But he 
was shaken by the Peasants' War, and his faith in the virtues 
of the average man never recovered itself. The result was 
seen in his later writings, where he expresses his conviction that 
men need to be directed and restrained from without, and he 
looks to the state to* undertake" this duty. In the last resort 
the civil magistrates must take control of the Church. His 
vindication for thus subordinating the ecclesiastical to the civil 
lay in his assumption that the rulers of a Christian land would 
themselves be Christian, and that it vras the Christian duty of 
the Church to render obedience to those who had been ordained 
of God to bear rule. He, and the rest of the Reformers, were 
as firm believers in a visible Catholic Church as were any of 
those of whom he speaks as " the adherents of the old religion," 
and Luther, always conservative in feeling, clung to an alliance 
with the state and denied that the repudiation by the Reformers 
of papal authority had severed them from the visible Church. 

The character of the office and duties of the superintendent 
were not everywhere the same. Luther shrank from imposing 
any stereotyped forms and asked that the special drcumstances 
of each separate district should be consulted. He hoped that 
as few changes as possible would be made, and trusted that 
the reformed doctrines would spread peacefully throughout 
the country. After the Diet of Spcyer (1526) the civil authori- 
ties were invited to reorj^nise the Church in their respective 
dominions as they thought best. This was not felt to present 
any great difficulties in the free towns, for institutions of self- 
rule had there grown strong and schemes of ecclesiastical 
readjustment were speedily drawn up. Richter and Sehling* 
have published a liumber of these ordinances, and they show that 
as a rule one of the city clergy was appointed superintendent 
by the city fathers and set in a position of administrative 
authority over all the churches within their jurisdiction. They 
were answerable to those fathers for their good order. Greater 
difficulties presented themselves in the territories of the German 
princes, and in the case of Saxony Luther proposed to the elector 
that his first step should be to send out a commission of visitation 
which should report on the moral and spiritual condition of 
his principality, district by district. His proposal was carried 
out, and Luther himself became one of the visitora (1527-1528). 
He found the people in a state of such religious indifference and 
ignorance, and the clergy living often in such grossness, that 
his faith ih their fitness to govern themselves ecclesiastically 
sank even lower than before, and he resisted all schemes for 
self-government such as had been proposed by Francis Lambert. 
The church organization which he devised for Saxony provided 

* In their works on Die evangehuh^n Kirchenordnung des i6len 
Jakrhunderts (Weimar, 1846; and Ix^ipsts. 1902-1904). 



SUPERIOR, LAKE 



1 1.2 

no place ior democratic or representative elemenU: the grasp 
of the state must at all times be felt. The superintendent must 
speak at aU times as a minister of the state, and the state must 
be represented in the synod to which he makes his first report, 
for upon the synod there must sit not only the pastors but also 
a delegate from evei^ parish. If any appeal should be made 
from Uie decisions of the synod it must be heard in the court 
of the electoral prince, for he, as supreme civil ruler, possessed 
the JM episcopale, the right of oversight of the churches. Luther 
proposed that he should exercise this right by appointing a 
consistorial court composed in part of theologians and in part 
of canon lawyers, and it was thus that in 154a the Wittenberg 
Kclesiastical consistory was formed. Other principalities 
adopted the model, so that the institution became common 
throughout (he Lutheran churches. 

In this scheme the superintendent (or supenttendant) was charged 
with such p«rt of the duty of the older bishoi» as had been purely 
administrative. He must concern himself with the dischaTge of 
their duties by' the pastors of the. churches, as well as with their 
character and demeanour. He must supervise their conduct of 
public worsbipt as well as give them licence to preach. He must 
take cogniBince of their ministry to the indigent in their pariahes, 
and ci their manaf[ement of the schools. He must further direct 
the studies of candidates for the pastoral office. He was answerable 
to the ciNil authorities to report all evil-living and false teaching, 
and those authorities had final power in the matters referred to them. 
If those matters, however, presented technical difficulties, they 
a>uld be referred to the consistorial courts. 

The earliest occasion of the appointment of such a superintendent 
would seem to be found in the acci&ions of Prince John of Saxony 
about 1527. He assigns the duties of the ofiice, and summons